WorldWideScience

Sample records for stricter effluent standards

  1. Stricter antitrust legislation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, W.

    2007-01-01

    In November 2006, the German Federal Ministry of Economics sent a ministerial draft bill on combating price abuses in the energy supply and food trade sectors to the trade associations for comment. The bill must be seen as part of a set of measures of the federal government seeking to improve conditions for more competition in the energy sector. An omnibus law is to add a new Section 29 to the Act against Restrictions on Competition (Antitrust Act). The addition is to bear the heading of 'Power Economy' and has been designed to prevent a utility (vendor of electricity, gas, and district heat) from abusing its position on a market which it dominates either alone or together with other utility companies. Depending on the interests involved, comments on the draft bills differ. On the whole, this tightening up of antitrust legislation is preceived more as a repair job. Stricter antitrust provisions absolutely must also be seen in their European dimension. European firms not falling under this stricter antitrust law enjoy advantages over German firms. (orig.)

  2. Stricter antitrust legislation?; Verschaerfung des Kartellrechts?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heller, W.

    2007-01-15

    In November 2006, the German Federal Ministry of Economics sent a ministerial draft bill on combating price abuses in the energy supply and food trade sectors to the trade associations for comment. The bill must be seen as part of a set of measures of the federal government seeking to improve conditions for more competition in the energy sector. An omnibus law is to add a new Section 29 to the Act against Restrictions on Competition (Antitrust Act). The addition is to bear the heading of 'Power Economy' and has been designed to prevent a utility (vendor of electricity, gas, and district heat) from abusing its position on a market which it dominates either alone or together with other utility companies. Depending on the interests involved, comments on the draft bills differ. On the whole, this tightening up of antitrust legislation is preceived more as a repair job. Stricter antitrust provisions absolutely must also be seen in their European dimension. European firms not falling under this stricter antitrust law enjoy advantages over German firms. (orig.)

  3. Offsite dose calculation manual guidance: Standard radiological effluent controls for boiling water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meinke, W.W.; Essig, T.H.

    1991-04-01

    This report contains guidance which may be voluntarily used by licensees who choose to implement the provision of Generic Letter 89-- 01, which allows Radiological Effluent Technical Specifications (RETS) to be removed from the main body of the Technical Specifications and placed in the Offsite Dose Calculation Manual (ODCM). Guidance is provided for Standard Effluent Controls definitions, Controls for effluent monitoring instrumentation, Controls for effluent releases, Controls for radiological environmental monitoring, and the basis for Controls. Guidance on the formulation of RETS has been available in draft form for a number of years; the current effort simply recasts those RETS into Standard Radiological Effluent Controls for application to the ODCM. 11 tabs

  4. 78 FR 41907 - Effluent Limitations Guidelines and Standards for the Steam Electric Power Generating Point...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ...-0209] RIN 2040-AF14 Effluent Limitations Guidelines and Standards for the Steam Electric Power... proposed rule entitled, ``Effluent Limitations Guidelines and Standards for the Steam Electric Power....regulations.gov or in hard copy at the Water Docket in the EPA Docket Center, EPA/DC, EPA West, Room 3334...

  5. Offsite dose calculation manual guidance: Standard radiological effluent controls for pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meinke, W.W.; Essig, T.H.

    1991-04-01

    This report contains guidance which may be voluntarily used by licensees who choose to implement the provision of Generic Letter 89-01, which allows Radiological Effect Technical Specifications (RETS) to be removed from the main body of the Technical Specifications and placed in the Offsite Dose Calculation Manual (ODCM). Guidance is provided for Standard Effluent Controls definitions, Controls for effluent monitoring instrumentation, Controls for effluent releases, Controls for radiological environmental monitoring, and the basis for Controls. Guidance on the formulation of RETS has been available in draft from (NUREG-0471 and -0473) for a number of years; the current effort simply recasts those RETS into Standard Radiological Effluent Controls for application to the ODCM. Also included for completeness are: (1) radiological environmental monitoring program guidance previously which had been available as a Branch Technical Position (Rev. 1, November 1979); (2) existing ODCM guidance; and (3) a reproduction of generic Letter 89-01

  6. An Evaluation of the Importance of Self- Purification Capacity of Rivers in Developing Effluent Discharge Standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asheg Moalla, M.; Malek Mohammadi, B.; Torabian, A.

    2016-01-01

    In current effluent discharge standards of the most countries such as Iran, self-purification capacity of rivers have not been considered. These standards developed a similar effluent discharge standard for all of the rivers without considering hydrological and hydraulic conditions of rivers. In this paper in order to show the importance of self-purification capacity and differences between the rivers, in developing effluent discharge standard, two rivers- Gheshlagh River in Kurdistan and Sabzkooh River in Chaharmahal Bakhtiari- as samples were selected., and with applying Qual2kw model, current Iran effluent discharge standards were used to simulate the state of each river. The simulation showed that compliance with this standard maintain an appropriate qualitative condition of Gheshlagh River but in Sabzkoh River, due to the large number of pollution sources, these standards not only does not help to maintain the water quality but will have a very negative impact on water quality. Then Using simulation of river quality, the authorized appropriate limit based on self-purification capacity and the number and type of pollutants were estimated and showed that to develop accurate and efficient standards the self-purification capacity, the number of pollution sources, the amount of waste load and other different conditions of rivers also should be considered.

  7. 40 CFR 420.07 - Effluent limitations guidelines and standards for pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... standards for pH. 420.07 Section 420.07 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... § 420.07 Effluent limitations guidelines and standards for pH. (a) The pH level in process wastewaters subject to a subpart within this part shall be within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (b) The pH level shall be...

  8. High-yield pulping effluent treatment technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, W.X.; Hsieh, J.S.

    1993-03-01

    The objective of this report is to examine the high-yield (mechanical) pulp processes with respect to environmental issues affected by the discharge of their waste streams. Various statistics are given that support the view that high-yield pulping processes will have major growth in the US regions where pulp mills are located, and sites for projects in the development phase are indicated. Conventional and innovative effluent-treatment technologies applicable to these processes are reviewed. The different types of mechanical pulping or high-yield processes are explained, and the chemical additives are discussed. The important relationship between pulp yield and measure of BOD in the effluent is graphically presented. Effluent contaminants are identified, along with other important characteristics of the streams. Current and proposed environmental limitations specifically related to mechanical pulp production are reviewed. Conventional and innovative effluent-treatment technologies are discussed, along with their principle applications, uses, advantages, and disadvantages. Sludge management and disposal techniques become an intimate part of the treatment of waste streams. The conclusion is made that conventional technologies can successfully treat effluent streams under current waste-water discharge limitations, but these systems may not be adequate when stricter standards are imposed. At present, the most important issue in the treatment of pulp-mill waste is the management and disposal of the resultant sludge

  9. Preparation of radiological effluent technical specifications for nuclear power plants. a guidance manual for users of standard technical specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boegli, J.S.; Bellamy, R.R.; Britz, W.L.; Waterfield, R.L.

    1978-10-01

    The purpose of this manual is to describe methods found acceptable to the staff of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the calculation of certain key values required in the preparation of proposed radiological effluent Technical Specifications using the Standard Technical Specifications for light-water-cooled nuclear power plants. This manual also provides guidance to applicants for operating licenses for nuclear power plants in the preparation of proposed radiological effluent Technical Specifications or in preparing requests for changes to existing radiological effluent Technical Specifications for operating licenses. The manual additionally describes current staff positions on the methodology for estimating radiation exposure due to the release of radioactive materials in effluents and on the administrative control of radioactive waste treatment systems

  10. Preparation of radiological effluent technical specifications for nuclear power plants. a guidance manual for users of standard technical specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boegli, J.S.; Bellamy, R.R.; Britz, W.L.; Waterfield, R.L. (eds.)

    1978-10-01

    The purpose of this manual is to describe methods found acceptable to the staff of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the calculation of certain key values required in the preparation of proposed radiological effluent Technical Specifications using the Standard Technical Specifications for light-water-cooled nuclear power plants. This manual also provides guidance to applicants for operating licenses for nuclear power plants in the preparation of proposed radiological effluent Technical Specifications or in preparing requests for changes to existing radiological effluent Technical Specifications for operating licenses. The manual additionally describes current staff positions on the methodology for estimating radiation exposure due to the release of radioactive materials in effluents and on the administrative control of radioactive waste treatment systems.

  11. 77 FR 112 - Effluent Limitations Guidelines and Standards for the Construction and Development Point Source...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-03

    .../L of TSS while the peak concentration discharged from the passive sand filter \\2\\ after the basin... two-day period. Effluent turbidity from one passive sand filter during this storm ranged from approximately 50 to 375 NTU, with 20 of the 24 data points below 200 NTU. For a second passive sand filter...

  12. Are stricter investment rules contagious? Host country competition for foreign direct investment through international agreements

    OpenAIRE

    Neumayer, Eric; Nunnenkamp, Peter; Roy, Martin

    2014-01-01

    We argue that the trend toward international investment agreements (IIAs) with stricter investment rules is driven by competitive diffusion, namely defensive moves of developing countries concerned about foreign direct investment (FDI) diversion in favor of competing host countries. Accounting for spatial dependence in the formation of bilateral investment treaties (BITs) and preferential trade agreements (PTAs) that contain investment provisions, we find that the increase in agreements with ...

  13. 40 CFR 426.113 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Television Picture... applicable to the abrasive polishing and acid polishing waste water streams. Effluent characteristic Effluent...

  14. 40 CFR 426.112 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Television... stream): Effluent characteristic Effluent limitations Maximum for any 1 day Average of daily values for...

  15. A stricter duty to disclose information to the market in Denmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik; Lau Hansen, Jesper

    2008-01-01

    The article analyses the requirements under stock exchange law regarding the disclosure obligations by publicly traded Danish companies of information which may affect the share price. These requirements follow from the Market Abuse Directive (MAD). The legal position in Denmark and other Nordic...... countries has been governed to date by a reality principle: disclosure must occur when the event of relevance to the share price becomes a reality - not before and not later. However, following a circular letter of April 2007, the Danish Financial Supervisory Authority has applied a stricter interpretation...

  16. Airborne PCDD/Fs in two e-waste recycling regions after stricter environmental regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Manwen; Feng, Guixian; Yin, Wenhua; Xie, Bing; Ren, Mingzhong; Xu, Zhencheng; Zhang, Sukun; Cai, Zongwei

    2017-12-01

    Since the 2010s, the authorities of Guangdong province and local governments have enhanced law enforcement and environmental regulations to abolish open burning, acid washing, and other uncontrolled e-waste recycling activities. In this study, ambient air and indoor dust near different kinds of e-waste recycling processes were collected in Guiyu and Qingyuan to investigate the pollution status of particles and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) after stricter environmental regulations. PM 2.5 and PCDD/Fs both showed significantly reduced levels in the two regions compared with the documented data. The congener distribution and principal component analysis results also confirmed the significant differences between the current PCDD/Fs pollution characterizations and the historical ones. The estimated total intake doses via air inhalation and dust ingestion of children in the recycling region of Guiyu ranged from 10 to 32pgTEQ/(kg•day), which far exceeded the tolerable daily intake (TDI) limit (1-4pgTEQ/(kg•day). Although the measurements showed a significant reduction of the release of PCDD/Fs, the pollution status was still considered severe in Guiyu town after stricter regulations were implemented. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Determination of Kr-85 in environmental samples and gaseous effluents from nuclear industries using the standard method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heras Iniquez, M.C.; Perez Garcia, M.M.

    1983-01-01

    The determination of the Kr-85 activity in environmental samples and gaseous effluents from Spanish Nuclear Power Stations is described. The method employed has been published elsewhere. The determinations has been carried out in environmental samples token at JEN Laboratories (Madrid) and the Nuclear Power Stations, Jose Cabrera (Zorita), Garona and Vandellos. Also samples of gaseous effluents of the three plants has been analyzed. Values of the Kr-85 environmental background activity in the Almaraz Nuclear Power Stations, has been determined, before the beginning of its nuclear activity. In this paper the sampling equipment used is described and the values found of Kr-85 activity in all the samples in given. (Author) 29 refs

  18. 40 CFR 469.19 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Semiconductor... conventional pollution control technology (BCT): Subpart A—Semiconductor BCT Effluent Limitations Pollutant or...

  19. 40 CFR 469.15 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Semiconductor... best available technology economically achievable (BAT): Subpart A—Semiconductor BAT Effluent...

  20. 40 CFR 440.22 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Ore... pollutants discharged in mine drainage from mines producing bauxite ores shall not exceed: Effluent...

  1. 40 CFR 440.23 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Ore Subcategory... discharged in mine drainage from mines producing bauxite ores shall not exceed: Effluent characteristic...

  2. Development of standardized bioassay protocols for the toxicity assessment of waste, manufactured products, and effluents in Latin America: Venezuela, a Case Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriquez-Grau, J.

    1993-01-01

    The present status of the toxicity assessment of industrial products in Latin America is well below North America/EC standards. As an example, most of Latin America regulatory laws regarding effluent discharge are still based upon concentration limits of certain major pollutants, and BOD/COD measurements; no reference is made to the necessity of aquatic bioassay toxicity data. Aware of this imperative need, the Venezuelan Petroleum Industry (PDVSA), through its R ampersand D Corporative branch (INTEVEP) gave priority to the development of standardized acute/sublethal toxicity test protocols as sound means of evaluating their products and wastes. Throughout this presentation, the Venezuelan case will be studied, showing strategies undertaken to accelerate protocol development. Results will show the assessment of 14 different protocols encompassing a variety of species of aquatic/terrestrial organisms, and a series of toxicity test endpoints including mortality, reproductive, biological and immunological measurements, most of which are currently in use or being developed. These protocols have already yielded useful results in numerous cases where toxicity assessment was required, including evaluations of effluent, oil dispersants, drilling fluids, toxic wastes, fossil fuels and newly developed products. The Venezuelan case demonstrates that the integration of Industry, Academia and Government, which is an essential part of SETAC's philosophy, is absolutely necessary for the successful advancement of environmental scientific/regulatory issues

  3. The Direct Economic Effects of Stricter Standards Towards the Protection of Human and Animal Health in Swine Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Mora, Cristina; Menozzi, Davide

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study is to present the results of a research carried out on a group of farms involved in pig fattening (48 farms) to evaluate the economic impact of implementing human and animal health regulation. The five types considered in any case represent 90-95% of the total health costs, there are therefore economies of scale and considering the types of expenditure, veterinary medicines have a strong incidence on fattening farms, together with medicated feed for consumption on ...

  4. Regulatory impact analysis of final effluent limitations guidelines and standards for the offshore oil and gas industry. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    For all major rulemaking actions, Executive Order 12291 requires a Regulatory Impact Analysis (RIA), in which benefits of the regulation are compared to costs imposed by the regulation. The report presents the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA, or the Agency) RIA of the final rule on the effluent limitations guidelines for the Offshore Subcategory of the Oil and Gas Extraction Industry. The principal requirement of the Executive Order is that the Agency perform an analysis comparing the benefits of the regulation to the costs that the regulation imposes. Three types of benefits are analyzed in this RIA: quantified and monetized benefits; quantified and non-monetized benefits; and non-quantified and non-monetized benefits

  5. Ecotoxicity of raw and treated effluents generated by a veterinary pharmaceutical company: a comparison of the sensitivities of different standardized tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maselli, Bianca de S; Luna, Luis A V; Palmeira, Joice de O; Tavares, Karla P; Barbosa, Sandro; Beijo, Luiz A; Umbuzeiro, Gisela A; Kummrow, Fábio

    2015-05-01

    Pharmaceutical effluents have recently been recognized as an important contamination source to aquatic environments and the toxicity related to the presence of antibiotics in effluents has attracted great attention. Conventionally, these effluents have been treated using physico-chemical and aerobic biological processes, usually with low rates of pharmaceuticals removal. Due to the complexity of effluents, it is impossible to determine all pharmaceuticals and their degradation products using analytical methods. Ecotoxicity tests with different organisms may be used to determine the effect level of effluents and thus their environmental impacts. The objective of this work was to compare the sensitivities of five ecotoxicity tests using aquatic and terrestrial organisms to evaluate the toxicity of effluents from the production of veterinary medicines before and after treatment. Raw and chemically treated effluent samples were highly toxic to aquatic organisms, achieving 100,000 toxic units, but only few of those samples presented phytotoxicity. We observed a reduction in the toxicity in the biologically treated effluent samples, which were previously chemically pre-treated, however the toxicity was not eliminated. The rank of test organisms' reactions levels was: Daphnia similis > Raphidocelis subcapitata > Aliivibrio fischeri > Allium cepa ~ Lactuca sativa. Effluent treatment employed by the evaluated company was only partially efficient at removing the effluent toxicity, suggesting potential risks to biota. The acute toxicity test with D. similis proved to be the most sensitive for both raw and treated effluents and is a suitable option for further characterization and monitoring of pharmaceutical effluents.

  6. Performance, compliance and reliability of Waste stabilization pond: Effluent discharge quality and environmental protection agency standards in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owusu-Ansah, Emmanuel de-Graft Johnson; Sampson, Angelina; Amponsah, Samuel K.

    2015-01-01

    Measuring performance has been arguerably, one of the metric with many facets with different school of thoughts, as there exist different approaches of measuring it. Several of the existing approaches measure such metric by comparison with standards esherined in policy documents and as a result, ...

  7. 40 CFR 464.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Within the range of 7.0 to 10.0 at all times. (c) Die Casting Operations. BPT Effluent Limitations... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS METAL MOLDING AND CASTING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Casting Subcategory § 464.12 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  8. 40 CFR 464.13 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... poured) for a specific plant. (c) Die Casting Operations. BAT Effluent Limitations Pollutant or pollutant... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS METAL MOLDING AND CASTING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Casting Subcategory § 464.13 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  9. 40 CFR 439.34 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of best available technology economically...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHARMACEUTICAL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chemical Synthesis Products § 439.34 Effluent limitations attainable by the...

  10. 40 CFR 440.105 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Copper, Lead, Zinc, Gold, Silver, and Molybdenum Ores Subcategory § 440.105 Effluent limitations representing the...

  11. 40 CFR 426.115 - Standards of performance for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Television Picture Tube... stream): Effluent characteristic Effluent limitations Maximum for any 1 day Average of daily values for...

  12. 40 CFR 439.33 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHARMACEUTICAL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chemical Synthesis Products § 439.33 Effluent limitations attainable by the...

  13. 40 CFR 464.43 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 1,000 pounds of metal poured) for a specific plant. (b) Die Casting Operations. BAT Effluent... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS METAL MOLDING AND CASTING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Zinc Casting...) Casting Quench Operations. BAT Effluent Limitations Pollutant or pollutant property Maximum for any 1 day...

  14. Lower incidence of arm-to-head contact incidents with stricter interpretation of the Laws of the Game in Norwegian male professional football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørneboe, John; Bahr, Roald; Dvorak, Jiri; Andersen, Thor Einar

    2013-05-01

    Video analyses reveal that the rate of incidents with a propensity for injury caused by opponent-to-player contact has increased by about 50% from 2000 to 2010 in Norwegian male professional football. The aim of the study was to assess whether a stricter interpretation of the Laws of the Game (red cards for high elbows in heading duels and for late/two foot tackles) could reduce the potential for injuries in Norwegian male professional football. A preintervention/postintervention design was employed, where the rate of incidents and injuries from the 2010 season (pre) was compared to the 2011 season (post). An incident was recorded if the match was interrupted by the referee, and the player lay down for more than 15 s, and appeared to be in pain or received medical treatment. Time-loss injuries were recorded by the medical staff of each club. A total of 1421 contact incidents were identified, corresponding to a rate of 92.7 (95% CI 86.0 to 99.4) in the 2010 season and 86.6 (95% CI 80.3 to 99.4) in the 2011 season, with no difference between the two season. We found a reduction in the incidence of total head incidents (rate ratio (RR) 0.81, 95% CI 0.67 to 0.99), and head-incidents caused by arm-to-head contact (RR 0.72, 95% CI 0.54 to 0.97). We found no difference in tackling characteristics or contact injury rate. We found no significant differences in the overall rate of incidents after the introduction of stricter rule enforcement. However, the rate of head and arm-to head incidents was lower in the 2011 season.

  15. A risk-based approach for developing standards for irrigation with reclaimed water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troldborg, Mads; Duckett, Dominic; Allan, Richard; Hastings, Emily; Hough, Rupert L

    2017-12-01

    typically measured in effluent from wastewater treatment plants; however the predicted acceptable concentration levels for norovirus and Cryptosporidium suggested that disinfection by UV may be required before use. It was found that stricter concentration standards were required for hazards that are more strongly bound to soil and/or are more toxic/infectious. It was also found that measures that reduce the amount of effluent directly ingested by the receptor would significantly reduce the risks (by up to 2 orders of magnitude for the two pathogens). The results for the food crop irrigation scenario showed that stricter concentration standards are required to ensure the effluent is safe to use. For pathogens, the dominant exposure route was found to be ingestion of effluent captured on the surface of the crops indicating that risks could be significantly reduced by restricting irrigation to the non-edible parts of the crop. The results also showed that the exposure to some organic compounds and heavy metals through plant uptake and attached soil particles could be high and possibly pose unacceptable risk to human health. For both scenarios, we show that the predicted acceptable concentration levels are associated with large uncertainty and discuss the implications this has for defining quality standards and how the uncertainty can be reduced. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Quality Assessment of Effluent Discharges from Vegetable oil Plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wastewater quality parameters namely; biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), dissolved oxygen (DO), total hydrocarbon content (THC), oil and grease, total dissolved solids (TDS), pH, and temperature were determined weekly on effluent samples, for a period of 12 weeks, using standard methods. The effluent data were ...

  17. Effluent treatment efficiency and compliance monitoring in Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effectiveness of effluent treatment at the Eleme Petrochemical Industry, Port Harcourt, Nigeria was monitored weekly for six weeks to assess their level of compliance with the Directorate of Petroleum Resources (DPR) guidelines and standards for environmental safety. Effluent samples were taken from the untreated ...

  18. Toxicity of cassava wastewater effluents to African catfish: Clarias ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relative lethal and sublethal toxicity of cassava wastewater effluents from a local food factory were investigated on Clarias gariepinus fingerlings using a renewable static bioassay. The physico-chemical characteristics of the cassava wastewater effluents showed a number of deviations from the standards of the Federal ...

  19. modelling effluent assimila modelling effluent assimilat modelling

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    have applied the theory to water quality management studies and several modifications as well had been proposed ... other factors in a water body which affect the DO-BOD relationship. According to them these factors are: ... large breweries which also channel their effluent discharge into it. Also, along the river bank of this.

  20. 40 CFR 423.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... technology currently available (BPT). 423.12 Section 423.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS STEAM ELECTRIC POWER GENERATING POINT SOURCE... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Effluent limitations guidelines...

  1. 40 CFR 423.14 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Effluent limitations guidelines... control technology (BCT). 423.14 Section 423.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS STEAM ELECTRIC POWER GENERATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY § 423.14...

  2. 40 CFR 423.13 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Effluent limitations guidelines... economically achievable (BAT). 423.13 Section 423.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS STEAM ELECTRIC POWER GENERATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY § 423.13...

  3. 40 CFR 428.62 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effluent limitations guidelines... technology currently available. 428.62 Section 428.62 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Medium...

  4. 40 CFR 428.63 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effluent limitations guidelines... economically achievable. 428.63 Section 428.63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Medium-Sized General...

  5. INEEL Liquid Effluent Inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Major, C.A.

    1997-06-01

    The INEEL contractors and their associated facilities are required to identify all liquid effluent discharges that may impact the environment at the INEEL. This liquid effluent information is then placed in the Liquid Effluent Inventory (LEI) database, which is maintained by the INEEL prime contractor. The purpose of the LEI is to identify and maintain a current listing of all liquid effluent discharge points and to identify which discharges are subject to federal, state, or local permitting or reporting requirements and DOE order requirements. Initial characterization, which represents most of the INEEL liquid effluents, has been performed, and additional characterization may be required in the future to meet regulations. LEI information is made available to persons responsible for or concerned with INEEL compliance with liquid effluent permitting or reporting requirements, such as the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System, Wastewater Land Application, Storm Water Pollution Prevention, Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasures, and Industrial Wastewater Pretreatment. The State of Idaho Environmental Oversight and Monitoring Program also needs the information for tracking liquid effluent discharges at the INEEL. The information provides a baseline from which future liquid discharges can be identified, characterized, and regulated, if appropriate. The review covered new and removed buildings/structures, buildings/structures which most likely had new, relocated, or removed LEI discharge points, and at least 10% of the remaining discharge points.

  6. Biotreatment of effluent from 'Adire' textile factories in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okareh, Oladapo T; Ademodi, Tuntunlade F; Igbinosa, Etinosa O

    2017-11-10

    In this present study, bacteria were isolated from wastewater and polluted soil collected from two cottage textile factories in Ibadan. These bacteria isolates were used for the biotreatment of textile mill effluent. The physicochemical parameters of the textile mill effluent before treatment were carried out and percentage decolourisation of the effluent was analysed using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis technique). The degradation products of the textile mill effluent characterised by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The pH values of the effluent were within the permissible limit of Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA) and National Environmental Standards and Regulations Enforcement Agency (NESREA), while temperature and electric conductivity of the effluents were below the permissible limit of FEPA and NESREA. The BOD, COD, TSS, TDS and chloride of the textile mill effluent from the two cottage textile factories were above the permissible limits of FEPA and NESREA. Twelve bacteria isolates were screened, effective in decolourising commercial dyes and used to decolourise the textile mill effluent. The bacteria isolates were characterised and identified as Bacillus sp., Micrococcus sp., Erwinia sp., Acinetobacter sp. and Nocardia sp. The decolourisation of textile effluent was observed through the changes of spectra of UV-visible spectrophotometer. The following bacteria revealed different percentage proportion of decolouration profile:- Bacillus sp., had the highest percentage decolourisation of 57.7%, whereas Micrococcus sp. and Acinetobacter sp. had percentage decolourisation of 32.8 and 26.3%, respectively. The degradation profile of textile effluent was revealed through FTIR spectral analysis. The changes in the position of major peaks revealed from the textile effluent through FTIR spectral analysis, appearances of new peaks and the disappearances of existing peaks signify the degradation of the wastewater. Thus, some native

  7. 40 CFR 401.17 - pH Effluent limitations under continuous monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true pH Effluent limitations under... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS § 401.17 pH Effluent limitations under continuous monitoring. (a) Where a permittee continuously measures the pH of wastewater pursuant to a...

  8. 40 CFR 434.62 - Alternate effluent limitation for pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alternate effluent limitation for pH... PERFORMANCE STANDARDS Miscellaneous Provisions § 434.62 Alternate effluent limitation for pH. Where the... otherwise applicable manganese limitations, the permit issuer may allow the pH level in the final effluent...

  9. The effect of stricter licensing on road traffic injury events involving 15 to 17-year-old moped drivers in Sweden: A time series intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonander, Carl; Andersson, Ragnar; Nilson, Finn

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate and quantify the effect of the introduction of the AM driving license on non-fatal moped-related injuries in Sweden. With the introduction of the new license category in October 2009, prospective moped drivers are now required to pass a mandatory theory test following a practical and theoretical course. In addition, obtaining a license to operate a moped is now considerably more costly. Time series intervention analysis on monthly aggregated injury data (1st Jan 2007-31st Dec 2013) was performed using generalized additive models for location, shape and scale (GAMLSS) to quantify the effect size on injury events involving teenage (15-17 years) moped drivers, while controlling for trend and seasonality. Exposure was adjusted for by using the number of registered mopeds in traffic as a proxy. The introduction of AM license was associated with a 41% reduction in the rate of injury events involving 15-year-old moped drivers (IRR 0.59 [95% CI: 0.48-0.72]), and a 39% and 36% decrease in those involving 16-year-old (IRR 0.61 [95% CI: 0.48-0.79]) and 17-year-old drivers (IRR 0.64 [95% CI: 0.46-0.90]), respectively. The effect in the 15-year-old stratum was decreased roughly by half after adjusting for exposure, but remained significant, and the corresponding estimates in the other age groups did not change noticeably. This study provides quasi-experimental evidence of an effect on non-fatal moped-related injuries as a result of stricter licensing rules. Only part of the effect could be explained by a reduction in the number of mopeds in traffic, indicating that other mechanisms must be studied to fully understand the cause of the reduction in injuries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Liquid Effluent Retention Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) is located in the central part of the Hanford Site. LERF is permitted by the State of Washington and has three liquid...

  11. Genotoxicity of swine effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techio, V H; Stolberg, J; Kunz, A; Zanin, E; Perdomo, C C

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed at the investigation of genotoxic effects of swine effluents from different stages of a treatment system for swine wastes through bioassay of stamen hairs and micronuclei in Tradescantia (clone BNL 4430). No significant differences (p≥0.05) regarding the genic mutations were found in the bioassay of stamen hairs, independently of the effluent analysed. For the genotoxicity test with micronuclei, the plants exposed to raw wastes, to sludge, and to effluent of the biodigester have presented higher rates of chromosomal damages (micronuclei), with significant differences in relation to the control group and other effluent of the waste treatment system (p≤0.05). The association between the chemical parameters and the genotoxicity data have shown that the variables COD and TKN have presented significant correlation (p≤0.05) with the number of mutagenic events in the tetrads.

  12. Treated Effluent Disposal Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Treated non-hazardous and non-radioactive liquid wastes are collected and then disposed of through the systems at the Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF). More...

  13. QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF EFFLUENT DISCHARGES FROM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    Abstract. The quality of effluent discharges from a vegetable oil processing company, located in Anambra State –. South east Nigeria, was evaluated relative to regulatory body – Federal Environmental Protection. Agency (FEPA) standard. Wastewater quality parameters namely; biochemical oxygen demand (BOD),.

  14. 40 CFR 469.18 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Semiconductor...): (a) Subpart A—Semiconductor PSNS Effluent Limitations Pollutant or pollutant property Maximum for any...

  15. 40 CFR 469.16 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Semiconductor... for existing sources (PSES): (a) Subpart A—Semiconductor PSES Effluent Limitations Pollutant or...

  16. Guide for effluent radiological measurements at DOE installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corley, J.P.; Corbit, C.D.

    1983-07-01

    Effluent monitoring and reporting programs are maintained at all US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities that may: (1) discharge significant concentrations of radioactivity in relation to applicable standards, or (2) discharge quantities of radioactivity that have potential health and safety or other environmental significance. This Guide is intended to provide supplemental guidance to DOE Orders on methods, procedures, and performance criteria to bring more comparable rationale to DOE facility effluent measurement programs and promote compliance with applicable standards and provide the DOE Office of Operational Safety (OOS) and Operations Offices with an additional tool for evaluating effluent measurement programs at DOE facilities

  17. Physiochemical study of NSSC effluents and assessment of principal pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, Z.

    2010-01-01

    Waste effluents collected from different processing units of a pulp-mill were analyzed for various physiochemical parameters i.e. appearance, pH, conductance, total dissolved and suspended solids (TDS and TSS), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 5- days biochemical oxygen demand (BOD/sub 5/). Various ions with reference to pulping process were investigated in these effluents which include Cr, SO/sub 4/sup 2-/, SO/sub 3/sup 2-/, CO/sub 3/sup 2-/HCO/sub 3/sup 1-/, Na/sup +/, K/sup +/, Mg/sup +2/ and Ca/sup +2/. Heavy metals like Hg, Pb, Fe, Cr, Cu and Zn was also determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. The results were compared with National Environmental Quality Standards for industrial effluents. Most of the parameters were found outside the permissible limits except the temperature, pH and few cations. Effluents from NSSC process exhibited highest values of TDS, TSS, COD and BODs (these are 103174, 31866, 23340, 6864 mg/l respectively). Chief polluting characteristics of these effluents were found to be the dissolved chemicals and suspended organic matter, which are responsible for very high COD and BODs values. This study was: an effort to monitor the concentration of various pollutants in the waste effluents of pulp and paper industry with special emphasis on NSSC effluents and their contribution in environmental pollution. The hazardous effects of these effluents and different treatment methodologies have also been discussed. (author)

  18. REUSE OF DECOLORIZED DYEING EFFLUENTS IN REPEATED DYEINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ÖNER Erhan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this experimental work, the effluents of the reactive and disperse dyeings were reused in the next dyeing after the decolourization by ozone gas. Accordingly, the polyester woven samples were dyed with C.I. Disperse Yellow 160, C.I. Disperse Red 77 and C.I. Disperse Blue 79:1, and the cotton woven samples were dyed with C.I. Reactive Yellow 176, C.I. Reactive Red 239 and C.I. Reactive Blue 221. The effluents of the dyeings with these dyes and also with their mixtures were decolorized by ozone gas. The colours of the samples dyed with the decolorized effluents were compared with the original dyeings (standards and the colour differences were calculated. Under the experimental conditions of this investigation, the many of the dyeing effluents were decolorized successfully, except the effluent of C.I. Disperse Red 77. In the case that this red disperse dye present in the dyebath, the decolorized effluent had a slight reddish colour. The colour differences between the original dyeing (standard and the samples dyed with the decolorized effluent are mostly below the tolerance (DE<1 or slightly above the tolerance. The solid colours and uniform dyeings were achieved in the dyeings. The method seems promising in decreasing the amount of water used in textile dyeings.

  19. Effluent characterization and different modes of reuse in agriculture-a model case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Madhumita; Kumar, Ashwani

    2009-06-01

    High-quality waters are steadily retreating worldwide. Discharge of industrial effluent in the environment again declines soil/water quality to a great extent. On the other hand, effluent reuse in agriculture could be a means to conserve natural resources by providing assured water supply for growing crops. But industrial effluents are highly variable in nature, containing a variety of substances, and all are not favorable for farming. Appraisal and developing modes of effluent reuse is therefore a prerequisite to enable its proper use in agriculture. Effluents of various industries were assessed and approaches for their use in farming were developed for a particular region in this study. As per availability of effluents, the same could be implemented in other water-scarce areas. Effluents of 20 different industrial units were characterized by 24 attributes. Comparing these with corresponding irrigation water quality standards, the probability of their reuse was interpreted in the first approach. On the basis of relevant properties of major soil types dominated in a particular region, the soil-based usability of effluent was worked out in the second approach. By emphasizing the limitation of groundwater development where it went beyond 50% exploitation level, the land form and major soil type were then identified by applying a soil-based effluent reuse approach; the area-specific suitability of its use was perceived in the third approach. On the basis of irrigation water quality standards, the irrigation potentials of paper mill, fermentation (breweries and distilleries), and sugar factory effluents were recognized. In a soil-based approach, the compatibility of effluent with soil type was marked with A (preferred) and B (moderately preferred) classes and, compiling their recurring presence, the unanimous preference for paper mill effluent followed by rubber goods manufacturing industries/marine shrimp processing units, fermentation, and sugar mills was noted

  20. Studies on Lyari river effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.A.; Hashmi, I.; Rashid, A.; Niaz, G.R.; Khan, F.

    1999-01-01

    The study was aimed to determining the physical (TS, TSS, TDS, TVS) and chemical (Cl, SO/sub 4/, NH/sub 3/, BOD/sub 5/ COD, DO) characteristics as well as heavy present in the Lyari river effluents so as to identify the extent of pollution. The average results of each parameter of twelve different sites were compared with that of National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS), BOD/sub 5/ and COD levels were above the NEQS while the NH/sub 3/-N concentration was low. Concentrations of Cd and Zn were within the range while that of Pb, Cr, Ni and Cu were higher than the NEQS at times. This indicates that heavy pollution load is entering into the Arabian Sea creating tremendous harm especially to marine life. (author)

  1. Liquid effluent Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) implementation summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lueck, K.J.

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes liquid effluent analytical data collected during the Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) Implementation Program, evaluates whether or not the sampling performed meets the requirements of the individual SAPs, compares the results to the WAC 173-200 Ground Water Quality Standards. Presented in the report are results from liquid effluent samples collected (1992-1994) from 18 of the 22 streams identified in the Consent Order (No. DE 91NM-177) requiring SAPs

  2. Hazard Baseline Downgrade Effluent Treatment Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, A.

    1998-01-01

    This Hazard Baseline Downgrade reviews the Effluent Treatment Facility, in accordance with Department of Energy Order 5480.23, WSRC11Q Facility Safety Document Manual, DOE-STD-1027-92, and DOE-EM-STD-5502-94. It provides a baseline grouping based on the chemical and radiological hazards associated with the facility. The Determination of the baseline grouping for ETF will aid in establishing the appropriate set of standards for the facility

  3. Whole Effluent Assessment of urban discharges

    OpenAIRE

    Lützhøft, Hans-Christian Holten; Qualmann, Signe; Kusk, Kresten Ole; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    2011-01-01

    The European Water Framework Directive and the Environmental Quality Standards Directive lay down a framework for maintaining or obtaining good ecological and chemical status of European surface and coastal water bodies by the year 2015. The aim of this work was through Whole Effluent Assessment (WEA) to identify problematic urban discharges, e.g. stormwater, municipal wastewater, combined sewer overflow (CSO), industrial wastewater. Samples from around Copenhagen were therefore tested in the...

  4. The application of XML in the effluents data modeling of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue Feng; Lin Quanyi; Yue Huiguo; Zhang Yan; Zhang Peng; Cao Jun; Chen Bo

    2013-01-01

    The radioactive effluent data, which can provide information to distinguish whether facilities, waste disposal, and control system run normally, is an important basis of safety regulation and emergency management. It can also provide the information to start emergency alarm system as soon as possible. XML technology is an effective tool to realize the standard of effluent data exchange, in favor of data collection, statistics and analysis, strengthening the effectiveness of effluent regulation. This paper first introduces the concept of XML, the choices of effluent data modeling method, and then emphasizes the process of effluent model, finally the model and application are shown, While there is deficiency about the application of XML in the effluents data modeling of nuclear facilities, it is a beneficial attempt to the informatization management of effluents. (authors)

  5. Tritium effluent removal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamberger, P.H.; Gibbs, G.E.

    1978-01-01

    An air detritiation system has been developed and is in routine use for removing tritium and tritiated compounds from glovebox effluent streams before they are released to the atmosphere. The system is also used, in combination with temporary enclosures, to contain and decontaminate airborne releases resulting from the opening of tritium containment systems during maintenance and repair operations. This detritiation system, which services all the tritium handling areas at Mound Facility, has played an important role in reducing effluents and maintaining them at 2 percent of the level of 8 y ago. The system has a capacity of 1.7 m 3 /min and has operated around the clock for several years. A refrigerated in-line filtration system removes water, mercury, or pump oil and other organics from gaseous waste streams. The filtered waste stream is then heated and passed through two different types of oxidizing beds; the resulting tritiated water is collected on molecular sieve dryer beds. Liquids obtained from regenerating the dryers and from the refrigerated filtration system are collected and transferred to a waste solidification and packaging station. Component redundancy and by-pass capabilities ensure uninterrupted system operation during maintenance. When processing capacity is exceeded, an evacuated storage tank of 45 m 3 is automatically opened to the inlet side of the system. The gaseous effluent from the system is monitored for tritium content and recycled or released directly to the stack. The average release is less than 1 Ci/day. The tritium effluent can be reduced by isotopically swamping the tritium; this is accomplished by adding hydrogen prior to the oxidizer beds, or by adding water to the stream between the two final dryer beds

  6. Zero effluent; Efluente zero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, Silvio Rogerio; Santos, Angelo Francisco dos [Liquigas Distribuidora S.A., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    A scenery of water shortage and the search for profitability improvement obligate the companies to exercise their creativity and to adopt alternative methods to the conventional ones to preserve the environmental resources. The 'Effluent Zero' project comes from a paradigms changing that the environmental preservation is a necessary cost. It brings a new analysis approach of this problem with the purpose to adapt the investments and operational costs with the effluents treatment to the demands of the productive processes. In Liquigas, the project brought significant results; made a potential reduction of nearly 90% in the investments of the effluents treatment systems. That means nearly 13% in reduction in the total investments in modernization and upgrade of the existents companies installations and of 1,6% in the total operational costs of the Company. Further more, it has contributed for a reduction of until 43% of the water consumption in the bottling process of the Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG). This way, the project resulted in effective actions of environmental protection with relevant economic benefits. (author)

  7. Contaminant Characterization of Effluent from Pennsylvania Brine Treatment, Inc., Josephine Facility: Implications for Disposal of Oil and Gas Flowback Fluids from Brine Treatment Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    The PBT-Josephine Facility accepts only wastewater from the oil and gas industry. This report describes the concentrations of selected contaminants in the effluent water and compares the contaminant effluent concentrations to state and federal standards.

  8. Human infective potential of Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis and Enterocytozoon bieneusi in urban wastewater treatment plant effluents

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Cryptosporidiosis, giardiasis, and microsporidiosis are important waterborne diseases. In the standard for wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents in China and...

  9. Radiation treatment of sewage effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawai, Teruko; Sekiguchi, Masayuki; Sawai, Takeshi

    1990-01-01

    The water demand of the past several years increased rapidly. Recycling of municipal wastewater is the effective means of coping with water shortage in Tokyo. We studied the radiation treatment method of further purification of the effluent from sewage treatment plant. By gamma irradiation the refractory organic substances in effluent were decomposed. The COD values decreased and the light brown color faded with increasing dose. The high molecular weight components in effluent were degraded to lower molecular weight substances and were decomposed finally to carbon dioxide. Recent attention has been given to the disadvantages of using chlorine as a disinfectant of municipal wastewater effluents. It has been shown that the chlorination of organic substances in water may produce chlorinated hydrocarbons with carcinogenic properties. So a development of the effective sterilization method for the effluent has been needed instead of chlorine. The radiation sterilization of coliforms and total bacteria in primary effluent, secondary effluent and rapid sand filtered effluent were studied. Coliforms were very sensitive to radiation treatment in comparison with total bacteria. Especially, coliforms in secondary and rapid sand filtered effluents were disinfected to 10 % of initial at 0.1 kGy. (author)

  10. 40 CFR 469.17 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Semiconductor Subcategory... the following new source performance standards (NSPS). Subpart A—Semiconductor NSPS Effluent...

  11. 40 CFR 439.37 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHARMACEUTICAL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chemical Synthesis... achieve the pretreatment standard for ammonia (as N). (b) The pretreatment standards for cyanide are as...

  12. Radioactive and electron microscope analysis of effluent monitor sample lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalski, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    Effluent air sampling at nuclear power plant often leads to the question ''How representative is the sample of the effluent stream?'' Samples from radiation monitors are typically obtained at great distances from the sample nozzle because of high background concerns under postulated accidents. Sample line plateout during normal effluent sampling becomes the major concern. A US Nuclear Regulatory Commission inspection raised a concern that monitors were not collecting representative samples per ANSI standard N13.1. A comprehensive 2-yr study at Beaver Valley was performed during normal effluent releases in two phases: 1) weekly charcoal and glass fiber filter samples were analyzed for radioactivity for 6 months, and 2) nuclepore membrane filter samples were analyzed by electron microscope for 4- and 6-h periods. A specially designed test nozzle was directly inserted into an effluent stream for comparison with the radiation monitor samples. Particle behavior characteristics can be determined during effluent releases using a simple test probe. While particle plateout was the major purpose of the study, other particle behavior characteristics were evident and equally as important. Particle travel through long sample lines can also lead to (a) agglomeration or the coagulation of smaller particles to form larger ones, (b) particle splitting or fracturing upon impact with the sample line interior walls, and (c) resuspension of large particles in sample lines

  13. Impact of abattoir effluents on surface waters of the Alamuyo stream ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physico-chemical analysis were carried out on samples collected from four sampling stations located along a stream that receives effluent discharge from an Abattoir in Ibadan, Nigeria using standard methods. The data revealed that the effluent discharge had high temperature (33.48±0.354oC); H+(7.70±0.86); ...

  14. Characterization of fish hold effluent discharged from commercial fishing vessels into harbor waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Ryan J; McLaughlin, Christine; Falatko, Debra

    2014-10-15

    Fish hold effluent and the effluent produced from the cleaning of fish holds may contain organic material resulting from the degradation of seafood and cleaning products (e.g., soaps and detergents). This effluent is often discharged by vessels into near shore waters and, therefore, could have the potential to contribute to water pollution in bays and estuaries. We characterized effluent from commercial fishing vessels with holds containing refrigerated seawater, ice slurry, or chipped ice. Concentrations of trace heavy metals, wet chemistry parameters, and nutrients in effluent were compared to screening benchmarks to determine if there is a reasonable potential for effluent discharge to contribute to nonattainment of water quality standards. Most analytes (67%) exceeded their benchmark concentration and, therefore, may have the potential to pose risk to human health or the environment if discharges are in significant quantities or there are many vessels discharging in the same areas. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Role of livestock effluent suspended particulate in sealing effluent ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J McL; Warren, B R

    2015-05-01

    Intensive livestock feed-lots have become more prevalent in recent years to help in meeting the predicted food production targets based on expected population growth. Effluent from these is stored in ponds, representing a potential concern for seepage and contamination of groundwater. Whilst previous literature suggests that effluent particulate can limit seepage adequately in combination with a clay liner, this research addresses potential concerns for sealing of ponds with low concentration fine and then evaluates this against proposed filter-cake based methodologies to describe and predict hydraulic reduction. Short soil cores were compacted to 98% of the maximum dry density and subject to ponded head percolation with unfiltered-sediment-reduced effluent, effluent filtered to soil surface. Management considerations based on the results are presented. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Assessment of the Impact of Industrial Effluents on Groundwater Quality in Okhla Industrial Area, New Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wequar Ahmad Siddiqui

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study physicochemical parameters like pH, hardness, TDS, chloride, sulphate, nitrate, fluoride, DO, COD and conductivity of some important heavy metals such as iron, cobalt, cadmium, lead, mercury, chromium, selenium and arsenic were first analyzed in effluent water of Okhla industrial area phase-II and then groundwater of near by areas. Obtained values of effluent water were compared with ISI standard for effluent water discharge and groundwater values were compared with ISI and WHO drinking water standards. The result shows that discharge of untreated effluents by the industries is leading to contamination of groundwater of the surrounding areas. Lead, mercury, fluoride, TDS, sulphate was above the desirable limit in effluent water (ISI standard for effluent water discharge. Subsequent analysis of groundwater of nearby areas was rated as unacceptable for drinking because of presence of fluoride in all the samples above the desirable limit. Lead, mercury, cadmium, chloride was also detected in many samples.

  17. Liquid Effluent Retention Facility/Effluent Treatment Facility Hazards Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simiele, G.A.

    1994-01-01

    This document establishes the technical basis in support of Emergency Planning activities for the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and Effluent Treatment Facility the Hanford Site. The document represents an acceptable interpretation of the implementing guidance document for DOE ORDER 5500.3A. Through this document, the technical basis for the development of facility specific Emergency Action Levels and the Emergency Planning Zone is demonstrated

  18. Whole Effluent Assessment of urban discharges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützhøft, Hans-Christian Holten; Qualmann, Signe; Kusk, Kresten Ole

    2011-01-01

    The European Water Framework Directive and the Environmental Quality Standards Directive lay down a framework for maintaining or obtaining good ecological and chemical status of European surface and coastal water bodies by the year 2015. The aim of this work was through Whole Effluent Assessment......-hatched eggs, nauplii and copepodites was determined in controls as well as in samples and the effect was calculated as the ratio between the number of copepodites and the sum of the numbers of nauplii and copepodites. Ratios below or above 1 significantly (t-test) differing from the control group...

  19. Standards and Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, S. P.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of water quality standards and administration, covering publications of 1976-77. Consideration is given to municipal facilities, National Pollutant Discharge Elimination Systems, regional and international water quality management, and effluent standards. A list of 99 references is also presented. (HM)

  20. Aerobic Bacterial degraders in effluent from Itoku textile industry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The local textile industry in Itokun village is one major textile industry in Abeokuta Ogun state, known for “adire” production whose processes are not maintained at regulatory standards. This study involves isolating and identifying aerobic microorganisms in waste water effluents from this textile Industry and screening for ...

  1. 40 CFR 420.13 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... gas wet desulfurization systems, but only to the extent such systems generate process wastewaters. (2... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cokemaking... in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve the...

  2. 40 CFR 463.32 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PLASTICS MOLDING AND FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY... currently available, which are calculated by multiplying the average process water usage flow rate for the... of 6.0 to 9.0 at all times. The permit authority will obtain the average process water usage flow...

  3. 40 CFR 463.22 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PLASTICS MOLDING AND FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY... currently available, which are calculated by multiplying the average process water usage flow rate for the... average process water usage flow rate for the cleaning water processes from the permittee. ...

  4. 40 CFR 463.17 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PLASTICS MOLDING AND FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Contact... technology, which are calculated by multiplying the average process water usage flow rate for the contact... usage flow rate for the contact cooling and heating water processes from the permittee. ...

  5. 40 CFR 463.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PLASTICS MOLDING AND FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY... technology currently available, which are calculated by multiplying the average process water usage flow rate... process water usage flow rate for the contact cooling and heating water processes from the permittee. ...

  6. 40 CFR 421.222 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... day Maximum for monthly average mg/kg (pounds per million pounds) of technical grade molybdenum plus... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE... technology currently available. Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source...

  7. 40 CFR 421.223 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Maximum for any 1 day Maximum for monthly average mg/kg (pounds per million pounds) of technical grade... for monthly average mg/kg (pounds per million pounds) of technical grade molybdenum plus vanadium plus... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Secondary...

  8. Fusion fuel cycle: material requirements and potential effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teofilo, V.L.; Bickford, W.E.; Long, L.W.; Price, B.A.; Mellinger, P.J.; Willingham, C.E.; Young, J.K.

    1980-10-01

    Environmental effluents that may be associated with the fusion fuel cycle are identified. Existing standards for controlling their release are summarized and anticipated regulatory changes are identified. The ability of existing and planned environmental control technology to limit effluent releases to acceptable levels is evaluated. Reference tokamak fusion system concepts are described and the principal materials required of the associated fuel cycle are analyzed. These materials include the fusion fuels deuterium and tritium; helium, which is used as a coolant for both the blanket and superconducting magnets; lithium and beryllium used in the blanket; and niobium used in the magnets. The chemical and physical processes used to prepare these materials are also described

  9. Fusion fuel cycle: material requirements and potential effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teofilo, V.L.; Bickford, W.E.; Long, L.W.; Price, B.A.; Mellinger, P.J.; Willingham, C.E.; Young, J.K.

    1980-10-01

    Environmental effluents that may be associated with the fusion fuel cycle are identified. Existing standards for controlling their release are summarized and anticipated regulatory changes are identified. The ability of existing and planned environmental control technology to limit effluent releases to acceptable levels is evaluated. Reference tokamak fusion system concepts are described and the principal materials required of the associated fuel cycle are analyzed. These materials include the fusion fuels deuterium and tritium; helium, which is used as a coolant for both the blanket and superconducting magnets; lithium and beryllium used in the blanket; and niobium used in the magnets. The chemical and physical processes used to prepare these materials are also described.

  10. Computerized system for the management of radioactive effluent generated by the IPEN-CNEN/SP facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maduar, Marcelo F.

    2000-01-01

    As a result of the normal operation of the IPEN CNEN/ SP facilities, liquids, gaseous and airborne effluents are generated. In order to control the effluent discharges to the environment according to radiation protection standards, a radioactive effluents monitoring program was established on a routine basis. This program is carried out by measuring the activity of the radionuclides present in the effluent samples representative of the effluent batch, allowing one to take a decision about the effluent, either to authorize its discharge, or its treatment as a radioactive reject. In order to optimize this process, it was developed a computerized system to implement the various steps of the effluent management. Among others features, this system implements: on line retrieval of analyses results and effluent discharge parameters; a variety of report standards; generation of the facilities source-term. All these features are integrated through a friendly graphical interface. The system database was developed in MS Access. The visual interface was developed in MS-Visual Basic, by using techniques to integrate to it commercial codes for data acquisition and radiometric analyses. (author)

  11. Waste Treatment Plant Liquid Effluent Treatability Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LUECK, K.J.

    2001-01-01

    Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI) provided a forecast of the radioactive, dangerous liquid effluents expected to be generated by the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). The forecast represents the liquid effluents generated from the processing of 25 distinct batches of tank waste through the WTP. The WTP liquid effluents will be stored, treated, and disposed of in the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) and the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Fluor Hanford, Inc. (FH) evaluated the treatability of the WTP liquid effluents in the LERFIETF. The evaluation was conducted by comparing the forecast to the LERFIETF treatability envelope, which provides information on the items that determine if a liquid effluent is acceptable for receipt and treatment at the LERFIETF. The WTP liquid effluent forecast is outside the current LERFlETF treatability envelope. There are several concerns that must be addressed before the WTP liquid effluents can be accepted at the LERFIETF

  12. Hanford Site Treated Effluent Disposal Facility process flow sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bendixsen, R.B.

    1993-04-01

    This report presents a novel method of using precipitation, destruction and recycle factors to prepare a process flow sheet. The 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) will treat process sewer waste water from the 300 Area of the Hanford Site, located near Richland, Washington, and discharge a permittable effluent flow into the Columbia River. When completed and operating, the TEDF effluent water flow will meet or exceed water quality standards for the 300 Area process sewer effluents. A preliminary safety analysis document (PSAD), a preconstruction requirement, needed a process flow sheet detailing the concentrations of radionuclides, inorganics and organics throughout the process, including the effluents, and providing estimates of stream flow quantities, activities, composition, and properties (i.e. temperature, pressure, specific gravity, pH and heat transfer rates). As the facility begins to operate, data from process samples can be used to provide better estimates of the factors, the factors can be entered into the flow sheet and the flow sheet will estimate more accurate steady state concentrations for the components. This report shows how the factors were developed and how they were used in developing a flow sheet to estimate component concentrations for the process flows. The report concludes with how TEDF sample data can improve the ability of the flow sheet to accurately predict concentrations of components in the process

  13. Impact of fertilizer plant effluent on water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obire, O.; Ogan, A.; Okigbo, R. N.

    2008-01-01

    The impact of National Fertilizer Company of Nigeria out fall effluent on the physico chemistry and bacteriology of Okrika creek was investigated during the sampling period from May to December, 1998. The National Fertilizer Company of Nigeria out fall effluent, the Okrika creek water and the lkpukulubie creek (control) water samples were collected. The physico-chemical parameters analyzed for all the samples included temperature, p H, total chloride, total dissolved solids, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, free ammonia, total phosphate, urea, zinc and iron, while the bacteriological determinations were total culturable aerobic heterotrophic bacteria count and identification of representative isolates. The Okrika creek recorded higher concentrations for all the physicochemical parameters and bacteria load than the control creek. The higher values of p H, Free NH 3 , urea, TDS and the conductivity of the National Fertilizer Company of Nigeria out fall effluent above the FEPA standards reflect the poor effluent quality generated by National Fertilizer Company of Nigeria. The bacteria species isolated from the samples include Aerococcus viridans, Alcaligenes faecalis, Bacillus cereus, Citrobacter freundii, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Serratia marcescens and Staphylococcus aureus. In general, the investigation revealed that there was an extremely adverse impact on the physico-chemical and bacteriological water quality characteristics of the Okrika creek as a result of the discharge of poor quality effluent from National Fertilizer Company of Nigeria operations

  14. TBP production plant effluent treatment process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sriniwas, C.; Sugilal, G.; Wattal, P.K.

    2004-06-01

    TBP production facility at Heavy Water Plant, Talcher generates about 2000 litres of effluent per 200 kg batch. The effluent is basically an aqueous solution containing dissolved and dispersed organics such as dibutyl phosphate, butanol etc. The effluent has high salinity, chemical oxygen demand (30-80 g/L) and pungent odour. It requires treatment before discharge. A chemical precipitation process using ferric chloride was developed for quantitative separation of organics from the aqueous part of the effluent. This process facilitates the discharge of the aqueous effluent. Results of the laboratory and bench scale experiments on actual effluent samples are presented in this report. (author)

  15. Methanization of industrial liquid effluents; Methanisation des effluents industriels liquides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederic, S.; Lugardon, A. [Societe Naskeo Environnement, 92 - Levallois-Perret (France)

    2007-09-15

    In a first part, this work deals with the theoretical aspects of the methanization of the industrial effluents; the associated reactional processes are detailed. The second part presents the technological criteria for choosing the methanization process in terms of the characteristics of the effluent to be treated. Some of the methanization processes are presented with their respective advantages and disadvantages. At last, is described the implementation of an industrial methanization unit. The size and the main choices are detailed: the anaerobic reactor, the control, the valorization aspects of the biogas produced. Some examples of industrial developments illustrate the different used options. (O.M.)

  16. Research on the removal of radium from uranium effluent by air-aeration hydrated manganese hydroxide adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jianguo; Chen Shaoqing; Qi Jing

    2002-01-01

    In the acidic leaching uranium process, pyrolusite or manganese oxide (MnO 2 ) powder is often used as an oxidizer. In the processed effluent, manganese ion present as a contaminant in addition to U, Ra, Th, As, Zn, Cu, F, SO 4 2- , etc. Manganese ion content is about 100∼200 mg/1 in effluent. In this case, a new process technique can be developed to treat the effluent using the Mn 2+ present in the effluent. The approach is as follows: The effluent is neutralized by lime milk to pH about 11. As a result, most contaminants are precipitated to meet the uranium effluent discharge standards (U, Th, Mn, SO 4 2- etc.), but radium is still present in the effluent. In this process, manganese ion forms manganese hydroxide Mn(OH) 2 . The manganese hydroxide is easily to oxide to form MnO(OH) 2 by air aeration. This hydrated manganese hydroxide complex can then be used to adsorb radium in effluent. The experiments show: (1) Effluent pH, manganese concentration in effluent, and aeration strength and time etc. influence the radium removal efficiency. Under the test conditions, when manganese in effluent is between 100∼300 mg/l, and pH is over 10.5, radium can be reduced to lower 1.11 Bq/1 in the processed effluent. Higher contents of impurity elements such as aluminum, silicon and magnesium in the effluent affect the removal efficiency; (2) Under the experimental conditions, the lime precipitation air-aeration formed hydrated manganese hydroxide complex sludge is stable. There is no obvious release of radium from the adsorbed hydrated manganese hydroxide complex sludge; (3) The current experiments show that hydrated manganese hydroxide complex sludge has a very good re-adsorption ability for removal of radium from uranium effluent. Some experimental parameters have been measured. (author)

  17. 40 CFR 415.24 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Sulfate... standards for existing sources (PSES): Subpart B—Aluminum Sulfate Pollutant or pollutant property PSES...

  18. 40 CFR 425.25 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 403, and achieve the following pretreatment standards: Pollutant or pollutant property PSES Maximum...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS LEATHER TANNING AND FINISHING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hair Save, Chrome Tan...

  19. Source terms for airborne effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomeke, J.O.; Perona, J.J.

    1976-01-01

    The origin and nature of fuel cycle wastes are discussed with regard to high-level wastes, cladding, noble gases, iodine, tritium, 14 C, low-level and intermediate-level transuranic wastes, non-transuranic wastes, and ore tailings. The current practice for gaseous effluent treatment is described for light water reactors and high-temperature gas-cooled reactors. Other topics discussed are projections of nuclear power generation; projected accumulation of gaseous wastes; the impact of nuclear fuel cycle centers; and global buildup of airborne effluents

  20. Methanization of industrial liquid effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frederic, S.; Lugardon, A.

    2007-01-01

    In a first part, this work deals with the theoretical aspects of the methanization of the industrial effluents; the associated reactional processes are detailed. The second part presents the technological criteria for choosing the methanization process in terms of the characteristics of the effluent to be treated. Some of the methanization processes are presented with their respective advantages and disadvantages. At last, is described the implementation of an industrial methanization unit. The size and the main choices are detailed: the anaerobic reactor, the control, the valorization aspects of the biogas produced. Some examples of industrial developments illustrate the different used options. (O.M.)

  1. Treatment of Alkaline Stripped Effluent in Aerated Constructed Wetlands: Feasibility Evaluation and Performance Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keli He

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ammonium stripping has gained increasing interest for nitrogen recovery in anaerobically digested effluents. However, the stripped effluents often still do not meet discharge standards, having high pH and residual pollutants. Constructed wetlands (CWs are an easy to operate ecosystem and have a long history of application in treatment of wastewaters with extreme pH, such as acid mine drainage. However, knowledge of the mechanistic details involved in the use of CWs to treat high alkaline drainage, such as stripped effluent, is insufficient. This study explored the feasibility and effectiveness of using three sub-surface horizontal flow CWs to treat high alkaline stripped effluent (pH > 10. Two intensification strategies—intermittent aeration and effluent recirculation—were evaluated to enhance nitrogen depuration performance. The results show that the treatment of alkaline stripped effluent is feasible due to the high buffering capacity of the wetlands. Effluent recirculation combined with intermittent artificial aeration improves nitrogen removal, with 71% total nitrogen (TN removal. Ammonia volatilization from the surface of the wetlands in high alkaline conditions only contributed to 3% of the total removed ammonium. The microbial abundance and activity had significant diversity for the various enhancement strategies used in the constructed wetland systems. Anammox is an important process for nitrogen removal in CWs treating alkaline stripped effluent, and possible enhancements of this process should be investigated further.

  2. Characterisation of potential aquaculture pond effluents, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conventional treatment of effluents from these small-scale, low-volume operations, which discharge relatively dilute effluents infrequently, might not be cost-effective. Keywords: aquaculture–environment interaction, earthen ponds, effluent characterisation, K-means clustering, t ilapia, water quality. African Journal of Aquatic ...

  3. CALCIUM REMOVAL FROM PAPER MACHINE EFFLUENT BY PRECIPITATION/COPRECIPITATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Leandro de Sousa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In integrates pulp and paper mills, the effluent generated by the paper machine can be considered as a sector effluent, called white water, due to the high concentration of calcium. In this work, experiments were conducted to understand the behavior of the effluent in different pH values and to develop removal methods of calcium from the white water, aiming the reuse of water and the calcium recovery. Potentiometric titrations were carried out with HCl 0.022 mol L-1 and NaOH 0.025 mol L-1 standards, after adjusting the effluent pH at 12.0 and 2.0; respectively, which indicated inflection points for the carbonate, bicarbonate and kaolin, components capable of interaction with the soluble calcium. The methods for calcium removal consisted of coprecipitation/adsorption with iron (III and aluminum hydroxides, and precipitation in the presence of sodium oxalate. The results indicated that at low concentrations of ferric sulfate and aluminum sulfate, the removal of calcium is low. In the adsorption assays in the presence of Fe(OH3 and Al(OH3, the increased of the ferric sulfate concentration enabled a slight increase in the calcium removal (16.5 to 31.0 %, reaching 65.0% in the adsorption more precipitation process in pH 10.0. In case of aluminum sulfate, the removal percentages were indifferent (close to 10.0%. In the precipitation of Ca2+ in the oxalate presence, the possibility of satisfactory percentages of removal was observed (75 to 87%, keeping the effluent with the conductivity and pH unchanged, it’s very important, because the increase of effluent conductivity to reuse cause break of paper made. The calcium oxalate recuperated can be heated excessively and changed and calcium carbonate and to be reused. Tests in the highest scale have to be realized to approve the reuse of water and calcium of paper machine.

  4. 40 CFR 412.32 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 412.32 Section 412.32 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CONCENTRATED ANIMAL... Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control technology...

  5. Exhaust Gas Scrubber Washwater Effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    oceans . However, this effect is minor compared to ocean acidification due to Exhaust Gas Scrubber Washwater Effluent...Section 6 -Assessment of Pollutants Discharged in Scrubber Washwater and Protectiveness of IMO Guidelines 29 increased carbon dioxide ...June 11, 2010 (http://www.motorship.com/news101/breakthrough-order-for-krystallon-scrubbers). Orr, J.C. et al. 2005. Anthropogenic ocean acidification

  6. Industrial effluent quality, pollution monitoring and environmental management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Maqbool; Bajahlan, Ahmad S; Hammad, Waleed S

    2008-12-01

    Royal Commission Environmental Control Department (RC-ECD) at Yanbu industrial city in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has established a well-defined monitoring program to control the pollution from industrial effluents. The quality of effluent from each facility is monitored round the clock. Different strategic measures have been taken by the RC-ECD to implement the zero discharge policy of RC. Industries are required to pre-treat the effluent to conform pretreatment standards before discharging to central biological treatment plant. Industries are not allowed to discharge any treated or untreated effluent in open channels. After treatment, reclaimed water must have to comply with direct discharge standards before discharge to the sea. Data of industrial wastewater collected from five major industries and central industrial wastewater treatment plant (IWTP) is summarized in this report. During 5-year period, 3,705 samples were collected and analyzed for 43,436 parameters. There were 1,377 violations from pretreatment standards from all the industries. Overall violation percentage was 3.17%. Maximum violations were recorded from one of the petrochemical plants. The results show no significant pollution due to heavy metals. Almost all heavy metals were within RC pretreatment standards. High COD and TOC indicates that major pollution was due to hydrocarbons. Typical compounds identified by GC-MS were branched alkanes, branched alkenes, aliphatic ketones, substituted thiophenes, substituted phenols, aromatics and aromatic alcohols. Quality of treated water was also in compliance with RC direct discharge standards. In order to achieve the zero discharge goal, further studies and measures are in progress.

  7. Effluent profile of commercially used low-phosphorus fish feeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiura, Shozo H.; Marchant, Daniel D.; Kelsey, Kevin; Wiggins, Thomas; Ferraris, Ronaldo P.

    2006-01-01

    Excess phosphorus (P) in aquaculture feeds contributes to the eutrophication of natural waters. While commercially available low-P (LP) fish feeds have been developed, there is uncertainty about their potential to reduce effluent P while maintaining fish growth relative to regular P (RP) feeds. We therefore simulated commercial aquaculture conditions and fed for 55 days rainbow trout (∼190 kg/raceway, n = 3 raceways/diet) RP (1.4% total P) and LP (1.0%) feeds then determined effluent P levels, fish growth, and feed costs. Excretions of fecal-P and soluble-P, but not particulate-P, in effluents were greater in RP than in LP ponds. Fish growth, bone-P and plasma-P were similar between diets, demonstrating that LP feeds can lower effluent P levels without compromising growth. Costs were $0.97/kg fish production for LP feeds, and $0.74/kg for RP. Because feed is the largest variable cost in commercial aquaculture, the use of LP feeds can significantly increase production costs. - Commercial low-phosphorus fish feeds pollute less but are more costly than standard fish feeds that provide similar fish growth rates

  8. Nile tilapia culture on domestic effluent treated in stabilization ponds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clovis Matheus Pereira

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The performance and filet quality of tilapias (Oreochromis niloticus culture in effluent stabilization lagoons was tested at the densities of 3 fish/m2 (T3, 7 fish/m2 (T2 and 7 fish/m2 in clean water + diet (T1 with 3 repetitions in tanks of 2.57m2 and 0.60m of water column with supplemental aeration. Fish culture in clean water plus diet (T1 presented the highest growth. The higher density T3 (7/m2 compared to T2 (3/m2 did not result in any difference of total production (p > 0.05 but this was compensated by the increased individual fish growth rate at lower density. The conditions that sustain fish survival culture with ETE effluent were attested by the high survival (> 90% under both treatments, but only 10% of the water samples from T2 and T3 N-total ammonium was favorable for fish growth (< 2.0mg/L. The rearing system improved the effluent quality, reducing the total organic nitrogen and the solids in suspension. The faecal coliforms, Salmonella sp. and Staphylococcus aureus from the effluent and fish were verified to be within the standards laid down by the World Health Organization (WHO.

  9. Physico-chemical characteristics of Ama brewery effluent and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The samples were analyzed for physicochemical properties with standard laboratory techniques. Results obtained in the study revealed that the brewery effluent had the following values: pH (7.71 ± 0.15 pH), temperature (29.50 ± 0.500 C), conductivity (489.00 ± 172.00 us/cm), total suspended solids (26.75 ± 0.25 mg/l), ...

  10. Continuous monitoring of gaseous effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velasco, A.; Giraut, H.; Prado, M.; Bonino, A.D.

    1990-01-01

    The system allows to continuously determine the radioactive materials discharge (iodine, noble gases and aerosols) to the environment. It consists in compelling, by a pump, a known and fixed fraction of the total flow and preserving the aerosols by a filter. The gas -now free from aerosols- traverses an activated carbon filter which keeps the iodine; after being free from aerosols and iodine, the effluent traverses a measurement chambers for noble gases which has a scintillator. (Author) [es

  11. Waste monitoring system for effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, J.M.; Gomez, B.; Trujillo, L.; Malcom, J.E.; Nekimken, H.; Pope, N.; Bibeau, R.

    1995-07-01

    The waste monitoring system in use at Los Alamos National Laboratory's Plutonium Facility, TA-55, is a computer-based system that proves real-time information on industrial effluents. Remote computers monitor discharge events and data moves from one system to another via a local area network. This report describes the history, system design, summary, instrumentation list, displays, trending screens, and layout of the waste monitoring system

  12. 40 CFR 430.33 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Maximum for any 1 day Average of daily values for 30 consecutive days BOD5 5.6 2.8 1.9 TSS 12.0 6.0 3.6 pH... 12.5 6.25 3.57 pH (1) (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0 at all times. ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY...

  13. 40 CFR 417.122 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... COD 4.05 1.35 TSS 0.09 .03 Surfactants 0.90 .30 Oil and grease 0.15 .05 pH (1) (1) English units (pounds per 1,000 lb of anhydrous product) BOD5 0.90 0.30 COD 4.05 1.35 TSS 0.09 .03 Surfactants 0.90 .30... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE...

  14. 40 CFR 417.102 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) BOD5 0.90 0.30 COD 4.05 1.35 TSS 0.09 .03 Surfactants 0.90 .30 Oil and grease 0.15 .05 pH (1) (1) English units (pounds per 1,000 lb of anhydrous product) BOD5 0.90 0.30 COD 4.05 1.35 TSS 0.09 .03... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE...

  15. 40 CFR 417.132 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) BOD5 0.90 0.30 COD 4.05 1.35 TSS 0.09 .03 Surfactants 0.90 .30 Oil and grease 0.15 .05 pH (1) (1) English units (pounds per 1,000 lb of anhydrous product) BOD5 0.90 0.30 COD 4.05 1.35 TSS 0.09 .03... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE...

  16. An inexact fuzzy two-stage stochastic model for quantifying the efficiency of nonpoint source effluent trading under uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, B.; Maqsood, I.; Huang, G.H.; Yin, Y.Y.; Han, D.J.

    2005-01-01

    Reduction of nonpoint source (NPS) pollution from agricultural lands is a major concern in most countries. One method to reduce NPS pollution is through land retirement programs. This method, however, may result in enormous economic costs especially when large sums of croplands need to be retired. To reduce the cost, effluent trading can be employed to couple with land retirement programs. However, the trading efforts can also become inefficient due to various uncertainties existing in stochastic, interval, and fuzzy formats in agricultural systems. Thus, it is desired to develop improved methods to effectively quantify the efficiency of potential trading efforts by considering those uncertainties. In this respect, this paper presents an inexact fuzzy two-stage stochastic programming model to tackle such problems. The proposed model can facilitate decision-making to implement trading efforts for agricultural NPS pollution reduction through land retirement programs. The applicability of the model is demonstrated through a hypothetical effluent trading program within a subcatchment of the Lake Tai Basin in China. The study results indicate that the efficiency of the trading program is significantly influenced by precipitation amount, agricultural activities, and level of discharge limits of pollutants. The results also show that the trading program will be more effective for low precipitation years and with stricter discharge limits

  17. Liquid Effluents Program mission analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, S.S.

    1994-01-01

    Systems engineering is being used to identify work to cleanup the Hanford Site. The systems engineering process transforms an identified mission need into a set of performance parameters and a preferred system configuration. Mission analysis is the first step in the process. Mission analysis supports early decision-making by clearly defining the program objectives, and evaluating the feasibility and risks associated with achieving those objectives. The results of the mission analysis provide a consistent basis for subsequent systems engineering work. A mission analysis was performed earlier for the overall Hanford Site. This work was continued by a ''capstone'' team which developed a top-level functional analysis. Continuing in a top-down manner, systems engineering is now being applied at the program and project levels. A mission analysis was conducted for the Liquid Effluents Program. The results are described herein. This report identifies the initial conditions and acceptable final conditions, defines the programmatic and physical interfaces and sources of constraints, estimates the resources to carry out the mission, and establishes measures of success. The mission analysis reflects current program planning for the Liquid Effluents Program as described in Liquid Effluents FY 1995 Multi-Year Program Plan

  18. Pulp and paper mill effluent treatments have differential endocrine-disrupting effects on rainbow trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrego, Rodrigo; Guchardi, John; Hernandez, Victor; Krause, Rachelle; Roti, Lucia; Armour, Jeffrey; Ganeshakumar, Mathumai; Holdway, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    Endocrine disruption (ED) effects due to pulp and paper mill effluents extracts involving different industrial procedures and effluent treatments (nontreated, primary, and secondary treated) were evaluated using immature triploid rainbow trout in a pulse-exposure toxicity experiment. The protocol involved the use of intraperitoneal injection of mill extracts (solid-phase extraction [SPE]) corrected for individual fish weight and included several laboratory standards (steroidal hormones and phytosterols). Biological endpoints at two different levels of biological organization were analyzed (molecular and individual organism). Results indicated that nonsignificant changes were observed in the individual physiological indices represented by condition factor, liver somatic index, and gonad somatic index during the experiment. Significant induction of liver ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity was observed between different effluent treatments and experimental controls. Significant endocrine-disrupting effects at the reproductive level were observed in all effluent treatments involving significant increments in plasma vitellogenin (VTG) levels. Fish exposed to untreated effluent extracts had significantly higher VTG levels compared to fish exposed to primary and secondary treatment effluent extracts, indicating a decrease of the estrogenic effect due to the effluent treatment. The present study has shown that for the Chilean pulp and paper mill SPE extracts evaluated, an endocrine disruption effect was induced in immature triploid rainbow, reaffirming the significant estrogenic effects demonstrated previously in laboratory and field experiments.

  19. [Influence of the substrate composition in extensive green roof on the effluent quality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Lin; Li, Tian; Gu, Jun-Qing

    2014-11-01

    By monitoring the effluent quality from different green roof assemblies during several artificial rain events, the main pollutant characteristics and the influence of substrate composition in extensive green roof on the effluent quality were studied. Results showed that the main pollutants in the effluent were N, P and COD; with the increase of cumulative rain, the concentrations of pollutants in the effluent decreased, which had obvious leaching effect; The average concentrations of heavy metals in the early effluent from all assemblies reached drinking water standard, including the assemblies using crushed bricks; When garden soil and compost were used as organic matter, the assemblies had serious leaching of nutrient substance. After the accumulated rainfall reached 150 mm, the TN, TP and COD concentrations of effluent were 2.93, 0.73 and 78 mg x L(-1), respectively, which exceeded the Surface water V class limit. By means of application of the Water Treatment Residual, the leaching of TP from green planting soil was decreased by about 60%. The inorganic compound soil had better effluent quality, however we also need to judge whether the substrate could be applied in extensive green roof or not, by analyzing its ability of water quantity reduction and the plant growth situation.

  20. Human infective potential of Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis and Enterocytozoon bieneusi in urban wastewater treatment plant effluents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryptosporidiosis, giardiasis, and microsporidiosis are important waterborne diseases. In the standard for wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents in China and other countries, fecal coliform is the only microbial indicator, raising concerns about the potential for pathogen t...

  1. Effluent treatment for nuclear thermal propulsion ground testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipers, Larry R.

    1993-01-01

    The objectives are to define treatment functions, review concept options, discuss PIPET effluent treatment system (ETS), and outline future activities. The topics covered include the following: reactor exhaust; effluent treatment functions; effluent treatment categories; effluent treatment options; concept evaluation; PIPETS ETS envelope; PIPET effluent treatment concept; and future activities.

  2. Legal provisions governing liquid effluents radiological monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gans, I.; Ruehle, H.

    1985-01-01

    The KTA rule 1504 for radiological monitoring of liquid effluents from nuclear installations is explained. As there are no such rules published to date for establishments handling isotopes, some criteria are discussed which in the future ought to form part of a practical guide for liquid effluents monitoring in isotope handling installations. Monitoring measures described refer to liquid effluents from transfer containers, auxiliary cooling equipment, turbine buildings, main cooling installations, and waste air discharges from closed-circuit cooling systems. (DG) [de

  3. Radiation treatment of sewage effluent, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawai, Teruko; Sekiguchi, Masayuki; Sawai, Takeshi; Shimokawa, Toshinari; Tanabe, Hiroko

    1991-01-01

    The water demand of the past several years has increased rapidly. Recycling of municipal waste water is an effective mean of coping with the water shortage in Tokyo. We studied the radiation treatment method of further purification of the effluent from sewage treatment plants. By gamma irradiation the refractory organic substances in the effluent were decomposed and the COD values decreased with increasing dose. The high molecular weight components in the effluent were degraded to lower molecular weight substances and were decomposed finally to carbon dioxide. In this paper we studied on the fading color and the reducing of order of sewage effluent. (author)

  4. Electro persulphate oxidation for polishing of biologically treated palm oil mill effluent (POME).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Mohammed J K; Wei, Chong Jia; Aun, Ng Choon; Abu Amr, Salem S

    2017-05-15

    Malaysia alone produces more than 49 million m 3 palm oil mill effluent per year. Biological treated palm oil mill effluent via ponding system often fails to fulfill the regulatory discharge standards. This is due to remaining of non-biodegradable organics in the treated effluent. Thus, the aim of this study was to resolve such issue by using electro persulphate oxidation process, for the first time, as a post treatment of palm oil mill effluent. Central composite design in response surface methodology was used to analyze and optimize the interaction of operational variables (i.e., current density, contact time, initial pH and persulphate dosage) targeted on maximum treatment efficiency. The significance of quadratic model of each response was determined by analysis of variance, where all models indicated sufficient significance with p-value environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Limitation of releases of radioactive effluents for nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolksdorf, P.; Buehling, A.

    1981-01-01

    Empirical values relating to the effluents of nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany are now available. These values cover a period of several years of operation. The measured emissions of radioactive substances are often very much below the maximum permissible values, based on the dose limits for the environment stipulated in the legal regulations. Extensive technical and administrative measures contribute to the reduction of radioactive effluents. Furthermore, additional possibilities for improvement are mentioned which may lead to a further reduction of radioactive effluents. These are derived from investigations into the release of radioactive substances in nuclear power plants. The licensing procedure in the Federal Republic of Germany in fixing discharge limits is outlined. Proposals are made concerning licence values which may be determined for the radioactive effluents in modern standardized nuclear power plants with light-water reactors. The resulting radiation exposures are quoted for a typical nuclear power plant site. (author)

  6. Characterization and correlations of various pollution parameters in the tannery effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haydar, S.

    2008-01-01

    Wastewater characterization is an integral part of treatment and management strategies for industrial effluents. This paper outlines the results of detailed wastewater characterization studies conducted for a tannery in Sheikhupura, Punjab. The results of this study demonstrated that the composition of tannery wastewater could change continuously due to inherent nature of tannery operations. In general, tannery effluent was alkaline in nature and highly polluted in terms of organic, solids, sulfates, sulfides and chromium content. Basic ingredients of tannery effluent i.e. high alkalinity and substantial portions of BOD (Biochemical Oxygen Demand), COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) and other pollutants in particulate form rendered it suitable for enhanced pollutant removals at primary stage of treatment using suitable coagulants. Results of primary treatment of wastewater from this tannery suggested that primary treatment alone was not capable of reducing pollutant loads significantly. Hence post-primary biological treatment was required to meet local effluent quality standards. (author)

  7. Potential impact of thermal effluents from Chongqing Fuling nuclear power plant to the Three Gorges Reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Baohua; Li Jianguo; Ma Binghui; Zhang Yue; Sun Qunli; Hu Yuping

    2012-01-01

    This study is based on the hydrological data near Chongqing Fuling Nuclear Power Plant along the Yangtze River, the present situation of the ecological environment of the Three Gorges Reservoir and the predicted results of thermal effluents from Chongqing Fuling Nuclear Power Plant. The standards of cooling water and the thermal tolerances indexes of aquatic organisms were investigated. The effects of thermal effluents on aquatic organisms were analyzed. The potential impact of Chongqing Fuling nuclear power plant to the Three Gorges Reservoir was explained. The results show that in the most adverse working conditions, the surface temperature near the outfall area is not more than 1℃, the temperature of thermal effluents do not exceed the suitable thermal range of fish breeding, growth and other thermal tolerances indexes. Thermal effluents from nuclear power plant have no influence about fish, plankton and benthic organisms in the Three Gorges Reservoir. (authors)

  8. Management of effluents and radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Management of effluents and radioactive waste from nuclear power plants, from the viewpoint of radiological protection, basically consists of three main themes: 1) developing and implementing actions that minimize, or where possible, eliminate generation. These actions ranging from simple awareness of people involved with the work on project modifications; 2) maintain a system of accounting and control that allows to know the characteristics of effluents and wastes, charting indicators that reveal the performance and trends of plant, and supplying data proving the compliance of national regulatory body standards; 3) Storing the solid waste generated in a safe manner, ensuring that the physical integrity of the packaged is maintained and that there is no impact to the population and the environment

  9. 40 CFR 421.123 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of Film Stripping Solutions Wet Air Pollution Control. BAT Effluent Limitations Pollutant or... and Filtration of Photographic Solutions Wet Air Pollution Control. BAT Effluent Limitations Pollutant... and Precipitation of Nonphotographic Solutions Wet Air Pollution Control. BAT Effluent Limitations...

  10. 40 CFR 421.122 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and Filtration of Film Stripping Solutions Wet Air Pollution Control. BPT Effluent Limitations... Filtration of Photographic Solutions Wet Air Pollution Control. BPT Effluent Limitations Pollutant or... Precipitation of Nonphotographic Solutions Wet Air Pollution Control. BPT Effluent Limitations Pollutant or...

  11. EPA Enforcement and Compliance History Online: Water Effluent Charts Details

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Detailed Discharge Monitoring Report (DMR) data supporting effluent charts for one Clean Water Act discharge permit. Includes effluent parameters, amounts discharged...

  12. EPA Enforcement and Compliance History Online: Water Effluent Charts Downloads

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Detailed Discharge Monitoring Report (DMR) data supporting effluent charts for one Clean Water Act discharge permit. Includes effluent parameters, amounts discharged...

  13. POLLUTION EFFECT OF FOOD AND BEVERAGES EFFLUENTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    ABSTRACT. The main course of water pollution in the Alaro river is the direct discharge of food and beverages processing effluents. The impact of such effluents on the water quality was studied in detail by monitoring selected physicochemical parameters monthly between January 2003 and December 2007. The combined ...

  14. 324 and 327 Facilities Environmental Effluent Specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JOHNSON, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    These effluent specifications address requirements for the 324/321 Facilities, which are undergoing stabilization activities. Effluent specifications are imposed to protect personnel, the environment and the public, by ensuring adequate implementation and compliance with federal and state regulatory requirements and Hanford programs

  15. Animal alternatives for whole effluent toxicity testing ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since the 1940s, effluent toxicity testing has been utilized to varying degrees in many countries to assess potential ecological impacts and assist in determining necessary treatment options for environmental protection. However, it was only in the early 1980’s that toxicity based effluent assessments and subsequent discharge controls became globally important, when it was recognized that physical and chemical measurements alone did not protect the environment from potential impacts. Consequently, various strategies using different toxicity tests, whole effluent assessment techniques (incorporating bioaccumulation potential and persistence) plus supporting analytical tools have been developed over 30 years of practice. Numerous workshops and meetings have focused on effluent risk assessment through ASTM, SETAC, OSPAR, UK competent authorities, and EU specific country rules. Concurrent with this drive to improve effluent quality using toxicity tests, interest in reducing animal use has risen. The Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) organized and facilitated an international workshop in March 2016 to evaluate strategies for concepts, tools, and effluent assessments and update the toolbox of for effluent testing methods. The workshop objectives were to identify opportunities to use a suite of strategies for effluents, and to identify opportunities to reduce the reliance on animal tests and to determine barriers to implementation of new methodologie

  16. Bioremediation of petroleum refinery effluent by Planococcus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present investigation, Planococcus halophilus was screened for hydrocarbon degradation and bioremediation of refinery effluent. The test organism, P. halophilus, showed the capability to utilize kerosene as carbon source in minimal medium. Biological treatment of the refinery effluent with P. halophilus reduced the ...

  17. 40 CFR 415.342 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SOURCE CATEGORY Chrome Pigments Production Subcategory § 415.342 Effluent limitations guidelines... available (BPT): Subpart AH—Chrome Pigments Pollutant or pollutant property BPT effluent limitations Maximum...

  18. 40 CFR 415.647 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CATEGORY Cadmium Pigments and Salts Production Subcategory § 415.647 Effluent limitations guidelines... subject to this subpart and producing cadmium pigments must achieve the following effluent limitations...

  19. 40 CFR 415.643 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CATEGORY Cadmium Pigments and Salts Production Subcategory § 415.643 Effluent limitations guidelines... subject to this subpart and producing cadmium pigments must achieve the following effluent limitations...

  20. Impact of paper mill effluent on growth and development of certain agricultural crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medhi, U J; Talukdar, A K; Deka, S

    2011-03-01

    The physico-chemical characteristics of paper mill industry effluent were measured and some were found to be above the permissible limits prescribed by Indian irrigation water standard. A study was conducted in pots to investigate the effects of different concentrations (10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80 and 100%) of paper mill effluent on growth and production of rice, mustard and peafor three years. The study reveals that the paper mill effluent has deleterious effect on the growth of crop at higher concentrations. However, at lower concentration (viz. 10 to 40% in rice, 10 to 50% in mustard and 10 to 60% in pea) of effluent, beneficial impact on general welfare of the crops was noticed. Growth and development was increased with increasing the concentration of the effluent up to 30% in rice, 40% in mustard and 50% in pea. Investigation showed that the growth and production of rice, mustard and pea was found maximum at a concentration of 30, 40 and 50% effluent respectively.

  1. Prediction analysis of effluent removal in a septic sludge treatment plant: a biomimetics engineering approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Ting Sie; Malek, M A; Ismail, Amelia Ritahani

    2014-09-20

    Effluent discharge from septic tanks is affecting the environment in developing countries. The most challenging issue facing these countries is the cost of inadequate sanitation, which includes significant economic, social, and environmental burdens. Although most sanitation facilities are evaluated based on their immediate costs and benefits, their long-term performance should also be investigated. In this study, effluent quality-namely, the biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and total suspended solid (TSS)-was assessed using a biomimetics engineering approach. A novel immune network algorithm (INA) approach was applied to a septic sludge treatment plant (SSTP) for effluent-removal predictive modelling. The Matang SSTP in the city of Kuching, Sarawak, on the island of Borneo, was selected as a case study. Monthly effluent discharges from 2007 to 2011 were used for training, validating, and testing purposes using MATLAB 7.10. The results showed that the BOD effluent-discharge prediction was less than 50% of the specified standard after the 97(th) month of operation. The COD and TSS effluent removals were simulated at the 85(th) and the 121(st) months, respectively. The study proved that the proposed INA-based SSTP model could be used to achieve an effective SSTP assessment and management technique.

  2. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for the 3720 Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shields, K.D.; Ballinger, M.Y.

    1999-04-02

    This Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan (FEMP) has been prepared for the Environmental Science Laboratory (3720 Facility) at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to meet the requirements in DOE Order 5400.1, ''General Environmental Protection Programs'' This FEMP has been prepared for the 3720 Facility primarily because it has a major (potential to emit >0.1 mrem/yr) emission point for radionuclide air emissions according to the annual National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) assessment performed. This section summarizes the airborne and liquid effluents and the inventory based NESHAP assessment for the facility. The complete monitoring plan includes characterization of effluent streams, monitoring/sampling design criteria, a description of the monitoring systems and sample analysis, and quality assurance requirements. The 3720 Facility provides office and laboratory space for PNNL scientific and engineering staff conducting multidisciplinary research in the areas of materials characterization and testing and waste management. The facility is designed to accommodate the use of radioactive and hazardous materials to conduct these activities. Radioactive material storage and usage occur throughout the facility and include a large number of isotopes. This material is in several forms, including solid, liquid, and dispersible particulate. The facility is in the process of being vacated for shutdown, but is considered a Major Emission Point as of the date of this document approval.

  3. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for the 325 Radiochemical Processing Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shields, K.D.; Ballinger, M.Y.

    1999-04-02

    This Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan (FEMP) has been prepared for the 325 Building Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL) at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to meet the requirements in DOE Order 5400.1, ''General Environmental Protection Programs.'' This FEMP has been prepared for the RPL primarily because it has a ''major'' (potential to emit >0.1 mrem/yr) emission point for radionuclide air emissions according to the annual National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) assessment performed. This section summarizes the airborne and liquid effluents and the inventory based NESHAP assessment for the facility. The complete monitoring plan includes characterization of effluent streams, monitoring/sampling design criteria, a description of the monitoring systems and sample analysis, and quality assurance requirements. The RPL at PNNL houses radiochemistry research, radioanalytical service, radiochemical process development, and hazardous and radioactive mixed waste treatment activities. The laboratories and specialized facilities enable work ranging from that with nonradioactive materials to work with picogram to kilogram quantities of fissionable materials and up to megacurie quantities of other radionuclides. The special facilities within the building include two shielded hot-cell areas that provide for process development or analytical chemistry work with highly radioactive materials and a waste treatment facility for processing hazardous, mixed radioactive, low-level radioactive, and transuranic wastes generated by PNNL activities.

  4. Toxicity Evaluation of Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluents Using Daphnia magna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Movahedian, B Bina, GH Asghari

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Toxicity evaluation is an important parameter in wastewater quality monitoring as it provides the complete response of test organisms to all compounds in wastewater. The water flea Daphnia magna straus is the most commonly used zooplankton in toxicological tests. The objective of this study was to evaluate the acute toxicity of effluents from different units of Isfahan Wastewater Treatment Plant (IWTP. The samples were taken from four different physical and biological units. The acute toxicity tests were determined using Daphnia magna. The immobility of Daphnia was determined after 48h. Toxicity results showed that 48h-LC50 and ATU values for raw wastewater were 30% (v/v and 3.33, respectively. It was also found that LC50 values after 48 h for preliminary, primary, and secondary effluents were 32%, 52% and 85% (v/v, respectively. The ATU values for these effluents were 3.1, 1.9, and 1.8, correspondingly. The efficiency levels of preliminary, primary, and secondary units for removal of toxicity were found as 6%, 38.9% and 8%, in that order. Overall, the present investigation indicated that toxicity removal by up to 50% might be achieved in IWPT. Based on the obtained results and regarding the improvement of water quality standards, coupled with public expectations in Iran, it is necessary to consider more stringent water quality policies for regular monitoring and toxicity assessment.

  5. Treatment of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) Using Membrane Bioreactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Aziz Mohd Azoddein; Hazlan Haris; Faten Ahada Mohd Azli

    2015-01-01

    Malaysia is the largest producer and exporter of palm oil. Palm oil mill effluent (POME) which is highly polluting effluent is becoming a major problem to environment as if it not being treated well before discharged based on standard limit imposed by The Malaysian Department of Environment (DOE) for effluent discharged. Samples from mixing ponds which act as activated sludge are collected and being analyze using water analyzer method to obtain parameters such as BOD, COD, suspended solid, turbidity and pH. Wastewater samples from facultative ponds are also being analyzed than mix with activated sludge treated in the bioreactor. Results from lab-scale bioreactor are used in membrane bioreactor pilot plant system to treat the wastewater. Results from bioreactor treatment in pilot plant scale show a decrement 61.2 % of BOD and 58.9 % of COD, suspended solid and turbidity are also reducing up with pH in range of 5-9. After the wastewater was treated in the ultrafiltration membrane system, high quality water with total of deterioration for all parameter are up to 99.9 % and pH up to 7.39. This results show that the membrane bioreactor (MBR) treatment system are highly effective in treating POME. (author)

  6. Suspended solids in liquid effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrath, J.J.

    1988-06-01

    An international literature review and telephone mail survey was conducted with respect to technical and regulatory aspects of suspended solids in radioactive liquid wastes from nuclear power stations. Results of the survey are summarized and show that suspended solids are an important component of some waste streams. The data available, while limited, show these solids to be associated largely with corrosion products. The solids are highly variable in quantity, size and composition. Filtration is commonly applied for their removal from liquid effluents and is effective. Complex interactions with receiving waters can result in physical/chemical changes of released radionuclides and these phenomena have been seen as reason for not applying regulatory controls based on suspended solids content. 340 refs

  7. Effluent monitoring for nuclear safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanchi, L.

    1976-01-01

    A microprocessor-based instrument operates a continuous surveillance on effluents from a nuclear facility. It receives and evaluates pulses from two NaI detectors and a set of single-channel analyzers. It has self-diagnosing capability so that it takes actions not only when it recognizes excessive radioactivity but also when it ascertains some abnormal behavior. Power failure procedure and automatic restart are provided. Operative constants such as alarm thresholds, times, and number of successive measurements are permanently stored in a read/write battery operated C-MOS memory. The program allows automatic succession of phases in a peculiar way and has a feature for loading an auxiliary program into RAMs

  8. Liquid effluent processing group. Activity details 1963

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1964-08-01

    This report first gives a quantitative overview of volumes of effluents of high activity, medium activity and low activity which passed through the department for effluent processing. It also makes the distinction between the shape or type of container of these effluents. A table indicates their origin and another indicates their destination. The β and α decontamination rates are determined, and the assessment of stored aqueous and organic effluents on the 31 December 1963 is given. The next part proposes an assessment of laboratory activities: control operations (input controls, control of processed effluent before discarding), controls related to processing (processing types, radiochemical and chemical dosing performed on effluent mixes before processing). Tables indicate the characteristics of medium activity effluents collected in 1963, the results of high activity liquid analysis, and Beryllium dosing results. A summary of ALEA processing, a table of the characteristics of stored oils and solvents are given. The third part reports data related to transport activities, and various works performed in the Saclay plant to improve exploitation conditions and results

  9. 40 CFR 439.36 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHARMACEUTICAL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chemical Synthesis... § 439.1(i)) are not required to achieve the standards for ammonia (as N). (b) The standards for cyanide...

  10. Assessing contaminant sensitivity of endangered and threatened aquatic species: Part III. Effluent toxicity tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, F.J.; Hardesty, D.K.; Henke, C.E.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Whites, D.W.; Augspurger, T.; Canfield, T.J.; Mount, D.R.; Mayer, F.L.

    2005-01-01

    Toxicity tests using standard effluent test procedures described by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency were conducted with Ceriodaphnia dubia, fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), and seven threatened and endangered (listed) fish species from four families: (1) Acipenseridae: shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum); (2) Catostomidae; razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus); (3) Cyprinidae: bonytail chub (Gila elegans), Cape Fear shiner (Notropis mekistocholas) Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius), and spotfin chub (Cyprinella monacha); and (4) Poecillidae: Gila topminnow (Poeciliopsis occidentalis). We conducted 7-day survival and growth studies with embryo-larval fathead minnows and analogous exposures using the listed species. Survival and reproduction were also determined with C. dubia. Tests were conducted with carbaryl, ammonia-or a simulated effluent complex mixture of carbaryl, copper, 4-nonylphenol, pentachlorophenol and permethrin at equitoxic proportions. In addition, Cape Fear shiners and spotfin chub were tested using diazinon, copper, and chlorine. Toxicity tests were also conducted with field-collected effluents from domestic or industrial facilities. Bonytail chub and razorback suckers were tested with effluents collected in Arizona whereas effluent samples collected from North Carolina were tested with Cape Fear shiner, spotfin chub, and shortnose sturgeon. The fathead minnow 7-day effluent test was often a reliable estimator of toxic effects to the listed fishes. However, in 21 % of the tests, a listed species was more sensitive than fathead minnows. More sensitive species results varied by test so that usually no species was always more or less sensitive than fathead minnows. Only the Gila topminnow was consistently less sensitive than the fathead minnow. Listed fish species were protected 96% of the time when results for both fathead minnows and C. dubia were considered, thus reinforcing the value of standard whole-effluent

  11. Supercritical water oxidation test bed effluent treatment study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, C.M.

    1994-04-01

    This report presents effluent treatment options for a 50 h Supercritical Water Test Unit. Effluent compositions are calculated for eight simulated waste streams, using different assumed cases. Variations in effluent composition with different reactor designs and operating schemes are discussed. Requirements for final effluent compositions are briefly reviewed. A comparison is made of two general schemes. The first is one in which the effluent is cooled and effluent treatment is primarily done in the liquid phase. In the second scheme, most treatment is performed with the effluent in the gas phase. Several unit operations are also discussed, including neutralization, mercury removal, and evaporation

  12. Benthos of Cochin backwaters receiving industrial effluents

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Devi, K.S.; Venugopal, P.

    Faunal composition of benthos and its spatial and temporal distribution at 9 stations in the northern limb of the Cochin backwaters are studied. An industrial belt is located about 18 km upstream of barmouth, and the effluents are discharged...

  13. 40 CFR 430.62 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for 30 consecutive days BOD5 8.0 4.0 TSS 10.0 5.0 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0 at all... any 1 day Average of daily values for 30 consecutive days BOD5 8.7 4.35 TSS 11.0 5.5 pH (1) (1) 1... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Semi...

  14. Effluent Treatment Facility tritium emissions monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    An Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) approved sampling and analysis protocol was developed and executed to verify atmospheric emissions compliance for the new Savannah River Site (SRS) F/H area Effluent Treatment Facility. Sampling equipment was fabricated, installed, and tested at stack monitoring points for filtrable particulate radionuclides, radioactive iodine, and tritium. The only detectable anthropogenic radionuclides released from Effluent Treatment Facility stacks during monitoring were iodine-129 and tritium oxide. This paper only examines the collection and analysis of tritium oxide

  15. Fuel prices, emission standards, and generation costs for coal vs natural gas power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratson, Lincoln F; Haerer, Drew; Patiño-Echeverri, Dalia

    2013-05-07

    Low natural gas prices and stricter, federal emission regulations are promoting a shift away from coal power plants and toward natural gas plants as the lowest-cost means of generating electricity in the United States. By estimating the cost of electricity generation (COE) for 304 coal and 358 natural gas plants, we show that the economic viability of 9% of current coal capacity is challenged by low natural gas prices, while another 56% would be challenged by the stricter emission regulations. Under the current regulations, coal plants would again become the dominant least-cost generation option should the ratio of average natural gas to coal prices (NG2CP) rise to 1.8 (it was 1.42 in February 2012). If the more stringent emission standards are enforced, however, natural gas plants would remain cost competitive with a majority of coal plants for NG2CPs up to 4.3.

  16. Stabilization and Solidification of Nitric Acid Effluent Waste at Y-12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Dileep [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Lorenzo-Martin, Cinta [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-12-16

    Consolidated Nuclear Security, LLC (CNS) at the Y-12 plant is investigating approaches for the treatment (stabilization and solidification) of a nitric acid waste effluent that contains uranium. Because the pH of the waste stream is 1-2, it is a difficult waste stream to treat and stabilize by a standard cement-based process. Alternative waste forms are being considered. In this regard, Ceramicrete technology, developed at Argonne National Laboratory, is being explored as an option to solidify and stabilize the nitric acid effluent wastes.

  17. Impacts of Catfish Effluents on Water Quality Parameters of Majidun Stream, South-West, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. E. Omofunmi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available There has been a great concern about the level of safety of surface waters, especially in developing countries where there is an exponential increase in water pollution and water-borne diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of catfish pond effluents on water quality of stream water where five catfish farms were located. Water samples were taken on monthly basis, 20 cm of below water surface from the streams that receive effluents from neighboring fishponds. Water quality indicators like dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5, nitrate, nitrite, water temperature, ammonia and Hydrogen ion Concentration (pH were examined in the sampled waters in accordance with the American Public Health Association standards. The average values of water quality indicators examined at effluents and non-effluents discharged sites of the stream indicated that water (24.6 ± 0.2, 24.2 ±0.1, (7.29±0.30, 7.30±0.10, (6.90±0.4, 7.07±0.1 mg/l, (0.40±0.04, 0.27±0.01, (3.77±0.26, 2.34±0.16 mg/l, (3.59±0.11, 2.80±0.02 mg/l and (3.51±0.24, 2.46±0.21 mg/l at (p≥0.05 respectively for temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, total ammonia, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and BODs. They were significant differences (P 0.05 excepts temperature and pH, between values obtained at effluents discharged and non-effluents discharged sites, indicating that improper discharges of catfish pond effluents could resulted into environmental contamination

  18. Control verification radioactive effluent discharges to the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, D.E.; Czerniczyniec, M.A.; Amado, V.A.; Curti, A.R.; Lee Gonzáles, H.M.

    2015-01-01

    The National Law of Nuclear Activity No. 24,804 establishes that the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) will be responsible for the function of regulation and control of nuclear activity, grant, suspend and revoke licenses, permits or authorizations and to issue regulatory standards on radiation and nuclear safety. According to the latter the ARN has issued a set of rules that make up the regulatory framework for nuclear activity. This includes the standards that determine the radiological criteria for controlling the release of radioactive effluents which were established to protect members of the public. In the process of licensing a facility, the ARN determines the authorized discharge of gaseous and liquid effluents which must comply with the installation values. These annual values are understood as an operating restriction (OR) and arise from the activity of each relevant radionuclide present in the discharge. For this is taken as a reference the level of optimized discharge considering an appropriate margin of flexibility to ensure public protection without interfering with the operation of the installation. This paper presents the results of the review of the above criteria and methodology for calculating the RO adopted by the RNA present. [es

  19. Algal-based immobilization process to treat the effluent from a secondary wastewater treatment plant (WWTP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Shengbing; Xue Gang

    2010-01-01

    Algal-based immobilization process was applied to treat the effluent from a secondary wastewater treatment plant. Batch test proved that algae could attach onto fiber-bundle carrier in 7 days, and then the algal-based immobilization reactor could reduce TN (total nitrogen) and TP (total phosphorus) significantly within 48 h. Based on the above investigations, the hydraulic retention time (HRT) of the algal-based immobilization reactor in continuous operation mode was determined to be 2 days. During the 91 days of experiment on the treating secondary effluent of Guang-Rao wastewater treatment plant, it was found that the fiber-bundle carrier could collect the heterobacteria and nitrifying bacteria gradually, and thus improved the COD removal efficiency and nitrification performance step by step. Results of the continuous operation indicated that the final effluent could meet the Chinese National First A-level Sewage Discharge Standard when the algal-based immobilization reactor reached steady state.

  20. An Assessment of Physicochemical Parameters of Selected Industrial Effluents in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhinay Man Shrestha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is a well-known fact that the effluents released from the industries and environmental degradation go hand in hand. With the ongoing global industrialization this problem has been further aggravated. As such, Nepal is no exception. Hundreds of industries are being registered in the country annually which inevitably brings the issues regarding environmental pollution. This study has been conducted with samples of wastewater from 5 different industrial sites in 4 districts of Nepal, namely, Makwanpur, Sunsari, Morang, and Kathmandu, among which two were Waste Water Treatment Plants which treated the combined effluents collected from various sources. The other three sites were from wires and cables industry, paint manufacturing industry, and plastic cutting industry. The physicochemical parameters analysed were pH, temperature, conductivity, turbidity, and Cu, Cr, SO42-, and PO43- levels. Possible onsite measurements were recorded using portable, handheld devices whereas other parameters were assessed in the laboratory. The observed parameter levels in the collected samples were compared against the available Nepal national standards for industrial effluents and in the absence of standards for industrial effluents, with other relevant standard levels. Most of the parameters analysed were within the permissible limits with the exception of pH and Cr levels in some sites.

  1. Bromide as chemical tracer to measure the liquid effluent flow at IPEN-CNEN/SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Douglas B.; Faustino, Mainara G.; Monteiro, Lucilena R.; Cotrim, Marycel E.B.; Pires, Maria Aparecida F.

    2013-01-01

    Due to recent changes in CONAMA Resolution 357, which occurred through the publication of Resolution 430, on May 13, 2011 that now set standards about the effluent release, IPEN-CNEN/SP initiated several actions to improve the Environmental Monitoring Program (PMA-Q) of stable chemical compounds. Besides various parameters (physical and chemical) established by CONAMA, the submission of an annual pollution inventory report became necessary. The liquid effluent flow measurement is required to implement this inventory. Thereby, this paper describes a study that uses bromide as a chemical tracer. This paper presents the results of 6 tracer releases in IPEN wastewater collection network between 2011 and 2012. Two tracer releases designs were performed: single pulse and continuous releases performed with 1 to 6 hours duration, done by using one single piston pump manufactured by DIONEX. After the release, one fraction of the effluent was collected every 15 minutes at IPEN effluent monitoring station. The tracer concentration in the effluent was analyzed by ion chromatography and flow was calculated considering the dilution in the system and pump flow set up for the release. The flow values were measured in 6 events were determined and evaluated as per Brazilian regulation requirements. Experimental designs to be implemented during 2013 monitoring were also discussed in this paper, contributing to legal compliance and to improve IPEN's Environmental Monitoring Program for stable chemical compounds (PMA-Q). (author)

  2. Waste Load Allocation for Whole Effluent Toxicity to Protect Aquatic Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutcheson, M. R.

    1992-11-01

    A process is developed to determine a waste load allocation that will implement the narrative criteria for fish and wildlife propagation found in states' water quality standards. The waste load allocation to implement the narrative chronic criterion is determined to be percent effluent at a location in the receiving stream, as opposed to an effluent concentration derived from the numerical waste load allocation process. A typical narrative chronic criterion is "receiving streams shall not exhibit chronic toxicity outside the mixing zone," while a typical numerical chronic criterion is "receiving stream concentration shall not exceed 0.005 μg/L of chlordane outside the mixing zone." Toxicity tests are used to implement narrative criteria, while compliance with numerical criteria involves concentration measurements. It is shown that the appropriate percent effluent is inversely proportional to the dilution factor for chronic toxicity. An appropriate waste load allocation to implement the narrative acute criterion is 100% effluent. Waste load allocation for whole effluent toxicity is feasible. The required independent variables are available to regulatory agencies, and toxicity testing has become routine.

  3. Cytogenotoxicity of Abattoir Effluent in Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822 Using Micronucleus Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chibuisi G. Alimba

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The cytogenotoxic potential of abattoir effluent from Bodija, Nigeria, was investigated using micronucleus test in Clarias gariepinus. Fish was exposed to five different concentrations: 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, 1.6, and 3.1% of the effluent for 7, 14, and 28 days. Tap water and 0.02 mL/L of benzene were used as negative and positive controls, respectively. Physicochemical parameters and heavy metals were analyzed in the effluent in accordance with standard methods. After exposure, blood was collected from the treated and control fish and slides were prepared for micronuclei (MN and nuclear abnormality evaluation in the peripheral erythrocytes. The effluent induced significant (p<0.05 increase in the frequency of MN in a time dependent manner. Similarly, the frequency of total nuclear abnormalities (blebbing, notch, bud, binucleation, and vacuolation was higher in the exposed fish than the negative control. Electrical conductivity, nitrate, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, arsenic, and copper analyzed in the effluent may have provoked the observed cytogenetic damage. The findings herein suggest the presence of clastogens and cytotoxins in Bodija abattoir wastewater which are capable of increasing genomic instability in aquatic biota.

  4. 40 CFR 440.24 - New Source performance standards (NSPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Ore Subcategory § 440.24 New... pollutants discharged in mine drainage from mines producting bauxite ores shall not exceed: Effluent...

  5. Study of federal microwave standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, L.

    1980-08-01

    Present and future federal regulatory processes which may impact the permissible levels of microwave radiation emitted by the SPS Microwave Power Transmission (MPTS) were studied. An historical development of US occupational and public microwave standards includes an overview of Western and East European philosophies of environmental protection and neurophysiology which have led to the current widely differing maximum permissible exposure limits to microwaves. The possible convergence of microwave standards is characterized by a lowering of Western exposure levels while Eastern countries consider standard relaxation. A trend toward stricter controls on activities perceived as harmful to public health is under way as is interest in improving the federal regulatory process. Particularly relevant to SPS is the initiation of long-term, low-level microwave exposure programs. Coupled with new developments in instrumentation and dosimetry, the results from chronic exposure program and population exposure studies could be expected within the next five to ten years. Also discussed is the increasing public concern that rf energy is yet another hazardous environmental agent.

  6. The Process of Coagulation, Flocculation and Advanced Oxidation in Effluent Treatment of Second Refinery Oil Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR Yari

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives: One of the industries dependent on oil compounds that play an important role in economy, preserve resources and oil reserves, as well as environmental protection is the secondary refinery Oil industries. The efficiency of Coagulation, flocculation and advanced oxidation process in the Effluent treatment industry was studied.

     

    Methods: This study is a descriptive- quasi-experimental that effluent pollution quality measured with COD. Physicochemical processes of coagulation, flocculation, by using conventional coagulants and oxidation with ozone for the removal to access environmental discharge effluent standards were studied. Coagulants such as aluminum sulfate, ferric chloride, sodium silicate, poly aluminum chloride were evaluated. Jartest was used to determine the efficiency of coagulation and flocculation. Samples were collected from Salafchegan industrial district in Qom. Examination methods were extracted from Standard methods for water and wastewater examination.

     

    Results: Initial experiments showed that BOD, indicating biological treatment wastewater, in comparison with COD, indicating chemical oxygen demand of wastewater is very low. Thus, the application of biological processes of effluent treatment without using chemical processes, not performance and not economic. The experiment showed that the amount of COD in raw effluent was varied from 38000 to 78000mg/l.

    Using advanced oxidation with O3 in pH=11.5 can reach 77.5% and in pH=9 in 57.2 and in pH=3.25 in 21.3 COD removal efficiency respectively.

     

    Conclusion: According to the results, advanced oxidation process prior to biological effluent treatment of the second refinery oil industries is effective in eliminating pollutants and toxic substances.

     

  7. 200 Area Liquid Effluent Facilities -- Quality assurance program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, L.

    1995-01-01

    This Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) describes the quality assurance and management controls used by the 200 Area Liquid Effluent Facilities (LEF) to perform its activities in accordance with DOE Order 5700.6C. The 200 Area LEF consists of the following facilities: Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF); Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF); Liquid Effluent Retention facility (LERF); and Truck Loading Facility -- (Project W291). The intent is to ensure that all activities such as collection of effluents, treatment, concentration of secondary wastes, verification, sampling and disposal of treated effluents and solids related with the LEF operations, conform to established requirements

  8. Determination of Kr-85 in environmental samples and gaseous effluents from nuclear industries using the standard method; Aplicacion del metodo de concentracion separacion y medida radiactiva por centelleo liquido de Kr-85 en muestras ambientales y en efluentes gaseosos de la industria nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heras, M. c.; Perez, M. M.

    1983-07-01

    The determination of the Kr-85 activity in environmental samples and gaseous effluents from Spanish Nuclear Power Stations is described. The method employed has been published elsewhere. The determinations has been carried out in environmental samples token at JEN Laboratories (Madrid) and the Nuclear Power Stations, Jose Cabrera (Zorita), Garona and Vandellos. Also samples of gaseous effluents of the three plants has been analyzed. Values of the Kr-85 environmental background activity in the Almaraz Nuclear Power Stations, has been determined, before the beginning of its nuclear activity. In this paper the sampling equipment used is described and the values found of Kr-85 activity in all the samples in given. (Author) 29 refs.

  9. 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility: Delisting petition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    Waste water has been generated for over 40 years as a result of operations conducted on the Hanford Site. This waste water previously was discharged to cribs, ponds, or ditches. An example of such waste water includes process condensate that might have been in contact with dangerous waste or mixed waste (containing both radioactive and dangerous components). This petition presents the treatment technologies that are designed into the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility to eliminate the dangerous characteristics of the waste and to delist the effluent in accordance with the requirements found in 40 Code of Federal Regulations 260.20 and 260.22. The purpose of this petition is to demonstrate that the 242-A Evaporator process condensate will be treated adequately so that the effluent from the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility will no longer require management as a regulated dangerous waste. This demonstration was performed by use of a surrogate (synthetic) waste, designed by the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office to include species that represent all organic and inorganic constituents (but not radionuclide species) expected to be found on the Hanford Site. Thus, the surrogate will encompass not only the expected 242-A Evaporator process condensate characteristics, but those of other potential 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility waste streams and additional 40 CFR Appendix VIII constituents

  10. XOQDOQ, Meteorological Evaluation of Atmospheric Nuclear Power Plant Effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagendorf, J.F.; Goll, J.T.; Sandusky, W.F.; Eyberger, L.R.

    1990-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: XOQDOQ was designed for meteorological evaluation of continuous and anticipated intermittent releases from commercial nuclear power reactors. It calculates annual relative effluent concentrations and average relative deposition values at locations specified by the user and at various standard radial distances and segments for downwind sectors. It also calculates these values at the specified locations for anticipated intermittent (e.g. containment or purge) releases, which occur during routine operation. The program computes an effective plume height that accounts for physical release height, aerodynamic down-wash, plume rise, and terrain features. The user may optionally select additional plume dispersion due to building wakes, plume depletion via dry deposition, and plume radioactive decay, or specify adjustments to represent non-straight line trajectories (recirculation or stagnation). 2 - Method of solution: XOQDOQ is based on the principle that diffusion of material released to the atmosphere can be described by a Gaussian distribution within the plume with transport described by a straight-line trajectory. The horizontal and vertical dispersion coefficients are empirically determined, largely from observations at or near ground level. The program implements the assumptions outlined in Section C of NRC Regulatory Guide 1.111. Long-term average values of relative effluent concentration are calculated by assuming a long-term continuous release with effluent distributed evenly across a 22-1/2 degree sector. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem - Maxima of: 30 receptor locations/receptor type, 14 wind-speed classes, 10 distances of site-specific recirculation correction factors, 8 receptor types, 7 atmospheric stability categories, 5 separate release points. XOQDOQ cannot handle multiple emission sources or plume depletion via wet deposition, or evaluate the meteorological aspects of the consequences of

  11. Recycling liquid effluents in a ceramic industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo Almeida, B.; Almeida, M.; Martins, S.; Alexandra Macarico, V.; Tomas da Fonseca, A.

    2016-08-01

    In this work is presented a study on the recycling of liquid effluents in a ceramic installation for sanitary industry. The effluents were characterized by X-ray diffraction and inductively coupled plasma to evaluate their compositions. It was also assessed the daily production rate. Several glaze-slurry mixtures were prepared and characterized according to procedures and equipment of the company's quality laboratory. The results show that for most of the properties, the tested mixtures exhibited acceptable performance. However, the pyro plasticity parameter is highly influenced by the glaze content and imposes the separation of glaze and slurry liquid effluents. In addition, it is necessary to invest on a storage plant, including tanks with constant stirring and a new pipeline structure to implement the reincorporation method on the slurry processing. (Author)

  12. 40 CFR 415.346 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chrome Pigments Production Subcategory § 415.346 Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS). Except as provided in 40 CFR...

  13. 40 CFR 469.43 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Luminescent Materials Subcategory § 469.43 Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS). Except as provided in 40 CFR...

  14. Site selection for effluent discharge along the coast using GIS

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suryanarayana, A.; Hiteshkumar, V.; Om, P.D.

    Geographical Information System (GIS) is used to select a site for industrial effluent discharge along the coastal region. The system is developed to deal with the behavior of the discharged effluent in the coastal waters and it affects on coastal...

  15. Bacterial removal of toxic phenols from an industrial effluent

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-04

    Jul 4, 2008 ... the ability of utilizing various chlorophenolic compounds and demonstrates its potentials of degrading high concentration of phenol in industrial effluents. Key words: Bioremediation, Pseudomonas fluorescens, industrial effluent, chlorophenols. INTRODUCTION. Chlorinated phenols are important chemicals ...

  16. Effluent release limits, sources and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swindell, G.E.

    1977-01-01

    Objectives of radiation protection in relation to releases. Environmental transfer models for radionuclides. Relationship between releases, environmental levels and doses to persons. Establishment of release limits: Limits based on critical population group concept critical pathway analysis and identification of critical group. Limits based on optimization of radiation protection individual dose limits, collective doses and dose commitments 1) differential cost benefit analysis 2) authorized and operational limits taking account of future exposures. Monitoring of releases to the environment: Objectives of effluent monitoring. Typical sources and composition of effluents; design and operation of monitoring programmes; recording and reporting of monitoring results; complementary environmental monitoring. (orig.) [de

  17. Legal provisions governing gaseous effluents radiological monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkelmann, I.

    1985-01-01

    This contribution explains the main provisions governing radiological monitoring of gaseous effluents from LWR type nuclear power plants. KTA rule 1503.1 defines the measuring methods and tasks to be fulfilled by reactor operators in order to safeguard due monitoring and accounting of radioactive substances in the plants' gaseous effluents. The routine measurements are checked by a supervisory programme by an independent expert. The routine controls include analysis of filter samples, comparative measurement of radioactive noble gases, interlaboratory comparisons, and comparative evaluation of measured values. (DG) [de

  18. Waste analysis plan for the 200 area effluent treatment facility and liquid effluent retention facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballantyne, N.A.

    1995-01-01

    This waste analysis plan (WAP) has been prepared for startup of the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) and operation of the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF), which are located on the Hanford Facility, Richland, Washington. This WAP documents the methods used to obtain and analyze representative samples of dangerous waste managed in these units, and of the nondangerous treated effluent that is discharged to the State-Approved Land Disposal System (SALDS). Groundwater Monitoring at the SALDS will be addressed in a separate plan

  19. Spirulina sp. LEB-18 culture using effluent from the anaerobic digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Borges

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The carbon source is the most expensive nutrient for Spirulina production; effluents from anaerobic digestion contain this nutrient in the form of HCO3-. The aim of this study was to assess the growth kinetics, composition and fatty acid profile of Spirulina sp. LEB-18 grown in standard Zarrouk medium (NaHCO3 16.8 g L-1 and in Zarrouk medium replaced with 20% (v/v effluent with reduced concentrations of NaHCO3 (5.3 and 2.8 g L-1. The use of effluent and lower concentrations of HCO3 was found to be an alternative to reduce the costs of Spirulina production, because there were no significant differences in growth parameters (µmax 0.324 - 0.354 d-1; Pmax 0.280 - 0.297 g L-1 d-1, in the different culture medium used. Lipids ranged between 4.9 and 5.0%; the media with effluent had higher levels of linoleic acid compared to the standard medium.

  20. Bioremediation of the textile waste effluent by Chlorella vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    El-Kassas, Hala Yassin; Mohamed, Laila Abdelfattah

    2014-01-01

    The microalgae biomass production from textile waste effluent is a possible solution for the environmental impact generated by the effluent discharge into water sources. The potential application of Chlorella vulgaris for bioremediation of textile waste effluent (WE) was investigated using 22 Central Composite Design (CCD). This work addresses the adaptation of the microalgae C. vulgaris in textile waste effluent (WE) and the study of the best dilution of the WE for maximum biomass production...

  1. 40 CFR 461.31 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Fill, or Fill and Dump. BPT Effluent Limitations Pollutant or pollutant property Maximum for any 1 day...) Subpart C—Truck Wash. BPT Effluent Limitations Pollutant or pollutant property Maximum for any 1 day...

  2. 40 CFR 469.14 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Semiconductor Subcategory § 469.14 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable... of the best practicable control technology currently available (BPT): Subpart A—Semiconductor BPT...

  3. 40 CFR 406.32 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... technology currently available. 406.32 Section 406.32 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Milling Subcategory § 406.32 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  4. 40 CFR 406.42 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... technology currently available. 406.42 Section 406.42 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Milling Subcategory § 406.42 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  5. 40 CFR 406.52 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... technology currently available. 406.52 Section 406.52 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Milling Subcategory § 406.52 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  6. 40 CFR 406.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... technology currently available. 406.12 Section 406.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Subcategory § 406.12 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

  7. 40 CFR 406.33 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... economically achievable. 406.33 Section 406.33 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Subcategory § 406.33 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

  8. 40 CFR 406.22 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... technology currently available. 406.22 Section 406.22 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Subcategory § 406.22 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

  9. 40 CFR 406.53 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... economically achievable. 406.53 Section 406.53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Subcategory § 406.53 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

  10. 40 CFR 427.97 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... control technology. 427.97 Section 427.97 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Subcategory § 427.97 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

  11. The disposal of industrial effluents on pastures | RE | African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An agricultural project for the disposal of industrial liquid effluent has been initiated by African Explosives and Chemical Industries Limited at their Modderfontein factory. This effluent, which has a high nitrogen content, is sprayed on veld and sown pastures. In spite of two very dry years the effluent has stimulated the growth ...

  12. Metal concentration of liquid effluents and surroundings of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Major and trace metals (Mg, Na, K, Ca, Fe, Zn, Cu, Sn, Al, Pb, As, Cr, Cd, Mn and Ti) in liquid effluents, soil sediments and plant parts (roots and leaves) from Tisco Nigeria Limited, Akure, were determined in both open effluent channel and closed direct tank. The plant in the open effluent channel was Pennisetum purpureum ...

  13. Impact of effluent from Bodija abattoir on the physicochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The problem of getting quality drinking water is increasing as untreated effluents are discharged into surface water bodies. The impact of effluent from Bodija abattoir, the biggest abattoir in Ibadan, western. Nigeria on the physico-chemical parameters of Oshunkaye stream was investigated. The qualities of effluent and ...

  14. Correlating biochemical and chemical oxygen demand of effluents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study aims at establishing an empirical correlation between biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) of effluents from selected industries in the Kumasi Metropolis to facilitate speedy effluent quality assessment or optimal process control. Hourly effluent samples were collected for an ...

  15. Correlating Biochemical and Chemical Oxygen Demand of Effluents

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    F. K. Attiogbe1, Mary Glover-Amengor2 and K. T. Nyadziehe3

    Abstract. The study aims at establishing an empirical correlation between biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) of effluents from selected industries in the Kumasi Metropolis to facilitate speedy effluent quality assessment or optimal process control. Hourly effluent samples were collected ...

  16. Plant and soil modifications by continuous surface effluent application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tedesco, M.J.; Levien, R. [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. of Solos; Mohrdieck, F.G.; Rodrigues, N.R. [CORSAN-SITEL, Triunfo, RS (Brazil). Polo Petroquimico do Sul. Dept. de Operacao e Manutencao; Flores, A.I.P.

    1993-12-31

    In order to study the effects on soil and plants of the liquid effluent generated by a the Integrated Liquid Effluent Treatment System of a large Brazilian petrochemical complex, a field study was conducted in four areas which received the effluent and compared to control sites. This work presents some results of this study. 12 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  17. Effluent Discharge and Stream Pollution by a Rubber Factory: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kofimereku

    State (including the rubber factory of Pamol (Nigeria) Limited discharge their effluents into rivers, streams, ... Nigeria hinterland aquatic systems including the Field 20 Stream where rubber effluents are discharge into .... substantial heat pollution (the temperature of the effluent is sometimes as high as 500C ) have made the ...

  18. Reutilização de efluente de tingimentos de fibras acrílicas pós-tratamento fotoeletroquímico Reuse of a effluent from the dyeing of acrylic fabrics after photoelectrochemical treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Lucas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available On a laboratory scale effluents were produced from bichromic dyeing of acrylic fabrics with the basic dyes Blue Astrazon FGGL 300% and Yellow Gold Astrazon GL 200%. The residual dyeing baths were subjected to a photoelectrochemical treatment and reused in a second dyeing process. In the reutilization study, dyeings with treated effluent were compared with standard dyeings with distilled water. The results of dyeings using 100% of treated effluent were unsatisfactory, but the substitution of 10 to 30% of the treated effluent by distilled water resulted in reduced and more acceptable values for difference in colour intensity (ΔE between 1.86 and 0.3.

  19. Effluents and Solid Waste Analysis in a Petrochemical Company- A Case Study of Eleme Petrochemical Company Ltd, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. U. Israel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Effluents and soil samples where sediments from the treated effluents are dumped were analyzed for physicochemical properties, metallic and non-metallic ions. These parameters were compared with established international standard (FEPA. Effluents were classified as process waste water (PWW, clarified water (CW, and final discharge (FD. The petrochemical effluents contained very high concentration of TDS (284.00±014 mg/L and significant concentrations of TSS (78.89±0.01 mg/L, COD (30.10±0.02 mg/L, DO (13.20±0.01 mg/L, BOD (6.12±0.00 mg/L, PO43- (4.34±0.00 mg/L, SO42- (3.59±0.00 mg/L, Cl- (55.52±0.01 mg/L and NO3- (8.40±0.01 mg/L. Low concentrations of iron, zinc, copper, cadmium, lead, nickel and cobalt was also observed. Some heavy metals were not detected at all in some of the effluent samples analyzed. Apart from temperature and total dissolved solid TDS, all the other parameters were below FEPA effluent limitations for guidelines for Petroleum Refinery, Fuel/Gasoline oil category in Nigeria.

  20. Pulp and Paper Industry Effluent Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gove, George W.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastes from pulp and paper industry, covering publications of 1976-77. This review focuses on: (1) receiving water, toxicity, and effluent characterization; (2) pulping liquor disposal and recovery; and (3) physicochemical and biological treatment. A list of 238 references is also presented. (HM)

  1. Sonocatalytic treatment of baker's yeast effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Yılmaz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Baker's yeast effluent is a major source of pollution with a high organic load and dark colour. It can be treated by using advanced oxidation processes (AOPs. AOPs, such as ultrasonic irradiation, are ambient temperature processes involving the generation of free radicals. We have investigated sonocatalytic treatment of baker's yeast effluent by using ultrasound. TiO2–ZnO composites were used as sonocatalysts to increase the efficiency of the ultrasonic irradiation. The TiO2/ZnO composite was prepared by two different methods. Ultrasonic irradiation or mechanical stirring was used to prepare the TiO2–ZnO composite, and an ultrasonic homogenizer with a 20 kHz frequency was used to treat the baker's yeast effluent. We studied the effects of several parameters, including the molar ratio of TiO2/ZnO, calcination temperature, calcination time and catalyst amount, on the sonocatalytic treatment of the effluent. According to the results, the decolorization rate was 25% when using the composite TiO2/ZnO prepared at a 4:1 molar ratio and treated at 700 °C for 60 min, and the optimum catalyst amount was 0.15 g/l.

  2. Magnetically supported zeolite adsorbents for effluent treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaydardjiev, S.

    1998-01-01

    An attempt was made to remove heavy metal ions from metallurgical effluents by means of magnetically supported fluidized bed column employing zeolite-magnetite complexes as adsorbents. The natural sorptive properties of acid modified clinoptilolite were used instead of synthetic beads. X-ray diffraction and DTA studies on the raw material confirmed that the main zeolite mineral was clinoptilolite. (author)

  3. Decentralised wastewater treatment effluent fertigation: preliminary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-04-02

    Apr 2, 2018 ... monitoring is required when using anaerobic filter effluent from a DEWATS for irrigating banana and taro. Keywords: banana, intercrop, nitrogen, ... and anaerobic filter (AF) of the DEWATS degrade blackwater and greywater to produce biogas and ...... Passive Approaches. Intech Open Science Online ...

  4. Simulation of ammoniacal nitrogen effluent using feedforward ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ammoniacal nitrogen in domestic wastewater treatment plants has recently been added as the monitoring parameter by the Department of Environment, Malaysia. It is necessary to obtain a suitable model for the simulation of ammonical nitrogen in the effluent stream of sewage treatment plant in order to meet the new ...

  5. EFFECTS OF REFINERY EFFLUENT ON THE PHYSICO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Managing oil and gas industrial environment requires constant monitoring of the effluent discharges from such industries. ... The samples were analysed for physico-chemical parameters such as pH, TDS, TSS, COD, Oil and Grease, Temperature, Cations (Pb2+, Fe (total), Cu2+ , Cr6+, Ca2+, and Mg2+) and Anions (PO3-4, ...

  6. Decentralised wastewater treatment effluent fertigation: preliminary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Decentralised Wastewater Treatment System (DEWATS) can provide a potential sanitation solution to residents living in informal settlements with the effluent produced being used on agricultural land. This paper reports on a first step to assess the technical viability of this concept. To do so a pilot DEWATS plant was ...

  7. Introduction to Effluent Treatment and Industrial Methods

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 11. Techniques of WasteWater Treatment - Introduction to Effluent Treatment and Industrial Methods. Amol A Kulkarni Mugdha Deshpande A B Pandit. General Article Volume 5 Issue 11 November 2000 pp 56-68 ...

  8. Microbial degradation of textile industrial effluents | Palamthodi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Textile waste water is a highly variable mixture of many polluting substance ranging from inorganic compounds and elements to polymers and organic products. To ensure the safety of effluents, proper technologies need to be used for the complete degradation of dyes. Traditionally, treatments of textile waste water involve ...

  9. Short communication: Industrial effluent treatments using heavy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bioflocculants produced by Herbaspirillium sp. CH7, Paenibacillus sp. CH11, Bacillus sp. CH15 and a Halomonas sp. were preliminarily evaluated as flocculating agents in the treatment of industrial wastewater effluents. Industrial (1 local chemical-industry and 2 textile-industry: Biavin 109-medium blue dye and Whale dye) ...

  10. Effluent and water treatment at AERE Harwell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, J.B.

    1977-01-01

    The treatment of liquid wastes at Harwell is based on two main principles: separation of surface water, domestic sewage, trade wastes and radioactive effluents at source, and a system of holding tanks which are sampled so that the appropriate treatment can be given to any batch. All discharges are subject to independent monitoring by the authorising departments and the Thames Water Inspectors. (author)

  11. Bioremediation of textile effluent using Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The discharge of these waste residues into the environment eventually poison, damage or ... breakdown of the chlorolignin residues and the chromophoric groups responsible for the dark coloration of the textile effluent can be accomplished by the use of enzymes from the white rot fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

  12. Remediation of feedlot effluents using aquatic plants

    OpenAIRE

    Rizzo, Pedro Federico; Arreghini, Silvana; Serafini, Roberto José María; Bres, Patricia Alina; Crespo, Diana Elvira; Fabrizio de Iorio, Alicia Rosa

    2012-01-01

    Feedlots have increased in several regions of Argentina, particularly in the Pampas. The absence of adequate treatments of the effluents produced in these establishments creates serious problems to the society. Phytoremediation can be defined as inexpensive and environmentally sustainable strategy used to remove pollutants by plants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the remediation potential of two ...

  13. Wastewater effluent dispersal in Southern California Bays

    KAUST Repository

    Uchiyama, Yusuke

    2014-03-01

    The dispersal and dilution of urban wastewater effluents from offshore, subsurface outfalls is simulated with a comprehensive circulation model with downscaling in nested grid configurations for San Pedro and Santa Monica Bays in Southern California during Fall of 2006. The circulation is comprised of mean persistent currents, mesoscale and submesoscale eddies, and tides. Effluent volume inflow rates at Huntington Beach and Hyperion are specified, and both their present outfall locations and alternative nearshore diversion sites are assessed. The effluent tracer concentration fields are highly intermittent mainly due to eddy currents, and their probability distribution functions have long tails of high concentration. The dilution rate is controlled by submesoscale stirring and straining in tracer filaments. The dominant dispersal pattern is alongshore in both directions, approximately along isobaths, over distances of more than 10. km before dilution takes over. The current outfall locations mostly keep the effluent below the surface and away from the shore, as intended, but the nearshore diversions do not. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Gamma irradiation treatment of secondary sewage effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vajdic, A.H.

    The operation and monitoring of a pilot scale Co-60 gamma irradiation unit treating secondary sewage effluent is described. The disinfecting efficiency of the unit is compared to that of an experimental 'ideal' chlorination unit and to the plant chlorination process. A cost estimate for disinfection by gamma irradiation on a full plant scale is included. (author)

  15. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in industrial and municipal effluents: Concentrations, congener profiles, and partitioning onto particulates and organic carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balasubramani, Aparna, E-mail: aparna.27889@gmail.com; Howell, Nathan L., E-mail: nlhowell@central.uh.edu; Rifai, Hanadi S., E-mail: rifai@uh.edu

    2014-03-01

    Wastewater effluent samples were collected in the summer of 2009 from 16 different locations which included municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants and petrochemical industrial outfalls in the Houston area. The effluent samples were analyzed for all 209 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) congeners using high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) using the USEPA method 1668A. The total PCBs (∑ 209) concentration in the dissolved medium ranged from 1.01 to 8.12 ng/L and ranged from 2.03 to 31.2 ng/L in the suspended medium. Lighter PCB congeners exhibited highest concentrations in the dissolved phase whereas, in the suspended phase, heavier PCBs exhibited the highest concentrations. The PCB homolog concentrations were dominated by monochlorobiphenyls through hexachlorobiphenyls, with dichlorobiphenyls exhibiting the highest concentration amongst them at most of the effluent outfalls, in the suspended phase. Both total suspended solids (TSS) and various organic carbon fractions played an important role in the distribution of the suspended fractions of PCBs in the effluents. The log K{sub oc} values determined in the effluents suggest that effluent PCB loads might have more risk and impact than what standard partitioning models predict. - Highlights: • 209 PCB congeners were measured in 16 different municipal and industrial effluents. • PCB congener differences were elucidated for the various effluent types. • In addition to log K{sub ow}, organic carbon and TSS affect partitioning of PCBs. • High concentrations of homolog 2 maybe due to biotransformation of PCBs.

  16. 40 CFR 415.402 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control... SOURCE CATEGORY Fluorine Production Subcategory § 415.402 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control...

  17. 40 CFR 468.12 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...—Surface Coating BAT Effluent Limitations. Pollutant or pollutant property Maximum for any 1 day Maximum... 0.051 (d) Subpart A—Solution Heat Treatment BAT Effluent Limitations. Pollutant or pollutant...—Extrusion Heat Treatment BAT Effluent Limitations. Pollutant or pollutant property Maximum for any 1 day...

  18. Statistical evaluation of effluent monitoring data for the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, C.J.; Johnson, V.G.

    2000-01-01

    The 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) consists of a pair of infiltration basins that receive wastewater originating from the 200 West and 200 East Areas of the Hanford Site. TEDF has been in operation since 1995 and is regulated by State Waste Discharge Permit ST 4502 (Ecology 1995) under the authority of Chapter 90.48 Revised Code of Washington (RCW) and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 173-216. The permit stipulates monitoring requirements for effluent (or end-of-pipe) discharges and groundwater monitoring for TEDF. Groundwater monitoring began in 1992 prior to TEDF construction. Routine effluent monitoring in accordance with the permit requirements began in late April 1995 when the facility began operations. The State Waste Discharge Permit ST 4502 included a special permit condition (S.6). This condition specified a statistical study of the variability of permitted constituents in the effluent from TEDF during its first year of operation. The study was designed to (1) demonstrate compliance with the waste discharge permit; (2) determine the variability of all constituents in the effluent that have enforcement limits, early warning values, and monitoring requirements (WHC 1995); and (3) determine if concentrations of permitted constituents vary with season. Additional and more frequent sampling was conducted for the effluent variability study. Statistical evaluation results were provided in Chou and Johnson (1996). Parts of the original first year sampling and analysis plan (WHC 1995) were continued with routine monitoring required up to the present time

  19. Physiochemical Treatment of Textile Industry Effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latif, M. I.; Qazi, M. A.; Khan, H.; Ahmad, N.

    2015-01-01

    The study mainly focuses on the application of chemical Coagulants (Lime, Alum and Ferrous Sulfate) and Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) (Ozone Treatment and Fenton Process, alone and in combination) to treat textile industry effluents, optimization of coagulation process for various Coagulants in terms of process conditions, including coagulant dose, pH and settling time. The results revealed that Alum was most effective. The efficiency of coagulation process was dose dependent and 400 mg/L dose of Alum alone showed maximum color removal of 47%, 57% and 54% of yellow, red and blue dyes, respectively in addition to the COD removal of 44%. The combined applications of Alum and Lime (300:75 mg/L) and Lime and Alum (300:75 mg/L) showed slightly better COD removal of 51%. However, color removal efficiency of all coagulants was at par. The Ozonation process appeared the most promising for the treatment of waste water and color/COD removal, the efficiency of which increased with increasing the treatment time at constant Ozone dose. For less polluted effluents, 97% color removal was obtained after 1 minute and after 15 minutes for highly polluted effluents; The COD removal efficiency of the process for less polluted effluents was around 89% after 5 minutes Ozonation and for highly polluted effluents 88% COD removal after 40 minutes. The performance of Fenton process was extremely low as compared to Ozonation process. Increase in pH, significantly decreased the color removal efficiency of the process. COD removal efficiency of Fenton process increased with an increase in settling time. (author)

  20. Disinfection of secondary effluents by infiltration percolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makni, H

    2001-01-01

    Among the most attractive applications of reclaimed wastewater are: irrigation of public parks, sports fields, golf courses and market gardening. These uses require advanced wastewater treatment including disinfection. According to WHO guidelines (1989) and current rules and regulations in Tunisia, faecal coliform levels have to be reduced to < 10(3) or 10(2) CFU/100 mL. In Tunisia, most wastewater plants are only secondary treatment and, in order to meet health related regulations, the effluents need to be disinfected. However, it is usual for secondary effluents to need filtration prior to disinfection. Effectiveness of conventional disinfection processes, such as chlorination and UV radiation, are dependent upon the oxidation level and the levels of suspended solids of the treated water. Ozonation is relatively expensive and energy consuming. The consideration of the advantages and disadvantages of conventional techniques, their reliability, investment needs and operational costs will lead to the use of less sophisticated alternative techniques for certain facilities. Among alternative techniques, soil aquifer treatment and infiltration percolation through sand beds have been studied in Arizona, Israel, France, Spain and Morocco. Infiltration percolation plants have been intermittently fed with secondary or high quality primary effluents which percolated through 1.5-2 m unsaturated coarse sand and were recovered by under-drains. In such infiltration percolation facilities, microorganisms were eliminated through numerous physical, physicochemical and biological inter-related processes (mechanical filtration, adsorption and microbial degradation respectively). Efficiency of faecal coliform removal was dependent upon the water detention times in the filtering medium and on the oxidation of the filtered water. Effluents of Sfax town aerated ponds were infiltrated through 1.5 m deep sand columns in order to determine the performance of infiltration percolation in the

  1. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the fast flux test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickels, J.M.; Dahl, N.R.

    1992-11-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in US Department of Energy Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could affect employee or public safety or the environment. A Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan determination was performed during calendar year 1991 and the evaluation requires the need for a facility effluent monitoring plan. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements

  2. French studies on the thermal effluents of electric power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dezes-Cadiere, H.

    1976-01-01

    This report presents a synthesis of studies made in France in the thermal effluent field: thermal power plant cooling systems, transfer and dispersion of thermal effluents in the receptive media, effects of thermal effluents on water physicochemistry and biochemistry, effects of thermal effluents on aquatic ecosystems, and, possibilities of waste heat recovery with the view of utilization in agriculture, aquaculture and district heating. A catalogue of French organizations working or having data on thermal effluents is presented, as also an alphabetical list of the contacted persons. A bibliography of French documents concerning the previously mentioned studies is finally given (193 refs.) [fr

  3. Heavy metals in handloom-dyeing effluents and their biosorption by agricultural byproducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Kamrun; Chowdhury, Md Abul Khair; Chowdhury, Md Akhter Hossain; Rahman, Afzal; Mohiuddin, K M

    2018-03-01

    The Madhabdi municipality in the Narsingdi district of Bangladesh is a well-known area for textile, handloom weaving, and dyeing industries. These textile industries produce a considerable amount of effluents, sewage sludge, and solid waste materials every day that they directly discharge into surrounding water bodies and agricultural fields. This disposal poses a serious threat to the overall epidemic and socio-economic pattern of the locality. This research entailed the collection of 34 handloom-dyeing effluent samples from different handloom-dyeing industries of Madhabdi, which were then analyzed to determine the contents of the heavy metals iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd). Average concentrations of Fe, Cr, Cu, Pb, Mn, and Zn were 3.81, 1.35, 1.70, 0.17, 0.75, and 0.73 mg L -1 , respectively, whereas Cd content was below the detectable limit of the atomic adsorption spectrophotometer. The concentrations of Fe, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Mn exceed the industrial effluent discharge standards (IEDS) for inland surface water and irrigation water guideline values. A biosorption experiment of the heavy metals (Fe, Cr, Cu, Mn, and Zn) was conducted without controlling for any experimental parameters (e.g., pH, temperature, or other compounds present in the effluent samples) by using four agricultural wastes or byproducts, namely rice husk, sawdust, lemon peel, and eggshell. Twenty grams of each biosorbent was added to 1 L of effluent samples and stored for 7 days. The biosorption capacity of each biosorbent is ranked as follows: eggshell, sawdust, rice husk, and lemon peel. Furthermore, the biosorption affinity of each metal ion was found in the following order: Cu and Cr (both had similar biosorption affinity), Zn, Fe, Mn. The effluents should not be discharged before treatment, and efficient treatment of effluents is possible with eggshell powder or sawdust at a rate of 20 g of biosorbent per liter of effluents.

  4. Ecotoxicological studies with newly hatched larvae of Concholepas concholepas (Mollusca, Gastropoda): bioassay with secondary-treated kraft pulp mill effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manríquez, Patricio H; Llanos-Rivera, Alejandra; Galaz, Sylvana; Camaño, Andrés

    2013-12-01

    The Chilean abalone or "loco" (Concholepas concholepas, Bruguière 1789) represent the most economically important marine recourse exploited from inner inshore Management and Exploitation Areas for Benthic Resources along the Chilean coast. In this study, newly-hatched larvae of C. concholepas were investigated as a potential model species for marine ecotoxicological studies. The study developed a behavioral standard protocol for assessing the impact that kraft pulp mill effluents after secondary treatment have on C. concholepas larvae. Under controlled laboratory conditions, newly-hatched larvae were exposed to a series of different concentrations of kraft pulp mill effluents with secondary treatment (Pinus spp. and Eucalyptus spp.), potassium dichromate as standard reference toxicant and effluent-free control conditions. Regardless of the type of effluent the results indicated that diluted kraft pulp effluent with secondary treatment had reduced effect on larval survival. Low larval survivals were only recorded when they were exposed to high concentrations of the reference toxicant. This suggests that C. concholepas larval bioassay is a simple method for monitoring the effects of kraft pulp mill effluents with secondary treatment discharged into the sea. The results indicated that dilution of ca. 1% of the effluent with an elemental chlorine free (ECF) secondary treatment is appropriate for achieving low larval mortalities, such as those obtained under control conditions with filtered seawater, and to minimize their impact on early ontogenetic stages of marine invertebrates such as newly-hatched larvae of C. concholepas. The methodological aspects of toxicological testing and behavioral responses described here with newly-hatched larvae of C. concholepas can be used to evaluate in the future the potential effects of other stressful conditions as other pollutants or changes in seawater pH associated with ocean acidification. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  5. Growth and heavy metals accumulation potential of microalgae grown in sewage wastewater and petrochemical effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayan, K V; Selvaraju, M; Thirugnanamoorthy, K

    2011-08-15

    Microalgae exhibit a number of heavy metal uptake process by different metabolism. In this study, the ability of microalgae for removal of heavy metal from wastewater was studied. Growth and biochemical contents of microalgae were determined by spectrophotometer. Heavy metal analysis of wastewater effluents were performed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer before and after treatment at laboratory scale. The growth of Scenedesmus bijuga and Oscillatoria quadripunctulata in sewage wastewater was higher than those grown in synthetic medium. Whereas, the growth of S. bijuga and O. quadripunctulata in sterilized petrochemical effluents was slightly lower than that grown in the standard synthetic medium. The chlorophyll, carotenoid and protein content of S. bijuga and O. quadripunctulata grown in sterilized sewage wastewater were higher than those grown in the standard medium. Similarly S. bijuga and O. quadripunctulata grown in sterilized petrochemical effluents showed lower contents of pigments and protein than those grown in sewage and synthetic medium. Heavy metals copper, cobalt, lead and zinc were removed by 37-50, 20.3-33.3, 34.6-100 and 32.1-100%, respectively from sewage wastewater and petrochemical effluent using Ocillatoria culture. The metal absorption by S. bijuga were (Cu, Co, Pb, Zn) 60-50, 29.6-66, 15.4-25 and 42.9-50%, respectively from sewage and petrochemical effluents. Both species showed high level of heavy metal removal efficiency and metal sorption efficiency of both microalgae depended on the type of biosorbent, the physiological status of the cells, availability of heavy metal, concentration of heavy metal and chemical composition of wastewater.

  6. Using single-species toxicity tests, community-level responses, and toxicity identification evaluations to investigate effluent impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maltby, L.; Clayton, S.A.; Yu, H.; McLoughlin, N.; Wood, R.M.; Yin, D.

    2000-01-01

    Whole effluent toxicity (WET) tests are increasingly used to monitor compliance of consented discharges, but few studies have related toxicity measured using WET tests to receiving water impacts. Here the authors adopt a four-stage procedure to investigate the toxicity and biological impact of a point source discharge and to identify the major toxicants. In stage 1, standard WET tests were employed to determine the toxicity of the effluent. This was then followed by an assessment of receiving water toxicity using in situ deployment of indigenous (Gammarus pulex) and standard (Daphnia magna) test species. The third stage involved the use of biological survey techniques to assess the impact of the discharge on the structure and functioning of the benthic macroinvertebrate community. In stage 4, toxicity identification evaluations (TIE) were used to identify toxic components in the effluent. Receiving-water toxicity and ecological impact detected downstream of the discharge were consistent with the results of WET tests performed on the effluent. Downstream of the discharge, there was a reduction in D. magna survival, in G. pulex survival and feeding rate, in detritus processing, and in biotic indices based on macroinvertebrate community structure. The TIE studies suggested that chlorine was the principal toxicant in the effluent.

  7. Separation of solids and disinfection for agronomical use of the effluent from a UASB reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundefeld Junior, G C; Piveli, R P; Cutolo, S A; Ferreira Filho, S S; Santos, J G

    2014-01-01

    The present work addresses the preparation of the effluent from a full-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor for drip irrigation of orange crops. The pilot plant included a lamella plate clarifier followed by a geo-textile blanket filter and a UV disinfection reactor. The clarifier operated with a surface load of 115 m(3)m(-2)d(-1), whereas the filter operated with 10 m(3)m(-2)d(-1). The UV reactor was an open-channel type and the effective dose was approximately 2.8 W h m(-3). The effluent of the UASB reactor received 0.5 mg L(-1) cationic polyelectrolyte before entering the high-rate clarifier. Suspended solids' concentrations and Escherichia coli and helminth egg's densities were monitored throughout the treatment system for 12 months. Results showed that the total suspended solids concentration in the filter effluent was lower than 7 mg L(-1) and helminth density was below 1.0 egg L(-1). The UV disinfection demonstrated the ability to produce a final effluent with E. coli density lower than 10(3)MPN/100 mL (MPN: most probable number) during the entire process. Thus, the World Health Organization standards for unrestricted crop use were met. Agronomic interest parameters were controlled and it was possible to identify the important contribution of treated sewage in terms of the main nutrients.

  8. New procedure for the control of the treatment of industrial effluents to remove volatile organosulfur compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boczkaj, Grzegorz; Makoś, Patrycja; Fernandes, André; Przyjazny, Andrzej

    2016-10-01

    We present a new procedure for the determination of volatile organosulfur compounds in samples of industrial effluents using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and gas chromatography with flame photometric detection. Initially, the extraction parameters were optimized. These included: type and volume of extraction solvent, volume of disperser solvent, salting out effect, pH, time and speed of centrifugation as well as extraction time. The procedure was validated for 30 compounds. The developed procedure has low detection limits of 0.0071-0.49 μg/L and a good precision (relative standard deviation values of 1.2-5.0 and 0.6-4.1% at concentrations of 1 and 10 μg/L, respectively). The procedure was used to determine the content of volatile organosulfur compounds in samples of effluents from the production of bitumens before and after chemical treatment, in which six compounds were identified, including 2-mercaptoethanol, thiophenol, thioanisole, dipropyl disulfide, 1-decanethiol, and phenyl isothiocyanate at concentrations ranging from 0.47 to 8.89 μg/L. Problems in the determination of organosulfur compounds related to considerable changes in composition of the effluents, increase in concentration of individual compounds and appearance of secondary pollutants during effluent treatment processes are also discussed. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Treating domestic effluent wastewater treatment by aerobic biofilter with bioballs medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permatasari, R.; Rinanti, A.; Ratnaningsih, R.

    2018-01-01

    This laboratory scale research aimed to treat wastewater effluent with advanced treatment utilizing aerobic biofilter with bio-balls medium to obtain effluent quality in accordance with DKI Jakarta Governor Regulation No. 122 of 2005. The seeding and acclimatization were conducted in 4 weeks. The effluent were accommodated in a 150 L water barrel supported by a submersible pump. The effluent were treated in two boxes shaped reactors made of glasses with 36 L of each capacity. These reactors were equipped with aquarium aerators, sampling tap is 10 cm from the base of reactors, and bio-balls with 3 cm diameter are made of PVC. Reactors operated continuously with variations of retention time of 4 hours, 8 hours, 12 hours, 18 hours, and 24 hours and also variations of Carbon: Nitrogen: Phosphor = C: N: P ratio were, 100:5:1, 100:8:1, 100:10:1, 100:12:1, 100:15:1. The results showed that the optimum variance of retention time was 24 hours and the ratio of C:N:P was 100:10:1 yielded the largest removal efficiency for 83,33% of COD, 87,33% of BOD, 82,5% of Ammonia, 79,1% of Nitrate, 92% of Nitrite, 84,82% of Oil and Grease. The concentration parameter resulted from outlet biofilter has met the domestic wastewater quality standard of DKI Jakarta.

  10. Evaluation of toxicity and removal of color in textile effluent treated with electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morais, Aline Viana de

    2015-01-01

    The textile industry is among the main activities Brazil, being relevant in number of jobs, quantity and diversity of products and mainly by the volume of water used in industrial processes and effluent generation. These effluents are complex mixtures which are characterized by the presence of dyes, surfactants, metal sequestering agents, salts and other potentially toxic chemicals for the aquatic biota. Considering the lack of adequate waste management to these treatments, new technologies are essential in highlighting the advanced oxidation processes such as ionizing radiation electron beam. This study includes the preparation of a standard textile effluent chemical laboratory and its treatment by electron beam from electron accelerator in order to reduce the toxicity and intense staining resulting from Cl. Blue 222 dye. The treatment caused a reduction in toxicity to exposed organisms with 34.55% efficiency for the Daphnia similis micro crustacean and 47.83% for Brachionus plicatilis rotifer at a dose of 2.5 kGy. The Vibrio fischeri bacteria obtained better results after treatment with a dose of 5 kGy showing 57.29% efficiency. Color reduction was greater than 90% at a dose of 2.5 kGy. This experiment has also carried out some preliminary tests on the sensitivity of the D. similis and V. fischeri organisms to exposure of some of the products used in this bleaching and dyeing and two water reuse simulations in new textile processing after the treating the effluent with electron beam. (author)

  11. Cultivation of four microalgae species in the effluent of anaerobic digester for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ga-Yeong; Yun, Yeo-Myeong; Shin, Hang-Sik; Han, Jong-In

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated if an effluent from anaerobic digestion (AD) system can be used as a nutrients source for the microalgae cultivation, and in so doing, if the effluent can be properly treated. Nitrogen and phosphorus in the AD effluent well supported microalgal growth, and their removal efficiency reached >97.9% and 99.2%, respectively. Among four different algal species tested, Micractinium inermum particularly stood out, showing the highest biomass and FAME productivity: 0.16gL -1 d -1 with 3.23gL -1 of dry cell weight, and 0.04gL -1 d -1 with 27.54% (w/w) of FAME contents, respectively. As the concentrations of the nutrients decreased over time, the FAME contents were increased and its quality as well, satisfying several biodiesel quality standards. This study supports that the AD effluent can indeed serve as a cheap and nutrient-rich medium for microalgae cultivation, and equally importantly, microalgae can be a workable treatment option for it. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Modified whole effluent toxicity test to assess and decouple wastewater effects from environmental gradients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Sauco

    Full Text Available Environmental gradients and wastewater discharges produce aggregated effects on marine populations, obscuring the detection of human impact. Classical assessment methods do not include environmental effects in toxicity tests designs, which could lead to incorrect conclusions. We proposed a modified Whole Effluent Toxicity test (mWET that includes environmental gradients in addition to effluent dilutions, together with the application of Generalized Linear Mixed Models (GLMM to assess and decouple those effects. We tested this approach, analyzing the lethal effects of wastewater on a marine sandy beach bivalve affected by an artificial canal freshwater discharge used for rice crops irrigation. To this end, we compared bivalve mortality between canal water dilutions (CWd and salinity controls (SC: without canal water. CWd were prepared by diluting the water effluent (sampled during the pesticide application period with artificial marine water. The salinity gradient was included in the design by achieving the same final salinities in both CWd and SC, allowing us to account for the effects of salinity by including this variable as a random factor in the GLMM. Our approach detected significantly higher mortalities in CWd, indicating potential toxic effects of the effluent discharge. mWET represents an improvement over the internationally standardized WET tests, since it considers environmental variability and uses appropriate statistical analyses.

  13. Environmental system applied to radioactive liquid effluent release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisti, Marcelo Bessa

    2009-01-01

    The current environmental administration considers the productive activity as an environmental system, defined as a group of processes, interactions, parameters and factors involved in the production. This mastering dissertation evaluated the release of the liquid radioactive effluents at Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), under a systemic environmental study. The study evaluated the source term at IPEN in the period from 2004 to 2008, making use of gamma-ray and alpha spectrometry, instrumental neutron activation analysis, liquid phase scintillation and atomic absorption spectrometry. The employed methodologies were verified using samples from the Intercomparison National Program - PNI/IRD and Reference Materials. The facilities that contributed the most in these releases were the Radiopharmaceutical Center (CR) and the Research Reactor Center (CRPq) with an average of 11,4% and 87,4%, respectively, relative to the present radioactive activity. The sewer system releases were within the radioactive protection regulations, showing the effectiveness of IPEN's Radioactive Effluents Monitoring Program. The concentration of the stable elements Ag, Cd, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn was determined in the liquid effluent in ali the samples from the storage tanks TR1 and CR in the period from 2004 to 2008 and in some of the samples of other IPEN's facilities in the period from 2004 to 2007. Among the analyzed effluents, two samples were higher than the stable elements discharge standards established in the state of Sao Paulo, one sample was higher than the required value of the element cadmium and the other higher than required value of the element zinco The storage tank TR1 discharge flow was estimated in 10,9 ± 0,9 m3 h -1 . The dilution factor at discharge point E1 was estimated using a radiotracers the isotopes 3 H, 137 CS, 60 Co, 54 Mn and 65 Zn, which are commonly released into IPEN's sewer system. The executed radiotracer study was carried out

  14. 76 FR 28776 - Re-Proposal of Effluent Limits Under the NPDES General Permit for Oil and Gas Exploration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... hydrocarbons (TAH), total aqueous hydrocarbons (TAqH), silver, and whole effluent toxicity (WET). As proposed... water quality standards. EPA obtained a draft certification from the Alaska Department of Environmental... business hours. Viewing and/or Obtaining Copies of Documents. A copy of the Permit re-proposal, the fact...

  15. 40 CFR 451.13 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional technology (BCT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... application of the best conventional technology (BCT). 451.13 Section 451.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CONCENTRATED AQUATIC ANIMAL... limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40...

  16. 40 CFR 412.44 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 412.44 Section 412.44 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CONCENTRATED ANIMAL... limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). Except...

  17. 40 CFR 451.23 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional technology (BCT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... application of the best conventional technology (BCT). 451.23 Section 451.23 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CONCENTRATED AQUATIC ANIMAL... application of the best conventional technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any...

  18. Ion exchange for treatment of industrial effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno Daudinot, Aurora Maria; Ge Leyva, Midalis

    2016-01-01

    The acid leaching and ammoniacal carbonate technologies of laterite respectively, are responsible for the low quality of life of the local population, the big deforested areas due to the mining tilling, the elevated contents of solids in the air and waters, as well as the chemical contamination by metals presence, the acidity or basicity of the effluents of both industries, that arrive through the river and the bay to aquifer's mantle. The ion exchange resins allow ions separation contained in low concentrations in the solutions, where the separation of these elements for solvents, extraction or another chemical methods would be costly. Technological variants are proposed in order to reduce the impact produced on the flora and the fauna, by the liquid effluents of nickel industry, by means of ion exchange resins introduction as well as the recuperation of metals and their re incorporation to the productive process. (Author)

  19. Assessment of methods for detection of infectious Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in reclaimed effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero-Betancourt, W; Gennaccaro, A L; Scott, T M; Rose, J B

    2003-09-01

    This study evaluates the occurrence of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in reclaimed effluents if method 1623 with the Envirochek capsule filters (standard and high-volume [HV] filters) and a modified version of the Information Collection Rule method (ICR) with the polypropylene yarn-wound cartridge filter are used. The recovery efficiency of the analytical methods was evaluated with samples of reagent, tap, and reclaimed water by using flow cytometer-sorted spike suspensions. (Oo)cyst recovery efficiency determined filter performance and method reproducibility in the water matrix tested. Method 1623 with the Envirochek HV capsule filter generated significantly higher recovery rates than did the standard Envirochek filter and the modified ICR method. Notwithstanding, large variations in recovery rates (>80%) occurred with samples of reclaimed water, and none of the water quality parameters analyzed in the reclaimed effluents could explain such variability. The highest concentrations of indigenous oocysts were detected by method 1623 with the HV filter, which provided a sufficient number of oocysts for further confirmation of infectious potential. Confirmation of species and potential infectivity for all positive protozoan samples was made by using a nested PCR restriction fragment polymorphism assay and the focus detection method most-probable-number assay, respectively. The methodology and results described in the present investigation provide useful information for the establishment of pathogen numeric standards for reclaimed effluents used for unrestricted irrigation.

  20. Radioactivity in the industrial effluent disposed soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenashisundaram V.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies on radiation and radioactivity distribution in the soils of effluent disposed from the sugar industry in India have been conducted. The external gamma dose rates in air and natural radionuclides activities in the soils were measured using an Environmental Radiation Dosimeter and a Gamma-ray Spectrometer respectively. The soil samples were also subject to various physico-chemical analyses. This study revealed some remarkable results that are discussed in the article.

  1. IRSN's expertise about nuclear medicine hospital effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This brief note aims at presenting the radioactivity follow up of hospital effluents performed by the French Institute of Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN). This follow up concerns the radioactive compounds and radiopharmaceuticals used in nuclear medicine, and principally technetium 99 and iodine 131. The IRSN has developed a network of remote measurement systems for the monitoring of sewers and waste water cleaning facilities. Data are compiled in a data base for analysis and subsequent expertise. (J.S.)

  2. Biological treatment of effluent containing textile dyes

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Arlindo Caniço; Amorim, M. T. P.; Porter, R. S.; Gonçalves, Isolina Cabral; Ferra, M. I. A.

    2010-01-01

    Colour removal of textile dyes from effluent was evaluated using a laboratory upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor. Several commercial dyes were selected to study the effect of dye structure on colour removal. The anaerobic reactor was fed with glucose, an easily biodegradable organic matter and selected individual dyes. Results show that some of the dyes are readily reduced under anaerobic conditions even at high concentration of 700 mg/l. The average removal efficiency for acid dyes usin...

  3. Separation of tritium from aqueous effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geens, L.; Bruggeman, A.; Meynendonckx, L.; Parmentier, C.; Belien, H.; Ooms, E.; Smets, D.; Stevens, J.; van Vlerken, J.

    1988-01-01

    From 1975 until 1982 - within the framework of the CEC indirect action programme on management and storage of radioactive waste - the SCK/CEN has developed the ELEX process from laboratory scale experiments up to the construction of an integrated pilot installation. The ELEX process combines water electrolysis and catalytical isotope exchange for the separation of tritium from aqueous reprocessing effluents by isotope enrichment. Consequently, the pilot installation consists of two main parts: an 80 kW water electrolyser and a 10 cm diameter trickle bed exchange column. The feed rate of tritiated water amounts to 5 dm 3 .h -1 , containing up to 3.7 GBq.dm -3 of tritium. This report describes the further development of the process during the second phase of the second programme. Three main items are reported: (i) research work in the field of pretreatment of real reprocessing effluents, before feeding them to an ELEX installation; (ii) demonstration of the technical feasibility of the ELEX process with simulated active effluent streams in the pilot installation; (iii) a cost estimation for the ELEX installation, comprising the required investments and the annual operation costs

  4. Stricter Employment Protection and Firms' Incentives to Sponsor Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Messe, Pierre-Jean; Rouland, Bénédicte

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses a difference-in-differences approach, combined with propensity score matching, to identify the effect of older workers employment protection on French firms' incentives to sponsor training. Between 1987 and 2008, French firms laying off workers aged over 50 had to pay a tax...... to the unemployment insurance system, known as the Delalande tax. In 1999, the measure was subjected to a reform that increased the tax, but only for large firms. We find that this exogenous increase substantially raised firms' incentives to train workers aged 45–49 but had no impact on the training rates among...

  5. A stricter condition for standing balance after unexpected perturbations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hof, At L; Curtze, Carolin

    2016-01-01

    In order to account for the dynamic nature of balance, the concept of the 'extrapolated centre of mass' XcoM has been introduced (Hof et al., 2005). The law for standing balance was then formulated as: the XcoM should remain within the Base of Support (BoS). This law, however, does not take into

  6. The genotoxicity and systemic toxicity of a pharmaceutical effluent in Wistar rats may involve oxidative stress induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace O. Adeoye

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is scarcity of information on the possible mechanisms of pharmaceutical effluent induced genotoxicity and systemic toxicity. This study investigated the genotoxicity and systemic toxicity of a pharmaceutical effluent in Wistar rats. Rats were orally treated with 5–50% concentrations of the effluent for 28 days. At post-exposure, blood, liver, kidney and bone marrow cells were examined for alterations in serum biochemical parameters and hematological indices, histopathological lesions and micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes formation (MNPCE. The effluent caused concentration independent significant (p < 0.05 alterations in aspartate (AST and alanine (ALT aminotransferases, superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, malondialdehyde (MDA, total and direct bilirubin and creatinine. There was reduction in red blood count (RBC, hemoglobin concentration (HGB, platelets, percentage hematocrit (HCT, white blood count (WBC and mean corpuscle hemoglobin (MCH except mean corpuscle hemoglobin concentration (MCHC, which increased in the treated rats. Histopathological lesions observed in the liver and kidney of the effluent treated rats were thinning of the hepatic cord, kuffer cell hyperplasia, vacuolation of the hepatocytes and renal cells, multifocal inflammatory changes, necrosis and congestion of the renal blood vessels and central vein. MNPCE significantly increase in the bone marrow of the treated rats compared to the negative control. The concentration of some toxic metals and anions in the effluent were above standard permissible limits. These findings showed that the pharmaceutical effluent caused somatic DNA damage and systemic toxicity in rats may involve induction of oxidative stress, suggesting environmental contamination and health risks in wildlife and humans.

  7. Evaluation of Vali Asr (aj hospital effluent for irrigation of the green

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taher Shahryari

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Recycling of sewage in our country can be one of the ways to overcome the problem of water shortage. The aim of this paper is Evaluation of Valli-e-asr hospital effluent for irrigation of the green. Materials and Methods: During the 12 months of the project since January 2009, twelve samples of the hospital water were selected. 35 samples were taken both from raw sewage and refined effluent with the average frequency of two samples every month. Various physical, chemical, and biological factors were measured on the basis of the standard method book (AWWA. The gathered data was statistically analyzed using SPSS software (version 15 and paired T test at the significant level . Results: The percentages of separating some parameters such as BOD, TSS, COD, and MPS in the exiting effluent were 63.56%, 44.9%, 42.9%, and 89.97% respectively and those of the parameters PH, Mg, SO4, and SAR were 7.52mg/l, 66.82 mg/l, 382.14 mg/l, and 0.54 mg/l respectively. The amount of parameters BOD, COD, TSS, MPN, EC, CL, TDS, and NA% were 165.14mg/l, 887.657mg/l, 784.4286mg/l, 1856857 MPN, 4137.97µs/cm, 999mg/l, 2866.57mg/l, and 75.11% respectively. Conclusion: The sewage refinery of Valli-e-asr hospital does not produce a favorable outcome and some of the parameters of the effluent such as PH, Mg, SO4, and SAR are in accord with the standards of reusing in agriculture and irrigation but many of the necessary parameters do not correspond with the necessary standards for this task.

  8. Control system of liquid effluents generated in treatment with I-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia M, T.; Ruiz C, M. A.; Angeles C, A.; Ramirez S, R.

    2015-09-01

    In recent years, nuclear medicine has developed greatly in our country and around the world. Techniques for both medical diagnosis and therapy have increased the use of radiopharmaceuticals, notably the I-131. In Mexico there are around 150 nuclear medicine establishments authorized by the Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias. Most of these establishments do not have an appropriate facility for the treatment of radioactive liquid effluents, to ensure compliance with the concentration limits established in the regulations. The Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) developed and implemented successfully, a control system of radioactive effluents (named SACEL) from a nuclear medicine facility. This system ensures an effective compliance with regulations and also better management and control of these radioactive effluents. Calculations and design of SACEL were made with respect to I-131, because is one of the most commonly used in radiotherapy and medical diagnostics, besides its half-life is greater in relation to other radionuclides. SACEL is comprised of four storage tanks and decay and a fifth tank for measuring the concentration of I-131 and later discharge to the drain; these tanks are connected to an automated system that controls the effluents passage. The calculation to determine the volume of the tanks was carried out according to the demand that has the hospital, to the maximum activity being poured in effluents and time required to decay. In this paper the design and installation of SACEL system, in addition to functioning as a facility that enables the Hospital meet the required standards is presented. Dose calculations performed with MCNPX and the methodology used in the calibration of the detection system is also presented. (Author)

  9. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the Plutonium Uranium Extraction Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greager, E.M.

    1997-01-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438-01. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether these systems are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan will ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated, at a minimum, every 3 years

  10. Facility effluent monitoring plan for 242-A Evaporator facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crummel, G.M.; Gustavson, R.D.

    1993-03-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1* for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could affect employee or public safety or the environment. A facility effluent monitoring plan determination was performed during Calendar Year 1991 and the evaluation showed the need for a facility effluent monitoring plan. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438-1**. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements

  11. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for the uranium trioxide facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohrasbi, J.; Johnson, D.L.; De Lorenzo, D.S.

    1993-12-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438-01. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated at a minimum of every three years

  12. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the plutonium uranium extraction facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiegand, D.L.

    1994-09-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438-01. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated at a minimum of every three years.

  13. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the plutonium uranium extraction facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiegand, D.L.

    1994-09-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438-01. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated at a minimum of every three years

  14. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for the uranium trioxide facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohrasbi, J.; Johnson, D.L. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); De Lorenzo, D.S. [Los Alamos Technical Associates, Inc., NM (United States)

    1993-12-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438-01. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated at a minimum of every three years.

  15. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the B plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesser, J.E.

    1994-09-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the U.S. Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438-1. This facility effluent monitoring plant assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated every three years

  16. Radioecological impact of effluents from a nuclear facility being decommissioned in the Antas river hydro graphic basin in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Radioecological impact of effluents in the Antas reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronque, Leilane Barbosa; Azevedo, Heliana de; Lopes do Nascimento, Marcos Roberto; Roque, Claudio Vitor; Silva, Nivaldo Carlos da; Rodgher, Suzelei; Regali-Seleghim, Mirna Helena

    2008-01-01

    The Antas reservoir receives the treated effluents which come from acid drainage of uranium ore from the UTM-INB (Ore Treatment Unit - Brazilian Nuclear Industries), located in Caldas, Minas Gerais. This study was conducted in order to determine the possible environmental impact caused by discharge of the treated liquid effluent from the UTM into the Antas reservoir. Biological (ciliated protozoa and Peridinium sp. phytoflagellate) and physicochemical variables (manganese, zinc, sulfate, uranium, dissolved oxygen and temperature), trophic state and saprobity indexes were evaluated. Sampling in reservoir (Cab, P41, P14S, and P14F points) took place during the dry winter season (July 2006). Each day, samples were collected four times (6:00 am, 12:00 pm, 6:00 pm, and 12:00 am). Biological variables analyzed at the Antas reservoir classified it as an oligo trophic and beta-mesosaprobic environment. Chemical parameters indicate failures in the nuclear facility effluent treatment plant, showing that effluents outside of standard limits established by Brazilian current legislation for Class II water are being discharged at point P41. These results agree with biological analyses, since point P41 has the lowest diversity and biomass values for ciliated protozoa organisms, indicating possible environmental impacts on the ecosystem due to effluent discharge by this mining company.(author)

  17. Hanford Facility dangerous waste permit application, liquid effluent retention facility and 200 area effluent treatment facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coenenberg, J.G.

    1997-08-15

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to 10 be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document 11 number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the 12 Unit-Specific Portion is limited to Part B permit application documentation 13 submitted for individual, `operating` treatment, storage, and/or disposal 14 units, such as the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 15 Treatment Facility (this document, DOE/RL-97-03). 16 17 Both the General Information and Unit-Specific portions of the Hanford 18 Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application address the content of the Part B 19 permit application guidance prepared by the Washington State Department of 20 Ecology (Ecology 1987 and 1996) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 21 (40 Code of Federal Regulations 270), with additional information needs 22 defined by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments and revisions of 23 Washington Administrative Code 173-303. For ease of reference, the Washington 24 State Department of Ecology alpha-numeric section identifiers from the permit 25 application guidance documentation (Ecology 1996) follow, in brackets, the 26 chapter headings and subheadings. A checklist indicating where information is 27 contained in the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 28 Treatment Facility permit application documentation, in relation to the 29 Washington State Department of Ecology guidance, is located in the Contents 30 Section. 31 32 Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in 33 nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units 34 (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Wherever 35 appropriate, the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 36 Treatment Facility permit application documentation makes cross-reference to 37 the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating

  18. Hanford Facility dangerous waste permit application, liquid effluent retention facility and 200 area effluent treatment facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coenenberg, J.G.

    1997-01-01

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to 10 be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document 11 number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the 12 Unit-Specific Portion is limited to Part B permit application documentation 13 submitted for individual, 'operating' treatment, storage, and/or disposal 14 units, such as the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 15 Treatment Facility (this document, DOE/RL-97-03). 16 17 Both the General Information and Unit-Specific portions of the Hanford 18 Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application address the content of the Part B 19 permit application guidance prepared by the Washington State Department of 20 Ecology (Ecology 1987 and 1996) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 21 (40 Code of Federal Regulations 270), with additional information needs 22 defined by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments and revisions of 23 Washington Administrative Code 173-303. For ease of reference, the Washington 24 State Department of Ecology alpha-numeric section identifiers from the permit 25 application guidance documentation (Ecology 1996) follow, in brackets, the 26 chapter headings and subheadings. A checklist indicating where information is 27 contained in the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 28 Treatment Facility permit application documentation, in relation to the 29 Washington State Department of Ecology guidance, is located in the Contents 30 Section. 31 32 Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in 33 nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units 34 (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Wherever 35 appropriate, the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 36 Treatment Facility permit application documentation makes cross-reference to 37 the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating

  19. Regulatory review of releases from HIFAR of radioactive airborne effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westall, D.J.; Macnab, D.I.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: The Nuclear Safety Bureau (NSB) was set up by legislation in 1992 as an independent Commonwealth corporate body reporting to the Minister for Health and Family Services. Its functions include monitoring and reviewing the safety of nuclear plant owned or operated by the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO). The NSB sets requirements for authorisation of the operation of the HIFAR research reactor, and may impose restrictions and conditions on its operation. The authorisation for the operation of HIFAR includes a requirement for arrangements for the treatment, safe storage and disposal of solid, liquid and gaseous radioactive wastes from the reactor. The objective is to establish conditions which would ensure that radiation exposure to plant personnel and the public from radioactive wastes are within acceptable limits and that releases are maintained as low as reasonably achievable. The NSB has developed expectations based on international best practice, against which to review HIFAR's arrangements for satisfying the requirement and achieving the objective. Arrangements for the release of airborne radioactive effluent from HIFAR were reviewed by the NSB as part of an overall review of the upgrade of safety documentation for HIFAR. The NSB's expectations for the review were drawn from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Basic Safety Standards (Safety Series No 115-I) and the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) Recommendations for Limiting Exposure to Ionizing Radiation (1995). These expectations included a hierarchy of primary dose limits, stack discharge limits and reference levels for HIFAR aimed at ensuring that radiation doses to the public due to airborne effluent are less than the national dose limits and ANSTO's dose constraints, and are as low as reasonably achievable. An approach favoured by the operator is to work directly to a primary dose limit using an airborne dispersion computer program to

  20. Quality Assurance Project Plan for Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frazier, T.P.

    1994-01-01

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan addresses the quality assurance requirements for the activities associated with the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, which are part of the overall Hanford Site Environmental Protection Plan. This plan specifically applies to the sampling and analysis activities and continuous monitoring performed for all Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan activities conducted by Westinghouse Hanford Company. It is generic in approach and will be implemented in conjunction with the specific requirements of the individual Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans

  1. Physico-Chemical parameters and trace-metals concentration in effluents from various industries in vicinity of Lahore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulfraz, M.; Ahmad, T.; Afzal, H.

    2003-01-01

    Increasing problem of pollution has become serious in almost all big cities of Pakistan. The industrial effluents (Liquid waste) discharged by different industries are drained into streams/nallahs, which ultimately join the waterways (streams, lakes, rivers or sea). The effluent samples from five industries, like Tanneries, Chemicals, Pharmaceuticals, Fertilizers and metal/electroplating, working in Lahore, Sheikhupura and Kalashahkaku were selected for analysis. The parameters, like Temperature, pH, conductivity, hardness, alkalinity, total dissolved solids, chemical oxygen demands, phosphate, nitrate, nitrite, major cations (Na, K, Ca, Mg) and heavy/trace metals, were studied. The results were compared with National environmental Quality standards (NEQS). It was further observed that when effluents of industries join fresh water of stream, lakes or rivers, this causes severe water-pollution and damages the flora and fauna. Suggestions for effective control of water-pollution are also given. (author)

  2. Plankton and water quality variability in an estuary before and after the shrimp farming effluents: possible impacts and regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Bauer

    Full Text Available Abstract Water quality, chlorophyll a, phytoplankton, proto and mezo-zooplankton abundance were spatiotemporally evaluated in an estuary receiving effluents from a Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei farm in Patos Lagoon estuary, Southern Brazil. Samples were taken before (BD and; 1 day (1 PD 5 days (5 PD, 10 days (10 PD, 20 days (20 PD and 30 days (30 PD after the effluents discharge. Some water quality parameters were affected by the effluents discharge; however, these changes were restricted to a distance of 20 m from the effluent discharge channel for a period of 5 days. The microbial community was dominated by chlorophyceae, followed by diatoms, cyanobacteria and ciliates. There was an increase in the abundance of different groups on the 1 PD sampling compared to BD. The zooplankton abundance was low in practically all sites, except for 30 PD sampling. The meso-zooplanktonic organisms were represented by copepods, mostly Acartia tonsa. Despite some effects on water quality and phytoplankton and protozooplankton abundance until 5 PD sampling, these alterations dissipated in a short period of time. We conclude that the environment quickly assimilated the effluents discharge, and the water quality parameters remained within the limits stipulated by standard guidelines.

  3. A guide for preparing Hanford Site facility effluent monitoring plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickels, J.M.

    1992-06-01

    This document provides guidance on the format and content of effluent monitoring plans for facilities at the Hanford Site. The guidance provided in this document is designed to ensure compliance with US Department of Energy (DOE) Orders 5400.1 (DOE 1988a), 5400.3 (DOE 1989a), 5400.4 (DOE 1989b), 5400.5 (DOE 1990a), 5480.1 (DOE 1982), 5480.11 (DOE 1988b), and 5484.1 (DOE 1981). These require environmental monitoring plans for each site, facility, or process that uses, generates, releases, or manages significant pollutants of radioactive or hazardous materials. In support of DOE Orders 5400.5 (Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment) and 5400.1 (General Environmental Protection Program), the DOE Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance (DOE 1991) should be used to establish elements of a radiological effluent monitoring program in the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan. Evaluation of facilities for compliance with the US Environmental Protection Agency Clean Air Act of 1977 requirements also is included in the airborne emissions section of the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans. Sampling Analysis Plans for Liquid Effluents, as required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement), also are included in the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans. The Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans shall include complete documentation of gaseous and liquid effluent sampling and monitoring systems

  4. Quality Assurance Project Plan for Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickels, J.M.

    1991-06-01

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan addresses the quality assurance requirements for the Facility Monitoring Plans of the overall site-wide environmental monitoring plan. This plan specifically applies to the sampling and analysis activities and continuous monitoring performed for all Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan activities conducted by Westinghouse Hanford Company. It is generic in approach and will be implemented in conjunction with the specific requirements of individual Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans. This document is intended to be a basic road map to the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan documents (i.e., the guidance document for preparing Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan determinations, management plan, and Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans). The implementing procedures, plans, and instructions are appropriate for the control of effluent monitoring plans requiring compliance with US Department of Energy, US Environmental Protection Agency, state, and local requirements. This Quality Assurance Project Plan contains a matrix of organizational responsibilities, procedural resources from facility or site manuals used in the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, and a list of the analytes of interest and analytical methods for each facility preparing a Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan. 44 refs., 1 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Facility effluent monitoring plan determinations for the 400 Area facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickels, J.M.

    1991-09-01

    This Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan determination resulted from an evaluation conducted for the Westinghouse Hanford Company 400 Area facilities on the Hanford Site. The Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan determinations have been prepared in accordance with A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans. Two major Westinghouse Hanford Company facilities in the 400 Area were evaluated: the Fast Flux Test Facility and the Fuels Manufacturing and examination Facility. The determinations were prepared by Westinghouse Hanford Company. Of these two facilities, only the Fast Flux Test Facility will require a Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan. 7 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  6. Liquid effluent retention facility dangerous waste permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    This appendix to the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application contains pumps, piping, leak detection systems, geomembranes, leachate collection systems, earthworks and floating cover systems

  7. Effluent treatment options for nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipers, L.R.; Brockmann, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    A variety of approaches for handling effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests in an environmentally acceptable manner are discussed. The functional requirements of effluent treatment are defined and concept options are presented within the framework of these requirements. System concepts differ primarily in the choice of fission-product retention and waste handling concepts. The concept options considered range from closed cycle (venting the exhaust to a closed volume or recirculating the hydrogen in a closed loop) to open cycle (real time processing and venting of the effluent). This paper reviews the strengths and weaknesses of different methods to handle effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests

  8. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the tank farm facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crummel, G.M.

    1998-05-18

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements.

  9. Physico-chemical studies of effluents and emission of ghee/edible oil industries in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, I.; Ali, S.; Jan, M.R.

    1999-01-01

    Samples of the effluents from various Ghee/Edible Oil Industries were collected on fortnightly basis from July 1993 to June 1994 and the emissions from January to April 1994. Parameters such as temperature, pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids (TDS), total suspended solids (TSS), total alkalinity total acidity, total hardness, chemical oxygen demand (COD). chlorides, sulphates, phosphates, silica, calcium magnesium, sodium, and iron were determined in the effluents, Trace metals like copper, manganese, nickel, and zinc were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy, whereas SO/sub 2/, CO CO/sub 2/, hydrocarbons, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen and argon were examined in the flue gases by Gas Chromatography and other standard techniques such as Orsat Gas Analyzer and Dragger Detection Tubes. Remedial measures were suggested for the pollutants exceeding the National Environmental Quality Standards, (NEQS). Parameters like chlorine, ammonia, sulphides, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, lead and tin were also analyzed in the effluents and were found to be nil or below the detection limit, while particulate matters, HCl, chlorine, HF, H/sub 2/S, mercaptans and NH/sub 3/ were found to be nil in the flue gases. (author)

  10. Radioimmunoassay of aldosterone in adrenal venous effluent in a case of Conn's syndrome, ch. 5a

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froelich, M.; Bruning, P.F.; Moolenaar, A.J.

    1977-01-01

    In a case of Conn's syndrome samples were obtained from the venous effluent of both adrenals and from peripheral veins during venography. The aldosterone concentration was measured by means of radioimmunoassay. The sensitivty of the aldosterone assay was 27 pg (P<0.05), the parallelism between the standard and the serum dilutions was excellent and there was no cross-reaction with cortisol, cortisone, 21-desoxycortisol, dexamethasone or spironolactone in amounts up to 1 μg per incubation. The aldosterone concentrations measured in peripheral venous blood were 220-250 ng/100 ml serum. In the effluent of the left adrenal, in which an aldosterone producing tumor was localized, an aldosterone level of 8480 ng/100 ml serum was estimated

  11. Effect of Lakhara chemical power station (LPTS) effluents on the river Indus water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahar, R.B.; Memon, H.M.; Khushwar, M.Y.

    2000-01-01

    The variation of the quality of river Indus water with respect to the seasonal changes, discharge of water and dilution with the effluents of Lakhra Thermal Power Station (LTPS), has been monitored. The studies were focussed on the river Indus water quality before and after mixing the effluents of the power station. The samples were collected monthly from the representative locations of the river Indus, and analyzed for the residues (total, filterable, non-filterable, volatile and fixed), pH, temperature (air and water), conductance, chloride, hardness, alkalinity, dissolved oxygen (DO), chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) /sub 5/- nitrate, phosphate, sulfate, ammonia, ammonium, silicates, magnesium, potassium, calcium and sodium. The results have been compared with the permissible limits of ECC (European Economic Community) standards for drinking and surface water. (author)

  12. Effects of volatile fatty acids in biohydrogen effluent on biohythane production from palm oil mill effluent under thermophilic condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chonticha Mamimin

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: Preventing the high concentration of butyric acid, and propionic acid in the hydrogenic effluent could enhance methane production in two-stage anaerobic digestion for biohythane production.

  13. 78 FR 48159 - Preliminary 2012 Effluent Guidelines Program Plan and 2011 Annual Effluent Guidelines Review Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-07

    ... Annual Effluent Guidelines Review Report, and solicits public comment on both. Clean Water Act (CWA... Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: This notice announces the availability of...-9744 Mail: Water Docket, Environmental Protection Agency, Mailcode: 2822T, Attention Docket ID No. EPA...

  14. Activated sludge and activated carbon treatment of a wood preserving effluent containing pentachlorophenol

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guo, P. H. M

    1980-01-01

    ...; however, PCP removal averaged only 35% and the effluent was toxic to rainbow trout. Treatment of the activated sludge effluent by carbon adsorption resulted in effective PCP removal and non-toxic effluents...

  15. Environmental regulatory guide for radiological effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    Under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, the US Department of Energy (DOE) is obligated to regulate its own activities so as to provide radiation protection for both workers and the public.'' Presidential Executive Order 12088, Federal Compliance with Pollution Control Standards,'' further requires the heads of executive agencies to ensure that all Federal facilities and activities comply with applicable pollution control standards and to take all actions necessary for the prevention, control, and abatement of environmental pollution. This regulatory guide describes the elements of an acceptable effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance program for DOE sites involving radioactive materials. These elements are applicable to all DOE and contractor activities for which the DOE exercises environmental, safety, and health responsibilities, and are intended to be applicable over the broad range of DOE facilities and sites. In situations where the high-priority elements may not provide sufficient coverage of a specific monitoring or surveillance topic, the document provides additional guidance. The high-priority elements are written as procedures and activities that should'' be performed, and the guidance is written as procedures and activities that should'' be performed. The regulatory guide both incorporates and expands on requirements embodied in DOE 5400.5 and DOE 5400.1. 221 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. Assay of low-level plutonium effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsue, S.T.; Hsue, F.; Bowersox, D.F.

    1981-01-01

    In the plutonium recovery section at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, an effluent solution is generated that contains low plutonium concentration and relatively high americium concentration. Nondestructive assay of this solution is demonstrated by measuring the passive L x-rays following alpha decay. Preliminary results indicate that an average deviation of 30% between L x-ray and alpha counting can be achieved for plutonium concentrations above 10 mg/L and Am/Pu ratios of up to 3; for plutonium concentrations less than 10 mg/L, the average deviation is 40%. The sensitivity of the L x-ray assay is approx. 1 mg Pu/L

  17. 40 CFR 415.165 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true New source performance standards (NSPS). 415.165 Section 415.165 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT... using the solar evaporation process must achieve the following new source performance standards (NSPS...

  18. 40 CFR 406.36 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources. 406.36 Section 406.36 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Normal Wheat Flour Milling Subcategory § 406.36...

  19. 40 CFR 406.26 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources. 406.26 Section 406.26 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Corn Dry Milling Subcategory § 406.26 Pretreatment...

  20. 40 CFR 406.14 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 406.14 Section 406.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Corn Wet Milling Subcategory § 406.14...

  1. 40 CFR 406.46 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources. 406.46 Section 406.46 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Bulgur Wheat Flour Milling Subcategory § 406.46...

  2. 40 CFR 406.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources. 406.16 Section 406.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Corn Wet Milling Subcategory § 406.16 Pretreatment...

  3. 40 CFR 406.24 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 406.24 Section 406.24 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Corn Dry Milling Subcategory § 406.24...

  4. 40 CFR 415.25 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true New source performance standards (NSPS). 415.25 Section 415.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Sulfate Production...

  5. 40 CFR 421.95 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... standards for existing sources. The mass of wastewater pollutants in metallurgical acid plant blowdown introduced into a POTW shall not exceed the following values: Subpart I—Metallurgical Acid Plant—PSES...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Metallurgical Acid...

  6. 40 CFR 405.96 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources. 405.96 Section 405.96 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS DAIRY PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Condensed Milk Subcategory § 405.96...

  7. 40 CFR 405.94 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 405.94 Section 405.94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS DAIRY PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Condensed Milk...

  8. 40 CFR 415.345 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true New source performance standards (NSPS). 415.345 Section 415.345 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chrome Pigments Production...

  9. 40 CFR 469.42 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false New source performance standards (NSPS). 469.42 Section 469.42 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Luminescent Materials...

  10. 40 CFR 439.35 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false New source performance standards (NSPS). 439.35 Section 439.35 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHARMACEUTICAL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chemical Synthesis Products § 439...

  11. 40 CFR 410.45 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true New source performance standards (NSPS). 410.45 Section 410.45 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TEXTILE MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Woven Fabric Finishing Subcategory § 410.45 New...

  12. 40 CFR 410.35 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true New source performance standards (NSPS). 410.35 Section 410.35 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TEXTILE MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Low Water Use Processing Subcategory § 410.35...

  13. 40 CFR 410.65 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true New source performance standards (NSPS). 410.65 Section 410.65 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TEXTILE MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Carpet Finishing Subcategory § 410.65 New source...

  14. 40 CFR 410.85 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true New source performance standards (NSPS). 410.85 Section 410.85 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TEXTILE MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Nonwoven Manufacturing Subcategory § 410.85 New...

  15. 40 CFR 410.15 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true New source performance standards (NSPS). 410.15 Section 410.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TEXTILE MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wool Scouring Subcategory § 410.15 New source...

  16. 40 CFR 410.95 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true New source performance standards (NSPS). 410.95 Section 410.95 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TEXTILE MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Felted Fabric Processing Subcategory § 410.95...

  17. 40 CFR 410.75 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true New source performance standards (NSPS). 410.75 Section 410.75 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TEXTILE MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Stock and Yarn Finishing Subcategory § 410.75...

  18. 40 CFR 427.86 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 427.86 Section 427.86 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT... Textiles Subcategory § 427.86 Pretreatment standards for new sources. Any new source subject to this...

  19. 40 CFR 410.55 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true New source performance standards (NSPS). 410.55 Section 410.55 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TEXTILE MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Knit Fabric Finishing Subcategory § 410.55 New...

  20. 40 CFR 410.25 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true New source performance standards (NSPS). 410.25 Section 410.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TEXTILE MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wool Finishing Subcategory § 410.25 New source...

  1. 40 CFR 428.66 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 428.66 Section 428.66 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Medium-Sized General Molded, Extruded...

  2. Conventional methods and emerging wastewater polishing technologies for palm oil mill effluent treatment: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Wai Loan; Kassim, Mohd Azraai; Muda, Khalida; Loh, Soh Kheang; Affam, Augustine Chioma

    2015-02-01

    The Malaysian palm oil industry is a major revenue earner and the country is ranked as one of the largest producers in the world. However, growth of the industry is synonymous with a massive production of agro-industrial wastewater. As an environmental protection and public health concern, the highly polluting palm oil mill effluent (POME) has become a major attention-grabber. Hence, the industry is targeting for POME pollution abatement in order to promote a greener image of palm oil and to achieve sustainability. At present, most palm oil mills have adopted the ponding system for treatment. Due to the successful POME pollution abatement experiences, Malaysia is currently planning to revise the effluent quality standards towards a more stringent discharge limits. Hence, the current trend of POME research focuses on developing tertiary treatment or polishing systems for better effluent management. Biotechnologically-advanced POME tertiary (polishing) technologies as well as other physicochemical methods are gaining much attention as these processes are the key players to push the industry towards the goal of environmental sustainability. There are still ongoing treatment technologies being researched and the outcomes maybe available in a while. However, the research completed so far are compiled herein and reported for the first time to acquire a better perspective and insight on the subject with a view of meeting the new standards. To this end, the most feasible technology could be the combination of advanced biological processes (bioreactor systems) with extended aeration, followed by solids separation prior to discharge. Chemical dosing is favoured only if effluent of higher quality is anticipated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Facility effluent monitoring plan for 242-A evaporator facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crummel, G.M.; Gustavson, R.D.

    1995-02-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the U.S. Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could affect employee or public safety or the environment. A facility effluent monitoring plan determination was performed during Calendar Year 1991 and the evaluation showed the need for a facility effluent monitoring plan. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438-1. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated, as a minimum, every three years

  4. Fungal protein from corn waste effluents : a model study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellart, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the microbiological aspects of the production of microbial protein ('single cell protein'; SCP) from corn waste effluents with simultaneous reduction of the COD of these effluents.

    For practical reasons the corn waste water itself was

  5. Effect of industrial effluents on the growth and anatomical structures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The authors investigated the impact of industrial effluents from 5 different industrial concerns in Lagos, Nigeria on Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus). During the study, it was observed that these effluents induced detrimental effects on the flowering, fruiting, stem length, leaf width and leaf length of okra. Other parameters ...

  6. Evaluation of some industrial effluents in Jos metropolis, Plateau ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    P.TECHNOLOGY

    Sometimes effluents gain access into wells or streams within the community. Analyses aimed to determine the strength of effluents of three different industries in Jos metropolis: industry A (a food industry), industry B (a pharmaceutical outfit) and Industry C (a water treatment plant) using parameters such as physicochemical ...

  7. Evaluation of some industrial effluents in Jos metropolis, Plateau ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sometimes effluents gain access into wells or streams within the community. Analyses aimed to determine the strength of effluents of three different industries in Jos metropolis: industry A (a food industry), industry B (a pharmaceutical outfit) and Industry C (a water treatment plant) using parameters such as physicochemical, ...

  8. Facility effluent monitoring plan for 242-A evaporator facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crummel, G.M.; Gustavson, R.D.

    1995-02-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the U.S. Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could affect employee or public safety or the environment. A facility effluent monitoring plan determination was performed during Calendar Year 1991 and the evaluation showed the need for a facility effluent monitoring plan. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438-1. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated, as a minimum, every three years.

  9. The chemical composition of the effluent from Awassa Textile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The chemical composition of the effluent from the Awassa textile factory was quantified and its effects on chlorophyll-a concentration and fish fry were examined. The effluent contained high concentrations of toxic heavy metals, and concentrations of about 70% of all the elements measured were higher (by 10 to 100 times) ...

  10. Fate and Effect of Dissolved Silicon within Wastewater Treatment Effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Timothy J; Fulweiler, Robinson W

    2017-07-05

    In large rivers, the ratios of silicon (Si)/nitrogen (N)/phosphorus (P) have changed dramatically as anthropogenic additions of N or P are not matched by Si. Wastewater effluent is a recognized source of N and P to coastal environments. Few previous studies, however, have examined the Si load of a large wastewater plant's effluent or the molar ratios of Si/N and Si/P in effluent. We examine the annual flux of dissolved silicon (DSi) carried by effluent from the second largest treatment plant by flow in the United States (Deer Island Treatment Plant, DITP, Boston, MA). We compare treatment plant nutrient fluxes to local urban river nutrient fluxes and trace the impact of the DITP DSi loading on receiving waters. Estimates (±95% confidence interval) of treated effluent (67 800 ± 1500 kmol DSi year -1 ) compared to untreated (69 500 kmol DSi year -1 ) indicate that the process of sewage treatment at DITP likely does not remove DSi. DITP effluent was Si-limited and this Si-limitation is reflected in the receiving waters (Massachusetts Bay). However, Si-limitation appears only in the area immediately surrounding the effluent discharge. We use these results to explain phytoplankton patterns in Massachusetts Bay and to provide the first estimate of DSi loading (3.6 Gmol SiO 2 year -1 ) from wastewater effluent across the US.

  11. Effects of cassava mill effluent on some chemical and micro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examines the effects of cassava mill effluent on the Physicochemical and biological properties of soils of Obubra and Odukpani Local Areas in Cross River State after long time of pollution by the effluent. The soil samples were collected with an auger at the depths of 0-15cm and 15-30cm in each of the polluted ...

  12. Effect of industrial effluents on the growth and anatomical structures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-20

    Jul 20, 2009 ... The authors investigated the impact of industrial effluents from 5 different industrial concerns in Lagos,. Nigeria on Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus). During the study, it was observed that these effluents induced detrimental effects on the flowering, fruiting, stem length, leaf width and leaf length of okra.

  13. Operability test procedure for the TK-900 effluent monitoring station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissenfels, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    This procedure will verify that the 221-B liquid effluent monitoring system, installed near the east end of the 6-in. chemical sewer header, functions as intended by design. TK-900B was installed near stairwell 3 in the 221-B electrical gallery by Project W-007H. The system is part of BAT/AKART for the BCE liquid effluent system

  14. Overexpression of antibiotic resistance genes in hospital effluents over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Will P M; Baker-Austin, Craig; Verner-Jeffreys, David W; Ryan, Jim J; Micallef, Christianne; Maskell, Duncan J; Pearce, Gareth P

    2017-06-01

    Effluents contain a diverse abundance of antibiotic resistance genes that augment the resistome of receiving aquatic environments. However, uncertainty remains regarding their temporal persistence, transcription and response to anthropogenic factors, such as antibiotic usage. We present a spatiotemporal study within a river catchment (River Cam, UK) that aims to determine the contribution of antibiotic resistance gene-containing effluents originating from sites of varying antibiotic usage to the receiving environment. Gene abundance in effluents (municipal hospital and dairy farm) was compared against background samples of the receiving aquatic environment (i.e. the catchment source) to determine the resistome contribution of effluents. We used metagenomics and metatranscriptomics to correlate DNA and RNA abundance and identified differentially regulated gene transcripts. We found that mean antibiotic resistance gene and transcript abundances were correlated for both hospital ( ρ  = 0.9, two-tailed P  resistance genes ( bla GES and bla OXA ) were overexpressed in all hospital effluent samples. High β-lactam resistance gene transcript abundance was related to hospital antibiotic usage over time and hospital effluents contained antibiotic residues. We conclude that effluents contribute high levels of antibiotic resistance genes to the aquatic environment; these genes are expressed at significant levels and are possibly related to the level of antibiotic usage at the effluent source. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy.

  15. Treatment of some Textile Industrial Effluents using Dry Corn Stalk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corn stalk ground to various mesh sizes was used to treat textile effluents obtained from three different industries. These effluents were first pretreated with alum and then charcoal; passing the water through a column, (20cm long and 5cm diameter) containing the ground corn stalk of size diameters of 300mm, 355mm ...

  16. The effects of hair dressing effluent irrigation on soil chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of hair dressing effluent on soil chemical properties, germination and growth of maize and cowpea were investigated in pot experiment. The experiment was laid out in a completely randomized design of 3 effluent treatments (100 ml, 200 ml and 400 ml) and control with 5 replications at University of Port Harcourt ...

  17. Sublethal Effects of Ammoniacal Fertilizer Effluents on three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sublethal Effects of Ammoniacal Fertilizer Effluents on three Commercial Fish Species from Niger Delta Area, Nigeria. IKE Ekweozor, NOK Bobmanuel, UU Gabriel. Abstract. Sublethal effects of various concentrations of fertilizer effluents on the tail beat frequency per minute (TBF min.-1) and opercular beat frequency per ...

  18. Color pollution control in textile dyeing industry effluents using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effective treatment of dyestuff containing textile dyeing industry effluents require advanced treatment technologies such as adsorption for the removal of dyestuffs. Powdered commercial coal based activated carbon has been the most widely used adsorbent for the removal of dyestuffs from dyeing industry effluents.

  19. Spatial Variation in Groundwater Pollution from Abattoir Effluents in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study therefore concluded that the water in Groups A and B, was not fit for drinking unless adequately treated. It was recommended that there is the need for the treatment of the abattoir effluents before discharging them into the environment. Keywords: Spatial variation, Groundwater, Pollution, Abattoir, Effluents, Water ...

  20. Readiness Assessment Plan, Hanford 200 areas treated effluent disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulmer, F.J.

    1995-01-01

    This Readiness Assessment Plan documents Liquid Effluent Facilities review process used to establish the scope of review, documentation requirements, performance assessment, and plant readiness to begin operation of the Treated Effluent Disposal system in accordance with DOE-RLID-5480.31, Startup and Restart of Facilities Operational Readiness Review and Readiness Assessments

  1. The Use of Kitchen Effluent as Alternative Nutrient Source for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The recovery of oil based drilling muds was monitored for a period of 12 weeks upon inoculation with kitchen effluent. Oil based drilling muds inoculated with varying volumes (200ml, 250ml and 300ml) of kitchen effluent constituted the experimental set-ups, while the control set-ups were made up of oil based drilling muds ...

  2. Effects of abattoir effluent on composition and distribution of insect ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ecological impacts of abattoir effluents discharge into Lower Ogun River were assessed by studying the composition, distributions and diversity of insect fauna of the river both in lsheri-Olofin(abattoir effluents discharge/downstream) and lshasi (upstream/control) areas for 24months (January 2006 to December 2007).

  3. Acute Toxicity Tests Of Brewery Effluent on the Ostracoda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mortality also varied with the concentrations. The toxic effect of brewery effluent on ostracoda, which plays an important role in the aquatic food chain and the possibility that they may be accumulating some of these toxic components, is a matter for concern. Keywords: Toxicity, rewery effluent, Ostracoda, Strandesia, ...

  4. Biodegradation Potentials of Cassava Mill Effluent (CME) by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    This work was aimed at assessing the biodegradation potentials of indigenous microbial isolates from cassava mill effluent ... Bioremediation of cassava mill effluent by these microorganisms was manifested in the reduction of biological oxygen demand ... in the manufacturing industries and degradation or transformation of ...

  5. Effect of cassava effluent on Okada natural water | Ehiagbonare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the effect of cassava effluent on Okada natural water. It was observed that the colour, taste and odour of the water changed after cassava effluent had been discharched into it. This was an indication of pollution. The physico-chemical analysis showed that the characteristics of water analysed varied ...

  6. Processes influencing cooling of reactor effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magoulas, V.E.; Murphy, C.E. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Discharge of heated reactor cooling water from SRP reactors to the Savannah River is through sections of stream channels into the Savannah River Swamp and from the swamp into the river. Significant cooling of the reactor effluents takes place in both the streams and swamp. The majority of the cooling is through processes taking place at the surface of the water. The major means of heat dissipation are convective transfer of heat to the air, latent heat transfer through evaporation and radiative transfer of infrared radiation. A model was developed which incorporates the effects of these processes on stream and swamp cooling of reactor effluents. The model was used to simulate the effect of modifications in the stream environment on the temperature of water flowing into the river. Environmental effects simulated were the effect of changing radiant heat load, the effect of changes in tree canopy density in the swamp, the effect of total removal of trees from the swamp, and the effect of diverting the heated water from L reactor from Steel Creek to Pen Branch. 6 references, 7 figures

  7. Hydroponics reducing effluent's heavy metals discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rababah, Abdellah; Al-Shuha, Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the capacity of Nutrient Film Technique (NFT) to control effluent's heavy metals discharge. A commercial hydroponic system was adapted to irrigate lettuces with primary treated wastewater for studying the potential heavy metals removal. A second commercial hydroponic system was used to irrigate the same type of lettuces with nutrient solution and this system was used as a control. Results showed that lettuces grew well when irrigated with primary treated effluent in the commercial hydroponic system. The NFT-plant system heavy metals removal efficiency varied amongst the different elements, The system's removal efficiency for Cr was more than 92%, Ni more than 85%, in addition to more than 60% reduction of B, Pb, and Zn. Nonetheless, the NFT-plants system removal efficiencies for As, Cd and Cu were lower than 30%. Results show that lettuces accumulated heavy metals in leaves at concentrations higher than the maximum acceptable European and Australian levels. Therefore, non-edible plants such as flowers or pyrethrum are recommended as value added crops for the proposed NFT.

  8. Airborne effluent control at uranium mills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sears, M.B.

    1976-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory has made an engineering cost--environmental benefit study of radioactive waste treatment systems for decreasing the amount of radioactive materials released from uranium ore processing mills. This paper summarizes the results of the study which pertain to the control and/or abatement of airborne radioactive materials from the mill processes. The tailings area is not included. Present practices in the uranium milling industry, with particular emphasis on effluent control and waste management, have been surveyed. A questionnaire was distributed to each active mill in the United States. Replies were received from about 75 percent of the mill operators. Visits were made to six operating uranium mills that were selected because they represented the different processes in use today and the newest, most modern in mill designs. Discussions were held with members of the Region IV Office of NRC and the Grand Junction Office of ERDA. Nuclear Science Abstracts, as well as other sources, were searched for literature pertinent to uranium mill processes, effluent control, and waste management

  9. Liquid Effluent Monitoring Information System (LEMIS) System Construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, R.T.

    1994-01-01

    The liquid effluent sampling program is part of the effort to minimize adverse environmental impact during the cleanup operation at the Hanford Site. Of the 33 Phase I and Phase II liquid effluents, all streams actively discharged to the soil column will be sampled. The Liquid Effluent Monitoring Information System (LEMIS) is being developed as the organized information repository facility in support of the liquid effluent monitoring requirements of the Tri-Party Agreement. It is necessary to provide an automated repository into which the results from liquid effluent sampling will be placed. This repository must provide for effective retention, review, and retrieval of selected sample data by authorized persons and organizations. This System Construction document is the aggregation of the DMR P+ methodology project management deliverables. Together they represent a description of the project and its plan through four Releases, corresponding to the definition and prioritization of requirements defined by the user

  10. Evaluation of paint industry effluents for irrigation purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolly, Y.N.; Islam, A.; Quraishi, S.B.; Mustafa, A.I.

    2006-01-01

    Effluent samples collected from a paints factory for a period of seven months were analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity (EC), soluble cations and anions, nitrogen, phosphorus, and trace elements (Cd, B, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Pb). Compared with the natural groundwater used for washing paint wastes, the paint industry effluents were found to contain elevated concentrations of cations with the exception of Ca and moderately high concentrations of trace elements. Evaluation of the effluents was made, based on the integration of EC and both the sodium absorption ratio (SAR) and soluble sodium percent (SSP), BOD and COD values, and maximum permissible limits of heavy metals in the irrigation water. From the overall assessment, the effluents were considered suitable for use as supplement irrigation water. However, it is essential that the heavy metals in the effluents, as well as their accumulation in plants and soils, are monitored regularly. (author)

  11. Kinetic Modeling of Dye Effluent Biodegradation by Pseudomonas Stutzeri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Rajamohan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Dye industry waste water is difficult to treat because of the presence of dyes with complex aromatic structure. In this research study, the biodegradation studies of dye effluent were performed utilizing Pseudomonas stutzeri in a controlled laboratory environment under anoxic conditions. The effects of operational parameters like initial pH of the effluent and initial Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD of the effluent on percentage COD removal were studied. A biokinetic model is established giving the dependence of percentage COD removal on biomass concentration and initial COD of the effluent. The biokinetics of the COD removal was found to be first order with respect to both the microbial concentration and initial COD of the effluent. The optimal pH for better bacterial degradation was found to be 8.The specific degradation rate was found to be 0.1417 l/g Dry Cell Mass (DCM h, at 320 C.

  12. Facility effluent monitoring plan determinations for the 100 Area facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brendel, D.E.

    1991-11-01

    The determination for Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans arose from evaluations conducted for the Westinghouse Hanford Company 100 Area facilities on the Hanford Site. The Facility Effluent Monitoring Plant determinations have been prepared in accordance with A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan, WHC-EP-0438 (WHC 1991). Ten Westinghouse Hanford Company facilities in the 100 Areas were evaluated: N Reactor, KE/KW Reactors, 1706 KE Laboratory, and the Surplus Reactors (B, C, D, DR, F, and H). The N Reactor, KE/KW Reactors, and 1706 KE Laboratory Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan determinations were prepared by Columbia Energy and Environmental Services of Richland, Washington. The determination for the Surplus Reactors was prepared by Westinghouse Hanford Company. Of the 10 facilities evaluated, two will require a Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan: N Reactor and the active spent fuel storage facilities and their contiguous support facilities at 100 KE and 100 KW

  13. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FRAZIER, T.P.

    1999-10-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the U. S. Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether these systems are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. To ensure the long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems, an update to this facility effluent monitoring plan is required whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document is reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and is updated, at a minimum, every 3 years.

  14. Asymptomatic Effluent Protozoa Colonization in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões-Silva, Liliana; Correia, Inês; Barbosa, Joana; Santos-Araujo, Carla; Sousa, Maria João; Pestana, Manuel; Soares-Silva, Isabel; Sampaio-Maia, Benedita

    Currently, chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global health problem. Considering the impaired immunity of CKD patients, the relevance of infection in peritoneal dialysis (PD), and the increased prevalence of parasites in CKD patients, protozoa colonization was evaluated in PD effluent from CKD patients undergoing PD. Overnight PD effluent was obtained from 49 asymptomatic stable PD patients. Protozoa analysis was performed microscopically by searching cysts and trophozoites in direct wet mount of PD effluent and after staining smears. Protozoa were found in PD effluent of 10.2% of evaluated PD patients, namely Blastocystis hominis, in 2 patients, and Entamoeba sp., Giardia sp., and Endolimax nana in the other 3 patients, respectively. None of these patients presented clinical signs or symptoms of peritonitis at the time of protozoa screening. Our results demonstrate that PD effluent may be susceptible to asymptomatic protozoa colonization. The clinical impact of this finding should be further investigated. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis.

  15. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the tank farms facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachand, D.D.; Crummel, G.M.

    1995-05-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using specific guidelines. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated as a minimum every three years

  16. The effluent problem in a plutonium production centre; Probleme des effluents d'un centre de production de plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galley, R.; Cantel, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    The first part of the report is devoted to generalities: the geographical situation of the Marcoule Centre, the sources of radio-active effluent, methods of treating this effluent. In the second part the authors gives a detailed description of the various installations in the Radio-active Effluent Treatment Station at the Marcoule Centre, and outline the conditions governing the rejection of treated effluent into the Rhone. A few lines are given to comparisons between the results obtained from the use of these installations up till may 1959 and the expected results published by the same authors at the Brussels Conference (1956). In conclusion the authors lay down some of the essential principles, applicable to the study of new installations. (author) [French] La premiere partie du rapport est consacree a quelques generalites: situation geographique du Centre de Marcoule, provenance des effluents radioactifs, methodes de traitement de ces effluents. Dans la seconde partie, les auteurs presentent une description detaillee des diverses installations de la Station de Traitement des Effluents radioactifs du Centre de Marcoule et precisent les conditions de rejet dans le Rhone des effluents radioactifs traites. Quelques lignes sont consacrees aux comparaisons entre les resultats de l'exploitation des installations jusqu'en mai 1959 et les previsions publiees par les memes auteurs a l'occasion de la Conference de Bruxelles (1956). En conclusion, les auteurs donnent quelques principes essentiels, applicables a l'etude de nouvelles installations. (auteur)

  17. 40 CFR 415.163 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Effluent limitations guidelines... economically achievable (BAT). 415.163 Section 415.163 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... to this subpart and using the solar evaporation process must achieve the following effluent...

  18. 40 CFR 420.102 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... best practicable control technology currently available. (a) Cold rolling mills—(1) Recirculation... 9.0. (2) Recirculation—multiple stands. Subpart J Pollutant or pollutant property BPT effluent.... (b) Cold worked pipe and tube—(1) Using water. Subpart J Pollutant of pollutant property BPT effluent...

  19. 40 CFR 430.122 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Filter, Non-Woven, and Paperboard From Purchased Pulp Subcategory § 430.122 Effluent limitations... times. Subpart L [BPT effluent limitations for non-integrated mills where filter and non-woven papers... available (BPT), except that non-continuous dischargers shall not be subject to the maximum day and average...

  20. 40 CFR 406.17 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... control technology. 406.17 Section 406.17 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 406.17 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...] Effective Date Note: Section 406.17 was indefinitely suspended at 45 FR 45582, July 7, 1980. ...

  1. 40 CFR 406.27 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... control technology (BCT). 406.27 Section 406.27 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 406.27 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the... conventional pollutants (which are defined in § 401.16) in § 406.22 of this subpart for the best practicable...

  2. 40 CFR 406.47 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... control technology (BCT). 406.47 Section 406.47 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Subcategory § 406.47 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable... specified for conventional pollutants (which are defined in § 401.16) in § 406.42 of this subpart for the...

  3. 40 CFR 406.37 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... control technology (BCT). 406.37 Section 406.37 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Subcategory § 406.37 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable... specified for conventional pollutants (which are defined in § 401.16) in § 406.32 of this subpart for the...

  4. 40 CFR 405.92 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Condensed Milk Subcategory § 405.92 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent... Within the range 6.0 to 9.0. (b) For plants condensing 100,000 lb/day or less of milk equivalent (less... application of the best practicable control technology currently available (BPT): (a) For plants condensing...

  5. 40 CFR 468.11 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... (p) Subpart A—Surface Coating BPT Effluent Limitations. Pollutant or pollutant property Maximum for... Treatment BPT Effluent Limitations. Pollutant or pollutant property Maximum for any 1 day Maximum for... (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 7.5 to 10.0 at all times. (e) Subpart A—Extrusion Heat Treatment BPT...

  6. 40 CFR 427.83 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effluent limitations guidelines... economically achievable. 427.83 Section 427.83 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Finishing of Asbestos Textiles Subcategory § 427.83 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  7. 40 CFR 427.82 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effluent limitations guidelines... technology currently available. 427.82 Section 427.82 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... or Finishing of Asbestos Textiles Subcategory § 427.82 Effluent limitations guidelines representing...

  8. A study conducted on the impact of effluent waste from machining process on the environment by water analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovoor, Punnose P.; Idris, Mohd Razif [Kuala Lumpur Univ. (Malaysia). Inst. of Product Design and Manufacturing, IPROM; Hassan, Masjuki Haji [Univ. of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Tengku Yahya, Tengku Fazli [Kuala Lumpur Univ., Melaka (Malaysia). Malaysian Inst. of Chemical and Bio Engineering Technology, MICET

    2012-11-01

    Ferrous block metals are used frequently in large quantities in various sectors of industry for making automotive, furniture, electrical and mechanical items, body parts for consumables, and so forth. During the manufacturing stage, the block metals are subjected to some form of material removal process either through turning, grinding, milling, or drilling operations to obtain the final product. Wastes are generated from the machining process in the form of effluent waste, solid waste, atmospheric emission, and energy emission. These wastes, if not recycled or treated properly before disposal, will have a detrimental impact on the environment through air, water, and soil pollution. The purpose of this paper is to determine the impact of the effluent waste from the machining process on the environment through water analysis. A twofold study is carried out to determine the impact of the effluent waste on the water stream. The preliminary study consists of a scenario analysis where five scenarios are drawn out using substances such as spent coolant, tramp oil, solvent, powdered chips, and sludge, which are commonly found in the effluent waste. The wastes are prepared according to the scenarios and are disposed through the Institute of Product Design and Manufacturing (IPROM) storm water drain. Samples of effluent waste are collected at specific locations according to the APHA method and are tested for parameters such as pH, ammoniacal nitrogen, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, and total suspended solids. A subsequent study is done by collecting 30 samples of the effluent waste from the machining operations from two small- and medium-scale enterprise locations and the IPROM workshop to test the quality of water. The results obtained from the tests showed high values of chemical oxygen demand, ammoniacal nitrogen, and total suspended solids when compared with the Standard B specification for inland water bodies as specified by the

  9. Coal fly ash as adsorptive material for treatment of a real textile effluent: operating parameters and treatment efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharia, Carmen; Suteu, Daniela

    2013-04-01

    The experimental results performed after the application of one single-stage treatment by sorption onto coal fly ash are evaluated in order to decolorize a real textile effluent of a private company specializing in manufacturing of cotton fabrics (i.e., sorption performance applied for a real textile effluent collected after the fabric dyeing, rinsing, and final finishing steps). The experiments are focused on studying the effect of initial textile effluent pH, adsorbent dose, temperature and adsorption time, considered as operating parameters of sorption process for high pollutant removals (e.g., organic pollutants as dyes, phenols, polymeric, and degradation compounds), and decoloration. The results indicate high values of decoloration degree (55.42-83.00%) and COD removal (44.44-61.11%) when it is worked at pH ≤2 with coal ash dose of 12-40 g/L, temperature higher than 20-25 °C, and continuous static operating regime (with an initial agitation step of 3-5 min). The treated textile effluent fulfills the quality demand, and is recyclable, inside reused or discharged after a stage of neutralization (standard pH of 6.5-8.5 for all textile effluent discharges). Also, the final effluent is able to follow the common path to the central biological treatment plant (i.e., a centralized treatment plant for all companies acting in the industrial site area with mechanical-biological steps for wastewater treatment) or may be directly discharged in the nearly watercourse.

  10. Assessing the application of advanced oxidation processes, and their combination with biological treatment, to effluents from pulp and paper industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merayo, Noemí; Hermosilla, Daphne; Blanco, Laura; Cortijo, Luis; Blanco, Angeles

    2013-11-15

    The closure of water circuits within pulp and paper mills has resulted in a higher contamination load of the final mill effluent, which must consequently be further treated in many cases to meet the standards imposed by the legislation in force. Different treatment strategies based on advanced oxidation processes (ozonation and TiO2-photocatalysis), and their combination with biological treatment (MBR), are herein assessed for effluents of a recycled paper mill and a kraft pulp mill. Ozone treatment achieved the highest efficiency of all. The consumption of 2.4 g O3 L(-1) resulted in about a 60% COD reduction treating the effluent from the kraft pulp mill at an initial pH=7; although it only reached about a 35% COD removal for the effluent of the recycled paper mill. Otherwise, photocatalysis achieved about a 20-30% reduction of the COD for both type of effluents. In addition, the effluent from the recycled paper mill showed a higher biodegradability, so combinations of these AOPs with biological treatment were tested. As a result, photocatalysis did not report any significant COD reduction improvement whether being performed as pre- or post-treatment of the biological process; whereas the use of ozonation as post-biological treatment enhanced COD removal a further 10%, summing up a total 90% reduction of the COD for the combined treatment, as well as it also supposed an increase of the presence of volatile fatty acids, which might ultimately enable the resultant wastewater to be recirculated back to further biological treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Secondary Organic Aerosol Production from Gasoline Vehicle Exhaust: Effects of Engine Technology, Cold Start, and Emission Certification Standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunliang; Lambe, Andrew T; Saleh, Rawad; Saliba, Georges; Robinson, Allen L

    2018-02-06

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from dilute exhaust from 16 gasoline vehicles was investigated using a potential aerosol mass (PAM) oxidation flow reactor during chassis dynamometer testing using the cold-start unified cycle (UC). Ten vehicles were equipped with gasoline direct injection engines (GDI vehicles) and six with port fuel injection engines (PFI vehicles) certified to a wide range of emissions standards. We measured similar SOA production from GDI and PFI vehicles certified to the same emissions standard; less SOA production from vehicles certified to stricter emissions standards; and, after accounting for differences in gas-particle partitioning, similar effective SOA yields across different engine technologies and certification standards. Therefore the ongoing, dramatic shift from PFI to GDI vehicles in the United States should not alter the contribution of gasoline vehicles to ambient SOA and the natural replacement of older vehicles with newer ones certified to stricter emissions standards should reduce atmospheric SOA levels. Compared to hot operations, cold-start exhaust had lower effective SOA yields, but still contributed more SOA overall because of substantially higher organic gas emissions. We demonstrate that the PAM reactor can be used as a screening tool for vehicle SOA production by carefully accounting for the effects of the large variations in emission rates.

  12. Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in the river receiving the effluent of municipal wastewater treatment plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atefeh Taherkhani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of Listeria spp. in the river water before and after discharge of the effluent of the municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP in Isfahan, Iran. Materials and Methods: A total of 66 samples were collected bi-weekly over 4 months from eleven discrete sampling locations in Zayandehrood River, Iran. Three sampling sites were located above the discharge point and five sites were located after the discharge point of WWTP. Samples were also collected from the influent and the effluent of WWTP. Listeria spp. were isolated using a selective enrichment procedure and a subculture onto polymyxin-acriflavine-lithium chloride-ceftazidime-esculin-mannitol Agar. All isolates were subjected to standard biochemical tests. Results: L. monocytogenes was isolated from influent (83%, effluent (50% and (18.5% river water. Listeria spp. was not found before the discharge point in river water. However, L. monocytogenes was isolated in samples collected from 200 m (33%, 500 m (33%, 2 km (16.5%, 5 km (16.5% and 10 km (16.5% downstream from the WWTP. Listeria innocua (9% and Listeria seeligeri (10% were the second most frequently isolated species. Conclusion: During the wastewater treatment, Listeria spp. is not removed completely. L. monocytogenes is widely distributed in the Zayandehrood river. L. monocytogenes released into surface water demonstrates a potential risk for public health. These results indicate the need for appropriate water management in order to reduce human and animal exposure to such pathogens.

  13. Impact of Industrial effluents on the water quality of Phulleli canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahar, R.B.

    2001-01-01

    Phulleli canal is one of the main source of irrigation water in lower Sindh. It also supplements the drinking water demand for a number of communities residing on its either banks. A significant proportion of the domestic wastewater and industrial effluents, generated in Hyderabad City, is disposed off into Phulleli canal without any treatment. Therefore, a reduction in the pollution stabilizing capacity of the canal is expected. This paper presents the results of the monitoring programme carried out to investigate the variation in the canal water quality due to wastewater discharges in it. The quality of the canal water and industrial effluents has been studied in terms of pH, Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Total Suspends Solids (TSS), Total Volatile Solids (TVS), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Chloride, Sulfide and Heavy metals (zinc, nickel, cadmium, lead and copper). The preliminary results have shown that during low canal flow there is a significant decline is dissolved oxygen concentration and increase in almost all the measured pollutants. The pollutant concentrations both in the canal water and industrial effluents have been found exceeding the national and international water quality standards. (author)

  14. Physicochemical characteristics of paper industry effluents--a case study of South India Paper Mill (SIPM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Ningombam Linthoingambi; Yadav, Ishwar Chandra; Shihua, Q I; Singh, Surendra; Belagali, S L

    2011-06-01

    Pulp and paper mills generate varieties of pollutants depending upon type of the pulping process being used. This paper presents the characteristics of wastewater from South India Paper Mill, Karnataka, India which is using recycled waste paper as a raw material. The raw wastewater consists of 80-90 mg L( - 1) suspended solid and 1,010-1,015 mg L( - 1) dissolved solid. However, pH varied from 5.5-6.8. The biochemical oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand ranged from 200-210 and 1,120-1,160 mg L( - 1), respectively. Aerobic treatment of raw effluent attribute to significant reduction in suspended solid (range between 25 to 30 mg L( - 1)) and total dissolved solid (range between 360 to 390 mg L( - 1)). However, pH, temperature, and electrical conductivity were found superior after treatment. Copper, cadmium, iron, lead, nickel, and zinc were found in less quantity in raw effluent and were almost completely removed after treatment. The dendrogram of the effluent quality parameters clearly indicate that South India Paper Mill does not meet Minimal National Standard set by central Pollution Control Board to discharge in agricultural field.

  15. Radioactivity distribution in phosphate products, by-products, effluents, and wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimond, R.J.; Windham, S.T.

    1975-08-01

    Phosphate rock throughout the world contains uranium in concentrations ranging from a few ppM to a few hundred ppM. In the United States, phosphate rock normally contains between 100 to 150 ppM uranium. Mining and processing of these ores redistributes much of the uranium daughters among the various products, by-products, and wastes. These materials are then widely dispersed throughout the environment. This redistribution may lead to increased exposure of the public to these naturally-occurring radionuclides. In determining the magnitude of the population exposure caused by this redistribution and in developing environmental standards and controls to prevent contamination of the biosphere from these naturally-occurring radionuclides it is necessary to determine the concentrations and total quantities of these radionuclides in the products, by-products, effluents and wastes of phosphate mining and manufacturing. Samples of phosphate ores, products, by-products, effluents, and wastes were obtained and analyzed for their radioactivity content. Quantities of radioactivity entering the environment through various products, by-products, effluents, and wastes were estimated

  16. An evaluation of biotic ligand models predicting acute copper toxicity to Daphnia magna in wastewater effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantino, Carlos; Scrimshaw, Mark; Comber, Sean; Churchley, John

    2011-04-01

    The toxicity of Cu to Daphnia magna was investigated in a series of 48-h immobilization assays in effluents from four wastewater treatment works. The assay results were compared with median effective concentration (EC50) forecasts produced by the HydroQual biotic ligand model (BLM), the refined D. magna BLM, and a modified BLM that was constructed by integrating the refined D. magna biotic ligand characterization with the Windermere humic aqueous model (WHAM) VI geochemical speciation model, which also accommodated additional effluent characteristics as model inputs. The results demonstrated that all the BLMs were capable of predicting toxicity by within a factor of two, and that the modified BLM produced the most accurate toxicity forecasts. The refined D. magna BLM offered the most robust assessment of toxicity in that it was not reliant on the inclusion of effluent characteristics or optimization of the dissolved organic carbon active fraction to produce forecasts that were accurate by within a factor of two. The results also suggested that the biotic ligand stability constant for Na may be a poor approximation of the mechanisms governing the influence of Na where concentrations exceed the range within which the biotic ligand stability constant value had been determined. These findings support the use of BLMs for the establishment of site-specific water quality standards in waters that contain a substantial amount of wastewater effluent, but reinforces the need for regulators to scrutinize the composition of models, their thermodynamic and biotic ligand parameters, and the limitations of those parameters. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  17. Quarterly sampling of the wetlands along the old F-Area effluent ditch: March 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, K.L.; Cummins, C.L.; Rogers, V.A.

    1994-05-01

    In March 1994, well point water and near surface water (bucket) samples were collected to further characterize tritium and volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the wetlands along the old F-Area effluent ditch south of 643-E (old burial ground). Groundwater flow paths suggest that compounds detected in water table wells around 643-E would migrate towards the old F-Area effluent ditch and Fourmile Branch. Recent analytical results from near surface water sampling in the wetlands that comprise the old F-Area effluent ditch have shown that tritium and small quantities of VOCs are outcropping in the area. Results of the March 1994 sampling event further support findings that tritium and volatile organic compounds originating from 643-E are outcropping in the wetlands near the old F-Area effluent ditch. Six different analytes were detected in the well points at least once at concentrations greater than the method detection limit: d 1,2-dichloroethylene, acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, tetrachloroethylene, trichloroethylene, and tritium. 1,2-dichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, trichloroethylene, and tritium were detected at levels above Primary Drinking Water Standards or Maximum Contaminant Levels list. Four analytes, 1,2-dichloroethylene, trichloroethylene, tritium, and vinyl chloride, were detected at least once at concentrations greater than the method detection limit and least once at concentrations above the PDWS or the MCL. Based on differences in tritium concentrations at each location, it was determined that the sampling devices intercepted different groundwater flow paths. This negated direct comparison of analytical results between devices. However, when VOC concentrations measured at each well point and bucket location were normalized, resulting well point and bucket VOC concentrations were comparable in most cases. These results suggest that volatilization losses of VOCs from the buckets were negligible

  18. Effluent characteristics of advanced treatment for biotreated coking wastewater by electrochemical technology using BDD anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunrong; Zhang, Mengru; Liu, Wei; Ye, Min; Su, Fujin

    2015-05-01

    Effluent of biotreated coking wastewater comprises hundreds of organic and inorganic pollutants and has the characteristics of high toxicity and difficult biodegradation; thus, its chemical oxygen demand cannot meet drainage standards in China. A boron-doped diamond anode was selected for advanced treatment of biotreated coking wastewater, and considering the efficiency of the removal of total organic carbon and energy consumption, optimal conditions were obtained as current density of 75 mA cm(-2), electrolysis time of 1.5 h, and an electrode gap of 1.0 cm in an orthogonal test. Effluent characteristics were investigated at different electrolysis times. The ratio of the 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) to the chemical oxygen demand increased from an initial value of 0.05 to 0.65 at 90 min. Fluorescence spectra were used to evaluate the evolution of refractory organics. Two fluorescence peaks for raw wastewater, corresponding to an aromatic protein-like substance II and humic acid-like substance, weakened at 30 and at 90 min, only the former was detected. The specific oxygen uptake rate was used to assess effluent toxicity, and an obvious inhibition effect was found at 15 min; then, it was significantly faded at 30 and 45 min. The BOD5/NO3 (-)-N ratio increased from an initial value of 0.48 to 1.25 at 45 min and then gradually dropped to 0.69 at 90 min. According to the above effluent characteristics, it is strongly suggested that electrochemical technology using boron-doped diamond anodes is combined with biological denitrification technology for the advanced treatment of biotreated coking wastewater.

  19. Poultry slaughterhouse wastewater treatment plant for high quality effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Nery, V; Damianovic, M H Z; Moura, R B; Pozzi, E; Pires, E C; Foresti, E

    2016-01-01

    This paper assesses a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) regarding the technology used, as well as organic matter and nutrient removal efficiencies aiming to optimize the treatment processes involved and wastewater reclamation. The WWTP consists of a dissolved air flotation (DAF) system, an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor, an aerated-facultative pond (AFP) and a chemical-DAF system. The removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (COD) (97.9 ± 1.0%), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) (98.6 ± 1.0%) and oil and grease (O&G) (91.1 ± 5.2%) at the WWTP, the nitrogen concentration of 17 ± 11 mg N-NH3 and phosphorus concentration of 1.34 ± 0.93 mg PO4(-3)/L in the final effluent indicate that the processes used are suitable to comply with discharge standards in water bodies. Nitrification and denitrification tests conducted using biomass collected at three AFP points indicated that nitrification and denitrification could take place in the pond.

  20. Bioremediation of the textile waste effluent by Chlorella vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Yassin El-Kassas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The microalgae biomass production from textile waste effluent is a possible solution for the environmental impact generated by the effluent discharge into water sources. The potential application of Chlorella vulgaris for bioremediation of textile waste effluent (WE was investigated using 22 Central Composite Design (CCD. This work addresses the adaptation of the microalgae C. vulgaris in textile waste effluent (WE and the study of the best dilution of the WE for maximum biomass production and for the removal of colour and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD by this microalga. The cultivation of C. vulgaris, presented maximum cellular concentrations Cmax and maximum specific growth rates μmax in the wastewater concentration of 5.0% and 17.5%, respectively. The highest colour and COD removals occurred with 17.5% of textile waste effluent. The results of C. vulgaris culture in the textile waste effluent demonstrated the possibility of using this microalga for the colour and COD removal and for biomass production. There was a significant negative relationship between textile waste effluent concentration and Cmax at 0.05 level of significance. However, sodium bicarbonate concentration did not significantly influence the responses of Cmax and the removal of colour and COD.

  1. WASTE TREATMENT PLANT (WTP) LIQUID EFFLUENT TREATABILITY EVALUATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LUECK, K.J.

    2004-01-01

    A forecast of the radioactive, dangerous liquid effluents expected to be produced by the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) was provided by Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI 2004). The forecast represents the liquid effluents generated from the processing of Tank Farm waste through the end-of-mission for the WTP. The WTP forecast is provided in the Appendices. The WTP liquid effluents will be stored, treated, and disposed of in the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) and the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Both facilities are located in the 200 East Area and are operated by Fluor Hanford, Inc. (FH) for the US. Department of Energy (DOE). The treatability of the WTP liquid effluents in the LERF/ETF was evaluated. The evaluation was conducted by comparing the forecast to the LERF/ETF treatability envelope (Aromi 1997), which provides information on the items which determine if a liquid effluent is acceptable for receipt and treatment at the LERF/ETF. The format of the evaluation corresponds directly to the outline of the treatability envelope document. Except where noted, the maximum annual average concentrations over the range of the 27 year forecast was evaluated against the treatability envelope. This is an acceptable approach because the volume capacity in the LERF Basin will equalize the minimum and maximum peaks. Background information on the LERF/ETF design basis is provided in the treatability envelope document

  2. Management of radioactive effluents from research Reactors and PHWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodke, S.B.; Surender Kumar; Sinha, P.K.; Budhwar, R.K.; Raj, Kanwar

    2006-01-01

    Indian nuclear power programme is mainly based on pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWRs). In addition we have research reactors namely Apsara, CIRUS, Dhruva at Trombay. The operation and maintenance activities of these reactors generate radioactive liquid waste. These wastes require effective management so that the release of radioactivity to the environment is well within the authorized limits. India is self reliant in the design, erection, commissioning and operation of effluent management system for nuclear reactors. Segregation at source based on nature of effluents and radioactivity content is the first and foremost step in the over all management of liquid effluents. The effluents from the power reactors contain mainly activation products like 3 H. It also contains fission products like 137 Cs. Containment of these radionuclide along with 60 Co, 90 Sr, 131 I plays an important part in liquid waste management. Treatment processes for decontamination of these radionuclide include chemical treatment, ion exchange, evaporation etc. Effluents after treatment are monitored and discharged to the nearby water body after filtration and dilution. The concentrates from the processes are conditioned in cement matrix and disposed in Near Surface Disposal Facilities (NSDFs) co-located at each site. Some times large quantity of effluents with higher radioactivity concentration may get generated from the abnormal operation such as failure of heat exchangers. These effluents are handled on a campaign basis for which adequate storage capacity is provided. The treatment is given taking into consideration the required decontamination factor (DF), capacities of available treatment process, discharge limits and the availability of the dilution water. Similarly large quantities of effluents may get generated during fuel clad failure incident in reactors. In such situation, as in CIRUS large volume of effluent containing higher radioactivity are generated and are managed by delay

  3. Effluent generation by the dairy industry: preventive attitudes and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Brião

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Work aimed to identify the effluent is generating areas in a dairy company for purpose of changing concept pollution prevention. methodology consisted measuring volumes and collecting samples effluents production sectors. analysis was conducted by sector, order those which generated excessive amounts effluents. results show that dry products (powdered milk powdered whey are greatest generators BOD, nitrogen phosphorus, while fluid form (UHT milk, formulated UHT, pasteurized cream butter produced large quantities oils grease. solids recovery, waste segregation water reuse can be applied with saving potential as much R$ 28,000 ($ 11,200 per month only raw materials also environmental gains in pollution prevention.

  4. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the 327 Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    The 327 Facility [Post-Irradiation Testing Laboratory] provides office and laboratory space for Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) scientific and engineering staff conducting multidisciplinary research in the areas of post-irradiated fuels and structural materials. The facility is designed to accommodate the use of radioactive and hazardous materials in the conduct of these activities. This report summarizes the airborne emissions and liquid effluents and the results of the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan (FEMP) determination for the facility. The complete monitoring plan includes characterization of effluent streams, monitoring/sampling design criteria, a description of the monitoring systems and sample analysis, and quality assurance requirements

  5. Characteristics of liquid effluents and treatment systems; Caracteristicas dos efluentes liquidos e sistemas de tratamento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This chapter gives an overview on the liquid effluents characteristics and the treatment systems, approaching the following subjects: the hydrological cycle; physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the liquid effluents; biological, chemical and physical characteristics; records on industrial effluents; treatment processes of industrial effluents.

  6. LC-MS/MS determination of antiretroviral drugs in influents and effluents from wastewater treatment plants in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abafe, Ovokeroye A; Späth, Jana; Fick, Jerker; Jansson, Stina; Buckley, Chris; Stark, Annegret; Pietruschka, Bjoern; Martincigh, Bice S

    2018-06-01

    South Africa has the largest occurrence of the human immune deficiency virus (HIV) in the world but has also implemented the largest antiretroviral (ARV) treatment programme. It was therefore of interest to determine the presence and concentrations of commonly used antiretroviral drugs (ARVDs) and, also, to determine the capabilities of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) for removing ARVDs. To this end, a surrogate standard based LC-MS/MS method was optimized and applied for the detection of thirteen ARVDs used in the treatment and management of HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) in two major and one modular WWTP in the eThekwini Municipality in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The method was validated and the detection limits fell within the range of 2-20 ng L -1 . The analytical recoveries for the ARVDs were mainly greater than 50% with acceptable relative standard deviations. The concentration values ranged from effluent) in a decentralized wastewater treatment facility (DEWATS); effluent) in Northern WWTP and 61-34000 ng L -1 (influent), effluent) in Phoenix WWTP. Whilst abacavir, lamivudine and zidovudine were almost completely removed from the effluents, atazanavir, efavirenz, lopinavir and nevirapine persisted in the effluents from all three WWTPs. To estimate the ecotoxicological risks associated with the discharge of ARVDs, a countrywide survey focussing on the occurrence of ARVDs in WWTPs, surface and fresh water bodies, and aquatic organisms, is necessary. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of heated effluent on the distribution of physicochemical parameters and phytoplankton in the vicinity of Madras Atomic Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saravanane, N.; Durairaj, G.; Satpathy, K.K.; Venugopalan, V.P.; Nair, K.V.K.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of power plant discharge on coastal waters has become an area of considerable scientific interest as well as public concern. With more and more stringent standards being imposed by pollution control boards, monitoring of physico-chemical characteristics of the receiving waters has become an activity of great importance for conforming to standards as well as for impact assessment. The present paper discusses the distribution of temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, nutrients, chlorophyll and phytoplankton in the coastal waters near a nuclear plant at Kalpakkam. Results showed that the heated effluents from the plant moved along the direction of the coastal current during the period of the study. It was seen that environmental parameters other than temperature were affected by the effluents from the station. The paper discusses the significance of the changes in the coastal ecology in the vicinity of the out fall. (author). 15 refs., 2 figs

  8. Effluent Information System (EIS) / Onsite Discharge Information System (ODIS): 1986 executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, T.

    1987-09-01

    Department of Energy (DOE) data base systems aid DOE-Headquarters and Field Offices in managing the radioactive air and liquid effluents from DOE facilities. Data on effluents released offsite are entered into effluent information system (EIS) and data on effluents discharged onsite and retained onsite are entered into Onsite Discharge Information System (ODIS). This document is a summary of information obtained from the CY 1986 effluent data received from all DOE and DOE contractor facilities and entered in the data bases. Data from previous years are also included. The summary consists of information for effluents released offsite, and information for effluents retained onsite

  9. PERFORMANCE OF A SURFACE FLOW CONSTRUCTED WETLAND SYSTEM USED TO TREAT SECONDARY EFFLUENT AND FILTER BACKWASH WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Vidales-Contreras

    2011-05-01

    The performance of a surface flow wetland system used to treat activated sludge effluent and filter backwash water from a tertiary treatment facility was evaluated. Samples were collected before and after vegetation removal from the system which consists of two densely vegetated settling basins (0.35 ha, an artificial stream, and a 3-ha surface flow wetland. Bulrush (Scripus spp. and cattail (Typha domingensis were the dominant plant species. The average inflow of chlorinated secondary effluent during the first two months of the actual study was 1.9  m3 min-1 while the inflow for backwash water treatment ranged from 0.21 to 0.42 m3 min-1. The system was able to reduce TSS and BOD5 to tertiary effluent standards; however, monitoring of chloride concentrations revealed that wetland evapotranspiration is probably enriching pollutant concentrations in the wetland outflow. Coliphage removal from the filter backwash was 97 and 35% during 1999 and 2000, respectively. However, when secondary effluent entered the system, coliphage removal averaged 65%. After vegetation removal, pH and coliphage density increased significantly (p

  10. Harvesting Microalgal Biomass grown in Anaerobic Sewage Treatment Effluent by the Coagulation-Flocculation Method: Effect of pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Servio Tulio Cassini

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Harvesting is a critical step in microalgal biomass production process for many reasons. Among the existing techniques available for harvesting and dewatering microalgal biomass, recovery from aqueous medium by coagulation-flocculation has been the most economically viable process, althoughit is highly dependent on pH. This study aims to assess alternative coagulants compared to the standard coagulant aluminum sulfate for microalgal biomass recovery from anaerobic effluent of domestic sewage treatment. The effluent quality was also analyzed after biomass recovery. Coagulants represented by modified tannin, cationic starch and aluminum sulfate recovered more than 90% of algae biomass, at concentrations greater than 80 mg/L, in the pH range 7-10. Cationic starch promoted higher microalgal biomass recovery with a wider pH range. Powdered seeds of Moringa oleifera and Hibiscus esculentus(okra gum promoted biomass removal of 50%, only in the acidic range of pH. After sedimentation of the microalgal biomass, the effluents showed a removal of >80% for phosphorus and nitrogen values and >50% for BOD and COD when using aluminum sulfate, cationic starch and modified tannin as coagulants. Natural organic coagulants in a wide pH range can replace aluminum sulfate, a reference coagulant in microalgal biomass recovery, without decreasing microalgal biomass harvesting efficiency and the quality of the final effluent.

  11. Alternatives for biodigester effluent treatment: economic impact; Impacto economico de um sistema de tratamento dos efluentes de biodigestores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miele, Marcelo; Kunz, Airton; Correa, Juliano Corulli; Steinmetz, Ricardo [EMBRAPA Suinos e Aves, Concordia, SC (Brazil)], email: marcelo@cnpsa.embrapa.br; Bortoli, Marcelo [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to present a prospective economic impact assessment of a biodigester liquid effluent treatment system. This system developed by Embrapa Swine and Poultry is composed by a N removal module and a P one, which can be attached to a biodigester, technology widely diffused in Brazil. Biodigesters do not remove nutrients (NPK) with high pollution potential of water resources and demanding high effluent transport costs. The analysis was based on Net Present Value (NPV) technique, using prototype performance information, market prices and wastewater analysis. The N module reduces more than ten times the surface needed to spread effluents. The P module attains the standard for discharge in water resources and makes this element available as fertilizer. The system has a significant impact on swine production costs, what can be reduced in farms which produces its own energy from manure. High effluent distribution costs also turn treatment more attractive. The study concludes that this is a promising technology which has to be validated. Financial support is needed to implement a real scale prototype to validate it. (author)

  12. Harvesting Microalgal Biomass grown in Anaerobic Sewage Treatment Effluent by the Coagulation-Flocculation Method: Effect of pH

    OpenAIRE

    Cassini, Servio Tulio; Francisco, Sara Aparecida; Antunes, Paulo Wagner Pereira; Oss, Rodrigo Nunes; Keller, Regina

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Harvesting is a critical step in microalgal biomass production process for many reasons. Among the existing techniques available for harvesting and dewatering microalgal biomass, recovery from aqueous medium by coagulation-flocculation has been the most economically viable process, althoughit is highly dependent on pH. This study aims to assess alternative coagulants compared to the standard coagulant aluminum sulfate for microalgal biomass recovery from anaerobic effluent of domesti...

  13. Interpretation of the concepts of ALARA and bat for radioactive effluent releases from nuclear installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiaoqiu

    2009-01-01

    Based on the understanding of the important concepts of both ALARA and BAT associated with the characteristics of effluent releases from the existing nuclear installations and the abatement techniques for effluents, this paper elaborates the principle of controlling radioactive effluent concentration from nuclear installation, that is based on the BAT focusing on the abatement techniques for effluents, introduces the good practice in the projects, and optimize the effluent releases with account taken of external factors such as the site condition. (authors)

  14. Effect of Industrial Effluent on the Growth of Marine Diatom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    Effect of Industrial Effluent on the Growth of Marine Diatom, Chaetoceros simplex (Ostenfeld, 1901). P. KARTHIKEYAN*, S. JAYASUDHA, P. SAMPATHKUMAR, K. MANIMARAN,. C. SANTHOSHKUMAR, S. ASHOKKUMAR AND V. ASHOKPRABU. CAS in Marine Biology, Faculty of Marine Sciences, Annamalai University,.

  15. Concepts, tools, and strategies for effluent testing: An international survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole effluent testing (also called Direct Toxicity Assessment) remains a critical long-term assessment tool for aquatic environmental protection. Use of animal alternative approaches for wastewater testing is expected to increase as more regulatory authorities routinely require ...

  16. Radiation-adsorption purification of effluents containing pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brusentseva, S.A.; Shubin, V.N.; Nikonorova, G.K.; Zorin, D.M.; Sosnovskaya, A.A.; Petryaev, E.P.; Vlasova, V.I.; Edimicheva, I.P.; Subbotina, N.N.; Belorusskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ., Minsk)

    1986-01-01

    The radiation-adsorption purification is one of the new direction in the radiation purification of natural wastes and effluents containing pesticides. This method combines the conventional adsorption purification with radiation treatment of the sorbent, and the result the protection time of the sorbent increases due to the radiation regeneration of carbon. In present work the method was used for purification of effluents from pesticides, such as 4,4'Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane /DDT/, 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexane /HCCH/, dimethyl 2,2-dichlorovinylphosphate /DDVF/ and petroleum products (a mixture of kerosene and xylene in ratio 7:1). Such effluents are formed at factories producing an insecticide aerosol 'Prime-71'. Three investigations were carried out on model with a solution similar composition to industrial effluents. (author)

  17. Electrochemical Corrosion Investigations on Anaerobic Treated Distillery Effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Chhotu; Sharma, Chhaya; Singh, A. K.

    2014-09-01

    Present study is focused on the corrosivity of anaerobic treated distillery effluent and corrosion performance of mild steel and stainless steels. Accordingly, electrochemical polarization tests were performed in both treated distillery and synthetic effluents. Polarization tests were also performed in synthetic solutions and it was observed that Cl- and K+ increase whereas SO4 -, PO4 -, NO3 -, and NO2 - decrease the corrosivity of effluent at alkaline pH. Further, comparison in corrosivity of distillery and synthetic effluents shows the former to be less corrosive and this is assigned due to the presence of amino acids and melanoidins. Mild steel experienced to have the highest corrosion rate followed by stainless steels—304L and 316L and lowest in case of SAF 2205. Relative corrosion resistance of stainless steels is observed to depend upon Cr, Mo, and N content.

  18. Analysis of tannery effluents from the Challawa industrial estate in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences ... and some physicochemical parameters such as conductivity, solids, chloride, chromium, alkalinity, sulphide, chemical oxygen demand, COD, and biochemical oxygen demand, BOD, of the waste water were determined. ... Keywords: tannery, effluent, pollution, environment

  19. Assessment of wastewater treatment plant effluent effects on fish reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents are known contributors of chemical mixtures into the environment. Of particular concern are endocrine-disrupting compounds that can affect hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis function in exposed organisms. The present study examined t...

  20. 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) Hazards Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CAMPBELL, L.R.

    1999-01-01

    This document establishes the technical basis in support of emergency planning activities for the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. The technical basis for project-specific Emergency Action Levels and Emergency Planning Zone is demonstrated

  1. The effluent problem in a plutonium production centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galley, R.; Cantel, J.

    1960-01-01

    The first part of the report is devoted to generalities: the geographical situation of the Marcoule Centre, the sources of radio-active effluent, methods of treating this effluent. In the second part the authors gives a detailed description of the various installations in the Radio-active Effluent Treatment Station at the Marcoule Centre, and outline the conditions governing the rejection of treated effluent into the Rhone. A few lines are given to comparisons between the results obtained from the use of these installations up till may 1959 and the expected results published by the same authors at the Brussels Conference (1956). In conclusion the authors lay down some of the essential principles, applicable to the study of new installations. (author) [fr

  2. Process for the reduction of nitrogen oxides in an effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epperly, W.R.; Sullivan, J.C.

    1988-09-13

    A process is described for reducing the concentration of nitrogen oxides in an effluent from the combustion of a carbonaceous fuel, which process comprises injecting into the effluent ammonia and an enhancer selected from the group consisting of hexamethylenetetramine, a lower carbon alcohol, a hydroxyl amino hydrocarbon, sugar, furfural, furfural derivatives, an amino acid, a protein-containing composition, mixtures of ortho-, meta-, and para-methyl phenols, guanidine, guanidine carbonate, biguanidine, guanylurea sulfate, melamine, dicyandiamide, calcium cyanamide, biuret, 1,1'-azobisformamide, methylol urea, methylol urea-urea condensation product, dimethylol urea, methyl urea, dimethyl urea, and mixtures thereof, at an effluent temperature above about 1300/sup 0/F and a molar ratio of nitrogen in the ammonia and enhancer to the baseline nitrogen oxides level of about 1:5 to about 6:1 wherein the excess of oxygen in the effluent is no greater than about 6%.

  3. Toxicity assessment of treated effluents from a textile industry in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study, parameters investigated includes, growth, photosynthetic pigment content, lipid peroxidation, and metal accumulation. The results showed that treated textile effluent from Nichemtex Company, affected the growth, dry biomass, root development and photosynthetic pigment content of C. argentea.

  4. Feasibility of using geothermal effluents for waterfowl wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-09-01

    This project was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using geothermal effluents for developing and maintaining waterfowl wetlands. Information in the document pertains to a seven State area the West where geothermal resources have development potential. Information is included on physiochemical characteristics of geothermal effluents; known effects of constituents in the water on a wetland ecosystem and water quality criteria for maintaining a viable wetland; potential of sites for wetland development and disposal of effluent water from geothermal facilities; methods of disposal of effluents, including advantages of each method and associated costs; legal and institutional constraints which could affect geothermal wetland development; potential problems associated with depletion of geothermal resources and subsidence of wetland areas; potential interference (adverse and beneficial) of wetlands with ground water; special considerations for wetlands requirements including size, flows, and potential water usage; and final conclusions and recommendations for suitable sites for developing demonstration wetlands.

  5. Performance evaluation of effluent treatment plant for automobile industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansari, Farid [Department of Applied Science and Humanities, PDM College of Engineering, Bahadurgarh (Haryana) (India); Pandey, Yashwant K. [School of Energy and Environmental Studies, Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya, Indore (India); Kumar, P.; Pandey, Priyanka [Department of Environmental Science, Post Graduate College Ghazipur (IN

    2013-07-01

    The automobile industry’s wastewater not only contains high levels of suspended and total solids such as oil, grease, dyestuff, chromium, phosphate in washing products, and coloring, at various stages of manufacturing but also, a significant amount of dissolved organics, resulting in high BOD or COD loads. The study reveals the performance, evaluation and operational aspects of effluent treatment plant and its treatability, rather than the contamination status of the real property. The Results revealed that the treated effluent shows most of the parameters are within permissible limits of Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), India and based on the site visits, discussion with operation peoples, evaluation of process design, treatment system, existing effluent discharge, results of sample analyzed and found that effluent treatment plant of automobile industry are under performance satisfactory.

  6. Method and means of monitoring the effluent from nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lattin, K.R.; Erickson, G.L.

    1976-01-01

    Radioactive iodine is detected in the effluent cooling gas from a nuclear reactor or nuclear facility by passing the effluent gas through a continuously moving adsorbent filter material which is then purged of noble gases and conveyed continuously to a detector of radioactivity. The purging operation has little or no effect upon the concentration of radioactive iodine which is adsorbed on the filter material. 8 claims, 2 figures

  7. British Nuclear Fuels plc's effluent plant services building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, L.

    1990-01-01

    The new Effluent Plant Services building (EPSB) on the Sellafield Nine Acre Site was built by Costain Engineering Limited for British Nuclear Fuels Limited. The EPSB is dedicated to a new generation of nuclear waste treatment plants, aimed at reducing discharges into the Irish Sea and other environmental impacts by removing actinides from liquid effluents and decontaminating waste solvents. This article describes the design, construction and operation of the plant. (UK)

  8. Thief carbon catalyst for oxidation of mercury in effluent stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granite, Evan J [Wexford, PA; Pennline, Henry W [Bethel Park, PA

    2011-12-06

    A catalyst for the oxidation of heavy metal contaminants, especially mercury (Hg), in an effluent stream is presented. The catalyst facilitates removal of mercury through the oxidation of elemental Hg into mercury (II) moieties. The active component of the catalyst is partially combusted coal, or "Thief" carbon, which can be pre-treated with a halogen. An untreated Thief carbon catalyst can be self-promoting in the presence of an effluent gas streams entrained with a halogen.

  9. Liquid effluent services and solid waste disposal interface control document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, A.B.

    1994-01-01

    This interface control document between Liquid Effluent Services (LES) and Solid Waste Disposal (SWD) establishes the functional responsibilities of each division where interfaces exist between the two divisions. The document includes waste volumes and timing for use in planning the proper waste management capabilities. The interface control document also facilitates integration of existing or planned waste management capabilities of the Liquid Effluent Services and Solid Waste divisions

  10. Method of removing iodine and compounds thereof from gaseous effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keener, R.L.; Kittle, P.A.

    1976-01-01

    Anion exchange resins including an acrylic backbone formed by the suspension polymerization of a mixture of an acrylic and a crosslinking monomer are useful in the removal of iodine and iodine compounds from gaseous effluents. Removal of radioactive iodine contaminants, particularly alkyl iodine compounds or hydrogen iodine, under extreme conditions, namely temperatures up to 180 0 C and humidities up to 100 percent, from effluents resulting from a major nuclear accident could probably be adsorbed by these resins described herein

  11. Decolourisation of a pulp mill effluent using commercial activated carbons

    OpenAIRE

    Valente Nabais, Joao; Carrott, Peter; Carrott, Manuela; Marques, Lilinana

    2006-01-01

    The decolourisation of industry effluents is a challenging and fundamental task related to pollution control, mainly in pulp mill and textile industries. The dark colour of the pulp mill effluent, depending on the river characteristics, can lead to the reduction of the light penetration into the aquatic environment with the consequent decrease of photosynthesis and aquatic life destruction. Also, the lignocelulosic material deposited on the margins and river bed can lead to a larg...

  12. Use of Fungi in Biodegradation of Basidiomycetes Textile Effluents

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Aline Francisca; Universidade Estadual de Londrina; Rosado, Fábio Rogério; Cesumar

    2009-01-01

    Textile industries have contributed significantly to environmental contamination, due to the production of waste with low levels of degradation, including colors from the dyeing steps, effluent being discarded with intense color. This type of effluent has a very variable composition, due to the diversity of colors used daily. There are physical and chemical treatments for these wastes, however the biological treatments have been highlighting for being natural, not requiring the use of chemica...

  13. An automation model of Effluent Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Alberto Oliveira Lima Roque

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Population growth and intensification of industrial activities have increased the deterioration of natural resources. Industrial, hospital and residential wastes are dumped directly into landfills without processing, polluting soils. This action will have consequences later, because the liquid substance resulting from the putrefaction of organic material plows into the soil to reach water bodies. Cities arise without planning, industrial and household wastes are discharged into rivers, lakes and oceans without proper treatment, affecting water resources. It is well known that in the next century there will be fierce competition for fresh water on the planet, probably due to the scarcity of it. Demographic expansion has occurred without proper health planning, degrading oceans, lakes and rivers. Thus, a large percentage of world population suffers from diseases related to water pollution. Accordingly, it can be concluded that sewage treatment is essential to human survival, to preserve rivers, lakes and oceans. An Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP treats wastewater to reduce its pollution to acceptable levels before sending them to the oceans or rivers. To automate the operation of an ETP, motors, sensors and logic blocks, timers and counters are needed. These functions are achieved with programmable logic controllers (PLC and Supervisory Systems. The Ladder language is used to program controllers and is a pillar of the Automation and Control Engineering. The supervisory systems allow process information to be monitored, while the PLC are responsible for control and data acquisition. In the age we live in, process automation is used in an increasing scale in order to provide higher quality, raise productivity and improve the proposed activities. Therefore, an automatic ETP will improve performance and efficiency to handle large volumes of sewage. Considering the growing importance of environmental awareness with special emphasis

  14. Electrochemical treatment of textile dyes and dyehouse effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatzisymeon, Efthalia; Xekoukoulotakis, Nikolaos P.; Coz, Alberto; Kalogerakis, Nicolas; Mantzavinos, Dionissios

    2006-01-01

    The electrochemical oxidation of textile effluents over a titanium-tantalum-platinum-iridium anode was investigated. Batch experiments were conducted in a flow-through electrolytic cell with internal recirculation at current intensities of 5, 10, 14 and 20 A, NaCl concentrations of 0.5, 1, 2 and 4% and recirculation rates of 0.81 and 0.65 L/s using a highly colored, synthetic effluent containing 16 textile dyes at a total concentration of 361 mg/L and chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 281 mg/L. Moreover, an actual dyehouse effluent containing residual dyes as well as various inorganic and organic compounds with a COD of 404 mg/L was tested. In most cases, quantitative effluent decolorization was achieved after 10-15 min of treatment and this required low energy consumption; conversely, the extent of mineralization varied between 30 and 90% after 180 min depending on the operating conditions and the type of effluent. In general, treatment performance improved with increasing current intensity and salinity and decreasing solution pH. However, the use of electrolytes not containing chloride (e.g. FeSO 4 or Na 2 SO 4 ) suppressed degradation. Although the acute toxicity of the actual effluent to marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri was weak, it increased sharply following treatment, thus suggesting the formation of persistent toxic by-products

  15. Evaporation behaviour of different organic effluents from open surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhorar, B S; Malik, R S

    1993-01-01

    Production of large quantities of effluents from different industrial units and the problems of their disposal necessitated this evaporation study. The evaporation of water, sewage water, oil refinery effluent, papermill effluent and liquor distillery effluent was observed in glass beakers when placed (i) in an oven at 60 degrees C and (ii) in screen house for 30 days, by periodically weighing of the beakers. In other experiments, the effect of increasing the frequency of stirring on increasing the evaporation efficiency of the liquor distillery effluent (ELD) was examined in detail. All of the organic effluents except ELD had similar evaporation behaviours as water, but formation of a self-forming film caused the evaporation of ELD to be considerably lower. Resistance to evaporation caused by this film was found to be a decreasing function of the frequency of stirring. This study has a bearing on improving the efficiency of evaporation lagoons, and three stirrings in a day with a manually drawn stirrer in a full-scale lagoon are proposed as a practical and economically viable technique to save 44% of lagoon land in arid and semi-arid regions of the world.

  16. [Detoxification of textile industry effluents by photocatalytic treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebrati, L; Idrissi, L Loukili; Mountassir, Y; Nejmeddine, A

    2010-05-01

    In Morocco the textile industry, representing 31% of all Moroccan industries, is accompanied by high water consumption and important wastewater discharges rejected without any treatment. The focus of this study was to characterize the effluent from the textile industry, to test separately the effect of UV light and TiO2 catalyst and to determine the optimum conditions (pH, concentration and reaction time) in photocatalytic treatment to reduce chemical oxygen demand (COD) and colour. The biodegradability of the effluent was also studied using a toxicity test before and after treatment. After 90 min of reaction time at pH 4 and with 1.5 g F' of TiO2 catalyst, the photocatalytic treatment reached a global removal rate of 53% for COD and 89% for discoloration of the effluent. The relation BOD5/COD increased from around 0 to 0.3. The effluent became accessible to a biological treatment. The toxicity was studied by the Daphnia magna test over 24 hours. The results have shown the important toxicity of these effluents, which are rich in organic matter and other chemical compounds. After treatment by photocatalytic oxidation, the CI50 24 increased from 3.8% to 22.8%. This reduction of toxicity is related to the reduction of COD (53%) and colour (89%). Photocatalytic treatment has been shown to have an environmental benefit and, in combination with a secondary biological treatment, can be important for a significant reduction in the pollution of textile effluents.

  17. Efficiency of aquatic macrophytes to treat Nile tilapia pond effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry-Silva Gustavo Gonzaga

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The effluents from fish farming can increase the quantity of suspended solids and promote the enrichment of nitrogen and phosphorus in aquatic ecosystems. In this context, the aim of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of three species of floating aquatic macrophytes (Eichhornia crassipes, Pistia stratiotes and Salvinia molesta to treat effluents from Nile tilapia culture ponds. The effluent originated from a 1,000-m² pond stocked with 2,000 male Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. The treatment systems consisted of 12 experimental tanks, three tanks for each macrophyte species, and three control tanks (without plants. Water samples were collected from the: (i fish pond source water, (ii effluent from fish pond and (iii effluents from the treatment tanks. The following water variables were evaluated: turbidity, total and dissolved nitrogen, ammoniacal-N, nitrate-N, nitrite-N, total phosphorus and dissolved phosphorus. E. crassipes and P. stratiotes were more efficient in total phosphorus removal (82.0% and 83.3%, respectively and total nitrogen removal (46.1% and 43.9%, respectively than the S. molesta (72.1% total phosphorus and 42.7% total nitrogen and the control (50.3% total phosphorus and 22.8% total nitrogen, indicating that the treated effluents may be reused in the aquaculture activity.

  18. Microalgal Cultivation in Secondary Effluent: Recent Developments and Future Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junping Lv

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Eutrophication of water catchments and the greenhouse effect are major challenges in developing the global economy in the near future. Secondary effluents, containing high amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus, need further treatment before being discharged into receiving water bodies. At the same time, new environmentally friendly energy sources need to be developed. Integrating microalgal cultivation for the production of biodiesel feedstock with the treatment of secondary effluent is one way of addressing both issues. This article provides a comprehensive review of the latest progress in microalgal cultivation in secondary effluent to remove pollutants and accumulate lipids. Researchers have discovered that microalgae remove nitrogen and phosphorus effectively from secondary effluent, accumulating biomass and lipids in the process. Immobilization of appropriate microalgae, and establishing a consortium of microalgae and/or bacteria, were both found to be feasible ways to enhance pollutant removal and lipid production. Demonstrations of pilot-scale microalgal cultures in secondary effluent have also taken place. However there is still much work to be done in improving pollutants removal, biomass production, and lipid accumulation in secondary effluent. This includes screening microalgae, constructing the consortium, making use of flue gas and nitrogen, developing technologies related to microalgal harvesting, and using lipid-extracted algal residues (LEA.

  19. 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility permit reopener run plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olander, A.R.

    1995-01-01

    The 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) is authorized to discharge treated effluent to the Columbia River by National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit WA-002591-7. The letter accompanying the final permit noted the following: EPA recognizes that the TEDF is a new waste treatment facility for which full scale operation and effluent data has not been generated. The permit being issued by EPA contains discharge limits that are intended to force DOE's treatment technology to the limit of its capability.'' Because of the excessively tight limits the permit contains a reopener clause which may allow limits to be renegotiated after at least one year of operation. The restrictions for reopening the permit are as follows: (1) The permittee has properly operated and maintained the TEDF for a sufficient period to stabilize treatment plant operations, but has nevertheless been unable to achieve the limitation specified in the permit. (2) Effluent data submitted by the permittee supports the effluent limitation modifications(s). (3) The permittee has submitted a formal request for the effluent limitation modification(s) to the Director. The purpose of this document is to guide plant operations for approximately one year to ensure appropriate data is collected for reopener negotiations

  20. Microalgal Cultivation in Secondary Effluent: Recent Developments and Future Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Junping; Feng, Jia; Liu, Qi; Xie, Shulian

    2017-01-01

    Eutrophication of water catchments and the greenhouse effect are major challenges in developing the global economy in the near future. Secondary effluents, containing high amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus, need further treatment before being discharged into receiving water bodies. At the same time, new environmentally friendly energy sources need to be developed. Integrating microalgal cultivation for the production of biodiesel feedstock with the treatment of secondary effluent is one way of addressing both issues. This article provides a comprehensive review of the latest progress in microalgal cultivation in secondary effluent to remove pollutants and accumulate lipids. Researchers have discovered that microalgae remove nitrogen and phosphorus effectively from secondary effluent, accumulating biomass and lipids in the process. Immobilization of appropriate microalgae, and establishing a consortium of microalgae and/or bacteria, were both found to be feasible ways to enhance pollutant removal and lipid production. Demonstrations of pilot-scale microalgal cultures in secondary effluent have also taken place. However there is still much work to be done in improving pollutants removal, biomass production, and lipid accumulation in secondary effluent. This includes screening microalgae, constructing the consortium, making use of flue gas and nitrogen, developing technologies related to microalgal harvesting, and using lipid-extracted algal residues (LEA). PMID:28045437

  1. Effect of low quality effluent from wastewater stabilization ponds to receiving bodies, case of Kilombero sugar ponds and Ruaha river, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machibya, Magayane; Mwanuzi, Fredrick

    2006-06-01

    A study was conducted in a sewage system at Kilombero Sugar Company to review its design, configuration, effectiveness and the quality of influent and effluent discharged into the Ruaha river (receiving body). The concern was that, the water in the river, after effluent has joined the river, is used as drinking water by villages located downstream of the river. Strategic sampling at the inlet of the oxidation pond, at the outlet and in the river before and after the effluent has joined the receiving body (river) was undertaken. Samples from each of these locations were taken three times, in the morning, noon and evening. The sample were then analysed in the laboratory using standard methods of water quality analysis. The results showed that the configuration and or the layout of the oxidation ponds (treatment plant) were not in accordance with the acceptable standards. Thus, the BOD5 of the effluent discharged into the receiving body (Ruaha River) was in the order of 41 mg/l and therefore not meeting several standards as set out both by Tanzanian and international water authorities. The Tanzanian water authorities, for example, requires that the BOD5 of the effluent discharged into receiving bodies be not more that 30 mg/l while the World Health Organization (WHO) requires that the effluent quality ranges between 10 - 30 mg/l. The paper concludes that proper design of treatment plants (oxidation ponds) is of outmost importance especially for factories, industries, camps etc located in rural developing countries where drinking water from receiving bodies like rivers and lakes is consumed without thorough treatment. The paper further pinpoint that both owners of treatment plants and water authorities should establish monitoring/management plan such that treatment plants (oxidation ponds) could be reviewed regarding the change on quantity of influent caused by population increase.

  2. Effect of Low Quality Effluent from Wastewater Stabilization Ponds to Receiving Bodies, Case of Kilombero Sugar Ponds and Ruaha River, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrick Mwanuzi

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted in a sewage system at Kilombero Sugar Company to review its design, configuration, effectiveness and the quality of influent and effluent discharged into the Ruaha river (receiving body. The concern was that, the water in the river, after effluent has joined the river, is used as drinking water by villages located downstream of the river. Strategic sampling at the inlet of the oxidation pond, at the outlet and in the river before and after the effluent has joined the receiving body (river was undertaken. Samples from each of these locations were taken three times, in the morning, noon and evening. The sample were then analysed in the laboratory using standard methods of water quality analysis. The results showed that the configuration and or the layout of the oxidation ponds (treatment plant were not in accordance with the acceptable standards. Thus, the BOD5 of the effluent discharged into the receiving body (Ruaha River was in the order of 41 mg/l and therefore not meeting several standards as set out both by Tanzanian and international water authorities. The Tanzanian water authorities, for example, requires that the BOD5 of the effluent discharged into receiving bodies be not more that 30 mg/l while the World Health Organization (WHO requires that the effluent quality ranges between 10 – 30 mg/l. The paper concludes that proper design of treatment plants (oxidation ponds is of outmost importance especially for factories, industries, camps etc located in rural developing countries where drinking water from receiving bodies like rivers and lakes is consumed without thorough treatment. The paper further pinpoint that both owners of treatment plants and water authorities should establish monitoring/management plan such that treatment plants (oxidation ponds could be reviewed regarding the change on quantity of influent caused by population increase.

  3. 40 CFR 415.22 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Sulfate Production Subcategory § 415.22 Effluent limitations guidelines...—Aluminum Sulfate Pollutant or pollutant property BPT limitations Maximum for any 1 day Average of daily...

  4. Soil aquifer treatment using advanced primary effluent

    KAUST Repository

    Sharma, Saroj K.

    2011-08-01

    Soil aquifer treatment (SAT) using primary effluent (PE) is an attractive option for wastewater treatment and reuse in many developing countries with no or minimal wastewater treatment. One of the main limitations of SAT of PE is rapid clogging of the infiltration basin due to high suspended solid concentrations. Some pre-treatment of PE before infiltration is likely to reduce this limitation, improve performance of SAT and help to implement this technology effectively. The effects of three pre-treatment options namely sedimentation (SED), coagulation (COAG) and horizontal roughing filtration (HRF) on SAT were analyzed by conducting laboratory-scale batch and soil column experiments. The sedimentation and coagulation pre-treatments led to less head loss development and reduction of clogging effect. The head loss development in soil column using PE + COAG and PE + SED was reduced by 85 and 72%, respectively, compared to PE alone without any pretreatment. The overall dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal of pre-treatments and soil column collectively were 34, 44, 51 and 43.5% for PE without any pre-treatment, PE + SED, PE+ COAG and PE + HRF, respectively. Coagulation pre-treatment of PE was found to be the most effective option in terms of suspended solids, DOC and nitrogen removal. Sedimentation pre-treatment of PE could be attractive where land is relatively less expensive for the construction of sedimentation basins. © IWA Publishing 2011.

  5. Studies on osmotic concentration of radioactive effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, K.C.; Ramachandhran, V.; Misra, B.M.

    1986-01-01

    The potential of direct osmosis for concentrating radioactive effluents is examined on the laboratory scale. Studies were carried out using asymmetric cellulose acetate membranes of a range of porosities under varying salinity gradients. A suitable bench scale osmotic concentrator employing tubular membrane systems has been fabricated and tested. An attempt to understand the mechanism of water permeation under osmotic and hydrostatic gradients has been made based on the irreversible thermodynamic approach. The solute separation of sodium chloride and radionuclides under osmosis is in the range of 85 to 95% for various osmotic sink solutions. The osmotic water flux is observed to be lower than the hydraulic water flux under reverse osmosis conditions. While the solute separation increases with an increase in annealing temperature, water flux decreases for both osmosis and reverse osmosis systems for various feed salinities. The effect of concentration polarization is analysed, and the effect of feed and osmotic sink velocity on the performance of the osmotic concentrator has also been studied. (orig.)

  6. ['Gold standard', not 'golden standard'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen, J.A.H.R.

    2005-01-01

    In medical literature, both 'gold standard' and 'golden standard' are employed to describe a reference test used for comparison with a novel method. The term 'gold standard' in its current sense in medical research was coined by Rudd in 1979, in reference to the monetary gold standard. In the same

  7. 40 CFR 464.45 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 0.446 (b) Die Casting Operations. PSES Pollutant or pollutant property Maximum for any 1 day Maximum...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS METAL MOLDING AND CASTING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Zinc Casting Subcategory.... (a) Casting Quench Operations. PSES Pollutant or pollutant property Maximum for any 1 day Maximum for...

  8. 40 CFR 464.15 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....0095 Oil and grease (for alternate monitoring) 0.363 0.121 (c) Die Casting Operations. PSES Pollutant...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS METAL MOLDING AND CASTING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Casting... existing sources. (a) Casting Cleaning Operations. PSES Pollutant or pollutant property Maximum for any 1...

  9. Post-treatment of secondary wastewater treatment plant effluent using a two-stage fluidized bed bioreactor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Golam Hossein; Yetilmezsoy, Kaan; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Zarrabi, Mansur

    2013-06-17

    The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of a two-stage fluidized bed reactor (FBR) system for the post-treatment of secondary wastewater treatment plant effluents (Shahrak Gharb, Tehran, Iran). The proposed treatment scheme was evaluated using pilot-scale reactors (106-L of capacity) filled with PVC as the fluidized bed (first stage) and gravel for the filtration purpose (second stage). Aluminum sulfate (30 mg/L) and chlorine (1 mg/L) were used for the coagulation and disinfection of the effluent, respectively. To monitor the performance of the FBR system, variation of several parameters (biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), turbidity, total phosphorous, total coliform and fecal coliform) were monitored in the effluent wastewater samples. The results showed that the proposed system could effectively reduce BOD5 and COD below 1.95 and 4.06 mg/L, respectively. Turbidity of the effluent could be achieved below 0.75 NTU, which was lower than those reported for the disinfection purpose. The total phosphorus was reduced to 0.52 mg/L, which was near the present phosphorous standard for the prevention of eutrophication process. Depending on both microorganism concentration and applied surface loading rates (5-10 m/h), about 35 to 75% and 67 to 97% of coliform were removed without and with the chlorine addition, respectively. Findings of this study clearly confirmed the efficiency of the FBR system for the post-treatment of the secondary wastewater treatment plant effluents without any solid problem during the chlorination.

  10. Post-Treatment of Secondary Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent Using A Two-Stage Fluidized Bed Bioreactor System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golam Hossein Safari

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of a two-stage fluidized bed reactor (FBR system for the post-treatment of secondary wastewater treatment plant effluents (Shahrak Gharb, Tehran, Iran. The proposed treatment scheme was evaluated using pilot-scale reactors (106-L of capacity filled with PVC as the fluidized bed (first stage and gravel for the filtration purpose (second stage. Aluminum sulfate (30 mg/L and chlorine (1 mg/L were used for the coagulation and disinfection of the effluent, respectively. To monitor the performance of the FBR system, variation of several parameters (biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5, chemical oxygen demand (COD, turbidity, total phosphorous, total coliform and fecal coliform were monitored in the effluent wastewater samples. The results showed that the proposed system could effectively reduce BOD5 and COD below 1.95 and 4.06 mg/L, respectively. Turbidity of the effluent could be achieved below 0.75 NTU, which was lower than those reported for the disinfection purpose. The total phosphorus was reduced to 0.52 mg/L, which was near the present phosphorous standard for the prevention of eutrophication process. Depending on both microorganism concentration and applied surface loading rates (5–10 m/h, about 35 to 75% and 67 to 97% of coliform were removed without and with the chlorine addition, respectively. Findings of this study clearly confirmed the efficiency of the FBR system for the post-treatment of the secondary wastewater treatment plant effluents without any solid problem during the chlorination.

  11. Residues and source identification of persistent organic pollutants in farmland soils irrigated by effluents from biological treatment plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Y.; Wang, C.X.; Wang, Z.J. [Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing (China). Ecoenvironmental Science Research Center

    2005-08-01

    Sewage and industrial effluents from biological treatment plant have been widely used for agricultural irrigation in north part of China. In the present study, field surveys were carried out in the farmlands irrigated by effluents from biological treatment plants that receive sewage wastewater and industrial discharges. Residues of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the soils irrigated using both ground water and effluents were compared. The origins of PAHs in the soils were discussed. The results showed that wastewater irrigation could cause accumulation of PAHs in soils close to the pollution discharge. Significantly higher concentrations of PAHs were observed in the sampling sites close to the entrance of main channel in contrast to those along branches and the reference sites. There was no significant relationship between the accumulation of persistent organic pollutants and organic matter content in soil (TOC). Soil contamination of these persistent organic pollutants as affected by effluent irrigation was characterized by the dominant accumulation of high-molecular-weight PAHs (HMW-PAHs). In the case study, concentration of benzo(a)pyrane (BaP, 45.6 ng/g), indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene (IcP, 86.3 ng/g), benzo(g,h,i)perlene (BgP, 66.9 ng/g) could exceed the limits of the soil quality standard for biodegraded soils. In identification of the sources, the IcP/BgP values of PAHs in soils were more close to that in air particulates from coal/coke source (1.09 {+-} 0.03 ng/g). Therefore, both of the PAHs residues in effluents and emission from a nearby coal/coke plant were responsible. Also in this case study, low levels of the OCPs were observed and were not of significant concern in this wastewater irrigation area.

  12. Automated system of control of radioactive liquid effluents of patients submitted to therapy in hospitals of nuclear medicine (SACEL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz C, M.A.; Rivero G, T.; Celis del Angel, L.; Sainz M, E.; Molina, G.

    2006-01-01

    Different hospitals of nuclear medicine require of the technical attendance for the design, construction and instrumentation of an effluents retention system coming from the room dedicated to the medical application of iodine 131, with the one object of giving execution to the normative requirements of radiological protection, settled down in the General Regulation of Radiological Safety (RGSR) emitted by the CNSNS in November, 1988 and in the corresponding official standards. An automatic system of flow measurement, the activity concentration of the effluents to the drainage, the discharges control and the automated report it will allow the execution of the national regulations, also the elimination of unhealthy activities as the taking of samples, analysis of those same and the corresponding paperwork, its will allow that the SACEL is capable of to carry out registrations that are to consult in an automated way. The changes in the demands of the National Commission of Nuclear Safety and Safeguards in relation to the liberation of radioactive material in hospitals by medical treatments, it has created the necessity to develop a system that quantifies and dose the liquid effluents of people under thyroid treatment with iodine-131 to the drainage. The Automated System of Control of radioactive liquids effluents generated in Hospitals of Nuclear Medicine (SACEL) developed in the National Institute of Nuclear Research, it fulfills this regulation, besides improving the work conditions for the medical and technical personnel of the hospital in that are installed, since this system has the advantage of to be totally automated and to require of a minimum of attendance. The SACEL is an electro-hydraulic system of effluents control, based in the alternate operation of two decay deposits of the activity of the material contaminated with iodine-131. The system allows to take a registration of those volumes and liberated dose, besides being able to be monitoring in remote

  13. Palm Oil Mill Effluent Treatment Through Combined Process Adsorption and Membrane Filtration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Said

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The growth in palm oil production also leads to an Increase in the production of palm oil mill effluent (POME. Nowadays, POME was treated using an open lagoon but this method is ineffectiveness in complying with the standards for water disposal. Therefore, efficient and cohesive treatment system is highly desired to ensure the final discharge of the treated water meets the effluent discharge standards. Initially, the POME was treated through adsorption, followed by UF membranes roomates were intended to reduce COD, TSS and turbidity up to 88%, 99%, and 98%, while the final treatment of RO membranes can reduce BOD, COD and color up to 92%, 98% and 99%. To determine the optimum condition of the RO membrane, response surface methodology (RSM was used. The results showed there was correlation between all key variables. POME concentration, trans-membrane pressure, pH and time would give significant effects in reducing the parameters in POME treatment with the optimum condition of 15.77% for POME concentration, 3.73 for pH, 0.5 bar trans-membrane pressure and 5 hours for filtration time. To predict COD removal, the results were analyzed by applying the artificial neural network (ANN to derive a mathematical model.

  14. Standardization in dust emission measurement; Mesure des emissions de poussieres normalisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perret, R. [INERIS, 60 - Verneuil-en-Halatte, (France)

    1996-12-31

    The European Standardization Committee (CEN TC 264WG5) is developing a new reference method for measuring particulate emissions, suitable for concentrations inferior to 20 mg/m{sup 3} and especially for concentrations around 5 mg/m{sup 3}; the measuring method should be applicable to waste incinerator effluents and more generally to industrial effluents. Testing protocols and data analysis have been examined and repeatability and reproducibility issues are discussed

  15. Accounting standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stellinga, B.; Mügge, D.

    2014-01-01

    The European and global regulation of accounting standards have witnessed remarkable changes over the past twenty years. In the early 1990s, EU accounting practices were fragmented along national lines and US accounting standards were the de facto global standards. Since 2005, all EU listed

  16. The effect of industrial effluent stream on the groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasar, A.; Ahmad, N.; Chaudhry, M.N.; Sarwar, M.

    2005-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of the industrial wastewater stream on the groundwater. Wastewater was characterized in terms of inorganic and organic constituents. Inorganic constituents included Na/sup +/, Ca/sup 2+/ K/sup +/, Cl/sup -/, NO/sub 3//sup -/ and SO/sub 4//sup 2-/ coupled with heavy metal elements such as, Cd, Cr, Pb, Mn, Cu, Ni, Fe and In. Organic load of the stream was determined in terms of chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD/sub 5/) and ammonia-nitrogen (NH/sub 3/-N) contents. Other characteristics were pH, electrical conductivity (EC) and total dissolved solids (TDS). The correlation coefficients between quality parameter pairs of stream water and groundwater were determined to ascertain the source of groundwater contamination. At station 1, BOD/sub 5/ and COD contents were 20 times and Cr concentration was 10 times higher than the permissible limits for stream water [1]. Contents of these parameters reflected the level of industrial and domestic pollution coming from India. However, large variations in the levels of these parameters at down stream sites of the drain were characteristic of type and nature of industrial effluents and domestic sewage joining the stream. Analysis results of more than one hundred groundwater samples from shallow and deep wells around the drain showed that groundwater of shallow aquifers was contaminated due to drain water. A comparison of the contents of these parameters in shallow wells with WHO standards showed that some parameters such as turbidity, TDS, Na/sup +/, F -and heavy metals like Cr were found higher than the permissible limits. (author)

  17. Municipal Wastewater Effluents as a Source of Listerial Pathogens in the Aquatic Milieu of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa: A Concern of Public Health Importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel E.O. Odjadjare

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the effluent quality of an urban wastewater treatment facility in South Africa and its impact on the receiving watershed for a period of 12 months. The prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of potential Listeria pathogens (L. ivanovii and L. innocua and the physicochemical quality of the treated wastewater effluent was assessed, with a view to ascertain the potential health and environmental hazards of the discharged effluent. Total listerial density varied between 2.9 × 100 and 1.2 × 105 cfu/mL; free living Listeria species were more prevalent (84%, compared to Listeria species attached to planktons (59–75%. The treated effluent quality fell short of recommended standards for turbidity, dissolved oxygen, chemical oxygen demand, nitrite, phosphate and Listeria density; while pH, temperature, total dissolved solids and nitrate contents were compliant with target quality limits after treatment. The Listeria isolates (23 were sensitive to three (15% of the 20 test antibiotics, and showed varying (4.5–91% levels of resistance to 17 antibiotics. Of seven resistance gene markers assayed, only sulII genes were detected in five (22% Listeria strains. The study demonstrates a potential negative impact of the wastewater effluent on the receiving environment and suggests a serious public health implication for those who depend on the receiving watershed for drinking and other purposes.

  18. Municipal wastewater effluents as a source of listerial pathogens in the aquatic milieu of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa: a concern of public health importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odjadjare, Emmanuel E O; Obi, Larry C; Okoh, Anthony I

    2010-05-01

    We evaluated the effluent quality of an urban wastewater treatment facility in South Africa and its impact on the receiving watershed for a period of 12 months. The prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of potential Listeria pathogens (L. ivanovii and L. innocua) and the physicochemical quality of the treated wastewater effluent was assessed, with a view to ascertain the potential health and environmental hazards of the discharged effluent. Total listerial density varied between 2.9 x 10(0) and 1.2 x 10(5) cfu/mL; free living Listeria species were more prevalent (84%), compared to Listeria species attached to planktons (59-75%). The treated effluent quality fell short of recommended standards for turbidity, dissolved oxygen, chemical oxygen demand, nitrite, phosphate and Listeria density; while pH, temperature, total dissolved solids and nitrate contents were compliant with target quality limits after treatment. The Listeria isolates (23) were sensitive to three (15%) of the 20 test antibiotics, and showed varying (4.5-91%) levels of resistance to 17 antibiotics. Of seven resistance gene markers assayed, only sulII genes were detected in five (22%) Listeria strains. The study demonstrates a potential negative impact of the wastewater effluent on the receiving environment and suggests a serious public health implication for those who depend on the receiving watershed for drinking and other purposes.

  19. Aerobic treatment of palm oil mill effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayaraghavan, K; Ahmad, Desa; Ezani Bin Abdul Aziz, Mohd

    2007-01-01

    In this study treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) was investigated using aerobic oxidation based on an activated sludge process. The effects of sludge volume index, scum index and mixed liquor suspended solids during the acclimatizing phase and biomass build-up phase were investigated in order to ascertain the reactor stability. The efficiency of the activated sludge process was evaluated by treating anaerobically digested and diluted raw POME obtained from Golden Hope Plantations, Malaysia. The treatment of POME was carried out at a fixed biomass concentration of 3900+/-200mg/L, whereas the corresponding sludge volume index was found to be around 105+/-5mL/g. The initial studies on the efficiency of the activated sludge reactor were carried out using diluted raw POME for varying the hydraulic retention time, viz: 18, 24, 30 and 36h and influent COD concentration, viz: 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000 and 5000mg/L, respectively. The results showed that at the end of 36h of hydraulic retention time for the above said influent COD, the COD removal efficiencies were found to be 83%, 72%, 64%, 54% and 42% whereas at 24h hydraulic retention time they were 57%, 45%, 38%, 30% and 27%, respectively. The effectiveness of aerobic oxidation was also compared between anaerobically digested and diluted raw POME having corresponding CODs of 3908 and 3925mg/L, for varying hydraulic retention time, viz: 18, 24, 30, 36, 42, 48, 54 and 60h. The dissolved oxygen concentration and pH in the activated sludge reactor were found to be 1.8-2.2mg/L and 7-8.5, respectively. The scum index was found to rise from 0.5% to 1.9% during the acclimatizing phase and biomass build-up phase.

  20. High Speed/ Low Effluent Process for Ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Clark Dale

    2006-10-30

    n this project, BPI demonstrated a new ethanol fermentation technology, termed the High Speed/ Low Effluent (HS/LE) process on both lab and large pilot scale as it would apply to wet mill and/or dry mill corn ethanol production. The HS/LE process allows very rapid fermentations, with 18 to 22% sugar syrups converted to 9 to 11% ethanol ‘beers’ in 6 to 12 hours using either a ‘consecutive batch’ or ‘continuous cascade’ implementation. This represents a 5 to 8X increase in fermentation speeds over conventional 72 hour batch fermentations which are the norm in the fuel ethanol industry today. The ‘consecutive batch’ technology was demonstrated on a large pilot scale (4,800 L) in a dry mill corn ethanol plant near Cedar Rapids, IA (Xethanol Biofuels). The pilot demonstrated that 12 hour fermentations can be accomplished on an industrial scale in a non-sterile industrial environment. Other objectives met in this project included development of a Low Energy (LE) Distillation process which reduces the energy requirements for distillation from about 14,000 BTU/gal steam ($0.126/gal with natural gas @ $9.00 MCF) to as low as 0.40 KW/gal electrical requirements ($0.022/gal with electricity @ $0.055/KWH). BPI also worked on the development of processes that would allow application of the HS/LE fermentation process to dry mill ethanol plants. A High-Value Corn ethanol plant concept was developed to produce 1) corn germ/oil, 2) corn bran, 3) ethanol, 4) zein protein, and 5) nutritional protein, giving multiple higher value products from the incoming corn stream.

  1. Ecotoxicological risks associated with tannery effluent wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakir, Lubna; Ejaz, Sohail; Ashraf, Muhammad; Qureshi, Naureen Aziz; Anjum, Aftab Ahmad; Iltaf, Imran; Javeed, Aqeel

    2012-09-01

    The problem of water pollution acquires greater relevance in the context of a developing agrarian economy like Pakistan. Even though, the leather industry is a leading economic sector in Pakistan, there is an increasing environmental concern regarding tanneries because they produce large amounts of potentially toxic wastewater containing both trivalent and hexavalent chromium, which are equally hazardous for human population, aquaculture and agricultural activities in the area. Therefore, we defined the scope of the present study as to employ different bioassays to determine the eco-toxic potential of tannery effluent wastewater (TW) and its chromium based components, i.e., potassium dichromate (K(2)Cr(2)O(7)) and chromium sulfate Cr(2)(SO(4))(3). Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis of TW was carried out to determine the concentration of chromium in TW and then equal concentrations of hexavalent (K(2)Cr(2)O(7)) and trivalent chromium Cr(2)(SO(4))(3) were obtained for this study. Cytotoxicity assay, artemia bioassay and phytotoxicity assay was utilized to investigate the eco-toxicological potential of different concentrations of TW, K(2)Cr(2)O(7) and Cr(2)(SO(4))(3). All the dilutions of TW, K(2)Cr(2)O(7) and Cr(2)(SO(4))(3) presented concentration dependent cytotoxic effects in these assays. The data clearly represents that among all three tested materials, different dilutions of K(2)Cr(2)O(7) caused significantly more damage (Peco-damaging potential clearly elaborating that environmental burden in district Kasur is numerous and high levels of chromium is posing a considerable risk to the human population, aquaculture and agricultural industry that can obliterate ecosystem surrounding the tanneries. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A downflow hanging sponge (DHS) reactor for faecal coliform removal from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaya Beas, Rosa Elena; Kujawa-Roeleveld, Katarzyna; van Lier, Jules B; Zeeman, Grietje

    2015-01-01

    This research was conducted to study the faecal coliforms removal capacity of downflow hanging sponge (DHS) reactors as a post-treatment for an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. Three long-term continuous laboratory-scale DHS reactors, i.e. a reactor with cube type sponges without recirculation, a similar one with recirculation and a reactor with curtain type sponges, were studied. The porosities of the applied medium were 91%, 87% and 47% respectively. The organic loading rates were 0.86 kgCOD m(-3) d(-1), 0.53 kgCOD m(-3) d(-1) and 0.24 kgCOD m(-3) d(-1) correspondingly at hydraulic loading rates of 1.92 m3 m(-2) d(-1), 2.97 m3 m(-2) d(-1) and 1.32 m3 m(-2) d(-1), respectively (COD: chemical oxygen demand). The corresponding averages for faecal coliform removal were 99.997%, 99.919% and 92.121% respectively. The 1989 WHO guidelines standards, in terms of faecal coliform content for unrestricted irrigation (category A), was achieved with the effluent of the cube type DHS (G1) without recirculation. Restricted irrigation, category B and C, is assigned to the effluent of the cube type with recirculation and the curtain type, respectively. Particularly for organic compounds, the effluent of evaluated DHS reactors complies with USEPA standards for irrigation of so called non-food crops like pasture for milking animals, fodder, fibre, and seed crops.

  3. Utilization of molasses based distillery effluent for fertigation of sugarcane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, P C; Singh, R K; Srivastava, P; Shrivastava, Manoj

    2012-11-01

    A field study was carried out to monitor the effect of application of molasses based distillery effluent on yields of sugarcane and soil properties. The treatments consisted of main plots: control (I0), first pre-sowing irrigation with undiluted effluent (I1), one irrigation with effluent: tube-well water (1:3) at tillering stage (I2), two irrigations with effluent: tube-well water (1:4) at tillering and 30 d after tillering stage (I3). The subplots either received no fertilizer application (F0) or had 50 % of recommended dose (50 kg N, 60 kg P(2)O(5) and 40 kg K(2)O ha(-1) as basal dose (F1) with top dressing of 50 kg N ha(-1) at tillering and in June before the onset of monsoon. Nitrogen to the ratoon crops was applied in three equal splits. Application of 50 % recommended fertilizer dose increased the cumulative cane yields under different effluent treatments. Use of distillery effluent irrespective of the method of application significantly increased the cumulative yields of sugarcane over no application of effluent significantly at p ≤ 0.05. After the harvest of second ratoon crop, no significant effect of different treatments was noted on soil pH, electrical conductance and exchangeable Na. Significantly higher build-up of organic C in surface soil was noted under I2 treatment in comparison to I0 treatment at p ≤ 0.05. With no fertilizer application, both I1 and I2 significantly increased accumulation of alkaline KMnO(4) hydrolysable N in 30-45 cm layer in comparison to I0F0 at p ≤ 0.05. In comparison to I0, use of I2 increased the content of Olsen's P significantly (p ≤ 0.05) in 30-45 and 45-60 cm layers while I3 increased it significantly at p ≤ 0.05 in 0-15 and 45-60 cm layers. Use of distillery effluent as pre-sowing or standing crop irrigation increased ammonium acetate extractable K in surface and sub-surface layers significantly in comparison to I0 at p ≤ 0.05. Thus, use of distillery effluent in sugarcane crop as pre-sown or standing crop

  4. Optimizing Liquid Effluent Monitoring at a Large Nuclear Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Charissa J.; Johnson, V.G.; Barnett, Brent B.; Olson, Phillip M.

    2003-01-01

    Monitoring data for a centralized effluent treatment and disposal facility at the Hanford Site, a defense nuclear complex undergoing cleanup and decommissioning in southeast Washington State, was evaluated to optimize liquid effluent monitoring efficiency. Wastewater from several facilities is collected and discharged to the ground at a common disposal site. The discharged water infiltrates through 60 m of soil column to the groundwater, which eventually flows into the Columbia River, the second largest river in the contiguous United States. Protection of this important natural resource is the major objective of both cleanup and groundwater and effluent monitoring activities at the Hanford Site. Four years of effluent data were evaluated for this study. More frequent sampling was conducted during the first year of operation to assess temporal variability in analyte concentrations, to determine operational factors contributing to waste stream variability and to assess the probability of exceeding permit limits. Subsequently, the study was updated which included evaluation of the sampling and analysis regime. It was concluded that the probability of exceeding permit limits was one in a million under normal operating conditions, sampling frequency could be reduced, and several analytes could be eliminated, while indicators could be substituted for more expensive analyses. Findings were used by the state regulatory agency to modify monitoring requirements for a new discharge permit. The primary focus of this paper is on the statistical approaches and rationale that led to the successful permit modification and to a more cost-effective effluent monitoring program

  5. Decolorization and Degradation of Batik Dye Effluent using Ganoderma lucidum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratiwi, Diah; Indrianingsih, A. W.; Darsih, Cici; Hernawan

    2017-12-01

    Batik is product of traditional Indonesia culture that developed into a large textile industry. Synthetic dyes which widely used in textile industries including batik. Colour can be removed from wastewater effluent by chemical, physical, and biology methods. Bioremediation is one of the methods that used for processing colored effluent. Isolated White-rot fungi Ganoderma lucidum was used for bioremediation process for batik effluent. G. lucidum was developed by G. lucidum cultivation on centers of mushroom farmer Media Agro Merapi Kaliurang, Yogyakarta. The batik effluent was collected from a private small and medium Batik enterprises located at Petir, Rongkop, Gunungkidul Regency. The aim of the study were to optimize decolorization of Naphtol Black (NB) using G. lucidum. The effect of process parameters like incubation time and dye concentration on dye decolorization and COD degradation was studied. G. lucidum were growth at pH 5-6 and temperature 25°C at various Naphtol Black dye with concentration 20 ppm, 50 ppm, and 100 ppm for 30 day incubation time. The result from this study increased decolorization in line with the increasing of COD degradation. Increasing percentage of decolorization and COD degradation gradually increased with incubation time and dye concentration. The maximum decolorization and COD reduction were found to be 60,53% and 81,03%. G. lucidum had potential to decolorized and degraded COD for NB dye effluent on higher concentration.

  6. Biodegradability and toxicity assessment of bleach plant effluents treated anaerobically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaparro, T R; Botta, C M; Pires, E C

    2010-01-01

    As part of an experimental project on the treatment of bleach plant effluents the results of biodegradability and toxicity assessment of effluents from a bench-scale horizontal anaerobic immobilized bioreactor (HAIB) are discussed in this paper. The biodegradability of the bleach plant effluents from a Kraft pulp mill treated in the HAIB was evaluated using the modified Zahn-Wellens test. The inoculum came from a pulp mill wastewater treatment plant and the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was used as the indicator of organic matter removal. The acute and chronic toxicity removal during the anaerobic treatment was estimated using Daphnia similis and Ceriodaphnia silvestrii respectively. Moreover, the evaluation of chromosome aberrations (CA), micronucleus frequencies (MN) and mitotic index (IM) in Allium cepa cells were used as genotoxicity indicators. The results indicate that the effluents from the anaerobic reactor are amenable to aerobic polishing. Acute and chronic toxicity were reduced by 90 and 81%, respectively. The largest CA and MN incidence in the meristematic cells of A. cepa were observed after exposure to the raw bleach plant effluent. The HAIB was able to reduce the acute and chronic toxicity as well as chromosome aberrations and the occurrence of micronucleus.

  7. Effects of ozone on kraft process pulp mill effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, A.; Smith, D.W.

    1992-01-01

    Effluent from a kraft process pulp mill was studied in a batch reactor for ozone doses between 50 and 200 mg O 3 /L to identify the suitability of ozone application locations in the treatment process and see the improvements in biotreatability of wastewaters from a kraft process pulp mill. Laboratory acclimatized seed were used for (Biochemical Oxygen Demand) BOD tests for ozonated and unozonated samples. The inhibitory effects were minimized by using optimum dilutions. The studies were divided into three major sections: characterization of mill effluent; ozone system calibration, and reactor design; and ozonation of mill effluent. Seed for BOD tests were acclimatized in batch units for primary, bleach and secondary effluents separately. The results were analyzed using the open-quote t close-quote test for paired experiments and an ANOVA table for statistical confirmation. Residuals were plotted to check the assumptions of constant variance and normal distribution. It was concluded that ozone is most effective for the removal of color and the increase of BOD in secondary effluent. 21 refs., 9 figs., 7 tabs

  8. The feasibility of effluent trading in the energy industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J.A.

    1997-05-01

    In January 1996, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released a policy statement endorsing effluent trading in watersheds, hoping to spur additional interest in the subject. The policy describes five types of effluent trades - point source/point source, point source/nonpoint source, pretreatment, intraplant, and nonpoint source/nonpoint source. This report evaluates the feasibility of effluent trading for facilities in the oil and gas industry (exploration and production, refining, and distribution and marketing segments), electric power industry, and the coal industry (mines and preparation plants). Nonpoint source/nonpoint source trades are not considered since the energy industry facilities evaluated here are all point sources. EPA has administered emission trading programs in its air quality program for many years. Programs for offsets, bubbles, banking, and netting are supported by federal regulations, and the 1990 Clean Air Act (CAA) amendments provide a statutory basis for trading programs to control ozone and acid rain. Different programs have had varying degrees of success, but few have come close to meeting their expectations. Few trading programs have been established under the Clean Water Act (CWA). One intraplant trading program was established by EPA in its effluent limitation guidelines (ELGs) for the iron and steel industry. The other existing effluent trading programs were established by state or local governments and have had minimal success.

  9. Demasculinization of male fish by wastewater treatment plant effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajda, A.M.; Barber, L.B.; Gray, J.L.; Lopez, E.M.; Bolden, A.M.; Schoenfuss, H.L.; Norris, D.O.

    2011-01-01

    Adult male fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were exposed to effluent from the City of Boulder, Colorado wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) under controlled conditions in the field to determine if the effluent induced reproductive disruption in fish. Gonadal intersex and other evidence of reproductive disruption were previously identified in white suckers (Catostomus commersoni) in Boulder Creek downstream from this WWTP effluent outfall. Fish were exposed within a mobile flow-through exposure laboratory in July 2005 and August 2006 to WWTP effluent (EFF), Boulder Creek water (REF), or mixtures of EFF and REF for up to 28 days. Primary (sperm abundance) and secondary (nuptial tubercles and dorsal fat pads) sex characteristics were demasculinized within 14 days of exposure to 50% and 100% EFF. Vitellogenin was maximally elevated in both 50% and 100% EFF treatments within 7 days and significantly elevated by 25% EFF within 14 days. The steroidal estrogens 17??-estradiol, estrone, estriol, and 17??-ethynylestradiol, as well as estrogenic alkylphenols and bisphenol A were identified within the EFF treatments and not in the REF treatment. These results support the hypothesis that the reproductive disruption observed in this watershed is due to endocrine-active chemicals in the WWTP effluent. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  10. A Novel Methylotrophic Bacterial Consortium for Treatment of Industrial Effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hingurao, Krushi; Nerurkar, Anuradha

    2018-01-01

    Considering the importance of methylotrophs in industrial wastewater treatment, focus of the present study was on utilization of a methylotrophic bacterial consortium as a microbial seed for biotreatment of a variety of industrial effluents. For this purpose, a mixed bacterial methylotrophic AC (Ankleshwar CETP) consortium comprising of Bordetella petrii AC1, Bacillus licheniformis AC4, Salmonella subterranea AC5, and Pseudomonas stutzeri AC8 was used. The AC consortium showed efficient biotreatment of four industrial effluents procured from fertilizer, chemical and pesticide industries, and common effluent treatment plant by lowering their chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 950-2000 mg/l to below detection limit in 60-96 h in 6-l batch reactor and 9-15 days in 6-l continuous reactor. The operating variables of wastewater treatment, viz. COD, BOD, pH, MLSS, MLVSS, SVI, and F/M ratio of these effluents, were also maintained in the permissible range in both batch and continuous reactors. Therefore, formation of the AC consortium has led to the development of an efficient microbial seed capable of treating a variety of industrial effluents containing pollutants generated from their respective industries.

  11. Bioplastic production using wood mill effluents as feedstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben, M; Mato, T; Lopez, A; Vila, M; Kennes, C; Veiga, M C

    2011-01-01

    Fibreboard production is one of the most important industrial activities in Galicia (Spain). Great amounts of wastewater are generated, with properties depending on the type of wood, treatment process, final product and water reusing, among others. These effluents are characterized by a high chemical oxygen demand, low pH and nutrients limitation. Although anaerobic digestion is one of the most suitable processes for the treatment, lately bioplastics production (mainly polyhydroxyalkanoates) from wastewaters with mixed cultures is being evaluated. Substrate requirements for these processes consist of high organic matter content and low nutrient concentration. Therefore, wood mill effluents could be a suitable feedstock. In this work, the possibility of producing bioplastics from to wood mill effluents is evaluated. First, wood mill effluent was converted to volatile fatty acids in an acidogenic reactor operated at two different hydraulic retention times of 1 and 1.5 d. The acidification percentage obtained was 37% and 42%, respectively. Then, aerobic batch assays were performed using fermented wood mill effluents obtained at different hydraulic retention times. Assays were developed using different cultures as inoculums. The maximum storage yield of 0.57 Cmmol/Cmmol was obtained when when the culture was enriched on a synthetic media.

  12. Tannery Effluent Treatment by Yeast Species Isolates from Watermelon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley Irobekhian Reuben Okoduwa

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The quest for an effective alternative means for effluent treatment is a major concern of the modern-day scientist. Fungi have been attracting a growing interest for the biological treatment of industrial wastewater. In this study, Saccharomycescerevisiae and Torulasporadelbrueckii were isolated from spoiled watermelon and inoculated into different concentrations of effluent. The inoculants were incubated for 21-days to monitor the performance of the isolates by measurement of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, chemical oxygen demand (COD, nitrates, conductivity, phosphates, sulphates and turbidity. The results showed that Saccharomycescerevisiae had the highest percentage decrease of 98.1%, 83.0%, 60.7%, 60.5%, and 54.2% for turbidity, sulphates, BOD, phosphates and COD, respectively, of the tannery effluent. Torulasporadelbrueckii showed the highest percentage decrease of 92.9%, 90.6%, and 61.9% for sulphates, COD, and phosphates, respectively, while the syndicate showed the highest percentage reduction of 87.4% and 70.2% for nitrate and total dissolve solid (TDS, respectively. The least percentage decrease was displayed by syndicate organisms at 51.2%, 48.1% and 40.3% for BOD, COD and conductivity, respectively. The study revealed that Saccharomycescerevisiae and Torulasporadelbrueckii could be used in the biological treatment of tannery-effluent. Hence, it was concluded that the use of these organisms could contribute to minimizing the adverse environmental risks and health-hazards associated with the disposal of untreated tannery-effluents.

  13. [Newly Designed Water Treatment Systems for Hospital Effluent].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Takashi

    2018-01-01

     Pharmaceuticals are indispensable to contemporary life. Recently, the emerging problem of pharmaceutical-based pollution of river environments, including drinking water sources and lakes, has begun to receive significant attention worldwide. Because pharmaceuticals are designed to perform specific physiological functions in targeted regions of the human body, there is increasing concern regarding their toxic effects, even at low concentrations, on aquatic ecosystems and human health, via residues in drinking water. Pharmaceuticals are consistently employed in hospitals to treat disease; and Japan, one of the most advanced countries in medical treatment, ranks second worldwide in the quantity of pharmaceuticals employed. Therefore, the development of technologies that minimize or lessen the related environmental risks for clinical effluent is an important task as well as that for sewage treatment plants (STPs). However, there has been limited research on clinical effluent, and much remains to be elucidated. In light of this, we are investigating the occurrence of pharmaceuticals, and the development of water treatment systems for clinical effluent. This review discusses the current research on clinical effluent and the development of advanced water treatment systems targeted at hospital effluent, and explores strategies for future environmental risk assessment and risk management.

  14. Pollution from tanneries effluents and its impact on environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajput, A.A.; Memon, Hafeez-ur-Rahman; Sahto, M.H.

    1999-01-01

    The disposal of tanneries effluence has become one of the serious environmental problems. The effluents from tanneries contain highly toxic materials, including chromium salts, ammonium salts, acids, sodium sulphide and suspended solids. Hair, alkalinity, surfactants, dyes and oils are also present in these effluents. The extent of pollution depends upon the volume of the effluent discharged. Many studies have been carried out on the characteristics of these effluents in order to understand the nature of the effluents and their impact on environment. The present study shows measured values of different parameters like Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) about 1950 mg/l, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) about 4500-4600 mg/l, suspended solids about 2600-2700 mg/l, dissolved solids 10000-12000 mg/l and lead, copper, chromium and cadmium about 2, 0.4, 64.4 and 0.31 mg/l respectively. The measured values are compared with that of previous. Some remedial measures for its treatment and disposal are also discussed. (author)

  15. Quarterly sampling of the wetlands along the old F-Area effluent ditch: August 1994. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummins, C.L.; Dixon, K.L.

    1994-08-01

    In August 1994, well point water and near-surface water samples were collected to further characterize tritium and volatile organic compounds in the Wetlands along the old F-Area effluent ditch south of 643-E at the Savannah River Plant. Well point samples were collected from seven locations and near-surface water samples were collected at four locations. Results of the August 1994 sampling event further support findings that tritium and volatile organic compounds are outcropping in the Wetlands near the old F-area effluent ditch. Four analytes (1,2-dichloroethylene, trichloroethylene, tritium, and vinyl chloride) were detected at least once at concentrations above the primary Drinking Water Standards or the Maximum Contaminant Levels. Five analytes (the above chemicals plus tetrachloroethylene) were detected at least once in the near-surface water samples at concentrations greater than the method detection limit

  16. A computerised radioactive effluent monitoring system for a medical cyclotron complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, B.

    1997-01-01

    During the handling and chemical processing in sterile automatic chemistry cells at the Medical Cyclotron of the Radiopharmaceutical Division of ANSTO, a fraction of the radioactive inventory is released into the atmosphere through the main stack of the cyclotron facility. Hence, the installation of a suitable effluent detector for the real-time estimation of the stack discharges during entire radioisotope production and handling processes became mandatory. A smart effluent monitoring system was developed at our health Physics laboratory and installed in July 1993. The system includes a small 94.5 ml flow-through chamber attached to a NaI (Tl) scintillation detector interfaced to a single channel analyser (SCA). The analog voltage output of the SCA, proportional to instantaneous activity concentration of radioactive gas residing in the chamber is sampled by an industrial standard data logger every minute. The data logger is interfaced to a personal computer (PC) based on a 100 MHz central processing unit (CPU) and a 100 MB (Mega Byte) hard disc. The string of raw output data (mV) from the data logger is linearised and converted to equivalent activity concentration [MBqm -3 ] using dedicated calibration polynomials. A spreadsheet macro program was implemented for the data processing. Recently an anemometer, a wind-vane with optoelectronic transducers and a wind temperature indicator have been added to the existing stack monitoring system, thus enabling the datalogger to retrieve the stack release and weather data simultaneously. A Gaussian-Plume type 'Atmospheric-Dispersion-Model' was incorporated in the spreadsheet macro program. By using the atmospheric data such as wind speed, temperature, wind direction and the activity concentration of the stack emission [Mbqm -3 ] the deposited activity concentration in the immediate vicinity of the cyclotron complex are calculated and displayed on a spreadsheet with the corresponding time of the stack release. In this paper

  17. Effluent quality of a conventional activated sludge and a membrane bioreactor system treating hospital wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauwels, B.; Ngwa, F.; Deconinck, S.; Verstraete, W.

    2005-01-01

    Two lab scale wastewater treatment plants treating hospital wastewater in parallel were compared in terms of performance characteristics. One plant consisted of a conventional activated sludge system (CAS) and comprised In anoxic and aerobic compartment followed by a settling tank with recycle loop. The second pilot plant was a -late membrane bioreactor (MBR). The wastewater as obtained from the hospital had a variable COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) ranging from 250 to 2300 mg/L. Both systems were operated at a similar hydraulic residence time of 12 hours. The reference conventional activated sludge system did not meet the regulatory standard for effluent COD of 125 mg /L most of the time. Its COD removal efficiency was 88%. The plate MBR delivered an effluent with a COD value of 50 mg/L or less, and attained an efficiency of 93%. The effluent contained no suspended particles. In addition, the MBR resulted in consistent operational parameters with a flux remaining around 8 -10 L/m/sup 2/.h and a trans membrane pressure <0.1 bar without the need for backwash or chemical cleaning. The CAS and the MBR system performed equally good in terms of TAN removal and EE2 removal. The CAS system typically decreased bacterial groups for about 1 log unit, whereas the MBR decreased these groups for about 3 log units. Enterococci were decreased below the detection limit in the MBR and indicator organisms such as fecal coliforms were decreased for 1.4 log units in the CAS system compared to a 3.6 log removal in the MBR. (author)

  18. Acute and chronic toxicity of effluent water from an abandoned uranium mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, S C; Pereira, R; Gonçalves, F

    2007-08-01

    Inactive or abandoned mines represent a significant source of environmental, chemical, physical, and aesthetic impact. Among concerning situations, the occurrence of abandoned or semi-abandoned mine-associated ponds (for sedimentation of solids, for effluent neutralization, or for washing the ore) is a common feature in this type of system. These ponds are a source of contamination for the groundwater resources and adjacent soils, because they lack appropriate impermeabilization. The use of this water for agriculture may also pose chronic risks to humans. In Portugal, these problems have been diagnosed and some remediation projects have been developed. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the acute and chronic toxicity of water samples collected from the aquatic system surrounding an abandoned uranium mine (Cunha Baixa, Mangualde, Central Portugal). The present study focuses on the water compartment, whose toxicity was evaluated by means of standard toxicity assays using two Daphnia species (D. longispina and D. magna). Three different ponds were used in the characterization of the aquatic system from Cunha Baixa mine: a reference pond (Ref), a mine effluent treatment pond (T), and a mine pit pond (M). Metal analyses performed in the water samples from these ponds showed values that, in some cases, were much higher than maximum recommendable values established (especially Al, Mn) by Portuguese legislation for waters for crop irrigation. Acute toxicity was only observed in the mine pit pond, with EC(50) values of 28.4% and 50.4% for D. longispina and D. magna, respectively. The significant impairment of chronic endpoints, translated in reductions in the population growth rate for both species, gives rise to concerns regarding the potential risks for aquatic zooplanktonic communities, from local receiving waters, potentially exposed to point source discharges of the treated and nontreated effluent from Cunha Baixa uranium mine.

  19. Communications standards

    CERN Document Server

    Stokes, A V

    1986-01-01

    Communications Standards deals with the standardization of computer communication networks. This book examines the types of local area networks (LANs) that have been developed and looks at some of the relevant protocols in more detail. The work of Project 802 is briefly discussed, along with a protocol which has developed from one of the LAN standards and is now a de facto standard in one particular area, namely the Manufacturing Automation Protocol (MAP). Factors that affect the usage of networks, such as network management and security, are also considered. This book is divided into three se

  20. WASTEWATER EFFLUENT GENERATED BY GROUT INDUSTRIES IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda C. Zola

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Civil construction has grown inadvertently in Brazil, and, consequently, its demands for raw material. The production of such materials, as to any industrial process, yields wastewater effluents and has as destination, in general, water resources such as rivers and lakes. Nonetheless, government inspection cannot keep up with the number of starting companies, resulting in impunity due to lack of inspection. In the present work, the first of the kind, some chemical-physics aspects of wastewater effluents samples generated from grout industries were analyzed. The study shows that the pH of these samples lie outside the established limit by the national laws. The extremely alkaline pH and high conductivity of these effluents may cause severe damage to the aquatic environment in which they are disposed.

  1. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the 324 Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    The 324 Facility [Waste Technology Engineering Laboratory] in the 300 Area primarily supports the research and development of radioactive and nonradioactive waste vitrification technologies, biological waste remediation technologies, spent nuclear fuel studies, waste mixing and transport studies, and tritium development programs. All of the above-mentioned programs deal with, and have the potential to, release hazardous and/or radioactive material. The potential for discharge would primarily result from (1) conducting research activities using the hazardous materials, (2) storing radionuclides and hazardous chemicals, and (3) waste accumulation and storage. This report summarizes the airborne and liquid effluents, and the results of the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan (FEMP) determination for the facility. The complete monitoring plan includes characterizing effluent streams, monitoring/sampling design criteria, a description of the monitoring systems and sample analysis, and quality assurance requirements

  2. Evaluation of dairy effluent management options using multiple criteria analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajkowicz, Stefan A; Wheeler, Sarah A

    2008-04-01

    This article describes how options for managing dairy effluent on the Lower Murray River in South Australia were evaluated using multiple criteria analysis (MCA). Multiple criteria analysis is a framework for combining multiple environmental, social, and economic objectives in policy decisions. At the time of the study, dairy irrigation in the region was based on flood irrigation which involved returning effluent to the river. The returned water contained nutrients, salts, and microbial contaminants leading to environmental, human health, and tourism impacts. In this study MCA was used to evaluate 11 options against 6 criteria for managing dairy effluent problems. Of the 11 options, the MCA model selected partial rehabilitation of dairy paddocks with the conversion of remaining land to other agriculture. Soon after, the South Australian Government adopted this course of action and is now providing incentives for dairy farmers in the region to upgrade irrigation infrastructure and/or enter alternative industries.

  3. Atomics International environmental monitoring and facility effluent annual report, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, J.D.

    1977-01-01

    Environmental and facility effluent radioactivity monitoring at Atomics International (AI) is performend by the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Unit of the Health, Safety, and Radiation Services Department. Soil, vegetation, and surface water are routinely sampled to a distance of 10 miles from AI sites. Continuous ambient air sampling and thermoluminescent dosimetry are performed on site for monitoring airborne radioactivity and site ambient radiation levels. Radioactivity in effluents discharged to the atmosphere from AI facilities is continuously sampled and monitored to ensure that levels released to unrestricted areas are within appropriate limits, and to identify processes which may require additional engineering safeguards to minimize radioactivity levels in such effluents. In addition, selected nonradioactive constituents in surface water discharged to unrestricted areas are determined. This report summarizes and discusses monitoring results for 1976. The results of a special soil plutonium survey performed during the year are also summarized

  4. Remarks on 90Sr dosing in a radioactive effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribon, Francoise; Wormser, Gerald

    1961-01-01

    As the control of radioactive effluents requires the measurement of strontium-90 activity (this element is the most hazardous among beta emitters in case of ingestion), this measurement must be performed before and after the decontamination treatment of the effluent. The authors first studied to which extent it is possible to neglect the amount of yttrium-90 which forms again from strontium-90. They show that this presence must be taken into consideration. They report the identification of conditions for the measurement of activity of a mix of strontium-89, strontium-90 and re-formed yttrium-90. They also studied the possibility of a quick dosing of strontium in an effluent containing calcium

  5. Using solvent extraction to process nitrate anion exchange column effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarbro, S.L.

    1987-10-01

    Octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO), a new organophosphorous extractant, and a new centrifugal mixer-settler both recently developed at Argonne were evaluated for their potential use in the recovery of actinides from nitrate anion exchange column effluents. The performance of the extractant was evaluated by measuring the extraction coefficient values as a function of acid and salt concentration. Additional performance parameters include extraction coefficient behavior as a function of the total metal concentration in the organic phase, and comparison of different stripping and organic scrubbing techniques. A simulated effluent stream was used to evaluate the performance of the centrifugal mixer-settlers by comparing experimental and calculated interstage concentration profiles. Both the CMPO extractant and the centrifugal mixer-settlers have potential for processing nitrate column effluents, particularly if the stripping behavior can be improved. Details of the proposed process are presented in the flowsheet and contactor design analyses

  6. Using solvent extraction to process nitrate anion exchange column effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarbro, S.L.

    1987-10-01

    Octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO), a new organophosphorous extractant, and a new centrifugal mixer-settler both recently developed at Argonne were evaluated for their potential use in the recovery of actinides from nitrate anion exchange column effluents. The performance of the extractant was evaluated by measuring the extraction coefficient values as a function of acid and salt concentration. Additional performance parameters include extraction coefficient behavior as a function of the total metal concentration in the organic phase, and comparison of different stripping and organic scrubbing techniques. A simulated effluent stream was used to evaluate the performance of the centrifugal mixer-settlers by comparing experimental and calculated interstage concentration profiles. Both the CMPO extractant and the centrifugal mixer-settlers have potential for processing nitrate column effluents, particularly if the stripping behavior can be improved. Details of the proposed process are presented in the flowsheet and contactor design analyses.

  7. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the 324 Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-11-01

    The 324 Facility [Waste Technology Engineering Laboratory] in the 300 Area primarily supports the research and development of radioactive and nonradioactive waste vitrification technologies, biological waste remediation technologies, spent nuclear fuel studies, waste mixing and transport studies, and tritium development programs. All of the above-mentioned programs deal with, and have the potential to, release hazardous and/or radioactive material. The potential for discharge would primarily result from (1) conducting research activities using the hazardous materials, (2) storing radionuclides and hazardous chemicals, and (3) waste accumulation and storage. This report summarizes the airborne and liquid effluents, and the results of the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan (FEMP) determination for the facility. The complete monitoring plan includes characterizing effluent streams, monitoring/sampling design criteria, a description of the monitoring systems and sample analysis, and quality assurance requirements.

  8. Required ozone doses for removing pharmaceuticals from wastewater effluents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antoniou, Maria; Hey, Gerly; Rodríguez Vega, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the this study was to investigate the ozone dosage required to remove active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) from biologically treated wastewater of varying quality, originated from different raw wastewater and wastewater treatment processes.Secondary effluents from six Swedish...... wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) were spiked with 42 APIs (nominal concentration 1μg/L) and treated with different O3 doses (0.5–12.0mg/L ozone) in bench-scale experiments.In order to compare the sensitivity of APIs in each matrix, the specific dose of ozone required to achieve reduction by one decade...... of each investigated API (DDO3) was determined for each effluent by fitting a first order equation to the remaining concentration of API at each applied ozone dose. Ozone dose requirements were found to vary significantly between effluents depending on their matrix characteristics.The specific ozone dose...

  9. Processing of radioactive effluents in Cadarache research centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boisset, L.; Federici, V.; Barnier, H.

    2000-01-01

    French Atomic Energy Commission (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique - CEA) is studying the design of a new plant for processing liquid aqueous radioactive effluents produced on Cadarache Research Centre. Effluents to be processed are low and medium activity effluents, with, for some of them, important concentrations of actinides, and which lead to the production of A and B category solid wastes, according to the French legislation, and suitable for final disposal. The objectives in terms of minimization of discharge's activity level and solid waste production have guided a selection of processes and their arrangement, in order to optimise decontamination and volume concentration factors. Seeded-ultrafiltration and vitrification with cold crucible melter are part of the selected processes for which developments are in progress in CEA for application to the characteristics of the project. (authors)

  10. Dose apportionment using statistical modeling of the effluent release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, D.

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear power plants are always operated under the guidelines stipulated by the regulatory body. These guidelines basically contain the technical specifications of the specific power plant and provide the knowledge of the discharge limit of the radioactive effluent into the environment through atmospheric and aquatic route. However, operational constraints sometimes may violate the technical specification due to which there may be a failure to satisfy the stipulated dose apportioned to that plant. In a site having multi facilities sum total of the dose apportioned to all the facilities should be constrained to 1 mSv/year to the members of the public. Dose apportionment scheme basically stipulates the limit of the gaseous and liquid effluent released into the environment. Existing methodology of dose apportionment is subjective in nature that may result the discharge limit of the effluent in atmospheric and aquatic route in an adhoc manner. Appropriate scientific basis for dose apportionment is always preferable rather than judicial basis from the point of harmonization of establishing the dose apportionment. This paper presents an attempt of establishing the discharge limit of the gaseous and liquid effluent first on the basis of the existing value of the release of the same. Existing release data for a few years (for example 10 years) for any nuclear power station have taken into consideration. Bootstrap, a resampling technique, has been adopted on this data sets to generate the population which subsequently provide the corresponding population distribution of the effluent release. Cumulative distribution of the population distribution obtained is constructed and using this cumulative distribution, 95th percentile (upper bound) of the discharge limit of the radioactive effluents is computed. Dose apportioned for a facility is evaluated using this estimated upper bound of the release limit. Paper describes the detail of the bootstrap method in evaluating the

  11. The effluent toxicity assessment toolbox international perspective on tools and concepts and opportunities for animal alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effluent testing has been utilized in many countries to assess potential ecological impacts and assist in determining necessary treatment options for environmental protection. However, it was only relatively recently that toxicity-based effluent assessments and subsequent dischar...

  12. Assessment of wastewater treatment plant effluent on fish reproduction utilizing the adverse outcome pathway conceptual framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents are a known contributor of chemical mixture inputs into the environment. Whole effluent testing guidelines were developed to screen these complex mixtures for acute toxicity. However, efficient and cost-effective approaches for screenin...

  13. Temporal Variation in the Estrogenicity of a Sewage Treatment Plant Effluent and its Biological Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper describes variations in the estrogenic potency of effluent from a "model" wastewater treatment plant in Duluth, MN, and explores the significance of these variations relative to sampling approaches for monitoring effluents and their toxicity to fish.

  14. Enhanced production of laccase by a marine fungus during treatment of colored effluents and synthetic dyes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSouza-Ticlo, D.; Tiwari, R.; Sah, A.K.; Raghukumar, C.

    enhancement in laccase production was found during treatment of colored effluents from textile, paper and pulp mill and distillery waste. Industrial effluents and synthetic dyes added to the growing culture of this fungus were decolorized to a great extent...

  15. Response of Penaeid Prawns (Metapanaeus monoceros) to textile dye industrial effluents (TDIE): An indicator of stress

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Praneeth, R.R.; Shirodkar, P.V.; ManiMurali, R.; Ravindran, J.; Brahma, S.; Vethamony, P.

    Studies on acute toxicity of textile effluents, collected from various Textile Dye Industries from Erode industrial area, Tamil Nadu, have been carried out. The juveniles of pink prawns (Metapanaeus monoceros) were exposed to a mixture of effluent...

  16. Nonradiological liquid effluent monitoring program. 1992 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J.A.; Peterson-Wright, L.J.; Meachum, T.R.

    1993-08-01

    A monitoring program for nonradioactive parameters and pollutants in liquid effluents was initiated in October 1985 for facilities operated by EG&G Idaho, Inc., for the U.S. Department of Energy at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Program design and implementation are discussed in this report. Design and methodologies for sampling, analysis, and data management are also discussed. Monitoring results for 28 liquid effluent streams from (October 1991 through December 1992) are presented with emphasis on calendar year 1992 activities. All parameter measurements and concentrations were below the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act toxic characteristics limits.

  17. Systems engineering implementation plan for the liquid effluents services program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, S.S.

    1995-01-01

    A graded approach is being taken by the Liquid Effluents Services Program in implementing systems engineering because of the advanced state of the program. The approach is cost-effective and takes credit for related work already completed, yet retains the benefits of systems engineering. This plan describes how the Liquid Effluents Services Program will implement systems engineering so there is a common understanding. Systems engineering work to be performed and the products of that work are identified. The relation to the current planning process and integration with the sitewide systems engineering effort is described

  18. Effect of surface treatment of tailings on effluent quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, D.R.; Okuhara, D.

    1980-01-01

    Lysimeters containing 125 tons of mine tailings were used to determine the impact of gravel, sawdust, and vegetation as surface treatments on the quality and quantity of effluent produced from sulfide-containing uranium mill tailings. Over a 5-yr period, treatments did not alter the effluent quality to a level acceptable to regulatory requirements. The concentration of iron, copper, lead, aluminum, and sulfate increased with the rise of acidity during this period. However, the rate and extent of changes did vary with the treatment. The role of surface treatment in long-term waste abandonment must be investigated further

  19. Bentonite chemical modification for use in industrial effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laranjeira, E.; Pinto, M.R.O.; Rodrigues, D.P.; Costa, B.P.; Guimaraes, P.L.F.

    2010-01-01

    The present work aims at synthesizing organoclays using a layered silicate of regional importance, bentonite clay, for the treatment of industrial effluents. The choice of clay to be organophilized was based on cation exchange capacity (CEC). Bentonite with higher CTC was called AN 35 (92 meq/100 g), and therefore was the one that suffered the chemical modification with salt cetyl trimethyl ammonium Cetremide, provided by Vetec.The unmodified and modified clays were characterized by FTIR and XDR. The data obtained through the characterizations confirmed the acquisition of bentonite organoclay thus suggesting its subsequent application in the treatment of industrial effluents. (author)

  20. The use of magnetite for decontaminating alpha containing effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivens, R.

    1988-06-01

    The feasibility of retention of precipitated magnetite by magnetic filtration followed by direct cementation offered an attractive alternative to conventional ferric hydroxide treatment of radioactive liquid effluents. The magnetically-assisted dewatering of laboratory-prepared magnetite was examined in a number of ways, none of which achieved the desired optimum solids content for cementation. Attempts to prepare magnetite in situ from typical effluents containing iron were unsuccessful owing to the presence of interfering ions. Preformed magnetite was reasonably effective at absorbing actinides from solution but did not appear to offer any significant advantage over ferric hydroxide. (author)

  1. Cleanup Verification Package for the 116-K-2 Effluent Trench

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capron, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 116-K-2 effluent trench, also referred to as the 116-K-2 mile-long trench and the 116-K-2 site. During its period of operation, the 116-K-2 site was used to dispose of cooling water effluent from the 105-KE and 105-KW Reactors by percolation into the soil. This site also received mixed liquid wastes from the 105-KW and 105-KE fuel storage basins, reactor floor drains, and miscellaneous decontamination activities

  2. Cleanup Verification Package for the 116-K-2 Effluent Trench

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. M. Capron

    2006-04-04

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 116-K-2 effluent trench, also referred to as the 116-K-2 mile-long trench and the 116-K-2 site. During its period of operation, the 116-K-2 site was used to dispose of cooling water effluent from the 105-KE and 105-KW Reactors by percolation into the soil. This site also received mixed liquid wastes from the 105-KW and 105-KE fuel storage basins, reactor floor drains, and miscellaneous decontamination activities.

  3. Achieving Standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    competitive, national customs and regional economic organizations are seeking to establish a standardized solution for digital reporting of customs data. However, standardization has proven hard to achieve in the socio-technical e-Customs solution. In this chapter, the authors identify and describe what has......International e-Customs is going through a standardization process. Driven by the need to increase control in the trade process to address security challenges stemming from threats of terrorists, diseases, and counterfeit products, and to lower the administrative burdens on traders to stay...... to be harmonized in order for a global company to perceive e-Customs as standardized. In doing so, they contribute an explanation of the challenges associated with using a standardization mechanism for harmonizing socio-technical information systems....

  4. Achieving Standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    competitive, national customs and regional economic organizations are seeking to establish a standardized solution for digital reporting of customs data. However, standardization has proven hard to achieve in the socio-technical e-Customs solution. In this chapter, the authors identify and describe what has......International e-Customs is going through a standardization process. Driven by the need to increase control in the trade process to address security challenges stemming from threats of terrorists, diseases, and counterfeit products, and to lower the administrative burdens on traders to stay...... to be harmonized in order for a global company to perceive e-Customs as standardized. In doing so, they contribute an explanation of the challenges associated with using a standardization mechanism for harmonizing socio-technical information systems....

  5. Training Standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agnihotri, Newal

    2003-01-01

    The article describes the benefits of and required process and recommendations for implementing the standardization of training in the nuclear power industry in the United States and abroad. Current Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) enable training standardization in the nuclear power industry. The delivery of training through the Internet, Intranet and video over IP will facilitate this standardization and bring multiple benefits to the nuclear power industry worldwide. As the amount of available qualified and experienced professionals decreases because of retirements and fewer nuclear engineering institutions, standardized training will help increase the number of available professionals in the industry. Technology will make it possible to use the experience of retired professionals who may be interested in working part-time from a remote location. Well-planned standardized training will prevent a fragmented approach among utilities, and it will save the industry considerable resources in the long run. It will also ensure cost-effective and safe nuclear power plant operation

  6. Computer software configuration management plan for 200 East/West Liquid Effluent Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graf, F.A. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    This computer software management configuration plan covers the control of the software for the monitor and control system that operates the Effluent Treatment Facility and its associated truck load in station and some key aspects of the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility that stores condensate to be processed. Also controlled is the Treated Effluent Disposal System's pumping stations and monitors waste generator flows in this system as well as the Phase Two Effluent Collection System

  7. Efficiency Evaluation of Filtration with Fluidized Bed for Treatment of Secondary Effluents for Reuse

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Hosaini; Rohallah Moradi; Gholam Hossain Safari

    2013-01-01

    Background & Objectives: Recently, deficient in atmospheric drop and discharges of wastewater effluents leads to serious threat for water resource. For that reason, for prevention of water source pollution and also reuse of wastewater effluents, treatment of such effluents seems to be necessary. Methods: In this work, fluidized bed reactor with a filter was used for treatment of effluents from Shahrak Gharb wastewater treatment plant. Various parameters such as BOD5, COD, TS, TP, TN and t...

  8. In situ and laboratory bioassays to evaluate the impact of effluent discharges on receiving aquatic ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smolders, R. [Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp (RUCA), Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)]. E-mail: roel.smolders@ua.ac.be; Bervoets, L. [Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp (RUCA), Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Blust, R. [Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp (RUCA), Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2004-11-01

    Effluents are a main source of direct and often continuous input of pollutants into aquatic ecosystems with long-term implications on ecosystem functioning. Therefore, the study of the effects of effluent exposure on organisms, populations or communities within the framework of impact assessment has a high ecological relevance. The aim of this study was to assess the toxicological impact of two effluents, one household wastewater treatment effluent (Effluent 1) and one industrial effluent (Effluent 2), on the receiving aquatic ecosystem using two test species under both in situ and laboratory conditions. Zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed under laboratory conditions in an online monitoring flow-through system (receiving different concentrations of Effluent 2) and under in situ conditions along the pollution gradient established by these two effluent discharges. Bioassays focussed on growth and condition related endpoints (i.e. condition, growth, lipid budget), since these are key functional processes within organisms and populations. Under laboratory conditions, increasing concentrations of the industrial effluent (Effluent 2) had a negative effect on both zebra mussel and carp energy reserves and condition. Under in situ conditions, the same negative impact of Effluent 2 was observed for zebra mussels, while Effluent 1 had no apparent effect on exposed zebra mussels. Carp growth and condition, on the other hand, were significantly increased at the discharge sites of both effluents when compared to the reference site, probably due to differences in food availability. The results indicate that a combination of in situ and laboratory exposures can illustrate how ecological processes influence bioassay studies. The incorporation of indirect, ecological effects, like changes in food availability, provides considerable benefit in understanding and predicting effects of effluents on selected species under realistic exposure

  9. In situ and laboratory bioassays to evaluate the impact of effluent discharges on receiving aquatic ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolders, R.; Bervoets, L.; Blust, R.

    2004-01-01

    Effluents are a main source of direct and often continuous input of pollutants into aquatic ecosystems with long-term implications on ecosystem functioning. Therefore, the study of the effects of effluent exposure on organisms, populations or communities within the framework of impact assessment has a high ecological relevance. The aim of this study was to assess the toxicological impact of two effluents, one household wastewater treatment effluent (Effluent 1) and one industrial effluent (Effluent 2), on the receiving aquatic ecosystem using two test species under both in situ and laboratory conditions. Zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed under laboratory conditions in an online monitoring flow-through system (receiving different concentrations of Effluent 2) and under in situ conditions along the pollution gradient established by these two effluent discharges. Bioassays focussed on growth and condition related endpoints (i.e. condition, growth, lipid budget), since these are key functional processes within organisms and populations. Under laboratory conditions, increasing concentrations of the industrial effluent (Effluent 2) had a negative effect on both zebra mussel and carp energy reserves and condition. Under in situ conditions, the same negative impact of Effluent 2 was observed for zebra mussels, while Effluent 1 had no apparent effect on exposed zebra mussels. Carp growth and condition, on the other hand, were significantly increased at the discharge sites of both effluents when compared to the reference site, probably due to differences in food availability. The results indicate that a combination of in situ and laboratory exposures can illustrate how ecological processes influence bioassay studies. The incorporation of indirect, ecological effects, like changes in food availability, provides considerable benefit in understanding and predicting effects of effluents on selected species under realistic exposure

  10. 40 CFR 430.127 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Subpart L [PSNS for non-integrated mills where filter and non-woven papers are produced from purchased...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Tissue, Filter, Non-Woven, and Paperboard From Purchased Pulp Subcategory § 430.127 Pretreatment standards for new sources...

  11. 40 CFR 442.15 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT CLEANING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Tank Trucks and Intermodal Tank Containers Transporting Chemical and Petroleum Cargos § 442.15 Pretreatment standards for... being incompatible with treatment at the POTW, the Plan shall provide that heels be fully drained...

  12. 40 CFR 442.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT CLEANING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Tank Trucks and Intermodal Tank Containers Transporting Chemical and Petroleum Cargos § 442.16 Pretreatment standards for new... incompatible with treatment at the POTW, the Plan shall provide that heels be fully drained, segregated from...

  13. 40 CFR 406.25 - Standards of performance for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Standards of performance for new sources. 406.25 Section 406.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Corn Dry Milling Subcategory § 406.25...

  14. 40 CFR 406.15 - Standards of performance for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Standards of performance for new sources. 406.15 Section 406.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Corn Wet Milling Subcategory § 406.15...

  15. 40 CFR 415.26 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS). 415.26 Section 415.26 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Sulfate...

  16. 40 CFR 421.94 - Standards of performance for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... subpart shall achieve the following new source performance standards: Subpart I—Metallurgical Acid Plant...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Metallurgical Acid... per/million pounds) of 100 pct sulfuric acid capacity Arsenic 3.550 1.584 Cadmium 0.511 0.204 Copper 3...

  17. 40 CFR 423.17 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS). 423.17 Section 423.17 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS STEAM ELECTRIC POWER GENERATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY § 423.17...

  18. 40 CFR 423.16 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES). 423.16 Section 423.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS STEAM ELECTRIC POWER GENERATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY § 423.16...

  19. 40 CFR 405.95 - Standards of performance for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Standards of performance for new sources. 405.95 Section 405.95 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS DAIRY PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Condensed Milk...

  20. 40 CFR 415.646 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cadmium Pigments and Salts Production Subcategory § 415.646 Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS). (a) Except as provided in 40 CFR 403.7, any new source subject to this subpart and producing cadmium pigments...

  1. 40 CFR 410.36 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS). 410.36 Section 410.36 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TEXTILE MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Low Water Use Processing Subcategory...

  2. 40 CFR 410.76 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS). 410.76 Section 410.76 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TEXTILE MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Stock and Yarn Finishing Subcategory...

  3. 40 CFR 410.64 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES). 410.64 Section 410.64 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TEXTILE MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Carpet Finishing Subcategory § 410.64...

  4. 40 CFR 410.86 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS). 410.86 Section 410.86 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TEXTILE MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Nonwoven Manufacturing Subcategory...

  5. 40 CFR 410.46 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS). 410.46 Section 410.46 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TEXTILE MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Woven Fabric Finishing Subcategory...

  6. 40 CFR 410.96 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS). 410.96 Section 410.96 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TEXTILE MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Felted Fabric Processing Subcategory...

  7. 40 CFR 410.54 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES). 410.54 Section 410.54 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TEXTILE MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Knit Fabric Finishing Subcategory...

  8. 40 CFR 410.56 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS). 410.56 Section 410.56 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TEXTILE MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Knit Fabric Finishing Subcategory...

  9. 40 CFR 410.24 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES). 410.24 Section 410.24 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TEXTILE MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wool Finishing Subcategory § 410.24...

  10. 40 CFR 410.14 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES). 410.14 Section 410.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TEXTILE MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wool Scouring Subcategory § 410.14...

  11. 40 CFR 410.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS). 410.16 Section 410.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TEXTILE MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wool Scouring Subcategory § 410.16...

  12. 40 CFR 410.26 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS). 410.26 Section 410.26 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TEXTILE MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wool Finishing Subcategory § 410.26...

  13. 40 CFR 410.66 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS). 410.66 Section 410.66 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TEXTILE MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Carpet Finishing Subcategory § 410.66...

  14. 40 CFR 455.67 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PESTICIDE CHEMICALS Repackaging of Agricultural Pesticides Performed at... publicly owned treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403 and achieve the pretreatment standards for existing sources as follows: There shall be no discharge of process wastewater pollutants. ...

  15. 40 CFR 455.66 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PESTICIDE CHEMICALS Repackaging of Agricultural Pesticides Performed at... publicly owned treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403 and achieve the pretreatment standards for existing sources as follows: There shall be no discharge of process wastewater pollutants. ...

  16. 40 CFR 428.65 - Standards of performance for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards of performance for new sources. 428.65 Section 428.65 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Medium-Sized General Molded...

  17. 40 CFR 425.15 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 403, and achieve the following pretreatment standards: Pollutant or pollutant property PSES Maximum...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS LEATHER TANNING AND FINISHING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hair Pulp, Chrome Tan... than 275 hides/day shall comply with § 425.15(a), except that the total chromium limitations contained...

  18. Upgrading fertilizer production wastewater effluent quality for ammonium discharges through ion exchange with clinoptilolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beler-Baykal, B; Allar, A D

    2008-06-01

    It had previously been shown that ammonium selective natural zeolite clinoptilolite may be used successfully as an ion exchanger for ammonium removal and nitrogen control from domestic wastewater. The process had been reported to be acceptable either by itself alone or as an upgrade. In this work, the possibility of using clinoptilolite for ammonium removal from fertilizer production wastewater was investigated. The fertilizer plant under consideration was rather a non-typical one with a lower ammonium strength than what is normally expected, and a variable effluent concentration. Batch experiments were performed to assess the capacity of clinoptilolite towards ammonium removal from an industrial wastewater at two different pHs. Flow experiments for the characterization of system behavior under continuous feeding conditions at different contact times were conducted for breakthrough analysis. Both real and simulated fertilizer wastewater samples were investigated and the results have shown that the real one may successfully be represented by the simulated one. Experimental results have shown that surface capacities exceeding 14 mg ammonium g(-1) clinoptilolite could be attained, complete removal of ammonium may be achieved with empty bed contact times of 10 min or higher and ion exchange with clinoptilolite could be used successfully to comply with the effluent standards given for the fertilizer plant.

  19. EVALUATING THE EFFECT OF INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENTS ON CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF SOIL IN VILLAGE DINGI, DISTRICT HARIPUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Asghar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The present report is an outcome of research work conducted in Dingi village, District Haripur in 2012. The research aimed to assess and analyze the effects of industrial effluents on the soil fertility of the village, investigate contributing factors responsible for soil pollution and underlying causes creating the problems. Data analysis revealed that area had problems pertaining to water and soil quality. The key factors affecting soil fertility were the careless discharge of the untreated industrial effluents from Hattar Industrial Estate (HIE into the natural stream passing through village. The results were compared with the soil standards set by the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF and European Committee Commission (ECC and all of these were exceeding the permissible limits and affecting the soil fertility. The soils were found not fit for agriculture. The investigation highlighted the need to take some effective steps to manage the monitoring program set for checking of industries by the government according to set rules and regulation.

  20. Tertiary treatment of Berlin WWTP effluents with ferrate (Fe(VI)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübner, U; Jekel, M

    2013-01-01

    New and higher standards in the EU water framework directive necessitate advanced treatment of secondary effluents for reduction of trace organic compounds (TrOCs) and nutrients before the discharge into receiving surface waters. Due to its dual function as oxidant and coagulant, ferrate is considered as a promising alternative for tertiary treatment. The oxidation of selected TrOCs and simultaneous flocculation of phosphates by ferrate was tested in batch experiments with secondary effluent from Berlin Ruhleben. The concentrations of carbamazepine (CBZ) and diclofenac were reduced by >90% with ferrate dosages of 6 mg/L as Fe. CBZ was transformed to 1-(2-benzaldehyde)-4-hydro-(1H,3H)-quinazoline-2-one, which is known as the major product from the reaction of CBZ with ozone. In contrast to ozonation, no further transformation of this product was observed. The concentration of ibuprofen was not reduced by ferrate treatment. For efficient removal of 60-100 μg/L phosphate-P to values <20 μg/L, ferrate dosages of 3-4 mg/L as Fe were sufficient.