WorldWideScience

Sample records for strict good ordinary

  1. 7 CFR 28.406 - Strict Good Ordinary Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Good Ordinary Color. 28.406 Section 28.406... for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.406 Strict Good Ordinary Color. Strict Good Ordinary Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in the custody of the...

  2. 7 CFR 28.426 - Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color. 28.426 Section 28.426 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Spotted Color. Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a set...

  3. 7 CFR 28.407 - Good Ordinary Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Good Ordinary Color. 28.407 Section 28.407 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.407 Good Ordinary Color. Good Ordinary Color is color which is within the range...

  4. Strict or Graduated Punishment? Effect of Punishment Strictness on the Evolution of Cooperation in Continuous Public Goods Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimao, Hajime; Nakamaru, Mayuko

    2013-01-01

    Whether costly punishment encourages cooperation is one of the principal questions in studies on the evolution of cooperation and social sciences. In society, punishment helps deter people from flouting rules in institutions. Specifically, graduated punishment is a design principle for long-enduring common-pool resource institutions. In this study, we investigate whether graduated punishment can promote a higher cooperation level when each individual plays the public goods game and has the opportunity to punish others whose cooperation levels fall below the punisher’s threshold. We then examine how spatial structure affects evolutionary dynamics when each individual dies inversely proportional to the game score resulting from the social interaction and another player is randomly chosen from the population to produce offspring to fill the empty site created after a player’s death. Our evolutionary simulation outcomes demonstrate that stricter punishment promotes increased cooperation more than graduated punishment in a spatially structured population, whereas graduated punishment increases cooperation more than strict punishment when players interact with randomly chosen opponents from the population. The mathematical analysis also supports the results. PMID:23555826

  5. Strict or graduated punishment? Effect of punishment strictness on the evolution of cooperation in continuous public goods games.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajime Shimao

    Full Text Available Whether costly punishment encourages cooperation is one of the principal questions in studies on the evolution of cooperation and social sciences. In society, punishment helps deter people from flouting rules in institutions. Specifically, graduated punishment is a design principle for long-enduring common-pool resource institutions. In this study, we investigate whether graduated punishment can promote a higher cooperation level when each individual plays the public goods game and has the opportunity to punish others whose cooperation levels fall below the punisher's threshold. We then examine how spatial structure affects evolutionary dynamics when each individual dies inversely proportional to the game score resulting from the social interaction and another player is randomly chosen from the population to produce offspring to fill the empty site created after a player's death. Our evolutionary simulation outcomes demonstrate that stricter punishment promotes increased cooperation more than graduated punishment in a spatially structured population, whereas graduated punishment increases cooperation more than strict punishment when players interact with randomly chosen opponents from the population. The mathematical analysis also supports the results.

  6. Moral intuition, good deaths and ordinary medical practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, M

    1990-01-01

    Debate continues over the acts/omissions doctrine, and over the concepts of duty and charity. Such issues inform the debate over the moral permissibility of euthanasia. Recent papers have emphasised moral sensitivity, medical intuitions, and sub-standard palliative care as some of the factors which should persuade us to regard euthanasia as morally unacceptable. I argue that these lines of argument are conceptually misdirected and have no bearing on the bare permissibility of voluntary euthanasia. Further, some of the familiar slippery slope arguments against voluntary euthanasia compromise the principle of autonomy to which both supporters and opponents of euthanasia adhere. I discuss a model for doctor/patient relationships which can be applied to cases which would be seen by all disputants as strong prima facie cases for euthanasia. I argue that in certain cases it will be ordinary medical practitioners who are duty-bound to assist death. PMID:2319570

  7. Moral intuition, good deaths and ordinary medical practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, M

    1990-03-01

    Debate continues over the acts/omissions doctrine, and over the concepts of duty and charity. Such issues inform the debate over the moral permissibility of euthanasia. Recent papers have emphasised moral sensitivity, medical intuitions, and sub-standard palliative care as some of the factors which should persuade us to regard euthanasia as morally unacceptable. I argue that these lines of argument are conceptually misdirected and have no bearing on the bare permissibility of voluntary euthanasia. Further, some of the familiar slippery slope arguments against voluntary euthanasia compromise the principle of autonomy to which both supporters and opponents of euthanasia adhere. I discuss a model for doctor/patient relationships which can be applied to cases which would be seen by all disputants as strong prima facie cases for euthanasia. I argue that in certain cases it will be ordinary medical practitioners who are duty-bound to assist death.

  8. She's Strict for a Good Reason: Highly Effective Teachers in Low-Performing Urban Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poplin, Mary; Rivera, John; Durish, Dena; Hoff, Linda; Kawell, Susan; Pawlak, Pat; Hinman, Ivannia Soto; Straus, Laura; Veney, Cloetta

    2011-01-01

    A study of 31 high-performing teachers in low-performing urban schools found that these teachers had certain traits in common. They were strict; they taught in traditional, explicit ways; there was little time in their classrooms when instruction was not occurring; and they moved around the room helping their students. They used very few…

  9. Strict confluent drawing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eppstein, D.; Holten, D.H.R.; Löffler, M.; Nöllenburg, M.; Speckmann, B.; Verbeek, K.A.B.

    2013-01-01

    We define strict confluent drawing, a form of confluent drawing in which the existence of an edge is indicated by the presence of a smooth path through a system of arcs and junctions (without crossings), and in which such a path, if it exists, must be unique. We prove that it is NP-complete to

  10. Strict confluent drawing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eppstein, D.; Holten, D.; Löffler, M.; Nöllenburg, M.; Speckmann, B.; Verbeek, K.A.B.

    2016-01-01

    We define strict confluent drawing, a form of confluent drawing in which the existence of an edge is indicated by the presence of a smooth path through a system of arcs and junctions (without crossings), and in which such a path, if it exists, must be unique. We prove that it is NP-complete to

  11. Quine's "Strictly Vegetarian" Analyticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Decock, L.B.

    2017-01-01

    I analyze Quine’s later writings on analyticity from a linguistic point of view. In Word and Object Quine made room for a “strictly vegetarian” notion of analyticity. In later years, he developed this notion into two more precise notions, which I have coined “stimulus analyticity” and “behaviorist

  12. Solving Ordinary Differential Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogh, F. T.

    1987-01-01

    Initial-value ordinary differential equation solution via variable order Adams method (SIVA/DIVA) package is collection of subroutines for solution of nonstiff ordinary differential equations. There are versions for single-precision and double-precision arithmetic. Requires fewer evaluations of derivatives than other variable-order Adams predictor/ corrector methods. Option for direct integration of second-order equations makes integration of trajectory problems significantly more efficient. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  13. Species Protection in the European Union : How Strict is Strict?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoukens, Hendrik; Bastmeijer, Kees; Born et al., Charles-Hubert

    2015-01-01

    European Union law to protect wild species of plants and animals is generally considered as ‘strict’. Opponents of nature conservation law often pick the species protection components of the EU Bird Directive and Habitat Directive as a prime example of an unnecessary strict regulatory scheme that

  14. Efficient Strictness Analysis of Haskell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristian Damm; Hjæresen, Peter; Rosendahl, Mads

    1994-01-01

    Strictness analysis has been a living field of investigation since Mycroft's original work in 1980, and is getting increasingly significant with the still wider use of lazy functional programming languages. This paper focuses on an actual implementation of a strictness analyser for Haskell....... The analyser uses abstract interpretation with chaotic fixpoint iteration. The demand-driven nature of this iteration technique allows us to use large domains including function domains in the style of Burn et al. 1986 and Wadler 87 and retain reasonable efficiency. The implementation, furthermore, allows us...

  15. Flexible or Strict Taxonomic Organization?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Fumiko Kano; Mørup, Morten

    2012-01-01

    This work compares methods for constructing feature-based ontologies that are supposed to be used for culturally-specific knowledge transfer. The methods to be compared are the Terminological Ontology (TO) [1], a method of constructing ontology based on strict principles and rules, and the Infinite...

  16. Strictness Analysis for Attribute Grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    1992-01-01

    interpretation of attribute grammars. The framework is used to construct a strictness analysis for attribute grammars. Results of the analysis enable us to transform an attribute grammar such that attributes are evaluated during parsing, if possible. The analysis is proved correct by relating it to a fixpoint...... semantics for attribute grammars. An implementation of the analysis is discussed and some extensions to the analysis are mentioned....

  17. The trend to get strict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, Chris.

    1997-01-01

    Most policy makers in the USA and Europe are committed to strict environmental liability. The polluter pays principle is seen as popular with voters and easy to defend. For the energy sector, encompassing everything from disused gas works and coal mines to refineries, tank farms and filling stations, the cost of cleaning up old sites can be huge. Within the policy commitment to strict liability there are some issues up for negotiation, however. These include such things as: available defences; the burden of proof; mechanisms for sharing liability at multi-party sites; funding of orphan shares; the protection afforded to lenders. Most governments have shown some flexibility on these issues and some examples from the USA are given. Nevertheless, in Europe the momentum towards comprehensive strict liability regimes seems unrelenting. In the Member states of the European Union, liability laws are either already in place or new laws are in preparation. The European Commission is working on proposals for an EU-wide environmental liability regime but there are formidable obstacles to overcome if it is to become EU law. In the meanwhile, the process of trying to reach agreement at an EU level is likely to strengthen the legislative drive at national level. (UK)

  18. Ordinary differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Greenberg, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    Features a balance between theory, proofs, and examples and provides applications across diverse fields of study Ordinary Differential Equations presents a thorough discussion of first-order differential equations and progresses to equations of higher order. The book transitions smoothly from first-order to higher-order equations, allowing readers to develop a complete understanding of the related theory. Featuring diverse and interesting applications from engineering, bioengineering, ecology, and biology, the book anticipates potential difficulties in understanding the various solution steps

  19. Ordinary differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Cox, William

    1995-01-01

    Building on introductory calculus courses, this text provides a sound foundation in the underlying principles of ordinary differential equations. Important concepts, including uniqueness and existence theorems, are worked through in detail and the student is encouraged to develop much of the routine material themselves, thus helping to ensure a solid understanding of the fundamentals required.The wide use of exercises, problems and self-assessment questions helps to promote a deeper understanding of the material and it is developed in such a way that it lays the groundwork for further

  20. Ordinary differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Richard K

    1982-01-01

    Ordinary Differential Equations is an outgrowth of courses taught for a number of years at Iowa State University in the mathematics and the electrical engineering departments. It is intended as a text for a first graduate course in differential equations for students in mathematics, engineering, and the sciences. Although differential equations is an old, traditional, and well-established subject, the diverse backgrounds and interests of the students in a typical modern-day course cause problems in the selection and method of presentation of material. In order to compensate for this diversity,

  1. Ordinary General Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    Tuesday 12 April at 14.00 Council Chamber, Bldg 503 In conformity with the Statutes of the Staff Association, an ordinary General Assembly is organized once a year (article IV.2.1). Agenda   Adoption of the Agenda Approval of the Draft Minutes of the Ordinary General Assembly of 20 April 2010 Presentation and approval of the Activity Report 2010 Presentation and approval of the Financial Report 2010 Presentation and approval of the Auditors Report 2010 Programme for 2011 Presentation et and approval of the draft budget and subscription rate 2012 Election of the Election Committee Election of the Board of Auditors Miscellaneous We remind members of article IV.3.4 in the Statutes of the Association which reads: “After having dealt with all the items on the agenda, the members may, with the consent of the Assembly, have other matters discussed, but decisions may be taken only on the items listed on the agenda. Nevertheless, the Assembly ma...

  2. Ordinary General Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2010-01-01

    Tuesday 20 April at 10.00 Council Chamber, Bldg 503 In conformity with the Statutes of the Staff Association, an ordinary General Assembly is organized once a year (article IV.2.1). Agenda Adoption of the Agenda Approval of the Draft Minutes of the Ordinary General Assembly of 12 May 2009 Presentation and approval of the Activity Report 2009 Presentation and approval of the Financial Report 2009 Presentation and approval of the Auditors Report 2009 Programme for 2010 Presentation et and approval of the draft budget and subscription rate 2010 Modifications to the statutes of the association Election of the Election Committee Election of the Board of Auditors Miscellaneous We remind members of article IV.3.4 in the Statutes of the Association which reads: “After having dealt with all the items on the agenda, the members may, with the consent of the Assembly, have other matters discussed, but decisions may be taken only on the items listed on the agenda...

  3. Ordinary General Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    Tuesday 12 April at 14.00 Council Chamber, Bldg 503 In conformity with the Statutes of the Staff Association, an ordinary General Assembly is organized once a year (article IV.2.1). Agenda   Adoption of the Agenda Approval of the Draft Minutes of the Ordinary General Assembly of 20 April 2010 Presentation and approval of the Activity Report 2010 Presentation and approval of the Financial Report 2010 Presentation and approval of the Auditors Report 2010 Programme for 2011 Presentation and approval of the draft budget and subscription rate 2012 Election of the Election Committee Election of the Board of Auditors Miscellaneous We remind members of article IV.3.4 in the Statutes of the Association which reads: “After having dealt with all the items on the agenda, the members may, with the consent of the Assembly, have other matters discussed, but decisions may be taken only on the items listed on the agenda. Nevertheless, the Assembly may r...

  4. Ordinary General Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2010-01-01

    Tuesday 20 April at 10.00 Council Chamber, Bldg 503 In conformity with the Statutes of the Staff Association, an ordinary General Assembly is organized once a year (article IV.2.1). Agenda   Adoption of the Agenda Approval of the Draft Minutes of the Ordinary General Assembly of 12 May 2009 Presentation and approval of the Activity Report 2009 Presentation and approval of the Financial Report 2009 Presentation and approval of the Auditors Report 2009 Programme for 2010 Presentation et and approval of the draft budget and subscription rate 2010 Election of the Election Committee Election of the Board of Auditors Miscellaneous We remind members of article IV.3.4 in the Statutes of the Association which reads: “After having dealt with all the items on the agenda, the members may, with the consent of the Assembly, have other matters discussed, but decisions may be taken only on the items listed on the agenda. Nevertheless, the Assembly may require t...

  5. Synchronization control of cross-strict feedback hyperchaotic system based on cross active backstepping design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jing; Gao Jinfeng; Ma Xikui

    2007-01-01

    This Letter presents a novel cross active backstepping design method for synchronization control of cross-strict feedback hyperchaotic system, in which the ordinary backstepping design is unavailable. The proposed control method, combining backstepping design and active control approach, extends the application of backstepping technique in chaos control. Based on this method, different combinations of controllers can be designed to meet the needs of different applications. The proposed method is applied to achieve chaos synchronization of two identical cross-strict feedback hyperchaotic systems. Also it is used to implement synchronization between cross-strict feedback hyperchaotic system and Roessler hyperchaotic system. Numerical examples illustrate the validity of the control method

  6. Ordinary and extraordinary means.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillon, R

    1986-01-25

    The Roman Catholic doctrine of ordinary and extraordinary means in patient care decisions is the subject of this essay in Gillon's series on medical ethics. He briefly traces the Church history of this doctrine, which holds that saving life is not obligatory if doing so would be excessively burdensome or disproportionate in relation to the expected benefits. The burdens and benefits are to be weighed in the context of "circumstances of persons, places, times, and cultures," and factors such as the costs and risks of undergoing a proposed treatment may be considered. Gillon also notes the disagreement among Roman Catholic commentators over whether it is ever permissible to discontinue feeding as a burdensome, extraordinary treatment. He concludes that, despite different weightings of harms and benefits, Roman Catholic and non-Catholic thinkers are in accord over the appropriate moral approach to deciding when treatment is not obligatory.

  7. Aiming for the ordinary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offersen, Sara Marie Hebsgaard

    that the Danes are encouraged to be alert to still earlier and vaguer bodily signs of potential cancer and seek care ‘in time’. With biomedical constructions such as ‘cancer awareness’ and ‘alarm symptoms of cancer’ and the retrospectively oriented definition of life before symptoms-based healthcare seeking...... and articulation of bodily sensations, and how decisions about healthcare seeking are established in this context. This dissertation aims to explore these matters from the perspective of the Danish middle class, mainly focusing on how sensations are ascribed meaning as symptoms and how they are evoked...... on a continuum between what is locally considered ordinary and extraordinary. Overall, the dissertation argues that inquiries into morality and potentiality provide valuable insights into healthcare seeking practices and the making and management of symptoms in everyday life. The dissertation is based on 18...

  8. Finite Metric Spaces of Strictly Negative Type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul; Lisonek, P.; Markvorsen, Steen

    1998-01-01

    of Euclidean spaces. We prove that, if the distance matrix is both hypermetric and regular, then it is of strictly negative type. We show that the strictly negative type finite subspaces of spheres are precisely those which do not contain two pairs of antipodal points. In connection with an open problem raised...

  9. Extremely strict ideals in Banach spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Motivated by the notion of an ideal introduced by Godefroy et al. (Stu- dia Math. 104 (1993) 13–59), in this article, we introduce and study the notion of an extremely strict ideal. For a Poulsen simplex K, we show that the space of affine contin- uous functions on K is an extremely strict ideal in the space of continuous ...

  10. Introduction to ordinary differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Rabenstein, Albert L

    1966-01-01

    Introduction to Ordinary Differential Equations is a 12-chapter text that describes useful elementary methods of finding solutions using ordinary differential equations. This book starts with an introduction to the properties and complex variable of linear differential equations. Considerable chapters covered topics that are of particular interest in applications, including Laplace transforms, eigenvalue problems, special functions, Fourier series, and boundary-value problems of mathematical physics. Other chapters are devoted to some topics that are not directly concerned with finding solutio

  11. Hyperbolic spaces are of strictly negative type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.; Kokkendorff, Simon L.; Markvorsen, Steen

    2002-01-01

    We study finite metric spaces with elements picked from, and distances consistent with, ambient Riemannian manifolds. The concepts of negative type and strictly negative type are reviewed, and the conjecture that hyperbolic spaces are of strictly negative type is settled, in the affirmative....... The technique of the proof is subsequently applied to show that every compact manifold of negative type must have trivial fundamental group, and to obtain a necessary criterion for product manifolds to be of negative type....

  12. Strictly diagonal holomorphic functions on Banach spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Fedak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate the boundedness of holomorphic functionals on a Banach space with a normalized basis $\\{e_n\\}$ which have a very special form $f(x=f(0+\\sum_{n=1}^\\infty c_nx_n^n$ and which we call strictly diagonal. We consider under which conditions strictly diagonal functions are entire and uniformly continuous on every ball of a fixed radius.

  13. Electronuclear Park, Privatization and Civil Strict Liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondello, Gerard Camille

    2008-01-01

    The civil strict liability regime of the electronuclear industry is a fundamental variable for preventing risk. Because prices of other energies as oil or gas are becoming higher and unpredictable, nuclear power becomes cost-effective and may favour the partial privatization of nuclear parks. By considering theoretical traditional liability models, we study the conditions that ensure the most efficient safety level when comparing natural monopoly situation and Bertrand duopoly. Our results are that natural monopoly is safer than duopoly only when strict liability is fully applied. We define conditions that neutralize risk for applying some privatization plan to nuclear park

  14. Finite Metric Spaces of Strictly negative Type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.

    If a finite metric space is of strictly negative type then its transfinite diameter is uniquely realized by an infinite extent (“load vector''). Finite metric spaces that have this property include all trees, and all finite subspaces of Euclidean and Hyperbolic spaces. We prove that if the distance...

  15. Moral intuition, good deaths and ordinary medical practitioners.

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, M

    1990-01-01

    Debate continues over the acts/omissions doctrine, and over the concepts of duty and charity. Such issues inform the debate over the moral permissibility of euthanasia. Recent papers have emphasised moral sensitivity, medical intuitions, and sub-standard palliative care as some of the factors which should persuade us to regard euthanasia as morally unacceptable. I argue that these lines of argument are conceptually misdirected and have no bearing on the bare permissibility of voluntary euthan...

  16. Dynamic Enforcement of the Strict Integrity Policy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGXiangfeng; LIANGHongliang; SUNYufang

    2005-01-01

    The Strict integrity policy (SIP) in Biba's integrity model is widely used in protecting information integrity, but the static integrity labels of both subjects and objects increase compatibility cost of applications and might prevent some operations that are indeed harmless.In order to improve compatibility, Dynamic enforcement of the Strict integrity policy (DESIP) is put forward. The current integrity label attribute of a subject in SIP is replaced with two attributes in DESIP, which are used to confine dynamically the range of objects a subject could be allowed to access. The new rules of access control in DESIP are given for each kind of access mode (observe,modify and invoke) together with the proofs of their valid-ity. Comparison between SIP and DESIP shows that after a sequence of operations, a subject controlled by DESIP tends to behave in a similar way as it is controlled by SIP and DESIP is more compatible than SIP.

  17. A strictly hyperbolic equilibrium phase transition model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allaire, G; Faccanoni, G; Kokh, S.

    2007-01-01

    This Note is concerned with the strict hyperbolicity of the compressible Euler equations equipped with an equation of state that describes the thermodynamical equilibrium between the liquid phase and the vapor phase of a fluid. The proof is valid for a very wide class of fluids. The argument only relies on smoothness assumptions and on the classical thermodynamical stability assumptions, that requires a definite negative Hessian matrix for each phase entropy as a function of the specific volume and internal energy. (authors)

  18. On Fixed Points of Strictly Causal Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    were defined to be the functions that are strictly contracting with respect to the Cantor metric (also called the Baire distance) on signals over non...in Computer Science, pages 447–484. Springer Berlin / Heidelberg, 1992. [36] George Markowsky. Chain-complete posets and directed sets with...Journal of Logic Programming, 42(2):59–70, 2000. [53] George M. Reed and A. William Roscoe. A timed model for communicating sequential processes. In

  19. Generalized Ordinary Differential Equation Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Hongyu; Wu, Hulin; Xue, Hongqi

    2014-10-01

    Existing estimation methods for ordinary differential equation (ODE) models are not applicable to discrete data. The generalized ODE (GODE) model is therefore proposed and investigated for the first time. We develop the likelihood-based parameter estimation and inference methods for GODE models. We propose robust computing algorithms and rigorously investigate the asymptotic properties of the proposed estimator by considering both measurement errors and numerical errors in solving ODEs. The simulation study and application of our methods to an influenza viral dynamics study suggest that the proposed methods have a superior performance in terms of accuracy over the existing ODE model estimation approach and the extended smoothing-based (ESB) method.

  20. New Ideas: Ordinary is Extraordinary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Jose

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract With the initial issue of this journal, a new challenge has been offered tothe world of sports nutrition: initiate "team oriented" research and clinical trials in order to make dynamic progress in terms of understandingand applying nutrition principals to the field of competitive sports. It is our further challenge that these teams think "outside the box" in terms of their approach to elucidating new concepts through which nutritional interventions might play a role in the regulation of muscle growth and repair, athletic performance and endurance, and mental acuity. What was once thought of as extraordinary might now be approached as ordinary, if the correct composition of "teams" were formed.

  1. 7 CFR 28.441 - Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color. 28.441 Section... Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color. Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color is color which is deeper than that of Strict Middling Tinged Color. [57 FR 34498, Aug. 5, 1992] ...

  2. 7 CFR 28.412 - Strict Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.412 Section 28... Light Spotted Color. Strict Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Strict Middling Color and Strict Middling Spotted Color. ...

  3. Analysis of quantile regression as alternative to ordinary least squares

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim Abdullahi; Abubakar Yahaya

    2015-01-01

    In this article, an alternative to ordinary least squares (OLS) regression based on analytical solution in the Statgraphics software is considered, and this alternative is no other than quantile regression (QR) model. We also present goodness of fit statistic as well as approximate distributions of the associated test statistics for the parameters. Furthermore, we suggest a goodness of fit statistic called the least absolute deviation (LAD) coefficient of determination. The procedure is well ...

  4. Quantum States as Ordinary Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Wharton

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite various parallels between quantum states and ordinary information, quantum no-go-theorems have convinced many that there is no realistic framework that might underly quantum theory, no reality that quantum states can represent knowledge about. This paper develops the case that there is a plausible underlying reality: one actual spacetime-based history, although with behavior that appears strange when analyzed dynamically (one time-slice at a time. By using a simple model with no dynamical laws, it becomes evident that this behavior is actually quite natural when analyzed “all-at-once” (as in classical action principles. From this perspective, traditional quantum states would represent incomplete information about possible spacetime histories, conditional on the future measurement geometry. Without dynamical laws imposing additional restrictions, those histories can have a classical probability distribution, where exactly one history can be said to represent an underlying reality.

  5. Equivariant ordinary homology and cohomology

    CERN Document Server

    Costenoble, Steven R

    2016-01-01

    Filling a gap in the literature, this book takes the reader to the frontiers of equivariant topology, the study of objects with specified symmetries. The discussion is motivated by reference to a list of instructive “toy” examples and calculations in what is a relatively unexplored field. The authors also provide a reading path for the first-time reader less interested in working through sophisticated machinery but still desiring a rigorous understanding of the main concepts. The subject’s classical counterparts, ordinary homology and cohomology, dating back to the work of Henri Poincaré in topology, are calculational and theoretical tools which are important in many parts of mathematics and theoretical physics, particularly in the study of manifolds. Similarly powerful tools have been lacking, however, in the context of equivariant topology. Aimed at advanced graduate students and researchers in algebraic topology and related fields, the book assumes knowledge of basic algebraic topology and group act...

  6. STRICT STABILITY OF IMPULSIVE SET VALUED DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we develop strict stability concepts of ODE to impulsive hybrid set valued differential equations. By Lyapunov’s original method, we get some basic strict stability criteria of impulsive hybrid set valued equations.

  7. Public healthcare interests require strict competition enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loozen, Edith M H

    2015-07-01

    Several countries have introduced competition in their health systems in order to maintain the supply of high quality health care in a cost-effective manner. The introduction of competition triggers competition enforcement. Since healthcare is characterized by specific market failures, many favor healthcare-specific competition enforcement in order not only to account for the competition interest, but also for the healthcare interests. The question is whether healthcare systems based on competition can succeed when competition enforcement deviates from standard practice. This paper analyzes whether healthcare-specific competition enforcement is theoretically sound and practically effective. This is exemplified by the Dutch system that is based on regulated competition and thus crucially depends on getting competition enforcement right. Governments are responsible for correcting market failures. Markets are responsible for maximizing the public healthcare interests. By securing sufficient competitive pressure, competition enforcement makes sure they do. When interpreted according to welfare-economics, competition law takes into account both costs and benefits specific market behavior may have for healthcare. Competition agencies and judiciary are not legitimized to deviate from standard evidentiary requirements. Dutch case law shows that healthcare-specific enforcement favors the healthcare undertakings concerned, but to the detriment of public health care. Healthcare-specific competition enforcement is conceptually flawed and counterproductive. In order for healthcare systems based on competition to succeed, competition enforcement should be strict. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. 7 CFR 28.404 - Strict Low Middling Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Low Middling Color. 28.404 Section 28.404... for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.404 Strict Low Middling Color. Strict Low Middling Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in the custody of the United...

  9. 7 CFR 28.402 - Strict Middling Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Color. 28.402 Section 28.402... for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.402 Strict Middling Color. Strict Middling Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in the custody of the United States...

  10. Synchronizing strict-feedback and general strict-feedback chaotic systems via a single controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shihua; Wang Feng; Wang Changping

    2004-01-01

    We present a systematic design procedure to synchronize a class of chaotic systems in a so-called strict-feedback form based on back-stepping procedure. This approach needs only a single controller to realize synchronization no matter how many dimensions the chaotic system contains. Furthermore, we point out that the method does not work for general strict-feedback chaotic systems, for instance, Lorenz system. Therefore, we propose three kinds of synchronization schemes for Lorenz system using the Lyapunov function method. All the three schemes avoid including divergence factor as in Ref. [Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 16 (2003) 37]. Especially in the last two schemes, we need only one state variable in controller, which has important significance in chaos synchronization used for communication purposes. Finally numerical simulations are provided to show the effectiveness and feasibility of the developed methods

  11. The qualitative theory of ordinary differential equations an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Brauer, Fred

    1989-01-01

    ""This is a very good book ... with many well-chosen examples and illustrations."" - American Mathematical MonthlyThis highly regarded text presents a self-contained introduction to some important aspects of modern qualitative theory for ordinary differential equations. It is accessible to any student of physical sciences, mathematics or engineering who has a good knowledge of calculus and of the elements of linear algebra. In addition, algebraic results are stated as needed; the less familiar ones are proved either in the text or in appendixes.The topics covered in the first three chapters a

  12. Measuring metamorphic history of unequilibrated ordinary chondrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sears, D.W.; Grossman, J.N.; Melcher, C.L.; Ross, L.M.; Mills, A.A.

    1980-01-01

    A thermoluminescence sensitivity technique is used to give a new measurement of the degree of metamorphism of unequilibrated ordinary chondrites. Consequently the petrological assignment of these meteorites is modified. (author)

  13. Do Wage Subsidies Reduce Ordinary Employment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azhar, Hussain; Rasmussen, Martin

    Applying administrative register data information for Danish firms in 1999, 2000, and 2001, this paper investigate how the employment of wage subsidized labour affects ordinary employment at the firm level. Descriptive statistics as well as econometric estimations are presented. Descriptive...

  14. Topological Higgs mechanism with ordinary Higgs mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda Ichiro; Yahikozawa Shigeaki.

    1989-12-01

    Topological Higgs mechanism in higher dimensions is analyzed when ordinary Higgs potential exists. It is shown that if one-form B-field becomes massive by the ordinary Higgs mechanism, another D-2 form C-field also becomes massive through topological term in addition to the topological mass generation by the topological Higgs mechanism. Moreover we investigate this mechanism in three dimensional theories, that is to say, Chern-Simons theory and more general theory. (author). 10 refs

  15. Modal Inclusion Logic: Being Lax is Simpler than Being Strict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hella, Lauri; Kuusisto, Antti Johannes; Meier, Arne

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the computational complexity of the satisfiability problem of modal inclusion logic. We distinguish two variants of the problem: one for strict and another one for lax semantics. The complexity of the lax version turns out to be complete for EXPTIME, whereas with strict semantics...

  16. 7 CFR 28.433 - Strict Low Middling Tinged Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Low Middling Tinged Color. 28.433 Section 28.433 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Tinged Color. Strict Low Middling Tinged Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of...

  17. 7 CFR 28.422 - Strict Middling Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Spotted Color. 28.422 Section 28.422 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Color. Strict Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples...

  18. 7 CFR 28.424 - Strict Low Middling Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Low Middling Spotted Color. 28.424 Section 28.424 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Spotted Color. Strict Low Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a set...

  19. 7 CFR 28.431 - Strict Middling Tinged Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Tinged Color. 28.431 Section 28.431 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Color. Strict Middling Tinged Color is color which is better than Middling Tinged Color. ...

  20. 43 CFR 29.7 - Imposition of strict liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... LIABILITY FUND § 29.7 Imposition of strict liability. (a) Notwithstanding the provisions of any other law... prove that the damages were caused by an act of war or by the negligence of the United States or other... negligence of such damaged party. (c)(1) Strict liability for all claims arising out of any one incident...

  1. Strictly-regular number system and data structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmasry, Amr Ahmed Abd Elmoneim; Jensen, Claus; Katajainen, Jyrki

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a new number system that we call the strictly-regular system, which efficiently supports the operations: digit-increment, digit-decrement, cut, concatenate, and add. Compared to other number systems, the strictly-regular system has distinguishable properties. It is superior to the re...

  2. STRICT CONVEXITY THROUGH EQUIVALENT NORMS IN SEPARABLES BANACH SPACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willy Zubiaga Vera

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Let E be a separable Banach space with norm || . ||. In the present work, the objective is to construct a norm || . ||1 that is equivalent to || . || in E, such that || . ||1 is strictly convex. In addition it is shown that its dual conjugate norm is also strictly convex.

  3. Strategy and Aspects of Monitoring / Control Strictly in Coordinated Subsystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William José Borges

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to discuss the approach structures of the strictly coordinated theoretical framework developed by Zylbersztajn and Farina (1999 as an expanded perspective of the firm, taking into account the food supply chains as an extension of the nexus of contracts proposed by Coase (1937 and taken up by Williamson (1985. The structures stand out as strictly coordinated. Zylbersztajn and Farina (1999 turn to identifying points of common interests that encourage firms to promote contracts between themselves in a strictly coordinated way, considering the degree of asset specificity involved in the transaction and the competitive forces that determine the search for strategic positioning organizations to achieve sustainable superior results.

  4. Normal form and synchronization of strict-feedback chaotic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Feng; Chen, Shihua; Yu Minghai; Wang Changping

    2004-01-01

    This study concerns the normal form and synchronization of strict-feedback chaotic systems. We prove that, any strict-feedback chaotic system can be rendered into a normal form with a invertible transform and then a design procedure to synchronize the normal form of a non-autonomous strict-feedback chaotic system is presented. This approach needs only a scalar driving signal to realize synchronization no matter how many dimensions the chaotic system contains. Furthermore, the Roessler chaotic system is taken as a concrete example to illustrate the procedure of designing without transforming a strict-feedback chaotic system into its normal form. Numerical simulations are also provided to show the effectiveness and feasibility of the developed methods

  5. Strict finitism and the logic of mathematical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ye, Feng

    2011-01-01

    Exploring the logic behind applied mathematics to the physical world, this volume illustrates how radical naturalism, nominalism and strict finitism can account for the applications of classical mathematics in current theories about natural phenomena.

  6. Two examples of non strictly convex large deviations

    OpenAIRE

    De Marco, Stefano; Jacquier, Antoine; Roome, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    We present two examples of a large deviations principle where the rate function is not strictly convex. This is motivated by a model used in mathematical finance (the Heston model), and adds a new item to the zoology of non strictly convex large deviations. For one of these examples, we show that the rate function of the Cramer-type of large deviations coincides with that of the Freidlin-Wentzell when contraction principles are applied.

  7. Strictly contractive quantum channels and physically realizable quantum computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raginsky, Maxim

    2002-01-01

    We study the robustness of quantum computers under the influence of errors modeled by strictly contractive channels. A channel T is defined to be strictly contractive if, for any pair of density operators ρ, σ in its domain, parallel Tρ-Tσ parallel 1 ≤k parallel ρ-σ parallel 1 for some 0≤k 1 denotes the trace norm). In other words, strictly contractive channels render the states of the computer less distinguishable in the sense of quantum detection theory. Starting from the premise that all experimental procedures can be carried out with finite precision, we argue that there exists a physically meaningful connection between strictly contractive channels and errors in physically realizable quantum computers. We show that, in the absence of error correction, sensitivity of quantum memories and computers to strictly contractive errors grows exponentially with storage time and computation time, respectively, and depends only on the constant k and the measurement precision. We prove that strict contractivity rules out the possibility of perfect error correction, and give an argument that approximate error correction, which covers previous work on fault-tolerant quantum computation as a special case, is possible

  8. Developing Concepts of Ordinary and Extraordinary Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Jonathan D.; Evans, E. Margaret; Brink, Kimberly A.; Wellman, Henry M.

    2016-01-01

    We examine how understandings of ordinary and extraordinary communication develop. Three- to 10-year-old children and adults (N = 183) were given scenarios in which a protagonist wanted help from a human (their parent) or from God. Scenarios varied in whether protagonists expressed their desires aloud (by asking) or silently (by hoping), whether…

  9. A Unified Introduction to Ordinary Differential Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutzer, Carl V.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes how a presentation from the point of view of differential operators can be used to (partially) unify the myriad techniques in an introductory course in ordinary differential equations by providing students with a powerful, flexible paradigm that extends into (or from) linear algebra. (Contains 1 footnote.)

  10. Symmetries, Integrals and Solutions of Ordinary Differential ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Second-and third-order scalar ordinary differential equations of maximal symmetry in the traditional sense of point, respectively contact, symmetry are examined for the mappings they produce in solutions and fundamental first integrals. The properties of the `exceptional symmetries', i.e. those not considered to be generic to ...

  11. Ordinary differential equation for local accumulation time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezhkovskii, Alexander M

    2011-08-21

    Cell differentiation in a developing tissue is controlled by the concentration fields of signaling molecules called morphogens. Formation of these concentration fields can be described by the reaction-diffusion mechanism in which locally produced molecules diffuse through the patterned tissue and are degraded. The formation kinetics at a given point of the patterned tissue can be characterized by the local accumulation time, defined in terms of the local relaxation function. Here, we show that this time satisfies an ordinary differential equation. Using this equation one can straightforwardly determine the local accumulation time, i.e., without preliminary calculation of the relaxation function by solving the partial differential equation, as was done in previous studies. We derive this ordinary differential equation together with the accompanying boundary conditions and demonstrate that the earlier obtained results for the local accumulation time can be recovered by solving this equation. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  12. A course in ordinary differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Swift, Randall J

    2014-01-01

    Praise for the First Edition:"A Course in Ordinary Differential Equations deserves to be on the MAA's Basic Library List … the book with its layout, is very student friendly-it is easy to read and understand; every chapter and explanations flow smoothly and coherently … the reviewer would recommend this book highly for undergraduate introductory differential equation courses." -Srabasti Dutta, College of Saint Elizabeth, MAA Online, July 2008"An important feature is that the exposition is richly accompanied by computer algebra code (equally distributed between MATLAB, Mathematica, and Maple). The major part of the book is devoted to classical theory (both for systems and higher order equations). The necessary material from linear algebra is also covered. More advanced topics include numerical methods, stability of equilibria, bifurcations, Laplace transforms, and the power series method."-EMS Newsletter, June 2007"This is a delightful textbook for a standard one-semester undergraduate course in ordinary d...

  13. Processes of aesthetic transformation in ordinary landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Jonna Majgaard

    2004-01-01

    it was distributed systematically as an almost industrially produced landscape element. Windbreaks are now regarded as a traditional element in the Danish agricultural landscape. As a landscape element it is an international phenomenon known and used in Germany, France, England etc. Originally local farming...... practices, natural conditions, techniques and national legislation in the respective countries, formed the aesthetic expression. In this respect one could speak of the impact of northern nature on the aesthetic expression of the Danish windbreaks, as well as the impact from national phenomena....... These features determined the specific aesthetic and architectural identity of ordinary Danish, i.e. Nordic, landscapes. Contemporary cultural changes such as the aesthetification of everyday life and of ordinary landscape, i.e. farming landscape, are now manifest in the way the windbreaks are motivated...

  14. Solutions manual to accompany Ordinary differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Greenberg, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    Features a balance between theory, proofs, and examples and provides applications across diverse fields of study Ordinary Differential Equations presents a thorough discussion of first-order differential equations and progresses to equations of higher order. The book transitions smoothly from first-order to higher-order equations, allowing readers to develop a complete understanding of the related theory. Featuring diverse and interesting applications from engineering, bioengineering, ecology, and biology, the book anticipates potential difficulties in understanding the various solution steps

  15. Signs in Architecture: Beauty in the Ordinary

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Akiko

    2004-01-01

    In Japan, the basics of living are described as three main elements; clothing, food, and shelter. These elements involve simple daily activities such as changing clothes in the morning, eating lunch, and sleeping at night. It may easily become a mundane topic since they are woven into our daily routines. Nevertheless, a moment in one's day may become joyful when we reconsider and play with the ordinary. The first trace of a dwelling in Japan is a pit shelter. People dug a circular ...

  16. Convergence theorems for strictly hemi-contractive maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidume, C.E.; Osilike, M.O.

    1992-04-01

    It is proved that each of two well-known fixed point iteration methods (the Mann and the Ishikawa iteration methods) converges strongly to the fixed point of strictly hemi-contractive map in real Banach spaces with property (U, λ, m+1,m), λ is an element of R, m is an element of IN. The class of strictly hemi-contractive maps includes all strictly pseudo-contractive maps with nonempty fixed point sets; and Banach spaces with property (U, λ, m+1, m), λ is an element of R, m is an element of IN include the L p (or l p ) spaces, p≥2. Our theorems generalize important known results. (author). 22 refs

  17. Developing concepts of ordinary and extraordinary communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Jonathan D; Evans, E Margaret; Brink, Kimberly A; Wellman, Henry M

    2016-01-01

    We examine how understandings of ordinary and extraordinary communication develop. Three- to 10-year-old children and adults (N = 183) were given scenarios in which a protagonist wanted help from a human (their parent) or from God. Scenarios varied in whether protagonists expressed their desires aloud (by asking) or silently (by hoping), whether (for human scenarios) parents were nearby or far away, and whether (for God scenarios) protagonists expressed desires through ordinary means (asking or hoping) or more extraordinary means (praying). Following each scenario, participants were asked whether the recipient (either the parent or God) was aware of the protagonist's desire. Children as young as 3 to 4 years old understood that both loudness and distance limit the effectiveness of human communication, reporting that humans would most likely be aware of desires when they were expressed both aloud and nearby. As well, by this age children reported that God would more often be aware of desires than would humans, but children of all ages often reported that God (like humans) would be more aware of desires expressed aloud (rather than silently). These concepts of ordinary and extraordinary communication continued to be refined through middle childhood. Children's performance on standard theory-of-mind tasks and participants' religious background predicted whether they attributed awareness to God. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Analytic properties of form factors in strictly confining models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csikor, F.

    1979-12-01

    An argument is presented showing that strict confinement implies the possible existence of an (unwanted) branch point at q 2 =0 in the form factors. In case of a bag extended to infinity in the relative time, the branch point is certainly there (provided that the form factor is non zero at q 2 =0). (author)

  19. Dominance on Strict Triangular Norms and Mulholland Inequality

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrík, Milan

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 335, 15 March (2018), s. 3-17 ISSN 0165-0114 R&D Projects: GA ČR GJ15-07724Y Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : dominance relation * Mulholland inequality * strict triangular norm * transitivity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 2.718, year: 2016

  20. Effects of strict prolonged bed rest on cardiorespiratory fitness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ried-Larsen, Mathias; Aarts, Hugo M; Joyner, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis [International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) CRD42017055619] was to assess the effects of strict prolonged bed rest (without countermeasures) on maximal oxygen uptake (V̇o2max) and to explore sources of variation therein....

  1. Non-diagonal processes of singlet and ordinary quark production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bejlin, V.A.; Vereshkov, G.M.; Kuksa, V.I.

    1995-01-01

    Non-diagonal processes of singlet and ordinary quark production are analyzed in the model where the down singlet quark mixes with the ordinary ones. The possibility of experimental selection of h-quark effects is demonstrated

  2. Numerical analysis of systems of ordinary and stochastic differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Artemiev, S S

    1997-01-01

    This text deals with numerical analysis of systems of both ordinary and stochastic differential equations. It covers numerical solution problems of the Cauchy problem for stiff ordinary differential equations (ODE) systems by Rosenbrock-type methods (RTMs).

  3. Ordinary Differential Equation Models for Adoptive Immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talkington, Anne; Dantoin, Claudia; Durrett, Rick

    2018-05-01

    Modified T cells that have been engineered to recognize the CD19 surface marker have recently been shown to be very successful at treating acute lymphocytic leukemias. Here, we explore four previous approaches that have used ordinary differential equations to model this type of therapy, compare their properties, and modify the models to address their deficiencies. Although the four models treat the workings of the immune system in slightly different ways, they all predict that adoptive immunotherapy can be successful to move a patient from the large tumor fixed point to an equilibrium with little or no tumor.

  4. The ethics of an ordinary medical technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Manen, Michael A

    2015-07-01

    Some routinely applied hospital technologies may have unintended consequences for patients and their families. The neonatal cardiorespiratory monitor, a computer-like display used to show an infant's vital functions, is one such technology that may become part of a parent's day-to-day being with his or her hospitalized child. In this phenomenological study, I explored how the monitor may mediate parental sensibilities, reshaping the contact of parent and child. This exploration speaks to understanding the relational ethics of even the seemingly most ordinary of medical technologies in clinical contexts. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. A textbook on ordinary differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmad, Shair

    2015-01-01

    This book offers readers a primer on the theory and applications of Ordinary Differential Equations. The style used is simple, yet thorough and rigorous. Each chapter ends with a broad set of exercises that range from the routine to the more challenging and thought-provoking. Solutions to selected exercises can be found at the end of the book. The book contains many interesting examples on topics such as electric circuits, the pendulum equation, the logistic equation, the Lotka-Volterra system, the Laplace Transform, etc., which introduce students to a number of interesting aspects of the theory and applications. The work is mainly intended for students of Mathematics, Physics, Engineering, Computer Science and other areas of the natural and social sciences that use ordinary differential equations, and who have a firm grasp of Calculus and a minimal understanding of the basic concepts used in Linear Algebra. It also studies a few more advanced topics, such as Stability Theory and Boundary Value Problems, whic...

  6. Strong Convergence Theorems for a Pair of Strictly Pseudononspreading Mappings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin-Chao Deng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Let H be a real Hilbert space. Let T1,T2:H→H be k1-, k2-strictly pseudononspreading mappings; let αn and βn be two real sequences in (0,1. For given x0∈H, the sequence xn is generated iteratively by xn+1=βnxn+1-βnTw1αnγfxn+I-μαnBTw2xn, ∀n∈N, where Twi=1−wiI+wiTi with i=1,2 and B:H→H is strongly monotone and Lipschitzian. Under some mild conditions on parameters αn and βn, we prove that the sequence xn converges strongly to the set FixT1∩FixT2 of fixed points of a pair of strictly pseudononspreading mappings T1 and T2.

  7. Growth of a Strictly Anaerobic Bacterium on Furfural (2-Furaldehyde)

    OpenAIRE

    Brune, Gerhard; Schoberth, Siegfried M.; Sahm, Hermann

    1983-01-01

    A strictly anaerobic bacterium was isolated from a continuous fermentor culture which converted the organic constituents of sulfite evaporator condensate to methane and carbon dioxide. Furfural is one of the major components of this condensate. This furfural isolate could degrade furfural as the sole source of carbon and energy in a defined mineral-vitamin-sulfate medium. Acetic acid was the major fermentation product. This organism could also use ethanol, lactate, pyruvate, or fumarate and c...

  8. The Fixed-Point Theory of Strictly Causal Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-09

    functions were defined to be the functions that are strictly contracting with respect to the Cantor metric (also called the Baire distance) on signals...of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 447–484. Springer Berlin / Heidelberg, 1992. [36] George Markowsky. Chain-complete posets and directed...Journal of Logic Programming, 42(2):59–70, 2000. [52] George M. Reed and A. William Roscoe. A timed model for communicating sequential processes. In Laurent

  9. Ordinary differential equations principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Nandakumaran, A K; George, Raju K

    2017-01-01

    Written in a clear, logical and concise manner, this comprehensive resource allows students to quickly understand the key principles, techniques and applications of ordinary differential equations. Important topics including first and second order linear equations, initial value problems and qualitative theory are presented in separate chapters. The concepts of two point boundary value problems, physical models and first order partial differential equations are discussed in detail. The text uses tools of calculus and real analysis to get solutions in explicit form. While discussing first order linear systems, linear algebra techniques are used. The real-life applications are interspersed throughout the book to invoke reader's interest. The methods and tricks to solve numerous mathematical problems with sufficient derivations and explanation are provided. The proofs of theorems are explained for the benefit of the readers.

  10. From ordinary to partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Esposito, Giampiero

    2017-01-01

    This book is addressed to mathematics and physics students who want to develop an interdisciplinary view of mathematics, from the age of Riemann, Poincaré and Darboux to basic tools of modern mathematics. It enables them to acquire the sensibility necessary for the formulation and solution of difficult problems, with an emphasis on concepts, rigour and creativity. It consists of eight self-contained parts: ordinary differential equations; linear elliptic equations; calculus of variations; linear and non-linear hyperbolic equations; parabolic equations; Fuchsian functions and non-linear equations; the functional equations of number theory; pseudo-differential operators and pseudo-differential equations. The author leads readers through the original papers and introduces new concepts, with a selection of topics and examples that are of high pedagogical value.

  11. Ordinary differential equations basics and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Schaeffer, David G

    2016-01-01

    This book develops the theory of ordinary differential equations (ODEs), starting from an introductory level (with no prior experience in ODEs assumed) through to a graduate-level treatment of the qualitative theory, including bifurcation theory (but not chaos). While proofs are rigorous, the exposition is reader-friendly, aiming for the informality of face-to-face interactions. A unique feature of this book is the integration of rigorous theory with numerous applications of scientific interest. Besides providing motivation, this synthesis clarifies the theory and enhances scientific literacy. Other features include: (i) a wealth of exercises at various levels, along with commentary that explains why they matter; (ii) figures with consistent color conventions to identify nullclines, periodic orbits, stable and unstable manifolds; and (iii) a dedicated website with software templates, problem solutions, and other resources supporting the text. Given its many applications, the book may be used comfortably in sc...

  12. A textbook on ordinary differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmad, Shair

    2014-01-01

    The book is a primer of the theory of Ordinary Differential Equations. Each chapter is completed by a broad set of exercises; the reader will also find a set of solutions of selected exercises. The book contains many interesting examples as well (like the equations for the electric circuits, the pendium equation, the logistic equation, the Lotka-Volterra system, and many other) which introduce the reader to some interesting aspects of the theory and its applications. The work is mainly addressed to students of Mathematics, Physics, Engineering, Statistics, Computer Sciences, with  knowledge of Calculus and Linear Algebra, and contains more advanced topics for further developments, such as Laplace transform; Stability theory and existence of solutions to Boundary Value problems. The authors are preparing a complete solutions manual, containing solutions to all the exercises published in the book. The manual will be available Summer 2014. Instructors who wish to adopt the book may request the manual by writing...

  13. Ordinary differential equations a graduate text

    CERN Document Server

    Bhamra, K S

    2015-01-01

    ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS: A Graduate Text presents a systematic and comprehensive introduction to ODEs for graduate and postgraduate students. The systematic organized text on differential inequalities, Gronwall's inequality, Nagumo's theorems, Osgood's criteria and applications of different equations of first order is dealt with in a greater depth. The book discusses qualitative and quantitative aspects of the Strum - Liouville problems, Green's function, integral equations, Laplace transform and is supported by a number of worked-out examples in each lesson to make the concepts clear. A lot of stress on stability theory is laid down, especially on Lyapunov and Poincare stability theory. A numerous figures in various lessons (in particular lessons dealing with stability theory) have been added to clarify the key concepts in DE theory. Nonlinear oscillation in conservative systems and Hamiltonian systems highlights basic nature of the systems considered. Perturbation techniques lesson deals in fairly d...

  14. Universal formats for nonlinear ordinary differential systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerner, E.H.

    1981-01-01

    It is shown that very general nonlinear ordinary differential systems (embracing all that arise in practice) may, first, be brought down to polynomial systems (where the nonlinearities occur only as polynomials in the dependent variables) by introducing suitable new variables into the original system; second, that polynomial systems are reducible to ''Riccati systems,'' where the nonlinearities are quadratic at most; third, that Riccati systems may be brought to elemental universal formats containing purely quadratic terms with simple arrays of coefficients that are all zero or unity. The elemental systems have representations as novel types of matrix Riccati equations. Different starting systems and their associated Riccati systems differ from one another, at the final elemental level, in order and in initial data, but not in format

  15. Modular PNML revisited: Some ideas for strict typing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindler, Ekkart

    2007-01-01

    The Petri Net Markup Language (PNML) is currently standardised by ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7 WG 19 as Part 2 of ISO/IEC 15909. But, there is not yet a mechanism for structuring large Petri nets and for constructing Petri nets from modules. To this end, modular PNML has been proposed some time ago. But, mod...... of Petri net, but still has a strict type system. This paper focuses on the ideas and concepts; the technical details still need to be worked out. To this end, this paper also raises some issues and questions that need to be discussed before standardising modular PNML....

  16. Relaxation Methods for Strictly Convex Regularizations of Piecewise Linear Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiwiel, K. C.

    1998-01-01

    We give an algorithm for minimizing the sum of a strictly convex function and a convex piecewise linear function. It extends several dual coordinate ascent methods for large-scale linearly constrained problems that occur in entropy maximization, quadratic programming, and network flows. In particular, it may solve exact penalty versions of such (possibly inconsistent) problems, and subproblems of bundle methods for nondifferentiable optimization. It is simple, can exploit sparsity, and in certain cases is highly parallelizable. Its global convergence is established in the recent framework of B -functions (generalized Bregman functions)

  17. Schwarz maps of algebraic linear ordinary differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanabria Malagón, Camilo

    2017-12-01

    A linear ordinary differential equation is called algebraic if all its solution are algebraic over its field of definition. In this paper we solve the problem of finding closed form solution to algebraic linear ordinary differential equations in terms of standard equations. Furthermore, we obtain a method to compute all algebraic linear ordinary differential equations with rational coefficients by studying their associated Schwarz map through the Picard-Vessiot Theory.

  18. Good leadership for good quality

    OpenAIRE

    Franzon, Vilma Maria

    2016-01-01

    Good leadership is important if you like to have high quality in the results. My experience in the production of the television industry is that conditions for good leadership is insufficient. Therefore, I have tried to get answers for those two questions in my exam report: What are the characteristics of good leadership? What are the prerequisites for good leadership out of production? The method I used is a literature study and observation. I have read a number of books and research studies...

  19. Non-strictly black body spectrum from the tunnelling mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corda, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The tunnelling mechanism is widely used to explain Hawking radiation. However, in many cases the analysis used to obtain the Hawking temperature only involves comparing the emission probability for an outgoing particle with the Boltzmann factor. Banerjee and Majhi improved this approach by explicitly finding a black body spectrum associated with black holes. Their result, obtained using a reformulation of the tunnelling mechanism, is in contrast to that of Parikh and Wilczek, who found an emission probability that is compatible with a non-strictly thermal spectrum. Using the recently identified effective state for a black hole, we solve this contradiction via a slight modification of the analysis by Banerjee and Majhi. The final result is a non-strictly black body spectrum from the tunnelling mechanism. We also show that for an effective temperature, we can express the corresponding effective metric using Hawking’s periodicity arguments. Potential important implications for the black hole information puzzle are discussed. -- Highlights: •We review an important result by Banerjee and Majhi on the tunnelling mechanism in the framework of Hawking radiation. •This result is in contrast to another result reported by Parikh and Wilczek. •We introduce the effective state of a black hole. •We explain the contrast via a slight modification of the analysis by Banerjee and Majhi. •We discuss potential important implications for the black hole information puzzle

  20. Numerical solution of ordinary differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Fox, L

    1987-01-01

    Nearly 20 years ago we produced a treatise (of about the same length as this book) entitled Computing methods for scientists and engineers. It was stated that most computation is performed by workers whose mathematical training stopped somewhere short of the 'professional' level, and that some books are therefore needed which use quite simple mathematics but which nevertheless communicate the essence of the 'numerical sense' which is exhibited by the real computing experts and which is surely needed, at least to some extent, by all who use modern computers and modern numerical software. In that book we treated, at no great length, a variety of computational problems in which the material on ordinary differential equations occupied about 50 pages. At that time it was quite common to find books on numerical analysis, with a little on each topic ofthat field, whereas today we are more likely to see similarly-sized books on each major topic: for example on numerical linear algebra, numerical approximation, numeri...

  1. Robust estimation for ordinary differential equation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, J; Wang, L; Xu, J

    2011-12-01

    Applied scientists often like to use ordinary differential equations (ODEs) to model complex dynamic processes that arise in biology, engineering, medicine, and many other areas. It is interesting but challenging to estimate ODE parameters from noisy data, especially when the data have some outliers. We propose a robust method to address this problem. The dynamic process is represented with a nonparametric function, which is a linear combination of basis functions. The nonparametric function is estimated by a robust penalized smoothing method. The penalty term is defined with the parametric ODE model, which controls the roughness of the nonparametric function and maintains the fidelity of the nonparametric function to the ODE model. The basis coefficients and ODE parameters are estimated in two nested levels of optimization. The coefficient estimates are treated as an implicit function of ODE parameters, which enables one to derive the analytic gradients for optimization using the implicit function theorem. Simulation studies show that the robust method gives satisfactory estimates for the ODE parameters from noisy data with outliers. The robust method is demonstrated by estimating a predator-prey ODE model from real ecological data. © 2011, The International Biometric Society.

  2. Strict calculation of electron energy distribution functions in inhomogeneous plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, R.

    1996-01-01

    It is objective of the paper to report on strict calculations of the velocity or energy distribution function function and related macroscopic properties of the electrons from appropriate electron kinetic equations under various plasma conditions and to contribute to a better understanding of the electron behaviour in inhomogeneous plasma regions. In particular, the spatial relaxation of plasma electrons acted upon by uniform electric fields, the response of plasma electrons on spatial disturbances of the electric field, the electron kinetics under the impact of space charge field confinement in the dc column plasma and the electron velocity distribution is stronger field as occurring in the electrode regions of a dc glow discharge is considered. (author)

  3. Asymptotic state discrimination and a strict hierarchy in distinguishability norms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chitambar, Eric [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois 62901 (United States); Hsieh, Min-Hsiu [Centre for Quantum Computation and Intelligent Systems (QCIS), Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology (FEIT), University of Technology Sydney - UTS, NSW 2007 (Australia)

    2014-11-15

    In this paper, we consider the problem of discriminating quantum states by local operations and classical communication (LOCC) when an arbitrarily small amount of error is permitted. This paradigm is known as asymptotic state discrimination, and we derive necessary conditions for when two multipartite states of any size can be discriminated perfectly by asymptotic LOCC. We use this new criterion to prove a gap in the LOCC and separable distinguishability norms. We then turn to the operational advantage of using two-way classical communication over one-way communication in LOCC processing. With a simple two-qubit product state ensemble, we demonstrate a strict majorization of the two-way LOCC norm over the one-way norm.

  4. Growth of a Strictly Anaerobic Bacterium on Furfural (2-Furaldehyde)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brune, Gerhard; Schoberth, Siegfried M.; Sahm, Hermann

    1983-01-01

    A strictly anaerobic bacterium was isolated from a continuous fermentor culture which converted the organic constituents of sulfite evaporator condensate to methane and carbon dioxide. Furfural is one of the major components of this condensate. This furfural isolate could degrade furfural as the sole source of carbon and energy in a defined mineral-vitamin-sulfate medium. Acetic acid was the major fermentation product. This organism could also use ethanol, lactate, pyruvate, or fumarate and contained cytochrome c3 and desulfoviridin. Except for furfural degradation, the characteristics of the furfural isolate were remarkably similar to those of the sulfate reducer Desulfovibrio gigas. The furfural isolate has been tentatively identified as Desulfovibrio sp. strain F-1. Images PMID:16346423

  5. Effects of a strict cutoff on Quantum Field Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturnfield, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    Standard Quantum Field Theory has a number of integrals which are infinite. Although these are eliminated for some cases by renormalization, this aspect of the theory is not fully satisfactory. A number of theories with fundamental lengths have been introduced as alternatives and it would be useful to be able to distinguish between them. In particular, the effects that a strict cutoff would have on Quantum Field Theory is studied. It is noted that care must be taken in the method used to apply a strict cutoff. This lead to considering a theory where the cutoffs are defined by restricting each internal line. This theory is only piece-wise analytic. The resulting scattering matrix is frame dependent, yet the theory still satisfies the special relativity view that all frames are subjectively identical. The renormalization of this theory is finite. The change in mass from the electron self-energy will be a spinor operator. The main distinctions of this theory from standard theory will occur at super high energies. New poles and resonances which arise from new endpoint singularities will be found. The locations of these singularities will be frame dependent. Some of these singularities will correspond to creations or interactions of the normal particles with tachyons. It will be shown that for the one loop diagram, the form of the cutoff singularities are closely related to the standard singularities. When there is more than one loop, there can appear some new type of behavior. In particular, a cube root type of behavior in the two loop self-energy diagram will be found. Also the asymptotic behavior of the ladder diagram is studied

  6. An accurate scheme by block method for third order ordinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    problems of ordinary differential equations is presented in this paper. The approach of collocation approximation is adopted in the derivation of the scheme and then the scheme is applied as simultaneous integrator to special third order initial value problem of ordinary differential equations. This implementation strategy is ...

  7. Monograph - The Numerical Integration of Ordinary Differential Equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, T. E.

    The materials presented in this monograph are intended to be included in a course on ordinary differential equations at the upper division level in a college mathematics program. These materials provide an introduction to the numerical integration of ordinary differential equations, and they can be used to supplement a regular text on this…

  8. AND DEVELOPMENT OF LETTUCE ON CHERNOZEM ORDINARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Gromakova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lettuce is very popular in the Russian consumer market. Special conditions for its cultivation determine the need to select modern, inexpensive elements of agro-technology that promote high yields. At present biochar (bio-coal is considered as a promising organic fertilizer. Its main difference lies in the possibility of using any organic raw material in its production. In Russia, the study on the use of biochar is limited; there is no practice of applying it in the complex of agricultural techniques of various agricultural crops. In the conditions of vegetative experiment, the influence of various doses of biochar in ordinary chernozem on the growth and development of lettuce (Lactuca sativa cultivar was studied in accordance with the developed experiment scheme: control (without biochar, supplemented with 1, 2 and 5 % of biochar. In the experiment, biochar obtained from birch wood was used, by pyrolysis method in fraction of 0.5-5mm. The following observations and determinations were made: the timing of the onset of the phases of plant development, the length of the roots, the number of leaves, the length of the largest leaf, the height of plants, the diameter of the rosette, the mass of 10 plants. The use of biochar contributed to a reduction of beginning period technical ripeness in plants, particularly in variant with the addition of 2%. The increase in root length, the number of leaves of lettuce plants as compared with to control in variants with 2 and 5% of biocar has been observed. The length of the largest leaf, the height of plants and the diameter of the rosette of lettuce are characterized by a significant improvement, even in variant with 1%. Productivity of lettuce was highest in the variant with 2% of biochar applied to the soil.

  9. Transmission of neutrons in serpentine mixed and ordinary concrete a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravishankar, R.; Bhattacharyya, Sarmishtha; Bandyopadhyay, Tapas; Sarkar, P.K.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In particle accelerator facilities, for radiation shielding, concrete is commonly used for its effectiveness in attenuating neutrons in addition to its good structural and mechanical properties. Neutron attenuation depends largely on the water content in the concrete. Serpentine mixed concrete is reported to retain better water content than ordinary concrete. Experiments have been carried out to compare neutron attenuation properties of Serpentine mixed concrete slabs and ordinary concrete slabs of different thickness. Transmission of neutrons from a 185 GBq Pu-Be neutron source has been studied using NE-213 liquid scintillator detector, along with the associated electronics to discriminate neutron from gamma using pulse shape discrimination techniques. The energy differential neutron spectra transmitted through the concrete slabs and the corresponding dose have been obtained by unfolding the pulse height spectra using the FERDOR-U computer code and proper response matrix data of the NE-213 detector. The neutron transmission factors through both Serpentine and Ordinary concrete slabs have been studied. The results show serpentine mixed concrete slabs can attenuate more neutrons of varying energies compared to ordinary concrete slabs of equal dimensions. From the trend, it has been found out, with the increase in slab thickness, the gain in neutron attenuation increases. This is due to increase in quantity of serpentine with the increase in thickness of, concrete. A Monte Carlo simulation carried out, for theoretical analysis of the results, has been found to be in order

  10. Transmission of neutrons in serpentine mixed and ordinary concrete- a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravishankar, R.; Bhattacharyya, Sarmishtha; Bandyopadhyay, Tapas; Sarkar, P. K.

    2002-01-01

    In particle accelerator facilities, for radiation shielding, concrete is commonly used for its effectiveness in attenuating neutrons in addition to its good structural and mechanical properties. Neutron attenuation depends largely on the water content in the concrete. Serpentine mixed concrete is reported to retain better water content than ordinary concrete. Experiments have been carried out to compare neutron attenuation properties of Serpentine mixed concrete slabs and ordinary concrete slabs of different thickness. Transmission of neutrons from a 185 GBq Pu-Be neutron source has been studied using NE-213 liquid scintillator detector, along with the associated electronics to discriminate neutron from gamma using pulse shape discrimination techniques. The energy differential neutron spectra transmitted through the concrete slabs and the corresponding dose have been obtained by unfolding the pulse height spectra using the FERDOR-U computer code and proper response matrix data of the NE-213 detector. The neutron transmission factors through both Serpentine and Ordinary concrete slabs have been studied. The results show serpentine mixed concrete slabs can attenuate more neutrons of varying energies compared to ordinary concrete slabs of equal dimensions. From the trend, it has been found out, with the increase in slab thickness, the gain in neutron attenuation increases. This is due to increase in quantity of serpentine with the increase in thickness of concrete. A Monte Carlo simulation carried out, for theoretical analysis of the results, has been found to be in order

  11. Ordinary differential equations introduction to the theory of ordinary differential equations in the real domain

    CERN Document Server

    Kurzweil, J

    1986-01-01

    The author, Professor Kurzweil, is one of the world's top experts in the area of ordinary differential equations - a fact fully reflected in this book. Unlike many classical texts which concentrate primarily on methods of integration of differential equations, this book pursues a modern approach: the topic is discussed in full generality which, at the same time, permits us to gain a deep insight into the theory and to develop a fruitful intuition. The basic framework of the theory is expanded by considering further important topics like stability, dependence of a solution on a parameter, Car

  12. 16 CFR 802.1 - Acquisitions of goods and realty in the ordinary course of business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... regional public utility and steam to several industrial sites. This transaction is exempt under § 802.1(c... acting as an agent of the seller or purchaser. 7. “A,” a cruise ship operator, plans to sell for in excess of $50 million (as adjusted) one of its cruise ships to “B,” another cruise ship operator. “A” has...

  13. Efficient FPT Algorithms for (Strict) Compatibility of Unrooted Phylogenetic Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baste, Julien; Paul, Christophe; Sau, Ignasi; Scornavacca, Celine

    2017-04-01

    In phylogenetics, a central problem is to infer the evolutionary relationships between a set of species X; these relationships are often depicted via a phylogenetic tree-a tree having its leaves labeled bijectively by elements of X and without degree-2 nodes-called the "species tree." One common approach for reconstructing a species tree consists in first constructing several phylogenetic trees from primary data (e.g., DNA sequences originating from some species in X), and then constructing a single phylogenetic tree maximizing the "concordance" with the input trees. The obtained tree is our estimation of the species tree and, when the input trees are defined on overlapping-but not identical-sets of labels, is called "supertree." In this paper, we focus on two problems that are central when combining phylogenetic trees into a supertree: the compatibility and the strict compatibility problems for unrooted phylogenetic trees. These problems are strongly related, respectively, to the notions of "containing as a minor" and "containing as a topological minor" in the graph community. Both problems are known to be fixed parameter tractable in the number of input trees k, by using their expressibility in monadic second-order logic and a reduction to graphs of bounded treewidth. Motivated by the fact that the dependency on k of these algorithms is prohibitively large, we give the first explicit dynamic programming algorithms for solving these problems, both running in time [Formula: see text], where n is the total size of the input.

  14. Managing Hanford Site solid waste through strict acceptance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasen, W.G.; Pierce, R.D.; Willis, N.P.

    1993-02-01

    Various types of waste have been generated during the 50-year history of the Hanford Site. Regulatory changes in the last 20 years have provided the emphasis for better management of these wastes. Interpretations of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (AEA) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) have led to the definition of a group of wastes called radioactive mixed wastes (RMW). As a result of the radioactive and hazardous properties of these wastes, strict management programs have been implemented for the management of these wastes. Solid waste management is accomplished through a systems performance approach to waste management that used best-demonstrated available technology (BDAT) and best management practices. The solid waste program at the Hanford Site strives to integrate all aspects of management relative to the treatment, storage and disposal (TSD) of solid waste. Often there are many competing and important needs. It is a difficult task to balance these needs in a manner that is both equitable and productive. Management science is used to help the process of making decisions. Tools used to support the decision making process include five-year planning, cost estimating, resource allocation, performance assessment, waste volume forecasts, input/output models, and waste acceptance criteria. The purpose of this document is to describe how one of these tools, waste acceptance criteria, has helped the Hanford Site manage solid wastes

  15. Fixed point iterations for strictly hemi-contractive maps in uniformly smooth Banach spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidume, C.E.; Osilike, M.O.

    1993-05-01

    It is proved that the Mann iteration process converges strongly to the fixed point of a strictly hemi-contractive map in real uniformly smooth Banach spaces. The class of strictly hemi-contractive maps includes all strictly pseudo-contractive maps with nonempty fixed point sets. A related result deals with the Ishikawa iteration scheme when the mapping is Lipschitzian and strictly hemi-contractive. Our theorems generalize important known results. (author). 29 refs

  16. Accidental goodness?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Anne

    In postmodern capitalist market economies, management of the single organisation is bound to be guided by several rationales, which are in conflict with each other. For some writers this perception leads to the argument, that conceptions of management should strive towards goals beyond the present...... society. For others, the handling of plural perspectives is just a management discipline. However these positions seem to share a focus on organization as a the arena for the organization of the good. The contribution looks at the management of occupational accidents as an example of striving for good...

  17. Dichotomies for generalized ordinary differential equations and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonotto, E. M.; Federson, M.; Santos, F. L.

    2018-03-01

    In this work we establish the theory of dichotomies for generalized ordinary differential equations, introducing the concepts of dichotomies for these equations, investigating their properties and proposing new results. We establish conditions for the existence of exponential dichotomies and bounded solutions. Using the correspondences between generalized ordinary differential equations and other equations, we translate our results to measure differential equations and impulsive differential equations. The fact that we work in the framework of generalized ordinary differential equations allows us to manage functions with many discontinuities and of unbounded variation.

  18. Good Faith

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomcenco, Alex

    2017-01-01

    This article outlines the current state of law in Canada in respect to good faith in contratial relations. The topic is highly relevant due to expected growth in the numbers of contracts concluded between European and Canadian enterprises in the wake of adoption of the Comprehensive Economic...

  19. Real-effectiveness medicine--pursuing the best effectiveness in the ordinary care of patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmivaara, Antti

    2013-03-01

    Clinical know-how and skills as well as up-to-date scientific evidence are cornerstones for providing effective treatment for patients. However, in order to improve the effectiveness of treatment in ordinary practice, also appropriate documentation of care at the health care units and benchmarking based on this documentation are needed. This article presents the new concept of real-effectiveness medicine (REM) which pursues the best effectiveness of patient care in the real-world setting. In order to reach the goal, four layers of information are utilized: 1) good medical know-how and skills combined with the patient view, 2) up-to-date scientific evidence, 3) continuous documentation of performance in ordinary settings, and 4) benchmarking between providers. The new framework is suggested for clinicians, organizations, policy-makers, and researchers.

  20. Stabilization of chromium salt in ordinary portland cement

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) samples containing the chromium salt have been investigated using differential microcalorimetry, conductometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analysis. The effect of chromium on OPC hydration was evaluated by continuous observing of early hydration.

  1. Metamorphism and partial melting of ordinary chondrites: Calculated phase equilibria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, T. E.; Benedix, G. K.; Bland, P. A.

    2016-01-01

    Constraining the metamorphic pressures (P) and temperatures (T) recorded by meteorites is key to understanding the size and thermal history of their asteroid parent bodies. New thermodynamic models calibrated to very low P for minerals and melt in terrestrial mantle peridotite permit quantitative investigation of high-T metamorphism in ordinary chondrites using phase equilibria modelling. Isochemical P-T phase diagrams based on the average composition of H, L and LL chondrite falls and contoured for the composition and abundance of olivine, ortho- and clinopyroxene, plagioclase and chromite provide a good match with values measured in so-called equilibrated (petrologic type 4-6) samples. Some compositional variables, in particular Al in orthopyroxene and Na in clinopyroxene, exhibit a strong pressure dependence when considered over a range of several kilobars, providing a means of recognising meteorites derived from the cores of asteroids with radii of several hundred kilometres, if such bodies existed at that time. At the low pressures (recorders of peak conditions. The intersection of isopleths of these variables may allow pressures to be quantified, even at low P, permitting constraints on the minimum size of parent asteroid bodies. The phase diagrams predict the onset of partial melting at 1050-1100 °C by incongruent reactions consuming plagioclase, clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene, whose compositions change abruptly as melting proceeds. These predictions match natural observations well and support the view that type 7 chondrites represent a suprasolidus continuation of the established petrologic types at the extremes of thermal metamorphism. The results suggest phase equilibria modelling has potential as a powerful quantitative tool in investigating, for example, progressive oxidation during metamorphism, the degree of melting and melt loss or accumulation required to produce the spectrum of differentiated meteorites, and whether the onion shell or rubble pile

  2. "Good mothering" or "good citizenship"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Maree; Kerridge, Ian H; Jordens, Christopher F C

    2012-03-01

    Umbilical cord blood banking is one of many biomedical innovations that confront pregnant women with new choices about what they should do to secure their own and their child's best interests. Many mothers can now choose to donate their baby's umbilical cord blood (UCB) to a public cord blood bank or pay to store it in a private cord blood bank. Donation to a public bank is widely regarded as an altruistic act of civic responsibility. Paying to store UCB may be regarded as a "unique opportunity" to provide "insurance" for the child's future. This paper reports findings from a survey of Australian women that investigated the decision to either donate or store UCB. We conclude that mothers are faced with competing discourses that force them to choose between being a "good mother" and fulfilling their role as a "good citizen." We discuss this finding with reference to the concept of value pluralism.

  3. Disordered strictly jammed binary sphere packings attain an anomalously large range of densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Adam B.; Stillinger, Frank H.; Torquato, Salvatore

    2013-08-01

    Previous attempts to simulate disordered binary sphere packings have been limited in producing mechanically stable, isostatic packings across a broad spectrum of packing fractions. Here we report that disordered strictly jammed binary packings (packings that remain mechanically stable under general shear deformations and compressions) can be produced with an anomalously large range of average packing fractions 0.634≤ϕ≤0.829 for small to large sphere radius ratios α restricted to α≥0.100. Surprisingly, this range of average packing fractions is obtained for packings containing a subset of spheres (called the backbone) that are exactly strictly jammed, exactly isostatic, and also generated from random initial conditions. Additionally, the average packing fractions of these packings at certain α and small sphere relative number concentrations x approach those of the corresponding densest known ordered packings. These findings suggest for entropic reasons that these high-density disordered packings should be good glass formers and that they may be easy to prepare experimentally. We also identify an unusual feature of the packing fraction of jammed backbones (packings with rattlers excluded). The backbone packing fraction is about 0.624 over the majority of the α-x plane, even when large numbers of small spheres are present in the backbone. Over the (relatively small) area of the α-x plane where the backbone is not roughly constant, we find that backbone packing fractions range from about 0.606 to 0.829, with the volume of rattler spheres comprising between 1.6% and 26.9% of total sphere volume. To generate isostatic strictly jammed packings, we use an implementation of the Torquato-Jiao sequential linear programming algorithm [Phys. Rev. EPLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.82.061302 82, 061302 (2010)], which is an efficient producer of inherent structures (mechanically stable configurations at the local maxima in the density landscape). The identification and

  4. Selective Disparity of Ordinary Chondritic Precursors in Micrometeorite Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudraswami, N. G.; Fernandes, D.; Naik, A. K.; Shyam Prasad, M.; Carrillo-Sánchez, J. D.; Plane, J. M. C.; Feng, W.; Taylor, S.

    2018-01-01

    All known extraterrestrial dust (micrometeoroids) entering the Earth’s atmosphere is anticipated to have a significant contribution from ordinary chondritic precursors, as seen in meteorites, but this is an apparent contradiction that needs to be addressed. Ordinary chondrites represent a minor contribution to the overall meteor influx compared to carbonaceous chondrites, which are largely dominated by CI and/or CM chondrites. However, the near-Earth asteroid population presents a scenario with sufficient scope for generation of dust-sized debris from ordinary chondritic sources. The bulk chemical composition of 3255 micrometeorites (MMs) collected from Antarctica and deep-sea sediments has shown Mg/Si largely dominated by carbonaceous chondrites, and less than 10% having ordinary chondritic precursors. The chemical ablation model is combined with different initial chondritic compositions (CI, CV, L, LL, H), and the results clearly indicate that high-density (≥2.8 g cm‑3) precursors, such as CV and ordinary chondrites in the size range 100–700 μm and zenith angle 0°–70°, ablate at much faster rates and lose their identity even before reaching the Earth’s surface and hence are under-represented in our collections. Moreover, their ability to survive as MMs remains grim for high-velocity micrometeoroids (>16 km s‑1). The elemental ratio for CV and ordinary chondrites are also similar to each other irrespective of the difference in the initial chemical composition. In conclusion, MMs belonging to ordinary chondritic precursors’ concentrations may not be insignificant in thermosphere, as they are found on Earth’s surface.

  5. The Success Rate of Initial {sup 131I} Ablation in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: Comparison Between Less strict and Very Strict Low Iodine Diets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Ik Dong; Kim, Sung Hoon; Seo, Ye Young; Oh, Jin Kyoung; O, Joo Hyun; Chung, Soo Kyo [The Catholic Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    To decrease the risk of recurrence or metastasis in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), selected patients receive radioactive iodine ablation of remnant thyroid tissue or tumor. A low iodine diet can enhance uptake of radioactive iodine. We compared the success rates of radioactive iodine ablation therapy in patients who followed two different low iodine diets (LIDs). The success rates of postsurgical radioactive iodine ablation in DTC patients receiving empiric doses of 150 mCi were retrospectively reviewed. First-time radioactive iodine ablation therapy was done in 71 patients following less strict LID. Less strict LID restricted seafood, iodized salt, egg yolk, dairy products, processed meat, instant prepared meals, and multivitamins. Very strict LID additionally restricted rice, freshwater fish, spinach, and soybean products. Radioactive iodine ablation therapy was considered successful when follow up {sup 123I} whole body scan was negative and stimulated serum thyroglobulin level was less than 2.0 ng/mL. The success rate of patients following less strict LID was 80.3% and for very strict LID 75.6%. There was no statistically significant difference in the success rates between the two LID groups (P=0.48). Very strict LID may not contribute to improving the success rate of initial radioactive iodine ablation therapy at the cost of great inconvenience to the patient.

  6. Done good.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, A L

    2015-01-01

    How did bioethics manage to grow, flourish and ultimately do so well from a very unpromising birth in the 1970s? Many explanations have been advanced. Some ascribe the field's growth to a puzzling, voluntary abnegation of moral authority by medicine to non-physicians. Some think bioethics survived by selling out to the biomedical establishment-public and private. This transaction involved bestowing moral approbation on all manner of biomedicine's doings for a seat at a well-stocked funding table. Some see a sort of clever intellectual bamboozlement at work wherein bioethicists pitched a moral elixir of objective expertise that the morally needy but unsophisticated in medicine and the biological sciences were eager to swallow. While each of these reasons has its defenders, I think the main reason that bioethics did well was that it did good. By using the media to move into the public arena, the field engaged the public imagination, provoked dialogue and debate, and contributed to policy changes that benefitted patients and healthcare providers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. Comparison of some biased estimation methods (including ordinary subset regression) in the linear model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidik, S. M.

    1975-01-01

    Ridge, Marquardt's generalized inverse, shrunken, and principal components estimators are discussed in terms of the objectives of point estimation of parameters, estimation of the predictive regression function, and hypothesis testing. It is found that as the normal equations approach singularity, more consideration must be given to estimable functions of the parameters as opposed to estimation of the full parameter vector; that biased estimators all introduce constraints on the parameter space; that adoption of mean squared error as a criterion of goodness should be independent of the degree of singularity; and that ordinary least-squares subset regression is the best overall method.

  8. A uniformly valid approximation algorithm for nonlinear ordinary singular perturbation problems with boundary layer solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengizci, Süleyman; Atay, Mehmet Tarık; Eryılmaz, Aytekin

    2016-01-01

    This paper is concerned with two-point boundary value problems for singularly perturbed nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The case when the solution only has one boundary layer is examined. An efficient method so called Successive Complementary Expansion Method (SCEM) is used to obtain uniformly valid approximations to this kind of solutions. Four test problems are considered to check the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed method. The numerical results are found in good agreement with exact and existing solutions in literature. The results confirm that SCEM has a superiority over other existing methods in terms of easy-applicability and effectiveness.

  9. Inverse problems in ordinary differential equations and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Llibre, Jaume

    2016-01-01

    This book is dedicated to study the inverse problem of ordinary differential equations, that is it focuses in finding all ordinary differential equations that satisfy a given set of properties. The Nambu bracket is the central tool in developing this approach. The authors start characterizing the ordinary differential equations in R^N which have a given set of partial integrals or first integrals. The results obtained are applied first to planar polynomial differential systems with a given set of such integrals, second to solve the 16th Hilbert problem restricted to generic algebraic limit cycles, third for solving the inverse problem for constrained Lagrangian and Hamiltonian mechanical systems, fourth for studying the integrability of a constrained rigid body. Finally the authors conclude with an analysis on nonholonomic mechanics, a generalization of the Hamiltonian principle, and the statement an solution of the inverse problem in vakonomic mechanics.

  10. Zoology of condensed matter: framids, ordinary stuff, extra-ordinary stuff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolis, Alberto; Penco, Riccardo [Physics Department and Institute for Strings, Cosmology, and Astroparticle Physics,Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Piazza, Federico [Physics Department and Institute for Strings, Cosmology, and Astroparticle Physics,Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Paris Center for Cosmological Physics and Laboratoire APC,Université Paris 7, 75205 Paris (France); CPT, Aix Marseille Université,UMR 7332, 13288 Marseille (France); Rattazzi, Riccardo [Institut de Théorie des Phénomènes Physiques,EPFL Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2015-06-23

    We classify condensed matter systems in terms of the spacetime symmetries they spontaneously break. In particular, we characterize condensed matter itself as any state in a Poincaré-invariant theory that spontaneously breaks Lorentz boosts while preserving at large distances some form of spatial translations, time-translations, and possibly spatial rotations. Surprisingly, the simplest, most minimal system achieving this symmetry breaking pattern — the framid — does not seem to be realized in Nature. Instead, Nature usually adopts a more cumbersome strategy: that of introducing internal translational symmetries — and possibly rotational ones — and of spontaneously breaking them along with their space-time counterparts, while preserving unbroken diagonal subgroups. This symmetry breaking pattern describes the infrared dynamics of ordinary solids, fluids, superfluids, and — if they exist — supersolids. A third, “extra-ordinary”, possibility involves replacing these internal symmetries with other symmetries that do not commute with the Poincaré group, for instance the galileon symmetry, supersymmetry or gauge symmetries. Among these options, we pick the systems based on the galileon symmetry, the “galileids”, for a more detailed study. Despite some similarity, all different patterns produce truly distinct physical systems with different observable properties. For instance, the low-energy 2→2 scattering amplitudes for the Goldstone excitations in the cases of framids, solids and galileids scale respectively as E{sup 2}, E{sup 4}, and E{sup 6}. Similarly the energy momentum tensor in the ground state is “trivial' for framids (ρ+p=0), normal for solids (ρ+p>0) and even inhomogenous for galileids.

  11. Validation of an automatic diagnosis of strict left bundle branch block criteria using 12-lead electrocardiograms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xia, Xiaojuan; Ruwald, Anne-Christine; Ruwald, Martin H

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: Strict left bundle branch block (LBBB) criteria were recently proposed to identify LBBB patients to benefit most from cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). The aim of our study was to automate identification of strict LBBB in order to facilitate its broader application. METHODS: We devel...

  12. The Effect of the Strictness of Consultation Requirements on Fraud Consultation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gold, A.H.; Knechel, W.R.; Wallage, P.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate how the strictness of a requirement to consult on potential client fraud affects auditors' propensity to consult with firm experts. We consider two specific forms of guidance about fraud consultations: (1) strict, i.e., mandatory and binding; and (2) lenient, i.e., advisory and

  13. 24 April 2018: Ordinary General Assembly of the Staff Association!

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2018-01-01

    In the first semester of each year, the Staff Association (SA) invites its members to attend and participate in the Ordinary General Assembly (OGA). This year the OGA will be held on Tuesday, 24 April 2018 from 14.00 to 16.00, Main Auditorium, Meyrin (500-1-001). During the Ordinary General Assembly, the activity and financial reports of the SA are presented and submitted for approval to the members. This is the occasion to get a global view on the activities of the SA, its management, and an opportunity to express your opinion, particularly by taking part in votes. Other items are listed on the agenda, as proposed by the Staff Council. Who can vote? Ordinary members (MPE) of the SA can take part in all votes. Associated members (MPA) of the SA and/or affiliated pensioners have a right to vote on those topics that are of direct interest to them. Who can give their opinion, and how? The Ordinary General Assembly is also the opportunity for members of the SA to express themselves through the addition of discus...

  14. 24 April 2018: Ordinary General Assembly of the Staff Association!

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2018-01-01

    In the first semester of each year, the Staff Association (SA) invites its members to attend and participate in the Ordinary General Assembly (OGA). This year the OGA will be held on Thursday, 24 April 2018 from 14.00 to 16.00, Main Auditorium, Meyrin (500-1-001). During the Ordinary General Assembly, the activity and financial reports of the SA are presented and submitted for approval to the members. This is the occasion to get a global view on the activities of the SA, its management, and an opportunity to express your opinion, particularly by taking part in votes. Other items are listed on the agenda, as proposed by the Staff Council. Who can vote? Ordinary members (MPE) of the SA can take part in all votes. Associated members (MPA) of the SA and/or affiliated pensioners have a right to vote on those topics that are of direct interest to them. Who can give their opinion, and how? The Ordinary General Assembly is also the opportunity for members of the SA to express themselves through the addition of disc...

  15. Performance Evaluation of the Ordinary Least Square (OLS) and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nana Kwasi Peprah

    1Deparment of Geomatic Engineering, University of Mines and Technology, ... precise, accurate and can be used to execute any engineering works due to ..... and Ordinary Least Squares Methods”, Journal of Geomatics and Planning, Vol ... Technology”, Unpublished BSc Project Report, University of Mines and Technology ...

  16. Mix design proposal for structural concrete using messobo ordinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hessebo Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC). Realizing the various factors contributing to the quality of concrete, 43 trial batches of different mix designs were investigated. Based on the test results, equations were derived to relate compressive strength to w/c and to predict the 28 days compressive strength from the 7 days ...

  17. Generalized mechanics as a representation of the ordinary mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapecz, G.

    1974-01-01

    It is shown that the generalized mechanics of one masspoint may be interpreted as a special representation of the ordinary mechanics of a system of masspoints. The hormorphism of both representations is shown in the case of two masspoints coupled by a harmonic force. The new representation is applied in the special relativic meachanics of mass-points. (author)

  18. Comparative study of the properties of ordinary portland cement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study explored metakaolin as alternative material to cement. It compares the properties of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) concrete and binary concrete containing metakaolin as partial replacement of OPC. Two set of concrete samples; one with 10% Metakaolin (MK) replacing OPC by weight, and the other without ...

  19. Numerical Integration of Stiff System of Ordinary Differential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The goal of this work is to develop, analyse and implement a K-step Implicit Rational Runge-Kutta schemes for Integration of Stiff system of Ordinary differential Equations. Its development adopted Taylor and Binomial series expansion Techniques to generate its parameters. The analysis of its basic properties adopted ...

  20. On oscillation of second-order linear ordinary differential equations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lomtatidze, A.; Šremr, Jiří

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 54, - (2011), s. 69-81 ISSN 1512-0015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : linear second-order ordinary differential equation * Kamenev theorem * oscillation Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://www.rmi.ge/jeomj/memoirs/vol54/abs54-4.htm

  1. Radiative transitions from the psi (3095) to ordinary hadrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scharre, D.L.

    1980-05-01

    Preliminary results from the Mark II and Crystal Ball experiments on radiative transitions from the psi to ordinary hadrons are presented. In additon to the previously observed transitions to the eta, eta'(958), and f(1270), both groups observe a transition to a state which is tentatively identified as the E(1420).

  2. Insights on the Nature of Intelligence from Ordinary Discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derr, Richard L.

    1989-01-01

    The use of "intelligence" in ordinary discourse is analyzed to glean hypotheses that may resolve the debate among psychologists regarding the nature of intelligence. Intelligence is conceived as an innate intellectual capacity, and a sharp conceptual distinction is made between intelligence and intelligent behavior. (Author/TJH)

  3. Sports for learners with physical disabilities in ordinary public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No adapted sport was offered specifically for these learners. Most learners wanted to participate in swimming. Fewer types of sports were offered in ordinary schools than in special schools. Barriers to participation included poor teacher preparation and inadequate financial support. The shortage of support from school staff, ...

  4. "Solid All the Way Through": Margaret Mahy's Ordinary Witches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Alison

    2004-01-01

    In "The Haunting," "The Changeover," and "The Tricksters," Margaret Mahy fuses supernatural iconography of witchcraft and magic with images of ordinary and domestic adolescence. This article argues that Mahy's "fantastic realism" illuminates aspects of female teenage experience through a blend of myth, fairy tale, folklore and history, as well as…

  5. Learning to Compute: Computerization and Ordinary, Everyday Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Joseph F.

    2009-01-01

    This study utilizes the basic framework of classical sociology as a foundation for examining the intersection of the structural history of the computer revolution with ordinary, everyday life. Just as the classical forefathers of modern sociology--Marx, Durkheim, and Weber--attempted to understand their eras of structural transformation, this…

  6. Does antimatter fall with the same acceleration as ordinary matter?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adelberger, E.G.; Heckel, B.R.; Stubbs, C.W.; Su, Y.

    1991-01-01

    Equivalence-principle experiments with ordinary matter probe the gravivector acceleration of antimatter in the same way as do direct measurements of antimatter in free fall and set stringent upper limits on the gravivector acceleration of antimatter predicted by certain quantum-gravity models

  7. Ordinary differential equations with applications in molecular biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilea, M; Turnea, M; Rotariu, M

    2012-01-01

    Differential equations are of basic importance in molecular biology mathematics because many biological laws and relations appear mathematically in the form of a differential equation. In this article we presented some applications of mathematical models represented by ordinary differential equations in molecular biology. The vast majority of quantitative models in cell and molecular biology are formulated in terms of ordinary differential equations for the time evolution of concentrations of molecular species. Assuming that the diffusion in the cell is high enough to make the spatial distribution of molecules homogenous, these equations describe systems with many participating molecules of each kind. We propose an original mathematical model with small parameter for biological phospholipid pathway. All the equations system includes small parameter epsilon. The smallness of epsilon is relative to the size of the solution domain. If we reduce the size of the solution region the same small epsilon will result in a different condition number. It is clear that the solution for a smaller region is less difficult. We introduce the mathematical technique known as boundary function method for singular perturbation system. In this system, the small parameter is an asymptotic variable, different from the independent variable. In general, the solutions of such equations exhibit multiscale phenomena. Singularly perturbed problems form a special class of problems containing a small parameter which may tend to zero. Many molecular biology processes can be quantitatively characterized by ordinary differential equations. Mathematical cell biology is a very active and fast growing interdisciplinary area in which mathematical concepts, techniques, and models are applied to a variety of problems in developmental medicine and bioengineering. Among the different modeling approaches, ordinary differential equations (ODE) are particularly important and have led to significant advances

  8. Solving ordinary differential equations by electrical analogy: a multidisciplinary teaching tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez Perez, J. F.; Conesa, M.; Alhama, I.

    2016-11-01

    Ordinary differential equations are the mathematical formulation for a great variety of problems in science and engineering, and frequently, two different problems are equivalent from a mathematical point of view when they are formulated by the same equations. Students acquire the knowledge of how to solve these equations (at least some types of them) using protocols and strict algorithms of mathematical calculation without thinking about the meaning of the equation. The aim of this work is that students learn to design network models or circuits in this way; with simple knowledge of them, students can establish the association of electric circuits and differential equations and their equivalences, from a formal point of view, that allows them to associate knowledge of two disciplines and promote the use of this interdisciplinary approach to address complex problems. Therefore, they learn to use a multidisciplinary tool that allows them to solve these kinds of equations, even students of first course of engineering, whatever the order, grade or type of non-linearity. This methodology has been implemented in numerous final degree projects in engineering and science, e.g., chemical engineering, building engineering, industrial engineering, mechanical engineering, architecture, etc. Applications are presented to illustrate the subject of this manuscript.

  9. 7 CFR 28.421 - Good Middling Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Good Middling Spotted Color. 28.421 Section 28.421 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Color. Good Middling Spotted Color is color which is better than Strict Middling Spotted Color. ...

  10. Network Reconstruction From High-Dimensional Ordinary Differential Equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shizhe; Shojaie, Ali; Witten, Daniela M

    2017-01-01

    We consider the task of learning a dynamical system from high-dimensional time-course data. For instance, we might wish to estimate a gene regulatory network from gene expression data measured at discrete time points. We model the dynamical system nonparametrically as a system of additive ordinary differential equations. Most existing methods for parameter estimation in ordinary differential equations estimate the derivatives from noisy observations. This is known to be challenging and inefficient. We propose a novel approach that does not involve derivative estimation. We show that the proposed method can consistently recover the true network structure even in high dimensions, and we demonstrate empirical improvement over competing approaches. Supplementary materials for this article are available online.

  11. A new numerical approximation of the fractal ordinary differential equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atangana, Abdon; Jain, Sonal

    2018-02-01

    The concept of fractal medium is present in several real-world problems, for instance, in the geological formation that constitutes the well-known subsurface water called aquifers. However, attention has not been quite devoted to modeling for instance, the flow of a fluid within these media. We deem it important to remind the reader that the concept of fractal derivative is not to represent the fractal sharps but to describe the movement of the fluid within these media. Since this class of ordinary differential equations is highly complex to solve analytically, we present a novel numerical scheme that allows to solve fractal ordinary differential equations. Error analysis of the method is also presented. Application of the method and numerical approximation are presented for fractal order differential equation. The stability and the convergence of the numerical schemes are investigated in detail. Also some exact solutions of fractal order differential equations are presented and finally some numerical simulations are presented.

  12. The mineralogy of ordinary chondrites and implications for asteroid spectrophotometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcsween, Harry Y., Jr.; Bennett, Marvin E., III; Jarosewich, Eugene

    1991-01-01

    Published data from bulk chemical analyses of 94 ordinary chondrites are compiled in a table of normative mineralogy and discussed in detail. Significant variations in olivine, pyroxene, and metal abundance ratios are found within each chondrite class and attributed to redox processes superimposed on initial differences in metal/silicate ratios. The use of the diagrams constructed here to predict the mineralogic characteristics of asteroids on the basis of spectrophotometric observations is suggested.

  13. Numerical integration of asymptotic solutions of ordinary differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, Gaylen A.

    1989-01-01

    Classical asymptotic analysis of ordinary differential equations derives approximate solutions that are numerically stable. However, the analysis also leads to tedious expansions in powers of the relevant parameter for a particular problem. The expansions are replaced with integrals that can be evaluated by numerical integration. The resulting numerical solutions retain the linear independence that is the main advantage of asymptotic solutions. Examples, including the Falkner-Skan equation from laminar boundary layer theory, illustrate the method of asymptotic analysis with numerical integration.

  14. Hojman's theorem of the third-order ordinary differential equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong-Sheng, Lü; Hong-Bin, Zhang; Shu-Long, Gu

    2009-01-01

    This paper extends Hojman's conservation law to the third-order differential equation. A new conserved quantity is constructed based on the Lie group of transformation generators of the equations of motion. The generators contain variations of the time and generalized coordinates. Two independent non-trivial conserved quantities of the third-order ordinary differential equation are obtained. A simple example is presented to illustrate the applications of the results. (general)

  15. Symmetries of th-Order Approximate Stochastic Ordinary Differential Equations

    OpenAIRE

    Fredericks, E.; Mahomed, F. M.

    2012-01-01

    Symmetries of $n$ th-order approximate stochastic ordinary differential equations (SODEs) are studied. The determining equations of these SODEs are derived in an Itô calculus context. These determining equations are not stochastic in nature. SODEs are normally used to model nature (e.g., earthquakes) or for testing the safety and reliability of models in construction engineering when looking at the impact of random perturbations.

  16. Multiple and fast: The accretion of ordinary chondrite parent bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vernazza, P.; Barge, P.; Zanda, B.; Hewins, R.; Binzel, R. P.; DeMeo, F. E.; Lockhart, M.; Hiroi, T.; Birlan, M.; Ricci, L.

    2014-01-01

    Although petrologic, chemical, and isotopic studies of ordinary chondrites and meteorites in general have largely helped establish a chronology of the earliest events of planetesimal formation and their evolution, there are several questions that cannot be resolved via laboratory measurements and/or experiments alone. Here, we propose the rationale for several new constraints on the formation and evolution of ordinary chondrite parent bodies (and, by extension, most planetesimals) from newly available spectral measurements and mineralogical analysis of main-belt S-type asteroids (83 objects) and unequilibrated ordinary chondrite meteorites (53 samples). Based on the latter, we suggest that spectral data may be used to distinguish whether an ordinary chondrite was formed near the surface or in the interior of its parent body. If these constraints are correct, the suggested implications include that: (1) large groups of compositionally similar asteroids are a natural outcome of planetesimal formation and, consequently, meteorites within a given class can originate from multiple parent bodies; (2) the surfaces of large (up to ∼200 km) S-type main-belt asteroids mostly expose the interiors of the primordial bodies, a likely consequence of impacts by small asteroids (D < 10 km) in the early solar system; (3) the duration of accretion of the H chondrite parent bodies was likely short (instantaneous or in less than ∼10 5 yr, but certainly not as long as 1 Myr); (4) LL-like bodies formed closer to the Sun than H-like bodies, a possible consequence of the radial mixing and size sorting of chondrules in the protoplanetary disk prior to accretion.

  17. Ordinary Dark Matter versus Mysterious Dark Matter in Galactic Rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, C. F.; Feng, James

    2008-04-01

    To theoretically describe the measured rotational velocity curves of spiral galaxies, there are two different approaches and conclusions. (1) ORDINARY DARK MATTER. We assume Newtonian gravity/dynamics and successfully find (via computer) mass distributions in bulge/disk configurations that duplicate the measured rotational velocities. There is ordinary dark matter within the galactic disk towards the cooler periphery which has lower emissivity/opacity. There are no mysteries in this scenario based on verified physics. (2) MYSTERIOUS DARK MATTER. Others INaccurately assume the galactic mass distributions follow the measured light distributions, and then the measured rotational velocity curves are NOT duplicated. To alleviate this discrepancy, speculations are invoked re ``Massive Peripheral Spherical Halos of Mysterious Dark Matter.'' But NO matter has been detected in this UNtenable Halo configuration. Many UNverified ``Mysteries'' are invoked as necessary and convenient. CONCLUSION. The first approach utilizing Newtonian gravity/dynamics and searching for the ordinary mass distributions within the galactic disk simulates reality and agrees with data.

  18. Morfofunctional indices of peripheric blood for persons working within the strict radiation control area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyagu, A.I.; Yukhimuk, L.N.; Egorova, D.M.; Pogontseva, I.M.

    1992-01-01

    The blood of 118 people permanently working within the area of strict radiation control has been investigated. Erythrocyte morphofunctional value has been estimated taking into consideration the erythrocyte morphological index as well as mechanical and osmotic resistivity of erythrocytes. For people permanently working within the area of strict radiation control intensity of signals of EPR for blood paramagnetic centres essentially changes. It proves profound changes in functioning of blood plasma antioxidant system for people working in the area of strict radiation control. For the people permanently working within the area of strict radiation control in peripheric blood growth of echynocytes and spherocytes as well as lowering of mechanical resistivity of erythrocytes is observed. 4 refs.; 1 fig.; 1 tab

  19. Strict deformation quantization for actions of a class of symplectic lie groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieliavsky, Pierre; Massar, Marc

    2002-01-01

    We present explicit universal strict deformation quantization formulae for actions of Iwasawa subgroups AN of SN(1, n). This answers a question raised by Rieffel in [Contemp. Math. 228 (1998), 315]. (author)

  20. Do strict rules and moving images increase the reliability of sequential identification procedures?.

    OpenAIRE

    Valentine, Tim; Darling, Stephen; Memon, Amina

    2007-01-01

    Live identification procedures in England and Wales have been replaced by use of video, which provides a sequential presentation of facial images. Sequential presentation of photographs provides some protection to innocent suspects from mistaken identification when used with strict instructions designed to prevent relative judgements (Lindsay, Lea & Fulford, 1991). However, the current procedure in England and Wales is incompatible with these strict instructions. The reported research investi...

  1. Strict optical orthogonal codes for purely asynchronous code-division multiple-access applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian-Guo

    1996-12-01

    Strict optical orthogonal codes are presented for purely asynchronous optical code-division multiple-access (CDMA) applications. The proposed code can strictly guarantee the peaks of its cross-correlation functions and the sidelobes of any of its autocorrelation functions to have a value of 1 in purely asynchronous data communications. The basic theory of the proposed codes is given. An experiment on optical CDMA systems is also demonstrated to verify the characteristics of the proposed code.

  2. Time-course window estimator for ordinary differential equations linear in the parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vujacic, Ivan; Dattner, Itai; Gonzalez, Javier; Wit, Ernst

    In many applications obtaining ordinary differential equation descriptions of dynamic processes is scientifically important. In both, Bayesian and likelihood approaches for estimating parameters of ordinary differential equations, the speed and the convergence of the estimation procedure may

  3. Is Social Capital a Good Concept?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar

    The aim of this paper is to explore whether the concept of social capital as popularized by Robert Putnam is a good social science concept. Taken Gerring’s and Adcock and Collier’s work on concept formation and measurement validity as the starting point, the paper first discusses necessary...... conditions for concepts to be good in a strict sense. Afterwards, an empirical section explores the validity of the unidimensionality assumption of most definitions of social capital. This assumption is rejected in four separate tests at both the micro and macro level. A final section therefore discusses...

  4. Praying "Online": The Ordinary Theology of Prayer Intentions Posted on the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ap Sion, Tania; Edwards, Owen

    2012-01-01

    Astley's construct of ordinary theology takes seriously listening to the religious expression and experience of ordinary people, both churched and unchurched. One method by which this has already been achieved is through the empirical analysis of the content of ordinary people's intercessory prayer requests left in hospitals and churches. Building…

  5. Approximate analytical methods for solving ordinary differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Radhika, TSL; Rani, T Raja

    2015-01-01

    Approximate Analytical Methods for Solving Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs) is the first book to present all of the available approximate methods for solving ODEs, eliminating the need to wade through multiple books and articles. It covers both well-established techniques and recently developed procedures, including the classical series solution method, diverse perturbation methods, pioneering asymptotic methods, and the latest homotopy methods.The book is suitable not only for mathematicians and engineers but also for biologists, physicists, and economists. It gives a complete descripti

  6. (Ln-bar, g)-spaces. Ordinary and tensor differentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manoff, S.; Dimitrov, B.

    1998-01-01

    Different types of differentials as special cases of differential operators acting on tensor fields over (L n bar, g)-spaces are considered. The ordinary differential, the covariant differential as a special case of the covariant differential operator, and the Lie differential as a special case of the Lie differential operator are investigated. The tensor differential and its special types (Covariant tensor differential, and Lie tensor differential) are determined and their properties are discussed. Covariant symmetric and antisymmetric (external) tensor differentials, Lie symmetric, and Lie antisymmetric (external) tensor differentials are determined and considered over (L n bar, g)-spaces

  7. Textural variability of ordinary chondrite chondrules: Implications of their formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinovieva, N. G.; Mitreikina, O. B.; Granovsky, L. B.

    1994-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and microprobe examination of the Raguli H3-4, Saratov L3, and Fucbin L5-6 ordinary chondrites and the analysis of preexisted data on other meteorites have shown that the variety of textural types of chondrules depends on the chemical composition of the chondrules. The comparison of bulk-rock chemistries of the chondrules by major components demonstrates that they apparently fall, like basic-ultrabasic rock, into groups of dunitic and pyroxenitic composition. This separation is further validated by the character of zoning in chondrules of the intermediate, peridotitic type. The effect is vividly demonstrated by the 'chondrule-in-chondrule' structure.

  8. Relaxations in spin glasses: Similarities and differences from ordinary glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngai, K.L.; Rajagopal, A.K.; Huang, C.Y.

    1984-01-01

    Relaxation phenomena have become a major concern in the physics of spin glasses. There are certain resemblances of these relaxation properties to those of ordinary glasses. In this work, we compare the relaxation properties of spin glasses near the freezing temperature with those of glasses near the glass transition temperature. There are similarities between the two types of glasses. Moreover, the relaxation properties of many glasses and spin glasses are in conformity with two coupled ''universality'' relations predicted by a recent model of relaxations in condensed matter

  9. Shooting method for third order simultaneous ordinary differential equations with application to magnetohydrodynamic boundary layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, A.C.; Hazarika, G.C.

    1990-01-01

    An algorithm based on the shooting method has been developed for the solution of a two-point boundary value problem consisting of a system of third order simultaneous ordinary differential equations. The Falkner-Skan equations for electrically conducting viscous fluid with applied magnetic field has been solved by using this algorithm for various values of the wedge angle and magnetic parameters. The shooting method seems to be well convergent for a system as the results are in good agreement with those obtained by other methods. It is observed that both viscous boundary layer and magnetic boundary layer decrease while velocity as well as magnetic field increase with the increase of the wedge angle. (author). 6 tabs., 7 refs

  10. Isolated abnormal strict morphology is not a contraindication for intrauterine insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, G M; Deveneau, N E; Shridharani, A N; Strawn, E Y; Sandlow, J I

    2015-11-01

    This study sought to investigate whether isolated abnormal strict morphology (<5% normal forms) and very low strict morphology (0-1% normal forms) affects pregnancy rates in intrauterine insemination (IUI). This was a retrospective study performed at an Academic Medical Center/Reproductive Medicine Center. Four hundred and eight couples were included for 856 IUI cycles. 70 IUI cycles were performed in couples with abnormal strict morphology and otherwise normal semen parameters. Outcomes were measured as clinical pregnancy rate per IUI cycle as documented by fetal heart activity on maternal ultrasound. Clinical pregnancy rate did not significantly differ between the group with abnormal strict morphology [11/70 (15.7%)] and the normal morphology group [39/281 (13.9%)]. Additionally, there was no significant difference between the pregnancy rate in the abnormal morphology group compared to that of our overall institutional IUI pregnancy rate [145/856 (16.9%)]. Furthermore, there was no significant difference between pregnancy rate in the very low morphology group [3/14 (21.4%)] compared to those with normal morphology or the overall IUI pregnancy rate. Patients with isolated abnormal strict morphology have clinical pregnancy rates similar to those with normal morphology for IUI. Even in those with very low normal forms, consideration of IUI for assisted reproduction should not be excluded. © 2015 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  11. A European map regarding the strictness of the transfer pricing regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Ignat

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context in which transfer pricing may represent a mechanism through which multinationals have the possibility to move funds internationally, in order to prevent the base erosion and profit shifting between multinationals, countries over the world have adopted various transfer pricing regulations. Furthermore, some of the countries adopted stricter regulations than others. The objective of our research was to identify the level of strictness for the transfer pricing regulations from the European countries. To achieve this objective, we analyzed the transfer pricing regulations of all European countries and we built a transfer pricing strictness index, based on which we defined 4 categories of countries (where category 1 includes the countries with the least strict transfer pricing regulations and category 4 countries with the strictest regulations. After that, we illustrated how these categories are distributed on the European map. In order to collect the information, we used the transfer pricing guides issued by the Big Four companies for the year 2015. The study`s results show that the strictness of the transfer pricing regulations decreases from the west of Europe to east. Moreover, most of the countries were included in category 2, respectively category 3, meaning that the transfer pricing regulations from the European continent are not so flexible, but in the same time are not so strict.

  12. Porting Ordinary Applications to Blue Gene/Q Supercomputers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maheshwari, Ketan C.; Wozniak, Justin M.; Armstrong, Timothy; Katz, Daniel S.; Binkowski, T. Andrew; Zhong, Xiaoliang; Heinonen, Olle; Karpeyev, Dmitry; Wilde, Michael

    2015-08-31

    Efficiently porting ordinary applications to Blue Gene/Q supercomputers is a significant challenge. Codes are often originally developed without considering advanced architectures and related tool chains. Science needs frequently lead users to want to run large numbers of relatively small jobs (often called many-task computing, an ensemble, or a workflow), which can conflict with supercomputer configurations. In this paper, we discuss techniques developed to execute ordinary applications over leadership class supercomputers. We use the high-performance Swift parallel scripting framework and build two workflow execution techniques-sub-jobs and main-wrap. The sub-jobs technique, built on top of the IBM Blue Gene/Q resource manager Cobalt's sub-block jobs, lets users submit multiple, independent, repeated smaller jobs within a single larger resource block. The main-wrap technique is a scheme that enables C/C++ programs to be defined as functions that are wrapped by a high-performance Swift wrapper and that are invoked as a Swift script. We discuss the needs, benefits, technicalities, and current limitations of these techniques. We further discuss the real-world science enabled by these techniques and the results obtained.

  13. A variational approach to parameter estimation in ordinary differential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaschek Daniel

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ordinary differential equations are widely-used in the field of systems biology and chemical engineering to model chemical reaction networks. Numerous techniques have been developed to estimate parameters like rate constants, initial conditions or steady state concentrations from time-resolved data. In contrast to this countable set of parameters, the estimation of entire courses of network components corresponds to an innumerable set of parameters. Results The approach presented in this work is able to deal with course estimation for extrinsic system inputs or intrinsic reactants, both not being constrained by the reaction network itself. Our method is based on variational calculus which is carried out analytically to derive an augmented system of differential equations including the unconstrained components as ordinary state variables. Finally, conventional parameter estimation is applied to the augmented system resulting in a combined estimation of courses and parameters. Conclusions The combined estimation approach takes the uncertainty in input courses correctly into account. This leads to precise parameter estimates and correct confidence intervals. In particular this implies that small motifs of large reaction networks can be analysed independently of the rest. By the use of variational methods, elements from control theory and statistics are combined allowing for future transfer of methods between the two fields.

  14. Reflection and absorption of ordinary waves in an inhomogeneous plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croci, R.

    1990-11-01

    This study treats the system of Vlasov and Maxwell equations for the Fourier transform in space and time of a plasma referred to Cartesian coordinates with the coordinate z parallel to the uniform equilibrium magnetic field with the equilibrium plasma density dependent on ηx, where η is a parameter. The k y component of the wave vector is taken equal to zero, whereas k z is different from zero. When the interaction of ordinary and extraordinary waves is neglected, the Fourier transform of the electric field of the ordinary waves obeys a homogeneous integral equation with principal part integrals, which is solved in the case of weak absorption and sufficiently small η (essentially smaller than vacuum wave vector), but without limitations on the ratio of the wavelength to the Larmor radius (the usual approximation being limited to wavelengths much smaller than the Larmor radius). The reflection and transmission coefficients and the total energy absorption are given in this approximation, whereas the energy conservation theorem for the reflection and transmission coefficients in an absorption-free plasma are derived for every value of η without explicit knowledge of the solutions. Finally, a general and compact equation for the eigenvalues which does not require complex analysis and knowledge of all solutions of the dispersion relation is given. (orig.)

  15. Influence of fly-ashes on properties of ordinary concretes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutkowska Gabriela

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Influence of fly-ashes on properties of ordinary concretes. Care of the environment in accordance with the principles of sustainable development introduces the possibility and need for waste recycling. The construction and building materials industry has the greatest potential for reuse of waste. The article presents the results of investigations of selected properties (consistency, water absorbability, compressive strength and tensile strength after 28 and 56 days of curing, depth of penetration of ordinary concretes and concretes containing fly-ashes - calcareous and siliceous ash − in their composition. To make the samples, the Portland cement CEM I 42.5 R and natural aggregate with graining of 0-16 mm were used. The concrete with siliceous and calcareous admixtures was made in three lots where the ash was added in the quantity of 15, 20 and 30% of the cement mass. After the tests, it was stated that the fly-ash admixture does not increase the air content in the mix, it increases the compressive strength in time and the siliceous ash improves the splitting tensile strength.

  16. A variational approach to parameter estimation in ordinary differential equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaschek, Daniel; Timmer, Jens

    2012-08-14

    Ordinary differential equations are widely-used in the field of systems biology and chemical engineering to model chemical reaction networks. Numerous techniques have been developed to estimate parameters like rate constants, initial conditions or steady state concentrations from time-resolved data. In contrast to this countable set of parameters, the estimation of entire courses of network components corresponds to an innumerable set of parameters. The approach presented in this work is able to deal with course estimation for extrinsic system inputs or intrinsic reactants, both not being constrained by the reaction network itself. Our method is based on variational calculus which is carried out analytically to derive an augmented system of differential equations including the unconstrained components as ordinary state variables. Finally, conventional parameter estimation is applied to the augmented system resulting in a combined estimation of courses and parameters. The combined estimation approach takes the uncertainty in input courses correctly into account. This leads to precise parameter estimates and correct confidence intervals. In particular this implies that small motifs of large reaction networks can be analysed independently of the rest. By the use of variational methods, elements from control theory and statistics are combined allowing for future transfer of methods between the two fields.

  17. New strict left bundle branch block criteria reflect left ventricular activation differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emerek, Kasper Janus Grønn; Risum, Niels; Hjortshøj, Søren Pihlkjær

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: Pacing lead electrical delays and strict left bundle branch block (LBBB) criteria were assessed against cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) outcome. METHODS: Forty-nine patients with LBBB and QRS duration >130 milliseconds underwent CRT-implantation. Sensed right ventricular to left ven....... CONCLUSION: Interventricular electrical delay predicts left ventricular remodeling after CRT and new, strict ECG criteria of LBBB are superior in predicting remodeling.......AIMS: Pacing lead electrical delays and strict left bundle branch block (LBBB) criteria were assessed against cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) outcome. METHODS: Forty-nine patients with LBBB and QRS duration >130 milliseconds underwent CRT-implantation. Sensed right ventricular to left...... ventricular electrical delay (RV-LV-IED) was measured. Response to CRT was defined as ≥15% decrease in left ventricular end-systolic volume. RESULTS: Eighteen of 20 (90%) patients with non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and 18 of 29 (62%) with ischemic heart disease (IHD) responded to CRT, p

  18. Actions of a separately strict cpo-monoid on pointed directed complete posets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halimeh Moghbeli Damaneh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available ‎ In the present article‎, ‎we study some categorical properties of the category {$bf‎ Cpo_{Sep}$-$S$} of all {separately strict $S$-cpo's}; cpo's equipped with‎ a compatible right action of a separately strict cpo-monoid $S$ which is‎ strict continuous in each component‎. ‎In particular‎, we show that this category is reflective and coreflective in the‎ category of $S$-cpo's‎, ‎find the free and cofree functors‎, characterize products and coproducts‎. ‎Furthermore‎, ‎epimorphisms and‎  monomorphisms in {$bf Cpo_{Sep}$-$S$} are studied‎, ‎and show that‎ {$bf Cpo_{Sep}$-$S$} is not cartesian closed‎.

  19. The photon is no strict particle and nonlocality is far from being proven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greulich, Karl Otto [Fritz Lipmann Institut, Jena (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Two aspects of philosophical discussions on physics are the wave particle dualism and non locality including entanglement. However the strict particle aspect of the photon, in the common sense view, has never been proven. The accumulation time argument, the only experimental verification of a strictly particle like photon, has so far not yet been satisfied. Also, experiments thought to prove nonlocality have loophole which have so far not yet been safely closed, and now an even more serious loophole emerges. Thus, also nonlocality cannot be seen as proven. This demands some fine tuning of philosophical discussions on critical experiments in physics.

  20. The Fixed-Point Theory of Strictly Contracting Functions on Generalized Ultrametric Semilattices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleftherios Matsikoudis

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a new class of abstract structures, which we call generalized ultrametric semilattices, and in which the meet operation of the semilattice coexists with a generalized distance function in a tightly coordinated way. We prove a constructive fixed-point theorem for strictly contracting functions on directed-complete generalized ultrametric semilattices, and introduce a corresponding induction principle. We cite examples of application in the semantics of logic programming and timed computation, where, until now, the only tool available has been the non-constructive fixed-point theorem of Priess-Crampe and Ribenboim for strictly contracting functions on spherically complete generalized ultrametric semilattices.

  1. More strictly protected areas are not necessarily more protective: evidence from Bolivia, Costa Rica, Indonesia, and Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferraro, Paul J; Hanauer, Merlin M; Miteva, Daniela A; Pattanayak, Subhrendu K; Canavire-Bacarreza, Gustavo Javier; Sims, Katharine R E

    2013-01-01

    National parks and other protected areas are at the forefront of global efforts to protect biodiversity and ecosystem services. However, not all protection is equal. Some areas are assigned strict legal protection that permits few extractive human uses. Other protected area designations permit a wider range of uses. Whether strictly protected areas are more effective in achieving environmental objectives is an empirical question: although strictly protected areas legally permit less anthropogenic disturbance, the social conflicts associated with assigning strict protection may lead politicians to assign strict protection to less-threatened areas and may lead citizens or enforcement agents to ignore the strict legal restrictions. We contrast the impacts of strictly and less strictly protected areas in four countries using IUCN designations to measure de jure strictness, data on deforestation to measure outcomes, and a quasi-experimental design to estimate impacts. On average, stricter protection reduced deforestation rates more than less strict protection, but the additional impact was not always large and sometimes arose because of where stricter protection was assigned rather than regulatory strictness per se. We also show that, in protected area studies contrasting y management regimes, there are y 2 policy-relevant impacts, rather than only y, as earlier studies have implied. (letter)

  2. Detection of low numbers of microplastics in North Sea fish using strict quality assurance criteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermsen, E.; Pompe, R.; Besseling, E.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2017-01-01

    We investigated 400 individual fish of four North Sea species: Atlantic Herring, Sprat, Common Dab, and Whiting on ingestion of > 20 μm microplastic. Strict quality assurance criteria were followed in order to control contamination during the study. Two plastic particles were found in only 1 (a

  3. History, administration, goals, values, and long-term data of Russia's strictly protected scientific nature reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin A. Spetich; Anna E. Kvashnina; Y.D. Nukhimovskya; Olin E. Jr. Rhodes

    2009-01-01

    One of the most comprehensive attempts at biodiversity conservation in Russia and the former Soviet Union has been the establishment of an extensive network of protected natural areas. Among all types of protected areas in Russia, zapovedniks (strictly protected scientific preserve) have been the most effective in protecting biodiversity at the ecosystem scale. Russia...

  4. The Preventive Effect of Strict Gun Control Laws on Suicide and Homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, David; Murrell, Mary E.

    1982-01-01

    Examined state gun control laws and used a multidimensional scaling technique to study the relationship of strictness and death rates. Results showed states with stricter laws had lower suicide rates by firearms but higher rates by other means. No effect on homicide was found. (JAC)

  5. Required sample size for monitoring stand dynamics in strict forest reserves: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diego Van Den Meersschaut; Bart De Cuyper; Kris Vandekerkhove; Noel Lust

    2000-01-01

    Stand dynamics in European strict forest reserves are commonly monitored using inventory densities of 5 to 15 percent of the total surface. The assumption that these densities guarantee a representative image of certain parameters is critically analyzed in a case study for the parameters basal area and stem number. The required sample sizes for different accuracy and...

  6. ASHP therapeutic position statement on strict glycemic control in patients with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-11-15

    The deleterious effects of hyperglycemia have been documented from the biochemical to the pathophysiologic level. Given the research findings and the guidelines for glycemic control established by ADA and ACE, ASHP supports and encourages strict glycemic control in all appropriate patients with diabetes mellitus to reduce the progression of chronic complications.

  7. What is your level of overconfidence? A strictly incentive compatible measurement of absolute and relative overconfidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urbig, D.; Stauf, J.; Weitzel, U.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/276323394

    This study contributes to the ongoing discussion on the appropriate measurement of overconfidence, in particular, its strictly incentive compatible measurement in experiments. Despite a number of significant advances in recent research, several important issues remain to be solved. These relate to

  8. Soliton-like solutions to the ordinary Schroedinger equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamboni-Rached, Michel [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (DMO/FEEC/UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Eletrica e de Computacao. Dept. de Microondas e Optica; Recami, Erasmo, E-mail: recami@mi.infn.i [Universita Statale di Bergamo, Bergamo (Italy). Facolta di Ingegneria

    2011-07-01

    In recent times it has been paid attention to the fact that (linear) wave equations admit of soliton-like solutions, known as Localized Waves or Non-diffracting Waves, which propagate without distortion in one direction. Such Localized Solutions (existing also for K-G or Dirac equations) are a priori suitable, more than Gaussian's, for describing elementary particle motion. In this paper we show that, mutatis mutandis, Localized Solutions exist even for the ordinary Schroedinger equation within standard Quantum Mechanics; and we obtain both approximate and exact solutions, also setting forth for them particular examples. In the ideal case such solutions bear infinite energy, as well as plane or spherical waves: we show therefore how to obtain nite-energy solutions. At last, we briefly consider solutions for a particle moving in the presence of a potential. (author)

  9. Algorithmic Verification of Linearizability for Ordinary Differential Equations

    KAUST Repository

    Lyakhov, Dmitry A.

    2017-07-19

    For a nonlinear ordinary differential equation solved with respect to the highest order derivative and rational in the other derivatives and in the independent variable, we devise two algorithms to check if the equation can be reduced to a linear one by a point transformation of the dependent and independent variables. The first algorithm is based on a construction of the Lie point symmetry algebra and on the computation of its derived algebra. The second algorithm exploits the differential Thomas decomposition and allows not only to test the linearizability, but also to generate a system of nonlinear partial differential equations that determines the point transformation and the coefficients of the linearized equation. The implementation of both algorithms is discussed and their application is illustrated using several examples.

  10. Cause and cure of sloppiness in ordinary differential equation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tönsing, Christian; Timmer, Jens; Kreutz, Clemens

    2014-08-01

    Data-based mathematical modeling of biochemical reaction networks, e.g., by nonlinear ordinary differential equation (ODE) models, has been successfully applied. In this context, parameter estimation and uncertainty analysis is a major task in order to assess the quality of the description of the system by the model. Recently, a broadened eigenvalue spectrum of the Hessian matrix of the objective function covering orders of magnitudes was observed and has been termed as sloppiness. In this work, we investigate the origin of sloppiness from structures in the sensitivity matrix arising from the properties of the model topology and the experimental design. Furthermore, we present strategies using optimal experimental design methods in order to circumvent the sloppiness issue and present nonsloppy designs for a benchmark model.

  11. Differential equations a dynamical systems approach ordinary differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Hubbard, John H

    1991-01-01

    This is a corrected third printing of the first part of the text Differential Equations: A Dynamical Systems Approach written by John Hubbard and Beverly West. The authors' main emphasis in this book is on ordinary differential equations. The book is most appropriate for upper level undergraduate and graduate students in the fields of mathematics, engineering, and applied mathematics, as well as the life sciences, physics and economics. Traditional courses on differential equations focus on techniques leading to solutions. Yet most differential equations do not admit solutions which can be written in elementary terms. The authors have taken the view that a differential equations defines functions; the object of the theory is to understand the behavior of these functions. The tools the authors use include qualitative and numerical methods besides the traditional analytic methods. The companion software, MacMath, is designed to bring these notions to life.

  12. KRYSI, Ordinary Differential Equations Solver with Sdirk Krylov Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindmarsh, A.C.; Norsett, S.P.

    2001-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: KRYSI is a set of FORTRAN subroutines for solving ordinary differential equations initial value problems. It is suitable for both stiff and non-stiff systems. When solving the implicit stage equations in the stiff case, KRYSI uses a Krylov subspace iteration method called the SPIGMR (Scaled Preconditioned Incomplete Generalized Minimum Residual) method. No explicit Jacobian storage is required, except where used in pre- conditioning. A demonstration problem is included with a description of two pre-conditioners that are natural for its solution by KRYSI. 2 - Method of solution: KRYSI uses a three-stage, third-order singly diagonally implicit Runge-Kutta (SDIRK) method. In the stiff case, a preconditioned Krylov subspace iteration within a (so-called) inexact Newton iteration is used to solve the system of nonlinear algebraic equations

  13. Searching fundamental information in ordinary differential equations. Nondimensionalization technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Pérez, J F; Conesa, M; Alhama, I; Alhama, F; Cánovas, M

    2017-01-01

    Classical dimensional analysis and nondimensionalization are assumed to be two similar approaches in the search for dimensionless groups. Both techniques, simplify the study of many problems. The first approach does not need to know the mathematical model, being sufficient a deep understanding of the physical phenomenon involved, while the second one begins with the governing equations and reduces them to their dimensionless form by simple mathematical manipulations. In this work, a formal protocol is proposed for applying the nondimensionalization process to ordinary differential equations, linear or not, leading to dimensionless normalized equations from which the resulting dimensionless groups have two inherent properties: In one hand, they are physically interpreted as balances between counteracting quantities in the problem, and on the other hand, they are of the order of magnitude unity. The solutions provided by nondimensionalization are more precise in every case than those from dimensional analysis, as it is illustrated by the applications studied in this work.

  14. Random ordinary differential equations and their numerical solution

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Xiaoying

    2017-01-01

    This book is intended to make recent results on the derivation of higher order numerical schemes for random ordinary differential equations (RODEs) available to a broader readership, and to familiarize readers with RODEs themselves as well as the closely associated theory of random dynamical systems. In addition, it demonstrates how RODEs are being used in the biological sciences, where non-Gaussian and bounded noise are often more realistic than the Gaussian white noise in stochastic differential equations (SODEs).   RODEs are used in many important applications and play a fundamental role in the theory of random dynamical systems.  They can be analyzed pathwise with deterministic calculus, but require further treatment beyond that of classical ODE theory due to the lack of smoothness in their time variable. Although classical numerical schemes for ODEs can be used pathwise for RODEs, they rarely attain their traditional order since the solutions of RODEs do not have sufficient smoothness to have Taylor ...

  15. Soliton-like solutions to the ordinary Schroedinger equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamboni-Rached, Michel; Recami, Erasmo

    2011-01-01

    In recent times it has been paid attention to the fact that (linear) wave equations admit of soliton-like solutions, known as Localized Waves or Non-diffracting Waves, which propagate without distortion in one direction. Such Localized Solutions (existing also for K-G or Dirac equations) are a priori suitable, more than Gaussian's, for describing elementary particle motion. In this paper we show that, mutatis mutandis, Localized Solutions exist even for the ordinary Schroedinger equation within standard Quantum Mechanics; and we obtain both approximate and exact solutions, also setting forth for them particular examples. In the ideal case such solutions bear infinite energy, as well as plane or spherical waves: we show therefore how to obtain nite-energy solutions. At last, we briefly consider solutions for a particle moving in the presence of a potential. (author)

  16. VODE, Variable Coefficient Ordinary Differential Equations (ODE) Solver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, P.N.; Hindmarsh, A.C.; Byrne, G.D.

    2002-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: VODE is a package of subroutines for the numerical solution of the initial-value problem for systems of first-order ordinary differential equations. The package can be used for either stiff or non-stiff systems. In the stiff case, the Jacobian matrix is treated as full or banded. An algorithm is included for saving and reusing the Jacobian matrix under certain conditions. If storage is limited, this option may be suppressed. 2 - Method of solution - VODE uses the variable-order, variable- coefficient Adams-Moulton method for non-stiff systems and the variable-order, fixed-leading-coefficient Backward Differentiation Formula (BDF) method for stiff systems

  17. Cause and cure of sloppiness in ordinary differential equation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tönsing, Christian; Timmer, Jens; Kreutz, Clemens

    2014-08-01

    Data-based mathematical modeling of biochemical reaction networks, e.g., by nonlinear ordinary differential equation (ODE) models, has been successfully applied. In this context, parameter estimation and uncertainty analysis is a major task in order to assess the quality of the description of the system by the model. Recently, a broadened eigenvalue spectrum of the Hessian matrix of the objective function covering orders of magnitudes was observed and has been termed as sloppiness. In this work, we investigate the origin of sloppiness from structures in the sensitivity matrix arising from the properties of the model topology and the experimental design. Furthermore, we present strategies using optimal experimental design methods in order to circumvent the sloppiness issue and present nonsloppy designs for a benchmark model.

  18. Nonlinear ordinary differential equations analytical approximation and numerical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Hermann, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The book discusses the solutions to nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs) using analytical and numerical approximation methods. Recently, analytical approximation methods have been largely used in solving linear and nonlinear lower-order ODEs. It also discusses using these methods to solve some strong nonlinear ODEs. There are two chapters devoted to solving nonlinear ODEs using numerical methods, as in practice high-dimensional systems of nonlinear ODEs that cannot be solved by analytical approximate methods are common. Moreover, it studies analytical and numerical techniques for the treatment of parameter-depending ODEs. The book explains various methods for solving nonlinear-oscillator and structural-system problems, including the energy balance method, harmonic balance method, amplitude frequency formulation, variational iteration method, homotopy perturbation method, iteration perturbation method, homotopy analysis method, simple and multiple shooting method, and the nonlinear stabilized march...

  19. Tracking, aiming, and hitting the UAV with ordinary assault rifle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racek, František; Baláž, Teodor; Krejčí, Jaroslav; Procházka, Stanislav; Macko, Martin

    2017-10-01

    The usage small-unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) is significantly increasing nowadays. They are being used as a carrier of military spy and reconnaissance devices (taking photos, live video streaming and so on), or as a carrier of potentially dangerous cargo (intended for destruction and killing). Both ways of utilizing the UAV cause the necessity to disable it. From the military point of view, to disable the UAV means to bring it down by a weapon of an ordinary soldier that is the assault rifle. This task can be challenging for the soldier because he needs visually detect and identify the target, track the target visually and aim on the target. The final success of the soldier's mission depends not only on the said visual tasks, but also on the properties of the weapon and ammunition. The paper deals with possible methods of prediction of probability of hitting the UAV targets.

  20. Ordinary mode instability associated with thermal ring distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, F.; Yoon, P. H.; Qamar, A.

    2015-02-01

    The purely growing ordinary (O) mode instability driven by excessive parallel temperature anisotropy has recently received renewed attention owing to its potential applicability to the solar wind plasma. Previous studies of O mode instability have assumed either bi-Maxwellian or counter-streaming velocity distributions. For solar wind plasma trapped in magnetic mirror-like geometry such as magnetic clouds or in the vicinity of the Earth's collisionless bow shock environment, however, the velocity distribution function may possess a loss-cone feature. The O-mode instability in such a case may be excited for cyclotron harmonics as well as the purely growing branch. The present paper investigates the O-mode instability for plasmas characterized by the parallel Maxwellian distribution and perpendicular thermal ring velocity distribution in order to understand the general stability characteristics.

  1. On the ordinary mode instability for low beta plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadi, F.; Qamar, A. [Institute of Physics and Electronics, University of Peshawar, Peshawar (Pakistan); Bashir, M. F. [Department of Physics, G. C. University, Lahore (Pakistan); Salam Chair in Physics, G. C. University, Lahore (Pakistan); Yoon, P. H. [Institute for Physical Science and Technology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742-2431 (United States); School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Schlickeiser, R. [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Lehrstuhl IV: Weltraum- and Astrophysik, Ruhr-Universität, Bochum (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    The purely growing ordinary (O) mode instability, first discussed by Davidson and Wu [Phys. Fluids 13, 1407 (1970)], has recently received renewed attention owing to its potential applicability to the solar wind plasma. In a series of papers, Ibscher, Schlickeiser, and their colleagues [Phys. Plasmas 19, 072116 (2012); ibid. 20, 012103 (2013); ibid. 20, 042121 (2013); ibid. 21, 022110 (2014)] revisited the O mode instability and extended it to the low-beta plasma regime by considering a counter-streaming bi-Maxwellian model. However, the O-mode instability is, thus, far discussed only on the basis of the marginal stability condition rather than actual numerical solutions of the dispersion relation. The present paper revisits the O-mode instability by considering the actual complex roots. The marginal stability condition as a function of the (electron) temperature anisotropy and beta naturally emerges in such a scheme.

  2. Ordinary mode instability associated with thermal ring distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadi, F.; Qamar, A. [Institute of Physics and Electronics, University of Peshawar, Peshawar 25000 (Pakistan); Yoon, P. H. [Institute for Physical Science and Technology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin-Si, Gyeonggi-Do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    The purely growing ordinary (O) mode instability driven by excessive parallel temperature anisotropy has recently received renewed attention owing to its potential applicability to the solar wind plasma. Previous studies of O mode instability have assumed either bi-Maxwellian or counter-streaming velocity distributions. For solar wind plasma trapped in magnetic mirror-like geometry such as magnetic clouds or in the vicinity of the Earth's collisionless bow shock environment, however, the velocity distribution function may possess a loss-cone feature. The O-mode instability in such a case may be excited for cyclotron harmonics as well as the purely growing branch. The present paper investigates the O-mode instability for plasmas characterized by the parallel Maxwellian distribution and perpendicular thermal ring velocity distribution in order to understand the general stability characteristics.

  3. Stochastic Computational Approach for Complex Nonlinear Ordinary Differential Equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Junaid Ali; Raja, Muhammad Asif Zahoor; Qureshi, Ijaz Mansoor

    2011-01-01

    We present an evolutionary computational approach for the solution of nonlinear ordinary differential equations (NLODEs). The mathematical modeling is performed by a feed-forward artificial neural network that defines an unsupervised error. The training of these networks is achieved by a hybrid intelligent algorithm, a combination of global search with genetic algorithm and local search by pattern search technique. The applicability of this approach ranges from single order NLODEs, to systems of coupled differential equations. We illustrate the method by solving a variety of model problems and present comparisons with solutions obtained by exact methods and classical numerical methods. The solution is provided on a continuous finite time interval unlike the other numerical techniques with comparable accuracy. With the advent of neuroprocessors and digital signal processors the method becomes particularly interesting due to the expected essential gains in the execution speed. (general)

  4. Nonchaoticity of Ordinary Differential Equations Describing Autonomous Transcriptional Regulatory Circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Pengfei; Hu Gang; Chen Runsheng

    2008-01-01

    Gene transcriptional regulation (TR) processes are often described by coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs). When the dimension of TR circuits is high (e.g. n ≥ 3) the motions of the corresponding ODEs may, very probably, show self-sustained oscillations and chaos. On the other hand, chaoticity may be harmful for the normal biological functions of TR processes. In this letter we numerically study the dynamics of 3-gene TR ODEs in great detail, and investigate many 4-, 5-, and 10-gene TR systems by randomly choosing figures and parameters in the conventionally accepted ranges. And we find that oscillations are very seldom and no chaotic motion is observed, even if the dimension of systems is sufficiently high (n ≥ 3). It is argued that the observation of nonchaoticity of these ODEs agrees with normal functions of actual TR processes

  5. Rapid Classification of Ordinary Chondrites Using Raman Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, M.; Welzenbach, L.

    2014-01-01

    Classification of ordinary chondrites is typically done through measurements of the composition of olivine and pyroxenes. Historically, this measurement has usually been performed via electron microprobe, oil immersion or other methods which can be costly through lost sample material during thin section preparation. Raman microscopy can perform the same measurements but considerably faster and with much less sample preparation allowing for faster classification. Raman spectroscopy can facilitate more rapid classification of large amounts of chondrites such as those retrieved from North Africa and potentially Antarctica, are present in large collections, or are submitted to a curation facility by the public. With development, this approach may provide a completely automated classification method of all chondrite types.

  6. Ordinary Themes Presented with an Extra-ordinary Talent: An Overview of Emily Dickinson’s Notable Poems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef. A.N. Aldalabeeh

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available As a poet with varied writing styles and extra-ordinary talent, Emily Dickinson occupied a very prestigious position in the field of American literature. Her poetry deals with a unique and large number of thematic expressions. This paper aims at introducing the unfolded, underlying and amazing thematic expressions of Emily Dickinson’s notable poetry. To unveil these themes of death, love, nature, immortality, pain and suffering from her widely recognized poetry, secondary source of data has been used. In this study, an effort also has been made to trace, examine, and explore the various themes with outstanding style of presentation of her poetry and their impact on readers and critics. Many researchers and critics have spent their great exertion to trace out these themes and they became successful in this regard. It is hoped that this study will also be a part in this line of contribution and serve the purpose for which it is designed.

  7. HOW GOOD IS GOODS AND SERVICES TAX

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Sreemoyee Guha Roy

    2016-01-01

    Goods and Services Tax is a broad based and a single comprehensive tax levied on goods and services consumed in an economy. GST is levied at every stage of the production-distribution chain with applicable set offs in respect of the tax remitted at previous stages. It is basically a tax on final consumption. The Goods and Services Tax (GST) is a value added tax to be implemented in India, the decision on which is pending. GST is the only indirect tax that directly affects all sectors and sect...

  8. A Hybrid P2P Overlay Network for Non-strictly Hierarchically Categorized Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yi; Asaka, Takuya; Takahashi, Tatsuro

    In P2P content distribution systems, there are many cases in which the content can be classified into hierarchically organized categories. In this paper, we propose a hybrid overlay network design suitable for such content called Pastry/NSHCC (Pastry for Non-Strictly Hierarchically Categorized Content). The semantic information of classification hierarchies of the content can be utilized regardless of whether they are in a strict tree structure or not. By doing so, the search scope can be restrained to any granularity, and the number of query messages also decreases while maintaining keyword searching availability. Through simulation, we showed that the proposed method provides better performance and lower overhead than unstructured overlays exploiting the same semantic information.

  9. Detection of low numbers of microplastics in North Sea fish using strict quality assurance criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermsen, Enya; Pompe, Renske; Besseling, Ellen; Koelmans, Albert A

    2017-09-15

    We investigated 400 individual fish of four North Sea species: Atlantic Herring, Sprat, Common Dab, and Whiting on ingestion of >20μm microplastic. Strict quality assurance criteria were followed in order to control contamination during the study. Two plastic particles were found in only 1 (a Sprat) out of 400 individuals (0.25%, with a 95% confidence interval of 0.09-1.1%). The particles were identified to consist of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) through FTIR spectroscopy. No contamination occurred during the study, showing the method applied to be suitable for microplastic ingestion studies in biota. We discuss the low particle count for North Sea fish with those in other studies and suggest a relation between reported particle count and degree of quality assurance applied. Microplastic ingestion by fish may be less common than thought initially, with low incidence shown in this study, and other studies adhering to strict quality assurance criteria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. S2SA preconditioning for the Sn equations with strictly non negative spatial discretization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruss, D. E.; Morel, J. E.; Ragusa, J. C.

    2013-01-01

    Preconditioners based upon sweeps and diffusion-synthetic acceleration have been constructed and applied to the zeroth and first spatial moments of the 1-D S n transport equation using a strictly non negative nonlinear spatial closure. Linear and nonlinear preconditioners have been analyzed. The effectiveness of various combinations of these preconditioners are compared. In one dimension, nonlinear sweep preconditioning is shown to be superior to linear sweep preconditioning, and DSA preconditioning using nonlinear sweeps in conjunction with a linear diffusion equation is found to be essentially equivalent to nonlinear sweeps in conjunction with a nonlinear diffusion equation. The ability to use a linear diffusion equation has important implications for preconditioning the S n equations with a strictly non negative spatial discretization in multiple dimensions. (authors)

  11. A strict anaerobic extreme thermophilic hydrogen-producing culture enriched from digested household waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Kotay, Shireen Meher; Trably, Eric

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to enrich, characterize and identify strict anaerobic extreme thermophilic hydrogen (H-2) producers from digested household solid wastes. A strict anaerobic extreme thermophilic H-2 producing bacterial culture was enriched from a lab-scale digester treating household...... wastes at 70 degrees C. The enriched mixed culture consisted of two rod-shaped bacterial members growing at an optimal temperature of 80 degrees C and an optimal pH 8.1. The culture was able to utilize glucose, galactose, mannose, xylose, arabinose, maltose, sucrose, pyruvate and glycerol as carbon...... sources. Growth on glucose produced acetate, H-2 and carbon dioxide. Maximal H-2 production rate on glucose was 1.1 mmol l(-1) h(-1) with a maximum H-2 yield of 1.9 mole H-2 per mole glucose. 16S ribosomal DNA clone library analyses showed that the culture members were phylogenetically affiliated...

  12. Weak asymptotic solution for a non-strictly hyperbolic system of conservation laws-II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manas Ranjan Sahoo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article we introduce a concept of entropy weak asymptotic solution for a system of conservation laws and construct the same for a prolonged system of conservation laws which is highly non-strictly hyperbolic. This is first done for Riemann type initial data by introducing $\\delta,\\delta',\\delta''$ waves along a discontinuity curve and then for general initial data by piecing together the Riemann solutions.

  13. The conditions for attaining the greatest degree of system stability with strict generator excitation control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruzdev, I.A.; Ekimova, M.M.; Truspekova, G.A.

    1982-01-01

    Expressions are derived for an idealized model of a complex electric power system; these expressions define the greatest level of stability of an electric power system and the optimum combination of stabilization factors with automatic excitation control in a single power system. The possibility of increasing the level of stability of an electric power system with simultaneous strict automatic excitation control of the synychronous generators in several power systems is analyzed.

  14. Frequency effect on p-nitrophenol degradation under conditions of strict acoustic and electric control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-ping Zhu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The process of decomposing p-nitrophenol (PNP with power ultrasound requires strict control of acoustic and electric conditions. In this study, the conditions, including acoustic power and acoustic intensity, but not ultrasonic frequency, were controlled strictly at constant levels. The absorbency and the COD concentrations of the samples were measured in order to show the variation of the sample concentration. The results show significant differences in the trend of the solution degradation rate as acoustic power increases after the PNP solution (with a concentration of 114 mg/L and a pH value of 5.4 is irradiated for 60 min with ultrasonic frequencies of 530.8 kHz, 610.6 kHz, 855.0 kHz, and 1 130.0 kHz. The degradation rate of the solution increases with time and acoustic power (acoustic intensity. On the other hand, the degradation rate of the solution is distinctly dependent on frequency when the acoustic power and intensity are strictly controlled and maintained at constant levels. The degradation rate of the PNP solution declines with ultrasonic frequencies of 530.8 kHz, 610.6 kHz, 855.0 kHz, and 1 130.0 kHz; the COD concentration, on the contrary, increase.

  15. Examination of the PCICE method in the nearly incompressible, as well as strictly incompressible, limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, Ray A.; Martineau, Richard C.

    2007-01-01

    The conservative-form, pressure-based PCICE numerical method (Martineau and Berry, 2004) (Berry, 2006), recently developed for computing transient fluid flows of all speeds from very low to very high (with strong shocks), is simplified and generalized. Though the method automatically treats a continuous transition of compressibility, three distinct, limiting compressibility regimes are formally defined for purposes of discussion and comparison with traditional methods - the strictly incompressible limit, the nearly incompressible limit, and the fully compressible limit. The PCICE method's behavior is examined in each limiting regime. In the strictly incompressible limit the PCICE algorithm reduces to the traditional MAC-type method with velocity divergence driving the pressure Poisson equation. In the nearly incompressible limit the PCICE algorithm is found to reduce to a generalization of traditional incompressible methods, i.e. to one in which not only the velocity divergence effect, but also the density gradient effect is included as a driving function in the pressure Poisson equation. This nearly incompressible regime has received little attention, and it appears that in the past, strictly incompressible methods may have been conveniently applied to flows in this regime at the expense of ignoring a potentially important coupling mechanism. This could be significant in many important flows; for example, in natural convection flows resulting from high heat flux. In the fully compressible limit or regime, the algorithm is found to reduce to an expression equivalent to density-based methods for high-speed flow. (author)

  16. TESTING STRICT HYDROSTATIC EQUILIBRIUM IN SIMULATED CLUSTERS OF GALAXIES: IMPLICATIONS FOR A1689

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molnar, S. M.; Umetsu, K.; Chiu, I.-N.; Chen, P.; Hearn, N.; Broadhurst, T.; Bryan, G.; Shang, C.

    2010-01-01

    Accurate mass determination of clusters of galaxies is crucial if they are to be used as cosmological probes. However, there are some discrepancies between cluster masses determined based on gravitational lensing and X-ray observations assuming strict hydrostatic equilibrium (i.e., the equilibrium gas pressure is provided entirely by thermal pressure). Cosmological simulations suggest that turbulent gas motions remaining from hierarchical structure formation may provide a significant contribution to the equilibrium pressure in clusters. We analyze a sample of massive clusters of galaxies drawn from high-resolution cosmological simulations and find a significant contribution (20%-45%) from non-thermal pressure near the center of relaxed clusters, and, in accord with previous studies, a minimum contribution at about 0.1 R vir , growing to about 30%-45% at the virial radius, R vir . Our results strongly suggest that relaxed clusters should have significant non-thermal support in their core region. As an example, we test the validity of strict hydrostatic equilibrium in the well-studied massive galaxy cluster A1689 using the latest high-resolution gravitational lensing and X-ray observations. We find a contribution of about 40% from non-thermal pressure within the core region of A1689, suggesting an alternate explanation for the mass discrepancy: the strict hydrostatic equilibrium is not valid in this region.

  17. The Sound of a Small Whisper: Ordinary Religious Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kugelmann Robert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An ordinary religious experience does not entail an overwhelming sense of the Divine; it is not a “numinous” experience. It is instead easily ignored. In a phenomenological psychological inquiry into such a religious experience, both the noema, the “what” experienced, and the noesis, the mode of givenness of the experience, manifested themselves in distinctive ways. The paper examines a simple experience of having been guided in making a decision. The guidance was recognized only at the moment of realization. The realization revealed the decision to have been part of a larger drama that transcended the immediate experience. The “world” of this moment of realization included sensing that the sky above-as an “elemental”-was a dome, with allusions to the Noah story. Even at the time, this perception was not experienced as literal, but as symbolic. The social, historical, and theological contexts for the possibility of this experience receive attention. Theological as well as psychological reflection indicate such an experience continues to happen, in memory and thought, and even in action, long after the initial moment. Essential to the meaning of the experience is an admonition to transcend egocentricity.

  18. On Public Influence on People's Interactions with Ordinary Biodiversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zina Skandrani

    Full Text Available Besides direct impacts of urban biodiversity on local ecosystem services, the contact of city dwellers with urban nature in their everyday life could increase their awareness on conservation issues. In this paper, we focused on a particularly common animal urban species, the feral pigeon Columba livia. Through an observational approach, we examined behavioral interactions between city dwellers and this species in the Paris metropolis, France. We found that most people (mean: 81% do not interact with pigeons. Further, interactions (either positive or negative are context and age-dependent: children interact more than adults and the elderly, while people in tourist spots interact more than people in urban parks or in railway stations, a result that suggests that people interacting with pigeons are mostly tourists. We discuss these results in terms of public normative pressures on city dwellers' access to and reconnection with urban nature. We call for caution in how urban species are publically portrayed and managed, given the importance of interactions with ordinary biodiversity for the fate of nature conservation.

  19. [Application of ordinary Kriging method in entomologic ecology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Runjie; Zhou, Qiang; Chen, Cuixian; Wang, Shousong

    2003-01-01

    Geostatistics is a statistic method based on regional variables and using the tool of variogram to analyze the spatial structure and the patterns of organism. In simulating the variogram within a great range, though optimal simulation cannot be obtained, the simulation method of a dialogue between human and computer can be used to optimize the parameters of the spherical models. In this paper, the method mentioned above and the weighted polynomial regression were utilized to simulate the one-step spherical model, the two-step spherical model and linear function model, and the available nearby samples were used to draw on the ordinary Kriging procedure, which provided a best linear unbiased estimate of the constraint of the unbiased estimation. The sum of square deviation between the estimating and measuring values of varying theory models were figured out, and the relative graphs were shown. It was showed that the simulation based on the two-step spherical model was the best simulation, and the one-step spherical model was better than the linear function model.

  20. Quantifying uncertainty, variability and likelihood for ordinary differential equation models

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Weisse, Andrea Y

    2010-10-28

    Abstract Background In many applications, ordinary differential equation (ODE) models are subject to uncertainty or variability in initial conditions and parameters. Both, uncertainty and variability can be quantified in terms of a probability density function on the state and parameter space. Results The partial differential equation that describes the evolution of this probability density function has a form that is particularly amenable to application of the well-known method of characteristics. The value of the density at some point in time is directly accessible by the solution of the original ODE extended by a single extra dimension (for the value of the density). This leads to simple methods for studying uncertainty, variability and likelihood, with significant advantages over more traditional Monte Carlo and related approaches especially when studying regions with low probability. Conclusions While such approaches based on the method of characteristics are common practice in other disciplines, their advantages for the study of biological systems have so far remained unrecognized. Several examples illustrate performance and accuracy of the approach and its limitations.

  1. Ordinary Mathematical Models in Calculating the Aviation GTE Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Khoreva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the analytical review results of the ordinary mathematical models of the operating process used to study aviation GTE parameters and characteristics at all stages of its creation and operation. Considers the mathematical models of the zero and the first level, which are mostly used when solving typical problems in calculating parameters and characteristics of engines.Presents a number of practical problems arising in designing aviation GTE for various applications.The application of mathematical models of the zero-level engine can be quite appropriate when the engine is considered as a component in the aircraft system to estimate its calculated individual flight performance or when modeling the flight cycle of the aircrafts of different purpose.The paper demonstrates that introduction of correction functions into the first-level mathematical models in solving typical problems (influence of the Reynolds number, characteristics deterioration of the units during the overhaul period of engine, as well as influence of the flow inhomogeneity at the inlet because of manufacturing tolerance, etc. enables providing a sufficient engineering estimate accuracy to reflect a realistic operating process in the engine and its elements.

  2. Runge-Kutta Methods for Linear Ordinary Differential Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zingg, David W.; Chisholm, Todd T.

    1997-01-01

    Three new Runge-Kutta methods are presented for numerical integration of systems of linear inhomogeneous ordinary differential equations (ODES) with constant coefficients. Such ODEs arise in the numerical solution of the partial differential equations governing linear wave phenomena. The restriction to linear ODEs with constant coefficients reduces the number of conditions which the coefficients of the Runge-Kutta method must satisfy. This freedom is used to develop methods which are more efficient than conventional Runge-Kutta methods. A fourth-order method is presented which uses only two memory locations per dependent variable, while the classical fourth-order Runge-Kutta method uses three. This method is an excellent choice for simulations of linear wave phenomena if memory is a primary concern. In addition, fifth- and sixth-order methods are presented which require five and six stages, respectively, one fewer than their conventional counterparts, and are therefore more efficient. These methods are an excellent option for use with high-order spatial discretizations.

  3. Leukoaraiosis significantly worsens driving performance of ordinary older drivers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimihiko Nakano

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leukoaraiosis is defined as extracellular space caused mainly by atherosclerotic or demyelinated changes in the brain tissue and is commonly found in the brains of healthy older people. A significant association between leukoaraiosis and traffic crashes was reported in our previous study; however, the reason for this is still unclear. METHOD: This paper presents a comprehensive evaluation of driving performance in ordinary older drivers with leukoaraiosis. First, the degree of leukoaraiosis was examined in 33 participants, who underwent an actual-vehicle driving examination on a standard driving course, and a driver skill rating was also collected while the driver carried out a paced auditory serial addition test, which is a calculating task given verbally. At the same time, a steering entropy method was used to estimate steering operation performance. RESULTS: The experimental results indicated that a normal older driver with leukoaraiosis was readily affected by external disturbances and made more operation errors and steered less smoothly than one without leukoaraiosis during driving; at the same time, their steering skill significantly deteriorated. CONCLUSIONS: Leukoaraiosis worsens the driving performance of older drivers because of their increased vulnerability to distraction.

  4. Numerical methods for the solution of ordinary differential equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azeem, M.

    1999-01-01

    The ode 113 code solves non-stiff differential equations and is a fully variable step, variable order, PECE implementation in terms of modified divided differences of Adams-Bashforth-Moulton family of formulas of order 1-12. The main objectives of this project were to modify PECE mode of ode 113 into PEC mode, study the variable step size and variable order strategy of both the modes and finally, develop the switching strategy between both PECE and PEC modes to minimize the cost of solving the ordinary differential equations. Using some test problems (including stiff, mild stiff and non-stiff), it was found that the PEC mode was more efficient for non-stiff problems at crude and intermediate tolerances and the PECE mode for all problems at the stringent tolerance. An automatic switching strategy was developed using the results observed from the step size and order plots of all the test problems for both the modes and gave the optimum results. (author)

  5. ORDINARY PERSON IN MEDIA: PUBLIC INTEREST AND PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey G. Korkonosenko

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on the results of the research project “Media Discourses on Material and Ethnic Gaps. A comparative study in St Petersburg and Stockholm” financed by the Foundation for Baltic and East European Studies (Sweden. One of the main sections of the project was focused on ordinary persons’ portrayal in comparison with images of so-called celebrities in the regional media. Russian and Swedish scholars used a set of methods such as content analysis of newspapers and TV, expert in-depth interviews, and focus groups (2013, Spring - Summer. In fact, common men appeared rarely in TV excerpts and newspaper articles, especially in Russia. At the same time non-commons were shown in the majority of Russian TV and print media items while Swedish media give the opposite proportions. To explain gaps between Russian and Swedish findings one needs to take into account different social and mental traditions in these countries. The difference has been revealed within expert interviews and focus groups.

  6. Giant Pulse Studies of Ordinary and Recycled Pulsars with NICER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowska, Natalia; Arzoumanian, Zaven; Gendreau, Keith C.; Enoto, Teruaki; Harding, Alice; Lommen, Andrea; Ray, Paul S.; Deneva, Julia; Kerr, Matthew; Ransom, Scott M.; NICER Team

    2018-01-01

    Radio Giant Pulses are one of the earliest discovered form of anomalous single pulse emission from pulsars. Known for their non-periodical occurrence, restriction to certain phase ranges, power-law intensity distributions, pulse widths ranging from microseconds to nanoseconds and very high brightness temperatures, they stand out as an individual form of pulsar radio emission.Discovered originally in the case of the Crab pulsar, several other pulsars have been observed to emit radio giant pulses, the most promising being the recycled pulsar PSR B1937+21 and also the Vela pulsar.Although radio giant pulses are apparently the result of a coherent emission mechanism, recent studies of the Crab pulsar led to the discovery of an additional incoherent component at optical wavelengths. No such component has been identified for recycled pulsars, or Vela yet.To provide constraints on possible emission regions in their magnetospheres and to search for differences between giant pulses from ordinary and recycled pulsars, we present the progress of the correlation study of PSR B1937+21 and the Vela pulsar carried out with NICER and several radio observatories.

  7. Standing Concertation Committee - Ordinary Meeting on 15 January 2005

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    This meeting was devoted to the main topics summarised below. Follow-up from the meetings of the Finance Committee and Council in December 2004 The Chairman welcomed two new SCC members representing the Staff Association: Véronique Paris and Gianni Deroma. Expressing their best wishes for the New Year, the members of the SCC took note of a report by the Chairman on the outcome of these Committee meetings and of the Director-General's staff meeting on 10 January 2005, and discussed a number of internal follow-up actions. Work planning of the SCC & TREF The SCC agreed its calendar of ordinary sessions and its draft work planning for the first half of 2005, subject to including a number of matters outstanding from 2004. The Committee discussed internal preparation for the next meeting of TREF on 4 & 5 April devoted to items concerning the current 5-Yearly Review. The SCC also took note of the provisional scheduling of TREF meetings from May to September, which will be settled by...

  8. Bioenergy good practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birse, J.; Chambers, K.

    2000-07-01

    This report gives details of a project to make the Good Practice Guidelines, which were developed to help the UK Bioenergy industry, the national and local governments, and the public, more widely available. Details concerning the designing of a Good Practice Programme, and the proposed codes of Good Practice programme are given, and general relevant good practice guidance documents are discussed. The stakeholder survey and workshop, and the proposed codes of a Good Practice Programme are presented in Annexes. (UK)

  9. Indigenous plant-derived medicine used by ordinary community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines ... members other than traditional health practitioners for preventive health care in ... the chances of contracting disease thus promoting good health and well-being.

  10. Who Gets the Goods?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Thomas Channing; Tarp, Finn

    2001-01-01

    We employ a computable general equilibrium approach to examine the effects of alternative food aid distribution schemes for drought-response food aid to Mozambique. Alternative schemes have very distinct impacts on household welfare and prices. Compared with monetization of food aid by government......, direct distribution to households (by population shares) strongly benefits rural households. Even assuming that government cannot target food aid strictly at drought-stricken rural people, our results indicate that, when improving household welfare is the primary goal of the food aid, direct distribution...

  11. Software licenses: Good fences make good neighbors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCreary, J.G.; Woodyard, A.

    1995-01-01

    The basis for a good contract is that it is beneficial to both parties. A good foundation will cement the responsibilities and obligations of the parties after areas of agreement have been negotiated. Unfortunately, software licenses do not always reflect what is best for all. Some clauses are definitely for the benefit of the vendor, while others are required by a prudent client. The resulting contract is then a matter of reasonable compromise to achieve a good business relationship. Major issues of warranty, liability, training, support, and payment may be in conflict. Such topics as maintenance, testing, patents, extent of use, and return of software are often overlooked or addressed unevenly. This paper addresses these subjects and provides guidelines for software licenses. An understanding of legal phrases is of value. A better understanding of the viewpoints of both the vendor and the client results in a better working relationship

  12. Unconstrained snoring detection using a smartphone during ordinary sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hangsik; Cho, Jaegeol

    2014-08-15

    Snoring can be a representative symptom of a sleep disorder, and thus snoring detection is quite important to improving the quality of an individual's daily life. The purpose of this research is to develop an unconstrained snoring detection technique that can be integrated into a smartphone application. In contrast with previous studies, we developed a practical technique for snoring detection during ordinary sleep by using the built-in sound recording system of a smartphone, and the recording was carried out in a standard private bedroom. The experimental protocol was designed to include a variety of actions that frequently produce noise (including coughing, playing music, talking, rining an alarm, opening/closing doors, running a fan, playing the radio, and walking) in order to accurately recreate the actual circumstances during sleep. The sound data were recorded for 10 individuals during actual sleep. In total, 44 snoring data sets and 75 noise datasets were acquired. The algorithm uses formant analysis to examine sound features according to the frequency and magnitude. Then, a quadratic classifier is used to distinguish snoring from non-snoring noises. Ten-fold cross validation was used to evaluate the developed snoring detection methods, and validation was repeated 100 times randomly to improve statistical effectiveness. The overall results showed that the proposed method is competitive with those from previous research. The proposed method presented 95.07% accuracy, 98.58% sensitivity, 94.62% specificity, and 70.38% positive predictivity. Though there was a relatively high false positive rate, the results show the possibility for ubiquitous personal snoring detection through a smartphone application that takes into account data from normally occurring noises without training using preexisting data.

  13. Rate Control Efficacy in Permanent Atrial Fibrillation : Successful and Failed Strict Rate Control Against a Background of Lenient Rate Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenveld, Hessel F.; Tijssen, Jan G. P.; Crijns, Harry J. G. M.; Van den Berg, Maarten P.; Hillege, Hans L.; Alings, Marco; Van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Van Gelder, Isabelle C.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study sought to investigate differences in outcome between patients treated with successful strict, failed strict, and lenient rate control. Background The RACE II (Rate Control Efficacy in Permanent Atrial Fibrillation) study showed no difference in outcome between lenient and

  14. Algebraic dynamics solutions and algebraic dynamics algorithm for nonlinear ordinary differential equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Shunjin; ZHANG; Hua

    2006-01-01

    The problem of preserving fidelity in numerical computation of nonlinear ordinary differential equations is studied in terms of preserving local differential structure and approximating global integration structure of the dynamical system.The ordinary differential equations are lifted to the corresponding partial differential equations in the framework of algebraic dynamics,and a new algorithm-algebraic dynamics algorithm is proposed based on the exact analytical solutions of the ordinary differential equations by the algebraic dynamics method.In the new algorithm,the time evolution of the ordinary differential system is described locally by the time translation operator and globally by the time evolution operator.The exact analytical piece-like solution of the ordinary differential equations is expressd in terms of Taylor series with a local convergent radius,and its finite order truncation leads to the new numerical algorithm with a controllable precision better than Runge Kutta Algorithm and Symplectic Geometric Algorithm.

  15. Trade in goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2006-01-01

    An analysis of the rules governing trade in goods under the GATT agreement and the Agreement on Safeguards......An analysis of the rules governing trade in goods under the GATT agreement and the Agreement on Safeguards...

  16. Good Concrete Activity Is Good Mental Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Early years mathematics classrooms can be colourful, exciting, and challenging places of learning. Andrea McDonough and fellow teachers have noticed that some students make good decisions about using materials to assist their problem solving, but this is not always the case. These experiences lead her to ask the following questions: (1) Are…

  17. A Good Suit Beats a Good Idea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machiavelli, Nick

    1992-01-01

    Inspired by Niccolo Machiavelli, this column offers beleaguered school executives advice on looking good, dressing well, losing weight, beating the proper enemy, and saying nothing. Administrators who follow these simple rules should have an easier life, jealous colleagues, well-tended gardens, and respectful board members. (MLH)

  18. Effect of cryopreservation and lyophilization on viability and growth of strict anaerobic human gut microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bircher, Lea; Geirnaert, Annelies; Hammes, Frederik; Lacroix, Christophe; Schwab, Clarissa

    2018-04-17

    Strict anaerobic gut microbes have been suggested as 'next-generation probiotics' for treating several intestinal disorders. The development of preservation techniques is of major importance for therapeutic application. This study investigated cryopreservation (-80°C) and lyophilization survival and storage stability (4°C for 3 months) of the strict anaerobic gut microbes Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Roseburia intestinalis, Anaerostipes caccae, Eubacterium hallii and Blautia obeum. To improve preservation survival, protectants sucrose and inulin (both 5% w/v) were added for lyophilization and were also combined with glycerol (15% v/v) for cryopreservation. Bacterial fitness, evaluated by maximum growth rate and lag phase, viability and membrane integrity were determined using a standardized growth assay and by flow cytometry as markers for preservation resistance. Lyophilization was more detrimental to viability and fitness than cryopreservation, but led to better storage stability. Adding sucrose and inulin enhanced viability and the proportion of intact cells during lyophilization of all strains. Viability of protectant-free B. thetaiotaomicron, A. caccae and F. prausnitzii was above 50% after cryopreservation and storage and increased to above 80% if protectants were present. The addition of glycerol, sucrose and inulin strongly enhanced the viability of B. obeum, E. hallii and R. intestinalis from 0.03-2% in protectant-free cultures to 11-37%. This is the first study that quantitatively compared the effect of cryopreservation and lyophilization and the addition of selected protectants on viability and fitness of six strict anaerobic gut microbes. Our results suggest that efficiency of protectants is process- and species-specific. © 2018 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. Diagonally Implicit Runge-Kutta Methods for Ordinary Differential Equations. A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Christopher A.; Carpenter, Mark H.

    2016-01-01

    A review of diagonally implicit Runge-Kutta (DIRK) methods applied to rst-order ordinary di erential equations (ODEs) is undertaken. The goal of this review is to summarize the characteristics, assess the potential, and then design several nearly optimal, general purpose, DIRK-type methods. Over 20 important aspects of DIRKtype methods are reviewed. A design study is then conducted on DIRK-type methods having from two to seven implicit stages. From this, 15 schemes are selected for general purpose application. Testing of the 15 chosen methods is done on three singular perturbation problems. Based on the review of method characteristics, these methods focus on having a stage order of two, sti accuracy, L-stability, high quality embedded and dense-output methods, small magnitudes of the algebraic stability matrix eigenvalues, small values of aii, and small or vanishing values of the internal stability function for large eigenvalues of the Jacobian. Among the 15 new methods, ESDIRK4(3)6L[2]SA is recommended as a good default method for solving sti problems at moderate error tolerances.

  20. An analytical approximation scheme to two-point boundary value problems of ordinary differential equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boisseau, Bruno; Forgacs, Peter; Giacomini, Hector

    2007-01-01

    A new (algebraic) approximation scheme to find global solutions of two-point boundary value problems of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) is presented. The method is applicable for both linear and nonlinear (coupled) ODEs whose solutions are analytic near one of the boundary points. It is based on replacing the original ODEs by a sequence of auxiliary first-order polynomial ODEs with constant coefficients. The coefficients in the auxiliary ODEs are uniquely determined from the local behaviour of the solution in the neighbourhood of one of the boundary points. The problem of obtaining the parameters of the global (connecting) solutions, analytic at one of the boundary points, reduces to find the appropriate zeros of algebraic equations. The power of the method is illustrated by computing the approximate values of the 'connecting parameters' for a number of nonlinear ODEs arising in various problems in field theory. We treat in particular the static and rotationally symmetric global vortex, the skyrmion, the Abrikosov-Nielsen-Olesen vortex, as well as the 't Hooft-Polyakov magnetic monopole. The total energy of the skyrmion and of the monopole is also computed by the new method. We also consider some ODEs coming from the exact renormalization group. The ground-state energy level of the anharmonic oscillator is also computed for arbitrary coupling strengths with good precision. (fast track communication)

  1. ODEion--a software module for structural identification of ordinary differential equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennemark, Peter; Wedelin, Dag

    2014-02-01

    In the systems biology field, algorithms for structural identification of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) have mainly focused on fixed model spaces like S-systems and/or on methods that require sufficiently good data so that derivatives can be accurately estimated. There is therefore a lack of methods and software that can handle more general models and realistic data. We present ODEion, a software module for structural identification of ODEs. Main characteristic features of the software are: • The model space is defined by arbitrary user-defined functions that can be nonlinear in both variables and parameters, such as for example chemical rate reactions. • ODEion implements computationally efficient algorithms that have been shown to efficiently handle sparse and noisy data. It can run a range of realistic problems that previously required a supercomputer. • ODEion is easy to use and provides SBML output. We describe the mathematical problem, the ODEion system itself, and provide several examples of how the system can be used. Available at: http://www.odeidentification.org.

  2. Strictly local one-dimensional topological quantum error correction with symmetry-constrained cellular automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolai Lang, Hans Peter Büchler

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Active quantum error correction on topological codes is one of the most promising routes to long-term qubit storage. In view of future applications, the scalability of the used decoding algorithms in physical implementations is crucial. In this work, we focus on the one-dimensional Majorana chain and construct a strictly local decoder based on a self-dual cellular automaton. We study numerically and analytically its performance and exploit these results to contrive a scalable decoder with exponentially growing decoherence times in the presence of noise. Our results pave the way for scalable and modular designs of actively corrected one-dimensional topological quantum memories.

  3. Single Molecule Experiments Challenge the Strict Wave-Particle Dualism of Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Otto Greulich

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Single molecule techniques improve our understanding of the photon and light. If the single photon double slit experiment is performed at the “single photon limit” of a multi-atom light source, faint light pulses with more than one photon hamper the interpretation. Single molecules, quantum dots or defect centres in crystals should be used as light source. “Single photon detectors” do not meet their promise―only “photon number resolving single photon detectors” do so. Particularly, the accumulation time argument, the only safe basis for the postulate of a strictly particle like photon, has so far not yet been verified.

  4. Single molecule experiments challenge the strict wave-particle dualism of light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greulich, Karl Otto

    2010-01-21

    Single molecule techniques improve our understanding of the photon and light. If the single photon double slit experiment is performed at the "single photon limit" of a multi-atom light source, faint light pulses with more than one photon hamper the interpretation. Single molecules, quantum dots or defect centres in crystals should be used as light source. "Single photon detectors" do not meet their promise-only "photon number resolving single photon detectors" do so. Particularly, the accumulation time argument, the only safe basis for the postulate of a strictly particle like photon, has so far not yet been verified.

  5. Strictly positive solutions for one-dimensional nonlinear problems involving the p-Laplacian

    OpenAIRE

    Kaufmann, Uriel; Medri, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Let $\\Omega$ be a bounded open interval, and let $p>1$ and $q\\in\\left(0,p-1\\right) $. Let $m\\in L^{p^{\\prime}}\\left(\\Omega\\right) $ and $0\\leq c\\in L^{\\infty}\\left(\\Omega\\right) $. We study existence of strictly positive solutions for elliptic problems of the form $-\\left(\\left\\| u^{\\prime}\\right\\|^{p-2}u^{\\prime}\\right) ^{\\prime}+c\\left(x\\right) u^{p-1}=m\\left(x\\right) u^{q}$ in $\\Omega$, $u=0$ on $\\partial\\Omega$. We mention that our results are new even in the case $c\\equiv0$.

  6. Structural stability of Riemann solutions for strictly hyperbolic systems with three piecewise constant states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefeng Wei

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article concerns the wave interaction problem for a strictly hyperbolic system of conservation laws whose Riemann solutions involve delta shock waves. To cover all situations, the global solutions are constructed when the initial data are taken as three piecewise constant states. It is shown that the Riemann solutions are stable with respect to a specific small perturbation of the Riemann initial data. In addition, some interesting nonlinear phenomena are captured during the process of constructing the solutions, such as the generation and decomposition of delta shock waves.

  7. Comunidades de atingidos, o comum e o dom expandido Affected communities, the ordinary and the expanded gift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Lafuente

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo examina a relação entre a tecnologia e os bens comuns e, a partir daí, propõe uma nova valência para o comum. O novo comum deve ser entendido como uma economia do dom que assiste, a cada novo ciclo de relações assimétricas, ao surgimento de uma questão que preocupa uma comunidade de afeto ou de atingidos. A economia do dom expandido retém a produtividade conceitual da famosa teoria do dom de Marcel Mauss, mas é adaptada a um mundo em que quem doa e quem recebe tendem a permanecer anônimos e as expectativas de retribuição, indefinidas. Finalmente, o artigo defende a noção de um dom expandido, cuja economia de reciprocidade possa, em um único gesto, fazer aparecer novas formas de comunidade e inaugurar protocolos inovadores de mobilização social.The article investigates the relationship between technology and ordinary goods in order to propose a new valence for the ordinary. The new ordinary should be understood as a gift economy that witnesses, within every new cycle of asymmetrical relations, the rise of a matter that regards a community of shared affections, or affected community. The expanded gift economy retains the conceptual productivity of Marcel Mauss’s famous theory about the gift, except that it is adapted to a world in which giver and receiver tend to remain anonymous, and the retribution expectations, undefined. At long last, the article argues for a notion of an expanded gift, whose reciprocity economy may - in a single gesture - make appear new forms of community and launch innovative social mobilization protocols.

  8. The effect of 8 days of strict bed rest on the incretin effect in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Signe Tellerup; Harder-Lauridsen, Nina Majlund; Benatti, Fabiana Braga; Wedell-Neergaard, Anne-Sophie; Lyngbæk, Mark Preben; Møller, Kirsten; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund; Krogh-Madsen, Rikke

    2016-03-15

    Bed rest and physical inactivity are the consequences of hospital admission for many patients. Physical inactivity induces changes in glucose metabolism, but its effect on the incretin effect, which is reduced in, e.g., Type 2 diabetes, is unknown. To investigate how 8 days of strict bed rest affects the incretin effect, 10 healthy nonobese male volunteers underwent 8 days of strict bed rest. Before and after the intervention, all volunteers underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) followed by an intravenous glucose infusion (IVGI) on the following day to mimic the blood glucose profile from the OGTT. Blood glucose, serum insulin, serum C-peptide, plasma incretin hormones [glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP)], and serum glucagon were measured serially during both the OGTT and the IVGI. The incretin effect is calculated as the relative difference between the area under the curve for the insulin response during the OGTT and that of the corresponding IVGI, respectively. Concentrations of glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and GIP measured during the OGTT were higher after the bed rest intervention (all P effect (P = 0.6). In conclusion, 8 days of bed rest induces insulin resistance, but we did not see evidence of an associated change in the incretin effect. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Optimal control of nonlinear continuous-time systems in strict-feedback form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zargarzadeh, Hassan; Dierks, Travis; Jagannathan, Sarangapani

    2015-10-01

    This paper proposes a novel optimal tracking control scheme for nonlinear continuous-time systems in strict-feedback form with uncertain dynamics. The optimal tracking problem is transformed into an equivalent optimal regulation problem through a feedforward adaptive control input that is generated by modifying the standard backstepping technique. Subsequently, a neural network-based optimal control scheme is introduced to estimate the cost, or value function, over an infinite horizon for the resulting nonlinear continuous-time systems in affine form when the internal dynamics are unknown. The estimated cost function is then used to obtain the optimal feedback control input; therefore, the overall optimal control input for the nonlinear continuous-time system in strict-feedback form includes the feedforward plus the optimal feedback terms. It is shown that the estimated cost function minimizes the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman estimation error in a forward-in-time manner without using any value or policy iterations. Finally, optimal output feedback control is introduced through the design of a suitable observer. Lyapunov theory is utilized to show the overall stability of the proposed schemes without requiring an initial admissible controller. Simulation examples are provided to validate the theoretical results.

  10. Strictly monolayer large continuous MoS2 films on diverse substrates and their luminescence properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohapatra, P. K.; Deb, S.; Singh, B. P.; Vasa, P.; Dhar, S.

    2016-01-01

    Despite a tremendous interest on molybdenum disulfide as a thinnest direct band gap semiconductor, single step synthesis of a large area purely monolayer MoS 2 film has not yet been reported. Here, we report a CVD route to synthesize a continuous film of strictly monolayer MoS 2 covering an area as large as a few cm 2 on a variety of different substrates without using any seeding material or any elaborate pretreatment of the substrate. This is achieved by allowing the growth to take place in the naturally formed gap between a piece of SiO 2 coated Si wafer and the substrate, when the latter is placed on top of the former inside a CVD reactor. We propose a qualitative model to explain why the MoS 2 films are always strictly monolayer in this method. The photoluminescence study of these monolayers shows the characteristic excitonic and trionic features associated with monolayer MoS 2 . In addition, a broad defect related luminescence band appears at ∼1.7 eV. As temperature decreases, the intensity of this broad feature increases, while the band edge luminescence reduces

  11. Stanley Cavell, Classical Hollywood and the Constitution of the Ordinary (With Notes on Billy Wilder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Jukić

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available When in his Tanner lectures Stanley Cavell sets out to define Ordinary Language Philosophy or – rather – to explain how it demarcates philosophy as such, he takes up psychoanalytic literary criticism in order to articulate the terms of this task. Yet the constitution of the ordinary, in Cavell, is never quite accessed from within psychoanalysis-cum-literature alone; instead, it takes another relation, that of psychoanalysis and literature to classical Hollywood, for Cavell to address the ordinary in terms of its constitution. I propose to discuss this complex using two films by Billy Wilder as a passageway to Cavell’s analytic procedure.

  12. FORSIM, Solution of Ordinary or Partial Differential Equation with Initial Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carver, M.B.

    1985-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: FORSIM is a FORTRAN oriented simulation program which automates the continuous transient solution of systems of ordinary and/or partial differential equations. The user writes his equations in a FORTRAN subroutine, following prescribed rules, and loads this routine along with the executive routines. The executive routines then read in initial data supplied by the user and proceed with the integration. 2 - Method of solution: Partial differential equations are converted to coupled ordinary differential equations by suitable discretization formulae. Integration is done by variable order, variable step-size error controlled algorithms. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem - Maximum of: 1000 ordinary differential equations

  13. The crux of the method: assumptions in ordinary least squares and logistic regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Rebecca G

    2008-10-01

    Logistic regression has increasingly become the tool of choice when analyzing data with a binary dependent variable. While resources relating to the technique are widely available, clear discussions of why logistic regression should be used in place of ordinary least squares regression are difficult to find. The current paper compares and contrasts the assumptions of ordinary least squares with those of logistic regression and explains why logistic regression's looser assumptions make it adept at handling violations of the more important assumptions in ordinary least squares.

  14. The common good

    OpenAIRE

    Argandoña, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The concept of the common good occupied a relevant place in classical social, political and economic philosophy. After losing ground in the Modern age, it has recently reappeared, although with different and sometimes confusing meanings. This paper is the draft of a chapter of a Handbook; it explains the meaning of common good in the Aristotelian-Thomistic philosophy and in the Social Doctrine of the Catholic Church; why the common good is relevant; and how it is different from the other uses...

  15. Transport of hazardous goods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The course 'Transport of hazardous goods' was held in Berlin in November 1988 in cooperation with the Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung. From all lecturs, two are recorded separately: 'Safety of tank trucks - requirements on the tank, development possibiities of active and passive safety' and 'Requirements on the transport of radioactive materials - possible derivations for other hazardous goods'. The other lectures deal with hazardous goods law, requirements on packinging, risk assessment, railroad transport, hazardous goods road network, insurance matters, EC regulations, and waste tourism. (HSCH) [de

  16. On good ETOL forms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skyum, Sven

    1978-01-01

    This paper continues the study of ETOL forms and good EOL forms done by Maurer, Salomaa and Wood. It is proven that binary very complete ETOL forms exist, good synchronized ETOL forms exist and that no propagating or synchronized ETOL form can be very complete.......This paper continues the study of ETOL forms and good EOL forms done by Maurer, Salomaa and Wood. It is proven that binary very complete ETOL forms exist, good synchronized ETOL forms exist and that no propagating or synchronized ETOL form can be very complete....

  17. On Having a Good

    OpenAIRE

    Korsgaard, Christine M.

    2014-01-01

    In some recent papers I have been arguing that the concept ‘good-for’ is prior to the concept of ‘good’ (in the sense in which final ends are good), and exploring the implications of that claim. One of those implications is that everything that is good is good for someone. That implication seems to fall afoul of our intuitions about certain cases, such as the intuition that a world full of happy people and animals is better than a world full of miserable ones, even if the people and animals a...

  18. ODEPACK, Initial Value Problems of Ordinary Differential Equation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindmarsh, A.C.; Petzold, L.R.

    2005-01-01

    I - Description of program or function: ODEPACK is a collection of Fortran solvers for the initial value problem for ordinary differential equation systems. It consists of nine solvers, namely a basic solver called LSODE and eight variants of it -- LSODES, LSODA, LSODAR, LSODPK, LSODKR, LSODI, LSOIBT, and LSODIS. The collection is suitable for both stiff and non-stiff systems. It includes solvers for systems given in explicit form, dy/dt = f(t,y), and also solvers for systems given in linearly implicit form, A(t,y) dy/dt = g(t,y). Two of the solvers use general sparse matrix solvers for the linear systems that arise. Two others use iterative (preconditioned Krylov) methods instead of direct methods for these linear systems. The most recent addition is LSODIS, which solves implicit problems with general sparse treatment of all matrices involved. The ODEPACK solvers are written in standard Fortran 77, with a few exceptions, and with minimal machine dependencies. There are separate double and single precision versions of ODEPACK. The actual solver names are those given above with a prefix of D- or S- for the double or single precision version, respectively, i.e. DLSODE/SLSODE, etc. Each solver consists of a main driver subroutine having the same name as the solver and some number of subordinate routines. For each solver, there is also a demonstration program, which solves one or two simple problems in a somewhat self-checking manner. A. Solvers for explicitly given systems. For each of the following solvers, it is assumed that the ODEs are given explicitly, so that the system can be written in the form dy/dt = f(t,y), where y is the vector of dependent variables, and t is the independent variable. 1. LSODE (Livermore Solver for Ordinary Differential Equations) is the basic solver of the collection. It solves stiff and non-stiff systems of the form dy/dt = f. In the stiff case, it treats the Jacobian matrix df/dy as either a dense (full) or a banded matrix, and as

  19. Study on Environment Performance Evaluation and Regional Differences of Strictly-Environmental-Monitored Cities in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Guo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid economic growth and development, the problem of environmental pollution in China’s cities is becoming increasingly serious, and environmental pollution takes on a regional difference. There is, however, little comprehensive evaluation on the environmental performance and the regional difference of strictly-environmental-monitored cities in China. In this paper, the environmental performance of 109 strictly-environmental-monitored cities in China is evaluated in terms of natural performance, management performance, and scale performance by Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA, incorporating PM2.5 and PM10 as undesirable outputs. The empirical results show that: (1 At present, the natural performance is quite high, while the management performance is noticeably low for most cities. (2 The gap between the level of economic development and environmental protection among cities in China is large, and the scale efficiency of big cities is better than that of smaller cities. The efficiency value of large-scale cities such as Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Shenzhen, etc. is high, equaling 1; the value of smaller cities such as Sanmenxia, Baoding, Mudanjiang, and Pingdingshan is low, close to 0, indicating that big cities are characterized by high environmental efficiency. (3 From the perspective of region, the level of environmental performance in China is very uneven. For example, the environmental efficiency level of the Pan-Pearl River Delta region is superior to that of the Pan-Yangtze River region and the Bahia Rim region, whose values of environmental efficiency are 0.858, 0.658, and 0.622 respectively. The average efficiency of the Southern Coastal Economic Zone, Eastern Coastal Comprehensive Economic Zone, and the Comprehensive Economic Zone in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River is higher than that of other regions. Finally, corresponding countermeasures and suggestions are put forward. The method used in this paper is applicable

  20. Paradoxes around good governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.G. Dijkstra (Geske)

    2013-01-01

    textabstract Good governance is not a new concept Ambrogio Lorenzetti made his frescoes on good and bad governance already in the years 1338-1340 They can be viewed in the Palazzo Publicco on one of the most beautiful squares of the world, the Piazza del Campo in Siena, Italy I assume many of you

  1. "Act in Good Faith."

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Robert B.

    1979-01-01

    It is argued that the Supreme Court's Bakke decision overturning the University of California's minority admissions program is good for those who favor affirmative action programs in higher education. The Supreme Court gives wide latitude for devising programs that take race and ethnic background into account if colleges are acting in good faith.…

  2. Nurturing Good Ideas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C.M. van den Ende (Jan); R.C. Kijkuit (Bob)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractManagers know that simply generating lots of ideas doesn’t necessarily produce good ones. What companies need are systems that nurture good ideas and cull bad ones—before they ever reach the decision maker’s desk. Our research shows that tapping the input of many people early in the

  3. An overview of GOOD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paredaens, J.; Van den Bussche, J.; Andries, M.; Gemis, M.; Gyssens, M.; Thyssens, I.; Van Gucht, D.; Sarathy, V.; Saxton, L.V.

    1992-01-01

    GOOD is an acronym, standing for Graph-Oriented Object Database. GOOD is being developed as a joint research effort of Indiana University and the University of Antwerp. The main thrust behind the project is to indicate general concepts that are fundamental to any graph-oriented database

  4. A good patient?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, Catherine; Scott, Kerry; Skovdal, Morten

    2015-01-01

    , physical cleanliness, honesty, gratitude and lifestyle adaptations (taking pills correctly andcoming to the clinic when told). As healthcare workers may decide to punish patients who do not live up the‘good patient persona’, many patients seek to perform within the confines of the ‘good patient persona...

  5. The Good Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly

    2003-01-01

    Examines the working lives of geneticists and journalists to place into perspective what lies behind personal ethics and success. Defines "good work" as productive activity that is valued socially and loved by people engaged in it. Asserts that certain cultural values, social controls, and personal standards are necessary to maintain good work and…

  6. Advice on Good Grooming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingey, Carol

    1987-01-01

    Suggestions are presented from parents on how to help children with disabilities (with particular focus on Downs Syndrome) learn good grooming habits in such areas as good health, exercise, cleanliness, teeth and hair care, skin care, glasses and other devices, and social behavior. (CB)

  7. On The Integral Representation of Strictly Continuous Set-Valued Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anaté K. Lakmon

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Let T be a completely regular topological space and C(T be the space of bounded, continuous real-valued functions on T. C(T is endowed with the strict topology (the topology generated by seminorms determined by continuous functions vanishing at in_nity. R. Giles ([13], p. 472, Theorem 4.6 proved in 1971 that the dual of C(T can be identi_ed with the space of regular Borel measures on T. We prove this result for positive, additive set-valued maps with values in the space of convex weakly compact non-empty subsets of a Banach space and we deduce from this result the theorem of R. Giles ([13], theorem 4.6, p.473.

  8. On a class of adjustable rate mortgage loans subject to a strict balance principle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup Jensen, Bjarne

    We describe the background and the basic funding mechanisms for the type of adjustable rate mortgageloans that were introduced in the Danish market in 1996. Each loan is funded separately by tap issuingpass-through mortgage bonds (`strict balance principle'). The novelty is a funding mechanism...... that usesa roll-over strategy, where long term loans are funded by sequentially issuing short term pass-throughbonds, and the first issuer of these loans obtained a patent on the funding principles in 1999. Publiclyavailable descriptions of the principles leave an impression of very complicated numerical...... algorithms.The algorithms described here show that the essentials can be reduced to a `back of an envelope' complexity.Keywords: Adjustable rate mortgages, balance principle, patent, yield curve riding...

  9. Control of Petri nets subject to strict temporal constraints using Max-Plus algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebani, K.; Amari, S.; Kara, R.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we treat the control problem of timed discrete event systems under temporal constraints. This type of constraint is very frequent in production systems, transportation network and in networked automation systems. Precisely, we are interested in the validation of strict temporal constraints imposed on the paths in a timed event graph (TEG) by using Max-Plus algebra. Not all the transitions of the considered TEG model are controllable, i.e. only the input transitions are controllable. An analytical approach for computing state feedback controllers is developed. Sufficient condition is given for the existence of causal control laws satisfying the temporal constraints. In the first, a TEG with observable transitions is considered. Then, the proposed approach is extended to the partially observable TEG. The synthesised feedback can be interpreted by places of control connected to the TEG to guarantee the respect of the time constraints. The proposed method is illustrated in the assembly system example.

  10. Learning-Based Adaptive Optimal Tracking Control of Strict-Feedback Nonlinear Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Weinan; Jiang, Zhong-Ping; Weinan Gao; Zhong-Ping Jiang; Gao, Weinan; Jiang, Zhong-Ping

    2018-06-01

    This paper proposes a novel data-driven control approach to address the problem of adaptive optimal tracking for a class of nonlinear systems taking the strict-feedback form. Adaptive dynamic programming (ADP) and nonlinear output regulation theories are integrated for the first time to compute an adaptive near-optimal tracker without any a priori knowledge of the system dynamics. Fundamentally different from adaptive optimal stabilization problems, the solution to a Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equation, not necessarily a positive definite function, cannot be approximated through the existing iterative methods. This paper proposes a novel policy iteration technique for solving positive semidefinite HJB equations with rigorous convergence analysis. A two-phase data-driven learning method is developed and implemented online by ADP. The efficacy of the proposed adaptive optimal tracking control methodology is demonstrated via a Van der Pol oscillator with time-varying exogenous signals.

  11. Lyme Neuroborreliosis: Preliminary Results from an Urban Referral Center Employing Strict CDC Criteria for Case Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S. Younger

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Lyme neuroborreliosis or “neurological Lyme disease” was evidenced in 2 of 23 patients submitted to strict criteria for case selection of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention employing a two-tier test to detect antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi at a single institution. One patient had symptomatic polyradiculoneuritis, dysautonomia, and serological evidence of early infection; and another had symptomatic small fiber sensory neuropathy, distal polyneuropathy, dysautonomia, and serological evidence of late infection. In the remaining patients symptoms initially ascribed to Lyme disease were probably unrelated to B. burgdorferi infection. Our findings suggest early susceptibility and protracted involvement of the nervous system most likely due to the immunological effects of B. burgdorferi infection, although the exact mechanisms remain uncertain.

  12. A Total Variation Model Based on the Strictly Convex Modification for Image Denoising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boying Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a strictly convex functional in which the regular term consists of the total variation term and an adaptive logarithm based convex modification term. We prove the existence and uniqueness of the minimizer for the proposed variational problem. The existence, uniqueness, and long-time behavior of the solution of the associated evolution system is also established. Finally, we present experimental results to illustrate the effectiveness of the model in noise reduction, and a comparison is made in relation to the more classical methods of the traditional total variation (TV, the Perona-Malik (PM, and the more recent D-α-PM method. Additional distinction from the other methods is that the parameters, for manual manipulation, in the proposed algorithm are reduced to basically only one.

  13. A semi-automatic method for positioning a femoral bone reconstruction for strict view generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milano, Federico; Ritacco, Lucas; Gomez, Adrian; Gonzalez Bernaldo de Quiros, Fernan; Risk, Marcelo

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a semi-automatic method for femoral bone positioning after 3D image reconstruction from Computed Tomography images. This serves as grounding for the definition of strict axial, longitudinal and anterior-posterior views, overcoming the problem of patient positioning biases in 2D femoral bone measuring methods. After the bone reconstruction is aligned to a standard reference frame, new tomographic slices can be generated, on which unbiased measures may be taken. This could allow not only accurate inter-patient comparisons but also intra-patient comparisons, i.e., comparisons of images of the same patient taken at different times. This method could enable medical doctors to diagnose and follow up several bone deformities more easily.

  14. Irradiation of goods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunt, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    Mechanical handling apparatus is adapted to handle goods, such as boxed fruit, during a process of irradiation, in palletized form. Palletized goods are loaded onto wheeled vehicles in a loading zone. Four vehicles are wheeled on a track into an irradiation zone via a door in a concrete shield. The vehicles are arranged in orthogonal relationship around a source of square section. Turntables are positioned at corners of the square shaped rail truck around the source selectively to turn the vehicles to align then with track sections. Mechanical manipulating devices are positioned in the track sections opposed to sides of the source. During irradiation, the vehicles and their palletized goods are cylically moved toward the source to offer first sides of the goods for irradiation and are retraced from the source and are pivoted through 90 0 to persent succeeding sides of the goods for irradiation

  15. Weight of fitness deviation governs strict physical chaos in replicator dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Varun; Mukhopadhyay, Archan; Chakraborty, Sagar

    2018-03-01

    Replicator equation—a paradigm equation in evolutionary game dynamics—mathematizes the frequency dependent selection of competing strategies vying to enhance their fitness (quantified by the average payoffs) with respect to the average fitnesses of the evolving population under consideration. In this paper, we deal with two discrete versions of the replicator equation employed to study evolution in a population where any two players' interaction is modelled by a two-strategy symmetric normal-form game. There are twelve distinct classes of such games, each typified by a particular ordinal relationship among the elements of the corresponding payoff matrix. Here, we find the sufficient conditions for the existence of asymptotic solutions of the replicator equations such that the solutions—fixed points, periodic orbits, and chaotic trajectories—are all strictly physical, meaning that the frequency of any strategy lies inside the closed interval zero to one at all times. Thus, we elaborate on which of the twelve types of games are capable of showing meaningful physical solutions and for which of the two types of replicator equation. Subsequently, we introduce the concept of the weight of fitness deviation that is the scaling factor in a positive affine transformation connecting two payoff matrices such that the corresponding one-shot games have exactly same Nash equilibria and evolutionary stable states. The weight also quantifies how much the excess of fitness of a strategy over the average fitness of the population affects the per capita change in the frequency of the strategy. Intriguingly, the weight's variation is capable of making the Nash equilibria and the evolutionary stable states, useless by introducing strict physical chaos in the replicator dynamics based on the normal-form game.

  16. Strict Liability Versus Policy and Regulation for Environmental Protection and Agricultural Waste Management in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Bakri Ishak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Basically, strict liability is part of the mechanism for expressing judgment or sentence by using direct evidence. This principle is very useful in order to obtain remedies from any damage either directly or indirectly. The principle in Rylands v Fletcher is responsible on imposing strict liability where if something brought onto land or collected there escapes liability under this rule can include not only the owner of land but also those who control or occupation on it. However, as a matter of fact, policy and regulation are also important in taking any action against any party who are responsible for environmental pollution or damage, which may include mismanagement of waste or industrial waste or agricultural waste. There are certain policies and regulations on environmental protection such as the National Environmental Policy, certain Acts and several regulations under the Environmental Quality Act 1974 (Act 127, which are very useful for agricultural waste management inter alia: Waters Act 1920 (Act 418, Environmental Quality (Prescribed Premises (Crude Palm Oil Regulations 1977, Environmental Quality (Prescribed Premises (Raw Natural Rubber Regulations 1978, Environmental Quality (Sewage and Industrial Effluents Regulations 1979, and Environmental Quality (Compounding of Offences Rules 1978. As a matter of fact, we should realize that time is of an essence for any parties which are involved in court cases and especially in avoiding the element of externality, which is commonly suffered by the government. In making this paper, therefore, some element of comparison with certain developed jurisdiction such as in the United Kingdom and Japan could not be avoided in order to obtain better outcome and to be more practical for the purpose of environmental protection and agricultural waste management.

  17. Alkaliphilus crotonatoxidans sp. nov., a strictly anaerobic, crotonate-dismutating bacterium isolated from a methanogenic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xianhua; Liu, Xiaoli; Dong, Xiuzhu

    2003-07-01

    Two bacterial strains were isolated from methanogenic butyrate-oxidizing mixed cultures. The cells were straight to slightly curved, gram-positive rods that were motile by means of multiple flagella and formed endospores. Growth was observed in the temperature range 15-45 degrees C (optimum 37 degrees C) and pH range 5.5-9.0 (optimum pH 7.5). The novel isolates were strictly anaerobic chemo-organotrophs capable of utilizing yeast extract, peptone, tryptone and a variety of sugars and organic acids, but not glucose. None of the accessory electron acceptors tested (elemental sulfur, thiosulfate or fumarate) improved growth, except crotonate, which was dismutated to butyrate and acetate. The G + C content of the DNA of one of the isolates, strain B11-2T, was 30.6 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rDNA sequence similarity between strain B11-2T and some other strictly anaerobic, spore-forming bacteria indicated that the novel isolates represented a species in cluster XI within the low-GC gram-positive bacteria, being most closely related to Alkaliphilus transvaalensis JCM 10712T. DNA-DNA relatedness between strain B11-2T and A. transvaalensis JCM 10712T was 21%. On the basis of physiological and molecular properties, and cellular fatty acid and cell wall compositions, the novel isolates are proposed to represent a novel species of the genus Alkaliphilus, for which the name Alkaliphilus crotonatoxidans is proposed (type strain B11-2T=AS 1.2897T=JCM 11672T).

  18. Weight of fitness deviation governs strict physical chaos in replicator dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Varun; Mukhopadhyay, Archan; Chakraborty, Sagar

    2018-03-01

    Replicator equation-a paradigm equation in evolutionary game dynamics-mathematizes the frequency dependent selection of competing strategies vying to enhance their fitness (quantified by the average payoffs) with respect to the average fitnesses of the evolving population under consideration. In this paper, we deal with two discrete versions of the replicator equation employed to study evolution in a population where any two players' interaction is modelled by a two-strategy symmetric normal-form game. There are twelve distinct classes of such games, each typified by a particular ordinal relationship among the elements of the corresponding payoff matrix. Here, we find the sufficient conditions for the existence of asymptotic solutions of the replicator equations such that the solutions-fixed points, periodic orbits, and chaotic trajectories-are all strictly physical, meaning that the frequency of any strategy lies inside the closed interval zero to one at all times. Thus, we elaborate on which of the twelve types of games are capable of showing meaningful physical solutions and for which of the two types of replicator equation. Subsequently, we introduce the concept of the weight of fitness deviation that is the scaling factor in a positive affine transformation connecting two payoff matrices such that the corresponding one-shot games have exactly same Nash equilibria and evolutionary stable states. The weight also quantifies how much the excess of fitness of a strategy over the average fitness of the population affects the per capita change in the frequency of the strategy. Intriguingly, the weight's variation is capable of making the Nash equilibria and the evolutionary stable states, useless by introducing strict physical chaos in the replicator dynamics based on the normal-form game.

  19. 76 FR 40451 - Agency Information Collection (Application for Ordinary Life Insurance) Activity Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ... reduced automatically by one-half from its present face value on the day before a policyholder's 65th and... (Application for Ordinary Life Insurance) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration...) of 1995 [[Page 40452

  20. Antiperiodic Boundary Value Problems for Second-Order Impulsive Ordinary Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available We consider a second-order ordinary differential equation with antiperiodic boundary conditions and impulses. By using Schaefer's fixed-point theorem, some existence results are obtained.

  1. Consistency of direct integral estimator for partially observed systems of ordinary differential equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vujačić, Ivan; Dattner, Itai

    In this paper we use the sieve framework to prove consistency of the ‘direct integral estimator’ of parameters for partially observed systems of ordinary differential equations, which are commonly used for modeling dynamic processes.

  2. Contact symmetries of general linear second-order ordinary differential equations: letter to the editor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martini, Ruud; Kersten, P.H.M.

    1983-01-01

    Using 1-1 mappings, the complete symmetry groups of contact transformations of general linear second-order ordinary differential equations are determined from two independent solutions of those equations, and applied to the harmonic oscillator with and without damping.

  3. Error estimation in the neural network solution of ordinary differential equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filici, Cristian

    2010-06-01

    In this article a method of error estimation for the neural approximation of the solution of an Ordinary Differential Equation is presented. Some examples of the application of the method support the theory presented. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Specificity of Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) for Biomedical Cell Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulina, M A; Pyatigorskaya, N V

    2018-03-01

    The article describes special aspects of Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) for biomedical cell products (BMCP) that imply high standards of aseptics throughout the entire productio process, strict requirements to donors and to the procedure of biomaterial isolation, guaranty of tracing BMCP products, defining processing procedures which allow to identify BMCP as minimally manipulated; continuous quality control and automation of the control process at all stages of manufacturing, which will ensure product release simultaneously with completion of technological operations.

  5. Strict follow-up programme including CT and (18) F-FDG-PET after curative surgery for colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, N F; Jensen, A B; Wille-Jørgensen, P

    2010-01-01

    Aim The risk of local recurrence following curative surgery for colorectal cancer (CRC) is up to 50%. A rigorous follow-up program may increase survival. Guidelines on suitable methods for scheduled follow up examinations are needed. This study evaluates a strict follow-up program including...... supported a strict follow-up program following curative surgery for colorectal cancer. FDG-PET combined with CT should be included in control programs....

  6. Good breastfeeding policies -- good breastfeeding rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    In Norway, where breast-feeding policies protecting breast-feeding women's needs have been in place since the 1970s, approximately 97% of women breast feed when leaving the hospital, 80% are breast feeding at 3 months, and 20% beyond 12 months. Government family policies play an important role in enabling women to achieve good breast-feeding rates. In Norway: maternity leave is 42 weeks with full pay or 52 weeks with 80% of salary; flexible part-time is available for women from 2 months after giving birth with income supplemented from maternity benefits; after returning to work, women are entitled to 1- to 1.5-hour breaks to return home to breast feed, or to have the child brought to work. "Breast feeding is so normal," writes Hege Jacobson Lepri, "it's more embarrassing to bring out the feeding bottle in public." full text

  7. Cryptococcal meningitis management in Tanzania with strict schedule of serial lumber punctures using intravenous tubing sets: an operational research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meda, John; Kalluvya, Samuel; Downs, Jennifer A; Chofle, Awilly A; Seni, Jeremiah; Kidenya, Benson; Fitzgerald, Daniel W; Peck, Robert N

    2014-06-01

    Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) has a mortality rate of ∼70% among HIV-infected adults in low-income countries. Controlling intracranial pressure (ICP) is essential in CM, but it is difficult in low-income countries because manometers and practical ICP management protocols are lacking. As part of a continuous quality improvement project, our Tanzanian hospital initiated a new protocol for ICP management for CM. All adult inpatients with CM are included in a prospective patient registry. At the time of analysis, this registry included data from 2 years before the initiation of this new ICP management protocol and for a 9-month period after. ICP was measured at baseline and at days 3, 7, and 14 by both manometer and intravenous (IV) tubing set. All patients were given IV fluconazole according to Tanzanian treatment guidelines and were followed until 30 days after admission. Among adult inpatients with CM, 32 of 35 patients (91%) had elevated ICP on admission. Cerebrospinal fluid pressure measurements using the improvised IV tubing set demonstrated excellent agreement (r = 0.96) with manometer measurements. Compared with historical controls, the new ICP management protocol was associated with a significant reduction in 30-day mortality (16/35 [46%] vs. 48/64 [75%] in historical controls; hazard ratio = 2.1 [95% CI: 1.1 to 3.8]; P = 0.018]. Increased ICP is almost universal among HIV-infected adults admitted with CM in Tanzania. Intensive ICP management with a strict schedule of serial lumbar punctures reduced in-hospital mortality compared with historical controls. ICP measurement with IV tubing sets may be a good alternative in resource-limited health facilities where manometers are not available.

  8. STANDING CONCERTATION COMMITTEE: ORDINARY MEETING ON 15 JANUARY 2004

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    Original: English This meeting was devoted to the main topics summarised below. 1-Introduction by the Director-General Conveying his best wishes for the New Year to SCC members, the Director-General underlined the importance which he attaches to good relations with the staff and their representatives in the Staff Association. He would ensure open dialogue and make every effort to attend the SCC, at the request of the Staff Association or the Management representatives. The concertation process at the SCC and TREF is a most useful and necessary one for the Management in drawing up strategies that are clearly announced and understood by all parties. He trusted that the SCC would play a vital role in realising related programmes and in optimising their implementation. He also wished to pass a message to the staff at large on the importance of good, efficient management, understood in its widest sense and at all levels. The role of supervisors is not only to lead their teams in the scientific and technical doma...

  9. Numerical solutions of ordinary and partial differential equations in the frequency domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazi, G.; Por, G.

    1997-01-01

    Numerical problems during the noise simulation in a nuclear power plant are discussed. The solutions of ordinary and partial differential equations are studied in the frequency domain. Numerical methods by the transfer function method are applied. It is shown that the correctness of the numerical methods is limited for ordinary differential equations in the frequency domain. To overcome the difficulties, step-size selection is suggested. (author)

  10. Ordinary Share Price Behaviour Around 'C' Share Issues by Investment Trusts

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Andrew T; Szakacs, M

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines the "C" share issue, a method of issuing shares which is peculiar to the UK investment trust industry. In particular, we analyse abnormal returns and discount/premium to net asset value behaviour of the ordinary shares both before and after the announcement of "C" share issues. The research was conducted using event study methodology and an innovative approach to the analysis of discount/premium movements. The results suggest a tendency for the ordinary shares to outperfor...

  11. Filtering informal learning in everyday life: invoking ordinariness and moving to civic engagement

    OpenAIRE

    Grummell, Bernie

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the role of informal learning from television as it is anchored within the ordinariness of daily life. It examines the consequences for pedagogy and civic engagement, questioning how informal learning from television can enhance civic engagement. For many, this learning was localized through personalized and interpersonal relations of everyday life. Learning was not viewed as a distant institutional force, but as an embedded part of an ordinary life. The invoking of ordi...

  12. Comparison of Body Composition and Energy Intake of Young Female Ballet Dancers and Ordinary School Girls

    OpenAIRE

    Kalniņa Līga; Selga Guntars; Sauka Melita; Randoha Aija; Krasovska Eva; Lāriņš Viesturs

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess body fat level, energy and nutrient intake of adolescent ballet dancers and to compare these results with those of adolescents from ordinary school. Participants included 39 ballet dancers and 70 adolescents from ordinary school. Body composition was measured using a multi-frequency 8-polar bioelectrical impedance leg-to-hand analyser (X-Scan Plus II, Korea). Dietary intakes were assessed using a three-day estimated food record. Nutritional intake was calcul...

  13. The ordinary consumer: the burden of economic sanctions against Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nureev Rustem, M.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The main thrust of the paper - an attempt to assess how much the sanctions combined with the drop in oil prices hit the consumers. This paper provides an overview of the sanctions imposed by European Union, the United States and other countries (ban largest organizations in Russia to attract foreign capital of the European Union and the United States. The burden of economic sanctions against Russia for the average consumer is shown on the change in prices for food products, electronic products, analyzed Russian car market, the dynamics of small and medium-sized businesses in Russia. The results of import substitution - the balances of trade of consumer goods in Q1 2015 compared to Q1 2014. Dynamics of demand for electronic goods in the paper discusses the example of the effect of price changes in the popular Russian companies (Apple, Sony, etc. to sales. Rising prices for electronic goods has led Apple to a Giffen’s paradox in late 2014, the higher the price - the more sales. Despite the rapid rise in prices for the company's products (price of products apple Nov. 25 rose by 25% on December 22 for another 35%, sales growth was 80%. This is due to the fact that Russian consumers feared further rise in price of goods and the goods were afraid to lose, which has become for many of them a necessity. Car loans in Q1 2015 compared to Q1 2014 decreased by 4 times, car sales fell by 2 times, import cars from abroad fell almost 2-fold. Especially hard hit small businesses. If in 2013 in Russia was opened 490.7 thous. legal entities, and closed 419 thousand. Then for 11 months in 2014 opened 417.5 ths. legal entities and closed down 483.6 thousand. This means that if in 2013 opening of 70 thousand legal persons more, in 2014 almost 70 thousand legal persons shut more than open. Statistics show that the number of people wishing to sell his business in 2014 increased significantly. In Moscow, for example, in 2014, it was filed with the 14.5 times the

  14. How ordinary judges and juries decide the seemingly complex technological questions of patentability over the prior art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieff, F Scott

    2003-01-01

    Determinations of patentability over the prior art are often thought to raise questions that are so technologically complex that they require special training and judgment to answer, especially in fast-moving fields like modern biotechnology. This essay explores the somewhat counterintuitive argument that under the U.S. system they do not and should not. According to this view, determinations of patentability over the prior art are based entirely on factual inquiries that are best made by lay judges and juries, just like the factual determinations these people regularly make in any ordinary nonpatent trial. This is good because judges and juries are adept at these determinations, and because appellate courts are adept at reviewing them. It leads to a system that is cheaper overall in allowing private litigants to better predict outcomes that also better approximate the correct answer than would be possible under other regimes premised upon the expert technological knowledge and judgment of a decisionmaker.

  15. Ordinary dielectric function of corundumlike α -Ga2O3 from 40 meV to 20 eV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feneberg, Martin; Nixdorf, Jakob; Neumann, Maciej D.; Esser, Norbert; Artús, Lluis; Cuscó, Ramon; Yamaguchi, Tomohiro; Goldhahn, Rüdiger

    2018-04-01

    The linear optical response of metastable α -Ga2O3 is investigated by spectroscopic ellipsometry. We determine the ordinary dielectric function from lattice vibrations up to the vacuum ultraviolet spectral range at room temperature for a sample with a (0001 ) surface. Three out of four Eu infrared-active phonon modes are unambiguously determined, and their frequencies are in good agreement with density functional theory calculations. The dispersion of the refractive index in the visible and ultraviolet part of the spectrum is determined. High-energy interband transitions are characterized up to 20 eV . By comparison with the optical response of α -Al2O3 and with theoretical results, a tentative assignment of interband transitions is proposed.

  16. Customs control of goods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mentor Gashi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Customs control, is regulated by law in different countries. Different countries define through the law, the control of goods.. Main purpose of this paper is to analyze two types of customs controls, and their effect in reducing avoidance of duty or tax evasion which may be caused by the import of goods of certain companies. For this reason we researched which model is implemented in developing countries and what results were reached through questionnaires. In this sense the next research question, consists in defining the moment of customs control pre or post-clearance control of goods.

  17. Transportation of hazardous goods

    CERN Multimedia

    TS Department

    2008-01-01

    A general reminder: any transportation of hazardous goods by road is subject to the European ADR rules. The goods concerned are essentially the following: Explosive substances and objects; Gases (including aerosols and non-flammable gases such as helium and nitrogen); Flammable substances and liquids (inks, paints, resins, petroleum products, alcohols, acetone, thinners); Toxic substances (acids, thinners); Radioactive substances; Corrosive substances (paints, acids, caustic products, disinfectants, electrical batteries). Any requests for the transport of hazardous goods must be executed in compliance with the instructions given at this URL: http://ts-dep.web.cern.ch/ts-dep/groups/he/HH/adr.pdf Heavy Handling Section TS-HE-HH 73793 - 160364

  18. TRANSPORT OF COUNTERFEIT GOODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Babčanová

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on a current problem of transport of counterfeit goods in the European Union. Counterfeiting has a strong influence on the distribution organizations worldwide because most of counterfeit goods threaten the health and safety of consumers. Counterfeiting is a serious problem in the world economy today. The purpose of this paper is to point out the danger of counterfeiting in connection with the transport of Intellectual Property (IP rights - infringing goods. Background of the paper’s content is based on secondary data research of publicly available sources - international statistics and world reports.

  19. Doing Good, Feeling Bad

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Devika

    2017-01-01

    For decades humanitarianism has captured and shaped the dreams of the populations of the global North, dreams of a better world, of a common humanity, of goodness, of solidarity, and of global healing. In this article I argue that when taking art and cultural objects into account humanitarian......, Danmarks Indsamling [Denmark Collects], and the second is from Norwegian playwright Arne Lygre’s 2011 play, I Disappear. What is at stake in both of these scenes is the status of humanitarianism as a good-enough fantasy and promise of doing good....

  20. Fermentation of animal components in strict carnivores: a comparative study with cheetah fecal inoculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depauw, S; Bosch, G; Hesta, M; Whitehouse-Tedd, K; Hendriks, W H; Kaandorp, J; Janssens, G P J

    2012-08-01

    The natural diet of felids contains highly digestible animal tissues but also fractions resistant to small intestinal digestion, which enter the large intestine where they may be fermented by the resident microbial population. Little information exists on the microbial degradability of animal tissues in the large intestine of felids consuming a natural diet. This study aimed to rank animal substrates in their microbial degradability by means of an in vitro study using captive cheetahs fed a strict carnivorous diet as fecal donors. Fresh cheetah fecal samples were collected, pooled, and incubated with various raw animal substrates (chicken cartilage, collagen, glucosamine-chondroitin, glucosamine, rabbit bone, rabbit hair, and rabbit skin; 4 replicates per substrate) for cumulative gas production measurement in a batch culture technique. Negative (cellulose) and positive (casein and fructo-oligosaccharides; FOS) controls were incorporated in the study. Additionally, after 72 h of incubation, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), including branched-chain fatty acids (BCFA), and ammonia concentrations were determined for each substrate. Glucosamine and glucosamine-chondroitin yielded the greatest organic matter cumulative gas volume (OMCV) among animal substrates (P carnivore, and indicates that animal tissues have potentially similar functions as soluble or insoluble plant fibers in vitro. Further research is warranted to assess the impact of fermentation of each type of animal tissue on gastro-intestinal function and health in the cheetah and other felid species.

  1. Hunting the ghosts of a 'strictly quantum field': the Klein-Gordon equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertozzi, Eugenio

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to identify and tackle some problems related to teaching quantum field theory (QFT) at university level. In particular, problems arising from the canonical quantization are addressed by focusing on the Klein-Gordon equation (KGE). After a brief description of the status of the KGE in teaching as it emerges from an analysis of a selected sample of university textbooks, an analysis of the applications of the KGE in contexts different from the QFT is presented. The results of the analysis show that, while in the real case the solutions of the equation can be easily interpreted from a physical point of view, in the complex case the coherence with relativistic quantum mechanics and the electrodynamics framework brings to light interpretative problems related to the classical complex KG field. The comparison between the classical cases investigated and the QFT framework, where the equation finds a coherent particle interpretation, leads to share Ryder's statement asserting that the KG field is a 'strictly quantum field'. Implications of the results in terms of remarks about the canonical procedure currently utilized for teaching are underlined.

  2. Divergent changes in serum sterols during a strict uncooked vegan diet in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agren, J J; Tvrzicka, E; Nenonen, M T; Helve, T; Hänninen, O

    2001-02-01

    The effects of a strict uncooked vegan diet on serum lipid and sterol concentrations were studied in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The subjects were randomized into a vegan diet group (n 16), who consumed a vegan diet for 2-3 months, or into a control group (n 13), who continued their usual omnivorous diets. Serum total and LDL-cholesterol and -phospholipid concentrations were significantly decreased by the vegan diet. The levels of serum cholestanol and lathosterol also decreased, but serum cholestanol:total cholesterol and lathosterol:total cholesterol did not change. The effect of a vegan diet on serum plant sterols was divergent as the concentration of campesterol decreased while that of sitosterol increased. This effect resulted in a significantly greater sitosterol:campesterol value in the vegan diet group than in the control group (1.48 (SD 0.39) v. 0.72 (SD 0.14); P vegan diet changes the relative absorption rates of these sterols and/or their biliary clearance.

  3. Computational Evaluation of the Strict Master and Random Template Models of Endogenous Retrovirus Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Fabrícia F.; Rodrigo, Allen G.

    2016-01-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) are DNA sequences that are able to replicate and move within and between host genomes. Their mechanism of replication is also shared with endogenous retroviruses (ERVs), which are also a type of TE that represent an ancient retroviral infection within animal genomes. Two models have been proposed to explain TE proliferation in host genomes: the strict master model (SMM), and the random template (or transposon) model (TM). In SMM only a single copy of a given TE lineage is able to replicate, and all other genomic copies of TEs are derived from that master copy. In TM, any element of a given family is able to replicate in the host genome. In this paper, we simulated ERV phylogenetic trees under variations of SMM and TM. To test whether current phylogenetic programs can recover the simulated ERV phylogenies, DNA sequence alignments were simulated and maximum likelihood trees were reconstructed and compared to the simulated phylogenies. Results indicate that visual inspection of phylogenetic trees alone can be misleading. However, if a set of statistical summaries is calculated, we are able to distinguish between models with high accuracy by using a data mining algorithm that we introduce here. We also demonstrate the use of our data mining algorithm with empirical data for the porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV), an ERV that is able to replicate in human and pig cells in vitro. PMID:27649303

  4. Generalized mechanical pain sensitivity over nerve tissues in patients with strictly unilateral migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Cuadrado, María Luz; Pareja, Juan A

    2009-06-01

    No study has previously analyzed pressure pain sensitivity of nerve trunks in migraine. This study aimed to examine the differences in mechanical pain sensitivity over specific nerves between patients with unilateral migraine and healthy controls. Blinded investigators assessed pressure pain thresholds (PPT) over the supra-orbital nerves (V1) and peripheral nerve trunks of both upper extremities (median, radial, and ulnar nerves) in 20 patients with strictly unilateral migraine and 20 healthy matched controls. Pain intensity after palpation over both supra-orbital nerves was also assessed. A pressure algometer was used to quantify PPT, whereas a 10-point numerical pain rate scale was used to evaluate pain to palpation over the supra-orbital nerve. The analysis of covariance revealed that pain to palpation over the supra-orbital nerve was significantly higher (P0.6). In patients with unilateral migraine, we found increased mechano-sensitivity of the supra-orbital nerve on the symptomatic side of the head. Outside the head, the same patients showed increased mechano-sensitivity of the main peripheral nerves of both upper limbs, without asymmetries. Such diffuse hypersensitivity of the peripheral nerves lends further evidence to the presence of a state of hyperexcitability of the central nervous system in patients with unilateral migraine.

  5. DNA remodelling by Strict Partial Endoreplication in orchids, an original process in the plant kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Spencer C; Bourge, Mickaël; Maunoury, Nicolas; Wong, Maurice; Bianchi, Michele Wolfe; Lepers-Andrzejewski, Sandra; Besse, Pascale; Siljak-Yakovlev, Sonja; Dron, Michel; Satiat-Jeunemaître, Béatrice

    2017-04-13

    DNA remodelling during endoreplication appears to be a strong developmental characteristic in orchids. In this study, we analysed DNA content and nuclei in 41 species of orchids to further map the genome evolution in this plant family. We demonstrate that the DNA remodelling observed in 36 out of 41 orchids studied corresponds to strict partial endoreplication. Such process is developmentally regulated in each wild species studied. Cytometry data analyses allowed us to propose a model where nuclear states 2C, 4E, 8E, etc. form a series comprising a fixed proportion, the euploid genome 2C, plus 2 to 32 additional copies of a complementary part of the genome. The fixed proportion ranged from 89% of the genome in Vanilla mexicana down to 19% in V. pompona, the lowest value for all 148 orchids reported. Insterspecific hybridisation did not suppress this phenomenon. Interestingly, this process was not observed in mass-produced epiphytes. Nucleolar volumes grow with the number of endocopies present, coherent with high transcription activity in endoreplicated nuclei. Our analyses suggest species-specific chromatin rearrangement. Towards understanding endoreplication, V. planifolia constitutes a tractable system for isolating the genomic sequences that confer an advantage via endoreplication from those that apparently suffice at diploid level. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  6. Effect of a strict vegan diet on energy and nutrient intakes by Finnish rheumatoid patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauma, A L; Nenonen, M; Helve, T; Hänninen, O

    1993-10-01

    Dietary intake data of 43 Finnish rheumatoid arthritis patients were collected using 7-day food records. The subjects were randomized into a control and a vegan diet groups, consisting of 22 and 21 subjects, respectively. The subjects in the vegan diet group received an uncooked vegan diet ('living food') for 3 months, and they were tutored daily by a living-food expert. The subjects in the control group continued their usual diets and received no tutoring. Adherence to the strict vegan diet was assessed on the basis of urinary sodium excretion and by the information on consumption of specific food items (wheatgrass juice and the rejuvelac drink). The use of these drinks was variable, and some boiled vegetables were consumed occasionally. However, only one of the subjects in the vegan diet group lacked a clear decrease in urinary sodium excretion. Rheumatoid patients had lower than recommended intakes of iron, zinc and niacin, and their energy intake was low compared to mean daily energy intake of the healthy Finnish females of the same age. Shifting to the uncooked vegan diet significantly increased the intakes of energy and many nutrients. In spite of the increased energy intake, the group on the vegan diet lost 9% of their body weight during the intervention period, indicating a low availability of energy from the vegan diet.

  7. A strictly monofunctional bacterial hydroxymethylpyrimidine phosphate kinase precludes damaging errors in thiamin biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamm, Antje M; Li, Gengnan; Taja-Moreno, Marlene; Gerdes, Svetlana Y; de Crécy-Lagard, Valérie; Bruner, Steven D; Hanson, Andrew D

    2017-07-20

    The canonical kinase (ThiD) that converts the thiamin biosynthesis intermediate hydroxymethylpyrimidine (HMP) monophosphate to the diphosphate can also very efficiently convert free HMP to the monophosphate in prokaryotes, plants, and fungi. This HMP kinase activity enables salvage of HMP, but it is not substrate-specific and so allows toxic HMP analogs and damage products to infiltrate the thiamin biosynthesis pathway. Comparative analysis of bacterial genomes uncovered a gene, thiD2 , that is often fused to the thiamin synthesis gene thiE and could potentially encode a replacement for ThiD. Standalone ThiD2 proteins and ThiD2 fusion domains are small (~130-residues) and do not belong to any previously known protein family. Genetic and biochemical analyses showed that representative standalone and fused ThiD2 proteins catalyze phosphorylation of HMP monophosphate, but not of HMP or its toxic analogs and damage products such as bacimethrin and 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-methylpyrimidin-4-ol. As strictly monofunctional HMP monophosphate kinases, ThiD2 proteins eliminate a potentially fatal vulnerability of canonical ThiD, at the cost of the ability to reclaim HMP formed by thiamin turnover. ©2017 The Author(s).

  8. Clinical impact of strict criteria for selectivity and lateralization in adrenal vein sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparetto, Alessandro; Angle, John F; Darvishi, Pasha; Freeman, Colbey W; Norby, Ray G; Carey, Robert M

    2015-04-01

    Selectivity index (SI) and lateralization index (LI) thresholds determine the adequacy of adrenal vein sampling (AVS) and the degree of lateralization. The purpose of this study was investigate the clinical outcome of patients whose adrenal vein sampling was interpreted using "strict criteria" (SC) (SIpre-stimuli≥3, SIpost-stimuli≥5 and LIpre-stimuli≥4, LIpost-stimuli≥4). A retrospective review of 73 consecutive AVS procedures was performed and 67 were technically successful. Forty-three patients showed lateralization and underwent surgery, while 24 did not lateralize and were managed conservatively. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), kalemia (K(+)), and the change in number of blood pressure (BP) medications were recorded for each patient before and after AVS and potential surgery were performed. In the surgery group, BP and K(+) changed respectively from 160±5.3/100±2.0 mmHg to 127±3.3/80±1.9 (p blood pressure medications were six (14.0%) in the lateralized group and 22 (91.7%) in the non-lateralized group (p <0.001). AVS interpretation with SC leads to significant clinical improvement in both patients who underwent surgery and those managed conservatively.

  9. Abusing Good Intentions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamas Bereczkei

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to understand how Machiavellians switch from one kind of response to another in different circumstances to maximize their profit. We set up a specific experimental paradigm that involved both a cooperative and competitive version of a public goods game. We found that Machiavellianism accounts for the total amount of money paid by the players (N = 144 across five rounds in the cooperative but not in the competitive game. Compared with the others, individuals with higher scores on Mach scale contributed less to the public goods in the cooperative condition, but no difference was found in the competitive condition. Finally, this relationship was influenced by the sequence of the games. These results indicate that Machiavellians skillfully evaluate social environments and strive to exploit those with abundant contributions to public goods.

  10. Doing Good Parenthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This edited collection shows that good parenthood is neither fixed nor stable. The contributors show how parenthood is equally done by men, women and children, in and through practices involving different normative guidelines. The book explores how normative layers of parenthood are constituted...... by notions such as good childhood, family ideals, national public health and educational strategies. The authors illustrate how different versions of parenthood coexist and how complex sets of actions are demanded to fulfil today’s expectations of parenthood in Western societies. This interdisciplinary book...

  11. From Goods to Solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakkol, Mehmet; Johnson, Mark; Raja, Jawwad

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to adopt service-dominant logic (SDL) to empirically explore network configurations resulting from the provision of goods, goods and services, and solutions. Design/methodology/approach – This paper uses a single, in-depth, exploratory case study in a truck manufacturer......: dyadic, triadic and tetradic. The extent to which different network actors contribute to value co-creation varies across the offerings. Research limitations/implications – This paper is based on a single, in-depth case study developed in one industrial context. Whilst this represents an appropriate...

  12. Ordinary Social Interaction and the Main Effect Between Perceived Support and Affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakey, Brian; Vander Molen, Randy J; Fles, Elizabeth; Andrews, Justin

    2016-10-01

    Relational regulation theory hypothesizes that (a) the main effect between perceived support and mental health primarily reflects ordinary social interaction rather than conversations about stress and how to cope with it, and (b) the extent to which a provider regulates a recipient's mental health primarily reflects the recipient's personal taste (i.e., is relational), rather than the provider's objective supportiveness. In three round-robin studies, participants rated each other on supportiveness and the quality of ordinary social interaction, as well as their own affect when interacting with each other. Samples included marines about to deploy to Afghanistan (N = 100; 150 dyads), students sharing apartments (N = 64; 96 dyads), and strangers (N = 48; 72 dyads). Perceived support and ordinary social interaction were primarily relational, and most of perceived support's main effect on positive affect was redundant with ordinary social interaction. The main effect between perceived support and affect emerged among strangers after brief text conversations, and these links were partially verified by independent observers. Findings for negative affect were less consistent with theory. Ordinary social interaction appears to be able to explain much of the main effect between perceived support and positive affect. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Effect of fast freeze-thaw cycles on mechanical properties of ordinary-air-entrained concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Huai-shuai; Cao, Wei-qun; Wang, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Freezing-thawing resistance is a very significant characteristic for concrete in severe environment (such as cold region with the lowest temperature below 0°C). In this study, ordinary-air-entrained (O-A-E) concrete was produced in a laboratory environment; the compressive strength, cubic compressive strength of C50, C40, C30, C25, and C20 ordinary-air-entrained concrete, tensile strength, and cleavage strength of C30 ordinary-air-entrained concrete were measured after fast freeze-thaw cycles. The effects of fast freeze-thaw cycles on the mechanical properties (compressive strength and cleavage strength) of ordinary-air-entrained concrete materials are investigated on the basis of the experimental results. And the concise mathematical formula between mechanical behavior and number of fast freeze-thaw cycles was established. The experiment results can be used as a reference in design, maintenance, and life prediction of ordinary-air-entrained concrete structure (such as dam, offshore platform, etc.) in cold regions.

  14. Reconsidering the "Good Divorce"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Paul R.; Kane, Jennifer B.; James, Spencer

    2011-01-01

    This study attempted to assess the notion that a "good divorce" protects children from the potential negative consequences of marital dissolution. A cluster analysis of data on postdivorce parenting from 944 families resulted in three groups: cooperative coparenting, parallel parenting, and single parenting. Children in the cooperative coparenting…

  15. GOOD GOVERNANCE AND TRANSFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Jürgen WAGENER

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Transformation of a totalitarian, basically administratively coordinated system into a democratic one that is coordinated predominantly by markets and competition has been triggered by, among others, the perception of a serious deficit in welfare and happiness. Public policy has a special task transforming the economic order by liberalisation, privatisation, stabilisation and the installation of institutions that are supportive for competition. After 15 years since transformation began, there are sufficiently differentiated success stories to test the hypothesis: it was good governance that is responsible for success and bad governance for failure. The empirical results support the “Lorenzetti hypothesis”: where freedom, security and trust prevail, the economy flourishes, where they are lacking, the costs of long-term investment are too high. The initial conditions of transition countries seem to be quite similar, nevertheless, even there one can discern good and bad governance. The extent of socialist lawfulness, planning security, cronyism and corruption differed widely between East Berlin and Tashkent. And a good deal of such variations can be found in the pre-socialist history of these countries. However, the main conclusion is that the co-evolution hypothesis states that both, welfare and good governance, go together.

  16. Financial Giffen Goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Rolf; Rasmussen, Kourosh Marjani

    2008-01-01

    In the basic Markowitz and Merton models, a stock’s weight in efficient portfolios goes up if its expected rate of return goes up. Put differently, there are no financial Giffen goods. By an example from mortgage choice we illustrate that for more complicated portfolio problems Giffen effects do...

  17. Good Apple Homework Helper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipriano, Jeri S.

    This book, designed for students in grades 4 to 6, provides advice to help them do homework independently and successfully. Part 1, "Developing Good Habits," presents exercises and tips on organization and time management, including a self-inventory of homework habits, assistance in goal setting, and designing a personal schedule. Part 2, "Getting…

  18. Ecology and the Good

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, James W.

    1971-01-01

    Our value system relating to the natural sciences is examined for its acceptability and worthiness. Scrutinized are the cognitive meanings about values, validity of values, subjective and cultural relativism, the good of objective realities, and cooperation with natural forces and God. (BL)

  19. 'The Good Citizen’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offersen, Sara Marie Hebsgaard; Vedsted, Peter; Andersen, Rikke Sand

    2017-01-01

    the Danish welfare state and the middle-class popula- tion is embodied in a responsibility for individual health. Overall, we identify a striving to be a ‘good citizen’; this entails confl icting moral possibilities in relation to experiencing, interpreting and acting on bodily sensations. We examine how...

  20. Anoxybacillus vitaminiphilus sp. nov., a strictly aerobic and moderately thermophilic bacterium isolated from a hot spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin-Qi; Zhang, Zhen-Li; Wu, Nan; Zhu, Xu-Fen; Wu, Min

    2013-11-01

    A strictly aerobic, Gram-stain-positive, motile and spore-forming bacterium, strain 3nP4(T), was isolated from the Puge hot spring located in the south-western geothermal area of China. Strain 3nP4(T) grew at 38-66 °C (optimum 57-60 °C), at pH 6.0-9.3 (optimum 7.0-7.5) and with 0-4 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 0-0.5 %). Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences, as well as DNA-DNA relatedness values, indicated that the isolate represents a novel species of the genus Anoxybacillus, related most closely to Anoxybacillus voinovskiensis DSM 12111(T). Strain 3nP4(T) had diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and one unidentified phospholipid as major polar lipids and iso-C15 : 0 and iso-C17 : 0 as major fatty acids, which are both typical chemotaxonomic characteristics of the genus Anoxybacillus. The mean DNA G+C content of strain 3nP4(T) was 39.2±0.95 mol% (HPLC). A distinctive characteristic of the novel isolate was its extreme reliance on vitamin mixture or yeast extract for growth. Based on data from this taxonomic study using a polyphasic approach, strain 3nP4(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Anoxybacillus, for which the name Anoxybacillus vitaminiphilus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 3nP4(T) ( = CGMCC 1.8979(T) = JCM 16594(T)).

  1. The predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis does not perceive odor mixtures as strictly elemental objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, Michiel; de Bruijn, Paulien J A; Sabelis, Maurice W

    2010-11-01

    . persimilis perceives odor mixtures as a collection of strictly elemental objects. They suggest that odor mixtures rather are perceived as one synthetic whole.

  2. Molecular basis of a novel adaptation to hypoxic-hypercapnia in a strictly fossorial mole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonaventura Joseph

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elevated blood O2 affinity enhances survival at low O2 pressures, and is perhaps the best known and most broadly accepted evolutionary adjustment of terrestrial vertebrates to environmental hypoxia. This phenotype arises by increasing the intrinsic O2 affinity of the hemoglobin (Hb molecule, by decreasing the intracellular concentration of allosteric effectors (e.g., 2,3-diphosphoglycerate; DPG, or by suppressing the sensitivity of Hb to these physiological cofactors. Results Here we report that strictly fossorial eastern moles (Scalopus aquaticus have evolved a low O2 affinity, DPG-insensitive Hb - contrary to expectations for a mammalian species that is adapted to the chronic hypoxia and hypercapnia of subterranean burrow systems. Molecular modelling indicates that this functional shift is principally attributable to a single charge altering amino acid substitution in the β-type δ-globin chain (δ136Gly→Glu of this species that perturbs electrostatic interactions between the dimer subunits via formation of an intra-chain salt-bridge with δ82Lys. However, this replacement also abolishes key binding sites for the red blood cell effectors Cl-, lactate and DPG (the latter of which is virtually absent from the red cells of this species at δ82Lys, thereby markedly reducing competition for carbamate formation (CO2 binding at the δ-chain N-termini. Conclusions We propose this Hb phenotype illustrates a novel mechanism for adaptively elevating the CO2 carrying capacity of eastern mole blood during burst tunnelling activities associated with subterranean habitation.

  3. Light perception in two strictly subterranean rodents: life in the dark or blue?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondrej Kott

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The African mole-rats (Bathyergidae, Rodentia are strictly subterranean, congenitally microphthalmic rodents that are hardly ever exposed to environmental light. Because of the lack of an overt behavioural reaction to light, they have long been considered to be blind. However, recent anatomical studies have suggested retention of basic visual capabilities. In this study, we employed behavioural tests to find out if two mole-rat species are able to discriminate between light and dark, if they are able to discriminate colours and, finally, if the presence of light in burrows provokes plugging behaviour, which is assumed to have a primarily anti-predatory function. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: We used a binary choice test to show that the silvery mole-rat Heliophobius argenteocinereus and the giant mole-rat Fukomys mechowii exhibit a clear photoavoidance response to full-spectrum ("white", blue and green-yellow light, but no significant reaction to ultraviolet or red light during nest building. The mole-rats thus retain dark/light discrimination capabilities and a capacity to perceive short to medium-wavelength light in the photopic range of intensities. These findings further suggest that the mole-rat S opsin has its absorption maximum in the violet/blue part of the spectrum. The assay did not yield conclusive evidence regarding colour discrimination. To test the putative role of vision in bathyergid anti-predatory behaviour, we examined the reaction of mole-rats to the incidence of light in an artificial burrow system. The presence of light in the burrow effectively induced plugging of the illuminated tunnel. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings suggest that the photopic vision is conserved and that low acuity residual vision plays an important role in predator avoidance and tunnel maintenance in the African mole-rats.

  4. X-ray diffractometry of steam cured ordinary Portland and blast-furnace-slag cements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camarini, G.; Djanikian, J.G.

    1994-01-01

    This work studies some aspects of the phases produced by hydration of ordinary and blast-furnace-slag cements, at normal conditions and steam cured (60 and 95 0 C), using an X-ray diffraction technique. The blast-furnace-slag cement was a mixture of 50% of ordinary Portland cement and 50% of blast-furnace-slag (separately grinding). After curing the X-ray diffraction reveals that, in relation to ordinary Portland cement, the main phases in blast-furnace-slag cement are hydrated silicates and aluminates, hydro garnet, etringitte and mono sulphate. After steam curing the hydration of blast-furnace-slag cement proceeds. This is a result of the slag activation by the curing temperature. (author). 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  5. Communication: Surface-facilitated softening of ordinary and vapor-deposited glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubeta, Ulyana; Bhattacharya, Deepanjan; Sadtchenko, Vlad

    2017-08-01

    A common distinction between the ordinary glasses formed by melt cooling and the stable amorphous films formed by vapor deposition is the apparent mechanism of their devitrification. Using quasi-adiabatic, fast scanning calorimetry that is capable of heating rates in excess of 105 K s-1, we have investigated the softening kinetics of micrometer-scale, ordinary glass films of methylbenzene and 2-propanol. At the limit of high heating rates, the transformation mechanism of ordinary glasses is identical to that of their stable vapor-deposited counterparts. In both cases, softening is likely to begin at the sample surface and progress into its bulk via a transformation front. Furthermore, such a surface-facilitated mechanism complies with zero-order, Arrhenius rate law. The activation energy barriers for the softening transformation imply that the kinetics must be defined, at least in part, by the initial thermodynamic and structural state of the samples.

  6. A comparison of flashbacks and ordinary autobiographical memories of trauma: content and language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellawell, Steph J; Brewin, Chris R

    2004-01-01

    We investigated hypotheses derived from the dual representation theory of posttraumatic stress disorder, which proposes that flashbacks and ordinary memories of trauma are supported by different types of representation. Sixty-two participants meeting diagnostic criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder completed a detailed written trauma narrative, and afterwards identified those sections in the narrative that had been written in flashback and ordinary memory periods. As predicted, flashback periods were characterised by greater use of detail, particularly perceptual detail, by more mentions of death, more use of the present tense, and more mention of fear, helplessness, and horror. In contrast, ordinary memory sections were characterised by more mention of secondary emotions such as guilt and anger.

  7. Nanodiamonds and silicate minerals in ordinary chondrites as determined by micro-Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikia, Bhaskar J.; Parthasarathy, Gopalakrishnarao; Borah, Rashmi R.

    2017-06-01

    We present here the Raman spectroscopic study of silicate and carbonaceous minerals in three ordinary chondrites with the aim to improve our understanding the impact process including the peak metamorphic pressures present in carbon-bearing ordinary chondites. The characteristic Raman vibrational peaks of olivines, pyroxenes, and plagioclase have been determined on three ordinary chondrites from India, Dergaon (H5), Mahadevpur (H4/5), and Kamargaon (L6). The Raman spectra of these meteorite samples show the presence of nanodiamonds at 1334-1345 cm-1 and 1591-1619 cm-1. The full-width at half maximum (FWHM) of Raman peaks for Mahadevpur and Dergaon reflect the nature of shock metamorphism in these meteorites. The frequency shift in Raman spectra might be because of shock effects during the formation of the diamond/graphite grains.

  8. Stream Kriging: Incremental and recursive ordinary Kriging over spatiotemporal data streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xu; Kealy, Allison; Duckham, Matt

    2016-05-01

    Ordinary Kriging is widely used for geospatial interpolation and estimation. Due to the O (n3) time complexity of solving the system of linear equations, ordinary Kriging for a large set of source points is computationally intensive. Conducting real-time Kriging interpolation over continuously varying spatiotemporal data streams can therefore be especially challenging. This paper develops and tests two new strategies for improving the performance of an ordinary Kriging interpolator adapted to a stream-processing environment. These strategies rely on the expectation that, over time, source data points will frequently refer to the same spatial locations (for example, where static sensor nodes are generating repeated observations of a dynamic field). First, an incremental strategy improves efficiency in cases where a relatively small proportion of previously processed spatial locations are absent from the source points at any given iteration. Second, a recursive strategy improves efficiency in cases where there is substantial set overlap between the sets of spatial locations of source points at the current and previous iterations. These two strategies are evaluated in terms of their computational efficiency in comparison to ordinary Kriging algorithm. The results show that these two strategies can reduce the time taken to perform the interpolation by up to 90%, and approach average-case time complexity of O (n2) when most but not all source points refer to the same locations over time. By combining the approaches developed in this paper with existing heuristic ordinary Kriging algorithms, the conclusions indicate how further efficiency gains could potentially be accrued. The work ultimately contributes to the development of online ordinary Kriging interpolation algorithms, capable of real-time spatial interpolation with large streaming data sets.

  9. Ridge regression estimator: combining unbiased and ordinary ridge regression methods of estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharad Damodar Gore

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Statistical literature has several methods for coping with multicollinearity. This paper introduces a new shrinkage estimator, called modified unbiased ridge (MUR. This estimator is obtained from unbiased ridge regression (URR in the same way that ordinary ridge regression (ORR is obtained from ordinary least squares (OLS. Properties of MUR are derived. Results on its matrix mean squared error (MMSE are obtained. MUR is compared with ORR and URR in terms of MMSE. These results are illustrated with an example based on data generated by Hoerl and Kennard (1975.

  10. Lie group classification of first-order delay ordinary differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorodnitsyn, Vladimir A.; Kozlov, Roman; Meleshko, Sergey V.; Winternitz, Pavel

    2018-05-01

    A group classification of first-order delay ordinary differential equations (DODEs) accompanied by an equation for the delay parameter (delay relation) is presented. A subset of such systems (delay ordinary differential systems or DODSs), which consists of linear DODEs and solution-independent delay relations, have infinite-dimensional symmetry algebras—as do nonlinear ones that are linearizable by an invertible transformation of variables. Genuinely nonlinear DODSs have symmetry algebras of dimension n, . It is shown how exact analytical solutions of invariant DODSs can be obtained using symmetry reduction.

  11. Influence of oak planting on microelement composition (on example of Mn) of ordinary chernozem

    OpenAIRE

    Y. O. Tagunova

    2011-01-01

    Changes of Mn content in the ordinary chernozem of the forb-fescue-stipa steppeunder the influence of oak afforestation within the Prisamar’ya Dniprovske region were studied. The increase of the Mn content in the soil under the artificial oak plantation was noted. The average gross content of Mn in the root layer of the chernozem improved by forest was 541.2 mg/kg and 139.2 mg/kg in the ordinary chernozem. Average content of potentially available metal (mobile forms) in the root layer is 0.5 ...

  12. Ordinary least square regression, orthogonal regression, geometric mean regression and their applications in aerosol science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leng Ling; Zhang Tianyi; Kleinman, Lawrence; Zhu Wei

    2007-01-01

    Regression analysis, especially the ordinary least squares method which assumes that errors are confined to the dependent variable, has seen a fair share of its applications in aerosol science. The ordinary least squares approach, however, could be problematic due to the fact that atmospheric data often does not lend itself to calling one variable independent and the other dependent. Errors often exist for both measurements. In this work, we examine two regression approaches available to accommodate this situation. They are orthogonal regression and geometric mean regression. Comparisons are made theoretically as well as numerically through an aerosol study examining whether the ratio of organic aerosol to CO would change with age

  13. Numerical solution of stiff systems of ordinary differential equations with applications to electronic circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, J. S.

    1971-01-01

    Systems of ordinary differential equations in which the magnitudes of the eigenvalues (or time constants) vary greatly are commonly called stiff. Such systems of equations arise in nuclear reactor kinetics, the flow of chemically reacting gas, dynamics, control theory, circuit analysis and other fields. The research reported develops an A-stable numerical integration technique for solving stiff systems of ordinary differential equations. The method, which is called the generalized trapezoidal rule, is a modification of the trapezoidal rule. However, the method is computationally more efficient than the trapezoidal rule when the solution of the almost-discontinuous segments is being calculated.

  14. Generation and Identification of Ordinary Differential Equations of Maximal Symmetry Algebra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Ndogmo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An effective method for generating linear ordinary differential equations of maximal symmetry in their most general form is found, and an explicit expression for the point transformation reducing the equation to its canonical form is obtained. New expressions for the general solution are also found, as well as several identification and other results and a direct proof of the fact that a linear ordinary differential equation is iterative if and only if it is reducible to the canonical form by a point transformation. New classes of solvable equations parameterized by an arbitrary function are also found, together with simple algebraic expressions for the corresponding general solution.

  15. Differential equation analysis in biomedical science and engineering ordinary differential equation applications with R

    CERN Document Server

    Schiesser, William E

    2014-01-01

    Features a solid foundation of mathematical and computational tools to formulate and solve real-world ODE problems across various fields With a step-by-step approach to solving ordinary differential equations (ODEs), Differential Equation Analysis in Biomedical Science and Engineering: Ordinary Differential Equation Applications with R successfully applies computational techniques for solving real-worldODE problems that are found in a variety of fields, including chemistry, physics, biology,and physiology. The book provides readers with the necessary knowledge to reproduce andextend the comp

  16. Luggage and shipped goods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, H.; Haller, D.

    2007-01-01

    Summary: Purpose: Control of luggage and shipped goods are frequently carried out. The possibilities of X-ray technology shall be demonstrated. Materials and methods: There are different imaging techniques. The main concepts are transmission imaging, backscatter imaging, computed tomography, and dual energy imaging and the combination of different methods The images come from manufacturers and personal collections. Results: The search concerns mainly, weapons, explosives, and drugs; furthermore animals, and stolen goods, Special problems offer the control of letters and the detection of Improvised Explosive Devices (IED). Conclusion: One has to expect that controls will increase and that imaging with X-rays will have their part. Pattern recognition software will be used for analysis enforced by economy and by demand for higher efficiency - man and computer will produce more security than man alone

  17. Meet the good child

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Malene; Grønhøj, Alice

    2016-01-01

    This article explores ‘childing’ pratices in relation to family supermarket shopping in Denmark. ‘Parenting’ practices have been explored for long but little attention has been given to how children strive to be ‘good’ children, who live up to certain standards and recognize what they perceive...... to be appropriate child and parental behavior. The study takes a practice theoretical perspective, building on previous research on family consumption, and draws empirically on 35 interviews with 5–6 year-olds and 13 family interviews. Findings show that the children recognize the position of ‘the good child......’ and most often prefer to take on this position, which is confirmed by their parents. The children can describe how ‘the good child’—in their eyes—should behave. They prefer consensus and not being embarrassing or embarrassed. The study concludes that the children are strongly immersed in social norms...

  18. Trees are good, but…

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.G. McPherson; F. Ferrini

    2010-01-01

    We know that “trees are good,” and most people believe this to be true. But if this is so, why are so many trees neglected, and so many tree wells empty? An individual’s attitude toward trees may result from their firsthand encounters with specific trees. Understanding how attitudes about trees are shaped, particularly aversion to trees, is critical to the business of...

  19. Codes of Good Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck Jørgensen, Torben; Sørensen, Ditte-Lene

    2013-01-01

    Good governance is a broad concept used by many international organizations to spell out how states or countries should be governed. Definitions vary, but there is a clear core of common public values, such as transparency, accountability, effectiveness, and the rule of law. It is quite likely......, transparency, neutrality, impartiality, effectiveness, accountability, and legality. The normative context of public administration, as expressed in codes, seems to ignore the New Public Management and Reinventing Government reform movements....

  20. Everybody needs good neighbours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, G. [Peabody Energy (United States)

    2006-05-15

    The paper outlines the possibilities for mines to work with surrounding communities to bring about effective land reclamation. Last year Peabody Energy teams reclaimed more than 5000 acres of land and planted nearly 750,000 trees, demonstrating that sustainable development is possible in a way that is compatible with environmental improvement in coal mining. The company has won over 20 awards over the last two years. The North Antelope Rochelle Mine in Wyoming earned a Gold Good Neighbour Award for promoting best practices in environmental conservation and mining education. The Black Mesa and Kayenta mines, which operate on Navajo and Hopi lands in Arizona, were honoured with a Silver Good Neighbour Award and a National Excellence in Mining and Reclamation Award. These mines partnered with the tribes, the Bureau of Indian Affairs and local residents to give residents access to grazing land still under Peabody's control. The Farmersburg Mine in Indiana received the Bronze Good Neighbour Award for commitment to industry education and outreach activities. 5 photos.

  1. Microbial Activity in Peat Soil Treated With Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) and Coal Ashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, J. A.; Mohamed, R. M. S. R.; Al-Gheethi, A. A.

    2018-04-01

    Peat soil is a cumulative of decayed plant fragment which developed as a result of microbial activity. The microbes degrade the organic matter in the peat soils by the production of hydrolysis enzyme. The least decomposed peat, known as fibric peat has big particles and retain lots of water. This made peat having high moisture content, up to 1500 %. The most decomposed peat known as sapric peat having fines particles and less void ratio. The present study aimed to understand the effects of solidification process on the bacterial growth and cellulase (CMCase) enzyme activity. Two types of mixing were designed for fibric, hemic and sapric peats; (i) Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) at an equal amount of dry peat, with 25 % of fly ash (FA) and total of coarse particle, a combination of bottom ash and fibre of 22 – 34 %, (ii) fibric peat was using water-to-binder ratio (w/b) = 1, 50% OPC, 25 % bottom ash (BA) and 25 % FA. For hemic and sapric peat, w/b=3 with 50 % OPC and 50 % BA were used. All samples were prepared triplicates, and were cured for 7, 14, 28 and 56 days in a closed container at room temperature. The results revealed that the first mix design giving a continuous strength development. However, the second mix design shows a decreased in strength pattern after day 28. The influence of the environment factors such as alkaline pH, reduction of the water content and peat temperature has no significant on the reduction amount of native microbes in the peat. The microbes survived in the solidified peat but the amount of microbes were found reduced for all types of mixing Fibric Mixed 1 (FM1), Hemic Mixed 1(HM1) and Sapric Mixed 1 (SM1) were having good strength increment for about 330 – 1427 % with enzymatic activity recorded even after D56. Nevertheless, with increase in the strength development through curing days, the enzymatic activities were reduced. For the time being, it can be concluded that the microbes have the ability to adapt with new environment

  2. Convergence of Implicit and Explicit Schemes for an Asymptotically Nonexpansive Mapping in -Uniformly Smooth and Strictly Convex Banach Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Wen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a new iterative scheme with Meir-Keeler contractions for an asymptotically nonexpansive mapping in -uniformly smooth and strictly convex Banach spaces. We also proved the strong convergence theorems of implicit and explicit schemes. The results obtained in this paper extend and improve many recent ones announced by many others.

  3. Short-Acting Gas Tamponade with Strict Face-Down Posturing for the Treatment of Idiopathic Macular Hole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotzaridis, Stratos; Liazos, Efstathios; Petrou, Petros; Georgalas, Ilias

    2017-01-01

    A retrospective consecutive case series to evaluate the safety and efficacy of 25 gauge pars plana vitrectomy, ILM peeling, 20% SF 6 gas tamponade and strict posturing for the treatment of idiopathic full-thickness macular holes. We report the results of 106 consecutive eyes that underwent standard 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy, brilliant peel-assisted internal limiting membrane peel, fluid:gas exchange with 20% SF 6 and strict posturing for one week. All patients were followed up at one week, one month, three months, and nine months postoperatively. Biomicroscopy at day 1 and biomicroscopy and OCT at week 1, months 1, 3, and 9 were used to assess macular hole status postoperatively. Pre- and postoperative logMAR visual acuity was compared. The macular hole was closed in 102/106 eyes postoperatively (96.2%). Four eyes showed unclosed macular holes and underwent additional SF 6 intravitreal injection and strict posturing for 10 days. All macular holes were eventually closed without the need of a second surgical procedure. Mean visual acuity improved from 0.63 logMAR preoperatively to 0.39 logMAR postoperatively. One case of retinal toxicity was reported due to accidental intravitreal injection of antibiotic. 25-gauge vitrectomy, ILM peel, and short-acting gas tamponade are highly effective for the treatment of macular holes. Additional intravitreal gas injection followed by strict posturing seems to be a simple and effective treatment for unclosed holes.

  4. Distinct Osmoadaptation Strategies in the Strict Halophilic and Halotolerant Bacteria Isolated from Lunsu Salt Water Body of North West Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Shivani; Dev, Kamal; Sourirajan, Anuradha

    2018-07-01

    Two strict halophilic bacterial strains, Halobacillus trueperi SS1, and Halobacillus trueperi SS3, and three halotolerant bacterial strains, Shewanella algae SS2, Halomonas venusta SS5, and Marinomonas sp. SS8 of Lunsu salt water body, Himachal Pradesh, India, were selected to study the mechanism of salt tolerance and the role of osmolytes therein. A combination of flame photometry, chromatographic and colorimetric assays was used to study the mechanism of salt tolerance in the selected strict halophilic and halotolerant bacterial strains. The strict halophiles and, one of the halotolerants, Marinomonas sp. SS8 were found to utilize both "salt-in strategy" and "accumulation of compatible solutes strategy" for osmoregulation in hypersaline conditions. On the contrary, the remaining two halotolerants used "accumulation of compatible solutes strategy" under saline stress and not the "salt-in strategy". The present study suggests towards distinct mechanisms of salt tolerance in the two classes, wherein strict halophiles accumulate compatible solutes as well as adopt salt-in strategy, while the halotolerant bacteria accumulate a range of compatible solutes, except Marinomonas sp. SS8, which utilizes both the strategies to combat salt stress.

  5. A good day's work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruck, F A

    2001-10-01

    Lowell's poorly executed supervisor/employee interaction was a lose-lose proposition. If other employees feel that Sue is being treated unfairly, there will be negative repercussions throughout the system. Employees must have confidence that they will be treated in a fair and equal manner when they have problems on the job. If management is not consistent in handling these problems, employees will spend time second-guessing critical decisions, and patient care will suffer. Sue and Dunk did a good job with their clinical care of Maudie. With improved patient communication, Maudie might have understood the reasons for her treatment, and this complaint might never have been made.

  6. Dangerous goods emergency response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, K.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on a general overview of the State of Western Australia including: the legal framework of the Dangerous Goods and Emergency response management scenarios (which consist mainly of fuel products such as LP gas); particular problems unique to the Western Australian environment; what has been done to overcome those problems. Western Australia has an area of about two and a half million square kilometers. The demography of the State is such that the population is concentrated in the south-west corner of the State with isolated pockets, mainly associated with mineral development but also associated with agriculture, scattered throughout the State

  7. Nuclear waste: good news

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, Michel

    2014-01-01

    The author states that the problem of nuclear wastes is solved. He states that 90 per cent of radioactive wastes are now permanently managed and that technical solutions for deep geological storage and for transmutation will soon solve the problem for the remaining 10 pc. He states that geological storage will be funded (it is included in electricity price). He denounces why these facts which he consider as good news, do not prevail. He proposes several documents in appendix: a text explaining the nuclear fuel cycle in France, and an extract of a report made by the national inventory of radioactive materials and wastes

  8. Good manufacturing practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlyer, D.J.

    2001-01-01

    In this presentation author deals with the Implementation of good manufacturing practice for radiopharmaceuticals. The presentation is divided into next parts: Batch size; Expiration date; QC Testing; Environmental concerns; Personnel aspects; Radiation concerns; Theoretical yields; Sterilizing filters; Control and reconciliation of materials and components; Product strength; In process sampling and testing; Holding and distribution; Drug product inspection; Buildings and facilities; Renovations at BNL for GMP; Aseptic processing and sterility assurance; Process validation and control; Quality control and drug product stability; Documentation and other GMP topics; Building design considerations; Equipment; and Summary

  9. PHP The Good Parts

    CERN Document Server

    MacIntyre, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Get past all the hype about PHP and dig into the real power of this language. This book explores the most useful features of PHP and how they can speed up the web development process, and explains why the most commonly used PHP elements are often misused or misapplied. You'll learn which parts add strength to object-oriented programming, and how to use certain features to integrate your application with databases. Written by a longtime member of the PHP community, PHP: The Good Parts is ideal for new PHP programmers, as well as web developers switching from other languages. Become familiar w

  10. Good supervision and PBL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otrel-Cass, Kathrin

    This field study was conducted at the Faculty of Social Sciences at Aalborg University with the intention to investigate how students reflect on their experiences with supervision in a PBL environment. The overall aim of this study was to inform about the continued work in strengthening supervision...... at this faculty. This particular study invited Master level students to discuss: • How a typical supervision process proceeds • How they experienced and what they expected of PBL in the supervision process • What makes a good supervision process...

  11. 29th June 2017 – Ordinary General Assembly of the Staff Association!

    CERN Document Server

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    In the first semester of each year, the Staff Association (SA) invites its members to attend and participate in the Ordinary General Assembly (OGA). This year the OGA will be held on Thursday, 29 June 2017 from 15.30 to 17.30, Main Auditorium, Meyrin (500-1-001). During the Ordinary General Assembly, the activity and financial reports of the SA are presented and submitted for approval to the members. This is the occasion to get a global view on the activities of the SA, its management, and an opportunity to express your opinion, particularly by taking part in votes. Other items are listed on the agenda, as proposed by the Staff Council. Who can vote? Ordinary members (MPE) of the SA can take part in all votes. Associated members (MPA) of the SA and/or affiliated pensioners have a right to vote on those topics that are of direct interest to them. Who can give their opinion, and how? The Ordinary General Assembly is also the opportunity for members of the SA to express themselves through the addition of disc...

  12. Influence of moisture condition on chloride diffusion in partially saturated ordinary Portland cement mortar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Y.; Zhang, M.; Ye, G.

    2018-01-01

    Experiments have been carried out to study the influence of moisture condition, including moisture content and its distribution, on the chloride diffusion in partially saturated ordinary Portland cement mortar. The mortar samples with water-to-cement (w/c) ratios of 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6, cured for 1

  13. Experimental study of chloride diffusivity in unsaturated ordinary Portland cement mortar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Y.; Ye, G.; Santhanam, M.

    2017-01-01

    Experiments are carried out to investigate the chloride diffusivity in partially saturated ordinary Portland cement mortars with water-to-cement (w/c) ratios of 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6. Based on resistivity measurement and Nernst-Einstein equation, the chloride diffusivities of cement mortars at various

  14. Crowdsourcing ideas : Involving ordinary users in the ideation phase of new product development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schemmann, Brita; Herrmann, Andrea M.; Chappin, Maryse M H; Heimeriks, Gaston J.

    2016-01-01

    The different roles of users in new product development (NPD) have been extensively described. Currently online idea crowdsourcing, via long-term open idea calls, is increasingly being used by companies to collect new product ideas from ordinary users. Such open idea calls can result in thousands of

  15. 76 FR 24572 - Proposed Information Collection (Application for Ordinary Life Insurance) Activity: Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ... insurance. Modified Life insurance coverage is reduced automatically by one-half from its present face value... (Application for Ordinary Life Insurance) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration, Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Veterans Benefits Administration (VBA...

  16. Constructive Development of the Solutions of Linear Equations in Introductory Ordinary Differential Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallet, D. G.; McCue, S. W.

    2009-01-01

    The solution of linear ordinary differential equations (ODEs) is commonly taught in first-year undergraduate mathematics classrooms, but the understanding of the concept of a solution is not always grasped by students until much later. Recognizing what it is to be a solution of a linear ODE and how to postulate such solutions, without resorting to…

  17. Design of TIR collimating lens for ordinary differential equation of extended light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Qianjing; Liu, Xiaoqin; Hou, Zaihong; Wu, Yi

    2017-10-01

    The source of LED has been widely used in our daily life. The intensity angle distribution of single LED is lambert distribution, which does not satisfy the requirement of people. Therefore, we need to distribute light and change the LED's intensity angle distribution. The most commonly method to change its intensity angle distribution is the free surface. Generally, using ordinary differential equations to calculate free surface can only be applied in a point source, but it will lead to a big error for the expand light. This paper proposes a LED collimating lens based on the ordinary differential equation, combined with the LED's light distribution curve, and adopt the method of calculating the center gravity of the extended light to get the normal vector. According to the law of Snell, the ordinary differential equations are constructed. Using the runge-kutta method for solution of ordinary differential equation solution, the curve point coordinates are gotten. Meanwhile, the edge point data of lens are imported into the optical simulation software TracePro. Based on 1mm×1mm single lambert body for light conditions, The degrees of collimating light can be close to +/-3. Furthermore, the energy utilization rate is higher than 85%. In this paper, the point light source is used to calculate partial differential equation method and compared with the simulation of the lens, which improve the effect of 1 degree of collimation.

  18. On the coupling of systems of hyperbolic conservation laws with ordinary differential equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borsche, Raul; Colombo, Rinaldo M; Garavello, Mauro

    2010-01-01

    Motivated by applications to the piston problem, to a manhole model, to blood flow and to supply chain dynamics, this paper deals with a system of conservation laws coupled with a system of ordinary differential equations. The former is defined on a domain with boundary and the coupling is provided by the boundary condition. For each of the examples considered, numerical integrations are provided

  19. Finding higher order Darboux polynomials for a family of rational first order ordinary differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avellar, J.; Claudino, A. L. G. C.; Duarte, L. G. S.; da Mota, L. A. C. P.

    2015-10-01

    For the Darbouxian methods we are studying here, in order to solve first order rational ordinary differential equations (1ODEs), the most costly (computationally) step is the finding of the needed Darboux polynomials. This can be so grave that it can render the whole approach unpractical. Hereby we introduce a simple heuristics to speed up this process for a class of 1ODEs.

  20. An algorithm for solving initial value problems of third order ordinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. We propose an implicit multi-step method for the solution of initial value problems (IVPs) of third order ordinary differential equations (ODE) which does not require reducing the ODE to first order before solving. The development of the method is based on collocation of the differential system and interpolation of the ...

  1. [Review of: K.-S. Taussig Ordinary genomes: science, citizenship, and genetic identities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kato, M.

    2010-01-01

    Ordinary Genomes is an ethnography of clinical genetics practice in the Netherlands, written by US anthropologist Karen-Sue Taussig. By looking at the case of the Netherlands, this book aims to illuminate the way specific scientific knowledge - in this case genomics - which is generally presumed to

  2. A Simple Method to Find out when an Ordinary Differential Equation Is Separable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cid, Jose Angel

    2009-01-01

    We present an alternative method to that of Scott (D. Scott, "When is an ordinary differential equation separable?", "Amer. Math. Monthly" 92 (1985), pp. 422-423) to teach the students how to discover whether a differential equation y[prime] = f(x,y) is separable or not when the nonlinearity f(x, y) is not explicitly factorized. Our approach is…

  3. Identifying and Exploring Relationships between Contextual Situations and Ordinary Differential Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho-Machín, M.; Guerrero-Ortiz, C.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present and discuss some of the evidence regarding the resources that students use when they establish relationships between a contextual situation and an ordinary differential equation (ODE). We present research results obtained from work by seven students in a graduate level course in mathematics education, where they…

  4. Extending the Constant Coefficient Solution Technique to Variable Coefficient Ordinary Differential Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Ahmed; Zeleke, Aklilu

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a class of second-order ordinary differential equations (ODEs) with variable coefficients whose closed-form solutions can be obtained by the same method used to solve ODEs with constant coefficients. General solutions for the homogeneous case are discussed.

  5. Comparative numerical solutions of stiff Ordinary differential equations using magnus series expansion method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SURE KÖME

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigated the effect of Magnus Series Expansion Method on homogeneous stiff ordinary differential equations with different stiffness ratios. A Magnus type integrator is used to obtain numerical solutions of two different examples of stiff problems and exact and approximate results are tabulated. Furthermore, absolute error graphics are demonstrated in detail.

  6. A block Krylov subspace time-exact solution method for linear ordinary differential equation systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bochev, Mikhail A.

    2013-01-01

    We propose a time-exact Krylov-subspace-based method for solving linear ordinary differential equation systems of the form $y'=-Ay+g(t)$ and $y"=-Ay+g(t)$, where $y(t)$ is the unknown function. The method consists of two stages. The first stage is an accurate piecewise polynomial approximation of

  7. On the multisummability of WKB solutions of certain singularly perturbed linear ordinary differential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshitsugu Takei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Using two concrete examples, we discuss the multisummability of WKB solutions of singularly perturbed linear ordinary differential equations. Integral representations of solutions and a criterion for the multisummability based on the Cauchy-Heine transform play an important role in the proof.

  8. 26 CFR 1.1244(a)-1 - Loss on small business stock treated as ordinary loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... transaction treated as a sale or exchange, such as worthlessness) of section 1244 stock which would otherwise... other hand, stock purchased by an investment firm and subsequently resold does not qualify as section... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Loss on small business stock treated as ordinary...

  9. Lie symmetries of systems of second-order linear ordinary differential equations with constant coefficients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyko, Vyacheslav M; Popovych, Roman O; Shapoval, Nataliya M

    2013-01-01

    Lie symmetries of systems of second-order linear ordinary differential equations with constant coefficients are exhaustively described over both the complex and real fields. The exact lower and upper bounds for the dimensions of the maximal Lie invariance algebras possessed by such systems are obtained using an effective algebraic approach.

  10. The mixed BVP for second order nonlinear ordinary differential equation at resonance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mukhigulashvili, Sulkhan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 290, 2-3 (2017), s. 393-400 ISSN 0025-584X Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : mixed problem at resonance * nonlinear ordinary differencial equation Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Applied mathematics Impact factor: 0.742, year: 2016

  11. Exploring Students' Understanding of Ordinary Differential Equations Using Computer Algebraic System (CAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maat, Siti Mistima; Zakaria, Effandi

    2011-01-01

    Ordinary differential equations (ODEs) are one of the important topics in engineering mathematics that lead to the understanding of technical concepts among students. This study was conducted to explore the students' understanding of ODEs when they solve ODE questions using a traditional method as well as a computer algebraic system, particularly…

  12. On method of solving third-order ordinary differential equations directly using Bernstein polynomials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khataybeh, S. N.; Hashim, I.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we propose for the first time a method based on Bernstein polynomials for solving directly a class of third-order ordinary differential equations (ODEs). This method gives a numerical solution by converting the equation into a system of algebraic equations which is solved directly. Some numerical examples are given to show the applicability of the method.

  13. Coming in from the Margin: Research Practices, Representation and the Ordinary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, Karen P.

    2010-01-01

    This essay explores issues of marginality and representation in research, which emerged during life history interviews with Tammi, an "ordinary" woman living in Appalachia. I examine how my research practices, namely my thirst for drama and marginality, nearly silenced the preferred stories of the woman who shared her life with me. I…

  14. 75 FR 43840 - Inflation Adjustment of the Ordinary Maximum and Aggravated Maximum Civil Monetary Penalties for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ...-17530; Notice No. 2] RIN 2130-ZA03 Inflation Adjustment of the Ordinary Maximum and Aggravated Maximum... remains at $250. These adjustments are required by the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990...

  15. Solving Second-Order Ordinary Differential Equations without Using Complex Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kougias, Ioannis E.

    2009-01-01

    Ordinary differential equations (ODEs) is a subject with a wide range of applications and the need of introducing it to students often arises in the last year of high school, as well as in the early stages of tertiary education. The usual methods of solving second-order ODEs with constant coefficients, among others, rely upon the use of complex…

  16. A new power mapping method based on ordinary kriging and determination of optimal detector location strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Xingjie; Wang, Kan; Li, Qing

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A new power mapping method based on Ordinary Kriging (OK) is proposed. • Measurements from DayaBay Unit 1 PWR are used to verify the OK method. • The OK method performs better than the CECOR method. • An optimal neutron detector location strategy based on ordinary kriging and simulated annealing is proposed. - Abstract: The Ordinary Kriging (OK) method is presented that is designed for a core power mapping calculation of pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Measurements from DayaBay Unit 1 PWR are used to verify the accuracy of the OK method. The root mean square (RMS) reconstruction errors are kept at less than 0.35%, and the maximum reconstruction relative errors (RE) are kept at less than 1.02% for the entire operating cycle. The reconstructed assembly power distribution results show that the OK method is fit for core power distribution monitoring. The quality of power distribution obtained by the OK method is partly determined by the neutron detector locations, and the OK method is also applied to solve the optimal neutron detector location problem. The spatially averaged ordinary kriging variance (AOKV) is minimized using simulated annealing, and then, the optimal in-core neutron detector locations are obtained. The result shows that the current neutron detector location of DayaBay Unit 1 reactor is near-optimal

  17. 3D Laser Scanning Assisted by Ordinary Plane Mirror for Non-direct Viewing Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Fan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial 3D laser scanning is one of principal methods to get the geometric information of object surface,and the integrity of the scanned object is a basic requirement in data acquisition. In order to solve the missing point cloud problem due to the scanning dead angle caused by confined working space,this paper proposes a method using ordinary plane mirror to obtain laser scanning data for non-direct viewing area according to the plane mirror reflection principle,analyzes the influence mechanism of the ordinary plane mirror on the propagation path and distance of laser beam,deduces the coordinate equation of the object point corresponding to the image point reflected by ordinary plane mirror in laser scanning. Given the laser scanning characteristic,this paper introduces a mirror reflection system included target balls and ordinary plane mirror,and expounds the system construction,system calibration and constructing method of system coordinate system. The feasibility and precision of the method are verified by experiments.

  18. Linear Ordinary Differential Equations with Constant Coefficients. Revisiting the Impulsive Response Method Using Factorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camporesi, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    We present an approach to the impulsive response method for solving linear constant-coefficient ordinary differential equations based on the factorization of the differential operator. The approach is elementary, we only assume a basic knowledge of calculus and linear algebra. In particular, we avoid the use of distribution theory, as well as of…

  19. Proceedings of the Nordic society for radiation protection 12. ordinary meeting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The key themes of teh 12th ordinary general meeting of the Nordic Society for Radiation Protection were: RADIATION - ENVIRONMENT - INFORMATION. A number of outstanding international experts accepted to contribute on the meetings first day with invited presentations, which focussed on these themes...

  20. From Ordinary Differential Equations to Structural Causal Models: the deterministic case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, J.M.; Janzing, D.; Schölkopf, B.; Nicholson, A.; Smyth, P.

    2013-01-01

    We show how, and under which conditions, the equilibrium states of a first-order Ordinary Differential Equation (ODE) system can be described with a deterministic Structural Causal Model (SCM). Our exposition sheds more light on the concept of causality as expressed within the framework of

  1. The Good Investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, John E; Fresne, Julie A; Youngclaus, James A

    2017-07-01

    The authors reflect on the article in this issue entitled "Borrow or Serve? An Economic Analysis of Options for Financing a Medical School Education" by Marcu and colleagues, which makes a compelling case that a medical school education is a good investment, no matter what financing option students use, from federal service programs to federal loans. The lead author of this Commentary shares lessons learned from his own medical school education, which was funded by an Armed Forces Health Professions Scholarship, and from his current position interacting with medical students across the United States.Regardless of the financing path they choose, all students should understand basic financial concepts and the details of the various pathways that are available to pay for their medical school education, as well as how each could potentially impact their own future and that of their families. One underappreciated aspect of financing a medical school education is that federal repayment scenarios can link loan payments to income, rather than debt levels, which means that all physicians are able to afford their loan payments no matter what specialty they practice, what they are paid, or where they live.Medical education, while expensive, remains the good investment. An MD degree can lead to a lifetime of personal fulfillment and societal contributions. Everyone, with rare exceptions, accepted to a U.S. medical school will be able to finance their medical education via a path that aligns with their personal values and priorities.

  2. 'Good Governance' dan 'Governability'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Pratikno

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The article endeavors to trace the outset of governance concept, its dominant meanings and discourse, and its implication towards governability. The central role of government in the governing processes has predominantly been adopted. The concept of governance was emerged precisely in the context of the failure of government as key player in regulation, economic redistribution and political participation. Governance is therefore aimed to emphasize pattern of governing which are based both on democratic mechanism and sound development management. However, practices of such good governance concept –which are mainly adopted and promoted by donor states and agencies– tend to degrade state and/or government authority and legitimacy. Traditional function of the state as sole facilitator of equal societal, political and legal membership among citizens has been diminished. The logic of fair competition has been substituted almost completely by the logic of free competition in nearly all sectors of public life. The concept and practices of good governance have resulted in decayed state authority and failed state which in turn created a condition for "ungovernability". By promoting democratic and humane governance, the article accordingly encourages discourse to reinstall and bring the idea of accountable state back in.

  3. Managing design variety, process variety and engineering change : a case study of two capital good firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldman, Jasper; Alblas, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Many capital good firms deliver products that are not strictly one-off, but instead share a certain degree of similarity with other deliveries. In the delivery of the product, they aim to balance stability and variety in their product design and processes. The issue of engineering change plays an

  4. Managing design variety, process variety and engineering change: a case study of two capital good firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldman, Jasper; Alblas, A.

    2012-01-01

    Many capital good firms deliver products that are not strictly one-off, but instead share a certain degree of similarity with other deliveries. In the delivery of the product, they aim to balance stability and variety in their product design and processes. The issue of engineering change plays an

  5. Good Enough to Teach?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denver, Louise; Jensen, Christian; Mees, Inger

    2016-01-01

    to improve their communicative effectiveness. The feedback was given by experienced tutors of English who had extensive experience of teaching and assessing English in an everyday ELF context. This paper sets out to investigate what sort of recommendations were provided, concentrating on the 24 lecturers...... whose L1 was Danish. An examination of the tutors’ comments showed that they could be divided into two main categories: formal language skills and pragmatic or metadiscursive features. The observations on language features are presented using a slightly adapted version of Lavelle’s (2008) “good......; Jenkins et al. 2011: 301), the analyses of the tutors’ comments to the 24 lecturers in the present study show that both aspects should be attributed importance....

  6. Family Farming Goods Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Soares Loiola

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Farmers need interaction mechanisms closer to customers interested in purchasing their products. The lack of communication between producer and potential buyers impacts on producers financial performance (that could have losses in sales volume, and buyers, which ultimately acquire lower-quality products. Thus, this paper aims to provide a technological solution proposal, the Buscagro: a software application that can be used on mobile devices and towards to enable a better interaction between family farmers and buyers, allowing a greater display of products from the farmer and disclosure of interests of potential buyers. The features of this technology are based on farmers goods data and information products demanded by potential buyers. In this way, the software application performs combinations based on supply and demand data, generating results for producers to have access in how to find buyers and for consumers to find products a greater agility.

  7. EXISTENCE OF POSITIVE SOLUTION TO TWO-POINT BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEM FOR A SYSTEM OF SECOND ORDER ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a two-point boundary value problem for a system of second order ordinary differential equations. Under some conditions, we show the existence of positive solution to the system of second order ordinary differential equa-tions.

  8. Solving (2 + 1)-dimensional sine-Poisson equation by a modified variable separated ordinary differential equation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ka-Lin, Su; Yuan-Xi, Xie

    2010-01-01

    By introducing a more general auxiliary ordinary differential equation (ODE), a modified variable separated ordinary differential equation method is presented for solving the (2 + 1)-dimensional sine-Poisson equation. As a result, many explicit and exact solutions of the (2 + 1)-dimensional sine-Poisson equation are derived in a simple manner by this technique. (general)

  9. The Relationship between Knowledge Management and Organizational Learning with the Effectiveness of Ordinary and Smart Secondary School Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khammar, Zahra; Heidarzadegan, Alireza; Balaghat, Seyed Reza; Salehi, Hadi

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationship between knowledge management and organizational learning with the effectiveness of ordinary and smart high school principals in Zahedan Pre-province. The statistical community of this research is 1350 male and female teachers teaching in ordinary and smart students of high schools in that 300 ones…

  10. Strict liability as a legal mechanism protecting the aggrieved parties' interests within the nuclear liability regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novotna, Marianna

    2016-01-01

    The no-fault liability principle of nuclear liability regime, its compensation schemes, sociological and legal grounds of its construction as well as liberation grounds are analysed. The simple existence of causation of damage and nuclear accident without necessity of proving negligence or any other type of fault on the part of the operator as an adequate basis for the operator’s strict liability is highlighted thus simplifying the litigation process eliminating potential obstacles, especially such as might exist with the burden of proof. The question of weighing the interests of society in the development of nuclear industry, the necessary extent of protection of victims of nuclear accidents and the interests of operators of nuclear facilities as main determinants of the strict nature of nuclear liability is also described. (orig.)

  11. Eggs: good or bad?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Bruce A

    2016-08-01

    Eggs have one of the lowest energy to nutrient density ratios of any food, and contain a quality of protein that is superior to beef steak and similar to dairy. From a nutritional perspective, this must qualify eggs as 'good'. The greater burden of proof has been to establish that eggs are not 'bad', by increasing awareness of the difference between dietary and blood cholesterol, and accumulating sufficient evidence to exonerate eggs from their associations with CVD and diabetes. After 60 years of research, a general consensus has now been reached that dietary cholesterol, chiefly from eggs, exerts a relatively small effect on serum LDL-cholesterol and CVD risk, in comparison with other diet and lifestyle factors. While dietary guidelines have been revised worldwide to reflect this view, associations between egg intake and the incidence of diabetes, and increased CVD risk in diabetes, prevail. These associations may be explained, in part, by residual confounding produced by other dietary components. The strength of evidence that links egg intake to increased CVD risk in diabetes is also complicated by variation in the response of serum LDL-cholesterol to eggs and dietary cholesterol in types 1 and 2 diabetes. On balance, the answer to the question as to whether eggs are 'bad', is probably 'no', but we do need to gain a better understanding of the effects of dietary cholesterol and its association with CVD risk in diabetes.

  12. Strong Convergence to Common Fixed Points of a Countable Family of Asymptotically Strictly Quasi-ϕ-Pseudocontractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Qi Deng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on an original idea, namely, a specific way of choosing the indexes of the involved mappings, we propose a new hybrid shrinking iteration scheme for approximating some common fixed points of a countable family of asymptotically strictly quasi-ϕ-pseudocontractions and obtain a strong convergence theorem in the framework of Banach space. Our result extends other authors, related results existing in the current literature. As application, an iterative solution to a system of equilibrium problems is provided.

  13. The impact of Sleep Time-Related Information and Communication Technology (STRICT) on sleep patterns and daytime functioning in American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polos, Peter G; Bhat, Sushanth; Gupta, Divya; O'Malley, Richard J; DeBari, Vincent A; Upadhyay, Hinesh; Chaudhry, Saqib; Nimma, Anitha; Pinto-Zipp, Genevieve; Chokroverty, Sudhansu

    2015-10-01

    This cross-sectional study explored the extent and impact of mobile device-based Sleep Time-Related Information and Communication Technology (STRICT) use among American adolescents (N = 3139, 49.3% female, mean age = 13.3 years). Nearly 62% used STRICT after bedtime, 56.7% texted/tweeted/messaged in bed, and 20.8% awoke to texts. STRICT use was associated with insomnia, daytime sleepiness, eveningness, academic underperformance, later bedtimes and shorter sleep duration. Moderation analysis demonstrated that the association between STRICT use and insomnia increased with age, the association between STRICT use and daytime sleepiness decreased with age, and the association between STRICT use and shorter sleep duration decreased with age and was stronger in girls. Insomnia and daytime sleepiness partially mediated the relationship between STRICT use and academic underperformance. Our results illustrate the adverse interactions between adolescent STRICT use and sleep, with deleterious effects on daytime functioning. These worrisome findings suggest that placing reasonable limitations on adolescent STRICT use may be appropriate. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The application of strict criminal liabilities to spillage of oil: the practical impact on effective spill response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, J.J.

    2002-01-01

    The Federal Water Pollution Control Act as amended by the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 provides criminal penalties in oil spills that result from criminal activity, gross negligence or wilful misconduct on the part of the spiller. Nevertheless, the Department of Justice has seen fit to reach into unrelated legislation to potentially apply strict criminal liability to any oil spill regardless of intent. Strict criminalization of accidental oil spills is demonstrably counterproductive to effective protection of the environment from the effect of spills since it poses a serious impediment to cooperation and coordination by and between those charged by law to respond to them. This impediment is particularly dangerous since it threatens the proper functioning of the inherently sensitive ''troika'' Unified Command Structure that has evolved in spill response management in response to OPA-90 management requirements. Introduction of strict criminal liability for accidental spills is also particularly troublesome in that it must enlist unrelated law to influence an area that has been addressed specifically by legislation designed for that purpose; legislation that has worked well in the past 30 years to both regulate the target activities while successfully achieving the objective of protecting and improving environment quality. (author)

  15. The purpose and coherence of the rules on good faith acquisition and acquisitive prescription in the Draft Common Frame of Reference: a tale of two gatekeepers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salomons, A.

    2013-01-01

    The drafters of Book VIII of the Draft Common Frame of Reference (DCFR) have consistently tried to formulate rules on the related topics of acquisitive prescription and good faith acquisition to further the underlying policy goals: where ordinary transfer has failed, good faith acquisition should

  16. The purpose and coherence of the rules on good faith acquisition and acquisitive prescription in the European Draft Common Frame of Reference: A tale of two gatekeepers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salomons, A.

    2015-01-01

    The drafters of Book VIII DCFR have consistently tried to formulate rules on the related topics of acquisitive prescription and good faith acquisition to further the underlying policy goals: where ordinary transfer has failed, good faith acquisition should instantly validate transfers a non domino

  17. Penetration of an ordinary wave into a weakly inhomogeneous magnetoplasma at oblique incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preinhaelter, J.

    1973-12-01

    The propagation was studied of high-frequency electromagnetic waves in a plane-stratified weakly inhomogeneous plasma. The density gradient was assumed to be perpendicular to the external magnetic field and the wave vector was not considered to be generally parallel to the plane given by the two former vectors. The analysis shows that an ordinary wave may penetrate the plasma resonance region if the orientation of the vacuum wave vector is appropriately chosen. Analytical expressions for the reflexion and transmission coefficients were obtained and their dependence on the direction cosines of the wave vector of the incident wave was studied. It is also briefly shown that after the transmission through plasma resonance the ordinary wave was transformed into an extraordinary wave and the latter was reflected back to the region of hybrid resonance. In this region the extraordinary wave was fully transformed into the Bernstein modes. (author)

  18. Causal structure of oscillations in gene regulatory networks: Boolean analysis of ordinary differential equation attractors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mengyang; Cheng, Xianrui; Socolar, Joshua E S

    2013-06-01

    A common approach to the modeling of gene regulatory networks is to represent activating or repressing interactions using ordinary differential equations for target gene concentrations that include Hill function dependences on regulator gene concentrations. An alternative formulation represents the same interactions using Boolean logic with time delays associated with each network link. We consider the attractors that emerge from the two types of models in the case of a simple but nontrivial network: a figure-8 network with one positive and one negative feedback loop. We show that the different modeling approaches give rise to the same qualitative set of attractors with the exception of a possible fixed point in the ordinary differential equation model in which concentrations sit at intermediate values. The properties of the attractors are most easily understood from the Boolean perspective, suggesting that time-delay Boolean modeling is a useful tool for understanding the logic of regulatory networks.

  19. Conjecturing via analogical reasoning constructs ordinary students into like gifted student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supratman; Ratnaningsih, N.; Ryane, S.

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to reveal the development of knowledge of ordinary students to be like gifted students in the classroom based on Piaget's theory. In exposing it, students are given an open problem of classical analogy. Researchers explore students who conjecture via analogical reasoning in problem solving. Of the 32 students, through the method of think out loud and the interview was completed: 25 students conjecture via analogical reasoning. Of the 25 students, all of them have almost the same character in problem solving/knowledge construction. For that, a student is taken to analyze the thinking process while solving the problem/construction of knowledge based on Piaget's theory. Based on Piaget's theory in the development of the same knowledge, gifted students and ordinary students have similar structures in final equilibrium. They begin processing: assimilation and accommodation of problem, strategies, and relationships.

  20. Description and use of LSODE, the Livermore Solver for Ordinary Differential Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Krishnan; Hindmarsh, Alan C.

    1993-01-01

    LSODE, the Livermore Solver for Ordinary Differential Equations, is a package of FORTRAN subroutines designed for the numerical solution of the initial value problem for a system of ordinary differential equations. It is particularly well suited for 'stiff' differential systems, for which the backward differentiation formula method of orders 1 to 5 is provided. The code includes the Adams-Moulton method of orders 1 to 12, so it can be used for nonstiff problems as well. In addition, the user can easily switch methods to increase computational efficiency for problems that change character. For both methods a variety of corrector iteration techniques is included in the code. Also, to minimize computational work, both the step size and method order are varied dynamically. This report presents complete descriptions of the code and integration methods, including their implementation. It also provides a detailed guide to the use of the code, as well as an illustrative example problem.

  1. Heat generation and temperature-rise in ordinary concrete due to capture of thermal neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdo, E.A.; Amin, E.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this work is the evaluation of the heat generation and temperature-rise in local ordinary concrete as a biological shield due to capture of total thermal and reactor thermal neutrons. The total thermal neutron fluxes were measured and calculated. The channel number 2 of the ETRR-1 reactor was used in the measurements as a neutron source. Computer code ANISN (VAX version) and neutron multigroup cross-section library EURLiB-4 was used in the calculations. The heat generation and temperature-rise in local ordinary concrete were evaluated and calculated. The results were displayed in curves to show the distribution of thermal neutron fluxes and heat generation as well as temperature-rise with the shield thickness. The results showed that, the heat generation as well as the temperature-rise have their maximum values in the first layers of the shield thickness. 4 figs., 12 refs

  2. Low Dimensional Vessiot-Guldberg-Lie Algebras of Second-Order Ordinary Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutwig Campoamor-Stursberg

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A direct approach to non-linear second-order ordinary differential equations admitting a superposition principle is developed by means of Vessiot-Guldberg-Lie algebras of a dimension not exceeding three. This procedure allows us to describe generic types of second-order ordinary differential equations subjected to some constraints and admitting a given Lie algebra as Vessiot-Guldberg-Lie algebra. In particular, well-known types, such as the Milne-Pinney or Kummer-Schwarz equations, are recovered as special cases of this classification. The analogous problem for systems of second-order differential equations in the real plane is considered for a special case that enlarges the generalized Ermakov systems.

  3. An introduction to linear ordinary differential equations using the impulsive response method and factorization

    CERN Document Server

    Camporesi, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a method for solving linear ordinary differential equations based on the factorization of the differential operator. The approach for the case of constant coefficients is elementary, and only requires a basic knowledge of calculus and linear algebra. In particular, the book avoids the use of distribution theory, as well as the other more advanced approaches: Laplace transform, linear systems, the general theory of linear equations with variable coefficients and variation of parameters. The case of variable coefficients is addressed using Mammana’s result for the factorization of a real linear ordinary differential operator into a product of first-order (complex) factors, as well as a recent generalization of this result to the case of complex-valued coefficients.

  4. Evaluation of ilmenite serpentine concrete and ordinary concrete as nuclear reactor shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abulfaraj, W.H.; Kamal, S.M.

    1994-01-01

    The present study involves adapting a formal decision methodology to the selection of alternative nuclear reactor concrete shielding. Multiattribute utility theory is selected to accommodate decision maker's preferences. Multiattribute utility theory (MAU) is here employed to evaluate two appropriate nuclear reactor shielding concretes in terms of effectiveness to determine the optimal choice in order to meet the radiation protection regulations. These concretes are Ordinary concrete (O.C.) and Illmenite Serpentile concrete (I.S.C.). These are normal weight concrete and heavy weight heat resistive concrete, respectively. The effectiveness objective of the nuclear reactor shielding is defined and structured into definite attributes and subattributes to evaluate the best alternative. Factors affecting the decision are dose received by reactor's workers, the material properties as well as cost of concrete shield. A computer program is employed to assist in performing utility analysis. Based upon data, the result shows the superiority of Ordinary concrete over Illmenite Serpentine concrete. (Author)

  5. Preliminary study for the personal handheld device based snoring detection in ordinary sleep situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hangsik; Choi, Wangrim; Kim, Yi-gon; Cho, Jaegeol

    2014-01-01

    Snoring is one of the representative phenomena of the sleep disorder and detection of snoring is quite important for improving quality of daily human life. The purpose of this research is to define the noises of the ordinary sleep situation and to find its characteristics as a preliminary research of snoring detection. Differently from previous snoring researches, we use a built-in sound recording system of Smartphone for practical use in ordinary sleep condition, and recording was carried out in a general private bedroom. Especially, we designed the experimental protocol, including the various noises could be frequently occurred during sleep such as cough, music, talking, alarm, door open/close, fan, radio and footstep to make closer to the actual sleep circumstance. The sound data set was recorded during actual sleep from 10 normal subjects. Totally 44 snoring data set and 75-noise dataset is acquired and analyzed.

  6. Model Selection and Risk Estimation with Applications to Nonlinear Ordinary Differential Equation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Frederik Vissing

    eective computational tools for estimating unknown structures in dynamical systems, such as gene regulatory networks, which may be used to predict downstream eects of interventions in the system. A recommended algorithm based on the computational tools is presented and thoroughly tested in various......Broadly speaking, this thesis is devoted to model selection applied to ordinary dierential equations and risk estimation under model selection. A model selection framework was developed for modelling time course data by ordinary dierential equations. The framework is accompanied by the R software...... package, episode. This package incorporates a collection of sparsity inducing penalties into two types of loss functions: a squared loss function relying on numerically solving the equations and an approximate loss function based on inverse collocation methods. The goal of this framework is to provide...

  7. The Benefits and Limitations of Hydraulic Modeling for Ordinary High Water Mark Delineation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    between two cross sections, the HEC-RAS model will not show it. If there is a sudden drop in the channel, such as a waterfall or steep rapids, the...ER D C/ CR RE L TR -1 6- 1 Wetland Regulatory Assistance Program (WRAP) The Benefits and Limitations of Hydraulic Modeling for Ordinary...client/default. Wetland Regulatory Assistance Program (WRAP) ERDC/CRREL TR-16-1 February 2016 The Benefits and Limitations of Hydraulic Modeling

  8. The Analytical Solution of Some Fractional Ordinary Differential Equations by the Sumudu Transform Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Bulut

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the rudiments of fractional calculus and the consequent applications of the Sumudu transform on fractional derivatives. Once this connection is firmly established in the general setting, we turn to the application of the Sumudu transform method (STM to some interesting nonhomogeneous fractional ordinary differential equations (FODEs. Finally, we use the solutions to form two-dimensional (2D graphs, by using the symbolic algebra package Mathematica Program 7.

  9. Experimental research on the residual mechanical properties of an ordinary concretes after fire

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, C.C.; Rodrigues, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of an experimental research to assess the residual mechanical properties of an ordinary concrete after fire. It was studied the influence of the cooling process, the maximum temperature that the concrete was subjected to and the loading level on the residual mechanical properties of calcareous and granite aggregate concretes. The properties studied were the residual compressive, tensile, splitting and flexural strengths and modulus of elasticit...

  10. Influence of Temperature on Workability and Compressive Strength of Ordinary Concrete with High Calcium Fly Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gołaszewski Jacek

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The rheological properties of fresh ordinary concrete are closely affected by temperature and time. The paper presents the study of consistency of fresh concrete mixtures made with Portland cement and cement with calcareous fly ash. Two types of admixtures were used. It was proven that the temperature has a clear effect on workability and compressive strength concrete. Influence on workability can be reduced by selecting the appropriate superplasticizer and cement.

  11. On periodic bounded and unbounded solutions of second order nonlinear ordinary differential equations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lomtatidze, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 2 (2017), s. 241-263 ISSN 1072-947X Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : nonlinear ordinary differential equations * periodic boundary value problem * solvability Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Applied mathematics Impact factor: 0.290, year: 2016 https://www.degruyter.com/view/j/gmj.2017.24.issue-2/gmj-2017-0009/gmj-2017-0009.xml

  12. On one two-point BVP for the fourth order linear ordinary differential equation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mukhigulashvili, Sulkhan; Manjikashvili, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 2 (2017), s. 265-275 ISSN 1072-947X Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : fourth order linear ordinary differential equations * two-point boundary value problems Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Applied mathematics Impact factor: 0.290, year: 2016 https://www.degruyter.com/view/j/gmj.2017.24.issue-2/gmj-2016-0077/gmj-2016-0077.xml

  13. Ordinary kriging approach to predicting long-term particulate matter concentrations in seven major Korean cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-Young Kim

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Cohort studies of associations between air pollution and health have used exposure prediction approaches to estimate individual-level concentrations. A common prediction method used in Korean cohort studies is ordinary kriging. In this study, performance of ordinary kriging models for long-term particulate matter less than or equal to 10 μm in diameter (PM10 concentrations in seven major Korean cities was investigated with a focus on spatial prediction ability. Methods We obtained hourly PM10 data for 2010 at 226 urban-ambient monitoring sites in South Korea and computed annual average PM10 concentrations at each site. Given the annual averages, we developed ordinary kriging prediction models for each of the seven major cities and for the entire country by using an exponential covariance reference model and a maximum likelihood estimation method. For model evaluation, cross-validation was performed and mean square error and R-squared (R2 statistics were computed. Results Mean annual average PM10 concentrations in the seven major cities ranged between 45.5 and 66.0 μg/m3 (standard deviation=2.40 and 9.51 μg/m3, respectively. Cross-validated R2 values in Seoul and Busan were 0.31 and 0.23, respectively, whereas the other five cities had R2 values of zero. The national model produced a higher crossvalidated R2 (0.36 than those for the city-specific models. Conclusions In general, the ordinary kriging models performed poorly for the seven major cities and the entire country of South Korea, but the model performance was better in the national model. To improve model performance, future studies should examine different prediction approaches that incorporate PM10 source characteristics.

  14. The relationship among the solutions of two auxiliary ordinary differential equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaoping; Liu Chunping

    2009-01-01

    In a recent article [Phys. Lett. A 356 (2006) 124], Sirendaoreji extended their auxiliary equation method by introducing a new auxiliary ordinary differential equation (NAODE) and its 14 solutions. Then the author studied some nonlinear evolution equations (NLEEs) and got more exact travelling wave solutions. In this paper, we will show that the 14 solutions of the NAODE are actually the same as the solutions obtained by original auxiliary equation method, and they are only different in the form.

  15. Using trees to compute approximate solutions to ordinary differential equations exactly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Robert

    1991-01-01

    Some recent work is reviewed which relates families of trees to symbolic algorithms for the exact computation of series which approximate solutions of ordinary differential equations. It turns out that the vector space whose basis is the set of finite, rooted trees carries a natural multiplication related to the composition of differential operators, making the space of trees an algebra. This algebraic structure can be exploited to yield a variety of algorithms for manipulating vector fields and the series and algebras they generate.

  16. On one two-point BVP for the fourth order linear ordinary differential equation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mukhigulashvili, Sulkhan; Manjikashvili, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 2 (2017), s. 265-275 ISSN 1072-947X Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : fourth order linear ordinary differential equations * two-point boundary value problems Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Applied mathematics Impact factor: 0.290, year: 2016 https://www.degruyter.com/view/j/gmj.2017.24.issue-2/gmj-2016-0077/gmj-2016-0077. xml

  17. On periodic bounded and unbounded solutions of second order nonlinear ordinary differential equations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lomtatidze, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 2 (2017), s. 241-263 ISSN 1072-947X Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : nonlinear ordinary differential equations * periodic boundary value problem * solvability Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Applied mathematics Impact factor: 0.290, year: 2016 https://www.degruyter.com/view/j/gmj.2017.24.issue-2/gmj-2017-0009/gmj-2017-0009. xml

  18. Probabilistic assessment of steel moment frames incremental collapse (ordinary, intermediate and special under earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kourosh Mehdizadeh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Building collapse is a level of the structure performance in which the amount of financial and life loss is maximized, so this event could be the worst incident in the construction. Regarding to the possibility of destructive earthquakes in different parts of the world, detailed assessment of the structure's collapse has been one of the major challenges of the structural engineering. In this regard, offering models based on laboratory studies, considering the effective parameters and appropriate earthquakes could be a step towards achieving this goal. In this research, a five-story steel structure with a system of ordinary, intermediate and special moment frame (low, intermediate and high ductility has been designed based on the local regulations. In this study, the effect of resistance and stiffness deterioration of the structural elements based on the results of the laboratory models have been considered and the ductility role in the collapse capacity of steel moment frames has been investigated as probabilistic matter. For this purpose, incremental dynamic analysis has been done under 50 pairs of earthquake records proposing FEMA P695 instruction and fragility curves of various performance levels are developed. Results showed higher collapse capacity of special moment steel frame than the intermediate and ordinary moment frames. In the 50 percent probability level, the collapse capacity of special moment frame increased 34 % compared to the intermediate moment frame and 66 % to the ordinary moment frame. Also, the results showed that for different collapse spectral accelerations, the use of special moment frame instead of intermediate and ordinary moment frames reduces the collapse probability to 30 and 50 % respectively.

  19. Comparison of Body Composition and Energy Intake of Young Female Ballet Dancers and Ordinary School Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalniņa Līga

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to assess body fat level, energy and nutrient intake of adolescent ballet dancers and to compare these results with those of adolescents from ordinary school. Participants included 39 ballet dancers and 70 adolescents from ordinary school. Body composition was measured using a multi-frequency 8-polar bioelectrical impedance leg-to-hand analyser (X-Scan Plus II, Korea. Dietary intakes were assessed using a three-day estimated food record. Nutritional intake was calculated using the Nutri Survey software. Ballet dancers were slightly shorter, lighter, with less fat and fat-free mass compared to girls from ordinary school. 51.3% (95% CI 35.59 to 66.97 of ballet dancers and 4% (95% CI; 0.27 to 11.15 of ordinary school girls had a body fat level of 12% or less. The recommended amount of 35–45 kcal energy to kg fat-free mass for aesthetic sports was not reached by 42.1% (95% CI 27.61 to 50.65% of ballet dancers. No statistically significant difference was found in percent body fat between ballet dancers who consumed energy less than the recommended amount compared to those who ate normally, but fatfree mass (p < 0.05 was lower in those who consumed 35–45 kcal energy to kg fat-free mass or less compared to those who ate more. The investigated groups had an inadequate intake of minerals and vitamins during the winter period.

  20. Comparison of SISEC code simulations with earthquake data of ordinary and base-isolated buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.Y.; Gvildys, J.

    1991-01-01

    At Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), a 3-D computer program SISEC (Seismic Isolation System Evaluation Code) is being developed for simulating the system response of isolated and ordinary structures (Wang et al. 1991). This paper describes comparison of SISEC code simulations with building response data of actual earthquakes. To ensure the accuracy of analytical simulations, recorded data of full-size reinforced concrete structures located in Sendai, Japan are used in this benchmark comparison. The test structures consist of two three-story buildings, one base-isolated and the other one ordinary founded. They were constructed side by side to investigate the effect of base isolation on the acceleration response. Among 20 earthquakes observed since April 1989, complete records of three representative earthquakes, no.2, no.6, and no.17, are used for the code validation presented in this paper. Correlations of observed and calculated accelerations at all instrument locations are made. Also, relative response characteristics of ordinary and isolated building structures are investigated. (J.P.N.)

  1. Tribocorrosion Study of Ordinary and Laser-Melted Ti6Al4V Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danillo P. Silva

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Titanium alloys are used in biomedical implants, as well as in other applications, due to the excellent combination of corrosion resistance and mechanical properties. However, the tribocorrosion resistance of titanium alloy is normally not satisfactory. Therefore, surface modification is a way to improve this specific performance. In the present paper, laser surface-modified samples were tested in corrosion and pin-on-disk tribocorrosion testing in 0.90% NaCl under an average Hertzian pressure of 410 MPa against an alumina sphere. Laser-modified samples of Ti6Al4V were compared with ordinary Ti6Al4V alloy. Electrochemical impedance showed higher modulus for laser-treated samples than for ordinary Ti6Al4V ones. Moreover, atomic force microscopy revealed that laser-treated surfaces presented less wear than ordinary alloy for the initial exposure. For a further exposure to wear, i.e., when the wear depth is beyond the initial laser-affected layer, both materials showed similar corrosion behavior. Microstructure analysis and finite element method simulations revealed that the different behavior between the initial and the extensive rubbing was related to a fine martensite-rich external layer developed on the irradiated surface of the fusion zone.

  2. Good Looking Is Looking Good / Märt Milter

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Milter, Märt

    1998-01-01

    Meloodilist drum ǹ̀bassi viljelevatest välismaa plaadifirmadest Good Looking Recordsist ja Looking Good Recordsist, mida juhib LTJ Bukem ja temaga koostööd tegevatest muusikutest Blame, Seba, Tayla, MC Conrad, Artemis

  3. The Varieties of Good Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ylirisku, Salu; Arvola, Mattias

    2018-01-01

    This chapter explores the philosopher and logician Georg Henrik von Wright’s metaethical treatise of the varieties of goodness in the context of design. von Wright investigated the use of notion of ‘good’ in language, and he identified six kinds of goodness: namely utilitarian goodness, instrumen......This chapter explores the philosopher and logician Georg Henrik von Wright’s metaethical treatise of the varieties of goodness in the context of design. von Wright investigated the use of notion of ‘good’ in language, and he identified six kinds of goodness: namely utilitarian goodness...

  4. 41 CFR 102-74.351 - If a state or local government has a smoke-free ordinance that is more strict than the smoking...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... government has a smoke-free ordinance that is more strict than the smoking policy for Federal facilities... REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Facility Management Smoking § 102-74.351 If a state or local government has a smoke-free ordinance that is more strict than the smoking policy for Federal facilities...

  5. Mergers & Acquisition in the Luxury Goods Industry - An Assessment of drivers &strategies.

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Kanishka

    2011-01-01

    The luxury goods industry has undergone a significant change of paradigms during the three elapsed decades. Luxury industry is a collective term for companies selling – besides high-quality products – principally status, emotional benefit, prestige and exclusivity as well as the dream of separation from the ordinary may be traditional since the mid 1980s. Since that time, this conceptual term has shaped both the self-conception of the industry and its perception by customers. Moreover, the mi...

  6. Numerical approach of the bond stress behavior of steel bars embedded in self-compacting concrete and in ordinary concrete using beam models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.M. Almeida Filho

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates the bond behavior between steel bars and concrete by means of a numerical analysis based on Finite Element Method. Results of a previously conducted experimental program on reinforced concrete beams subjected to monotonic loading are also presented. Two concrete types, self-compacting concrete and ordinary concrete, were considered in the study. Non-linear constitutive relations were used to represent concrete and steel in the proposed numerical model, aiming to reproduce the bond behavior observed in the tests. Experimental analysis showed similar results for the bond resistances of self-compacting and ordinary concrete, with self-compacting concrete presenting a better performance in some cases. The results given by the numerical modeling showed a good agreement with the tests for both types of concrete, especially in the pre-peak branch of the load vs. slip and load vs. displacement curves. As a consequence, the proposed numerical model could be used to estimate a reliable development length, allowing a possible reduction of the structure costs.

  7. Atmospheric vs. anaerobic processing of metabolome samples for the metabolite profiling of a strict anaerobic bacterium, Clostridium acetobutylicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Sooah; Kwon, Min-A; Jung, Young Hoon; Shin, Yong-An; Kim, Kyoung Heon

    2014-12-01

    Well-established metabolome sample preparation is a prerequisite for reliable metabolomic data. For metabolome sampling of a Gram-positive strict anaerobe, Clostridium acetobutylicum, fast filtration and metabolite extraction with acetonitrile/methanol/water (2:2:1, v/v) at -20°C under anaerobic conditions has been commonly used. This anaerobic metabolite processing method is laborious and time-consuming since it is conducted in an anaerobic chamber. Also, there have not been any systematic method evaluation and development of metabolome sample preparation for strict anaerobes and Gram-positive bacteria. In this study, metabolome sampling and extraction methods were rigorously evaluated and optimized for C. acetobutylicum by using gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry-based metabolomics, in which a total of 116 metabolites were identified. When comparing the atmospheric (i.e., in air) and anaerobic (i.e., in an anaerobic chamber) processing of metabolome sample preparation, there was no significant difference in the quality and quantity of the metabolomic data. For metabolite extraction, pure methanol at -20°C was a better solvent than acetonitrile/methanol/water (2:2:1, v/v/v) at -20°C that is frequently used for C. acetobutylicum, and metabolite profiles were significantly different depending on extraction solvents. This is the first evaluation of metabolite sample preparation under aerobic processing conditions for an anaerobe. This method could be applied conveniently, efficiently, and reliably to metabolome analysis for strict anaerobes in air. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Hydroxycinnamic acids used as external acceptors of electrons: an energetic advantage for strictly heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filannino, Pasquale; Gobbetti, Marco; De Angelis, Maria; Di Cagno, Raffaella

    2014-12-01

    The metabolism of hydroxycinnamic acids by strictly heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria (19 strains) was investigated as a potential alternative energy route. Lactobacillus curvatus PE5 was the most tolerant to hydroxycinnamic acids, followed by strains of Weissella spp., Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus fermentum, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides, for which the MIC values were the same. The highest sensitivity was found for Lactobacillus rossiae strains. During growth in MRS broth, lactic acid bacteria reduced caffeic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids into dihydrocaffeic, phloretic, and dihydroferulic acids, respectively, or decarboxylated hydroxycinnamic acids into the corresponding vinyl derivatives and then reduced the latter compounds to ethyl compounds. Reductase activities mainly emerged, and the activities of selected strains were further investigated in chemically defined basal medium (CDM) under anaerobic conditions. The end products of carbon metabolism were quantified, as were the levels of intracellular ATP and the NAD(+)/NADH ratio. Electron and carbon balances and theoretical ATP/glucose yields were also estimated. When CDM was supplemented with hydroxycinnamic acids, the synthesis of ethanol decreased and the concentration of acetic acid increased. The levels of these metabolites reflected on the alcohol dehydrogenase and acetate kinase activities. Overall, some biochemical traits distinguished the common metabolism of strictly heterofermentative strains: main reductase activity toward hydroxycinnamic acids, a shift from alcohol dehydrogenase to acetate kinase activities, an increase in the NAD(+)/NADH ratio, and the accumulation of supplementary intracellular ATP. Taken together, the above-described metabolic responses suggest that strictly heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria mainly use hydroxycinnamic acids as external acceptors of electrons. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Good Faith and Game Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Caspar

    2016-01-01

    This article shows how game theory can be applied to model good faith mathematically using an example of a classic legal dispute related to rei vindicato. The issue is whether an owner has a legal right to his good if a person has bought it in good faith by using updated probabilities. The article...

  10. Fermentative Degradation of Polyethylene Glycol by a Strictly Anaerobic, Gram-Negative, Nonsporeforming Bacterium, Pelobacter venetianus sp. nov

    OpenAIRE

    1983-01-01

    The synthetic polyether polyethylene glycol (PEG) with a molecular weight of 20,000 was anaerobically degraded in enrichment cultures inoculated with mud of limnic and marine origins. Three strains (Gra PEG 1, Gra PEG 2, and Ko PEG 2) of rod-shaped, gram-negative, nonsporeforming, strictly anaerobic bacteria were isolated in mineral medium with PEG as the sole source of carbon and energy. All strains degraded dimers, oligomers, and polymers of PEG up to a molecular weight of 20,000 completely...

  11. Some results on a general iterative method for k-strictly pseudo-contractive mappings

    OpenAIRE

    Jung Jong Soo

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Let H be a Hilbert space, C be a closed convex subset of H such that C ± C ⊂ C, and T : C → H be a k-strictly pseudo-contractive mapping with F(T) ≠ ∅ for some 0 ≤ k < 1. Let F : C → C be a κ-Lipschitzian and η-strongly monotone operator with κ > 0 and η > 0 and f : C → C be a contraction with the contractive constant α ∈ (0, 1). Let , and τ < 1. Let {αn } and {βn } be sequen...

  12. Structural stability of solutions to the Riemann problem for a non-strictly hyperbolic system with flux approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meina Sun

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We study the Riemann problem for a non-strictly hyperbolic system of conservation laws under the linear approximations of flux functions with three parameters. The approximated system also belongs to the type of triangular systems of conservation laws and this approximation does not change the structure of Riemann solutions to the original system. Furthermore, it is proven that the Riemann solutions to the approximated system converge to the corresponding ones to the original system as the perturbation parameter tends to zero.

  13. Is globalization really good for public health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tausch, Arno

    2016-10-01

    In the light of recent very prominent studies, especially that of Mukherjee and Krieckhaus (), one should be initially tempted to assume that nowadays globalization is a driver of a good public health performance in the entire world system. Most of these studies use time series analyses based on the KOF Index of Globalization. We attempt to re-analyze the entire question, using a variety of methodological approaches and data. Our re-analysis shows that neoliberal globalization has resulted in very important implosions of public health development in various regions of the world and in increasing inequality in the countries of the world system, which in turn negatively affect health performance. We use standard ibm/spss ordinary least squares (OLS) regressions, time series and cross-correlation analyses based on aggregate, freely available data. Different components of the KOF Index, most notably actual capital inflows, affect public health negatively. The "decomposition" of the available data suggests that for most of the time period of the last four decades, globalization inflows even implied an aggregate deterioration of public health, quite in line with globalization critical studies. We introduce the effects of inequality on public health, widely debated in global public health research. Our annual time series for 99 countries show that globalization indeed leads to increased inequality, and this, in turn, leads to a deteriorating public health performance. In only 19 of the surveyed 99 nations with complete data (i.e., 19.1%), globalization actually preceded an improvement in the public health performance. Far from falsifying globalization critical research, our analyses show the basic weaknesses of the new "pro-globalization" literature in the public health profession. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. A Hartman–Nagumo inequality for the vector ordinary -Laplacian and applications to nonlinear boundary value problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ureña Antonio J

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A generalization of the well-known Hartman–Nagumo inequality to the case of the vector ordinary -Laplacian and classical degree theory provide existence results for some associated nonlinear boundary value problems.

  15. R -Dimensional ESPRIT-Type Algorithms for Strictly Second-Order Non-Circular Sources and Their Performance Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinwandt, Jens; Roemer, Florian; Haardt, Martin; Galdo, Giovanni Del

    2014-09-01

    High-resolution parameter estimation algorithms designed to exploit the prior knowledge about incident signals from strictly second-order (SO) non-circular (NC) sources allow for a lower estimation error and can resolve twice as many sources. In this paper, we derive the R-D NC Standard ESPRIT and the R-D NC Unitary ESPRIT algorithms that provide a significantly better performance compared to their original versions for arbitrary source signals. They are applicable to shift-invariant R-D antenna arrays and do not require a centrosymmetric array structure. Moreover, we present a first-order asymptotic performance analysis of the proposed algorithms, which is based on the error in the signal subspace estimate arising from the noise perturbation. The derived expressions for the resulting parameter estimation error are explicit in the noise realizations and asymptotic in the effective signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), i.e., the results become exact for either high SNRs or a large sample size. We also provide mean squared error (MSE) expressions, where only the assumptions of a zero mean and finite SO moments of the noise are required, but no assumptions about its statistics are necessary. As a main result, we analytically prove that the asymptotic performance of both R-D NC ESPRIT-type algorithms is identical in the high effective SNR regime. Finally, a case study shows that no improvement from strictly non-circular sources can be achieved in the special case of a single source.

  16. Strictly monolayer large continuous MoS{sub 2} films on diverse substrates and their luminescence properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohapatra, P. K.; Deb, S.; Singh, B. P.; Vasa, P.; Dhar, S., E-mail: dhar@phy.iitb.ac.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India)

    2016-01-25

    Despite a tremendous interest on molybdenum disulfide as a thinnest direct band gap semiconductor, single step synthesis of a large area purely monolayer MoS{sub 2} film has not yet been reported. Here, we report a CVD route to synthesize a continuous film of strictly monolayer MoS{sub 2} covering an area as large as a few cm{sup 2} on a variety of different substrates without using any seeding material or any elaborate pretreatment of the substrate. This is achieved by allowing the growth to take place in the naturally formed gap between a piece of SiO{sub 2} coated Si wafer and the substrate, when the latter is placed on top of the former inside a CVD reactor. We propose a qualitative model to explain why the MoS{sub 2} films are always strictly monolayer in this method. The photoluminescence study of these monolayers shows the characteristic excitonic and trionic features associated with monolayer MoS{sub 2}. In addition, a broad defect related luminescence band appears at ∼1.7 eV. As temperature decreases, the intensity of this broad feature increases, while the band edge luminescence reduces.

  17. Adaptive terminal sliding mode control for hypersonic flight vehicles with strictly lower convex function based nonlinear disturbance observer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yun-Jie; Zuo, Jing-Xing; Sun, Liang-Hua

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, the altitude and velocity tracking control of a generic hypersonic flight vehicle (HFV) is considered. A novel adaptive terminal sliding mode controller (ATSMC) with strictly lower convex function based nonlinear disturbance observer (SDOB) is proposed for the longitudinal dynamics of HFV in presence of both parametric uncertainties and external disturbances. First, for the sake of enhancing the anti-interference capability, SDOB is presented to estimate and compensate the equivalent disturbances by introducing a strictly lower convex function. Next, the SDOB based ATSMC (SDOB-ATSMC) is proposed to guarantee the system outputs track the reference trajectory. Then, stability of the proposed control scheme is analyzed by the Lyapunov function method. Compared with other HFV control approaches, key novelties of SDOB-ATSMC are that a novel SDOB is proposed and drawn into the (virtual) control laws to compensate the disturbances and that several adaptive laws are used to deal with the differential explosion problem. Finally, it is illustrated by the simulation results that the new method exhibits an excellent robustness and a better disturbance rejection performance than the convention approach. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of semantic aspect of language in students of ordinary, integrated and special schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ghorbani

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Children with severe and profound hearing loss have difficulties in communicating with others and educating at school. Effects of learning environment on children's language skills have been recently focused and educating those students in ordinary schools has been proposed. According to this view, we compared perception of antonyms and synonyms as a semantic aspect of language in students of ordinary, integrated and special schools.Methods: It was an analytic cross-sectional study. Three groups of students were enrolled: normal-hearing students of ordinary schools and hearing-loss students of integrated and specials schools. Each group consisted of 25 students in fifth grade of elementary schools in Tehran city. Two written tests were used. Subjects wrote synonyms and antonyms for each word in the tests.Results: Results denoted significant differences between scores of normal-hearing and hearing-loss students and also between hearing-loss students of integrated schools and hearing-loss students of special schools (p<0.05. In all three groups of the students, perception of antonyms was better than antonyms (p<0.001. Speech processing rate in normal-hearing students were higher than both groups of hearing-loss students (p<0.001.Conclusion: The differences between normal-hearing and hearing-loss students shows that similar to other language skills, perception of synonyms and antonyms as a semantic aspect of speech is related to the hearing conditions and type of education. Moreover, the differences between two groups of hearing-loss students represent that speech stimulants and interaction with normal-hearing children could improve semantic aspect of speech in hearing-loss students.

  19. Oxygen isotopic abundances in calcium- aluminum-rich inclusions from ordinary chondrites: implications for nebular heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeegan, K D; Leshin, L A; Russell, S S; MacPherson, G J

    1998-04-17

    The oxygen isotopic compositions of two calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) from the unequilibrated ordinary chondrite meteorites Quinyambie and Semarkona are enriched in 16O by an amount similar to that in CAIs from carbonaceous chondrites. This may indicate that most CAIs formed in a restricted region of the solar nebula and were then unevenly distributed throughout the various chondrite accretion regions. The Semarkona CAI is isotopically homogeneous and contains highly 16O-enriched melilite, supporting the hypothesis that all CAI minerals were originally 16O-rich, but that in most carbonaceous chondrite inclusions some minerals exchanged oxygen isotopes with an external reservoir following crystallization.

  20. New results for exponential synchronization of linearly coupled ordinary differential systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong Ping; Chen Shi-Hua

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the exponential synchronization of linearly coupled ordinary differential systems. The intrinsic nonlinear dynamics may not satisfy the QUAD condition or weak-QUAD condition. First, it gives a new method to analyze the exponential synchronization of the systems. Second, two theorems and their corollaries are proposed for the local or global exponential synchronization of the coupled systems. Finally, an application to the linearly coupled Hopfield neural networks and several simulations are provided for verifying the effectiveness of the theoretical results. (paper)

  1. Perceived changes in ordinary autobiographical events' affect and visual imagery colorfulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Timothy D; Batteson, Tamzin J

    2013-06-01

    We examined the extent to which the perceived changes in visual imagery colorfulness impact on the affect intensity associated with ordinary autobiographical events across time. We garnered support for the hypothesis that recent events become memorial phenomena via an emotion regulation process such that positive events retained their affective pleasantness longer than negative events retained affective unpleasantness because, in part, across 2 weeks the former retained their imagery colorfulness longer than the latter events did. A similar but distinct model was unsupported. We discuss the significance of imagery colorfulness and affect intensity in the context of memory for everyday autobiographical events. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [Philosophy of psychiatry and phenomenology of everyday life: The disruptions of ordinary experience in schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troubé, Sarah

    2016-12-01

    The paper considers the philosophy of psychiatry from the perspective of everyday life, as a particular structure of experience. We outline some questions raised by disturbances typical of psychotic disorders with regard to a phenomenology of the everyday and common sense. As a link between philosophy and clinical psychopathology, this phenomenology implies a transcendental point of view, embedded in concrete and practical forms of ordinary experience, along with social norms. This opens the possibility of a mutual questioning between philosophy and psychiatry, drawing on its clinical, epistemological, and ethical dimensions.

  3. Oppositional banality: Watching ordinary Muslims in ‘Little Mosque on the Prairie’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenifer Chao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay interrogates how the globally-syndicated series Little Mosque on the Prairie (2007-2012 mobilises one of the most beloved television formats – the situation comedy – to insert a banal and normalised gaze toward Muslims and contest hostile representations of Islam in Western media. Through what I have termed ‘oppositional banality’ the show relocates Muslim identities to the realm of everyday life and out of the confines of global terrorism. Rather than being under the scrutiny of news cameras and viewed through cataclysmic international events the Muslims in Little Mosque are made comical and timeless, subjected to the emotional entanglements of ordinary life.

  4. Conservation properties of numerical integration methods for systems of ordinary differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, J. S.

    1976-01-01

    If a system of ordinary differential equations represents a property conserving system that can be expressed linearly (e.g., conservation of mass), it is then desirable that the numerical integration method used conserve the same quantity. It is shown that both linear multistep methods and Runge-Kutta methods are 'conservative' and that Newton-type methods used to solve the implicit equations preserve the inherent conservation of the numerical method. It is further shown that a method used by several authors is not conservative.

  5. Constraints on the mixing angle between ordinary and heavy leptons in a (V - A) model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hioki, Zenro

    1977-01-01

    The possibility of the mixing between ordinary and heavy leptons in a pure (V-A) model with SU(2) x U(1) gauge group is investigated. It is shown that to be consistent with the present experimental data on various neutral current reactions, this mixing must be small for any choice of the Weinberg angle in the case M sub(W)=M sub(Z) cos theta sub(W). The tri-muon production from the leptonic vertex through this mixing is also discussed. (auth.)

  6. Quasilinear theory of the ordinary-mode electron-cyclotron resonance in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arunasalam, V.; Efthimion, P.C.; Hosea, J.C.; Hsuan, H.; Taylor, G.

    1983-11-01

    A coupled set of equations, one describing the time evolution of the ordinary-mode wave energy and the other describing the time evolution of the electron distribution function is presented. The wave damping is mainly determined by T/sub parallel/ while the radiative equilibrium is mainly an equipartition with T/sub perpendicular/. The time rate of change of T/sub perpendicular/, T/sub parallel/, particle (N 0 ), and current (J/sub parellel/) densities are examined for finite k/sub parallel/ electron-cyclotron-resonance heating of plasmas

  7. Collocation methods for the solution of eigenvalue problems for singular ordinary differential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winfried Auzinger

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate that eigenvalue problems for ordinary differential equations can be recast in a formulation suitable for the solution by polynomial collocation. It is shown that the well-posedness of the two formulations is equivalent in the regular as well as in the singular case. Thus, a collocation code equipped with asymptotically correct error estimation and adaptive mesh selection can be successfully applied to compute the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions efficiently and with reliable control of the accuracy. Numerical examples illustrate this claim.

  8. Analytical approaches for the approximate solution of a nonlinear fractional ordinary differential equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basak, K C; Ray, P C; Bera, R K

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present analysis is to apply the Adomian decomposition method and He's variational method for the approximate analytical solution of a nonlinear ordinary fractional differential equation. The solutions obtained by the above two methods have been numerically evaluated and presented in the form of tables and also compared with the exact solution. It was found that the results obtained by the above two methods are in excellent agreement with the exact solution. Finally, a surface plot of the approximate solutions of the fractional differential equation by the above two methods is drawn for 0≤t≤2 and 1<α≤2.

  9. Blow up of solutions to ordinary differential equations arising in nonlinear dispersive problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Dimova

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We study a new class of ordinary differential equations with blow up solutions. Necessary and sufficient conditions for finite blow up time are proved. Based on the new differential equation, a revised version of the concavity method of Levine is proposed. As an application we investigate the non-existence of global solutions to the Cauchy problem of Klein-Gordon, and to the double dispersive equations. We obtain necessary and sufficient condition for finite time blow up with arbitrary positive energy. A very general sufficient condition for blow up is also given.

  10. Ordinary differential equations and Boolean networks in application to modelling of 6-mercaptopurine metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrova, Anastasia I; Postnikov, Eugene B; Zyubin, Andrey Yu; Babak, Svetlana V

    2017-04-01

    We consider two approaches to modelling the cell metabolism of 6-mercaptopurine, one of the important chemotherapy drugs used for treating acute lymphocytic leukaemia: kinetic ordinary differential equations, and Boolean networks supplied with one controlling node, which takes continual values. We analyse their interplay with respect to taking into account ATP concentration as a key parameter of switching between different pathways. It is shown that the Boolean networks, which allow avoiding the complexity of general kinetic modelling, preserve the possibility of reproducing the principal switching mechanism.

  11. Ordinary mode auroral kilometric radiation fine structure observed by DE 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, R.F.; Mellott, M.M.; Huff, R.L.; Gurnett, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    The fine structure observed with intense right-hand extraordinary (R-X) mode auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) has received major theoretical attention. Data from the Dynamics Explorer 1 plasma wave instrument indicate that left-hand ordinary (L-O) mode AKR posses similar fine structure. Several theories have been proposed to explain the fine structure of the R-X mode AKR. In order to account for the L-O mode fine structure, these theories will have to be modified to produce the L-O mode directly or will have to rely on mode conversion processes from the R-X to the L-O mode

  12. Nonlocal symmetries of a class of scalar and coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations of any order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradeep, R Gladwin; Chandrasekar, V K; Senthilvelan, M; Lakshmanan, M

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we devise a systematic procedure to obtain nonlocal symmetries of a class of scalar nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs) of arbitrary order related to linear ODEs through nonlocal relations. The procedure makes use of the Lie point symmetries of the linear ODEs and the nonlocal connection to deduce the nonlocal symmetries of the corresponding nonlinear ODEs. Using these nonlocal symmetries, we obtain reduction transformations and reduced equations to specific examples. We find that the reduced equations can be explicitly integrated to deduce the general solutions for these cases. We also extend this procedure to coupled higher order nonlinear ODEs with specific reference to second-order nonlinear ODEs. (paper)

  13. Higher derivative discontinuous solutions to linear ordinary differential equations: a new route to complexity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, Dhurjati Prasad; Bose, Manoj Kumar

    2004-01-01

    We present a new one parameter family of second derivative discontinuous solutions to the simplest scale invariant linear ordinary differential equation. We also point out how the construction could be extended to generate families of higher derivative discontinuous solutions as well. The discontinuity can occur only for a subset of even order derivatives, viz., 2nd, 4th, 8th, 16th,.... The solutions are shown to break the discrete parity (reflection) symmetry of the underlying equation. These results are expected to gain significance in the contemporary search of a new dynamical principle for understanding complex phenomena in nature

  14. Linear or linearizable first-order delay ordinary differential equations and their Lie point symmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorodnitsyn, Vladimir A.; Kozlov, Roman; Meleshko, Sergey V.; Winternitz, Pavel

    2018-05-01

    A recent article was devoted to an analysis of the symmetry properties of a class of first-order delay ordinary differential systems (DODSs). Here we concentrate on linear DODSs, which have infinite-dimensional Lie point symmetry groups due to the linear superposition principle. Their symmetry algebra always contains a two-dimensional subalgebra realized by linearly connected vector fields. We identify all classes of linear first-order DODSs that have additional symmetries, not due to linearity alone, and we present representatives of each class. These additional symmetries are then used to construct exact analytical particular solutions using symmetry reduction.

  15. Adolescent transition: Ordinary People (1980), Fly Away Home (1996), and (500) Days Of Summer (2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Frederick C

    2011-06-01

    Five important transitional tasks of adolescent development are (i) taming the upsurge of desires and impulses, both sexual and aggressive, into constructive and creative directions; (ii) establishing independence from infantile family ties (while maintaining some involvement with the family of origin); (iii) reconciling self-preoccupations with social attachments; (iv) reworking identifications, especially sexual; and (v) establishing romantic attachments and solidifying ongoing stable love relationships. These tasks are illustrated with the help of three movies, namely Ordinary People, Fly Away Home, and (500) Days of Summer.

  16. Evidence from the Semarkona ordinary chondrite for /sup 26/Al heating of small planets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutcheon, I D; Hutchison, R

    1989-01-19

    We report the first observation of radiogenic /sup 26/Mg in non-refractory meteoritic material, a plagio-clase-bearing, olivine-pyroxene clast chondrule in the Semarkona ordinary chondrite. The inferred initial abundance of /sup 26/Al is sufficient to produce incipient melting in well insulated bodies of chondritic composition. We conclude that planetary accretion and differentiation must have begun on a timescale comparable to the half life of /sup 26/Al and that, even if widespread melting did not occur, /sup 26/Al heating played a significant role in thermal metamorphism on small planets.

  17. Evidence from the Semarkona ordinary chondrite for 26Al heating of small planets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutcheon, I.D.

    1989-01-01

    We report the first observation of radiogenic 26 Mg in non-refractory meteoritic material, a plagio-clase-bearing, olivine-pyroxene clast chondrule in the Semarkona ordinary chondrite. The inferred initial abundance of 26 Al is sufficient to produce incipient melting in well insulated bodies of chondritic composition. We conclude that planetary accretion and differentiation must have begun on a timescale comparable to the half life of 26 Al and that, even if widespread melting did not occur, 26 Al heating played a significant role in thermal metamorphism on small planets. (author)

  18. Mathematical Methods for Engineers and Scientists 2 Vector Analysis, Ordinary Differential Equations and Laplace Transforms

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Kwong-Tin

    2007-01-01

    Pedagogical insights gained through 30 years of teaching applied mathematics led the author to write this set of student-oriented books. Topics such as complex analysis, matrix theory, vector and tensor analysis, Fourier analysis, integral transforms, ordinary and partial differential equations are presented in a discursive style that is readable and easy to follow. Numerous clearly stated, completely worked out examples together with carefully selected problem sets with answers are used to enhance students' understanding and manipulative skill. The goal is to make students comfortable and confident in using advanced mathematical tools in junior, senior, and beginning graduate courses.

  19. Good government and good governance: record keeping in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article addresses the challenges that arise when record keeping systems are advocated as a necessary under-pinning for good government and good governance. The relationship between record keeping and accountability is analysed and contextualised in relation to transparency and Freedom of Information ...

  20. Hybrid modeling of the crosstalk between signaling and transcriptional networks using ordinary differential equations and multi-valued logic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Faiz M; Schmitz, Ulf; Nikolov, Svetoslav; Engelmann, David; Pützer, Brigitte M; Wolkenhauer, Olaf; Vera, Julio

    2014-01-01

    A decade of successful results indicates that systems biology is the appropriate approach to investigate the regulation of complex biochemical networks involving transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulations. It becomes mandatory when dealing with highly interconnected biochemical networks, composed of hundreds of compounds, or when networks are enriched in non-linear motifs like feedback and feedforward loops. An emerging dilemma is to conciliate models of massive networks and the adequate description of non-linear dynamics in a suitable modeling framework. Boolean networks are an ideal representation of massive networks that are humble in terms of computational complexity and data demand. However, they are inappropriate when dealing with nested feedback/feedforward loops, structural motifs common in biochemical networks. On the other hand, models of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) cope well with these loops, but they require enormous amounts of quantitative data for a full characterization of the model. Here we propose hybrid models, composed of ODE and logical sub-modules, as a strategy to handle large scale, non-linear biochemical networks that include transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulations. We illustrate the construction of this kind of models using as example a regulatory network centered on E2F1, a transcription factor involved in cancer. The hybrid modeling approach proposed is a good compromise between quantitative/qualitative accuracy and scalability when considering large biochemical networks with a small highly interconnected core, and module of transcriptionally regulated genes that are not part of critical regulatory loops. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Computational Proteomics, Systems Biology & Clinical Implications. Guest Editor: Yudong Cai. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. [Extension of cardiac monitoring function by used of ordinary ECG machine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhencheng; Jiang, Yong; Ni, Lili; Wang, Hongyan

    2002-06-01

    This paper deals with a portable monitor system on liquid crystal display (LCD) based on this available ordinary ECG machine, which is low power and suitable for China's specific condition. Apart from developing the overall scheme of the system, this paper also has completed the design of the hardware and the software. The 80c196 single chip microcomputer is taken as the central microprocessor and real time electrocardiac single is data treated and analyzed in the system. With the performance of ordinary monitor, this machine also possesses the following functions: five types of arrhythmia analysis, alarm, freeze, and record of automatic pappering, convenient in carrying, with alternate-current (AC) or direct-current (DC) powered. The hardware circuit is simplified and the software structure is optimized in this paper. Multiple low power designs and LCD unit design are adopted and completed in it. Popular in usage, low in cost price, the portable monitor system will have a valuable influence on China's monitor system field.

  2. Ordinary Portland Cement matrix for solidification of cellulosic protective clothes hazardous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shatta, H.A.; Saleh, H.M.

    2006-01-01

    The used cellulosic protective clothes constitutes considerable fraction of the hazardous and radioactive wastes accumulated during the practical daily life. The direct solidification of these wastes with ordinary Portland cement resulted in waste forms having undesired characters, therefore, it is recommended to immobilize the secondary waste solutions coming from the oxidative degradation of the used protective clothes waste simulates rather than direct imbedding. IR analyses, X-ray diffraction and thermal characteristics for products of both direct encapsulation of the waste and the cementation of its degradation products were performed to evaluate the properties of the final waste cemented form before their disposal. Based on the results reached from X-ray diffraction, IR spectrograms and thermal analyses reports, it could be stated that no detectable changes in hydration and curing coarse of ordinary Portland cement when mixing the residual secondary waste solution resulting from the oxidative degradation of the used protective clothes waste simulate compared with mixing cement with water and in reverse with imbedding the unprocessed waste in cement matrix

  3. Chemical-Petrographic Types and Shock Metamorphism of 184 Grove Mountains Equilibrated Ordinary Chondrites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deqiu Dai

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available We reported the petrography and mineral chemistry of 184 equilibrated ordinary chondrites collected from Grove Mountains, Antarctica. The chemical-petrographic types and shock metamorphism degrees of these chondrites were assigned. They were classified into 46 H groups (22 H4, 20 H5, and four H6, 133 L groups (eight L4, 75 L5, and 50 L6, and five LL groups (four LL4 and one LL5. Some of these chondrites could be paired; however, both H and L group meteorites were affected. Further studies such as terrestrial ages and thermal luminescence are required in order to confirm the pairings. The relative abundances of H, L, and LL are different in Grove Mountain meteorites, when compared to those in Transcontinental Ridge meteorites. Based on the shock effects, the shock metamorphism degrees of these chondrites were assigned. Compared to previous studies, the heavily shocked samples of S4 and S5 have a higher fraction (59 out of 184 in Grove Mountain ordinary chondrites. The L group (54 out of 59 is the dominant chemical group in the heavily shocked chondrites, except for five meteorites which belong to the H group. The shock metamorphism degrees of the H and L groups are distinct, which may indicate different surface properties in their parent bodies. In addition, the petrologic types and shock degrees are probably closely related, with the most heavily shocked chondrites observed in types 5 and 6.

  4. Combining Ordinary Kriging with wind directions to identify sources of industrial odors in Portland, Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckmann, Ted C; Wright, Samantha G; Simpson, Logan K; Walker, Joe L; Kolmes, Steven A; Houck, James E; Velasquez, Sandra C

    2018-01-01

    This study combines Ordinary Kriging, odor monitoring, and wind direction data to demonstrate how these elements can be applied to identify the source of an industrial odor. The specific case study used as an example of how to address this issue was the University Park neighborhood of Portland, Oregon (USA) where residents frequently complain about industrial odors, and suspect the main source to be a nearby Daimler Trucks North America LLC manufacturing plant. We collected 19,665 odor observations plus 105,120 wind measurements, using an automated weather station to measure winds in the area at five-minute intervals, logging continuously from December 2014 through November 2015, while we also measured odors at 19 locations, three times per day, using methods from the American Society of the International Association for Testing and Materials. Our results quantify how winds vary with season and time of day when industrial odors were observed versus when they were not observed, while also mapping spatiotemporal patterns in these odors using Ordinary Kriging. Our analyses show that industrial odors were detected most frequently to the northwest of the Daimler plant, mostly when winds blew from the southeast, suggesting Daimler's facility is a likely source for much of this odor.

  5. Ordinary matter, dark matter, and dark energy on normal Zeeman space-times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imre Szabó, Zoltán

    2017-01-01

    Zeeman space-times are new, relativistic, and operator based Hamiltonian models representing multi-particle systems. They are established on Lorentzian pseudo Riemannian manifolds whose Laplacian immediately appears in the form of original quantum physical wave operators. In classical quantum theory they emerge, differently, from the Hamilton formalism and the correspondence principle. Nonetheless, this new model does not just reiterate the well known conceptions but holds the key to solving open problems of quantum theory. Most remarkably, it represents the dark matter, dark energy, and ordinary matter by the same ratios how they show up in experiments. Another remarkable agreement with reality is that the ordinary matter appears to be non-expanding and is described in consent with observations. The theory also explains gravitation, moreover, the Hamilton operators of all energy and matter formations, together with their physical properties, are solely derived from the Laplacian of the Zeeman space-time. By this reason, it is called Monistic Wave Laplacian which symbolizes an all-comprehensive unification of all matter and energy formations. This paper only outlines the normal case where the particles do not have proper spin but just angular momentum. The complete anomalous theory is detailed in [Sz2, Sz3, Sz4, Sz5, Sz6, Sz7].

  6. Ordinary or peculiar men? Comparing the customers of prostitutes with a nationally representative sample of men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monto, Martin A; Milrod, Christine

    2014-07-01

    Recent media attention implies that prostitution seeking is widespread, an "ordinary" aspect of masculine sexual behavior. Other accounts suggest that customers are "peculiar," characterized by distinct qualities, perversions, or psychological impairments. Using the nationally representative General Social Survey (GSS), this study demonstrates that prostitution seeking is relatively uncommon. Only about 14% of men in the United States report having ever paid for sex, and only 1% report having done so during the previous year. Furthermore, this study dissects whether customers are ordinary or peculiar by comparing a new sample of active customers who solicit sex on the Internet with an older sample of arrested customers, a sample of customers from the GSS, and a nationally representative sample of noncustomers. The customers of Internet sexual service providers differed greatly from men in general and also from other customers. The remaining samples of customers differed slightly from noncustomers in general. We argue for a balanced perspective that recognizes the significant variety among customers. There is no evidence of a peculiar quality that differentiates customers in general from men who have not paid for sex. © The Author(s) 2013.

  7. On the Comparison of Interpersonal Sensitivity and Assertiveness between Drug-Dependent Persons and Ordinary People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Vojudi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study was aimed at comparing interpersonal sensitivity and assertiveness between drug-dependent persons and ordinary people. Method: The research method was causal-comparative. The statistical population of the study consisted of all narcotic addicts of Tabriz City who referred to Addiction Treatment Centers while the research was being conducted. The number of 30 addicted persons was selected through cluster sampling and 30 ordinary persons as control group through convenience sampling method. Gmbryl & Ritchie’s assertiveness questionnaire (1975 and Boyce & Parker’s Interpersonal Sensitivity Measure (IPSM 1989 were used for data collection purposes. Results: The results showed that there was a statistically significant difference between two groups in terms of interpersonal sensitivity and assertiveness. The addicts showed less assertiveness and more interpersonal sensitivity in comparison with their healthy counterparts. Conclusion: The findings show that people who are unable to express themselves and exert sensitivity in interpersonal relationships are more likely at high risk of substance dependence. However, it is possible to prevent these persons from turning to addiction by teaching them these skills.

  8. Particle Swarm Optimization Based on Local Attractors of Ordinary Differential Equation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyu Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Particle swarm optimization (PSO is inspired by sociological behavior. In this paper, we interpret PSO as a finite difference scheme for solving a system of stochastic ordinary differential equations (SODE. In this framework, the position points of the swarm converge to an equilibrium point of the SODE and the local attractors, which are easily defined by the present position points, also converge to the global attractor. Inspired by this observation, we propose a class of modified PSO iteration methods (MPSO based on local attractors of the SODE. The idea of MPSO is to choose the next update state near the present local attractor, rather than the present position point as in the original PSO, according to a given probability density function. In particular, the quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization method turns out to be a special case of MPSO by taking a special probability density function. The MPSO methods with six different probability density functions are tested on a few benchmark problems. These MPSO methods behave differently for different problems. Thus, our framework not only gives an interpretation for the ordinary PSO but also, more importantly, provides a warehouse of PSO-like methods to choose from for solving different practical problems.

  9. The use of SEM/EDS method in mineralogical analysis of ordinary chondritic meteorite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breda Mirtič

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersiveX-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS for determination of mineral phases according to their stoichiometry and assessment of mineral composition of ordinary chondritic meteorite. For the purposes of this study, H3 type ordinary chondritic meteorite Abbott was selected. SEM/EDS allows identification and characterisation of mineralphases, whose size is below the resolution of an optical microscope. Mineral phases in chondrules and interstitial matrix were located in backscattered electron (BSE mode and were assessed from atomic proportions of constituent elements, obtained by the EDS analysis. SEM/EDS analyses of mineral phases showed that Abbott meteorite is characterised by Fe-rich (Fe, Ni-alloy kamacite, Fe-sulphide troilite or pyrrhotite, chromite, Mg-rich olivine, orthopyroxene bronzite or hypersthene, clinopyroxene Al-diopside, acid plagioclase oligoclase, accessory mineral chlorapatite and secondary minerals Fe-hydroxides (goethite or lepidocrocite. Results of semi-quantitative analyses confirmed that most of analysed mineralphases conform well to stoichiometric minerals with minor deviations of oxygen from stoichiometric proportions. Comparison between mineral phases in chondrules and interstitial matrix was also performed, however it showed no significant differences in elemental composition.Differences in chemical composition between minerals in interstitial matrix and chondrules are sometimes too small to be discernedby the SEM/EDS, therefore knowledge of SEM/EDS capabilities is important for correct interpretation of chondrite formation.

  10. Novel driver method to improve ordinary CCD frame rate for high-speed imaging diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Tong-Ding, E-mail: snuohui@126.com; Li, Bin-Kang; Yang, Shao-Hua; Guo, Ming-An; Yan, Ming

    2016-06-21

    The use of ordinary Charge-coupled-Device (CCD) imagers for the analysis of fast physical phenomenon is restricted because of the low-speed performance resulting from their long output times. Even though the form of Intensified-CCD (ICCD), coupled with a gated image intensifier, has extended their use for high speed imaging, the deficiency remains to be solved that ICDD could record only one image in a single shot. This paper presents a novel driver method designed to significantly improve the ordinary interline CCD burst frame rate for high-speed photography. This method is based on the use of vertical registers as storage, so that a small number of additional frames comprised of reduced-spatial-resolution images obtained via a specific sampling operation can be buffered. Hence, the interval time of the received series of images is related to the exposure and vertical transfer times only and, thus, the burst frame rate can be increased significantly. A prototype camera based on this method is designed as part of this study, exhibiting a burst rate of up to 250,000 frames per second (fps) and a capacity to record three continuous images. This device exhibits a speed enhancement of approximately 16,000 times compared with the conventional speed, with a spatial resolution reduction of only 1/4.

  11. Defense programs beryllium good practice guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herr, M.

    1997-07-01

    Within the DOE, it has recently become apparent that some contractor employees who have worked (or are currently working) with and around beryllium have developed chronic beryllium disease (CBD), an occupational granulomatous lung disorder. Respiratory exposure to aerosolized beryllium, in susceptible individuals, causes an immunological reaction that can result in granulomatous scarring of the lung parenchyma, shortness of breath, cough, fatigue, weight loss, and, ultimately, respiratory failure. Beryllium disease was originally identified in the 1940s, largely in the fluorescent light industry. In 1950, the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) introduced strict exposure standards that generally curtailed both the acute and chronic forms of the disease. Beginning in 1984, with the identification of a CBD case in a DOE contractor worker, there was increased scrutiny of both industrial hygiene practices and individuals in this workforce. To date, over 100 additional cases of beryllium-specific sensitization and/or CBD have been identified. Thus, a disease previously thought to be largely eliminated by the adoption of permissible exposure standards 45 years ago is still a health risk in certain workforces. This good practice guide forms the basis of an acceptable program for controlling workplace exposure to beryllium. It provides (1) Guidance for minimizing worker exposure to beryllium in Defense Programs facilities during all phases of beryllium-related work, including the decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) of facilities. (2) Recommended controls to be applied to the handling of metallic beryllium and beryllium alloys, beryllium oxide, and other beryllium compounds. (3) Recommendations for medical monitoring and surveillance of workers exposed (or potentially exposed) to beryllium, based on the best current understanding of beryllium disease and medical diagnostic tests available. (4) Site-specific safety procedures for all processes of beryllium that is

  12. Strict fibonacci heaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Lagogiannis, George; Tarjan, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    We present the first pointer-based heap implementation with time bounds matching those of Fibonacci heaps in the worst case. We support make-heap, insert, find-min, meld and decrease-key in worst-case O(1) time, and delete and delete-min in worst-case O(lg n) time, where n is the size of the heap...... of the smaller heap when doing a meld. We use the pigeonhole principle in place of the redundant counter mechanism. We present the first pointer-based heap implementation with time bounds matching those of Fibonacci heaps in the worst case. We support make-heap, insert, find-min, meld and decrease-key in worst...

  13. Iterative algorithms for the input and state recovery from the approximate inverse of strictly proper multivariable systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liwen; Xu, Qiang

    2018-02-01

    This paper proposes new iterative algorithms for the unknown input and state recovery from the system outputs using an approximate inverse of the strictly proper linear time-invariant (LTI) multivariable system. One of the unique advantages from previous system inverse algorithms is that the output differentiation is not required. The approximate system inverse is stable due to the systematic optimal design of a dummy feedthrough D matrix in the state-space model via the feedback stabilization. The optimal design procedure avoids trial and error to identify such a D matrix which saves tremendous amount of efforts. From the derived and proved convergence criteria, such an optimal D matrix also guarantees the convergence of algorithms. Illustrative examples show significant improvement of the reference input signal tracking by the algorithms and optimal D design over non-iterative counterparts on controllable or stabilizable LTI systems, respectively. Case studies of two Boeing-767 aircraft aerodynamic models further demonstrate the capability of the proposed methods.

  14. Globally Stable Adaptive Backstepping Neural Network Control for Uncertain Strict-Feedback Systems With Tracking Accuracy Known a Priori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weisheng; Ge, Shuzhi Sam; Wu, Jian; Gong, Maoguo

    2015-09-01

    This paper addresses the problem of globally stable direct adaptive backstepping neural network (NN) tracking control design for a class of uncertain strict-feedback systems under the assumption that the accuracy of the ultimate tracking error is given a priori. In contrast to the classical adaptive backstepping NN control schemes, this paper analyzes the convergence of the tracking error using Barbalat's Lemma via some nonnegative functions rather than the positive-definite Lyapunov functions. Thus, the accuracy of the ultimate tracking error can be determined and adjusted accurately a priori, and the closed-loop system is guaranteed to be globally uniformly ultimately bounded. The main technical novelty is to construct three new n th-order continuously differentiable functions, which are used to design the control law, the virtual control variables, and the adaptive laws. Finally, two simulation examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness and advantages of the proposed control method.

  15. Online Recorded Data-Based Composite Neural Control of Strict-Feedback Systems With Application to Hypersonic Flight Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bin; Yang, Daipeng; Shi, Zhongke; Pan, Yongping; Chen, Badong; Sun, Fuchun

    2017-09-25

    This paper investigates the online recorded data-based composite neural control of uncertain strict-feedback systems using the backstepping framework. In each step of the virtual control design, neural network (NN) is employed for uncertainty approximation. In previous works, most designs are directly toward system stability ignoring the fact how the NN is working as an approximator. In this paper, to enhance the learning ability, a novel prediction error signal is constructed to provide additional correction information for NN weight update using online recorded data. In this way, the neural approximation precision is highly improved, and the convergence speed can be faster. Furthermore, the sliding mode differentiator is employed to approximate the derivative of the virtual control signal, and thus, the complex analysis of the backstepping design can be avoided. The closed-loop stability is rigorously established, and the boundedness of the tracking error can be guaranteed. Through simulation of hypersonic flight dynamics, the proposed approach exhibits better tracking performance.

  16. Global neural dynamic surface tracking control of strict-feedback systems with application to hypersonic flight vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bin; Yang, Chenguang; Pan, Yongping

    2015-10-01

    This paper studies both indirect and direct global neural control of strict-feedback systems in the presence of unknown dynamics, using the dynamic surface control (DSC) technique in a novel manner. A new switching mechanism is designed to combine an adaptive neural controller in the neural approximation domain, together with the robust controller that pulls the transient states back into the neural approximation domain from the outside. In comparison with the conventional control techniques, which could only achieve semiglobally uniformly ultimately bounded stability, the proposed control scheme guarantees all the signals in the closed-loop system are globally uniformly ultimately bounded, such that the conventional constraints on initial conditions of the neural control system can be relaxed. The simulation studies of hypersonic flight vehicle (HFV) are performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed global neural DSC design.

  17. Probing the redox metabolism in the strictly anaerobic, extremely thermophilic, hydrogen-producing Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus using amperometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kostesha, Natalie; Willquist, Karin; Emnéus, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    Changes in the redox metabolism in the anaerobic, extremely thermophilic, hydrogen-forming bacterium Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus were probed for the first time in vivo using mediated amperometry with ferricyanide as a thermotolerant external mediator. Clear differences in the intracellul...... in the intracellular electron flow and to probe redox enzyme properties of a strictly anaerobic thermophile in vivo.......Changes in the redox metabolism in the anaerobic, extremely thermophilic, hydrogen-forming bacterium Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus were probed for the first time in vivo using mediated amperometry with ferricyanide as a thermotolerant external mediator. Clear differences in the intracellular...... the NADH-dependent lactate dehydrogenase, upon which more NADH was directed to membrane-associated enzymes for ferricyanide reduction, leading to a higher electrochemical signal. The method is noninvasive and the results presented here demonstrate that this method can be used to accurately detect changes...

  18. A solid criterion based on strict LMI without invoking equality constraint for stabilization of continuous singular systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuefeng; Chen, YangQuan

    2017-11-01

    The paper considers the stabilization issue of linear continuous singular systems by dealing with strict linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) without invoking equality constraint and proposes a complete and effective solved LMIs formulation. The criterion is necessary and sufficient condition and can be directly solved the feasible solutions with LMI toolbox and is much more tractable and reliable in numerical simulation than existing results, which involve positive semi-definite LMIs with equality constraints. The most important property of the criterion proposed in the paper is that it can overcome the drawbacks of the invalidity caused by the singularity of Ω=PE T +SQ for stabilization of singular systems. Two counterexamples are presented to avoid the disadvantages of the existing condition of stabilization of continuous singular systems. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Development of a PCR assay based on the 16S-23S rDNA internal transcribed spacer for identification of strictly anaerobic bacterium Zymophilus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Felsberg, Jürgen; Jelínková, Markéta; Kubizniaková, P.; Matoulková, D.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 33, June (2015), s. 85-89 ISSN 1075-9964 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Brewing microbiology * Strictly anaerobic bacteria * Yeast contamination Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing Impact factor: 2.424, year: 2015

  20. The Essence of Good Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Robert R.

    1986-01-01

    Compares and contrasts views of what constitutes good teaching in four recent books: "My Harvard, My Yale: Memoirs of College Life by Some Notable Americans" (Dubois, 1982); "Twenty Teachers" (Macrorie, 1984); "Artistry in Teaching" (Rubin, 1985); and "The Essence of Good Teaching: Helping Students Learn and Remember What They Learn" (Eriksen,…

  1. Good Practices for Transforming Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavente, Ana; Panchaud, Christine

    2008-01-01

    This text is a guide to the reading and interpretation of the "good practices" that are developing in the countries participating in this project and elsewhere. A systematic approach to the factors making up a "good practice" has enabled us to share our analyses in a more structured manner and to reflect on their potential for…

  2. Bad is stronger than good

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baumeister, R.F.; Bratslavsky, E.; Finkenauer, C.; Vohs, K.D.

    2001-01-01

    The greater power of bad events over good ones is found in everyday events, major life events (e.g., trauma), close relationship outcomes, social network patterns, interpersonal interactions, and learning processes. Bad emotions, bad parents, and bad feedback have more impact than good ones, and bad

  3. Good performance in nuclear projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The nuclear industry has demonstrated good performance in many areas relating to the design, engineering, construction and operation of nuclear facilities. This report of an international symposium held in Tokyo highlights examples of good performance in nuclear projects which can aid the industry in seeking even better performance, thus strengthening the contribution nuclear energy can make to sustainable economic growth

  4. Strict sequential catheter ablation strategy targeting the pulmonary veins and superior vena cava for persistent atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshiga, Yasuhiro; Shimizu, Akihiko; Ueyama, Takeshi; Ono, Makoto; Fukuda, Masakazu; Fumimoto, Tomoko; Ishiguchi, Hironori; Omuro, Takuya; Kobayashi, Shigeki; Yano, Masafumi

    2018-08-01

    An effective catheter ablation strategy, beyond pulmonary vein isolation (PVI), for persistent atrial fibrillation (AF) is necessary. Pulmonary vein (PV)-reconduction also causes recurrent atrial tachyarrhythmias. The effect of the PVI and additional effect of a superior vena cava (SVC) isolation (SVCI) was strictly evaluated. Seventy consecutive patients with persistent AF who underwent a strict sequential ablation strategy targeting the PVs and SVC were included in this study. The initial ablation strategy was a circumferential PVI. A segmental SVCI was only applied as a repeat procedure when patients demonstrated no PV-reconduction. After the initial procedure, persistent AF was suppressed in 39 of 70 (55.7%) patients during a median follow-up of 32 months. After multiple procedures, persistent AF was suppressed in 46 (65.7%) and 52 (74.3%) patients after receiving the PVI alone and PVI plus SVCI strategies, respectively. In 6 of 15 (40.0%) patients with persistent AF resistant to PVI, persistent AF was suppressed. The persistent AF duration independently predicted persistent AF recurrences after multiple PVI alone procedures [HR: 1.012 (95% confidence interval: 1.006-1.018); pstrategies [HR: 1.018 (95% confidence interval: 1.011-1.025); pstrategies, respectively. The outcomes of the PVI plus SVCI strategy were favorable for patients with shorter persistent AF durations. The initial SVCI had the additional effect of maintaining sinus rhythm in some patients with persistent AF resistant to PVI. Copyright © 2018 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Agronomic traits and deoxynivalenol contamination of two tetraploid wheat species (Triticum turgidum spp. durum, Triticum turgidum spp. turanicum grown strictly under low input conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Dinelli

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An evaluation of the agronomic performance of two tetraploid wheat varieties (Triticum turgidum spp. durum, Claudio; Triticum turgidum spp. turanicum, Kamut® grown strictly under low input conditions was carried out over three consecutive cropping years. The study reported grain yield values ranging from 1.8 to 2.6 t ha-1. Productivity showed to be primarily affected by environmental conditions, while no differences were observed between the two genotypes. The study of the yield components highlighted that the durum wheat variety had a higher plant density than Kamut®, but this discrepancy was offset by a greater number of kernels per spike and the kernel weight of khorasan wheat. The investigated wheat genotypes were also analysed to assess the mycotoxin (DON levels of wholegrain semolina and the efficiency of cleaning treatments to reduce contamination. Results showed that both wheat varieties had a good hygienic and sanitary quality with a DON content ranging from 0.35 to 1.31 mg kg-1, which was lower than the maximum acceptable level set by the European regulation at 1.75 mg kg-1. In addition, our research work investigated the effects of premilling cleaning procedures, such as water washing and brushing, on mycotoxin levels, which yielded interesting results in terms of decontamination efficiency. These methods were particularly efficient with Kamut® semolina (46-93% DON reduction, suggesting that mycotoxins accumulate in this variety at more superficial levels than in the durum wheat variety. On the whole, our study provided additional knowledge on the traits to be further improved to respond to low input requirements and to enhance the potential adaptability of wheat genotypes to organic agriculture. Our results emphasized the need to develop wheat varieties that can provide adequate performance without high levels of nitrogen inputs by selecting specific traits, such as kernel weight, spike length and kernel/spike. This may help

  6. Analysis of an ordinary bedload transport event in a mountain torrent (Rio Vanti, Verona, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastorello, Roberta; D'Agostino, Vincenzo

    2016-04-01

    The correct simulation of the sediment-transport response of mountain torrents both for extreme and ordinary flood events is a fundamental step to understand the process, but also to drive proper decisions on the protection works. The objective of this research contribution is to reconstruct the 'ordinary' flood event with the associated sediment-graph of a flood that caused on the 14th of October, 2014 the formation of a little debris cone (about 200-210 m3) at the junction between the 'Rio Vanti' torrent catchment and the 'Selva di Progno' torrent (Veneto Region, Prealps, Verona, Italy). To this purpose, it is important to notice that a great part of equations developed for the computation of the bedload transport capacity, like for example that of Schoklitsch (1962) or Smart and Jaeggi (1983), are focused on extraordinary events heavily affecting the river-bed armour. These formulas do not provide reliable results if used on events, like the one under analysis, not too far from the bankfull conditions. The Rio Vanti event was characterized by a total rainfall depth of 36.2 mm and a back-calculated peak discharge of 6.12 m3/s with a return period of 1-2 years. The classical equations to assess the sediment transport capacity overestimate the total volume of the event of several orders of magnitude. By the consequence, the following experimental bedload transport equation has been applied (D'Agostino and Lenzi, 1999), which is valid for ordinary flood events (q: unit water discharge; qc: unit discharge of bedload transport initiation; qs: unit bedload rate; S: thalweg slope): -qs-˜= 0,04ṡ(q- qc) S3/2 In particular, starting from the real rainfall data, the hydrograph and the sediment-graph have been reconstructed. Then, comparing the total volume calculated via the above cited equation to the real volume estimated using DoD techniques on post-event photogrammetric survey, a very satisfactory agreement has been obtained. The result further supports the thesis

  7. VNIR Reflectance and MIR Emissivity Spectra of Ordinary Chondrite Meteorites Under Simulated Asteroid Surface Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemma, M.; Shirley, K.; Glotch, T. D.; Ebel, D. S. S.

    2017-12-01

    Recent missions have revealed much about the nature of many Near-Earth asteroids, including the NEAR-Shoemaker target 433 Eros and Hayabusa target 25142 Itokawa. Both asteroids appear to have mineralogy consistent with ordinary chondrite meteorites. Laboratory spectral analysis of well-constrained meteorite samples can be employed as a reference tool to characterize and constrain data from current and future asteroid studies. A sample set of ordinary chondrite meteorites was chosen from the collection at the American Museum of Natural History. Six meteorites, spanning groups H, L, and LL, were prepared at four different size fractions (25-63 μm, 63-90 μm, 90-125 μm, 125-250 μm) in an attempt to mimic regolith known to exist on asteroids such as 433 Eros and 25142 Itokawa. At the Center for Planetary Exploration at Stony Brook University, spectra of the ordinary chondrite material were measured under simulated asteroid surface conditions ( 10-6 mbar, 150 K chamber temperature, low intensity illumination). The samples were used in two experiments: one measuring visible and near-infrared (VNIR) reflectance spectra at a series of temperatures, and the other measuring mid-infrared (MIR) emissivity spectra. The emissivity measurements require accurate simulation of the thermal environment within asteroid regolith, achieved by inducing a thermal gradient within the sample that results in a surface brightness temperature around 323 K (similar to the surface of 25142 Itokawa). Mid-IR emissivity spectra were collected for each sample at a surface temperature of 323 K, and reflectance spectra were collected in increments of 10 K, over the range 283 K to 373 K. Preliminary VNIR spectra show spreads similar to those seen in Hinrichs and Lucey (2002). Preliminary MIR emissivity spectra suggest that under asteroid surface conditions, the position of the Christiansen feature shifts to shorter wavelengths and emissivity is lower in the Reststrahlen bands when compared to

  8. Good Towers of Function Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassa, Alp; Beelen, Peter; Nguyen, Nhut

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we will give an overview of known and new techniques on how one can obtain explicit equations for candidates of good towers of function fields. The techniques are founded in modular theory (both the classical modular theory and the Drinfeld modular theory). In the classical modular...... setup, optimal towers can be obtained, while in the Drinfeld modular setup, good towers over any non-prime field may be found. We illustrate the theory with several examples, thus explaining some known towers as well as giving new examples of good explicitly defined towers of function fields....

  9. Using frames to determine ordinary meaning in court cases: the case of “plant” and “vermin”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terrence R Carney

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The South African judicial system has a variety of ways to determine the ordinary meaning of words, ranging from preceding court cases and academic publications to expert witnesses. However, one of the main resources in the interpretation of ordinary words is a dictionary. Much has already been published on both the use (and abuse of dictionaries in court cases and the ordinary meaning of words as a legal phenomenon. In continuation of this discourse, I propose that jurists consider using a conceptual approach to the interpretation of ordinary words as opposed to relying overly on dictionaries. One such conceptual approach is the use of frames, which deals with meaning in a way that is similar to Gestalt. In this article, I suggest the use of Barsalou’s (1992 frame structure that may be applied to a contested word in six steps. To illustrate the way Barsalou’s frame functions, I have applied it to two contested words taken from South African court cases. Building a frame in order to determine the ordinary meaning of certain words in court cases proves to be a possible alternative or an additional resource to dictionaries.

  10. The cali meteorite fell: A new H/L ordinary chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, J.M.T.; Llorca, J.; Rubin, A.E.; Grossman, J.N.; Sears, D.W.G.; Naranjo, M.; Bretzius, S.; Tapia, M.; Sepulveda, M.H.G.

    2009-01-01

    The fall of the Cali meteorite took place on 6 July 2007 at 16 h 32 ?? 1 min local time (21 h 32 ?? 1 min UTC). A daylight fireball was witnessed by hundreds of people in the Cauca Valley in Colombia from which 10 meteorite samples with a total mass of 478 g were recovered near 3??24.3'N, 76??30.6'W. The fireball trajectory and radiant have been reconstructed with moderate accuracy. From the computed radiant and from considering various plausible velocities, we obtained a range of orbital solutions that suggest that the Cali progenitor meteoroid probably originated in the main asteroid belt. Based on petrography, mineral chemistry, magnetic susceptibility, fhermoluminescence, and bulk chemistry, the Cali meteorite is classified as an H/L4 ordinary chondrite breccia.

  11. Mastering Everyday Life in Ordinary Housing for People with Psychiatric Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosita Brolin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop a classic grounded theory about people who have psychiatric disabilities and live in ordinary housing with housing support. Interviews and observations during the interviews were analyzed, and secondary analyses of data from previous studies were performed. The impossible mission in everyday life emerged as the main concern and mastering everyday life as the pattern of behavior through which they deal with this concern. Mastering everyday life can be seen as a process, which involves identifying, organizing, tackling, challenging and boosting. Before the process is started, avoiding is used to deal with the main concern. The community support worker, providing housing support, constitutes an important facilitator during the process, and the continuity of housing support is a prerequisite for the process to succeed. If the process mastering everyday life is interrupted by, for example, changes in housing support, the strategy of avoiding is used.

  12. Case study of a not-so-ordinary building - the Cowra Shire administration building ESD refurbishment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halperin, M.; Arch, B. [Mahalath Halperin Architects Pty Ltd., Armidale (Australia). RAIA Country Division

    2004-07-01

    In refurbishing the Cowra Administration Building, Mahalath Halperin Architects transformed a concrete and glass building of the 1960s into an energy efficient and environmentally responsible building, yet looks to all intents and purposes like an 'ordinary building'. To some, it is simply a newer, nicer building with bright colours, open spaces and a pleasant work environment. But whilst not necessarily being outwardly different in issues of being a 'green building', the resultant building shows that there are many small yet easily achievable ways to be green. That it is not hard, and is in fact beneficial, to reduce energy consumption and overheads, take advantage of the sun (despite its poor orientation) and take on environmental responsibility. (orig.)

  13. Estimation of Ordinary Differential Equation Parameters Using Constrained Local Polynomial Regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, A Adam; Wu, Hulin

    2014-10-01

    We propose a new method to use a constrained local polynomial regression to estimate the unknown parameters in ordinary differential equation models with a goal of improving the smoothing-based two-stage pseudo-least squares estimate. The equation constraints are derived from the differential equation model and are incorporated into the local polynomial regression in order to estimate the unknown parameters in the differential equation model. We also derive the asymptotic bias and variance of the proposed estimator. Our simulation studies show that our new estimator is clearly better than the pseudo-least squares estimator in estimation accuracy with a small price of computational cost. An application example on immune cell kinetics and trafficking for influenza infection further illustrates the benefits of the proposed new method.

  14. Parallels between control PDE's (Partial Differential Equations) and systems of ODE's (Ordinary Differential Equations)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, L. R.; Villarreal, Ramiro

    1987-01-01

    System theorists understand that the same mathematical objects which determine controllability for nonlinear control systems of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) also determine hypoellipticity for linear partial differentail equations (PDEs). Moreover, almost any study of ODE systems begins with linear systems. It is remarkable that Hormander's paper on hypoellipticity of second order linear p.d.e.'s starts with equations due to Kolmogorov, which are shown to be analogous to the linear PDEs. Eigenvalue placement by state feedback for a controllable linear system can be paralleled for a Kolmogorov equation if an appropriate type of feedback is introduced. Results concerning transformations of nonlinear systems to linear systems are similar to results for transforming a linear PDE to a Kolmogorov equation.

  15. SAHYB-2, Solution of Ordinary Differential Equation with User-Supplied Subroutine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoop, H. d'; Monterosso, R.

    1967-01-01

    1 - Nature of physical problem solved: SAHYB-2 is a general purpose programme for the solution of ordinary differential equations. These are written in a user-supplied subroutine called DER, which uses notations very close to mathematical formulas. Special mathematical functions are included in the programme, as: Function generation, delay generation, steps, ramps and pulses, as well as a simplified standard output procedure - boundary value problems or parametric optimisation may be handled by iterations adding a subroutine called REPEAT. 2 - Method of solution: Integration is carried out by constant step fourth-order Runge-Kutta method, or by a fixed or variable step Adams-Moulton predictor corrector method. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Maximum 150 differential equations of the first order. Maximum 30 tables for function generator or delay lines

  16. Cyanobacterial-algal cenoses in ordinary chernozems under the impact of different phytoameliorants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubovik, I. E.; Suyundukov, Ya. T.; Khasanova, R. F.; Shalygina, R. R.

    2016-04-01

    General ecological and taxonomic characteristics of cyanobacterial-algal cenoses in ordinary chernozems under different ameliorative plants (phytoameliorants) were studied in the Trans-Ural region of the Republic of Bashkortostan. A comparative analysis of the taxa of studied cenoses in the soils under leguminous herbs and grasses was performed. The phytoameliorative effect of different herbs and their relationships with cyanobacterial-algal cenoses were examined. Overall, 134 cyanoprokaryotic and algal species belonging to 70 genera, 36 families, 15 orders, and 9 classes were identified. Cyanobacterial-algal cenoses included the divisions of Chlorophyta, Cyanoprokaryota, Xanthophyta, Bacillariophyta, and Euglenophyta. Representatives of Ch-, X-, CF-, and P-forms were the leading ecobiomorphs in the studied cenoses.

  17. Heavy metals in ordinary chernozems on slopes of different gradients and aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubovik, D. V.; Dubovik, E. V.

    2016-01-01

    The impact of slope aspect and gradient on the contents and distribution of heavy metals (Mn, Cu, Zn, Co, Ni, Pb, and Cd) in the profiles of ordinary chernozem (Haplic Chernozems) was studied in Kursk oblast. Slope aspect was found to be a significant factor controlling the distribution of most of the bulk, mobile, and acid-soluble compounds of heavy metals, whereas the position on the slope (slope gradient) did not exert a significant influence on the distribution of elements. Bulk compounds of Co, Ni, Pb, and Cd showed the eluvial type of distribution in the soil profiles along with accumulation in the lower horizons. Distribution patterns of the mobile Cu, Co, Ni, Pb, and Cd were similar to those of the bulk ones. The latter phenomenon may be attributed to the high content of carbonates, an increased content of clay, and some alkalization of the soil solution in the lower horizons.

  18. The geometric approach to sets of ordinary differential equations and Hamiltonian dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estabrook, F. B.; Wahlquist, H. D.

    1975-01-01

    The calculus of differential forms is used to discuss the local integration theory of a general set of autonomous first order ordinary differential equations. Geometrically, such a set is a vector field V in the space of dependent variables. Integration consists of seeking associated geometric structures invariant along V: scalar fields, forms, vectors, and integrals over subspaces. It is shown that to any field V can be associated a Hamiltonian structure of forms if, when dealing with an odd number of dependent variables, an arbitrary equation of constraint is also added. Families of integral invariants are an immediate consequence. Poisson brackets are isomorphic to Lie products of associated CT-generating vector fields. Hamilton's variational principle follows from the fact that the maximal regular integral manifolds of a closed set of forms must include the characteristics of the set.

  19. Conversion Of An Ordinary N Bicycle Into An Electric Bike And Related Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Janavičius

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available An electric bicycle as a transport and leisure vehicle is expected to have a promising future. Currently, he market offers a great choice of factory electric bicycles and conversion kits to remake an ordinary bicycle into an electric bike. Also, the increasing number of electric vehicles is determined by the reduction in costs for manufacturing of batteries and an evolution in battery technology. This article presents the implementation of an electric bike by selecting the “Golden Motor Technology” company’s electric front wheel conversion kit MagicPie3 and 16 cell 10Ah LiFePO4 battery. After installation of the engine and other components, experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance characteristics of the electric bike and check the manufacturer’s specifications.

  20. Efficient solution of ordinary differential equations modeling electrical activity in cardiac cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundnes, J; Lines, G T; Tveito, A

    2001-08-01

    The contraction of the heart is preceded and caused by a cellular electro-chemical reaction, causing an electrical field to be generated. Performing realistic computer simulations of this process involves solving a set of partial differential equations, as well as a large number of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) characterizing the reactive behavior of the cardiac tissue. Experiments have shown that the solution of the ODEs contribute significantly to the total work of a simulation, and there is thus a strong need to utilize efficient solution methods for this part of the problem. This paper presents how an efficient implicit Runge-Kutta method may be adapted to solve a complicated cardiac cell model consisting of 31 ODEs, and how this solver may be coupled to a set of PDE solvers to provide complete simulations of the electrical activity.