WorldWideScience

Sample records for strict performance requirements

  1. Public healthcare interests require strict competition enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loozen, Edith M H

    2015-07-01

    Several countries have introduced competition in their health systems in order to maintain the supply of high quality health care in a cost-effective manner. The introduction of competition triggers competition enforcement. Since healthcare is characterized by specific market failures, many favor healthcare-specific competition enforcement in order not only to account for the competition interest, but also for the healthcare interests. The question is whether healthcare systems based on competition can succeed when competition enforcement deviates from standard practice. This paper analyzes whether healthcare-specific competition enforcement is theoretically sound and practically effective. This is exemplified by the Dutch system that is based on regulated competition and thus crucially depends on getting competition enforcement right. Governments are responsible for correcting market failures. Markets are responsible for maximizing the public healthcare interests. By securing sufficient competitive pressure, competition enforcement makes sure they do. When interpreted according to welfare-economics, competition law takes into account both costs and benefits specific market behavior may have for healthcare. Competition agencies and judiciary are not legitimized to deviate from standard evidentiary requirements. Dutch case law shows that healthcare-specific enforcement favors the healthcare undertakings concerned, but to the detriment of public health care. Healthcare-specific competition enforcement is conceptually flawed and counterproductive. In order for healthcare systems based on competition to succeed, competition enforcement should be strict. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Effect of the Strictness of Consultation Requirements on Fraud Consultation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gold, A.H.; Knechel, W.R.; Wallage, P.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate how the strictness of a requirement to consult on potential client fraud affects auditors' propensity to consult with firm experts. We consider two specific forms of guidance about fraud consultations: (1) strict, i.e., mandatory and binding; and (2) lenient, i.e., advisory and

  3. Required sample size for monitoring stand dynamics in strict forest reserves: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diego Van Den Meersschaut; Bart De Cuyper; Kris Vandekerkhove; Noel Lust

    2000-01-01

    Stand dynamics in European strict forest reserves are commonly monitored using inventory densities of 5 to 15 percent of the total surface. The assumption that these densities guarantee a representative image of certain parameters is critically analyzed in a case study for the parameters basal area and stem number. The required sample sizes for different accuracy and...

  4. She's Strict for a Good Reason: Highly Effective Teachers in Low-Performing Urban Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poplin, Mary; Rivera, John; Durish, Dena; Hoff, Linda; Kawell, Susan; Pawlak, Pat; Hinman, Ivannia Soto; Straus, Laura; Veney, Cloetta

    2011-01-01

    A study of 31 high-performing teachers in low-performing urban schools found that these teachers had certain traits in common. They were strict; they taught in traditional, explicit ways; there was little time in their classrooms when instruction was not occurring; and they moved around the room helping their students. They used very few…

  5. Study on Environment Performance Evaluation and Regional Differences of Strictly-Environmental-Monitored Cities in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Guo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid economic growth and development, the problem of environmental pollution in China’s cities is becoming increasingly serious, and environmental pollution takes on a regional difference. There is, however, little comprehensive evaluation on the environmental performance and the regional difference of strictly-environmental-monitored cities in China. In this paper, the environmental performance of 109 strictly-environmental-monitored cities in China is evaluated in terms of natural performance, management performance, and scale performance by Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA, incorporating PM2.5 and PM10 as undesirable outputs. The empirical results show that: (1 At present, the natural performance is quite high, while the management performance is noticeably low for most cities. (2 The gap between the level of economic development and environmental protection among cities in China is large, and the scale efficiency of big cities is better than that of smaller cities. The efficiency value of large-scale cities such as Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Shenzhen, etc. is high, equaling 1; the value of smaller cities such as Sanmenxia, Baoding, Mudanjiang, and Pingdingshan is low, close to 0, indicating that big cities are characterized by high environmental efficiency. (3 From the perspective of region, the level of environmental performance in China is very uneven. For example, the environmental efficiency level of the Pan-Pearl River Delta region is superior to that of the Pan-Yangtze River region and the Bahia Rim region, whose values of environmental efficiency are 0.858, 0.658, and 0.622 respectively. The average efficiency of the Southern Coastal Economic Zone, Eastern Coastal Comprehensive Economic Zone, and the Comprehensive Economic Zone in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River is higher than that of other regions. Finally, corresponding countermeasures and suggestions are put forward. The method used in this paper is applicable

  6. R -Dimensional ESPRIT-Type Algorithms for Strictly Second-Order Non-Circular Sources and Their Performance Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinwandt, Jens; Roemer, Florian; Haardt, Martin; Galdo, Giovanni Del

    2014-09-01

    High-resolution parameter estimation algorithms designed to exploit the prior knowledge about incident signals from strictly second-order (SO) non-circular (NC) sources allow for a lower estimation error and can resolve twice as many sources. In this paper, we derive the R-D NC Standard ESPRIT and the R-D NC Unitary ESPRIT algorithms that provide a significantly better performance compared to their original versions for arbitrary source signals. They are applicable to shift-invariant R-D antenna arrays and do not require a centrosymmetric array structure. Moreover, we present a first-order asymptotic performance analysis of the proposed algorithms, which is based on the error in the signal subspace estimate arising from the noise perturbation. The derived expressions for the resulting parameter estimation error are explicit in the noise realizations and asymptotic in the effective signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), i.e., the results become exact for either high SNRs or a large sample size. We also provide mean squared error (MSE) expressions, where only the assumptions of a zero mean and finite SO moments of the noise are required, but no assumptions about its statistics are necessary. As a main result, we analytically prove that the asymptotic performance of both R-D NC ESPRIT-type algorithms is identical in the high effective SNR regime. Finally, a case study shows that no improvement from strictly non-circular sources can be achieved in the special case of a single source.

  7. Formation of virions is strictly required for turnip yellows virus long-distance movement in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipper, Clémence; Monsion, Baptiste; Bortolamiol-Bécet, Diane; Ziegler-Graff, Véronique; Brault, Véronique

    2014-02-01

    Viral genomic RNA of the Turnip yellows virus (TuYV; genus Polerovirus; family Luteoviridae) is protected in virions formed by the major capsid protein (CP) and the minor component, the readthrough (RT*) protein. Long-distance transport, used commonly by viruses to systemically infect host plants, occurs in phloem sieve elements and two viral forms of transport have been described: virions and ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes. With regard to poleroviruses, virions have always been presumed to be the long-distance transport form, but the potential role of RNP complexes has not been investigated. Here, we examined the requirement of virions for polerovirus systemic movement by analysing CP-targeted mutants that were unable to form viral particles. We confirmed that TuYV mutants that cannot encapsidate into virions are not able to reach systemic leaves. To completely discard the possibility that the introduced mutations in CP simply blocked the formation or the movement of RNP complexes, we tested in trans complementation of TuYV CP mutants by providing WT CP expressed in transgenic plants. WT CP was able to facilitate systemic movement of TuYV CP mutants and this observation was always correlated with the formation of virions. This demonstrated clearly that virus particles are essential for polerovirus systemic movement.

  8. A set-theoretic model reference adaptive control architecture for disturbance rejection and uncertainty suppression with strict performance guarantees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabi, Ehsan; Gruenwald, Benjamin C.; Yucelen, Tansel; Nguyen, Nhan T.

    2018-05-01

    Research in adaptive control algorithms for safety-critical applications is primarily motivated by the fact that these algorithms have the capability to suppress the effects of adverse conditions resulting from exogenous disturbances, imperfect dynamical system modelling, degraded modes of operation, and changes in system dynamics. Although government and industry agree on the potential of these algorithms in providing safety and reducing vehicle development costs, a major issue is the inability to achieve a-priori, user-defined performance guarantees with adaptive control algorithms. In this paper, a new model reference adaptive control architecture for uncertain dynamical systems is presented to address disturbance rejection and uncertainty suppression. The proposed framework is predicated on a set-theoretic adaptive controller construction using generalised restricted potential functions.The key feature of this framework allows the system error bound between the state of an uncertain dynamical system and the state of a reference model, which captures a desired closed-loop system performance, to be less than a-priori, user-defined worst-case performance bound, and hence, it has the capability to enforce strict performance guarantees. Examples are provided to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed set-theoretic model reference adaptive control architecture.

  9. Performance Analysis of Multi-Dimensional ESPRIT-Type Algorithms for Arbitrary and Strictly Non-Circular Sources With Spatial Smoothing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinwandt, Jens; Roemer, Florian; Haardt, Martin; Galdo, Giovanni Del

    2017-05-01

    Spatial smoothing is a widely used preprocessing scheme to improve the performance of high-resolution parameter estimation algorithms in case of coherent signals or if only a small number of snapshots is available. In this paper, we present a first-order performance analysis of the spatially smoothed versions of R-D Standard ESPRIT and R-D Unitary ESPRIT for sources with arbitrary signal constellations as well as R-D NC Standard ESPRIT and R-D NC Unitary ESPRIT for strictly second-order (SO) non-circular (NC) sources. The derived expressions are asymptotic in the effective signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), i.e., the approximations become exact for either high SNRs or a large sample size. Moreover, no assumptions on the noise statistics are required apart from a zero-mean and finite SO moments. We show that both R-D NC ESPRIT-type algorithms with spatial smoothing perform asymptotically identical in the high effective SNR regime. Generally, the performance of spatial smoothing based algorithms depends on the number of subarrays, which is a design parameter and needs to be chosen beforehand. In order to gain more insights into the optimal choice of the number of subarrays, we simplify the derived analytical R-D mean square error (MSE) expressions for the special case of a single source. The obtained MSE expression explicitly depends on the number of subarrays in each dimension, which allows us to analytically find the optimal number of subarrays for spatial smoothing. Based on this result, we additionally derive the maximum asymptotic gain from spatial smoothing and explicitly compute the asymptotic efficiency for this special case. All the analytical results are verified by simulations.

  10. Strict confluent drawing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eppstein, D.; Holten, D.H.R.; Löffler, M.; Nöllenburg, M.; Speckmann, B.; Verbeek, K.A.B.

    2013-01-01

    We define strict confluent drawing, a form of confluent drawing in which the existence of an edge is indicated by the presence of a smooth path through a system of arcs and junctions (without crossings), and in which such a path, if it exists, must be unique. We prove that it is NP-complete to

  11. Strict confluent drawing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eppstein, D.; Holten, D.; Löffler, M.; Nöllenburg, M.; Speckmann, B.; Verbeek, K.A.B.

    2016-01-01

    We define strict confluent drawing, a form of confluent drawing in which the existence of an edge is indicated by the presence of a smooth path through a system of arcs and junctions (without crossings), and in which such a path, if it exists, must be unique. We prove that it is NP-complete to

  12. Quine's "Strictly Vegetarian" Analyticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Decock, L.B.

    2017-01-01

    I analyze Quine’s later writings on analyticity from a linguistic point of view. In Word and Object Quine made room for a “strictly vegetarian” notion of analyticity. In later years, he developed this notion into two more precise notions, which I have coined “stimulus analyticity” and “behaviorist

  13. Sequestration Coating Performance Requirements for ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    symposium paper The EPA’s National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC), in collaboration with ASTM International, developed performance standards for materials which could be applied to exterior surfaces contaminated by an RDD to mitigate the spread and migration of radioactive contamination.

  14. Species Protection in the European Union : How Strict is Strict?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoukens, Hendrik; Bastmeijer, Kees; Born et al., Charles-Hubert

    2015-01-01

    European Union law to protect wild species of plants and animals is generally considered as ‘strict’. Opponents of nature conservation law often pick the species protection components of the EU Bird Directive and Habitat Directive as a prime example of an unnecessary strict regulatory scheme that

  15. Efficient Strictness Analysis of Haskell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristian Damm; Hjæresen, Peter; Rosendahl, Mads

    1994-01-01

    Strictness analysis has been a living field of investigation since Mycroft's original work in 1980, and is getting increasingly significant with the still wider use of lazy functional programming languages. This paper focuses on an actual implementation of a strictness analyser for Haskell....... The analyser uses abstract interpretation with chaotic fixpoint iteration. The demand-driven nature of this iteration technique allows us to use large domains including function domains in the style of Burn et al. 1986 and Wadler 87 and retain reasonable efficiency. The implementation, furthermore, allows us...

  16. Flexible or Strict Taxonomic Organization?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Fumiko Kano; Mørup, Morten

    2012-01-01

    This work compares methods for constructing feature-based ontologies that are supposed to be used for culturally-specific knowledge transfer. The methods to be compared are the Terminological Ontology (TO) [1], a method of constructing ontology based on strict principles and rules, and the Infinite...

  17. Organizing Performance Requirements For Dynamical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malchow, Harvey L.; Croopnick, Steven R.

    1990-01-01

    Paper describes methodology for establishing performance requirements for complicated dynamical systems. Uses top-down approach. In series of steps, makes connections between high-level mission requirements and lower-level functional performance requirements. Provides systematic delineation of elements accommodating design compromises.

  18. A strictly hyperbolic equilibrium phase transition model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allaire, G; Faccanoni, G; Kokh, S.

    2007-01-01

    This Note is concerned with the strict hyperbolicity of the compressible Euler equations equipped with an equation of state that describes the thermodynamical equilibrium between the liquid phase and the vapor phase of a fluid. The proof is valid for a very wide class of fluids. The argument only relies on smoothness assumptions and on the classical thermodynamical stability assumptions, that requires a definite negative Hessian matrix for each phase entropy as a function of the specific volume and internal energy. (authors)

  19. Strictness Analysis for Attribute Grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    1992-01-01

    interpretation of attribute grammars. The framework is used to construct a strictness analysis for attribute grammars. Results of the analysis enable us to transform an attribute grammar such that attributes are evaluated during parsing, if possible. The analysis is proved correct by relating it to a fixpoint...... semantics for attribute grammars. An implementation of the analysis is discussed and some extensions to the analysis are mentioned....

  20. The trend to get strict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, Chris.

    1997-01-01

    Most policy makers in the USA and Europe are committed to strict environmental liability. The polluter pays principle is seen as popular with voters and easy to defend. For the energy sector, encompassing everything from disused gas works and coal mines to refineries, tank farms and filling stations, the cost of cleaning up old sites can be huge. Within the policy commitment to strict liability there are some issues up for negotiation, however. These include such things as: available defences; the burden of proof; mechanisms for sharing liability at multi-party sites; funding of orphan shares; the protection afforded to lenders. Most governments have shown some flexibility on these issues and some examples from the USA are given. Nevertheless, in Europe the momentum towards comprehensive strict liability regimes seems unrelenting. In the Member states of the European Union, liability laws are either already in place or new laws are in preparation. The European Commission is working on proposals for an EU-wide environmental liability regime but there are formidable obstacles to overcome if it is to become EU law. In the meanwhile, the process of trying to reach agreement at an EU level is likely to strengthen the legislative drive at national level. (UK)

  1. Comparison of energy performance requirements levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spiekman, Marleen; Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Rose, Jørgen

    This summary report provides a synthesis of the work within the EU SAVE project ASIEPI on developing a method to compare the energy performance (EP) requirement levels among the countries of Europe. Comparing EP requirement levels constitutes a major challenge. From the comparison of for instance...... the present Dutch requirement level (EPC) of 0,8 with the present Flemish level of E80, it can easily be seen that direct comparison is not possible. The conclusions and recommendations of the study are presented in part A. These constitute the most important result of the project. Part B gives an overview...... of all other project material related to that topic, which allows to easily identify the most pertinent information. Part C lists the project partners and sponsors....

  2. Frequency Control Performance Measurement and Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illian, Howard F.

    2010-12-20

    Frequency control is an essential requirement of reliable electric power system operations. Determination of frequency control depends on frequency measurement and the practices based on these measurements that dictate acceptable frequency management. This report chronicles the evolution of these measurements and practices. As technology progresses from analog to digital for calculation, communication, and control, the technical basis for frequency control measurement and practices to determine acceptable performance continues to improve. Before the introduction of digital computing, practices were determined largely by prior experience. In anticipation of mandatory reliability rules, practices evolved from a focus primarily on commercial and equity issues to an increased focus on reliability. This evolution is expected to continue and place increased requirements for more precise measurements and a stronger scientific basis for future frequency management practices in support of reliability.

  3. Finite Metric Spaces of Strictly Negative Type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul; Lisonek, P.; Markvorsen, Steen

    1998-01-01

    of Euclidean spaces. We prove that, if the distance matrix is both hypermetric and regular, then it is of strictly negative type. We show that the strictly negative type finite subspaces of spheres are precisely those which do not contain two pairs of antipodal points. In connection with an open problem raised...

  4. Extremely strict ideals in Banach spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Motivated by the notion of an ideal introduced by Godefroy et al. (Stu- dia Math. 104 (1993) 13–59), in this article, we introduce and study the notion of an extremely strict ideal. For a Poulsen simplex K, we show that the space of affine contin- uous functions on K is an extremely strict ideal in the space of continuous ...

  5. Predicting sample size required for classification performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figueroa Rosa L

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Supervised learning methods need annotated data in order to generate efficient models. Annotated data, however, is a relatively scarce resource and can be expensive to obtain. For both passive and active learning methods, there is a need to estimate the size of the annotated sample required to reach a performance target. Methods We designed and implemented a method that fits an inverse power law model to points of a given learning curve created using a small annotated training set. Fitting is carried out using nonlinear weighted least squares optimization. The fitted model is then used to predict the classifier's performance and confidence interval for larger sample sizes. For evaluation, the nonlinear weighted curve fitting method was applied to a set of learning curves generated using clinical text and waveform classification tasks with active and passive sampling methods, and predictions were validated using standard goodness of fit measures. As control we used an un-weighted fitting method. Results A total of 568 models were fitted and the model predictions were compared with the observed performances. Depending on the data set and sampling method, it took between 80 to 560 annotated samples to achieve mean average and root mean squared error below 0.01. Results also show that our weighted fitting method outperformed the baseline un-weighted method (p Conclusions This paper describes a simple and effective sample size prediction algorithm that conducts weighted fitting of learning curves. The algorithm outperformed an un-weighted algorithm described in previous literature. It can help researchers determine annotation sample size for supervised machine learning.

  6. Generating units performances: power system requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fourment, C; Girard, N; Lefebvre, H

    1994-08-01

    The part of generating units within the power system is more than providing power and energy. Their performance are not only measured by their energy efficiency and availability. Namely, there is a strong interaction between the generating units and the power system. The units are essential components of the system: for a given load profile the frequency variation follows directly from the behaviour of the units and their ability to adapt their power output. In the same way, the voltage at the units terminals are the key points to which the voltage profile at each node of the network is linked through the active and especially the reactive power flows. Therefore, the customer will experience the frequency and voltage variations induced by the units behaviour. Moreover, in case of adverse conditions, if the units do not operate as well as expected or trip, a portion of the system, may be the whole system, may collapse. The limitation of the performance of a unit has two kinds of consequences. Firstly, it may result in an increased amount of not supplied energy or loss of load probability: for example if the primary reserve is not sufficient, a generator tripping may lead to an abnormal frequency deviation, and load may have to be shed to restore the balance. Secondly, the limitation of a unit performance results in an economic over-cost for the system: for instance, if not enough `cheap` units are able to load-following, other units with higher operating costs have to be started up. We would like to stress the interest for the operators and design teams of the units on the one hand, and the operators and design teams of the system on the other hand, of dialog and information exchange, in operation but also at the conception stage, in order to find a satisfactory compromise between the system requirements and the consequences for the generating units. (authors). 11 refs., 4 figs.

  7. Hyperbolic spaces are of strictly negative type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.; Kokkendorff, Simon L.; Markvorsen, Steen

    2002-01-01

    We study finite metric spaces with elements picked from, and distances consistent with, ambient Riemannian manifolds. The concepts of negative type and strictly negative type are reviewed, and the conjecture that hyperbolic spaces are of strictly negative type is settled, in the affirmative....... The technique of the proof is subsequently applied to show that every compact manifold of negative type must have trivial fundamental group, and to obtain a necessary criterion for product manifolds to be of negative type....

  8. Strictly diagonal holomorphic functions on Banach spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Fedak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate the boundedness of holomorphic functionals on a Banach space with a normalized basis $\\{e_n\\}$ which have a very special form $f(x=f(0+\\sum_{n=1}^\\infty c_nx_n^n$ and which we call strictly diagonal. We consider under which conditions strictly diagonal functions are entire and uniformly continuous on every ball of a fixed radius.

  9. Dosimeter characteristics and service performance requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosi, P.; Bartlett, D.T.

    1999-01-01

    The requirements for personal dosimeters and dosimetry services given by ICRP 26, ICRP 35, ICRP 60 and ICRP 75 are summarised and compared with the requirements given in relevant international standards. Most standards could be made more relevant to actual workplace conditions. In some standards, the required tests of energy and angular dependence of the response are not sufficient, or requirements on overall uncertainty are lacking. (author)

  10. Electronuclear Park, Privatization and Civil Strict Liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondello, Gerard Camille

    2008-01-01

    The civil strict liability regime of the electronuclear industry is a fundamental variable for preventing risk. Because prices of other energies as oil or gas are becoming higher and unpredictable, nuclear power becomes cost-effective and may favour the partial privatization of nuclear parks. By considering theoretical traditional liability models, we study the conditions that ensure the most efficient safety level when comparing natural monopoly situation and Bertrand duopoly. Our results are that natural monopoly is safer than duopoly only when strict liability is fully applied. We define conditions that neutralize risk for applying some privatization plan to nuclear park

  11. Towards performance requirements for structural connections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stark, J.W.B.

    1999-01-01

    There is a tendency in the Construction Industry to move from solution driven specifications towards performance specifications. Traditionally structural specifications including those for steel construction used to be mainly solution driven. In this paper the position of the draft European

  12. Finite Metric Spaces of Strictly negative Type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.

    If a finite metric space is of strictly negative type then its transfinite diameter is uniquely realized by an infinite extent (“load vector''). Finite metric spaces that have this property include all trees, and all finite subspaces of Euclidean and Hyperbolic spaces. We prove that if the distance...

  13. Cost optimal levels for energy performance requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Aggerholm, Søren; Kluttig-Erhorn, Heike

    This report summarises the work done within the Concerted Action EPBD from December 2010 to April 2011 in order to feed into the European Commission's proposal for a common European procedure for a Cost-Optimal methodology under the Directive on the Energy Performance of Buildings (recast) 2010/3...

  14. Dynamic Enforcement of the Strict Integrity Policy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGXiangfeng; LIANGHongliang; SUNYufang

    2005-01-01

    The Strict integrity policy (SIP) in Biba's integrity model is widely used in protecting information integrity, but the static integrity labels of both subjects and objects increase compatibility cost of applications and might prevent some operations that are indeed harmless.In order to improve compatibility, Dynamic enforcement of the Strict integrity policy (DESIP) is put forward. The current integrity label attribute of a subject in SIP is replaced with two attributes in DESIP, which are used to confine dynamically the range of objects a subject could be allowed to access. The new rules of access control in DESIP are given for each kind of access mode (observe,modify and invoke) together with the proofs of their valid-ity. Comparison between SIP and DESIP shows that after a sequence of operations, a subject controlled by DESIP tends to behave in a similar way as it is controlled by SIP and DESIP is more compatible than SIP.

  15. On Fixed Points of Strictly Causal Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    were defined to be the functions that are strictly contracting with respect to the Cantor metric (also called the Baire distance) on signals over non...in Computer Science, pages 447–484. Springer Berlin / Heidelberg, 1992. [36] George Markowsky. Chain-complete posets and directed sets with...Journal of Logic Programming, 42(2):59–70, 2000. [53] George M. Reed and A. William Roscoe. A timed model for communicating sequential processes. In

  16. 7 CFR 28.441 - Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color. 28.441 Section... Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color. Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color is color which is deeper than that of Strict Middling Tinged Color. [57 FR 34498, Aug. 5, 1992] ...

  17. 7 CFR 28.412 - Strict Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.412 Section 28... Light Spotted Color. Strict Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Strict Middling Color and Strict Middling Spotted Color. ...

  18. 14 CFR 171.269 - Marker beacon performance requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marker beacon performance requirements. 171.269 Section 171.269 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Landing System (ISMLS) § 171.269 Marker beacon performance requirements. ISMLS marker beacon equipment...

  19. Scaling of neck performance requirements in side impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wismans, J.S.H.M.; Meijer, R.; Rodarius, C.; Been, B.W.

    2008-01-01

    Neck biofidelity performance requirements for different sized crash dummies and human body computer models are usually based on scaling of performance requirements derived for a 50th percentile body size. The objective of this study is to investigate the validity of the currently used scaling laws

  20. Performance Requirements for the Double Shell Tank (DST) System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SMITH, D.F.

    2001-01-01

    This document identifies the upper-level Double-Shell Tank (DST) System functions and bounds the associated performance requirements. The functions and requirements are provided along with supporting bases. These functions and requirements, in turn, will be incorporated into specifications for the DST System

  1. Development and testing of the methodology for performance requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivers, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of implementing a set of materials control and accountability (MC ampersand A) performance requirements. These graded requirements set a uniform level of performance for similar materials at various facilities against the threat of an insider adversary stealing special nuclear material (SNM). These requirements are phrased in terms of detecting the theft of a goal quantity of SNM within a specified time period and with a probability greater than or equal to a special value and include defense-in-depth requirements. The DOE has conducted an extensive effort over the last 2 1/2 yr to develop a practical methodology to be used in evaluating facility performance against the performance requirements specified in DOE order 5633.3. The major participants in the development process have been the Office of Safeguards and Security (OSS), Brookhaven National Laboratory, and Los Alamos National Laboratory. The process has included careful reviews of related evaluation systems, a review of the intent of the requirements in the order, and site visits to most of the major facilities in the DOE complex. As a result of this extensive effort to develop guidance for the MC ampersand A performance requirements, OSS was able to provide a practical method that will allow facilities to evaluate the performance of their safeguards systems against the performance requirements. In addition, the evaluations can be validated by the cognizant operations offices in a systematic manner

  2. A performance requirements analysis of the SSC control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, S.M.; Low, K.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents the results of analysis of the performance requirements of the Superconducting Super Collider Control System. We quantify the performance requirements of the system in terms of response time, throughput and reliability. We then examine the effect of distance and traffic patterns on control system performance and examine how these factors influence the implementation of the control network architecture and compare the proposed system against those criteria. (author)

  3. Engineered Barrier System performance requirements systems study report. Revision 02

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balady, M.A.

    1997-01-14

    This study evaluates the current design concept for the Engineered Barrier System (EBS), in concert with the current understanding of the geologic setting to assess whether enhancements to the required performance of the EBS are necessary. The performance assessment calculations are performed by coupling the EBS with the geologic setting based on the models (some of which were updated for this study) and assumptions used for the 1995 Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). The need for enhancements is determined by comparing the performance assessment results against the EBS related performance requirements. Subsystem quantitative performance requirements related to the EBS include the requirement to allow no more than 1% of the waste packages (WPs) to fail before 1,000 years after permanent closure of the repository, as well as a requirement to control the release rate of radionuclides from the EBS. The EBS performance enhancements considered included additional engineered components as well as evaluating additional performance available from existing design features but for which no performance credit is currently being taken.

  4. Engineered Barrier System performance requirements systems study report. Revision 02

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balady, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    This study evaluates the current design concept for the Engineered Barrier System (EBS), in concert with the current understanding of the geologic setting to assess whether enhancements to the required performance of the EBS are necessary. The performance assessment calculations are performed by coupling the EBS with the geologic setting based on the models (some of which were updated for this study) and assumptions used for the 1995 Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). The need for enhancements is determined by comparing the performance assessment results against the EBS related performance requirements. Subsystem quantitative performance requirements related to the EBS include the requirement to allow no more than 1% of the waste packages (WPs) to fail before 1,000 years after permanent closure of the repository, as well as a requirement to control the release rate of radionuclides from the EBS. The EBS performance enhancements considered included additional engineered components as well as evaluating additional performance available from existing design features but for which no performance credit is currently being taken

  5. The contribution of material control to meeting performance requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivers, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    The U.S. Dept. of Energy (DOE) is in the process of implementing a set of performance requirements for material control and accountability (MC ampersand A). These graded requirements set a uniform level of performance for similar materials at various facilities with respect to the threat of an insider adversary stealing special nuclear material (SNM). These requirements are phrased in terms of detecting the theft of a goal quantity of SNM within a specified time period and with a probability greater than or equal to a specified value and include defense in-depth requirements

  6. STRICT STABILITY OF IMPULSIVE SET VALUED DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we develop strict stability concepts of ODE to impulsive hybrid set valued differential equations. By Lyapunov’s original method, we get some basic strict stability criteria of impulsive hybrid set valued equations.

  7. 7 CFR 28.406 - Strict Good Ordinary Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Good Ordinary Color. 28.406 Section 28.406... for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.406 Strict Good Ordinary Color. Strict Good Ordinary Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in the custody of the...

  8. 7 CFR 28.404 - Strict Low Middling Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Low Middling Color. 28.404 Section 28.404... for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.404 Strict Low Middling Color. Strict Low Middling Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in the custody of the United...

  9. 7 CFR 28.402 - Strict Middling Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Color. 28.402 Section 28.402... for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.402 Strict Middling Color. Strict Middling Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in the custody of the United States...

  10. Synchronizing strict-feedback and general strict-feedback chaotic systems via a single controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shihua; Wang Feng; Wang Changping

    2004-01-01

    We present a systematic design procedure to synchronize a class of chaotic systems in a so-called strict-feedback form based on back-stepping procedure. This approach needs only a single controller to realize synchronization no matter how many dimensions the chaotic system contains. Furthermore, we point out that the method does not work for general strict-feedback chaotic systems, for instance, Lorenz system. Therefore, we propose three kinds of synchronization schemes for Lorenz system using the Lyapunov function method. All the three schemes avoid including divergence factor as in Ref. [Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 16 (2003) 37]. Especially in the last two schemes, we need only one state variable in controller, which has important significance in chaos synchronization used for communication purposes. Finally numerical simulations are provided to show the effectiveness and feasibility of the developed methods

  11. Performance of a full-scale ITER metal hydride storage bed in comparison with requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beloglazov, S.; Glugla, M.; Fanghaenel, E.; Perevezentsev, A.; Wagner, R.

    2008-01-01

    The storage of hydrogen isotopes as metal hydride is the technique chosen for the ITER Tritium Plant Storage and Delivery System (SDS). A prototype storage bed of a full-scale has been designed, manufactured and intensively tested at the Tritium Laboratory, addressing main performance parameters specified for the ITER application. The main requirements for the hydrogen storage bed are a strict physical limitation of the tritium storage capacity (currently 70 g T 2 ), a high supply flow rate of hydrogen isotopes, in-situ calorimetry capabilities with an accuracy of 1 g and a fully tritium compatible design. The pressure composition isotherm of the ZrCo hydrogen system, as a reference material for ITER, is characterised by significant slope. As a result technical implementation of the ZrCo hydride bed in the SDS system requires further considerations. The paper presents the experience from the operation of ZrCo getter bed including loading/de-loading operation, calorimetric loop performance, and active gas cooling of the bed for fast absorption operation. The implications of hydride material characteristics on the SDS system configuration and design are discussed. (authors)

  12. Cost-optimal levels for energy performance requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Aggerholm, Søren; Kluttig-Erhorn, Heike

    2011-01-01

    The CA conducted a study on experiences and challenges for setting cost optimal levels for energy performance requirements. The results were used as input by the EU Commission in their work of establishing the Regulation on a comparative methodology framework for calculating cost optimal levels...... of minimum energy performance requirements. In addition to the summary report released in August 2011, the full detailed report on this study is now also made available, just as the EC is about to publish its proposed Regulation for MS to apply in their process to update national building requirements....

  13. Input data required for specific performance assessment codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, R.R.; Garcia, R.S.; Starmer, R.J.; Dicke, C.A.; Leonard, P.R.; Maheras, S.J.; Rood, A.S.; Smith, R.W.

    1992-02-01

    The Department of Energy's National Low-Level Waste Management Program at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory generated this report on input data requirements for computer codes to assist States and compacts in their performance assessments. This report gives generators, developers, operators, and users some guidelines on what input data is required to satisfy 22 common performance assessment codes. Each of the codes is summarized and a matrix table is provided to allow comparison of the various input required by the codes. This report does not determine or recommend which codes are preferable

  14. Working group 4B - human intrusion: Design/performance requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Channell, J.

    1993-01-01

    There is no summary of the progress made by working group 4B (Human Intrusion: Design/performance Requirements) during the Electric Power Research Institute's EPRI Workshop on the technical basis of EPA HLW Disposal Criteria, March 1993. This group was to discuss the waste disposal standard, 40 CFR Part 191, in terms of the design and performance requirements of human intrusion. Instead, because there were so few members, they combined with working group 4A and studied the three-tier approach to evaluating postclosure performance

  15. 4D Dynamic Required Navigation Performance Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelsztein, Daniel M.; Sturdy, James L.; Alaverdi, Omeed; Hochwarth, Joachim K.

    2011-01-01

    New advanced four dimensional trajectory (4DT) procedures under consideration for the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) require an aircraft to precisely navigate relative to a moving reference such as another aircraft. Examples are Self-Separation for enroute operations and Interval Management for in-trail and merging operations. The current construct of Required Navigation Performance (RNP), defined for fixed-reference-frame navigation, is not sufficiently specified to be applicable to defining performance levels of such air-to-air procedures. An extension of RNP to air-to-air navigation would enable these advanced procedures to be implemented with a specified level of performance. The objective of this research effort was to propose new 4D Dynamic RNP constructs that account for the dynamic spatial and temporal nature of Interval Management and Self-Separation, develop mathematical models of the Dynamic RNP constructs, "Required Self-Separation Performance" and "Required Interval Management Performance," and to analyze the performance characteristics of these air-to-air procedures using the newly developed models. This final report summarizes the activities led by Raytheon, in collaboration with GE Aviation and SAIC, and presents the results from this research effort to expand the RNP concept to a dynamic 4D frame of reference.

  16. 42 CFR 84.103 - Man tests; performance requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Man tests; performance requirements. 84.103 Section 84.103 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.103 Man tests;...

  17. 19 CFR 143.5 - System performance requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false System performance requirements. 143.5 Section 143.5 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF... must demonstrate that his system can interface directly with the Customs computer and ensure accurate...

  18. Performance requirements for the single-shell tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GRENARD, C.E.

    1999-01-01

    This document provides performance requirements for the waste storage and waste feed delivery functions of the Single-Shell Tank (SST) System. The requirements presented here in will be used as a basis for evaluating the ability of the system to complete the single-shell tank waste feed delivery mission. They will also be used to select the technology or technologies for retrieving waste from the tanks selected for the single-shell tank waste feed delivery mission, assumed to be 241-C-102 and 241-C-104. This revision of the Performance Requirements for the SST is based on the findings of the SST Functional Analysis, and are reflected in the current System Specification for the SST System

  19. Radioactive material package test standards and performance requirements - public perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, R.B.; Shappert, L.B.; Rawl, R.R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper addresses issues related to the public perception of the regulatory test standards and performance requirements for packaging and transporting radioactive material. Specifically, it addresses the adequacy of the package performance standards and testing for Type B packages, which are those packages designed for transporting the most hazardous quantities and forms of radioactive material. Type B packages are designed to withstand accident conditions in transport. To improve public perception, the public needs to better understand: (a) the regulatory standards and requirements themselves, (b) the extensive history underlying their development, and (c) the soundness of the technical foundation. The public needs to be fully informed on studies, tests, and analyses that have been carried out worldwide and form the basis of the regulatory standards and requirements. This paper provides specific information aimed at improving the public perception of packages test standards

  20. High performance sealing - meeting nuclear and aerospace requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wensel, R.; Metcalfe, R.

    1994-11-01

    Although high performance sealing is required in many places, two industries lead all others in terms of their demand-nuclear and aerospace. The factors that govern the high reliability and integrity of seals, particularly elastomer seals, for both industries are discussed. Aerospace requirements include low structural weight and a broad range of conditions, from the cold vacuum of space to the hot, high pressures of rocket motors. It is shown, by example, how a seal can be made an integral part of a structure in order to improve performance, rather than using a conventional handbook design. Typical processes are then described for selection, specification and procurement of suitable elastomers, functional and accelerated performance testing, database development and service-life prediction. Methods for quality assurance of elastomer seals are summarized. Potentially catastrophic internal dejects are a particular problem for conventional non-destructive inspection techniques. A new method of elastodynamic testing for these is described. (author)

  1. Required performance to the concrete structure of the accelerator facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irie, Masaaki; Yoshioka, Masakazu; Miyahara, Masanobu

    2006-01-01

    As for the accelerator facility, there is many a thing which is constructed as underground concrete structure from viewpoint such as cover of radiation and stability of the structure. Required performance to the concrete structure of the accelerator facility is the same as the general social infrastructure, but it has been possessed the feature where target performance differs largely. As for the body sentence, expressing the difference of the performance which is required from the concrete structure of the social infrastructure and the accelerator facility, construction management of the concrete structure which it plans from order of the accelerator engineering works facility, reaches to the design, supervision and operation it is something which expresses the method of thinking. In addition, in the future of material structural analysis of the concrete which uses the neutron accelerator concerning view it showed. (author)

  2. GLOBAL AND STRICT CURVE FITTING METHOD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nakajima, Y.; Mori, S.

    2004-01-01

    To find a global and smooth curve fitting, cubic B­Spline method and gathering­ line methods are investigated. When segmenting and recognizing a contour curve of character shape, some global method is required. If we want to connect contour curves around a singular point like crossing points,

  3. Performance Evaluation and Requirements Assessment for Gravity Gradient Referenced Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jisun Lee

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, simulation tests for gravity gradient referenced navigation (GGRN are conducted to verify the effects of various factors such as database (DB and sensor errors, flight altitude, DB resolution, initial errors, and measurement update rates on the navigation performance. Based on the simulation results, requirements for GGRN are established for position determination with certain target accuracies. It is found that DB and sensor errors and flight altitude have strong effects on the navigation performance. In particular, a DB and sensor with accuracies of 0.1 E and 0.01 E, respectively, are required to determine the position more accurately than or at a level similar to the navigation performance of terrain referenced navigation (TRN. In most cases, the horizontal position error of GGRN is less than 100 m. However, the navigation performance of GGRN is similar to or worse than that of a pure inertial navigation system when the DB and sensor errors are 3 E or 5 E each and the flight altitude is 3000 m. Considering that the accuracy of currently available gradiometers is about 3 E or 5 E, GGRN does not show much advantage over TRN at present. However, GGRN is expected to exhibit much better performance in the near future when accurate DBs and gravity gradiometer are available.

  4. Modal Inclusion Logic: Being Lax is Simpler than Being Strict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hella, Lauri; Kuusisto, Antti Johannes; Meier, Arne

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the computational complexity of the satisfiability problem of modal inclusion logic. We distinguish two variants of the problem: one for strict and another one for lax semantics. The complexity of the lax version turns out to be complete for EXPTIME, whereas with strict semantics...

  5. 7 CFR 28.426 - Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color. 28.426 Section 28.426 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Spotted Color. Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a set...

  6. 7 CFR 28.433 - Strict Low Middling Tinged Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Low Middling Tinged Color. 28.433 Section 28.433 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Tinged Color. Strict Low Middling Tinged Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of...

  7. 7 CFR 28.422 - Strict Middling Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Spotted Color. 28.422 Section 28.422 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Color. Strict Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples...

  8. 7 CFR 28.424 - Strict Low Middling Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Low Middling Spotted Color. 28.424 Section 28.424 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Spotted Color. Strict Low Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a set...

  9. 7 CFR 28.431 - Strict Middling Tinged Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Tinged Color. 28.431 Section 28.431 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Color. Strict Middling Tinged Color is color which is better than Middling Tinged Color. ...

  10. 43 CFR 29.7 - Imposition of strict liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... LIABILITY FUND § 29.7 Imposition of strict liability. (a) Notwithstanding the provisions of any other law... prove that the damages were caused by an act of war or by the negligence of the United States or other... negligence of such damaged party. (c)(1) Strict liability for all claims arising out of any one incident...

  11. Strictly-regular number system and data structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmasry, Amr Ahmed Abd Elmoneim; Jensen, Claus; Katajainen, Jyrki

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a new number system that we call the strictly-regular system, which efficiently supports the operations: digit-increment, digit-decrement, cut, concatenate, and add. Compared to other number systems, the strictly-regular system has distinguishable properties. It is superior to the re...

  12. STRICT CONVEXITY THROUGH EQUIVALENT NORMS IN SEPARABLES BANACH SPACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willy Zubiaga Vera

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Let E be a separable Banach space with norm || . ||. In the present work, the objective is to construct a norm || . ||1 that is equivalent to || . || in E, such that || . ||1 is strictly convex. In addition it is shown that its dual conjugate norm is also strictly convex.

  13. Strict integrity control of biomedical images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coatrieux, Gouenou; Maitre, Henri; Sankur, Bulent

    2001-08-01

    The control of the integrity and authentication of medical images is becoming ever more important within the Medical Information Systems (MIS). The intra- and interhospital exchange of images, such as in the PACS (Picture Archiving and Communication Systems), and the ease of copying, manipulation and distribution of images have brought forth the security aspects. In this paper we focus on the role of watermarking for MIS security and address the problem of integrity control of medical images. We discuss alternative schemes to extract verification signatures and compare their tamper detection performance.

  14. Design requirements and performance requirements for reactor fuel recycle manipulator systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grundmann, J.G.

    1975-01-01

    The development of a new generation of remote handling devices for remote production work in support of reactor fuel recycle systems is discussed. These devices require greater mobility, speed and visual capability than remote handling systems used in research activities. An upgraded manipulator system proposed for a High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor fuel refabrication facility is described. Design and performance criteria for the manipulators, cranes, and TV cameras in the proposed system are enumerated

  15. Are strict vegetarians protected against prostate cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantamango-Bartley, Yessenia; Knutsen, Synnove F; Knutsen, Raymond; Jacobsen, Bjarne K; Fan, Jing; Beeson, W Lawrence; Sabate, Joan; Hadley, David; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Penniecook, Jason; Herring, Patti; Butler, Terry; Bennett, Hanni; Fraser, Gary

    2016-01-01

    According to the American Cancer Society, prostate cancer accounts for ∼27% of all incident cancer cases among men and is the second most common (noncutaneous) cancer among men. The relation between diet and prostate cancer is still unclear. Because people do not consume individual foods but rather foods in combination, the assessment of dietary patterns may offer valuable information when determining associations between diet and prostate cancer risk. This study aimed to examine the association between dietary patterns (nonvegetarian, lacto-ovo-vegetarian, pesco-vegetarian, vegan, and semi-vegetarian) and prostate cancer incidence among 26,346 male participants of the Adventist Health Study-2. In this prospective cohort study, cancer cases were identified by matching to cancer registries. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was performed to estimate HRs by using age as the time variable. In total, 1079 incident prostate cancer cases were identified. Around 8% of the study population reported adherence to the vegan diet. Vegan diets showed a statistically significant protective association with prostate cancer risk (HR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.49, 0.85). After stratifying by race, the statistically significant association with a vegan diet remained only for the whites (HR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.46, 0.86), but the multivariate HR for black vegans showed a similar but nonsignificant point estimate (HR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.41, 1.18). Vegan diets may confer a lower risk of prostate cancer. This lower estimated risk is seen in both white and black vegan subjects, although in the latter, the CI is wider and includes the null. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. MYRRHA cryogenic system study on performances and reliability requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junquera, T.; Chevalier, N.R.; Thermeau, J.P.; Medeiros Romao, L.; Vandeplassche, D.

    2015-01-01

    A precise evaluation of the cryogenic requirements for accelerator-driven system such as the MYRRHA project has been performed. In particular, operation temperature, thermal losses, and required cryogenic power have been evaluated. A preliminary architecture of the cryogenic system including all its major components, as well as the principles for the cryogenic fluids distribution has been proposed. A detailed study on the reliability aspects has also been initiated. This study is based on the reliability of large cryogenic systems used for accelerators like HERA, LHC or SNS Linac. The requirements to guarantee good cryogenic system availability can be summarised as follows: 1) Mean Time Between Maintenance (MTBM) should be > 8 000 hours; 2) Valves, heat exchangers and turbines are particularly sensitive elements to impurities (dust, oil, gases), improvements are necessary to keep a minimal level in these components; 3) Redundancy studies for all elements containing moving/vibrating parts (turbines, compressors, including their respective bearings and seal shafts) are necessary; 4) Periodic maintenance is mandatory: oil checks, control of screw compressors every 10.000-15.000 hours, vibration surveillance programme, etc; 5) Special control and maintenance of utilities equipment (supply of cooling water, compressed air and electrical supply) is necessary; 6) Periodic vacuum checks to identify leakage appearance such as insulation vacuum of transfer lines and distribution boxes are necessary; 7) Easily exchangeable cold compressors are required

  17. Cognition and procedure representational requirements for predictive human performance models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corker, K.

    1992-01-01

    Models and modeling environments for human performance are becoming significant contributors to early system design and analysis procedures. Issues of levels of automation, physical environment, informational environment, and manning requirements are being addressed by such man/machine analysis systems. The research reported here investigates the close interaction between models of human cognition and models that described procedural performance. We describe a methodology for the decomposition of aircrew procedures that supports interaction with models of cognition on the basis of procedures observed; that serves to identify cockpit/avionics information sources and crew information requirements; and that provides the structure to support methods for function allocation among crew and aiding systems. Our approach is to develop an object-oriented, modular, executable software representation of the aircrew, the aircraft, and the procedures necessary to satisfy flight-phase goals. We then encode in a time-based language, taxonomies of the conceptual, relational, and procedural constraints among the cockpit avionics and control system and the aircrew. We have designed and implemented a goals/procedures hierarchic representation sufficient to describe procedural flow in the cockpit. We then execute the procedural representation in simulation software and calculate the values of the flight instruments, aircraft state variables and crew resources using the constraints available from the relationship taxonomies. The system provides a flexible, extensible, manipulative and executable representation of aircrew and procedures that is generally applicable to crew/procedure task-analysis. The representation supports developed methods of intent inference, and is extensible to include issues of information requirements and functional allocation. We are attempting to link the procedural representation to models of cognitive functions to establish several intent inference methods

  18. Turboelectric Aircraft Drive Key Performance Parameters and Functional Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Ralph H.; Brown, Gerald V.; Felder, James L.; Duffy, Kirsten P.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to propose specific power and efficiency as the key performance parameters for a turboelectric aircraft power system and investigate their impact on the overall aircraft. Key functional requirements are identified that impact the power system design. Breguet range equations for a base aircraft and a turboelectric aircraft are found. The benefits and costs that may result from the turboelectric system are enumerated. A break-even analysis is conducted to find the minimum allowable electric drive specific power and efficiency that can preserve the range, initial weight, operating empty weight, and payload weight of the base aircraft.

  19. Strategy and Aspects of Monitoring / Control Strictly in Coordinated Subsystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William José Borges

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to discuss the approach structures of the strictly coordinated theoretical framework developed by Zylbersztajn and Farina (1999 as an expanded perspective of the firm, taking into account the food supply chains as an extension of the nexus of contracts proposed by Coase (1937 and taken up by Williamson (1985. The structures stand out as strictly coordinated. Zylbersztajn and Farina (1999 turn to identifying points of common interests that encourage firms to promote contracts between themselves in a strictly coordinated way, considering the degree of asset specificity involved in the transaction and the competitive forces that determine the search for strategic positioning organizations to achieve sustainable superior results.

  20. A Study on Performance Requirements for Advanced Alarm System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seong, Duk Hyun; Jeong, Jae Hoon; Sim, Young Rok; Ko, Jong Hyun; Kim, Jung Seon; Jang, Gwi Sook; Park, Geun Ok

    2005-01-01

    A design goals of advanced alarm system is providing advanced alarm information to operator in main control room. To achive this, we applied computer based system to Alarm System. Because, It should apply data management and advanced alarm processing(ie. Data Base Mangegment System and S/W module for alarm processing). These are not impossible in analog based alarm system. And, preexitance research examples are made on digital computer. We have digital systems for test of advanced alarm system table and have tested and studied using by test equipment in the view point of the system performance, stability and security. In this paper, we discribed about general software architecture of preexitance research examples. Also, CPU performance and requirements of system software that served to accommodate it, stability and security

  1. Managing Hanford Site solid waste through strict acceptance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasen, W.G.; Pierce, R.D.; Willis, N.P.

    1993-02-01

    Various types of waste have been generated during the 50-year history of the Hanford Site. Regulatory changes in the last 20 years have provided the emphasis for better management of these wastes. Interpretations of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (AEA) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) have led to the definition of a group of wastes called radioactive mixed wastes (RMW). As a result of the radioactive and hazardous properties of these wastes, strict management programs have been implemented for the management of these wastes. Solid waste management is accomplished through a systems performance approach to waste management that used best-demonstrated available technology (BDAT) and best management practices. The solid waste program at the Hanford Site strives to integrate all aspects of management relative to the treatment, storage and disposal (TSD) of solid waste. Often there are many competing and important needs. It is a difficult task to balance these needs in a manner that is both equitable and productive. Management science is used to help the process of making decisions. Tools used to support the decision making process include five-year planning, cost estimating, resource allocation, performance assessment, waste volume forecasts, input/output models, and waste acceptance criteria. The purpose of this document is to describe how one of these tools, waste acceptance criteria, has helped the Hanford Site manage solid wastes

  2. Isolated abnormal strict morphology is not a contraindication for intrauterine insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, G M; Deveneau, N E; Shridharani, A N; Strawn, E Y; Sandlow, J I

    2015-11-01

    This study sought to investigate whether isolated abnormal strict morphology (<5% normal forms) and very low strict morphology (0-1% normal forms) affects pregnancy rates in intrauterine insemination (IUI). This was a retrospective study performed at an Academic Medical Center/Reproductive Medicine Center. Four hundred and eight couples were included for 856 IUI cycles. 70 IUI cycles were performed in couples with abnormal strict morphology and otherwise normal semen parameters. Outcomes were measured as clinical pregnancy rate per IUI cycle as documented by fetal heart activity on maternal ultrasound. Clinical pregnancy rate did not significantly differ between the group with abnormal strict morphology [11/70 (15.7%)] and the normal morphology group [39/281 (13.9%)]. Additionally, there was no significant difference between the pregnancy rate in the abnormal morphology group compared to that of our overall institutional IUI pregnancy rate [145/856 (16.9%)]. Furthermore, there was no significant difference between pregnancy rate in the very low morphology group [3/14 (21.4%)] compared to those with normal morphology or the overall IUI pregnancy rate. Patients with isolated abnormal strict morphology have clinical pregnancy rates similar to those with normal morphology for IUI. Even in those with very low normal forms, consideration of IUI for assisted reproduction should not be excluded. © 2015 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  3. Normal form and synchronization of strict-feedback chaotic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Feng; Chen, Shihua; Yu Minghai; Wang Changping

    2004-01-01

    This study concerns the normal form and synchronization of strict-feedback chaotic systems. We prove that, any strict-feedback chaotic system can be rendered into a normal form with a invertible transform and then a design procedure to synchronize the normal form of a non-autonomous strict-feedback chaotic system is presented. This approach needs only a scalar driving signal to realize synchronization no matter how many dimensions the chaotic system contains. Furthermore, the Roessler chaotic system is taken as a concrete example to illustrate the procedure of designing without transforming a strict-feedback chaotic system into its normal form. Numerical simulations are also provided to show the effectiveness and feasibility of the developed methods

  4. Strict finitism and the logic of mathematical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ye, Feng

    2011-01-01

    Exploring the logic behind applied mathematics to the physical world, this volume illustrates how radical naturalism, nominalism and strict finitism can account for the applications of classical mathematics in current theories about natural phenomena.

  5. Two examples of non strictly convex large deviations

    OpenAIRE

    De Marco, Stefano; Jacquier, Antoine; Roome, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    We present two examples of a large deviations principle where the rate function is not strictly convex. This is motivated by a model used in mathematical finance (the Heston model), and adds a new item to the zoology of non strictly convex large deviations. For one of these examples, we show that the rate function of the Cramer-type of large deviations coincides with that of the Freidlin-Wentzell when contraction principles are applied.

  6. Strictly contractive quantum channels and physically realizable quantum computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raginsky, Maxim

    2002-01-01

    We study the robustness of quantum computers under the influence of errors modeled by strictly contractive channels. A channel T is defined to be strictly contractive if, for any pair of density operators ρ, σ in its domain, parallel Tρ-Tσ parallel 1 ≤k parallel ρ-σ parallel 1 for some 0≤k 1 denotes the trace norm). In other words, strictly contractive channels render the states of the computer less distinguishable in the sense of quantum detection theory. Starting from the premise that all experimental procedures can be carried out with finite precision, we argue that there exists a physically meaningful connection between strictly contractive channels and errors in physically realizable quantum computers. We show that, in the absence of error correction, sensitivity of quantum memories and computers to strictly contractive errors grows exponentially with storage time and computation time, respectively, and depends only on the constant k and the measurement precision. We prove that strict contractivity rules out the possibility of perfect error correction, and give an argument that approximate error correction, which covers previous work on fault-tolerant quantum computation as a special case, is possible

  7. Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Design Concepts and Performance Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain, Charles R.; Meister, Gerhard; Monosmith, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    In late 1978, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) launched the Nimbus-7 satellite with the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) and several other sensors, all of which provided major advances in Earth remote sensing. The inspiration for the CZCS is usually attributed to an article in Science by Clarke et al. who demonstrated that large changes in open ocean spectral reflectance are correlated to chlorophyll-a concentrations. Chlorophyll-a is the primary photosynthetic pigment in green plants (marine and terrestrial) and is used in estimating primary production, i.e., the amount of carbon fixed into organic matter during photosynthesis. Thus, accurate estimates of global and regional primary production are key to studies of the earth's carbon cycle. Because the investigators used an airborne radiometer, they were able to demonstrate the increased radiance contribution of the atmosphere with altitude that would be a major issue for spaceborne measurements. Since 1978, there has been much progress in satellite ocean color remote sensing such that the technique is well established and is used for climate change science and routine operational environmental monitoring. Also, the science objectives and accompanying methodologies have expanded and evolved through a succession of global missions, e.g., the Ocean Color and Temperature Sensor (OCTS), the Seaviewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS), the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS), and the Global Imager (GLI). With each advance in science objectives, new and more stringent requirements for sensor capabilities (e.g., spectral coverage) and performance (e.g., signal-to-noise ratio, SNR) are established. The CZCS had four bands for chlorophyll and aerosol corrections. The Ocean Color Imager (OCI) recommended for the NASA Pre-Aerosol, Cloud, and Ocean Ecosystems (PACE) mission includes 5 nanometers hyperspectral coverage from 350 to

  8. 5 CFR 9901.405 - Performance management system requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Holds supervisors and managers accountable for effectively managing the performance of employees under... and communicating performance expectations, monitoring performance and providing feedback, and... (b) of this section, supervisors and managers will— (1) Clearly communicate performance expectations...

  9. Convergence theorems for strictly hemi-contractive maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidume, C.E.; Osilike, M.O.

    1992-04-01

    It is proved that each of two well-known fixed point iteration methods (the Mann and the Ishikawa iteration methods) converges strongly to the fixed point of strictly hemi-contractive map in real Banach spaces with property (U, λ, m+1,m), λ is an element of R, m is an element of IN. The class of strictly hemi-contractive maps includes all strictly pseudo-contractive maps with nonempty fixed point sets; and Banach spaces with property (U, λ, m+1, m), λ is an element of R, m is an element of IN include the L p (or l p ) spaces, p≥2. Our theorems generalize important known results. (author). 22 refs

  10. Assessment of Performance-based Requirements for Structural Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    2005-01-01

    and for a detailed assessment of the requirements. The design requirements to be used for a factory producing elements for industrial housing for unknown costumers are discussed, and a fully developed fire is recommended as a common requirement for domestic houses, hotels, offices, schools and hospitals. In addition...

  11. 5 CFR 9701.405 - Performance management system requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... feedback, and developing, rating, and rewarding performance; and (6) Specify the criteria and procedures to... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Performance management system... HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Performance Management § 9701.405 Performance...

  12. Evaluation of the Trade Space Between UAS Maneuver Performance and SAA System Performance Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Devin P.; Hoffler, Keith D.; Johnson, Sally C.

    2014-01-01

    A need exists to safely integrate Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) into the National Airspace System. Replacing manned aircraft's see-and-avoid capability in the absence of an onboard pilot is one of the key challenges associated with safe integration. Sense-and-avoid (SAA) systems will have to achieve yet-to-be-determined required separation distances for a wide range of encounters. They will also need to account for the maneuver performance of the UAS they are paired with. The work described in this paper is aimed at developing an understanding of the trade space between UAS maneuver performance and SAA system performance requirements. An assessment of current manned and unmanned aircraft performance was used to establish potential UAS performance test matrix bounds. Then, nearterm UAS integration work was used to narrow down the scope. A simulator was developed with sufficient fidelity to assess SAA system performance requirements for a wide range of encounters. The simulator generates closest-point-of-approach (CPA) data from the wide range of UAS performance models maneuvering against a single intruder with various encounter geometries. The simulator is described herein and has both a graphical user interface and batch interface to support detailed analysis of individual UAS encounters and macro analysis of a very large set of UAS and encounter models, respectively. Results from the simulator using approximate performance data from a well-known manned aircraft is presented to provide insight into the problem and as verification and validation of the simulator. Analysis of climb, descent, and level turn maneuvers to avoid a collision is presented. Noting the diversity of backgrounds in the UAS community, a description of the UAS aerodynamic and propulsive design and performance parameters is included. Initial attempts to model the results made it clear that developing maneuver performance groups is required. Discussion of the performance groups developed and how

  13. Analytic properties of form factors in strictly confining models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csikor, F.

    1979-12-01

    An argument is presented showing that strict confinement implies the possible existence of an (unwanted) branch point at q 2 =0 in the form factors. In case of a bag extended to infinity in the relative time, the branch point is certainly there (provided that the form factor is non zero at q 2 =0). (author)

  14. Dominance on Strict Triangular Norms and Mulholland Inequality

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrík, Milan

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 335, 15 March (2018), s. 3-17 ISSN 0165-0114 R&D Projects: GA ČR GJ15-07724Y Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : dominance relation * Mulholland inequality * strict triangular norm * transitivity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 2.718, year: 2016

  15. Effects of strict prolonged bed rest on cardiorespiratory fitness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ried-Larsen, Mathias; Aarts, Hugo M; Joyner, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis [International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) CRD42017055619] was to assess the effects of strict prolonged bed rest (without countermeasures) on maximal oxygen uptake (V̇o2max) and to explore sources of variation therein....

  16. Optimizing cementious content in concrete mixtures for required performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    "This research investigated the effects of changing the cementitious content required at a given water-to-cement ratio (w/c) on workability, strength, and durability of a concrete mixture. : An experimental program was conducted in which 64 concrete ...

  17. Performance demonstration requirements for eddy current steam generator tube inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurtz, R.J.; Heasler, P.G.; Anderson, C.M.

    1992-10-01

    This paper describes the methodology used for developing performance demonstration tests for steam generator tube eddy current (ET) inspection systems. The methodology is based on statistical design principles. Implementation of a performance demonstration test based on these design principles will help to ensure that field inspection systems have a high probability of detecting and correctly sizing tube degradation. The technical basis for the ET system performance thresholds is presented. Probability of detection and flaw sizing tests are described

  18. 10 CFR 63.114 - Requirements for performance assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... processes of engineered barriers in the performance assessment, including those processes that would adversely affect the performance of natural barriers. Degradation, deterioration, or alteration processes of... surrounding region to the extent necessary, and information on the design of the engineered barrier system...

  19. Strong Convergence Theorems for a Pair of Strictly Pseudononspreading Mappings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin-Chao Deng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Let H be a real Hilbert space. Let T1,T2:H→H be k1-, k2-strictly pseudononspreading mappings; let αn and βn be two real sequences in (0,1. For given x0∈H, the sequence xn is generated iteratively by xn+1=βnxn+1-βnTw1αnγfxn+I-μαnBTw2xn, ∀n∈N, where Twi=1−wiI+wiTi with i=1,2 and B:H→H is strongly monotone and Lipschitzian. Under some mild conditions on parameters αn and βn, we prove that the sequence xn converges strongly to the set FixT1∩FixT2 of fixed points of a pair of strictly pseudononspreading mappings T1 and T2.

  20. Growth of a Strictly Anaerobic Bacterium on Furfural (2-Furaldehyde)

    OpenAIRE

    Brune, Gerhard; Schoberth, Siegfried M.; Sahm, Hermann

    1983-01-01

    A strictly anaerobic bacterium was isolated from a continuous fermentor culture which converted the organic constituents of sulfite evaporator condensate to methane and carbon dioxide. Furfural is one of the major components of this condensate. This furfural isolate could degrade furfural as the sole source of carbon and energy in a defined mineral-vitamin-sulfate medium. Acetic acid was the major fermentation product. This organism could also use ethanol, lactate, pyruvate, or fumarate and c...

  1. The Fixed-Point Theory of Strictly Causal Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-09

    functions were defined to be the functions that are strictly contracting with respect to the Cantor metric (also called the Baire distance) on signals...of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 447–484. Springer Berlin / Heidelberg, 1992. [36] George Markowsky. Chain-complete posets and directed...Journal of Logic Programming, 42(2):59–70, 2000. [52] George M. Reed and A. William Roscoe. A timed model for communicating sequential processes. In Laurent

  2. ITER-EDA physics design requirements and plasma performance assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uckan, N.A.; Galambos, J.; Wesley, J.; Boucher, D.; Perkins, F.; Post, D.; Putvinski, S.

    1996-01-01

    Physics design guidelines, plasma performance estimates, and sensitivity of performance to changes in physics assumptions are presented for the ITER-EDA Interim Design. The overall ITER device parameters have been derived from the performance goals using physics guidelines based on the physics R ampersand D results. The ITER-EDA design has a single-null divertor configuration (divertor at the bottom) with a nominal plasma current of 21 MA, magnetic field of 5.68 T, major and minor radius of 8.14 m and 2.8 m, and a plasma elongation (at the 95% flux surface) of ∼1.6 that produces a nominal fusion power of ∼1.5 GW for an ignited burn pulse length of ≥1000 s. The assessments have shown that ignition at 1.5 GW of fusion power can be sustained in ITER for 1000 s given present extrapolations of H-mode confinement (τ E = 0.85 x τ ITER93H ), helium exhaust (τ* He /τ E = 10), representative plasma impurities (n Be /n e = 2%), and beta limit [β N = β(%)/(I/aB) ≤ 2.5]. The provision of 100 MW of auxiliary power, necessary to access to H-mode during the approach to ignition, provides for the possibility of driven burn operations at Q = 15. This enables ITER to fulfill its mission of fusion power (∼ 1--1.5 GW) and fluence (∼1 MWa/m 2 ) goals if confinement, impurity levels, or operational (density, beta) limits prove to be less favorable than present projections. The power threshold for H-L transition, confinement uncertainties, and operational limits (Greenwald density limit and beta limit) are potential performance limiting issues. Improvement of the helium exhaust (τ* He /τ E ≤ 5) and potential operation in reverse-shear mode significantly improve ITER performance

  3. Development of DSRC device and communication system performance measures recommendations for DSRC OBE performance and security requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-22

    This report presents recommendations for minimum DSRC device communication performance and security : requirements to ensure effective operation of the DSRC system. The team identified recommended DSRC : communications requirements aligned to use cas...

  4. Borehole sealing literature review of performance requirements and materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piccinin, D.; Hooton, R.D.

    1985-02-01

    To ensure the safe disposal of nuclear wastes, all potential pathways for radionuclide release to the biosphere must be effectively sealed. This report presents a summary of the literature up to August 1982 and outlines the placement, mechanical property and durability-stability requirements for borehole sealing. An outline of the materials that have been considered for possible use in borehole sealing is also included. Cement grouts are recommended for further study since it is indicated in the literature that cement grouts offer the best opportunity of effectively sealing boreholes employing present technology. However, new and less well known materials should also be researched to ensure that the best possible borehole plugging system is developed. 78 refs

  5. Operational requirements of spherical HTR fuel elements and their performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roellig, K.; Theymann, W.

    1985-01-01

    The German development of spherical fuel elements with coated fuel particles led to a product design which fulfils the operational requirements for all HTR applications with mean gas exit temperatures from 700 deg C (electricity and steam generation) up to 950 deg C (supply of nuclear process heat). In spite of this relatively wide span for a parameter with strong impact on fuel element behaviour, almost identical fuel specifications can be used for the different reactor purposes. For pebble bed reactors with relatively low gas exit temperatures of 700 deg C, the ample design margins of the fuel elements offer the possibility to enlarge the scope of their in-service duties and, simultaneously, to improve fuel cycle economics. This is demonstrated for the HTR-500, an electricity and steam generating 500 MWel eq plant presently proposed as follow-up project to the THTR-300. Due to the low operating temperatures of the HTR-500 core, the fuel can be concentrated in about 70% of the pebbles of the core thus saving fuel cycle costs. Under all design accident conditions fuel temperatures are maintained below 1250 deg C. This allows a significant reduction in the engineered activity barriers outside the primary circuit, in particular for the loss of coolant accident. Furthermore, access to major primary circuit components and the reuse of the fuel elements after any design accident are possible. (author)

  6. A Hybrid P2P Overlay Network for Non-strictly Hierarchically Categorized Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yi; Asaka, Takuya; Takahashi, Tatsuro

    In P2P content distribution systems, there are many cases in which the content can be classified into hierarchically organized categories. In this paper, we propose a hybrid overlay network design suitable for such content called Pastry/NSHCC (Pastry for Non-Strictly Hierarchically Categorized Content). The semantic information of classification hierarchies of the content can be utilized regardless of whether they are in a strict tree structure or not. By doing so, the search scope can be restrained to any granularity, and the number of query messages also decreases while maintaining keyword searching availability. Through simulation, we showed that the proposed method provides better performance and lower overhead than unstructured overlays exploiting the same semantic information.

  7. Modular PNML revisited: Some ideas for strict typing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindler, Ekkart

    2007-01-01

    The Petri Net Markup Language (PNML) is currently standardised by ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7 WG 19 as Part 2 of ISO/IEC 15909. But, there is not yet a mechanism for structuring large Petri nets and for constructing Petri nets from modules. To this end, modular PNML has been proposed some time ago. But, mod...... of Petri net, but still has a strict type system. This paper focuses on the ideas and concepts; the technical details still need to be worked out. To this end, this paper also raises some issues and questions that need to be discussed before standardising modular PNML....

  8. Relaxation Methods for Strictly Convex Regularizations of Piecewise Linear Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiwiel, K. C.

    1998-01-01

    We give an algorithm for minimizing the sum of a strictly convex function and a convex piecewise linear function. It extends several dual coordinate ascent methods for large-scale linearly constrained problems that occur in entropy maximization, quadratic programming, and network flows. In particular, it may solve exact penalty versions of such (possibly inconsistent) problems, and subproblems of bundle methods for nondifferentiable optimization. It is simple, can exploit sparsity, and in certain cases is highly parallelizable. Its global convergence is established in the recent framework of B -functions (generalized Bregman functions)

  9. 13 CFR 126.700 - What are the performance of work requirements for HUBZone contracts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What are the performance of work... ADMINISTRATION HUBZONE PROGRAM Contract Performance Requirements § 126.700 What are the performance of work... meet the performance of work requirements set forth in § 125.6(c) of this chapter. (b) In addition to...

  10. Performance requirements of the MedAustron beam delivery system

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2073034

    The Austrian hadron therapy center MedAustron is currently under construction with patient treatment planned to commence in 2015. Tumors will be irradiated using proton and carbon ions, for which the steeply rising Bragg curve and finite range offer a better conformity of the dose to the geometrical shape of the tumor compared to conventional photon irradiation. The current trend is to move from passive scattering toward active scanning using a narrow pencil beam in order to reach an even better dose conformation and limit the need of patient specific hardware. The quality of the deposited dose will ultimately depend on the performance of the beam delivery chain: beam profile and extraction stability of the extracted beam, accuracy and ramp rate of the scanning magnet power supplies, and precision of the beam monitors used for verifying the delivered dose. With a sharp lateral penumbra, the transverse dose fall-off can be minimized. This is of particular importance in situations where the lesion is adjace...

  11. Frequency effect on p-nitrophenol degradation under conditions of strict acoustic and electric control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-ping Zhu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The process of decomposing p-nitrophenol (PNP with power ultrasound requires strict control of acoustic and electric conditions. In this study, the conditions, including acoustic power and acoustic intensity, but not ultrasonic frequency, were controlled strictly at constant levels. The absorbency and the COD concentrations of the samples were measured in order to show the variation of the sample concentration. The results show significant differences in the trend of the solution degradation rate as acoustic power increases after the PNP solution (with a concentration of 114 mg/L and a pH value of 5.4 is irradiated for 60 min with ultrasonic frequencies of 530.8 kHz, 610.6 kHz, 855.0 kHz, and 1 130.0 kHz. The degradation rate of the solution increases with time and acoustic power (acoustic intensity. On the other hand, the degradation rate of the solution is distinctly dependent on frequency when the acoustic power and intensity are strictly controlled and maintained at constant levels. The degradation rate of the PNP solution declines with ultrasonic frequencies of 530.8 kHz, 610.6 kHz, 855.0 kHz, and 1 130.0 kHz; the COD concentration, on the contrary, increase.

  12. Non-strictly black body spectrum from the tunnelling mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corda, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The tunnelling mechanism is widely used to explain Hawking radiation. However, in many cases the analysis used to obtain the Hawking temperature only involves comparing the emission probability for an outgoing particle with the Boltzmann factor. Banerjee and Majhi improved this approach by explicitly finding a black body spectrum associated with black holes. Their result, obtained using a reformulation of the tunnelling mechanism, is in contrast to that of Parikh and Wilczek, who found an emission probability that is compatible with a non-strictly thermal spectrum. Using the recently identified effective state for a black hole, we solve this contradiction via a slight modification of the analysis by Banerjee and Majhi. The final result is a non-strictly black body spectrum from the tunnelling mechanism. We also show that for an effective temperature, we can express the corresponding effective metric using Hawking’s periodicity arguments. Potential important implications for the black hole information puzzle are discussed. -- Highlights: •We review an important result by Banerjee and Majhi on the tunnelling mechanism in the framework of Hawking radiation. •This result is in contrast to another result reported by Parikh and Wilczek. •We introduce the effective state of a black hole. •We explain the contrast via a slight modification of the analysis by Banerjee and Majhi. •We discuss potential important implications for the black hole information puzzle

  13. 14 CFR 151.53 - Performance of construction work: Labor requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Performance of construction work: Labor... § 151.53 Performance of construction work: Labor requirements. A sponsor who is required to include in a... during the performance of work under the contract, to the extent necessary to determine whether the...

  14. 14 CFR 171.321 - DME and marker beacon performance requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false DME and marker beacon performance... (MLS) § 171.321 DME and marker beacon performance requirements. (a) The DME equipment must meet the..._regulations/ibr_locations.html. (b) MLS marker beacon equipment must meet the performance requirements...

  15. Strict calculation of electron energy distribution functions in inhomogeneous plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, R.

    1996-01-01

    It is objective of the paper to report on strict calculations of the velocity or energy distribution function function and related macroscopic properties of the electrons from appropriate electron kinetic equations under various plasma conditions and to contribute to a better understanding of the electron behaviour in inhomogeneous plasma regions. In particular, the spatial relaxation of plasma electrons acted upon by uniform electric fields, the response of plasma electrons on spatial disturbances of the electric field, the electron kinetics under the impact of space charge field confinement in the dc column plasma and the electron velocity distribution is stronger field as occurring in the electrode regions of a dc glow discharge is considered. (author)

  16. Asymptotic state discrimination and a strict hierarchy in distinguishability norms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chitambar, Eric [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois 62901 (United States); Hsieh, Min-Hsiu [Centre for Quantum Computation and Intelligent Systems (QCIS), Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology (FEIT), University of Technology Sydney - UTS, NSW 2007 (Australia)

    2014-11-15

    In this paper, we consider the problem of discriminating quantum states by local operations and classical communication (LOCC) when an arbitrarily small amount of error is permitted. This paradigm is known as asymptotic state discrimination, and we derive necessary conditions for when two multipartite states of any size can be discriminated perfectly by asymptotic LOCC. We use this new criterion to prove a gap in the LOCC and separable distinguishability norms. We then turn to the operational advantage of using two-way classical communication over one-way communication in LOCC processing. With a simple two-qubit product state ensemble, we demonstrate a strict majorization of the two-way LOCC norm over the one-way norm.

  17. Growth of a Strictly Anaerobic Bacterium on Furfural (2-Furaldehyde)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brune, Gerhard; Schoberth, Siegfried M.; Sahm, Hermann

    1983-01-01

    A strictly anaerobic bacterium was isolated from a continuous fermentor culture which converted the organic constituents of sulfite evaporator condensate to methane and carbon dioxide. Furfural is one of the major components of this condensate. This furfural isolate could degrade furfural as the sole source of carbon and energy in a defined mineral-vitamin-sulfate medium. Acetic acid was the major fermentation product. This organism could also use ethanol, lactate, pyruvate, or fumarate and contained cytochrome c3 and desulfoviridin. Except for furfural degradation, the characteristics of the furfural isolate were remarkably similar to those of the sulfate reducer Desulfovibrio gigas. The furfural isolate has been tentatively identified as Desulfovibrio sp. strain F-1. Images PMID:16346423

  18. Effects of a strict cutoff on Quantum Field Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturnfield, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    Standard Quantum Field Theory has a number of integrals which are infinite. Although these are eliminated for some cases by renormalization, this aspect of the theory is not fully satisfactory. A number of theories with fundamental lengths have been introduced as alternatives and it would be useful to be able to distinguish between them. In particular, the effects that a strict cutoff would have on Quantum Field Theory is studied. It is noted that care must be taken in the method used to apply a strict cutoff. This lead to considering a theory where the cutoffs are defined by restricting each internal line. This theory is only piece-wise analytic. The resulting scattering matrix is frame dependent, yet the theory still satisfies the special relativity view that all frames are subjectively identical. The renormalization of this theory is finite. The change in mass from the electron self-energy will be a spinor operator. The main distinctions of this theory from standard theory will occur at super high energies. New poles and resonances which arise from new endpoint singularities will be found. The locations of these singularities will be frame dependent. Some of these singularities will correspond to creations or interactions of the normal particles with tachyons. It will be shown that for the one loop diagram, the form of the cutoff singularities are closely related to the standard singularities. When there is more than one loop, there can appear some new type of behavior. In particular, a cube root type of behavior in the two loop self-energy diagram will be found. Also the asymptotic behavior of the ladder diagram is studied

  19. Modeling the Non-functional Requirements in the Context of Usability, Performance, Safety and Security

    OpenAIRE

    Sadiq, Mazhar

    2007-01-01

    Requirement engineering is the most significant part of the software development life cycle. Until now great emphasis has been put on the maturity of the functional requirements. But with the passage of time it reveals that the success of software development does not only pertain to the functional requirements rather non-functional requirements should also be taken into consideration. Among the non-functional requirements usability, performance, safety and security are considered important. ...

  20. Input data requirements for performance modelling and monitoring of photovoltaic plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavriluta, Anamaria Florina; Spataru, Sergiu; Sera, Dezso

    2018-01-01

    This work investigates the input data requirements in the context of performance modeling of thin-film photovoltaic (PV) systems. The analysis focuses on the PVWatts performance model, well suited for on-line performance monitoring of PV strings, due to its low number of parameters and high......, modelling the performance of the PV modules at high irradiances requires a dataset of only a few hundred samples in order to obtain a power estimation accuracy of ~1-2\\%....

  1. Strictly local one-dimensional topological quantum error correction with symmetry-constrained cellular automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolai Lang, Hans Peter Büchler

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Active quantum error correction on topological codes is one of the most promising routes to long-term qubit storage. In view of future applications, the scalability of the used decoding algorithms in physical implementations is crucial. In this work, we focus on the one-dimensional Majorana chain and construct a strictly local decoder based on a self-dual cellular automaton. We study numerically and analytically its performance and exploit these results to contrive a scalable decoder with exponentially growing decoherence times in the presence of noise. Our results pave the way for scalable and modular designs of actively corrected one-dimensional topological quantum memories.

  2. Single Molecule Experiments Challenge the Strict Wave-Particle Dualism of Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Otto Greulich

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Single molecule techniques improve our understanding of the photon and light. If the single photon double slit experiment is performed at the “single photon limit” of a multi-atom light source, faint light pulses with more than one photon hamper the interpretation. Single molecules, quantum dots or defect centres in crystals should be used as light source. “Single photon detectors” do not meet their promise―only “photon number resolving single photon detectors” do so. Particularly, the accumulation time argument, the only safe basis for the postulate of a strictly particle like photon, has so far not yet been verified.

  3. Single molecule experiments challenge the strict wave-particle dualism of light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greulich, Karl Otto

    2010-01-21

    Single molecule techniques improve our understanding of the photon and light. If the single photon double slit experiment is performed at the "single photon limit" of a multi-atom light source, faint light pulses with more than one photon hamper the interpretation. Single molecules, quantum dots or defect centres in crystals should be used as light source. "Single photon detectors" do not meet their promise-only "photon number resolving single photon detectors" do so. Particularly, the accumulation time argument, the only safe basis for the postulate of a strictly particle like photon, has so far not yet been verified.

  4. 29 CFR 1620.15 - Jobs requiring equal skill in performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.15 Jobs requiring equal skill in performance. (a) In general. The jobs to which the equal pay standard is applicable are jobs requiring equal skill in their performance. Where the amount... another job, the equal pay standard cannot apply even though the jobs may be equal in all other respects...

  5. 29 CFR 1620.16 - Jobs requiring equal effort in performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., however, that men and women are working side by side on a line assembling parts. Suppose further that one... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Jobs requiring equal effort in performance. 1620.16 Section... EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.16 Jobs requiring equal effort in performance. (a) In general. The jobs to which...

  6. 40 CFR 158.2160 - Microbial pesticides product performance data requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Microbial pesticides product... AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2160 Microbial pesticides product performance data requirements. Product performance data must be developed for...

  7. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Requirements for Performance Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Requirements for Performance Tests 5 Table 5 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED.... XXXX, Table 5 Table 5 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63—Requirements for Performance Tests As stated in § 63...

  8. 45 CFR 2516.810 - What types of evaluations are grantees and subgrantees required to perform?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE SCHOOL-BASED SERVICE-LEARNING PROGRAMS...? All grantees and subgrantees are required to perform internal evaluations which are ongoing efforts to assess performance and improve quality. Grantees and subgrantees may, but are not required to, arrange...

  9. 42 CFR 456.245 - Number of studies required to be performed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Number of studies required to be performed. 456.245 Section 456.245 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Ur Plan: Medical Care Evaluation Studies § 456.245 Number of studies required to be performed. The...

  10. 42 CFR 456.145 - Number of studies required to be performed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Number of studies required to be performed. 456.145 Section 456.145 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...: Medical Care Evaluation Studies § 456.145 Number of studies required to be performed. The hospital must...

  11. Assessing students' performance in software requirements engineering education using scoring rubrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkpojiogu, Emmanuel O. C.; Hussain, Azham

    2017-10-01

    The study investigates how helpful the use of scoring rubrics is, in the performance assessment of software requirements engineering students and whether its use can lead to students' performance improvement in the development of software requirements artifacts and models. Scoring rubrics were used by two instructors to assess the cognitive performance of a student in the design and development of software requirements artifacts. The study results indicate that the use of scoring rubrics is very helpful in objectively assessing the performance of software requirements or software engineering students. Furthermore, the results revealed that the use of scoring rubrics can also produce a good achievement assessments direction showing whether a student is either improving or not in a repeated or iterative assessment. In a nutshell, its use leads to the performance improvement of students. The results provided some insights for further investigation and will be beneficial to researchers, requirements engineers, system designers, developers and project managers.

  12. Efficient FPT Algorithms for (Strict) Compatibility of Unrooted Phylogenetic Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baste, Julien; Paul, Christophe; Sau, Ignasi; Scornavacca, Celine

    2017-04-01

    In phylogenetics, a central problem is to infer the evolutionary relationships between a set of species X; these relationships are often depicted via a phylogenetic tree-a tree having its leaves labeled bijectively by elements of X and without degree-2 nodes-called the "species tree." One common approach for reconstructing a species tree consists in first constructing several phylogenetic trees from primary data (e.g., DNA sequences originating from some species in X), and then constructing a single phylogenetic tree maximizing the "concordance" with the input trees. The obtained tree is our estimation of the species tree and, when the input trees are defined on overlapping-but not identical-sets of labels, is called "supertree." In this paper, we focus on two problems that are central when combining phylogenetic trees into a supertree: the compatibility and the strict compatibility problems for unrooted phylogenetic trees. These problems are strongly related, respectively, to the notions of "containing as a minor" and "containing as a topological minor" in the graph community. Both problems are known to be fixed parameter tractable in the number of input trees k, by using their expressibility in monadic second-order logic and a reduction to graphs of bounded treewidth. Motivated by the fact that the dependency on k of these algorithms is prohibitively large, we give the first explicit dynamic programming algorithms for solving these problems, both running in time [Formula: see text], where n is the total size of the input.

  13. Fixed point iterations for strictly hemi-contractive maps in uniformly smooth Banach spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidume, C.E.; Osilike, M.O.

    1993-05-01

    It is proved that the Mann iteration process converges strongly to the fixed point of a strictly hemi-contractive map in real uniformly smooth Banach spaces. The class of strictly hemi-contractive maps includes all strictly pseudo-contractive maps with nonempty fixed point sets. A related result deals with the Ishikawa iteration scheme when the mapping is Lipschitzian and strictly hemi-contractive. Our theorems generalize important known results. (author). 29 refs

  14. Cost optimal building performance requirements. Calculation methodology for reporting on national energy performance requirements on the basis of cost optimality within the framework of the EPBD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boermans, T.; Bettgenhaeuser, K.; Hermelink, A.; Schimschar, S. [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2011-05-15

    On the European level, the principles for the requirements for the energy performance of buildings are set by the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD). Dating from December 2002, the EPBD has set a common framework from which the individual Member States in the EU developed or adapted their individual national regulations. The EPBD in 2008 and 2009 underwent a recast procedure, with final political agreement having been reached in November 2009. The new Directive was then formally adopted on May 19, 2010. Among other clarifications and new provisions, the EPBD recast introduces a benchmarking mechanism for national energy performance requirements for the purpose of determining cost-optimal levels to be used by Member States for comparing and setting these requirements. The previous EPBD set out a general framework to assess the energy performance of buildings and required Member States to define maximum values for energy delivered to meet the energy demand associated with the standardised use of the building. However it did not contain requirements or guidance related to the ambition level of such requirements. As a consequence, building regulations in the various Member States have been developed by the use of different approaches (influenced by different building traditions, political processes and individual market conditions) and resulted in different ambition levels where in many cases cost optimality principles could justify higher ambitions. The EPBD recast now requests that Member States shall ensure that minimum energy performance requirements for buildings are set 'with a view to achieving cost-optimal levels'. The cost optimum level shall be calculated in accordance with a comparative methodology. The objective of this report is to contribute to the ongoing discussion in Europe around the details of such a methodology by describing possible details on how to calculate cost optimal levels and pointing towards important factors and

  15. Application of systems engineering to determine performance requirements for repository waste packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aitken, E.A.; Stimmell, G.L.

    1987-01-01

    The waste package for a nuclear waste repository in salt must contribute substantially to the performance objectives defined by the Salt Repository Project (SRP) general requirements document governing disposal of high-level waste. The waste package is one of the engineered barriers providing containment. In establishing the performance requirements for a project focused on design and fabrication of the waste package, the systems engineering methodology has been used to translate the hierarchy requirements for the repository system to specific performance requirements for design and fabrication of the waste package, a subsystem of the repository. This activity is ongoing and requires a methodology that provides traceability and is capable of iteration as baseline requirements are refined or changed. The purpose of this summary is to describe the methodology being used and the way it can be applied to similar activities in the nuclear industry

  16. Strict Constraint Feasibility in Analysis and Design of Uncertain Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, Luis G.; Giesy, Daniel P.; Kenny, Sean P.

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes a methodology for the analysis and design optimization of models subject to parametric uncertainty, where hard inequality constraints are present. Hard constraints are those that must be satisfied for all parameter realizations prescribed by the uncertainty model. Emphasis is given to uncertainty models prescribed by norm-bounded perturbations from a nominal parameter value, i.e., hyper-spheres, and by sets of independently bounded uncertain variables, i.e., hyper-rectangles. These models make it possible to consider sets of parameters having comparable as well as dissimilar levels of uncertainty. Two alternative formulations for hyper-rectangular sets are proposed, one based on a transformation of variables and another based on an infinity norm approach. The suite of tools developed enable us to determine if the satisfaction of hard constraints is feasible by identifying critical combinations of uncertain parameters. Since this practice is performed without sampling or partitioning the parameter space, the resulting assessments of robustness are analytically verifiable. Strategies that enable the comparison of the robustness of competing design alternatives, the approximation of the robust design space, and the systematic search for designs with improved robustness characteristics are also proposed. Since the problem formulation is generic and the solution methods only require standard optimization algorithms for their implementation, the tools developed are applicable to a broad range of problems in several disciplines.

  17. Strict or Graduated Punishment? Effect of Punishment Strictness on the Evolution of Cooperation in Continuous Public Goods Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimao, Hajime; Nakamaru, Mayuko

    2013-01-01

    Whether costly punishment encourages cooperation is one of the principal questions in studies on the evolution of cooperation and social sciences. In society, punishment helps deter people from flouting rules in institutions. Specifically, graduated punishment is a design principle for long-enduring common-pool resource institutions. In this study, we investigate whether graduated punishment can promote a higher cooperation level when each individual plays the public goods game and has the opportunity to punish others whose cooperation levels fall below the punisher’s threshold. We then examine how spatial structure affects evolutionary dynamics when each individual dies inversely proportional to the game score resulting from the social interaction and another player is randomly chosen from the population to produce offspring to fill the empty site created after a player’s death. Our evolutionary simulation outcomes demonstrate that stricter punishment promotes increased cooperation more than graduated punishment in a spatially structured population, whereas graduated punishment increases cooperation more than strict punishment when players interact with randomly chosen opponents from the population. The mathematical analysis also supports the results. PMID:23555826

  18. Strict or graduated punishment? Effect of punishment strictness on the evolution of cooperation in continuous public goods games.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajime Shimao

    Full Text Available Whether costly punishment encourages cooperation is one of the principal questions in studies on the evolution of cooperation and social sciences. In society, punishment helps deter people from flouting rules in institutions. Specifically, graduated punishment is a design principle for long-enduring common-pool resource institutions. In this study, we investigate whether graduated punishment can promote a higher cooperation level when each individual plays the public goods game and has the opportunity to punish others whose cooperation levels fall below the punisher's threshold. We then examine how spatial structure affects evolutionary dynamics when each individual dies inversely proportional to the game score resulting from the social interaction and another player is randomly chosen from the population to produce offspring to fill the empty site created after a player's death. Our evolutionary simulation outcomes demonstrate that stricter punishment promotes increased cooperation more than graduated punishment in a spatially structured population, whereas graduated punishment increases cooperation more than strict punishment when players interact with randomly chosen opponents from the population. The mathematical analysis also supports the results.

  19. Exploration of the Trade Space Between Unmanned Aircraft Systems Descent Maneuver Performance and Sense-and-Avoid System Performance Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Devin P.; Hoffler, Keith D.; Johnson, Sally C.

    2014-01-01

    A need exists to safely integrate Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) into the United States' National Airspace System. Replacing manned aircraft's see-and-avoid capability in the absence of an onboard pilot is one of the key challenges associated with safe integration. Sense-and-avoid (SAA) systems will have to achieve yet-to-be-determined required separation distances for a wide range of encounters. They will also need to account for the maneuver performance of the UAS they are paired with. The work described in this paper is aimed at developing an understanding of the trade space between UAS maneuver performance and SAA system performance requirements, focusing on a descent avoidance maneuver. An assessment of current manned and unmanned aircraft performance was used to establish potential UAS performance test matrix bounds. Then, near-term UAS integration work was used to narrow down the scope. A simulator was developed with sufficient fidelity to assess SAA system performance requirements. The simulator generates closest-point-of-approach (CPA) data from the wide range of UAS performance models maneuvering against a single intruder with various encounter geometries. Initial attempts to model the results made it clear that developing maneuver performance groups is required. Discussion of the performance groups developed and how to know in which group an aircraft belongs for a given flight condition and encounter is included. The groups are airplane, flight condition, and encounter specific, rather than airplane-only specific. Results and methodology for developing UAS maneuver performance requirements are presented for a descent avoidance maneuver. Results for the descent maneuver indicate that a minimum specific excess power magnitude can assure a minimum CPA for a given time-to-go prediction. However, smaller amounts of specific excess power may achieve or exceed the same CPA if the UAS has sufficient speed to trade for altitude. The results of this study will

  20. Optimal control of nonlinear continuous-time systems in strict-feedback form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zargarzadeh, Hassan; Dierks, Travis; Jagannathan, Sarangapani

    2015-10-01

    This paper proposes a novel optimal tracking control scheme for nonlinear continuous-time systems in strict-feedback form with uncertain dynamics. The optimal tracking problem is transformed into an equivalent optimal regulation problem through a feedforward adaptive control input that is generated by modifying the standard backstepping technique. Subsequently, a neural network-based optimal control scheme is introduced to estimate the cost, or value function, over an infinite horizon for the resulting nonlinear continuous-time systems in affine form when the internal dynamics are unknown. The estimated cost function is then used to obtain the optimal feedback control input; therefore, the overall optimal control input for the nonlinear continuous-time system in strict-feedback form includes the feedforward plus the optimal feedback terms. It is shown that the estimated cost function minimizes the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman estimation error in a forward-in-time manner without using any value or policy iterations. Finally, optimal output feedback control is introduced through the design of a suitable observer. Lyapunov theory is utilized to show the overall stability of the proposed schemes without requiring an initial admissible controller. Simulation examples are provided to validate the theoretical results.

  1. Practical experience and lessons learned through implementation of Appendix VIII performance demonstration requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashwin, P.J.; Becker, F.L.; Latiolais, C.L.; Spanner, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    To provide the US nuclear industry with a uniform implementation of the Performance Demonstration requirements within the 1989 edition of ASME Section XI, Appendix VIII, representatives from all US nuclear utilities formed the Performance Demonstration Initiative (PDI). The PDI recognized the potential benefits that Appendix VIII offered the nuclear industry and initiated a proactive approach to implement the requirements. In doing so it was expected that performance demonstration of ultrasonic examination procedures would allow for improvement in the efficiency and credibility of inservice inspection to be realized. Explicit within the performance demonstration requirements of Appendix VIII is the need for a Performance Demonstration Administrator, a difficult requirement to fulfill. Not only must the administrator exhibit the attributes of understanding the demonstration requirements, but also have solid technical knowledge, integrity and be able to interface with the industry at all levels, from operations to regulatory. For the nuclear industry, the EPRI NDE Center is an obvious choice to fulfill this position. This paper provides a brief background of the PDI, a nuclear industry-wide initiative to implement the performance demonstration requirements of Appendix VIII. Even though the consensus approach adopted by the PDI is discussed, the paper's primary objective is to provide examples of the lessons learned by the Center through the specific requirements of Appendix VIII

  2. [Precautions of physical performance requirements and test methods during product standard drafting process of medical devices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jin-Zi; Wan, Min; Xu, Hui; Yao, Xiu-Jun; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Jin-Hong

    2009-09-01

    The major idea of this article is to discuss standardization and normalization for the product standard of medical devices. Analyze the problem related to the physical performance requirements and test methods during product standard drafting process and make corresponding suggestions.

  3. 77 FR 11995 - Passenger Vessel Operator Financial Responsibility Requirements for Non-Performance of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-28

    ... Vessel Operator Financial Responsibility Requirements for Non-Performance of Transportation AGENCY..., 2011, the Commission issued its Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) to update its financial... cost of financial responsibility coverage because of the use of alternative coverage options. However...

  4. 40 CFR 80.815 - What are the gasoline toxics performance requirements for refiners and importers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... toxics requirements of this subpart apply separately for each of the following types of gasoline produced...) The gasoline toxics performance requirements of this subpart apply to gasoline produced at a refinery... not apply to gasoline produced by a refinery approved under § 80.1334, pursuant to § 80.1334(c). (2...

  5. 14 CFR 151.45 - Performance of construction work: General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Performance of construction work: General... § 151.45 Performance of construction work: General requirements. (a) All construction work under a... work under a project until— (1) The sponsor has furnished three conformed copies of the contract to the...

  6. 14 CFR 151.49 - Performance of construction work: Contract requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Performance of construction work: Contract... § 151.49 Performance of construction work: Contract requirements. (a) Contract provisions. In addition to any other provisions necessary to ensure completion of the work in accordance with the grant...

  7. Air Force Officials did not Consistently Comply with Requirements for Assessing Contractor Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-29

    31 Appendix B. Improvement in PAR Completion Statistics _________________________________ 33 vi...agencies must perform frequent evaluation of compliance with reporting requirements so they can readily identify delinquent past performance efforts...Reporting Program,” August 13, 2011 Appendixes DODIG-2016-043 │ 33 Appendix B Improvement in PAR Completion Statistics The Senate Armed Services Committee

  8. 40 CFR 63.344 - Performance test requirements and test methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... electroplating tanks or chromium anodizing tanks. The sampling time and sample volume for each run of Methods 306... Chromium Anodizing Tanks § 63.344 Performance test requirements and test methods. (a) Performance test... Emissions From Decorative and Hard Chromium Electroplating and Anodizing Operations,” appendix A of this...

  9. 42 CFR 457.710 - State plan requirements: Strategic objectives and performance goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... The State's strategic objectives, performance goals and performance measures must include a common... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false State plan requirements: Strategic objectives and...) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO STATES Strategic Planning, Reporting, and Evaluation § 457.710 State plan...

  10. 46 CFR 160.037-3 - Materials, workmanship, construction, and performance requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Materials, workmanship, construction, and performance...) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Hand Orange Smoke Distress Signals § 160.037-3 Materials, workmanship, construction, and performance requirements. (a...

  11. Performance requirements for the double-shell tank system: Phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claghorn, R.D.

    1998-01-01

    This document establishes performance requirements for the double-shell tank system. These requirements, in turn, will be incorporated in the System Specification for the Double-Shell Tank System (Grenard and Claghorn 1998). This version of the document establishes requirements that are applicable to the first phase (Phase 1) of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) mission described in the TWRS Mission Analysis Report (Acree 1998). It does not specify requirements for either the Phase 2 mission or the double-shell tank system closure period

  12. The Success Rate of Initial {sup 131I} Ablation in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: Comparison Between Less strict and Very Strict Low Iodine Diets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Ik Dong; Kim, Sung Hoon; Seo, Ye Young; Oh, Jin Kyoung; O, Joo Hyun; Chung, Soo Kyo [The Catholic Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    To decrease the risk of recurrence or metastasis in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), selected patients receive radioactive iodine ablation of remnant thyroid tissue or tumor. A low iodine diet can enhance uptake of radioactive iodine. We compared the success rates of radioactive iodine ablation therapy in patients who followed two different low iodine diets (LIDs). The success rates of postsurgical radioactive iodine ablation in DTC patients receiving empiric doses of 150 mCi were retrospectively reviewed. First-time radioactive iodine ablation therapy was done in 71 patients following less strict LID. Less strict LID restricted seafood, iodized salt, egg yolk, dairy products, processed meat, instant prepared meals, and multivitamins. Very strict LID additionally restricted rice, freshwater fish, spinach, and soybean products. Radioactive iodine ablation therapy was considered successful when follow up {sup 123I} whole body scan was negative and stimulated serum thyroglobulin level was less than 2.0 ng/mL. The success rate of patients following less strict LID was 80.3% and for very strict LID 75.6%. There was no statistically significant difference in the success rates between the two LID groups (P=0.48). Very strict LID may not contribute to improving the success rate of initial radioactive iodine ablation therapy at the cost of great inconvenience to the patient.

  13. L-Band Digital Aeronautical Communications System Engineering - Concepts of Use, Systems Performance, Requirements, and Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelkin, Natalie; Henriksen, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    This NASA Contractor Report summarizes and documents the work performed to develop concepts of use (ConUse) and high-level system requirements and architecture for the proposed L-band (960 to 1164 MHz) terrestrial en route communications system. This work was completed as a follow-on to the technology assessment conducted by NASA Glenn Research Center and ITT for the Future Communications Study (FCS). ITT assessed air-to-ground (A/G) communications concepts of use and operations presented in relevant NAS-level, international, and NAS-system-level documents to derive the appropriate ConUse relevant to potential A/G communications applications and services for domestic continental airspace. ITT also leveraged prior concepts of use developed during the earlier phases of the FCS. A middle-out functional architecture was adopted by merging the functional system requirements identified in the bottom-up assessment of existing requirements with those derived as a result of the top-down analysis of ConUse and higher level functional requirements. Initial end-to-end system performance requirements were derived to define system capabilities based on the functional requirements and on NAS-SR-1000 and the Operational Performance Assessment conducted as part of the COCR. A high-level notional architecture of the L-DACS supporting A/G communication was derived from the functional architecture and requirements.

  14. Determining required valve performance for discrete control of PTO cylinders for wave energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rico Hjerm; Andersen, Torben Ole; Pedersen, Henrik C.

    2012-01-01

    investigates the required valve performance to achieve this energy efficient operation, while meeting basic dynamic requirements. The components making up the total energy loss during shifting is identified by analytically expressing the losses from the governing differential equations. From the analysis...... a framework for evaluating the adequacy of a valve’s response is established, and the analysis shows the results may be normalised for a wider range of systems. Finally, the framework is successfully applied to the Wavestar converter....

  15. Is a Responsive Default Mode Network Required for Successful Working Memory Task Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čeko, Marta; Gracely, John L.; Fitzcharles, Mary-Ann; Seminowicz, David A.; Schweinhardt, Petra

    2015-01-01

    In studies of cognitive processing using tasks with externally directed attention, regions showing increased (external-task-positive) and decreased or “negative” [default-mode network (DMN)] fMRI responses during task performance are dynamically responsive to increasing task difficulty. Responsiveness (modulation of fMRI signal by increasing load) has been linked directly to successful cognitive task performance in external-task-positive regions but not in DMN regions. To investigate whether a responsive DMN is required for successful cognitive performance, we compared healthy human subjects (n = 23) with individuals shown to have decreased DMN engagement (chronic pain patients, n = 28). Subjects performed a multilevel working-memory task (N-back) during fMRI. If a responsive DMN is required for successful performance, patients having reduced DMN responsiveness should show worsened performance; if performance is not reduced, their brains should show compensatory activation in external-task-positive regions or elsewhere. All subjects showed decreased accuracy and increased reaction times with increasing task level, with no significant group differences on either measure at any level. Patients had significantly reduced negative fMRI response (deactivation) of DMN regions (posterior cingulate/precuneus, medial prefrontal cortex). Controls showed expected modulation of DMN deactivation with increasing task difficulty. Patients showed significantly reduced modulation of DMN deactivation by task difficulty, despite their successful task performance. We found no evidence of compensatory neural recruitment in external-task-positive regions or elsewhere. Individual responsiveness of the external-task-positive ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, but not of DMN regions, correlated with task accuracy. These findings suggest that a responsive DMN may not be required for successful cognitive performance; a responsive external-task-positive network may be sufficient

  16. Is a Responsive Default Mode Network Required for Successful Working Memory Task Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čeko, Marta; Gracely, John L; Fitzcharles, Mary-Ann; Seminowicz, David A; Schweinhardt, Petra; Bushnell, M Catherine

    2015-08-19

    In studies of cognitive processing using tasks with externally directed attention, regions showing increased (external-task-positive) and decreased or "negative" [default-mode network (DMN)] fMRI responses during task performance are dynamically responsive to increasing task difficulty. Responsiveness (modulation of fMRI signal by increasing load) has been linked directly to successful cognitive task performance in external-task-positive regions but not in DMN regions. To investigate whether a responsive DMN is required for successful cognitive performance, we compared healthy human subjects (n = 23) with individuals shown to have decreased DMN engagement (chronic pain patients, n = 28). Subjects performed a multilevel working-memory task (N-back) during fMRI. If a responsive DMN is required for successful performance, patients having reduced DMN responsiveness should show worsened performance; if performance is not reduced, their brains should show compensatory activation in external-task-positive regions or elsewhere. All subjects showed decreased accuracy and increased reaction times with increasing task level, with no significant group differences on either measure at any level. Patients had significantly reduced negative fMRI response (deactivation) of DMN regions (posterior cingulate/precuneus, medial prefrontal cortex). Controls showed expected modulation of DMN deactivation with increasing task difficulty. Patients showed significantly reduced modulation of DMN deactivation by task difficulty, despite their successful task performance. We found no evidence of compensatory neural recruitment in external-task-positive regions or elsewhere. Individual responsiveness of the external-task-positive ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, but not of DMN regions, correlated with task accuracy. These findings suggest that a responsive DMN may not be required for successful cognitive performance; a responsive external-task-positive network may be sufficient. We studied the

  17. The association of students requiring remediation in the internal medicine clerkship with poor performance during internship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemann, Brian A; Durning, Steven J; Kelly, William F; Dong, Ting; Pangaro, Louis N; Hemmer, Paul A

    2015-04-01

    To determine whether the Uniformed Services University (USU) system of workplace performance assessment for students in the internal medicine clerkship at the USU continues to be a sensitive predictor of subsequent poor performance during internship, when compared with assessments in other USU third year clerkships. Utilizing Program Director survey results from 2007 through 2011 and U.S. Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 3 examination results as the outcomes of interest, we compared performance during internship for students who had less than passing performance in the internal medicine clerkship and required remediation, against students whose performance in the internal medicine clerkship was successful. We further analyzed internship ratings for students who received less than passing grades during the same time period on other third year clerkships such as general surgery, pediatrics, obstetrics and gynecology, family medicine, and psychiatry to evaluate whether poor performance on other individual clerkships were associated with future poor performance at the internship level. Results for this recent cohort of graduates were compared with previously published findings. The overall survey response rate for this 5 year cohort was 81% (689/853). Students who received a less than passing grade in the internal medicine clerkship and required further remediation were 4.5 times more likely to be given poor ratings in the domain of medical expertise and 18.7 times more likely to demonstrate poor professionalism during internship. Further, students requiring internal medicine remediation were 8.5 times more likely to fail USMLE Step 3. No other individual clerkship showed any statistically significant associations with performance at the intern level. On the other hand, 40% of students who successfully remediated and did graduate were not identified during internship as having poor performance. Unsuccessful clinical performance which requires remediation in

  18. Validation of an automatic diagnosis of strict left bundle branch block criteria using 12-lead electrocardiograms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xia, Xiaojuan; Ruwald, Anne-Christine; Ruwald, Martin H

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: Strict left bundle branch block (LBBB) criteria were recently proposed to identify LBBB patients to benefit most from cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). The aim of our study was to automate identification of strict LBBB in order to facilitate its broader application. METHODS: We devel...

  19. Construction products performances and basic requirements for fire safety of facades in energy rehabilitation of buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laban Mirjana Đ.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Construction product means any product or kit which is produced and placed on the market for incorporation in a permanent manner in construction works, or parts thereof, and the performance of which has an effect on the performance of the construction works with respect to the basic requirements for construction works. Safety in case of fire and Energy economy and heat retention represent two among seven basic requirements which building has to meet according to contemporary technical rules on planning and construction. Performances of external walls building materials (particularly reaction to fire could significantly affect to fire spread on the façade and other building parts. Therefore, façade shaping and materialization in building renewal process, has to meet the fire safety requirement, as well as the energy requirement. Brief survey of fire protection regulations development in Serbia is presented in the paper. Preventive measures for fire risk reduction in building façade energy renewal are proposed according to contemporary fire safety requirements.

  20. Estimation of waste package performance requirements for a nuclear waste repository in basalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, B.J.

    1980-07-01

    A method of developing waste package performance requirements for specific nuclides is described, and based on federal regulations concerning permissible concentrations in solution at the point of discharge to the accessible environment, a simple and conservative transport model, and baseline and potential worst-case release scenarios

  1. 40 CFR 158.2070 - Biochemical pesticides product performance data requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides product performance data requirements. 158.2070 Section 158.2070 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... efficacy data unless the pesticide product bears a claim to control public health pests, such as pest...

  2. Defense Organization Officials Did Not Consistently Comply With Requirements for Assessing Contractor Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    must evaluate compliance with reporting requirements frequently so they can readily identify delinquent past performance reports.24 The FAR also...problems the contractor recovered from without impact to the contract/ order. There should have been no significant weaknesses identified. A...contractor had trouble overcoming and state how it impacted the Government. A Marginal rating should be supported by referencing the management tool

  3. 20 CFR 641.879 - What are the fiscal and performance reporting requirements for recipients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the fiscal and performance reporting requirements for recipients? 641.879 Section 641.879 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION... Quarterly Progress Report (QPR) to the Department in electronic format via the Internet within 30 days after...

  4. 75 FR 76254 - Official Performance and Procedural Requirements for Grain Weighing Equipment and Related Grain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration 7 CFR Part 802 [Docket GIPSA-2010-FGIS-0012] RIN 0580-AB19 Official Performance and Procedural Requirements for Grain Weighing Equipment and Related Grain Handling Systems AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards...

  5. Requirements for high performance computing for lattice QCD. Report of the ECFA working panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jegerlehner, F.; Kenway, R.D.; Martinelli, G.; Michael, C.; Pene, O.; Petersson, B.; Petronzio, R.; Sachrajda, C.T.; Schilling, K.

    2000-01-01

    This report, prepared at the request of the European Committee for Future Accelerators (ECFA), contains an assessment of the High Performance Computing resources which will be required in coming years by European physicists working in Lattice Field Theory and a review of the scientific opportunities which these resources would open. (orig.)

  6. Comparison of exertion required to perform standard and active compression-decompression cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, J J; Mianulli, M J; Gisch, T M; Coffeen, P R; Haidet, G C; Lurie, K G

    1995-02-01

    Active compression-decompression (ACD) cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) utilizes a hand-held suction device with a pressure gauge that enables the operator to compress as well as actively decompress the chest. This new CPR method improves hemodynamic and ventilatory parameters when compared with standard CPR. ACD-CPR is easy to perform but may be more labor intensive. The purpose of this study was to quantify and compare the work required to perform ACD and standard CPR. Cardiopulmonary testing was performed on six basic cardiac life support- and ACD-trained St. Paul, MN fire-fighter personnel during performance of 10 min each of ACD and standard CPR on a mannequin equipped with a compression gauge. The order of CPR techniques was determined randomly with > 1 h between each study. Each CPR method was performed at 80 compressions/min (timed with a metronome), to a depth of 1.5-2 inches, and with a 50% duty cycle. Baseline cardiopulmonary measurements were similar at rest prior to performance of both CPR methods. During standard and ACD-CPR, respectively, rate-pressure product was 18.2 +/- 3.0 vs. 23.8 +/- 1.7 (x 1000, P CPR compared with standard CPR. Both methods require subanaerobic energy expenditure and can therefore be sustained for a sufficient length of time by most individuals to optimize resuscitation efforts. Due to the slightly higher work requirement, ACD-CPR may be more difficult to perform compared with standard CPR for long periods of time, particularly by individuals unaccustomed to the workload requirement of CPR, in general.

  7. Applying Required Navigation Performance Concept for Traffic Management of Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jaewoo; D'Souza, Sarah N.; Johnson, Marcus A.; Ishihara, Abraham K.; Modi, Hemil C.; Nikaido, Ben; Hasseeb, Hashmatullah

    2016-01-01

    In anticipation of a rapid increase in the number of civil Unmanned Aircraft System(UAS) operations, NASA is researching prototype technologies for a UAS Traffic Management (UTM) system that will investigate airspace integration requirements for enabling safe, efficient low-altitude operations. One aspect a UTM system must consider is the correlation between UAS operations (such as vehicles, operation areas and durations), UAS performance requirements, and the risk to people and property in the operational area. This paper investigates the potential application of the International Civil Aviation Organizations (ICAO) Required Navigation Performance (RNP) concept to relate operational risk with trajectory conformance requirements. The approach is to first define a method to quantify operational risk and then define the RNP level requirement as a function of the operational risk. Greater operational risk corresponds to more accurate RNP level, or smaller tolerable Total System Error (TSE). Data from 19 small UAS flights are used to develop and validate a formula that defines this relationship. An approach to assessing UAS-RNP conformance capability using vehicle modeling and wind field simulation is developed to investigate how this formula may be applied in a future UTM system. The results indicate the modeled vehicles flight path is robust to the simulated wind variation, and it can meet RNP level requirements calculated by the formula. The results also indicate how vehicle-modeling fidelity may be improved to adequately verify assessed RNP level.

  8. The application of strict criminal liabilities to spillage of oil: the practical impact on effective spill response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, J.J.

    2002-01-01

    The Federal Water Pollution Control Act as amended by the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 provides criminal penalties in oil spills that result from criminal activity, gross negligence or wilful misconduct on the part of the spiller. Nevertheless, the Department of Justice has seen fit to reach into unrelated legislation to potentially apply strict criminal liability to any oil spill regardless of intent. Strict criminalization of accidental oil spills is demonstrably counterproductive to effective protection of the environment from the effect of spills since it poses a serious impediment to cooperation and coordination by and between those charged by law to respond to them. This impediment is particularly dangerous since it threatens the proper functioning of the inherently sensitive ''troika'' Unified Command Structure that has evolved in spill response management in response to OPA-90 management requirements. Introduction of strict criminal liability for accidental spills is also particularly troublesome in that it must enlist unrelated law to influence an area that has been addressed specifically by legislation designed for that purpose; legislation that has worked well in the past 30 years to both regulate the target activities while successfully achieving the objective of protecting and improving environment quality. (author)

  9. Sensor Performance Requirements for the Retrieval of Atmospheric Aerosols by Airborne Optical Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus I. Itten

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This study explores performance requirements for the retrieval of the atmospheric aerosol optical depth (AOD by airborne optical remote sensing instruments. Independent of any retrieval techniques, the calculated AOD retrieval requirements are compared with the expected performance parameters of the upcoming hyperspectral sensor APEX at the reference wavelength of 550nm. The AOD accuracy requirements are defined to be capable of resolving transmittance differences of 0.01 to 0.04 according to the demands of atmospheric corrections for remote sensing applications. For the purposes of this analysis, the signal at the sensor level is simulated by radiation transfer equations. The resulting radiances are translated into the AOD retrieval sensitivity (Δτλaer and compared to the available measuring sensitivity of the sensor (NE ΔLλsensor. This is done for multiple signal-to-noise ratios (SNR and surface reflectance values. It is shown that an SNR of 100 is adequate for AOD retrieval at 550nm under typical remote sensing conditions and a surface reflectance of 10% or less. Such dark surfaces require the lowest SNR values and therefore offer the best sensitivity for measuring AOD. Brighter surfaces with up to 30% reflectance require an SNR of around 300. It is shown that AOD retrieval for targets above 50% surface reflectance is more problematic with the current sensor performance as it may require an SNR larger than 1000. In general, feasibility is proven for the analyzed cases under simulated conditions.

  10. Are strict vegetarians protected against prostate cancer?1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutsen, Synnove F; Knutsen, Raymond; Jacobsen, Bjarne K; Fan, Jing; Beeson, W Lawrence; Sabate, Joan; Hadley, David; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Penniecook, Jason; Herring, Patti; Butler, Terry; Bennett, Hanni; Fraser, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Background: According to the American Cancer Society, prostate cancer accounts for ∼27% of all incident cancer cases among men and is the second most common (noncutaneous) cancer among men. The relation between diet and prostate cancer is still unclear. Because people do not consume individual foods but rather foods in combination, the assessment of dietary patterns may offer valuable information when determining associations between diet and prostate cancer risk. Objective: This study aimed to examine the association between dietary patterns (nonvegetarian, lacto-ovo-vegetarian, pesco-vegetarian, vegan, and semi-vegetarian) and prostate cancer incidence among 26,346 male participants of the Adventist Health Study-2. Design: In this prospective cohort study, cancer cases were identified by matching to cancer registries. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was performed to estimate HRs by using age as the time variable. Results: In total, 1079 incident prostate cancer cases were identified. Around 8% of the study population reported adherence to the vegan diet. Vegan diets showed a statistically significant protective association with prostate cancer risk (HR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.49, 0.85). After stratifying by race, the statistically significant association with a vegan diet remained only for the whites (HR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.46, 0.86), but the multivariate HR for black vegans showed a similar but nonsignificant point estimate (HR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.41, 1.18). Conclusion: Vegan diets may confer a lower risk of prostate cancer. This lower estimated risk is seen in both white and black vegan subjects, although in the latter, the CI is wider and includes the null. PMID:26561618

  11. Discussion on sealing performance required in disposal system. Hydraulic analysis of tunnel intersections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugita, Yutaka; Takahashi, Yoshiaki; Uragami, Manabu; Kitayama, Kazumi; Fujita, Tomoo; Kawakami, Susumu; Yui, Mikazu; Umeki, Hiroyuki; Miyamoto, Yoichi

    2005-09-01

    The sealing performance of a repository must be considered in the safety assessment of the geological disposal system of the high-level radioactive waste. NUMO and JNC established 'Technical Commission on Sealing Technology of Repository' based on the cooperation agreement. The objectives of this commission are to present the concept on the sealing performance required in the disposal system and to develop the direction for future R and D programme for design requirements of closure components (backfilling material, clay plug, etc.) in the presented concept. In the first phase of this commission, the current status of domestic and international sealing technologies were reviewed; and repository components and repository environments were summarized subsequently, the hydraulic analysis of tunnel intersections, where a main tunnel and a disposal tunnel in a disposal panel meet, were performed, considering components in and around the engineered barrier system (EBS). Since all tunnels are connected in the underground facility, understanding the hydraulic behaviour of tunnel intersections is an important issue to estimate migration of radionuclides from the EBS and to evaluate the required sealing performance in the disposal system. In the analytical results, it was found that the direction of hydraulic gradient, hydraulic conductivities of concrete and backfilling materials and the position of clay plug had impact on flow condition around the EBS. (author)

  12. A survey of clinical performance skills requirements in medical radiation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowntree, P.A.; Veitch, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    This paper outlines the reasons behind carry out a study of clinical performance skills requirements and the method being used to gather data. It describes the changes which have occurred in radiographer education in Queensland, the broader impact brought about by changes in professional body requirements and the development of a Competency based Standards Document for the profession. The paper provides examples of the survey design and layout being developed for distribution to third year students in the Medical Imaging Technology major of the Bachelor of Applied Science (Medical Radiation Technology) Queensland University of Technology, graduates and clinical departments in Queensland. 1 tab., 1 fig

  13. Use of simple transport equations to estimate waste package performance requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, B.J.

    1982-01-01

    A method of developing waste package performance requirements for specific nuclides is described. The method is based on: Federal regulations concerning permissible concentrations in solution at the point of discharge to the accessible environment; a simple and conservative transport model; baseline and potential worst-case release scenarios. Use of the transport model enables calculation of maximum permissible release rates within a repository in basalt for each of the scenarios. The maximum permissible release rates correspond to performance requirements for the engineered barrier system. The repository was assumed to be constructed in a basalt layer. For the cases considered, including a well drilled into an aquifer 1750 m from the repository center, little significant advantage is obtained from a 1000-yr as opposed to a 100-yr waste package. A 1000-yr waste package is of importance only for nuclides with half-lives much less than 100 yr which travel to the accessible environment in much less than 1000 yr. Such short travel times are extremely unlikely for a mined repository. Among the actinides, the most stringent maximum permissible release rates are for 236 U and 234 U. A simple solubility calculation suggests, however, that these performance requirements can be readily met by the engineered barrier system. Under the reducing conditions likely to occur in a repository located in basalt, uranium would be sufficiently insoluble that no solution could contain more than about 0.01% of the maximum permissible concentration at saturation. The performance requirements derived from the one-dimensional modeling approach are conservative by at least one to two orders of magnitude. More quantitative three-dimensional modeling at specific sites should enable relaxation of the performance criteria derived in this study. 12 references, 8 figures, 8 tables

  14. Common display performance requirements for military and commercial aircraft product lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoener, Steven J.; Behrens, Arthur J.; Flint, John R.; Jacobsen, Alan R.

    2001-09-01

    Obtaining high quality Active Matrix Liquid Crystal (AMLCD) glass to meet the needs of the commercial and military aerospace business is a major challenge, at best. With the demise of all domestic sources of AMLCD substrate glass, the industry is now focused on overseas sources, which are primarily producing glass for consumer electronics. Previous experience with ruggedizing commercial glass leads to the expectation that the aerospace industry can leverage off the commercial market. The problem remains, while the commercial industry is continually changing and improving its products, the commercial and military aerospace industries require stable and affordable supplies of AMLCD glass for upwards of 20 years to support production and maintenance operations. The Boeing Engineering and Supplier Management Process Councils have chartered a group of displays experts from multiple aircraft product divisions within the Boeing Company, the Displays Process Action Team (DPAT), to address this situation from an overall corporate perspective. The DPAT has formulated a set of Common Displays Performance Requirements for use across the corporate line of commercial and military aircraft products. Though focused on the AMLCD problem, the proposed common requirements are largely independent of display technology. This paper describes the strategy being pursued within the Boeing Company to address the AMLCD supply problem and details the proposed implementation process, centered on common requirements for both commercial and military aircraft displays. Highlighted in this paper are proposed common, or standard, display sizes and the other major requirements established by the DPAT, along with the rationale for these requirements.

  15. Modulation of recognition memory performance by light requires both melanopsin and classical photoreceptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Shu K. E.; Hasan, Sibah; Hughes, Steven; Hankins, Mark W.; Foster, Russell G.; Bannerman, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Acute light exposure exerts various effects on physiology and behaviour. Although the effects of light on brain network activity in humans are well demonstrated, the effects of light on cognitive performance are inconclusive, with the size, as well as direction, of the effect depending on the nature of the task. Similarly, in nocturnal rodents, bright light can either facilitate or disrupt performance depending on the type of task employed. Crucially, it is unclear whether the effects of light on behavioural performance are mediated via the classical image-forming rods and cones or the melanopsin-expressing photosensitive retinal ganglion cells. Here, we investigate the modulatory effects of light on memory performance in mice using the spontaneous object recognition task. Importantly, we examine which photoreceptors are required to mediate the effects of light on memory performance. By using a cross-over design, we show that object recognition memory is disrupted when the test phase is conducted under a bright light (350 lux), regardless of the light level in the sample phase (10 or 350 lux), demonstrating that exposure to a bright light at the time of test, rather than at the time of encoding, impairs performance. Strikingly, the modulatory effect of light on memory performance is completely abolished in both melanopsin-deficient and rodless–coneless mice. Our findings provide direct evidence that melanopsin-driven and rod/cone-driven photoresponses are integrated in order to mediate the effect of light on memory performance. PMID:28003454

  16. Conflict Resolution for Product Performance Requirements Based on Propagation Analysis in the Extension Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanwei Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional product data mining methods are mainly focused on the static data. Performance requirements are generally met as possible by finding some cases and changing their structures. However, when one is satisfied with the structures changed, the other effects are not taken into account by analyzing the correlations; that is, design conflicts are not identified and resolved. An approach to resolving the conflict problems is proposed based on propagation analysis in Extension Theory. Firstly, the extension distance is improved to better fit evaluating the similarity among cases, then, a case retrieval method is developed. Secondly, the transformations that can be made on selected cases are formulated by understanding the conflict natures in the different performance requirements, which leads to the extension transformation strategy development for coordinating conflicts using propagation analysis. Thirdly, the effects and levels of propagation are determined by analyzing the performance values before and after the transformations, thus the co-existing conflict coordination strategy of multiple performances is developed. The method has been implemented in a working prototype system for supporting decision-making. And it has been demonstrated the feasible and effective through resolving the conflicts of noise, exhaust, weight and intake pressure for the screw air compressor performance design.

  17. Synchronization control of cross-strict feedback hyperchaotic system based on cross active backstepping design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jing; Gao Jinfeng; Ma Xikui

    2007-01-01

    This Letter presents a novel cross active backstepping design method for synchronization control of cross-strict feedback hyperchaotic system, in which the ordinary backstepping design is unavailable. The proposed control method, combining backstepping design and active control approach, extends the application of backstepping technique in chaos control. Based on this method, different combinations of controllers can be designed to meet the needs of different applications. The proposed method is applied to achieve chaos synchronization of two identical cross-strict feedback hyperchaotic systems. Also it is used to implement synchronization between cross-strict feedback hyperchaotic system and Roessler hyperchaotic system. Numerical examples illustrate the validity of the control method

  18. Clinical impact of strict criteria for selectivity and lateralization in adrenal vein sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparetto, Alessandro; Angle, John F; Darvishi, Pasha; Freeman, Colbey W; Norby, Ray G; Carey, Robert M

    2015-04-01

    Selectivity index (SI) and lateralization index (LI) thresholds determine the adequacy of adrenal vein sampling (AVS) and the degree of lateralization. The purpose of this study was investigate the clinical outcome of patients whose adrenal vein sampling was interpreted using "strict criteria" (SC) (SIpre-stimuli≥3, SIpost-stimuli≥5 and LIpre-stimuli≥4, LIpost-stimuli≥4). A retrospective review of 73 consecutive AVS procedures was performed and 67 were technically successful. Forty-three patients showed lateralization and underwent surgery, while 24 did not lateralize and were managed conservatively. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), kalemia (K(+)), and the change in number of blood pressure (BP) medications were recorded for each patient before and after AVS and potential surgery were performed. In the surgery group, BP and K(+) changed respectively from 160±5.3/100±2.0 mmHg to 127±3.3/80±1.9 (p blood pressure medications were six (14.0%) in the lateralized group and 22 (91.7%) in the non-lateralized group (p <0.001). AVS interpretation with SC leads to significant clinical improvement in both patients who underwent surgery and those managed conservatively.

  19. Electronic Nose Testing Procedure for the Definition of Minimum Performance Requirements for Environmental Odor Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Eusebio

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite initial enthusiasm towards electronic noses and their possible application in different fields, and quite a lot of promising results, several criticalities emerge from most published research studies, and, as a matter of fact, the diffusion of electronic noses in real-life applications is still very limited. In general, a first step towards large-scale-diffusion of an analysis method, is standardization. The aim of this paper is describing the experimental procedure adopted in order to evaluate electronic nose performances, with the final purpose of establishing minimum performance requirements, which is considered to be a first crucial step towards standardization of the specific case of electronic nose application for environmental odor monitoring at receptors. Based on the experimental results of the performance testing of a commercialized electronic nose type with respect to three criteria (i.e., response invariability to variable atmospheric conditions, instrumental detection limit, and odor classification accuracy, it was possible to hypothesize a logic that could be adopted for the definition of minimum performance requirements, according to the idea that these are technologically achievable.

  20. Morfofunctional indices of peripheric blood for persons working within the strict radiation control area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyagu, A.I.; Yukhimuk, L.N.; Egorova, D.M.; Pogontseva, I.M.

    1992-01-01

    The blood of 118 people permanently working within the area of strict radiation control has been investigated. Erythrocyte morphofunctional value has been estimated taking into consideration the erythrocyte morphological index as well as mechanical and osmotic resistivity of erythrocytes. For people permanently working within the area of strict radiation control intensity of signals of EPR for blood paramagnetic centres essentially changes. It proves profound changes in functioning of blood plasma antioxidant system for people working in the area of strict radiation control. For the people permanently working within the area of strict radiation control in peripheric blood growth of echynocytes and spherocytes as well as lowering of mechanical resistivity of erythrocytes is observed. 4 refs.; 1 fig.; 1 tab

  1. Strict deformation quantization for actions of a class of symplectic lie groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieliavsky, Pierre; Massar, Marc

    2002-01-01

    We present explicit universal strict deformation quantization formulae for actions of Iwasawa subgroups AN of SN(1, n). This answers a question raised by Rieffel in [Contemp. Math. 228 (1998), 315]. (author)

  2. Do strict rules and moving images increase the reliability of sequential identification procedures?.

    OpenAIRE

    Valentine, Tim; Darling, Stephen; Memon, Amina

    2007-01-01

    Live identification procedures in England and Wales have been replaced by use of video, which provides a sequential presentation of facial images. Sequential presentation of photographs provides some protection to innocent suspects from mistaken identification when used with strict instructions designed to prevent relative judgements (Lindsay, Lea & Fulford, 1991). However, the current procedure in England and Wales is incompatible with these strict instructions. The reported research investi...

  3. Strict optical orthogonal codes for purely asynchronous code-division multiple-access applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian-Guo

    1996-12-01

    Strict optical orthogonal codes are presented for purely asynchronous optical code-division multiple-access (CDMA) applications. The proposed code can strictly guarantee the peaks of its cross-correlation functions and the sidelobes of any of its autocorrelation functions to have a value of 1 in purely asynchronous data communications. The basic theory of the proposed codes is given. An experiment on optical CDMA systems is also demonstrated to verify the characteristics of the proposed code.

  4. Certification of ERDA contractors' packaging with respect to compliance with DOT specification 7A performance requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edling, D.A.; Griffin, J.F.

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to have one ERDA contractor: (1) compile a list of specification packagings, proposed by ERDA contractors, for shipping Type A quantities of radioactive material, and (2) analyze these packages for conformance to Specification 7A requirements. This study was divided into two phases. Phase I provides a report on those packages which could be shown, based on existing test data and engineering analyses, to conform to DOT Specification 7A packaging requirements. The results of Phase I are discussed in detail in the publication, ''Certification of AEC Contractor's Packagings With Respect to Compliance with DOT Specification 7A Performance Requirements -- Phase I Summary Report,'' D. A. Edling, H. E. Meyer and G. L. Phillabaum (Schedule 189C, May 26, 1974). The objectives of Phase II were: (1) identification of packages from Phase I for which available information was not adequate for certification. (Those specification containers used by ERDA contractors and those containers for which adequate information was available for certification are listed in the Phase I summary report.); (2) identification of specific test/engineering analysis data required; (3) generation/procurement of these data; and (4) documentation of study results for use by all ERDA contractors and private industry. The results of Phase II of the study are presented. (U.S.)

  5. Position requirements for space station personnel and linkages to portable microcomputer performance assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanneret, P. R.

    1988-01-01

    The development and use of a menu of performance tests that can be self-administered on a portable microcomputer are investigated. In order to identify, develop, or otherwise select the relevant human capabilities/attributes to measure and hence include in the performance battery, it is essential that an analysis be conducted of the jobs or functions that will be performed throughout a space shuttle mission. The primary job analysis instrument, the Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ), is discussed in detail so the reader will have sufficient background for understanding the application of the instrument to the various work activities included within the scope of the study, and the derivation of the human requirements (abilities/attributes) from the PAQ analyses. The research methodology is described and includes the procedures used for gathering the PAQ data. The results are presented in detail with specific emphasis on identifying critical requirements that can be measured with a portable computerized assessment battery. A discussion of the results is given with implications for future research.

  6. Monitoring of performance management using Quality Assurance Indicators and ISO requirement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dargahi H

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Quality assurance is a prevention-oriented system that can be used to improve the quality of care, increase productivity and monitor the performance management in clinical laboratories. ISO 9001: 2000 requirements are a collection of management and technical systems designed to implement quality assurance and monitor performance management in organizations. Methods: A checklist was prepared to monitor the preanalytical, analytical and postanalytical stages of laboratory performance management in 16 areas and all laboratory activities in 14 of the clinical laboratories of the Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS hospitals. Collected data were stored and statistically analyzed using SPSS software. Results: The best performance, in which 77.73% of quality assurance indicators were observed, was found in Sina Hospital. However, only 57.56% of these indicators were fulfilled at Farabi Hospital, with the lowest-level performance among the clinical laboratories of TUMS hospitals. The highest level of compliance with quality assurance indicators was in the hematology departments and for facility demands in management areas. Overall, quality assurance indicators were appropriately followed in only 7% of the clinical laboratories. Conclusion: The average quality assurance observation rate in the clinical laboratories studied was 67.22%, which is insufficient and must be remedied with stricter enforcement of the ISO 9001: 2000 regulations.

  7. Sequestration Coating Performance Requirements for Mitigation of Contamination from a Radiological Dispersion Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drake, J.

    2009-01-01

    Immediate action would be necessary to minimize the effects of a radiological 'dirty bomb' detonation in a major city. After a dirty bomb has been detonated, vehicular and pedestrian traffic, as well as weather effects, would increase the spread of loose contamination, making control and recovery more difficult and costly. While contaminant migration and chemical binding into surface materials can be relatively rapid, the immediate treatment of surfaces with large quantities of an appropriate compound could alleviate much of the difficulty in decontamination. The EPA's National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC), in collaboration with ASTM International, is currently developing performance standards for materials which could be applied to exterior surfaces contaminated by an RDD to mitigate the spread and migration of radioactive contamination. These performance standards are being promulgated via an ASTM Standard Specification to be published by ASTM International. Test methods will be developed to determine if candidate coatings meet the performance requirements stipulated in the ASTM performance standard. These test methods will be adapted from existing standard methods, or will be devised through laboratory research. The final set of test methods will be codified in an ASTM or other standard test method. The principal market for products described in the ASTM performance standard would be federal, state and local government emergency responders and response planners, decontamination service providers and those whose interests include protection and recovery of real estate potentially at risk from radiological terrorism. (authors)

  8. Base technology development enhances state-of-the-art in meeting performance requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedman, J.M.; Allen, G.C. Jr.; Luna, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has responsibility to the United States Department of Energy (DOE) for baseline technology to support the design of radioactive material transportation packages. To fulfill this responsibility, SNL works with industry, government agencies, and national laboratories to identify and develop state-of-the-art technology required to design and test safe, cost-effective radioactive materials packages. Principal elements of the base technology program include: 1) analysis techniques, 2) testing, 3) subsystem and component development, 4) packaging systems development support, and 5) technical support for policy development. These program elements support a systems approach for meeting performance requirements and assure that there is a sound underlying technical basis for both transportation packaging design and associated policy decisions. Highlights from the base technology program included in this paper are testing, design and analysis methods, advanced materials, risk assessment and logistics models, and transportation package support

  9. Investigation of high-alpha lateral-directional control power requirements for high-performance aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, John V.; Ross, Holly M.; Ashley, Patrick A.

    1993-01-01

    Designers of the next-generation fighter and attack airplanes are faced with the requirements of good high angle-of-attack maneuverability as well as efficient high speed cruise capability with low radar cross section (RCS) characteristics. As a result, they are challenged with the task of making critical design trades to achieve the desired levels of maneuverability and performance. This task has highlighted the need for comprehensive, flight-validated lateral-directional control power design guidelines for high angles of attack. A joint NASA/U.S. Navy study has been initiated to address this need and to investigate the complex flight dynamics characteristics and controls requirements for high angle-of-attack lateral-directional maneuvering. A multi-year research program is underway which includes groundbased piloted simulation and flight validation. This paper will give a status update of this program that will include a program overview, description of test methodology and preliminary results.

  10. High Performance Computing and Storage Requirements for Nuclear Physics: Target 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, Richard [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wasserman, Harvey [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-04-30

    In April 2014, NERSC, ASCR, and the DOE Office of Nuclear Physics (NP) held a review to characterize high performance computing (HPC) and storage requirements for NP research through 2017. This review is the 12th in a series of reviews held by NERSC and Office of Science program offices that began in 2009. It is the second for NP, and the final in the second round of reviews that covered the six Office of Science program offices. This report is the result of that review

  11. Performance requirements of an inertial-fusion-energy source for hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hovingh, J.

    1983-01-01

    Performance of an inertial fusion system for the production of hydrogen is compared to a tandem-mirror-system hydrogen producer. Both systems use the General Atomic sulfur-iodine hydrogen-production cycle and produce no net electric power to the grid. An ICF-driven hydrogen producer will have higher system gains and lower electrical-consumption ratios than the design point for the tandem-mirror system if the inertial-fusion-energy gain eta Q > 8.8. For the ICF system to have a higher hydrogen production rate per unit fusion power than the tandem-mirror system requires that eta Q > 17. These can be achieved utilizing realistic laser and pellet performances

  12. Sleep-related offline improvements in gross motor task performance occur under free recall requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas eMalangre

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nocturnal sleep effects on memory consolidation following gross motor sequence learning were examined using a complex arm movement task. This task required participants to produce non-regular spatial patterns in the horizontal plane by successively fitting a small peg into different target-holes on an electronic pegboard. The respective reaching movements typically differed in amplitude and direction. Targets were visualized prior to each transport movement on a computer screen. With this task we tested 18 subjects (22.6 +/- 1.9 years; 8 female using a between-subjects design. Participants initially learned a 10-element arm movement sequence either in the morning or in the evening. Performance was retested under free recall requirements 15 minutes post training, as well as 12 hrs and 24 hrs later. Thus each group was provided with one sleep-filled and one wake retention interval. Dependent variables were error rate (number of erroneous sequences and average sequence execution time (correct sequences only. Performance improved during acquisition. Error rate remained stable across retention. Sequence execution time (inverse to execution speed significantly decreased again during the sleep-filled retention intervals, but remained stable during the respective wake intervals. These results corroborate recent findings on sleep-related enhancement consolidation in ecological valid, complex gross motor tasks. At the same time they suggest this effect to be truly memory-based and independent from repeated access to extrinsic sequence information during retests.

  13. Commercially-driven human interplanetary propulsion systems: Rationale, concept, technology, and performance requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, C.H.; Borowski, S.K.

    1996-01-01

    Previous studies of human interplanetary missions are largely characterized by long trip times, limited performance capabilities, and enormous costs. Until these missions become dramatically more open-quote open-quote commercial-friendly close-quote close-quote, their funding source and rationale will be restricted to national governments and their political/scientific interests respectively. A rationale is discussed for human interplanetary space exploration predicated on the private sector. Space propulsion system requirements are identified for interplanetary transfer times of no more than a few weeks/months to and between the major outer planets. Nuclear fusion is identified as the minimum requisite space propulsion technology. A conceptual design is described and evolutionary catalyzed-DD to DHe 3 fuel cycles are proposed. Magnetic nozzles for direct thrust generation and quantifying the operational aspects of the energy exchange mechanisms between high energy reaction products and neutral propellants are identified as two of the many key supporting technologies essential to satisfying system performance requirements. Government support of focused, breakthrough technologies is recommended at funding levels appropriate to other ongoing federal research. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  14. Virtual environment to quantify the influence of colour stimuli on the performance of tasks requiring attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frère Annie F

    2011-08-01

    where tasks, that require attention, were most affected. Conclusions The game proved to be a user-friendly tool capable to detect and quantify the influence of color on the performance of people executing tasks that require attention and showed to be attractive for people with ADHD.

  15. Virtual environment to quantify the influence of colour stimuli on the performance of tasks requiring attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Alessandro P; Frère, Annie F

    2011-08-19

    Recent studies indicate that the blue-yellow colour discrimination is impaired in ADHD individuals. However, the relationship between colour and performance has not been investigated. This paper describes the development and the testing of a virtual environment that is capable to quantify the influence of red-green versus blue-yellow colour stimuli on the performance of people in a fun and interactive way, being appropriate for the target audience. An interactive computer game based on virtual reality was developed to evaluate the performance of the players.The game's storyline was based on the story of an old pirate who runs across islands and dangerous seas in search of a lost treasure. Within the game, the player must find and interpret the hints scattered in different scenarios. Two versions of this game were implemented. In the first, hints and information boards were painted using red and green colours. In the second version, these objects were painted using blue and yellow colours. For modelling, texturing, and animating virtual characters and objects the three-dimensional computer graphics tool Blender 3D was used. The textures were created with the GIMP editor to provide visual effects increasing the realism and immersion of the players. The games were tested on 20 non-ADHD volunteers who were divided into two subgroups (A1 and A2) and 20 volunteers with ADHD who were divided into subgroups B1 and B2. Subgroups A1 and B1 used the first version of the game with the hints painted in green-red colors, and subgroups A2 and B2 the second version using the same hints now painted in blue-yellow. The time spent to complete each task of the game was measured. Data analyzed with ANOVA two-way and posthoc TUKEY LSD showed that the use of blue/yellow instead of green/red colors decreased the game performance of all participants. However, a greater decrease in performance could be observed with ADHD participants where tasks, that require attention, were most affected

  16. A European map regarding the strictness of the transfer pricing regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Ignat

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context in which transfer pricing may represent a mechanism through which multinationals have the possibility to move funds internationally, in order to prevent the base erosion and profit shifting between multinationals, countries over the world have adopted various transfer pricing regulations. Furthermore, some of the countries adopted stricter regulations than others. The objective of our research was to identify the level of strictness for the transfer pricing regulations from the European countries. To achieve this objective, we analyzed the transfer pricing regulations of all European countries and we built a transfer pricing strictness index, based on which we defined 4 categories of countries (where category 1 includes the countries with the least strict transfer pricing regulations and category 4 countries with the strictest regulations. After that, we illustrated how these categories are distributed on the European map. In order to collect the information, we used the transfer pricing guides issued by the Big Four companies for the year 2015. The study`s results show that the strictness of the transfer pricing regulations decreases from the west of Europe to east. Moreover, most of the countries were included in category 2, respectively category 3, meaning that the transfer pricing regulations from the European continent are not so flexible, but in the same time are not so strict.

  17. Integration plan required by performance agreement SM 7.2.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diediker, L.P.

    1997-01-01

    Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc. and its major subcontractors are in agreement that environmental monitoring performed under the Project Hanford Management Contract is to be done in accordance with a single, integrated program. The purpose of this Integration Plan for Environmental Monitoring is to document the policies, systems, and processes being put in place to meet one key objective: manage and integrate a technically competent, multi-media ambient environmental monitoring program, in an efficient, cost effective manner. Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc. and its major subcontractors also commit to conducting business in a manner consistent with the International Standards Organization 14000 Environmental Management System concepts. Because the integration of sitewide groundwater monitoring activities is managed by the Environmental Restoration Contractor, groundwater monitoring it is outside the scope of this document. Therefore, for the purpose of this Integration Plan for Environmental Monitoring, the Integrated Environmental Monitoring Program is defined as applicable to all environmental media except groundwater. This document provides recommendations on future activities to better integrate the overall environmental monitoring program, with emphasis on the near-field program. In addition, included is the Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc. team review of the environmental monitoring activities on the Hanford Site, with concurrence of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Bechtel Hanford, Inc. (The narrative provided later in the Discussion Section describes the review and consideration given to each topic.) This document was developed to meet the requirements of the Project Hanford Management Contract performance agreement (SM7.2) and the tenets of the U.S. Department of Energy's Effluent and Environmental Monitoring Planning Process. This Plan is prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, Environmental Assurance, Permits, and Policy Division

  18. New strict left bundle branch block criteria reflect left ventricular activation differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emerek, Kasper Janus Grønn; Risum, Niels; Hjortshøj, Søren Pihlkjær

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: Pacing lead electrical delays and strict left bundle branch block (LBBB) criteria were assessed against cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) outcome. METHODS: Forty-nine patients with LBBB and QRS duration >130 milliseconds underwent CRT-implantation. Sensed right ventricular to left ven....... CONCLUSION: Interventricular electrical delay predicts left ventricular remodeling after CRT and new, strict ECG criteria of LBBB are superior in predicting remodeling.......AIMS: Pacing lead electrical delays and strict left bundle branch block (LBBB) criteria were assessed against cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) outcome. METHODS: Forty-nine patients with LBBB and QRS duration >130 milliseconds underwent CRT-implantation. Sensed right ventricular to left...... ventricular electrical delay (RV-LV-IED) was measured. Response to CRT was defined as ≥15% decrease in left ventricular end-systolic volume. RESULTS: Eighteen of 20 (90%) patients with non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and 18 of 29 (62%) with ischemic heart disease (IHD) responded to CRT, p

  19. Actions of a separately strict cpo-monoid on pointed directed complete posets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halimeh Moghbeli Damaneh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available ‎ In the present article‎, ‎we study some categorical properties of the category {$bf‎ Cpo_{Sep}$-$S$} of all {separately strict $S$-cpo's}; cpo's equipped with‎ a compatible right action of a separately strict cpo-monoid $S$ which is‎ strict continuous in each component‎. ‎In particular‎, we show that this category is reflective and coreflective in the‎ category of $S$-cpo's‎, ‎find the free and cofree functors‎, characterize products and coproducts‎. ‎Furthermore‎, ‎epimorphisms and‎  monomorphisms in {$bf Cpo_{Sep}$-$S$} are studied‎, ‎and show that‎ {$bf Cpo_{Sep}$-$S$} is not cartesian closed‎.

  20. 75 FR 37712 - Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) Out Performance Requirements To Support Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-30

    ... Performance Requirements To Support Air Traffic Control (ATC) Service; Technical Amendment AGENCY: Federal... FAA amended its regulations to add equipage requirements and performance standards for Automatic... Approval for deviation was renumbered as Sec. 21.618, effective April 14, 2010. On May 28, 2010, the FAA...

  1. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Mmmmm of... - Performance Test Requirements for New or Reconstructed Flame Lamination Affected Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... data only required for venturi scrubbers) every 15 minutes during the entire duration of each 1-hour... (pressure drop data only required for Venturi scrubbers) over the period of the performance test by... liquid flow rate, scrubber effluent pH, and pressure drop (pressure drop data only required for venturi...

  2. Saccharomyces cerevisiae vineyard strains have different nitrogen requirements that affect their fermentation performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos Junior, W J F; Viel, A; Bovo, B; Carlot, M; Giacomini, A; Corich, V

    2017-11-01

    In this work the fermentation performances of seven vineyard strains, together with the industrial strain EC1118, have been investigated at three differing yeast assimilable nitrogen (YAN) concentrations (300 mg N l -1 , 150 mg N l -1 and 70 mg N l -1 ) in synthetic musts. The results indicated that the response to different nitrogen levels is strain dependent. Most of the strains showed a dramatic decrease of the fermentation at 70 mg N l -1 but no significant differences in CO 2 production were found when fermentations at 300 mg N l -1 and 150 mg N l -1 were compared. Only one among the vineyard strains showed a decrease of the fermentation when 150 mg N l -1 were present in the must. These results contribute to shed light on strain nitrogen requirements and offer new perspectives to manage the fermentation process during winemaking. Selected vineyard Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains can improve the quality and the complexity of local wines. Wine quality is also influenced by nitrogen availability that modulates yeast fermentation activity. In this work, yeast nitrogen assimilation was evaluated to clarify the nitrogen requirements of vineyard strains. Most of the strains needed high nitrogen levels to express the best fermentation performances. The results obtained indicate the critical nitrogen levels. When the nitrogen concentration was above the critical level, the fermentation process increased, but if the level of nitrogen was further increased no effect on the fermentation was found. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. Bearings for high performance requirements in two-stroke and four-stroke diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ederer, U.G.

    1983-11-01

    Most measures to reduce fuel consumption in diesel engines lead, directly or indirectly, to more severe operating conditions for the engine bearings. In ever more instances the bearings become the components which limit useful engine life and the time between overhauls. Bearings with improved performance characteristics are required. During recent years, Miba Gleitlager AG has developed several solutions to meet these requirements. They consist of either material improvements, such as a cast white metal (SnSb 12Cu 3 NiCd) with higher fatigue strength, or an electroplated overlay (PbSn 18 Cu) with improved fatigue and wear resistance. New design solutions found included the steel-Al Sn 6-WM 85 bearing for two-stroke engines, the steel-Al Sn 6 PbSn 18 Cu bearing applied to two-stroke crosshead bearings, the steel-AlZn 4,5 PbSn 18 Cu bearing for high bearing loads in four-stroke engines, and the Miba-Rillenlager with its radically new running-surface structure for extreme load and wear conditions. The application potential of these bearings and the operating experience with them are discussed in this article.

  4. Selection of the battery pack parameters for an electric vehicle based on performance requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koniak, M.; Czerepicki, A.

    2017-06-01

    Each type of vehicle has specific power requirements. Some require a rapid charging, other make long distances between charges, but a common feature is the longest battery life time. Additionally, the battery is influenced by factors such as temperature, depth of discharge and the operation current. The article contain the parameters of chemical cells that should be taken into account during the design of the battery for a specific application. This is particularly important because the batteries are not properly matched and can wear prematurely and cause an additional costs. The method of selecting the correct cell type should take previously discussed features and operating characteristics of the vehicle into account. The authors present methods of obtaining such characteristics along with their assessment and examples. Also there has been described an example of the battery parameters selection based on design assumptions of the vehicle and the expected performance characteristics. Selecting proper battery operating parameters is important due to its impact on the economic result of investments in electric vehicles. For example, for some Li-Ion technologies, the earlier worn out of batteries in a fleet of cruise boats or buses having estimated lifetime of 10 years is not acceptable, because this will cause substantial financial losses for the owner of the rolling stock. The presented method of choosing the right cell technology in the selected application, can be the basis for making the decision on future battery technical parameters.

  5. A modal H∞-norm-based performance requirement for damage-tolerant active controller design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genari, Helói F. G.; Mechbal, Nazih; Coffignal, Gérard; Nóbrega, Eurípedes G. O.

    2017-04-01

    Damage-tolerant active control (DTAC) is a recent research area that encompasses control design methodologies resulting from the application of fault-tolerant control methods to vibration control of structures subject to damage. The possibility of damage occurrence is not usually considered in the active vibration control design requirements. Damage changes the structure dynamics, which may produce unexpected modal behavior of the closed-loop system, usually not anticipated by the controller design approaches. A modal H∞ norm and a respective robust controller design framework were recently introduced, and this method is here extended to face a new DTAC strategy implementation. Considering that damage affects each vibration mode differently, this paper adopts the modal H∞ norm to include damage as a design requirement. The basic idea is to create an appropriate energy distribution over the frequency range of interest and respective vibration modes, guaranteeing robustness, damage tolerance, and adequate overall performance, taking into account that it is common to have previous knowledge of the structure regions where damage may occur during its operational life. For this purpose, a structural health monitoring technique is applied to evaluate modal modifications caused by damage. This information is used to create modal weighing matrices, conducting to the modal H∞ controller design. Finite element models are adopted for a case study structure, including different damage severities, in order to validate the proposed control strategy. Results show the effectiveness of the proposed methodology with respect to damage tolerance.

  6. The photon is no strict particle and nonlocality is far from being proven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greulich, Karl Otto [Fritz Lipmann Institut, Jena (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Two aspects of philosophical discussions on physics are the wave particle dualism and non locality including entanglement. However the strict particle aspect of the photon, in the common sense view, has never been proven. The accumulation time argument, the only experimental verification of a strictly particle like photon, has so far not yet been satisfied. Also, experiments thought to prove nonlocality have loophole which have so far not yet been safely closed, and now an even more serious loophole emerges. Thus, also nonlocality cannot be seen as proven. This demands some fine tuning of philosophical discussions on critical experiments in physics.

  7. The Fixed-Point Theory of Strictly Contracting Functions on Generalized Ultrametric Semilattices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleftherios Matsikoudis

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a new class of abstract structures, which we call generalized ultrametric semilattices, and in which the meet operation of the semilattice coexists with a generalized distance function in a tightly coordinated way. We prove a constructive fixed-point theorem for strictly contracting functions on directed-complete generalized ultrametric semilattices, and introduce a corresponding induction principle. We cite examples of application in the semantics of logic programming and timed computation, where, until now, the only tool available has been the non-constructive fixed-point theorem of Priess-Crampe and Ribenboim for strictly contracting functions on spherically complete generalized ultrametric semilattices.

  8. More strictly protected areas are not necessarily more protective: evidence from Bolivia, Costa Rica, Indonesia, and Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferraro, Paul J; Hanauer, Merlin M; Miteva, Daniela A; Pattanayak, Subhrendu K; Canavire-Bacarreza, Gustavo Javier; Sims, Katharine R E

    2013-01-01

    National parks and other protected areas are at the forefront of global efforts to protect biodiversity and ecosystem services. However, not all protection is equal. Some areas are assigned strict legal protection that permits few extractive human uses. Other protected area designations permit a wider range of uses. Whether strictly protected areas are more effective in achieving environmental objectives is an empirical question: although strictly protected areas legally permit less anthropogenic disturbance, the social conflicts associated with assigning strict protection may lead politicians to assign strict protection to less-threatened areas and may lead citizens or enforcement agents to ignore the strict legal restrictions. We contrast the impacts of strictly and less strictly protected areas in four countries using IUCN designations to measure de jure strictness, data on deforestation to measure outcomes, and a quasi-experimental design to estimate impacts. On average, stricter protection reduced deforestation rates more than less strict protection, but the additional impact was not always large and sometimes arose because of where stricter protection was assigned rather than regulatory strictness per se. We also show that, in protected area studies contrasting y management regimes, there are y 2 policy-relevant impacts, rather than only y, as earlier studies have implied. (letter)

  9. Detection of low numbers of microplastics in North Sea fish using strict quality assurance criteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermsen, E.; Pompe, R.; Besseling, E.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2017-01-01

    We investigated 400 individual fish of four North Sea species: Atlantic Herring, Sprat, Common Dab, and Whiting on ingestion of > 20 μm microplastic. Strict quality assurance criteria were followed in order to control contamination during the study. Two plastic particles were found in only 1 (a

  10. History, administration, goals, values, and long-term data of Russia's strictly protected scientific nature reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin A. Spetich; Anna E. Kvashnina; Y.D. Nukhimovskya; Olin E. Jr. Rhodes

    2009-01-01

    One of the most comprehensive attempts at biodiversity conservation in Russia and the former Soviet Union has been the establishment of an extensive network of protected natural areas. Among all types of protected areas in Russia, zapovedniks (strictly protected scientific preserve) have been the most effective in protecting biodiversity at the ecosystem scale. Russia...

  11. The Preventive Effect of Strict Gun Control Laws on Suicide and Homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, David; Murrell, Mary E.

    1982-01-01

    Examined state gun control laws and used a multidimensional scaling technique to study the relationship of strictness and death rates. Results showed states with stricter laws had lower suicide rates by firearms but higher rates by other means. No effect on homicide was found. (JAC)

  12. ASHP therapeutic position statement on strict glycemic control in patients with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-11-15

    The deleterious effects of hyperglycemia have been documented from the biochemical to the pathophysiologic level. Given the research findings and the guidelines for glycemic control established by ADA and ACE, ASHP supports and encourages strict glycemic control in all appropriate patients with diabetes mellitus to reduce the progression of chronic complications.

  13. What is your level of overconfidence? A strictly incentive compatible measurement of absolute and relative overconfidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urbig, D.; Stauf, J.; Weitzel, U.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/276323394

    This study contributes to the ongoing discussion on the appropriate measurement of overconfidence, in particular, its strictly incentive compatible measurement in experiments. Despite a number of significant advances in recent research, several important issues remain to be solved. These relate to

  14. 42 CFR 493.53 - Notification requirements for laboratories issued a certificate for provider-performed microscopy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... certificate for provider-performed microscopy (PPM) procedures. 493.53 Section 493.53 Public Health CENTERS... CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Registration Certificate, Certificate for Provider-performed Microscopy... certificate for provider-performed microscopy (PPM) procedures. Laboratories issued a certificate for PPM...

  15. Adaptive terminal sliding mode control for hypersonic flight vehicles with strictly lower convex function based nonlinear disturbance observer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yun-Jie; Zuo, Jing-Xing; Sun, Liang-Hua

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, the altitude and velocity tracking control of a generic hypersonic flight vehicle (HFV) is considered. A novel adaptive terminal sliding mode controller (ATSMC) with strictly lower convex function based nonlinear disturbance observer (SDOB) is proposed for the longitudinal dynamics of HFV in presence of both parametric uncertainties and external disturbances. First, for the sake of enhancing the anti-interference capability, SDOB is presented to estimate and compensate the equivalent disturbances by introducing a strictly lower convex function. Next, the SDOB based ATSMC (SDOB-ATSMC) is proposed to guarantee the system outputs track the reference trajectory. Then, stability of the proposed control scheme is analyzed by the Lyapunov function method. Compared with other HFV control approaches, key novelties of SDOB-ATSMC are that a novel SDOB is proposed and drawn into the (virtual) control laws to compensate the disturbances and that several adaptive laws are used to deal with the differential explosion problem. Finally, it is illustrated by the simulation results that the new method exhibits an excellent robustness and a better disturbance rejection performance than the convention approach. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Performance of methods for estimation of table beet water requirement in Alagoas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella P. dos Santos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Optimization of water use in agriculture is fundamental, particularly in regions where water scarcity is intense, requiring the adoption of technologies that promote increased irrigation efficiency. The objective of this study was to evaluate evapotranspiration models and to estimate the crop coefficients of beet grown in a drainage lysimeter in the Agreste region of Alagoas. The experiment was conducted at the Campus of the Federal University of Alagoas - UFAL, in the municipality of Arapiraca, AL, between March and April 2014. Crop evapotranspiration (ETc was estimated in drainage lysimeters and reference evapotranspiration (ETo by Penman-Monteith-FAO 56 and Hargreaves-Samani methods. The Hargreaves-Samani method presented a good performance index for ETo estimation compared with the Penman-Monteith-FAO method, indicating that it is adequate for the study area. Beet ETc showed a cumulative demand of 202.11 mm for a cumulative reference evapotranspiration of 152.00 mm. Kc values determined using the Penman-Monteith-FAO 56 and Hargreaves-Samani methods were overestimated, in comparison to the Kc values of the FAO-56 standard method. With the obtained results, it is possible to correct the equations of the methods for the region, allowing for adequate irrigation management.

  17. Establishment of design and performance requirements using cost and systems analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waganer, L.M.; Carosella, L.A.; Defreece, D.A.

    1977-01-01

    The current uncertainty in design approach and performance requirements for a commercial fusion power plant poses a problem for the designer in configuring the plant and for the utilities in analyzing the attractiveness of a future fusion power plant. To provide direction and insight in this area, a systems analysis model was constructed at McDonnell Douglas, utilizing fusion subsystem algorithms with subsystem cost estimating relationships into a self-consistent computerized model for several fusion reactor concepts. Cost estimating data has been compiled by utilizing McDonnell Douglas' experience in fabricating large, complex metal assemblies and soliciting the accumulated store of knowledge in existing power plants and new emerging technologies such as the Clinch River Breeder Reactor. Using the computer model, sensitivities to plasma, reactor and plant parameters are a few of the options that have been evaluated to yield recommended concepts/techniques/solutions. This is a very beneficial tool in assessing the impact of the fusion reactor on the electrical power community and charting the optimum developmental approach

  18. 46 CFR 160.023-3 - Materials, workmanship, construction, and performance requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... requirements. 160.023-3 Section 160.023-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Hand Combination... requirements. (a) The materials, construction, workmanship, general and detail requirements shall conform to...

  19. Iterative algorithms for the input and state recovery from the approximate inverse of strictly proper multivariable systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liwen; Xu, Qiang

    2018-02-01

    This paper proposes new iterative algorithms for the unknown input and state recovery from the system outputs using an approximate inverse of the strictly proper linear time-invariant (LTI) multivariable system. One of the unique advantages from previous system inverse algorithms is that the output differentiation is not required. The approximate system inverse is stable due to the systematic optimal design of a dummy feedthrough D matrix in the state-space model via the feedback stabilization. The optimal design procedure avoids trial and error to identify such a D matrix which saves tremendous amount of efforts. From the derived and proved convergence criteria, such an optimal D matrix also guarantees the convergence of algorithms. Illustrative examples show significant improvement of the reference input signal tracking by the algorithms and optimal D design over non-iterative counterparts on controllable or stabilizable LTI systems, respectively. Case studies of two Boeing-767 aircraft aerodynamic models further demonstrate the capability of the proposed methods.

  20. Requirements with rationale and quantitative rules for EMC on future ships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leersum, B.J.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    To ensure the performance on equipment and subsystem level in a naval environment, the conventional approach has been to strictly require national and international military standards on equipment and installations. This approach made Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) a cost driver in naval

  1. An experimental study of the effect of octane number higher than engine requirement on the engine performance and emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayin, Cenk; Kilicaslan, Ibrahim; Canakci, Mustafa; Ozsezen, Necati [Kocaeli Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Education, Izmit (Turkey)

    2005-06-01

    In this study, the effect of using higher-octane gasoline than that of engine requirement on the performance and exhaust emissions was experimentally studied. The test engine chosen has a fuel system with carburettor because 60% of the vehicles in Turkey are equipped with the carburettor. The engine, which required 91-RON (Research Octane Number) gasoline, was tested using 95-RON and 91-RON. Results show that using octane ratings higher than the requirement of an engine not only decreases engine performance but also increases exhaust emissions. (Author)

  2. Detection of low numbers of microplastics in North Sea fish using strict quality assurance criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermsen, Enya; Pompe, Renske; Besseling, Ellen; Koelmans, Albert A

    2017-09-15

    We investigated 400 individual fish of four North Sea species: Atlantic Herring, Sprat, Common Dab, and Whiting on ingestion of >20μm microplastic. Strict quality assurance criteria were followed in order to control contamination during the study. Two plastic particles were found in only 1 (a Sprat) out of 400 individuals (0.25%, with a 95% confidence interval of 0.09-1.1%). The particles were identified to consist of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) through FTIR spectroscopy. No contamination occurred during the study, showing the method applied to be suitable for microplastic ingestion studies in biota. We discuss the low particle count for North Sea fish with those in other studies and suggest a relation between reported particle count and degree of quality assurance applied. Microplastic ingestion by fish may be less common than thought initially, with low incidence shown in this study, and other studies adhering to strict quality assurance criteria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. S2SA preconditioning for the Sn equations with strictly non negative spatial discretization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruss, D. E.; Morel, J. E.; Ragusa, J. C.

    2013-01-01

    Preconditioners based upon sweeps and diffusion-synthetic acceleration have been constructed and applied to the zeroth and first spatial moments of the 1-D S n transport equation using a strictly non negative nonlinear spatial closure. Linear and nonlinear preconditioners have been analyzed. The effectiveness of various combinations of these preconditioners are compared. In one dimension, nonlinear sweep preconditioning is shown to be superior to linear sweep preconditioning, and DSA preconditioning using nonlinear sweeps in conjunction with a linear diffusion equation is found to be essentially equivalent to nonlinear sweeps in conjunction with a nonlinear diffusion equation. The ability to use a linear diffusion equation has important implications for preconditioning the S n equations with a strictly non negative spatial discretization in multiple dimensions. (authors)

  4. A strict anaerobic extreme thermophilic hydrogen-producing culture enriched from digested household waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Kotay, Shireen Meher; Trably, Eric

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to enrich, characterize and identify strict anaerobic extreme thermophilic hydrogen (H-2) producers from digested household solid wastes. A strict anaerobic extreme thermophilic H-2 producing bacterial culture was enriched from a lab-scale digester treating household...... wastes at 70 degrees C. The enriched mixed culture consisted of two rod-shaped bacterial members growing at an optimal temperature of 80 degrees C and an optimal pH 8.1. The culture was able to utilize glucose, galactose, mannose, xylose, arabinose, maltose, sucrose, pyruvate and glycerol as carbon...... sources. Growth on glucose produced acetate, H-2 and carbon dioxide. Maximal H-2 production rate on glucose was 1.1 mmol l(-1) h(-1) with a maximum H-2 yield of 1.9 mole H-2 per mole glucose. 16S ribosomal DNA clone library analyses showed that the culture members were phylogenetically affiliated...

  5. Weak asymptotic solution for a non-strictly hyperbolic system of conservation laws-II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manas Ranjan Sahoo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article we introduce a concept of entropy weak asymptotic solution for a system of conservation laws and construct the same for a prolonged system of conservation laws which is highly non-strictly hyperbolic. This is first done for Riemann type initial data by introducing $\\delta,\\delta',\\delta''$ waves along a discontinuity curve and then for general initial data by piecing together the Riemann solutions.

  6. The conditions for attaining the greatest degree of system stability with strict generator excitation control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruzdev, I.A.; Ekimova, M.M.; Truspekova, G.A.

    1982-01-01

    Expressions are derived for an idealized model of a complex electric power system; these expressions define the greatest level of stability of an electric power system and the optimum combination of stabilization factors with automatic excitation control in a single power system. The possibility of increasing the level of stability of an electric power system with simultaneous strict automatic excitation control of the synychronous generators in several power systems is analyzed.

  7. 40 CFR 80.820 - What gasoline is subject to the toxics performance requirements of this subpart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What gasoline is subject to the toxics... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Gasoline Toxics Performance Requirements § 80.820 What gasoline is subject to the toxics performance...

  8. Online Recorded Data-Based Composite Neural Control of Strict-Feedback Systems With Application to Hypersonic Flight Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bin; Yang, Daipeng; Shi, Zhongke; Pan, Yongping; Chen, Badong; Sun, Fuchun

    2017-09-25

    This paper investigates the online recorded data-based composite neural control of uncertain strict-feedback systems using the backstepping framework. In each step of the virtual control design, neural network (NN) is employed for uncertainty approximation. In previous works, most designs are directly toward system stability ignoring the fact how the NN is working as an approximator. In this paper, to enhance the learning ability, a novel prediction error signal is constructed to provide additional correction information for NN weight update using online recorded data. In this way, the neural approximation precision is highly improved, and the convergence speed can be faster. Furthermore, the sliding mode differentiator is employed to approximate the derivative of the virtual control signal, and thus, the complex analysis of the backstepping design can be avoided. The closed-loop stability is rigorously established, and the boundedness of the tracking error can be guaranteed. Through simulation of hypersonic flight dynamics, the proposed approach exhibits better tracking performance.

  9. Global neural dynamic surface tracking control of strict-feedback systems with application to hypersonic flight vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bin; Yang, Chenguang; Pan, Yongping

    2015-10-01

    This paper studies both indirect and direct global neural control of strict-feedback systems in the presence of unknown dynamics, using the dynamic surface control (DSC) technique in a novel manner. A new switching mechanism is designed to combine an adaptive neural controller in the neural approximation domain, together with the robust controller that pulls the transient states back into the neural approximation domain from the outside. In comparison with the conventional control techniques, which could only achieve semiglobally uniformly ultimately bounded stability, the proposed control scheme guarantees all the signals in the closed-loop system are globally uniformly ultimately bounded, such that the conventional constraints on initial conditions of the neural control system can be relaxed. The simulation studies of hypersonic flight vehicle (HFV) are performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed global neural DSC design.

  10. Examination of the PCICE method in the nearly incompressible, as well as strictly incompressible, limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, Ray A.; Martineau, Richard C.

    2007-01-01

    The conservative-form, pressure-based PCICE numerical method (Martineau and Berry, 2004) (Berry, 2006), recently developed for computing transient fluid flows of all speeds from very low to very high (with strong shocks), is simplified and generalized. Though the method automatically treats a continuous transition of compressibility, three distinct, limiting compressibility regimes are formally defined for purposes of discussion and comparison with traditional methods - the strictly incompressible limit, the nearly incompressible limit, and the fully compressible limit. The PCICE method's behavior is examined in each limiting regime. In the strictly incompressible limit the PCICE algorithm reduces to the traditional MAC-type method with velocity divergence driving the pressure Poisson equation. In the nearly incompressible limit the PCICE algorithm is found to reduce to a generalization of traditional incompressible methods, i.e. to one in which not only the velocity divergence effect, but also the density gradient effect is included as a driving function in the pressure Poisson equation. This nearly incompressible regime has received little attention, and it appears that in the past, strictly incompressible methods may have been conveniently applied to flows in this regime at the expense of ignoring a potentially important coupling mechanism. This could be significant in many important flows; for example, in natural convection flows resulting from high heat flux. In the fully compressible limit or regime, the algorithm is found to reduce to an expression equivalent to density-based methods for high-speed flow. (author)

  11. TESTING STRICT HYDROSTATIC EQUILIBRIUM IN SIMULATED CLUSTERS OF GALAXIES: IMPLICATIONS FOR A1689

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molnar, S. M.; Umetsu, K.; Chiu, I.-N.; Chen, P.; Hearn, N.; Broadhurst, T.; Bryan, G.; Shang, C.

    2010-01-01

    Accurate mass determination of clusters of galaxies is crucial if they are to be used as cosmological probes. However, there are some discrepancies between cluster masses determined based on gravitational lensing and X-ray observations assuming strict hydrostatic equilibrium (i.e., the equilibrium gas pressure is provided entirely by thermal pressure). Cosmological simulations suggest that turbulent gas motions remaining from hierarchical structure formation may provide a significant contribution to the equilibrium pressure in clusters. We analyze a sample of massive clusters of galaxies drawn from high-resolution cosmological simulations and find a significant contribution (20%-45%) from non-thermal pressure near the center of relaxed clusters, and, in accord with previous studies, a minimum contribution at about 0.1 R vir , growing to about 30%-45% at the virial radius, R vir . Our results strongly suggest that relaxed clusters should have significant non-thermal support in their core region. As an example, we test the validity of strict hydrostatic equilibrium in the well-studied massive galaxy cluster A1689 using the latest high-resolution gravitational lensing and X-ray observations. We find a contribution of about 40% from non-thermal pressure within the core region of A1689, suggesting an alternate explanation for the mass discrepancy: the strict hydrostatic equilibrium is not valid in this region.

  12. Cost-optimal levels of minimum energy performance requirements in the Danish Building Regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aggerholm, S.

    2013-09-15

    The purpose of the report is to analyse the cost optimality of the energy requirements in the Danish Building Regulations 2010, BR10 to new building and to existing buildings undergoing major renovation. The energy requirements in the Danish Building Regulations have by tradition always been based on the cost and benefits related to the private economical or financial perspective. Macro economical calculations have in the past only been made in addition. The cost optimum used in this report is thus based on the financial perspective. Due to the high energy taxes in Denmark there is a significant difference between the consumer price and the macro economical for energy. Energy taxes are also paid by commercial consumers when the energy is used for building operation e.g. heating, lighting, ventilation etc. In relation to the new housing examples the present minimum energy requirements in BR 10 all shows gaps that are negative with a deviation of up till 16 % from the point of cost optimality. With the planned tightening of the requirements to new houses in 2015 and in 2020, the energy requirements can be expected to be tighter than the cost optimal point, if the costs for the needed improvements don't decrease correspondingly. In relation to the new office building there is a gap of 31 % to the point of cost optimality in relation to the 2010 requirement. In relation to the 2015 and 2020 requirements there are negative gaps to the point of cost optimality based on today's prices. If the gaps for all the new buildings are weighted to an average based on mix of building types and heat supply for new buildings in Denmark there is a gap of 3 % in average for the new building. The excessive tightness with today's prices is 34 % in relation to the 2015 requirement and 49 % in relation to the 2020 requirement. The component requirement to elements in the building envelope and to installations in existing buildings adds up to significant energy efficiency

  13. An Empirical Assessment of the Impact of Requirements Uncertainty on Development Quality Performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aldaijy, Ayad Y

    2004-01-01

    .... The main purpose of this research is to examine the impact of requirements uncertainty and task uncertainty on outcomes in software development projects, limiting the attention to process and product quality...

  14. Validation of vertical refractivity profiles as required for performance prediction of coastal surveillance radars

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naicker, K

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Maritime border safeguarding is a vital component in the protection of a countries resources and interests against illegal activities. With the increasing asymmetric nature of today’s threats, a primary requirement of any coastal surveillance system...

  15. 46 CFR 160.057-3 - Materials, workmanship, construction, and performance requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Materials, workmanship, construction, and performance...) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Floating Orange Smoke Distress Signals (15 Minutes) § 160.057-3 Materials, workmanship, construction, and performance...

  16. 46 CFR 160.062-3 - Materials, construction, workmanship, and performance requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Materials, construction, workmanship, and performance...) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Releases. Lifesaving Equipment, Hydraulic and Manual § 160.062-3 Materials, construction, workmanship, and performance...

  17. 46 CFR 160.024-3 - Materials, workmanship, construction, and performance requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Materials, workmanship, construction, and performance...) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Pistol-Projected Parachute Red Flare Distress Signals § 160.024-3 Materials, workmanship, construction, and performance...

  18. 46 CFR 160.058-3 - Materials, workmanship, construction and performance requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Materials, workmanship, construction and performance...) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Desalter Kits, Sea Water, for Merchant Vessels § 160.058-3 Materials, workmanship, construction and performance...

  19. Rate Control Efficacy in Permanent Atrial Fibrillation : Successful and Failed Strict Rate Control Against a Background of Lenient Rate Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenveld, Hessel F.; Tijssen, Jan G. P.; Crijns, Harry J. G. M.; Van den Berg, Maarten P.; Hillege, Hans L.; Alings, Marco; Van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Van Gelder, Isabelle C.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study sought to investigate differences in outcome between patients treated with successful strict, failed strict, and lenient rate control. Background The RACE II (Rate Control Efficacy in Permanent Atrial Fibrillation) study showed no difference in outcome between lenient and

  20. Energy-efficient houses built according to the energy performance requirements introduced in Denmark in 2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Rose, Jørgen; Svendsen, Svend

    2007-01-01

    In order to meet new tighter building energy requirements introduced in Denmark in 2006 and prepare the way for future buildings with even lower energy consumption, single-family houses were built with the purpose to demonstrate that it is possible to build typical single-family houses with an en......% of the required and almost the level of typical passive houses.......In order to meet new tighter building energy requirements introduced in Denmark in 2006 and prepare the way for future buildings with even lower energy consumption, single-family houses were built with the purpose to demonstrate that it is possible to build typical single-family houses...... with an energy consumption that meets the demands without problems concerning building technology or economy. The paper gives a brief presentation of the houses and the applied energy-saving measures. The paper also presents results from measurements of the overall energy use, indoor climate and air tightness...

  1. Functional and performance requirements of the next NOAA-Kasas City computer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, F. R.

    1985-01-01

    The development of the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System for the 1990's (AWIPS-90) will result in more timely and accurate forecasts with improved cost effectiveness. As part of the AWIPS-90 initiative, the National Meteorological Center (NMC), the National Severe Storms Forecast Center (NSSFC), and the National Hurricane Center (NHC) are to receive upgrades of interactive processing systems. This National Center Upgrade program will support the specialized inter-center communications, data acquisition, and processing needs of these centers. The missions, current capabilities and general functional requirements for the upgrade to the NSSFC are addressed. System capabilities are discussed along with the requirements for the upgraded system.

  2. 13 CFR 125.6 - Prime contractor performance requirements (limitations on subcontracting).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of agricultural commodities, the qualified HUBZone SBC may not purchase the commodity from a... requirements for a particular industry. The notice will identify the group making the request, and give the... Register notice. (4) Decision. SBA will render its decision after the close of the comment period. If SBA...

  3. Evaluation of the ARCHITECT urine NGAL assay: Assay performance, specimen handling requirements and biological variability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grenier, F.C.; Ali, S.; Syed, H.; Workman, R.; Martens, F.; Liao, M.; Wang, Y.; Wong, P.Y.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: NGAL (Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin) has emerged as a new biomarker for the identification of acute kidney injury. Reliable clinical evaluations require a simple, robust test method for NGAL, and knowledge of specimen handling and specimen stability characteristics. We

  4. 40 CFR 60.255 - Performance tests and other compliance requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... presence of visible emissions must meet the training requirements specified in § 2.3 of Method 22 of.... EPA); Office of Air Quality and Planning Standards; Sector Policies and Programs Division; Measurement... certified neutral density filter or other related technique to produce a known obscuration of the light beam...

  5. 10 CFR 34.20 - Performance requirements for industrial radiography equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... visible label bearing the— (i) Chemical symbol and mass number of the radionuclide in the device; (ii... not compromise the design safety features of the system. (c) In addition to the requirements specified... the source assembly from water, mud, sand or other foreign matter. (4)(i) Each sealed source or source...

  6. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Eeee of... - Requirements for Performance Tests and Design Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate (A) Sampling port locations and the required number of traverse points... or 3B in appendix A-2 of 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate (A) Concentration of CO2 and O2 and dry...

  7. Biceps brachii can add to performance of tasks requiring supination in cerebral palsy patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin, M.; Veeger, H.E.J.; Kreulen, M.; Smeulders, M.J.C.; Bus, S.A.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether cerebral palsy patients can use biceps brachii for supination during movement tasks requiring supination and pronation. 3D upper extremity kinematic and EMG-data of 12 patients (mean age 13. y 8. mo. ±. 36. mo) were compared to 10 healthy age-matched

  8. Biceps brachii can add to performance of tasks requiring supination in cerebral palsy patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin, M.; Veeger, H. E. J.; Kreulen, M.; Smeulders, M. J. C.; Bus, S. A.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether cerebral palsy patients can use biceps brachii for supination during movement tasks requiring supination and pronation. 3D upper extremity kinematic and EMG-data of 12 patients (mean age 13 y 8 mo ± 36 mo) were compared to 10 healthy age-matched controls.

  9. 14 CFR 135.183 - Performance requirements: Land aircraft operated over water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... operated over water. 135.183 Section 135.183 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS... operated over water. No person may operate a land aircraft carrying passengers over water unless— (a) It is...

  10. 29 CFR 1620.17 - Jobs requiring equal responsibility in performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the higher rate to both men and women who are called upon from time to time to assume such supervisory... rates to be paid to an employee of the opposite sex in the group who does not have an equal... either a man or a woman) is authorized and required to determine whether to accept payment for purchases...

  11. Inspection Report: FAA's Alleged Circumvention of National Performance Review Staffing Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-12-09

    This report responds to a complaint received by the Office of Inspector General : (OIG), Department of Transportation. The complainant alleges the Federal : Aviation Administration (FAA) planned to circumvent National Performance : Review (NPR) staff...

  12. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Cccc of... - Requirements for Performance Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... port's location and the number of traverse points Method 1* 3. Measure volumetric flow rate. Method 2* 4. Perform gas analysis to determine the dry molecular weight of the stack gas Method 3* 5...

  13. Effect of cryopreservation and lyophilization on viability and growth of strict anaerobic human gut microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bircher, Lea; Geirnaert, Annelies; Hammes, Frederik; Lacroix, Christophe; Schwab, Clarissa

    2018-04-17

    Strict anaerobic gut microbes have been suggested as 'next-generation probiotics' for treating several intestinal disorders. The development of preservation techniques is of major importance for therapeutic application. This study investigated cryopreservation (-80°C) and lyophilization survival and storage stability (4°C for 3 months) of the strict anaerobic gut microbes Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Roseburia intestinalis, Anaerostipes caccae, Eubacterium hallii and Blautia obeum. To improve preservation survival, protectants sucrose and inulin (both 5% w/v) were added for lyophilization and were also combined with glycerol (15% v/v) for cryopreservation. Bacterial fitness, evaluated by maximum growth rate and lag phase, viability and membrane integrity were determined using a standardized growth assay and by flow cytometry as markers for preservation resistance. Lyophilization was more detrimental to viability and fitness than cryopreservation, but led to better storage stability. Adding sucrose and inulin enhanced viability and the proportion of intact cells during lyophilization of all strains. Viability of protectant-free B. thetaiotaomicron, A. caccae and F. prausnitzii was above 50% after cryopreservation and storage and increased to above 80% if protectants were present. The addition of glycerol, sucrose and inulin strongly enhanced the viability of B. obeum, E. hallii and R. intestinalis from 0.03-2% in protectant-free cultures to 11-37%. This is the first study that quantitatively compared the effect of cryopreservation and lyophilization and the addition of selected protectants on viability and fitness of six strict anaerobic gut microbes. Our results suggest that efficiency of protectants is process- and species-specific. © 2018 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Virtual environment to quantify the influence of colour stimuli on the performance of tasks requiring attention

    OpenAIRE

    Frère Annie F; Silva Alessandro P

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Recent studies indicate that the blue-yellow colour discrimination is impaired in ADHD individuals. However, the relationship between colour and performance has not been investigated. This paper describes the development and the testing of a virtual environment that is capable to quantify the influence of red-green versus blue-yellow colour stimuli on the performance of people in a fun and interactive way, being appropriate for the target audience. Methods An interactive c...

  15. Agronomic traits and deoxynivalenol contamination of two tetraploid wheat species (Triticum turgidum spp. durum, Triticum turgidum spp. turanicum grown strictly under low input conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Dinelli

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An evaluation of the agronomic performance of two tetraploid wheat varieties (Triticum turgidum spp. durum, Claudio; Triticum turgidum spp. turanicum, Kamut® grown strictly under low input conditions was carried out over three consecutive cropping years. The study reported grain yield values ranging from 1.8 to 2.6 t ha-1. Productivity showed to be primarily affected by environmental conditions, while no differences were observed between the two genotypes. The study of the yield components highlighted that the durum wheat variety had a higher plant density than Kamut®, but this discrepancy was offset by a greater number of kernels per spike and the kernel weight of khorasan wheat. The investigated wheat genotypes were also analysed to assess the mycotoxin (DON levels of wholegrain semolina and the efficiency of cleaning treatments to reduce contamination. Results showed that both wheat varieties had a good hygienic and sanitary quality with a DON content ranging from 0.35 to 1.31 mg kg-1, which was lower than the maximum acceptable level set by the European regulation at 1.75 mg kg-1. In addition, our research work investigated the effects of premilling cleaning procedures, such as water washing and brushing, on mycotoxin levels, which yielded interesting results in terms of decontamination efficiency. These methods were particularly efficient with Kamut® semolina (46-93% DON reduction, suggesting that mycotoxins accumulate in this variety at more superficial levels than in the durum wheat variety. On the whole, our study provided additional knowledge on the traits to be further improved to respond to low input requirements and to enhance the potential adaptability of wheat genotypes to organic agriculture. Our results emphasized the need to develop wheat varieties that can provide adequate performance without high levels of nitrogen inputs by selecting specific traits, such as kernel weight, spike length and kernel/spike. This may help

  16. Strictly positive solutions for one-dimensional nonlinear problems involving the p-Laplacian

    OpenAIRE

    Kaufmann, Uriel; Medri, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Let $\\Omega$ be a bounded open interval, and let $p>1$ and $q\\in\\left(0,p-1\\right) $. Let $m\\in L^{p^{\\prime}}\\left(\\Omega\\right) $ and $0\\leq c\\in L^{\\infty}\\left(\\Omega\\right) $. We study existence of strictly positive solutions for elliptic problems of the form $-\\left(\\left\\| u^{\\prime}\\right\\|^{p-2}u^{\\prime}\\right) ^{\\prime}+c\\left(x\\right) u^{p-1}=m\\left(x\\right) u^{q}$ in $\\Omega$, $u=0$ on $\\partial\\Omega$. We mention that our results are new even in the case $c\\equiv0$.

  17. Structural stability of Riemann solutions for strictly hyperbolic systems with three piecewise constant states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefeng Wei

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article concerns the wave interaction problem for a strictly hyperbolic system of conservation laws whose Riemann solutions involve delta shock waves. To cover all situations, the global solutions are constructed when the initial data are taken as three piecewise constant states. It is shown that the Riemann solutions are stable with respect to a specific small perturbation of the Riemann initial data. In addition, some interesting nonlinear phenomena are captured during the process of constructing the solutions, such as the generation and decomposition of delta shock waves.

  18. Uncertainty Requirement Analysis for the Orbit, Attitude, and Burn Performance of the 1st Lunar Orbit Insertion Maneuver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Joo Song

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the uncertainty requirements for orbit, attitude, and burn performance were estimated and analyzed for the execution of the 1st lunar orbit insertion (LOI maneuver of the Korea Pathfinder Lunar Orbiter (KPLO mission. During the early design phase of the system, associate analysis is an essential design factor as the 1st LOI maneuver is the largest burn that utilizes the onboard propulsion system; the success of the lunar capture is directly affected by the performance achieved. For the analysis, the spacecraft is assumed to have already approached the periselene with a hyperbolic arrival trajectory around the moon. In addition, diverse arrival conditions and mission constraints were considered, such as varying periselene approach velocity, altitude, and orbital period of the capture orbit after execution of the 1st LOI maneuver. The current analysis assumed an impulsive LOI maneuver, and two-body equations of motion were adapted to simplify the problem for a preliminary analysis. Monte Carlo simulations were performed for the statistical analysis to analyze diverse uncertainties that might arise at the moment when the maneuver is executed. As a result, three major requirements were analyzed and estimated for the early design phase. First, the minimum requirements were estimated for the burn performance to be captured around the moon. Second, the requirements for orbit, attitude, and maneuver burn performances were simultaneously estimated and analyzed to maintain the 1st elliptical orbit achieved around the moon within the specified orbital period. Finally, the dispersion requirements on the B-plane aiming at target points to meet the target insertion goal were analyzed and can be utilized as reference target guidelines for a mid-course correction (MCC maneuver during the transfer. More detailed system requirements for the KPLO mission, particularly for the spacecraft bus itself and for the flight dynamics subsystem at the ground

  19. Solder bond requirement for large, built-up, high-performance conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willig, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    Some large built-up conductors fabricated for large superconducting magnets are designed to operate above the maximum recovery current. Because the stability of these conductors is sensitive to the quality of the solder bond joining the composite superconductor to the high-conductivity substrate, a minimum bond requirement is necessary. The present analysis finds that the superconductor is unstable and becomes abruptly resistive when there are temperature excursions into the current sharing region of a poorly bonded conductor. This abrupt transition, produces eddy current heating in the vicinity of the superconducting filaments and causes a sharp reduction in the minimum propagating zone (MPZ) energy. This sensitivity of the MPZ energy to the solder bond contact area is used to specify a minimum bond requirement. For the superconducting MHD magnet built for the Component Development Integration Facility (CDIF), the minimum bonded surface area is .68 cm/sup 2//cm which is 44% of the composite perimeter. 5 refs

  20. Work performed by the nuclear industry - personnel structure and personnel requirement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, M.

    1984-01-01

    The development of the nuclear industry in the Federal Republic of Germany can be phased as follows: Phase 1 (1956-1968): initial stage, Phase 2 (1968-1975): expansion of the business volume, Phase 3 (1975-1982): decreasing business volume, more conditions and technical requirements, Phase 4 (after 1982): consolidation of technologies and project management. Accordingly, the requirements made on the personnel employed in the nuclear industry had to change. Between 1982 and today, there has been a decrease of personnel employed in nuclear industry to about 35.000. This decrease is mainly due to the supplying industry. Adding to this figure the number of people employed in research centres, authorities and experts, there are over 40.000 nuclear technology jobs, a figure which, taking into account indirect employment effect, could be in the range of 100.000 to 150.000. (orig./HSCH) [de

  1. Molecular mechanism of strict substrate specificity of an extradiol dioxygenase, DesB, derived from Sphingobium sp. SYK-6.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Sugimoto

    Full Text Available DesB, which is derived from Sphingobium sp. SYK-6, is a type II extradiol dioxygenase that catalyzes a ring opening reaction of gallate. While typical extradiol dioxygenases show broad substrate specificity, DesB has strict substrate specificity for gallate. The substrate specificity of DesB seems to be required for the efficient growth of S. sp. SYK-6 using lignin-derived aromatic compounds. Since direct coordination of hydroxyl groups of the substrate to the non-heme iron in the active site is a critical step for the catalytic reaction of the extradiol dioxygenases, the mechanism of the substrate recognition and coordination of DesB was analyzed by biochemical and crystallographic methods. Our study demonstrated that the direct coordination between the non-heme iron and hydroxyl groups of the substrate requires a large shift of the Fe (II ion in the active site. Mutational analysis revealed that His124 and His192 in the active site are essential to the catalytic reaction of DesB. His124, which interacts with OH (4 of the bound gallate, seems to contribute to proper positioning of the substrate in the active site. His192, which is located close to OH (3 of the gallate, is likely to serve as the catalytic base. Glu377' interacts with OH (5 of the gallate and seems to play a critical role in the substrate specificity. Our biochemical and structural study showed the substrate recognition and catalytic mechanisms of DesB.

  2. Design study of technology requirements for high performance single-propeller-driven business airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlman, D. L.; Hammer, J.

    1985-01-01

    Developments in aerodyamic, structural and propulsion technologies which influence the potential for significant improvements in performance and fuel efficiency of general aviation business airplanes are discussed. The advancements include such technolgies as natural laminar flow, composite materials, and advanced intermittent combustion engines. The design goal for this parameter design study is a range of 1300 nm at 300 knots true airspeed with a payload of 1200lbs at 35,000 ft cruise altitude. The individual and synergistic effects of various advanced technologies on the optimization of this class of high performance, single engine, propeller driven business airplanes are identified.

  3. 40 CFR Table 18 to Subpart Uuu of... - Requirements for Performance Tests for Organic HAP Emissions From Catalytic Reforming Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Requirements for Performance Tests for Organic HAP Emissions From Catalytic Reforming Units 18 Table 18 to Subpart UUU of Part 63 Protection of... for Organic HAP Emissions From Catalytic Reforming Units As stated in § 63.1566(b)(2) and (3), you...

  4. 75 FR 37711 - Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) Out Performance Requirements To Support Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-30

    ... preamble and cross references in the preamble and rule text of that final rule. DATES: The final rule and..., Performance and Interoperability Requirements Document for Enhanced Air Traffic in Radar-Controlled Areas.... 21.618 to Sec. 21.609 to reflect the correct section number. The FAA also is issuing a separate...

  5. 20 CFR 663.540 - What kind of performance and cost information is required for determinations of subsequent...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...; or (2) The Governor must provide additional resources to assist providers in the collection of the... TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Eligible Training Providers § 663.540 What kind of performance and cost information is required for determinations of subsequent eligibility? (a) Eligible providers...

  6. Study of In-Pile test facility for fast reactor safety research: performance requirements and design features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nonaka, N.; Kawatta, N.; Niwa, H.; Kondo, S.; Maeda, K

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes a program and the main design features of a new in-pile safety facility SERAPH planned for future fast reactor safety research. The current status of R and D on technical developments in relation to the research objectives and performance requirements to the facility design is given.

  7. 42 CFR 433.123 - Notification of changes in system requirements, performance standards or other conditions for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notification of changes in system requirements, performance standards or other conditions for approval or reapproval. 433.123 Section 433.123 Public Health... ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS STATE FISCAL ADMINISTRATION Mechanized Claims Processing and Information Retrieval...

  8. 42 CFR 84.159 - Man tests for gases and vapors; supplied-air respirators; general performance requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Man tests for gases and vapors; supplied-air respirators; general performance requirements. 84.159 Section 84.159 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES...

  9. Link Performance Analysis and monitoring - A unified approach to divergent requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, G. A.

    Link Performance Analysis and real-time monitoring are generally covered by a wide range of equipment. Bit Error Rate testers provide digital link performance measurements but are not useful during real-time data flows. Real-time performance monitors utilize the fixed overhead content but vary widely from format to format. Link quality information is also present from signal reconstruction equipment in the form of receiver AGC, bit synchronizer AGC, and bit synchronizer soft decision level outputs, but no general approach to utilizing this information exists. This paper presents an approach to link tests, real-time data quality monitoring, and results presentation that utilizes a set of general purpose modules in a flexible architectural environment. The system operates over a wide range of bit rates (up to 150 Mbs) and employs several measurement techniques, including P/N code errors or fixed PCM format errors, derived real-time BER from frame sync errors, and Data Quality Analysis derived by counting significant sync status changes. The architecture performs with a minimum of elements in place to permit a phased update of the user's unit in accordance with his needs.

  10. Model and tool requirements for co-simulation of building performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trcka, M.; Hensen, J.L.M.

    2006-01-01

    The use of building performance simulation (BPS) can substantially help in improving building design towards higher occupant comfort and lower fuel consumption, while reducing emission of greenhouse gasses. Unfortunately, current BPS tools do not allow inter-tool communication and thus limit a

  11. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Kkkkk of... - Requirements for Performance Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... block average pressure drop values for the three test runs, and determine and record the 3-hour block... limit for the limestone feeder setting Data from the limestone feeder during the performance test You must ensure that you maintain an adequate amount of limestone in the limestone hopper, storage bin...

  12. 42 CFR 460.134 - Minimum requirements for quality assessment and performance improvement program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... measures must be based on current clinical practice guidelines and professional practice standards... must include, but is not limited to, the use of objective measures to demonstrate improved performance... hospitalizations and emergency room visits. (2) Caregiver and participant satisfaction. (3) Outcome measures that...

  13. 46 CFR 160.031-3 - Materials, construction, workmanship, and performance requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Materials, construction, workmanship, and performance...) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Line-Throwing Appliance, Shoulder Gun Type (and Equipment) § 160.031-3 Materials, construction, workmanship, and...

  14. 46 CFR 160.036-3 - Materials, workmanship, construction and performance requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Materials, workmanship, construction and performance...) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Hand-Held Rocket-Propelled Parachute Red Flare Distress Signals § 160.036-3 Materials, workmanship, construction and...

  15. 46 CFR 160.040-3 - Materials, construction, workmanship, and performance requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Materials, construction, workmanship, and performance...) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Line-Throwing Appliance, Impulse-Projected Rocket Type (and Equipment) § 160.040-3 Materials, construction, workmanship...

  16. The effect of 8 days of strict bed rest on the incretin effect in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Signe Tellerup; Harder-Lauridsen, Nina Majlund; Benatti, Fabiana Braga; Wedell-Neergaard, Anne-Sophie; Lyngbæk, Mark Preben; Møller, Kirsten; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund; Krogh-Madsen, Rikke

    2016-03-15

    Bed rest and physical inactivity are the consequences of hospital admission for many patients. Physical inactivity induces changes in glucose metabolism, but its effect on the incretin effect, which is reduced in, e.g., Type 2 diabetes, is unknown. To investigate how 8 days of strict bed rest affects the incretin effect, 10 healthy nonobese male volunteers underwent 8 days of strict bed rest. Before and after the intervention, all volunteers underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) followed by an intravenous glucose infusion (IVGI) on the following day to mimic the blood glucose profile from the OGTT. Blood glucose, serum insulin, serum C-peptide, plasma incretin hormones [glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP)], and serum glucagon were measured serially during both the OGTT and the IVGI. The incretin effect is calculated as the relative difference between the area under the curve for the insulin response during the OGTT and that of the corresponding IVGI, respectively. Concentrations of glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and GIP measured during the OGTT were higher after the bed rest intervention (all P effect (P = 0.6). In conclusion, 8 days of bed rest induces insulin resistance, but we did not see evidence of an associated change in the incretin effect. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Strictly monolayer large continuous MoS2 films on diverse substrates and their luminescence properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohapatra, P. K.; Deb, S.; Singh, B. P.; Vasa, P.; Dhar, S.

    2016-01-01

    Despite a tremendous interest on molybdenum disulfide as a thinnest direct band gap semiconductor, single step synthesis of a large area purely monolayer MoS 2 film has not yet been reported. Here, we report a CVD route to synthesize a continuous film of strictly monolayer MoS 2 covering an area as large as a few cm 2 on a variety of different substrates without using any seeding material or any elaborate pretreatment of the substrate. This is achieved by allowing the growth to take place in the naturally formed gap between a piece of SiO 2 coated Si wafer and the substrate, when the latter is placed on top of the former inside a CVD reactor. We propose a qualitative model to explain why the MoS 2 films are always strictly monolayer in this method. The photoluminescence study of these monolayers shows the characteristic excitonic and trionic features associated with monolayer MoS 2 . In addition, a broad defect related luminescence band appears at ∼1.7 eV. As temperature decreases, the intensity of this broad feature increases, while the band edge luminescence reduces

  18. AREVA's fuel assemblies addressing high performance requirements of the worldwide PWR fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anniel, Marc; Bordy, Michel-Aristide

    2009-01-01

    Taking advantage of its presence in the fuel activities since the start of commercial nuclear worldwide operation, AREVA is continuing to support the customers with the priority on reliability, to: >participate in plant operational performance for the in core fuel reliability, the Zero Tolerance for Failure ZTF as a continuous improvement target and the minimisation of manufacturing/quality troubles, >guarantee the supply chain a proven product stability and continuous availability, >support performance improvements with proven design and technology for fuel management updating and cycle cost optimization, >support licensing assessments for fuel assembly and reloads, data/methodologies/services, >meet regulatory challenges regarding new phenomena, addressing emergent performance issues and emerging industry challenges for changing operating regimes. This capacity is based on supplies by AREVA accumulating very large experience both in manufacturing and in plant operation, which is demonstrated by: >manufacturing location in 4 countries including 9 fuel factories in USA, Germany, Belgium and France. Up to now about 120,000 fuel assemblies and 8,000 RCCA have been released to PWR nuclear countries, from AREVA European factories, >irradiation performed or in progress in about half of PWR world wide nuclear plants. Our optimum performances cover rod burn ups of to 82GWD/tU and fuel assemblies successfully operated under various world wide fuel management types. AREVA's experience, which is the largest in the world, has the extensive support of the well known fuel components such as the M5'TM'cladding, the MONOBLOC'TM'guide tube, the HTP'TM' and HMP'TM' structure components and the comprehensive services brought in engineering, irradiation and post irradiation fields. All of AREVA's fuel knowledge is devoted to extend the definition of fuel reliability to cover the whole scope of fuel vendor support. Our Top Reliability and Quality provide customers with continuous

  19. High Performance Computing and Storage Requirements for Biological and Environmental Research Target 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, Richard [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC); Wasserman, Harvey [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC)

    2013-05-01

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the primary computing center for the DOE Office of Science, serving approximately 4,500 users working on some 650 projects that involve nearly 600 codes in a wide variety of scientific disciplines. In addition to large-­scale computing and storage resources NERSC provides support and expertise that help scientists make efficient use of its systems. The latest review revealed several key requirements, in addition to achieving its goal of characterizing BER computing and storage needs.

  20. Capital Requirements and Banks' Leniency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrich, J. Kimball; Wihlborg, Clas

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the effect of changes in capital regulation on the strictness(leniency) of loan terms using a simple model of bank capital requirements andasset quality examinations. Banks offer different levels of `leniency' in the senseof willingness to offer automatic extensions of loans...... rates. As capital requirements increase thedifference between initial capital levels and between interest rates of strict andlenient banks decrease. Thus, higher capital requirements in recessions tend toreduce the interest rate premium paid for leniency. If a recession is interpreted asan increase...... in the required return, the interest rate premium paid for leniency isincreased in recession at a given level of required capital....

  1. Use of performance curves in estimating number of procedures required to achieve proficiency in coronary angiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Räder, Sune B E W; Jørgensen, Erik; Bech, Bo

    2011-01-01

    .001 for all parameters. To approach the experts' level of DAP and contrast media use, trainees need 394 and 588 procedures, respectively. Performance curves showed large individual differences in the development of competence. Conclusion: On average, trainees needed 300 procedures to reach sufficient level...... needed for trainees to reach recommended reference levels was estimated as 226 and 353, for DAP and use of contrast media, respectively. After 300 procedures, trainees' procedure time, fluoroscopy time, DAP, and contrast media volume were significantly higher compared with experts' performance, P ...Background: Current guidelines in cardiology training programs recommend 100-300 coronary angiography procedures for certification. We aimed to assess the number of procedures needed to reach sufficient proficiency. Methods: Procedure time, fluoroscopy time, dose area product (DAP), and contrast...

  2. The data requirements for the verification and validation of a fuel performance code - the transuranus perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, A.; Di Marcello, V.; Rondinella, V.; Van De Laar, J.; Van Uffelen, P.

    2013-01-01

    In general, the verification and validation (V and V) of a fuel performance code like TRANSURANUS consists of three basic steps: a) verifying the correctness and numerical stability of the sub-models; b) comparing the sub-models with experimental data; c) comparing the results of the integral fuel performance code with experimental data Only the second and third steps of the V and V rely on experimental information. This scheme can be further detailed according to the physical origin of the data: on one hand, in-reactor ('in-pile') experimental data are generated in the course of the irradiation; on the other hand ex-reactor ('out-of-pile') experimental data are obtained for instance from various postirradiation examinations (PIE) or dedicated experiments with fresh samples. For both categories, we will first discuss the V and V of sub-models of TRANSURANUS related to separate aspects of the fuel behaviour: this includes the radial variation of the composition and fissile isotopes, the thermal properties of the fuel (e.g. thermal conductivity, melting temperature, etc.), the mechanical properties of fuel and cladding (e.g. elastic constants, creep properties), as well as the models for the fission product behaviour. Secondly, the integral code verification will be addressed as it treats various aspects of the fuel behaviour, including the geometrical changes in the fuel and the gas pressure and composition of the free volume in the rod. (authors)

  3. Disordered strictly jammed binary sphere packings attain an anomalously large range of densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Adam B.; Stillinger, Frank H.; Torquato, Salvatore

    2013-08-01

    Previous attempts to simulate disordered binary sphere packings have been limited in producing mechanically stable, isostatic packings across a broad spectrum of packing fractions. Here we report that disordered strictly jammed binary packings (packings that remain mechanically stable under general shear deformations and compressions) can be produced with an anomalously large range of average packing fractions 0.634≤ϕ≤0.829 for small to large sphere radius ratios α restricted to α≥0.100. Surprisingly, this range of average packing fractions is obtained for packings containing a subset of spheres (called the backbone) that are exactly strictly jammed, exactly isostatic, and also generated from random initial conditions. Additionally, the average packing fractions of these packings at certain α and small sphere relative number concentrations x approach those of the corresponding densest known ordered packings. These findings suggest for entropic reasons that these high-density disordered packings should be good glass formers and that they may be easy to prepare experimentally. We also identify an unusual feature of the packing fraction of jammed backbones (packings with rattlers excluded). The backbone packing fraction is about 0.624 over the majority of the α-x plane, even when large numbers of small spheres are present in the backbone. Over the (relatively small) area of the α-x plane where the backbone is not roughly constant, we find that backbone packing fractions range from about 0.606 to 0.829, with the volume of rattler spheres comprising between 1.6% and 26.9% of total sphere volume. To generate isostatic strictly jammed packings, we use an implementation of the Torquato-Jiao sequential linear programming algorithm [Phys. Rev. EPLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.82.061302 82, 061302 (2010)], which is an efficient producer of inherent structures (mechanically stable configurations at the local maxima in the density landscape). The identification and

  4. International scientific consensus on medical plantar pressure measurement devices: technical requirements and performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Giacomozzi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Since 2006, the Italian National Institute of Health (ISS has been conducting independent scientific activities to standardize the technical assessment of plantar pressure measurement devices (PMDs. MATERIAL AND METHODS: On the basis of the ISS results, in 2010 the Pedobarographic Group of the International Foot and Ankle Biomechanics community (i-FAB-PG promoted a consensus activity about the main technical requirements for the appropriate use of PMDs. The activity relied on a moodlebased on-line forum, documents exchange, discussions, reviews, meetings and a final survey. RESULTS: The participation of clinical and technical researchers, users, and manufacturers, contributed to the delivery of the hereby reported recommendations which specifically regard Medical PMDs in the form of platforms. CONCLUSIONS: The i-FAB-PG community reached overall agreement on the recommendations, with a few minor objections which are reported and commented in the document. RELEVANCE: The present document, the highest result achievable within a small scientific community, will hopefully represent the starting point of the wider process of establishing official international guidelines or standards, within scientific communities and standardization organizations.

  5. Radiation therapists' perceptions of the minimum level of experience required to perform portal image analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rybovic, Michala; Halkett, Georgia K.; Banati, Richard B.; Cox, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: Our aim was to explore radiation therapists' views on the level of experience necessary to undertake portal image analysis and clinical decision making. Materials and methods: A questionnaire was developed to determine the availability of portal imaging equipment in Australia and New Zealand. We analysed radiation therapists' responses to a specific question regarding their opinion on the minimum level of experience required for health professionals to analyse portal images. We used grounded theory and a constant comparative method of data analysis to derive the main themes. Results: Forty-six radiation oncology facilities were represented in our survey, with 40 questionnaires being returned (87%). Thirty-seven radiation therapists answered our free-text question. Radiation therapists indicated three main themes which they felt were important in determining the minimum level of experience: 'gaining on-the-job experience', 'receiving training' and 'working as a team'. Conclusions: Radiation therapists indicated that competence in portal image review occurs via various learning mechanisms. Further research is warranted to determine perspectives of other health professionals, such as radiation oncologists, on portal image review becoming part of radiation therapists' extended role. Suitable training programs and steps for implementation should be developed to facilitate this endeavour

  6. On The Integral Representation of Strictly Continuous Set-Valued Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anaté K. Lakmon

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Let T be a completely regular topological space and C(T be the space of bounded, continuous real-valued functions on T. C(T is endowed with the strict topology (the topology generated by seminorms determined by continuous functions vanishing at in_nity. R. Giles ([13], p. 472, Theorem 4.6 proved in 1971 that the dual of C(T can be identi_ed with the space of regular Borel measures on T. We prove this result for positive, additive set-valued maps with values in the space of convex weakly compact non-empty subsets of a Banach space and we deduce from this result the theorem of R. Giles ([13], theorem 4.6, p.473.

  7. On a class of adjustable rate mortgage loans subject to a strict balance principle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup Jensen, Bjarne

    We describe the background and the basic funding mechanisms for the type of adjustable rate mortgageloans that were introduced in the Danish market in 1996. Each loan is funded separately by tap issuingpass-through mortgage bonds (`strict balance principle'). The novelty is a funding mechanism...... that usesa roll-over strategy, where long term loans are funded by sequentially issuing short term pass-throughbonds, and the first issuer of these loans obtained a patent on the funding principles in 1999. Publiclyavailable descriptions of the principles leave an impression of very complicated numerical...... algorithms.The algorithms described here show that the essentials can be reduced to a `back of an envelope' complexity.Keywords: Adjustable rate mortgages, balance principle, patent, yield curve riding...

  8. Control of Petri nets subject to strict temporal constraints using Max-Plus algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebani, K.; Amari, S.; Kara, R.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we treat the control problem of timed discrete event systems under temporal constraints. This type of constraint is very frequent in production systems, transportation network and in networked automation systems. Precisely, we are interested in the validation of strict temporal constraints imposed on the paths in a timed event graph (TEG) by using Max-Plus algebra. Not all the transitions of the considered TEG model are controllable, i.e. only the input transitions are controllable. An analytical approach for computing state feedback controllers is developed. Sufficient condition is given for the existence of causal control laws satisfying the temporal constraints. In the first, a TEG with observable transitions is considered. Then, the proposed approach is extended to the partially observable TEG. The synthesised feedback can be interpreted by places of control connected to the TEG to guarantee the respect of the time constraints. The proposed method is illustrated in the assembly system example.

  9. Learning-Based Adaptive Optimal Tracking Control of Strict-Feedback Nonlinear Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Weinan; Jiang, Zhong-Ping; Weinan Gao; Zhong-Ping Jiang; Gao, Weinan; Jiang, Zhong-Ping

    2018-06-01

    This paper proposes a novel data-driven control approach to address the problem of adaptive optimal tracking for a class of nonlinear systems taking the strict-feedback form. Adaptive dynamic programming (ADP) and nonlinear output regulation theories are integrated for the first time to compute an adaptive near-optimal tracker without any a priori knowledge of the system dynamics. Fundamentally different from adaptive optimal stabilization problems, the solution to a Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equation, not necessarily a positive definite function, cannot be approximated through the existing iterative methods. This paper proposes a novel policy iteration technique for solving positive semidefinite HJB equations with rigorous convergence analysis. A two-phase data-driven learning method is developed and implemented online by ADP. The efficacy of the proposed adaptive optimal tracking control methodology is demonstrated via a Van der Pol oscillator with time-varying exogenous signals.

  10. Lyme Neuroborreliosis: Preliminary Results from an Urban Referral Center Employing Strict CDC Criteria for Case Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S. Younger

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Lyme neuroborreliosis or “neurological Lyme disease” was evidenced in 2 of 23 patients submitted to strict criteria for case selection of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention employing a two-tier test to detect antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi at a single institution. One patient had symptomatic polyradiculoneuritis, dysautonomia, and serological evidence of early infection; and another had symptomatic small fiber sensory neuropathy, distal polyneuropathy, dysautonomia, and serological evidence of late infection. In the remaining patients symptoms initially ascribed to Lyme disease were probably unrelated to B. burgdorferi infection. Our findings suggest early susceptibility and protracted involvement of the nervous system most likely due to the immunological effects of B. burgdorferi infection, although the exact mechanisms remain uncertain.

  11. A Total Variation Model Based on the Strictly Convex Modification for Image Denoising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boying Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a strictly convex functional in which the regular term consists of the total variation term and an adaptive logarithm based convex modification term. We prove the existence and uniqueness of the minimizer for the proposed variational problem. The existence, uniqueness, and long-time behavior of the solution of the associated evolution system is also established. Finally, we present experimental results to illustrate the effectiveness of the model in noise reduction, and a comparison is made in relation to the more classical methods of the traditional total variation (TV, the Perona-Malik (PM, and the more recent D-α-PM method. Additional distinction from the other methods is that the parameters, for manual manipulation, in the proposed algorithm are reduced to basically only one.

  12. A semi-automatic method for positioning a femoral bone reconstruction for strict view generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milano, Federico; Ritacco, Lucas; Gomez, Adrian; Gonzalez Bernaldo de Quiros, Fernan; Risk, Marcelo

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a semi-automatic method for femoral bone positioning after 3D image reconstruction from Computed Tomography images. This serves as grounding for the definition of strict axial, longitudinal and anterior-posterior views, overcoming the problem of patient positioning biases in 2D femoral bone measuring methods. After the bone reconstruction is aligned to a standard reference frame, new tomographic slices can be generated, on which unbiased measures may be taken. This could allow not only accurate inter-patient comparisons but also intra-patient comparisons, i.e., comparisons of images of the same patient taken at different times. This method could enable medical doctors to diagnose and follow up several bone deformities more easily.

  13. Weight of fitness deviation governs strict physical chaos in replicator dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Varun; Mukhopadhyay, Archan; Chakraborty, Sagar

    2018-03-01

    Replicator equation—a paradigm equation in evolutionary game dynamics—mathematizes the frequency dependent selection of competing strategies vying to enhance their fitness (quantified by the average payoffs) with respect to the average fitnesses of the evolving population under consideration. In this paper, we deal with two discrete versions of the replicator equation employed to study evolution in a population where any two players' interaction is modelled by a two-strategy symmetric normal-form game. There are twelve distinct classes of such games, each typified by a particular ordinal relationship among the elements of the corresponding payoff matrix. Here, we find the sufficient conditions for the existence of asymptotic solutions of the replicator equations such that the solutions—fixed points, periodic orbits, and chaotic trajectories—are all strictly physical, meaning that the frequency of any strategy lies inside the closed interval zero to one at all times. Thus, we elaborate on which of the twelve types of games are capable of showing meaningful physical solutions and for which of the two types of replicator equation. Subsequently, we introduce the concept of the weight of fitness deviation that is the scaling factor in a positive affine transformation connecting two payoff matrices such that the corresponding one-shot games have exactly same Nash equilibria and evolutionary stable states. The weight also quantifies how much the excess of fitness of a strategy over the average fitness of the population affects the per capita change in the frequency of the strategy. Intriguingly, the weight's variation is capable of making the Nash equilibria and the evolutionary stable states, useless by introducing strict physical chaos in the replicator dynamics based on the normal-form game.

  14. Strict Liability Versus Policy and Regulation for Environmental Protection and Agricultural Waste Management in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Bakri Ishak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Basically, strict liability is part of the mechanism for expressing judgment or sentence by using direct evidence. This principle is very useful in order to obtain remedies from any damage either directly or indirectly. The principle in Rylands v Fletcher is responsible on imposing strict liability where if something brought onto land or collected there escapes liability under this rule can include not only the owner of land but also those who control or occupation on it. However, as a matter of fact, policy and regulation are also important in taking any action against any party who are responsible for environmental pollution or damage, which may include mismanagement of waste or industrial waste or agricultural waste. There are certain policies and regulations on environmental protection such as the National Environmental Policy, certain Acts and several regulations under the Environmental Quality Act 1974 (Act 127, which are very useful for agricultural waste management inter alia: Waters Act 1920 (Act 418, Environmental Quality (Prescribed Premises (Crude Palm Oil Regulations 1977, Environmental Quality (Prescribed Premises (Raw Natural Rubber Regulations 1978, Environmental Quality (Sewage and Industrial Effluents Regulations 1979, and Environmental Quality (Compounding of Offences Rules 1978. As a matter of fact, we should realize that time is of an essence for any parties which are involved in court cases and especially in avoiding the element of externality, which is commonly suffered by the government. In making this paper, therefore, some element of comparison with certain developed jurisdiction such as in the United Kingdom and Japan could not be avoided in order to obtain better outcome and to be more practical for the purpose of environmental protection and agricultural waste management.

  15. Alkaliphilus crotonatoxidans sp. nov., a strictly anaerobic, crotonate-dismutating bacterium isolated from a methanogenic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xianhua; Liu, Xiaoli; Dong, Xiuzhu

    2003-07-01

    Two bacterial strains were isolated from methanogenic butyrate-oxidizing mixed cultures. The cells were straight to slightly curved, gram-positive rods that were motile by means of multiple flagella and formed endospores. Growth was observed in the temperature range 15-45 degrees C (optimum 37 degrees C) and pH range 5.5-9.0 (optimum pH 7.5). The novel isolates were strictly anaerobic chemo-organotrophs capable of utilizing yeast extract, peptone, tryptone and a variety of sugars and organic acids, but not glucose. None of the accessory electron acceptors tested (elemental sulfur, thiosulfate or fumarate) improved growth, except crotonate, which was dismutated to butyrate and acetate. The G + C content of the DNA of one of the isolates, strain B11-2T, was 30.6 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rDNA sequence similarity between strain B11-2T and some other strictly anaerobic, spore-forming bacteria indicated that the novel isolates represented a species in cluster XI within the low-GC gram-positive bacteria, being most closely related to Alkaliphilus transvaalensis JCM 10712T. DNA-DNA relatedness between strain B11-2T and A. transvaalensis JCM 10712T was 21%. On the basis of physiological and molecular properties, and cellular fatty acid and cell wall compositions, the novel isolates are proposed to represent a novel species of the genus Alkaliphilus, for which the name Alkaliphilus crotonatoxidans is proposed (type strain B11-2T=AS 1.2897T=JCM 11672T).

  16. Weight of fitness deviation governs strict physical chaos in replicator dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Varun; Mukhopadhyay, Archan; Chakraborty, Sagar

    2018-03-01

    Replicator equation-a paradigm equation in evolutionary game dynamics-mathematizes the frequency dependent selection of competing strategies vying to enhance their fitness (quantified by the average payoffs) with respect to the average fitnesses of the evolving population under consideration. In this paper, we deal with two discrete versions of the replicator equation employed to study evolution in a population where any two players' interaction is modelled by a two-strategy symmetric normal-form game. There are twelve distinct classes of such games, each typified by a particular ordinal relationship among the elements of the corresponding payoff matrix. Here, we find the sufficient conditions for the existence of asymptotic solutions of the replicator equations such that the solutions-fixed points, periodic orbits, and chaotic trajectories-are all strictly physical, meaning that the frequency of any strategy lies inside the closed interval zero to one at all times. Thus, we elaborate on which of the twelve types of games are capable of showing meaningful physical solutions and for which of the two types of replicator equation. Subsequently, we introduce the concept of the weight of fitness deviation that is the scaling factor in a positive affine transformation connecting two payoff matrices such that the corresponding one-shot games have exactly same Nash equilibria and evolutionary stable states. The weight also quantifies how much the excess of fitness of a strategy over the average fitness of the population affects the per capita change in the frequency of the strategy. Intriguingly, the weight's variation is capable of making the Nash equilibria and the evolutionary stable states, useless by introducing strict physical chaos in the replicator dynamics based on the normal-form game.

  17. Strict follow-up programme including CT and (18) F-FDG-PET after curative surgery for colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, N F; Jensen, A B; Wille-Jørgensen, P

    2010-01-01

    Aim The risk of local recurrence following curative surgery for colorectal cancer (CRC) is up to 50%. A rigorous follow-up program may increase survival. Guidelines on suitable methods for scheduled follow up examinations are needed. This study evaluates a strict follow-up program including...... supported a strict follow-up program following curative surgery for colorectal cancer. FDG-PET combined with CT should be included in control programs....

  18. Performing the processing required for automatically get a PDF/A version of the CERN Library documentation

    CERN Document Server

    Molina Garcia-Retamero, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the project was to perform the processing required for automatically get a PDF/A version of the CERN Library documentation. For this, it is necessary to extract as much metadata as possible from the sources files, inject the required data into the original source files creating new ones ready for being compiled with all related dependencies. Besides, I’ve proposed the creation of a HTML version consistent with the PDF and navigable for easy access, I’ve been trying to perform some Natural Language Processing for extracting metadata, I’ve proposed the injection of the cern library documentation into the HTML version of the long writeups where it is referenced (for instance, when a CERN Library function is referenced in a sample code) Finally, I’ve designed and implemented a Graphical User Interface in order to simplify the process for the user.

  19. Radiation legacy of nuclear tests at the Semipalatinsk test site in the light of requirements ensuring radiation safety performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logachev, V.A.; Logacheva, L.A.

    2005-01-01

    Peculiarities of nuclear tests radiation legacy at the Semipalatinsk test site (STS) are shown in the light of performance of requirements ensuring radiation safety, decrease radiation contamination levels in environment and minimize exposure of radiation for population residing contaminated areas by radioactive fallout. The paper provides data on characterization of peculiarities of the STS operation legacy based on review of archival data of the former 3-d General Administration under USSR Ministry of Health. (author)

  20. NWTS program criteria for mined geologic disposal of nuclear waste: program objectives, functional requirements, and system performance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-03-01

    The NWTS-33 series, of which this document is a part, provides guidance for the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) program in the development and implementation of licensed mined geologic disposal systems for solidified high-level and TRU wastes. Program objectives, functional requirements, and system performance criteria are found in this document. At the present time final criteria have not been issued by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The criteria in these documents have been developed on the basis of DOE's judgment of what is required to protect the health and safety of the public and the quality of the environment. It is expected that these criteria will be consistent with regulatory standards. The criteria will be re-evaluated on a periodic basis to ensure that they remain consistent with national waste management policy and regulatory requirements. A re-evaluation will be made when final criteria are promulgated by the NRC and EPA. A background section that briefly describes the mined geologic disposal system and explains the hierarchy and application of the NWTS criteria is included in Section 2.0. Secton 3.0 presents the program objectives, Section 4.0 functional requirements, Secton 5.0 the system performance criteria, and Section 6.0 quality assurance and standards. A draft of this document was issued for public comment in April 1981. Appendix A contains the DOE responses to the comments received. Appendix B is a glossary

  1. Intra-Genomic Heterogeneity in 16S rRNA Genes in Strictly Anaerobic Clinical Isolates from Periodontal Abscesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiazhen; Miao, Xinyu; Xu, Meng; He, Junlin; Xie, Yi; Wu, Xingwen; Chen, Gang; Yu, Liying; Zhang, Wenhong

    2015-01-01

    Members of the genera Prevotella, Veillonella and Fusobacterium are the predominant culturable obligate anaerobic bacteria isolated from periodontal abscesses. When determining the cumulative number of clinical anaerobic isolates from periodontal abscesses, ambiguous or overlapping signals were frequently encountered in 16S rRNA gene sequencing chromatograms, resulting in ambiguous identifications. With the exception of the genus Veillonella, the high intra-chromosomal heterogeneity of rrs genes has not been reported. The 16S rRNA genes of 138 clinical, strictly anaerobic isolates and one reference strain were directly sequenced, and the chromatograms were carefully examined. Gene cloning was performed for 22 typical isolates with doublet sequencing signals for the 16S rRNA genes, and four copies of the rrs-ITS genes of 9 Prevotella intermedia isolates were separately amplified by PCR, sequenced and compared. Five conserved housekeeping genes, hsp60, recA, dnaJ, gyrB1 and rpoB from 89 clinical isolates of Prevotella were also amplified by PCR and sequenced for identification and phylogenetic analysis along with 18 Prevotella reference strains. Heterogeneity of 16S rRNA genes was apparent in clinical, strictly anaerobic oral bacteria, particularly in the genera Prevotella and Veillonella. One hundred out of 138 anaerobic strains (72%) had intragenomic nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in multiple locations, and 13 strains (9.4%) had intragenomic insertions or deletions in the 16S rRNA gene. In the genera Prevotella and Veillonella, 75% (67/89) and 100% (19/19) of the strains had SNPs in the 16S rRNA gene, respectively. Gene cloning and separate amplifications of four copies of the rrs-ITS genes confirmed that 2 to 4 heterogeneous 16S rRNA copies existed. Sequence alignment of five housekeeping genes revealed that intra-species nucleotide similarities were very high in the genera Prevotella, ranging from 94.3-100%. However, the inter-species similarities were

  2. SHARP's systems engineering challenge: rectifying integrated product team requirements with performance issues in an evolutionary spiral development acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehl, C. Stephen

    2003-08-01

    Completing its final development and early deployment on the Navy's multi-role aircraft, the F/A-18 E/F Super Hornet, the SHAred Reconnaissance Pod (SHARP) provides the war fighter with the latest digital tactical reconnaissance (TAC Recce) Electro-Optical/Infrared (EO/IR) sensor system. The SHARP program is an evolutionary acquisition that used a spiral development process across a prototype development phase tightly coupled into overlapping Engineering and Manufacturing Development (EMD) and Low Rate Initial Production (LRIP) phases. Under a tight budget environment with a highly compressed schedule, SHARP challenged traditional acquisition strategies and systems engineering (SE) processes. Adopting tailored state-of-the-art systems engineering process models allowd the SHARP program to overcome the technical knowledge transition challenges imposed by a compressed program schedule. The program's original goal was the deployment of digital TAC Recce mission capabilities to the fleet customer by summer of 2003. Hardware and software integration technical challenges resulted from requirements definition and analysis activities performed across a government-industry led Integrated Product Team (IPT) involving Navy engineering and test sites, Boeing, and RTSC-EPS (with its subcontracted hardware and government furnished equipment vendors). Requirements development from a bottoms-up approach was adopted using an electronic requirements capture environment to clarify and establish the SHARP EMD product baseline specifications as relevant technical data became available. Applying Earned-Value Management (EVM) against an Integrated Master Schedule (IMS) resulted in efficiently managing SE task assignments and product deliveries in a dynamically evolving customer requirements environment. Application of Six Sigma improvement methodologies resulted in the uncovering of root causes of errors in wiring interconnectivity drawings, pod manufacturing processes, and avionics

  3. Energy performance requirements for new buildings in 11 countries from Central Europe. Exemplary comparison of three buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loga, Tobias; Knissel, Jens; Diefenbach, Nikolaus

    2008-12-05

    The objective of the present comparison study is to show which energy efficiency require-ments have to be complied in different European countries when a new building is going to be constructed. For this purpose three Model Buildings were defined: a single-family house, a multi-family house and a school building. For each involved country (or region) the energy quality of the thermal envelope was determined which is necessary in order to just comply with the building code. Due to requirements on the overall energy performance the requested envelope quality usually depends also on the type of heat supply system or energy carrier. Therefore the systems were varied in a parameter study. The main result for each of the three Model Buildings is a comparison table which shows the heat transfer coefficient by transmission (a sort of mean U-value) for the different countries differenti-ated by supply system types. In a final step the primary energy demand according to the German regulation (EnEV 2007) was calculated for every envelope/system combination of the different countries. This allows a comparison of buildings with different supply systems. The study was performed by experts from 11 European member states: Germany, Austria, Czech Republic, Poland, Sweden, Denmark, UK, The Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg and France. (orig.)

  4. On the “cost-optimal levels” of energy performance requirements and its economic evaluation in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamberto Tronchin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The European energy policies about climate and energy package, known as the “20-20-20” targets define ambitious, but achievable, national energy objectives. As regards the Directives closely related to the 2020 targets, the EU Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD Recast- DIR 2010/31/EU is the main European legislative instrument for improving the energy performance of buildings, taking into account outdoor climatic and local conditions, as well as indoor climate requirements and cost-effectiveness. The EPBD recast now requests that Member States shall ensure that minimum energy performance requirements for buildings are set “with a view to achieving cost-optimal levels”. The cost optimum level shall be calculated in accordance with a comparative methodology framework, leaving the Member States to determine which of these calculations is to become the national benchmark against which national minimum energy performance requirements will be assessed. The European standards (ENs- Umbrella Document V7 (prCEN/TR 15615 are intended to support the EPBD by providing the calculation methods and associated material to obtain the overall energy performance of a building. For Italy the Energy Performance of Building Simulations EPBS must be calculated with standard UNITS 11300. The energy building behaviour is referred to standard and not to real use, nor climate or dynamic energy evaluation. Since retrofitting of existing buildings offers significant opportunities for reducing energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, a case study of retrofitting is described and the CostOptimal Level EU procedure in an Italian context is analysed. Following this procedure, it is shown not only that the energy cost depends on several conditions and most of them are not indexed at national level but also that the cost of improvement depends on local variables and contract tender. The case study highlights the difficulties to apply EU rules, and

  5. Fermentation of animal components in strict carnivores: a comparative study with cheetah fecal inoculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depauw, S; Bosch, G; Hesta, M; Whitehouse-Tedd, K; Hendriks, W H; Kaandorp, J; Janssens, G P J

    2012-08-01

    The natural diet of felids contains highly digestible animal tissues but also fractions resistant to small intestinal digestion, which enter the large intestine where they may be fermented by the resident microbial population. Little information exists on the microbial degradability of animal tissues in the large intestine of felids consuming a natural diet. This study aimed to rank animal substrates in their microbial degradability by means of an in vitro study using captive cheetahs fed a strict carnivorous diet as fecal donors. Fresh cheetah fecal samples were collected, pooled, and incubated with various raw animal substrates (chicken cartilage, collagen, glucosamine-chondroitin, glucosamine, rabbit bone, rabbit hair, and rabbit skin; 4 replicates per substrate) for cumulative gas production measurement in a batch culture technique. Negative (cellulose) and positive (casein and fructo-oligosaccharides; FOS) controls were incorporated in the study. Additionally, after 72 h of incubation, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), including branched-chain fatty acids (BCFA), and ammonia concentrations were determined for each substrate. Glucosamine and glucosamine-chondroitin yielded the greatest organic matter cumulative gas volume (OMCV) among animal substrates (P carnivore, and indicates that animal tissues have potentially similar functions as soluble or insoluble plant fibers in vitro. Further research is warranted to assess the impact of fermentation of each type of animal tissue on gastro-intestinal function and health in the cheetah and other felid species.

  6. Hunting the ghosts of a 'strictly quantum field': the Klein-Gordon equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertozzi, Eugenio

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to identify and tackle some problems related to teaching quantum field theory (QFT) at university level. In particular, problems arising from the canonical quantization are addressed by focusing on the Klein-Gordon equation (KGE). After a brief description of the status of the KGE in teaching as it emerges from an analysis of a selected sample of university textbooks, an analysis of the applications of the KGE in contexts different from the QFT is presented. The results of the analysis show that, while in the real case the solutions of the equation can be easily interpreted from a physical point of view, in the complex case the coherence with relativistic quantum mechanics and the electrodynamics framework brings to light interpretative problems related to the classical complex KG field. The comparison between the classical cases investigated and the QFT framework, where the equation finds a coherent particle interpretation, leads to share Ryder's statement asserting that the KG field is a 'strictly quantum field'. Implications of the results in terms of remarks about the canonical procedure currently utilized for teaching are underlined.

  7. Divergent changes in serum sterols during a strict uncooked vegan diet in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agren, J J; Tvrzicka, E; Nenonen, M T; Helve, T; Hänninen, O

    2001-02-01

    The effects of a strict uncooked vegan diet on serum lipid and sterol concentrations were studied in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The subjects were randomized into a vegan diet group (n 16), who consumed a vegan diet for 2-3 months, or into a control group (n 13), who continued their usual omnivorous diets. Serum total and LDL-cholesterol and -phospholipid concentrations were significantly decreased by the vegan diet. The levels of serum cholestanol and lathosterol also decreased, but serum cholestanol:total cholesterol and lathosterol:total cholesterol did not change. The effect of a vegan diet on serum plant sterols was divergent as the concentration of campesterol decreased while that of sitosterol increased. This effect resulted in a significantly greater sitosterol:campesterol value in the vegan diet group than in the control group (1.48 (SD 0.39) v. 0.72 (SD 0.14); P vegan diet changes the relative absorption rates of these sterols and/or their biliary clearance.

  8. Computational Evaluation of the Strict Master and Random Template Models of Endogenous Retrovirus Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Fabrícia F.; Rodrigo, Allen G.

    2016-01-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) are DNA sequences that are able to replicate and move within and between host genomes. Their mechanism of replication is also shared with endogenous retroviruses (ERVs), which are also a type of TE that represent an ancient retroviral infection within animal genomes. Two models have been proposed to explain TE proliferation in host genomes: the strict master model (SMM), and the random template (or transposon) model (TM). In SMM only a single copy of a given TE lineage is able to replicate, and all other genomic copies of TEs are derived from that master copy. In TM, any element of a given family is able to replicate in the host genome. In this paper, we simulated ERV phylogenetic trees under variations of SMM and TM. To test whether current phylogenetic programs can recover the simulated ERV phylogenies, DNA sequence alignments were simulated and maximum likelihood trees were reconstructed and compared to the simulated phylogenies. Results indicate that visual inspection of phylogenetic trees alone can be misleading. However, if a set of statistical summaries is calculated, we are able to distinguish between models with high accuracy by using a data mining algorithm that we introduce here. We also demonstrate the use of our data mining algorithm with empirical data for the porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV), an ERV that is able to replicate in human and pig cells in vitro. PMID:27649303

  9. Generalized mechanical pain sensitivity over nerve tissues in patients with strictly unilateral migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Cuadrado, María Luz; Pareja, Juan A

    2009-06-01

    No study has previously analyzed pressure pain sensitivity of nerve trunks in migraine. This study aimed to examine the differences in mechanical pain sensitivity over specific nerves between patients with unilateral migraine and healthy controls. Blinded investigators assessed pressure pain thresholds (PPT) over the supra-orbital nerves (V1) and peripheral nerve trunks of both upper extremities (median, radial, and ulnar nerves) in 20 patients with strictly unilateral migraine and 20 healthy matched controls. Pain intensity after palpation over both supra-orbital nerves was also assessed. A pressure algometer was used to quantify PPT, whereas a 10-point numerical pain rate scale was used to evaluate pain to palpation over the supra-orbital nerve. The analysis of covariance revealed that pain to palpation over the supra-orbital nerve was significantly higher (P0.6). In patients with unilateral migraine, we found increased mechano-sensitivity of the supra-orbital nerve on the symptomatic side of the head. Outside the head, the same patients showed increased mechano-sensitivity of the main peripheral nerves of both upper limbs, without asymmetries. Such diffuse hypersensitivity of the peripheral nerves lends further evidence to the presence of a state of hyperexcitability of the central nervous system in patients with unilateral migraine.

  10. DNA remodelling by Strict Partial Endoreplication in orchids, an original process in the plant kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Spencer C; Bourge, Mickaël; Maunoury, Nicolas; Wong, Maurice; Bianchi, Michele Wolfe; Lepers-Andrzejewski, Sandra; Besse, Pascale; Siljak-Yakovlev, Sonja; Dron, Michel; Satiat-Jeunemaître, Béatrice

    2017-04-13

    DNA remodelling during endoreplication appears to be a strong developmental characteristic in orchids. In this study, we analysed DNA content and nuclei in 41 species of orchids to further map the genome evolution in this plant family. We demonstrate that the DNA remodelling observed in 36 out of 41 orchids studied corresponds to strict partial endoreplication. Such process is developmentally regulated in each wild species studied. Cytometry data analyses allowed us to propose a model where nuclear states 2C, 4E, 8E, etc. form a series comprising a fixed proportion, the euploid genome 2C, plus 2 to 32 additional copies of a complementary part of the genome. The fixed proportion ranged from 89% of the genome in Vanilla mexicana down to 19% in V. pompona, the lowest value for all 148 orchids reported. Insterspecific hybridisation did not suppress this phenomenon. Interestingly, this process was not observed in mass-produced epiphytes. Nucleolar volumes grow with the number of endocopies present, coherent with high transcription activity in endoreplicated nuclei. Our analyses suggest species-specific chromatin rearrangement. Towards understanding endoreplication, V. planifolia constitutes a tractable system for isolating the genomic sequences that confer an advantage via endoreplication from those that apparently suffice at diploid level. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  11. Effect of a strict vegan diet on energy and nutrient intakes by Finnish rheumatoid patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauma, A L; Nenonen, M; Helve, T; Hänninen, O

    1993-10-01

    Dietary intake data of 43 Finnish rheumatoid arthritis patients were collected using 7-day food records. The subjects were randomized into a control and a vegan diet groups, consisting of 22 and 21 subjects, respectively. The subjects in the vegan diet group received an uncooked vegan diet ('living food') for 3 months, and they were tutored daily by a living-food expert. The subjects in the control group continued their usual diets and received no tutoring. Adherence to the strict vegan diet was assessed on the basis of urinary sodium excretion and by the information on consumption of specific food items (wheatgrass juice and the rejuvelac drink). The use of these drinks was variable, and some boiled vegetables were consumed occasionally. However, only one of the subjects in the vegan diet group lacked a clear decrease in urinary sodium excretion. Rheumatoid patients had lower than recommended intakes of iron, zinc and niacin, and their energy intake was low compared to mean daily energy intake of the healthy Finnish females of the same age. Shifting to the uncooked vegan diet significantly increased the intakes of energy and many nutrients. In spite of the increased energy intake, the group on the vegan diet lost 9% of their body weight during the intervention period, indicating a low availability of energy from the vegan diet.

  12. A strictly monofunctional bacterial hydroxymethylpyrimidine phosphate kinase precludes damaging errors in thiamin biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamm, Antje M; Li, Gengnan; Taja-Moreno, Marlene; Gerdes, Svetlana Y; de Crécy-Lagard, Valérie; Bruner, Steven D; Hanson, Andrew D

    2017-07-20

    The canonical kinase (ThiD) that converts the thiamin biosynthesis intermediate hydroxymethylpyrimidine (HMP) monophosphate to the diphosphate can also very efficiently convert free HMP to the monophosphate in prokaryotes, plants, and fungi. This HMP kinase activity enables salvage of HMP, but it is not substrate-specific and so allows toxic HMP analogs and damage products to infiltrate the thiamin biosynthesis pathway. Comparative analysis of bacterial genomes uncovered a gene, thiD2 , that is often fused to the thiamin synthesis gene thiE and could potentially encode a replacement for ThiD. Standalone ThiD2 proteins and ThiD2 fusion domains are small (~130-residues) and do not belong to any previously known protein family. Genetic and biochemical analyses showed that representative standalone and fused ThiD2 proteins catalyze phosphorylation of HMP monophosphate, but not of HMP or its toxic analogs and damage products such as bacimethrin and 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-methylpyrimidin-4-ol. As strictly monofunctional HMP monophosphate kinases, ThiD2 proteins eliminate a potentially fatal vulnerability of canonical ThiD, at the cost of the ability to reclaim HMP formed by thiamin turnover. ©2017 The Author(s).

  13. Physiological Requirements to Perform the Glittre Activities of Daily Living Test by Subjects With Mild-to-Severe COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Gérson F; Moreira, Graciane L; Tufanin, Andréa; Gazzotti, Mariana R; Castro, Antonio A; Jardim, José R; Nascimento, Oliver A

    2017-08-01

    The Glittre activities of daily living (ADL) test is supposed to evaluate the functional capacity of COPD patients. The physiological requirements of the test and the time taken to perform it by COPD patients in different disease stages are not well known. The objective of this work was to compare the metabolic, ventilatory, and cardiac requirements and the time taken to carry out the Glittre ADL test by COPD subjects with mild, moderate, and severe disease. Spirometry, Medical Research Council questionnaire, cardiopulmonary exercise test, and 2 Glittre ADL tests were evaluated in 62 COPD subjects. Oxygen uptake (V̇ O 2 ), carbon dioxide production, pulmonary ventilation, breathing frequency, heart rate, S pO 2 , and dyspnea were analyzed before and at the end of the tests. Maximum voluntary ventilation, Glittre peak V̇ O 2 /cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) peak V̇ O 2 , Glittre V̇ E /maximum voluntary ventilation, and Glittre peak heart rate/CPET peak heart rate ratios were calculated to analyze their reserves. Subjects carried out the Glittre ADL test with similar absolute metabolic, ventilatory, and cardiac requirements. Ventilatory reserve decreased progressively from mild to severe COPD subjects ( P reserve than the mild and moderate subjects ( P = .006 and P = .043, respectively) and significantly lower Glittre peak heart rate/CPET peak heart rate than mild subjects ( P = .01). Time taken to carry out the Glittre ADL test was similar among the groups ( P = .82 for GOLD 1 vs GOLD 2, P = .19 for GOLD 1 vs GOLD 3, and P = .45 for GOLD 2 vs GOLD 3). As the degree of air-flow obstruction progresses, the COPD subjects present significant lower ventilatory reserve to perform the Glittre ADL test. In addition, metabolic and cardiac reserves may differentiate the severe subjects. These variables may be better measures to differentiate functional performance than Glittre ADL time. Copyright © 2017 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  14. Final draft position on geotechnical instrumentation in a salt repository environment: Requirements, performance, recommendations, and development needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-07-01

    This report presents the results of a study of the present status of geotechnical instrumentation with respect to potential use in an underground test facility at a candidate nuclear waste repository site in salt. Programmatic factors that have a general impact on the success of underground instrumentation are discussed. Performance requirements relating to accuracy, temperature range, longevity, and capability for automation are established on the basis of criteria proposed for other rock types, perceived needs of the Site Characterization Program, and the authors' experience and judgment. Test site conditions are discussed including underground logistics, corrosion, and other factors that affect instrument reliability. The status of existing instrumentation for measuring deformation, stress, temperature, fluid pressure, acoustic emission, and other less critical parameters is presented. For each instrument not presently capable of satisfying its associated performance requirements, specific development needs and possible approaches are identified, and necessary testing is describe to a conceptual level of detail. A brief discussion of instrument considerations relating to automatic data acquisition is also included. The position of instrument development as a key activity on the critical path under current schedules for the Site Characterization Program is discussed. Annotated references and reports on site visits and meetings used as the data base in evaluating present instrument status are appended to this report. 110 refs., 14 figs., 26 tabs

  15. Multi-Stage ADRs for Current and Future Astronomy Missions: Performance and Requirements for Cryogen-Free Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirron, Peter; Kimball, Mark; Vlahacos, Kosta

    2010-01-01

    The cooling requirements for current (e.g. Astro-H) and future (e.g. IXO and ASP) astronomy missions pose significant challenges for the sub-Kelvin Cooler. In particular, the use of large detector arrays increases the cooling power needed, and the variety of cryocoolers that can be used for pre-cooling greatly expands the range of temperatures at which the sub-Kelvin cooler can be designed to reject heat. In most cases, there is also a need for a stable higher temperature stage for cooling amplifiers or telescope components. NASA/GSFC is currently building a 3-stage ADR for the Astro-H mission, and is developing a 5-stage ADR suitable for IXO and ASP, as well as many other missions in the early planning stages. The architecture of these ADRs allows them to be adapted rather easily for different cooling requirements and to accommodate different cryocooler capabilities (operating temperature and cooling power). This paper will discuss the performance of these ADRs, which operate in both continuous, and single-shot cooling modes, and the minimum cryocooler capabilities needed to meet the requirements of future missions.

  16. Organic market gardening around the Paris agglomeration: agro-environmental performance and capacity to meet urban requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anglade, Juliette; Medina, Michael Ramos; Billen, Gilles; Garnier, Josette

    2016-05-04

    Organic market gardening is often promoted by urban municipalities as a way to resource part of the food supply, creating new social links and protecting groundwater resources. The agronomical and environmental performance of six commercial organic market gardening farms supplying vegetables in Paris were evaluated and compared with other vegetable production systems. When expressed in terms of protein production, the yield of these systems appears rather low compared with the productive capacity of open-field organic cropping systems where vegetable production is inserted into rotation with other crops. Moreover, the requirement of producing infiltrated water meeting the drinking water standards seriously limits the allowable rate of fertilisation, thus limiting production. The data reported herein show that to supply the amount of vegetables required by the Paris agglomeration (12 million inhabitants) only by organic market gardening, 160,000-205,000 ha, i.e. 28-36 % of the agricultural area of the surrounding Ile-de-France region, would be required. We conclude that organic market gardening is only one of several other farming systems which can contribute to a re-localised supply of vegetables to large cities.

  17. Thermosetting polyimide resin matrix composites with interpenetrating polymer networks for precision foil resistor chips based on special mechanical performance requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X.Y., E-mail: wxy@tju.edu.cn [School of Electronic Information Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Ma, J.X.; Li, C.G. [School of Electronic Information Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Wang, H.X. [ZHENGHE electronics Co., Ltd, Jining 272023 (China)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Macromolecular materials were chosen to modify thermosetting polyimide (TSPI). • The formation of IPN structure in TSPI composite polymers was discussed. • The special mechanical properties required were the main study object. • The desired candidate materials should have proper hardness and toughness. • The specific mechanical data are quantitatively determined by experiments. - Abstract: Based on interpenetrating networks (IPNs) different macromolecular materials such as epoxy, phenolic, and silicone resin were chosen to modify thermosetting polyimide (TSPI) resin to solve the lack of performance when used for protecting precision foil resistor chips. Copolymerization modification, controlled at curing stage, was used to prepare TSPI composites considering both performance and process requirements. The mechanical properties related to trimming process were mainly studied due to the special requirements of the regularity of scratch edges caused by a tungsten needle. The analysis on scratch edges reveals that the generation and propagation of microcracks caused by scratching together with crack closure effect may lead to regular scratch traces. Experiments show that the elongation at break of TSPI composites is the main reason that determines the special mechanical properties. The desired candidate materials should have proper hardness and toughness, and the specific mechanical data are that the mean elongation at break and tensile strength of polymer materials are in the range of 9.2–10.4% and 100–107 MPa, respectively. Possible reasons for the effect of the modifiers chosen on TSPI polymers, the reaction mechanisms on modified TSPI resin and the IPN structure in TSPI composite polymers were discussed based on IR and TG analysis.

  18. Thermosetting polyimide resin matrix composites with interpenetrating polymer networks for precision foil resistor chips based on special mechanical performance requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.Y.; Ma, J.X.; Li, C.G.; Wang, H.X.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Macromolecular materials were chosen to modify thermosetting polyimide (TSPI). • The formation of IPN structure in TSPI composite polymers was discussed. • The special mechanical properties required were the main study object. • The desired candidate materials should have proper hardness and toughness. • The specific mechanical data are quantitatively determined by experiments. - Abstract: Based on interpenetrating networks (IPNs) different macromolecular materials such as epoxy, phenolic, and silicone resin were chosen to modify thermosetting polyimide (TSPI) resin to solve the lack of performance when used for protecting precision foil resistor chips. Copolymerization modification, controlled at curing stage, was used to prepare TSPI composites considering both performance and process requirements. The mechanical properties related to trimming process were mainly studied due to the special requirements of the regularity of scratch edges caused by a tungsten needle. The analysis on scratch edges reveals that the generation and propagation of microcracks caused by scratching together with crack closure effect may lead to regular scratch traces. Experiments show that the elongation at break of TSPI composites is the main reason that determines the special mechanical properties. The desired candidate materials should have proper hardness and toughness, and the specific mechanical data are that the mean elongation at break and tensile strength of polymer materials are in the range of 9.2–10.4% and 100–107 MPa, respectively. Possible reasons for the effect of the modifiers chosen on TSPI polymers, the reaction mechanisms on modified TSPI resin and the IPN structure in TSPI composite polymers were discussed based on IR and TG analysis

  19. Anoxybacillus vitaminiphilus sp. nov., a strictly aerobic and moderately thermophilic bacterium isolated from a hot spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin-Qi; Zhang, Zhen-Li; Wu, Nan; Zhu, Xu-Fen; Wu, Min

    2013-11-01

    A strictly aerobic, Gram-stain-positive, motile and spore-forming bacterium, strain 3nP4(T), was isolated from the Puge hot spring located in the south-western geothermal area of China. Strain 3nP4(T) grew at 38-66 °C (optimum 57-60 °C), at pH 6.0-9.3 (optimum 7.0-7.5) and with 0-4 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 0-0.5 %). Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences, as well as DNA-DNA relatedness values, indicated that the isolate represents a novel species of the genus Anoxybacillus, related most closely to Anoxybacillus voinovskiensis DSM 12111(T). Strain 3nP4(T) had diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and one unidentified phospholipid as major polar lipids and iso-C15 : 0 and iso-C17 : 0 as major fatty acids, which are both typical chemotaxonomic characteristics of the genus Anoxybacillus. The mean DNA G+C content of strain 3nP4(T) was 39.2±0.95 mol% (HPLC). A distinctive characteristic of the novel isolate was its extreme reliance on vitamin mixture or yeast extract for growth. Based on data from this taxonomic study using a polyphasic approach, strain 3nP4(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Anoxybacillus, for which the name Anoxybacillus vitaminiphilus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 3nP4(T) ( = CGMCC 1.8979(T) = JCM 16594(T)).

  20. The predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis does not perceive odor mixtures as strictly elemental objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, Michiel; de Bruijn, Paulien J A; Sabelis, Maurice W

    2010-11-01

    . persimilis perceives odor mixtures as a collection of strictly elemental objects. They suggest that odor mixtures rather are perceived as one synthetic whole.

  1. Molecular basis of a novel adaptation to hypoxic-hypercapnia in a strictly fossorial mole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonaventura Joseph

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elevated blood O2 affinity enhances survival at low O2 pressures, and is perhaps the best known and most broadly accepted evolutionary adjustment of terrestrial vertebrates to environmental hypoxia. This phenotype arises by increasing the intrinsic O2 affinity of the hemoglobin (Hb molecule, by decreasing the intracellular concentration of allosteric effectors (e.g., 2,3-diphosphoglycerate; DPG, or by suppressing the sensitivity of Hb to these physiological cofactors. Results Here we report that strictly fossorial eastern moles (Scalopus aquaticus have evolved a low O2 affinity, DPG-insensitive Hb - contrary to expectations for a mammalian species that is adapted to the chronic hypoxia and hypercapnia of subterranean burrow systems. Molecular modelling indicates that this functional shift is principally attributable to a single charge altering amino acid substitution in the β-type δ-globin chain (δ136Gly→Glu of this species that perturbs electrostatic interactions between the dimer subunits via formation of an intra-chain salt-bridge with δ82Lys. However, this replacement also abolishes key binding sites for the red blood cell effectors Cl-, lactate and DPG (the latter of which is virtually absent from the red cells of this species at δ82Lys, thereby markedly reducing competition for carbamate formation (CO2 binding at the δ-chain N-termini. Conclusions We propose this Hb phenotype illustrates a novel mechanism for adaptively elevating the CO2 carrying capacity of eastern mole blood during burst tunnelling activities associated with subterranean habitation.

  2. Light perception in two strictly subterranean rodents: life in the dark or blue?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondrej Kott

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The African mole-rats (Bathyergidae, Rodentia are strictly subterranean, congenitally microphthalmic rodents that are hardly ever exposed to environmental light. Because of the lack of an overt behavioural reaction to light, they have long been considered to be blind. However, recent anatomical studies have suggested retention of basic visual capabilities. In this study, we employed behavioural tests to find out if two mole-rat species are able to discriminate between light and dark, if they are able to discriminate colours and, finally, if the presence of light in burrows provokes plugging behaviour, which is assumed to have a primarily anti-predatory function. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: We used a binary choice test to show that the silvery mole-rat Heliophobius argenteocinereus and the giant mole-rat Fukomys mechowii exhibit a clear photoavoidance response to full-spectrum ("white", blue and green-yellow light, but no significant reaction to ultraviolet or red light during nest building. The mole-rats thus retain dark/light discrimination capabilities and a capacity to perceive short to medium-wavelength light in the photopic range of intensities. These findings further suggest that the mole-rat S opsin has its absorption maximum in the violet/blue part of the spectrum. The assay did not yield conclusive evidence regarding colour discrimination. To test the putative role of vision in bathyergid anti-predatory behaviour, we examined the reaction of mole-rats to the incidence of light in an artificial burrow system. The presence of light in the burrow effectively induced plugging of the illuminated tunnel. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings suggest that the photopic vision is conserved and that low acuity residual vision plays an important role in predator avoidance and tunnel maintenance in the African mole-rats.

  3. Feed evaluation, nitrogen requirements and the effect of supplementary feeding on the performance of small ruminants in Cyprus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjipanayiotou, M.

    1988-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to evaluate the quality of various sources of roughage available in Cyprus as well as to determine the protein requirements of milk producing sheep and goats. Throughout the experimental programme comparisons were made between sheep and goats. A range of gramineous and leguminous hays were fed to Chios sheep in order to measure the digestibility of different constituents and digestible energy values. These hays were analysed chemically and digestibility was estimated in vitro. The leguminous hays were of higher digestibility (66.5%) than the gramineous (57.0%) despite having higher concentrations of acid detergent lignin (5.95 vs. 3.55%). There was good correlation between in vivo and in vitro measurements of digestibility. A series of experiments was conducted to measure various aspects of protein quality and requirements for production. In field trials, grazing goats were fed supplements of barley with or without a protein/mineral supplement. The inclusion of the protein/mineral supplement improved performance in suckling goats but not during pregnancy or mid-lactation. The mean retention time of protein in the rumen of lactating and dry ewes and goats was estimated using Cr-labelled soybean meal. Effective digestibility values (degradability values related to outflow rates) were similar in the two species, but were greater in lactating than dry animals. The requirements for protein in dairy goats were determined at various stages of lactation. In early lactation approximately 140 g CP/kg feed DM were required compared to around 100 g in late lactation. Two sources of protein, soybean and fishmeal, were compared in diets for ewes and goats. Significantly higher milk production was observed in ewes fed fishmeal but not in goats. (author). 29 refs, 9 tabs

  4. [Definition and specification requirements for PAC-systems (picture archiving and communication system). A performance index with reference to the standard "IEEE Recommended Practice for Software Requirement Specifications"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, H; Klose, K J

    1999-04-01

    The formulation of requirements is necessary to control the goals of a PACS project. Furthermore, in this way, the scope of functionality necessary to support radiological working processes becomes clear. Definitions of requirements and specification are formulated independently of systems according to the IEEE standard "Recommended Practice for Software Requirements Specifications". Definitions are given in the Request for Information, specifications in the Request for Proposal. Functional and non-functional requirements are distinguished. The solutions are rated with respect to scope, appropriateness and quality of implementation. A PACS checklist was created according to the methods described above. It is published on the homepage of the "Arbeitsgemeinschaft Informationstechnologie" (AGIT) within the "Deutsche Röntgengesellschaft" (DRG) (http://www.uni-marburg.de/mzr/agit). The checklist provides a discussion forum which should contribute to an agreement on accepted basic PACS functionalities.

  5. Convergence of Implicit and Explicit Schemes for an Asymptotically Nonexpansive Mapping in -Uniformly Smooth and Strictly Convex Banach Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Wen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a new iterative scheme with Meir-Keeler contractions for an asymptotically nonexpansive mapping in -uniformly smooth and strictly convex Banach spaces. We also proved the strong convergence theorems of implicit and explicit schemes. The results obtained in this paper extend and improve many recent ones announced by many others.

  6. Short-Acting Gas Tamponade with Strict Face-Down Posturing for the Treatment of Idiopathic Macular Hole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotzaridis, Stratos; Liazos, Efstathios; Petrou, Petros; Georgalas, Ilias

    2017-01-01

    A retrospective consecutive case series to evaluate the safety and efficacy of 25 gauge pars plana vitrectomy, ILM peeling, 20% SF 6 gas tamponade and strict posturing for the treatment of idiopathic full-thickness macular holes. We report the results of 106 consecutive eyes that underwent standard 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy, brilliant peel-assisted internal limiting membrane peel, fluid:gas exchange with 20% SF 6 and strict posturing for one week. All patients were followed up at one week, one month, three months, and nine months postoperatively. Biomicroscopy at day 1 and biomicroscopy and OCT at week 1, months 1, 3, and 9 were used to assess macular hole status postoperatively. Pre- and postoperative logMAR visual acuity was compared. The macular hole was closed in 102/106 eyes postoperatively (96.2%). Four eyes showed unclosed macular holes and underwent additional SF 6 intravitreal injection and strict posturing for 10 days. All macular holes were eventually closed without the need of a second surgical procedure. Mean visual acuity improved from 0.63 logMAR preoperatively to 0.39 logMAR postoperatively. One case of retinal toxicity was reported due to accidental intravitreal injection of antibiotic. 25-gauge vitrectomy, ILM peel, and short-acting gas tamponade are highly effective for the treatment of macular holes. Additional intravitreal gas injection followed by strict posturing seems to be a simple and effective treatment for unclosed holes.

  7. Distinct Osmoadaptation Strategies in the Strict Halophilic and Halotolerant Bacteria Isolated from Lunsu Salt Water Body of North West Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Shivani; Dev, Kamal; Sourirajan, Anuradha

    2018-07-01

    Two strict halophilic bacterial strains, Halobacillus trueperi SS1, and Halobacillus trueperi SS3, and three halotolerant bacterial strains, Shewanella algae SS2, Halomonas venusta SS5, and Marinomonas sp. SS8 of Lunsu salt water body, Himachal Pradesh, India, were selected to study the mechanism of salt tolerance and the role of osmolytes therein. A combination of flame photometry, chromatographic and colorimetric assays was used to study the mechanism of salt tolerance in the selected strict halophilic and halotolerant bacterial strains. The strict halophiles and, one of the halotolerants, Marinomonas sp. SS8 were found to utilize both "salt-in strategy" and "accumulation of compatible solutes strategy" for osmoregulation in hypersaline conditions. On the contrary, the remaining two halotolerants used "accumulation of compatible solutes strategy" under saline stress and not the "salt-in strategy". The present study suggests towards distinct mechanisms of salt tolerance in the two classes, wherein strict halophiles accumulate compatible solutes as well as adopt salt-in strategy, while the halotolerant bacteria accumulate a range of compatible solutes, except Marinomonas sp. SS8, which utilizes both the strategies to combat salt stress.

  8. Performance assessment requirements for the identification and tracking of transuranic waste intended for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snider, C.A. [Department of Energy, Carlsbad, NM (United States); Weston, W.W. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Carlsbad, NM (United States)

    1997-11-01

    To demonstrate compliance with environmental radiation protection standards for management and disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive wastes, a performance assessment (PA) of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) was made of waste-waste and waste-repository interactions and impacts on disposal system performance. An estimate of waste components and accumulated quantities was derived from a roll-up of the generator/storage sites` TRU waste inventories. Waste components of significance, and some of negligible effect, were fixed input parameters in the model. The results identified several waste components that require identification and tracking of quantities to ensure that repository limits are not exceeded. The rationale used to establish waste component limits based on input estimates is discussed. The distinction between repository limits and waste container limits is explained. Controls used to ensure that no limits are exceeded are identified. For waste components with no explicit repository based limits, other applicable limits are contained in the WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). The 10 radionuclides targeted for identification and tracking on either a waste container or a waste stream basis include Am-241, Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-242, U-233, U-234, U-238, Sr-90, and Cs-137. The accumulative activities of these radionuclides are to be inventoried at the time of emplacement in the WIPP. Changes in inventory curie content as a function of radionuclide decay and ingrowth over time will be calculated and tracked. Due to the large margin of compliance demonstrated by PA with the 10,000 year release limits specified, the quality assurance objective for radioassay of the 10 radionuclides need to be no more restrictive than those already identified for addressing the requirements imposed by transportation and WIPP disposal operations in Section 9 of the TRU Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan. 6 refs.

  9. Maintaining Aura's Orbit Requirements While Performing Orbit Maintenance Maneuvers Containing an Orbit Normal Delta-V Component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Megan R.; Petersen, Jeremy D.

    2014-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) Afternoon Constellation consists of five member missions (GCOM-W1, Aqua, CALIPSO, CloudSat, and Aura), each of which maintain a frozen, sun-synchronous orbit with a 16-day repeating ground track that follows the Worldwide Reference System-2 (WRS-2). Under nominal science operations for Aura, the propulsion system is oriented such that the resultant thrust vector is aligned 13.493 degrees away from the velocity vector along the yaw axis. When performing orbit maintenance maneuvers, the spacecraft performs a yaw slew to align the thrust vector in the appropriate direction. A new Drag Make Up (DMU) maneuver operations scheme has been implemented for Aura alleviating the need for the 13.493 degree yaw slew. The focus of this investigation is to assess the impact that no-slew DMU maneuver operations will have on Aura's Mean Local Time (MLT) which drives the required along track separation between Aura and the constellation members, as well as Aura's frozen orbit properties, eccentricity and argument of perigee. Seven maneuver strategies were analyzed to determine the best operational approach. A mirror pole strategy, with maneuvers alternating at the North and South poles, was implemented operationally to minimize impact to the MLT. Additional analysis determined that the mirror pole strategy could be further modified to include frozen orbit maneuvers and thus maintain both MLT and the frozen orbit properties under noslew operations.

  10. Orbital prefrontal cortex is required for object-in-place scene memory but not performance of a strategy implementation task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Mark G; Gaffan, David; Kyriazis, Diana A; Mitchell, Anna S

    2007-10-17

    The orbital prefrontal cortex is thought to be involved in behavioral flexibility in primates, and human neuroimaging studies have identified orbital prefrontal activation during episodic memory encoding. The goal of the present study was to ascertain whether deficits in strategy implementation and episodic memory that occur after ablation of the entire prefrontal cortex can be ascribed to damage to the orbital prefrontal cortex. Rhesus monkeys were preoperatively trained on two behavioral tasks, the performance of both of which is severely impaired by the disconnection of frontal cortex from inferotemporal cortex. In the strategy implementation task, monkeys were required to learn about two categories of objects, each associated with a different strategy that had to be performed to obtain food reward. The different strategies had to be applied flexibly to optimize the rate of reward delivery. In the scene memory task, monkeys learned 20 new object-in-place discrimination problems in each session. Monkeys were tested on both tasks before and after bilateral ablation of orbital prefrontal cortex. These lesions impaired new scene learning but had no effect on strategy implementation. This finding supports a role for the orbital prefrontal cortex in memory but places limits on the involvement of orbital prefrontal cortex in the representation and implementation of behavioral goals and strategies.

  11. Analytical Performance Requirements for Systems for Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose With Focus on System Accuracy: Relevant Differences Among ISO 15197:2003, ISO 15197:2013, and Current FDA Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freckmann, Guido; Schmid, Christina; Baumstark, Annette; Rutschmann, Malte; Haug, Cornelia; Heinemann, Lutz

    2015-07-01

    In the European Union (EU), the ISO (International Organization for Standardization) 15197 standard is applicable for the evaluation of systems for self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) before the market approval. In 2013, a revised version of this standard was published. Relevant revisions in the analytical performance requirements are the inclusion of the evaluation of influence quantities, for example, hematocrit, and some changes in the testing procedures for measurement precision and system accuracy evaluation, for example, number of test strip lots. Regarding system accuracy evaluation, the most important change is the inclusion of more stringent accuracy criteria. In 2014, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the United States published their own guidance document for the premarket evaluation of SMBG systems with even more stringent system accuracy criteria than stipulated by ISO 15197:2013. The establishment of strict accuracy criteria applicable for the premarket evaluation is a possible approach to further improve the measurement quality of SMBG systems. However, the system accuracy testing procedure is quite complex, and some critical aspects, for example, systematic measurement difference between the reference measurement procedure and a higher-order procedure, may potentially limit the apparent accuracy of a given system. Therefore, the implementation of a harmonized reference measurement procedure for which traceability to standards of higher order is verified through an unbroken, documented chain of calibrations is desirable. In addition, the establishment of regular and standardized post-marketing evaluations of distributed test strip lots should be considered as an approach toward an improved measurement quality of available SMBG systems. © 2015 Diabetes Technology Society.

  12. End-to-end performance of cooperative relaying in spectrum-sharing systems with quality of service requirements

    KAUST Repository

    Asghari, Vahid Reza

    2011-07-01

    We propose adopting a cooperative relaying technique in spectrum-sharing cognitive radio (CR) systems to more effectively and efficiently utilize available transmission resources, such as power, rate, and bandwidth, while adhering to the quality of service (QoS) requirements of the licensed (primary) users of the shared spectrum band. In particular, we first consider that the cognitive (secondary) user\\'s communication is assisted by an intermediate relay that implements the decode-and-forward (DF) technique onto the secondary user\\'s relayed signal to help with communication between the corresponding source and the destination nodes. In this context, we obtain first-order statistics pertaining to the first- and second-hop transmission channels, and then, we investigate the end-to-end performance of the proposed spectrum-sharing cooperative relaying system under resource constraints defined to assure that the primary QoS is unaffected. Specifically, we investigate the overall average bit error rate (BER), ergodic capacity, and outage probability of the secondary\\'s communication subject to appropriate constraints on the interference power at the primary receivers. We then consider a general scenario where a cluster of relays is available between the secondary source and destination nodes. In this case, making use of the partial relay selection method, we generalize our results for the single-relay scheme and obtain the end-to-end performance of the cooperative spectrum-sharing system with a cluster of L available relays. Finally, we examine our theoretical results through simulations and comparisons, illustrating the overall performance of the proposed spectrum-sharing cooperative system and quantify its advantages for different operating scenarios and conditions. © 2011 IEEE.

  13. STATUS KESEHATAN GIGI, PERFORMED TREATMENT INDEX DAN REQUIRED TREATMENT INDEX ANAK SEKOLAH DASAR DI KABUPATEN CIANJUR, KARAWANG DAN SERANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdarina D. Agtini

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Community dental health status for permanent teeth in determined by the DMF-T (Decayed Misssing and Filled Teeth. The DMF-T in a number of industrialized nations shows a tendency to drop while the trend in developing nations is increasing. In Indonesia dental caries is still the foremost problem in oral and dental diseases, Prevalence of dental caries is around 85%-99%. The DMF-T is varied, reflect geographic and ages variations. In three decade's the intensity of dental caries is increasing with each decade, 0,70 DMF-T in 1970 to be 2,30 DMF-T in 1980 and 2,70 DMF-Tin 1990. Goal of dental caries control for 2010 is DMF-T ≤ 1 for 12 years age group. Baseline study is therefore necessary to ascertain DMF-T, PTI (Performed Treatment Index and RTI (Required Treatment Index. The study was implemented in the districts of Cianjur, Karawang and Serang in West Java for two years. The study design was cohort. The respondents  were 1200 pupils aged 8 years, randomly selected with a signifzcantcy grade of p < 0,05 and power of 0,20. The study results showed average of DMF-T at the beginning was 1,52 ± 1,21, and after two years the DMF-T was 2.45 ± 1.51 comprise only of the decayed component, and There was significant different (p=0,000. The DMF-T was low WHO criteria, nevertheless the PTI (1,2% was very low and the RTI (98% was very high. The DMF_T average shows a tendency to increase, with D as the largest component and F (Filling the smallest one. The control of dental caries faces several problems, like the limited number of manpower and facilities, and limited supply of water and electricity incertain areas. Therefore treatment of dental caries with GIC fillings using the ART method should be taken into consideration receive the necessary attention.   Key words:  Status kesehatan gigi, Karies, Performed treatment Index (PTI,  Required Treatment  Index (RTI

  14. Examining the Operational Effectiveness and Accountability of Federal Agencies as Indicated in the Performance and Accountability Reports Required by the Government Performance and Results Act of 1993

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Caron, Lenn E; Farricker, Daniel A; Underwood, Jeffrey R

    2007-01-01

    .... The agencies chosen were performing at different levels of effectiveness, according to the performance and accountability scorecard produced by the Mercatus Center at George Mason University, a non...

  15. Functional Mitochondrial Complex I Is Required by Tobacco Leaves for Optimal Photosynthetic Performance in Photorespiratory Conditions and during Transients1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutilleul, Christelle; Driscoll, Simon; Cornic, Gabriel; De Paepe, Rosine; Foyer, Christine H.; Noctor, Graham

    2003-01-01

    The importance of the mitochondrial electron transport chain in photosynthesis was studied using the tobacco (Nicotiana sylvestris) mutant CMSII, which lacks functional complex I. Rubisco activities and oxygen evolution at saturating CO2 showed that photosynthetic capacity in the mutant was at least as high as in wild-type (WT) leaves. Despite this, steady-state photosynthesis in the mutant was reduced by 20% to 30% at atmospheric CO2 levels. The inhibition of photosynthesis was alleviated by high CO2 or low O2. The mutant showed a prolonged induction of photosynthesis, which was exacerbated in conditions favoring photorespiration and which was accompanied by increased extractable NADP-malate dehydrogenase activity. Feeding experiments with leaf discs demonstrated that CMSII had a lower capacity than the WT for glycine (Gly) oxidation in the dark. Analysis of the postillumination burst in CO2 evolution showed that this was not because of insufficient Gly decarboxylase capacity. Despite the lower rate of Gly metabolism in CMSII leaves in the dark, the Gly to Ser ratio in the light displayed a similar dependence on photosynthesis to the WT. It is concluded that: (a) Mitochondrial complex I is required for optimal photosynthetic performance, despite the operation of alternative dehydrogenases in CMSII; and (b) complex I is necessary to avoid redox disruption of photosynthesis in conditions where leaf mitochondria must oxidize both respiratory and photorespiratory substrates simultaneously. PMID:12529534

  16. What are the required maintenance and consolidation activities to run at design performance levels (injectors and LHC) until 2035?

    CERN Document Server

    Baird, S

    2014-01-01

    Assuming that Linac4 is connected to the PSB in LS2, we will outline the maintenance and basic consolidation works that will be needed to maintain design performance of the LHC and its Injector chain until 2035, with an overall reliability as good as that achieved in the first LHC operation period 2009 to 2013. Using these data we will estimate the shutdown schedule needed throughout this period to complete these maintenance and consolidation works. These estimates will also include the required radiation cool-down periods, time for system re-commissioning and testing as well as the time needed to restart the accelerator chain for LHC colliding beam operation. As some of the consolidation activities needed for the PS and SPS machines are related to the radia tion dose taken by the machine equipment (e.g., irradiated cable replacement and magnet renovation) the variation of these time estimates as a function of beam losses in the Injector chain will also be covered.

  17. Strict liability as a legal mechanism protecting the aggrieved parties' interests within the nuclear liability regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novotna, Marianna

    2016-01-01

    The no-fault liability principle of nuclear liability regime, its compensation schemes, sociological and legal grounds of its construction as well as liberation grounds are analysed. The simple existence of causation of damage and nuclear accident without necessity of proving negligence or any other type of fault on the part of the operator as an adequate basis for the operator’s strict liability is highlighted thus simplifying the litigation process eliminating potential obstacles, especially such as might exist with the burden of proof. The question of weighing the interests of society in the development of nuclear industry, the necessary extent of protection of victims of nuclear accidents and the interests of operators of nuclear facilities as main determinants of the strict nature of nuclear liability is also described. (orig.)

  18. Strong Convergence to Common Fixed Points of a Countable Family of Asymptotically Strictly Quasi-ϕ-Pseudocontractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Qi Deng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on an original idea, namely, a specific way of choosing the indexes of the involved mappings, we propose a new hybrid shrinking iteration scheme for approximating some common fixed points of a countable family of asymptotically strictly quasi-ϕ-pseudocontractions and obtain a strong convergence theorem in the framework of Banach space. Our result extends other authors, related results existing in the current literature. As application, an iterative solution to a system of equilibrium problems is provided.

  19. The impact of Sleep Time-Related Information and Communication Technology (STRICT) on sleep patterns and daytime functioning in American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polos, Peter G; Bhat, Sushanth; Gupta, Divya; O'Malley, Richard J; DeBari, Vincent A; Upadhyay, Hinesh; Chaudhry, Saqib; Nimma, Anitha; Pinto-Zipp, Genevieve; Chokroverty, Sudhansu

    2015-10-01

    This cross-sectional study explored the extent and impact of mobile device-based Sleep Time-Related Information and Communication Technology (STRICT) use among American adolescents (N = 3139, 49.3% female, mean age = 13.3 years). Nearly 62% used STRICT after bedtime, 56.7% texted/tweeted/messaged in bed, and 20.8% awoke to texts. STRICT use was associated with insomnia, daytime sleepiness, eveningness, academic underperformance, later bedtimes and shorter sleep duration. Moderation analysis demonstrated that the association between STRICT use and insomnia increased with age, the association between STRICT use and daytime sleepiness decreased with age, and the association between STRICT use and shorter sleep duration decreased with age and was stronger in girls. Insomnia and daytime sleepiness partially mediated the relationship between STRICT use and academic underperformance. Our results illustrate the adverse interactions between adolescent STRICT use and sleep, with deleterious effects on daytime functioning. These worrisome findings suggest that placing reasonable limitations on adolescent STRICT use may be appropriate. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Strict Liability Principle and the Human Rights of the Athlete in Doping Cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W. Soek

    2006-01-01

    textabstractAthletes who achieve extraordinary feats on the pitch stir up the imagination and enjoy a unique position within society. However, laurels received one day, may be just as quickly snatched back the next if it becomes known that the athlete achieved his or her exceptional performance

  1. Evaluation of a strict protocol approach in managing women with severe disease due to hypertension in pregnancy: A before and after study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Backer Fèbè

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate whether the introduction of a strict protocol based on the systemic evaluation of critically ill pregnant women with complications of hypertension affected the outcome of those women. Method Study group: Indigent South African women managed in the tertiary hospitals of the Pretoria Academic Complex. Since 1997 a standard definition of women with severe acute maternal morbidity (SAMM, also referred to as a Nearmiss, has been used in the Pretoria Academic Complex. All cases of SAMM and maternal deaths (MD were entered on the Maternal Morbidity and Mortality Audit System programme (MaMMAS. A comparison of outcome of severely ill women who had complications of hypertension in pregnancy was performed between 1997–1998 (original protocol and 2002–2003 (strict protocol. Data include women referred from outside the Pretoria Academic Complex area to the tertiary hospitals. Results Between 1997–1998 there were 79 women with SAMM and 18 maternal deaths due to complications of hypertension, compared with 91 women with SAMM and 13 maternal deaths in 2002–2003. The mortality index (MI declined from 18.6% to 12.5% (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.27–1.45. Statistically significant fewer women had renal failure (RR 0.37, 95% CI 0.21 – 0.66 and cerebral complications (RR 0.52, 95%CI 0.34 – 0.81 during the second period, and liver dysfunction (RR 0.27 95%CI 0.06 – 1.25 tended to be lower. However, there tended to be an increase in the number of women, who had immune system failure (RR 4.2 95%CI 0.93 – 18.94 and respiratory failure (RR 1.42 95%CI 0.88 – 2.29 although it did not reach significance. Cardiac failure remained constant (RR 0.84 95%CI 0.54 – 1.30. Conclusion The strict protocol approach based on the systemic evaluation of severely ill pregnant women with complications of hypertension and an intensive, regular feedback mechanism has been associated with a reduction in the number of patients with renal failure and

  2. The effect of joystick handle size and gain at two levels of required precision on performance and physical load on crane operators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huysmans, M.A.; Looze, M.P. de; Hoozemans, M.J.M.; Beek, A.J. van der; Dieën, J.H. van

    2006-01-01

    The study was designed to determine the effect of joystick handle size and (display-control) gain at two levels of required task precision on performance and physical load on crane operators. Eight experienced crane operators performed a simulated crane operation task on a computer by use of a

  3. On combination of strict Bayesian principles with model reduction technique or how stochastic model calibration can become feasible for large-scale applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladyshkin, S.; Schroeder, P.; Class, H.; Nowak, W.

    2013-12-01

    Predicting underground carbon dioxide (CO2) storage represents a challenging problem in a complex dynamic system. Due to lacking information about reservoir parameters, quantification of uncertainties may become the dominant question in risk assessment. Calibration on past observed data from pilot-scale test injection can improve the predictive power of the involved geological, flow, and transport models. The current work performs history matching to pressure time series from a pilot storage site operated in Europe, maintained during an injection period. Simulation of compressible two-phase flow and transport (CO2/brine) in the considered site is computationally very demanding, requiring about 12 days of CPU time for an individual model run. For that reason, brute-force approaches for calibration are not feasible. In the current work, we explore an advanced framework for history matching based on the arbitrary polynomial chaos expansion (aPC) and strict Bayesian principles. The aPC [1] offers a drastic but accurate stochastic model reduction. Unlike many previous chaos expansions, it can handle arbitrary probability distribution shapes of uncertain parameters, and can therefore handle directly the statistical information appearing during the matching procedure. We capture the dependence of model output on these multipliers with the expansion-based reduced model. In our study we keep the spatial heterogeneity suggested by geophysical methods, but consider uncertainty in the magnitude of permeability trough zone-wise permeability multipliers. Next combined the aPC with Bootstrap filtering (a brute-force but fully accurate Bayesian updating mechanism) in order to perform the matching. In comparison to (Ensemble) Kalman Filters, our method accounts for higher-order statistical moments and for the non-linearity of both the forward model and the inversion, and thus allows a rigorous quantification of calibrated model uncertainty. The usually high computational costs of

  4. An Ultra-light PRNG Passing Strict Randomness Tests and Suitable for Low Cost Tags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OZCANHAN, M. H.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A pseudo-random number generator for low-cost RFID tags is presented. The scheme is simple, sequential and secure, yet has a high performance. Despite its lowest hardware complexity, our proposal represents a better alternative than previous proposals for low-cost tags. The scheme is based on the well-founded pseudo random number generator, Mersenne Twister. The proposed generator takes low-entropy seeds extracted from a physical characteristic of the tag and produces outputs that pass popular randomness tests. Contrarily, previous proposal tests are based on random number inputs from a popular online source, which are simply unavailable to tags. The high performance and satisfactory randomness of present work are supported by extensive test results and compared with similar previous works. Comparison using proven estimation formulae indicates that our proposal has the best hardware complexity, power consumption, and the least cost.

  5. The Test of Logical Thinking as a predictor of first-year pharmacy students' performance in required first-year courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etzler, Frank M; Madden, Michael

    2014-08-15

    To investigate the correlation of scores on the Test of Logical Thinking (TOLT) with first-year pharmacy students' performance in selected courses. The TOLT was administered to 130 first-year pharmacy students. The examination was administered during the first quarter in a single session. The TOLT scores correlated with grades earned in Pharmaceutical Calculations, Physical Pharmacy, and Basic Pharmacokinetics courses. Performance on the TOLT has been correlated to performance in courses that required the ability to use quantitative reasoning to complete required tasks. In the future, it may be possible to recommend remediation, retention, and/or admission based in part on the results from the TOLT.

  6. Maintenance energy requirements of beef cows and relationship with cow and calf performance, metabolic hormones, and functional proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper-Prado, M J; Long, N M; Davis, M P; Wright, E C; Madden, R D; Dilwith, J W; Bailey, C L; Spicer, L J; Wettemann, R P

    2014-08-01

    Gestating Angus, nonlactating, spring-calving cows were used to determine variation in maintenance energy requirements (MR); to evaluate the relationship among MR and cow and calf performance, plasma concentrations of IGF-I, T4, glucose, insulin, and ruminal temperature; and to describe the LM proteome and evaluate protein abundance in cows with different MR. Cows (4 to 7 yr of age) with a BCS of 5.0 ± 0.2 and BW of 582 ± 37 kg in the second to third trimester of gestation were studied in 3 trials (trial 1, n = 23; trial 2, n = 32; trial 3, n = 38). Cows were individually fed a complete diet in amounts to meet predicted MR (Level 1 Model of NRC), and feed intake was adjusted weekly until constant BW was achieved for at least 21 d (maintenance). Cows were classified on the basis of MR as low (>0.5 SD less than mean, LMR), moderate (±0.5 SD of mean, MMR), or high (>0.5 SD more than mean, HMR) MR. Blood samples were taken at maintenance and at 2 mo postpartum in trial 2. Muscle biopsies were taken from LMR and HMR after cows consumed actual MR for 28 d (trial 2) or 21 d (trial 3). Proteins from LM were separated by 2-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis and were identified, and abundance was quantified and compared. The greatest differences in MR between cows were 29%, 24%, and 25% in trials 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Daily MR (NEm, kcal·BW(-0.75)·d(-1)) averaged 89.2 ± 6.3, 93.0 ± 4.9, and 90.4 ± 4.6 in trials 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Postpartum BW and BCS, calf birth and weaning weights, postpartum luteal activity, and ruminal temperature were not influenced by MR of the cows. Concentrations of IGF-I were greater (P = 0.001) in plasma of MMR compared with LMR cows consuming predicted MR diets, and MR was negatively correlated with concentrations of IGF-I in plasma (r = -0.38; P = 0.05) at 2 mo postpartum. A total of 103 proteins were isolated from LM; 52 gene products were identified. Abundance of specific proteins in the LM was not influenced (P > 0

  7. 41 CFR 102-74.351 - If a state or local government has a smoke-free ordinance that is more strict than the smoking...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... government has a smoke-free ordinance that is more strict than the smoking policy for Federal facilities... REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Facility Management Smoking § 102-74.351 If a state or local government has a smoke-free ordinance that is more strict than the smoking policy for Federal facilities...

  8. HOW DO WORK HIERARCHIES AND STRICT DIVISIONS OF LABOUR IMPACT CARE WORKERS' EXPERIENCES OF HEALTH AND SAFETY? CASE STUDIESOF LONG TERM CARE IN TORONTO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, I; Daly, T; Armstrong, P; Lowndes, R; Chadoin, M; Naidoo, V

    2016-01-01

    According to the Canadian Health Care Association (1), there are 2,577 long-term care ("LTC") facilities across Canada, with the largest proportion (33.4%) located in Ontario. Most studies focus on residents' health, with less attention paid to the health and safety experiences of staff. Given that the work performed in Ontario LTC facilities is very gendered, increasingly racialized, task-oriented, and with strict divisions of labour, this paper explores in what ways some of these factors impact workers' experiences of health and safety. The study objectives included the following research question: How are work hierarchies and task orientation experienced by staff? This paper draws on data from rapid team-based ethnographies of the shifting division of labour in LTC due to use of informal carers in six non-profit LTC facilities located in Toronto, Ontario. Our method involved conducting observations and key informant interviews (N=167) with registered nurses, registered practical nurses, personal support workers, dietary aides, recreation therapists, families, privately paid companions, students, and volunteers. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and thematically analyzed. For observations, researchers were paired and covered shifts between 7 a.m. and 11 p.m., as well as into the late night over six days, at each of the six sites. Detailed ethnographic field notes were written during and immediately following observational fieldwork. Our results indicate that employee stress is linked to the experiences of care work hierarchies, task orientation, and strict divisions of labour between and among various staff designations. Findings from this project confirm and extend current research that demonstrates there are challenging working conditions in LTC, which can result in occupational health and safety problems, as well as stress for individual workers.

  9. Atmospheric vs. anaerobic processing of metabolome samples for the metabolite profiling of a strict anaerobic bacterium, Clostridium acetobutylicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Sooah; Kwon, Min-A; Jung, Young Hoon; Shin, Yong-An; Kim, Kyoung Heon

    2014-12-01

    Well-established metabolome sample preparation is a prerequisite for reliable metabolomic data. For metabolome sampling of a Gram-positive strict anaerobe, Clostridium acetobutylicum, fast filtration and metabolite extraction with acetonitrile/methanol/water (2:2:1, v/v) at -20°C under anaerobic conditions has been commonly used. This anaerobic metabolite processing method is laborious and time-consuming since it is conducted in an anaerobic chamber. Also, there have not been any systematic method evaluation and development of metabolome sample preparation for strict anaerobes and Gram-positive bacteria. In this study, metabolome sampling and extraction methods were rigorously evaluated and optimized for C. acetobutylicum by using gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry-based metabolomics, in which a total of 116 metabolites were identified. When comparing the atmospheric (i.e., in air) and anaerobic (i.e., in an anaerobic chamber) processing of metabolome sample preparation, there was no significant difference in the quality and quantity of the metabolomic data. For metabolite extraction, pure methanol at -20°C was a better solvent than acetonitrile/methanol/water (2:2:1, v/v/v) at -20°C that is frequently used for C. acetobutylicum, and metabolite profiles were significantly different depending on extraction solvents. This is the first evaluation of metabolite sample preparation under aerobic processing conditions for an anaerobe. This method could be applied conveniently, efficiently, and reliably to metabolome analysis for strict anaerobes in air. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Hydroxycinnamic acids used as external acceptors of electrons: an energetic advantage for strictly heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filannino, Pasquale; Gobbetti, Marco; De Angelis, Maria; Di Cagno, Raffaella

    2014-12-01

    The metabolism of hydroxycinnamic acids by strictly heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria (19 strains) was investigated as a potential alternative energy route. Lactobacillus curvatus PE5 was the most tolerant to hydroxycinnamic acids, followed by strains of Weissella spp., Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus fermentum, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides, for which the MIC values were the same. The highest sensitivity was found for Lactobacillus rossiae strains. During growth in MRS broth, lactic acid bacteria reduced caffeic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids into dihydrocaffeic, phloretic, and dihydroferulic acids, respectively, or decarboxylated hydroxycinnamic acids into the corresponding vinyl derivatives and then reduced the latter compounds to ethyl compounds. Reductase activities mainly emerged, and the activities of selected strains were further investigated in chemically defined basal medium (CDM) under anaerobic conditions. The end products of carbon metabolism were quantified, as were the levels of intracellular ATP and the NAD(+)/NADH ratio. Electron and carbon balances and theoretical ATP/glucose yields were also estimated. When CDM was supplemented with hydroxycinnamic acids, the synthesis of ethanol decreased and the concentration of acetic acid increased. The levels of these metabolites reflected on the alcohol dehydrogenase and acetate kinase activities. Overall, some biochemical traits distinguished the common metabolism of strictly heterofermentative strains: main reductase activity toward hydroxycinnamic acids, a shift from alcohol dehydrogenase to acetate kinase activities, an increase in the NAD(+)/NADH ratio, and the accumulation of supplementary intracellular ATP. Taken together, the above-described metabolic responses suggest that strictly heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria mainly use hydroxycinnamic acids as external acceptors of electrons. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Fermentative Degradation of Polyethylene Glycol by a Strictly Anaerobic, Gram-Negative, Nonsporeforming Bacterium, Pelobacter venetianus sp. nov

    OpenAIRE

    1983-01-01

    The synthetic polyether polyethylene glycol (PEG) with a molecular weight of 20,000 was anaerobically degraded in enrichment cultures inoculated with mud of limnic and marine origins. Three strains (Gra PEG 1, Gra PEG 2, and Ko PEG 2) of rod-shaped, gram-negative, nonsporeforming, strictly anaerobic bacteria were isolated in mineral medium with PEG as the sole source of carbon and energy. All strains degraded dimers, oligomers, and polymers of PEG up to a molecular weight of 20,000 completely...

  12. Some results on a general iterative method for k-strictly pseudo-contractive mappings

    OpenAIRE

    Jung Jong Soo

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Let H be a Hilbert space, C be a closed convex subset of H such that C ± C ⊂ C, and T : C → H be a k-strictly pseudo-contractive mapping with F(T) ≠ ∅ for some 0 ≤ k < 1. Let F : C → C be a κ-Lipschitzian and η-strongly monotone operator with κ > 0 and η > 0 and f : C → C be a contraction with the contractive constant α ∈ (0, 1). Let , and τ < 1. Let {αn } and {βn } be sequen...

  13. Structural stability of solutions to the Riemann problem for a non-strictly hyperbolic system with flux approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meina Sun

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We study the Riemann problem for a non-strictly hyperbolic system of conservation laws under the linear approximations of flux functions with three parameters. The approximated system also belongs to the type of triangular systems of conservation laws and this approximation does not change the structure of Riemann solutions to the original system. Furthermore, it is proven that the Riemann solutions to the approximated system converge to the corresponding ones to the original system as the perturbation parameter tends to zero.

  14. Composite Intelligent Learning Control of Strict-Feedback Systems With Disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bin; Sun, Fuchun

    2018-02-01

    This paper addresses the dynamic surface control of uncertain nonlinear systems on the basis of composite intelligent learning and disturbance observer in presence of unknown system nonlinearity and time-varying disturbance. The serial-parallel estimation model with intelligent approximation and disturbance estimation is built to obtain the prediction error and in this way the composite law for weights updating is constructed. The nonlinear disturbance observer is developed using intelligent approximation information while the disturbance estimation is guaranteed to converge to a bounded compact set. The highlight is that different from previous work directly toward asymptotic stability, the transparency of the intelligent approximation and disturbance estimation is included in the control scheme. The uniformly ultimate boundedness stability is analyzed via Lyapunov method. Through simulation verification, the composite intelligent learning with disturbance observer can efficiently estimate the effect caused by system nonlinearity and disturbance while the proposed approach obtains better performance with higher accuracy.

  15. Maintenance of Taste Organs Is Strictly Dependent on Epithelial Hedgehog/GLI Signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre N Ermilov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available For homeostasis, lingual taste papilla organs require regulation of epithelial cell survival and renewal, with sustained innervation and stromal interactions. To investigate a role for Hedgehog/GLI signaling in adult taste organs we used a panel of conditional mouse models to manipulate GLI activity within epithelial cells of the fungiform and circumvallate papillae. Hedgehog signaling suppression rapidly led to taste bud loss, papilla disruption, and decreased proliferation in domains of papilla epithelium that contribute to taste cells. Hedgehog responding cells were eliminated from the epithelium but retained in the papilla stromal core. Despite papilla disruption and loss of taste buds that are a major source of Hedgehog ligand, innervation to taste papillae was maintained, and not misdirected, even after prolonged GLI blockade. Further, vimentin-positive fibroblasts remained in the papilla core. However, retained innervation and stromal cells were not sufficient to maintain taste bud cells in the context of compromised epithelial Hedgehog signaling. Importantly taste organ disruption after GLI blockade was reversible in papillae that retained some taste bud cell remnants where reactivation of Hedgehog signaling led to regeneration of papilla epithelium and taste buds. Therefore, taste bud progenitors were either retained during epithelial GLI blockade or readily repopulated during recovery, and were poised to regenerate taste buds once Hedgehog signaling was restored, with innervation and papilla connective tissue elements in place. Our data argue that Hedgehog signaling is essential for adult tongue tissue maintenance and that taste papilla epithelial cells represent the key targets for physiologic Hedgehog-dependent regulation of taste organ homeostasis. Because disruption of GLI transcriptional activity in taste papilla epithelium is sufficient to drive taste organ loss, similar to pharmacologic Hedgehog pathway inhibition, the findings

  16. Maintenance of Taste Organs Is Strictly Dependent on Epithelial Hedgehog/GLI Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermilov, Alexandre N; Kumari, Archana; Li, Libo; Joiner, Ariell M; Grachtchouk, Marina A; Allen, Benjamin L; Dlugosz, Andrzej A; Mistretta, Charlotte M

    2016-11-01

    For homeostasis, lingual taste papilla organs require regulation of epithelial cell survival and renewal, with sustained innervation and stromal interactions. To investigate a role for Hedgehog/GLI signaling in adult taste organs we used a panel of conditional mouse models to manipulate GLI activity within epithelial cells of the fungiform and circumvallate papillae. Hedgehog signaling suppression rapidly led to taste bud loss, papilla disruption, and decreased proliferation in domains of papilla epithelium that contribute to taste cells. Hedgehog responding cells were eliminated from the epithelium but retained in the papilla stromal core. Despite papilla disruption and loss of taste buds that are a major source of Hedgehog ligand, innervation to taste papillae was maintained, and not misdirected, even after prolonged GLI blockade. Further, vimentin-positive fibroblasts remained in the papilla core. However, retained innervation and stromal cells were not sufficient to maintain taste bud cells in the context of compromised epithelial Hedgehog signaling. Importantly taste organ disruption after GLI blockade was reversible in papillae that retained some taste bud cell remnants where reactivation of Hedgehog signaling led to regeneration of papilla epithelium and taste buds. Therefore, taste bud progenitors were either retained during epithelial GLI blockade or readily repopulated during recovery, and were poised to regenerate taste buds once Hedgehog signaling was restored, with innervation and papilla connective tissue elements in place. Our data argue that Hedgehog signaling is essential for adult tongue tissue maintenance and that taste papilla epithelial cells represent the key targets for physiologic Hedgehog-dependent regulation of taste organ homeostasis. Because disruption of GLI transcriptional activity in taste papilla epithelium is sufficient to drive taste organ loss, similar to pharmacologic Hedgehog pathway inhibition, the findings suggest that taste

  17. 40 CFR 141.723 - Requirements to respond to significant deficiencies identified in sanitary surveys performed by EPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... deficiencies identified in sanitary surveys performed by EPA. 141.723 Section 141.723 Protection of Environment... performed by EPA, systems must respond in writing to significant deficiencies identified in sanitary survey... will address significant deficiencies noted in the survey. (d) Systems must correct significant...

  18. Memory controllers for high-performance and real-time MPSoCs : requirements, architectures, and future trends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akesson, K.B.; Huang, Po-Chun; Clermidy, F.; Dutoit, D.; Goossens, K.G.W.; Chang, Yuan-Hao; Kuo, Tei-Wei; Vivet, P.; Wingard, D.

    2011-01-01

    Designing memory controllers for complex real-time and high-performance multi-processor systems-on-chip is challenging, since sufficient capacity and (real-time) performance must be provided in a reliable manner at low cost and with low power consumption. This special session contains four

  19. The activity of the anti-apoptotic fragment generated by the caspase-3/p120 RasGAP stress-sensing module displays strict Akt isoform specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanli, Güliz; Peltzer, Nieves; Dubuis, Gilles; Widmann, Christian

    2014-12-01

    The caspase-3/p120 RasGAP module acts as a stress sensor that promotes pro-survival or pro-death signaling depending on the intensity and the duration of the stressful stimuli. Partial cleavage of p120 RasGAP generates a fragment, called fragment N, which protects stressed cells by activating Akt signaling. Akt family members regulate many cellular processes including proliferation, inhibition of apoptosis and metabolism. These cellular processes are regulated by three distinct Akt isoforms: Akt1, Akt2 and Akt3. However, which of these isoforms are required for fragment N mediated protection have not been defined. In this study, we investigated the individual contribution of each isoform in fragment N-mediated cell protection against Fas ligand induced cell death. To this end, DLD1 and HCT116 isogenic cell lines lacking specific Akt isoforms were used. It was found that fragment N could activate Akt1 and Akt2 but that only the former could mediate the protective activity of the RasGAP-derived fragment. Even overexpression of Akt2 or Akt3 could not rescue the inability of fragment N to protect cells lacking Akt1. These results demonstrate a strict Akt isoform requirement for the anti-apoptotic activity of fragment N. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Lightweight high-performance 1-4 meter class spaceborne mirrors: emerging technology for demanding spaceborne requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Tony; Hartmann, Peter; Clarkson, Andrew R.; Barentine, John M.; Jedamzik, Ralf; Westerhoff, Thomas

    2010-07-01

    Pending critical spaceborne requirements, including coronagraphic detection of exoplanets, require exceptionally smooth mirror surfaces, aggressive lightweighting, and low-risk cost-effective optical manufacturing methods. Simultaneous development at Schott for production of aggressively lightweighted (>90%) Zerodur® mirror blanks, and at L-3 Brashear for producing ultra-smooth surfaces on Zerodur®, will be described. New L-3 techniques for large-mirror optical fabrication include Computer Controlled Optical Surfacing (CCOS) pioneered at L-3 Tinsley, and the world's largest MRF machine in place at L-3 Brashear. We propose that exceptional mirrors for the most critical spaceborne applications can now be produced with the technologies described.

  1. Strictly monolayer large continuous MoS{sub 2} films on diverse substrates and their luminescence properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohapatra, P. K.; Deb, S.; Singh, B. P.; Vasa, P.; Dhar, S., E-mail: dhar@phy.iitb.ac.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India)

    2016-01-25

    Despite a tremendous interest on molybdenum disulfide as a thinnest direct band gap semiconductor, single step synthesis of a large area purely monolayer MoS{sub 2} film has not yet been reported. Here, we report a CVD route to synthesize a continuous film of strictly monolayer MoS{sub 2} covering an area as large as a few cm{sup 2} on a variety of different substrates without using any seeding material or any elaborate pretreatment of the substrate. This is achieved by allowing the growth to take place in the naturally formed gap between a piece of SiO{sub 2} coated Si wafer and the substrate, when the latter is placed on top of the former inside a CVD reactor. We propose a qualitative model to explain why the MoS{sub 2} films are always strictly monolayer in this method. The photoluminescence study of these monolayers shows the characteristic excitonic and trionic features associated with monolayer MoS{sub 2}. In addition, a broad defect related luminescence band appears at ∼1.7 eV. As temperature decreases, the intensity of this broad feature increases, while the band edge luminescence reduces.

  2. Sensor performance considerations for aviation weather observations for the NOAA Consolidated Observations Requirements List (CORL CT-AWX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, John; Helms, David; Miner, Cecilia

    2008-08-01

    Airspace system demand is expected to increase as much as 300 percent by the year 2025 and the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) is being developed to accommodate the super-density operations that this will entail. Concomitantly, significant improvements in observations and forecasting are being undertaken to support NextGen which will require greatly improved and more uniformly applied data for aviation weather hazards and constraints which typically comprise storm-scale and microscale observables. Various phenomena are associated with these hazards and constraints such as convective weather, in-flight icing, turbulence, and volcanic ash as well as more mundane aviation parameters such as cloud tops and bases and fuel-freeze temperatures at various flight levels. Emerging problems for aviation in space weather and the environmental impacts of aviation are also occurring at these scales. Until recently, the threshold and objective observational requirements for these observables had not been comprehensively documented in a single, authoritative source. Scientists at NASA and NOAA have recently completed this task and have established baseline observational requirements for the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) and expanded and updated the NOAA Consolidated Observations Requirements List (CORL) for Aviation (CT-AWX) to better inform National Weather Service investments for current and future observing systems. This paper describes the process and results of this effort. These comprehensive aviation observation requirements will now be used to conduct gap analyses for the aviation component of the Integrated Earth Observing System and to inform the investment strategies of the FAA, NASA, and NOAA that are needed to develop the observational architecture to support NextGen and other users of storm and microscale observations.

  3. Development of flight experiment work performance and workstation interface requirements, part 1. Technical report and appendices A through G

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatterick, R. G.

    1973-01-01

    A skill requirement definition method was applied to the problem of determining, at an early stage in system/mission definition, the skills required of on-orbit crew personnel whose activities will be related to the conduct or support of earth-orbital research. The experiment data base was selected from proposed experiments in NASA's earth orbital research and application investigation program as related to space shuttle missions, specifically those being considered for Sortie Lab. Concepts for two integrated workstation consoles for Sortie Lab experiment operations were developed, one each for earth observations and materials sciences payloads, utilizing a common supporting subsystems core console. A comprehensive data base of crew functions, operating environments, task dependencies, task-skills and occupational skills applicable to a representative cross section of earth orbital research experiments is presented. All data has been coded alphanumerically to permit efficient, low cost exercise and application of the data through automatic data processing in the future.

  4. NWTS program criteria for mined geologic disposal of nuclear waste: program objectives, functional requirements, and system performance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-04-01

    At the present time, final repository criteria have not been issued by the responsible agencies. This document describes general objectives, requirements, and criteria that the DOE intends to apply in the interim to the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program. These objectives, requirements, and criteria have been developed on the basis of DOE's analysis of what is needed to achieve the National objective of safe waste disposal in an environmentally acceptable and economic manner and are expected to be consistent with anticipated regulatory standards. The qualitative statements in this document address the broad issues of public and occupational health and safety, institutional acceptability, engineering feasibility, and economic considerations. A comprehensive set of criteria, general and project specific, of which these are a part, will constitute a portion of the technical basis for preparation and submittal by the DOE of formal documents to support future license applications for nuclear waste repositories

  5. NWTS program criteria for mined geologic disposal of nuclear waste: program objectives, functional requirements, and system performance criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-04-01

    At the present time, final repository criteria have not been issued by the responsible agencies. This document describes general objectives, requirements, and criteria that the DOE intends to apply in the interim to the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program. These objectives, requirements, and criteria have been developed on the basis of DOE's analysis of what is needed to achieve the National objective of safe waste disposal in an environmentally acceptable and economic manner and are expected to be consistent with anticipated regulatory standards. The qualitative statements in this document address the broad issues of public and occupational health and safety, institutional acceptability, engineering feasibility, and economic considerations. A comprehensive set of criteria, general and project specific, of which these are a part, will constitute a portion of the technical basis for preparation and submittal by the DOE of formal documents to support future license applications for nuclear waste repositories.

  6. Reducing the Surface Performance Requirements of a Primary Mirror by Adding a Deformable Mirror in its Optical Path

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    data. Of note, the interferometer compensates for the double -pass induced by single reflections off a surface by diving all measurements by 2. However...the interferometer. Since the laser reflects off the CFRP mirror only once, the CFRP wavefront measurements did not require additional double -pass...conducted with a flat mirror in the optical path. Figure 13 presents the measured wavefront error of the CFRP mirror with piston , tip and tip removed and

  7. The FAIR timing master: a discussion of performance requirements and architectures for a high-precision timing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreider, M.

    2012-01-01

    Production chains in a particle accelerator are complex structures with many inter-dependencies and multiple paths to consider. This ranges from system initialization and synchronization of numerous machines to interlock handling and appropriate contingency measures like beam dump scenarios. The FAIR facility will employ White-Rabbit, a time based system which delivers an instruction and a corresponding execution time to a machine. In order to meet the deadlines in any given production chain, instructions need to be sent out ahead of time. For this purpose, code execution and message delivery times need to be known in advance. The FAIR Timing Master needs to be reliably capable of satisfying these timing requirements as well as being fault tolerant. Event sequences of recorded production chains indicate that low reaction times to internal and external events and fast, parallel execution are required. This suggests a slim architecture, especially devised for this purpose. Using the thread model of an OS or other high level programs on a generic CPU would be counterproductive when trying to achieve deterministic processing times. This paper deals with the analysis of said requirements as well as a comparison of known processor and virtual machine architectures and the possibilities of parallelization in programmable hardware. In addition, existing proposals at GSI will be checked against these findings. The final goal will be to determine the best instruction set for modeling any given production chain and devising a suitable architecture to execute these models. (authors)

  8. Next Generation Microbiology Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, C. M.; Oubre, C. M.; Elliott, T. F.; Castro, V. A.; Pierson, D. L.

    2012-01-01

    As humans continue to explore deep into space, microorganisms will travel with them. The primary means to mitigate the risk of infectious disease are a combination of prudent spacecraft design and rigorous operational controls. The effectiveness of these methods are evaluated by microbiological monitoring of spacecraft, food, water, and the crew that is performed preflight, in-flight, and post-flight. Current NASA requirements associated with microbiological monitoring are based on culture-based methodology where microorganisms are grown on a semi-solid growth medium and enumerated. Subsequent identification of the organisms requires specialized labor and large equipment, which historically has been performed on Earth. Requirements that rely strictly on culture-based units limit the use of non-culture based monitoring technology. Specifically, the culture-based "measurement criteria" are Colony Forming Units (CFU, representing the growth of one microorganism at a single location on the agar medium) per a given volume, area, or sample size. As the CFU unit by definition is culture-based, these requirements limit alternative technologies for spaceflight applications. As spaceflight missions such as those to Mars extend further into space, culture-based technology will become difficult to implement due to the (a) limited shelf life of the culture media, (b) mass/volume necessary to carry these consumables, and (c) problems associated with the production of biohazardous material in the habitable volume of the spacecraft. In addition, an extensive amount of new knowledge has been obtained during the Space Shuttle, NASA-Mir, and International Space Station Programs, which gave direction for new or modified microbial control requirements for vehicle design and mission operations. The goal of this task is to develop and recommend a new set of requirements for vehicle design and mission operations, including microbiological monitoring, based upon "lessons learned" and new

  9. Performance/Design Requirements and Detailed Technical Description for a Computer-Directed Training Subsystem for Integration into the Air Force Phase II Base Level System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, A. K.; And Others

    The performance/design requirements and a detailed technical description for a Computer-Directed Training Subsystem to be integrated into the Air Force Phase II Base Level System are described. The subsystem may be used for computer-assisted lesson construction and has presentation capability for on-the-job training for data automation, staff, and…

  10. Strict fibonacci heaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Lagogiannis, George; Tarjan, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    We present the first pointer-based heap implementation with time bounds matching those of Fibonacci heaps in the worst case. We support make-heap, insert, find-min, meld and decrease-key in worst-case O(1) time, and delete and delete-min in worst-case O(lg n) time, where n is the size of the heap...... of the smaller heap when doing a meld. We use the pigeonhole principle in place of the redundant counter mechanism. We present the first pointer-based heap implementation with time bounds matching those of Fibonacci heaps in the worst case. We support make-heap, insert, find-min, meld and decrease-key in worst...

  11. Globally Stable Adaptive Backstepping Neural Network Control for Uncertain Strict-Feedback Systems With Tracking Accuracy Known a Priori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weisheng; Ge, Shuzhi Sam; Wu, Jian; Gong, Maoguo

    2015-09-01

    This paper addresses the problem of globally stable direct adaptive backstepping neural network (NN) tracking control design for a class of uncertain strict-feedback systems under the assumption that the accuracy of the ultimate tracking error is given a priori. In contrast to the classical adaptive backstepping NN control schemes, this paper analyzes the convergence of the tracking error using Barbalat's Lemma via some nonnegative functions rather than the positive-definite Lyapunov functions. Thus, the accuracy of the ultimate tracking error can be determined and adjusted accurately a priori, and the closed-loop system is guaranteed to be globally uniformly ultimately bounded. The main technical novelty is to construct three new n th-order continuously differentiable functions, which are used to design the control law, the virtual control variables, and the adaptive laws. Finally, two simulation examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness and advantages of the proposed control method.

  12. Probing the redox metabolism in the strictly anaerobic, extremely thermophilic, hydrogen-producing Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus using amperometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kostesha, Natalie; Willquist, Karin; Emnéus, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    Changes in the redox metabolism in the anaerobic, extremely thermophilic, hydrogen-forming bacterium Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus were probed for the first time in vivo using mediated amperometry with ferricyanide as a thermotolerant external mediator. Clear differences in the intracellul...... in the intracellular electron flow and to probe redox enzyme properties of a strictly anaerobic thermophile in vivo.......Changes in the redox metabolism in the anaerobic, extremely thermophilic, hydrogen-forming bacterium Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus were probed for the first time in vivo using mediated amperometry with ferricyanide as a thermotolerant external mediator. Clear differences in the intracellular...... the NADH-dependent lactate dehydrogenase, upon which more NADH was directed to membrane-associated enzymes for ferricyanide reduction, leading to a higher electrochemical signal. The method is noninvasive and the results presented here demonstrate that this method can be used to accurately detect changes...

  13. A solid criterion based on strict LMI without invoking equality constraint for stabilization of continuous singular systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuefeng; Chen, YangQuan

    2017-11-01

    The paper considers the stabilization issue of linear continuous singular systems by dealing with strict linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) without invoking equality constraint and proposes a complete and effective solved LMIs formulation. The criterion is necessary and sufficient condition and can be directly solved the feasible solutions with LMI toolbox and is much more tractable and reliable in numerical simulation than existing results, which involve positive semi-definite LMIs with equality constraints. The most important property of the criterion proposed in the paper is that it can overcome the drawbacks of the invalidity caused by the singularity of Ω=PE T +SQ for stabilization of singular systems. Two counterexamples are presented to avoid the disadvantages of the existing condition of stabilization of continuous singular systems. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Development of a PCR assay based on the 16S-23S rDNA internal transcribed spacer for identification of strictly anaerobic bacterium Zymophilus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Felsberg, Jürgen; Jelínková, Markéta; Kubizniaková, P.; Matoulková, D.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 33, June (2015), s. 85-89 ISSN 1075-9964 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Brewing microbiology * Strictly anaerobic bacteria * Yeast contamination Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing Impact factor: 2.424, year: 2015

  15. How to Assess Product Performance in the Circular Economy? Proposed Requirements for the Design of a Circularity Measurement Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Saidani , Michael; YANNOU , Bernard; Leroy , Yann; Cluzel , François

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Assessing product circularity performance is not straightforward. Meanwhile, it gains increasingly importance for businesses and industrial practitioners who are willing to effectively take benefits from circular economy promises. Thus, providing methods and tools to evaluate then enhance product performance—in the light of circular economy—becomes a significant but still barely addressed topic. Following a joint agreement on the need to measure product circularity per...

  16. Strict sequential catheter ablation strategy targeting the pulmonary veins and superior vena cava for persistent atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshiga, Yasuhiro; Shimizu, Akihiko; Ueyama, Takeshi; Ono, Makoto; Fukuda, Masakazu; Fumimoto, Tomoko; Ishiguchi, Hironori; Omuro, Takuya; Kobayashi, Shigeki; Yano, Masafumi

    2018-08-01

    An effective catheter ablation strategy, beyond pulmonary vein isolation (PVI), for persistent atrial fibrillation (AF) is necessary. Pulmonary vein (PV)-reconduction also causes recurrent atrial tachyarrhythmias. The effect of the PVI and additional effect of a superior vena cava (SVC) isolation (SVCI) was strictly evaluated. Seventy consecutive patients with persistent AF who underwent a strict sequential ablation strategy targeting the PVs and SVC were included in this study. The initial ablation strategy was a circumferential PVI. A segmental SVCI was only applied as a repeat procedure when patients demonstrated no PV-reconduction. After the initial procedure, persistent AF was suppressed in 39 of 70 (55.7%) patients during a median follow-up of 32 months. After multiple procedures, persistent AF was suppressed in 46 (65.7%) and 52 (74.3%) patients after receiving the PVI alone and PVI plus SVCI strategies, respectively. In 6 of 15 (40.0%) patients with persistent AF resistant to PVI, persistent AF was suppressed. The persistent AF duration independently predicted persistent AF recurrences after multiple PVI alone procedures [HR: 1.012 (95% confidence interval: 1.006-1.018); pstrategies [HR: 1.018 (95% confidence interval: 1.011-1.025); pstrategies, respectively. The outcomes of the PVI plus SVCI strategy were favorable for patients with shorter persistent AF durations. The initial SVCI had the additional effect of maintaining sinus rhythm in some patients with persistent AF resistant to PVI. Copyright © 2018 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Reliable quantification of bite-force performance requires use of appropriate biting substrate and standardization of bite out-lever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappin, A Kristopher; Jones, Marc E H

    2014-12-15

    Bite-force performance is an ecologically important measure of whole-organism performance that shapes dietary breadth and feeding strategies and, in some taxa, determines reproductive success. It also is a metric that is crucial to testing and evaluating biomechanical models. We reviewed nearly 100 published studies of a range of taxa that incorporate direct in vivo measurements of bite force. Problematically, methods of data collection and processing vary considerably among studies. In particular, there is little consensus on the appropriate substrate to use on the biting surface of force transducers. In addition, the bite out-lever, defined as the distance from the fulcrum (i.e. jaw joint) to the position along the jawline at which the jaws engage the transducer, is rarely taken into account. We examined the effect of bite substrate and bite out-lever on bite-force estimates in a diverse sample of lizards. Results indicate that both variables have a significant impact on the accuracy of measurements. Maximum bite force is significantly greater using leather as the biting substrate compared with a metal substrate. Less-forceful bites on metal are likely due to inhibitory feedback from mechanoreceptors that prevent damage to the feeding apparatus. Standardization of bite out-lever affected which trial produced maximum performance for a given individual. Indeed, maximum bite force is usually underestimated without standardization because it is expected to be greatest at the minimum out-lever (i.e. back of the jaws), which in studies is rarely targeted with success. We assert that future studies should use a pliable substrate, such as leather, and use appropriate standardization for bite out-lever. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. Dizzy people perform no worse at a motor imagery task requiring whole body mental rotation; a case-control comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah B Wallwork

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We wanted to find out whether people who suffer from dizziness take longer than people who do not, to perform a motor imagery task that involves implicit whole body rotation. Our prediction was that people in the ‘dizzy’ group would take longer at a left/right neck rotation judgment task but not a left/right hand judgment task, because actually performing the former, but not the latter, would exacerbate their dizziness. Secondly, we predicted that when dizzy participants responded to neck rotation images, responses would be greatest when images were in the upside-down orientation; an orientation with greatest dizzy-provoking potential. To test this idea, we used a case-control comparison design. One hundred and eighteen participants who suffered from dizziness and 118 age, gender, arm pain and neck pain matched controls took part in the study. Participants undertook two motor imagery tasks; a left/right neck rotation judgment task and a left/right hand judgment task. The tasks were completed using the Recognise program; an on-line reaction time task program. Images of neck rotation were shown in four different orientations; 0°, 90°, 180° and 270°. Participants were asked to respond to each ‘neck’ image identifying it as either ‘right neck rotation’ or a ‘left neck rotation’, or for hands, a right or a left hand. Results showed that participants in the ‘dizzy’ group were slower than controls at both tasks (p= 0.015, but this was not related to task (p= 0.498. Similarly, ‘dizzy’ participants were not proportionally worse at images of different orientations (p= 0.878. Our findings suggest impaired performance in dizzy people, an impairment that may be confined to motor imagery or may extend more generally.

  19. Beyond the Required LISA Free-Fall Performance: New LISA Pathfinder Results down to 20 μ Hz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armano, M.; Audley, H.; Baird, J.; Binetruy, P.; Born, M.; Bortoluzzi, D.; Castelli, E.; Cavalleri, A.; Cesarini, A.; Cruise, A. M.; Danzmann, K.; de Deus Silva, M.; Diepholz, I.; Dixon, G.; Dolesi, R.; Ferraioli, L.; Ferroni, V.; Fitzsimons, E. D.; Freschi, M.; Gesa, L.; Gibert, F.; Giardini, D.; Giusteri, R.; Grimani, C.; Grzymisch, J.; Harrison, I.; Heinzel, G.; Hewitson, M.; Hollington, D.; Hoyland, D.; Hueller, M.; Inchauspé, H.; Jennrich, O.; Jetzer, P.; Karnesis, N.; Kaune, B.; Korsakova, N.; Killow, C. J.; Lobo, J. A.; Lloro, I.; Liu, L.; López-Zaragoza, J. P.; Maarschalkerweerd, R.; Mance, D.; Meshksar, N.; Martín, V.; Martin-Polo, L.; Martino, J.; Martin-Porqueras, F.; Mateos, I.; McNamara, P. W.; Mendes, J.; Mendes, L.; Nofrarias, M.; Paczkowski, S.; Perreur-Lloyd, M.; Petiteau, A.; Pivato, P.; Plagnol, E.; Ramos-Castro, J.; Reiche, J.; Robertson, D. I.; Rivas, F.; Russano, G.; Slutsky, J.; Sopuerta, C. F.; Sumner, T.; Texier, D.; Thorpe, J. I.; Vetrugno, D.; Vitale, S.; Wanner, G.; Ward, H.; Wass, P. J.; Weber, W. J.; Wissel, L.; Wittchen, A.; Zweifel, P.

    2018-02-01

    In the months since the publication of the first results, the noise performance of LISA Pathfinder has improved because of reduced Brownian noise due to the continued decrease in pressure around the test masses, from a better correction of noninertial effects, and from a better calibration of the electrostatic force actuation. In addition, the availability of numerous long noise measurement runs, during which no perturbation is purposely applied to the test masses, has allowed the measurement of noise with good statistics down to 20 μ Hz . The Letter presents the measured differential acceleration noise figure, which is at (1.74 ±0.01 ) fm s-2/√{Hz } above 2 mHz and (6 ±1 ) ×10 fm s-2/√{Hz } at 20 μ Hz , and discusses the physical sources for the measured noise. This performance provides an experimental benchmark demonstrating the ability to realize the low-frequency science potential of the LISA mission, recently selected by the European Space Agency.

  20. Radiation therapists' perceptions of the minimum level of experience required to perform portal image analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rybovic, Michala [Discipline of Medical Radiation Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, PO Box 170, Lidcombe, NSW 1825 (Australia)], E-mail: mryb6983@mail.usyd.edu.au; Halkett, Georgia K. [Western Australia Centre for Cancer and Palliative Care, Curtin University of Technology, Health Research Campus, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia)], E-mail: g.halkett@curtin.edu.au; Banati, Richard B. [Faculty of Health Sciences, Brain and Mind Research Institute - Ramaciotti Centre for Brain Imaging, University of Sydney, PO Box 170, Lidcombe, NSW 1825 (Australia)], E-mail: r.banati@usyd.edu.au; Cox, Jennifer [Discipline of Medical Radiation Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, PO Box 170, Lidcombe, NSW 1825 (Australia)], E-mail: jenny.cox@usyd.edu.au

    2008-11-15

    Background and purpose: Our aim was to explore radiation therapists' views on the level of experience necessary to undertake portal image analysis and clinical decision making. Materials and methods: A questionnaire was developed to determine the availability of portal imaging equipment in Australia and New Zealand. We analysed radiation therapists' responses to a specific question regarding their opinion on the minimum level of experience required for health professionals to analyse portal images. We used grounded theory and a constant comparative method of data analysis to derive the main themes. Results: Forty-six radiation oncology facilities were represented in our survey, with 40 questionnaires being returned (87%). Thirty-seven radiation therapists answered our free-text question. Radiation therapists indicated three main themes which they felt were important in determining the minimum level of experience: 'gaining on-the-job experience', 'receiving training' and 'working as a team'. Conclusions: Radiation therapists indicated that competence in portal image review occurs via various learning mechanisms. Further research is warranted to determine perspectives of other health professionals, such as radiation oncologists, on portal image review becoming part of radiation therapists' extended role. Suitable training programs and steps for implementation should be developed to facilitate this endeavour.

  1. The level of detail required in a deformable phantom to accurately perform quality assurance of deformable image registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenz, Daniel L.; Kim, Hojin; Chen, Josephine; Stathakis, Sotirios; Kirby, Neil

    2016-09-01

    The primary purpose of the study was to determine how detailed deformable image registration (DIR) phantoms need to adequately simulate human anatomy and accurately assess the quality of DIR algorithms. In particular, how many distinct tissues are required in a phantom to simulate complex human anatomy? Pelvis and head-and-neck patient CT images were used for this study as virtual phantoms. Two data sets from each site were analyzed. The virtual phantoms were warped to create two pairs consisting of undeformed and deformed images. Otsu’s method was employed to create additional segmented image pairs of n distinct soft tissue CT number ranges (fat, muscle, etc). A realistic noise image was added to each image. Deformations were applied in MIM Software (MIM) and Velocity deformable multi-pass (DMP) and compared with the known warping. Images with more simulated tissue levels exhibit more contrast, enabling more accurate results. Deformation error (magnitude of the vector difference between known and predicted deformation) was used as a metric to evaluate how many CT number gray levels are needed for a phantom to serve as a realistic patient proxy. Stabilization of the mean deformation error was reached by three soft tissue levels for Velocity DMP and MIM, though MIM exhibited a persisting difference in accuracy between the discrete images and the unprocessed image pair. A minimum detail of three levels allows a realistic patient proxy for use with Velocity and MIM deformation algorithms.

  2. PENGARUH AKSES PELAYANAN KESEHATAN, PERFORMED TREAMENT INDEX/PTI REQUIREMENT TREATMENT INDEX/RTI, TERHADAP PERILAKU ORAL HYGIENE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niniek L. Pratiwi

    2012-11-01

    affordability cross-subsidies required to increase purchasing power of a toothpaste containing fluoride levels and toothbrushes that can reach people, especially the poor. Key words: PTI, RTI, Perilaku Oral Hygiene, sosial ekonomi, akses pelayanan kesehatan

  3. Building Envelope Thermal Performance Assessment Using Visual Programming and BIM, based on ETTV requirement of Green Mark and GreenRE

    OpenAIRE

    Taki Eddine Seghier; Lim Yaik Wah; Mohd Hamdan Ahmad; Williams Opeyemi Samuel

    2017-01-01

    Accomplishment of green building design requirements and the achievement of the targeted credit points under a specific green rating system are known to be a task that is very challenging. Building Information Modeling (BIM) design process and tools have already made considerable advancements in green building design and performance analysis. However, Green building design process is still lack of tools and workflows that can provide real-time feedback of building sustainability and rating du...

  4. Application of strict criteria in adrenal venous sampling increases the proportion of missed patients with unilateral disease who benefit from surgery for primary aldosteronism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Gregory; Leung, Alexander; So, Benny; Chin, Alex; Harvey, Adrian; Pasieka, Janice L

    2018-06-01

    Adrenal vein sampling (AVS) is intended to confirm unilateral forms of primary aldosteronism, which are amenable to surgical cure. Excessively strict AVS criteria to define lateralization may result in many patients incorrectly categorized as bilateral primary aldosteronism and opportunity for surgical cure missed. Retrospective review of an AVS-primary aldosteronism database in which surgical cases are verified by standardized outcomes. Having used 'less strict' AVS criteria for lateralization, we examined the distribution of AVS lateralization indices in our confirmed unilateral primary aldosteronism cases both with and without cosyntropin stimulation. The proportion of proven unilateral cases that would have been missed with stricter AVS interpretation criteria was calculated. Particular focus was given to the proportion of missed cases according to use of international guidelines. False-positive lateralization with 'less strict' interpretation was also calculated. Of 80 surgical primary aldosteronism cases, 10-23% would have been missed with AVS lateralization indices of 3 : 1 to 5 : 1, with or without cosyntropin. If strict selectivity indices (for confirmation of catheterization) were combined with strict lateralization indices, up to 70% of unilateral primary aldosteronism cases could have been missed. Use of Endocrine Society AVS guidelines would have missed 21-43% of proven unilateral cases. 'Less strict' AVS interpretation yielded one case (1.2%) of false lateralization. Excessively strict AVS interpretation criteria will result in a high rate of missed unilateral primary aldosteronism with subsequent loss of opportunity for intervention. Use of more lenient lateralization criteria will improve the detection rate of unilateral primary aldosteronism with very low false-positive rate.

  5. Quantitative evaluation of yeast's requirement for glycerol formation in very high ethanol performance fed-batch process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevoigt Elke

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glycerol is the major by-product accounting for up to 5% of the carbon in Saccharomyces cerevisiae ethanolic fermentation. Decreasing glycerol formation may redirect part of the carbon toward ethanol production. However, abolishment of glycerol formation strongly affects yeast's robustness towards different types of stress occurring in an industrial process. In order to assess whether glycerol production can be reduced to a certain extent without jeopardising growth and stress tolerance, the yeast's capacity to synthesize glycerol was adjusted by fine-tuning the activity of the rate-controlling enzyme glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH. Two engineered strains whose specific GPDH activity was significantly reduced by two different degrees were comprehensively characterized in a previously developed Very High Ethanol Performance (VHEP fed-batch process. Results The prototrophic strain CEN.PK113-7D was chosen for decreasing glycerol formation capacity. The fine-tuned reduction of specific GPDH activity was achieved by replacing the native GPD1 promoter in the yeast genome by previously generated well-characterized TEF promoter mutant versions in a gpd2Δ background. Two TEF promoter mutant versions were selected for this study, resulting in a residual GPDH activity of 55 and 6%, respectively. The corresponding strains were referred to here as TEFmut7 and TEFmut2. The genetic modifications were accompanied to a strong reduction in glycerol yield on glucose; the level of reduction compared to the wild-type was 61% in TEFmut7 and 88% in TEFmut2. The overall ethanol production yield on glucose was improved from 0.43 g g-1 in the wild type to 0.44 g g-1 measured in TEFmut7 and 0.45 g g-1 in TEFmut2. Although maximal growth rate in the engineered strains was reduced by 20 and 30%, for TEFmut7 and TEFmut2 respectively, strains' ethanol stress robustness was hardly affected; i.e. values for final ethanol concentration (117 ± 4 g

  6. Fermentative degradation of polyethylene glycol by a strictly anaerobic, gram-negative, nonsporeforming bacterium, Pelobacter venetianus sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schink, B; Stieb, M

    1983-06-01

    The synthetic polyether polyethylene glycol (PEG) with a molecular weight of 20,000 was anaerobically degraded in enrichment cultures inoculated with mud of limnic and marine origins. Three strains (Gra PEG 1, Gra PEG 2, and Ko PEG 2) of rod-shaped, gram-negative, nonsporeforming, strictly anaerobic bacteria were isolated in mineral medium with PEG as the sole source of carbon and energy. All strains degraded dimers, oligomers, and polymers of PEG up to a molecular weight of 20,000 completely by fermentation to nearly equal amounts of acetate and ethanol. The monomer ethylene glycol was not degraded. An ethylene glycol-fermenting anaerobe (strain Gra EG 12) isolated from the same enrichments was identified as Acetobacterium woodii. The PEG-fermenting strains did not excrete extracellular depolymerizing enzymes and were inhibited by ethylene glycol, probably owing to a blocking of the cellular uptake system. PEG, some PEG-containing nonionic detergents, 1,2-propanediol, 1,2-butanediol, glycerol, and acetoin were the only growth substrates utilized of a broad variety of sugars, organic acids, and alcohols. The isolates did not reduce sulfate, sulfur, thiosulfate, or nitrate and were independent of growth factors. In coculture with A. woodii or Methanospirillum hungatei, PEGs and ethanol were completely fermented to acetate (and methane). A marine isolate is described as the type strain of a new species, Pelobacter venetianus sp. nov. Its physiology and ecological significance, as well as the importance and possible mechanism of anaerobic polyether degradation, are discussed.

  7. THE LESSONIA NIGRESCENS SPECIES COMPLEX (LAMINARIALES, PHAEOPHYCEAE) SHOWS STRICT PARAPATRY AND COMPLETE REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION IN A SECONDARY CONTACT ZONE(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellier, Florence; Tapia, Javier; Faugeron, Sylvain; Destombe, Christophe; Valero, Myriam

    2011-08-01

    During secondary contact between phylogenetically closely related species (sibling species) having diverged in allopatry, the maintenance of species integrity depends on intrinsic and extrinsic reproductive barriers. In kelps (Phaeophyceae), the observations of hybrids in laboratory conditions suggest that reproductive isolation is incomplete. However, not all interspecific crosses are successful, and very few hybrids have been observed in nature, despite the co-occurrence of many kelp species in sympatry. This suggests that there are reproductive barriers that maintain species integrity. In this study, we characterized the fine genetic structure of a secondary contact zone to clarify the extent of reproductive isolation between two sister species. In Lessonia nigrescens Bory (Laminariales, Phaeophyta) species complex, two cryptic species have been recently found out from gene phylogenies, and-waiting for a formal taxonomic description-we used their geographic distribution to name them (northern and southern species). We studied 12 populations, distributed along 50 km of coastline, and employed two molecular approaches, assigning individuals to phylogenetic species according to a diagnostic mitochondrial marker (351 individuals analyzed) and quantifying interspecific gene flow with four microsatellite markers (248 individuals analyzed). No hybridization or introgression was revealed, indicating complete reproductive isolation in natural conditions. Unexpectedly, our study demonstrated that the two species were strictly segregated in space. This absence of co-occurrence along the contact zone can partially explain the lack of hybridization, raising new interesting questions as to the mechanisms that limit sympatry at small spatial scales. © 2011 Phycological Society of America.

  8. Effect of strict metabolic control on regulation of subcutaneous blood flow in insulin-dependent diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastrup, J; Mathiesen, E R; Saurbrey, Nina

    1987-01-01

    washout technique. Mean arterial blood pressure was reduced by a maximum of 23 mmHg by elevating the limb above heart level and elevated to a maximum of 65 mmHg by head-up tilt; in the latter position venous pressure was kept constantly low by activation of the leg muscle vein pump (heel raising......The effect of 10 weeks of improved metabolic control on the impaired autoregulation of the subcutaneous blood flow was studied at the level of the lateral malleolus in eight long-term insulin-dependent diabetic patients with clinical microangiopathy. Blood flow was measured by the local 133-Xenon......). Improved metabolic control was achieved using either continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion or multiple insulin injections. The blood glucose concentration declined from (median) 12.7 to 6.8 mmol/l and the HbA1C level from 10.1 to 7.5% during strict metabolic control (p less than 0.01 and p less than 0...

  9. Fermentation of glycolate by a pure culture of a strictly anaerobic gram-positive bacterium belonging to the family Lachnospiraceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Peter H; Hugenholtz, Philip

    2003-05-01

    The component bacteria of a three-membered mixed culture able to ferment glycolate to acetate, propionate and CO(2) were isolated in pure culture. All three strains were strict anaerobes that, on the basis of comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, belonged to the order Clostridiales in the phylum Firmicutes (low G+C gram-positive bacteria). Two of the strains were not involved in glycolate metabolism. The third, the glycolate-fermenting strain 19gly4 (DSM 11261), was related to members of the family Lachnospiraceae. The cells of strain 19gly4 were oval- to lemon-shaped, 0.85 microm long and 0.65 microm in diameter, occurring singly, in pairs, or in chains of up to 30 cells. Strain 19gly4 fermented glycolate or fumarate to acetate, succinate, and CO(2). Hydrogen was not formed, and strain 19gly4 was able to grow on glycolate in pure culture without any syntrophic hydrogen transfer and without the use of an external electron acceptor. There was no evidence for homoacetogenic metabolism. This bacterium therefore differs in metabolism from previously reported glycolate-utilising anaerobes.

  10. Building Envelope Thermal Performance Assessment Using Visual Programming and BIM, based on ETTV requirement of Green Mark and GreenRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taki Eddine Seghier

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Accomplishment of green building design requirements and the achievement of the targeted credit points under a specific green rating system are known to be a task that is very challenging. Building Information Modeling (BIM design process and tools have already made considerable advancements in green building design and performance analysis. However, Green building design process is still lack of tools and workflows that can provide real-time feedback of building sustainability and rating during the design stage. In this paper, a new workflow of green building design assessment and rating is proposed based on the integration of Visual Programing Language (VPL and BIM. Thus, the aim of this study is to develop a BIM-VPL based tool for building envelope design and assessment support. The focus performance metric in this research is building Envelope Thermal Transfer Value (ETTV which is an Energy Efficiency (EE prerequisite requirement (up to 15 credits in both Green Mark and GreenRE rating systems. The development of the tool begins first by creating a generic integration framework between BIM-VPL functionalities and ETTV requirements. Then, data is extracted from the BIM 3D model and managed using Revit, Excel and Dynamo for visual scripting. A sample project consisting of a hypothetical residential building is run and its envelope ETTV performance and rating score are obtained for the validation of the tool. This tool will support project team in building envelope design and assessment by allowing them to select the most appropriate façade configuration according to its performance efficiency and the green rating. Furthermore, this tool serves as proof of concept that building sustainability rating and compliance checking can be automatically processed through customized workflows developed based on BIM and VPL technologies.

  11. PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Cilli

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the kinematic and kinetic changes when resistance is applied in horizontal and vertical directions, produced by using different percentages of body weight, caused by jumping movements during a dynamic warm-up. The group of subjects consisted of 35 voluntary male athletes (19 basketball and 16 volleyball players; age: 23.4 ± 1.4 years, training experience: 9.6 ± 2.7 years; height: 177.2 ± 5.7 cm, body weight: 69.9 ± 6.9 kg studying Physical Education, who had a jump training background and who were training for 2 hours, on 4 days in a week. A dynamic warm-up protocol containing seven specific resistance movements with specific resistance corresponding to different percentages of body weight (2%, 4%, 6%, 8%, 10% was applied randomly on non consecutive days. Effects of different warm-up protocols were assessed by pre-/post- exercise changes in jump height in the countermovement jump (CMJ and the squat jump (SJ measured using a force platform and changes in hip and knee joint angles at the end of the eccentric phase measured using a video camera. A significant increase in jump height was observed in the dynamic resistance warm-up conducted with different percentages of body weight (p 0.05. In jump movements before and after the warm-up, while no significant difference between the vertical ground reaction forces applied by athletes was observed (p>0.05, in some cases of resistance, a significant reduction was observed in hip and knee joint angles (p<0.05. The dynamic resistance warm-up method was found to cause changes in the kinematics of jumping movements, as well as an increase in jump height values. As a result, dynamic warm-up exercises could be applicable in cases of resistance corresponding to 6-10% of body weight applied in horizontal and vertical directions in order to increase the jump performance acutely.

  12. Costs associated with implementation of a strict policy for controlling spread of highly resistant microorganisms in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birgand, Gabriel; Leroy, Christophe; Nerome, Simone; Luong Nguyen, Liem Binh; Lolom, Isabelle; Armand-Lefevre, Laurence; Ciotti, Céline; Lecorre, Bertrand; Marcade, Géraldine; Fihman, Vincent; Nicolas-Chanoine, Marie-Hélène; Pelat, Camille; Perozziello, Anne; Fantin, Bruno; Yazdanpanah, Yazdan; Ricard, Jean-Damien; Lucet, Jean-Christophe

    2016-01-29

    To assess costs associated with implementation of a strict 'search and isolate' strategy for controlling highly drug-resistant organisms (HDRO). Review of data from 2-year prospective surveillance (01/2012 to 12/2013) of HDRO. Three university hospitals located in northern Paris. Episodes were defined as single cases or outbreaks of glycopeptide-resistant enterococci (GRE) or carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriacae (CPE) colonisation. Costs were related to staff reinforcement, costs of screening cultures, contact precautions and interruption of new admissions. Univariate analysis, along with simple and multiple linear regression analyses, was conducted to determine variables associated with cost of HDRO management. Overall, 41 consecutive episodes were included, 28 single cases and 13 outbreaks. The cost (mean ± SD) associated with management of a single case identified within and/or 48 h after admission was €4443 ± 11,552 and €11,445 ± 15,743, respectively (pcost varied from €14,864 ± 17,734 for an episode with one secondary case (€7432 ± 8867 per case) to €136,525 ± 151,231 (€12,845 ± 5129 per case) when more than one secondary case occurred. In episodes of single cases, contact precautions and microbiological analyses represented 51% and 30% of overall cost, respectively. In outbreaks, cost related to interruption of new admissions represented 77-94% of total costs, and had the greatest financial impact (R(2)=0.98, pcostly measure in an outbreak situation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  13. Expression of a bacterial catalase in a strictly anaerobic methanogen significantly increases tolerance to hydrogen peroxide but not oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Matthew E.; Schaff, Cody W.; Horne, Alexandra J.; Lessner, Faith H.

    2014-01-01

    Haem-dependent catalase is an antioxidant enzyme that degrades H2O2, producing H2O and O2, and is common in aerobes. Catalase is present in some strictly anaerobic methane-producing archaea (methanogens), but the importance of catalase to the antioxidant system of methanogens is poorly understood. We report here that a survey of the sequenced genomes of methanogens revealed that the majority of species lack genes encoding catalase. Moreover, Methanosarcina acetivorans is a methanogen capable of synthesizing haem and encodes haem-dependent catalase in its genome; yet, Methanosarcina acetivorans cells lack detectable catalase activity. However, inducible expression of the haem-dependent catalase from Escherichia coli (EcKatG) in the chromosome of Methanosarcina acetivorans resulted in a 100-fold increase in the endogenous catalase activity compared with uninduced cells. The increased catalase activity conferred a 10-fold increase in the resistance of EcKatG-induced cells to H2O2 compared with uninduced cells. The EcKatG-induced cells were also able to grow when exposed to levels of H2O2 that inhibited or killed uninduced cells. However, despite the significant increase in catalase activity, growth studies revealed that EcKatG-induced cells did not exhibit increased tolerance to O2 compared with uninduced cells. These results support the lack of catalase in the majority of methanogens, since methanogens are more likely to encounter O2 rather than high concentrations of H2O2 in the natural environment. Catalase appears to be a minor component of the antioxidant system in methanogens, even those that are aerotolerant, including Methanosarcina acetivorans. Importantly, the experimental approach used here demonstrated the feasibility of engineering beneficial traits, such as H2O2 tolerance, in methanogens. PMID:24222618

  14. Cryptococcal meningitis management in Tanzania with strict schedule of serial lumber punctures using intravenous tubing sets: an operational research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meda, John; Kalluvya, Samuel; Downs, Jennifer A; Chofle, Awilly A; Seni, Jeremiah; Kidenya, Benson; Fitzgerald, Daniel W; Peck, Robert N

    2014-06-01

    Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) has a mortality rate of ∼70% among HIV-infected adults in low-income countries. Controlling intracranial pressure (ICP) is essential in CM, but it is difficult in low-income countries because manometers and practical ICP management protocols are lacking. As part of a continuous quality improvement project, our Tanzanian hospital initiated a new protocol for ICP management for CM. All adult inpatients with CM are included in a prospective patient registry. At the time of analysis, this registry included data from 2 years before the initiation of this new ICP management protocol and for a 9-month period after. ICP was measured at baseline and at days 3, 7, and 14 by both manometer and intravenous (IV) tubing set. All patients were given IV fluconazole according to Tanzanian treatment guidelines and were followed until 30 days after admission. Among adult inpatients with CM, 32 of 35 patients (91%) had elevated ICP on admission. Cerebrospinal fluid pressure measurements using the improvised IV tubing set demonstrated excellent agreement (r = 0.96) with manometer measurements. Compared with historical controls, the new ICP management protocol was associated with a significant reduction in 30-day mortality (16/35 [46%] vs. 48/64 [75%] in historical controls; hazard ratio = 2.1 [95% CI: 1.1 to 3.8]; P = 0.018]. Increased ICP is almost universal among HIV-infected adults admitted with CM in Tanzania. Intensive ICP management with a strict schedule of serial lumbar punctures reduced in-hospital mortality compared with historical controls. ICP measurement with IV tubing sets may be a good alternative in resource-limited health facilities where manometers are not available.

  15. Quality requirements for veterinary hematology analyzers in small animals-a survey about veterinary experts' requirements and objective evaluation of analyzer performance based on a meta-analysis of method validation studies: bench top hematology analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Andrea M; Moritz, Andreas; Freeman, Kathleen P; Bauer, Natali

    2016-09-01

    Scarce information exists about quality requirements and objective evaluation of performance of large veterinary bench top hematology analyzers. The study was aimed at comparing the observed total error (TEobs ) derived from meta-analysis of published method validation data to the total allowable error (TEa ) for veterinary hematology variables in small animals based on experts' opinions. Ideally, TEobs should be hematology analyzers (ADVIA 2120; Sysmex XT2000iV, and CellDyn 3500) was calculated based on method validation studies published between 2005 and 2013 (n = 4). The percent TEobs = 2 * CV (%) + bias (%). The CV was derived from published studies except for the ADVIA 2120 (internal data), and bias was estimated from the regression equation. A total of 41 veterinary experts (19 diplomates, 8 residents, 10 postgraduate students, 4 anonymous specialists) responded. The proposed range of TEa was wide, but generally ≤ 20%. The TEobs was < TEa for all variables and analyzers except for canine and feline HGB (high bias, low CV) and platelet counts (high bias, high CV). Overall, veterinary bench top analyzers fulfilled experts' requirements except for HGB due to method-related bias, and platelet counts due to known preanalytic/analytic issues. © 2016 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  16. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) ; Guidance on the scientific requirements for health claims related to physical performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    The Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) to draft guidance on scientific requirements for health claims related to physical performance. This guidance has been drawn from scientific opinions of the NDA Panel on such health...... claims. Thus, this guidance document represents the views of the NDA Panel based on the experience gained to date with the evaluation of health claims in this area. It is not intended that the document should include an exhaustive list of beneficial effects and studies/outcome measures which...

  17. Work in support of biosphere assessments for solid radioactive waste disposal. 1. performance assessments, requirements and methodology; criteria for radiological environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egan, M.J.; Loose, M.; Smith, G.M.; Watkins, B.M.

    2001-10-01

    The first part of this report is intended to assess how the recent Swedish regulatory developments and resulting criteria impose requirements on what should be included in a performance assessment (PA) for the SFR low and medium level waste repository and for a potential deep repository for high level waste. The second part of the report has been prepared by QuantiSci as an input to the development of SSI's PA review methodology. The aim of the third part is to provide research input to the development of radiological protection framework for the environment, for use in Sweden. This is achieved through a review of various approaches used in other fields

  18. NWTS program criteria for mined geologic disposal of nuclear waste: functional requirements and performance criteria for waste packages for solidified high-level waste and spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has primary federal responsibility for the development and implementation of safe and environmentally acceptable nuclear waste disposal methods. Currently, the principal emphasis in the program is on emplacement of nuclear wastes in mined geologic repositories well beneath the earth's surface. A brief description of the mined geologic disposal system is provided. The National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) program was established under DOE's predecessor, the Energy Research and Development Administration, to provide facilities for the mined geologic disposal of radioactive wastes. The NWTS program includes both the development and the implementation of the technology necessary for designing, constructing, licensing, and operating repositories. The program does not include the management of processing radioactive wastes or of transporting the wastes to repositories. The NWTS-33 series, of which this document is a part, provides guidance for the NWTS program in the development and implementation of licensed mined geologic disposal systems for solidified high-level and transuranic (TRU) wastes. This document presents the functional requirements and performance criteria for waste packages for solidified high-level waste and spent fuel. A separate document to be developed, NWTS-33(4b), will present the requirements and criteria for waste packages for TRU wastes. The hierarchy and application of these requirements and criteria are discussed in Section 2.2

  19. Optimization of an effective growth medium for culturing probiotic bacteria for applications in strict vegetarian food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manju Pathak

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to modify de Man Rogosa Sharpe culture medium (termed MRS for selective cultivation of probiotics strain for the consumption by the strictly vegetarian human population. Vegetarian probiotic foods by definition must be free from all animal-derived ingredients. This not only includes the product ingredients but the probiotic inoculum as well. Probiotic starter cultures are traditionally grown and stored in media containing milk or meatderived ingredients. The presence of these ingredients makes the probiotic cell concentrates unsuitable for use in vegetarian products and thus creates the need for a growth medium which isfree from animal-derived ingredients. Present study investigated the growth of a strain of Lactobacillus lactis in MRS. The present invention relates in general to a bacterial culture media,and more specifically a complex microbial culture media, based on plant seed powder extract in place of animal extract for probiotic bacterial growth.Methods: Lactobacillus lactis, a probiotic, was grown in standard MRS culture medium as well as in our various test media (TM containing various vegetal source in place of beef extract, yeast extract and peptone as in case of MRS. The inoculated culture mediums were incubated at 37C for 72 hours and growth of probiotic is recorded at regular intervals. The growth was recorded as Colony Forming Units (CFUs.Results: The best growth of probiotic is observed in TM 2. TM 2 is the leguminous seed extract. Starter culture mediums for probiotics or other bacteria primarily contain protein from animal source. The possibility of using vegetal protein from TM 2 extract in place of peptones and meat extract for the nitrogen supplementation of culture media for the growth of lactic acid bacteria has been demonstrated.Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2012, 2(10:369-378 Conclusion: The absolute vegetarian culture medium containing TM 2 is better than standard MRS for the

  20. Lenient vs. strict rate control in patients with atrial fibrillation and heart failure: a post-hoc analysis of the RACE II study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Bart A.; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Crijns, Harry J. G. M.; Tijssen, Jan G. P.; Hillege, Hans L.; Alings, Marco; Rienstra, Michiel; Groenveld, Hessel F.; van den Berg, Maarten P.; van Gelder, Isabelle C.

    2013-01-01

    It is unknown whether lenient rate control is an acceptable strategy in patients with AF and heart failure. We evaluated differences in outcome in patients with AF and heart failure treated with lenient or strict rate control. This post-hoc analysis of the RACE II trial included patients with an

  1. Strong Convergence Theorems of a New General Iterative Process with Meir-Keeler Contractions for a Countable Family of -Strict Pseudocontractions in -Uniformly Smooth Banach Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Yanlai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a new iterative scheme with Meir-Keeler contractions for strict pseudocontractions in -uniformly smooth Banach spaces. We also discuss the strong convergence theorems for the new iterative scheme in -uniformly smooth Banach space. Our results improve and extend the corresponding results announced by many others.

  2. The Kadi Saga as a Tale of 'Strict Observance’ of International Law : Obligations Under the UN Charter, Targeted Sanctions and Judicial Review in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larik, J.E.

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses the question whether the European Union defaulted on the ‘strict observance’ of international law and ‘respect’ for the UN Charter, which are now express objectives of the EU following the Lisbon reform, in the course of the famous Kadi cases. With the final appeals judgment

  3. Influx of extracellular Zn(2+) into the hippocampal CA1 neurons is required for cognitive performance via long-term potentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, A; Suzuki, M; Tempaku, M; Ohashi, K; Tamano, H

    2015-09-24

    Physiological significance of synaptic Zn(2+) signaling was examined in the CA1 of young rats. In vivo CA1 long-term potentiation (LTP) was induced using a recording electrode attached to a microdialysis probe and the recording region was locally perfused with artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF) via the microdialysis probe. In vivo CA1 LTP was inhibited under perfusion with CaEDTA and ZnAF-2DA, extracellular and intracellular Zn(2+) chelators, respectively, suggesting that the influx of extracellular Zn(2+) is required for in vivo CA1 LTP induction. The increase in intracellular Zn(2+) was chelated with intracellular ZnAF-2 in the CA1 1h after local injection of ZnAF-2DA into the CA1, suggesting that intracellular Zn(2+) signaling induced during learning is blocked with intracellular ZnAF-2 when the learning was performed 1h after ZnAF-2DA injection. Object recognition was affected when training of object recognition test was performed 1h after ZnAF-2DA injection. These data suggest that intracellular Zn(2+) signaling in the CA1 is required for object recognition memory via LTP. Surprisingly, in vivo CA1 LTP was affected under perfusion with 0.1-1μM ZnCl2, unlike the previous data that in vitro CA1 LTP was enhanced in the presence of 1-5μM ZnCl2. The influx of extracellular Zn(2+) into CA1 pyramidal cells has bidirectional action in CA1 LTP. The present study indicates that the degree of extracellular Zn(2+) influx into CA1 neurons is critical for LTP and cognitive performance. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Requirements for existing buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Wittchen, Kim Bjarne

    This report collects energy performance requirements for existing buildings in European member states by June 2012.......This report collects energy performance requirements for existing buildings in European member states by June 2012....

  5. Work in support of biosphere assessments for solid radioactive waste disposal. 1. performance assessments, requirements and methodology; criteria for radiological environmental protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egan, M.J.; Loose, M.; Smith, G.M.; Watkins, B.M. [QuantiSci Ltd., Henley-on-Thames (United Kingdom)

    2001-10-01

    The first part of this report is intended to assess how the recent Swedish regulatory developments and resulting criteria impose requirements on what should be included in a performance assessment (PA) for the SFR low and medium level waste repository and for a potential deep repository for high level waste. The second part of the report has been prepared by QuantiSci as an input to the development of SSI's PA review methodology. The aim of the third part is to provide research input to the development of radiological protection framework for the environment, for use in Sweden. This is achieved through a review of various approaches used in other fields.

  6. A high-performance liquid chromatography-based radiometric assay for sucrose-phosphate synthase and other UDP-glucose requiring enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvucci, M.E.; Crafts-Brandner, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    A method for product analysis that eliminates a problematic step in the radiometric sucrose-phosphate synthase assay is described. The method uses chromatography on a boronate-derivatized high-performance liquid chromatography column to separate the labeled product, [14C]sucrose phosphate, from unreacted uridine 5'-diphosphate-[14C]glucose (UDP-Glc). Direct separation of these compounds eliminates the need for treatment of the reaction mixtures with alkaline phosphatase, thereby avoiding the problem of high background caused by contaminating phosphodiesterase activity in alkaline phosphatase preparations. The method presented in this paper can be applied to many UDP-Glc requiring enzymes; here the authors show its use for determining the activities of sucrose-phosphate synthase, sucrose synthase, and uridine diphosphate-glucose pyrophosphorylase in plant extracts

  7. The "high solubility" definition of the current FDA Guidance on Biopharmaceutical Classification System may be too strict for acidic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdanian, Mehran; Briggs, Katherine; Jankovsky, Corinne; Hawi, Amale

    2004-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess if the definition of high solubility as proposed in the FDA Guidance on Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS) is too strict for highly permeable acidic drugs. The solubility and permeability values of 20 (18 acidic and 2 non-acidic) nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) were determined. The NSAIDs were grouped into three different sets having acetic acid, propionic acid, or other acidic moieties such as fenamate, oxicam, and salicylate. Two nonacidic NSAIDs (celecoxib and rofecoxib) were also included for comparison purposes. Equilibrium solubility values were determined at pH 1.2, 5.0, 7.4, and in biorelevant media simulating fed intestinal fluid at pH 5.0. For a select number of acids, we also measured solubility values in media simulating gastric and fasted intestinal fluids. Permeability classification was established relative to that of reference drugs in the Caco-2 cell permeability model. Permeability coefficients for all drugs were measured at concentrations corresponding to the lowest and highest marketed dose strengths dissolved in 250 ml volume, and their potential interaction with cellular efflux pumps was investigated. All NSAIDs with different acidic functional groups were classified as highly permeable based on their Caco-2 cell permeability. Only ketorolac appeared to have a potential for interaction with cellular efflux pumps. Solubility classification was based on comparison of equilibrium solubility at pH 1.2, 5.0. and 7.4 relative to marketed dose strengths in 250 ml. The pKa values for the acidic NSAIDs studied were between 3.5 and 5.1. and, as expected, their solubility increased dramatically at pH 7.4 compared to pH 1.2. Only three NSAIDs, ketorolac, ketoprofen. and acetyl salicylic acid, meet the current criteria for high solubility over the entire pH range. However, with the exception of ibuprofen, oxaprozin, and mefenamic acid, the remaining compounds can be classified as Class I drugs

  8. Pre-announcement of symbiotic guests: transcriptional reprogramming by mycorrhizal lipochitooligosaccharides shows a strict co-dependency on the GRAS transcription factors NSP1 and RAM1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohnjec, Natalija; Czaja-Hasse, Lisa F; Hogekamp, Claudia; Küster, Helge

    2015-11-23

    More than 80 % of all terrestrial plant species establish an arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) symbiosis with Glomeromycota fungi. This plant-microbe interaction primarily improves phosphate uptake, but also supports nitrogen, mineral, and water aquisition. During the pre-contact stage, the AM symbiosis is controled by an exchange of diffusible factors from either partner. Amongst others, fungal signals were identified as a mix of sulfated and non-sulfated lipochitooligosaccharides (LCOs), being structurally related to rhizobial nodulation (Nod)-factor LCOs that in legumes induce the formation of nitrogen-fixing root nodules. LCO signals are transduced via a common symbiotic signaling pathway (CSSP) that activates a group of GRAS transcription factors (TFs). Using complex gene expression fingerprints as molecular phenotypes, this study primarily intended to shed light on the importance of the GRAS TFs NSP1 and RAM1 for LCO-activated gene expression during pre-symbiotic signaling. We investigated the genome-wide transcriptional responses in 5 days old primary roots of the Medicago truncatula wild type and four symbiotic mutants to a 6 h challenge with LCO signals supplied at 10(-7/-8) M. We were able to show that during the pre-symbiotic stage, sulfated Myc-, non-sulfated Myc-, and Nod-LCO-activated gene expression almost exclusively depends on the LysM receptor kinase NFP and is largely controled by the CSSP, although responses independent of this pathway exist. Our results show that downstream of the CSSP, gene expression activation by Myc-LCOs supplied at 10(-7/-8) M strictly required both the GRAS transcription factors RAM1 and NSP1, whereas those genes either co- or specifically activated by Nod-LCOs displayed a preferential NSP1-dependency. RAM1, a central regulator of root colonization by AM fungi, controled genes activated by non-sulfated Myc-LCOs during the pre-symbiotic stage that are also up-regulated in areas with early physical contact, e.g. hyphopodia and

  9. An Analysis of the Acquisition Process for Simplified Acquisition of Base Engineering Requirements (SABER) Contracts and Its Potential Impact on Contractor Performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Heaps, Brian

    2001-01-01

    The Simplified Acquisition of Base Engineering Requirements (SABER) contract's main purpose is to expedite contract award of civil engineer requirements through the issuance of individual delivery orders...

  10. Partial QoS-Aware Opportunistic Relay Selection Over Two-Hop Channels: End-to-End Performance Under Spectrum-Sharing Requirements

    KAUST Repository

    Yuli Yang,

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, we propose a partial quality-of-service (QoS)-oriented relay selection scheme with a decode-and-forward (DF) relaying protocol, to reduce the feedback amount required for relay selection. In the proposed scheme, the activated relay is the one with the maximum signal-to-noise power ratio (SNR) in the second hop among those whose packet loss rates (PLRs) in the first hop achieve a predetermined QoS level. For the purpose of evaluating the performance of the proposed scheme, we exploit it with transmission constraints imposed on the transmit power budget and interference to other users. By analyzing the statistics of received SNRs in the first and second hops, we obtain the end-to-end PLR of this scheme in closed form under the considered scenario. Moreover, to compare the proposed scheme with popular relay selection schemes, we also derive the closed-form PLR expressions for partial relay selection (PRS) and opportunistic relay selection (ORS) criteria in the same scenario under study. Illustrative numerical results demonstrate the accuracy of our derivations and substantiate that the proposed relay selection scheme is a promising alternative with respect to the tradeoff between performance and complexity.

  11. Assessing the influence of a passive, upper extremity exoskeletal vest for tasks requiring arm elevation: Part I - "Expected" effects on discomfort, shoulder muscle activity, and work task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunwook; Nussbaum, Maury A; Mokhlespour Esfahani, Mohammad Iman; Alemi, Mohammad Mehdi; Alabdulkarim, Saad; Rashedi, Ehsan

    2018-03-07

    Use of exoskeletal vests (designed to support overhead work) can be an effective intervention approach for tasks involving arm elevation, yet little is known on the potential beneficial impacts of their use on physical demands and task performance. This laboratory study (n = 12) evaluated the effects of a prototype exoskeletal vest during simulated repetitive overhead drilling and light assembly tasks. Anticipated or expected benefits were assessed, in terms of perceived discomfort, shoulder muscle activity, and task performance. Using the exoskeletal vest did not substantially influence perceived discomfort, but did decrease normalized shoulder muscle activity levels (e.g., ≤ 45% reduction in peak activity). Drilling task completion time decreased by nearly 20% with the vest, but the number of errors increased. Overall, exoskeletal vest use has the potential to be a new intervention for work requiring arm elevation; however, additional investigations are needed regarding potential unexpected or adverse influences (see Part II). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 40 CFR 123.27 - Requirements for enforcement authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... negligence,” “gross negligence” or strict liability satisfy the requirement of paragraph (a)(3)(ii) of this... under State law for establishing violations under paragraph (a)(3) of this section, shall be no greater... under the appropriate Act; Note: For example, this requirement is not met if State law includes mental...

  13. 40 CFR 501.17 - Requirements for enforcement authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... which provide the criminal remedies based on “criminal negligence,” “gross negligence” or strict.... (2) The burden of proof and degree of knowledge or intent required under State law for establishing..., this requirement is not met if State law includes mental state as an element of proof for civil...

  14. Hukum Lingkungan dan Pertanggungjawaban Strict Liability dalam Sistem Hukum Common Law (Studi Kasus Cambridge Water Co. Ltd v. Eastern Countries Leather Plc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahfud Mahfud

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The possibilities for pollution control still offered today Blackburn J.’s celebrated rule of strict liability, now almost 130 years old, has ensured its continuing popularity. There can be few tort lawyers, however, who have not increasingly wondered how much time should be devoted to a case which has received little judicial attention in recent years, and which was last subjected to detailed consideration by the House of Lords nearly 50 years ago, until, that is, the much-published decision of the House of Lords in Cambridge Water Co. Ltd v. Eastern Countries Leather Plc.   (Environmental Law and The Strict Liability Application In the Common Law System (The Case Study of Cambridge Water Co. Ltd V. Eastern Countries Leather Plc

  15. Strict monandry in the ponerine army ant genus Simopelta suggests that colony size and complexity drive mating system evolution in social insects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronauer, Daniel J C; O'Donnell, Sean; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2011-01-01

    -ratios have convergently shaped these mating systems. Here we show that ponerine army ants of the genus Simopelta, which are distantly related but similar in general biology to other army ants, have strictly monandrous queens. Preliminary data suggest that workers reproduce in queenright colonies, which...... is in sharp contrast to other army ants. We hypothesize that differences in mature colony size and social complexity may explain these striking discrepancies....

  16. Peculiarities of One-Carbon Metabolism in the Strict Carnivorous Cat and the Role in Feline Hepatic Lipidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marica Bakovic

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Research in various species has indicated that diets deficient in labile methyl groups (methionine, choline, betaine, folate produce fatty liver and links to steatosis and metabolic syndrome, but also provides evidence of the importance of labile methyl group balance to maintain normal liver function. Cats, being obligate carnivores, rely on nutrients in animal tissues and have, due to evolutionary pressure, developed several physiological and metabolic adaptations, including a number of peculiarities in protein and fat metabolism. This has led to specific and unique nutritional requirements. Adult cats require more dietary protein than omnivorous species, maintain a consistently high rate of protein oxidation and gluconeogenesis and are unable to adapt to reduced protein intake. Furthermore, cats have a higher requirement for essential amino acids and essential fatty acids. Hastened use coupled with an inability to conserve certain amino acids, including methionine, cysteine, taurine and arginine, necessitates a higher dietary intake for cats compared to most other species. Cats also seemingly require higher amounts of several B-vitamins compared to other species and are predisposed to depletion during prolonged inappetance. This carnivorous uniqueness makes cats more susceptible to hepatic lipidosis.

  17. Peculiarities of one-carbon metabolism in the strict carnivorous cat and the role in feline hepatic lipidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbrugghe, Adronie; Bakovic, Marica

    2013-07-19

    Research in various species has indicated that diets deficient in labile methyl groups (methionine, choline, betaine, folate) produce fatty liver and links to steatosis and metabolic syndrome, but also provides evidence of the importance of labile methyl group balance to maintain normal liver function. Cats, being obligate carnivores, rely on nutrients in animal tissues and have, due to evolutionary pressure, developed several physiological and metabolic adaptations, including a number of peculiarities in protein and fat metabolism. This has led to specific and unique nutritional requirements. Adult cats require more dietary protein than omnivorous species, maintain a consistently high rate of protein oxidation and gluconeogenesis and are unable to adapt to reduced protein intake. Furthermore, cats have a higher requirement for essential amino acids and essential fatty acids. Hastened use coupled with an inability to conserve certain amino acids, including methionine, cysteine, taurine and arginine, necessitates a higher dietary intake for cats compared to most other species. Cats also seemingly require higher amounts of several B-vitamins compared to other species and are predisposed to depletion during prolonged inappetance. This carnivorous uniqueness makes cats more susceptible to hepatic lipidosis.

  18. Compatibilidade entre exigências do mercado industrial e desempenho dos alunos de administração = Compatibility with industrial requirements and the performance of administration students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Stephanin

    2017-07-01

    requirements of the administrator. Subsequently, a semi-structured questionnaire with 35 closed and one open ended questions was answered by 24 students in the last year of Administration in order to diagnose the performance in relation to contents given in class and inquired by companies. In the second stage, through an interview with the principal, it was diagnosed the position of the institution before the course and the market. The results revealed that there is a significant divergence between the two scopes, but themes such as the marketing mix strategies and the Customer Relantionship Management [CRM] tool stood out positively both in the industry requirements and in the performance of the students. In the same way, the Materials Requirements Planning [MRP] tool and the methods of the industrial location excelled in negative aspect and also being repeated in the two visions.

  19. MORA DEBITORIS AND THE PRINCIPLE OF STRICT LIABILITY: SCOIN TRADING (PTY LTD V BERNSTEIN 2011 2 SA 118 (SCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SJ Cornelius

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Parties generally enter into contractual relations with the sincere intention to fulfil all the obligations created in terms of their contract. However, for various reasons, parties sometimes do not comply with the terms of their contract. Where a party fails to perform at the agreed date and time or after receiving a demand from the creditor, the debtor commits breach of contract in the form of mora debitoris. The question then arises whether or not a debtor would also commit breach in the form of mora debitoris if the delay in performance cannot be attributed to wilful disregard of the contract or a negligent failure to perform on time. This was the question which the court had to determine in Scoin Trading (Pty Ltd v Bernstein.

  20. Lubricants trying to meet the diverging requirements of environmental compatibility and efficient performance; Schmierstoffe im Spannungsfeld zwischen Umweltvertraeglichkeit und technischem Leistungsanspruch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hornscheidt, G.A. [Carl Bechem GmbH, Hagen (Germany)

    1998-10-01

    The article addresses the political goal, to substitute lubricants on a mineral oil basis by biologically degradable oils, primarily from renewable sources as e.g. rapeseed or sunflower oils, but animal oils as well. These products can be further processed by oleochemical treatment to synthetic esters which meet the high performance requirements of technical applications. The Federal Government supports research and development activities and thus has given attractive incentives for a reorientation towards biological oils. This will not heal the hole in the ozone layer, nor will it halt destruction of the rainforests, but nevertheless enhances the chances for active environmental protection through application of new, less hazardous substances. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Wie es im Vortrag dargestellt wird, ist es ein erklaertes Ziel der Bundesregierung, problematische mineraloelbasische Schmierstoffe durch den Einsatz biologisch schnell abbaubarer Grundfluessigkeiten, vorrangig nachwachsender Rohstoffe wie Raps- und Sonnenblumenoele, aber auch tierischer Oele, zu ersetzen. Fuer technisch anspruchsvolle Anwendungen koennen diese Produkte von der Oleochemie zu synthetischen Estern weiterverarbeitet werden. Durch die Foerderung von Forschungs- und Entwicklungsmassnahmen fuer Bio-Schmieroele setzt die Bundesregierung hier deutliche Akzente. Kein Schmierstoff dieser Welt kann die Umwelt verbessern. Weder laesst sich mit Bio-Oel das Ozonloch `stopfen`, noch das Problem der sterbenden Regenwaelder loesen. Dennoch kann mit den neuen innovativen Schmierstoffen aktiv Umweltschutz betrieben werden. (orig.)

  1. Value management : functional expression of the need and functional performance specification : requirements for expressing and validating the need to be satisfied within the process of purchasing or obtaining a product

    CERN Document Server

    Association Française de Normalisation. Paris

    2013-01-01

    Value management : functional expression of the need and functional performance specification : requirements for expressing and validating the need to be satisfied within the process of purchasing or obtaining a product

  2. A case of a traumatic chyle leak following an acute thoracic spine injury: successful resolution with strict dietary manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skinner Ruby A

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chylothorax is a rare form of pleural effusion that can be associated with both traumatic and non-traumatic causes. Thoracic duct ligation is often the treatment of choice in postsurgical patients; however the optimal treatment of this disease process after traumatic injury remains unclear 1. We present a rare case of a thoracic duct injury secondary to a blunt thoracic spine fracture and subluxation which was successfully treated non-operatively. Case Presentation A 51 year old male presented as a tier one trauma code due to an automobile versus bicycle collision. His examination and radiographic work-up revealed fractures and a subluxation at the third and fourth thoracic spine levels resulting in paraplegia. He also sustained bilateral hemothoraces secondary to multiple rib fractures. Drainage of the left hemothorax led to the diagnosis of a traumatic chylothorax. The thoracic spine fractures were addressed with surgical stabilization and the chylothorax was successfully treated with drainage and dietary manipulation. Conclusions This unusual and complex blunt thoracic duct injury required a multidisciplinary approach. Although the spine injury required surgical fixation, successful resolution of the chyle leak was achieved without surgical intervention.

  3. The tendency of medical electrical equipment - IEC 60601-2-54: Particular requirements for the basic safety and essential performance of x-ray equipment for radiography and radioscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roh, Young Hoon; Kim, Jung Min

    2015-01-01

    Medical electrical equipment - Part 1: General requirement for basic safety and essential performance of MFDS was revised as 3th edition and Medical electrical equipment Part 2-54: Particular requirements for the basic safety and essential performance of X-ray equipment will be expected to be announced as notification. Therefore this technical report was written to introduce provision of the particular requirements, replacement, addition, amendment. The purpose of this particular requirements is to secure requirements for basic safety and essential performance of X-ray equipment for radiography and radioscopy. X-ray high voltage generator, mechanical protective device, protection against radiation is included in this particular requirements. Medical electrical equipment - Part 1, Part 1-2, Part 1-3 is applied to this particular requirements. If the requirements is announced as notification, It is expected to widen understanding for basic safety and essential performance of X-ray equipment for radiography and radioscopy and play a part to internationalize of medical equipment

  4. Prototype development and demonstration for response, emergency staging, communications, uniform management, and evacuation (R.E.S.C.U.M.E.) : R.E.S.C.U.M.E. final functional and performance requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    This document provides the high-level functional and performance requirements for the Prototype Development and Demonstration : of a R.E.S.C.U.M.E. system. The requirements included in this document are based upon those that can be found in previous ...

  5. Towards High Performance Processing In Modern Java Based Control Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Misiowiec, M; Buttner, M

    2011-01-01

    CERN controls software is often developed on Java foundation. Some systems carry out a combination of data, network and processor intensive tasks within strict time limits. Hence, there is a demand for high performing, quasi real time solutions. Extensive prototyping of the new CERN monitoring and alarm software required us to address such expectations. The system must handle dozens of thousands of data samples every second, along its three tiers, applying complex computations throughout. To accomplish the goal, a deep understanding of multithreading, memory management and interprocess communication was required. There are unexpected traps hidden behind an excessive use of 64 bit memory or severe impact on the processing flow of modern garbage collectors. Tuning JVM configuration significantly affects the execution of the code. Even more important is the amount of threads and the data structures used between them. Accurately dividing work into independent tasks might boost system performance. Thorough profili...

  6. Performance study of hybrid photon detectors for the LHCb RICH

    CERN Document Server

    Kanaya, N; Gys, Thierry; Piedigrossi, D; Wyllie, K

    2005-01-01

    The LHCb experiment is designed to study CP violation and rare phenomena of B mesons with very high accuracy. The LHCb RICH detectors are essential for positive kaon identification, and several strict demands are required of its photon detectors to achieve excellent particle identification performance. In particular, they should have good single photon sensitivity for visible and UV wavelengths and large coverage with fine granularity. HPDs have been developed to meet these requirements in collaboration with industry. They have now been chosen as the photon detector for LHCb, and pre-series tubes are under test prior to mass production. At the same time, more detailed studies are on-going to understand more deeply their characteristics. The result of various performance tests of these tubes as well as the fraction of light reflection in the HPD are described in this paper.

  7. Infectious Gastroenteritis and the Need for Strict Contact Precaution Procedures in Adults Presenting in the Emergency Department

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skyum, Florence; Andersen, Vibeke; Chen, Ming

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute infectious gastroenteritis requires contact precautions to prevent spreading. On acute admission the cause of diarrhoea is unknown, so the decision of whom to isolate has to be made on clinical information with a risk of inexpedient use of contact precautions. AIM: The aims...... of the study were to investigate how often gastroenteritis occurs, and thus the isolation indication has to be assessed, in Danish emergency departments, and how often patients have to remain on contact precaution according to the results of the faecal samples. METHODS: This Danish register based retrospective......: Among 66,885 acute admissions 4.3% patients had at least one feature of gastroenteritis: admission with a chief complaint of diarrhoea (1.6%); faecal sample microbiology examination (2.8%); discharged with a gastroenteritis diagnosis (1.7%). 19% of those who had a faecal sample tested were norovirus...

  8. Harmonized Constraints in Software Engineering and Acquisition Process Management Requirements are the Clue to Meet Future Performance Goals Successfully in an Environment of Scarce Resources

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reich, Holger

    2008-01-01

    This MBA project investigates the importance of correctly deriving requirements from the capability gap and operational environment, and translating them into the processes of contracting, software...

  9. Sorption-induced reversible oxidation of Fe(2) at the smectite/water interface under strictly anoxic conditions. A Moessbauer spectroscopy study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehin, A.; Charlet, L. [Laboratoire de Geophysique Interne et Tectonophysique (LGIT), Universite de Grenoble, 38 - Grenoble (France); Gehin, A. [Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs, ANDRA, 92 - Chatenay Malabry (France); Greneche, J.M. [Laboratoire de Physique de l' Etat Condense, UMR-CNRS 6087, 72 - Le Mans (France); Brendle, J. [Universite de Haute Alsace, Lab. des Materiaux Mineraux (LMM), 68 - Mulhouse (France); Rancourt, D.G. [Ottawa Univ., Dept. of Physics, Ontario (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Previous studies of Fe(II) sorption onto montmorillonite have been performed with the mineral extracted from the MX80 bentonite. These studies have shown that Fe(II) can be sorbed onto clay minerals in cation exchange position. The affinity of montmorillonite for Fe(II) and Ca(II) is identical. Fe(II) may also be specifically adsorbed onto montmorillonite clay edges. Moessbauer spectroscopy confirmed the high affinity of clay surfaces for Fe(II) sorption and showed that this sorption is mainly due to a two step mechanism: Fe(II) specific adsorption, followed by oxidation of the Fe(II) sorbed. The identification of the oxidizing agent was prohibited due to the complex chemistry of the natural MX80 montmorillonite. Thus, synthetic iron-free montmorillonite was used (chemical formula: Ca{sub 0.3} (A{sub 1.4}Mg{sub 0.6}) (Si{sub 4}) O{sub 10}(OH){sub 2} ). {sup 57}Fe(II) sorption experiments were conducted in a N{sub 2} atmosphere gloves-box, in strictly anoxic conditions. Solid samples were synthesized in order to confirm the clay high affinity for Fe(II), in absence of structural oxidant, and to have a better comprehension of the sorption mechanism. Moessbauer spectra were recorded for each sample. Whereas no Fe(III) is detected in solution as pH was increased and then, a significant amount of surface sorbed Fe(III) was found to be reversibly produced, which amounts for 0-3% of total Fe in the pre-sorption edge acid region, up to 7% of total Fe when all Fe is sorbed in the neutral to alkaline pH range. From pH {approx_equal} 2 to pH {approx_equal} 7, a sorption edge plateau is observed. In this plateau, the sorbed-Fe(III)/sorbed-Fe ratio increases with pH, up to 45% at pH 7. Moessbauer spectra comparison with ferrous hydroxide, synthesized in the same redox conditions at higher pH, show that this oxidation can not be due to the trace amounts Oz in the suspension. The Moessbauer spectra components of both Fe(II) and Fe(III) appears as paramagnetic doublets: iron has

  10. "Open mesh" or "strictly selected population" recruitment? The experience of the randomized controlled MeMeMe trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cortellini M

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Mauro Cortellini, Franco Berrino, Patrizia Pasanisi Department of Preventive & Predictive Medicine, Foundation IRCCS National Cancer Institute of Milan, Milan, Italy Abstract: Among randomized controlled trials (RCTs, trials for primary prevention require large samples and long follow-up to obtain a high-quality outcome; therefore the recruitment process and the drop-out rates largely dictate the adequacy of the results. We are conducting a Phase III trial on persons with metabolic syndrome to test the hypothesis that comprehensive lifestyle changes and/or metformin treatment prevents age-related chronic diseases (the MeMeMe trial, EudraCT number: 2012-005427-32, also registered on ClinicalTrials.gov [NCT02960711]. Here, we briefly analyze and discuss the reasons which may lead to participants dropping out from trials. In our experience, participants may back out of a trial for different reasons. Drug-induced side effects are certainly the most compelling reason. But what are the other reasons, relating to the participants’ perception of the progress of the trial which led them to withdraw after randomization? What about the time-dependent drop-out rate in primary prevention trials? The primary outcome of this analysis is the point of drop-out from trial, defined as the time from the randomization date to the withdrawal date. Survival functions were non-parametrically estimated using the product-limit estimator. The curves were statistically compared using the log-rank test (P=0.64, not significant. Researchers involved in primary prevention RCTs seem to have to deal with the paradox of the proverbial “short blanket syndrome”. Recruiting only highly motivated candidates might be useful for the smooth progress of the trial but it may lead to a very low enrollment rate. On the other hand, what about enrolling all the eligible subjects without considering their motivation? This might boost the enrollment rate, but it can lead to biased

  11. "Open mesh" or "strictly selected population" recruitment? The experience of the randomized controlled MeMeMe trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortellini, Mauro; Berrino, Franco; Pasanisi, Patrizia

    2017-01-01

    Among randomized controlled trials (RCTs), trials for primary prevention require large samples and long follow-up to obtain a high-quality outcome; therefore the recruitment process and the drop-out rates largely dictate the adequacy of the results. We are conducting a Phase III trial on persons with metabolic syndrome to test the hypothesis that comprehensive lifestyle changes and/or metformin treatment prevents age-related chronic diseases (the MeMeMe trial, EudraCT number: 2012-005427-32, also registered on ClinicalTrials.gov [NCT02960711]). Here, we briefly analyze and discuss the reasons which may lead to participants dropping out from trials. In our experience, participants may back out of a trial for different reasons. Drug-induced side effects are certainly the most compelling reason. But what are the other reasons, relating to the participants' perception of the progress of the trial which led them to withdraw after randomization? What about the time-dependent drop-out rate in primary prevention trials? The primary outcome of this analysis is the point of drop-out from trial, defined as the time from the randomization date to the withdrawal date. Survival functions were non-parametrically estimated using the product-limit estimator. The curves were statistically compared using the log-rank test ( P =0.64, not significant). Researchers involved in primary prevention RCTs seem to have to deal with the paradox of the proverbial "short blanket syndrome". Recruiting only highly motivated candidates might be useful for the smooth progress of the trial but it may lead to a very low enrollment rate. On the other hand, what about enrolling all the eligible subjects without considering their motivation? This might boost the enrollment rate, but it can lead to biased results on account of large proportions of drop-outs. Our experience suggests that participants do not change their mind depending on the allocation group (intervention or control). There is no single

  12. The balanced scorecard: an integrative approach to performance evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, J

    2001-05-01

    In addition to strict financial outcomes, healthcare financial managers should assess intangible assets that affect the organization's bottom line, such as clinical processes, staff skills, and patient satisfaction and loyalty. The balanced scorecard, coupled with data-warehousing capabilities, offers a way to measure an organization's performance against its strategic objectives while focusing on building capabilities to achieve these objectives. The balanced scorecard examines performance related to finance, human resources, internal processes, and customers. Because the balanced scorecard requires substantial amounts of data, it is a necessity to establish an organizational data warehouse of clinical, operational, and financial data that can be used in decision support. Because it presents indicators that managers and staff can influence directly by their actions, the balanced-scorecard approach to performance measurement encourages behavioral changes aimed at achieving corporate strategies.

  13. High performance computing system in the framework of the Higgs boson studies

    CERN Document Server

    Belyaev, Nikita; The ATLAS collaboration; Velikhov, Vasily; Konoplich, Rostislav

    2017-01-01

    The Higgs boson physics is one of the most important and promising fields of study in the modern high energy physics. It is important to notice, that GRID computing resources become strictly limited due to increasing amount of statistics, required for physics analyses and unprecedented LHC performance. One of the possibilities to address the shortfall of computing resources is the usage of computer institutes' clusters, commercial computing resources and supercomputers. To perform precision measurements of the Higgs boson properties in these realities, it is also highly required to have effective instruments to simulate kinematic distributions of signal events. In this talk we give a brief description of the modern distribution reconstruction method called Morphing and perform few efficiency tests to demonstrate its potential. These studies have been performed on the WLCG and Kurchatov Institute’s Data Processing Center, including Tier-1 GRID site and supercomputer as well. We also analyze the CPU efficienc...

  14. Colonization of Coral Communities in the Krakatau Islands Strict Marine Nature Reserve, Indonesia (Kolonisasi Komunitas Karang di Kepulanan Krakatau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singgih Afifa Putra

    2014-06-01

    . The purposes of this research were to determine the condition and describe the recent colonization development of coral communities in the Krakatau Islands after sterilization. Transects were done at six stations at two different depth (i.e. 5 and 10 m using line intercept transect. While observations of coral communities were done with video transect. This study showed that succession or development of coral communities (i.e. colonization that found in Anak Krakatau indicated earlier stage of colonization. It has different coral communities compared with those that found in Rakata and Panjang island. The diversification of coral communities on both islands, showed that opportunistic and pioneer species (i.e. Pocillopora and Seriatopora that generally found in Anak Krakatau has been replaced. There are indications of dominance may already take place through competitive exclusion in the coral communities. Three community types were distinguished based on characteristics for each sites, as follows: communities of wave-exposed habitats, communities of semi- exposed to sheltered habitats, and communities of sheltered habitats. The extent of coral damage covered all six sites based on coral damage index (CDI. This suggests that of the all transects were "hot spots'' that required management action. These results indicate that colonization and the level of coral damage have to be taken into account on the manegement of coral ecosystem in the region. Keywords: colonization; succession; coral communities; management; Krakatau

  15. Minimal requirements for quality controls in radiotherapy with external beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Physical dosimetric guidelines have been developed by the Italian National Institute of Health study group on quality assurance in radiotherapy to define protocols for quality controls in external beam radiotherapy. While the document does not determine strict rules or firm recommendations, it suggests minimal requirements for quality controls necessary to guarantee an adequate degree of accuracy in external beam radiotherapy [it

  16. Kinesthetic imagery of musical performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eLotze

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Musicians use different kinds of imagery. This review focuses on kinesthetic imagery, which has been shown to be an effective complement to actively playing an instrument. However, experience in actual movement performance seems to be a requirement for a recruitment of those brain areas representing movement ideation during imagery. An internal model of movement performance might be more differentiated when training has been more intense or simply performed more often. Therefore, with respect to kinesthetic imagery, these strategies are predominantly found in professional musicians. There are a few possible reasons as to why kinesthetic imagery is used in addition to active training; one example is the need for mental rehearsal of the technically most difficult passages. Training difficult passages repeatedly has the potential to induce fatigue in tendons and muscles and can ultimately result in the development of dystonia. Another reason for mental practice is that mental rehearsal of the piece helps to improve performance if the instrument is not available for actual training as is the case for professional musicians when they are travelling to various appearances. Overall, mental imagery in musicians is not necessarily specific to motor, somatosensory, auditory or visual aspects of imagery, but integrates them all. In particular, the audiomotor loop is highly important, since auditory aspects are crucial for guiding motor performance. Furthermore, slight co-movement, for instance of the fingers, usually occurs when imagining musical performance, a situation different to the laboratory condition where movement execution is strictly controlled. All these aspects result in a distinctive representation map for the mental imagery of musical performance. This review summarizes behavioral data, and findings from functional brain imaging studies of mental imagery of musical performance.

  17. 40 CFR Table 11 to Subpart Uuu of... - Requirements for Performance Tests for Organic HAP Emissions From Catalytic Cracking Units Not...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Refineries: Catalytic Cracking Units, Catalytic Reforming Units, and Sulfur Recovery Units Pt. 63, Subpt. UUU... Organic HAP Emissions From Catalytic Cracking Units Not Subject to New Source Performance Standard (NSPS... From Catalytic Cracking Units Not Subject to New Source Performance Standard (NSPS) for Carbon Monoxide...

  18. "Fisher v. Texas": Strictly Disappointing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieli, Russell K.

    2013-01-01

    Russell K. Nieli writes in this opinion paper that as far as the ability of state colleges and universities to use race as a criteria for admission goes, "Fisher v. Texas" was a big disappointment, and failed in the most basic way. Nieli states that although some affirmative action opponents have tried to put a more positive spin on the…

  19. Strict rules for easy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roggen, M.

    2003-01-01

    The energy companies soon start tests to assess whether their information systems are ready to enable easy transition of retail clients from one energy supplier to another starting early next year. Having learnt a great deal from its experience with the liberalisation of the market for medium-sized business clients, power trade organisation EnergieNed has decided to run a support program named Spoed. (Dutch for Speed) to support the final stage of the liberalisation process. A Reference model has been prepared, on the basis of which energy companies can now test the mutual exchange of switch data [nl

  20. Strictly Limited Choice or Agency?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nell, Phillip Christopher; Puck, Jonas F.; Heidenreich, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    the external pressures are joined by strong firm-internal pressures. Our findings contribute to the scarce literature on firms’ political strategies in emerging markets. They also support recent criticism of institutional theory’s strong focus on isomorphism as the most important legitimacy-conveying mechanism...

  1. On the theory of generalized entropy solutions of the Cauchy problem for a class of non-strictly hyperbolic systems of conservation laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panov, E Yu

    2000-01-01

    Many-dimensional non-strictly hyperbolic systems of conservation laws with a radially degenerate flux function are considered. For such systems the set of entropies is defined and described, the concept of generalized entropy solution of the Cauchy problem is introduced, and the properties of generalized entropy solutions are studied. The class of strong generalized entropy solutions is distinguished, in which the Cauchy problem in question is uniquely soluble. A condition on the initial data is described that ensures that the generalized entropy solution is strong and therefore unique. Under this condition the convergence of the 'vanishing viscosity' method is established. An example presented in the paper shows that a generalized entropy solution is not necessarily unique in the general case

  2. NEU3 sialidase strictly modulates GM3 levels in skeletal myoblasts C2C12 thus favoring their differentiation and protecting them from apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasia, Luigi; Papini, Nadia; Colazzo, Francesca; Palazzolo, Giacomo; Tringali, Cristina; Dileo, Loredana; Piccoli, Marco; Conforti, Erika; Sitzia, Clementina; Monti, Eugenio; Sampaolesi, Maurilio; Tettamanti, Guido; Venerando, Bruno

    2008-12-26

    Membrane-bound sialidase NEU3, often referred to as the "ganglioside sialidase," has a critical regulatory function on the sialoglycosphingolipid pattern of the cell membrane, with an anti-apoptotic function, especially in cancer cells. Although other sialidases have been shown to be involved in skeletal muscle differentiation, the role of NEU3 had yet to be disclosed. Herein we report that NEU3 plays a key role in skeletal muscle differentiation by strictly modulating the ganglioside content of adjacent cells, with special regard to GM3. Induced down-regulation of NEU3 in murine C2C12 myoblasts, even when partial, totally inhibits their capability to differentiate by increasing the GM3 level above a critical point, which causes epidermal growth factor receptor inhibition (and ultimately its down-regulation) and an higher responsiveness of myoblasts to the apoptotic stimuli.

  3. Assessing the Land Subsidence Governance in Ningbo City: By a Close Study of the Building Collapse at the Strictly Protected Land Subsidence Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xia

    2016-04-01

    Ningbo is a coastal city in East China, its land subsidence problem was noticed in the 1960s. However, scientific management was insufficient at that time, so with the fast city development from the 1980s, groundwater was used by a large amount of small factories, and tall buildings were built on the land. It was in 2008, scientists predicted that if without doing anything to prevent the land from subsiding, the city will be covered by the East Sea in 2030. From then on, the local government implied several policies, such as shut down most of the groundwater pumping wells, set up a new authority to enhance the cooperation among different administration departments, and also set up a land subsidence monitoring center for the city. Recently, it is declared that a Stereo regulatory system of land subsidence governance has been achieved. However, in 2012, a 23-years old building in the city center collapsed. According to the City Planning 2009, this building is located just in the strictly protected land subsidence area. The experts, however, think that land subsidence is not the main reason, since there are many illegal changes to the building during the past 23 years. The aim of my research is to assess the land subsidence governance in Ningbo city. I studied the collapsed building, how it was built, what has changed after building, how the environment changed in this area, and how this area became the strictly protected land subsidence area, and what kind of protections have been made. Actually, during the case study I discuss the land subsidence governance design of Ningbo, and to see what practices and lessons we can learn from this case.

  4. Approximation of a Common Element of the Fixed Point Sets of Multivalued Strictly Pseudocontractive-Type Mappings and the Set of Solutions of an Equilibrium Problem in Hilbert Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. O. Isiogugu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The strong convergence of a hybrid algorithm to a common element of the fixed point sets of multivalued strictly pseudocontractive-type mappings and the set of solutions of an equilibrium problem in Hilbert spaces is obtained using a strict fixed point set condition. The obtained results improve, complement, and extend the results on multivalued and single-valued mappings in the contemporary literature.

  5. Predicting athletic performance with self-confidence and somatic and cognitive anxiety as a function of motor and physiological requirements in six sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J

    1987-03-01

    The purpose of the present study is to examine the ability of certain psychological attributes to predict performance in six National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I collegiate sports. Eighty-four athletes from the varsity sports teams of cross country running, alpine and nordic skiing, tennis, basketball, and track and field at the University of Colorado completed a questionnaire adapted from Martens (1977; Martens et al., 1983) that measured their trait levels of self-confidence (Bandura, 1977), somatic anxiety, and cognitive anxiety (Martens, 1977; Martens et al., 1983). In addition, at three to six competitions during the season, the members of the cross country running and tennis teams filled out a state measure (Martens et al., 1983) of the three attributes from one to two hours prior to the competition. Following each competition, subjective and objective ratings of performance were obtained, and, for all sports, coaches' ratings of performance and an overall seasonal team ranking were determined as seasonal performance measures. The sports were dichotomized along motor and physiological dimensions. Results indicate that all three psychological attributes were significant predictors of performance in both fine motor, anaerobic sports and gross motor, aerobic sports. Further, clear differences in these relationships emerged as a function of the dichotomization. In addition, unexpected sex differences emerged. The findings are discussed relative to prior research and their implications for future research.

  6. Operating the EOSDIS at the land processes DAAC managing expectations, requirements, and performance across agencies, missions, instruments, systems, and user communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalvelage, T.A.; ,

    2002-01-01

    NASA developed the Earth Observing System (EOS) during the 1990'S. At the Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC), located at the USGS EROS Data Center, the EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is required to support heritage missions as well as Landsat 7, Terra, and Aqua. The original system concept of the early 1990'S changed as each community had its say - first the managers, then engineers, scientists, developers, operators, and then finally the general public. The systems at the LP DAAC - particularly the largest single system, the EOSDIS Core System (ECS) - are changing as experience accumulates, technology changes, and each user group gains influence. The LP DAAC has adapted as contingencies were planned for, requirements and therefore plans were modified, and expectations changed faster than requirements could hope to be satisfied. Although not responsible for Quality Assurance of the science data, the LP DAAC works to ensure the data are accessible and useable by influencing systems, capabilities, and data formats where possible, and providing tools and user support as necessary. While supporting multiple missions and instruments, the LP DAAC also works with and learns from multiple management and oversight groups as they review mission requirements, system capabilities, and the overall operation of the LP DAAC. Stakeholders, including the Land Science community, are consulted regularly to ensure that the LP DAAC remains cognizant and responsive to the evolving needs of the user community. Today, the systems do not look or function as originally planned, but they do work, and they allow customers to search and order of an impressive amount of diverse data.

  7. Internet Based Activities (IBAs): Seniors' Experiences of the Conditions Required for the Performance of and the Influence of these Conditions on their Own Participation in Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Ellinor; Larsson-Lund, Maria; Nilsson, Ingeborg

    2013-01-01

    The digital gap is a threat to the participation of senior citizens in society, as a large proportion of seniors are not involved in Internet based activities (IBAs). To be able to overcome this disadvantage for seniors, there is a need to both learn more about the conditions that make seniors start performing IBAs and to be able to provide them…

  8. Proposal of requirements for performance in Brazil for systems of external individual monitoring for neutrons applying the TLD-albedo technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Marcelo M.; Mauricio, Claudia L.P.; Pereira, Walsan W.; Fonseca, Evaldo S. da; Silva, Ademir X.

    2009-01-01

    This work presents a criteria and conditions proposal for the regulations in Brazil of individual monitoring systems for neutrons applying the albedo technique with thermoluminescent detectors. Tests are proposed for the characterization performance of the system based on the Regulation ISO 21909 and on the experience of the authors

  9. Harmine treatment enhances short-term memory in old rats: Dissociation of cognition and the ability to perform the procedural requirements of maze testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennenga, Sarah E; Gerson, Julia E; Dunckley, Travis; Bimonte-Nelson, Heather A

    2015-01-01

    Harmine is a naturally occurring monoamine oxidase inhibitor that has recently been shown to selectively inhibit the dual-specificity tyrosine-(Y)-phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A (DYRK1A). We investigated the cognitive effects of 1mg (low) Harmine and 5mg (high) Harmine using the delayed-match-to-sample (DMS) asymmetrical 3-choice water maze task to evaluate spatial working and recent memory, and the Morris water maze task (MM) to test spatial reference memory. Animals were also tested on the visible platform task, a water-escape task with the same motor, motivational, and reinforcement components as the other tasks used to evaluate cognition, but differing in its greater simplicity and that the platform was visible above the surface of the water. A subset of the Harmine-high treated animals showed clear motor impairments on all behavioral tasks, and the visible platform task confirmed a lack of competence to perform the procedural components of water maze testing. After excluding animals from the high dose group that could not perform the procedural components of a swim task, it was revealed that both high- and low-dose treatment with Harmine enhanced performance on the latter portion of DMS testing, but had no effect on MM performance. Thus, this study demonstrates the importance of confirming motor and visual competence when studying animal cognition, and verifies the one-day visible platform task as a reliable measure of ability to perform the procedural components necessary for completion of a swim task. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. The Use of Online Pre-Lab Assessments Compared with Written Pre-Lab Assignments Requiring Experimental Result Prediction Shows No Difference in Student Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Erica L. Suchman

    2015-01-01

    Exam performance was compared for students who hand wrote questions designed to prepare them for daily lab activities in a senior level virology laboratory course versus those who answered questions created to mirror the written questions on-line.  No significant difference was noted in exam scores on any of the three midterms, written final exam, nor the practical exam.  Neither was there a significant difference in the quality of the laboratory reports turned in as evidenced by similar aver...

  11. Software requirements

    CERN Document Server

    Wiegers, Karl E

    2003-01-01

    Without formal, verifiable software requirements-and an effective system for managing them-the programs that developers think they've agreed to build often will not be the same products their customers are expecting. In SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS, Second Edition, requirements engineering authority Karl Wiegers amplifies the best practices presented in his original award-winning text?now a mainstay for anyone participating in the software development process. In this book, you'll discover effective techniques for managing the requirements engineering process all the way through the development cy

  12. Performing prototype distortion tasks requires no contribution from the explicit memory systems: evidence from amnesic MCI patients in a new experimental paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zannino, Gian Daniele; Perri, Roberta; Zabberoni, Silvia; Caltagirone, Carlo; Marra, Camillo; Carlesimo, Giovanni A

    2012-10-01

    Evidence shows that amnesic patients are able to categorize new exemplars drawn from the same prototype as in previously encountered items. It is still unclear, however, whether this ability is due to a spared implicit learning system or residual explicit memory and/or working memory resources. In this study, we used a new paradigm devised expressly to rule out any possible contribution of episodic and working memory in performing a prototype distortion task. We enrolled patients with amnesic MCI and Normal Controls. Our paradigm consisted of a study phase and a test phase; two-thirds of the participants performed the study phase and all participants performed the test phase. In the study phase, participants had to judge how pleasant morphed faces, drawn from a single prototype, seemed to them. Half of the participants were shown faces drawn from the A-prototype and half from the B-prototype. A- and B-faces were opposite in a morphing space with a neutral human face at the center. In the test phase, participants had to judge the regularity of faces they had never seen before. Three different types of faces were shown in the test phase, that is, A-, B-, or neutral-faces. We expected that implicit learning of the category boundaries would lead to a category-specific increase in perceived regularity. The results confirmed our predictions. In fact, trained subjects (compared with subjects who did not undergo the study phase) assigned higher regularity scores to new faces drawn from the same prototype as the faces seen during training, and they gave lower regularity scores to new faces drawn from the opposite prototype. This effect was super imposable across subjects' groups. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Health benefit from decreasing exposure to heavy metals and metalloid after strict pollution control measures near a typical river basin area in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Suzhen; Duan, Xiaoli; Ma, Yingqun; Zhao, Xiuge; Qin, Yanwen; Liu, Yan; Li, Sai; Zheng, Binghui; Wei, Fusheng

    2017-10-01

    The metal(loid) pollution still is a great concern due to the effects from urbanization and industrialization. While, the health risks from the toxic metal(loid)s could decrease if strict pollution control measures were adopted. However, few studies to date investigate the health risks of heavy metal(loid)s in a systematic river basin for the dependent residents, after taking pollution control measures. Thus, the contents of metal(loid)s (Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Mn, As) in surface water along a typical river basin were investigated in this study, and the potential non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic health risks posed to the residents were assessed. Although the soluble contents of Cu, Pb, Zn and Cd exceeded the respective thresholds in two sites located downstream the mine area, they were greatly decreased in comparison with previous contamination levels, and the soluble concentrations of all the metal(loid)s were within the relevant thresholds in the sites far away from the mining area. Moreover, the closer to the mining area, the higher the pollution levels of metal(loid)s. The total hazard index for non-carcinogenic risks of metal(loid)s were basically lower than the threshold (1) for the local population. Whereas, although the content of metal(loid)s were low (such as As), they could pose relative higher non-carcinogenic health risks. The result illustrated that pollution levels, toxicity of the contaminants and exposure behavior patterns all could contribute to the potential detrimental health risks. Additionally, the non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks from ingestion exposure were ∼2-∼4 orders of magnitude higher than those from dermal contact. The total carcinogenic risks were basically lower than the maximum tolerable levels (1.0 × 10 -4 ), indicating carcinogenic risks from most areas of the river could also be accepted. Among different population groups, heavy metal(loid)s posed relative higher non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks to the children in

  14. Characterization of the functional requirements of West Nile virus membrane fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moesker, Bastiaan; Rodenhuis-Zybert, Izabela A; Meijerhof, Tjarko; Wilschut, Jan; Smit, Jolanda M

    2010-02-01

    Flaviviruses infect their host cells by a membrane fusion reaction. In this study, we performed a functional analysis of the membrane fusion properties of West Nile virus (WNV) with liposomal target membranes. Membrane fusion was monitored continuously using a lipid mixing assay involving the fluorophore, pyrene. Fusion of WNV with liposomes occurred on the timescale of seconds and was strictly dependent on mildly acidic pH. Optimal fusion kinetics were observed at pH 6.3, the threshold for fusion being pH 6.9. Preincubation of the virus alone at pH 6.3 resulted in a rapid loss of fusion capacity. WNV fusion activity is strongly promoted by the presence of cholesterol in the target membrane. Furthermore, we provide direct evidence that cleavage of prM to M is a requirement for fusion activity of WNV.

  15. Programmatic and technical requirements for the FMDP fresh MOX fuel transport package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, S.B.; Michelhaugh, R.D.; Pope, R.B.

    1997-12-01

    This document is intended to guide the designers of the package to all pertinent regulatory and other design requirements to help ensure the safe and efficient transport of the weapons-grade (WG) fresh MOX fuel under the Fissile Materials Disposition Program. To accomplish the disposition mission using MOX fuel, the unirradiated MOX fuel must be transported from the MOX fabrication facility to one or more commercial reactors. Because the unirradiated fuel contains large quantities of plutonium and is not sufficient radioactive to create a self-protecting barrier to deter the material from theft, DOE intends to use its fleet of safe secure trailers (SSTs) to provide the necessary safeguards and security for the material in transit. In addition to these requirements, transport of radioactive materials must comply with regulations of the Department of Transportation and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). In particular, NRC requires that the packages must meet strict performance requirements. The requirements for shipment of MOX fuel (i.e., radioactive fissile materials) specify that the package design is certified by NRC to ensure the materials contained in the packages are not released and remain subcritical after undergoing a series of hypothetical accident condition tests. Packages that pass these tests are certified by NRC as a Type B fissile (BF) package. This document specifies the programmatic and technical design requirements a package must satisfy to transport the fresh MOX fuel assemblies

  16. Phylogenetic placement of an unusual coral mushroom challenges the classic hypothesis of strict coevolution in the apterostigma pilosum group ant-fungus mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dentinger, Bryn T M; Lodge, D Jean; Munkacsi, Andrew B; Desjardin, Dennis E; McLaughlin, David J

    2009-08-01

    The approximately 50 million-year-old fungus-farming ant mutualism is a classic example of coevolution, involving ants that subsist on asexual, fungal biomass, in turn propagating the fungus clonally through nest-to-nest transmission. Most mutualistic ants cultivate two closely related groups of gilled mushrooms, whereas one small group of ants in the genus Apterostigma cultivates a distantly related lineage comprised of the G2 and G4 groups. The G2 and G4 fungi were previously shown to form a monophyletic group sister to the thread-like coral mushroom family Pterulaceae. Here, we identify an enigmatic coral mushroom that produces both fertile and sterile fruiting structures as the closest free-living relative of the G4 fungi, challenging the monophyly of the Apterostigma-cultivated fungi for the first time. Both nonparametric bootstrap and Bayesian posterior probability support the node leading to the G4 cultivars and a free-living Pterula mushroom. These data suggest three scenarios that contradict the hypothesis of strict coevolution: (1) multiple domestications, (2) escape from domestication, (3) selection of single cultivar lineages from an ancestral mixed-fungus garden. These results illustrate how incomplete phylogenies for coevolved symbionts impede our understanding of the patterns and processes of coevolution.

  17. 'Maybe they should regulate them quite strictly until they know the true dangers': a focus group study exploring UK adolescents' views on e-cigarette regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weishaar, Heide; Trevisan, Filippo; Hilton, Shona

    2016-09-01

    Regulation of electronic cigarettes has moved to the top of the addiction policy agenda, as demonstrated by the recent focus across the United Kingdom on introducing age-of-sale restrictions. However, the views of those affected by such regulation remain largely unexplored. This paper presents the first detailed qualitative exploration of adolescents' perceptions of existing, and opinions about potential e-cigarette regulation. Sixteen focus groups, including a total of 83 teenagers between the ages of 14 and 17 years, were conducted in deprived, mixed and affluent urban areas in Scotland and England between November 2014 and February 2015. Transcripts were imported into Nivivo 10, coded thematically and analysed. Participants critically considered existing evidence and competing interests in regulatory debates and demonstrated sophisticated understanding of the advantages and disadvantages of regulation. They overwhelmingly supported strong e-cigarette regulation and endorsed restrictions on sales to minors, marketing and e-cigarette use in public places. Concern about potential health harms of e-cigarette use and marketing increasing the acceptability of vaping and smoking led these adolescents to support regulation. In focus group discussions, a sample of UK adolescents exposed to particular communications about e-cigarettes supported strict regulation of e-cigarettes, including banning sales to minors and use in indoor public areas. © 2016 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction.

  18. Przewalski’ s Horse ( Equus ferus przewalskii Re-intr oduction in the Great Gobi B Strictly Protected Area: from Species to Ecosystem Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kaczensky

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The Przewalski’s horse ( Equus ferus przewalskii Po ljakov , 1881, or “T akhi” in Mongolian, became extinct in the wild by the mid 1960’ s. The last recorded sightings of Przewalski’s horses occurred in the Dzungarian Gobi desert in SW Mo ngolia, today’s Great Gobi B Strictly Protected Area (SP A. A re - introduction program was initiated in 1992 and the fi rs t group of captive-born Przewalski’s horses was airlifted to the SPA. Given the logistical challenges associated with such a venture, the initial project focus has been on transport logistics and the well-being of the re-introduced horses. Tod ay, conservation efforts are spread over the entire protected area. Present day ef forts include other mammals, vegetation and the local people. Due to its important symbolic value in Mongolian culture, the Przewalski’ s horse became an important fl agship species for the protected area’s conservation and management.

  19. Modeling the adsorption of hydrogen, sodium, chloride and phthalate on goethite using a strict charge-neutral ion-exchange theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulthess, Cristian P; Ndu, Udonna

    2017-01-01

    Simultaneous adsorption modeling of four ions was predicted with a strict net charge-neutral ion-exchange theory and its corresponding equilibrium and mass balance equations. An important key to the success of this approach was the proper collection of all the data, particularly the proton adsorption data, and the inclusion of variable concentrations of conjugate ions from the experimental pH adjustments. Using IExFit software, the ion-exchange model used here predicted the competitive retention of several ions on goethite by assuming that the co-adsorption or desorption of all ions occurred in the correct stoichiometries needed to maintain electroneutrality. This approach also revealed that the retention strength of Cl- ions on goethite increases in the presence of phthalate ions. That is, an anion-anion enhancement effect was observed. The retention of Cl- ions was much weaker than phthalate ions, and this also resulted in a higher sensitivity of the Cl- ions toward minor variations in the surface reactivity. The proposed model uses four goethite surface sites. The drop in retention of phthalate ions at low pH was fully described here as resulting from competitive Cl- reactions, which were introduced in increasing concentrations into the matrix as the conjugate base to the acid added to lower the pH.

  20. Distributed cooperative H∞ optimal tracking control of MIMO nonlinear multi-agent systems in strict-feedback form via adaptive dynamic programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luy, N. T.

    2018-04-01

    The design of distributed cooperative H∞ optimal controllers for multi-agent systems is a major challenge when the agents' models are uncertain multi-input and multi-output nonlinear systems in strict-feedback form in the presence of external disturbances. In this paper, first, the distributed cooperative H∞ optimal tracking problem is transformed into controlling the cooperative tracking error dynamics in affine form. Second, control schemes and online algorithms are proposed via adaptive dynamic programming (ADP) and the theory of zero-sum differential graphical games. The schemes use only one neural network (NN) for each agent instead of three from ADP to reduce computational complexity as well as avoid choosing initial NN weights for stabilising controllers. It is shown that despite not using knowledge of cooperative internal dynamics, the proposed algorithms not only approximate values to Nash equilibrium but also guarantee all signals, such as the NN weight approximation errors and the cooperative tracking errors in the closed-loop system, to be uniformly ultimately bounded. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed method is shown by simulation results of an application to wheeled mobile multi-robot systems.

  1. Asymmetric reduction of ketopantolactone using a strictly (R)-stereoselective carbonyl reductase through efficient NADPH regeneration and the substrate constant-feeding strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Man; Gao, Liang; Zhang, Li; Bai, Yanbin; Chen, Liang; Yu, Meilan; Cheng, Feng; Sun, Jie; Wang, Zhao; Ying, Xiangxian

    2017-11-01

    To characterize a recombinant carbonyl reductase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SceCPR1) and explore its use in asymmetric synthesis of (R)-pantolactone [(R)-PL]. The NADPH-dependent SceCPR1 exhibited strict (R)-enantioselectivity and high activity in the asymmetric reduction of ketopantolactone (KPL) to (R)-PL. Escherichia coli, coexpressing SceCPR1 and glucose dehydrogenase from Exiguobacterium sibiricum (EsGDH), was constructed to fulfill efficient NADPH regeneration. During the whole-cell catalyzed asymmetric reduction of KPL, the spontaneous hydrolysis of KPL significantly affected the yield of (R)-PL, which was effectively alleviated by the employment of the substrate constant-feeding strategy. The established whole-cell bioreduction for 6 h afforded 458 mM (R)-PL with the enantiomeric excess value of >99.9% and the yield of 91.6%. Escherichia coli coexpressing SceCPR1 and EsGDH efficiently catalyzed the asymmetric synthesis of (R)-PL through the substrate constant-feeding strategy.

  2. Evaluation of six nucleic acid amplification tests used for diagnosis of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Russia compared with an international strictly validated real-time porA pseudogene polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipitsyna, E; Zolotoverkhaya, E; Hjelmevoll, S O; Maximova, A; Savicheva, A; Sokolovsky, E; Skogen, V; Domeika, M; Unemo, M

    2009-11-01

    In Russia, laboratory diagnosis of gonorrhoea has been mainly based on microscopy only and, in some settings, relatively rare suboptimal culturing. In recent years, Russian developed and manufactured nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT) have been implemented for routine diagnosis of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. However, these NAATs have never been validated to any international well-recognized diagnostic NAAT. This study aims to evaluate the performance characteristics of six Russian NAATs for N. gonorrhoeae diagnostics. In total, 496 symptomatic patients were included. Five polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays and one real-time nucleic acid sequence based amplification (NASBA) assay, developed by three Russian companies, were evaluated on urogenital samples, i.e. cervical and first voided urine (FVU) samples from females (n = 319), urethral and FVU samples from males (n = 127), and extragenital samples, i.e. rectal and pharyngeal samples, from 50 additional female patients with suspicion of gonorrhoea. As reference method, an international strictly validated real-time porA pseudogene PCR was applied. The prevalence of N. gonorrhoeae was 2.7% and 16% among the patients providing urogenital and extragenital samples, respectively. The Russian NAATs and the reference method displayed high level of concordance (99.4-100%). The sensitivities, specificities, positive predictive values and negative predictive values of the Russian tests in different specimens were 66.7-100%, 100%, 100%, and 99.4-100%, respectively. Russian N. gonorrhoeae diagnostic NAATs comprise relatively good performance characteristics. However, larger studies are crucial and, beneficially, the Russian assays should also be evaluated to other international highly sensitive and specific, and ideally Food and Drug Administration approved, NAATs such as Aptima Combo 2 (Gen-Probe).

  3. Emergency medical services key performance measurement in Asian cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Nik Hisamuddin; Tanaka, Hideharu; Shin, Sang Do; Ng, Yih Yng; Piyasuwankul, Thammapad; Lin, Chih-Hao; Ong, Marcus Eng Hock

    2015-01-01

    One of the key principles in the recommended standards is that emergency medical service (EMS) providers should continuously monitor the quality and safety of their services. This requires service providers to implement performance monitoring using appropriate and relevant measures including key performance indicators. In Asia, EMS systems are at different developmental phases and maturity. This will create difficultly in benchmarking or assessing the quality of EMS performance across the region. An attempt was made to compare the EMS performance index based on the structure, process, and outcome analysis. The data was collected from the Pan-Asian Resuscitation Outcome Study (PAROS) data among few Asian cities, namely, Tokyo, Osaka, Singapore, Bangkok, Kuala Lumpur, Taipei, and Seoul. The parameters of inclusions were broadly divided into structure, process, and outcome measurements. The data was collected by the site investigators from each city and keyed into the electronic web-based data form which is secured strictly by username and passwords. Generally, there seems to be a more uniformity for EMS performance parameters among the more developed EMS systems. The major problem with the EMS agencies in the cities of developing countries like Bangkok and Kuala Lumpur is inadequate or unavailable data pertaining to EMS performance. There is non-uniformity in the EMS performance measurement across the Asian cities. This creates difficulty for EMS performance index comparison and benchmarking. Hopefully, in the future, collaborative efforts such as the PAROS networking group will further enhance the standardization in EMS performance reporting across the region.

  4. Performance optimization of solar PV systems to meet school's power requirements. A case study of Viveka Tribal School at Hosahally Village, Karnataka State - India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamsundar, S.; Kayungilo, Shaaban S.

    2007-07-01

    The use of solar PV systems to provide power for lighting and other applications in India's rural areas has became popular due to the well established promotion and subsidies system adopted by the government to popularize the PV technology. However, there are limited mechanisms put to monitor the performance of the various PV systems once they are installed to ensure that designed output is delivered by the systems. This is important in giving confidence and trust of the technology to end-users and hence further popularization of the PV technology among larger population, increasing the penetration rate and tapping the real benefits of the technology itself like reduced dependence on fossil fuels (kerosene, diesel or electricity generated from coal power plants) and thus saving the environment. This paper describes the results of the study made at Viveka Tribal School at Hosahally Village, Mysore District of Karnataka State-India. The study was carried out to investigate the possibility for the school to become energy-self sufficient based on renewable energy technologies, thus becoming a role model in the use and promotion of renewable energy sources within Mysore District and Karnataka State at large. (orig.)

  5. Transportation System Requirements Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    This Transportation System Requirements Document (Trans-SRD) describes the functions to be performed by and the technical requirements for the Transportation System to transport spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) from Purchaser and Producer sites to a Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) site, and between CRWMS sites. The purpose of this document is to define the system-level requirements for Transportation consistent with the CRWMS Requirement Document (CRD). These requirements include design and operations requirements to the extent they impact on the development of the physical segments of Transportation. The document also presents an overall description of Transportation, its functions, its segments, and the requirements allocated to the segments and the system-level interfaces with Transportation. The interface identification and description are published in the CRWMS Interface Specification

  6. Design requirements for ERD in diffusion-dominated media: how do injection interval, bioactive zones and reaction kinetics affect remediation performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambon, J.; Lemming, G.; Manoli, G.; Broholm, M. M.; Bjerg, P.; Binning, P. J.

    2011-12-01

    Enhanced Reductive Dechlorination (ERD) has been successfully used in high permeability media, such as sand aquifers, and is considered to be a promising technology for low permeability settings. Pilot and full-scale applications of ERD at several sites in Denmark have shown that the main challenge is to get contact between the injected bacteria and electron donor and the contaminants trapped in the low-permeability matrix. Sampling of intact cores from the low-permeability matrix has shown that the bioactive zones (where degradation occurs) are limited in the matrix, due to the slow diffusion transport processes, and this affects the timeframes for the remediation. Due to the limited ERD applications and the complex transport and reactive processes occurring in low-permeability media, design guidelines are currently not available for ERD in such settings, and remediation performance assessments are limited. The objective of this study is to combine existing knowledge from several sites with numerical modeling to assess the effect of the injection interval, development of bioactive zones and reaction kinetics on the remediation efficiency for ERD in diffusion-dominated media. A numerical model is developed to simulate ERD at a contaminated site, where the source area (mainly TCE) is located in a clayey till with fractures and interbedded sand lenses. Such contaminated sites are common in North America and Europe. Hydro-geological characterization provided information on geological heterogeneities and hydraulic parameters, which are relevant for clay till sites in general. The numerical model couples flow and transport in the fracture network and low-permeability matrix. Sequential degradation of TCE to ethene is modeled using Monod kinetics, and the kinetic parameters are obtained from laboratory experiments. The influence of the reaction kinetics on remediation efficiency is assessed by varying the biomass concentration of the specific degraders. The injected

  7. The Performance of an Object-Oriented, Parallel Operating System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Kohr, Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available The nascent and rapidly evolving state of parallel systems often leaves parallel application developers at the mercy of inefficient, inflexible operating system software. Given the relatively primitive state of parallel systems software, maximizing the performance of parallel applications not only requires judicious tuning of the application software, but occasionally, the replacement of specific system software modules with others that can more readily respond to the imposed pattern of resource demands. To assess the feasibility of application and performance tuning via malleable system software and to understand the performance penalties for detailed operating system performance data capture, we describe a set of performance instrumentation techniques for parallel, object-oriented operating systems and a set of performance experiments with Choices, an experimental, object-oriented operating system designed for use with parallel sys- tems. These performance experiments show that (a the performance overhead for operating system data capture is modest, (b the penalty for malleable, object-oriented operating systems is negligible, but (c techniques are needed to strictly enforce adherence of implementation to design if operating system modules are to be replaced.

  8. Human Cytomegalovirus Nuclear Egress Proteins Ectopically Expressed in the Heterologous Environment of Plant Cells are Strictly Targeted to the Nuclear Envelope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamm, Christian E; Link, Katrin; Wagner, Sabrina; Milbradt, Jens; Marschall, Manfred; Sonnewald, Uwe

    2016-03-10

    In all eukaryotic cells, the nucleus forms a prominent cellular compartment containing the cell's nuclear genome. Although structurally similar, animal and plant nuclei differ substantially in details of their architecture. One example is the nuclear lamina, a layer of tightly interconnected filament proteins (lamins) underlying the nuclear envelope of metazoans. So far no orthologous lamin genes could be detected in plant genomes and putative lamin-like proteins are only poorly described in plants. To probe for potentially conserved features of metazoan and plant nuclear envelopes, we ectopically expressed the core nuclear egress proteins of human cytomegalovirus pUL50 and pUL53 in plant cells. pUL50 localizes to the inner envelope of metazoan nuclei and recruits the nuclear localized pUL53 to it, forming heterodimers. Upon expression in plant cells, a very similar localization pattern of both proteins could be determined. Notably, pUL50 is specifically targeted to the plant nuclear envelope in a rim-like fashion, a location to which coexpressed pUL53 becomes strictly corecruited from its initial nucleoplasmic distribution. Using pUL50 as bait in a yeast two-hybrid screening, the cytoplasmic re-initiation supporting protein RISP could be identified. Interaction of pUL50 and RISP could be confirmed by coexpression and coimmunoprecipitation in mammalian cells and by confocal laser scanning microscopy in plant cells, demonstrating partial pUL50-RISP colocalization in areas of the nuclear rim and other intracellular compartments. Thus, our study provides strong evidence for conserved structural features of plant and metazoan nuclear envelops and identifies RISP as a potential pUL50-interacting plant protein.

  9. Altered Na+ transport after an intracellular alpha-subunit deletion reveals strict external sequential release of Na+ from the Na/K pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaragatupalli, Siddhartha; Olivera, J Fernando; Gatto, Craig; Artigas, Pablo

    2009-09-08

    The Na/K pump actively exports 3 Na(+) in exchange for 2 K(+) across the plasmalemma of animal cells. As in other P-type ATPases, pump function is more effective when the relative affinity for transported ions is altered as the ion binding sites alternate between opposite sides of the membrane. Deletion of the five C-terminal residues from the alpha-subunit diminishes internal Na(+) (Na(i)(+)) affinity approximately 25-fold [Morth et al. (2007) Nature 450:1043-1049]. Because external Na(+) (Na(o)(+)) binding is voltage-dependent, we studied the reactions involving this process by using two-electrode and inside-out patch voltage clamp in normal and truncated (DeltaKESYY) Xenopus-alpha1 pumps expressed in oocytes. We observed that DeltaKESYY (i) decreased both Na(o)(+) and Na(i)(+) apparent affinities in the absence of K(o)(+), and (ii) did not affect apparent Na(o)(+) affinity at high K(o)(+). These results support a model of strict sequential external release of Na(+) ions, where the Na(+)-exclusive site releases Na(+) before the sites shared with K(+) and the DeltaKESYY deletion only reduces Na(o)(+) affinity at the shared sites. Moreover, at nonsaturating K(o)(+), DeltaKESYY induced an inward flow of Na(+) through Na/K pumps at negative potentials. Guanidinium(+) can also permeate truncated pumps, whereas N-methyl-D-glucamine cannot. Because guanidinium(o)(+) can also traverse normal Na/K pumps in the absence of both Na(o)(+) and K(o)(+) and can also inhibit Na/K pump currents in a Na(+)-like voltage-dependent manner, we conclude that the normal pathway transited by the first externally released Na(+) is large enough to accommodate guanidinium(+).

  10. Estrategia de tratamiento acortado y estrictamente supervisado en pacientes con tuberculosis pulmonar confirmada Strategy of strictly monitored and shortened treatment in patients with confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis René Tablada del Risco

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una investigación descriptiva y transversal para caracterizar a los pacientes con tuberculosis pulmonar, cuyos esputos fueran positivos para bacilos-ácido-alcohol-resistente, en una población abierta del municipio de Santiago de Cuba, desde el 2003 hasta el 2007, los cuales se acogieron a la estrategia de tratamiento acortado estrictamente supervisado. En la casuística predominaron el sexo masculino, los adultos jóvenes, así como los factores de riesgo: hábito tabáquico, alcoholismo y antecedente de contactos con personas afectadas por dicha enfermedad. La atención primaria de salud no cumplió el indicador operacional del diagnóstico de estos pacientes ni el seguimiento baciloscópico mensual. Se recomienda elaborar una estrategia de intervención que contemple un proyecto capacitante, encaminado a elevar la competencia profesional del personal sanitario en relación con la asistencia integral incluida en el Programa Nacional de Control de la Tuberculosis.A cross-sectional and descriptive study was conducted to characterize patients with pulmonary tuberculosis whose sputa were positive for acid-alcohol resistant bacilli, in a general population of Santiago de Cuba municipality, from 2003 to 2007, who opted for the strategy of strictly monitored and shortened treatment. Male sex, young adults as well as risk factors: smoking habit, alcoholism and history of contacts with people affected by this disease prevailed in the case material. Primary health care neither meet the operational indicator of the diagnosis of these patients nor the monthly bacilloscopy. It is recommended to develop an intervention strategy that includes a project aimed at improving the professional competence of health personnel with regard to comprehensive care included in the National Program of Tuberculosis Control.

  11. A review of horticultural export performance of Asian developing countries: aspects of quality, competitiveness and sustainability.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, H.G.P.

    1994-01-01

    Many developing countries in Asia have a comparative advantage in the production of horticultural commodities. Drawing from the widely diverging experiences of six countries, it is concluded that government policies significantly influence horticultural export performance. In order to meet strict

  12. Mining process performance from event logs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adriansyah, A.; Buijs, J.C.A.M.; La Rosa, M.; Soffer, P.

    2013-01-01

    In systems where process executions are not strictly enforced by a predefined process model, obtaining reliable performance information is not trivial. In this paper, we analyzed an event log of a real-life process, taken from a Dutch financial institute, using process mining techniques. In

  13. Closure requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchinson, I.P.G.; Ellison, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    Closure of a waste management unit can be either permanent or temporary. Permanent closure may be due to: economic factors which make it uneconomical to mine the remaining minerals; depletion of mineral resources; physical site constraints that preclude further mining and beneficiation; environmental, regulatory or other requirements that make it uneconomical to continue to develop the resources. Temporary closure can occur for a period of several months to several years, and may be caused by factors such as: periods of high rainfall or snowfall which prevent mining and waste disposal; economic circumstances which temporarily make it uneconomical to mine the target mineral; labor problems requiring a cessation of operations for a period of time; construction activities that are required to upgrade project components such as the process facilities and waste management units; and mine or process plant failures that require extensive repairs. Permanent closure of a mine waste management unit involves the provision of durable surface containment features to protect the waters of the State in the long-term. Temporary closure may involve activities that range from ongoing maintenance of the existing facilities to the installation of several permanent closure features in order to reduce ongoing maintenance. This paper deals with the permanent closure features

  14. Recurrent fuzzy neural network backstepping control for the prescribed output tracking performance of nonlinear dynamic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seong-Ik; Lee, Jang-Myung

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a backstepping control system that uses a tracking error constraint and recurrent fuzzy neural networks (RFNNs) to achieve a prescribed tracking performance for a strict-feedback nonlinear dynamic system. A new constraint variable was defined to generate the virtual control that forces the tracking error to fall within prescribed boundaries. An adaptive RFNN was also used to obtain the required improvement on the approximation performances in order to avoid calculating the explosive number of terms generated by the recursive steps of traditional backstepping control. The boundedness and convergence of the closed-loop system was confirmed based on the Lyapunov stability theory. The prescribed performance of the proposed control scheme was validated by using it to control the prescribed error of a nonlinear system and a robot manipulator. © 2013 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Modality-dependent dose requirements in the Austrian breast cancer early detection program. First results from technical quality assurance; Geraeteabhaengiger Dosisbedarf im Oesterreichischen Brustkrebsfrueherkennungsprogramm. Erste Ergebnisse aus der technischen Qualitaetssicherung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osanna-Elliott, A.; Semturs, F.; Menhart, S.; Schloegl, C.; Wildner, S.; Zwettler, G. [AGES, Wien (Austria). Referenzzentrum fuer technische Qualitaetssicherung im Brustkrebsfrueherkennungsprogramm

    2015-07-01

    The Austrian Breast Cancer Early Detection Program (BKFP) has officially started in January 2014. In order to ensure that all participating women can rely on a sufficient cancer detection rate while at the same time the required dose is as low as reasonably achievable, all participating radiology institutes (approx. 200) have to fulfill strict quality assurance requirements. The control and certification is performed by the Reference Center for Technical Quality Assurance (RefZQS), which has been developing the methods and tolerances in a pilot project since 2007. The limits are defined in the EUREF-Oeprotocol which is based on the European EPQC guidelines. From the requirement for optimized image quality while simultaneously following the ALARA principle, we found modality-dependent dose requirements, which we had expected but which have now been compiled for the first time for Austria.

  16. 14 CFR 171.109 - Performance requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... communications to that due to the identification signal is approximately 9:1. (iii) The audio frequency... interfere in any way with the basic SDF function. (ii) The identification signal must be produced by Class... standards and tolerances contained in § 171.111(j). (d) The monitor system must provide a warning to the...

  17. Performance requirements for locomotive braking systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vermaak, P

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available operated “Neutral Brake”. This brake may become active immediately or after a certain time delay when the controller is placed in the neutral position or moved into the neutral position by the “dead-man’s device”. Because this brake will interfere... in testing emergency brake systems due to the inherent braking action of the service brakes and/or locomotive controllers; • Potential problems limitations to braking effort associated with the prime movers and/or hydraulic systems on hydrostatically...

  18. Grant Closeout Requirements and Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requirements and reports to comply with grant closeout, including Final Federal Financial Report (FFR, SF425); Final Research Performance Progress Report (FRPPR); Interim Research Performance Progress Report (IRPPR); Final Invention Statement (FIS, HHS

  19. Leakage Performance of the GM + CCL Liner System for the MSW Landfill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Jingjing

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The contaminants in the landfill leachate press pose a grave threat to environment of the soil and the groundwater beneath the landfill. Despite there being strict requirements in relevant provisions of both domestic and foreign countries for the design of the bottom liner system. Pollution of the soil and the groundwater still took place in a number of landfills because of the leakage. To investigate the leakage rate of the liner systems, the minimum design requirements of the liner systems are summarized according to the provisions of four countries, including China, USA, Germany, and Japan. Comparative analyses using one-dimensional transport model are conducted to study the leakage performance of these liner systems composed of geomembrance (GM and compacted clay layer (CCL meeting the relevant minimum design requirements. Then parametric analyses are conducted to study the effects of the hydraulic head, the thickness of GM, the hydraulic conductivity of CCL, and so forth on the leakage performance of the liner system. It is concluded that the liner system designed according to the minimum design requirements of Germany provide the best antileakage performance, while that of Japan performs the lowest. The key parameters affecting the failure time of the liner system are summarized. Finally, some suggestions for the design of the liner systems are made according to the analyses.

  20. Quality assurance requirements in the testing of packages to be used for safe transportation of RAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieru, Gheorghe; Nistor, Viorica; Mihaiu, Ramona

    2010-01-01

    The quality of the Type A, B or C packages used for transport and storage of Radioactive Material (RAM) has to be proved by performing qualification tests in accordance with the Transport Regulations, within the Reliability and Testing Laboratory, Institute for Nuclear Research (INR) Pitesti, where has designed and developed a new Romanian Testing Facility. The qualifications testing are performed under a strict quality assurance programme based on the specific procedures prior approved by the Romanian Nuclear Regulatory Body CNCAN (National Commission for Nuclear Activity Control). This paper describe the quality assurance programme in accordance with the quality management system developed in order to meet the requirements provided by the national regulations as well as to the requirements of the IAEA's safety standard TS-R-1 related to testing of packages to be used for transport of RAM and also provides an overview of the new Romanian Testing Facilities for RAM Packages, developed by the INR's Reliability and Testing Laboratory within an Excellence Scientific Contract. (authors)

  1. Comments on the thesis of Schopenhauer's psicology: "The strict distincttion between knowledge and will and the priority of the first one" from Complementos ao mundo como vontade e representação

    OpenAIRE

    André Luiz Simões Pedreira

    2015-01-01

    Our paper aims to review the theories of the psychology of Schopenhauer, namely, "strict distinction between will and knowledge and the primacy of the first", contained in the Book Room ons of The World as Will and Representation, in Chapter 41, entitled "on Death and its relationship with the indestructible character of our being itself." The review aimed to present some of the passages ons that ensure the distinction between Will and Intellect in order to provide data to avoid confusion, th...

  2. A Conserved GPG-Motif in the HIV-1 Nef Core Is Required for Principal Nef-Activities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Martínez-Bonet

    Full Text Available To find out new determinants required for Nef activity we performed a functional alanine scanning analysis along a discrete but highly conserved region at the core of HIV-1 Nef. We identified the GPG-motif, located at the 121-137 region of HIV-1 NL4.3 Nef, as a novel protein signature strictly required for the p56Lck dependent Nef-induced CD4-downregulation in T-cells. Since the Nef-GPG motif was dispensable for CD4-downregulation in HeLa-CD4 cells, Nef/AP-1 interaction and Nef-dependent effects on Tf-R trafficking, the observed effects on CD4 downregulation cannot be attributed to structure constraints or to alterations on general protein trafficking. Besides, we found that the GPG-motif was also required for Nef-dependent inhibition of ring actin re-organization upon TCR triggering and MHCI downregulation, suggesting that the GPG-motif could actively cooperate with the Nef PxxP motif for these HIV-1 Nef-related effects. Finally, we observed that the Nef-GPG motif was required for optimal infectivity of those viruses produced in T-cells. According to these findings, we propose the conserved GPG-motif in HIV-1 Nef as functional region required for HIV-1 infectivity and therefore with a potential interest for the interference of Nef activity during HIV-1 infection.

  3. Performance Characterization of UV Science Cameras Developed for the Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha Spectro-Polarimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champey, P.; Kobayashi, K.; Winebarger, A.; Cirtain, J.; Hyde, D.; Robertson, B.; Beabout, D.; Beabout, B.; Stewart, M.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has developed a science camera suitable for sub-orbital missions for observations in the UV, EUV and soft X-ray. Six cameras will be built and tested for flight with the Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha Spectro-Polarimeter (CLASP), a joint National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) and MSFC sounding rocket mission. The goal of the CLASP mission is to observe the scattering polarization in Lyman-alpha and to detect the Hanle effect in the line core. Due to the nature of Lyman-alpha polarization in the chromosphere, strict measurement sensitivity requirements are imposed on the CLASP polarimeter and spectrograph systems; science requirements for polarization measurements of Q/I and U/I are 0.1 percent in the line core. CLASP is a dual-beam spectro-polarimeter, which uses a continuously rotating waveplate as a polarization modulator, while the waveplate motor driver outputs trigger pulses to synchronize the exposures. The CCDs are operated in frame-transfer mode; the trigger pulse initiates the frame transfer, effectively ending the ongoing exposure and starting the next. The strict requirement of 0.1 percent polarization accuracy is met by using frame-transfer cameras to maximize the duty cycle in order to minimize photon noise. Coating the e2v CCD57-10 512x512 detectors with Lumogen-E coating allows for a relatively high (30 percent) quantum efficiency at the Lyman-alpha line. The CLASP cameras were designed to operate with 10 e-/pixel/second dark current, 25 e- read noise, a gain of 2.0 +/- 0.5 and 1.0 percent residual non-linearity. We present the results of the performance characterization study performed on the CLASP prototype camera; dark current, read noise, camera gain and residual non-linearity.

  4. Utility requirements for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vondrasek, R.J.

    1982-02-01

    This report describes work done and results obtained during performance of Task 1 of a study of Utility Requirements and Criteria for Fusion Options. The work consisted of developing a list of utility requirements for fusion optics containing definition of the requirements and showing their relative importance to the utility industry. The project team members developed a preliminary list which was refined by discussions and literature searches. The refined list was recast as a questionnaire which was sent to a substantial portion of the utility industry in this country. Forty-three questionnaire recipients responded including thirty-two utilities. A workshop was held to develop a revised requirements list using the survey responses as a major input. The list prepared by the workshop was further refined by a panel consisting of vice presidents of the three project team firms. The results of the study indicate that in addition to considering the cost of energy for a power plant, utilities consider twenty-three other requirements. Four of the requirements were judged to be vital to plant acceptability: Plant Capital Cost, Financial Liability, Plant Safety and Licensability

  5. Rasp21 sequences opposite the nucleotide binding pocket are required for GRF-mediated nucleotide release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leonardsen, L; DeClue, J E; Lybaek, H

    1996-01-01

    The substrate requirements for the catalytic activity of the mouse Cdc25 homolog Guanine nucleotide Release Factor, GRF, were determined using the catalytic domain of GRF expressed in insect cells and E. coli expressed H-Ras mutants. We found a requirement for the loop 7 residues in Ras (amino ac...... and the human Ras like proteins RhoA, Rap1A, Rac1 and G25K revealed a strict Ras specificity; of these only S. pombe Ras was GRF sensitive....

  6. Implementation of Statistical Process Control: Evaluating the Mechanical Performance of a Candidate Silicone Elastomer Docking Seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oravec, Heather Ann; Daniels, Christopher C.

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration has been developing a novel docking system to meet the requirements of future exploration missions to low-Earth orbit and beyond. A dynamic gas pressure seal is located at the main interface between the active and passive mating components of the new docking system. This seal is designed to operate in the harsh space environment, but is also to perform within strict loading requirements while maintaining an acceptable level of leak rate. In this study, a candidate silicone elastomer seal was designed, and multiple subscale test articles were manufactured for evaluation purposes. The force required to fully compress each test article at room temperature was quantified and found to be below the maximum allowable load for the docking system. However, a significant amount of scatter was observed in the test results. Due to the stochastic nature of the mechanical performance of this candidate docking seal, a statistical process control technique was implemented to isolate unusual compression behavior from typical mechanical performance. The results of this statistical analysis indicated a lack of process control, suggesting a variation in the manufacturing phase of the process. Further investigation revealed that changes in the manufacturing molding process had occurred which may have influenced the mechanical performance of the seal. This knowledge improves the chance of this and future space seals to satisfy or exceed design specifications.

  7. Utility requirements for HTGRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholls, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    Eskom, the state utility of South Africa, is currently evaluating the technical and economic feasibility of the helium cooled Pebble Bed Modular Reactor with a closed cycle gas turbine power conversion system for future power generating additions to its electric system. This paper provides an overview of the Eskom system including the needs of the utility for future generation capacity and the key performance requirements necessary for incorporation of this gas cooled reactor plant. (author)

  8. Waste management system requirements document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    This volume defines the top level requirements for the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS). It is designed to be used in conjunction with Volume 1 of the WMSR, General System Requirements. It provides a functional description expanding the requirements allocated to the MGDS in Volume 1 and elaborates on each requirement by providing associated performance criteria as appropriate. Volumes 1 and 4 of the WMSR provide a minimum set of requirements that must be satisfied by the final MGDS design. This document sets forth specific requirements that must be fulfilled. It is not the intent or purpose of this top level document to describe how each requirement is to be satisfied in the final MGDS design. Each subsequent level of the technical document hierarchy must provide further guidance and definition as to how each of these requirements is to be implemented in the design. It is expected that each subsequent level of requirements will be significantly more detailed. Section 2 of this volume provides a functional description of the MGDS. Each function is addressed in terms of requirements, and performance criteria. Section 3 provides a list of controlling documents. Each document cited in a requirement of Chapter 2 is included in this list and is incorporated into this document as a requirement on the final system. The WMSR addresses only federal requirements (i.e., laws, regulations and DOE orders). State and local requirements are not addressed. However, it will be specifically noted at the potentially affected WMSR requirements that there could be additional or more stringent regulations imposed by a state or local requirements or administering agency over the cited federal requirements

  9. Formalizing Theatrical Performances Using Multi-Agent Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andreas Schmidt; Spurkeland, Johannes Svante; Villadsen, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    Theatrical performances usually follow strict scripts and actors are not allowed to deviate. A Danish theatrical group, Theater 770◦ Celsius, has invented a new method called In Real Life, in which only certain events in the storyline are specified and the actors are supposed to improvise to reach...

  10. Comments on the thesis of Schopenhauer's psicology: "The strict distincttion between knowledge and will and the priority of the first one" from Complementos ao mundo como vontade e representação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Simões Pedreira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Our paper aims to review the theories of the psychology of Schopenhauer, namely, "strict distinction between will and knowledge and the primacy of the first", contained in the Book Room ons of The World as Will and Representation, in Chapter 41, entitled "on Death and its relationship with the indestructible character of our being itself." The review aimed to present some of the passages ons that ensure the distinction between Will and Intellect in order to provide data to avoid confusion, that many readers Schopenhauer are affected, the Will to confuse metaphysics with its phenomenon, namely the human will.

  11. Do talento ao alto rendimento: indicadores de acesso à excelência no handebol From talent to a high level of performance: key requirements to access the excellence in handball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Massuça

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O talento constitui uma das condições fundamentais para acender à excelência no desporto de competição e a sua identificação representa o primeiro passo de um longo processo de especialização que permite selecionar os sujeitos certos. Para conhecer as variáveis que os treinadores julgam mais influentes no sucesso do atleta de handebol (do sexo masculino, foi aplicado um questionário a 71 treinadores de handebol ("Questionário aos Técnicos de Andebol - QTA"; MASSUÇA, 2007. Neste instrumento, solicitava-se aos participantes que avaliassem o grau de importância de cada fator e indicador de rendimento no sucesso em geral (Handebolista, A e, que o fizessem igualmente para cada uma das posições de jogo que caracterizam a modalidade desportiva (Ponta, P; Lateral, L; Central, C; Pivot, Pi; Guarda-redes, GR. Os resultados permitem constatar que não existe um perfil de atleta de handebol, mas vários. Pode assim concluir-se que no jogo de handebol o sucesso pode ser experimentado por atletas com diferentes características. Em complemento, julgamos que o inventário apresentado (das qualidades necessárias ao atleta de handebol de alto rendimento poderá servir de referência para a construção de um modelo de seleção de talentos.Talent is a key requirement to access the excellence in a competitive sport and its identification is the first step of a long process of specialization that allows the correct selection of subjects. To understand what the most influent variables to achieve success are, a questionnaire was administered to 71 handball coaches ("Questionnaire to Handball Coaches - QTA"; MASSUÇA, 2007. The coaches were asked to rate the importance of each factor and performance indicator considering the success of the general male handball player (A and to do exactly the same for each specific playing position (wing, P; backward left/right, L; backward centre, C; pivot, Pi; goalkeeper, GR. Results showed that there is not a

  12. What is 3D good for? A review of human performance on stereoscopic 3D displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntire, John P.; Havig, Paul R.; Geiselman, Eric E.

    2012-06-01

    This work reviews the human factors-related literature on the task performance implications of stereoscopic 3D displays, in order to point out the specific performance benefits (or lack thereof) one might reasonably expect to observe when utilizing these displays. What exactly is 3D good for? Relative to traditional 2D displays, stereoscopic displays have been shown to enhance performance on a variety of depth-related tasks. These tasks include judging absolute and relative distances, finding and identifying objects (by breaking camouflage and eliciting perceptual "pop-out"), performing spatial manipulations of objects (object positioning, orienting, and tracking), and navigating. More cognitively, stereoscopic displays can improve the spatial understanding of 3D scenes or objects, improve memory/recall of scenes or objects, and improve learning of spatial relationships and environments. However, for tasks that are relatively simple, that do not strictly require depth information for good performance, where other strong cues to depth can be utilized, or for depth tasks that lie outside the effective viewing volume of the display, the purported performance benefits of 3D may be small or altogether absent. Stereoscopic 3D displays come with a host of unique human factors problems including the simulator-sickness-type symptoms of eyestrain, headache, fatigue, disorientation, nausea, and malaise, which appear to effect large numbers of viewers (perhaps as many as 25% to 50% of the general population). Thus, 3D technology should be wielded delicately and applied carefully; and perhaps used only as is necessary to ensure good performance.

  13. Don’t be too strict with yourself! Rigid negative self-representation in healthy subjects mimics the neurocognitive profile of depression for autobiographical memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eSperduti

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Autobiographical memory (AM comprises representation of specific (episodic and generic personal information (semantic. Depression is characterized by a shift from episodic to semantic AM retrieval (overgeneralization. Theoretical models have proposed that this effect could be linked to reduced executive resources. Moreover, overgeneral memories, accompanied by a negativity bias in depression, lead to a pervasive negative self-representation. Even in non clinical populations executive functions and AM specificity are closely linked, and overgeneral memories could result in depressive emotional responses. We made the hypothesis that healthy subjects showing a rigid negative self-image would mimic the neurocognitive profile of patients. We measured executive functions and the self-image in young healthy subjects, and recorded their brain activity, by means of fMRI, while they retrieved episodic AMs. We report that a more rigid negative self-image corresponds to lower executive functions and less vivid specific memories. Moreover, higher negative self-image is accompanied by attenuated activity in the left ventrolateral prefrontal and in the anterior cingulate cortex, that have been repeatedly shown to exhibit altered functionality in depression. Activity in these regions, on the contrary, positively correlates with executive and memories performances, in agreement with their role in executive functions and AM retrieval. We claim that rigid negative self-image could represent a marker or a vulnerability trait of depression that is linked to reduced executive functions efficiency and to episodic AM decline. Our results are encouraging for psychotherapeutic approaches promoting cognitive flexibility in depression and other psychiatric disorders.

  14. Simple and versatile turbidimetric monitoring of bacterial growth in liquid cultures using a customized 3D printed culture tube holder and a miniaturized spectrophotometer: application to facultative and strictly anaerobic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarida R. G. Maia

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Here we introduce a novel strategy for turbidimetric monitoring of bacterial growth in liquid culture. The instrumentation comprises a light source, a customized 3D printed culture tube holder and a miniaturized spectrophotometer, connected through optical cables. Due to its small footprint and the possibility to operate with external light, bacterial growth was directly monitored from culture tubes in a simple and versatile fashion. This new portable measurement technique was used to monitor the growth of facultative (Escherichia coli ATCC/25922, and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC/29213 and strictly (Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens JW11, Butyrivibrio proteoclasticus P18, and Propionibacterium acnes DSMZ 1897 anaerobic bacteria. For E. coli and S. aureus, the growth rates calculated from normalized optical density values were compared with those ones obtained using a benchtop spectrophotometer without significant differences (P = 0.256. For the strictly anaerobic species, a high precision (RSD < 3.5% was observed between replicates up to 48 h. Regarding its potential for customization, this manifold could accommodate further developments for customized turbidimetric monitoring, such as the use of light-emitting diodes as a light source or flow cells.

  15. Simple and Versatile Turbidimetric Monitoring of Bacterial Growth in Liquid Cultures Using a Customized 3D Printed Culture Tube Holder and a Miniaturized Spectrophotometer: Application to Facultative and Strictly Anaerobic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Margarida R G; Marques, Sara; Cabrita, Ana R J; Wallace, R John; Thompson, Gertrude; Fonseca, António J M; Oliveira, Hugo M

    2016-01-01

    Here we introduce a novel strategy for turbidimetric monitoring of bacterial growth in liquid culture. The instrumentation comprises a light source, a customized 3D printed culture tube holder and a miniaturized spectrophotometer, connected through optical cables. Due to its small footprint and the possibility to operate with external light, bacterial growth was directly monitored from culture tubes in a simple and versatile fashion. This new portable measurement technique was used to monitor the growth of facultative (Escherichia coli ATCC/25922, and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC/29213) and strictly (Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens JW11, Butyrivibrio proteoclasticus P18, and Propionibacterium acnes DSMZ 1897) anaerobic bacteria. For E. coli and S. aureus, the growth rates calculated from normalized optical density values were compared with those ones obtained using a benchtop spectrophotometer without significant differences (P = 0.256). For the strictly anaerobic species, a high precision (relative standard deviation < 3.5%) was observed between replicates up to 48 h. Regarding its potential for customization, this manifold could accommodate further developments for customized turbidimetric monitoring, such as the use of light-emitting diodes as a light source or flow cells.

  16. Performance Characterization of UV Science Cameras Developed for the Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha Spectro-Polarimeter (CLASP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champey, Patrick; Kobayashi, Ken; Winebarger, Amy; Cirtin, Jonathan; Hyde, David; Robertson, Bryan; Beabout, Brent; Beabout, Dyana; Stewart, Mike

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has developed a science camera suitable for sub-orbital missions for observations in the UV, EUV and soft X-ray. Six cameras will be built and tested for flight with the Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha Spectro-Polarimeter (CLASP), a joint National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) and MSFC sounding rocket mission. The goal of the CLASP mission is to observe the scattering polarization in Lyman-alpha and to detect the Hanle effect in the line core. Due to the nature of Lyman-alpha polarization in the chromosphere, strict measurement sensitivity requirements are imposed on the CLASP polarimeter and spectrograph systems; science requirements for polarization measurements of Q/I and U/I are 0.1% in the line core. CLASP is a dual-beam spectro-polarimeter, which uses a continuously rotating waveplate as a polarization modulator, while the waveplate motor driver outputs trigger pulses to synchronize the exposures. The CCDs are operated in frame-transfer mode; the trigger pulse initiates the frame transfer, effectively ending the ongoing exposure and starting the next. The strict requirement of 0.1% polarization accuracy is met by using frame-transfer cameras to maximize the duty cycle in order to minimize photon noise. Coating the e2v CCD57-10 512x512 detectors with Lumogen-E coating allows for a relatively high (30%) quantum efficiency at the Lyman-$\\alpha$ line. The CLASP cameras were designed to operate with =10 e- /pixel/second dark current, = 25 e- read noise, a gain of 2.0 and =0.1% residual non-linearity. We present the results of the performance characterization study performed on the CLASP prototype camera; dark current, read noise, camera gain and residual non-linearity.

  17. Performance characterization of UV science cameras developed for the Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha Spectro-Polarimeter (CLASP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champey, P.; Kobayashi, K.; Winebarger, A.; Cirtain, J.; Hyde, D.; Robertson, B.; Beabout, D.; Beabout, B.; Stewart, M.

    2014-07-01

    The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has developed a science camera suitable for sub-orbital missions for observations in the UV, EUV and soft X-ray. Six cameras will be built and tested for flight with the Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha Spectro-Polarimeter (CLASP), a joint National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) and MSFC sounding rocket mission. The goal of the CLASP mission is to observe the scattering polarization in Lyman-α and to detect the Hanle effect in the line core. Due to the nature of Lyman-α polarizationin the chromosphere, strict measurement sensitivity requirements are imposed on the CLASP polarimeter and spectrograph systems; science requirements for polarization measurements of Q/I and U/I are 0.1% in the line core. CLASP is a dual-beam spectro-polarimeter, which uses a continuously rotating waveplate as a polarization modulator, while the waveplate motor driver outputs trigger pulses to synchronize the exposures. The CCDs are operated in frame-transfer mode; the trigger pulse initiates the frame transfer, effectively ending the ongoing exposure and starting the next. The strict requirement of 0.1% polarization accuracy is met by using frame-transfer cameras to maximize the duty cycle in order to minimize photon noise. The CLASP cameras were designed to operate with ≤ 10 e-/pixel/second dark current, ≤ 25 e- read noise, a gain of 2.0 +- 0.5 and ≤ 1.0% residual non-linearity. We present the results of the performance characterization study performed on the CLASP prototype camera; dark current, read noise, camera gain and residual non-linearity.

  18. Performances of multiprocessor multidisk architectures for continuous media storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennart, Benoit A.; Messerli, Vincent; Hersch, Roger D.

    1996-03-01

    Multimedia interfaces increase the need for large image databases, capable of storing and reading streams of data with strict synchronicity and isochronicity requirements. In order to fulfill these requirements, we consider a parallel image server architecture which relies on arrays of intelligent disk nodes, each disk node being composed of one processor and one or more disks. This contribution analyzes through bottleneck performance evaluation and simulation the behavior of two multi-processor multi-disk architectures: a point-to-point architecture and a shared-bus architecture similar to current multiprocessor workstation architectures. We compare the two architectures on the basis of two multimedia algorithms: the compute-bound frame resizing by resampling and the data-bound disk-to-client stream transfer. The results suggest that the shared bus is a potential bottleneck despite its very high hardware throughput (400Mbytes/s) and that an architecture with addressable local memories located closely to their respective processors could partially remove this bottleneck. The point- to-point architecture is scalable and able to sustain high throughputs for simultaneous compute- bound and data-bound operations.

  19. SOCIAL INCLUSION AND SOLIDARITY IN STRICT POST-GRADUATION: EXPERIENCING THE LABORATORY "SCIENTIFIC WAKE FOR THE FUTURE" (PRIMARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noronha, Silvana Aparecida Alves Corrêa de; Bernardes, Linda; Noronha, Samuel Marcos Ribeiro de; Nascimento, Fernanda Amorim de Morais; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2015-01-01

    To stimulate and awakening the interest of students of high school or elementary public schools in research and science through scientific initiation stages in the Postgraduate Program in Translational Surgery. To stimulate and awakening the interest of students of high school or elementary public schools in research and science through scientific initiation stages in the Postgraduate Program in Translational Surgery. The target audience for the development of scientific activities were students enrolled in mid-level course (second year initially) and have approval of their participation in this project by the school and by legal guardians. The inclusion criteria were: physical proximity to the higher education institution, signing the consent form by the legal responsible for the students, and for the board of the school unit and the researcher. Initially, students performed diagnostic evaluation about the prior knowledge of biology, science and scientific research. From there, the classes were prepared based on the result of this test, then started the activities of Junior Scientific Initiation in basic education. The school chosen for this initial phase of the pilot project was the State School Rui Bloem which has 13 classrooms for the second year of medium education in a total of 390 students. Of these, 160 (41%) were interested but only 16 (10%) were eligible to start the pilot project in Translational Surgery Laboratory of Unifesp. These students showed average yield of 50% in diagnostic test and should start the next training in cell and molecular biology laboratory and also to attend scientific meetings. In the initial phase of the project, was observed the great student interest in scientific career, but at the same time, a great need for improvement. The choice of public school was for access to university and proximity. In addition, these students have more shortcomings and deficiencies. But this does not mean that the fascination for scientific career

  20. Waste Management System Requirement document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    This volume defines the top level technical requirements for the Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility. It is designed to be used in conjunction with Volume 1, General System Requirements. Volume 3 provides a functional description expanding the requirements allocated to the MRS facility in Volume 1 and, when appropriate, elaborates on requirements by providing associated performance criteria. Volumes 1 and 3 together convey a minimum set of requirements that must be satisfied by the final MRS facility design without unduly constraining individual design efforts. The requirements are derived from the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA), the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987 (NWPAA), the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Environmental Standards for the Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel (40 CFR 191), NRC Licensing Requirements for the Independent Storage of Spent Nuclear and High-Level Radioactive Waste (10 CFR 72), and other federal statutory and regulatory requirements, and major program policy decisions. This document sets forth specific requirements that will be fulfilled. Each subsequent level of the technical document hierarchy will be significantly more detailed and provide further guidance and definition as to how each of these requirements will be implemented in the design. Requirements appearing in Volume 3 are traceable into the MRS Design Requirements Document. Section 2 of this volume provides a functional breakdown for the MRS facility. 1 tab