Kucera, Antonin; Slaman, Theodore A.
2007-01-01
We show that there is a low T-upper bound for the class of K-trivial sets, namely those which are weak from the point of view of algorithmic randomness. This result is a special case of a more general characterization of ideals in Δ02 T-degrees for which there is a low T-upper bound.
Isoperimetric upper bounds for the first eigenvalue
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
[5] Buser P and Karcher H, Gromov's almost flat manifolds, Société mathématique de. France (1981). [6] Grosjean J F, Upper bounds for the first eigenvalue of the Laplacian on compact submanifolds, Pacific. J. Math. 206 (2002) 93–112. [7] Heintze Ernst, Extinsic upper bounds for λ1, Math. Ann. 280 (1988) 389–402.
Upper Bounds on Numerical Approximation Errors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Raahauge, Peter
2004-01-01
This paper suggests a method for determining rigorous upper bounds on approximationerrors of numerical solutions to infinite horizon dynamic programming models.Bounds are provided for approximations of the value function and the policyfunction as well as the derivatives of the value function...
Upper bounds on superpartner masses from upper bounds on the Higgs boson mass.
Cabrera, M E; Casas, J A; Delgado, A
2012-01-13
The LHC is putting bounds on the Higgs boson mass. In this Letter we use those bounds to constrain the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) parameter space using the fact that, in supersymmetry, the Higgs mass is a function of the masses of sparticles, and therefore an upper bound on the Higgs mass translates into an upper bound for the masses for superpartners. We show that, although current bounds do not constrain the MSSM parameter space from above, once the Higgs mass bound improves big regions of this parameter space will be excluded, putting upper bounds on supersymmetry (SUSY) masses. On the other hand, for the case of split-SUSY we show that, for moderate or large tanβ, the present bounds on the Higgs mass imply that the common mass for scalars cannot be greater than 10(11) GeV. We show how these bounds will evolve as LHC continues to improve the limits on the Higgs mass.
Isoperimetric upper bounds for the first eigenvalue
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
eigenvalue of M was given in terms of the integral of the first eigenvalue of the geodesic spheres centred at the centre of gravity of M. For precious statements, see [10]. In this paper, we obtain isoperimetric upper bounds for the first eigenvalue λ1(M) of a hypersurface M in M(κ). We refer to [2] and [8] for the basic Riemannian ...
Upper bounds for flexoelectric coefficients in ferroelectrics
Yudin, P. V.; Ahluwalia, R.; Tagantsev, A. K.
2014-02-01
Flexoelectric effect is the response of electric polarization to the mechanical strain gradient. At the nano-scale, where large strain gradients are expected, the flexoelectric effect becomes appreciable and may substitute piezoelectric effect in centrosymmetric materials. These features make flexoelectricity of growing interest during the last decade. At the same time, the available theoretical and experimental results are rather contradictory. In particular, experimentally measured flexoelectric coefficients in some ferroelectric materials largely exceed theoretically predicted values. Here, we determine the upper limits for the magnitude of the static bulk contribution to the flexoelectric effect in ferroelectrics, the contribution which was customarily considered as the dominating one. The magnitude of the upper bounds obtained suggests that the anomalously high flexoelectric coupling documented for perovskite ceramics can hardly be attributed to a manifestation of the static bulk effect.
New upper bounds for kissing numbers from semidefinite programming
C. Bachoc; F. Vallentin (Frank)
2008-01-01
htmlabstractRecently A. Schrijver derived new upper bounds for binary codes using semidefinite programming. In this paper we adapt this approach to codes on the unit sphere and we compute new upper bounds for the kissing number in several dimensions. In particular our computations give the (known)
New upper bounds for kissing numbers from semidefinite programming
C. Bachoc; F. Vallentin (Frank)
2006-01-01
htmlabstractRecently A. Schrijver derived new upper bounds for binary codes using semidefinite programming. In this paper we adapt this approach to codes on the unit sphere and we compute new upper bounds for the kissing number in several dimensions. In particular our computations give the (known)
Inequalities Involving Upper Bounds for Certain Matrix Operators
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Volume 116; Issue 3. Inequalities Involving Upper Bounds for Certain Matrix Operators. R Lashkaripour D Foroutannia. Volume ... Keywords. Inequality; norm; summability matrix; Hausdorff matrix; Hilbert matrix; weighted sequence space; Lorentz sequence space.
An upper bound for the proton temperature anisotrophy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gary, S.P.
1994-01-01
This tutorial describes recent research concerning the upper bound on the hot proton temperature anisotropy imposed by wave-particle scattering due to enhanced fluctuations from the electromagnetic proton cyclotron anisotropy instability. This upper bound, which has been observed in both the magnetosheath and the outer magnetosphere, represents a limited closure relation for the equations of anisotropic magnetohydrodynamics. Such a closure relation has the potential to improve the predictive capability of large-scale anisotropic models of the magnetosphere
Inequalities involving upper bounds for certain matrix operators
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Inequalities involving upper bounds for certain matrix operators. R LASHKARIPOUR and D ... Inequality; norm; summability matrix; Hausdorff matrix; Hilbert matrix; weighted sequence space; Lorentz ...... [10] Pecari J, Peric I and Roki R, On bounds for weighted norms for matrices and integral operators, Linear Algebra and ...
Upper bounds for reversible circuits based on Young subgroups
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Abdessaied, Nabila; Soeken, Mathias; Thomsen, Michael Kirkedal
2014-01-01
We present tighter upper bounds on the number of Toffoli gates needed in reversible circuits. Both multiple controlled Toffoli gates and mixed polarity Toffoli gates have been considered for this purpose. The calculation of the bounds is based on a synthesis approach based on Young subgroups...
The question of an upper bound on entropy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qadir, A.
1982-08-01
We discuss the possibility, and significance, of an upper bound on entropy in the light of the arguments of Bekenstein and Unruh and Wald. We obtain a stricter bound than Bekenstein does, and point out some limitations with regard to its significance. (author)
Upper bounds on minimum cardinality of exact and approximate reducts
Chikalov, Igor
2010-01-01
In the paper, we consider the notions of exact and approximate decision reducts for binary decision tables. We present upper bounds on minimum cardinality of exact and approximate reducts depending on the number of rows (objects) in the decision table. We show that the bound for exact reducts is unimprovable in the general case, and the bound for approximate reducts is almost unimprovable in the general case. © 2010 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Thermodynamic Upper Bound on Broadband Light Coupling with Photonic Structures
Yu, Zongfu
2012-10-01
The coupling between free space radiation and optical media critically influences the performance of optical devices. We show that, for any given photonic structure, the sum of the external coupling rates for all its optical modes are subject to an upper bound dictated by the second law of thermodynamics. Such bound limits how efficient light can be coupled to any photonic structure. As one example of application, we use this upper bound to derive the limit of light absorption in broadband solar absorbers. © 2012 American Physical Society.
Analysis of strictly bound modes in photonic crystal fibers by use of a source-model technique.
Hochman, Amit; Leviatan, Yehuda
2004-06-01
We describe a source-model technique for the analysis of the strictly bound modes propagating in photonic crystal fibers that have a finite photonic bandgap crystal cladding and are surrounded by an air jacket. In this model the field is simulated by a superposition of fields of fictitious electric and magnetic current filaments, suitably placed near the media interfaces of the fiber. A simple point-matching procedure is subsequently used to enforce the continuity conditions across the interfaces, leading to a homogeneous matrix equation. Nontrivial solutions to this equation yield the mode field patterns and propagation constants. As an example, we analyze a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber. Symmetry characteristics of the modes are discussed and exploited to reduce the computational burden.
Kraaij, R.C.
2016-01-01
Let X be a separable metric space and let β be the strict topology on the space of bounded continuous functions on X, which has the space of τ-additive Borel measures as a continuous dual space. We prove a Banach-Dieudonné type result for the space of bounded continuous functions equipped with β:
An upper bound on Q-star masses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hochron, D.R.; Selipsky, S.B.
1992-06-01
Q-stars (the gravitational generalization of Q-balls, strongly bound bulk matter that an appear in field theories of strongly interacting hadrons) are the only known impact objects consistent with the known bulk structure of nuclei and chiral symmetry that evade the Rhoades-Ruffini upper bound of 3.2M circle-dot . Generic bounds are quite weak: M Q-star circle-dot . If, however, we assume that the 1.558 ms pulsar is a Q-star, equilibrium. A stability criteria of rotating fluids place a much stronger upper bound of M c ≤ 5.3M circle-dot on such models under certain special assumptions. This has important implications for heavy compact objects such as Cygnus X-1
Upper bound of abutment scour in laboratory and field data
Benedict, Stephen
2016-01-01
The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the South Carolina Department of Transportation, conducted a field investigation of abutment scour in South Carolina and used those data to develop envelope curves that define the upper bound of abutment scour. To expand on this previous work, an additional cooperative investigation was initiated to combine the South Carolina data with abutment scour data from other sources and evaluate upper bound patterns with this larger data set. To facilitate this analysis, 446 laboratory and 331 field measurements of abutment scour were compiled into a digital database. This extensive database was used to evaluate the South Carolina abutment scour envelope curves and to develop additional envelope curves that reflected the upper bound of abutment scour depth for the laboratory and field data. The envelope curves provide simple but useful supplementary tools for assessing the potential maximum abutment scour depth in the field setting.
Upper bounds for Neyman-Pearson cooperative spectrum sensing
Zahabi, Sayed Jalal
2011-06-01
We consider a cooperative spectrum sensing scenario where the local sensors at the secondary users are viewed as one-level quantizers, and the quantized data are to be fused under Neyman-Pearson (N-P) criterion. We demonstrate how the N-P fusion results in a randomized test, which represents the total performance of our spectrum sensing scheme. We further introduce an upper performance bound for the overall primary user signal detection. An analytical procedure towards the upper bound and its relevant quantization setup at the local sensors are proposed and examined through simulations. © 2011 IEEE.
Upper bounds for the changes of natural frequencies due to dynamic partitioning techniques
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peters, K.; Wagner, U.; Albus, E.
1981-01-01
Dynamic partitioning or substructuring is the reduction of degrees of freedom by neglecting the dynamical influence of higher modes of certain substructure. One of the major reasons for these techniques not being widely accepted is the lack of criteria to judge the accuracy of the computed data. So far as natural frequencies are concerned a theorem is formulated which gives upper bounds for the error due to dynamic substructuring. The theorem is tested by applying it to a special statically exact substructuring method which is gained from a fixed-mode approach. The error estimation turns out to be strict enough to decide on the validity of DOF-reduction. (orig.)
Comparing two reliability upper bounds for multistate systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meng, Fan C.
2005-01-01
The path-cut reliability bound due to Esary and Proschan [J. Am. Stat. Assoc. 65 (1970) 329] and the minimax reliability bound due to Barlow and Proschan [Statistical Theory of Reliability and Life Testing: Probability Models, 1981] for binary systems have been generalized to multistate systems by Block and Savits [J. Appl. Probab. 19 (1982) 391]. Some comparison results concerning the two multistate lower bounds for various types of multistate systems are given by Meng [Probab. Eng. Inform. Sci. 16 (2002) 485]. In this note we compare the two multistate upper bounds and present results which generalize some previous ones obtained by Maymin [J. Stat. Plan. Inference 16 (1987) 337] for binary systems. Examples are given to illustrate our results
Upper bound on the Abelian gauge coupling from asymptotic safety
Eichhorn, Astrid; Versteegen, Fleur
2018-01-01
We explore the impact of asymptotically safe quantum gravity on the Abelian gauge coupling in a model including a charged scalar, confirming indications that asymptotically safe quantum fluctuations of gravity could trigger a power-law running towards a free fixed point for the gauge coupling above the Planck scale. Simultaneously, quantum gravity fluctuations balance against matter fluctuations to generate an interacting fixed point, which acts as a boundary of the basin of attraction of the free fixed point. This enforces an upper bound on the infrared value of the Abelian gauge coupling. In the regime of gravity couplings which in our approximation also allows for a prediction of the top quark and Higgs mass close to the experimental value [1], we obtain an upper bound approximately 35% above the infrared value of the hypercharge coupling in the Standard Model.
Young's integral inequality with upper and lower bounds
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Douglas R. Anderson
2011-06-01
Full Text Available Young's integral inequality is reformulated with upper and lower bounds for the remainder. The new inequalities improve Young's integral inequality on all time scales, such that the case where equality holds becomes particularly transparent in this new presentation. The corresponding results for difference equations are given, and several examples are included. We extend these results to piecewise-monotone functions as well.
On Upper Bounds on the Church-Rosser Theorem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ken-etsu Fujita
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The Church-Rosser theorem in the type-free lambda-calculus is well investigated both for beta-equality and beta-reduction. We provide a new proof of the theorem for beta-equality with no use of parallel reductions, but simply with Takahashi's translation (Gross-Knuth strategy. Based on this, upper bounds for reduction sequences on the theorem are obtained as the fourth level of the Grzegorczyk hierarchy.
Lower and upper competitive bounds for online directed graph exploration
Foerster, Klaus-Tycho; Wattenhofer, Roger
2015-01-01
We study the problem of exploring all nodes of an unknown directed graph. A searcher has to construct a tour that visits all nodes, but only has information about the parts of the graph it already visited. Analogously to the travelling salesman problem, the goal is to minimize the cost of such a tour. In this article, we present upper and lower bounds for the competitive ratio of both the deterministic and the randomized online version of exploring all nodes of directed grap...
Upper bounds on entangling rates of bipartite Hamiltonians
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bravyi, Sergey
2007-01-01
We discuss upper bounds on the rate at which unitary evolution governed by a nonlocal Hamiltonian can generate entanglement in a bipartite system. Given a bipartite Hamiltonian H coupling two finite dimensional particles A and B, the entangling rate is shown to be upper bounded by c log(d) parallel H parallel, where d is the smallest dimension of the interacting particles parallel H parallel is the operator norm of H, and c is a constant close to 1. Under certain restrictions on the initial state we prove an analogous upper bound for the ancilla-assisted entangling rate with a constant c that does not depend upon dimensions of local ancillas. The restriction is that the initial state has at most two distinct Schmidt coefficients (each coefficient may have arbitrarily large multiplicity). Our proof is based on analysis of a mixing rate - a functional measuring how fast entropy can be produced if one mixes a time-independent state with a state evolving unitarily
Upper and lower bounds in nonrelativistic scattering theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Darewych, J.W.; Pooran, R.
1980-01-01
We consider the problem of determining rigorous upper and lower bounds to the difference between the exact and approximate scattering phase shift, for the case of central potential scattering. The present work is based on the Kato identities and the phase-amplitude formalism of potential scattering developed by Calogero. For nonstationary approximations, a new first-order (in small quantities) bound is established which is particularly useful for partial waves other than s waves. Similar, but second-order, bounds are established for approximations which are stationary. Some previous results, based on the use of the Lippman--Schwinger equation are generalized, and some new bounds are established. These are illustrated, and compared to previous results, by a simple example. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the present results in comparison to those derived previously. Finally, we present the generalization of some of the present formalism to the case of many-channel scattering involving many-particle systems, and discuss some of the difficulties of their practical implementation
Sun, Wei; Chou, Chih-Ping; Stacy, Alan W; Ma, Huiyan; Unger, Jennifer; Gallaher, Peggy
2007-02-01
Cronbach's a is widely used in social science research to estimate the internal consistency of reliability of a measurement scale. However, when items are not strictly parallel, the Cronbach's a coefficient provides a lower-bound estimate of true reliability, and this estimate may be further biased downward when items are dichotomous. The estimation of standardized Cronbach's a for a scale with dichotomous items can be improved by using the upper bound of coefficient phi. SAS and SPSS macros have been developed in this article to obtain standardized Cronbach's a via this method. The simulation analysis showed that Cronbach's a from upper-bound phi might be appropriate for estimating the real reliability when standardized Cronbach's a is problematic.
Finding upper bounds for software failure probabilities - experiments and results
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kristiansen, Monica; Winther, Rune
2005-09-01
This report looks into some aspects of using Bayesian hypothesis testing to find upper bounds for software failure probabilities. In the first part, the report evaluates the Bayesian hypothesis testing approach for finding upper bounds for failure probabilities of single software components. The report shows how different choices of prior probability distributions for a software component's failure probability influence the number of tests required to obtain adequate confidence in a software component. In the evaluation, both the effect of the shape of the prior distribution as well as one's prior confidence in the software component were investigated. In addition, different choices of prior probability distributions are discussed based on their relevance in a software context. In the second part, ideas on how the Bayesian hypothesis testing approach can be extended to assess systems consisting of multiple software components are given. One of the main challenges when assessing systems consisting of multiple software components is to include dependency aspects in the software reliability models. However, different types of failure dependencies between software components must be modelled differently. Identifying different types of failure dependencies are therefore an important condition for choosing a prior probability distribution, which correctly reflects one's prior belief in the probability for software components failing dependently. In this report, software components include both general in-house software components, as well as pre-developed software components (e.g. COTS, SOUP, etc). (Author)
General upper bounds on the runtime of parallel evolutionary algorithms.
Lässig, Jörg; Sudholt, Dirk
2014-01-01
We present a general method for analyzing the runtime of parallel evolutionary algorithms with spatially structured populations. Based on the fitness-level method, it yields upper bounds on the expected parallel runtime. This allows for a rigorous estimate of the speedup gained by parallelization. Tailored results are given for common migration topologies: ring graphs, torus graphs, hypercubes, and the complete graph. Example applications for pseudo-Boolean optimization show that our method is easy to apply and that it gives powerful results. In our examples the performance guarantees improve with the density of the topology. Surprisingly, even sparse topologies such as ring graphs lead to a significant speedup for many functions while not increasing the total number of function evaluations by more than a constant factor. We also identify which number of processors lead to the best guaranteed speedups, thus giving hints on how to parameterize parallel evolutionary algorithms.
Upper bounds on Shannon and Renyi entropies for central potentials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sanchez-Moreno, P.; Zozor, S.; Dehesa, J. S.
2011-01-01
The Renyi and Shannon entropies are information-theoretic measures, which have enabled to formulate the position-momentum uncertainty principle in a much more adequate and stringent way than the (variance-based) Heisenberg-like relation. Moreover, they are closely related to various energetic density functionals of quantum systems. Here we derive upper bounds on these quantities in terms of the second-order moment 2 > for general central potentials. This improves previous results of this type. The proof uses the Renyi maximization procedure with a covariance constraint due to Costa et al. [in Proceedings of the Fourth International Workshop on Energy Minimization Methods in Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (EMMCVPR), edited by A.Rangarajan, M.A. T.Figueiredo, and J.Zerubia (Springer-Verlag, Lisbon, 2003), [Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 52, 211 (2003).
Upper bounds for the Poincaré recurrence time in quantum mixed states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gimeno, V; Sotoca, J M
2017-01-01
In this paper we use geometric techniques to provide upper bounds for the Poincaré recurrence time of a quantum mixed state with a discrete spectrum of energies. We obtain two types of upper bounds. One of them depends on the uncertainty in the energy or on the average of the gap of energies and extends previous results obtained for pure states. The other upper bound depends only on the number of relevant states. The first upper bound tends to zero at the classical limit, while the other bound is related with the number of relevant states and survives at the classical limit. (paper)
An upper bound on the number of independent sets in a tree
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Anders Sune
2007-01-01
The main result of this paper is an upper bound on the number of independent sets in a tree in terms of the order and diameter of the tree. This new upper bound is a refinement of the bound given by Prodinger and Tichy [ Fibonacci Q., 20 (1982), no. 1, 16-21]. Finally, we give a sufficient...... condition for the new upper bound to be better thatn the upper bound given by Brigham, Chandrasekharan and Dutton [ Fibonacci Q., 31 (1993), no. 2, 98-104]....
An upper bound on the number of independent sets in a tree
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vestergaard, Preben Dahl; Pedersen, Anders Sune
The main result of this paper is an upper bound on the number of independent sets in a tree in terms of the order and diameter of the tree. This new upper bound is a refinement of the bound given by Prodinger and Tichy [Fibonacci Q., 20 (1982), no. 1, 16-21]. Finally, we give a sufficient condition...... for the new upper bound to be better than the upper bound given by Brigham, Chandrasekharan and Dutton [Fibonacci Q., 31 (1993), no. 2, 98-104]....
Upper Bounds on Performance Measures of Heterogeneous // Queues
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F. S. Q. Alves
2011-01-01
Full Text Available In many real-life queueing systems, the servers are often heterogeneous, namely they work at different rates. This paper provides a simple method to compute tight upper bounds on two important performance measures of single-class heterogeneous multi-server Markovian queueing systems, namely the average number in queue and the average waiting time in queue. This method is based on an expansion of the state space that is followed by an approximate reduction of the state space, only considering the most probable states. In most cases tested, we were able to approximate the actual behavior of the system with smaller errors than those obtained from traditional homogeneous multiserver Markovian queues, as shown by GPSS simulations. In addition, we have correlated the quality of the approximation with the degree of heterogeneity of the system, which was evaluated using its Gini index. Finally, we have shown that the bounds are robust and still useful, even considering quite different allocation strategies. A large number of simulation results show the accuracy of the proposed method that is better than that of classical homogeneous multiserver Markovian formulae in many situations.
Upper and Lower Bounds of Frequency Interval Gramians for a Class of Perturbed Linear Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shaker, Hamid Reza
2012-01-01
of uncertain systems. In this paper, we derive upper and lower bounds of frequency interval gramians under perturbations of an A-matrix in the state-space form. These bounds are obtained by solving algebraic Riccati equations. The results are further used to obtain upper and lower bounds of the frequency...
Upper bounds on the number of errors corrected by a convolutional code
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Justesen, Jørn
2004-01-01
We derive upper bounds on the weights of error patterns that can be corrected by a convolutional code with given parameters, or equivalently we give bounds on the code rate for a given set of error patterns. The bounds parallel the Hamming bound for block codes by relating the number of error...... patterns to the number of distinct syndromes....
Power generation assets. Energy constraints, upper bounds and hedging strategies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Enge, Thomas
2010-09-20
The overall topic of this thesis is the valuation of power generation assets under energy and risk constraints. Our focus is on the modeling aspect i.e. to find the right balance between accuracy and computational feasibility. We define a new not yet investigated unit commitment problem that introduces an energy constraint to a thermal power plant. We define a continuous stochastic dynamic program with a nested mixed integer program (MIP). We introduce a fast implementation approach by replacing the MIP with an efficient matrix calculation and use principal component analysis to reduce the number of risk factors. We also provide a fast heuristic valuation approach for comparison. As both models can only provide lower bounds of the asset value, we investigate the theory of upper bounds for a proper validation of our power plant results. We review the primal dual algorithm for swing options by Meinshausen and Hambly and in particular clarify their notation and implementation. Then we provide an extension for swing options with multiple exercises at the same stage that we developed together with Prof. Bender, University of Braunschweig. We outline Prof. Bender's proof and describe the implementation in detail. Finally we provide a risk analysis for our thermal power plant. In particular we investigate strategies to reduce spot price risk to which power plants are significantly exposed. First, we focus on the measurement of spot price risk and propose three appropriate risk figures (Forward delta as opposed to Futures delta, synthetic spot delta and Earnings-at-Risk) and illustrate their application using a business case. Second we suggest risk mitigation strategies for both periods, before and in delivery. The latter tries to alter the dispatch policy i.e. pick less risky hours and accept a (desirably only slightly) smaller return. We introduce a benchmark that weighs risk versus return and that we will call EaR-efficient option value. We propose a mitigation
An upper bound on the number of errors corrected by a convolutional code
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Justesen, Jørn
2000-01-01
The number of errors that a convolutional codes can correct in a segment of the encoded sequence is upper bounded by the number of distinct syndrome sequences of the relevant length.......The number of errors that a convolutional codes can correct in a segment of the encoded sequence is upper bounded by the number of distinct syndrome sequences of the relevant length....
The upper bound of radiation energy in the Myers-Perry black hole collision
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gwak, Bogeun; Lee, Bum-Hoon
2016-01-01
We have investigated the upper bound of the radiation energy in the head-on collision of two Myers-Perry black holes. Initially, the two black holes are far away from each other, and they become one black hole after the collision. We have obtained the upper bound of the radiation energy thermodynamically allowed in the process. The upper bound of the radiation energy is obtained in general dimensions. The radiation bound depends on the alignments of rotating axes for a given initial condition due to spin-spin interaction. We have found that the collision may not be occurred for a initially ultra-spinning black hole.
An Upper Bound on the Entropy of Constrained 2d Fields
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Forchhammer, Søren; Justesen, Jørn
1998-01-01
An upper bound on the entropy of constrained 2D fields is presented. The constraints have to be symmetric in (at least) one of the two directions. The bound generalizes (in a weaker form) the bound of Calkin and Wilf (see SIAM Journal of Discrete Mathematics, vol.11, p.54-60, 1998) which is valid...
Upper bounds on quantum uncertainty products and complexity measures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guerrero, Angel; Sanchez-Moreno, Pablo; Dehesa, Jesus S. [Department of Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Physics, University of Granada, Granada (Spain); Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Granada, Granada (Spain) and Institute Carlos I for Computational and Theoretical Physics, University of Granada, Granada (Spain); Department of Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Physics, University of Granada, Granada (Spain); Institute Carlos I for Computational and Theoretical Physics, University of Granada, Granada (Spain)
2011-10-15
The position-momentum Shannon and Renyi uncertainty products of general quantum systems are shown to be bounded not only from below (through the known uncertainty relations), but also from above in terms of the Heisenberg-Kennard product . Moreover, the Cramer-Rao, Fisher-Shannon, and Lopez-Ruiz, Mancini, and Calbet shape measures of complexity (whose lower bounds have been recently found) are also bounded from above. The improvement of these bounds for systems subject to spherically symmetric potentials is also explicitly given. Finally, applications to hydrogenic and oscillator-like systems are done.
Upper Higgs boson mass bounds from a chirally invariant lattice Higgs-Yukawa Model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gerhold, P. [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; John von Neumann-Institut fuer Computing NIC/DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Jansen, K. [John von Neumann-Institut fuer Computing NIC/DESY, Zeuthen (Germany)
2010-02-15
We establish the cutoff-dependent upper Higgs boson mass bound by means of direct lattice computations in the framework of a chirally invariant lattice Higgs-Yukawa model emulating the same chiral Yukawa coupling structure as in the Higgs-fermion sector of the Standard Model. As expected from the triviality picture of the Higgs sector, we observe the upper mass bound to decrease with rising cutoff parameter {lambda}. Moreover, the strength of the fermionic contribution to the upper mass bound is explored by comparing to the corresponding analysis in the pure {phi}{sup 4}-theory. (orig.)
Hadamard upper bound on optimum joint decoding capacity of Wyner Gaussian cellular MAC
Shakir, Muhammad
2011-09-01
This article presents an original analytical expression for an upper bound on the optimum joint decoding capacity of Wyner circular Gaussian cellular multiple access channel (C-GCMAC) for uniformly distributed mobile terminals (MTs). This upper bound is referred to as Hadamard upper bound (HUB) and is a novel application of the Hadamard inequality established by exploiting the Hadamard operation between the channel fading matrix G and the channel path gain matrix Ω. This article demonstrates that the actual capacity converges to the theoretical upper bound under the constraints like low signal-to-noise ratios and limiting channel path gain among the MTs and the respective base station of interest. In order to determine the usefulness of the HUB, the behavior of the theoretical upper bound is critically observed specially when the inter-cell and the intra-cell time sharing schemes are employed. In this context, we derive an analytical form of HUB by employing an approximation approach based on the estimation of probability density function of trace of Hadamard product of two matrices, i.e., G and Ω. A closed form of expression has been derived to capture the effect of the MT distribution on the optimum joint decoding capacity of C-GCMAC. This article demonstrates that the analytical HUB based on the proposed approximation approach converges to the theoretical upper bound results in the medium to high signal to noise ratio regime and shows a reasonably tighter bound on optimum joint decoding capacity of Wyner GCMAC.
Upper-Bounds on Qubit Coherence Set by Master Clock Instabilities
2016-01-10
Upper-bounds on qubit coherence set by master clock instabilities Harrison Ball1, William D. Oliver2,3, and Michael J. Biercuk1 1ARC Centre for...States Government. Upper-bounds on qubit coherence set by master clock instabilities Harrison Ball,1 William D. Oliver,2, 3 and Michael J. Biercuk1...quantum superposition, however, the coherence that must be preserved ultimately includes that of the qubit relative to the system clock . In this
Memory effect in the upper bound of the heat flux induced by quantum fluctuations.
Koide, T
2016-10-01
Thermodynamic behaviors in a quantum Brownian motion coupled to a classical heat bath is studied. We then define a heat operator by generalizing the stochastic energetics and show the energy balance (first law) and the upper bound of the expectation value of the heat operator (second law). We further find that this upper bound depends on the memory effect induced by quantum fluctuations and hence the maximum extractable work can be qualitatively modified in quantum thermodynamics.
New lower and upper bounds for scheduling around a small common due date
J.A. Hoogeveen (Han); H. Oosterhout (Henk); S.L. van de Velde (Steef)
1994-01-01
textabstractWe consider the single-machine problem of scheduling n jobs to minimize the sum of the deviations of the job completion times from a given small common due date. For this NP-hard problem, we develop a branch-and-bound algorithm based on Lagrangian lower and upper bounds that are found in
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Chang-Bae; Krommes, J.A.
1988-08-01
The work of Krommes and Smith on rigorous upper bounds for the turbulent transport of a passively advected scalar [/ital Ann. Phys./ 177:246 (1987)] is extended in two directions: (1) For their ''reference model,'' improved upper bounds are obtained by utilizing more sophisticated two-time constraints which include the effects of cross-correlations up to fourth order. Numerical solutions of the model stochastic differential equation are also obtained; they show that the new bounds compare quite favorably with the exact results, even at large Reynolds and Kubo numbers. (2) The theory is extended to take account of a finite spatial autocorrelation length L/sub c/. As a reasonably generic example, the problem of particle transport due to statistically specified stochastic magnetic fields in a collisionless turbulent plasma is revisited. A bound is obtained which reduces for small L/sub c/ to the quasilinear limit and for large L/sub c/ to the strong turbulence limit, and which provides a reasonable and rigorous interpolation for intermediate values of L/sub c/. 18 refs., 6 figs
Analytical upper bound on optimum joint decoding capacity of Wyner GCMAC using hadamard inequality
Shakir, Muhammad
2011-11-01
This paper presents an original analytical expression for an upper bound on the optimum joint decoding capacity of Wyner circular Gaussian cellular multiple access channel (C-GCMAC) for uniformly distributed mobile terminals (MTs) across the cells. This upper bound is referred to as Hadamard upper bound (HUB) and is a novel application of the Hadamard inequality established by exploiting the Hadamard operation between the channel fading and channel path gain matrices. In this context, we employ an approximation approach based on the estimation of probability density function (PDF) of Hadamard product of two matrices. A closed-form expression has been derived to capture the effect of variable user density in adjacent cells on optimal joint decoding capacity. The results of this paper demonstrate that the analytical HUB based on the proposed approximation approach converges to the theoretical results for medium range of signal to noise ratios and shows a comparable tighter bound on optimum joint decoding capacity. © 2011 IEEE.
Membrane-based ethylene/ethane separation: The upper bound and beyond
Rungta, Meha
2013-08-02
Ethylene/ethane separation via cryogenic distillation is extremely energy-intensive, and membrane separation may provide an attractive alternative. In this paper, ethylene/ethane separation performance using polymeric membranes is summarized, and an experimental ethylene/ethane polymeric upper bound based on literature data is presented. A theoretical prediction of the ethylene/ethane upper bound is also presented, and shows good agreement with the experimental upper bound. Further, two ways to overcome the ethylene/ethane upper bound, based on increasing the sorption or diffusion selectivity, is also discussed, and a review on advanced membrane types such as facilitated transport membranes, zeolite and metal organic framework based membranes, and carbon molecular sieve membranes is presented. Of these, carbon membranes have shown the potential to surpass the polymeric ethylene/ethane upper bound performance. Furthermore, a convenient, potentially scalable method for tailoring the performance of carbon membranes for ethylene/ethane separation based on tuning the pyrolysis conditions has also been demonstrated. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.
Upper bounds on secret-key agreement over lossy thermal bosonic channels
Kaur, Eneet; Wilde, Mark M.
2017-12-01
Upper bounds on the secret-key-agreement capacity of a quantum channel serve as a way to assess the performance of practical quantum-key-distribution protocols conducted over that channel. In particular, if a protocol employs a quantum repeater, achieving secret-key rates exceeding these upper bounds is evidence of having a working quantum repeater. In this paper, we extend a recent advance [Liuzzo-Scorpo et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 120503 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.119.120503] in the theory of the teleportation simulation of single-mode phase-insensitive Gaussian channels such that it now applies to the relative entropy of entanglement measure. As a consequence of this extension, we find tighter upper bounds on the nonasymptotic secret-key-agreement capacity of the lossy thermal bosonic channel than were previously known. The lossy thermal bosonic channel serves as a more realistic model of communication than the pure-loss bosonic channel, because it can model the effects of eavesdropper tampering and imperfect detectors. An implication of our result is that the previously known upper bounds on the secret-key-agreement capacity of the thermal channel are too pessimistic for the practical finite-size regime in which the channel is used a finite number of times, and so it should now be somewhat easier to witness a working quantum repeater when using secret-key-agreement capacity upper bounds as a benchmark.
The upper bound on the lowest mass halo
Jethwa, P.; Erkal, D.; Belokurov, V.
2018-01-01
We explore the connection between galaxies and dark matter haloes in the Milky Way (MW) and quantify the implications on properties of the dark matter particle and the phenomenology of low-mass galaxy formation. This is done through a probabilistic comparison of the luminosity function of MW dwarf satellite galaxies to models based on two suites of zoom-in simulations. One suite is dark-matter-only, while the other includes a disc component, therefore we can quantify the effect of the MW's baryonic disc on our results. We apply numerous stellar-mass-halo-mass (SMHM) relations allowing for multiple complexities: scatter, a characteristic break scale, and subhaloes which host no galaxy. In contrast to previous works, we push the model/data comparison to the faintest dwarfs by modelling observational incompleteness, allowing us to draw three new conclusions. First, we constrain the SMHM relation for 102 2.4 × 108 M⊙ (1σ). Secondly, by translating to a warm dark matter (WDM) cosmology, we bound the thermal relic mass mWDM > 2.9 keV at 95 per cent confidence, on a par with recent constraints from the Lyman-α forest. Lastly, we find that the observed number of ultra-faint MW dwarfs is in tension with the theoretical prediction that reionization prevents galaxy formation in almost all 108 M⊙ haloes. This can be tested with the next generation of deep imaging surveys. To this end, we predict the likely number of detectable satellite galaxies in the Subaru/Hyper Suprime-Cam survey and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope. Confronting these predictions with future observations will be amongst our strongest tests of WDM and the effect reionization on low-mass systems.
Upper bounds on the runtime of the univariate marginal distribution algorithm on OneMax
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Witt, Carsten
2017-01-01
on the marginal probabilities are omitted. The results supplement the recently derived lower bound Ω (μ √n+ n log n) by Krejca and Witt (FOGA 2017) and turn out as tight for the two very different values μ = c log n and p = c'√n log n. They also improve the previously best known upper bound O(n log n log log n...
A Method for Upper Bounding Long Term Growth of Network Access Speed
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Thomas Phillip Knudsen
2006-06-01
Full Text Available The development in home Internet access speed has shown an exponential development with growth rates averaging 25% per year. For resource management in network provisioning it becomes an urgent question how long such growth can continue. This paper presents a method for calculating an upper bound to visual content driven growth, proceeding from datarate requirements for a full virtual environment. Scenarios and approaches for reducing datarate requirements are considered and discussed. The presented figures for an upper bound on network access speed are discussed and perspectives on further research presented.
A Method for Upper Bounding Long Term Growth of Network Access Speed
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Knudsen, Thomas Phillip; Pedersen, Jens Myrup; Madsen, Ole Brun
2004-01-01
The development in home Internet access speed has shown an exponential development with growth rates averaging 25% per year. For resource management in network provisioning it becomes an urgent question how long such growth can continue. This paper presents a method for calculating an upper bound...... to visual content driven growth, proceeding from datarate requirements for a full virtual environment. Scenarios and approaches for reducing datarate requirements are considered and discussed. The presented figures for an upper bound on network access speed are discussed and perspectives on further research...
The upper bound on the lightest Higgs mass in the NMSSM revisited
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ellwanger, Ulrich; Hugonie, Cyril
2007-04-01
We update the upper bound on the lightest CP even Higgs mass in the NMSSM, which is given as a function of tanβ and λ. We include the available one and two loop corrections to the NMSSM Higgs masses, and constraints from the absence of Landau singularities below the GUT scale as well as from the stability of the NMSSM Higgs potential. For m top varying between 171.4 and 178 GeV, squark masses of 1 TeV and maximal mixing the upper bound is assumed near tanβ ∼ 2 and varies between 139.9 and 141.4 GeV
A Method for Upper Bounding Long Term Growth of Network Access Speed
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Knudsen, Thomas Phillip; Pedersen, Jens Myrup; Madsen, Ole Brun
2004-01-01
to visual content driven growth, proceeding from datarate requirements for a full virtual environment. Scenarios and approaches for reducing datarate requirements are considered and discussed. The presented figures for an upper bound on network access speed are discussed and perspectives on further research......The development in home Internet access speed has shown an exponential development with growth rates averaging 25% per year. For resource management in network provisioning it becomes an urgent question how long such growth can continue. This paper presents a method for calculating an upper bound...
The upper bound of Pier Scour defined by selected laboratory and field data
Benedict, Stephen; Caldwell, Andral W.
2015-01-01
The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the South Carolina Department of Transportation, conducted several field investigations of pier scour in South Carolina (Benedict and Caldwell, 2006; Benedict and Caldwell, 2009) and used that data to develop envelope curves defining the upper bound of pier scour. To expand upon this previous work, an additional cooperative investigation was initiated to combine the South Carolina data with pier-scour data from other sources and evaluate the upper bound of pier scour with this larger data set. To facilitate this analysis, a literature review was made to identify potential sources of published pier-scour data, and selected data were compiled into a digital spreadsheet consisting of approximately 570 laboratory and 1,880 field measurements. These data encompass a wide range of laboratory and field conditions and represent field data from 24 states within the United States and six other countries. This extensive database was used to define the upper bound of pier-scour depth with respect to pier width encompassing the laboratory and field data. Pier width is a primary variable that influences pier-scour depth (Laursen and Toch, 1956; Melville and Coleman, 2000; Mueller and Wagner, 2005, Ettema et al. 2011, Arneson et al. 2012) and therefore, was used as the primary explanatory variable in developing the upper-bound envelope curve. The envelope curve provides a simple but useful tool for assessing the potential maximum pier-scour depth for pier widths of about 30 feet or less.
Determination of lower and upper bounds of predicted production from history-matched models
van Essen, G. M.; Kahrobaei, S.S.; van Oeveren, H.; van den Hof, P.M.J.; Jansen, J.D.
2016-01-01
We present a method to determine lower and upper bounds to the predicted production or any other economic objective from history-matched reservoir models. The method consists of two steps: 1) performing a traditional computer-assisted history match of a reservoir model with the objective to
Upper bound for energy efficiency in multi-cell fibre-wireless access systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Koonen, A.M.J.; Popov, M.; Wessing, Henrik
2013-01-01
Bringing radio access points closer to the end-users improves radio energy efficiency. However, taking into account both the radio and the optical parts of a fibre-wireless access system, the overall system energy efficiency has an upper bound determined by the relation between the energy...
Buckling of composite beams with two enveloped delaminations: Lower and upper bounds
Parlapalli, M.S.R. Pathi; Shu, Dongwei; Chai, Gin B.
2008-01-01
Lower and upper bounds of the buckling load of a composite beam with two enveloped delaminations are obtained from newly developed analytical models. The characteristic equation, governing the delamination buckling is derived by using Euler–Bernoulli beam and classical lamination theory, performing
de Klerk, Etienne; Laurent, Monique; Sun, Zhao
We consider the problem of minimizing a continuous function f over a compact set K. We analyze a hierarchy of upper bounds proposed by Lasserre (SIAM J Optim 21(3):864–885, 2011), obtained by searching for an optimal probability density function h on K which is a sum of squares of polynomials, so
de Klerk, E.; Laurent, M.; Sun, Z.
2014-01-01
We consider the problem of minimizing a continuous function f over a compact set K. We analyze a hierarchy of upper bounds proposed by Lasserre in [SIAM J. Optim. 21(3) (2011), pp. 864--885], obtained by searching for an optimal probability density function h on K which is a sum of squares of
Upper and lower bounds for the ergodic capacity of MIMO Jacobi fading channels.
Nafkha, Amor; Bonnefoi, Rémi
2017-05-29
In multi-(core/mode) optical fiber communication, the transmission channel can be modeled as a complex sub-matrix of the Haar-distributed unitary matrix (complex Jacobi unitary ensemble). In this letter, we present new analytical expressions of the upper and lower bounds for the ergodic capacity of multiple-input multiple-output Jacobi-fading channels. Recent results on the determinant of the Jacobi unitary ensemble are employed to derive a tight lower bound on the ergodic capacity. We use Jensen's inequality to provide an analytical closed-form upper bound to the ergodic capacity at any signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Closed-form expressions of the ergodic capacity, at low and high SNR regimes, are also derived. Simulation results are presented to validate the accuracy of the derived expressions.
The Upper Bound for GMRES on Normal Tridiagonal Toeplitz Linear System
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R. Doostaki∗
2015-09-01
Full Text Available The Generalized Minimal Residual method (GMRES is often used to solve a large and sparse system Ax = b. This paper establishes error bound for residuals of GMRES on solving an N × N normal tridiagonal Toeplitz linear system. This problem has been studied previously by Li [R.-C. Li, Convergence of CG and GMRES on a tridiagonal Toeplitz linear system, BIT 47 (3 (2007 577-599.], for two special right-hand sides b = e1, eN . Also, Li and Zhang [R.-C. Li, W. Zhang, The rate of convergence of GMRES on a tridiagonal Toeplitz linear system, Numer. Math. 112 (2009 267-293.] for non-symmetric matrix A, presented upper bound for GMRES residuals. But in this paper we establish the upper bound on normal tridiagonal Toeplitz linear systems for special right-hand sides b = b(lel, for 1 l N
Upper and lower bounds on Mathieu characteristic numbers of integer orders
Neves, A G M
2004-01-01
Consider Mathieu's equation ${d^2y \\over dt^2}\\,+\\, (a- 2q \\cos 2t) \\, y \\,=\\,0$, $a, q, t \\in \\mathbb{R}$. The Mathieu characteristic numbers of integer orders (MCNs) are, for each real value for $q$, the values of $a$ such that the equation has a periodic solution of period 2$\\pi$. For each MCN we construct sequences of upper and lower bounds both converging to the MCN. The bounds arise as zeros of polynomials in sequences generated by recursion. This result is based on a constructive proof of convergence for Ince's continued fractions. An important role is also played by the fact that the continued fractions define meromorphic functions.
Effects of a potential fourth fermion generation on the upper and lower Higgs boson mass bounds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gerhold, Philipp; Kallarackal, Jim; Jansen, Karl
2010-12-01
We study the effect of a potential fourth fermion generation on the upper and lower Higgs boson mass bounds. This investigation is based on the numerical evaluation of a chirally invariant lattice Higgs-Yukawa model emulating the same Higgs-fermion coupling structure as in the Higgs sector of the electroweak Standard Model. In particular, the considered model obeys a Ginsparg-Wilson version of the underlying SU(2) L x U(1) Y symmetry, being a global symmetry here due to the neglection of gauge fields in this model. We present our results on the modification of the upper and lower Higgs boson mass bounds induced by the presence of a hypothetical very heavy fourth quark doublet. Finally, we compare these findings to the standard scenario of three fermion generations. (orig.)
Experimental validation of the new modular application of the upper bound theorem in indentation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carolina Bermudo
Full Text Available Nowadays, thanks to the new manufacturing processes, indentation is becoming an essential part of the new arising processes such as the Incremental Forming Processes. This work presents the experimental validation of the analytical model developed for an indentation-based process. The analytical model is originated from the Upper Bound Theorem application by means of its new modular distribution. The modules considered are composed of two Triangular Rigid Zones each. The experimental validation is performed through a series of indentation tests with work-pieces of annealed aluminium EN AW-2030 and punches of steel AISI 304, under plane strain conditions. The results are compared with the ones obtained from the application of this new modular distribution of the Upper Bound Theorem, showing a good approximation and suitability of the model developed for an indentation-based process.
Experimental Validation of the New Modular Application of the Upper Bound Theorem in Indentation
Bermudo, Carolina; Martín, Francisco; Martín, María Jesús; Sevilla, Lorenzo
2015-01-01
Nowadays, thanks to the new manufacturing processes, indentation is becoming an essential part of the new arising processes such as the Incremental Forming Processes. This work presents the experimental validation of the analytical model developed for an indentation-based process. The analytical model is originated from the Upper Bound Theorem application by means of its new modular distribution. The modules considered are composed of two Triangular Rigid Zones each. The experimental validation is performed through a series of indentation tests with work-pieces of annealed aluminium EN AW-2030 and punches of steel AISI 304, under plane strain conditions. The results are compared with the ones obtained from the application of this new modular distribution of the Upper Bound Theorem, showing a good approximation and suitability of the model developed for an indentation-based process. PMID:25826738
Experimental validation of the new modular application of the upper bound theorem in indentation.
Bermudo, Carolina; Martín, Francisco; Martín, María Jesús; Sevilla, Lorenzo
2015-01-01
Nowadays, thanks to the new manufacturing processes, indentation is becoming an essential part of the new arising processes such as the Incremental Forming Processes. This work presents the experimental validation of the analytical model developed for an indentation-based process. The analytical model is originated from the Upper Bound Theorem application by means of its new modular distribution. The modules considered are composed of two Triangular Rigid Zones each. The experimental validation is performed through a series of indentation tests with work-pieces of annealed aluminium EN AW-2030 and punches of steel AISI 304, under plane strain conditions. The results are compared with the ones obtained from the application of this new modular distribution of the Upper Bound Theorem, showing a good approximation and suitability of the model developed for an indentation-based process.
Upper and lower bounds of ground-motion variabilities: implication for source properties
Cotton, Fabrice; Reddy-Kotha, Sreeram; Bora, Sanjay; Bindi, Dino
2017-04-01
One of the key challenges of seismology is to be able to analyse the physical factors that control earthquakes and ground-motion variabilities. Such analysis is particularly important to calibrate physics-based simulations and seismic hazard estimations at high frequencies. Within the framework of the development of ground-motion prediction equation (GMPE) developments, ground-motions residuals (differences between recorded ground motions and the values predicted by a GMPE) are computed. The exponential growth of seismological near-source records and modern GMPE analysis technics allow to partition these residuals into between- and a within-event components. In particular, the between-event term quantifies all those repeatable source effects (e.g. related to stress-drop or kappa-source variability) which have not been accounted by the magnitude-dependent term of the model. In this presentation, we first discuss the between-event variabilities computed both in the Fourier and Response Spectra domains, using recent high-quality global accelerometric datasets (e.g. NGA-west2, Resorce, Kiknet). These analysis lead to the assessment of upper bounds for the ground-motion variability. Then, we compare these upper bounds with lower bounds estimated by analysing seismic sequences which occurred on specific fault systems (e.g., located in Central Italy or in Japan). We show that the lower bounds of between-event variabilities are surprisingly large which indicates a large variability of earthquake dynamic properties even within the same fault system. Finally, these upper and lower bounds of ground-shaking variability are discussed in term of variability of earthquake physical properties (e.g., stress-drop and kappa_source).
Some novel inequalities for fuzzy variables on the variance and its rational upper bound
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiajie Yi
2016-02-01
Full Text Available Abstract Variance is of great significance in measuring the degree of deviation, which has gained extensive usage in many fields in practical scenarios. The definition of the variance on the basis of the credibility measure was first put forward in 2002. Following this idea, the calculation of the accurate value of the variance for some special fuzzy variables, like the symmetric and asymmetric triangular fuzzy numbers and the Gaussian fuzzy numbers, is presented in this paper, which turns out to be far more complicated. Thus, in order to better implement variance in real-life projects like risk control and quality management, we suggest a rational upper bound of the variance based on an inequality, together with its calculation formula, which can largely simplify the calculation process within a reasonable range. Meanwhile, some discussions between the variance and its rational upper bound are presented to show the rationality of the latter. Furthermore, two inequalities regarding the rational upper bound of variance and standard deviation of the sum of two fuzzy variables and their individual variances and standard deviations are proved. Subsequently, some numerical examples are illustrated to show the effectiveness and the feasibility of the proposed inequalities.
Establishing the existence of a distance-based upper bound for a fuzzy DEA model using duality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soleimani-damaneh, M.
2009-01-01
In a recent paper [Soleimani-damaneh M. Fuzzy upper bounds and their applications. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2008;36:217-25.], I established the existence of a distance-based fuzzy upper bound for the objective function of a fuzzy DEA model, using the properties of a discussed signed distance, and provided an effective approach to solve that model. In this paper a new dual-based proof for the existence of the above-mentioned upper bound is provided which gives a useful insight into the theory of fuzzy DEA.
Lee, Harry; Wen, Baole; Doering, Charles
2017-11-01
The rate of viscous energy dissipation ɛ in incompressible Newtonian planar Couette flow (a horizontal shear layer) imposed with uniform boundary injection and suction is studied numerically. Specifically, fluid is steadily injected through the top plate with a constant rate at a constant angle of injection, and the same amount of fluid is sucked out vertically through the bottom plate at the same rate. This set-up leads to two control parameters, namely the angle of injection, θ, and the Reynolds number of the horizontal shear flow, Re . We numerically implement the `background field' variational problem formulated by Constantin and Doering with a one-dimensional unidirectional background field ϕ(z) , where z aligns with the distance between the plates. Computation is carried out at various levels of Re with θ = 0 , 0 .1° ,1° and 2°, respectively. The computed upper bounds on ɛ scale like Re0 as Re > 20 , 000 for each fixed θ, this agrees with Kolmogorov's hypothesis on isotropic turbulence. The outcome provides new upper bounds to ɛ among any solution to the underlying Navier-Stokes equations, and they are sharper than the analytical bounds presented in Doering et al. (2000). This research was partially supported by the NSF Award DMS-1515161, and the University of Michigan's Rackham Graduate Student Research Grant.
Tight upper bound for the maximal quantum value of the Svetlichny operators
Li, Ming; Shen, Shuqian; Jing, Naihuan; Fei, Shao-Ming; Li-Jost, Xianqing
2017-10-01
It is a challenging task to detect genuine multipartite nonlocality (GMNL). In this paper, the problem is considered via computing the maximal quantum value of Svetlichny operators for three-qubit systems and a tight upper bound is obtained. The constraints on the quantum states for the tightness of the bound are also presented. The approach enables us to give the necessary and sufficient conditions of violating the Svetlichny inequality (SI) for several quantum states, including the white and color noised Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states. The relation between the genuine multipartite entanglement concurrence and the maximal quantum value of the Svetlichny operators for mixed GHZ class states is also discussed. As the SI is useful for the investigation of GMNL, our results give an effective and operational method to detect the GMNL for three-qubit mixed states.
Wang, Dong; Tsui, Kwok-Leung
2018-01-01
Bearing-supported shafts are widely used in various machines. Due to harsh working environments, bearing performance degrades over time. To prevent unexpected bearing failures and accidents, bearing performance degradation assessment becomes an emerging topic in recent years. Bearing performance degradation assessment aims to evaluate the current health condition of a bearing through a bearing health indicator. In the past years, many signal processing and data mining based methods were proposed to construct bearing health indicators. However, the upper and lower bounds of these bearing health indicators were not theoretically calculated and they strongly depended on historical bearing data including normal and failure data. Besides, most health indicators are dimensional, which connotes that these health indicators are prone to be affected by varying operating conditions, such as varying speeds and loads. In this paper, based on the principle of squared envelope analysis, we focus on theoretical investigation of bearing performance degradation assessment in the case of additive Gaussian noises, including distribution establishment of squared envelope, construction of a generalized dimensionless bearing health indicator, and mathematical calculation of the upper and lower bounds of the generalized dimensionless bearing health indicator. Then, analyses of simulated and real bearing run to failure data are used as two case studies to illustrate how the generalized dimensionless health indicator works and demonstrate its effectiveness in bearing performance degradation assessment. Results show that squared envelope follows a noncentral chi-square distribution and the upper and lower bounds of the generalized dimensionless health indicator can be mathematically established. Moreover, the generalized dimensionless health indicator is sensitive to an incipient bearing defect in the process of bearing performance degradation.
Lower and Upper Bounds for the Node, Edge, and Arc Routing Problem
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bach, Lukas; Wøhlk, Sanne; Hasle, Geir
The Node, Edge, and Arc Routing Problem (NEARP) was defined by Prins and Bouchenoua in 2004. They also proposed a memetic algorithm procedure and defined a set of test instances: the so-called CBMix benchmark. The NEARP generalizes the classical CVRP, the CARP, and the General Routing Problem...... for the CARP. We also define two novel sets of test instances to complement the CBMix benchmark. The first is based on well-known CARP instances; the second consists of real life cases of newspaper delivery routing. We provide numerical results in the form 1 of lower and best known upper bounds for all...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Atamtürk, Alper; Muller, Laurent Flindt; Pisinger, David
2013-01-01
Motivated by addressing probabilistic 0-1 programs we study the conic quadratic knapsack polytope with generalized upper bound (GUB) constraints. In particular, we investigate separating and extending GUB cover inequalities. We show that, unlike in the linear case, determining whether a cover can...... be extended with a single variable is NP-hard. We describe and compare a number of exact and heuristic separation and extension algorithms which make use of the structure of the constraints. Computational experiments are performed for comparing the proposed separation and extension algorithms...
Upper Bound on the Hadronic Light-By-Light Contribution to the Muon g-2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Erler, Jens; Sanchez, Genaro Toledo
2006-01-01
There are indications that hadronic loops in some electroweak observables are almost saturated by parton level effects. Taking this as the hypothesis for this work, we propose a genuine parton level estimate of the hadronic light-by-light contribution to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, a μ LBL (had). Our quark mass definitions and values are motivated in detail, and the simplicity of our approach allows for a transparent error estimate. For infinitely heavy quarks our treatment is exact, while for asymptotically small quark masses a μ LBL (had) is overestimated. Interpolating, this suggests quoting an upper bound. We obtain a μ LBL (had) -9 (95% C.L.)
Effects of general relativity on glitch amplitudes and pulsar mass upper bounds
Antonelli, M.; Montoli, A.; Pizzochero, P. M.
2018-04-01
Pinning of vortex lines in the inner crust of a spinning neutron star may be the mechanism that enhances the differential rotation of the internal neutron superfluid, making it possible to freeze some amount of angular momentum which eventually can be released, thus causing a pulsar glitch. We investigate the general relativistic corrections to pulsar glitch amplitudes in the slow-rotation approximation, consistently with the stratified structure of the star. We thus provide a relativistic generalization of a previous Newtonian model that was recently used to estimate upper bounds on the masses of glitching pulsars. We find that the effect of general relativity on the glitch amplitudes obtained by emptying the whole angular momentum reservoir is less than 30 per cent. Moreover, we show that the Newtonian upper bounds on the masses of large glitchers obtained from observations of their maximum recorded event differ by less than a few percent from those calculated within the relativistic framework. This work can also serve as a basis to construct more sophisticated models of angular momentum reservoir in a relativistic context: in particular, we present two alternative scenarios for macroscopically rigid and slack pinned vortex lines, and we generalize the Feynman-Onsager relation to the case when both entrainment coupling between the fluids and a strong axisymmetric gravitational field are present.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ali Tavasoli
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Nonlinear vehicle control allocation is achieved through distributing the task of vehicle control among individual tire forces, which are constrained to nonlinear saturation conditions. A high-level sliding mode control with adaptive upper bounds is considered to assess the body yaw moment and lateral force for the vehicle motion. The proposed controller only requires the online adaptation of control gains without acquiring the knowledge of upper bounds on system uncertainties. Static and dynamic control allocation approaches have been formulated to distribute high-level control objectives among the system inputs. For static control allocation, the interior-point method is applied to solve the formulated nonlinear optimization problem. Based on the dynamic control allocation method, a dynamic update law is derived to allocate vehicle control to tire forces. The allocated tire forces are fed into a low-level control module, where the applied torque and active steering angle at each wheel are determined through a slip-ratio controller and an inverse tire model. Computer simulations are used to prove the significant effects of the proposed control allocation methods on improving the stability and handling performance. The advantages and limitations of each method have been discussed, and conclusions have been derived.
Using a Water Balance Model to Bound Potential Irrigation Development in the Upper Blue Nile Basin
Jain Figueroa, A.; McLaughlin, D.
2016-12-01
The Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD), on the Blue Nile is an example of water resource management underpinning food, water and energy security. Downstream countries have long expressed concern about water projects in Ethiopia because of possible diversions to agricultural uses that could reduce flow in the Nile. Such diversions are attractive to Ethiopia as a partial solution to its food security problems but they could also conflict with hydropower revenue from GERD. This research estimates an upper bound on diversions above the GERD project by considering the potential for irrigated agriculture expansion and, in particular, the availability of water and land resources for crop production. Although many studies have aimed to simulate downstream flows for various Nile basin management plans, few have taken the perspective of bounding the likely impacts of upstream agricultural development. The approach is to construct an optimization model to establish a bound on Upper Blue Nile (UBN) agricultural development, paying particular attention to soil suitability and seasonal variability in climate. The results show that land and climate constraints impose significant limitations on crop production. Only 25% of the land area is suitable for irrigation due to the soil, slope and temperature constraints. When precipitation is also considered only 11% of current land area could be used in a way that increases water consumption. The results suggest that Ethiopia could consume an additional 3.75 billion cubic meters (bcm) of water per year, through changes in land use and storage capacity. By exploiting this irrigation potential, Ethiopia could potentially decrease the annual flow downstream of the UBN by 8 percent from the current 46 bcm/y to the modeled 42 bcm/y.
Frisbee, Joseph H., Jr.
2015-01-01
Upper bounds on high speed satellite collision probability, P (sub c), have been investigated. Previous methods assume an individual position error covariance matrix is available for each object. The two matrices being combined into a single, relative position error covariance matrix. Components of the combined error covariance are then varied to obtain a maximum P (sub c). If error covariance information for only one of the two objects was available, either some default shape has been used or nothing could be done. An alternative is presented that uses the known covariance information along with a critical value of the missing covariance to obtain an approximate but useful P (sub c) upper bound. There are various avenues along which an upper bound on the high speed satellite collision probability has been pursued. Typically, for the collision plane representation of the high speed collision probability problem, the predicted miss position in the collision plane is assumed fixed. Then the shape (aspect ratio of ellipse), the size (scaling of standard deviations) or the orientation (rotation of ellipse principal axes) of the combined position error ellipse is varied to obtain a maximum P (sub c). Regardless as to the exact details of the approach, previously presented methods all assume that an individual position error covariance matrix is available for each object and the two are combined into a single, relative position error covariance matrix. This combined position error covariance matrix is then modified according to the chosen scheme to arrive at a maximum P (sub c). But what if error covariance information for one of the two objects is not available? When error covariance information for one of the objects is not available the analyst has commonly defaulted to the situation in which only the relative miss position and velocity are known without any corresponding state error covariance information. The various usual methods of finding a maximum P (sub c) do
An upper-bound assessment of the benefits of reducing perchlorate in drinking water.
Lutter, Randall
2014-10-01
The Environmental Protection Agency plans to issue new federal regulations to limit drinking water concentrations of perchlorate, which occurs naturally and results from the combustion of rocket fuel. This article presents an upper-bound estimate of the potential benefits of alternative maximum contaminant levels for perchlorate in drinking water. The results suggest that the economic benefits of reducing perchlorate concentrations in drinking water are likely to be low, i.e., under $2.9 million per year nationally, for several reasons. First, the prevalence of detectable perchlorate in public drinking water systems is low. Second, the population especially sensitive to effects of perchlorate, pregnant women who are moderately iodide deficient, represents a minority of all pregnant women. Third, and perhaps most importantly, reducing exposure to perchlorate in drinking water is a relatively ineffective way of increasing iodide uptake, a crucial step linking perchlorate to health effects of concern. © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Huang, S.R.; Davis, L.S.
1987-05-01
Most previous studies of the speedup of parallel branch-and-bound algorithms are based on the amount of work done in the parallel case and in the sequential case. Any evaluation of a parallel algorithm should include both the execution time and the synchronization delay. In this paper, a finite-population queueing model is used to capture the synchronization delay in parallel branch-and-bound algorithms and to quantitatively predict the behavior of their speedup. A program to solve the Traveling Salesman Problem was written on a BBN Butterfly multiprocessor to empirically demonstrate the credibility of this theoretical analysis. Finally, it is noted that similar analyses can be applied to evaluate parallel AI systems in which processes communicate through a shared global database.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carolina Bermudo
2016-07-01
Full Text Available Focusing on incremental bulk metal forming processes, the indentation process is gaining interest as a fundamental part of these kinds of processes. This paper presents the analysis of the pressure obtained in indentation under the influence of different punch geometries. To this end, an innovative Upper Bound Theorem (UBT based solution is introduced. This new solution can be easily applied to estimate the necessary force that guarantees plastic deformation by an indentation process. In this work, we propose an accurate analytical approach to analyse indentation under different punches. The new Modular Upper Bound (MUB method presents a simpler and faster application. Additionally, its complexity is not considerably increased by the addition of more Triangular Rigid Zones. In addition, a two-dimensional indentation model is designed and implemented using the Finite Element Method (FEM. The comparison of the two methods applied to the indentation process analysed—the new Modular Upper Bound technique and the Finite Element Method—reveal close similarities, the new Modular Upper Bound being more computationally efficient.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Z. Li
2017-11-01
Full Text Available Export production reflects the amount of organic matter transferred from the ocean surface to depth through biological processes. This export is in large part controlled by nutrient and light availability, which are conditioned by mixed layer depth (MLD. In this study, building on Sverdrup's critical depth hypothesis, we derive a mechanistic model of an upper bound on carbon export based on the metabolic balance between photosynthesis and respiration as a function of MLD and temperature. We find that the upper bound is a positively skewed bell-shaped function of MLD. Specifically, the upper bound increases with deepening mixed layers down to a critical depth, beyond which a long tail of decreasing carbon export is associated with increasing heterotrophic activity and decreasing light availability. We also show that in cold regions the upper bound on carbon export decreases with increasing temperature when mixed layers are deep, but increases with temperature when mixed layers are shallow. A meta-analysis shows that our model envelopes field estimates of carbon export from the mixed layer. When compared to satellite export production estimates, our model indicates that export production in some regions of the Southern Ocean, particularly the subantarctic zone, is likely limited by light for a significant portion of the growing season.
Asymptotic upper bound of density for two-particle annihilating exclusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Belitsky, V.
1993-01-01
The authors consider a stochastic process which presents an evolution of particles of two types on Z d with annihilations between particles of opposite types. Initially, at each site of Z d , independently of other sites, the authors put a particle with probability 2p ≤ 1 and assign to it one of two types with equal chances. Each particle, independently from the others, waits an exponential time with mean 1, chooses one of its neighboring sites on the lattice Z d with equal probabilities, and jumps to the site chosen. If the site to which a particle attempts to move is occupied by another particle of the same type, the jump is suppressed; if it is occupied by a particle of the opposite type, then both are annihilated and disappear from the system. The considered process may serve as a model for the chemical reaction A + B → inert. The paper concerns an upper bound of p(t), the density of particles in the system at time t. The authors prove that p(t) -d/4 t ε when t > t(ε) for all ε > 0 in the dimensions d ≤ 4 and asymptotically p(t) -1 in the higher dimensions. In the proofs, the authors used the ideas and the technique developed by Bramson and Lebowitz and the tools which are customarily used to study a symmetric exclusion process. 8 refs
Upper bound of errors in solving the inverse problem of identifying a voice source
Leonov, A. S.; Sorokin, V. N.
2017-09-01
The paper considers the inverse problem of finding the shape of a voice-source pulse from a specified segment of a speech signal using a special mathematical model that relates these quantities. A variational method for solving the formulated inverse problem for two new parametric classes of sources is proposed: a piecewise-linear source and an A-source. The error in the obtained approximate solutions of the inverse problem is considered, and a technique to numerically estimate this error is proposed, which is based on the theory of a posteriori estimates of the accuracy in solving ill-posed problems. A computer study of the adequacy of the proposed models of sources, and a study of the a posteriori estimates of the accuracy in solving inverse problems for such sources were performed using various types of voice signals. Numerical experiments for speech signals showed satisfactory properties of such a posteriori estimates, which represent the upper bounds of possible errors in solving the inverse problem. The estimate of the most probable error in determining the source-pulse shapes for the investigated speech material is on average 7%. It is noted that the a posteriori accuracy estimates can be used as a criterion for the quality of determining the voice-source pulse shape in the speaker-identification problem.
Chromatic polynomials of planar triangulations, the Tutte upper bound and chromatic zeros
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shrock, Robert; Xu Yan
2012-01-01
Tutte proved that if G pt is a planar triangulation and P(G pt , q) is its chromatic polynomial, then |P(G pt , τ + 1)| ⩽ (τ − 1) n−5 , where τ=(1+√5 )/2 and n is the number of vertices in G pt . Here we study the ratio r(G pt ) = |P(G pt , τ + 1)|/(τ − 1) n−5 for a variety of planar triangulations. We construct infinite recursive families of planar triangulations G pt,m depending on a parameter m linearly related to n and show that if P(G pt,m , q) only involves a single power of a polynomial, then r(G pt,m ) approaches zero exponentially fast as n → ∞. We also construct infinite recursive families for which P(G pt,m , q) is a sum of powers of certain functions and show that for these, r(G pt,m ) may approach a finite nonzero constant as n → ∞. The connection between the Tutte upper bound and the observed chromatic zero(s) near to τ + 1 is investigated. We report the first known graph for which the zero(s) closest to τ + 1 is not real, but instead is a complex-conjugate pair. Finally, we discuss connections with the nonzero ground-state entropy of the Potts antiferromagnet on these families of graphs. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chun, Moon Hyun; Park, Joo Wan; Nam, Ho Yun
1992-01-01
Improved analytical models have been proposed that can predict the lower and upper limits of the water hammer region for given flow conditions by incorporation of recent advances made in the understanding of phenomena associated with the condensation-induced water hammer into existing methods. Present models are applicable for steam-water counterflow in a long horizontal pipe geometry. Both lower and upper bounds of the water hammer region are expressed in terms of the 'critical inlet water flow rate' as a function of axial position. Water hammer region boundaries predicted by present and typical existing models are compared for particular flow conditions of the water hammer event occurred at San Onofre Unit 1 to assess the applicability of the models examined. The result shows that present models for lower and upper bounds of the water hammer region compare favorably with the best performing existing models
An Entropy-Based Upper Bound Methodology for Robust Predictive Multi-Mode RCPSP Schedules
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Angela Hsiang-Ling Chen
2014-09-01
Full Text Available Projects are an important part of our activities and regardless of their magnitude, scheduling is at the very core of every project. In an ideal world makespan minimization, which is the most commonly sought objective, would give us an advantage. However, every time we execute a project we have to deal with uncertainty; part of it coming from known sources and part remaining unknown until it affects us. For this reason, it is much more practical to focus on making our schedules robust, capable of handling uncertainty, and even to determine a range in which the project could be completed. In this paper we focus on an approach to determine such a range for the Multi-mode Resource Constrained Project Scheduling Problem (MRCPSP, a widely researched, NP-complete problem, but without adding any subjective considerations to its estimation. We do this by using a concept well known in the domain of thermodynamics, entropy and a three-stage approach. First we use Artificial Bee Colony (ABC—an effective and powerful meta-heuristic—to determine a schedule with minimized makespan which serves as a lower bound. The second stage defines buffer times and creates an upper bound makespan using an entropy function, with the advantage over other methods that it only considers elements which are inherent to the schedule itself and does not introduce any subjectivity to the buffer time generation. In the last stage, we use the ABC algorithm with an objective function that seeks to maximize robustness while staying within the makespan boundaries defined previously and in some cases even below the lower boundary. We evaluate our approach with two different benchmarks sets: when using the PSPLIB for the MRCPSP benchmark set, the computational results indicate that it is possible to generate robust schedules which generally result in an increase of less than 10% of the best known solutions while increasing the robustness in at least 20% for practically every
Establishing an upper bound on contact resistivity of ohmic contacts to n-GaN nanowires
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blanchard, Paul; Bertness, Kris A; Harvey, Todd; Sanford, Norman
2014-01-01
Contact resistivity ρ c is an important figure of merit in evaluating and improving the performance of electronic and optoelectronic devices. Due to the small size, unique morphology, and uncertain transport properties of semiconductor nanowires (NWs), measuring ρ c of contacts to NWs can be particularly challenging. In this work, Si-doped n-GaN NWs were grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Four-contact structures with 20 nm Ti/200 nm Al contacts were fabricated on individual NWs by photolithography, and the contacts were annealed to achieve ohmic behavior. Two-point resistances R 23 and four-point collinear resistances R 23collinear were measured between the middle two contacts on each NW. These resistances were then modeled by taking into account the non-uniform distribution of current flow along the length of each contact. Contrary to the assumption that the resistance difference R 23 −R 23collinear is equal to the total contact resistance R c , the distributed-current-flow contact model shows that R 23 −R 23collinear ≪ R c when ρ c is sufficiently small. Indeed, the measured R 23 −R 23collinear was so small in these devices that it was within the measurement uncertainty, meaning that it was not possible to directly calculate ρ c from these data. However, it was possible to calculate an upper bound on ρ c for each device based on the largest possible value of R 23 −R 23collinear . In addition, we took into account the large uncertainties in the NW transport properties by numerically maximizing ρ c with respect to the uncertainty range of each measured and assumed parameter in the contact model. The resulting upper limits on ρ c ranged from 4.2 × 10 −6 to 7.6 × 10 −6 Ω cm 2 , indicating that 20 nm Ti/200 nm Al is a good choice of ohmic contact for moderately-doped n-GaN NWs. The measurement and numerical analysis demonstrated here offer a general approach to modeling ohmic contact resistivity via NW four
Upper-bound and finite-element analyses of non-isothermal ECAP
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Silva, F.R.F.; Medeiros, N.; Moreira, L.P.; Lins, J.F.C.; Gouvêa, J.P.
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► We analytically modeled the non-isothermal temperature rising during single pass of ECAP. ► We modeled non-isothermal plane strain finite models to reproduce the sample heating. ► The proposed analytical model can represent the material heating during single pass of ECAP. - Abstract: In this paper, the thermomechanical properties of pure tantalum described by Liang and Khan [Int. J. Plast. 15 (1999) 963] through Johnson–Cook hardening law were used to propose a non-isothermal solution for estimating the temperature increasing during single-pass equal channel angular pressed metallic materials. The pressing force was determined with the upper-bound models developed by Pérez and Luri [Mech. Mater. 40 (2008) 617] extended for elastic-plastic materials with the isotropic criteria of von Mises and Drucker. The von Mises plane-strain finite-element models were done with the program ABAQUS/Explicit to provide the pressing force, P, effective plastic strain, ε ¯p , and temperature along the workpiece and also to validate the proposed analytical solutions. By using Drucker's criterion, theoretical analyses showed that the decreasing of the sample temperature increment, ΔT, was primarily affected by higher values of die channels intersection angle, Φ, and moderately for its initial temperature and the tooling outer fillet radius, R outer . Also, the increasing of ΔT was more sensible for greater die inner fillet radii, R inner , and superior velocities, V 0 . In addition, the force dropped for elevated sample initial temperatures. For Φ = 90°, the finite-element models confirmed the decreasing of ΔT and P for 0 mm ≤ R outer ≤ 5 mm and their increasing for 10 mm/s ≤ V 0 ≤ 20 mm/s. Lastly, by comparing the numerical and theoretical results of P, ε ¯p and ΔT, the proposed solutions could be validated.
Paul L. Patterson; Mark Finco
2009-01-01
This paper explores the information FIA data can produce regarding forest types that were not sampled and develops the equations necessary to define the upper confidence bounds on not-sampled forest types. The problem is reduced to a Bernoulli variable. This simplification allows the upper confidence bounds to be calculated based on Cochran (1977). Examples are...
Paul L. Patterson; Mark Finco
2011-01-01
This paper explores the information forest inventory data can produce regarding forest types that were not sampled and develops the equations necessary to define the upper confidence bounds on not-sampled forest types. The problem is reduced to a Bernoulli variable. This simplification allows the upper confidence bounds to be calculated based on Cochran (1977)....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Min-Min; Mei Dong-Cheng; Wang Can-Jun
2011-01-01
The effects of the time delay on the upper bound of the time derivative of information entropy are investigated in a time-delayed dynamical system driven by correlated noise. Using the Markov approximation of the stochastic delay differential equations and the Schwartz inequality principle, we obtain an analytical expression for the upper bound U B (t) of the time derivative of the information entropy. The results show that there is a critical value of τ (delay time), and U B (t) presents opposite behaviours on difference sides of the critical value. For the case of the weak additive noise, τ can induce a reentrance transition. Delay time τ also causes a reversal behaviour in U B (t)-λ plot, where λ denotes the degree of the correlation between the two noises. (general)
Ortega-Hernández, Javier
2016-02-01
The ever-increasing number of studies that address the origin and evolution of Euarthropoda - whose extant representatives include chelicerates, myriapods, crustaceans and hexapods - are gradually reaching a consensus with regard to the overall phylogenetic relationships of some of the earliest representatives of this phylum. The stem-lineage of Euarthropoda includes numerous forms that reflect the major morphological transition from a lobopodian-type to a completely arthrodized body organization. Several methods of classification that aim to reflect such a complex evolutionary history have been proposed as a consequence of this taxonomic diversity. Unfortunately, this has also led to a saturation of nomenclatural schemes, often in conflict with each other, some of which are incompatible with cladistic-based methodologies. Here, I review the convoluted terminology associated with the classification of stem-group Euarthropoda, and propose a synapomorphy-based distinction that allows 'lower stem-Euarthropoda' (e.g. lobopodians, radiodontans) to be separated from 'upper stem-Euarthropoda' (e.g. fuxianhuiids, Cambrian bivalved forms) in terms of the structural organization of the head region and other aspects of overall body architecture. The step-wise acquisition of morphological features associated with the origins of the crown-group indicate that the node defining upper stem-Euarthropoda is phylogenetically stable, and supported by numerous synapomorphic characters; these include the presence of a deutocerebral first appendage pair, multisegmented head region with one or more pairs of post-ocular differentiated limbs, complete body arthrodization, posterior-facing mouth associated with the hypostome/labrum complex, and post-oral biramous arthropodized appendages. The name 'Deuteropoda' nov. is proposed for the scion (monophyletic group including the crown-group and an extension of the stem-group) that comprises upper stem-Euarthropoda and Euarthropoda. A brief
Upper-bound and finite-element analyses of non-isothermal ECAP
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Silva, F.R.F. [Programa de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia Metalurgica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. dos Trabalhadores, 420, CEP 27255-125, Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil); Medeiros, N., E-mail: neil@metal.eeimvr.uff.br [Programa de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia Metalurgica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. dos Trabalhadores, 420, CEP 27255-125, Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil); Moreira, L.P.; Lins, J.F.C.; Gouvea, J.P. [Programa de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia Metalurgica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. dos Trabalhadores, 420, CEP 27255-125, Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil)
2012-06-01
Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We analytically modeled the non-isothermal temperature rising during single pass of ECAP. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We modeled non-isothermal plane strain finite models to reproduce the sample heating. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The proposed analytical model can represent the material heating during single pass of ECAP. - Abstract: In this paper, the thermomechanical properties of pure tantalum described by Liang and Khan [Int. J. Plast. 15 (1999) 963] through Johnson-Cook hardening law were used to propose a non-isothermal solution for estimating the temperature increasing during single-pass equal channel angular pressed metallic materials. The pressing force was determined with the upper-bound models developed by Perez and Luri [Mech. Mater. 40 (2008) 617] extended for elastic-plastic materials with the isotropic criteria of von Mises and Drucker. The von Mises plane-strain finite-element models were done with the program ABAQUS/Explicit to provide the pressing force, P, effective plastic strain, {epsilon}{sup Macron p}, and temperature along the workpiece and also to validate the proposed analytical solutions. By using Drucker's criterion, theoretical analyses showed that the decreasing of the sample temperature increment, {Delta}T, was primarily affected by higher values of die channels intersection angle, {Phi}, and moderately for its initial temperature and the tooling outer fillet radius, R{sub outer}. Also, the increasing of {Delta}T was more sensible for greater die inner fillet radii, R{sub inner}, and superior velocities, V{sub 0}. In addition, the force dropped for elevated sample initial temperatures. For {Phi} = 90 Degree-Sign , the finite-element models confirmed the decreasing of {Delta}T and P for 0 mm {<=} R{sub outer} {<=} 5 mm and their increasing for 10 mm/s {<=} V{sub 0} {<=} 20 mm/s. Lastly, by comparing the numerical and theoretical results of P, {epsilon}{sup Macron p} and {Delta}T, the
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
David Eppstein
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We define strict confluent drawing, a form of confluent drawing in which the existence of an edge is indicated by the presence of a smooth path through a system of arcs and junctions (without crossings, and in which such a path, if it exists, must be unique. We prove that it is NP-complete to determine whether a given graph has a strict confluent drawing but polynomial to determine whether it has an outerplanar strict confluent drawing with a fixed vertex ordering (a drawing within a disk, with the vertices placed in a given order on the boundary.
Caulfield, C. P.; Tang, W.; Plasting, S. C.
2004-01-01
We derive an improved rigorous upper bound for the long-time-averaged vertical buoyancy flux for stably stratified Couette flow; i.e. the flow of a Boussinesq fluid (with reference density rho_0, kinematic viscosity nu, and thermal diffusivity kappa) confined between two parallel horizontal plates separated by a distance d, which are driven at a constant relative velocity uDelta U, and are maintained at a constant (statically stable) temperature difference leading to a constant density difference uDelta rho. We construct the bound by means of a numerical solution to the ‘background method’ variation problem as formulated by Constantin and Doering using a one-dimensional uni-directional background. The upper bound so constructed is the best possible bound with the imposed constraints for streamwise independent mean flows that are statistically steady, and is calculated up to asymptotically large Reynolds numbers. We find that the associated (dimensional) upper bound {cal B}(*_{scriptsize) max} on the long-time-averaged and volume averaged buoyancy flux {cal B}(*:=lim_{t) -> infty} (1/t) int(t_0) g/rho_{0} dskew2tilde{t} (where u_3 is the vertical velocity, g is the acceleration due to gravity, and angled brackets denote volume averaging) does not depend on either the bulk Richardson number J=guDelta rho d/(rho_0 uDelta U(2)) of the flow, or the Prandtl number sigma=nu/kappa of the fluid. We show that {cal B}(*_{scriptsize) max} has the same inertial characteristic scaling as the (dimensional) mechanical energy dissipation rate {cal E}(*_B) , and {cal B}(*_{scriptsize) max}=0.001267uDelta U(3/d) as Re->infty. The associated flow structure exhibits velocity boundary layers embedded within density boundary layers, with local gradient Richardson numbers Ri =O(sigma/Re)≪ 1 in the vicinity of the horizontal plates. There is a correspondence between the predicted flow structure and the flow structure at a lower Reynolds number associated with the upper bound on the
Upper and lower bounds for stochastic processes modern methods and classical problems
Talagrand, Michel
2014-01-01
The book develops modern methods and in particular the "generic chaining" to bound stochastic processes. This methods allows in particular to get optimal bounds for Gaussian and Bernoulli processes. Applications are given to stable processes, infinitely divisible processes, matching theorems, the convergence of random Fourier series, of orthogonal series, and to functional analysis. The complete solution of a number of classical problems is given in complete detail, and an ambitious program for future research is laid out.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jie Liu
2014-01-01
discusses the nonconforming rotated Q1 finite element computable upper bound a posteriori error estimate of the boundary value problem established by M. Ainsworth and obtains efficient computable upper bound a posteriori error indicators for the eigenvalue problem associated with the boundary value problem. We extend the a posteriori error estimate to the Steklov eigenvalue problem and also derive efficient computable upper bound a posteriori error indicators. Finally, through numerical experiments, we verify the validity of the a posteriori error estimate of the boundary value problem; meanwhile, the numerical results show that the a posteriori error indicators of the eigenvalue problem and the Steklov eigenvalue problem are effective.
Determining Upper Bounds for the Clay-squirt Effect in Clay Bearing Sandstone
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Morten Kanne; Fabricius, Ida Lykke
2012-01-01
have been proposed as the mechanism behind this stiffening. Low fluid mobility and low bulk modulus of the clay phase cause excess pore-pressures to be induced and retained in the phase leading to stiffening. A quantitative bound is formulated for this effect through the determination of the Hashin...
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Moltó, A.; Orihuela, J.; Troyanski, S.; Zizler, Václav
2007-01-01
Roč. 75, č. 3 (2007), s. 647-658 ISSN 0024-6107 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190502 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : strictly convex norms * lattice norm * quasi-diagonal sets Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.733, year: 2007
Quine's "Strictly Vegetarian" Analyticity
Decock, L.B.
2017-01-01
I analyze Quine’s later writings on analyticity from a linguistic point of view. In Word and Object Quine made room for a “strictly vegetarian” notion of analyticity. In later years, he developed this notion into two more precise notions, which I have coined “stimulus analyticity” and “behaviorist
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gerhold, Philipp [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Jansen, Karl [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC
2009-12-15
We study a lattice Higgs-Yukawa model emulating the same Higgs-fermion coupling structure as in the Higgs sector of the electroweak Standard Model, in particular, obeying a Ginsparg- Wilson version of the underlying SU(2){sub L} x U(1){sub Y} symmetry, being a global symmetry here due to the neglection of gauge fields in this model. In this paper we present our results on the cutoffdependent upper Higgs boson mass bound at several selected values of the cutoff parameter {lambda}. (orig.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hervé Le Sourne
2012-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a user-friendly rapid prediction tool of damage to struck and striking vessels in a ship collision event. To do this, the so-called upper bound theorem is applied to calculate internal forces and energies of any substructure involved in the ships crushing process. At each increment of indentation, the total crushing force is transmitted to the external dynamics MCOL program, which calculates the global ship motion correction by solving the hydrodynamic force equilibrium equations. As a first step, the paper gives a brief description of the upper bound method originally developed for perpendicular collisions and recently enhanced for oblique ones. Then, the theory developed in MCOL program for large rotational ship movements is detailed. By comparing results obtained with and without MCOL, the importance of hydrodynamic effects is highlighted. Some simulation results are compared with results provided by classical nonlinear finite element calculations. Finally, by using the developed analytical tool, which mixes internal and external dynamics, different crushing scenarios including oblique collisions are investigated and the influence of some collision parameters like longitudinal and vertical impact location, impact angle, and struck ship velocity is studied.
Bermudo, Carolina; Sevilla, Lorenzo; Martín, Francisco; Trujillo, Francisco Javier
2017-01-01
The application of incremental processes in the manufacturing industry is having a great development in recent years. The first stage of an Incremental Forming Process can be defined as an indentation. Because of this, the indentation process is starting to be widely studied, not only as a hardening test but also as a forming process. Thus, in this work, an analysis of the indentation process under the new Modular Upper Bound perspective has been performed. The modular implementation has several advantages, including the possibility of the introduction of different parameters to extend the study, such as the friction effect, the temperature or the hardening effect studied in this paper. The main objective of the present work is to analyze the three hardening models developed depending on the material characteristics. In order to support the validation of the hardening models, finite element analyses of diverse materials under an indentation are carried out. Results obtained from the Modular Upper Bound are in concordance with the results obtained from the numerical analyses. In addition, the numerical and analytical methods are in concordance with the results previously obtained in the experimental indentation of annealed aluminum A92030. Due to the introduction of the hardening factor, the new modular distribution is a suitable option for the analysis of indentation process. PMID:28772914
Alvarez, Diego A.; Uribe, Felipe; Hurtado, Jorge E.
2018-02-01
Random set theory is a general framework which comprises uncertainty in the form of probability boxes, possibility distributions, cumulative distribution functions, Dempster-Shafer structures or intervals; in addition, the dependence between the input variables can be expressed using copulas. In this paper, the lower and upper bounds on the probability of failure are calculated by means of random set theory. In order to accelerate the calculation, a well-known and efficient probability-based reliability method known as subset simulation is employed. This method is especially useful for finding small failure probabilities in both low- and high-dimensional spaces, disjoint failure domains and nonlinear limit state functions. The proposed methodology represents a drastic reduction of the computational labor implied by plain Monte Carlo simulation for problems defined with a mixture of representations for the input variables, while delivering similar results. Numerical examples illustrate the efficiency of the proposed approach.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mishima, J.; Sutter, S.L.; Hawley, K.A.; Jenkins, C.E.; Napier, B.A.
1986-02-01
The Geologic Disposal Alternative, the In-Place Stabilization and Disposal Alternative, and the Reference Disposal Alternative are being evaluated for disposal of Hanford defense high-level, transuranic, and tank wastes. Environmental impacts associated with disposal of these wastes according to the alternatives listed above include potential doses to the downwind population from operation during the application of the handling and processing techniques comprising each disposal alternative. Scenarios for operational accident and abnormal operational events are postulated, on the basis of the currently available information, for the application of the techniques employed for each waste class for each disposal alternative. From these scenarios, an upper-bound airborne release of radioactive material was postulated for each waste class and disposal alternative. Potential downwind radiologic impacts were calculated from these upper-bound events. In all three alternatives, the single postulated event with the largest calculated radiologic impact for any waste class is an explosion of a mixture of ferri/ferro cyanide precipitates during the mechanical retrieval or microwave drying of the salt cake in single shell waste tanks. The anticipated downwind dose (70-year dose commitment) to the maximally exposed individual is 3 rem with a total population dose of 7000 man-rem. The same individual would receive 7 rem from natural background radiation during the same time period, and the same population would receive 3,000,000 man-rem. Radiological impacts to the public from all other postulated accidents would be less than that from this accident; furthermore, the radiological impacts resulting from this accident would be less than one-half that from the natural background radiation dose.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mishima, J.; Sutter, S.L.; Hawley, K.A.; Jenkins, C.E.; Napier, B.A.
1986-02-01
The Geologic Disposal Alternative, the In-Place Stabilization and Disposal Alternative, and the Reference Disposal Alternative are being evaluated for disposal of Hanford defense high-level, transuranic, and tank wastes. Environmental impacts associated with disposal of these wastes according to the alternatives listed above include potential doses to the downwind population from operation during the application of the handling and processing techniques comprising each disposal alternative. Scenarios for operational accident and abnormal operational events are postulated, on the basis of the currently available information, for the application of the techniques employed for each waste class for each disposal alternative. From these scenarios, an upper-bound airborne release of radioactive material was postulated for each waste class and disposal alternative. Potential downwind radiologic impacts were calculated from these upper-bound events. In all three alternatives, the single postulated event with the largest calculated radiologic impact for any waste class is an explosion of a mixture of ferri/ferro cyanide precipitates during the mechanical retrieval or microwave drying of the salt cake in single shell waste tanks. The anticipated downwind dose (70-year dose commitment) to the maximally exposed individual is 3 rem with a total population dose of 7000 man-rem. The same individual would receive 7 rem from natural background radiation during the same time period, and the same population would receive 3,000,000 man-rem. Radiological impacts to the public from all other postulated accidents would be less than that from this accident; furthermore, the radiological impacts resulting from this accident would be less than one-half that from the natural background radiation dose
Upper and lower bounds for disadvantage factors as a test of an algorithm used in a synthesis method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ackroyd, R.T.; Nanneh, M.M.
1988-01-01
A lower bound for the disadvantage factor of a lattice cell of arbitrary configuration is obtained using a finite element method which is based on a variational principle for the even-parity angular flux. An upper bound for the disadvantage factor is given by a finite element method using the complementary variational principle for the odd-parity angular flux. These theoretical results are illustrated by calculations for urnaium/graphite and uranium/water lattices. As the approximations are refined the fluxes obtained by the first method tend towards the actual flux from below in the moderator, and from above in the fuel. These trends are reversed for the second method. This derivation of benchmarks for disadvantage factors has been undertaken primarily as a test of an important algorithm used by the authors in a method of synthesising transport solutions starting with a diffusion theory approximation. The algorithm is used to convert odd-parity approximations for the angular flux into even-parity approximations and vice versa. (author)
Upper and lower bounds for disadvantage factors as a test of algorithm used in a synthesis method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nanneh, M.M.; Ackroyd, R.T.
1991-01-01
A lower bound for the disadvantage factor of a lattice cell of arbitrary configuration is obtained using a finite element method which is based on a variational principle for the even-parity angular flux. An upper bound for the disadvantage factor is given by a finite element method using the complementary variational principle for the odd-parity angular flux. These theoretical results are illustrated by calculations for uranium/graphite and uranium/water lattices. As the approximations are refined the fluxes obtained by the first method tend towards the actual flux from below in the moderator, and from above in the fuel. These trends are reversed for the second method. This derivation of benchmarks for disadvantage factors has been undertaken primarily as a test of an important algorithm used by the authors in a method of synthesising transport solutions starting with a diffusion theory approximation. The algorithm is used to convert odd-parity approximations for the angular flux into even-parity approximations and vice versa. (author). 15 refs., 8 tabs., 9 figs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Lagogiannis, George; Tarjan, Robert E.
2012-01-01
We present the first pointer-based heap implementation with time bounds matching those of Fibonacci heaps in the worst case. We support make-heap, insert, find-min, meld and decrease-key in worst-case O(1) time, and delete and delete-min in worst-case O(lg n) time, where n is the size of the heap...... of the smaller heap when doing a meld. We use the pigeonhole principle in place of the redundant counter mechanism. We present the first pointer-based heap implementation with time bounds matching those of Fibonacci heaps in the worst case. We support make-heap, insert, find-min, meld and decrease-key in worst...
Wen, Baole; Chini, Gregory P.; Kerswell, Rich R.; Doering, Charles R.
2015-10-01
An alternative computational procedure for numerically solving a class of variational problems arising from rigorous upper-bound analysis of forced-dissipative infinite-dimensional nonlinear dynamical systems, including the Navier-Stokes and Oberbeck-Boussinesq equations, is analyzed and applied to Rayleigh-Bénard convection. A proof that the only steady state to which this numerical algorithm can converge is the required global optimal of the relevant variational problem is given for three canonical flow configurations. In contrast with most other numerical schemes for computing the optimal bounds on transported quantities (e.g., heat or momentum) within the "background field" variational framework, which employ variants of Newton's method and hence require very accurate initial iterates, the new computational method is easy to implement and, crucially, does not require numerical continuation. The algorithm is used to determine the optimal background-method bound on the heat transport enhancement factor, i.e., the Nusselt number (Nu), as a function of the Rayleigh number (Ra), Prandtl number (Pr), and domain aspect ratio L in two-dimensional Rayleigh-Bénard convection between stress-free isothermal boundaries (Rayleigh's original 1916 model of convection). The result of the computation is significant because analyses, laboratory experiments, and numerical simulations have suggested a range of exponents α and β in the presumed Nu˜PrαRaβ scaling relation. The computations clearly show that for Ra≤1010 at fixed L =2 √{2 },Nu≤0.106 Pr0Ra5/12 , which indicates that molecular transport cannot generally be neglected in the "ultimate" high-Ra regime.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniel Khoshnoudirad
2015-09-01
Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to bring new combinatorial analytical properties of the Farey diagrams of order $(m,n$, which are associated to the $(m,n$-cubes. The latter are the pieces of discrete planes occurring in discrete geometry, theoretical computer sciences, and combinatorial number theory. We give a new upper bound for the number of Farey vertices $FV(m,n$ obtained as intersections points of Farey lines ([14]: $$\\exists C>0, \\forall (m,n\\in\\mathbb{N}^{*2},\\quad \\Big|FV(m,n\\Big| \\leq C m^2 n^2 (m+n \\ln^2 (mn$$ Using it, in particular, we show that the number of $(m,n$-cubes $\\mathcal{U}_{m,n}$ verifies: $$\\exists C>0, \\forall (m,n\\in\\mathbb{N}^{*2},\\quad \\Big|\\mathcal{U}_{m,n}\\Big| \\leq C m^3 n^3 (m+n \\ln^2 (mn$$ which is an important improvement of the result previously obtained in [6], which was a polynomial of degree 8. This work uses combinatorics, graph theory, and elementary and analytical number theory.
Toosizadeh, Nima; Joseph, Bellal; Heusser, Michelle R; Orouji Jokar, Tahereh; Mohler, Jane; Phelan, Herb A; Najafi, Bijan
2016-08-01
Despite increasing evidence that assessing frailty facilitates medical decision-making, a quick and clinically simple frailty assessment tool is not available for trauma settings. This study examined accuracy and acceptability of a novel wearable technology (upper-extremity frailty [UEF]) to objectively assess frailty status in older adults (65 years or older) admitted to the hospital due to traumatic ground-level falls. Frailty was measured using a validated modified Rockwood questionnaire, the Trauma-Specific Frailty Index (TSFI), as the gold standard. Participants performed a 20-second trial of rapid elbow flexion with the dominant elbow in a supine posture while wearing the UEF system. We recruited 101 eligible older adults (age 79 ± 9 years). Parameters of the UEF indicative of slowness, weakness, and exhaustion during elbow flexion were independent predictors of the TSFI score, while adjusted for age, sex, and body mass index. A high agreement (r = 0.72, p falls within a previous year, with highest correlation observed for elbow flexion slowness (r = -0.41). The results suggest that a simple test of 20-second elbow flexion may be practical and sensitive to identify frailty among hospitalized older adults. The UEF test is independent of walking assessments, reflects several frailty markers, and it is practical for bed-bound patients. Copyright © 2016 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Efficient Strictness Analysis of Haskell
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Kristian Damm; Hjæresen, Peter; Rosendahl, Mads
1994-01-01
Strictness analysis has been a living field of investigation since Mycroft's original work in 1980, and is getting increasingly significant with the still wider use of lazy functional programming languages. This paper focuses on an actual implementation of a strictness analyser for Haskell...
Vaseghi, Majid; Taheri, Ali Karimi; Kim, Hyoung Seop
2010-06-01
In the present study, the plastic deformation and dynamic strain ageing behavior of Al-6082 (Al-Mg-Si) alloy treated with elevated temperature equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) were investigated using upper bound analyses. Tensile tests were carried out over wide ranges of temperature and strain rate in order to evaluate the dynamic ageing conditions. ECAP processing was then experimentally performed at temperatures from room temperature up to 200 °C under various strain rates ranging between 10-4s-1 and 10-1s-1. The upper bound analysis solutions and the experimental results are comparable. A theoretical dynamic ageing region was found to be in the temperature range of 90 °C to 260 °C, which is in agreement with the experimental observations in the temperature range of 75 °C to 175 °C.
Tillman, Fred D.; Weaver, James W.
Migration of volatile chemicals from the subsurface into overlying buildings is known as vapor intrusion (VI). Under certain circumstances, people living in homes above contaminated soil or ground water may be exposed to harmful levels of these vapors. A popular VI screening-level algorithm widely used in the United States, Canada and the UK to assess this potential risk is the "Johnson and Ettinger" (J&E) model. Concern exists over using the J&E model for deciding whether or not further action is necessary at sites, as many parameters are not routinely measured (or are un-measurable). Using EPA-recommended ranges of parameter values for nine soil-type/source depth combinations, input parameter sets were identified that correspond to bounding results of the J&E model. The results established the existence of generic upper and lower bound parameter sets for maximum and minimum exposure for all soil types and depths investigated. Using the generic upper and lower bound parameter sets, an analysis can be performed that, given the limitations of the input ranges and the model, bounds the attenuation factor in a VI investigation.
Architecture-independent power bound for vibration energy harvesters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Halvorsen, E; Le, C P; Mitcheson, P D; Yeatman, E M
2013-01-01
The maximum output power of energy harvesters driven by harmonic vibrations is well known for a range of specific harvester architectures. An architecture-independent bound based on the mechanical input-power also exists and gives a strict limit on achievable power with one mechanical degree of freedom, but is a least upper bound only for lossless devices. We report a new theoretical bound on the output power of vibration energy harvesters that includes parasitic, linear mechanical damping while still being architecture independent. This bound greatly improves the previous bound at moderate force amplitudes and is compared to the performance of established harvester architectures which are shown to agree with it in limiting cases. The bound is a hard limit on achievable power with one mechanical degree of freedom and can not be circumvented by transducer or power-electronic-interface design
Species Protection in the European Union : How Strict is Strict?
Schoukens, Hendrik; Bastmeijer, Kees; Born et al., Charles-Hubert
2015-01-01
European Union law to protect wild species of plants and animals is generally considered as ‘strict’. Opponents of nature conservation law often pick the species protection components of the EU Bird Directive and Habitat Directive as a prime example of an unnecessary strict regulatory scheme that
Mann iteration with errors for strictly pseudo-contractive mappings ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
It is well known that any fixed point of a Lipschitzian strictly pseudo-contractive self mapping of a nonempty closed convex and bounded subset K of a Banach space X is unique [6] and may be norm approximated by an iterative procedure. In this paper, we show that Mann iteration with errors can be used to approximate the ...
Dominated operators, absolutely summing operators and the strict ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
b(X;E) be the space of all E-valued bounded continuous functions on X, equipped with the strict topology β. We study dominated and absolutely summing operators T : Cb(X;E) → F. We derive that if X is a locally compact Hausdorff space and E ...
Page, Don N.
2018-01-01
In an asymptotically flat spacetime of dimension d >3 and with the Newtonian gravitational constant G , a spherical black hole of initial horizon radius rh and mass M ˜rhd -3/G has a total decay time to Hawking emission of td˜rhd -1/G ˜G2 /(d -3 )M(d -1 )/(d -3 ) which grows without bound as the radius rh and mass M are taken to infinity. However, in asymptotically anti-de Sitter spacetime with a length scale ℓ and with absorbing boundary conditions at infinity, the total Hawking decay time does not diverge as the mass and radius go to infinity but instead remains bounded by a time of the order of ℓd-1/G .
Strictness Analysis for Attribute Grammars
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rosendahl, Mads
1992-01-01
interpretation of attribute grammars. The framework is used to construct a strictness analysis for attribute grammars. Results of the analysis enable us to transform an attribute grammar such that attributes are evaluated during parsing, if possible. The analysis is proved correct by relating it to a fixpoint...... semantics for attribute grammars. An implementation of the analysis is discussed and some extensions to the analysis are mentioned....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Krabbenhøft, Sven; Damkilde, Lars; Krabbenhøft, Kristian
2013-01-01
. These factors only take into account the inclination of the slope, whereas other parameters, which may play a role, such as the distance from the footing to the slope, the width of the footing and the strength of the soil are ignored. The present work comprises finite element based upper- and lower...
Flexible or Strict Taxonomic Organization?
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Glückstad, Fumiko Kano; Mørup, Morten
2012-01-01
This work compares methods for constructing feature-based ontologies that are supposed to be used for culturally-specific knowledge transfer. The methods to be compared are the Terminological Ontology (TO) [1], a method of constructing ontology based on strict principles and rules, and the Infinite...... Relational Model (IRM) [2], a novel unsupervised machine learning method that learns multi-dimensional relations among concepts and features from loosely structured datasets. These methods are combined with a novel cognitive model, the Bayesian Model of Generalization (BMG) [3] that maps culturally...
Abdullah, Dahlan; Suwilo, Saib; Tulus; Mawengkang, Herman; Efendi, Syahril
2017-09-01
The higher education system in Indonesia can be considered not only as an important source of developing knowledge in the country, but also could create positive living conditions for the country. Therefore it is not surprising that enrollments in higher education continue to expand. However, the implication of this situation, the Indonesian government is necessarily to support more funds. In the interest of accountability, it is essential to measure the efficiency for this higher institution. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) is a method to evaluate the technical efficiency of production units which have multiple input and output. The higher learning institution considered in this paper is Malikussaleh University located in Lhokseumawe, a city in Aceh province of Indonesia. This paper develops a method to evaluate efficiency for all departments in Malikussaleh University using DEA with bounded output. Accordingly, we present some important differences in efficiency of those departments. Finally we discuss the effort should be done by these departments in order to become efficient.
Sanguinetti, Joseph L; Peterson, Mary A
2016-12-01
Traditional theories of vision assume that object segregation occurs before access to object memories. Yet, behavioral evidence shows that familiar configuration is a prior for segregation, and electrophysiological experiments demonstrate these memories are accessed rapidly. A behavioral index of the speed of access is lacking, however. Here we asked how quickly behavior is influenced by object memories that are accessed in the course of object segregation. We investigated whether access to object memories on the groundside of a border can slow behavior during a rapid categorization task. Participants viewed two silhouettes that depicted a real-world and a novel object. Their task was to saccade toward the real-world object as quickly as possible. Half of the nontarget novel objects were ambiguous in that a portion of a real-world object was suggested, but not consciously perceived, on the groundside of their borders. The rest of the nontargets were unambiguous. We tested whether saccadic reaction times were perturbed by the real-world objects suggested on the groundside of ambiguous novel silhouettes. In Experiments 1 and 2, saccadic reaction times were slowed when nontargets were ambiguous rather than unambiguous. Experiment 2 set an upper limit of 190 ms on the time required for object memories in grounds to influence behavior. Experiment 3 ruled out factors that could have produced longer latencies other than access to object memories. These results provide the first behavioral index of how quickly memories of objects suggested in grounds can influence behavior, placing the upper limit at 190 ms.
Upper Bounds on r-Mode Amplitudes from Observations of Low-Mass X-Ray Binary Neutron Stars
Mahmoodifar, Simin; Strohmayer, Tod
2013-01-01
We present upper limits on the amplitude of r-mode oscillations and gravitational-radiation-induced spin-down rates in low-mass X-ray binary neutron stars, under the assumption that the quiescent neutron star luminosity is powered by dissipation from a steady-state r-mode. For masses <2M solar mass we find dimensionless r-mode amplitudes in the range from about 1×10(exp-8) to 1.5×10(exp-6). For the accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar sources with known quiescent spin-down rates, these limits suggest that approx. less than 1% of the observed rate can be due to an unstable r-mode. Interestingly, the source with the highest amplitude limit, NGC 6440, could have an r-mode spin-down rate comparable to the observed, quiescent rate for SAX J1808-3658. Thus, quiescent spin-down measurements for this source would be particularly interesting. For all sources considered here, our amplitude limits suggest that gravitational wave signals are likely too weak for detection with Advanced LIGO. Our highest mass model (2.21M solar mass) can support enhanced, direct Urca neutrino emission in the core and thus can have higher r-mode amplitudes. Indeed, the inferred r-mode spin-down rates at these higher amplitudes are inconsistent with the observed spin-down rates for some of the sources, such as IGR J00291+5934 and XTE J1751-305. In the absence of other significant sources of internal heat, these results could be used to place an upper limit on the masses of these sources if they were made of hadronic matter, or alternatively it could be used to probe the existence of exotic matter in them if their masses were known.
Naif, Samer
2018-01-01
Electrical conductivity soundings provide important constraints on the thermal and hydration state of the mantle. Recent seafloor magnetotelluric surveys have imaged the electrical conductivity structure of the oceanic upper mantle over a variety of plate ages. All regions show high conductivity (0.02 to 0.2 S/m) at 50 to 150 km depths that cannot be explained with a sub-solidus dry mantle regime without unrealistic temperature gradients. Instead, the conductivity observations require either a small amount of water stored in nominally anhydrous minerals or the presence of interconnected partial melts. This ambiguity leads to dramatically different interpretations on the origin of the asthenosphere. Here, I apply the damp peridotite solidus together with plate cooling models to determine the amount of H2O needed to induce dehydration melting as a function of depth and plate age. Then, I use the temperature and water content estimates to calculate the electrical conductivity of the oceanic mantle with a two-phase mixture of olivine and pyroxene from several competing empirical conductivity models. This represents the maximum potential conductivity of sub-solidus oceanic mantle at the limit of hydration. The results show that partial melt is required to explain the subset of the high conductivity observations beneath young seafloor, irrespective of which empirical model is applied. In contrast, the end-member empirical models predict either nearly dry (<20 wt ppm H2O) or slightly damp (<200 wt ppm H2O) asthenosphere for observations of mature seafloor. Since the former estimate is too dry compared with geochemical constraints from mid-ocean ridge basalts, this suggests the effect of water on mantle conductivity is less pronounced than currently predicted by the conductive end-member empirical model.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Takahashi, Ryuichi; Asada, Hideki [Faculty of Science and Technology, Hirosaki University, Hirosaki 036-8561 (Japan)
2013-05-01
The latest result in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Quasar Lens Search (SQLS) has set the first cosmological constraints on negative-mass compact objects and Ellis wormholes. There are no multiple images lensed by the above two exotic objects for {approx}50, 000 distant quasars in the SQLS data. Therefore, an upper bound is put on the cosmic abundances of these lenses. The number density of negative-mass compact objects is n < 10{sup -8}(10{sup -4}) h {sup 3} Mpc{sup -3} at the mass scale |M| > 10{sup 15}(10{sup 12}) M{sub Sun }, which corresponds to the cosmological density parameter |{Omega}| < 10{sup -4} at the galaxy and cluster mass range |M| = 10{sup 12-15} M{sub Sun }. The number density of the Ellis wormhole is n < 10{sup -4} h {sup 3} Mpc{sup -3} for a range of the throat radius a = 10-10{sup 4} pc, which is much smaller than the Einstein ring radius.
Physical Uncertainty Bounds (PUB)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vaughan, Diane Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Preston, Dean L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2015-03-19
This paper introduces and motivates the need for a new methodology for determining upper bounds on the uncertainties in simulations of engineered systems due to limited fidelity in the composite continuum-level physics models needed to simulate the systems. We show that traditional uncertainty quantification methods provide, at best, a lower bound on this uncertainty. We propose to obtain bounds on the simulation uncertainties by first determining bounds on the physical quantities or processes relevant to system performance. By bounding these physics processes, as opposed to carrying out statistical analyses of the parameter sets of specific physics models or simply switching out the available physics models, one can obtain upper bounds on the uncertainties in simulated quantities of interest.
Extremely strict ideals in Banach spaces
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Motivated by the notion of an ideal introduced by Godefroy {\\it et al.} ({\\it Studia Math.} {\\bf 104} (1993) 13–59), in this article, we introduce and study the notion of an extremely strict ideal. For a Poulsen simplex K , we show that the space of affine continuous functions on K is an extremely strict ideal in the space of continuous ...
Hyperbolic spaces are of strictly negative type
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hjorth, Poul G.; Kokkendorff, Simon L.; Markvorsen, Steen
2002-01-01
We study finite metric spaces with elements picked from, and distances consistent with, ambient Riemannian manifolds. The concepts of negative type and strictly negative type are reviewed, and the conjecture that hyperbolic spaces are of strictly negative type is settled, in the affirmative...
Extremely strict ideals in Banach spaces
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. Motivated by the notion of an ideal introduced by Godefroy et al. (Stu- dia Math. 104 (1993) 13–59), in this article, we introduce and study the notion of an extremely strict ideal. For a Poulsen simplex K, we show that the space of affine contin- uous functions on K is an extremely strict ideal in the space of continuous ...
Finite Metric Spaces of Strictly negative Type
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hjorth, Poul G.
If a finite metric space is of strictly negative type then its transfinite diameter is uniquely realized by an infinite extent (“load vector''). Finite metric spaces that have this property include all trees, and all finite subspaces of Euclidean and Hyperbolic spaces. We prove that if the distance...... matrix of a finite metric space is both hypermetric and regular, then it is of strictly negative type. We show that the strictly negative type finite subspaces of spheres are precisely those which do not contain two pairs of antipodal points....
Hyperbolic spaces are of strictly negative type
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hjorth, Poul G.; Kokkendorff, Simon L.; Markvorsen, Steen
2002-01-01
We study finite metric spaces with elements picked from, and distances consistent with, ambient Riemannian manifolds. The concepts of negative type and strictly negative type are reviewed, and the conjecture that hyperbolic spaces are of strictly negative type is settled, in the affirmative....... The technique of the proof is subsequently applied to show that every compact manifold of negative type must have trivial fundamental group, and to obtain a necessary criterion for product manifolds to be of negative type....
Bounds on poloidal kinetic energy in plane layer convection
Tilgner, A.
2017-12-01
A numerical method is presented that conveniently computes upper bounds on heat transport and poloidal energy in plane layer convection for infinite and finite Prandtl numbers. The bounds obtained for the heat transport coincide with earlier results. These bounds imply upper bounds for the poloidal energy, which follow directly from the definitions of dissipation and energy. The same constraints used for computing upper bounds on the heat transport lead to improved bounds for the poloidal energy.
Strictly convex functions on complete Finsler manifolds
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
... Refresher Courses · Symposia · Live Streaming. Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Volume 126; Issue 4. Strictly convex functions on complete Finsler manifolds. YOE ITOKAWA KATSUHIRO SHIOHAMA BANKTESHWAR TIWARI. Research Article Volume 126 Issue 4 October 2016 pp 623-627 ...
Finite Metric Spaces of Strictly Negative Type
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hjorth, Poul; Lisonek, P.; Markvorsen, Steen
1998-01-01
We prove that, if a finite metric space is of strictly negative type, then its transfinite diameter is uniquely realized by the infinite extender (load vector). Finite metric spaces that have this property include all spaces on two, three, or four points, all trees, and all finite subspaces of Eu...
Soltani Bozchalooi, Iman; Liang, Ming
2018-04-01
A discussion paper entitled "On the distribution of the modulus of Gabor wavelet coefficients and the upper bound of the dimensionless smoothness index in the case of additive Gaussian noises: revisited" by Dong Wang, Qiang Zhou, Kwok-Leung Tsui has been brought to our attention recently. This discussion paper (hereafter called Wang et al. paper) is based on arguments that are fundamentally incorrect and which we rebut within this commentary. However, as the flaws in the arguments proposed by Wang et al. are clear, we will keep this rebuttal as brief as possible.
Extremely strict ideals in Banach spaces
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
the space of regular Borel measures, it is easy to see that with respect to the projection μ → μ|(0, 1), M is an extremely strict ideal in C([0, 1]) but as the Lebesgue measure is non-atomic, M. ∗. 1 is not the norm closed ..... (Grenoble) 28 (1978) 35–65. [10] Rao T S S R K, On ideals in Banach spaces, Rocky Mountain J. Math.
Bound constrained quadratic programming via piecewise
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Kaj; Nielsen, Hans Bruun; Pinar, M. C.
1999-01-01
We consider the strictly convex quadratic programming problem with bounded variables. A dual problem is derived using Lagrange duality. The dual problem is the minimization of an unconstrained, piecewise quadratic function. It involves a lower bound of lambda/sub 1/ , the smallest eigenvalue...
Martin, Julien; Edwards, Holly H; Bled, Florent; Fonnesbeck, Christopher J; Dupuis, Jérôme A; Gardner, Beth; Koslovsky, Stacie M; Aven, Allen M; Ward-Geiger, Leslie I; Carmichael, Ruth H; Fagan, Daniel E; Ross, Monica A; Reinert, Thomas R
2014-01-01
The explosion of the Deepwater Horizon drilling platform created the largest marine oil spill in U.S. history. As part of the Natural Resource Damage Assessment process, we applied an innovative modeling approach to obtain upper estimates for occupancy and for number of manatees in areas potentially affected by the oil spill. Our data consisted of aerial survey counts in waters of the Florida Panhandle, Alabama and Mississippi. Our method, which uses a Bayesian approach, allows for the propagation of uncertainty associated with estimates from empirical data and from the published literature. We illustrate that it is possible to derive estimates of occupancy rate and upper estimates of the number of manatees present at the time of sampling, even when no manatees were observed in our sampled plots during surveys. We estimated that fewer than 2.4% of potentially affected manatee habitat in our Florida study area may have been occupied by manatees. The upper estimate for the number of manatees present in potentially impacted areas (within our study area) was estimated with our model to be 74 (95%CI 46 to 107). This upper estimate for the number of manatees was conditioned on the upper 95%CI value of the occupancy rate. In other words, based on our estimates, it is highly probable that there were 107 or fewer manatees in our study area during the time of our surveys. Because our analyses apply to habitats considered likely manatee habitats, our inference is restricted to these sites and to the time frame of our surveys. Given that manatees may be hard to see during aerial surveys, it was important to account for imperfect detection. The approach that we described can be useful for determining the best allocation of resources for monitoring and conservation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Julien Martin
Full Text Available The explosion of the Deepwater Horizon drilling platform created the largest marine oil spill in U.S. history. As part of the Natural Resource Damage Assessment process, we applied an innovative modeling approach to obtain upper estimates for occupancy and for number of manatees in areas potentially affected by the oil spill. Our data consisted of aerial survey counts in waters of the Florida Panhandle, Alabama and Mississippi. Our method, which uses a Bayesian approach, allows for the propagation of uncertainty associated with estimates from empirical data and from the published literature. We illustrate that it is possible to derive estimates of occupancy rate and upper estimates of the number of manatees present at the time of sampling, even when no manatees were observed in our sampled plots during surveys. We estimated that fewer than 2.4% of potentially affected manatee habitat in our Florida study area may have been occupied by manatees. The upper estimate for the number of manatees present in potentially impacted areas (within our study area was estimated with our model to be 74 (95%CI 46 to 107. This upper estimate for the number of manatees was conditioned on the upper 95%CI value of the occupancy rate. In other words, based on our estimates, it is highly probable that there were 107 or fewer manatees in our study area during the time of our surveys. Because our analyses apply to habitats considered likely manatee habitats, our inference is restricted to these sites and to the time frame of our surveys. Given that manatees may be hard to see during aerial surveys, it was important to account for imperfect detection. The approach that we described can be useful for determining the best allocation of resources for monitoring and conservation.
Tight bounds for break minimization
Brouwer, Andries E.; Post, Gerhard F.; Woeginger, Gerhard
We consider round-robin sports tournaments with n teams and n − 1 rounds. We construct an infinite family of opponent schedules for which every home-away assignment induces at least 1/4 n(n−2) breaks. This construction establishes a matching lower bound for a corresponding upper bound from the
Strictness Analysis and Denotational Abstract Interpretation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielson, Flemming
1988-01-01
there and this sufices to make the framework applicable to strictness analysis for the lambda-calculus. This shows the possibility of a general theory for the analysis of functional programs and it gives more insight into the relative precision of the various analyses. In particular it is shown that a collecting (static......A theory of abstract interpretation () is developed for a typed lambda-calculus. The typed lambda-calculus may be viewed as the ''static'' part of a two-level denotational metalanguage for which abstract interpretation was developed by ). The present development relaxes a condition imposed...
7 CFR 28.441 - Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color.
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color. 28.441 Section... Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color. Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color is color which is deeper than that of Strict Middling Tinged Color. [57 FR 34498, Aug. 5, 1992] ...
7 CFR 28.412 - Strict Middling Light Spotted Color.
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.412 Section 28... Light Spotted Color. Strict Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Strict Middling Color and Strict Middling Spotted Color. ...
Thompson, Travis H.; Ochsenfeld, Christian
2017-10-01
We introduce both rigorous and non-rigorous distance-dependent integral estimates for four-center two-electron integrals derived from a distance-including Schwarz-type inequality. The estimates are even easier to implement than our so far most efficient distance-dependent estimates [S. A. Maurer et al., J. Chem. Phys. 136, 144107 (2012)] and, in addition, do not require well-separated charge-distributions. They are also applicable to a wide range of two-electron operators such as those found in explicitly correlated theories and in short-range hybrid density functionals. For two such operators with exponential distance decay [e-r12 and erfc (0.11 ṡr12 ) /r12], the rigorous bound is shown to be much tighter than the standard Schwarz estimate with virtually no error penalty. The non-rigorous estimate gives results very close to an exact screening for these operators and for the long-range 1/r12 operator, with errors that are completely controllable through the integral screening threshold. In addition, we present an alternative form of our non-rigorous bound that is particularly well-suited for improving the PreLinK method [J. Kussmann and C. Ochsenfeld, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 134114 (2013)] in the context of short-range exchange calculations.
Thompson, Travis H; Ochsenfeld, Christian
2017-10-14
We introduce both rigorous and non-rigorous distance-dependent integral estimates for four-center two-electron integrals derived from a distance-including Schwarz-type inequality. The estimates are even easier to implement than our so far most efficient distance-dependent estimates [S. A. Maurer et al., J. Chem. Phys. 136, 144107 (2012)] and, in addition, do not require well-separated charge-distributions. They are also applicable to a wide range of two-electron operators such as those found in explicitly correlated theories and in short-range hybrid density functionals. For two such operators with exponential distance decay [e -r 12 and erfc(0.11⋅r 12 )/r 12 ], the rigorous bound is shown to be much tighter than the standard Schwarz estimate with virtually no error penalty. The non-rigorous estimate gives results very close to an exact screening for these operators and for the long-range 1/r 12 operator, with errors that are completely controllable through the integral screening threshold. In addition, we present an alternative form of our non-rigorous bound that is particularly well-suited for improving the PreLinK method [J. Kussmann and C. Ochsenfeld, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 134114 (2013)] in the context of short-range exchange calculations.
Reliability Capacity of Half-Duplex Channels with Strict Deadlines
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Costa, Rui; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Vinhoza, Tiago
2015-01-01
of transmissions and provide closed-form upper and lower bounds for this capacity. We show that the reliability capacity converges to the capacity of a classical erasure channel as the deadline constraint is relaxed. In our framework, the effect of feedback is analyzed both in terms of the reliability capacity...... and in terms of its advantages towards the mean number of packets that can be transmitted reliably. Optimal schemes for leveraging feedback are presented and the results show that a judicious use of even a single feedback packet can have a significant impact on the mean performance....
"Strict" Anadeixis, Discourse Deixis and Text Structuring
Cornish, Francis
2011-01-01
Taking English as the example language, the article begins by presenting a Scale of indexicality characterizing context-bound expression types, ranging from those signalling pure deixis at one pole, to ones expressing pure anaphora at the other. On the basis of this Scale, the article attempts to determine the specific way in which demonstratives…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tuchman, Y.; Sack, N.; Barkat, Z.
1978-01-01
Envelope ejection leading to a planetary nebula has been recently shown to occur as the terminal point of the Mira stage. The ejection is due to a diverging pulsational instability, not to a dynamical one. It is found that in this case (and for Population I, mixing length=1 pressure scale height) the upper mass limit for formation of planetary nebulae is at least 6 M/sub sun/. It thus follows that the lower mass limit for realization of carbon detonation model configurations is also at last 6 M/sub sun/
Bounds for Asian basket options
Deelstra, Griselda; Diallo, Ibrahima; Vanmaele, Michèle
2008-09-01
In this paper we propose pricing bounds for European-style discrete arithmetic Asian basket options in a Black and Scholes framework. We start from methods used for basket options and Asian options. First, we use the general approach for deriving upper and lower bounds for stop-loss premia of sums of non-independent random variables as in Kaas et al. [Upper and lower bounds for sums of random variables, Insurance Math. Econom. 27 (2000) 151-168] or Dhaene et al. [The concept of comonotonicity in actuarial science and finance: theory, Insurance Math. Econom. 31(1) (2002) 3-33]. We generalize the methods in Deelstra et al. [Pricing of arithmetic basket options by conditioning, Insurance Math. Econom. 34 (2004) 55-57] and Vanmaele et al. [Bounds for the price of discrete sampled arithmetic Asian options, J. Comput. Appl. Math. 185(1) (2006) 51-90]. Afterwards we show how to derive an analytical closed-form expression for a lower bound in the non-comonotonic case. Finally, we derive upper bounds for Asian basket options by applying techniques as in Thompson [Fast narrow bounds on the value of Asian options, Working Paper, University of Cambridge, 1999] and Lord [Partially exact and bounded approximations for arithmetic Asian options, J. Comput. Finance 10 (2) (2006) 1-52]. Numerical results are included and on the basis of our numerical tests, we explain which method we recommend depending on moneyness and time-to-maturity.
Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, A
2003-01-01
A bound on the nu /sup tau / magnetic moment is calculated through the reaction e/sup +/e/sup -/ to nu nu gamma at the Z/sub 1/-pole, and in the framework of a left-right symmetric model at LEP energies. We find that the bound is almost independent of the mixing angle phi of the model in the allowed experimental range for this parameter. (31 refs).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bianco, F. B.; Zhang, Z.-W.; King, S.-K.; Wang, J.-H.; Lee, T.; Lin, H.-C.; Lehner, M. J.; Mondal, S.; Giammarco, J.; Holman, M. J.; Alcock, C.; Coehlo, N. K.; Axelrod, T.; Byun, Y.-I.; Kim, D.-W.; Chen, W. P.; Cook, K. H.; Dave, R.; De Pater, I.; Lissauer, J. J.
2010-01-01
We have analyzed the first 3.75 years of data from the Taiwanese American Occultation Survey (TAOS). TAOS monitors bright stars to search for occultations by Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs). This data set comprises 5 x 10 5 star hours of multi-telescope photometric data taken at 4 or 5 Hz. No events consistent with KBO occultations were found in this data set. We compute the number of events expected for the Kuiper Belt formation and evolution models of Pan and Sari, Kenyon and Bromley, Benavidez and Campo Bagatin, and Fraser. A comparison with the upper limits we derive from our data constrains the parameter space of these models. This is the first detailed comparison of models of the KBO size distribution with data from an occultation survey. Our results suggest that the KBO population is composed of objects with low internal strength and that planetary migration played a role in the shaping of the size distribution.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xin Zuo
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Continuity (both lower and upper semicontinuities results of the Pareto/efficient solution mapping for a parametric vector variational inequality with a polyhedral constraint set are established via scalarization approaches, within the framework of strict pseudomonotonicity assumptions. As a direct application, the continuity of the solution mapping to a parametric weak Minty vector variational inequality is also discussed. Furthermore, error bounds for the weak vector variational inequality in terms of two known regularized gap functions are also obtained, under strong pseudomonotonicity assumptions.
Swaidan, Raja
2015-08-20
Intrinsically ultramicroporous (<7 Å) polymers represent a new paradigm in materials development for membrane-based gas separation. In particular, they demonstrate that uniting intrachain “rigidity”, the traditional design metric of highly permeable polymers of intrinsic microporosity (PIMs), with gas-sieving ultramicroporosity yields high-performance gas separation membranes. Highly ultramicroporous PIMs have redefined the state-of-the-art in large-scale air (e.g., O2/N2) and hydrogen recovery (e.g., H2/N2, H2/CH4) applications with unprecedented molecular sieving gas transport properties. Accordingly, presented herein are new 2015 permeability/selectivity “upper bounds” for large-scale commercial membrane-based air and hydrogen applications that accommodate the substantial performance enhancements of recent PIMs over preceding polymers. A subtle balance between intrachain rigidity and interchain spacing has been achieved in the amorphous microstructures of PIMs, fine-tuned using unique bridged-bicyclic building blocks (i.e., triptycene, ethanoanthracene and Tröger’s base) in both ladder and semiladder (e.g., polyimide) structures.
Geometrical optimization for strictly localized structures
Mo, Yirong
2003-07-01
Recently we proposed the block localized wavefunction (BLW) approach which takes the advantages of valence bond theory and molecular orbital theory and defines the wavefunctions for resonance structures based on the assumption that all electrons and orbitals are partitioned into a few subgroups. In this work, we implement the geometrical optimization of the BLW method based on the algorithm proposed by Gianinetti and coworkers. Thus, we can study the conjugation effect on not only the molecular stability, but also the molecular geometry. With this capability, the π conjugation effect in trans-polyenes C2nH2n+2 (n=2-5) as well as in formamide and its analogs are studied by optimizing their delocalized and strictly localized forms with the 6-31G(d) and 6-311+G(d,p) basis sets. Although it has been well presumed that the π resonance shortens the single bonds and lengthens the double bonds with the delocalization of π electrons across the whole line in polyenes, our optimization of the strictly localized structures quantitatively shows that when the conjugation effect is "turned off," the double bond lengths will be identical to the CC bond length in ethylene and the single Csp2-Csp2 bond length will be about 1.513-1.517 Å. In agreement with the classical Hückel theory, the resonance energies in polyenes are approximately in proportion to the number of double bonds. Similarly, resonance is responsible not only for the planarity of formamide, thioformamide, and selenoformamide, but also for the lengthening of the CX (X=O,S,Se) double bond and the shortening of the CN bonds. Although it is assumed that the CX bond polarization decreases in the order of O>S>Se, the π electronic delocalization increases in the opposite order, i.e., formamide
Determining Normal-Distribution Tolerance Bounds Graphically
Mezzacappa, M. A.
1983-01-01
Graphical method requires calculations and table lookup. Distribution established from only three points: mean upper and lower confidence bounds and lower confidence bound of standard deviation. Method requires only few calculations with simple equations. Graphical procedure establishes best-fit line for measured data and bounds for selected confidence level and any distribution percentile.
From Regular to Strictly Locally Testable Languages
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stefano Crespi Reghizzi
2011-08-01
Full Text Available A classical result (often credited to Y. Medvedev states that every language recognized by a finite automaton is the homomorphic image of a local language, over a much larger so-called local alphabet, namely the alphabet of the edges of the transition graph. Local languages are characterized by the value k=2 of the sliding window width in the McNaughton and Papert's infinite hierarchy of strictly locally testable languages (k-slt. We generalize Medvedev's result in a new direction, studying the relationship between the width and the alphabetic ratio telling how much larger the local alphabet is. We prove that every regular language is the image of a k-slt language on an alphabet of doubled size, where the width logarithmically depends on the automaton size, and we exhibit regular languages for which any smaller alphabetic ratio is insufficient. More generally, we express the trade-off between alphabetic ratio and width as a mathematical relation derived from a careful encoding of the states. At last we mention some directions for theoretical development and application.
7 CFR 28.404 - Strict Low Middling Color.
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Low Middling Color. 28.404 Section 28.404... for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.404 Strict Low Middling Color. Strict Low Middling Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in the custody of the United...
7 CFR 28.406 - Strict Good Ordinary Color.
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Good Ordinary Color. 28.406 Section 28.406... for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.406 Strict Good Ordinary Color. Strict Good Ordinary Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in the custody of the...
7 CFR 28.402 - Strict Middling Color.
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Color. 28.402 Section 28.402... for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.402 Strict Middling Color. Strict Middling Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in the custody of the United States...
Mammalian evolution may not be strictly bifurcating.
Hallström, Björn M; Janke, Axel
2010-12-01
The massive amount of genomic sequence data that is now available for analyzing evolutionary relationships among 31 placental mammals reduces the stochastic error in phylogenetic analyses to virtually zero. One would expect that this would make it possible to finally resolve controversial branches in the placental mammalian tree. We analyzed a 2,863,797 nucleotide-long alignment (3,364 genes) from 31 placental mammals for reconstructing their evolution. Most placental mammalian relationships were resolved, and a consensus of their evolution is emerging. However, certain branches remain difficult or virtually impossible to resolve. These branches are characterized by short divergence times in the order of 1-4 million years. Computer simulations based on parameters from the real data show that as little as about 12,500 amino acid sites could be sufficient to confidently resolve short branches as old as about 90 million years ago (Ma). Thus, the amount of sequence data should no longer be a limiting factor in resolving the relationships among placental mammals. The timing of the early radiation of placental mammals coincides with a period of climate warming some 100-80 Ma and with continental fragmentation. These global processes may have triggered the rapid diversification of placental mammals. However, the rapid radiations of certain mammalian groups complicate phylogenetic analyses, possibly due to incomplete lineage sorting and introgression. These speciation-related processes led to a mosaic genome and conflicting phylogenetic signals. Split network methods are ideal for visualizing these problematic branches and can therefore depict data conflict and possibly the true evolutionary history better than strictly bifurcating trees. Given the timing of tectonics, of placental mammalian divergences, and the fossil record, a Laurasian rather than Gondwanan origin of placental mammals seems the most parsimonious explanation.
Capacity Bounds for Parallel Optical Wireless Channels
Chaaban, Anas
2016-01-01
A system consisting of parallel optical wireless channels with a total average intensity constraint is studied. Capacity upper and lower bounds for this system are derived. Under perfect channel-state information at the transmitter (CSIT), the bounds have to be optimized with respect to the power allocation over the parallel channels. The optimization of the lower bound is non-convex, however, the KKT conditions can be used to find a list of possible solutions one of which is optimal. The optimal solution can then be found by an exhaustive search algorithm, which is computationally expensive. To overcome this, we propose low-complexity power allocation algorithms which are nearly optimal. The optimized capacity lower bound nearly coincides with the capacity at high SNR. Without CSIT, our capacity bounds lead to upper and lower bounds on the outage probability. The outage probability bounds meet at high SNR. The system with average and peak intensity constraints is also discussed.
Modal Inclusion Logic: Being Lax is Simpler than Being Strict
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hella, Lauri; Kuusisto, Antti Johannes; Meier, Arne
2015-01-01
We investigate the computational complexity of the satisfiability problem of modal inclusion logic. We distinguish two variants of the problem: one for strict and another one for lax semantics. The complexity of the lax version turns out to be complete for EXPTIME, whereas with strict semantics...
7 CFR 28.431 - Strict Middling Tinged Color.
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Tinged Color. 28.431 Section 28.431 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Color. Strict Middling Tinged Color is color which is better than Middling Tinged Color. ...
7 CFR 28.433 - Strict Low Middling Tinged Color.
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Low Middling Tinged Color. 28.433 Section 28.433 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Tinged Color. Strict Low Middling Tinged Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of...
7 CFR 28.424 - Strict Low Middling Spotted Color.
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Low Middling Spotted Color. 28.424 Section 28.424 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Spotted Color. Strict Low Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a set...
7 CFR 28.426 - Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color.
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color. 28.426 Section 28.426 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Spotted Color. Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a set...
7 CFR 28.422 - Strict Middling Spotted Color.
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Spotted Color. 28.422 Section 28.422 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Color. Strict Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples...
Strictly-regular number system and data structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Elmasry, Amr Ahmed Abd Elmoneim; Jensen, Claus; Katajainen, Jyrki
2010-01-01
We introduce a new number system that we call the strictly-regular system, which efficiently supports the operations: digit-increment, digit-decrement, cut, concatenate, and add. Compared to other number systems, the strictly-regular system has distinguishable properties. It is superior to the re...
The Dirichlet problem for the Monge-Ampere equation in convex (but not strictly convex domains
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
David Hartenstine
2006-10-01
Full Text Available It is well-known that the Dirichlet problem for the Monge-Amp`ere equation $det D^2 u = mu$ in a bounded strictly convex domain $Omega$ in $mathbb{R}^n$ has a weak solution (in the sense of Aleksandrov for any finite Borel measure $mu$ on $Omega$ and for any continuous boundary data. We consider the Dirichlet problem when $Omega$ is only assumed to be convex, and give a necessary and sufficient condition on the boundary data for solvability.
New bounds for multi-dimensional packing
S. Seiden; R. van Stee (Rob)
2001-01-01
textabstractNew upper and lower bounds are presented for a multi-dimensional generalization of bin packing called box packing. Several variants of this problem, including bounded space box packing, square packing, variable sized box packing and resource augmented box packing are also studied. The
Strategy and Aspects of Monitoring / Control Strictly in Coordinated Subsystems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
William José Borges
2012-06-01
Full Text Available This paper aims to discuss the approach structures of the strictly coordinated theoretical framework developed by Zylbersztajn and Farina (1999 as an expanded perspective of the firm, taking into account the food supply chains as an extension of the nexus of contracts proposed by Coase (1937 and taken up by Williamson (1985. The structures stand out as strictly coordinated. Zylbersztajn and Farina (1999 turn to identifying points of common interests that encourage firms to promote contracts between themselves in a strictly coordinated way, considering the degree of asset specificity involved in the transaction and the competitive forces that determine the search for strategic positioning organizations to achieve sustainable superior results.
Strict finitism and the logic of mathematical applications
Ye, Feng
2011-01-01
Exploring the logic behind applied mathematics to the physical world, this volume illustrates how radical naturalism, nominalism and strict finitism can account for the applications of classical mathematics in current theories about natural phenomena.
Strict monotonicity and unique continuation of the biharmonic operator
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Najib Tsouli
2012-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we will show that the strict monotonicity of the eigenvalues of the biharmonic operator holds if and only if some unique continuation property is satisfied by the corresponding eigenfunctions.
Two examples of non strictly convex large deviations
De Marco, Stefano; Jacquier, Antoine; Roome, Patrick
2016-01-01
We present two examples of a large deviations principle where the rate function is not strictly convex. This is motivated by a model used in mathematical finance (the Heston model), and adds a new item to the zoology of non strictly convex large deviations. For one of these examples, we show that the rate function of the Cramer-type of large deviations coincides with that of the Freidlin-Wentzell when contraction principles are applied.
Bounds for nonlocality distillation protocols
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Forster, Manuel
2011-01-01
Nonlocality can be quantified by the violation of a Bell inequality. Since this violation may be amplified by local operations, an alternative measure has been proposed--distillable nonlocality. The alternative measure is difficult to calculate exactly due to the double exponential growth of the parameter space. In this paper, we give a way to bound the distillable nonlocality of a resource by the solutions to a related optimization problem. Our upper bounds are exponentially easier to compute than the exact value and are shown to be meaningful in general and tight in some cases.
Strictly contractive quantum channels and physically realizable quantum computers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raginsky, Maxim
2002-01-01
We study the robustness of quantum computers under the influence of errors modeled by strictly contractive channels. A channel T is defined to be strictly contractive if, for any pair of density operators ρ, σ in its domain, parallel Tρ-Tσ parallel 1 ≤k parallel ρ-σ parallel 1 for some 0≤k 1 denotes the trace norm). In other words, strictly contractive channels render the states of the computer less distinguishable in the sense of quantum detection theory. Starting from the premise that all experimental procedures can be carried out with finite precision, we argue that there exists a physically meaningful connection between strictly contractive channels and errors in physically realizable quantum computers. We show that, in the absence of error correction, sensitivity of quantum memories and computers to strictly contractive errors grows exponentially with storage time and computation time, respectively, and depends only on the constant k and the measurement precision. We prove that strict contractivity rules out the possibility of perfect error correction, and give an argument that approximate error correction, which covers previous work on fault-tolerant quantum computation as a special case, is possible
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fox, Zachary [School of Biomedical Engineering, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523 (United States); Neuert, Gregor [Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 (United States); Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Vanderbilt University School of Engineering, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 (United States); Munsky, Brian [School of Biomedical Engineering, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523 (United States); Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523 (United States)
2016-08-21
Emerging techniques now allow for precise quantification of distributions of biological molecules in single cells. These rapidly advancing experimental methods have created a need for more rigorous and efficient modeling tools. Here, we derive new bounds on the likelihood that observations of single-cell, single-molecule responses come from a discrete stochastic model, posed in the form of the chemical master equation. These strict upper and lower bounds are based on a finite state projection approach, and they converge monotonically to the exact likelihood value. These bounds allow one to discriminate rigorously between models and with a minimum level of computational effort. In practice, these bounds can be incorporated into stochastic model identification and parameter inference routines, which improve the accuracy and efficiency of endeavors to analyze and predict single-cell behavior. We demonstrate the applicability of our approach using simulated data for three example models as well as for experimental measurements of a time-varying stochastic transcriptional response in yeast.
Bounding the HL-index of a graph: a majorization approach.
Clemente, Gian Paolo; Cornaro, Alessandra
2016-01-01
In mathematical chemistry, the median eigenvalues of the adjacency matrix of a molecular graph are strictly related to orbital energies and molecular orbitals. In this regard, the difference between the occupied orbital of highest energy (HOMO) and the unoccupied orbital of lowest energy (LUMO) has been investigated (see Fowler and Pisansky in Acta Chim. Slov. 57:513-517, 2010). Motivated by the HOMO-LUMO separation problem, Jaklič et al. in (Ars Math. Contemp. 5:99-115, 2012) proposed the notion of HL -index that measures how large in absolute value are the median eigenvalues of the adjacency matrix. Several bounds for this index have been provided in the literature. The aim of the paper is to derive alternative inequalities to bound the HL -index. By applying majorization techniques and making use of some known relations, we derive new and sharper upper bounds for this index. Analytical and numerical results show the performance of these bounds on different classes of graphs.
New bounds on isotropic Lorentz violation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carone, Christopher D.; Sher, Marc; Vanderhaeghen, Marc
2006-01-01
Violations of Lorentz invariance that appear via operators of dimension four or less are completely parametrized in the Standard Model Extension (SME). In the pure photonic sector of the SME, there are 19 dimensionless, Lorentz-violating parameters. Eighteen of these have experimental upper bounds ranging between 10 -11 and 10 -32 ; the remaining parameter, k-tilde tr , is isotropic and has a much weaker bound of order 10 -4 . In this Brief Report, we point out that k-tilde tr gives a significant contribution to the anomalous magnetic moment of the electron and find a new upper bound of order 10 -8 . With reasonable assumptions, we further show that this bound may be improved to 10 -14 by considering the renormalization of other Lorentz-violating parameters that are more tightly constrained. Using similar renormalization arguments, we also estimate bounds on Lorentz-violating parameters in the pure gluonic sector of QCD
Vulnerable Derivatives and Good Deal Bounds
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Murgoci, Agatha
2013-01-01
a new restriction in the arbitrage free model by setting upper bounds on the Sharpe ratios (SRs) of the assets. The potential prices that are eliminated represent unreasonably good deals. The constraint on the SR translates into a constraint on the stochastic discount factor. Thus, tight pricing bounds......We price vulnerable derivatives – i.e. derivatives where the counterparty may default. These are basically the derivatives traded on the over-the-counter (OTC) markets. Default is modelled in a structural framework. The technique employed for pricing is good deal bounds (GDBs). The method imposes...... in a consistent way. Finally, we numerically analyse the behaviour of the good deal pricing bounds....
Solving the minimum flow problem with interval bounds and flows
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
... with crisp data. In this paper, the idea of Ghiyasvand was extended for solving the minimum ﬂow problem with interval-valued lower, upper bounds and ﬂows. This problem can be solved using two minimum ﬂow problems with crisp data. Then, this result is extended to networks with fuzzy lower, upper bounds and ﬂows.
Entropy Bounds for Constrained Two-Dimensional Fields
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Forchhammer, Søren Otto; Justesen, Jørn
1999-01-01
The maximum entropy and thereby the capacity of 2-D fields given by certain constraints on configurations are considered. Upper and lower bounds are derived.......The maximum entropy and thereby the capacity of 2-D fields given by certain constraints on configurations are considered. Upper and lower bounds are derived....
Convergence theorems for strictly hemi-contractive maps
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chidume, C.E.; Osilike, M.O.
1992-04-01
It is proved that each of two well-known fixed point iteration methods (the Mann and the Ishikawa iteration methods) converges strongly to the fixed point of strictly hemi-contractive map in real Banach spaces with property (U, λ, m+1,m), λ is an element of R, m is an element of IN. The class of strictly hemi-contractive maps includes all strictly pseudo-contractive maps with nonempty fixed point sets; and Banach spaces with property (U, λ, m+1, m), λ is an element of R, m is an element of IN include the L p (or l p ) spaces, p≥2. Our theorems generalize important known results. (author). 22 refs
Convergence of GAOR Iterative Method with Strictly Diagonally Dominant Matrices
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guangbin Wang
2011-01-01
Full Text Available We discuss the convergence of GAOR method for linear systems with strictly diagonally dominant matrices. Moreover, we show that our results are better than ones of Darvishi and Hessari (2006, Tian et al. (2008 by using three numerical examples.
Runaway selection for cooperation and strict-and-severe punishment.
Nakamaru, Mayuko; Dieckmann, Ulf
2009-03-07
Punishing defectors is an important means of stabilizing cooperation. When levels of cooperation and punishment are continuous, individuals must employ suitable social standards for defining defectors and for determining punishment levels. Here we investigate the evolution of a social reaction norm, or psychological response function, for determining the punishment level meted out by individuals in dependence on the cooperation level exhibited by their neighbors in a lattice-structured population. We find that (1) cooperation and punishment can undergo runaway selection, with evolution towards enhanced cooperation and an ever more demanding punishment reaction norm mutually reinforcing each other; (2) this mechanism works best when punishment is strict, so that ambiguities in defining defectors are small; (3) when the strictness of punishment can adapt jointly with the threshold and severity of punishment, evolution favors the strict-and-severe punishment of individuals who offer slightly less than average cooperation levels; (4) strict-and-severe punishment naturally evolves and leads to much enhanced cooperation when cooperation without punishment would be weak and neither cooperation nor punishment are too costly; and (5) such evolutionary dynamics enable the bootstrapping of cooperation and punishment, through which defectors who never punish gradually and steadily evolve into cooperators who punish those they define as defectors.
Dominance on Strict Triangular Norms and Mulholland Inequality
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Petrík, Milan
2018-01-01
Roč. 335, 15 March (2018), s. 3-17 ISSN 0165-0114 R&D Projects: GA ČR GJ15-07724Y Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : dominance relation * Mulholland inequality * strict triangular norm * transitivity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 2.718, year: 2016
Mohri, Mehryar; Rostamizadeh, Afshin
2013-01-01
We present a brief survey of existing mistake bounds and introduce novel bounds for the Perceptron or the kernel Perceptron algorithm. Our novel bounds generalize beyond standard margin-loss type bounds, allow for any convex and Lipschitz loss function, and admit a very simple proof.
Szanto, Nathan; Narayanan, Vignesh; Jagannathan, Sarangapani
2017-04-12
In this paper, a novel event-triggered implementation of a tracking controller for an uncertain strict-feedback system is presented. Neural networks (NNs) are utilized in the backstepping approach to design a control input by approximating unknown dynamics of the strict-feedback nonlinear system with event-sampled inputs. The system state vector is assumed to be unknown and an NN observer is used to estimate the state vector. By using the estimated state vector and backstepping design approach, an event-sampled controller is introduced. As part of the controller design, first, input-to-state-like stability for a continuously sampled controller that has been injected with bounded measurement errors is demonstrated, and subsequently, an event-execution control law is derived, such that the measurement errors are guaranteed to remain bounded. Lyapunov theory is used to demonstrate that the tracking errors, the observer estimation errors, and the NN weight estimation errors for each NN are locally uniformly ultimately bounded in the presence bounded disturbances, NN reconstruction errors, as well as errors introduced by event sampling. Simulation results are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed controllers.
Numerical Bounds on the Price of Anarchy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Louis de Grange
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Theoretical upper bounds for price of anarchy have been calculated in previous studies. We present an empirical analysis for the price of anarchy for congested transportation networks; different network sizes and demand levels are considered for each network. We obtain a maximum price of anarchy for the cases studied, which is notably lower than the theoretical bounds reported in the literature. This result should be carefully considered in the design and implementation of road pricing mechanisms for cities.
Circuit lower bounds in bounded arithmetics
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Pich, Ján
2015-01-01
Roč. 166, č. 1 (2015), s. 29-45 ISSN 0168-0072 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190902 Keywords : bounded arithmetic * circuit lower bounds Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.582, year: 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168007214000888
On The Integral Representation of Strictly Continuous Set-Valued Maps
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anaté K. Lakmon
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Let T be a completely regular topological space and C(T be the space of bounded, continuous real-valued functions on T. C(T is endowed with the strict topology (the topology generated by seminorms determined by continuous functions vanishing at in_nity. R. Giles ([13], p. 472, Theorem 4.6 proved in 1971 that the dual of C(T can be identi_ed with the space of regular Borel measures on T. We prove this result for positive, additive set-valued maps with values in the space of convex weakly compact non-empty subsets of a Banach space and we deduce from this result the theorem of R. Giles ([13], theorem 4.6, p.473.
Fuzzy Adaptive Decentralized Optimal Control for Strict Feedback Nonlinear Large-Scale Systems.
Sun, Kangkang; Sui, Shuai; Tong, Shaocheng
2018-04-01
This paper considers the optimal decentralized fuzzy adaptive control design problem for a class of interconnected large-scale nonlinear systems in strict feedback form and with unknown nonlinear functions. The fuzzy logic systems are introduced to learn the unknown dynamics and cost functions, respectively, and a state estimator is developed. By applying the state estimator and the backstepping recursive design algorithm, a decentralized feedforward controller is established. By using the backstepping decentralized feedforward control scheme, the considered interconnected large-scale nonlinear system in strict feedback form is changed into an equivalent affine large-scale nonlinear system. Subsequently, an optimal decentralized fuzzy adaptive control scheme is constructed. The whole optimal decentralized fuzzy adaptive controller is composed of a decentralized feedforward control and an optimal decentralized control. It is proved that the developed optimal decentralized controller can ensure that all the variables of the control system are uniformly ultimately bounded, and the cost functions are the smallest. Two simulation examples are provided to illustrate the validity of the developed optimal decentralized fuzzy adaptive control scheme.
Finding Maximal Pairs with Bounded Gap
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Lyngsø, Rune B.; Pedersen, Christian N. S.
1999-01-01
. In this paper we present methods for finding all maximal pairs under various constraints on the gap. In a string of length n we can find all maximal pairs with gap in an upper and lower bounded interval in time O(n log n+z) where z is the number of reported pairs. If the upper bound is removed the time reduces...... to O(n+z). Since a tandem repeat is a pair where the gap is zero, our methods can be seen as a generalization of finding tandem repeats. The running time of our methods equals the running time of well known methods for finding tandem repeats....
Amos-type bounds for modified Bessel function ratios☆
Hornik, Kurt; Grün, Bettina
2013-01-01
We systematically investigate lower and upper bounds for the modified Bessel function ratio Rν=Iν+1/Iν by functions of the form Gα,β(t)=t/(α+t2+β2) in case Rν is positive for all t>0, or equivalently, where ν≥−1 or ν is a negative integer. For ν≥−1, we give an explicit description of the set of lower bounds and show that it has a greatest element. We also characterize the set of upper bounds and its minimal elements. If ν≥−1/2, the minimal elements are tangent to Rν in exactly one point 0≤t≤∞, and have Rν as their lower envelope. We also provide a new family of explicitly computable upper bounds. Finally, if ν is a negative integer, we explicitly describe the sets of lower and upper bounds, and give their greatest and least elements, respectively. PMID:24926105
Amos-type bounds for modified Bessel function ratios.
Hornik, Kurt; Grün, Bettina
2013-12-01
We systematically investigate lower and upper bounds for the modified Bessel function ratio [Formula: see text] by functions of the form [Formula: see text] in case [Formula: see text] is positive for all [Formula: see text], or equivalently, where [Formula: see text] or [Formula: see text] is a negative integer. For [Formula: see text], we give an explicit description of the set of lower bounds and show that it has a greatest element. We also characterize the set of upper bounds and its minimal elements. If [Formula: see text], the minimal elements are tangent to [Formula: see text] in exactly one point [Formula: see text], and have [Formula: see text] as their lower envelope. We also provide a new family of explicitly computable upper bounds. Finally, if [Formula: see text] is a negative integer, we explicitly describe the sets of lower and upper bounds, and give their greatest and least elements, respectively.
Quasi-bound states in continuum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakamura, Hiroaki; Hatano, Naomichi; Garmon, Sterling; Petrosky, Tomio
2007-08-01
We report the prediction of quasi-bound states (resonant states with very long lifetimes) that occur in the eigenvalue continuum of propagating states for a wide region of parameter space. These quasi-bound states are generated in a quantum wire with two channels and an adatom, when the energy bands of the two channels overlap. A would-be bound state that lays just below the upper energy band is slightly destabilized by the lower energy band and thereby becomes a resonant state with a very long lifetime (a second QBIC lays above the lower energy band). (author)
Bounds for the probability distribution function of the linear ACD process
Fernandes, Marcelo
2003-01-01
Rio de Janeiro This paper derives both lower and upper bounds for the probability distribution function of stationary ACD(p, q) processes. For the purpose of illustration, I specialize the results to the main parent distributions in duration analysis. Simulations show that the lower bound is much tighter than the upper bound.
A Finite Continuation Algorithm for Bound Constrained Quadratic Programming
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Kaj; Nielsen, Hans Bruun; Pinar, Mustafa C.
1999-01-01
The dual of the strictly convex quadratic programming problem with unit bounds is posed as a linear $\\ell_1$ minimization problem with quadratic terms. A smooth approximation to the linear $\\ell_1$ function is used to obtain a parametric family of piecewise-quadratic approximation problems...
Relaxation Methods for Strictly Convex Regularizations of Piecewise Linear Programs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kiwiel, K. C.
1998-01-01
We give an algorithm for minimizing the sum of a strictly convex function and a convex piecewise linear function. It extends several dual coordinate ascent methods for large-scale linearly constrained problems that occur in entropy maximization, quadratic programming, and network flows. In particular, it may solve exact penalty versions of such (possibly inconsistent) problems, and subproblems of bundle methods for nondifferentiable optimization. It is simple, can exploit sparsity, and in certain cases is highly parallelizable. Its global convergence is established in the recent framework of B -functions (generalized Bregman functions)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grcar, Joseph F.
2002-02-04
A matrix lower bound is defined that generalizes ideas apparently due to S. Banach and J. von Neumann. The matrix lower bound has a natural interpretation in functional analysis, and it satisfies many of the properties that von Neumann stated for it in a restricted case. Applications for the matrix lower bound are demonstrated in several areas. In linear algebra, the matrix lower bound of a full rank matrix equals the distance to the set of rank-deficient matrices. In numerical analysis, the ratio of the matrix norm to the matrix lower bound is a condition number for all consistent systems of linear equations. In optimization theory, the matrix lower bound suggests an identity for a class of min-max problems. In real analysis, a recursive construction that depends on the matrix lower bound shows that the level sets of continuously differential functions lie asymptotically near those of their tangents.
Strict topoligies in non-Archimedean function spaces
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. K. Katsaras
1984-01-01
Full Text Available Let F be a non-trivial complete non-Archimedean valued field. Some locally F-convex topologies, on the space Cb(X,E of all bounded continuous functions from a zero-dimensional topological space X to a non-Archimedean locally F-convex space E, are studied. The corresponding dual spaces are also investigated.
Threshold Circuit Lower Bounds on Cryptographic Functions
E. Kiltz (Eike); H.U. Simon
2005-01-01
textabstractIn this work, we are interested in non-trivial upper bounds on the spectral norm of binary matrices $M$ from {-1, 1} $^{N × N}$. It is known that the distributed Boolean function represented by $M$ is hard to compute in various restricted models of computation if the spectral norm is
Non-strictly black body spectrum from the tunnelling mechanism
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Corda, Christian
2013-01-01
The tunnelling mechanism is widely used to explain Hawking radiation. However, in many cases the analysis used to obtain the Hawking temperature only involves comparing the emission probability for an outgoing particle with the Boltzmann factor. Banerjee and Majhi improved this approach by explicitly finding a black body spectrum associated with black holes. Their result, obtained using a reformulation of the tunnelling mechanism, is in contrast to that of Parikh and Wilczek, who found an emission probability that is compatible with a non-strictly thermal spectrum. Using the recently identified effective state for a black hole, we solve this contradiction via a slight modification of the analysis by Banerjee and Majhi. The final result is a non-strictly black body spectrum from the tunnelling mechanism. We also show that for an effective temperature, we can express the corresponding effective metric using Hawking’s periodicity arguments. Potential important implications for the black hole information puzzle are discussed. -- Highlights: •We review an important result by Banerjee and Majhi on the tunnelling mechanism in the framework of Hawking radiation. •This result is in contrast to another result reported by Parikh and Wilczek. •We introduce the effective state of a black hole. •We explain the contrast via a slight modification of the analysis by Banerjee and Majhi. •We discuss potential important implications for the black hole information puzzle
Quantum bounds on Bell inequalities
Pál, Károly F.; Vértesi, Tamás
2009-02-01
We have determined the maximum quantum violation of 241 tight bipartite Bell inequalities with up to five two-outcome measurement settings per party by constructing the appropriate measurement operators in up to six-dimensional complex and eight-dimensional real-component Hilbert spaces using numerical optimization. Out of these inequalities 129 have been introduced here. In 43 cases higher-dimensional component spaces gave larger violation than qubits, and in three occasions the maximum was achieved with six-dimensional spaces. We have also calculated upper bounds on these Bell inequalities using a method proposed recently. For all but 20 inequalities the best solution found matched the upper bound. Surprisingly, the simplest inequality of the set examined, with only three measurement settings per party, was not among them, despite the high dimensionality of the Hilbert space considered. We also computed detection threshold efficiencies for the maximally entangled qubit pair. These could be lowered in several instances if degenerate measurements were also allowed.
A polynomial bound on solutions of quadratic equations in free groups
Lysenok, Igor; Myasnikov, Alexei
2011-01-01
We provide polynomial upper bounds on the size of a shortest solution for quadratic equations in a free group. A similar bound is given for parametric solutions in the description of solutions sets of quadratic equations in a free group.
Xu, Bin; Yang, Chenguang; Pan, Yongping
2015-10-01
This paper studies both indirect and direct global neural control of strict-feedback systems in the presence of unknown dynamics, using the dynamic surface control (DSC) technique in a novel manner. A new switching mechanism is designed to combine an adaptive neural controller in the neural approximation domain, together with the robust controller that pulls the transient states back into the neural approximation domain from the outside. In comparison with the conventional control techniques, which could only achieve semiglobally uniformly ultimately bounded stability, the proposed control scheme guarantees all the signals in the closed-loop system are globally uniformly ultimately bounded, such that the conventional constraints on initial conditions of the neural control system can be relaxed. The simulation studies of hypersonic flight vehicle (HFV) are performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed global neural DSC design.
Effects of a strict cutoff on Quantum Field Theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sturnfield, J.F.
1987-01-01
Standard Quantum Field Theory has a number of integrals which are infinite. Although these are eliminated for some cases by renormalization, this aspect of the theory is not fully satisfactory. A number of theories with fundamental lengths have been introduced as alternatives and it would be useful to be able to distinguish between them. In particular, the effects that a strict cutoff would have on Quantum Field Theory is studied. It is noted that care must be taken in the method used to apply a strict cutoff. This lead to considering a theory where the cutoffs are defined by restricting each internal line. This theory is only piece-wise analytic. The resulting scattering matrix is frame dependent, yet the theory still satisfies the special relativity view that all frames are subjectively identical. The renormalization of this theory is finite. The change in mass from the electron self-energy will be a spinor operator. The main distinctions of this theory from standard theory will occur at super high energies. New poles and resonances which arise from new endpoint singularities will be found. The locations of these singularities will be frame dependent. Some of these singularities will correspond to creations or interactions of the normal particles with tachyons. It will be shown that for the one loop diagram, the form of the cutoff singularities are closely related to the standard singularities. When there is more than one loop, there can appear some new type of behavior. In particular, a cube root type of behavior in the two loop self-energy diagram will be found. Also the asymptotic behavior of the ladder diagram is studied
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Inoue, J.; Ohtaka, K.
2004-01-01
We study virtual bound states in photonics, which are a vectorial extension of electron virtual bound states. The condition for these states is derived. It is found that the Mie resonant state which satisfies the condition that the size parameter is less than the angular momentum should be interpreted as a photon virtual bound state. In order to confirm the validity of the concept, we compare the photonic density of states, the width of which represents the lifetime of the photon virtual bound states, with numerical results
Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Cuadrado, María Luz; Pareja, Juan A
2009-06-01
No study has previously analyzed pressure pain sensitivity of nerve trunks in migraine. This study aimed to examine the differences in mechanical pain sensitivity over specific nerves between patients with unilateral migraine and healthy controls. Blinded investigators assessed pressure pain thresholds (PPT) over the supra-orbital nerves (V1) and peripheral nerve trunks of both upper extremities (median, radial, and ulnar nerves) in 20 patients with strictly unilateral migraine and 20 healthy matched controls. Pain intensity after palpation over both supra-orbital nerves was also assessed. A pressure algometer was used to quantify PPT, whereas a 10-point numerical pain rate scale was used to evaluate pain to palpation over the supra-orbital nerve. The analysis of covariance revealed that pain to palpation over the supra-orbital nerve was significantly higher (P0.6). In patients with unilateral migraine, we found increased mechano-sensitivity of the supra-orbital nerve on the symptomatic side of the head. Outside the head, the same patients showed increased mechano-sensitivity of the main peripheral nerves of both upper limbs, without asymmetries. Such diffuse hypersensitivity of the peripheral nerves lends further evidence to the presence of a state of hyperexcitability of the central nervous system in patients with unilateral migraine.
Uniform Bounds for Black--Scholes Implied Volatility
Tehranchi, Michael Rummine
2016-01-01
In this note, Black--Scholes implied volatility is expressed in terms of various optimization problems. From these representations, upper and lower bounds are derived which hold uniformly across moneyness and call price. Various symmetries of the Black--Scholes formula are exploited to derive new bounds from old. These bounds are used to reprove asymptotic formulas for implied volatility at extreme strikes and/or maturities. the Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics 10.1137/14095248X
Uniform bounds for Black--Scholes implied volatility
Tehranchi, Michael R.
2015-01-01
In this note, Black--Scholes implied volatility is expressed in terms of various optimisation problems. From these representations, upper and lower bounds are derived which hold uniformly across moneyness and call price. Various symmetries of the Black--Scholes formula are exploited to derive new bounds from old. These bounds are used to reprove asymptotic formulae for implied volatility at extreme strikes and/or maturities.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mezzacappa, Anthony [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Endeve, Eirik [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hauck, Cory D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Xing, Yulong [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
2015-02-01
We extend the positivity-preserving method of Zhang & Shu [49] to simulate the advection of neutral particles in phase space using curvilinear coordinates. The ability to utilize these coordinates is important for non-equilibrium transport problems in general relativity and also in science and engineering applications with specific geometries. The method achieves high-order accuracy using Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) discretization of phase space and strong stabilitypreserving, Runge-Kutta (SSP-RK) time integration. Special care in taken to ensure that the method preserves strict bounds for the phase space distribution function f; i.e., f ϵ [0, 1]. The combination of suitable CFL conditions and the use of the high-order limiter proposed in [49] is su cient to ensure positivity of the distribution function. However, to ensure that the distribution function satisfies the upper bound, the discretization must, in addition, preserve the divergencefree property of the phase space ow. Proofs that highlight the necessary conditions are presented for general curvilinear coordinates, and the details of these conditions are worked out for some commonly used coordinate systems (i.e., spherical polar spatial coordinates in spherical symmetry and cylindrical spatial coordinates in axial symmetry, both with spherical momentum coordinates). Results from numerical experiments - including one example in spherical symmetry adopting the Schwarzschild metric - demonstrate that the method achieves high-order accuracy and that the distribution function satisfies the maximum principle.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Emiris, Ioannis Z.; Mourrain, Bernard; Tsigaridas, Elias
2010-01-01
In this paper we derive aggregate separation bounds, named after Davenport-Mahler-Mignotte (DMM), on the isolated roots of polynomial systems, specifically on the minimum distance between any two such roots. The bounds exploit the structure of the system and the height of the sparse (or toric) re...
Bounded Gaussian process regression
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Bjørn Sand; Nielsen, Jens Brehm; Larsen, Jan
2013-01-01
We extend the Gaussian process (GP) framework for bounded regression by introducing two bounded likelihood functions that model the noise on the dependent variable explicitly. This is fundamentally different from the implicit noise assumption in the previously suggested warped GP framework. We...
Uniqueness of bounded observables
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Navara, M. [Czech Technical Univ., Praha (Czech Republic). Dept. of Math.
1995-09-01
By an application of a new construction technique we construct a {sigma}-orthomodular lattice with a strongly order-determining set of states and two bounded observables whose expectations are equal at each state. This answers negatively the uniqueness problem for bounded observables, formulated by S. Gudder. (orig.).
Quantum Bounded Symmetric Domains
Vaksman, L. L.
2008-01-01
This is Leonid Vaksman's monograph "Quantum bounded symmetric domains" (in Russian), preceded with an English translation of the table of contents and (a part) of the introduction. Quantum bounded symmetric domains are interesting from several points of view. In particular, they provide interesting examples for noncommutative complex analysis (i.e., the theory of subalgebras of C^*-algebars) initiated by W. Arveson.
Bounding species distribution models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Thomas J. STOHLGREN, Catherine S. JARNEVICH, Wayne E. ESAIAS,Jeffrey T. MORISETTE
2011-10-01
Full Text Available Species distribution models are increasing in popularity for mapping suitable habitat for species of management concern. Many investigators now recognize that extrapolations of these models with geographic information systems (GIS might be sensitive to the environmental bounds of the data used in their development, yet there is no recommended best practice for “clamping” model extrapolations. We relied on two commonly used modeling approaches: classification and regression tree (CART and maximum entropy (Maxent models, and we tested a simple alteration of the model extrapolations, bounding extrapolations to the maximum and minimum values of primary environmental predictors, to provide a more realistic map of suitable habitat of hybridized Africanized honey bees in the southwestern United States. Findings suggest that multiple models of bounding, and the most conservative bounding of species distribution models, like those presented here, should probably replace the unbounded or loosely bounded techniques currently used [Current Zoology 57 (5: 642–647, 2011].
Bounding Species Distribution Models
Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Jarnevich, Cahterine S.; Morisette, Jeffrey T.; Esaias, Wayne E.
2011-01-01
Species distribution models are increasing in popularity for mapping suitable habitat for species of management concern. Many investigators now recognize that extrapolations of these models with geographic information systems (GIS) might be sensitive to the environmental bounds of the data used in their development, yet there is no recommended best practice for "clamping" model extrapolations. We relied on two commonly used modeling approaches: classification and regression tree (CART) and maximum entropy (Maxent) models, and we tested a simple alteration of the model extrapolations, bounding extrapolations to the maximum and minimum values of primary environmental predictors, to provide a more realistic map of suitable habitat of hybridized Africanized honey bees in the southwestern United States. Findings suggest that multiple models of bounding, and the most conservative bounding of species distribution models, like those presented here, should probably replace the unbounded or loosely bounded techniques currently used [Current Zoology 57 (5): 642-647, 2011].
7 CFR 28.414 - Strict Low Middling Light Spotted Color.
2010-01-01
... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Light Spotted Cotton § 28.414 Strict Low Middling Light Spotted Color. Strict Low Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or...
On N. Chomsky’s strict subcategorization of verbs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Janez Orešnik
1966-12-01
Full Text Available This paper studies the so-called strict subcategorization rules, and the theory associated with them, in the transformational grammar of. Erigl·ish as proposed by Noarn Chomsky in his Aspects. The syntactic component of English transformational grammar consists of two mutually ordered parts, viz., the base and the transformational subcomponents. The initial part of the base are the so-called categorial rules, which are of almost exclusive interest to us here. Their primary task is to generate what are usually called basic sentence patterns, and will here, with Chomsky (Aspects, p.ll3, be designated with the expression, frames of category symbols.- The rules of the transformational subcomponent modify, in various ways, the frames generated by the base. For several reasons - one of them being that the correct work of the transformational subcomponent quite often depends on the kind of lexical items with which the syntactic positions in the frames of category symbols have been filled, the lexical items must be introduced from the lexicon into the empty positions in the frames before the rules of the transformational subcomponent can be allowed to modify the frames.
Managing Hanford Site solid waste through strict acceptance criteria
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jasen, W.G.; Pierce, R.D.; Willis, N.P.
1993-02-01
Various types of waste have been generated during the 50-year history of the Hanford Site. Regulatory changes in the last 20 years have provided the emphasis for better management of these wastes. Interpretations of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (AEA) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) have led to the definition of a group of wastes called radioactive mixed wastes (RMW). As a result of the radioactive and hazardous properties of these wastes, strict management programs have been implemented for the management of these wastes. Solid waste management is accomplished through a systems performance approach to waste management that used best-demonstrated available technology (BDAT) and best management practices. The solid waste program at the Hanford Site strives to integrate all aspects of management relative to the treatment, storage and disposal (TSD) of solid waste. Often there are many competing and important needs. It is a difficult task to balance these needs in a manner that is both equitable and productive. Management science is used to help the process of making decisions. Tools used to support the decision making process include five-year planning, cost estimating, resource allocation, performance assessment, waste volume forecasts, input/output models, and waste acceptance criteria. The purpose of this document is to describe how one of these tools, waste acceptance criteria, has helped the Hanford Site manage solid wastes
Effects of strict prolonged bed rest on cardiorespiratory fitness
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ried-Larsen, Mathias; Aarts, Hugo M; Joyner, Michael J
2017-01-01
with larger declines in V̇o2max). Furthermore, the systematic review revealed a gap in the knowledge about the cardiovascular response to extreme physical inactivity, particularly in older subjects and women of any age group. In addition to its relevance to spaceflight, this lack of data has significant....... Since 1949, 80 studies with a total of 949 participants (>90% men) have been published with data on strict bed rest and V̇o2max The studies were conducted mainly in young participants [median age (interquartile range) 24.5 (22.4-34.0) yr]. The duration of bed rest ranged from 1 to 90 days. V̇o2max...... declined linearly across bed rest duration. No statistical difference in the decline among studies reporting V̇o2max as l/min (-0.3% per day) compared with studies reporting V̇o2max normalized to body weight (ml·kg-1·min-1; -0.43% per day) was observed. Although both total body weight and lean body mass...
Fixed point iterations for strictly hemi-contractive maps in uniformly smooth Banach spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chidume, C.E.; Osilike, M.O.
1993-05-01
It is proved that the Mann iteration process converges strongly to the fixed point of a strictly hemi-contractive map in real uniformly smooth Banach spaces. The class of strictly hemi-contractive maps includes all strictly pseudo-contractive maps with nonempty fixed point sets. A related result deals with the Ishikawa iteration scheme when the mapping is Lipschitzian and strictly hemi-contractive. Our theorems generalize important known results. (author). 29 refs
Model-Based Adaptive Event-Triggered Control of Strict-Feedback Nonlinear Systems.
Li, Yuan-Xin; Yang, Guang-Hong
2018-04-01
This paper is concerned with the adaptive event-triggered control problem of nonlinear continuous-time systems in strict-feedback form. By using the event-sampled neural network (NN) to approximate the unknown nonlinear function, an adaptive model and an associated event-triggered controller are designed by exploiting the backstepping method. In the proposed method, the feedback signals and the NN weights are aperiodically updated only when the event-triggered condition is violated. A positive lower bound on the minimum intersample time is guaranteed to avoid accumulation point. The closed-loop stability of the resulting nonlinear impulsive dynamical system is rigorously proved via Lyapunov analysis under an adaptive event sampling condition. In comparing with the traditional adaptive backstepping design with a fixed sample period, the event-triggered method samples the state and updates the NN weights only when it is necessary. Therefore, the number of transmissions can be significantly reduced. Finally, two simulation examples are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed control method.
Generalized surface tension bounds in vacuum decay
Masoumi, Ali; Paban, Sonia; Weinberg, Erick J.
2018-02-01
Coleman and De Luccia (CDL) showed that gravitational effects can prevent the decay by bubble nucleation of a Minkowski or AdS false vacuum. In their thin-wall approximation this happens whenever the surface tension in the bubble wall exceeds an upper bound proportional to the difference of the square roots of the true and false vacuum energy densities. Recently it was shown that there is another type of thin-wall regime that differs from that of CDL in that the radius of curvature grows substantially as one moves through the wall. Not only does the CDL derivation of the bound fail in this case, but also its very formulation becomes ambiguous because the surface tension is not well defined. We propose a definition of the surface tension and show that it obeys a bound similar in form to that of the CDL case. We then show that both thin-wall bounds are special cases of a more general bound that is satisfied for all bounce solutions with Minkowski or AdS false vacua. We discuss the limit where the parameters of the theory attain critical values and the bound is saturated. The bounce solution then disappears and a static planar domain wall solution appears in its stead. The scalar field potential then is of the form expected in supergravity, but this is only guaranteed along the trajectory in field space traced out by the bounce.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hajime Shimao
Full Text Available Whether costly punishment encourages cooperation is one of the principal questions in studies on the evolution of cooperation and social sciences. In society, punishment helps deter people from flouting rules in institutions. Specifically, graduated punishment is a design principle for long-enduring common-pool resource institutions. In this study, we investigate whether graduated punishment can promote a higher cooperation level when each individual plays the public goods game and has the opportunity to punish others whose cooperation levels fall below the punisher's threshold. We then examine how spatial structure affects evolutionary dynamics when each individual dies inversely proportional to the game score resulting from the social interaction and another player is randomly chosen from the population to produce offspring to fill the empty site created after a player's death. Our evolutionary simulation outcomes demonstrate that stricter punishment promotes increased cooperation more than graduated punishment in a spatially structured population, whereas graduated punishment increases cooperation more than strict punishment when players interact with randomly chosen opponents from the population. The mathematical analysis also supports the results.
Shimao, Hajime; Nakamaru, Mayuko
2013-01-01
Whether costly punishment encourages cooperation is one of the principal questions in studies on the evolution of cooperation and social sciences. In society, punishment helps deter people from flouting rules in institutions. Specifically, graduated punishment is a design principle for long-enduring common-pool resource institutions. In this study, we investigate whether graduated punishment can promote a higher cooperation level when each individual plays the public goods game and has the opportunity to punish others whose cooperation levels fall below the punisher’s threshold. We then examine how spatial structure affects evolutionary dynamics when each individual dies inversely proportional to the game score resulting from the social interaction and another player is randomly chosen from the population to produce offspring to fill the empty site created after a player’s death. Our evolutionary simulation outcomes demonstrate that stricter punishment promotes increased cooperation more than graduated punishment in a spatially structured population, whereas graduated punishment increases cooperation more than strict punishment when players interact with randomly chosen opponents from the population. The mathematical analysis also supports the results. PMID:23555826
Better Bounds on Online Unit Clustering
Ehmsen, Martin R.; Larsen, Kim S.
Unit Clustering is the problem of dividing a set of points from a metric space into a minimal number of subsets such that the points in each subset are enclosable by a unit ball. We continue work initiated by Chan and Zarrabi-Zadeh on determining the competitive ratio of the online version of this problem. For the one-dimensional case, we develop a deterministic algorithm, improving the best known upper bound of 7/4 by Epstein and van Stee to 5/3. This narrows the gap to the best known lower bound of 8/5 to only 1/15. Our algorithm automatically leads to improvements in all higher dimensions as well. Finally, we strengthen the deterministic lower bound in two dimensions and higher from 2 to 13/6.
Fitness levels with tail bounds for the analysis of randomized search heuristics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Witt, Carsten
2014-01-01
The fitness-level method, also called the method of f-based partitions, is an intuitive and widely used technique for the running time analysis of randomized search heuristics. It was originally defined to prove upper and lower bounds on the expected running time. Recently, upper tail bounds were...
A tighter bound for the self-stabilization time in Hermanʼs algorithm
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Feng, Yuan; Zhang, Lijun
2013-01-01
We study the expected self-stabilization time of Hermanʼs algorithm. For N processors the lower bound is 427N2 (0.148N2), and an upper bound of 0.64N2 is presented in Kiefer et al. (2011) [4]. In this paper we give a tighter upper bound 0.521N2. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.......We study the expected self-stabilization time of Hermanʼs algorithm. For N processors the lower bound is 427N2 (0.148N2), and an upper bound of 0.64N2 is presented in Kiefer et al. (2011) [4]. In this paper we give a tighter upper bound 0.521N2. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V....
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Warne, L.K.; Merewether, K.O.; Chen, K.C.; Jorgenson, R.E.; Morris, M.E.; Solberg, J.E.; Lewis, J.G. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Derr, W. [Derr Enterprises, Albuquerque, NM (United States)
1996-07-01
Test data on canonical weapon-like fixtures are used to validate previously developed analytical bounding results. The test fixtures were constructed to simulate (but be slightly worse than) weapon ports of entry but have known geometries (and electrical points of contact). The exterior of the test fixtures exhibited exterior resonant enhancement of the incident fields at the ports of entry with magnitudes equal to those of weapon geometries. The interior consisted of loaded transmission lines adjusted to maximize received energy or voltage but incorporating practical weapon geometrical constraints. New analytical results are also presented for bounding the energies associated with multiple bolt joints and for bounding the exterior resonant enhancement of the exciting fields.
Massive Galileon positivity bounds
de Rham, Claudia; Melville, Scott; Tolley, Andrew J.; Zhou, Shuang-Yong
2017-09-01
The EFT coefficients in any gapped, scalar, Lorentz invariant field theory must satisfy positivity requirements if there is to exist a local, analytic Wilsonian UV completion. We apply these bounds to the tree level scattering amplitudes for a massive Galileon. The addition of a mass term, which does not spoil the non-renormalization theorem of the Galileon and preserves the Galileon symmetry at loop level, is necessary to satisfy the lowest order positivity bound. We further show that a careful choice of successively higher derivative corrections are necessary to satisfy the higher order positivity bounds. There is then no obstruction to a local UV completion from considerations of tree level 2-to-2 scattering alone. To demonstrate this we give an explicit example of such a UV completion.
Sharp bounds for periodic solutions of Lipschitzian differential equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zevin, A A
2009-01-01
A general system of Lipschitzian differential equations, containing simultaneously terms without delay and with arbitrary constant and time-varying delays, is considered. For the autonomous case, a lower bound for the period of nonconstant periodic solutions, expressed in the respective supremum Lipschitz constants, is found. For nonautonomous periodic equations, explicit upper bounds for the amplitudes and maximum derivatives of periodic solutions are obtained. For all n ≥ 2, the bounds do not depend on n and, in general, are different from that for n = 1. All the bounds are sharp; they are attained in linear differential equations with piece-wise constant deviating arguments. A relation between the obtained bounds and the sharp bounds in other metrics is established
Higgs mass bounds from a chirally invariant lattice Higgs-Yukawa model with overlap fermions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gerhold, Philipp; Kallarackal, Jim [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Jansen, Karl [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)
2008-10-15
We study the parameter dependence of the Higgs mass in a chirally invariant lattice Higgs-Yukawa model emulating the same Higgs-fermion coupling structure as in the Higgs sector of the electroweak Standard Model. Eventually, the aim is to establish upper and lower Higgs mass bounds. Here we present our preliminary results on the lower Higgs mass bound at several selected values for the cutoff and give a brief outlook towards the upper Higgs mass bound. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yoo, Ik Dong; Kim, Sung Hoon; Seo, Ye Young; Oh, Jin Kyoung; O, Joo Hyun; Chung, Soo Kyo [The Catholic Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2012-03-15
To decrease the risk of recurrence or metastasis in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), selected patients receive radioactive iodine ablation of remnant thyroid tissue or tumor. A low iodine diet can enhance uptake of radioactive iodine. We compared the success rates of radioactive iodine ablation therapy in patients who followed two different low iodine diets (LIDs). The success rates of postsurgical radioactive iodine ablation in DTC patients receiving empiric doses of 150 mCi were retrospectively reviewed. First-time radioactive iodine ablation therapy was done in 71 patients following less strict LID. Less strict LID restricted seafood, iodized salt, egg yolk, dairy products, processed meat, instant prepared meals, and multivitamins. Very strict LID additionally restricted rice, freshwater fish, spinach, and soybean products. Radioactive iodine ablation therapy was considered successful when follow up {sup 123I} whole body scan was negative and stimulated serum thyroglobulin level was less than 2.0 ng/mL. The success rate of patients following less strict LID was 80.3% and for very strict LID 75.6%. There was no statistically significant difference in the success rates between the two LID groups (P=0.48). Very strict LID may not contribute to improving the success rate of initial radioactive iodine ablation therapy at the cost of great inconvenience to the patient.
Appell, Jürgen; Merentes Díaz, Nelson José
2013-01-01
This monographis a self-contained exposition of the definition and properties of functionsof bounded variation and their various generalizations; the analytical properties of nonlinear composition operators in spaces of such functions; applications to Fourier analysis, nonlinear integral equations, and boundary value problems. The book is written for non-specialists. Every chapter closes with a list of exercises and open problems.
Hoyer, Paul
2017-05-01
Bound state poles in the S-matrix of perturbative QED are generated by the divergence of the expansion in α . The perturbative corrections are necessarily singular when expanding around free, {O}( α ^0 ) in and out states that have no overlap with finite-sized atomic wave functions. Nevertheless, measurables such as binding energies do have well-behaved expansions in powers of α (and log α ). It is desirable to formulate the concept of "lowest order" for gauge theory bound states such that higher order corrections vanish in the α → 0 limit. This may allow to determine a lowest order term for QCD hadrons which incorporates essential features such as confinement and chiral symmetry breaking, and thus can serve as the starting point of a useful perturbative expansion. I discuss a "Born" (no loop, lowest order in \\hbar ) approximation. Born level states are bound by gauge fields which satisfy the classical field equations. Gauss' law determines a distinct field A^0({\\varvec{x}}) for each instantaneous position of the charges. A Poincaré covariant boundary condition for the gluon field leads to a confining potential for q\\bar{q} and qqq states. In frames where the bound state is in motion the classical gauge field is obtained by a Lorentz boost of the rest frame field.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Peter Carr
2017-11-01
Full Text Available Diffusions are widely used in finance due to their tractability. Driftless diffusions are needed to describe ratios of asset prices under a martingale measure. We provide a simple example of a tractable driftless diffusion which also has a bounded state space.
Upper Bound Performance Estimation for Copper Based Broadband Access
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Michael; Gutierrez Lopez, Jose Manuel
2012-01-01
of copper based access connections at a household level by using Geographical Information System data. This can be combined with different configurations of DSLAMs distributions, in order to calculate the required number of active equipment points to guarantee certain QoS levels. This method can be used...... to define the limitations of copper based broadband access. A case study in a municipality in Denmark shows how the estimated network dimension to be able to provide video conference services to the majority of the population might be too high to be implemented in reality....
Iterative improvement of lower and upper bounds for backward SDEs
Bender, Christian; Gärtner, Christian; Schweizer, Nikolaus
2017-01-01
We introduce a novel numerical approach for a class of stochastic dynamic programs which arise as discretizations of backward stochastic differential equations or semilinear partial differential equations. Solving such dynamic programs numerically requires the approximation of nested conditional
Lower and Upper Bounds for Deniable Public-Key Encryption
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bendlin, Rikke; Nielsen, Jesper Buus; Nordholt, Peter Sebastian
2011-01-01
, the security level, the flavor and the number of rounds of the cryptosystem, it is possible to define a number of notions of deniable encryption. In this paper we prove that there does not exist any non-interactive receiver-deniable cryptosystem with better than polynomial security. This also shows...
Rate adaptation using acknowledgement feedback: Throughput upper bounds
Ho, C.K.; Oostveen, J.; Linnartz, J.-P.
2008-01-01
We consider packet-by-packet rate adaptation to maximize the throughput over a finite-state Markov channel. To limit the amount of feedback data, we use past packet acknowledgements (ACKs) and past rates as channel state information. It is known that the maximum achievable throughput is
Decreasing Absolute Risk Aversion and Option Pricing Bounds
Antonella Basso; Paolo Pianca
1997-01-01
In this paper efficient bounds for the price of a call option are obtained using the decreasing absolute risk aversion (DARA) dominance rule. Such lower and upper bounds are obtained minimizing and maximizing, respectively, the objective function of a nonlinear optimization problem. An explicit formula (related to an exponential utility function) is given for the special case of three states of nature. A large number of experiments have been carried out and the numerical results support the c...
Capacity Bounds and Mapping Design for Binary Symmetric Relay Channels
Majid Nasiri Khormuji; Mikael Skoglund
2012-01-01
Capacity bounds for a three-node binary symmetric relay channel with orthogonal components at the destination are studied. The cut-set upper bound and the rates achievable using decode-and-forward (DF), partial DF and compress-and-forward (CF) relaying are first evaluated. Then relaying strategies with finite memory-length are considered. An efficient algorithm for optimizing the relay functions is presented. The Boolean Fourier transform is then employed to unveil the structure of the optimi...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Faust, Sebastian; Mukherjee, Pratyay
2013-01-01
-free information) which can be used to refresh the secret key. We believe that bounded tampering is a meaningful and interesting alternative to avoid known impossibility results and can provide important insights into the security of existing standard cryptographic schemes.......Related key attacks (RKAs) are powerful cryptanalytic attacks where an adversary can change the secret key and observe the effect of such changes at the output. The state of the art in RKA security protects against an a-priori unbounded number of certain algebraic induced key relations, e.......g., affine functions or polynomials of bounded degree. In this work, we show that it is possible to go beyond the algebraic barrier and achieve security against arbitrary key relations, by restricting the number of tampering queries the adversary is allowed to ask for. The latter restriction is necessary...
Meyer, B. K.
In the preceding chapter, we concentrated on the properties of free excitons. These free excitons may move through the sample and hit a trap, a nonradiative or a radiative recombination center. At low temperatures, the latter case gives rise to either deep center luminescence, mentioned in Sect. 7.1 and discussed in detail in Chap. 9, or to the luminescence of bound exciton complexes (BE or BEC). The chapter continues with the most prominent of these BECs, namely A-excitons bound to neutral donors. The next aspects are the more weakly BEs at ionized donors. The Sect. 7.4 treats the binding or localization energies of BEC from a theoretical point of view, while Sect. 7.5 is dedicated to excited states of BECs, which contain either holes from deeper valence bands or an envelope function with higher quantum numbers. The last section is devoted to donor-acceptor pair transitions. There is no section devoted specifically to excitons bound to neutral acceptors, because this topic is still partly controversially discussed. Instead, information on these A0X complexes is scattered over the whole chapter, however, with some special emphasis seen in Sects. 7.1, 7.4, and 7.5.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Xia, Xiaojuan; Ruwald, Anne-Christine; Ruwald, Martin H
2017-01-01
AIMS: Strict left bundle branch block (LBBB) criteria were recently proposed to identify LBBB patients to benefit most from cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). The aim of our study was to automate identification of strict LBBB in order to facilitate its broader application. METHODS: We devel...
7 CFR 28.416 - Strict Good Ordinary Light Spotted Color.
2010-01-01
... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Light Spotted Cotton § 28.416 Strict Good Ordinary Light Spotted Color. Strict Good Ordinary Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or... Cotton Source: 57 FR 34498, Aug. 5, 1992, unless otherwise noted. ...
Sharp Bounds by Probability-Generating Functions and Variable Drift
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Doerr, Benjamin; Fouz, Mahmoud; Witt, Carsten
2011-01-01
We introduce to the runtime analysis of evolutionary algorithms two powerful techniques: probability-generating functions and variable drift analysis. They are shown to provide a clean framework for proving sharp upper and lower bounds. As an application, we improve the results by Doerr et al....... (GECCO 2010) in several respects. First, the upper bound on the expected running time of the most successful quasirandom evolutionary algorithm for the OneMax function is improved from 1.28nln n to 0.982nlnn, which breaks the barrier of nln n posed by coupon-collector processes. Compared to the classical...
Bounds on the Error Probability of Raptor Codes
Lázaro, Francisco; Liva, Gianluigi; Paolini, Enrico; Bauch, Gerhard
2016-01-01
In this paper q-ary Raptor codes under ML decoding are considered. An upper bound on the probability of decoding failure is derived using the weight enumerator of the outer code, or its expected weight enumerator if the outer code is drawn randomly from some ensemble of codes. The bound is shown to be tight by means of simulations. This bound provides a new insight into Raptor codes since it shows how Raptor codes can be analyzed similarly to a classical fixed-rate serial concatenation.
Confidence bounds on an empirical cumulative distribution function
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andres, T.H.
1986-11-01
Methods are developed for using data from an empirical cumulative distribution function (CDF) to generate, at each point in the range of the data an upper confidence bound on the estimated value of the underlying CDF. Applications are demonstrated where a confidence bound is applied to the empirical distribution of maximum effective annual dose equivalent obtained from a set of Monte Carlo simulations in an environmental assessment of nuclear fuel waste disposal. This bound can then be used to compare the empirical dose CDF with possible regulatory guidelines for dose from a disposal facility. Methods presented in the report can be used to select the number of simulations needed to meet such guidelines
OPRA capacity bounds for selection diversity over generalized fading channels
Hanif, Muhammad Fainan
2014-05-01
Channel side information at the transmitter can increase the average capacity by enabling optimal power and rate adaptation. The resulting optimal power and rate adaptation (OPRA) capacity rarely has a closed-form analytic expression. In this paper, lower and upper bounds on OPRA capacity for selection diversity scheme are presented. These bounds hold for variety of fading channels including log-normal and generalized Gamma distributed models and have very simple analytic expressions for easy evaluation even for kth best path selection. Some selected numerical results show that the newly proposed bounds closely approximate the actual OPRA capacity. © 2014 IEEE.
Bounds on the dissipation in the Lorenz system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Petrelis, Francois; Petrelis, Nicolas
2004-01-01
In this Letter we find an upper bound on the time-averaged dissipation in the Lorenz system (L. s.) [J. Atmos. Sci. 20 (1963) 244]. Whereas bounding theories were developed and applied to systems described by partial differential equations displaying turbulent behavior, we develop a method similar to the 'background method' [Phys. Rev. E 49 (1994) 4087; Phys. Rev. E 53 (1996) 5957; Phys. Rev. E 51 (1995) 3192; Phys. Plasmas 10 (2003) 4314; Phys. Plasmas 10 (2003) 4324] and apply it to the L. s., which consists of three first-order ordinary differential equations. The bound and the bounding field are explicitly calculated and compared to the numerically computed solutions of the system. For large values of the control parameter, the bound and the time-averaged dissipation differ by less than three percent. We then apply our method to another positive quadratic form defined for the solutions of the L. s
Bounds of memory strength for power-law series
Guo, Fangjian; Yang, Dan; Yang, Zimo; Zhao, Zhi-Dan; Zhou, Tao
2017-05-01
Many time series produced by complex systems are empirically found to follow power-law distributions with different exponents α . By permuting the independently drawn samples from a power-law distribution, we present nontrivial bounds on the memory strength (first-order autocorrelation) as a function of α , which are markedly different from the ordinary ±1 bounds for Gaussian or uniform distributions. When 1 3 , the upper bound remains +1 while the lower bound descends below 0. Theoretical bounds agree well with numerical simulations. Based on the posts on Twitter, ratings of MovieLens, calling records of the mobile operator Orange, and the browsing behavior of Taobao, we find that empirical power-law-distributed data produced by human activities obey such constraints. The present findings explain some observed constraints in bursty time series and scale-free networks and challenge the validity of measures such as autocorrelation and assortativity coefficient in heterogeneous systems.
Bounds of memory strength for power-law series.
Guo, Fangjian; Yang, Dan; Yang, Zimo; Zhao, Zhi-Dan; Zhou, Tao
2017-05-01
Many time series produced by complex systems are empirically found to follow power-law distributions with different exponents α. By permuting the independently drawn samples from a power-law distribution, we present nontrivial bounds on the memory strength (first-order autocorrelation) as a function of α, which are markedly different from the ordinary ±1 bounds for Gaussian or uniform distributions. When 13, the upper bound remains +1 while the lower bound descends below 0. Theoretical bounds agree well with numerical simulations. Based on the posts on Twitter, ratings of MovieLens, calling records of the mobile operator Orange, and the browsing behavior of Taobao, we find that empirical power-law-distributed data produced by human activities obey such constraints. The present findings explain some observed constraints in bursty time series and scale-free networks and challenge the validity of measures such as autocorrelation and assortativity coefficient in heterogeneous systems.
Multi-dimensional Rankings, Program Termination, and Complexity Bounds of Flowchart Programs
Alias, Christophe; Darte, Alain; Feautrier, Paul; Gonnord, Laure
Proving the termination of a flowchart program can be done by exhibiting a ranking function, i.e., a function from the program states to a well-founded set, which strictly decreases at each program step. A standard method to automatically generate such a function is to compute invariants for each program point and to search for a ranking in a restricted class of functions that can be handled with linear programming techniques. Previous algorithms based on affine rankings either are applicable only to simple loops (i.e., single-node flowcharts) and rely on enumeration, or are not complete in the sense that they are not guaranteed to find a ranking in the class of functions they consider, if one exists. Our first contribution is to propose an efficient algorithm to compute ranking functions: It can handle flowcharts of arbitrary structure, the class of candidate rankings it explores is larger, and our method, although greedy, is provably complete. Our second contribution is to show how to use the ranking functions we generate to get upper bounds for the computational complexity (number of transitions) of the source program. This estimate is a polynomial, which means that we can handle programs with more than linear complexity. We applied the method on a collection of test cases from the literature. We also show the links and differences with previous techniques based on the insertion of counters.
Entropic bounds between two thermal equilibrium states
López-Saldívar, Julio A.; Castaños, Octavio; Man'ko, Margarita A.; Man'ko, Vladimir I.
2018-02-01
The positivity conditions of the relative entropy between two thermal equilibrium states ρ̂1 and ρ̂2 are used to obtain upper and lower bounds for the subtraction of their entropies, the Helmholtz potential and the Gibbs potential of the two systems. These limits are expressed in terms of the mean values of the Hamiltonians, number operator, and temperature of the different systems. In particular, we discuss these limits for molecules that can be represented in terms of the Franck-Condon coefficients. We emphasize the case where the Hamiltonians belong to the same system at two different times t and t'. Finally, these bounds are obtained for a general qubit system and for the harmonic oscillator with a time-dependent frequency at two different times.
Asymptotic Sharpness of Bounds on Hypertrees
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lin Yi
2017-08-01
Full Text Available The hypertree can be defined in many different ways. Katona and Szabó introduced a new, natural definition of hypertrees in uniform hypergraphs and investigated bounds on the number of edges of the hypertrees. They showed that a k-uniform hypertree on n vertices has at most (nk−1$\\left( {\\matrix{n \\cr {k - 1} } } \\right$ edges and they conjectured that the upper bound is asymptotically sharp. Recently, Szabó verified that the conjecture holds by recursively constructing an infinite sequence of k-uniform hypertrees and making complicated analyses for it. In this note we give a short proof of the conjecture by directly constructing a sequence of k-uniform k-hypertrees.
Testing and using the Lewin-Lieb bounds in density functional theory
Feinblum, David; Kenison, John; Burke, Kieron
Lewin and Lieb have recently proven several new bounds on the exchange-correlation energy that complement the Lieb-Oxford bound. We test these bounds for atoms, for slowly-varying gases, and for Hooke's atom, finding them usually less strict than the Lieb-Oxford bound. However, we also show that, if a generalized gradient approximation (GGA) is to guarantee satisfaction of the new bounds for all densities, new restrictions on the the exchange-correlation enhancement factor are implied. We thank Mathieu Lewin and Elliott Lieb for bringing their new bounds to our attention, and Eberhard Engel for developing the OPMKS atom code. This work was supported by NSF under Grant CHE-1112442.
Steinberg, Peter
2008-06-01
Who is the blog written by? Peter Steinberg is a nuclear physicist at the Brookhaven National Laboratory in New York, US. He is acting project manager of the PHOBOS experiment, which used Brookhaven's Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) to search for unusual events produced during collisions between gold nuclei. He is also involved with the PHENIX experiment, which seeks to discover a new state of matter known as the quark-gluon plasma. In addition to his own blog Entropy Bound, Steinberg is currently blogging on a website that was set up last year to publicize the involvement of US scientists with the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Faupin, Jeremy; Møller, Jacob Schach; Skibsted, Erik
2011-01-01
We study regularity of bound states pertaining to embedded eigenvalues of a self-adjoint operator H, with respect to an auxiliary operator A that is conjugate to H in the sense of Mourre. We work within the framework of singular Mourre theory which enables us to deal with confined massless Pauli–......–Fierz models, our primary example, and many-body AC-Stark Hamiltonians. In the simpler context of regular Mourre theory, our results boil down to an improvement of results obtained recently in [8, 9]....
Rapisarda, P.; Trentelman, H.L.; Minh, H.B.
We illustrate an algorithm that starting from the image representation of a strictly bounded-real system computes a minimal balanced state variable, from which a minimal balanced state realization is readily obtained. The algorithm stems from an iterative procedure to compute a storage function,
Bounding the number of points on a curve using a generalization of Weierstrass semigroups
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Beelen, Peter; Ruano, Diego
2013-01-01
In this article we use techniques from coding theory to derive upper bounds for the number of rational places of the function field of an algebraic curve defined over a finite field. The used techniques yield upper bounds if the (generalized) Weierstrass semigroup (J Pure Appl Algebra 207(2), 243......–260, 2006) for an n-tuple of places is known, even if the exact defining equation of the curve is not known. As shown in examples, this sometimes enables one to get an upper bound for the number of rational places for families of function fields. Our results extend results in (J Pure Appl Algebra 213...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Jing; Gao Jinfeng; Ma Xikui
2007-01-01
This Letter presents a novel cross active backstepping design method for synchronization control of cross-strict feedback hyperchaotic system, in which the ordinary backstepping design is unavailable. The proposed control method, combining backstepping design and active control approach, extends the application of backstepping technique in chaos control. Based on this method, different combinations of controllers can be designed to meet the needs of different applications. The proposed method is applied to achieve chaos synchronization of two identical cross-strict feedback hyperchaotic systems. Also it is used to implement synchronization between cross-strict feedback hyperchaotic system and Roessler hyperchaotic system. Numerical examples illustrate the validity of the control method
The Effect of Strict Segregation on Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Cystic Fibrosis Patients
van Mansfeld, Rosa; de Vrankrijker, Angelica; Brimicombe, Roland; Heijerman, Harry; Teding van Berkhout, Ferdinand; Spitoni, Cristian|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304625957; Grave, Sanne; van der Ent, Cornelis; Wolfs, Tom; Willems, Rob; Bonten, Marc
2016-01-01
INTRODUCTION: Segregation of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) was implemented to prevent chronic infection with epidemic Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains with presumed detrimental clinical effects, but its effectiveness has not been carefully evaluated. METHODS: The effect of strict segregation on
Strict deformation quantization for actions of a class of symplectic lie groups
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bieliavsky, Pierre; Massar, Marc
2002-01-01
We present explicit universal strict deformation quantization formulae for actions of Iwasawa subgroups AN of SN(1, n). This answers a question raised by Rieffel in [Contemp. Math. 228 (1998), 315]. (author)
Bound residues of 14C-chlorotoluron in soil
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen Zuyi; Shi Ying; Huang Shile
1992-07-01
Dynamics of bound residues of 14 C-chlorotoluron, distribution of the bound residues in the components of humus, and their absorption by step-crop (rice) were investigated in paddy soil and black soil under simulated aerobic and anaerobic conditions respectively. The results show that: (1) The bound residues of 14 C-chlorotoluron in soil were very considerable and increasing with the incubation time. The organic substance and humidity contained in the soil affected the bound residues remarkably. The bound residues in black soil with more organic substance and clay particles were higher than those in paddy soil, and under anaerobic conditions were higher than under aerobic conditions. (2) Bound residues of 14 C-chlorotoluron mainly bound with the components of soil humus, the distribution of which was in the order of humin>humic acid>fulvic acid. (3) Bound residues of 14 C-chlorotoluron in soils could be absorbed by step-crop (rice) and moved to the upper part, that would cause chemical injury, chlorosis and necrosis for the leaf tip
Hartree–Fock variational bounds for ground state energy of ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We use different determinantal Hartree–Fock (HF) wave functions to calculate true variational upper bounds for the ground state energy of spin-half fermions in volume 0, with mass , electric charge zero, and magnetic moment , interacting through magnetic dipole–dipole interaction. We ﬁnd that at high densities ...
Optimal portfolio selection for cashflows with bounded capital at risk
Vyncke, D.; Goovaerts, M.J.; Dhaene, J.L.M.; Vanduffel, S.
2005-01-01
We consider a continuous-time Markowitz type portfolio problem that consists of minimizing the discounted cost of a given cash-fl ow under the constraint of a restricted Capital at Risk. In a Black-Scholes setting, upper and lower bounds are obtained by means of simple analytical expressions that
Strict optical orthogonal codes for purely asynchronous code-division multiple-access applications
Zhang, Jian-Guo
1996-12-01
Strict optical orthogonal codes are presented for purely asynchronous optical code-division multiple-access (CDMA) applications. The proposed code can strictly guarantee the peaks of its cross-correlation functions and the sidelobes of any of its autocorrelation functions to have a value of 1 in purely asynchronous data communications. The basic theory of the proposed codes is given. An experiment on optical CDMA systems is also demonstrated to verify the characteristics of the proposed code.
Performance bounds on parallel self-initiating discrete-event
Nicol, David M.
1990-01-01
The use is considered of massively parallel architectures to execute discrete-event simulations of what is termed self-initiating models. A logical process in a self-initiating model schedules its own state re-evaluation times, independently of any other logical process, and sends its new state to other logical processes following the re-evaluation. The interest is in the effects of that communication on synchronization. The performance is considered of various synchronization protocols by deriving upper and lower bounds on optimal performance, upper bounds on Time Warp's performance, and lower bounds on the performance of a new conservative protocol. The analysis of Time Warp includes the overhead costs of state-saving and rollback. The analysis points out sufficient conditions for the conservative protocol to outperform Time Warp. The analysis also quantifies the sensitivity of performance to message fan-out, lookahead ability, and the probability distributions underlying the simulation.
Viscosity bound for anisotropic superfluids in higher derivative gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bhattacharyya, Arpan; Roychowdhury, Dibakar [Centre for High Energy Physics, Indian Institute of Science,C.V. Raman Avenue, Bangalore 560012 (India)
2015-03-11
In the present paper, based on the principles of gauge/gravity duality we analytically compute the shear viscosity to entropy (η/s) ratio corresponding to the super fluid phase in Einstein Gauss-Bonnet gravity. From our analysis we note that the ratio indeed receives a finite temperature correction below certain critical temperature (T
Plant use in the medicinal practices known as "strict diets" in Chazuta valley (Peruvian Amazon).
Sanz-Biset, Jaume; Cañigueral, Salvador
2011-09-01
Strict diets are traditional medicinal practices where plant remedies are consumed with nearly fasting and with some sort of social seclusion. The aim of this work was to describe these practices of Chazuta and the use of plants within, as well as to analyse the possible functions of the last. The information was obtained through interviews to the 6.3% of the district rural adult population (140 individuals, 75% of which was considered Quechua). In total, 122 strict diets were recorded and 106 different plant species were reported to be used. Strict diets present a characteristic structure and plant use. The main effects reported in strict diets were antinflammatory, antiinfective, brain function alteration and depuration. Strict diets are well structured traditional medicinal practices, also with a symbolic significance in the life cycle of chazutian men. Plants used in strict diets can contribute to the main effects through antinflammation, antiinfective actions, psychoactivity and depurative related activities. The correlation between literature evidence of activity of most used plants and effects reported for the correspondent diet (i.e. in which the plant was used) are 36% for antinflammatory activity, 29% for antimicrobial activity, 18% for psychoactivity and 5% for depurative related activities. The percentages go to 77%, 64%, 73% and 32%, respectively, when literature evidences on related taxa are also considered. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dynamic Garment Simulation based on Hybrid Bounding Volume Hierarchy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhu Dongyong
2016-12-01
Full Text Available In order to solve the computing speed and efficiency problem of existing dynamic clothing simulation, this paper presents a dynamic garment simulation based on a hybrid bounding volume hierarchy. It firstly uses MCASG graph theory to do the primary segmentation for a given three-dimensional human body model. And then it applies K-means cluster to do the secondary segmentation to collect the human body’s upper arms, lower arms, upper legs, lower legs, trunk, hip and woman’s chest as the elementary units of dynamic clothing simulation. According to different shapes of these elementary units, it chooses the closest and most efficient hybrid bounding box to specify these units, such as cylinder bounding box and elliptic cylinder bounding box. During the process of constructing these bounding boxes, it uses the least squares method and slices of the human body to get the related parameters. This approach makes it possible to use the least amount of bounding boxes to create close collision detection regions for the appearance of the human body. A spring-mass model based on a triangular mesh of the clothing model is finally constructed for dynamic simulation. The simulation result shows the feasibility and superiority of the method described.
On the Content Bound for Real Quadratic Field Extensions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Robert G. Underwood
2012-12-01
Full Text Available Let K be a finite extension of Q and let S = {ν} denote the collection of K normalized absolute values on K. Let V+K denote the additive group of adeles over K and let K ≥0 c : V + → R denote the content map defined as c({aν } = Q K ν ∈S ν (aν for {aν } ∈ V+K A classical result of J. W. S. Cassels states that there is a constant c > 0 depending only on the field K with the following property: if {aν } ∈ V+K with c({aν } > c, then there exists a non-zero element b ∈ K for which ν (b ≤ ν (aν , ∀ν ∈ S. Let cK be the greatest lower bound of the set of all c that satisfy this property. In the case that K is a real quadratic extension there is a known upper bound for cK due to S. Lang. The purpose of this paper is to construct a new upper bound for cK in the case that K has class number one. We compare our new bound with Lang’s bound for various real quadratic extensions and find that our new bound is better than Lang’s in many instances.
Estimation variance bounds of importance sampling simulations in digital communication systems
Lu, D.; Yao, K.
1991-01-01
In practical applications of importance sampling (IS) simulation, two basic problems are encountered, that of determining the estimation variance and that of evaluating the proper IS parameters needed in the simulations. The authors derive new upper and lower bounds on the estimation variance which are applicable to IS techniques. The upper bound is simple to evaluate and may be minimized by the proper selection of the IS parameter. Thus, lower and upper bounds on the improvement ratio of various IS techniques relative to the direct Monte Carlo simulation are also available. These bounds are shown to be useful and computationally simple to obtain. Based on the proposed technique, one can readily find practical suboptimum IS parameters. Numerical results indicate that these bounding techniques are useful for IS simulations of linear and nonlinear communication systems with intersymbol interference in which bit error rate and IS estimation variances cannot be obtained readily using prior techniques.
On the Holographic Bound in Newtonian Cosmology
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
José M. Isidro
2018-01-01
Full Text Available The holographic principle sets an upper bound on the total (Boltzmann entropy content of the Universe at around 10 123 k B ( k B being Boltzmann’s constant. In this work we point out the existence of a remarkable duality between nonrelativistic quantum mechanics on the one hand, and Newtonian cosmology on the other. Specifically, nonrelativistic quantum mechanics has a quantum probability fluid that exactly mimics the behaviour of the cosmological fluid, the latter considered in the Newtonian approximation. One proves that the equations governing the cosmological fluid (the Euler equation and the continuity equation become the very equations that govern the quantum probability fluid after applying the Madelung transformation to the Schroedinger wavefunction. Under the assumption that gravitational equipotential surfaces can be identified with isoentropic surfaces, this model allows for a simple computation of the gravitational entropy of a Newtonian Universe. In a first approximation, we model the cosmological fluid as the quantum probability fluid of free Schroedinger waves. We find that this model Universe saturates the holographic bound. As a second approximation, we include the Hubble expansion of the galaxies. The corresponding Schroedinger waves lead to a value of the entropy lying three orders of magnitude below the holographic bound. Current work on a fully relativistic extension of our present model can be expected to yield results in even better agreement with empirical estimates of the entropy of the Universe.
Hung, Tran Loc; Giang, Le Truong
2016-01-01
Using the Stein-Chen method some upper bounds in Poisson approximation for distributions of row-wise triangular arrays of independent negative-binomial distributed random variables are established in this note.
Coefficient Bounds for Some Families of Starlike and Convex Functions of Reciprocal Order
Arif, Muhammad; Darus, Maslina; Raza, Mohsan; Khan, Qaiser
2014-01-01
The aim of the present paper is to investigate coefficient estimates, Fekete-Szegő inequality, and upper bound of third Hankel determinant for some families of starlike and convex functions of reciprocal order. PMID:25506621
On the bounds for the stress intensity factor in laminated composites
Erdogan, F.; Gupta, G. D.
1973-01-01
An attempt was made to calculate the upper and lower bound for the stress intensity factor when crack tips are in the primary laminate, the buffer strips, and at the interfaces. The tests were made on boron-epoxy composites.
Capacity bounds for parallel IM-DD optical wireless channels
Chaaban, Anas
2016-07-26
A system consisting of parallel intensity-modulation direct-detection optical wireless channels with a total average intensity constraint is studied. Capacity upper and lower bounds for this system are derived. If channel-state information is available at the transmitter, the bounds have to be optimized with respect to intensity allocation over the parallel channels. The optimization of the lower bound is non-convex, however, the Karush-Kuhn-Tucker conditions can be used to find a list of possible solutions one of which is optimal. The optimal solution can then be found by an exhaustive search algorithm, which is computationally expensive. To overcome this, we propose a low-complexity intensity allocation algorithm which is nearly optimal. The optimized capacity lower bound coincides with the capacity at high signal-to-noise ratio. © 2016 IEEE.
Bounding approaches to system identification
Norton, John; Piet-Lahanier, Hélène; Walter, Éric
1996-01-01
In response to the growing interest in bounding error approaches, the editors of this volume offer the first collection of papers to describe advances in techniques and applications of bounding of the parameters, or state variables, of uncertain dynamical systems. Contributors explore the application of the bounding approach as an alternative to the probabilistic analysis of such systems, relating its importance to robust control-system design.
Bounds on the Capacity of Weakly constrained two-dimensional Codes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Forchhammer, Søren
2002-01-01
Upper and lower bounds are presented for the capacity of weakly constrained two-dimensional codes. The maximum entropy is calculated for two simple models of 2-D codes constraining the probability of neighboring 1s as an example. For given models of the coded data, upper and lower bounds...... on the capacity for 2-D channel models based on occurrences of neighboring 1s are considered....
Combinatorial bounds on the α-divergence of univariate mixture models
Nielsen, Frank
2017-06-20
We derive lower- and upper-bounds of α-divergence between univariate mixture models with components in the exponential family. Three pairs of bounds are presented in order with increasing quality and increasing computational cost. They are verified empirically through simulated Gaussian mixture models. The presented methodology generalizes to other divergence families relying on Hellinger-type integrals.
A semidefinite programming based branch-and-bound framework for the quadratic assignment problem
Truetsch, U.
2014-01-01
The practical approach to calculate an exact solution for a quadratic assignment problem (QAP) via a branch-and-bound framework depends strongly on a "smart" choice of different strategies within the framework, for example the branching strategy, heuristics for the upper bound or relaxations for the
Capacity bounds for kth best path selection over generalized fading channels
Hanif, Muhammad Fainan
2014-02-01
Exact ergodic capacity calculation for fading wireless channels typically involves time-consuming numerical evaluation of infinite integrals. In this paper, lower and upper bounds on ergodic capacity for kth best path are presented. These bounds have simple analytic expressions which allow their fast evaluation. Numerical results show that the newly proposed bounds closely approximate the exact ergodic capacity for a large variety of system configurations. © 1997-2012 IEEE.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Keisuke Sugimoto
Full Text Available DesB, which is derived from Sphingobium sp. SYK-6, is a type II extradiol dioxygenase that catalyzes a ring opening reaction of gallate. While typical extradiol dioxygenases show broad substrate specificity, DesB has strict substrate specificity for gallate. The substrate specificity of DesB seems to be required for the efficient growth of S. sp. SYK-6 using lignin-derived aromatic compounds. Since direct coordination of hydroxyl groups of the substrate to the non-heme iron in the active site is a critical step for the catalytic reaction of the extradiol dioxygenases, the mechanism of the substrate recognition and coordination of DesB was analyzed by biochemical and crystallographic methods. Our study demonstrated that the direct coordination between the non-heme iron and hydroxyl groups of the substrate requires a large shift of the Fe (II ion in the active site. Mutational analysis revealed that His124 and His192 in the active site are essential to the catalytic reaction of DesB. His124, which interacts with OH (4 of the bound gallate, seems to contribute to proper positioning of the substrate in the active site. His192, which is located close to OH (3 of the gallate, is likely to serve as the catalytic base. Glu377' interacts with OH (5 of the gallate and seems to play a critical role in the substrate specificity. Our biochemical and structural study showed the substrate recognition and catalytic mechanisms of DesB.
Actions of a separately strict cpo-monoid on pointed directed complete posets
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Halimeh Moghbeli Damaneh
2015-07-01
Full Text Available In the present article, we study some categorical properties of the category {$bf Cpo_{Sep}$-$S$} of all {separately strict $S$-cpo's}; cpo's equipped with a compatible right action of a separately strict cpo-monoid $S$ which is strict continuous in each component. In particular, we show that this category is reflective and coreflective in the category of $S$-cpo's, find the free and cofree functors, characterize products and coproducts. Furthermore, epimorphisms and monomorphisms in {$bf Cpo_{Sep}$-$S$} are studied, and show that {$bf Cpo_{Sep}$-$S$} is not cartesian closed.
Market Access through Bound Tariffs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sala, Davide; Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Yalcin, Erdal
on the risk that exporters face in destination markets. The present paper formalizes the underlying interaction of risk, fixed export costs and firms' market entry decisions based on techniques known from the real options literature; doing so we highlight the important role of bound tariffs at the extensive...... margin of trade. We find that bound tariffs are more effective with higher risk destination markets, that a large binding overhang may still command substantial market access, and that reductions in bound tariffs generate effective market access even when bound rates are above current and long......WTO negotiations deal predominantly with bound - besides applied - tariff rates. But, how can reductions in tariffs ceilings, i.e. tariff rates that no exporter may ever actually be confronted with, generate market access? The answer to this question relates to the effects of tariff bindings...
Metabolism of organically bound tritium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Travis, C.C.
1984-01-01
The classic methodology for estimating dose to man from environmental tritium ignores the fact that organically bound tritium in foodstuffs may be directly assimilated in the bound compartment of tissues without previous oxidation. We propose a four-compartment model consisting of a free body water compartment, two organic compartments, and a small, rapidly metabolizing compartment. The utility of this model lies in the ability to input organically bound tritium in foodstuffs directly into the organic compartments of the model. We found that organically bound tritium in foodstuffs can increase cumulative total body dose by a factor of 1.7 to 4.5 times the free body water dose alone, depending on the bound-to-loose ratio of tritium in the diet. Model predictions are compared with empirical measurements of tritium in human urine and tissue samples, and appear to be in close agreement. 10 references, 4 figures, 3 tables
The photon is no strict particle and nonlocality is far from being proven
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Greulich, Karl Otto [Fritz Lipmann Institut, Jena (Germany)
2010-07-01
Two aspects of philosophical discussions on physics are the wave particle dualism and non locality including entanglement. However the strict particle aspect of the photon, in the common sense view, has never been proven. The accumulation time argument, the only experimental verification of a strictly particle like photon, has so far not yet been satisfied. Also, experiments thought to prove nonlocality have loophole which have so far not yet been safely closed, and now an even more serious loophole emerges. Thus, also nonlocality cannot be seen as proven. This demands some fine tuning of philosophical discussions on critical experiments in physics.
Unitarity bounds on angular distribution in multiparticle production - II
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Divakaran, P.P.; Kugler, M.; Soffer, J.
1976-01-01
Upper bounds which follow from unitarity are derived for the angular distribution of the detected particle C in the inclusive process AB→C+anything at a finite energy, in terms of the corresponding elastic amplitudes for a fixed value of the forward inelastic cross-section and for a fixed value of the total inelastic cross-section for the production of C. In comparison with the pp→p+anything data at 24GeV/c, some improvement on previous bounds is observed [fr
Bounds on dissipation in stress-driven flow
Tang, W.; Caulfield, C. P.; Young, W. R.
2004-07-01
We calculate the optimal upper and lower bounds, subject to the assumption of streamwise invariance, on the long-time-averaged mechanical energy dissipation rate varepsilon within the flow of an incompressible viscous fluid of constant kinematic viscosity nu and depth h driven by a constant surface stress tau=rho u(2_star) , where u_star is the friction velocity. We show that varepsilon ≤ varepsilon_{max}=tau(2/(rho^2nu)) , i.e. the dissipation is bounded above by the dissipation associated with the laminar solution bu=tau(z+h)/(rhonu) xvec, where xvec is the unit vector in the streamwise x-direction.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferraro, Paul J; Hanauer, Merlin M; Miteva, Daniela A; Pattanayak, Subhrendu K; Canavire-Bacarreza, Gustavo Javier; Sims, Katharine R E
2013-01-01
National parks and other protected areas are at the forefront of global efforts to protect biodiversity and ecosystem services. However, not all protection is equal. Some areas are assigned strict legal protection that permits few extractive human uses. Other protected area designations permit a wider range of uses. Whether strictly protected areas are more effective in achieving environmental objectives is an empirical question: although strictly protected areas legally permit less anthropogenic disturbance, the social conflicts associated with assigning strict protection may lead politicians to assign strict protection to less-threatened areas and may lead citizens or enforcement agents to ignore the strict legal restrictions. We contrast the impacts of strictly and less strictly protected areas in four countries using IUCN designations to measure de jure strictness, data on deforestation to measure outcomes, and a quasi-experimental design to estimate impacts. On average, stricter protection reduced deforestation rates more than less strict protection, but the additional impact was not always large and sometimes arose because of where stricter protection was assigned rather than regulatory strictness per se. We also show that, in protected area studies contrasting y management regimes, there are y 2 policy-relevant impacts, rather than only y, as earlier studies have implied. (letter)
Combining Alphas via Bounded Regression
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zura Kakushadze
2015-11-01
Full Text Available We give an explicit algorithm and source code for combining alpha streams via bounded regression. In practical applications, typically, there is insufficient history to compute a sample covariance matrix (SCM for a large number of alphas. To compute alpha allocation weights, one then resorts to (weighted regression over SCM principal components. Regression often produces alpha weights with insufficient diversification and/or skewed distribution against, e.g., turnover. This can be rectified by imposing bounds on alpha weights within the regression procedure. Bounded regression can also be applied to stock and other asset portfolio construction. We discuss illustrative examples.
Strict Monotonicity and Unique Continuation for the Third-Order Spectrum of Biharmonic Operator
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Khalil Ben Haddouch
2012-01-01
Full Text Available We will study the spectrum for the biharmonic operator involving the laplacian and the gradient of the laplacian with weight, which we call third-order spectrum. We will show that the strict monotonicity of the eigenvalues of the operator , where , holds if some unique continuation property is satisfied by the corresponding eigenfunctions.
"Let the Master Respond": Should Schools Be Strictly Liable When Employees Sexually Abuse Children?
Fossey, Richard; DeMitchell, Todd
Although sexual abuse against children is a problem in the public schools, school officials have generally not acted aggressively to stop it. This paper argues for a strict liability standard--the assessment of liability without fault--against a school district in cases of student sexual abuse by a school employee. Part 1 explores the principle of…
Detection of low numbers of microplastics in North Sea fish using strict quality assurance criteria
Hermsen, E.; Pompe, R.; Besseling, E.; Koelmans, A.A.
2017-01-01
We investigated 400 individual fish of four North Sea species: Atlantic Herring, Sprat, Common Dab, and Whiting on ingestion of > 20 μm microplastic. Strict quality assurance criteria were followed in order to control contamination during the study. Two plastic particles were found in only 1 (a
Martin A. Spetich; Anna E. Kvashnina; Y.D. Nukhimovskya; Olin E. Jr. Rhodes
2009-01-01
One of the most comprehensive attempts at biodiversity conservation in Russia and the former Soviet Union has been the establishment of an extensive network of protected natural areas. Among all types of protected areas in Russia, zapovedniks (strictly protected scientific preserve) have been the most effective in protecting biodiversity at the ecosystem scale. Russia...
The Preventive Effect of Strict Gun Control Laws on Suicide and Homicide.
Lester, David; Murrell, Mary E.
1982-01-01
Examined state gun control laws and used a multidimensional scaling technique to study the relationship of strictness and death rates. Results showed states with stricter laws had lower suicide rates by firearms but higher rates by other means. No effect on homicide was found. (JAC)
On functions of bounded semivariation
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Monteiro, Giselle Antunes
2015-01-01
Roč. 40, č. 2 (2015), s. 233-276 ISSN 0147-1937 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : semivariation * functions of bounded variation * regulated functions Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://projecteuclid.org/euclid. rae /1491271216
Computational Lower Bounds Using Diagonalization
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 7. Computational Lower Bounds Using Diagonalization - Languages, Turing Machines and Complexity Classes. M V Panduranga Rao. General Article Volume 14 Issue 7 July 2009 pp 682-690 ...
Evidence for a bound on the lifetime of de Sitter space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Freivogel, Ben; Lippert, Matthew
2008-01-01
Recent work has suggested a surprising new upper bound on the lifetime of de Sitter vacua in string theory. The bound is parametrically longer than the Hubble time but parametrically shorter than the recurrence time. We investigate whether the bound is satisfied in a particular class of de Sitter solutions, the KKLT vacua. Despite the freedom to make the supersymmetry breaking scale exponentially small, which naively would lead to extremely stable vacua, we find that the lifetime is always less than about exp(10 22 ) Hubble times, in agreement with the proposed bound. This result, however, is contingent on several estimates and assumptions; in particular, we rely on a conjectural upper bound on the Euler number of the Calabi-Yau fourfolds used in KKLT compactifications.
Analytic quantum bounds on Bell inequalities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Filipp, S.; Svozil, K.
2005-01-01
Full text: Can realism be combined with the quantum world? An important tool to investigate in this question are Bell's inequalities and violations thereof - they represent a cornerstone of our present understanding of quantum mechanics and therefore the description of nature. Here we present a simple algebraic method to calculate violations for any measurement arrangements that are maximal in the sense that quantum mechanics does not allow a stronger violation. Having two or more polarization analyzers available and a source producing photon-pairs in arbitrary polarization states Bell-type inequalities tell us which probabilities for measuring the polarization in particular directions are viable in a deterministic theory. Quantum mechanics does not obey these rules, but yields a violation of these inequalities. The questions is to what extent the inequalities are violated. Making use of a min-max principle analytical expressions can be found for the 'fine structure' of the maximal violations of arbitrary Bell-like inequalities, i. e. the upper bound reachable by any state when the analyzers measure in given directions. Knowing these bounds is useful for experimental tests of the validity of quantum mechanics and can serve as a prerequisite to answer the even more pressing question, why no stronger violation has been observed until now. (author)
Ecological optimization and coefficient of performance bounds of general refrigerators
Long, Rui; Liu, Wei
2016-02-01
An analysis of COP and its bounds at maximum ecological criterion for general refrigerators is conducted. For generality, both the non-isothermal heat transfer processes and the internal dissipations are considered. Under different situations, the COP under the maximum ecological criterion have been studied systematically. And the general upper and lower bounds of the optimal COP have been obtained. Furthermore under maximum ecological criterion, the COP of general endoreversible refrigerators have also been studied. And the COP bounds of different kinds of refrigerators have been analyzed. As actual refrigerators may not operate under the condition of maximum COP or maximum cooling load, but operate under the maximum ecological condition which indicates the best compromise between the refrigeration rate and the loss of refrigeration rate. This paper could provide a practical insight for designing and operating actual refrigerators.
Bounds on the average sensitivity of nested canalizing functions.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Johannes Georg Klotz
Full Text Available Nested canalizing Boolean functions (NCF play an important role in biologically motivated regulatory networks and in signal processing, in particular describing stack filters. It has been conjectured that NCFs have a stabilizing effect on the network dynamics. It is well known that the average sensitivity plays a central role for the stability of (random Boolean networks. Here we provide a tight upper bound on the average sensitivity of NCFs as a function of the number of relevant input variables. As conjectured in literature this bound is smaller than 4/3. This shows that a large number of functions appearing in biological networks belong to a class that has low average sensitivity, which is even close to a tight lower bound.
Bounds on the average sensitivity of nested canalizing functions.
Klotz, Johannes Georg; Heckel, Reinhard; Schober, Steffen
2013-01-01
Nested canalizing Boolean functions (NCF) play an important role in biologically motivated regulatory networks and in signal processing, in particular describing stack filters. It has been conjectured that NCFs have a stabilizing effect on the network dynamics. It is well known that the average sensitivity plays a central role for the stability of (random) Boolean networks. Here we provide a tight upper bound on the average sensitivity of NCFs as a function of the number of relevant input variables. As conjectured in literature this bound is smaller than 4/3. This shows that a large number of functions appearing in biological networks belong to a class that has low average sensitivity, which is even close to a tight lower bound.
Model independent bounds on magnetic moments of Majorana neutrinos
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bell, Nicole F.; Gorchtein, Mikhail; Ramsey-Musolf, Michael J.; Vogel, Petr; Wang, Peng
2006-01-01
We analyze the implications of neutrino masses for the magnitude of neutrino magnetic moments. By considering electroweak radiative corrections to the neutrino mass, we derive model-independent naturalness upper bounds on neutrino magnetic moments, μ ν , generated by physics above the electroweak scale. For Dirac neutrinos, the bound is several orders of magnitude more stringent than present experimental limits. However, for Majorana neutrinos the magnetic moment contribution to the mass is Yukawa suppressed. The bounds we derive for magnetic moments of Majorana neutrinos are weaker than present experimental limits if μ ν is generated by new physics at ∼1 TeV, and surpass current experimental sensitivity only for new physics scales >10-100 TeV. The discovery of a neutrino magnetic moment near present limits would thus signify that neutrinos are Majorana particles
Bounds for the propagation speed of combustion flames
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fort, Joaquim; Campos, Daniel; Gonzalez, Josep R; Velayos, Joaquim
2004-01-01
We focus on a combustion model for premixed flames based on two coupled equations determining the spatial dynamics of temperature and fuel density. We rewrite these equations as a classical reaction-diffusion model, so that we can apply some known methods for the prediction of lower and upper bounds to the front speed. The predictions are compared to simulations, which show that our new bounds substantially improve those following from the linearization method, used in the previous work of Fort et al (2000 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 33 6953). Radiative losses lead to pulses rather than fronts. We find a bound for their speed which (in contrast to the linearization one) correctly predicts the order of magnitude of the flame speed
Computing variational bounds for flow through random aggregates of Spheres
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berryman, J.G.
1983-01-01
Known formulas for variational bounds on Darcy's constant for slow flow through porous media depend on two-point and three-poiint spatial correlation functions. Certain bounds due to Prager and Doi depending only a two-point correlation functions have been calculated for the first time for random aggregates of spheres with packing fractions (eta) up to eta = 0.64. Three radial distribution functions for hard spheres were tested for eta up to 0.49: (1) the uniform distribution or ''well-stirred approximation,'' (2) the Percus Yevick approximation, and (3) the semi-empirical distribution of Verlet and Weis. The empirical radial distribution functions of Benett andd Finney were used for packing fractions near the random-close-packing limit (eta/sub RCP/dapprox.0.64). An accurate multidimensional Monte Carlo integration method (VEGAS) developed by Lepage was used to compute the required two-point correlation functions. The results show that Doi's bounds are preferred for eta>0.10 while Prager's bounds are preferred for eta>0.10. The ''upper bounds'' computed using the well-stirred approximation actually become negative (which is physically impossible) as eta increases, indicating the very limited value of this approximation. The other two choices of radial distribution function give reasonable results for eta up to 0.49. However, these bounds do not decrease with eta as fast as expected for large eta. It is concluded that variational bounds dependent on three-point correlation functions are required to obtain more accurate bounds on Darcy's constant for large eta
Bounds on the Average Sensitivity of Nested Canalizing Functions
Klotz, Johannes Georg; Heckel, Reinhard; Schober, Steffen
2012-01-01
Nested canalizing Boolean (NCF) functions play an important role in biological motivated regulative networks and in signal processing, in particular describing stack filters. It has been conjectured that NCFs have a stabilizing effect on the network dynamics. It is well known that the average sensitivity plays a central role for the stability of (random) Boolean networks. Here we provide a tight upper bound on the average sensitivity for NCFs as a function of the number of relevant input vari...
Angular-momentum nonclassicality by breaking classical bounds on statistics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luis, Alfredo; Rivas, Angel
2011-01-01
We derive simple practical procedures revealing the quantum behavior of angular momentum variables by the violation of classical upper bounds on the statistics. Data analysis is minimum and definite conclusions are obtained without evaluation of moments, or any other more sophisticated procedures. These nonclassical tests are very general and independent of other typical quantum signatures of nonclassical behavior such as sub-Poissonian statistics, squeezing, or oscillatory statistics, being insensitive to the nonclassical behavior displayed by other variables.
Learning with Generalization Capability by Kernel Methods of Bounded Complexity
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kůrková, Věra; Sanguineti, M.
2005-01-01
Roč. 21, č. 3 (2005), s. 350-367 ISSN 0885-064X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET100300419 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : supervised learning * generalization * model complexity * kernel methods * minimization of regularized empirical errors * upper bounds on rates of approximate optimization Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.186, year: 2005
Bounds on stratified mixing with a mixing coefficient constraint
Tang, Wenbo; Caulfield, C. P.; Kerswell, Rich
2005-11-01
We derive non-trivial upper bounds for the long-time averaged vertical buoyancy flux B^* = ρu3>g/ρ0 for stably stratified Couette flow, with reference density ρ0, kinematic viscosity ν, thermal diffusivity κ, plate separation d, driven by constant relative velocity δU, maintained at a statically stable density difference δρ. We numerically solve the variational problem using the ``background method'', and require that the mean flow is streamwise independent and statistically steady. We impose a coupling constraint such that a fixed fraction γc of the energy input into the system leads to enhanced irreversible mixing. We calculate the bound up to asymptotically large Reynolds numbers for a range of choices of γc and bulk Richardson numbers J. For any Re, the calculated upper bound increases with J, until a maximum possible value J(Re,γc) at which the new constraint cannot be imposed, and the density field and velocity field become decoupled. The value of the bound at J is a non-monotonic function of γc, with γc=1/2 leading to the largest possible values as Re , consistently with the findings in Caulfield, Tang & Plasting (2004) where this coupling constraint was not imposed. In fact, at any particular Re, the previous solution may be associated with a specific value of γc. Imposing the coupling constraint with that γc, as J , the new bound approaches from below the previous bound exactly.
A Criterium for the Strict Positivity of the Density of the Law of a Poisson Process
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Léandre Rémi
2011-01-01
Full Text Available We translate in semigroup theory our result (Léandre, 1990 giving a necessary condition so that the law of a Markov process with jumps could have a strictly positive density. This result express, that we have to jump in a finite number of jumps in a "submersive" way from the starting point to the end point if the density of the jump process is strictly positive in . We use the Malliavin Calculus of Bismut type of (Léandre, (2008;2010 translated in semi-group theory as a tool, and the interpretation in semi-group theory of some classical results of the stochastic analysis for Poisson process as, for instance, the formula giving the law of a compound Poisson process.
The effect of 8 days of strict bed rest on the incretin effect in healthy volunteers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Signe Tellerup; Harder-Lauridsen, Nina Majlund; Benatti, Fabiana Braga
2016-01-01
in the levels of GLP-1 and Glucagon. Bed rest led to a mean loss of 2.4 kg of fat-free mass, and induced insulin resistance evaluated by the Matsuda index, but did not affect the incretin effect (P = 0.6). In conclusion, 8 days of bed rest induces insulin resistance, but we did not see evidence of an associated......Bed rest and physical inactivity are the consequences of hospital admission for many patients. Physical inactivity induces changes in glucose metabolism, but its effect on the incretin effect, which is reduced in, e.g., Type 2 diabetes, is unknown. To investigate how 8 days of strict bed rest...... affects the incretin effect, 10 healthy nonobese male volunteers underwent 8 days of strict bed rest. Before and after the intervention, all volunteers underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) followed by an intravenous glucose infusion (IVGI) on the following day to mimic the blood glucose profile...
Detection of low numbers of microplastics in North Sea fish using strict quality assurance criteria.
Hermsen, Enya; Pompe, Renske; Besseling, Ellen; Koelmans, Albert A
2017-09-15
We investigated 400 individual fish of four North Sea species: Atlantic Herring, Sprat, Common Dab, and Whiting on ingestion of >20μm microplastic. Strict quality assurance criteria were followed in order to control contamination during the study. Two plastic particles were found in only 1 (a Sprat) out of 400 individuals (0.25%, with a 95% confidence interval of 0.09-1.1%). The particles were identified to consist of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) through FTIR spectroscopy. No contamination occurred during the study, showing the method applied to be suitable for microplastic ingestion studies in biota. We discuss the low particle count for North Sea fish with those in other studies and suggest a relation between reported particle count and degree of quality assurance applied. Microplastic ingestion by fish may be less common than thought initially, with low incidence shown in this study, and other studies adhering to strict quality assurance criteria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Kotay, Shireen Meher; Trably, Eric
2009-01-01
sources. Growth on glucose produced acetate, H-2 and carbon dioxide. Maximal H-2 production rate on glucose was 1.1 mmol l(-1) h(-1) with a maximum H-2 yield of 1.9 mole H-2 per mole glucose. 16S ribosomal DNA clone library analyses showed that the culture members were phylogenetically affiliated......The aim of this study was to enrich, characterize and identify strict anaerobic extreme thermophilic hydrogen (H-2) producers from digested household solid wastes. A strict anaerobic extreme thermophilic H-2 producing bacterial culture was enriched from a lab-scale digester treating household...... wastes at 70 degrees C. The enriched mixed culture consisted of two rod-shaped bacterial members growing at an optimal temperature of 80 degrees C and an optimal pH 8.1. The culture was able to utilize glucose, galactose, mannose, xylose, arabinose, maltose, sucrose, pyruvate and glycerol as carbon...
A Hybrid P2P Overlay Network for Non-strictly Hierarchically Categorized Content
Wan, Yi; Asaka, Takuya; Takahashi, Tatsuro
In P2P content distribution systems, there are many cases in which the content can be classified into hierarchically organized categories. In this paper, we propose a hybrid overlay network design suitable for such content called Pastry/NSHCC (Pastry for Non-Strictly Hierarchically Categorized Content). The semantic information of classification hierarchies of the content can be utilized regardless of whether they are in a strict tree structure or not. By doing so, the search scope can be restrained to any granularity, and the number of query messages also decreases while maintaining keyword searching availability. Through simulation, we showed that the proposed method provides better performance and lower overhead than unstructured overlays exploiting the same semantic information.
Weak asymptotic solution for a non-strictly hyperbolic system of conservation laws-II
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Manas Ranjan Sahoo
2016-04-01
Full Text Available In this article we introduce a concept of entropy weak asymptotic solution for a system of conservation laws and construct the same for a prolonged system of conservation laws which is highly non-strictly hyperbolic. This is first done for Riemann type initial data by introducing $\\delta,\\delta',\\delta''$ waves along a discontinuity curve and then for general initial data by piecing together the Riemann solutions.
Multiple-Set Split Feasibility Problems for κ-Strictly Pseudononspreading Mapping in Hilbert Spaces
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jing Quan
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to prove some weak and strong convergence theorems for solving the multiple-set split feasibility problems for κ-strictly pseudononspreading mapping in infinite-dimensional Hilbert spaces by using the proposed iterative method. The main results presented in this paper extend and improve the corresponding results of Xu et al. (2006, of Osilike et al. (2011, and of many other authors.
Multiobjective Optimization for the Forecasting Models on the Base of the Strictly Binary Trees
Nadezhda Astakhova; Liliya Demidova; Evgeny Nikulchev
2016-01-01
The optimization problem dealing with the development of the forecasting models on the base of strictly binary trees has been considered. The aim of paper is the comparative analysis of two optimization variants which are applied for the development of the forecasting models. Herewith the first optimization variant assumes the application of one quality indicator of the forecasting model named as the affinity indicator and the second variant realizes the application of two quality indicators ...
Cannabis legalization with strict regulation, the overall superior policy option for public health.
Rehm, J; Fischer, B
2015-06-01
Cannabis is the most prevalently used drug globally, with many jurisdictions considering varying reform options to current policies to deal with this substance and associated harm. Three policy options are available: prohibition, decriminalization, and legalization, with prohibition currently the dominant model globally. This contribution gives reasons why legalization with strict regulation should be considered superior to other options with respect to public health in high income countries in North America. © 2015 ASCPT.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berry, Ray A.; Martineau, Richard C.
2007-01-01
The conservative-form, pressure-based PCICE numerical method (Martineau and Berry, 2004) (Berry, 2006), recently developed for computing transient fluid flows of all speeds from very low to very high (with strong shocks), is simplified and generalized. Though the method automatically treats a continuous transition of compressibility, three distinct, limiting compressibility regimes are formally defined for purposes of discussion and comparison with traditional methods - the strictly incompressible limit, the nearly incompressible limit, and the fully compressible limit. The PCICE method's behavior is examined in each limiting regime. In the strictly incompressible limit the PCICE algorithm reduces to the traditional MAC-type method with velocity divergence driving the pressure Poisson equation. In the nearly incompressible limit the PCICE algorithm is found to reduce to a generalization of traditional incompressible methods, i.e. to one in which not only the velocity divergence effect, but also the density gradient effect is included as a driving function in the pressure Poisson equation. This nearly incompressible regime has received little attention, and it appears that in the past, strictly incompressible methods may have been conveniently applied to flows in this regime at the expense of ignoring a potentially important coupling mechanism. This could be significant in many important flows; for example, in natural convection flows resulting from high heat flux. In the fully compressible limit or regime, the algorithm is found to reduce to an expression equivalent to density-based methods for high-speed flow. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chang-ping Zhu
2011-03-01
Full Text Available The process of decomposing p-nitrophenol (PNP with power ultrasound requires strict control of acoustic and electric conditions. In this study, the conditions, including acoustic power and acoustic intensity, but not ultrasonic frequency, were controlled strictly at constant levels. The absorbency and the COD concentrations of the samples were measured in order to show the variation of the sample concentration. The results show significant differences in the trend of the solution degradation rate as acoustic power increases after the PNP solution (with a concentration of 114 mg/L and a pH value of 5.4 is irradiated for 60 min with ultrasonic frequencies of 530.8 kHz, 610.6 kHz, 855.0 kHz, and 1 130.0 kHz. The degradation rate of the solution increases with time and acoustic power (acoustic intensity. On the other hand, the degradation rate of the solution is distinctly dependent on frequency when the acoustic power and intensity are strictly controlled and maintained at constant levels. The degradation rate of the PNP solution declines with ultrasonic frequencies of 530.8 kHz, 610.6 kHz, 855.0 kHz, and 1 130.0 kHz; the COD concentration, on the contrary, increase.
TESTING STRICT HYDROSTATIC EQUILIBRIUM IN SIMULATED CLUSTERS OF GALAXIES: IMPLICATIONS FOR A1689
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Molnar, S. M.; Umetsu, K.; Chiu, I.-N.; Chen, P.; Hearn, N.; Broadhurst, T.; Bryan, G.; Shang, C.
2010-01-01
Accurate mass determination of clusters of galaxies is crucial if they are to be used as cosmological probes. However, there are some discrepancies between cluster masses determined based on gravitational lensing and X-ray observations assuming strict hydrostatic equilibrium (i.e., the equilibrium gas pressure is provided entirely by thermal pressure). Cosmological simulations suggest that turbulent gas motions remaining from hierarchical structure formation may provide a significant contribution to the equilibrium pressure in clusters. We analyze a sample of massive clusters of galaxies drawn from high-resolution cosmological simulations and find a significant contribution (20%-45%) from non-thermal pressure near the center of relaxed clusters, and, in accord with previous studies, a minimum contribution at about 0.1 R vir , growing to about 30%-45% at the virial radius, R vir . Our results strongly suggest that relaxed clusters should have significant non-thermal support in their core region. As an example, we test the validity of strict hydrostatic equilibrium in the well-studied massive galaxy cluster A1689 using the latest high-resolution gravitational lensing and X-ray observations. We find a contribution of about 40% from non-thermal pressure within the core region of A1689, suggesting an alternate explanation for the mass discrepancy: the strict hydrostatic equilibrium is not valid in this region.
Temporary Strict Maternal Avoidance of Cow’s Milk and Infantile Colic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Firoozeh Sajedi
2009-12-01
Full Text Available Infant colic is a common problem characterized by excessive crying and fussing. We examined whether colic symptoms of exclusively breast-milk-fed infants would be improved by temporary strict maternal avoidance of cows milk. This study is analytic and experimental. Sixty-six subjects were recruited during winter of 2006 from a clinic in Isfahan, Iran. Breast-milk-fed in-fants with "colic", age 3-6 months and to be in otherwise good health were referred by pediatri-cians. The intervention was 1 week period of strict maternal avoidance of cows milk while they continued exclusive breast-milk-feeding. All infants showed improvement in distressed behavior (crying and fussing during intervention. The total recorded crying and fussing time was reduced by an average of 31%. A significant difference was found in cry and fuss time between first and last 2 days of intervention (P = 0.000. Cows milk proteins may play an etiologic role in colic. We propose that a brief intervention with strict maternal avoidance of cows milk may be an effective treatment for colic in some breast-milk-fed infants.
ON COMPUTING UPPER LIMITS TO SOURCE INTENSITIES
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kashyap, Vinay L.; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Van Dyk, David A.; Xu Jin; Connors, Alanna; Freeman, Peter E.; Zezas, Andreas
2010-01-01
A common problem in astrophysics is determining how bright a source could be and still not be detected in an observation. Despite the simplicity with which the problem can be stated, the solution involves complicated statistical issues that require careful analysis. In contrast to the more familiar confidence bound, this concept has never been formally analyzed, leading to a great variety of often ad hoc solutions. Here we formulate and describe the problem in a self-consistent manner. Detection significance is usually defined by the acceptable proportion of false positives (background fluctuations that are claimed as detections, or Type I error), and we invoke the complementary concept of false negatives (real sources that go undetected, or Type II error), based on the statistical power of a test, to compute an upper limit to the detectable source intensity. To determine the minimum intensity that a source must have for it to be detected, we first define a detection threshold and then compute the probabilities of detecting sources of various intensities at the given threshold. The intensity that corresponds to the specified Type II error probability defines that minimum intensity and is identified as the upper limit. Thus, an upper limit is a characteristic of the detection procedure rather than the strength of any particular source. It should not be confused with confidence intervals or other estimates of source intensity. This is particularly important given the large number of catalogs that are being generated from increasingly sensitive surveys. We discuss, with examples, the differences between these upper limits and confidence bounds. Both measures are useful quantities that should be reported in order to extract the most science from catalogs, though they answer different statistical questions: an upper bound describes an inference range on the source intensity, while an upper limit calibrates the detection process. We provide a recipe for computing upper
Simulation bounds for system availability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tietjen, G.L.; Waller, R.A.
1976-01-01
System availability is a dominant factor in the practicality of nuclear power electrical generating plants. A proposed model for obtaining either lower bounds or interval estimates on availability uses observed data on ''n'' failure-to-repair cycles of the system to estimate the parameters in the time-to-failure and time-to-repair models. These estimates are then used in simulating failure/repair cycles of the system. The availability estimate is obtained for each of 5000 samples of ''n'' failure/repair cycles to form a distribution of estimates. Specific percentile points of those simulated distributions are selected as lower simulation bounds or simulation interval bounds for the system availability. The method is illustrated with operational data from two nuclear plants for which an exponential time-to-failure and a lognormal time-to-repair are assumed
Unitarity bound for gluon shadowing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kopeliovich, B. Z.; Levin, E.; Potashnikova, I. K.; Schmidt, Ivan
2009-01-01
Although at small Bjorken x gluons originated from different nucleons in a nucleus overlap in the longitudinal direction, most of them are still well separated in the transverse plane and therefore cannot fuse. For this reason the gluon density in nuclei cannot drop at small x below a certain bottom bound, which we evaluated in a model independent manner assuming the maximal strength of gluon fusion. We also calculated gluon shadowing in the saturated regime using the Balitsky-Kovchegov equation and found the nuclear ratio to be well above the unitarity bound. The recently updated analysis of parton distributions in nuclei, including BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) data on high-p T hadron production at forward rapidities, led to strong gluon shadowing. Such strong shadowing and therefore the interpretation of the nuclear modification of the p T spectra in dA collisions at RHIC seem to be inconsistent with this unitarity bound.
Space-bounded communication complexity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brody, Joshua Eric; Chen, Shiteng; Papakonstantinou, Periklis A.
2013-01-01
In the past thirty years, Communication Complexity has emerged as a foundational tool to proving lower bounds in many areas of computer science. Its power comes from its generality, but this generality comes at a price---no superlinear communication lower bound is possible, since a player may...... communicate his entire input. However, what if the players are limited in their ability to recall parts of their interaction? We introduce memory models for 2-party communication complexity. Our general model is as follows: two computationally unrestricted players, Alice and Bob, each have s(n) bits of memory...
Bound entanglement and local realism
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaszlikowski, Dagomir; Zukowski, Marek; Gnacinski, Piotr
2002-01-01
We show using a numerical approach, which gives necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of local realism, that the bound entangled state presented in Bennett et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5385 (1999)] admits a local and realistic description. We also find the lowest possible amount of some appropriate entangled state that must be ad-mixed to the bound entangled state so that the resulting density operator has no local and realistic description and as such can be useful in quantum communication and quantum computation
Market access through bound tariffs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sala, Davide; Yalcin, Erdal; Schröder, Philipp
2010-01-01
WTO negotiations deal predominantly with bound - besides applied - tariff rates. But, how can reductions in tariffs ceilings, i.e. tariff rates that no exporter may ever actually be confronted with, generate market access? The answer to this question relates to the effects of tariff bindings...... on the risk that exporters face in destination markets. The present paper formalizes the underlying interaction of risk, fixed export costs and firms' market entry decisions based on techniques known from the real options literature; doing so we highlight the important role of bound tariffs at the extensive...
Optimal bounds on dissipation in stress driven flow
Tang, W.; Caulfield, C. P.; Young, W. R.
2003-11-01
We calculate the optimal upper and lower bounds, subject to the assumption of streamwise invariance, on the long-time-averaged mechanical energy dissipation rate ɛ within the flow of an incompressible viscous fluid of constant kinematic viscosity ν and depth h that is driven by a constant stress τ, defining an appropriate Grashof number G=τ h^2/ν^2. We show that ɛ ≤ τ^2/ν, i.e. the dissipation is bounded above by the dissipation associated with the laminar solution u=τ z hat ^x/ν. By using the the variational background method, (due to Constantin, Doering, and Hopf) and numerical continuation, we also generate the best possible rigorous lower bounds on the dissipation for arbitrary Grashof numbers. As G arrow ∞, we show that the dissipation is bounded below by ɛm = O(τ^3/2/h), with a numerical coefficient that we identify explicitly. The associated bounding solution has thin boundary layers at the top and bottom of the fluid layer with a deep intermediate region of weak shear.
... Upper GI Series Urinary Tract Imaging Urodynamic Testing Virtual Colonoscopy Upper GI Endoscopy What is upper gastrointestinal ( ... endoscopy, a doctor obtains biopsies by passing an instrument through the endoscope to obtain a small piece ...
Groenveld, Hessel F.; Tijssen, Jan G. P.; Crijns, Harry J. G. M.; Van den Berg, Maarten P.; Hillege, Hans L.; Alings, Marco; Van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Van Gelder, Isabelle C.
2013-01-01
Objectives This study sought to investigate differences in outcome between patients treated with successful strict, failed strict, and lenient rate control. Background The RACE II (Rate Control Efficacy in Permanent Atrial Fibrillation) study showed no difference in outcome between lenient and
Entropy Bounds and Field Equations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alessandro Pesci
2015-08-01
Full Text Available For general metric theories of gravity, we compare the approach that describes/derives the field equations of gravity as a thermodynamic identity with the one which looks at them from entropy bounds. The comparison is made through the consideration of the matter entropy flux across (Rindler horizons, studied by making use of the notion of a limiting thermodynamic scale l* of matter, previously introduced in the context of entropy bounds. In doing this: (i a bound for the entropy of any lump of matter with a given energy-momentum tensor Tab is considered, in terms of a quantity, which is independent of the theory of gravity that we use; this quantity is the variation of the Clausius entropy of a suitable horizon when the element of matter crosses it; (ii by making use of the equations of motion of the theory, the same quantity is then expressed as the variation of Wald’s entropy of that horizon (and this leads to a generalized form of the generalized covariant entropy bound, applicable to general diffeomorphism-invariant theories of gravity; and (iii a notion of l* for horizons, as well as an expression for it, is given.
Bounded Densities and Their Derivatives
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kozine, Igor; Krymsky, V.
2009-01-01
This paper describes how one can compute interval-valued statistical measures given limited information about the underlying distribution. The particular focus is on a bounded derivative of a probability density function and its combination with other available statistical evidence for computing ...
Semiclassical bounds in magnetic bottles
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Barseghyan, Diana; Exner, Pavel; Kovařík, H.; Weidl, T.
2016-01-01
Roč. 28, č. 1 (2016), s. 1650002 ISSN 0129-055X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-06818S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : magnetic Laplacian * discrete spectrum * eigenvalue bounds Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.426, year: 2016
Positivity bounds for Sivers functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kang Zhongbo; Soffer, Jacques
2011-01-01
We generalize a positivity constraint derived initially for parity-conserving processes to the parity-violating ones, and use it to derive non-trivial bounds on several Sivers functions, entering in the theoretical description of single spin asymmetry for various processes.
Moderate deviations for bounded subsequences
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
George Stoica
2006-01-01
Full Text Available We study Davis' series of moderate deviations probabilities for Lp-bounded sequences of random variables (p>2. A certain subseries therein is convergent for the same range of parameters as in the case of martingale difference or i.i.d. sequences.
Pieter Paul Rubens, "Prometheus Bound."
Shoemaker, Marla K.
1986-01-01
Provides a full-color reproduction of Pieter Paul Rubens' painting, "Prometheus Bound," and a lesson plan for using it with students in grades 10 through 12. The goal of the lesson is to introduce students to the techniques of design and execution used by Rubens. (JDH)
Upward Bound: In the Beginning.
Groutt, John; Hill, Calvin
2001-01-01
Describes the early history of the Upward Bound program, including the role of President Johnson's vision, the Task Force on Poverty, the Office of Economic Opportunity, and Community Action Programs; influences on the development of the program; establishment of the program's administrative structure; pilot programs; and early problems leading to…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tyson, Jon
2009-01-01
Matrix monotonicity is used to obtain upper bounds on minimum-error distinguishability of arbitrary ensembles of mixed quantum states. This generalizes one direction of a two-sided bound recently obtained by the author [J. Tyson, J. Math. Phys. 50, 032106 (2009)]. It is shown that the previously obtained special case has unique properties.
A Functional Calculus for Quotient Bounded Operators
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sorin Mirel Stoian
2006-12-01
Full Text Available If (X, P is a sequentially locally convex space, then a quotient bounded operator T beloging to QP is regular (in the sense of Waelbroeck if and only if it is a bounded element (in the sense of Allan of algebra QP. The classic functional calculus for bounded operators on Banach space is generalized for bounded elements of algebra QP.
Gordon, Jacqueline M; Lauver, Lori S; Buck, Harleah G
2018-02-01
Hyperglycemia post-cardiac surgery is associated with poor clinical outcomes. Recent studies suggest maintaining liberal glycemic control (liberal CII protocol. Retrospective review of 144 strict CII patient records and 147 liberal CII patient records. Mean blood glucose was 159.8mg/dL (liberal CII) compared to 143.3mg/dL (strict CII) (p≤0.001). No surgical site infections occurred in either group. Mean ICU length of stay was 4.5days (liberal) versus 4.4days (strict) (p=0.74). Two 30-day mortalities occurred for the liberal cohort compared to no deaths in the strict group (p=0.49). Hypoglycemia incidence within 24h after surgery was 0.1% (liberal) compared to 0.3% (strict) compared to (p=0.16). Use of a nurse managed liberal CII resulted in similar outcomes with fewer incidents of hypoglycemia. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Achieving the physical limits of the bounded-storage model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mandayam, Prabha; Wehner, Stephanie
2011-01-01
Secure two-party cryptography is possible if the adversary's quantum storage device suffers imperfections. For example, security can be achieved if the adversary can store strictly less then half of the qubits transmitted during the protocol. This special case is known as the bounded-storage model, and it has long been an open question whether security can still be achieved if the adversary's storage were any larger. Here, we answer this question positively and demonstrate a two-party protocol which is secure as long as the adversary cannot store even a small fraction of the transmitted pulses. We also show that security can be extended to a larger class of noisy quantum memories.
Knabel, S J; Walker, H W; Hartman, P A; Mendonca, A F
1990-02-01
Listeria monocytogenes F5069 was suspended in either Trypticase soy broth-0.6% yeast extract (TSBYE) or sterile, whole milk and heated at 62.8 degrees C in sealed thermal death time tubes. Severely heat-injured cells were recovered in TSBYE within sealed thermal death time tubes because of the formation of reduced conditions in the depths of the TSBYE. Also, the use of strictly anaerobic Hungate techniques significantly increased recovery in TSBYE containing 1.5% agar compared with aerobically incubated controls. The exogenous addition of catalase, but not superoxide dismutase, slightly increased the recovery of heat-injured cells in TSBYE containing 1.5% agar incubated aerobically. Growth of cells at 43 degrees C caused a greater increase in heat resistance as compared with cells heat shocked at 43 degrees C or cells grown at lower temperatures. Growth of L. monocytogenes at 43 degrees C and enumeration by the use of strictly anaerobic Hungate techniques resulted in D62.8 degrees C values that were at least sixfold greater than those previously obtained by using cells grown at 37 degrees C and aerobic plating. Results indicate that, under the conditions of the present study, high levels of L. monocytogenes would survive the minimum low-temperature, long-time treatment required by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for pasteurizing milk. The possible survival of low levels of L. monocytogenes during high-temperature, short-time pasteurization and enumeration of injured cells by recovery on selective media under strictly anaerobic conditions are discussed.
RelTime Rates Collapse to a Strict Clock When Estimating the Timeline of Animal Diversification.
Lozano-Fernandez, Jesus; Dos Reis, Mario; Donoghue, Philip C J; Pisani, Davide
2017-05-01
Establishing an accurate timescale for the history of life is crucial to understand evolutionary processes. For this purpose, relaxed molecular clock models implemented in a Bayesian MCMC framework are generally used. However, these methods are time consuming. RelTime, a non-Bayesian method implementing a fast, ad hoc, algorithm for relative dating, was developed to overcome the computational inefficiencies of Bayesian software. RelTime was recently used to investigate the timing of origin of animals, yielding results consistent with early strict clock studies from the 1980s and 1990s, estimating metazoans to have a Mesoproterozoic origin-over a billion years ago. RelTime results are unexpected and disagree with the largest majority of modern, relaxed, Bayesian molecular clock analyses, which suggest animals originated in the Tonian-Cryogenian (less that 850 million years ago). Here, we demonstrate that RelTime-inferred divergence times for the origin of animals are spurious, a consequence of the inability of RelTime to relax the clock along the internal branches of the animal phylogeny. RelTime-inferred divergence times are comparable to strict-clock estimates because they are essentially inferred under a strict clock. Our results warn us of the danger of using ad hoc algorithms making implicit assumptions about rate changes along a tree. Our study roundly rejects a Mesoproterozoic origin of animals; metazoans emerged in the Tonian-Cryogenian, and diversified in the Ediacaran, in the immediate prelude to the routine fossilization of animals in the Cambrian associated with the emergence of readily preserved skeletons. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.
Bircher, Lea; Geirnaert, Annelies; Hammes, Frederik; Lacroix, Christophe; Schwab, Clarissa
2018-04-17
Strict anaerobic gut microbes have been suggested as 'next-generation probiotics' for treating several intestinal disorders. The development of preservation techniques is of major importance for therapeutic application. This study investigated cryopreservation (-80°C) and lyophilization survival and storage stability (4°C for 3 months) of the strict anaerobic gut microbes Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Roseburia intestinalis, Anaerostipes caccae, Eubacterium hallii and Blautia obeum. To improve preservation survival, protectants sucrose and inulin (both 5% w/v) were added for lyophilization and were also combined with glycerol (15% v/v) for cryopreservation. Bacterial fitness, evaluated by maximum growth rate and lag phase, viability and membrane integrity were determined using a standardized growth assay and by flow cytometry as markers for preservation resistance. Lyophilization was more detrimental to viability and fitness than cryopreservation, but led to better storage stability. Adding sucrose and inulin enhanced viability and the proportion of intact cells during lyophilization of all strains. Viability of protectant-free B. thetaiotaomicron, A. caccae and F. prausnitzii was above 50% after cryopreservation and storage and increased to above 80% if protectants were present. The addition of glycerol, sucrose and inulin strongly enhanced the viability of B. obeum, E. hallii and R. intestinalis from 0.03-2% in protectant-free cultures to 11-37%. This is the first study that quantitatively compared the effect of cryopreservation and lyophilization and the addition of selected protectants on viability and fitness of six strict anaerobic gut microbes. Our results suggest that efficiency of protectants is process- and species-specific. © 2018 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.
Boutet de Monvel, A.; Chulaevsky, V.; Stollmann, P.; Suhov, Y.
2010-03-01
We consider an N-particle quantum systems in ℝ d , with interaction and in presence of a random external alloy-type potential (a continuous N-particle Anderson model). We establish Wegner-type bounds (inequalities) for such models, giving upper bounds for the probability that random spectra of Hamiltonians in finite volumes intersect a given set.
Knabel, S J; Walker, H W; Hartman, P A; Mendonca, A F
1990-01-01
Listeria monocytogenes F5069 was suspended in either Trypticase soy broth-0.6% yeast extract (TSBYE) or sterile, whole milk and heated at 62.8 degrees C in sealed thermal death time tubes. Severely heat-injured cells were recovered in TSBYE within sealed thermal death time tubes because of the formation of reduced conditions in the depths of the TSBYE. Also, the use of strictly anaerobic Hungate techniques significantly increased recovery in TSBYE containing 1.5% agar compared with aerobicall...
Alimov, A. R.
2017-07-01
In a broad class of finite-dimensional Banach spaces, we show that a closed set with lower semicontinuous metric projection is a strict sun, admits a continuous selection of the metric projection operator onto it, has contractible intersections with balls, and its (nonempty) intersection with any closed ball is a retract of this ball. For sets with continuous metric projection, a number of new results relating the solarity of such sets to the stability of the operator of best approximation are obtained. Bibliography 25 titles.
Transplanting Diseases from Organ Donors in Western Europe: Fault Liability or Strict Liability?
Broeckx, Nils; Verhoeven, Dimitri
2015-06-01
This article will examine the problem of disease transmission through organ transplantation from a civil liability perspective. Both fault liability and strict product liability might be possible. These two types of liability will be compared, while applying them to the actions of the central parties involved in organ donation and transplantation, namely the physician/hospital, the donor and the organ exchange organisation. While product liability is generally an easier way to obtain compensation than fault liability, it might nevertheless place too heavy a burden on the transplant professionals.
Single molecule experiments challenge the strict wave-particle dualism of light.
Greulich, Karl Otto
2010-01-21
Single molecule techniques improve our understanding of the photon and light. If the single photon double slit experiment is performed at the "single photon limit" of a multi-atom light source, faint light pulses with more than one photon hamper the interpretation. Single molecules, quantum dots or defect centres in crystals should be used as light source. "Single photon detectors" do not meet their promise-only "photon number resolving single photon detectors" do so. Particularly, the accumulation time argument, the only safe basis for the postulate of a strictly particle like photon, has so far not yet been verified.
Single Molecule Experiments Challenge the Strict Wave-Particle Dualism of Light
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Karl Otto Greulich
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Single molecule techniques improve our understanding of the photon and light. If the single photon double slit experiment is performed at the “single photon limit” of a multi-atom light source, faint light pulses with more than one photon hamper the interpretation. Single molecules, quantum dots or defect centres in crystals should be used as light source. “Single photon detectors” do not meet their promise―only “photon number resolving single photon detectors” do so. Particularly, the accumulation time argument, the only safe basis for the postulate of a strictly particle like photon, has so far not yet been verified.
Optimal bounds on the buoyancy flux in stably stratified Couette flow
Caulfield, C. P.; Tang, W.; Plasting, S. C.
2003-11-01
We calculate the best possible rigorous upper bound, subject to the assumption of streamwise invariance, on the long-time-averaged buoyancy flux within the flow of an incompressible viscous fluid between two infinite parallel plates, which are driven at different constant velocities, and maintained at different constant (stable) temperatures. We use the variational "background method", (due to Constantin, Doering, and Hopf) and numerical continuation to generate the best possible rigorous bounds at arbitrary Reynolds numbers, bulk Richardson numbers and Prandtl numbers. As Re arrow ∞, the upper bound on the buoyancy flux scales with the mechanical energy dissipation rate alone, with a scaling factor that we determine explicitly. Independently of the overall stratification, boundary layers are predicted to develop where the local gradient Richardson number becomes small, enabling significant mixing, with mixing efficiency for the bounding solutions that asymptotically approaches 1/3.
Rusak, Z.; Luijten, J.; Kooijman, A.
2015-01-01
The present invention relates a wearable exoskeleton for a user having a torso with an upper limb to support motion of the said upper limb. The wearable exoskeleton comprises a first fixed frame mountable to the torso, an upper arm brace and a first group of actuators for moving the upper arm brace
Universal Bounds for the Holevo Quantity, Coherent Information, and the Jensen-Shannon Divergence
Roga, Wojciech; Fannes, Mark; Życzkowski, Karol
2010-07-01
The mutual information between the sender of a classical message encoded in quantum carriers and a receiver is fundamentally limited by the Holevo quantity. Using strong subadditivity of entropy, we prove that the Holevo quantity is not larger than an exchange entropy. This implies an upper bound for coherent information. Moreover, restricting our attention to classical information, we bound the transmission distance between probability distributions by their entropic distance, which is a concave function of their Hellinger distance.
Lewis, Robert Michael; Patera, Anthony T.; Peraire, Jaume
1998-01-01
We present a Neumann-subproblem a posteriori finite element procedure for the efficient and accurate calculation of rigorous, 'constant-free' upper and lower bounds for sensitivity derivatives of functionals of the solutions of partial differential equations. The design motivation for sensitivity derivative error control is discussed; the a posteriori finite element procedure is described; the asymptotic bounding properties and computational complexity of the method are summarized; and illustrative numerical results are presented.
Computer simulation of bounded plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lawson, W.S.
1987-01-01
The problems of simulating a one-dimensional bounded plasma system using particles in a gridded space are systematically explored and solutions to them are given. Such problems include the injection of particles at the boundaries, the solution of Poisson's equation, and the inclusion of an external circuit between the confining boundaries. A recently discovered artificial cooling effect is explained as being a side-effect of quiet injection, and its potential for causing serious but subtle errors in bounded simulation is noted. The methods described in the first part of the thesis are then applied to the simulation of an extension of the Pierce diode problem, specifically a Pierce diode modified by an external circuit between the electrodes. The results of these simulations agree to high accuracy with theory when a theory exists, and also show some interesting chaotic behavior in certain parameter regimes. The chaotic behavior is described in detail
Bounded Rationality in Transposition Processes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vollaard, Hans; Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg
2014-01-01
Studies explaining the timeliness and correctness of the transposition of EU directives into national legislation have provided rather inconclusive findings. They do not offer a clear-cut prediction concerning the transposition of the patients’ rights directive, which is one of the first that con......Studies explaining the timeliness and correctness of the transposition of EU directives into national legislation have provided rather inconclusive findings. They do not offer a clear-cut prediction concerning the transposition of the patients’ rights directive, which is one of the first...... that concerns the organisation and financing of national healthcare systems. This article applies the perspective of bounded rationality to explain (irregularities in) the timely and correct transposition of EU directives. The cognitive and organisational constraints long posited by the bounded rationality...
2013-03-26
...; Comment Request; Upward Bound and Upward Bound Math Science Annual Performance Report AGENCY: The Office... considered public records. Title of Collection: Upward Bound and Upward Bound Math Science Annual Performance...) and Upward Bound Math and Science (UBMS) Programs. The Department is requesting a new APR because of...
Complexity Bounds for Quantum Computation
2007-06-22
iently thanin lassi al omputation, onstru tion of small ir uits whi h an arry out phase estimation, show-ing that the quantum ontent of strong...on lower bounds for omputing parity or fanout using onstant or log depth quantum ir uits, quantum simulations of lassi al ir uit elements and...lasses, su h as thresh-old and mod fun tions, and the general relationships between quantum omplexity lasses and orre-sponding lassi al lasses
Bounds on the mass and the moment of inertia of nonrotating neutron stars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sabbadini, A.G.
1976-01-01
Bounds are placed on the mass and the moment of inertia of relativistic, spherical, perfect fluid neutron stars, under minimal assumptions on the equation of state of neutron star matter above nuclear densities. The assumptions are: the pressure p, the density rho, and the derivative dp/d rho are positive. The equation of state is assumed to be known below the density rho 0 = 5 x 10 14 g/cm 3 . The upper bound on the mass of a nonrotating neutron star, under these assumptions, is found to be 5 M/sub solar mass/. Upper and lower bounds on the moment of inertia are derived: for a spherical star of given mass and radius (without assuming a specific equation of state in any density region); for a spherical neutron star of arbitrary mass and radius; for a spherical neutron star of given mass. These bounds are optimum ones, in the sense that there always exists a configuration consistent with the assumptions, having a moment of inertia equal to the bound. Using these results for the moment of inertia, the correction to the upper bound on the mass due to slow rotation is discussed
Tight bounds on the size of neural networks for classification problems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Beiu, V. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Pauw, T. de [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium). Dept. de Mathematique
1997-06-01
This paper relies on the entropy of a data-set (i.e., number-of-bits) to prove tight bounds on the size of neural networks solving a classification problem. First, based on a sequence of geometrical steps, the authors constructively compute an upper bound of O(mn) on the number-of-bits for a given data-set - here m is the number of examples and n is the number of dimensions (i.e., R{sup n}). This result is used further in a nonconstructive way to bound the size of neural networks which correctly classify that data-set.
Semiclassical and Quantum Field Theoretic Bounds for Traversable Lorentzian Stringy Wormholes
Nandi, Kamal Kanti; Zhang, Yuan-Zhong; Kumar, K. B. Vijaya
2004-01-01
A lower bound on the size of a Lorentzian wormhole can be obtained by semiclassically introducing the Planck cut-off on the magnitude of tidal forces (Horowitz-Ross constraint). Also, an upper bound is provided by the quantum field theoretic constraint in the form of the Ford-Roman Quantum Inequality for massless minimally coupled scalar fields. To date, however, exact static solutions belonging to this scalar field theory have not been worked out to verify these bounds. To fill this gap, we ...
Lemonnier, Remi; Scaman, Kevin; Vayatis, Nicolas
2014-01-01
In this paper, we derive theoretical bounds for the long-term influence of a node in an Independent Cascade Model (ICM). We relate these bounds to the spectral radius of a particular matrix and show that the behavior is sub-critical when this spectral radius is lower than $1$. More specifically, we point out that, in general networks, the sub-critical regime behaves in $O(\\sqrt{n})$ where $n$ is the size of the network, and that this upper bound is met for star-shaped networks. We apply our r...
Bounding quantum gate error rate based on reported average fidelity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sanders, Yuval R; Wallman, Joel J; Sanders, Barry C
2016-01-01
Remarkable experimental advances in quantum computing are exemplified by recent announcements of impressive average gate fidelities exceeding 99.9% for single-qubit gates and 99% for two-qubit gates. Although these high numbers engender optimism that fault-tolerant quantum computing is within reach, the connection of average gate fidelity with fault-tolerance requirements is not direct. Here we use reported average gate fidelity to determine an upper bound on the quantum-gate error rate, which is the appropriate metric for assessing progress towards fault-tolerant quantum computation, and we demonstrate that this bound is asymptotically tight for general noise. Although this bound is unlikely to be saturated by experimental noise, we demonstrate using explicit examples that the bound indicates a realistic deviation between the true error rate and the reported average fidelity. We introduce the Pauli distance as a measure of this deviation, and we show that knowledge of the Pauli distance enables tighter estimates of the error rate of quantum gates. (fast track communication)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ji Guo
2017-12-01
Full Text Available With the rapid economic growth and development, the problem of environmental pollution in China’s cities is becoming increasingly serious, and environmental pollution takes on a regional difference. There is, however, little comprehensive evaluation on the environmental performance and the regional difference of strictly-environmental-monitored cities in China. In this paper, the environmental performance of 109 strictly-environmental-monitored cities in China is evaluated in terms of natural performance, management performance, and scale performance by Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA, incorporating PM2.5 and PM10 as undesirable outputs. The empirical results show that: (1 At present, the natural performance is quite high, while the management performance is noticeably low for most cities. (2 The gap between the level of economic development and environmental protection among cities in China is large, and the scale efficiency of big cities is better than that of smaller cities. The efficiency value of large-scale cities such as Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Shenzhen, etc. is high, equaling 1; the value of smaller cities such as Sanmenxia, Baoding, Mudanjiang, and Pingdingshan is low, close to 0, indicating that big cities are characterized by high environmental efficiency. (3 From the perspective of region, the level of environmental performance in China is very uneven. For example, the environmental efficiency level of the Pan-Pearl River Delta region is superior to that of the Pan-Yangtze River region and the Bahia Rim region, whose values of environmental efficiency are 0.858, 0.658, and 0.622 respectively. The average efficiency of the Southern Coastal Economic Zone, Eastern Coastal Comprehensive Economic Zone, and the Comprehensive Economic Zone in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River is higher than that of other regions. Finally, corresponding countermeasures and suggestions are put forward. The method used in this paper is applicable
Disordered strictly jammed binary sphere packings attain an anomalously large range of densities
Hopkins, Adam B.; Stillinger, Frank H.; Torquato, Salvatore
2013-08-01
Previous attempts to simulate disordered binary sphere packings have been limited in producing mechanically stable, isostatic packings across a broad spectrum of packing fractions. Here we report that disordered strictly jammed binary packings (packings that remain mechanically stable under general shear deformations and compressions) can be produced with an anomalously large range of average packing fractions 0.634≤ϕ≤0.829 for small to large sphere radius ratios α restricted to α≥0.100. Surprisingly, this range of average packing fractions is obtained for packings containing a subset of spheres (called the backbone) that are exactly strictly jammed, exactly isostatic, and also generated from random initial conditions. Additionally, the average packing fractions of these packings at certain α and small sphere relative number concentrations x approach those of the corresponding densest known ordered packings. These findings suggest for entropic reasons that these high-density disordered packings should be good glass formers and that they may be easy to prepare experimentally. We also identify an unusual feature of the packing fraction of jammed backbones (packings with rattlers excluded). The backbone packing fraction is about 0.624 over the majority of the α-x plane, even when large numbers of small spheres are present in the backbone. Over the (relatively small) area of the α-x plane where the backbone is not roughly constant, we find that backbone packing fractions range from about 0.606 to 0.829, with the volume of rattler spheres comprising between 1.6% and 26.9% of total sphere volume. To generate isostatic strictly jammed packings, we use an implementation of the Torquato-Jiao sequential linear programming algorithm [Phys. Rev. EPLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.82.061302 82, 061302 (2010)], which is an efficient producer of inherent structures (mechanically stable configurations at the local maxima in the density landscape). The identification and
Disordered strictly jammed binary sphere packings attain an anomalously large range of densities.
Hopkins, Adam B; Stillinger, Frank H; Torquato, Salvatore
2013-08-01
Previous attempts to simulate disordered binary sphere packings have been limited in producing mechanically stable, isostatic packings across a broad spectrum of packing fractions. Here we report that disordered strictly jammed binary packings (packings that remain mechanically stable under general shear deformations and compressions) can be produced with an anomalously large range of average packing fractions 0.634≤φ≤0.829 for small to large sphere radius ratios α restricted to α≥0.100. Surprisingly, this range of average packing fractions is obtained for packings containing a subset of spheres (called the backbone) that are exactly strictly jammed, exactly isostatic, and also generated from random initial conditions. Additionally, the average packing fractions of these packings at certain α and small sphere relative number concentrations x approach those of the corresponding densest known ordered packings. These findings suggest for entropic reasons that these high-density disordered packings should be good glass formers and that they may be easy to prepare experimentally. We also identify an unusual feature of the packing fraction of jammed backbones (packings with rattlers excluded). The backbone packing fraction is about 0.624 over the majority of the α-x plane, even when large numbers of small spheres are present in the backbone. Over the (relatively small) area of the α-x plane where the backbone is not roughly constant, we find that backbone packing fractions range from about 0.606 to 0.829, with the volume of rattler spheres comprising between 1.6% and 26.9% of total sphere volume. To generate isostatic strictly jammed packings, we use an implementation of the Torquato-Jiao sequential linear programming algorithm [Phys. Rev. E 82, 061302 (2010)], which is an efficient producer of inherent structures (mechanically stable configurations at the local maxima in the density landscape). The identification and explicit construction of binary packings
Chaaban, Anas
2016-02-03
The capacity of the free-space optical channel is studied. A new recursive approach for bounding the capacity of the channel based on sphere-packing is proposed. This approach leads to new capacity upper bounds for a channel with a peak intensity constraint or an average intensity constraint. Under an average constraint only, the derived bound is tighter than an existing sphere-packing bound derived earlier by Farid and Hranilovic. The achievable rate of a truncated-Gaussian input distribution is also derived. It is shown that under both average and peak constraints, this achievable rate and the sphere-packing bounds are within a small gap at high SNR, leading to a simple high-SNR capacity approximation. Simple fitting functions that capture the best known achievable rate for the channel are provided. These functions can be of practical importance especially for the study of systems operating under atmospheric turbulence and misalignment conditions.
Bounding the Vapnik--Chervonenkis dimension of concept classes parameterized by real numbers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Goldberg, P. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Jerrum, M. (Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Computer Science)
1993-01-01
The Vapnik-Chervonenkis (V-C) dimension is an important combinatorial tool in the analysis of learning problems in the PAC framework. For polynomial learnability, we seek upper bounds on the V-C dimension that are polynomial in the syntactic complexity of concepts. Such upper bounds are automatic for discrete concept classes, but hitherto little has been known about what general conditions guarantee polynomial bounds on V-C dimension for classes in which concepts and examples are represented by tuples of real numbers. In this paper, we show that for two general kinds of concept class the V-C dimension is polynomially bounded as a function of the syntactic complexity of concepts. One is classes where the criterion for membership of an instance in a concept can be expressed as a formula with fixed quantification depth and exponentially-bounded length, whose atomic predicates are polynomial inequalities of exponentially-bounded degree. The other is classes where containment of an instance in a concept is testable in polynomial time, assuming we may compute standard arithmetic operations on reals exactly in constant time. Our results show that in the continuous case, as in the discrete, the real barrier to efficient learning in the Occam sense is complexity-theoretic and not information-theoretic. We present examples to show how these results apply to concept classes defined by geometrical figures and neural nets. Polynomial bounds on V-C dimension are derived for these classes, apparently for the first time.
Bounding the Vapnik--Chervonenkis dimension of concept classes parameterized by real numbers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Goldberg, P. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jerrum, M. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Computer Science
1993-04-01
The Vapnik-Chervonenkis (V-C) dimension is an important combinatorial tool in the analysis of learning problems in the PAC framework. For polynomial learnability, we seek upper bounds on the V-C dimension that are polynomial in the syntactic complexity of concepts. Such upper bounds are automatic for discrete concept classes, but hitherto little has been known about what general conditions guarantee polynomial bounds on V-C dimension for classes in which concepts and examples are represented by tuples of real numbers. In this paper, we show that for two general kinds of concept class the V-C dimension is polynomially bounded as a function of the syntactic complexity of concepts. One is classes where the criterion for membership of an instance in a concept can be expressed as a formula with fixed quantification depth and exponentially-bounded length, whose atomic predicates are polynomial inequalities of exponentially-bounded degree. The other is classes where containment of an instance in a concept is testable in polynomial time, assuming we may compute standard arithmetic operations on reals exactly in constant time. Our results show that in the continuous case, as in the discrete, the real barrier to efficient learning in the Occam sense is complexity-theoretic and not information-theoretic. We present examples to show how these results apply to concept classes defined by geometrical figures and neural nets. Polynomial bounds on V-C dimension are derived for these classes, apparently for the first time.
Tsirelson bounds for generalized Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequalities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wehner, Stephanie
2006-01-01
Quantum theory imposes a strict limit on the strength of nonlocal correlations. It only allows for a violation of the Clauser, Horne, Shimony, and Holt (CHSH) inequality up to the value 2√(2), known as Tsirelson's bound. In this paper, we consider generalized CHSH inequalities based on many measurement settings with two possible measurement outcomes each. We demonstrate how to prove Tsirelson bounds for any such generalized CHSH inequality using semidefinite programming. As an example, we show that for any shared entangled state and observables X 1 ,...,X n and Y 1 ,...,Y n with eigenvalues ±1 we have | 1 Y 1 >+ 2 Y 1 >+ 2 Y 2 >+ 3 Y 2 >+···+ n Y n >- 1 Y n >|≤2n cos[π/(2n)]. It is well known that there exist observables such that equality can be achieved. However, we show that these are indeed optimal. Our approach can easily be generalized to other inequalities for such observables
Bounding approach in BUC implementation in pool at WWER-440
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Havluj, F.
2006-01-01
As new fuel designs (with higher enrichment) are introduced, spent fuel storage facilities might not fulfill criticality safety criteria when using fresh fuel approach to the criticality analyses. Since optimum moderation conditions evaluation even in wet storage systems is required by some regulatory bodies, any credit for soluble boron cannot be taken. Thus, the only suitable way to prove subcriticality of the given spent fuel system with higher enriched/burnt fuel is burnup credit implementation. This paper outlines burnup credit implementation methodology as demonstrated on criticality evaluation of WWER-440 reactor pool at NPP Dukovany. Operational history effects, isotopic set choice, as well as computational issues (SCALE 4.4a was used both for depletion and criticality calculations) are discussed, maintaining strictly conservative approach. Bounding approach in operational history treatment was carefully examined. Criticality evaluation using selection of (as expected) conservative values of operational parameters (specific power, fuel and moderator temperatures, boron content in moderator,..) was compared to criticality evaluation of real fuel assemblies from the NPP database. Therefore, bounding approach was justified and it was shown that it is not excessively conservative. Presented methodology can be applied on any similar spent fuel facility. Suggestions for future research are noted (mainly end-effect evaluation and consideration of profiled fuel) and urgent need of validation of depletion codes for WWER systems is emphasized (Authors)
Monopole excitation of nucleus in the bound muon decay
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sabirov, B.M.; Abazov, V.M.; Kutuzov, S.A.
1987-01-01
The work is aimed at theoretical and experimental investigation into the possibility of nucleus excitation under the muon decay on mesic atom K-shell. The process of mesic atom formation is briefly considered. The stage of muon presence in the mesic atom orbit is completed by mesoatomic cascade, muon decay or muon nuclear capture. Recording of electron coincidences from decay of muon with nuclear transition γ-quanta makes up the base of experiment on the search for the nucleus excitation under the bound muon decay. Muon 158 Sm atom is considered in detail. The experimental data obtained allow one to ascertain the upper limit of probability of the first 152 SmO + level excitation under the bound muon decay W -3
Capacity Bounds and Mapping Design for Binary Symmetric Relay Channels
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Majid Nasiri Khormuji
2012-12-01
Full Text Available Capacity bounds for a three-node binary symmetric relay channel with orthogonal components at the destination are studied. The cut-set upper bound and the rates achievable using decode-and-forward (DF, partial DF and compress-and-forward (CF relaying are first evaluated. Then relaying strategies with finite memory-length are considered. An efficient algorithm for optimizing the relay functions is presented. The Boolean Fourier transform is then employed to unveil the structure of the optimized mappings. Interestingly, the optimized relay functions exhibit a simple structure. Numerical results illustrate that the rates achieved using the optimized low-dimensional functions are either comparable to those achieved by CF or superior to those achieved by DF relaying. In particular, the optimized low-dimensional relaying scheme can improve on DF relaying when the quality of the source-relay link is worse than or comparable to that of other links.
The algebras of bounded and essentially bounded Lebesgue measurable functions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mortini Raymond
2017-04-01
Full Text Available Let X be a set in ℝn with positive Lebesgue measure. It is well known that the spectrum of the algebra L∞(X of (equivalence classes of essentially bounded, complex-valued, measurable functions on X is an extremely disconnected compact Hausdorff space.We show, by elementary methods, that the spectrum M of the algebra ℒb(X, ℂ of all bounded measurable functions on X is not extremely disconnected, though totally disconnected. Let ∆ = { δx : x ∈ X} be the set of point evaluations and let g be the Gelfand topology on M. Then (∆, g is homeomorphic to (X, Τdis,where Tdis is the discrete topology. Moreover, ∆ is a dense subset of the spectrum M of ℒb(X, ℂ. Finally, the hull h(I, (which is homeomorphic to M(L∞(X, of the ideal of all functions in ℒb(X, ℂ vanishing almost everywhere on X is a nowhere dense and extremely disconnected subset of the Corona M \\ ∆ of ℒb(X, ℂ.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
David S. Younger
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Lyme neuroborreliosis or “neurological Lyme disease” was evidenced in 2 of 23 patients submitted to strict criteria for case selection of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention employing a two-tier test to detect antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi at a single institution. One patient had symptomatic polyradiculoneuritis, dysautonomia, and serological evidence of early infection; and another had symptomatic small fiber sensory neuropathy, distal polyneuropathy, dysautonomia, and serological evidence of late infection. In the remaining patients symptoms initially ascribed to Lyme disease were probably unrelated to B. burgdorferi infection. Our findings suggest early susceptibility and protracted involvement of the nervous system most likely due to the immunological effects of B. burgdorferi infection, although the exact mechanisms remain uncertain.
A Total Variation Model Based on the Strictly Convex Modification for Image Denoising
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Boying Wu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We propose a strictly convex functional in which the regular term consists of the total variation term and an adaptive logarithm based convex modification term. We prove the existence and uniqueness of the minimizer for the proposed variational problem. The existence, uniqueness, and long-time behavior of the solution of the associated evolution system is also established. Finally, we present experimental results to illustrate the effectiveness of the model in noise reduction, and a comparison is made in relation to the more classical methods of the traditional total variation (TV, the Perona-Malik (PM, and the more recent D-α-PM method. Additional distinction from the other methods is that the parameters, for manual manipulation, in the proposed algorithm are reduced to basically only one.
Sheikh-Jabbari, M. M.
2016-09-01
General covariance is the cornerstone of Einstein’s general relativity (GR) and implies that any two metrics related by diffeomorphisms are physically equivalent. There are, however, many examples pointing to the fact that this strict statement of general covariance needs refinement. There are a very special (measure-zero) subset of diffeomorphisms, the residual diffeomorphisms, to which one can associate well-defined conserved charges. This would hence render these diffeomorphic geometries physically distinct. We discuss that these symmetries may be appropriately called “symplectic symmetries”. Existence of residual diffeomorphisms and symplectic symmetries can be a quite general feature and not limited to the examples discussed so far in the literature. We propose that, in the context of black holes, these diffeomorphic, but distinct, geometries may be viewed as “symplectic soft hair” on black holes. We comment on how this may remedy black hole microstate problem, which in this context are dubbed as “horizon fluffs”.
Reactions to terror attacks in ultra-orthodox jews: the cost of maintaining strict identity.
Ankri, Yael L E; Bachar, Eytan; Shalev, Arieh Y
2010-01-01
Traumatic events can shatter faith and beliefs. The responses of Ultra-Orthodox survivors of deadly terrorist attacks illustrate an effort to reconcile dreadful experiences with deeply embedded beliefs. Qualified clinicians prospectively evaluated self-reported and interviewer-generated posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and cognitive appraisal in Ultra-Orthodox (n = 20) and non-Ultra-Orthodox (n = 33) survivors of suicide bus-bombing incidents in Jerusalem. Ultra-Orthodox survivors reported higher levels of PTSD symptoms and more personal guilt. Their narratives reflected an unshaken belief in Just Providence, within which being a victim of terror was perceived as a Just retribution for known or unknown wrongdoing. Survivors' reactions to trauma often reflect an effort to reconcile incongruous experiences with previously held beliefs. When treating strict believers, helpers should be sensitive to the identity-preserving function of posttraumatic cognitions.
On a class of adjustable rate mortgage loans subject to a strict balance principle
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Astrup Jensen, Bjarne
We describe the background and the basic funding mechanisms for the type of adjustable rate mortgageloans that were introduced in the Danish market in 1996. Each loan is funded separately by tap issuingpass-through mortgage bonds (`strict balance principle'). The novelty is a funding mechanism...... that usesa roll-over strategy, where long term loans are funded by sequentially issuing short term pass-throughbonds, and the first issuer of these loans obtained a patent on the funding principles in 1999. Publiclyavailable descriptions of the principles leave an impression of very complicated numerical...... algorithms.The algorithms described here show that the essentials can be reduced to a `back of an envelope' complexity.Keywords: Adjustable rate mortgages, balance principle, patent, yield curve riding...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohd Bakri Ishak
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Basically, strict liability is part of the mechanism for expressing judgment or sentence by using direct evidence. This principle is very useful in order to obtain remedies from any damage either directly or indirectly. The principle in Rylands v Fletcher is responsible on imposing strict liability where if something brought onto land or collected there escapes liability under this rule can include not only the owner of land but also those who control or occupation on it. However, as a matter of fact, policy and regulation are also important in taking any action against any party who are responsible for environmental pollution or damage, which may include mismanagement of waste or industrial waste or agricultural waste. There are certain policies and regulations on environmental protection such as the National Environmental Policy, certain Acts and several regulations under the Environmental Quality Act 1974 (Act 127, which are very useful for agricultural waste management inter alia: Waters Act 1920 (Act 418, Environmental Quality (Prescribed Premises (Crude Palm Oil Regulations 1977, Environmental Quality (Prescribed Premises (Raw Natural Rubber Regulations 1978, Environmental Quality (Sewage and Industrial Effluents Regulations 1979, and Environmental Quality (Compounding of Offences Rules 1978. As a matter of fact, we should realize that time is of an essence for any parties which are involved in court cases and especially in avoiding the element of externality, which is commonly suffered by the government. In making this paper, therefore, some element of comparison with certain developed jurisdiction such as in the United Kingdom and Japan could not be avoided in order to obtain better outcome and to be more practical for the purpose of environmental protection and agricultural waste management.
The Effect of Strict Segregation on Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Cystic Fibrosis Patients.
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Rosa van Mansfeld
Full Text Available Segregation of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF was implemented to prevent chronic infection with epidemic Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains with presumed detrimental clinical effects, but its effectiveness has not been carefully evaluated.The effect of strict segregation on the incidence of P. aeruginosa infection in CF patients was investigated through longitudinal protocolized follow-up of respiratory tract infection before and after segregation. In two nested cross-sectional studies in 2007 and 2011 the P. aeruginosa population structure was investigated and clinical parameters were determined in patients with and without infection with the Dutch epidemic P. aeruginosa clone (ST406.Of 784 included patients 315 and 382 were at risk for acquiring chronic P. aeruginosa infection before and after segregation. Acquisition rates were, respectively, 0.14 and 0.05 per 1,000 days at risk (HR: 0.66, 95% CI [0.2548-1.541]; p = 0.28. An exploratory subgroup analysis indicated lower acquisition after segregation in children < 15 years of age (HR: 0.43, 95% CI[0.21-0.95]; p = 0.04. P. aeruginosa population structure did not change after segregation and ST406 was not associated with lung function decline, death or lung transplantation.Strict segregation was not associated with a statistically significant lower acquisition of chronic P. aeruginosa infection and ST406 was not associated with adverse clinical outcome. After segregation there were no new acquisitions of ST406. In an unplanned exploratory analysis chronic acquisition of P. aeruginosa was lower after implementation of segregation in patients under 15 years of age.
Weight of fitness deviation governs strict physical chaos in replicator dynamics
Pandit, Varun; Mukhopadhyay, Archan; Chakraborty, Sagar
2018-03-01
Replicator equation—a paradigm equation in evolutionary game dynamics—mathematizes the frequency dependent selection of competing strategies vying to enhance their fitness (quantified by the average payoffs) with respect to the average fitnesses of the evolving population under consideration. In this paper, we deal with two discrete versions of the replicator equation employed to study evolution in a population where any two players' interaction is modelled by a two-strategy symmetric normal-form game. There are twelve distinct classes of such games, each typified by a particular ordinal relationship among the elements of the corresponding payoff matrix. Here, we find the sufficient conditions for the existence of asymptotic solutions of the replicator equations such that the solutions—fixed points, periodic orbits, and chaotic trajectories—are all strictly physical, meaning that the frequency of any strategy lies inside the closed interval zero to one at all times. Thus, we elaborate on which of the twelve types of games are capable of showing meaningful physical solutions and for which of the two types of replicator equation. Subsequently, we introduce the concept of the weight of fitness deviation that is the scaling factor in a positive affine transformation connecting two payoff matrices such that the corresponding one-shot games have exactly same Nash equilibria and evolutionary stable states. The weight also quantifies how much the excess of fitness of a strategy over the average fitness of the population affects the per capita change in the frequency of the strategy. Intriguingly, the weight's variation is capable of making the Nash equilibria and the evolutionary stable states, useless by introducing strict physical chaos in the replicator dynamics based on the normal-form game.
Selvester scoring in patients with strict LBBB using the QUARESS software.
Xia, Xiaojuan; Chaudhry, Uzma; Wieslander, Björn; Borgquist, Rasmus; Wagner, Galen S; Strauss, David G; Platonov, Pyotr; Ugander, Martin; Couderc, Jean-Philippe
2015-01-01
Estimation of the infarct size from body-surface ECGs in post-myocardial infarction patients has become possible using the Selvester scoring method. Automation of this scoring has been proposed in order to speed-up the measurement of the score and improving the inter-observer variability in computing a score that requires strong expertise in electrocardiography. In this work, we evaluated the quality of the QuAReSS software for delivering correct Selvester scoring in a set of standard 12-lead ECGs. Standard 12-lead ECGs were recorded in 105 post-MI patients prescribed implantation of an implantable cardiodefibrillator (ICD). Amongst the 105 patients with standard clinical left bundle branch block (LBBB) patterns, 67 had a LBBB pattern meeting the strict criteria. The QuAReSS software was applied to these 67 tracings by two independent groups of cardiologists (from a clinical group and an ECG core laboratory) to measure the Selvester score semi-automatically. Using various level of agreement metrics, we compared the scores between groups and when automatically measured by the software. The average of the absolute difference in Selvester scores measured by the two independent groups was 1.4±1.5 score points, whereas the difference between automatic method and the two manual adjudications were 1.2±1.2 and 1.3±1.2 points. Eighty-two percent score agreement was observed between the two independent measurements when the difference of score was within two point ranges, while 90% and 84% score agreements were reached using the automatic method compared to the two manual adjudications. The study confirms that the QuAReSS software provides valid measurements of the Selvester score in patients with strict LBBB with minimal correction from cardiologists. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eloísa Ramos Rodríguez
2016-11-01
Full Text Available A common freshwater cryptophyte, Cryptomonas pyrenoidifera, was cultivated in batch-cultures to analyze intraspecific variation in elemental stoichiometry along a broad gradient of pulsed phosphorus (P enrichment during the early acclimation period and to determine the immediate homeostatic capacity of the nitrogen-to-phosphorus (N:P ratio of this alga when nutrients are at saturating levels. Experimental results revealed that nitrogen (N and P cell quotas significantly increased with increasing P concentration. However, despite the wide range of N:P ratios in the medium, Cryptomonas N:P ratios were highly stable at higher P-level treatments, indicating a highly conservative behavior and suggesting strict elemental homeostasis when nutrients are at saturating levels. The strictly homeostatic N:P ratio appears to be attributable to their high potential for a fast luxury consumption of both N and P after a brief and intense episode of increased resource availability and to physiological limits on their nutrient storage capacity. Most importantly, the N:P biomass ratio at nutrient saturating levels converged around 11:1, which was the observed ratio of maximum internal cell quotas for N and P (i.e. Qmax,N:Qmax,P under the prevailing experimental conditions. This value is particularly informative for C. pyrenoidifera because it represents cell storage quotients and may be a taxon-specific evolutionary optimum, providing a reference point to infer the grade of nutrient-limitation. The experimental data give ranges of variation in C. pyrenoidifera elemental composition permitting, among others, proper parameterization of cryptophyte stoichiometry models.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, N F; Jensen, A B; Wille-Jørgensen, P
2010-01-01
Aim The risk of local recurrence following curative surgery for colorectal cancer (CRC) is up to 50%. A rigorous follow-up program may increase survival. Guidelines on suitable methods for scheduled follow up examinations are needed. This study evaluates a strict follow-up program including...... supported a strict follow-up program following curative surgery for colorectal cancer. FDG-PET combined with CT should be included in control programs....
Voronoi Diagrams Without Bounding Boxes
Sang, E. T. K.
2015-10-01
We present a technique for presenting geographic data in Voronoi diagrams without having to specify a bounding box. The method restricts Voronoi cells to points within a user-defined distance of the data points. The mathematical foundation of the approach is presented as well. The cell clipping method is particularly useful for presenting geographic data that is spread in an irregular way over a map, as for example the Dutch dialect data displayed in Figure 2. The automatic generation of reasonable cell boundaries also makes redundant a frequently used solution to this problem that requires data owners to specify region boundaries, as in Goebl (2010) and Nerbonne et al (2011).
Sensitivity analysis using probability bounding
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferson, Scott; Troy Tucker, W.
2006-01-01
Probability bounds analysis (PBA) provides analysts a convenient means to characterize the neighborhood of possible results that would be obtained from plausible alternative inputs in probabilistic calculations. We show the relationship between PBA and the methods of interval analysis and probabilistic uncertainty analysis from which it is jointly derived, and indicate how the method can be used to assess the quality of probabilistic models such as those developed in Monte Carlo simulations for risk analyses. We also illustrate how a sensitivity analysis can be conducted within a PBA by pinching inputs to precise distributions or real values
An interval-valued reliability model with bounded failure rates
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kozine, Igor; Krymsky, Victor
2012-01-01
The approach to deriving interval-valued reliability measures described in this paper is distinctive from other imprecise reliability models in that it overcomes the issue of having to impose an upper bound on time to failure. It rests on the presupposition that a constant interval-valued failure...... rate is known possibly along with other reliability measures, precise or imprecise. The Lagrange method is used to solve the constrained optimization problem to derive new reliability measures of interest. The obtained results call for an exponential-wise approximation of failure probability density...... function if only partial failure information is available. An example is provided. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC....
Bounding the Speed of Gravity with Gravitational Wave Observations.
Cornish, Neil; Blas, Diego; Nardini, Germano
2017-10-20
The time delay between gravitational wave signals arriving at widely separated detectors can be used to place upper and lower bounds on the speed of gravitational wave propagation. Using a Bayesian approach that combines the first three gravitational wave detections reported by the LIGO Scientific and Virgo Collaborations we constrain the gravitational waves propagation speed c_{gw} to the 90% credible interval 0.55cLIGO detectors will constrain the speed of gravity to within 20% of the speed of light, while just five detections by the LIGO-Virgo-Kagra network will constrain the speed of gravity to within 1% of the speed of light.
Error bounds for approximations with deep ReLU networks.
Yarotsky, Dmitry
2017-10-01
We study expressive power of shallow and deep neural networks with piece-wise linear activation functions. We establish new rigorous upper and lower bounds for the network complexity in the setting of approximations in Sobolev spaces. In particular, we prove that deep ReLU networks more efficiently approximate smooth functions than shallow networks. In the case of approximations of 1D Lipschitz functions we describe adaptive depth-6 network architectures more efficient than the standard shallow architecture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Observational Bounds on Cosmic Doomsday
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shmakova, Marina
2003-07-11
Recently it was found, in a broad class of models, that the dark energy density may change its sign during the evolution of the universe. This may lead to a global collapse of the universe within the time t{sub c} {approx} 10{sup 10}-10{sup 11} years. Our goal is to find what bounds on the future lifetime of the universe can be placed by the next generation of cosmological observations. As an example, we investigate the simplest model of dark energy with a linear potential V({phi}) = V{sub 0}(1 + {alpha}{phi}). This model can describe the present stage of acceleration of the universe if {alpha} is small enough. However, eventually the field {phi} rolls down, V({phi}) becomes negative, and the universe collapses. The existing observational data indicate that the universe described by this model will collapse not earlier than t{sub c} {approx_equal} 10 billion years from the present moment. We show that the data from SNAP and Planck satellites may extend the bound on the ''doomsday'' time to tc 40 billion years at the 95% confidence level.
Upper Extremity Length Equalization
DeCoster, Thomas A.; Ritterbusch, John; Crawford, Mark
1992-01-01
Significant upper extremity length inequality is uncommon but can cause major functional problems. The ability to position and use the hand may be impaired by shortness of any of the long bones of the upper extremity. In many respects upper and lower extremity length problems are similar. They most commonly occur after injury to a growing bone and the treatment modalities utilized in the lower extremity may be applied to the upper extremity. These treatment options include epiphysiodesis, sho...
Upper Gastrointestinal (GI) Series
... standard barium upper GI series, which uses only barium a double-contrast upper GI series, which uses both air and ... evenly coat your upper GI tract with the barium. If you are having a double-contrast study, you will swallow gas-forming crystals that ...
Holography, Dimensional Reduction and the Bekenstein Bound
Bak, Dongsu; Yee, Ho-Ung
2004-04-01
We consider dimensional reduction of the lightlike holography of the covariant entropy bound from D+1 dimensional geometry of M × S1 to the D dimensional geometry M. With a warping factor, the local Bekenstein bound in D+1 dimensions leads to a more refined form of the bound from the D dimensional view point. With this new local Bekenstein bound, it is quite possible to saturate the lightlike holography even with nonvanishing expansion rate. With a Kaluza-Klein gauge field, the dimensional reduction implies a stronger bound where the energy momentum tensor contribution is replaced by the energy momentum tensor with the electromagnetic contribution subtracted.
Bounds on Minimum Energy per Bit for Optical Wireless Relay Channels
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. D. Raza
2014-09-01
Full Text Available An optical wireless relay channel (OWRC is the classical three node network consisting of source, re- lay and destination nodes with optical wireless connectivity. The channel law is assumed Gaussian. This paper studies the bounds on minimum energy per bit required for reliable communication over an OWRC. It is shown that capacity of an OWRC is concave and energy per bit is monotonically increasing in square of the peak optical signal power, and consequently the minimum energy per bit is inversely pro- portional to the square root of asymptotic capacity at low signal to noise ratio. This has been used to develop upper and lower bound on energy per bit as a function of peak signal power, mean to peak power ratio, and variance of channel noise. The upper and lower bounds on minimum energy per bit derived in this paper correspond respectively to the decode and forward lower bound and the min-max cut upper bound on OWRC capacity
Relevance of the ICRP biokinetic model for dietary organically bound tritium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Trivedi, A.
1999-10-01
Ingested dietary tritium can participate in metabolic processes, and become synthesized into organically bound tritium in the tissues and organs. The distribution and retention of the organically bound tritium throughout the body are much different than tritium in the body water. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 56 (1989) has a biokinetic model to calculate dose from the ingestion of organically bound dietary tritium. The model predicts that the dose from the ingestion of organically bound dietary tritium is about 2.3 times higher than from the ingestion of the same activity of tritiated water. Under steady-state conditions, the calculated dose rate (using the first principle approach) from the ingestion of dietary organically bound tritium can be twice that from the ingestion of tritiated water. For an adult, the upper-bound dose estimate for the ingestion of dietary organically bound tritium is estimated to be close to 2.3 times higher than that of tritiated water. Therefore, given the uncertainty in the dose calculation with respect to the actual relevant dose, the ICRP biokinetic model for organically bound tritium is sufficient for dosimetry for adults. (author)
Triviality bound on lightest Higgs mass in next to minimal supersymmetric model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Choudhury, S.R.; Mamta; Dutta, Sukanta
1998-01-01
We study the implication of triviality on Higgs sector in next to minimal supersymmetric model (NMSSM) using variational field theory. It is shown that the mass of the lightest Higgs boson in NMSSM has an upper bound ∼ 10 M w which is of the same order as that in the standard model. (author)
Bounds of the Spectral Radius and the Nordhaus-Gaddum Type of the Graphs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tianfei Wang
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The Laplacian spectra are the eigenvalues of Laplacian matrix L(G=D(G-A(G, where D(G and A(G are the diagonal matrix of vertex degrees and the adjacency matrix of a graph G, respectively, and the spectral radius of a graph G is the largest eigenvalue of A(G. The spectra of the graph and corresponding eigenvalues are closely linked to the molecular stability and related chemical properties. In quantum chemistry, spectral radius of a graph is the maximum energy level of molecules. Therefore, good upper bounds for the spectral radius are conducive to evaluate the energy of molecules. In this paper, we first give several sharp upper bounds on the adjacency spectral radius in terms of some invariants of graphs, such as the vertex degree, the average 2-degree, and the number of the triangles. Then, we give some numerical examples which indicate that the results are better than the mentioned upper bounds in some sense. Finally, an upper bound of the Nordhaus-Gaddum type is obtained for the sum of Laplacian spectral radius of a connected graph and its complement. Moreover, some examples are applied to illustrate that our result is valuable.
Morse potential, symmetric Morse potential and bracketed bound-state energies
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Znojil, Miloslav
2016-01-01
Roč. 31, č. 14 (2016), s. 1650088 ISSN 0217-7323 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-22945S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : quantum bound states * special functions * Morse potential * symmetrized Morse potential * upper and lower energy estimates * computer-assisted symbolic manipulations Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.165, year: 2016
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob; Mataji, B.
2007-01-01
of the prediction error. These proposed dynamical uncertainty models result in an upper and lower bound on the predicted performance of the plant. The dynamical uncertainty models are used to estimate the uncertainty of the predicted performance of a coal-fired power plant. The proposed scheme, which uses dynamical...
On order bounded subsets of locally solid Riesz spaces | Hong ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
In a topological Riesz space there are two types of bounded subsets: order bounded subsets and topologically bounded subsets. It is natural to ask (1) whether an order bounded subset is topologically bounded and (2) whether a topologically bounded subset is order bounded. A classical result gives a partial answer to (1) ...
VORONOI DIAGRAMS WITHOUT BOUNDING BOXES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. T. K. Sang
2015-10-01
Full Text Available We present a technique for presenting geographic data in Voronoi diagrams without having to specify a bounding box. The method restricts Voronoi cells to points within a user-defined distance of the data points. The mathematical foundation of the approach is presented as well. The cell clipping method is particularly useful for presenting geographic data that is spread in an irregular way over a map, as for example the Dutch dialect data displayed in Figure 2. The automatic generation of reasonable cell boundaries also makes redundant a frequently used solution to this problem that requires data owners to specify region boundaries, as in Goebl (2010 and Nerbonne et al (2011.
Cosmological bounds on neutrino statistics
de Salas, P. F.; Gariazzo, S.; Laveder, M.; Pastor, S.; Pisanti, O.; Truong, N.
2018-03-01
We consider the phenomenological implications of the violation of the Pauli exclusion principle for neutrinos, focusing on cosmological observables such as the spectrum of Cosmic Microwave Background anisotropies, Baryon Acoustic Oscillations and the primordial abundances of light elements. Neutrinos that behave (at least partly) as bosonic particles have a modified equilibrium distribution function that implies a different influence on the evolution of the Universe that, in the case of massive neutrinos, can not be simply parametrized by a change in the effective number of neutrinos. Our results show that, despite the precision of the available cosmological data, only very weak bounds can be obtained on neutrino statistics, disfavouring a more bosonic behaviour at less than 2σ.
Fundamental Bounds on MIMO Antennas
Ehrenborg, Casimir; Gustafsson, Mats
2018-01-01
Antenna current optimization is often used to analyze the optimal performance of antennas. Antenna performance can be quantified in e.g., minimum Q-factor and efficiency. The performance of MIMO antennas is more involved and, in general, a single parameter is not sufficient to quantify it. Here, the capacity of an idealized channel is used as the main performance quantity. An optimization problem in the current distribution for optimal capacity, measured in spectral efficiency, given a fixed Q-factor and efficiency is formulated as a semi-definite optimization problem. A model order reduction based on characteristic and energy modes is employed to improve the computational efficiency. The performance bound is illustrated by solving the optimization problem numerically for rectangular plates and spherical shells.
Spectral computations for bounded operators
Ahues, Mario; Limaye, Balmohan
2001-01-01
Exact eigenvalues, eigenvectors, and principal vectors of operators with infinite dimensional ranges can rarely be found. Therefore, one must approximate such operators by finite rank operators, then solve the original eigenvalue problem approximately. Serving as both an outstanding text for graduate students and as a source of current results for research scientists, Spectral Computations for Bounded Operators addresses the issue of solving eigenvalue problems for operators on infinite dimensional spaces. From a review of classical spectral theory through concrete approximation techniques to finite dimensional situations that can be implemented on a computer, this volume illustrates the marriage of pure and applied mathematics. It contains a variety of recent developments, including a new type of approximation that encompasses a variety of approximation methods but is simple to verify in practice. It also suggests a new stopping criterion for the QR Method and outlines advances in both the iterative refineme...
Rhemrev, G E; Timmerman, M F; Veldkamp, I; Van Winkelhoff, A J; Van der Velden, U
2006-01-01
To investigate (1) reduction in the number of microorganisms obtained directly after subgingival instrumentation, (2) rate of bacterial re-colonization during 2 weeks, under supragingival plaque-free conditions. Effects of subgingival instrumentation were measured at one deep pocket in 22 patients (11 smokers and 11 non-smokers). Immediately after initial therapy, experimental sites, under strict plaque control, were instrumented subgingivally. Microbiological evaluation was performed at pre-instrumentation, immediate post-instrumentation and 1 and 2 weeks post-instrumentation. Mean total anaerobic colony forming units (CFUs) dropped from 3.9 x 10(6) before to 0.09 x 10(6) immediately following instrumentation. Significant reductions were found for Tannerella forsythia, Micromonas micros, Fusobacterium nucleatum and spirochetes. Significant reductions were not observed for Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia and Campylobacter rectus. Except for spirochetes, no reduction in prevalence of specific periodontal bacteria was found immediately after instrumentation. During follow-up, mean total CFU tended to increase. Prevalence of periodontal bacteria further reduced. No effect of smoking was found. Results indicate that subgingival mechanical cleaning in itself, has a limited effect, in actually removing bacteria. The subsequent reduction in prevalence of specific periodontal bacteria shows that it is apparently difficult for these species to survive in treated pockets.
Ferrando, A A; Stuart, C A; Brunder, D G; Hillman, G R
1995-10-01
Prolonged bed rest results in a loss of leg lean body mass. Previous studies using bed rest as a model for microgravity have shown decreases in leg mass after 12 and 14 d, 5 and 17 wk. As magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can provide a precise and non-invasive means of determining muscle volume, we sought to determine if changes in leg muscle volume could be detected in bed rest periods as short as 7 d. Five young, healthy, male volunteers were subjected to 7 d of absolute bed rest. Each subject underwent MRI quantitation of segmental muscle volumes of the calves and thighs before and after bed rest. Eleven (calf) and nine (thigh) contiguous 1-cm thick transaxial images were generated over prescribed regions using a Technicare MRI imager with a 0.6T superconducting magnet and body coil. Image processing was performed using a generalized 8-bit medical image analysis package developed at University of Texas Medical Branch. Images were analyzed for muscle and non-muscle volumes (including fat, blood vessel, and bone marrow volumes). The MRI quantitation demonstrated bed rest-induced significant decreases in segmental thigh muscle (approximately 3.0%, p image analysis of MRI images provides a sensitive tool capable of detecting leg volume changes of as little as 3.0% over a 7-d period of strict bed rest.
Kayyal, Mohammad; Gibbs, Trevor
2012-01-01
As the world of medical education moves forward, it becomes increasingly clear that the transformative process is not as easy a process for all. Across the globe, there appears to be many barriers that obstruct or threaten innovation and change, most of which cause almost insurmountable problems to many schools. If transformative education is to result in an equitable raising of standards across such an unlevel playing field, schools have to find ways in overcoming these barriers. One seemingly common barrier to development occurs when medical schools are trapped within strict University governance structures; rules and regulations which are frequently inappropriate and obstructive to the transformation that must occur in today's medical educational paradigm. The Faculty of Medicine at Damascus University, one of the oldest and foremost medical schools in the Middle East, is one such school where rigid rules and regulations and traditional values are obstructing transformative change. This paper describes the problems, which the authors believe to be common to many, and explores how attempts have been made to overcome them and move the school into the twenty-first century. It is the ultimate purpose of this paper to raise awareness of the issue, share the lessons learned in order to assist others who are experiencing similar problems and possibly create opportunities for dialogue between schools.
On a holomorphic Lefschetz formula in strictly pseudoconvex subdomains of complex manifolds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kytmanov, A M; Myslivets, S G; Tarkhanov, N N
2004-01-01
The classical Lefschetz formula expresses the number of fixed points of a continuous map f:M→M in terms of the transformation induced by f on the cohomology of M. In 1966, Atiyah and Bott extended this formula to elliptic complexes over a compact closed manifold. In particular, they obtained a holomorphic Lefschetz formula on compact complex manifolds without boundary. Brenner and Shubin (1981, 1991) extended the Atiyah-Bott theory to compact manifolds with boundary. On compact complex manifolds with boundary the Dolbeault complex is not elliptic, therefore the Atiyah-Bott theory is not applicable. Bypassing difficulties related to the boundary behaviour of Dolbeault cohomology, Donnelly and Fefferman (1986) obtained a formula for the number of fixed points in terms of the Bergman metric. The aim of this paper is to obtain a Lefschetz formula on relatively compact strictly pseudoconvex subdomains of complex manifolds X with smooth boundary, that is, to find the total Lefschetz number for a holomorphic endomorphism f * of the Dolbeault complex and to express it in terms of local invariants of the fixed points of f.
Agren, J J; Tvrzicka, E; Nenonen, M T; Helve, T; Hänninen, O
2001-02-01
The effects of a strict uncooked vegan diet on serum lipid and sterol concentrations were studied in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The subjects were randomized into a vegan diet group (n 16), who consumed a vegan diet for 2-3 months, or into a control group (n 13), who continued their usual omnivorous diets. Serum total and LDL-cholesterol and -phospholipid concentrations were significantly decreased by the vegan diet. The levels of serum cholestanol and lathosterol also decreased, but serum cholestanol:total cholesterol and lathosterol:total cholesterol did not change. The effect of a vegan diet on serum plant sterols was divergent as the concentration of campesterol decreased while that of sitosterol increased. This effect resulted in a significantly greater sitosterol:campesterol value in the vegan diet group than in the control group (1.48 (SD 0.39) v. 0.72 (SD 0.14); P vegan diet changes the relative absorption rates of these sterols and/or their biliary clearance.
Brown, Spencer C; Bourge, Mickaël; Maunoury, Nicolas; Wong, Maurice; Bianchi, Michele Wolfe; Lepers-Andrzejewski, Sandra; Besse, Pascale; Siljak-Yakovlev, Sonja; Dron, Michel; Satiat-Jeunemaître, Béatrice
2017-04-13
DNA remodelling during endoreplication appears to be a strong developmental characteristic in orchids. In this study, we analysed DNA content and nuclei in 41 species of orchids to further map the genome evolution in this plant family. We demonstrate that the DNA remodelling observed in 36 out of 41 orchids studied corresponds to strict partial endoreplication. Such process is developmentally regulated in each wild species studied. Cytometry data analyses allowed us to propose a model where nuclear states 2C, 4E, 8E, etc. form a series comprising a fixed proportion, the euploid genome 2C, plus 2 to 32 additional copies of a complementary part of the genome. The fixed proportion ranged from 89% of the genome in Vanilla mexicana down to 19% in V. pompona, the lowest value for all 148 orchids reported. Insterspecific hybridisation did not suppress this phenomenon. Interestingly, this process was not observed in mass-produced epiphytes. Nucleolar volumes grow with the number of endocopies present, coherent with high transcription activity in endoreplicated nuclei. Our analyses suggest species-specific chromatin rearrangement. Towards understanding endoreplication, V. planifolia constitutes a tractable system for isolating the genomic sequences that confer an advantage via endoreplication from those that apparently suffice at diploid level. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.
Strictly hyperbolic models of co-current three-phase flow withgravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Juanes, Ruben; Patzek, Tadeusz W.
2002-11-18
We study the character of the equations in the traditional formulation of one-dimensional immiscible three-phase flow with gravity, in the limit of negligible capillarity. We restrict our analysis to co-current flow required for a displacement process; in cases of mixed co-current and counter-current flow, capillarity effects cannot be dropped from the formulation. The model makes use of the classical multiphase extension of Darcy's equation. It is well known that, if relative permeabilities are taken as fixed functions of saturations, the model yields regions in the saturation space where the system of equations is locally elliptic. We regard elliptic behavior as a nonphysical artifact of an incomplete formulation, and derive conditions on the relative permeabilities that ensure strict hyperbolicity of the governing equations. The key point is to acknowledge that a Darcy-type formulation is insufficient to capture all the physics of three-phase flow and that, consequently, the relative permeabilities are functionals that depend on the fluid viscosity ratio and the gravity number. The derived conditions are consistent with the type of displacements that take place in porous media. By means of an illustrative example, we show how elliptic behavior can be removed, even when using simplistic relative permeability models.
Clinical impact of strict criteria for selectivity and lateralization in adrenal vein sampling.
Gasparetto, Alessandro; Angle, John F; Darvishi, Pasha; Freeman, Colbey W; Norby, Ray G; Carey, Robert M
2015-04-01
Selectivity index (SI) and lateralization index (LI) thresholds determine the adequacy of adrenal vein sampling (AVS) and the degree of lateralization. The purpose of this study was investigate the clinical outcome of patients whose adrenal vein sampling was interpreted using "strict criteria" (SC) (SIpre-stimuli≥3, SIpost-stimuli≥5 and LIpre-stimuli≥4, LIpost-stimuli≥4). A retrospective review of 73 consecutive AVS procedures was performed and 67 were technically successful. Forty-three patients showed lateralization and underwent surgery, while 24 did not lateralize and were managed conservatively. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), kalemia (K(+)), and the change in number of blood pressure (BP) medications were recorded for each patient before and after AVS and potential surgery were performed. In the surgery group, BP and K(+) changed respectively from 160±5.3/100±2.0 mmHg to 127±3.3/80±1.9 (p blood pressure medications were six (14.0%) in the lateralized group and 22 (91.7%) in the non-lateralized group (p <0.001). AVS interpretation with SC leads to significant clinical improvement in both patients who underwent surgery and those managed conservatively.
Sulphur Compound Distributions in the Upper Jurassic Source Rocks from the Dinarides
Švel-Cerovečki, Svea; Alajbeg, An|a; Eškinja, Ivan
1998-01-01
The distribution of elemental sulphur and sulphur bound in inorganic and organic compounds was investigated for three surface samples of the oil-source rock from the Upper Jurassic strata in the Dinarides. Concentrations of elemental sulphur are very low and the concentrations of sulphur bound in pyrite and sulphates are relatively low. On the other hand, organically-bound sulphur in both kerogens and bitumens is rather high, representing almost a tenth of the bitumens and the kerogens by ...
Bounded ultra-elliptic solutions of the defocusing nonlinear Schrödinger equation
Wright, Otis C., III
2017-12-01
An effective integration method is presented for the bounded ultra-elliptic solutions of the defocusing nonlinear Schrödinger equation. The two-phase solutions are explicitly parametrized in terms of two physically-meaningful variables: the energy density and the momentum density. Cavitation, viz., a minimum amplitude of zero, occurs if and only if the length of the largest spectral band is less than or equal to the sum of the lengths of the two smaller spectral bands. In the case of strict inequality, there are exactly two cavitation points in each period parallelogram.
Energy cycle and bound of Qi chaotic system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qi, Guoyuan; Zhang, Jiangfeng
2017-01-01
Highlights: • Vector field of Qi chaotic system is decomposed into four types of torques. • Dissipative and supplied energy exchange governs orbital behavior and cycling. • Rate of change of Casimir energy gives analytical bound of chaotic attractor. • Energy cycling analysis uncovers key factors producing the different dynamic modes. - Abstract: The Qi chaotic system is transformed into a Kolmogorov-type system, thereby facilitating the analysis of energy exchange in its different forms. Regarding four forms of energy, the vector field of this chaotic system is decomposed into four forms of torque: inertial, internal, dissipative, and external. The rate of change of the Casimir function is equal to the exchange power between the dissipative energy and the supplied energy. The exchange power governs the orbital behavior and the cycling of energy. With the rate of change of Casimir function, a general bound and least upper bound of the Qi chaotic attractor are proposed. A detailed analysis with illustrations is conducted to uncover insights, in particular, cycling among the different types of energy for this chaotic attractor and key factors producing the different types of dynamic modes.
Upper Limit in the Periodic Table of Elements
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Khazan A.
2007-01-01
Full Text Available The method of rectangular hyperbolas is developed for the first time, by which a means for estimating the upper bound of the Periodic Table is established in calculating that its last element has an atom mass of 411.663243 and an atomic number (the nuclear charge of 155. The formulating law is given.
Composite Intelligent Learning Control of Strict-Feedback Systems With Disturbance.
Xu, Bin; Sun, Fuchun
2018-02-01
This paper addresses the dynamic surface control of uncertain nonlinear systems on the basis of composite intelligent learning and disturbance observer in presence of unknown system nonlinearity and time-varying disturbance. The serial-parallel estimation model with intelligent approximation and disturbance estimation is built to obtain the prediction error and in this way the composite law for weights updating is constructed. The nonlinear disturbance observer is developed using intelligent approximation information while the disturbance estimation is guaranteed to converge to a bounded compact set. The highlight is that different from previous work directly toward asymptotic stability, the transparency of the intelligent approximation and disturbance estimation is included in the control scheme. The uniformly ultimate boundedness stability is analyzed via Lyapunov method. Through simulation verification, the composite intelligent learning with disturbance observer can efficiently estimate the effect caused by system nonlinearity and disturbance while the proposed approach obtains better performance with higher accuracy.
Bound anionic states of adenine
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Haranczyk, Maciej; Gutowski, Maciej S; Li, Xiang; Bowen, Kit H
2007-03-20
Anionic states of nucleic acid bases are involved in DNA damage by low-energy electrons and in charge transfer through DNA. Previous gas phase studies of free, unsolvated nucleic acid base parent anions probed only dipole-bound states, which are not present in condensed phase environments, but did not observe valence anionic states, which for purine bases, are thought to be adiabatically unbound. Contrary to this expectation, we have demonstrated that some thus far ignored tautomers of adenine, which result from enamine-imine transformations, support valence anionic states with electron vertical detachment energies as large as 2.2 eV, and at least one of these anionic tautomers is adiabatically bound. Moreover, we predict that the new anionic tautomers should also dominate in solutions and should be characterized by larger values of electron vertical detachment energy than the canonical valence anion. All of the new-found anionic tautomers might be formed in the course of dissociative electron attachment followed by a hydrogen atom attachment to a carbon atom, and they might affect the structure and properties of DNA and RNA exposed to low-energy electrons. The discovery of these valence anionic states of adenine was facilitated by the development of: (i) a new experimental method for preparing parent anions of nucleic acid bases for photoelectron experiments, and (ii) a new combinatorial/ quantum chemical approach for identification of the most stable tautomers of organic molecules. The computational portion of this work was supported by the: (i) Polish State Committee for Scientific Research (KBN) Grants: DS/8000-4-0140-7 (M.G.) and N204 127 31/2963 (M.H.), (ii) European Social Funds (EFS) ZPORR/2.22/II/2.6/ARP/U/2/05 (M.H.), and (iii) US DOE Office of Biological and Environmental Research, Low Dose Radiation Research Program (M.G.). M.H. holds the Foundation for Polish Science (FNP) award for young scientists. The calculations were performed at the Academic
Instanton bound states in ABJM theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hatsuda, Yasuyuki [DESY Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Moriyama, Sanefumi [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Kobayashi Maskawa Inst. and Graduate School of Mathematics; Okuyama, Kazumi [Shinshu Univ., Matsumoto, Nagano (Japan). Dept. of Physics
2013-06-15
The partition function of the ABJM theory receives non-perturbative corrections due to instanton effects. We study these non-perturbative corrections, including bound states of worldsheet instantons and membrane instantons, in the Fermi-gas approach. We require that the total non-perturbative correction should be always finite for arbitrary Chern-Simons level. This finiteness is realized quite non-trivially because each bound state contribution naively diverges at some levels. The poles of each contribution should be canceled out in total. We use this pole cancellation mechanism to find unknown bound state corrections from known ones. We conjecture a general expression of the bound state contribution. Summing up all the bound state contributions, we find that the effect of bound states is simply incorporated into the worldsheet instanton correction by a redefinition of the chemical potential in the Fermi-gas system. Analytic expressions of the 3- and 4-membrane instanton corrections are also proposed.
Strict Criteria for Selection of Laparoscopy for Women with Adnexal Mass
Sallum, Luis Felipe; Sarian, Luis Otávio; Bastos, Joana Fróes Bragança; Derchain, Sophie
2014-01-01
Objectives: We compared the indication of laparoscopy for treatment of adnexal masses based on the risk scores and tumor diameters with the indication based on gynecology-oncologists' experience. Methods: This was a prospective study of 174 women who underwent surgery for adnexal tumors (116 laparotomies, 58 laparoscopies). The surgeries begun and completed by laparoscopy, with benign pathologic diagnosis, were considered successful. Laparoscopic surgeries that required conversion to laparotomy, led to a malignant diagnosis, or facilitated cyst rupture were considered failures. Two groups were defined for laparoscopy indication: (1) absence of American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology (ACOG) guideline for referral of high-risk adnexal masses criteria (ACOG negative) associated with 3 different tumor sizes (10, 12, and 14 cm); and (2) Index of Risk of Malignancy (IRM) with cutoffs at 100, 200, and 300, associated with the same 3 tumor sizes. Both groups were compared with the indication based on the surgeon's experience to verify whether the selection based on strict rules would improve the rate of successful laparoscopy. Results: ACOG-negative and tumors ≤10 cm and IRM with a cutoff at 300 points and tumors ≤10cm resulted in the same best performance (78% success = 38/49 laparoscopies). However, compared with the results of the gynecology-oncologists' experience, those were not statistically significant. Discussion: The selection of patients with adnexal mass to laparoscopy by the use of the ACOG guideline or IRM associated with tumor diameter had similar performance as the experience of gynecology-oncologists. Both methods are reproducible and easy to apply to all women with adnexal masses and could be used by general gynecologists to select women for laparoscopic surgery; however, referral to a gynecology-oncologist is advisable when there is any doubt. PMID:25392617
Strict Host-Symbiont Cospeciation and Reductive Genome Evolution in Insect Gut Bacteria
Hosokawa, Takahiro; Kikuchi, Yoshitomo; Nikoh, Naruo; Shimada, Masakazu; Fukatsu, Takema
2006-01-01
Host-symbiont cospeciation and reductive genome evolution have been identified in obligate endocellular insect symbionts, but no such example has been identified from extracellular ones. Here we first report such a case in stinkbugs of the family Plataspidae, wherein a specific gut bacterium is vertically transmitted via “symbiont capsule.” In all of the plataspid species, females produced symbiont capsules upon oviposition and their gut exhibited specialized traits for capsule production. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the plataspid symbionts constituted a distinct group in the γ-Proteobacteria, whose sister group was the aphid obligate endocellular symbionts Buchnera. Removal of the symbionts resulted in retarded growth, mortality, and sterility of the insects. The host phylogeny perfectly agreed with the symbiont phylogeny, indicating strict host-symbiont cospeciation despite the extracellular association. The symbionts exhibited AT-biased nucleotide composition, accelerated molecular evolution, and reduced genome size, as has been observed in obligate endocellular insect symbionts. These findings suggest that not the endocellular conditions themselves but the population genetic attributes of the vertically transmitted symbionts are probably responsible for the peculiar genetic traits of these insect symbionts. We proposed the designation “Candidatus Ishikawaella capsulata” for the plataspid symbionts. The plataspid stinkbugs, wherein the host-symbiont associations can be easily manipulated, provide a novel system that enables experimental approaches to previously untouched aspects of the insect-microbe mutualism. Furthermore, comparative analyses of the sister groups, the endocellular Buchnera and the extracellular Ishikawaella, would lead to insights into how the different symbiotic lifestyles have affected their genomic evolution. PMID:17032065
Verifying the error bound of numerical computation implemented in computer systems
Sawada, Jun
2013-03-12
A verification tool receives a finite precision definition for an approximation of an infinite precision numerical function implemented in a processor in the form of a polynomial of bounded functions. The verification tool receives a domain for verifying outputs of segments associated with the infinite precision numerical function. The verification tool splits the domain into at least two segments, wherein each segment is non-overlapping with any other segment and converts, for each segment, a polynomial of bounded functions for the segment to a simplified formula comprising a polynomial, an inequality, and a constant for a selected segment. The verification tool calculates upper bounds of the polynomial for the at least two segments, beginning with the selected segment and reports the segments that violate a bounding condition.
Optimality Bounds for a Variational Relaxation of the Image Partitioning Problem
Lellmann, Jan
2012-11-09
We consider a variational convex relaxation of a class of optimal partitioning and multiclass labeling problems, which has recently proven quite successful and can be seen as a continuous analogue of Linear Programming (LP) relaxation methods for finite-dimensional problems. While for the latter several optimality bounds are known, to our knowledge no such bounds exist in the infinite-dimensional setting. We provide such a bound by analyzing a probabilistic rounding method, showing that it is possible to obtain an integral solution of the original partitioning problem from a solution of the relaxed problem with an a priori upper bound on the objective. The approach has a natural interpretation as an approximate, multiclass variant of the celebrated coarea formula. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media New York.
Bounded elements in Locally C*-algebras
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
El Harti, Rachid
2001-09-01
In order to get more useful information about Locally C*-algebras, we introduce in this paper the notion of bounded elements. First, we study the connection between bounded elements and spectrally bounded elements. Some structural results of Locally C*-algebras are established in Theorems 1 , 2 and 3. As an immediate consequence of Theorem 3, we give a characterization of the connected component of the identity in the group of unitary elements for a Locally C*-algebra. (author)
Boundedly UC spaces: characterisations and preservation | Jain ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
A metric space (X, d) is called a boundedly UC space if every closed and bounded subset of X is a UC space. A metric space (X, d) is called a UC space if each real-valued continuous function on (X, d) is uniformly continuous. In this paper, we study twenty-two equivalent conditions for a metric space to be a boundedly UC ...
Bounded cohomology of discrete groups
Frigerio, Roberto
2017-01-01
The author manages a near perfect equilibrium between necessary technicalities (always well motivated) and geometric intuition, leading the readers from the first simple definition to the most striking applications of the theory in 13 very pleasant chapters. This book can serve as an ideal textbook for a graduate topics course on the subject and become the much-needed standard reference on Gromov's beautiful theory. -Michelle Bucher The theory of bounded cohomology, introduced by Gromov in the late 1980s, has had powerful applications in geometric group theory and the geometry and topology of manifolds, and has been the topic of active research continuing to this day. This monograph provides a unified, self-contained introduction to the theory and its applications, making it accessible to a student who has completed a first course in algebraic topology and manifold theory. The book can be used as a source for research projects for master's students, as a thorough introduction to the field for graduate student...
Some Improved Nonperturbative Bounds for Fermionic Expansions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lohmann, Martin, E-mail: marlohmann@gmail.com [Universita di Roma Tre, Dipartimento di Matematica (Italy)
2016-06-15
We reconsider the Gram-Hadamard bound as it is used in constructive quantum field theory and many body physics to prove convergence of Fermionic perturbative expansions. Our approach uses a recursion for the amplitudes of the expansion, discovered in a model problem by Djokic (2013). It explains the standard way to bound the expansion from a new point of view, and for some of the amplitudes provides new bounds, which avoid the use of Fourier transform, and are therefore superior to the standard bounds for models like the cold interacting Fermi gas.
Modifications of the Bekenstein Bound from Dimensional Reduction of Covariant Entropy Bound
Yee, Ho-Ung
2005-12-01
We consider dimensional reduction of the covariant entropy bound from D + 1 dimensional geometry of M × S1 to the D dimensional geometry M. With a warping factor, the local Bekenstein bound in D + 1 dimensions leads to a more refined form of the local Bekenstein bound from the D dimensional view point. With this new local Bekenstein bound, it is possible to saturate the lightlike holography bound even with nonvanishing expansion rate. With a Kaluza-Klein gauge field, the dimensional reduction implies a stronger bound where the energy momentum tensor contribution is replaced by the energy momentum tensor with the electromagnetic contribution subtracted.
Interpretation of quasi-elastic barrier distributions for weakly bound systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Monteiro, D.S.; Gomes, P.R.S.; Lubian, J.
2009-01-01
Full text: We verify that quasi-elastic (elastic + inelastic) backscattering barrier distributions for weakly bound systems do not strictly correspond to fusion barrier distributions, but rather to reaction threshold distribution, as proposed by Zagrebaev in a recent paper concerning very heavy systems. In this work, we investigate whether Zagrebaevs interpretation is valid by comparing experimental results obtained in two very recent works with the 6 Li + 144 Sm system. Monteiro et al derived the quasi-elastic barrier distribution (or reaction threshold distribution, following Zagrebaevs interpretation) by adding elastic and inelastic backscattering for this system. Rath et al obtained fusion barrier distribution for the same system from the measured complete fusion cross section for the same system. We conclude that the quasi-elastic barrier distributions can be associated with fusion barrier distributions only in situations where there are no relevant reaction channels apart from fusion. This is not the situation for very heavy nor for weakly bound systems. (author)
Robert, Aline
1995-01-01
Examines discourse, not strictly mathematical, that teachers might adopt in a mathematics class and presents three major functions of such discourse: communication; structuring and labeling; and reflection. Develops lines for further inquiry, notably on the third function, the most likely focus for specific preparation by the teacher. (13…
Douven, R.C.M.H.; Engwerda, J.C.
1995-01-01
In this paper we discuss properties of N-person axiomatic bargaining problems, where the Pareto frontier of S can be described by a strictly concave and twice differentiable function. These type of problems are characteristic for the empirical policy coordination literature. In that literature the
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Meng Wen
2012-01-01
Full Text Available We introduce a new iterative scheme with Meir-Keeler contractions for an asymptotically nonexpansive mapping in -uniformly smooth and strictly convex Banach spaces. We also proved the strong convergence theorems of implicit and explicit schemes. The results obtained in this paper extend and improve many recent ones announced by many others.
Sloot, H.J.; Versteeg, Geert; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria
1990-01-01
A novel type of membrane reactor with separated feeding of the reactants is presented for chemical processes normally requiring strict stoichiometric feed rates of premixed reactants. The reactants are fed in the reactor to the different sides of a porous membrane which is impregnated with a
Casey, Zachary A.
2016-01-01
This article focuses in particular on four white South African female practicing P-12 teachers' narratives about their own racialized understanding of their classroom practice(s) and their (racio-cultural) self-identity. Each of the four participants reported growing up with what they described as "strict fathers" and shared ways in…
No-arbitrage bounds for financial scenarios
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Geyer, Alois; Hanke, Michael; Weissensteiner, Alex
2014-01-01
We derive no-arbitrage bounds for expected excess returns to generate scenarios used in financial applications. The bounds allow to distinguish three regions: one where arbitrage opportunities will never exist, a second where arbitrage may be present, and a third, where arbitrage opportunities...
On the range of completely bounded maps
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Richard I. Loebl
1978-01-01
Full Text Available It is shown that if every bounded linear map from a C*-algebra α to a von Neumann algebra β is completely bounded, then either α is finite-dimensional or β⫅⊗Mn, where is a commutative von Neumann algebra and Mn is the algebra of n×n complex matrices.
Stacked spheres and lower bound theorem
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
BASUDEB DATTA
2011-11-20
Nov 20, 2011 ... Preliminaries. Lower bound theorem. On going work. Definitions. An n-simplex is a convex hull of n + 1 affinely independent points. (called vertices) in some Euclidean space R. N . Stacked spheres and lower bound theorem. Basudeb Datta. Indian Institute of Science. 2 / 27 ...
Exponential Lower Bounds For Policy Iteration
Fearnley, John
2010-01-01
We study policy iteration for infinite-horizon Markov decision processes. It has recently been shown policy iteration style algorithms have exponential lower bounds in a two player game setting. We extend these lower bounds to Markov decision processes with the total reward and average-reward optimality criteria.
Bounds in the location-allocation problem
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Juel, Henrik
1981-01-01
Develops a family of stronger lower bounds on the objective function value of the location-allocation problem. Solution methods proposed to solve problems in location-allocation; Efforts to develop a more efficient bound solution procedure; Determination of the locations of the sources....
Impedance, zero energy wavefunction, and bound states
Martin, A
1977-01-01
The authors show that for the three-dimensional Schrodinger equation without spherical symmetry the existence of a bound state is related to the impossibility of solving a certain equation; it is further shown that some general conditions for the absence of bound states are readily obtained from this property. (13 refs).
Conductivity bound from dirty black holes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bitaghsir Fadafan, Kazem, E-mail: bitaghsir@shahroodut.ac.ir
2016-11-10
We propose a lower bound of the dc electrical conductivity in strongly disordered, strongly interacting quantum field theories using holography. We study linear response of black holes with broken translational symmetry in Einstein–Maxwell-dilaton theories of gravity. Using the generalized Stokes equations at the horizon, we derive the lower bound of the electrical conductivity for the dual two dimensional disordered field theory.
Bounds on the discrete spectrum of lattice Schrödinger operators
Bach, V.; de Siqueira Pedra, W.; Lakaev, S. N.
2018-02-01
We discuss the validity of the Weyl asymptotics—in the sense of two-sided bounds—for the size of the discrete spectrum of (discrete) Schrödinger operators on the d-dimensional, d ≥ 1, cubic lattice Zd at large couplings. We show that the Weyl asymptotics can be violated in any spatial dimension d ≥ 1—even if the semi-classical number of bound states is finite. Furthermore, we prove for all dimensions d ≥ 1 that, for potentials well behaved at infinity and fulfilling suitable decay conditions, the Weyl asymptotics always hold. These decay conditions are mild in the case d ≥ 3 while stronger for d = 1, 2. It is well known that the semi-classical number of bound states is—up to a constant—always an upper bound on the size of the discrete spectrum of Schrödinger operators if d ≥ 3. We show here how to construct general upper bounds on the number of bound states of Schrödinger operators on Zd from semi-classical quantities in all space dimensions d ≥ 1 and independently of the positivity-improving property of the free Hamiltonian.
Bounds on heat transport in rapidly rotating Rayleigh–Bénard convection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grooms, Ian; Whitehead, Jared P
2015-01-01
The heat transport in rotating Rayleigh–Bénard convection is considered in the limit of rapid rotation (small Ekman number E) and strong thermal forcing (large Rayleigh number Ra). The analysis proceeds from a set of asymptotically reduced equations appropriate for rotationally constrained dynamics; the conjectured range of validity for these equations is Ra ≲ E −8/5 . A rigorous bound on heat transport of Nu ⩽ 20.56Ra 3 E 4 is derived in the limit of infinite Prandtl number using the background method. We demonstrate that the exponent in this bound cannot be improved on using a piece-wise monotonic background temperature profile like the one used here. This is true for finite Prandtl numbers as well, i.e. Nu ≲ Ra 3 is the best upper bound for this particular setup of the background method. The feature that obstructs the availability of a better bound in this case is the appearance of small-scale thermal plumes emanating from (or entering) the thermal boundary layer. The derived upper bound is consistent with, although significantly higher than the observed behaviour in simulations of the reduced equations, which find at most Nu ∼ Ra 2 E 8/3 . (paper)
Bound-free Spectra for Diatomic Molecules
Schwenke, David W.
2012-01-01
It is now recognized that prediction of radiative heating of entering space craft requires explicit treatment of the radiation field from the infrared (IR) to the vacuum ultra violet (VUV). While at low temperatures and longer wavelengths, molecular radiation is well described by bound-bound transitions, in the short wavelength, high temperature regime, bound-free transitions can play an important role. In this work we describe first principles calculations we have carried out for bound-bound and bound-free transitions in N2, O2, C2, CO, CN, NO, and N2+. Compared to bound ]bound transitions, bound-free transitions have several particularities that make them different to deal with. These include more complicated line shapes and a dependence of emission intensity on both bound state diatomic and atomic concentrations. These will be discussed in detail below. The general procedure we used was the same for all species. The first step is to generate potential energy curves, transition moments, and coupling matrix elements by carrying out ab initio electronic structure calculations. These calculations are expensive, and thus approximations need to be made in order to make the calculations tractable. The only practical method we have to carry out these calculations is the internally contracted multi-reference configuration interaction (icMRCI) method as implemented in the program suite Molpro. This is a widely used method for these kinds of calculations, and is capable of generating very accurate results. With this method, we must first of choose which electrons to correlate, the one-electron basis to use, and then how to generate the molecular orbitals.
Identité stricte ou partielle et identification dans les phrases à copule. Comment les identifier ?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Amary-Coudreau Valérie
2014-07-01
éristiques propres à l’identité, ainsi que celles propres à la spécification et à l’identification, pour lesquelles X et Y ont des degrés de référentialité et/ou de prédicativité différents. Enfin, cette hypothèse nous amène à distinguer l’identité de l’identification, sur la base de tests qui, à l’inverse de Larreya (2003, différencient l’identité stricte de l’identité partielle.
A priori bounds for solutions of two-point boundary value problems using differential inequalities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vidossich, G.
1979-01-01
Two point boundary value problems for systems of differential equations are studied with a new approach based on differential inequalities of first order. This leads to the following results: (i) one-sided conditions are enough, in the sense that the inner product is substituted to the norm; (ii) the upper bound exists for practically any kind of equations and boundary value problem if the interval is sufficiently small since it depends on the Peano existence theorem; (iii) the bound seems convenient when the equation has some singularity in t as well as when sigular problems are considered. (author)
Bounds for the integral points on elliptic curves over function fields
Sedunova, Alisa
2017-01-01
In this paper we give an upper bound for the number of integral points on an elliptic curve E over F_q[T] in terms of its conductor N and q. We proceed by applying the lower bounds for the canonical height that are analogous to those given by Silverman and extend the technique developed by Helfgott-Venkatesh to express the number of integral points on E in terms of its algebraic rank. We also use the sphere packing results to optimize the size of an implied constant. In the end we use partial...
Bounds on the Capacity of ASK Molecular Communication Channels with ISI
Ghavami, Siavash; Adve, Raviraj; Lahouti, Farshad
2015-01-01
There are now several works on the use of the additive inverse Gaussian noise (AIGN) model for the random transit time in molecular communication~(MC) channels. The randomness invariably causes inter-symbol interference (ISI) in MC, an issue largely ignored or simplified. In this paper we derive an upper bound and two lower bounds for MC based on amplitude shift keying (ASK) in presence of ISI. The Blahut-Arimoto algorithm~(BAA) is modified to find the input distribution of transmitted symbol...
Process interpretation of current entropic bounds
Nardini, Cesare; Touchette, Hugo
2018-01-01
We show for Markov diffusion processes that the quadratic entropic bound, recently derived for the rate functions of nonequilibrium currents, can be seen as being produced by an effective process that creates current fluctuations in a sub-optimal way by modifying only the non-reversible part of the drift or force of the process considered while keeping its reversible part constant. This provides a clear interpretation of the bound in terms of a physical process, which explains, among other things, its relation to the fluctuation relation, linear response, and reversible limits. The existence of more general quadratic bounds, and related uncertainty relations, for physical quantities other than currents is also discussed.
Lower bound for the nuclear kinetic energy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dehesa, J.S. (Granada Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Nuclear); Galvez, F.J. (Granada Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica)
1985-06-27
We argue that the kinetic energy of a many-fermion system is bounded from below by Kqsup(-2/3)A sup(5/3) /
Remarks on Bousso's covariant entropy bound
Mayo, A E
2002-01-01
Bousso's covariant entropy bound is put to the test in the context of a non-singular cosmological solution of general relativity found by Bekenstein. Although the model complies with every assumption made in Bousso's original conjecture, the entropy bound is violated due to the occurrence of negative energy density associated with the interaction of some the matter components in the model. We demonstrate how this property allows for the test model to 'elude' a proof of Bousso's conjecture which was given recently by Flanagan, Marolf and Wald. This corroborates the view that the covariant entropy bound should be applied only to stable systems for which every matter component carries positive energy density.
Upper respiratory tract (image)
The major passages and structures of the upper respiratory tract include the nose or nostrils, nasal cavity, mouth, throat (pharynx), and voice box (larynx). The respiratory system is lined with a mucous membrane that ...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Affordable Care Act Federal Upper Limits (FUL) based on the weighted average of the most recently reported monthly average manufacturer price (AMP) for...
Black-hole bombs and photon-mass bounds.
Pani, Paolo; Cardoso, Vitor; Gualtieri, Leonardo; Berti, Emanuele; Ishibashi, Akihiro
2012-09-28
Generic extensions of the standard model predict the existence of ultralight bosonic degrees of freedom. Several ongoing experiments are aimed at detecting these particles or constraining their mass range. Here we show that massive vector fields around rotating black holes can give rise to a strong superradiant instability, which extracts angular momentum from the hole. The observation of supermassive spinning black holes imposes limits on this mechanism. We show that current supermassive black-hole spin estimates provide the tightest upper limits on the mass of the photon (m(v) is black holes could further lower this bound to m(v) black holes in the slow-rotation regime, that we developed up to second order in rotation, and that can be extended to other spacetime metrics and other theories.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Novotna, Marianna
2016-01-01
The no-fault liability principle of nuclear liability regime, its compensation schemes, sociological and legal grounds of its construction as well as liberation grounds are analysed. The simple existence of causation of damage and nuclear accident without necessity of proving negligence or any other type of fault on the part of the operator as an adequate basis for the operator’s strict liability is highlighted thus simplifying the litigation process eliminating potential obstacles, especially such as might exist with the burden of proof. The question of weighing the interests of society in the development of nuclear industry, the necessary extent of protection of victims of nuclear accidents and the interests of operators of nuclear facilities as main determinants of the strict nature of nuclear liability is also described. (orig.)
Polos, Peter G; Bhat, Sushanth; Gupta, Divya; O'Malley, Richard J; DeBari, Vincent A; Upadhyay, Hinesh; Chaudhry, Saqib; Nimma, Anitha; Pinto-Zipp, Genevieve; Chokroverty, Sudhansu
2015-10-01
This cross-sectional study explored the extent and impact of mobile device-based Sleep Time-Related Information and Communication Technology (STRICT) use among American adolescents (N = 3139, 49.3% female, mean age = 13.3 years). Nearly 62% used STRICT after bedtime, 56.7% texted/tweeted/messaged in bed, and 20.8% awoke to texts. STRICT use was associated with insomnia, daytime sleepiness, eveningness, academic underperformance, later bedtimes and shorter sleep duration. Moderation analysis demonstrated that the association between STRICT use and insomnia increased with age, the association between STRICT use and daytime sleepiness decreased with age, and the association between STRICT use and shorter sleep duration decreased with age and was stronger in girls. Insomnia and daytime sleepiness partially mediated the relationship between STRICT use and academic underperformance. Our results illustrate the adverse interactions between adolescent STRICT use and sleep, with deleterious effects on daytime functioning. These worrisome findings suggest that placing reasonable limitations on adolescent STRICT use may be appropriate. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Extreme hydrothermal conditions at an active plate-bounding fault
Sutherland, Rupert; Townend, John; Toy, Virginia; Upton, Phaedra; Coussens, Jamie; Allen, Michael; Baratin, Laura-May; Barth, Nicolas; Becroft, Leeza; Boese, Carolin; Boles, Austin; Boulton, Carolyn; Broderick, Neil G. R.; Janku-Capova, Lucie; Carpenter, Brett M.; Célérier, Bernard; Chamberlain, Calum; Cooper, Alan; Coutts, Ashley; Cox, Simon; Craw, Lisa; Doan, Mai-Linh; Eccles, Jennifer; Faulkner, Dan; Grieve, Jason; Grochowski, Julia; Gulley, Anton; Hartog, Arthur; Howarth, Jamie; Jacobs, Katrina; Jeppson, Tamara; Kato, Naoki; Keys, Steven; Kirilova, Martina; Kometani, Yusuke; Langridge, Rob; Lin, Weiren; Little, Timothy; Lukacs, Adrienn; Mallyon, Deirdre; Mariani, Elisabetta; Massiot, Cécile; Mathewson, Loren; Melosh, Ben; Menzies, Catriona; Moore, Jo; Morales, Luiz; Morgan, Chance; Mori, Hiroshi; Niemeijer, Andre; Nishikawa, Osamu; Prior, David; Sauer, Katrina; Savage, Martha; Schleicher, Anja; Schmitt, Douglas R.; Shigematsu, Norio; Taylor-Offord, Sam; Teagle, Damon; Tobin, Harold; Valdez, Robert; Weaver, Konrad; Wiersberg, Thomas; Williams, Jack; Woodman, Nick; Zimmer, Martin
2017-06-01
Temperature and fluid pressure conditions control rock deformation and mineralization on geological faults, and hence the distribution of earthquakes. Typical intraplate continental crust has hydrostatic fluid pressure and a near-surface thermal gradient of 31 ± 15 degrees Celsius per kilometre. At temperatures above 300-450 degrees Celsius, usually found at depths greater than 10-15 kilometres, the intra-crystalline plasticity of quartz and feldspar relieves stress by aseismic creep and earthquakes are infrequent. Hydrothermal conditions control the stability of mineral phases and hence frictional-mechanical processes associated with earthquake rupture cycles, but there are few temperature and fluid pressure data from active plate-bounding faults. Here we report results from a borehole drilled into the upper part of the Alpine Fault, which is late in its cycle of stress accumulation and expected to rupture in a magnitude 8 earthquake in the coming decades. The borehole (depth 893 metres) revealed a pore fluid pressure gradient exceeding 9 ± 1 per cent above hydrostatic levels and an average geothermal gradient of 125 ± 55 degrees Celsius per kilometre within the hanging wall of the fault. These extreme hydrothermal conditions result from rapid fault movement, which transports rock and heat from depth, and topographically driven fluid movement that concentrates heat into valleys. Shear heating may occur within the fault but is not required to explain our observations. Our data and models show that highly anomalous fluid pressure and temperature gradients in the upper part of the seismogenic zone can be created by positive feedbacks between processes of fault slip, rock fracturing and alteration, and landscape development at plate-bounding faults.
Extreme hydrothermal conditions at an active plate-bounding fault.
Sutherland, Rupert; Townend, John; Toy, Virginia; Upton, Phaedra; Coussens, Jamie; Allen, Michael; Baratin, Laura-May; Barth, Nicolas; Becroft, Leeza; Boese, Carolin; Boles, Austin; Boulton, Carolyn; Broderick, Neil G R; Janku-Capova, Lucie; Carpenter, Brett M; Célérier, Bernard; Chamberlain, Calum; Cooper, Alan; Coutts, Ashley; Cox, Simon; Craw, Lisa; Doan, Mai-Linh; Eccles, Jennifer; Faulkner, Dan; Grieve, Jason; Grochowski, Julia; Gulley, Anton; Hartog, Arthur; Howarth, Jamie; Jacobs, Katrina; Jeppson, Tamara; Kato, Naoki; Keys, Steven; Kirilova, Martina; Kometani, Yusuke; Langridge, Rob; Lin, Weiren; Little, Timothy; Lukacs, Adrienn; Mallyon, Deirdre; Mariani, Elisabetta; Massiot, Cécile; Mathewson, Loren; Melosh, Ben; Menzies, Catriona; Moore, Jo; Morales, Luiz; Morgan, Chance; Mori, Hiroshi; Niemeijer, Andre; Nishikawa, Osamu; Prior, David; Sauer, Katrina; Savage, Martha; Schleicher, Anja; Schmitt, Douglas R; Shigematsu, Norio; Taylor-Offord, Sam; Teagle, Damon; Tobin, Harold; Valdez, Robert; Weaver, Konrad; Wiersberg, Thomas; Williams, Jack; Woodman, Nick; Zimmer, Martin
2017-06-01
Temperature and fluid pressure conditions control rock deformation and mineralization on geological faults, and hence the distribution of earthquakes. Typical intraplate continental crust has hydrostatic fluid pressure and a near-surface thermal gradient of 31 ± 15 degrees Celsius per kilometre. At temperatures above 300-450 degrees Celsius, usually found at depths greater than 10-15 kilometres, the intra-crystalline plasticity of quartz and feldspar relieves stress by aseismic creep and earthquakes are infrequent. Hydrothermal conditions control the stability of mineral phases and hence frictional-mechanical processes associated with earthquake rupture cycles, but there are few temperature and fluid pressure data from active plate-bounding faults. Here we report results from a borehole drilled into the upper part of the Alpine Fault, which is late in its cycle of stress accumulation and expected to rupture in a magnitude 8 earthquake in the coming decades. The borehole (depth 893 metres) revealed a pore fluid pressure gradient exceeding 9 ± 1 per cent above hydrostatic levels and an average geothermal gradient of 125 ± 55 degrees Celsius per kilometre within the hanging wall of the fault. These extreme hydrothermal conditions result from rapid fault movement, which transports rock and heat from depth, and topographically driven fluid movement that concentrates heat into valleys. Shear heating may occur within the fault but is not required to explain our observations. Our data and models show that highly anomalous fluid pressure and temperature gradients in the upper part of the seismogenic zone can be created by positive feedbacks between processes of fault slip, rock fracturing and alteration, and landscape development at plate-bounding faults.
Tight Bounds for Distributed Functional Monitoring
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Woodruff, David P.; Zhang, Qin
2011-01-01
$, our bound resolves their main open question. Our lower bounds are based on new direct sum theorems for approximate majority, and yield significant improvements to problems in the data stream model, improving the bound for estimating $F_p, p > 2,$ in $t$ passes from $\\tilde{\\Omega}(n^{1-2/p}/(\\eps^{2/p......} t))$ to $\\tilde{\\Omega}(n^{1-2/p}/(\\eps^{4/p} t))$, giving the first bound for estimating $F_0$ in $t$ passes of $\\Omega(1/(\\eps^2 t))$ bits of space that does not use the gap-hamming problem, and showing a distribution for the gap-hamming problem with high external information cost or super-polynomial......We resolve several fundamental questions in the area of distributed functional monitoring, initiated by Cormode, Muthukrishnan, and Yi (SODA, 2008). In this model there are $k$ sites each tracking their input and communicating with a central coordinator that continuously maintain an approximate...
Desai, Shalin P; Henry, Linda L; Holmes, Sari D; Hunt, Sharon L; Martin, Chidima T; Hebsur, Shrinivas; Ad, Niv
2012-02-01
The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that a liberal blood glucose strategy (121-180 mg/dL) is not inferior to a strict blood glucose strategy (90-120 mg/dL) for outcomes in patients after first-time isolated coronary artery bypass grafting and is superior for glucose control and target blood glucose management. A total of 189 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting were investigated in this prospective randomized study to compare 2 glucose control strategies on patient perioperative outcomes. Three methods of analyses (intention to treat, completer, and per protocol) were conducted. Observed power was robust (>80%) for significant results. The groups were similar on preoperative hemoglobin A(1c) and number of diabetic patients. The liberal group was found to be noninferior to the strict group for perioperative complications and superior on glucose control and target range management. The liberal group had significantly fewer patients with hypoglycemic events (liberal range after coronary artery bypass grafting led to similar outcomes compared with a strict target range and was superior in glucose control and target range management. On the basis of the results of this study, a target blood glucose range of 121 to 180 mg/dL is recommended for patients after coronary artery bypass grafting as advocated by the Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Copyright © 2012 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Upper gastrointestinal symptoms in autoimmune gastritis
Carabotti, Marilia; Lahner, Edith; Esposito, Gianluca; Sacchi, Maria Carlotta; Severi, Carola; Annibale, Bruno
2017-01-01
Abstract Autoimmune gastritis is often suspected for its hematologic findings, and rarely the diagnosis is made for the presence of gastrointestinal symptoms. Aims of this cross-sectional study were to assess in a large cohort of patients affected by autoimmune gastritis the occurrence and the pattern of gastrointestinal symptoms and to evaluate whether symptomatic patients are characterized by specific clinical features. Gastrointestinal symptoms of 379 consecutive autoimmune gastritis patients were systematically assessed and classified following Rome III Criteria. Association between symptoms and anemia pattern, positivity to gastric autoantibodies, Helicobacter pylori infection, and concomitant autoimmune disease were evaluated. In total, 70.2% of patients were female, median age 55 years (range 17–83). Pernicious anemia (53.6%), iron deficiency anemia (34.8%), gastric autoantibodies (68.8%), and autoimmune disorders (41.7%) were present. However, 56.7% of patients complained of gastrointestinal symptoms, 69.8% of them had exclusively upper symptoms, 15.8% only lower and 14.4% concomitant upper and lower symptoms. Dyspepsia, subtype postprandial distress syndrome was the most represented, being present in 60.2% of symptomatic patients. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that age gastritis is associated in almost 60% of cases with gastrointestinal symptoms, in particular dyspepsia. Dyspepsia is strictly related to younger age, no smoking, and absence of anemia. PMID:28072728
Learning Intelligent Dialogs for Bounding Box Annotation
Konyushkova, Ksenia; Uijlings, Jasper; Lampert, Christoph; Ferrari, Vittorio
2017-01-01
We introduce Intelligent Annotation Dialogs for bounding box annotation. We train an agent to automatically choose a sequence of actions for a human annotator to produce a bounding box in a minimal amount of time. Specifically, we consider two actions: box verification [37], where the annotator verifies a box generated by an object detector, and manual box drawing. We explore two kinds of agents, one based on predicting the probability that a box will be positively verified, and the other bas...
New Spectral Features from Bound Dark Matter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Catena, Riccardo; Kouvaris, Chris
2016-01-01
We demonstrate that dark matter particles gravitationally bound to the Earth can induce a characteristic nuclear recoil signal at low energies in direct detection experiments. The new spectral feature we predict can provide the ultimate smoking gun for dark matter discovery for experiments...... with positive signal but unclear background. The new feature is universal, in that the ratio of bound over halo dark matter event rates at detectors is independent of the dark matter-nucleon cross section....
Error Bounds: Necessary and Sufficient Conditions
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Outrata, Jiří; Kruger, A.Y.; Fabian, Marián; Henrion, R.
2010-01-01
Roč. 18, č. 2 (2010), s. 121-149 ISSN 1877-0533 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100750802 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506; CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : Error bounds * Calmness * Subdifferential * Slope Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.333, year: 2010 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2010/MTR/outrata-error bounds necessary and sufficient conditions.pdf
Nucleosynthesis Bounds in Gauge-Mediated Supersymmetry Breaking Theories
Gherghetta, Tony; Riotto, Antonio
1999-01-01
In gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking theories the next-to-lightest supersymmetric particle can decay during or after the nucleosynthesis epoch. The decay products such as photons and hadrons can destroy the light element abundances. Restricting the damage that these decays can do leads to constraints on the abundance and lifetime of the NLSP. We compute the freezeout abundance of the NLSP by including all coannhilation thresholds which are particularly important in the case in which the NLSP is the lightest stau. We find that the upper bound on the messenger scale can be as stringent as 10^12 GeV when the NLSP is the lightest neutralino and 10^13 GeV when the NLSP is the lightest stau. Our findings disfavour models of gauge mediation where the messenger scale is close to the GUT scale or results from balancing renormalisable interactions with non-renormalisable operators at the Planck scale. When combined with the requirement of no gravitino overabundance, our bound implies that the reheating temperature ...
Bounds on the gluon mass from nucleon decay
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Avila, M.A. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Morelos (Mexico)
2001-04-01
Permanent confinement of quarks is assumed to hold in QCD. However, if the gluon has a small mass it is possible to produce-quarks in hadron decays, high-energy reactions or in the early-universe. This situation is modelled by a quark-diquark potential composed of a linear (or harmonic) plus a Yukawa term. We compare our prediction for the proton decay with the experimental lower bound on its life-time, and obtain an upper bound on the gluon mass. [Spanish] Se supone se cumple el confinamiento permanente de quarks en cromodinamica cuantica. Si el gluon tiene masa pequena es posible producir quarks libres en decaimiento hadronicos, reacciones de altas energias o en el universo temprano. Esta situacion es modelada por un potencial quark-diquark, compuesto de un termino lineal (o armonico) mas un termino Yukawa. Comparamos nuestra prediccion para el decaimiento del proton con la cota inferior experimental de su vida media y obtenemos una cota superior sobre la masa del gluon.
Effects of a potential fourth fermion generation on the Higgs boson mass bounds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gerhold, Philipp; Kallarackal, Jim; Jansen, Karl
2010-12-01
We study the effect of a potential fourth fermion generation on the upper and lower Higgs boson mass bounds. This investigation is based on the numerical evaluation of a chirally invariant lattice Higgs-Yukawa model emulating the same Higgs-fermion coupling structure as in the Higgs sector of the electroweak Standard Model. In particular, the considered model obeys a Ginsparg-Wilson version of the underlying SU(2) L x U(1) Y symmetry, being a global symmetry here due to the neglection of gauge fields in this model. We present our results on the modification of the upper and lower Higgs boson mass bounds induced by the presence of a hypothetical very heavy fourth quark doublet. Finally, we compare these findings to the standard scenario of three fermion generations. (orig.)
Higgs boson mass bounds in the presence of a very heavy fourth quark generation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gerhold, P.; Kallarackal, J.; DESY, Zeuthen; Jansen, K.
2010-11-01
We study the effect of a potential fourth quark generation on the upper and lower Higgs boson mass bounds. This investigation is based on the numerical evaluation of a chirally invariant lattice Higgs-Yukawa model emulating the same Higgs-fermion coupling structure as in the Higgs sector of the electroweak Standard Model. In particular, the considered model obeys a Ginsparg-Wilson version of the underlying SU(2) L x U(1) Y symmetry, being a global symmetry here due to the neglection of gauge fields in this model. We present our results on the modification of the upper and lower Higgs boson mass bounds induced by the presence of a hypothetical very heavy fourth quark doublet. Finally, we compare these findings to the standard scenario of three fermion generations. (orig.)
Optimal bounds and extremal trajectories for time averages in nonlinear dynamical systems
Tobasco, Ian; Goluskin, David; Doering, Charles R.
2018-02-01
For any quantity of interest in a system governed by ordinary differential equations, it is natural to seek the largest (or smallest) long-time average among solution trajectories, as well as the extremal trajectories themselves. Upper bounds on time averages can be proved a priori using auxiliary functions, the optimal choice of which is a convex optimization problem. We prove that the problems of finding maximal trajectories and minimal auxiliary functions are strongly dual. Thus, auxiliary functions provide arbitrarily sharp upper bounds on time averages. Moreover, any nearly minimal auxiliary function provides phase space volumes in which all nearly maximal trajectories are guaranteed to lie. For polynomial equations, auxiliary functions can be constructed by semidefinite programming, which we illustrate using the Lorenz system.
Partially persistent data structures of bounded degree with constant update time
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brodal, Gerth Stølting
1996-01-01
The problem of making bounded in-degree and out-degree data structures partially persistent is considered. The node copying method of Driscoll et al. is extended so that updates can be performed in worst-case constant time on the pointer machine model. Previously it was only known to be possible...... in amortised constant time.The result is presented in terms of a new strategy for Dietz and Raman's dynamic two player pebble game on graphs.It is shown how to implement the strategy and the upper bound on the required number of pebbles is improved from 2b+2d+O(√b) to d+2b. where b is the bound of the in...
On the realization of the bulk modulus bounds for two-phase viscoelastic composites
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andreasen, Casper Schousboe; Andreassen, Erik; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard
2014-01-01
Materials with good vibration damping properties and high stiffness are of great industrial interest. In this paper the bounds for viscoelastic composites are investigated and material microstructures that realize the upper bound are obtained by topology optimization. These viscoelastic composites...... can be realized by additive manufacturing technologies followed by an infiltration process. Viscoelastic composites consisting of a relatively stiff elastic phase, e.g. steel, and a relatively lossy viscoelastic phase, e.g. silicone rubber, have non-connected stiff regions when optimized for maximum...... damping. In order to ensure manufacturability of such composites the connectivity of the matrix is ensured by imposing a conductivity constraint and the influence on the bounds is discussed. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....
Bound-state formation for thermal relic dark matter and unitarity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harling, Benedict von; Petraki, Kalliopi
2014-01-01
We show that the relic abundance of thermal dark matter annihilating via a long-range interaction, is significantly affected by the formation and decay of dark matter bound states in the early universe, if the dark matter mass is above a few TeV . We determine the coupling required to obtain the observed dark matter density, taking into account both the direct 2-to-2 annihilations and the formation of bound states, and provide an analytical fit. We argue that the unitarity limit on the inelastic cross-section is realized only if dark matter annihilates via a long-range interaction, and we determine the upper bound on the mass of thermal-relic dark matter to be about 197 (139) TeV for (non)-self-conjugate dark matter
Higgs boson mass bounds in the presence of a heavy fourth quark family
Bulava, John; Nagy, Attila; Kallarackal, Jim; Jansen, Karl
2012-01-01
We present Higgs boson mass bounds in a lattice regularization allowing thus for non-perturbative investigations. In particular, we employ a lattice modified chiral invariant Higgs-Yukawa model using the overlap operator. We show results for the upper and lower Higgs boson mass bounds in the presence of a heavy mass-degenerate quark doublet with masses ranging up to 700 GeV. We perform infinite volume extrapolations in most cases, and examine several values of the lattice cutoff. Furthermore, we argue that the lower Higgs boson mass bound is stable with respect to the addition of higher dimensional operators to the scalar field potential. Our results have severe consequences for the phenomenology of a fourth generation of quarks if a light Higgs boson is discovered at the LHC.
Bounding Averages Rigorously Using Semidefinite Programming: Mean Moments of the Lorenz System
Goluskin, David
2018-04-01
We describe methods for proving bounds on infinite-time averages in differential dynamical systems. The methods rely on the construction of nonnegative polynomials with certain properties, similarly to the way nonlinear stability can be proved using Lyapunov functions. Nonnegativity is enforced by requiring the polynomials to be sums of squares, a condition which is then formulated as a semidefinite program (SDP) that can be solved computationally. Although such computations are subject to numerical error, we demonstrate two ways to obtain rigorous results: using interval arithmetic to control the error of an approximate SDP solution, and finding exact analytical solutions to relatively small SDPs. Previous formulations are extended to allow for bounds depending analytically on parametric variables. These methods are illustrated using the Lorenz equations, a system with three state variables ( x, y, z) and three parameters (β ,σ ,r). Bounds are reported for infinite-time averages of all eighteen moments x^ly^mz^n up to quartic degree that are symmetric under (x,y)\\mapsto (-x,-y). These bounds apply to all solutions regardless of stability, including chaotic trajectories, periodic orbits, and equilibrium points. The analytical approach yields two novel bounds that are sharp: the mean of z^3 can be no larger than its value of (r-1)^3 at the nonzero equilibria, and the mean of xy^3 must be nonnegative. The interval arithmetic approach is applied at the standard chaotic parameters to bound eleven average moments that all appear to be maximized on the shortest periodic orbit. Our best upper bound on each such average exceeds its value on the maximizing orbit by less than 1%. Many bounds reported here are much tighter than would be possible without computer assistance.
An explicit Berry-Ess\\'een bound for uniformly expanding maps on the interval
Dubois, Loïc
2009-01-01
For uniformly expanding maps on the interval, analogous versions of the Berry-Ess\\'een theorem are known but only with an unexplicit upper bound in $O(1/\\sqrt{n})$ without any constants being specified. In this paper, we use the recent complex cone technique to prove an explicit Berry-Ess\\'een estimate with a reasonable constant for these maps. Our method is not limited to maps on the interval however and should apply to many situations.
Efficient bounds on quantum-communication rates via their reduced variants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nowakowski, Marcin L.; Horodecki, Pawel
2010-01-01
We investigate one-way communication scenarios where Bob operating on his component can transfer some subsystem to the environment. We define reduced versions of quantum-communication rates and, further, prove upper bounds on a one-way quantum secret key, distillable entanglement, and quantum-channel capacity by means of their reduced versions. It is shown that in some cases they drastically improve their estimation.
Error bounds from extra precise iterative refinement
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Demmel, James; Hida, Yozo; Kahan, William; Li, Xiaoye S.; Mukherjee, Soni; Riedy, E. Jason
2005-02-07
We present the design and testing of an algorithm for iterative refinement of the solution of linear equations, where the residual is computed with extra precision. This algorithm was originally proposed in the 1960s [6, 22] as a means to compute very accurate solutions to all but the most ill-conditioned linear systems of equations. However two obstacles have until now prevented its adoption in standard subroutine libraries like LAPACK: (1) There was no standard way to access the higher precision arithmetic needed to compute residuals, and (2) it was unclear how to compute a reliable error bound for the computed solution. The completion of the new BLAS Technical Forum Standard [5] has recently removed the first obstacle. To overcome the second obstacle, we show how a single application of iterative refinement can be used to compute an error bound in any norm at small cost, and use this to compute both an error bound in the usual infinity norm, and a componentwise relative error bound. We report extensive test results on over 6.2 million matrices of dimension 5, 10, 100, and 1000. As long as a normwise (resp. componentwise) condition number computed by the algorithm is less than 1/max{l_brace}10,{radical}n{r_brace} {var_epsilon}{sub w}, the computed normwise (resp. componentwise) error bound is at most 2 max{l_brace}10,{radical}n{r_brace} {center_dot} {var_epsilon}{sub w}, and indeed bounds the true error. Here, n is the matrix dimension and w is single precision roundoff error. For worse conditioned problems, we get similarly small correct error bounds in over 89.4% of cases.
Improved bounds on the epidemic threshold of exact SIS models on complex networks
Ruhi, Navid Azizan
2017-01-05
The SIS (susceptible-infected-susceptible) epidemic model on an arbitrary network, without making approximations, is a 2n-state Markov chain with a unique absorbing state (the all-healthy state). This makes analysis of the SIS model and, in particular, determining the threshold of epidemic spread quite challenging. It has been shown that the exact marginal probabilities of infection can be upper bounded by an n-dimensional linear time-invariant system, a consequence of which is that the Markov chain is “fast-mixing” when the LTI system is stable, i.e. when equation (where β is the infection rate per link, δ is the recovery rate, and λmax(A) is the largest eigenvalue of the network\\'s adjacency matrix). This well-known threshold has been recently shown not to be tight in several cases, such as in a star network. In this paper, we provide tighter upper bounds on the exact marginal probabilities of infection, by also taking pairwise infection probabilities into account. Based on this improved bound, we derive tighter eigenvalue conditions that guarantee fast mixing (i.e., logarithmic mixing time) of the chain. We demonstrate the improvement of the threshold condition by comparing the new bound with the known one on various networks with various epidemic parameters.
Coefficient of performance and its bounds with the figure of merit for a general refrigerator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Long, Rui; Liu, Wei
2015-01-01
A general refrigerator model with non-isothermal processes is studied. The coefficient of performance (COP) and its bounds at maximum χ figure of merit are obtained and analyzed. This model accounts for different heat capacities during the heat transfer processes. So, different kinds of refrigerator cycles can be considered. Under the constant heat capacity condition, the upper bound of the COP is the Curzon–Ahlborn (CA) coefficient of performance and is independent of the time durations of the heat exchanging processes. With the maximum χ criterion, in the refrigerator cycles, such as the reversed Brayton refrigerator cycle, the reversed Otto refrigerator cycle and the reversed Atkinson refrigerator cycle, where the heat capacity in the heat absorbing process is not less than that in the heat releasing process, their COPs are bounded by the CA coefficient of performance; otherwise, such as for the reversed Diesel refrigerator cycle, its COP can exceed the CA coefficient of performance. Furthermore, the general refined upper and lower bounds have been proposed. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ralls, P.W.; Colletti, P.M.; Boswell, W.D. Jr.; Halls, J.M.
1984-01-01
Historically, assessment of acute right upper quadrant abdominal pain has been a considerable clinical challenge. While clinical findings and laboratory data frequently narrow the differential diagnosis, symptom overlap generally precludes definitive diagnosis among the various diseases causing acute right upper quadrant pain. Fortunately, the advent of newer diagnostic imaging modalities has greatly improved the rapidity and reliability of diagnosis in these patients. An additional challenge to the physician, with increased awareness of the importance of cost effectiveness in medicine, is to select appropriate diagnostic schema that rapidly establish accurate diagnoses in the most economical fashion possible. The dual goals of this discussion are to assess not only the accuracy of techniques used to evaluate patients with acute right upper quadrant pain, but also to seek out cost-effective, coordinated imaging techniques to achieve this goal
A Mixed Traffic Assignment Problem and Its Upper Bound of Efficiency Loss
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiao-Jun Yu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A variational inequality (VI formulation of a mixed traffic assignment problem associated with user equilibrium (UE player and altruistic players (UE-AP is developed. The users governed by the UE player use the paths with minimum actual travel cost, while the users governed by altruistic players use the paths with minimum perceived travel cost, which is a linear combination of the actual and marginal travel costs. A nonlinear programming method is adopted to derive the efficiency loss of the UE-AP mixed equilibrium with polynomial cost function. Finally, numerical examples are given to verify our analytical results.
Turbulent combustion and DDT events as an upper bound for hydrogen mitigation techniques
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dorofeev, S.B.
1997-01-01
A brief review is presented on the limiting conditions for fast combustion regimes (accelerated flames, fast turbulent deflagrations, and DDT events), and on their effect on confining structures. Main attention is given to hydrogen-air-steam mixtures typical for severe accidents in nuclear power plants. Comparison is made of the pressure loads resulting from different combustion regimes. Transient wave processes are shown to be very important for description of the pressure loads. Different limiting conditions are discussed for DDT being the most dangerous combustion event. Possibility of DDT is shown to be limited by the geometrical scale. Detailed description is presented for DDT criterion based on the minimum scale requirement for detonation formation. This criterion gives a conservative estimate that DDT is impossible, if characteristic size of combustible mixture is less than 7 detonation cell widths of the mixture. Conditions limiting possibility of flame acceleration are also discussed. (author)
On upper bounds for the growth rate in the extended Taylor ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Howard's conjecture, namely, the growth rate kci → 0 as the wave number k → ∞ is proved for two classes of basic ... which has come to be known as the Howard's conjecture has been proved for the Rayleigh problem in [3] and for two ...... [11] Howard L N, Note on a paper of John Miles, J. Fluid Mech. 10 (1961) 509–512.