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Sample records for strict gluten-free diet

  1. Gluten-free diet - facts and myths.

    OpenAIRE

    Hejduk Bobková, Barbora

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this bachelor thesis was to gain a comprehensive view of the gluten-free diet and to confirm or refute the claim that the gluten-free diet became a fashion trend in nutrition. The theoretical part explains the relationship between gluten-free diet and diseases caused by intolerance of gluten. Greater attention is paid to the most serious of these, celiac disease, whose only treatment is gluten-free diet Research of commonly available sources for the general public has produced a li...

  2. Advances in celiac disease and gluten-free diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niewinski, Mary M

    2008-04-01

    Celiac disease is becoming an increasingly recognized autoimmune enteropathy caused by a permanent intolerance to gluten. Once thought to be a rare disease of childhood characterized by diarrhea, celiac disease is actually a multisystemic disorder that occurs as a result of an immune response to ingested gluten in genetically predisposed individuals. Screening studies have revealed that celiac disease is most common in asymptomatic adults in the United States. Although considerable scientific progress has been made in understanding celiac disease and in preventing or curing its manifestations, a strict gluten-free diet is the only treatment for celiac disease to date. Early diagnosis and treatment, together with regular follow-up visits with a dietitian, are necessary to ensure nutritional adequacy and to prevent malnutrition while adhering to the gluten-free diet for life. The purpose of this review is to provide clinicians with current updated information about celiac disease, its diverse clinical presentation and increased prevalence, the complex pathophysiology and strong genetic predisposition to celiac disease, and its diagnosis. This review focuses in detail on the gluten-free diet and the importance of intense expert dietary counseling for all patients with celiac disease. Recent advances in the gluten-free diet include food allergen labeling as well as the US Food and Drug Administration's proposed definition of the food-labeling term gluten-free. The gluten-free diet is complex and patients need comprehensive nutrition education from a skilled dietitian.

  3. Celiac disease: understanding the gluten-free diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bascuñán, Karla A; Vespa, María Catalina; Araya, Magdalena

    2017-03-01

    The only effective and safe treatment of celiac disease (CD) continues being strict exclusion of gluten for life, the so-called gluten-free diet (GFD). Although this treatment is highly successful, following strict GFD poses difficulties to patients in family, social and working contexts, deteriorating his/her quality of life. We aimed to review main characteristics of GFD with special emphasis on factors that may interfere with adherence to it. We conducted a search of various databases, such as PubMed, Google Scholar, Embase, and Scielo, with focus on key words such as "gluten-free diet", "celiac disease", "gluten" and "gluten-free diet adherence". Available literature has not reached definitive conclusions on the exact amount of gluten that is harmless to celiac patients, although international agreements establish cutoff points for gluten-free products and advise the use of clinical assessment to tailor the diet according to individual needs. Following GFD must include eliminating gluten as ingredient as well as hidden component and potential cross contamination in foods. There are numerous grains to substitute wheat but composition of most gluten-free products tends to include only a small number of them, especially rice. The diet must be not only free of gluten but also healthy to avoid nutrient, vitamins and minerals deficiencies or excess. Overweight/obesity frequency has increased among celiac patients so weight gain deserves attention during follow up. Nutritional education by a trained nutritionist is of great relevance to achieve long-term satisfactory health status and good compliance. A balanced GFD should be based on a combination of naturally gluten-free foods and certified processed gluten-free products. How to measure and improve adherence to GFD is still controversial and deserves further study.

  4. [Benefits of gluten-free diet: myth or reality?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coattrenec, Yann; Harr, Thomas; Pichard, Claude; Nendaz, Mathieu

    2015-10-14

    Non celiac gluten sensitivity may explain digestive and general symptoms in patients without celiac disease but this recently described entity is controversial. The role of gluten in comparison to other nutriments such as saccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) remains debated. If a gluten-free diet is clearly indicated in celiac disease and wheat allergy, it remains debatable in non-celiac gluten sensitivity given weak and contradictory evidence. There is no strong evidence for a strict indication to a gluten-free diet in endocrinological, psychiatric, and rheumatologic diseases, or to improve performance in elite sports.

  5. Celiac disease treatment: gluten-free diet and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäki, Markku

    2014-07-01

    The basis for celiac disease (CD) treatment is a strict lifelong gluten-free diet. On the diet, the small intestinal mucosal injury heals and gluten-induced symptoms and signs disappear. The mucosal healing is a prerequisite for sustaining health and is also obtained with a diet containing oats and trace amounts of gluten, industrially purified wheat starch-based gluten-free products. The small intestinal mucosa does not heal in noncompliant people, nor when a patient is inadvertently ingesting gluten. Development of adjunctive or alternative therapies is on its way. There are several novel treatment pipelines within academy and industry. Examples are the ideas of using glutenases as a drug to degrade the ingested gluten, polymers to bind and sequester the gluten to the feces, and also vaccine development for an immunotherapy to induce tolerance towards gluten. Clinical drug trials are to be foreseen in CD, soon also in children.

  6. Gluten-Free Diet Indications, Safety, Quality, Labels, and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Rostami, Kamran; Bold, Justine; Parr, Alison; Johnson, Matt W.

    2017-01-01

    A gluten-free diet (GFD) is the safest treatment modality in patient with coeliac disease (CD) and other gluten-related disorders. Contamination and diet compliance are important factors behind persistent symptoms in patients with gluten related-disorders, in particular CD. How much gluten can be tolerated, how safe are the current gluten-free (GF) products, what are the benefits and side effects of GFD? Recent studies published in Nutrients on gluten-free products? quality, availability, saf...

  7. [Nutritional assessment of gluten-free diet. Is gluten-free diet deficient in some nutrient?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar Quero, J C; Espín Jaime, B; Rodríguez Martínez, A; Argüelles Martín, F; García Jiménez, R; Rubio Murillo, M; Pizarro Martín, A

    2015-07-01

    The gluten-free diet has traditionally been accepted as a healthy diet, but there are articles advocating that it may have some nutritional deficiencies. The current study assesses whether there was any change in the contributions of calories, essential elements, proportion of fatty acids, vitamins, minerals and fiber in children who were diagnosed with celiac diseases, comparing the diet with gluten prior one year after diagnosis with the diet without gluten to the year of diagnosis. The level of clinical or analytical impact that nutritional deficits could have was also assessed. A prospective,descriptive, observational study in which information was collected from a dietary survey, anthropometric and analytical data at pre-diagnosis of celiac disease and following a gluten diet and one year after celiac disease diagnosis, under gluten-free diet. A total of 37 patients meet the study criteria. A decrease in the intake of saturated fatty acids was found, with an increase of monounsaturated fatty acids and an increase in the intake of phosphorus in the diet without gluten. A deficient intake of vitamin D was found in both diets. Clinically, at year of gluten-free diet there was an improvement in weight and size. Analytically, there was an improvement in hemoglobin, ferritin, vitamin D, and parathyroid hormone in plasma. The gluten-free diet has minimal deficiencies, similar to those present in the diet with gluten, with an improvement in the lipid profile by increasing the proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids to the detriment of saturated fatty acids. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Regional enteritis and gluten-free diet. A clinical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merwe, Christiaan Frederik van der

    1974-01-01

    The purpose of this clinical study was to determine whether the use of a gluten-free diet influenced the course and prognosis of regional enteritis. Following a few clinical communications in the Dutch medical literature reporting favourable results obtained with the gluten-free diet in the

  9. Gluten-free diet and the possibility of enriching the diet coeliacs

    OpenAIRE

    BLAŽKOVÁ, Klára

    2014-01-01

    This thesis deals with the gluten-free diet and its possible enrichment. It is divided into two parts. The first part includes chapters such as history of gluten-free diet, basics of a gluten free diet, the first step in the introduction of a gluten-free diet, gluten-free food labeling legislation and the use of alcohol on a gluten-free diet. The practical part is focused on enriching the diet celiac patients. I focused on the preparation of bakery products for celiac, I have designed and pra...

  10. Celiac disease and gluten-free diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Mikulajová

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease is an autoimmunity inflammatory disorder of the small intestine caused by the ingestion of gluten in genetically predisposed individuals. The prevalence of the disorder is around 1 % of the Western population and is still increasing. The symptoms of celiac disease include chronic abdominal pain, diarrhoea, and growth retardation in children, and chronic fatigue and headache, bowel complaints, reduced fertility, dermatitis herpetiformis, osteoporosis, nerve and brain disorders, increasing risk of intestinal cancer. The clinical diagnosis of the disease is based on the serological tests and bowel biopsy. The treatment is a long-life gluten-free diet. It is necessary exclude from the diet wheat, rye, barley and probably oats and buckwheat and their products. The novel approaches for celiac disease are focused on the genetic manipulation of nontoxic gluten proteins, enzyme therapy, immune modulation, and induction of oral tolerance to gluten.doi:10.5219/276 Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE

  11. Living gluten-free: adherence, knowledge, lifestyle adaptations and feelings towards a gluten-free diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvester, J A; Weiten, D; Graff, L A; Walker, J R; Duerksen, D R

    2016-06-01

    A gluten-free diet (GFD) requires tremendous dedication, involving substantive changes to diet and lifestyle that may have a significant impact upon quality of life. The present study aimed io assess dietary adherence, knowledge of a GFD, and the emotional and lifestyle impact of a GFD. Community dwelling adults following a GFD completed a questionnaire with items related to reasons for avoiding gluten, diagnostic testing, GFD adherence, knowledge and sources of information about a GFD, the Work and Social Adjustment Scale, and the effect of a GFD diet on lifestyle, feelings and behaviours. Strict GFD adherence among the 222 coeliac disease (CD) patients was 56%. Non-CD individuals (n = 38) were more likely to intentionally ingest gluten (odds ratio = 3.7; 95% confidence interval = 1.4-9.4). The adverse impact of a GFD was modest but most pronounced in the social domain. Eating shifted from the public to the domestic sphere and there were feelings of social isolation. Affective responses reflected resilience because acceptance and relief were experienced more commonly than anxiety or anger. Non-CD respondents were less knowledgeable and less likely to consult health professionals. They experienced less anger and depression and greater pleasure in eating than CD respondents. The findings obtained in the present suggest there is good potential for positive adaptation to the demands of a GFD; nevertheless, there is a measurable degree of social impairment that merits further study. The GFD may be a viable treatment option for conditions other than CD; however, education strategies regarding the need for diagnostic testing to exclude CD are required. © 2015 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  12. Living with coeliac disease and a gluten-free diet: a Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarkadas, M; Dubois, S; MacIsaac, K; Cantin, I; Rashid, M; Roberts, K C; La Vieille, S; Godefroy, S; Pulido, O M

    2013-02-01

    Strict adherence to a gluten-free diet is the only treatment for coeliac disease. The gluten-free diet is complex, costly and impacts on all activities involving food, making it difficult to maintain for a lifetime. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the difficulties experienced, the strategies used and the emotional impact of following a gluten-free diet among Canadians with coeliac disease. A questionnaire was mailed to all members (n = 10 693) of both the Canadian Celiac Association and the Fondation québécoise de la maladie cœliaque in 2008. The overall response rate was 72%. Results are presented for the 5912 respondents (≥18 years) reporting biopsy-confirmed coeliac disease and/or dermatitis herpetiformis. Two-thirds never intentionally consumed gluten. Women reported significantly greater emotional responses to a gluten-free diet but, with time, were more accepting of it than men. Difficulties and negative emotions were experienced less frequently by those on the diet for >5 years, although food labelling and eating away from home remained very problematic. Frustration and isolation because of the diet were the most common negative emotions experienced. The present study quantifies the difficulties experienced, the strategies used and the emotional impact of following a gluten-free diet. It highlights the need to improve the training and education of dietitians, other health providers and the food service industry workers about coeliac disease and a gluten-free diet, with the aim of better helping individuals improve their adherence to a gluten-free diet and their quality of life. © 2012 Canadian Celiac Association and Food Directorate Health Canada Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2012 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  13. Gluten-Free Diet in Children: An Approach to a Nutritionally Adequate and Balanced Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Penagini, Francesca; Dilillo, Dario; Meneghin, Fabio; Mameli, Chiara; Fabiano, Valentina; Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    Gluten-free diet (GFD) is the cornerstone treatment for celiac disease (CD). GFD implies a strict and lifelong elimination from the diet of gluten, the storage protein found in wheat, barley, rye and hybrids of these grains, such as kamut and triticale. The absence of gluten in natural and processed foods, despite being the key aspect of GFD, may lead to nutritional consequences, such as deficits and imbalances. The nutritional adequacy of GFD is particularly important in children, this the a...

  14. Adherence to a Gluten Free Diet Is Associated with Receiving Gluten Free Foods on Prescription and Understanding Food Labelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Humayun; Reeves, Sue; Ishaq, Sauid; Mayberry, John; Jeanes, Yvonne M

    2017-07-06

    Treatment of coeliac disease requires a strict gluten-free (GF) diet, however, a high proportion of patients do not adhere to a GF diet. The study explores the practical challenges of a GF diet and dietary adherence in Caucasian and South Asian adults with coeliac disease. Patients with biopsy- and serology-proven coeliac disease were recruited from a hospital database. Participants completed a postal survey ( n = 375), including a validated questionnaire designed to measure GF dietary adherence. Half of Caucasians (53%) and South Asians (53%) were adhering to a GF diet. The quarter of patients ( n = 97) not receiving GF foods on prescription had a lower GF dietary adherence score compared with those receiving GF foods on prescription (12.5 versus 16.0; p diet in all population groups.

  15. Economic burden of a gluten-free diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, A R; Ng, D L; Zivin, J; Green, P H R

    2007-10-01

    Coeliac disease is a common, autoimmune disorder, for which the only treatment is lifelong adherence to a gluten-free diet. This study evaluates the economic burden of adhering to a gluten-free diet. A market basket of products identified by name brand, weight or package size for both regular wheat-based products and gluten-free counterparts was developed. The differences in price between purchase venues, both type of store (general grocery store, an upscale grocery store and a health food store and four internet-based grocery sites) and region was also analysed. Availability of gluten-free products varied between the different venues, regular grocery stores carried 36%, while upscale markets carried 41%, and health food stores 94%, compared with 100% availability on the internet. Overall, every gluten-free product was more expensive than their wheat-based counterpart (P availability and are more expensive than their gluten-containing counterparts. The impact of these findings on dietary compliance and the quality of life needs to be addressed.

  16. The gluten-free diet: a nutritional risk factor for adolescents with celiac disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, P; Viti, M G; Montuori, M; La Vecchia, A; Cipolletta, E; Calvani, L; Bonamico, M

    1998-11-01

    The gluten-free diet is the standard therapy for patients affected by celiac disease, although compliance with the diet is not optimal in adolescents or adults. Moreover, the gluten-free diet may induce nutritional imbalances. Alimentary habits and diet composition were examined in 47 adolescents with celiac disease and 47 healthy aged-matched control subjects. All subjects compiled a 3-day alimentary record that allowed determination of their energy intakes: the macronutrient composition of their diets; and their iron, calcium, and fiber intakes. To evaluate compliance with the gluten-free diet, immunoglobulin A antigliadin and antiendomysium antibodies were assessed in all with celiac disease. The analysis of the records and the results of antibody levels showed that 25 subjects strictly followed dietetic prescriptions (group 1A), whereas 22 patients consumed gluten-containing food (group 1B). Those with celiac disease and control subjects (group 2) consumed a normocaloric diet. Lipid and protein consumption was high, however, and the consumption of carbohydrates low. Moreover, dietary levels of calcium, fiber, and especially in girls, iron, were low. These nutritional imbalances were significantly more evident in group 1A than in group 1B, as a consequence of poor alimentary choices. Moreover, in group 1A overweight and obesity were more frequent (72%) than in group 1B (51%) and in the control subjects (47%). In people with celiac disease, adherence to a strict gluten-free diet worsens the already nutritionally unbalanced diet of adolescents, increasing elevated protein and lipid consumption. In the follow-up of patients with celiac disease, considerable effort has yet to be made to improve compliance with a gluten-free diet, and especially to control the nutritional balance of the diet in compliant patients.

  17. Motives for adherence to a gluten-free diet: a qualitative investigation involving adults with coeliac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowd, A J; Tamminen, K A; Jung, M E; Case, S; McEwan, D; Beauchamp, M R

    2014-12-01

    Currently , the only treatment for coeliac disease is life long adherence to a strict gluten-free diet. Strict adherence to a gluten-free diet is challenging, with recent reports suggesting that adherence rates range from 42% to 91%. The present study aimed to: (i) identify motives for adhering to a gluten-free diet and (ii) explore factors implicated in adherence and non-adherence behaviour in terms of accidental and purposeful gluten consumption among adults with coeliac disease. Two hundred and three adults with coeliac disease completed an online questionnaire. Using a qualitative design, relationships were examined between reported adherence and motivation to follow a gluten-free diet, as well as the onset, duration and severity of symptoms. Feelings of desperation (‘hitting rock bottom’) and needing to gain or lose weight were associated with the strictest adherence to a gluten-free diet. Participants who accidentally consumed gluten over the past week developed symptoms the most quickly and reported the most pain over the past 6 months. Participants who consumed gluten on purpose over the past week reported a shorter duration of symptoms and less pain over the past 6 months. Hitting rock bottom and needing to gain or lose weight were factors associated with the strictest adherence, when considered in the context of both accidental and purposeful gluten consumption. Future research is warranted to develop resources to help people with coeliac disease follow a strict gluten-free diet.

  18. Gluten intake and gluten-free diet in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopman, Geertruida Dorothea

    2008-01-01

    Celiac disease is an intolerance to dietary gluten in genetically predisposed individuals, leading to alterations of the small bowel mucosa. The treatment consists of a life-long, gluten-free diet. The aims of this thesis were to measure some of the environmental factors considered to play a role

  19. The Gluten-Free Diet: Testing Alternative Cereals Tolerated by Celiac Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Comino, Isabel; de Lourdes Moreno, Mar?a; Real, Ana; Rodr?guez-Herrera, Alfonso; Barro, Francisco; Sousa, Carolina

    2013-01-01

    A strict gluten-free diet (GFD) is the only currently available therapeutic treatment for patients with celiac disease, an autoimmune disorder of the small intestine associated with a permanent intolerance to gluten proteins. The complete elimination of gluten proteins contained in cereals from the diet is the key to celiac disease management. However, this generates numerous social and economic repercussions due to the ubiquity of gluten in foods. The research presented in this review focuse...

  20. Going Gluten-Free: Life with Celiac Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have celiac disease, you must follow a strict gluten-free diet. This can include more than you would expect. ... transfer from your hands to your mouth. A gluten-free diet is the only treatment for celiac disease that ...

  1. Adherence to a Gluten Free Diet Is Associated with Receiving Gluten Free Foods on Prescription and Understanding Food Labelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humayun Muhammad

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of coeliac disease requires a strict gluten-free (GF diet, however, a high proportion of patients do not adhere to a GF diet. The study explores the practical challenges of a GF diet and dietary adherence in Caucasian and South Asian adults with coeliac disease. Patients with biopsy- and serology-proven coeliac disease were recruited from a hospital database. Participants completed a postal survey (n = 375, including a validated questionnaire designed to measure GF dietary adherence. Half of Caucasians (53% and South Asians (53% were adhering to a GF diet. The quarter of patients (n = 97 not receiving GF foods on prescription had a lower GF dietary adherence score compared with those receiving GF foods on prescription (12.5 versus 16.0; p < 0.001. Not understanding food labelling and non-membership of Coeliac UK were also associated with lower GF dietary adherence scores. A higher proportion of South Asian patients, compared with Caucasians, reported difficulties understanding what they can eat (76% versus 5%; p < 0.001 and understanding of food labels (53% versus 4%; p < 0.001. We recommend retaining GF foods on prescription, membership of a coeliac society, and regular consultations with a dietitian to enable better understanding of food labels. Robust studies are urgently needed to evaluate the impact of reducing the amount of GF foods prescribed on adherence to a GF diet in all population groups.

  2. Paediatric Patients with Coeliac Disease on a Gluten-Free Diet: Nutritional Adequacy and Macro- and Micronutrient Imbalances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sue, Alison; Dehlsen, Kate; Ooi, Chee Y

    2018-01-22

    A strict, lifelong gluten-free diet is the cornerstone for management of coeliac disease. Elimination of gluten from the diet may be associated with nutritional imbalance; however, the completeness of this diet in energy and macro- and micronutrients in children is not well described. Understanding the nutritional adequacy of the gluten-free diet in children during this critical period of growth and development when dietary intake is strongly influential is important. Children, regardless of whether they have eliminated gluten from their diet, have a tendency to consume excess fat and insufficient fibre, iron, vitamin D and calcium, compared to recommendations. In the context of a gluten-free diet, these imbalances may be worsened or have more significant consequences. Paediatric studies have demonstrated that intakes of folate, magnesium, zinc and selenium may decrease on a gluten-free diet. Nutritional inadequacies may be risks of a gluten-free diet in a paediatric population. The potential implications of these inadequacies, both short and long term, remain unclear and warrant further investigation and clarification.

  3. Gluten-free diet in gluten-related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Chris J J; van Wanrooij, R L J; Bakker, S F; Wierdsma, N; Bouma, G

    2013-01-01

    A gluten-free diet (GFD) is recommended for all patients with coeliac disease (CD). The spectrum of gluten-related disorders in the early 1980s was simple: CD and dermatitis herpetiformis. In the last few years, wheat allergy, gluten ataxia and noncoeliac gluten sensitivity have become new gluten-related topics. Adherence to GFDs in CD is limited and factors influencing adherence are poorly understood. Noncoeliac gluten sensitivity has stimulated the GFD food industry not only in Australia but all over the world. This article provides an overview of GFD in daily practice. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Gluten-free diet in children: an approach to a nutritionally adequate and balanced diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penagini, Francesca; Dilillo, Dario; Meneghin, Fabio; Mameli, Chiara; Fabiano, Valentina; Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo

    2013-11-18

    Gluten-free diet (GFD) is the cornerstone treatment for celiac disease (CD). GFD implies a strict and lifelong elimination from the diet of gluten, the storage protein found in wheat, barley, rye and hybrids of these grains, such as kamut and triticale. The absence of gluten in natural and processed foods, despite being the key aspect of GFD, may lead to nutritional consequences, such as deficits and imbalances. The nutritional adequacy of GFD is particularly important in children, this the age being of maximal energy and nutrient requirements for growth, development and activity. In recent years, attention has focused on the nutritional quality of gluten-free products (GFPs) available in the market. It is well recognized that GFPs are considered of lower quality and poorer nutritional value compared to the gluten-containing counterparts. The present review focuses on the nutritional adequacy of GFD at the pediatric age, with the aim being to increase awareness of the potential complications associated with this diet, to identify strategies in order to avoid them and to promote a healthier diet and lifestyle in children with CD.

  5. The Clinical and Serological Effect of a Gluten-Free Diet in Border Terriers with Epileptoid Cramping Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowrie, M; Garden, O A; Hadjivassiliou, M; Harvey, R J; Sanders, D S; Powell, R; Garosi, L

    2015-01-01

    Canine epileptoid cramping syndrome (CECS) is a paroxysmal movement disorder of Border Terriers (BTs). These dogs might respond to a gluten-free diet. The objective of this study was to examine the clinical and serological effect of a gluten-free diet in BTs with CECS. Six client-owned BTs with clinically confirmed CECS. Dogs were prospectively recruited that had at least a 6-month history of CECS based on the observed phenomenology (using video) and had exhibited at least 2 separate episodes on different days. Dogs were tested for anti-transglutaminase 2 (TG2 IgA) and anti-gliadin (AGA IgG) antibodies in the serum at presentation, and 3, 6, and 9 months after the introduction of a gluten-free diet. Duodenal biopsies were performed in 1 dog. Serum TG2 IgA titers were increased in 6/6 BTs (P = .006) and AGA IgG titers were increased in 5/6 BTs at presentation compared to those of controls (P = .018). After 9 months, there was clinical and serological improvement in all BTs with CECS strictly adhering to a gluten-free diet (5/5). One dog had persistently increased antibody titers. This dog scavenged horse manure. On the strict introduction of a gluten-free diet this dog also had an improved clinical and serological response. The diet-associated improvement was reversible in 2 dogs on completion of the study, both of which suffered a relapse of CECS on the re-introduction of gluten. Canine epileptoid cramping syndrome in BTs is a gluten-sensitive movement disorder triggered and perpetuated by gluten and thus responsive to a gluten-free diet. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  6. Gluten-free and casein-free diets in the therapy of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Klaus W; Hauser, Joachim; Reissmann, Andreas

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to discuss the role of gluten-free and casein-free diets in the treatment of autism. In a recent UK survey, more than 80% of parents of children with autism spectrum disorder reported some kind of dietary intervention for their child (gluten-free and casein-free diet in 29%). When asked about the effects of the gluten-free and casein-free diet, 20-29% of the parents reported significant improvements on the autism spectrum disorder core dimensions. The findings of this study suggest additional effects of a gluten-free and casein-free diet on comorbid problems of autism such as gastrointestinal symptoms, concentration, and attention. The findings of another recent investigation suggested that age and certain urine compounds may predict the response of autism symptoms to a gluten-free and casein-free diet. Although these results need to be replicated, they highlight the importance of patient subgroup analysis. Intervention trials evaluating the effects of a gluten-free and casein-free diet on autistic symptoms have so far been contradictory and inconclusive. Most investigations assessing the efficacy of a gluten-free and casein-free diet in the treatment of autism are seriously flawed. The evidence to support the therapeutic value of this diet is limited and weak. A gluten-free and casein-free diet should only be administered if an allergy or intolerance to nutritional gluten or casein is diagnosed.

  7. Prediction of adherence to a gluten-free diet using protection motivation theory among adults with coeliac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowd, A J; Jung, M E; Chen, M Y; Beauchamp, M R

    2016-06-01

    Coeliac disease is a chronic autoimmune disease that requires strict adherence to a gluten-free diet. However, strict adherence to a gluten-free diet is difficult, with findings from a recent review suggesting that up to 42% of individuals with coeliac disease do not eat a strict gluten-free diet. The present study aimed to examine psychosocial predictors of adherence (purposeful and accidental) to a gluten-free diet among adults with coeliac disease over a 1-month period. In this longitudinal study, 212 North American adults with coeliac disease completed online questionnaires at two time points, baseline and 1 month later. The results revealed that intentions partially mediated the effects of symptom severity, self-regulatory efficacy, planning and knowledge on purposeful gluten consumption. Intentions did not mediate the effects of severity, response cost, self-regulatory efficacy, planning and knowledge for accidental gluten consumption but, interestingly, self-regulatory efficacy directly predicted fewer accidental incidents of gluten-consumption. These findings delineate the differential psychological processes in understanding accidental and purposeful gluten consumption among adults with coeliac disease and emphasise the importance of bolstering self-regulatory efficacy beliefs to prevent accidental and purposeful consumption of gluten. © 2015 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  8. Tax-deductible provisions for gluten-free diet in Canada compared with systems for gluten-free diet coverage available in various countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto-Sanchez, Maria Ines; Verdu, Elena F; Gordillo, Maria C; Bai, Julio C; Birch, Stephen; Moayyedi, Paul; Bercik, Premysl

    2015-01-01

    Celiac disease affects 1% of the North American population, with an estimated 350,000 Canadians diagnosed with this condition. The disease is triggered by the ingestion of gluten, and a lifelong, strict gluten-free diet (GFD) is the only currently available treatment. Compliance with a strict GFD is essential not only for intestinal mucosal recovery and alleviation of symptoms, but also for the prevention of complications such as anemia, osteoporotic fractures and small bowel lymphoma. However, a GFD is difficult to follow, socially inconvenient and expensive. Different approaches, such as tax reduction, cash transfer, food provision, prescription and subsidy, have been used to reduce the additional costs of the GFD to patients with celiac disease. The current review showed that the systems in place exhibit particular advantages and disadvantages in relation to promoting uptake and compliance with GFD. The tax offset system used in Canada for GFD coverage takes the form of a reimbursement of a cost previously incurred. Hence, the program does not help celiac patients meet the incremental cost of the GFD – it simply provides some future refund of that cost. An ideal balanced approach would involve subsidizing gluten-free products through controlled vouchers or direct food provision to those who most need it, independently of ‘ability or willingness to pay’. Moreover, if the cost of such a program is inhibitive, the value of the benefits could be made taxable to ensure that any patient contribution, in terms of additional taxation, is directly related to ability to pay. The limited coverage of GFD in Canada is concerning. There is an unmet need for GFD among celiac patients in Canada. More efforts are required by the Canadian medical community and the Canadian Celiac Association to act as agents in identifying ways of improving resource allocation in celiac disease. PMID:25803021

  9. Effect of gluten free diet on immune response to gliadin in patients with non-celiac gluten sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caio, Giacomo; Volta, Umberto; Tovoli, Francesco; De Giorgio, Roberto

    2014-02-13

    Non-celiac gluten sensitivity is a syndrome characterized by gastrointestinal and extra-intestinal symptoms occurring in a few hours/days after gluten and/or other wheat protein ingestion and rapidly improving after exclusion of potential dietary triggers. There are no established laboratory markers for non-celiac gluten sensitivity, although a high prevalence of first generation anti-gliadin antibodies of IgG class has been reported in this condition. This study was designed to characterize the effect of the gluten-free diet on anti-gliadin antibodies of IgG class in patients with non-celiac gluten sensitivity. Anti-gliadin antibodies of both IgG and IgA classes were assayed by ELISA in 44 non-celiac gluten sensitivity and 40 celiac disease patients after 6 months of gluten-free diet. The majority of non-celiac gluten sensitivity patients (93.2%) showed the disappearance of anti-gliadin antibodies of IgG class after 6 months of gluten-free diet; in contrast, 16/40 (40%) of celiac patients displayed the persistence of these antibodies after gluten withdrawal. In non-celiac gluten sensitivity patients anti-gliadin antibodies IgG persistence after gluten withdrawal was significantly correlated with the low compliance to gluten-free diet and a mild clinical response. Anti-gliadin antibodies of the IgG class disappear in patients with non-celiac gluten sensitivity reflecting a strict compliance to the gluten-free diet and a good clinical response to gluten withdrawal.

  10. Is it gluten-free? Relationship between self-reported gluten-free diet adherence and knowledge of gluten content of foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvester, Jocelyn A; Weiten, Dayna; Graff, Lesley A; Walker, John R; Duerksen, Donald R

    2016-01-01

    To assess the relationship between self-reported adherence to a gluten-free diet (GFD) and the ability to determine correctly the appropriateness of particular foods in a GFD. Persons with celiac disease were recruited through clinics and support groups. Participants completed a questionnaire with items related to GFD information sources, gluten content of 17 common foods (food to avoid, food allowed, and food to question), GFD adherence, and demographic characteristics. Diagnosis was self-reported. The 82 respondents (88% female) had a median of 6 y GFD experience. Most (55%) reported strict adherence, 18% reported intentional gluten consumption and 21% acknowledged rare unintentional gluten consumption. Cookbooks, advocacy groups, and print media were the most commonly used GFD information sources (85-92%). No participant identified correctly the gluten content of all 17 foods; only 30% identified at least 14 foods correctly. The median score on the Gluten-Free Diet Knowledge Scale (GFD-KS) was 11.5 (interquartile ratio, 10-13). One in five incorrect responses put the respondent at risk of consuming gluten. GFD-KS scores did not correlate with self-reported adherence or GFD duration. Patient advocacy group members scored significantly higher on the GFD-KS than non-members (12.3 versus 10.6; P gluten ingestion overestimate GFD adherence. Individuals who believe they are following a GFD are not readily able to correctly identify foods that are GF, which suggests ongoing gluten consumption may be occurring, even among patients who believe they are "strictly" adherent. The role of patient advocacy groups and education to improve outcomes through improved adherence to a GFD requires further research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Blood iron levels in accordance with adherence to a gluten-free diet in celiac school aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirán Arce, María Fabiana; Aballay, Laura Rosana; Leporati, Jorge Leandro; Navarro, Alicia; Forneris, Myriam

    2017-10-27

    Celiac disease (CD) causes intestinal damage, inability to absorb nutrients, and progressive malnutrition. Iron deficiency is one of the predominant nutritional problems. A strict gluten-free diet (GF) allows for an optimal quality of life. To assess the nutritional situation of iron in school-aged celiac children by determining biochemical parameters, their relation to the consumption of the mineral and adherence to gluten-free diets in San Luis. Observational, analytical and cross-sectional study. We included 44 children with CD, from 6-10 years of age, with diagnosis of celiac disease and registered in public and private entities of San Luis (Argentina) during 2011-2012. A qualitative-quantitative survey was used to determine dietary habits and sociodemographic characteristics. Iron levels and adherence to a GF diet were evaluated. Generalized linear regression models were constructed to verify the association of ferritin with iron consumption and adherence to diet. Most families had low socioeconomic status and were large families. Current feeding did not prevent iron deficiency anemia. Most children had normal immune system, and normal antiendomysial and antitransglutaminase antibodies; 7% of the children showed low levels of iron. Under adequate iron consumption conditions, ferritin was associated to predictor antibodies and the presence of both parents in the home. Under adequate conditions of iron consumption, the levels of iron in blood were related to adherence to gluten-free diets.

  12. Dermatomyositis Associated with Celiac Disease: Response to a Gluten-Free Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Soo Song

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The association between dermatomyositis and celiac disease in children has been well documented. In the adult population, however, the association has not been clearly established. A rare case of concomitant dermatomyositis and celiac disease in a 40-year-old woman is presented. After having been diagnosed with dermatomyositis and iron deficiency anemia, this patient was referred to the gastroenterology clinic to exclude a gastrointestinal malignancy. Blood tests revealed various vitamin deficiencies consistent with malabsorption. The results of gastroscopy with duodenal biopsy were consistent with celiac disease. After she was put on a strict gluten-free diet, both nutritional deficiencies and the dermatomyositis resolved. The patient’s human leukocyte antigen haplotype study was positive for DR3 and DQ2, which have been shown to be associated with both juvenile dermatomyositis and celiac disease. It is suggested that patients with newly diagnosed dermatomyositis be investigated for concomitant celiac disease even in the absence of gastrointestinal symptoms.

  13. The Availability of Food for a Gluten-free Diet and Possibilities at Dining Establishments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Regnerová

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to evaluate options for customers-consumers with a gluten-free diet (coeliac disease patients at food establishments on the Czech market. A gluten-free diet is the only treatment for patients with coeliac disease and it significantly affects their health. The availability of food was investigated during February and March 2014 in three types of food operations. These establishments were visited in forty-three urban, rural and non-residential areas, and the availability of food for people with a gluten-free diet was investigated through interviews at 226 facilities. The preferences of the specific group of customers with a gluten-free diet were determined through comprehensive comparative research. The data was collected from February to June 2014, and 441 respondents were interviewed. The survey revealed that the majority of consumers who must follow this diet fall in the age group of up to 40 years old. This age group consists of preschool and school-age children, students and people of working age who frequently eat away from home. The paper deals with the evaluation of the level of public food services used by customers with gluten intolerance and gives some recommendations for improving the availability and offer of food for a gluten-free diet in selected types of hospitality establishments.

  14. The everyday life of adolescent coeliacs: issues of importance for compliance with the gluten-free diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, C; Hörnell, A; Ivarsson, A; Sydner, Y M

    2008-08-01

    Noncompliance with the gluten-free diet is often reported among adolescents with coeliac disease. However, knowledge is limited regarding their own perspectives and experiences of managing the disease and the prescription of a gluten-free diet. The aim of this study was to explore how adolescents with coeliac disease perceive and manage their everyday lives in relation to a gluten-free diet. In total, 47 adolescents with coeliac disease, divided into 10 focus groups, were interviewed. In the qualitative analysis, themes emerged to illustrate and explain the adolescents' own perspectives on life with a gluten-free diet. The probability of compliance with the gluten-free diet was comprised by insufficient knowledge of significant others, problems with the availability and sensory acceptance of gluten-free food, insufficient social support and their perceived dietary deviance. Three different approaches to the gluten-free diet emerged: compliers, occasional noncompliers, and noncompliers. Each approach, as a coping strategy, was rational in the sense that it represented the adolescents' differing views of everyday life with coeliac disease and a prescription of a gluten-free diet. dolescents with coeliac disease experience various dilemmas related to the gluten-free diet. The study demonstrated unmet needs and implies empowerment strategies for optimum clinical outcomes.

  15. Challenges in gluten-free diet in coeliac disease: Prague consensus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Samasca, G.; Lerner, U.; Girbovan, A.; Sur, G.; Lupan, I.; Makovický, Peter; Matthias, T.; Freeman, H.J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 5 (2017), s. 394-397 ISSN 0014-2972 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Adult * biomarkers * childhood * diet ary adherence * gluten-free diet * transition Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Nutrition, Diet etics Impact factor: 2.714, year: 2016

  16. The Gluten-Free, Casein-Free Diet and Autism: Limited Return on Family Investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    The gluten-free, casein-free (GFCF) diet is widely used by families of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Despite its popularity, there is limited evidence in support of the diet. The purpose of this article was to identify and evaluate well-controlled studies of the GFCF diet that have been implemented with children with ASD. A review…

  17. The influence of a short-term gluten-free diet on the human gut microbiome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonder, Marc Jan; Tigchelaar, Ettje F.; Cai, Xianghang; Trynka, Gosia; Cenit, Maria C; Hrdlickova, Barbara; Zhong, Huanzi; Vatanen, Tommi; Gevers, Dirk; Wijmenga, Cisca; Wang, Yang; Zhernakova, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Background: A gluten-free diet (GFD) is the most commonly adopted special diet worldwide. It is an effective treatment for coeliac disease and is also often followed by individuals to alleviate gastrointestinal complaints. It is known there is an important link between diet and the gut microbiome,

  18. New Treatments for Autism: Effects of a Gluten-Free Diet on Rate of Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Jennifer B.; Velez, Denise M.; Chambliss, Catherine

    This study assessed the effects of a gluten-free diet over one year on learning patterns in three autistic children (ages 5 to 8) participating in an applied behavioral analysis program. Rates of learning for five behavioral targets 3 months, 6 months, 9 months, and 12 months after the start of the diet were compared using a within-subjects…

  19. Effects of a Gluten-Free Diet on Rate of Achievement in Autistic Children in an Applied Behavioral Analysis Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemmell, Melissa; Chambliss, Catherine

    This study used both between-subjects and within-subjects analyses to examine the effects of a gluten-free diet on the academic achievement of autistic children. The between-subjects analysis included data from eight autistic children (ages 5 to 7) with four on a gluten-free diet and four serving as controls. The number of attempts needed before…

  20. Ketogenic diet versus gluten free casein free diet in autistic children: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Rashidy, Omnia; El-Baz, Farida; El-Gendy, Yasmin; Khalaf, Randa; Reda, Dina; Saad, Khaled

    2017-12-01

    Many diet regimens were studied for patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) over the past few years. Ketogenic diet is gaining attention due to its proven effect on neurological conditions like epilepsy in children. Forty-five children aged 3-8 years diagnosed with ASD based on DSM-5 criteria were enrolled in this study. Patients were equally divided into 3 groups, first group received ketogenic diet as modified Atkins diet (MAD), second group received gluten free casein free (GFCF) diet and the third group received balanced nutrition and served as a control group. All patients were assessed in terms of neurological examination, anthropometric measures, as well as Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), Autism Treatment Evaluation Test (ATEC) scales before and 6 months after starting diet. Both diet groups showed significant improvement in ATEC and CARS scores in comparison to control group, yet ketogenic scored better results in cognition and sociability compared to GFCF diet group. Depending on the parameters measured in our study, modified Atkins diet and gluten free casein free diet regimens may safely improve autistic manifestations and could be recommended for children with ASD. At this stage, this study is a single center study with a small number of patients and a great deal of additional wide-scale prospective studies are however needed to confirm these results. UMIN-CTR Study Design: trial Number UMIN000021433.

  1. Estimated levels of gluten incidentally present in a Canadian gluten-free diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Vieille, Sébastien; Dubois, Sheila; Hayward, Stephen; Koerner, Terence B

    2014-02-21

    Avoiding exposure to gluten is currently the only effective treatment for celiac disease. However, the evidence suggests that for most affected individuals, exposure to less than 10 mg/day is unlikely to cause histological changes to the intestinal mucosa. The daily diet of people with celiac disease does not rely solely on gluten-free pre-packaged foods, but also on naturally gluten-free grains (e.g., rice, buckwheat, ...) and foods with grain-derived ingredients (i.e., flour and starches) used for cooking and baking at home. The objective of this study was to estimate the level of incidental gluten potentially present in gluten-free diets from a Canadian perspective. We have conducted gluten exposure estimations from grain-containing foods and foods with grain-derived ingredients, taking into consideration the various rates of food consumption by different sex and age groups. These estimates have concluded that if gluten was present at levels not exceeding 20 ppm, exposure to gluten would remain below 10 mg per day for all age groups studied. However, in reality the level of gluten found in naturally gluten-free ingredients is not static and there may be some concerns related to the flours made from naturally gluten-free cereal grains. It was found that those containing a higher level of fiber and that are frequently used to prepare daily foods by individuals with celiac disease could be a concern. For this category of products, only the flours and starches labelled "gluten-free" should be used for home-made preparations.

  2. Gluten-free diet is for some a necessity, for others a lifestyle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jønsson, Iben Møller; Møller, Gitte Leth; Pærregaard, Anders

    2017-01-01

    This review provides a brief overview of the gluten-related conditions coeliac disease (CD), wheat allergy (WA), and non-coeliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS). NCGS is a new entity which includes individuals who report symptoms when exposed to gluten and benefit from gluten-free diet, but do not have...

  3. Quick Start Gluten Free Diet Guide for Celiac Disease and Non Celiac Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the gluten-free diet and adverse food reactions. Attitude is Everything Like anything new, it takes time ... Bars • Imitation Meats • Imitation Seafood • Licorice • Marinades • Panko (Japanese bread crumbs) • Processed Lunch Meats • Salad Dressings • Sauces ...

  4. Ménière disease and gluten sensitivity: recovery after a gluten-free diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Berardino, Federica; Filipponi, Eliana; Alpini, Dario; O'Bryan, Tom; Soi, Daniela; Cesarani, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    We report the case of a 63-year-old female with definite unilateral Ménière disease, osteoarthritis of the distal finger joints with mucous cysts and Heberden's nodes, and constipation with recurrent abdominal pain whose symptoms remitted after 6months of a restrictive gluten-free diet. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Disappearance of mesenteric lymphadenopathy with gluten-free diet in celiac sprue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, W. A.; Maas, M.; Tytgat, G. N.

    1993-01-01

    In an adult patient with untreated celiac sprue, mesenteric lymphadenopathy was detected by computerized tomography (CT). Although malignant lymphoma was suspected, the nodes disappeared after treatment with a gluten-free diet, as was documented by CT follow-up. This report demonstrates that

  6. Adherence to a Gluten-Free Diet in Mexican Subjects with Gluten-Related Disorders: A High Prevalence of Inadvertent Gluten Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Cervantes, Karen Lizzette; Romero-López, Angélica Viridiana; Núñez-Álvarez, Carlos Alberto; Uscanga-Domínguez, Luis F

    2016-01-01

    The rate of compliance with a gluten-free diet in patients with gluten-related disorders is unknown in most Latin American countries. To study the adherence to a gluten-free diet of Mexican individuals with celiac disease and nonceliac gluten sensitivity at the time of their first medical and nutritional consultation at a tertiary referral center. A cross-sectional study was performed. A specific questionnaire was used to gather information on demographics, clinical condition, and self-reported adherence to a gluten-free diet, and to determine strict compliance and intentional or inadvertent gluten consumption. All questionnaires were applied by a nutritionist with expertise in gluten-related disorders. Fifty-six patients with celiac disease and 24 with non-celiac gluten sensitivity were included. Overall, 46 (57.5%) subjects perceived themselves as strictly adherent; however, inadvertent gluten intake was frequent in both celiac disease and non-celiac gluten sensitivity patients (39.2 vs. 33.3%; p = 0.2). Intentional consumption was more prevalent in subjects with celiac disease (48.8 vs. 29.1%; p = 0.048) and individuals with non-celiac gluten sensitivity showed better adherence (37.5 vs. 12.5%; p = 0.035). The importance of a gluten-free diet is underestimated by Mexican patients with celiac disease. The role of a team with expertise in gluten-related disorders is essential to identify inadvertent gluten intake.

  7. The gluten-free diet: testing alternative cereals tolerated by celiac patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comino, Isabel; Moreno, María de Lourdes; Real, Ana; Rodríguez-Herrera, Alfonso; Barro, Francisco; Sousa, Carolina

    2013-10-23

    A strict gluten-free diet (GFD) is the only currently available therapeutic treatment for patients with celiac disease, an autoimmune disorder of the small intestine associated with a permanent intolerance to gluten proteins. The complete elimination of gluten proteins contained in cereals from the diet is the key to celiac disease management. However, this generates numerous social and economic repercussions due to the ubiquity of gluten in foods. The research presented in this review focuses on the current status of alternative cereals and pseudocereals and their derivatives obtained by natural selection, breeding programs and transgenic or enzymatic technology, potential tolerated by celiac people. Finally, we describe several strategies for detoxification of dietary gluten. These included enzymatic cleavage of gliadin fragment by Prolyl endopeptidases (PEPs) from different organisms, degradation of toxic peptides by germinating cereal enzymes and transamidation of cereal flours. This information can be used to search for and develop cereals with the baking and nutritional qualities of toxic cereals, but which do not exacerbate this condition.

  8. The Gluten-Free Diet: Testing Alternative Cereals Tolerated by Celiac Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Sousa

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A strict gluten-free diet (GFD is the only currently available therapeutic treatment for patients with celiac disease, an autoimmune disorder of the small intestine associated with a permanent intolerance to gluten proteins. The complete elimination of gluten proteins contained in cereals from the diet is the key to celiac disease management. However, this generates numerous social and economic repercussions due to the ubiquity of gluten in foods. The research presented in this review focuses on the current status of alternative cereals and pseudocereals and their derivatives obtained by natural selection, breeding programs and transgenic or enzymatic technology, potential tolerated by celiac people. Finally, we describe several strategies for detoxification of dietary gluten. These included enzymatic cleavage of gliadin fragment by Prolyl endopeptidases (PEPs from different organisms, degradation of toxic peptides by germinating cereal enzymes and transamidation of cereal flours. This information can be used to search for and develop cereals with the baking and nutritional qualities of toxic cereals, but which do not exacerbate this condition.

  9. Effect of gluten-free diet on cerebellar MR spectroscopy in gluten ataxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjivassiliou, Marios; Grünewald, Richard A; Sanders, David S; Shanmugarajah, Priya; Hoggard, Nigel

    2017-08-15

    To evaluate the effect of gluten free diet (GFD) on magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) of the cerebellum in patients with gluten ataxia (GA). Patients with GA, defined as sporadic ataxia with positive antigliadin antibodies in the absence of an alternative cause, routinely undergo MRS at baseline and after the introduction of GFD as part of their clinical care. We present our experience of the effect of GFD on MRS of the cerebellum. A total of 117 consecutive patients with GA were included in this report. Sixty-three were on strict GFD with elimination of antigliadin antibodies, 35 were on GFD but were still positive for antigliadin antibodies, and 19 patients opted not to go on GFD. The N -acetylaspartate (NAA)/creatine (Cr) area ratio from the cerebellar vermis increased in 62 out of 63 (98%) patients on strict GFD, in 9 of 35 (26%) patients on GFD but positive antibodies, and in only 1 of 19 (5%) patients not on GFD. The NAA/Cr ratio decreased in all 14 ataxia control patients (cerebellar variant of multisystem atrophy). There were no differences in the MRS results between those patients who had and those who did not have enteropathy (celiac disease) within each group. The demonstration of increased NAA/Cr ratio on repeat scanning following strict GFD strengthens previous findings of clinical improvement of the ataxia in patients with GA. The presence of enteropathy is not a prerequisite for such improvement; therefore patients with positive serology and negative duodenal biopsy should still be treated with strict GFD. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  10. Gluten-Free Diet Only during Pregnancy Efficiently Prevents Diabetes in NOD Mouse Offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antvorskov, Julie C; Josefsen, Knud; Haupt-Jorgensen, Martin

    2016-01-01

    groups to receive combinations of gluten-free and standard diet before, during, or after pregnancy. Diabetes incidence in offspring was followed in each group (n = 16 - 27) for 310 days. Insulitis score and intestinal expression of T-cell transcription factors (RT-QPCR) were evaluated in animals from...... the different diet groups. Results. If mothers were fed a gluten-free diet only during pregnancy, the development of autoimmune diabetes in offspring was almost completely prevented with an incidence reduction from 62.5% in gluten-consuming mice to 8.3% (p ... of Langerhans were less infiltrated (p diet exclusively during pregnancy efficiently prevents autoimmune diabetes development in offspring and reduces...

  11. Estimated Levels of Gluten Incidentally Present in a Canadian Gluten-Free Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieille, Sébastien La; Dubois, Sheila; Hayward, Stephen; Koerner, Terence B.

    2014-01-01

    Avoiding exposure to gluten is currently the only effective treatment for celiac disease. However, the evidence suggests that for most affected individuals, exposure to less than 10 mg/day is unlikely to cause histological changes to the intestinal mucosa. The daily diet of people with celiac disease does not rely solely on gluten-free pre-packaged foods, but also on naturally gluten-free grains (e.g., rice, buckwheat, ...) and foods with grain-derived ingredients (i.e., flour and starches) used for cooking and baking at home. The objective of this study was to estimate the level of incidental gluten potentially present in gluten-free diets from a Canadian perspective. We have conducted gluten exposure estimations from grain-containing foods and foods with grain-derived ingredients, taking into consideration the various rates of food consumption by different sex and age groups. These estimates have concluded that if gluten was present at levels not exceeding 20 ppm, exposure to gluten would remain below 10 mg per day for all age groups studied. However, in reality the level of gluten found in naturally gluten-free ingredients is not static and there may be some concerns related to the flours made from naturally gluten-free cereal grains. It was found that those containing a higher level of fiber and that are frequently used to prepare daily foods by individuals with celiac disease could be a concern. For this category of products, only the flours and starches labelled “gluten-free” should be used for home-made preparations. PMID:24566442

  12. Estimated Levels of Gluten Incidentally Present in a Canadian Gluten-Free Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien La Vieille

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Avoiding exposure to gluten is currently the only effective treatment for celiac disease. However, the evidence suggests that for most affected individuals, exposure to less than 10 mg/day is unlikely to cause histological changes to the intestinal mucosa. The daily diet of people with celiac disease does not rely solely on gluten-free pre-packaged foods, but also on naturally gluten-free grains (e.g., rice, buckwheat, ... and foods with grain-derived ingredients (i.e., flour and starches used for cooking and baking at home. The objective of this study was to estimate the level of incidental gluten potentially present in gluten-free diets from a Canadian perspective. We have conducted gluten exposure estimations from grain-containing foods and foods with grain-derived ingredients, taking into consideration the various rates of food consumption by different sex and age groups. These estimates have concluded that if gluten was present at levels not exceeding 20 ppm, exposure to gluten would remain below 10 mg per day for all age groups studied. However, in reality the level of gluten found in naturally gluten-free ingredients is not static and there may be some concerns related to the flours made from naturally gluten-free cereal grains. It was found that those containing a higher level of fiber and that are frequently used to prepare daily foods by individuals with celiac disease could be a concern. For this category of products, only the flours and starches labelled “gluten-free” should be used for home-made preparations.

  13. Effects of gluten-free, dairy-free diet on childhood nephrotic syndrome and gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uy, Natalie; Graf, Lauren; Lemley, Kevin V; Kaskel, Frederick

    2015-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests an association between food sensitivity and gut microbiota in children with nephrotic syndrome. Diminished proteinuria resulted from eliminating cow's milk and the use of an oligoantigenic diet which excluded gluten, especially in patients with immune-related conditions, i.e., celiac disease and nephrotic syndrome. The mechanisms underlying the association of diet, gut microbiota, and dysregulation of the immune system are unknown. Gut microbiota is influenced by a number of factors including diet composition and other environmental epigenetic exposures. The imbalance in gut microbiota may be ameliorated by gluten-free and dairy-free diets. Gluten-free diet increased the number of unhealthy bacteria while reducing bacterial-induced cytokine production of IL-10. Thus, gluten-free diet may influence the composition and immune function of gut microbiota and should be considered a possible environmental factor associated with immune-related disease, including nephrotic syndrome. Furthermore, the imbalance of gut microbiota may be related to the development of cow's milk protein allergy. Investigations are needed to fill the gaps in our knowledge concerning the associations between the gut microbiome, environmental exposures, epigenetics, racial influences, and the propensity for immune dysregulation with its inherent risk to the developing individual.

  14. Biomarkers to Monitor Gluten-Free Diet Compliance in Celiac Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de Lourdes Moreno

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gluten-free diet (GFD is the only treatment for celiac disease (CD. There is a general consensus that strict GFD adherence in CD patients leads to full clinical and histological remission accompanied by improvement in quality of life and reduced long-term complications. Despite the importance of monitoring the GFD, there are no clear guidelines for assessing the outcome or for exploring its adherence. Available methods are insufficiently accurate to identify occasional gluten exposure that may cause intestinal mucosal damage. Serological tests are highly sensitive and specific for diagnosis, but do not predict recovery and are not useful for follow-up. The use of serial endoscopies, it is invasive and impractical for frequent monitoring, and dietary interview can be subjective. Therefore, the detection of gluten immunogenic peptides (GIP in feces and urine have been proposed as new non-invasive biomarkers to detect gluten intake and verify GFD compliance in CD patients. These simple immunoassays in human samples could overcome some key unresolved scientific and clinical problems in CD management. It is a significant advance that opens up new possibilities for the clinicians to evaluate the CD treatment, GFD compliance, and improvement in the quality of life of CD patients.

  15. Clinical benefit of gluten-free diet in screen-detected older celiac disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilppula Anitta

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The utility of serologic screening for celiac disease is still debatable. Evidence suggests that the disorder remains undetected even in the older population. It remains obscure whether screening makes good or harm in subjects with long-standing gluten ingestion. We evaluated whether older subjects benefit from active detection and subsequent gluten free dietary treatment of celiac disease. Methods Thirty-five biopsy-proven patients aged over 50 years had been detected by serologic mass screening. We examined the disease history, dietary compliance, symptoms, quality of life and bone mineral density at baseline and 1-2 years after the commencement of a gluten-free diet. Symptoms were evaluated by gastrointestinal symptom rating scale and quality of life by psychological general well-being questionnaires. Small bowel biopsy, serology, laboratory parameters assessing malabsorption, and bone mineral density were investigated. Results Dietary compliance was good. The patients had initially low mean serum ferritin values indicating subclinical iron deficiency, which was restored by a gluten-free diet. Vitamin B12, vitamin D and erythrocyte folic acid levels increased significantly on diet. Celiac patients had a history of low-energy fractures more often than the background population, and the diet had a beneficial effect on bone mineral density. Alleviation in gastrointestinal symptoms was observed, even though the patients reported no or only subtle symptoms at diagnosis. Quality of life remained unchanged. Of all the cases, two thirds would have been diagnosed even without screening if the family history, fractures or concomitant autoimmune diseases had been taken carefully into account. Conclusions Screen-detected patients benefited from a gluten-free diet. We encourage a high index of suspicion and active case-finding in celiac disease as an alternative to mass screening in older patients.

  16. The immunopathogenesis of celiac disease reveals possible therapies beyond the gluten-free diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Christopher S; Kagnoff, Martin F

    2012-07-01

    Celiac disease is a T cell-mediated autoimmune inflammatory disease of the small intestine that is activated by gluten. The diagnosis of celiac disease is challenging as patients display a wide range of symptoms and some are asymptomatic. A lifelong gluten-free diet is the only currently approved treatment of celiac disease. Although the diet is safe and effective, the compliance rates and patient acceptance vary. Furthermore, many patients treated with a gluten-free diet continue to be mildly to severely symptomatic with persistent histological abnormalities, and a small number of patients develop refractory celiac disease. New therapeutic adjuncts and potential alternatives to the gluten-free diet could improve the treatment options for these patients. Advances in understanding the immunopathogenesis of celiac disease have suggested several types of therapeutic strategies that may augment or supplant the gluten-free diet. Some of these strategies attempt to decrease the immunogenicity of gluten-containing grains by manipulating the grain itself or by using oral enzymes to break down immunogenic peptides that normally remain intact during digestion. Other strategies focus on preventing the absorption of these peptides, preventing tissue transglutaminase from rendering gluten peptides more immunogenic, or inhibiting their binding to celiac disease-specific antigen-presenting molecules. Strategies that limit T cell migration to the small intestine or that reestablish mucosal homeostasis and tolerance to gluten antigens are also being explored. Additionally, it is vital to develop new therapeutic options for refractory celiac disease patients. This review highlights therapeutic strategies that may ultimately improve the health and well-being of individuals with celiac disease.

  17. Celiac Disease and Epilepsy: The Effect of Gluten-Free Diet on Seizure Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashiri, Homayoon; Afshari, Darioush; Babaei, Nosrat; Ghadami, Mohammad R

    2016-01-01

    Determining the true prevalence of celiac disease (CD) is difficult because of many atypical symptoms. Although CD primarily affects the gastrointestinal tract, patients may be asymptomatic or have extra intestinal symptoms. In this study, we assessed the prevalence of CD in patients with epilepsy and the effect of a gluten-free diet on seizure control in these patients. Patients with epilepsy in Imam Reza and Farabi Hospitals, Kermanshah, Iran, were studied. At first, the patients were screened by means of measuring the immunoglobulin A antiendomysial (IgA) antibodies. In the patients testing positive for IgA antibodies, 2-3 endoscopic small bowel biopsies were taken from the distal duodenum to confirm CD changes. People with CD received a gluten-free diet for 5 months and their seizure activity was recorded. During the study period, we studied 113 patients with epilepsy. Seven patients (6%) were diagnosed with CD. After 5 months of instituting a gluten-free diet, in 6 patients seizures were completely under control and antiepileptic drugs were discontinued. In one case, anticonvulsant drugs were reduced by half and seizures were controlled. Our results showed that about 6% of epileptic patients were positive for CD. Institution of a glutenfree diet is useful for seizure control in these patients.

  18. Benefit of gluten-free diet in idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis in association with celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Gulshan R; Singhal, Kamal K; Puri, Amarender S; Mantan, Mukta

    2011-03-01

    Lane-Hamilton syndrome refers to the uncommon co-occurrence of idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis and celiac disease (CD). Three children aged between 7 and 14 years with IPH were detected to have co-existing non-diarrheal CD. Institution of gluten-free diet in each of the three children resulted in amelioration of the pulmonary symptoms along with improvement of anthropometric parameters and hemoglobin over a short-term follow-up period of 8-17 months. Inhaled/oral steroids and immunosuppressants could be weaned off after dietary exclusion therapy in each of the three children. Gluten free diet should be instituted in all patients diagnosed with Lane-Hamilton syndrome. It ameliorates both the pulmonary as well as the intestinal symptoms although the precise mechanism of the pulmonary response is as yet unclear. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Remission without insulin therapy on gluten-free diet in a 6-year old boy with type 1 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sildorf, Stine Møller; Fredheim, Siri; Svensson, Jannet

    2012-01-01

    A 5-year and 10-month old boy was diagnosed with classical type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) without celiac disease. He started on a gluten-free diet after 2–3 week without need of insulin treatment. At the initiation of gluten-free diet, HbA1c was 7.8% and was stabilised at 5.8%–6.0% without insulin...... therapy. Fasting blood glucose was maintained at 4.0–5.0 mmol/l. At 16 months after diagnosis the fasting blood glucose was 4.1 mmol/l and after 20 months he is still without daily insulin therapy. There was no alteration in glutamic acid decarboxylase positivity. The gluten-free diet was safe and without...... side effects. The authors propose that the gluten-free diet has prolonged remission in this patient with T1DM and that further trials are indicated....

  20. The effect of gluten-free diet on microbes in the colon

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopečný, Jan; Mrázek, Jakub; Fliegerová, Kateřina; Kott, T.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 4 (2006), s. 287-290 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1QS500200572 Grant - others:6th Framework Program EU COOP CT 2004 508421 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : gluten-free diet Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism , Nutrition Impact factor: 0.963, year: 2006

  1. Effect of a Gluten-Free Diet on Cortical Excitability in Adults with Celiac Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Bella

    Full Text Available An imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory synaptic excitability was observed in de novo patients with celiac disease (CD in a previous study with Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS, suggesting a subclinical involvement of GABAergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission in asymptomatic patients. The aim of this investigation was to monitor the eventual changes in the same cohort of patients, evaluated after a period of gluten-free diet.Patients were re-evaluated after a median period of 16 months during which an adequate gluten-free diet was maintained. Clinical, cognitive and neuropsychiatric assessment was repeated, as well as cortical excitability by means of single- and paired-pulse TMS from the first dorsal interosseous muscle of the dominant hand.Compared to baseline, patients showed a significant decrease of the median resting motor threshold (from 35% to 33%, p<0.01. The other single-pulse (cortical silent period, motor evoked potentials latency and amplitude, central motor conduction time and paired-pulse TMS measures (intracortical inhibition and intracortical facilitation did not change significantly after the follow-up period. Antibodies were still present in 7 subjects.In patients under a gluten-free diet, a global increase of cortical excitability was observed, suggesting a glutamate-mediated functional reorganization compensating for disease progression. We hypothesize that glutamate receptor activation, probably triggered by CD-related immune system dysregulation, might result in a long-lasting motor cortex hyperexcitability with increased excitatory post-synaptic potentials, probably related to phenomena of long-term plasticity. The impact of the gluten-free diet on subclinical neurological abnormalities needs to be further explored.

  2. LOWER BIFIDOBACTERIA COUNTS IN ADULT PATIENTS WITH CELIAC DISEASE ON A GLUTEN-FREE DIET

    OpenAIRE

    GOLFETTO, Lisléia; SENNA, Fernanda Duarte de; HERMES, Julia; BESERRA, Bruna Teles Soares; FRANÇA, Franciane da Silva; MARTINELLO, Flávia

    2014-01-01

    ContextThe ingestion of gluten is responsible for the symptoms of Celiac disease, but other environmental factors can also influence. Strains of theBifidobacterium genus have been shown to afford protection against the inflammatory response and mucosal damage caused by gliadin peptides in vitro.ObjectivesThis study was designed to compare the concentration of fecal bifidobacteria and pH of patients with celiac disease on gluten-free diet and control subjects in order to identify if the imbala...

  3. Monitoring of daily gliadin intake in patients on gluten-free diets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gabrovská, D.; Kocna, P.; Rysová, J.; Borovská, Dana; Tlaskalová-Hogenová, Helena

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 112, č. 1 (2011), s. 5-17 ISSN 1214-6994 R&D Projects: GA MZe 1B53002; GA AV ČR 1QS500200572; GA ČR GA310/07/0414; GA MŠk 2B06155 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Gliadin * Gluten - free diet Subject RIV: EC - Immunology

  4. Symptomatic suspected gluten exposure is common among patients with coeliac disease on a gluten-free diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvester, J A; Graff, L A; Rigaux, L; Walker, J R; Duerksen, D R

    2016-09-01

    A gluten-free diet is the only recommended treatment for coeliac disease. To determine the prevalence and characteristics of reactions to gluten among persons with coeliac disease on a gluten-free diet. Adults with biopsy proven, newly diagnosed coeliac disease were prospectively enrolled. A survey related to diet adherence and reactions to gluten was completed at study entry and 6 months. The Coeliac Symptom Index, Coeliac Diet Assessment Tool (CDAT) and Gluten-Free Eating Assessment Tool (GF-EAT) were used to measure coeliac disease symptoms and gluten-free diet adherence. Of the 105 participants, 91% reported gluten exposure gluten was reported by 66%. Gluten consumption was unsuspected until a reaction occurred (63%) or resulted from problems ordering in a restaurant (29%). The amount of gluten consumed ranged from cross-contact (30%) to a major ingredient (10%). Median time to symptom onset was 1 h (range 10 min to 48 h), and median symptom duration was 24 h (range 1 h to 8 days). Common symptoms included abdominal pain (80%), diarrhoea (52%), fatigue (33%), headache (30%) and irritability (29%). Reactions to suspected gluten exposure are common among patients with coeliac disease on a gluten-free diet. Eating at restaurants and other peoples' homes remain a risk for unintentional gluten exposure. When following individuals with coeliac disease, clinicians should include questions regarding reactions to gluten as part of their assessment of gluten-free diet adherence. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Changes in Rate of Learning in Autistic Children Following 9 Months on a Gluten-Free Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontino, Jamie Lyn; Schaal, Kelly; Chambliss, Catherine

    This report discusses the outcomes of a study that investigated the effects of a gluten-free diet on three males with autism between the ages of 5 to 8 years old. All subjects were also participants in prior studies on the effects of the gluten-free diet on the learning processes of children with autism in an applied behavioral analysis program.…

  6. [Treating coeliac disease. How do we measure adherence to the gluten-free diet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda, Elisa A; Araya, Magdalena

    Coeliac disease (CD) is a systemic autoimmune disorder triggered by gluten consumption in genetically susceptible individuals. It exhibits several clinical features, such as blood auto-antibodies (anti-endomysial antibodies EMA, anti-transglutaminase antibodies tTG, anti-deamidated gliadin peptides PGD), plus variable degrees of damage in the small intestinal mucosa. In Chile, tTG is positive in 0.76% in individuals >15 years, with the prevalence of CD being estimated at 0.6%. Approximately17% of first-degree relatives of coeliac patients have been reported tTG positive. To date, the gluten free diet (GFD) is the only known treatment for CD. To be effective, this must be lifelong, permanent, and strict. Gluten content in the GFD is not zero, but is limited to a cut-off of 3ppm (ormg/kg of product) in Chile. Mortality higher than that of the general population has been reported among coeliac patients, and poor adherence to GFD is associated with complications (mainly autoimmune processes and cancer). GFD is difficult to maintain strictly and poor adherence is by far the main cause of lack of response to treatment. Follow-up of adherence is also difficult because there are no objective measurements to assess it. In clinical practice determination of serum EMA, tTG and PGD is routinely used for these purposes, although more recently, the interview by an expert dietitian, validated questionnaires and measurement of faecal 33-mer peptide are being assessed as alternatives or complements to measure adherence to GFD. A review is presented with the current concepts on the available tools to follow up patients on GFD, emphasising those available in Chilel. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Dermatitis herpetiformis: pathognomonic transglutaminase IgA deposits in the skin and excellent prognosis on a gluten-free diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reunala, Timo; Salmi, Teea T; Hervonen, Kaisa

    2015-11-01

    Dermatitis herpetiformis (DH) is an itchy, blistering skin disease with sites of predilection at the elbows, knees and buttocks. Although DH is mostly asymptomatic, all patients exhibit small bowel villous atrophy or at least coeliac-type inflammatory changes. Deposition of immunoglobulin A (IgA) in the papillary dermis is a key diagnostic feature of DH. Epidermal transglutaminase (TG3) is the antigen for IgA deposited in the skin, and tissue transglutaminase (TG2) is the antigen for IgA deposited in the small bowel mucosa. Clinically silent, but immunologically active coeliac disease in the gut appears to result in IgA TG3 antibody complexes aggregated into DH skin. The prevalence of DH in northern Europe is high (30-75/100,000), but its incidence is decreasing, possibly due to increased recognition of subclinical coeliac disease. The rash and small bowel heal on a gluten-free diet, which is a life-long treatment. The risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is increased, but in patients with DH who adhere strictly to a gluten-free diet long-term prognosis is excellent.

  8. Symptoms of Functional Intestinal Disorders Are Common in Patients with Celiac Disease Following Transition to a Gluten-Free Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvester, Jocelyn A; Graff, Lesley A; Rigaux, Lisa; Bernstein, Charles N; Leffler, Daniel A; Kelly, Ciarán P; Walker, John R; Duerksen, Donald R

    2017-09-01

    Celiac disease and functional intestinal disorders may overlap, yet the natural history of functional symptoms in patients with celiac disease is unknown. To investigate the prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), functional dyspepsia (FD), and functional bloating (FB) symptoms among patients with celiac disease at diagnosis and during the first year of a gluten-free diet. Adults with a new diagnosis of celiac disease were surveyed at baseline, 6 months and 1 year using standardized measures for intestinal symptoms [Rome III diagnostic questionnaire and celiac symptom index (CSI)] and gluten-free diet adherence [gluten-free eating assessment tool (GF-EAT) and celiac diet adherence test]. At diagnosis, two-thirds fulfilled Rome III diagnostic questionnaire symptom criteria for IBS (52%), functional dyspepsia (27%), and/or functional bloating (9%). One year post-diagnosis, there was high adherence to a gluten-free diet as 93% reported gluten exposure less than once per month on the GF-EAT and only 8% had ongoing celiac disease symptoms (CSI score >45). The rates of those meeting IBS (22%) and functional dyspepsia (8%) symptom criteria both decreased significantly on a gluten-free diet. The prevalence of functional symptoms (any of IBS, FD or FB) at 1 year was 47%. Long-term follow-up of patients with celiac disease is necessary because many patients with celiac disease who are adherent to a gluten-free diet have persistent gastrointestinal symptoms.

  9. Treatment of celiac disease: from gluten-free diet to novel therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francavilla, R; Cristofori, F; Stella, M; Borrelli, G; Naspi, G; Castellaneta, S

    2014-10-01

    Gluten-free diet (GFD) is the cornerstone treatment for celiac disease (CD). This diet excludes the protein gluten a protein forum in in grains such as wheat, barley, rye and triticale. Gluten causes small intestines inflammation in patients with CD and eating a GFD helps these patients in controlling signs and symptoms and prevent complications. Following a GFD may be frustrating, however, it is important to know that plenty of foods are naturally gluten-free and nowadays is relatively easy to find substitutes for gluten-containing foods. Certain grains, such as oats, are generally safe but can be contaminated with wheat during growing and processing stages of production. For this reason, it is generally recommended avoiding oats unless they are specifically labelled gluten-free. Other products that may contain gluten include food additives, such as malt flavouring, modified food starch and some supplement and/or vitamins that use gluten as a binding agent. Cross-contamination occurs when gluten-free foods come into contact with foods that contain gluten. It can happen during the manufacturing process or if the same equipment is used to make a variety of products. Cross-contamination can also occur at home if foods are prepared on common surfaces or with utensils that have not been cleaned after being used to prepare gluten-containing foods (using a toaster for gluten-free and regular bread). Although safe and effective, the GFD is not ideal: it is expensive, of limited nutritional value, and not readily available in many countries. Consequently, a need exists for novel, non-dietary therapies for celiac disease. Advances in understanding the immunopathogenesis of CD have suggested several types of therapeutic strategies alternative to the GFD. Some of these strategies attempt to decrease the immunogenicity of gluten-containing grains by manipulating the grain itself or by using oral enzymes to break down immunogenic peptides that normally remain intact during

  10. Diabetes preventive gluten-free diet decreases the number of caecal bacteria in non-obese diabetic mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Axel Kornerup; Ling, Fenjung; Anne, Kaas

    2006-01-01

    Background A gluten-free diet reduces the incidence of diabetes mellitus in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice, but the mechanism is not known. The aim of this study was to examine the possible influence of the diet on the caecal bacterial flora, which may affect the intestinal physiology and mediate...... disease prevention. Methods Two groups of NOD mice from the age of 3 weeks were fed either a gluten-free diet or a standard diet. Each diabetic mouse, when diagnosed, along with a non-diabetic mouse from the same diet group and two nondiabetic mice from the alternate diet group were euthanized and sampled...... for classical bacteriological examination. Results Nine out of 19 (47%) standard-fed mice and 1 out of 19 (5%) gluten-free-fed mice developed diabetes (p diet had significantly fewer aerobically (p

  11. Factors associated with villus atrophy in symptomatic coeliac disease patients on a gluten-free diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadev, S; Murray, J A; Wu, T-T; Chandan, V S; Torbenson, M S; Kelly, C P; Maki, M; Green, P H R; Adelman, D; Lebwohl, B

    2017-04-01

    Duodenal injury persists in some coeliac disease patients despite gluten-free diet, and is associated with adverse outcomes. To determine the prevalence and clinical risk factors for persistent villus atrophy among symptomatic coeliac disease patients. A nested cross-sectional analysis was performed on coeliac disease patients with self-reported moderate or severe symptoms while following a gluten-free diet, who underwent protocol-mandated duodenal biopsy upon enrolment in the CeliAction clinical trial. Demographic factors, symptom type, medication use, and serology were examined to determine predictors of persistent villus atrophy. Of 1345 symptomatic patients, 511 (38%, 95% CI, 35-41%) were found to have active coeliac disease with persistent villus atrophy, defined as average villus height to crypt depth ratio ≤2.0. On multivariable analysis, older age (OR, 5.1 for ≥70 vs. 18-29 years, 95% CI, 2.5-10.4) was a risk factor while longer duration on gluten-free diet was protective (OR, 0.37, 95% CI, 0.24-0.55 for 4-5.9 vs. 1-1.9 years). Villus atrophy was associated with use of proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs; OR, 1.6, 95% CI, 1.1-2.3), non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs; OR, 1.64, 95% CI, 1.2-2.2), and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs; OR, 1.74, 95% CI, 1.2-2.5). Symptoms were not associated with villus atrophy after adjusting for covariates. Conclusions A majority of symptomatic coeliac disease patients did not have active disease on follow-up histology. Symptoms were poorly predictive of persistent mucosal injury. The impact of NSAIDs, PPIs, and SSRIs on mucosal healing in coeliac disease warrants further study. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. The Gluten-Free Diet: Can Oats and Wheat Starch Be Part of It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poley, J Rainer

    2017-01-01

    Objective and Conclusion: Uncertainty still exists about the use of oats and wheat starch as part of a gluten-free diet in patients with celiac disease (CD). This review should help to clarify the issues at hand. Whereas uncontaminated (from gluten/gliadin) oats and oats from cultivars not containing celiac-activating sequences of proline and glutamine can be used without risk of intestinal damage, wheat starch should not be used, unless it is free of gluten-that is, deglutinized-because even small amounts of gluten over time are able to induce small intestinal mucosal damage.

  13. The gluten-free diet and its current application in coeliac disease and dermatitis herpetiformis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciclitira, Paul; Hadjivassiliou, Marios; Kaukinen, Katri; Ludvigsson, Jonas F; McGough, Norma; Sanders, David S; Woodward, Jeremy; Leonard, Jonathan N; Swift, Gillian L

    2015-01-01

    Background A gluten-free diet (GFD) is currently the only available therapy for coeliac disease (CD). Objectives We aim to review the literature on the GFD, the gluten content in naturally gluten-free (GF) and commercially available GF food, standards and legislation concerning the gluten content of foods, and the vitamins and mineral content of a GFD. Methods We carried out a PubMed search for the following terms: Gluten, GFD and food, education, vitamins, minerals, calcium, Codex wheat starch and oats. Relevant papers were reviewed and for each topic a consensus among the authors was obtained. Conclusion Patients with CD should avoid gluten and maintain a balanced diet to ensure an adequate intake of nutrients, vitamins, fibre and calcium. A GFD improves symptoms in most patients with CD. The practicalities of this however, are difficult, as (i) many processed foods are contaminated with gluten, (ii) staple GF foods are not widely available, and (iii) the GF substitutes are often expensive. Furthermore, (iv) the restrictions of the diet may adversely affect social interactions and quality of life. The inclusion of oats and wheat starch in the diet remains controversial. PMID:25922672

  14. The gluten-free diet and its current application in coeliac disease and dermatitis herpetiformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciacci, Carolina; Ciclitira, Paul; Hadjivassiliou, Marios; Kaukinen, Katri; Ludvigsson, Jonas F; McGough, Norma; Sanders, David S; Woodward, Jeremy; Leonard, Jonathan N; Swift, Gillian L

    2015-04-01

    A gluten-free diet (GFD) is currently the only available therapy for coeliac disease (CD). We aim to review the literature on the GFD, the gluten content in naturally gluten-free (GF) and commercially available GF food, standards and legislation concerning the gluten content of foods, and the vitamins and mineral content of a GFD. We carried out a PubMed search for the following terms: Gluten, GFD and food, education, vitamins, minerals, calcium, Codex wheat starch and oats. Relevant papers were reviewed and for each topic a consensus among the authors was obtained. Patients with CD should avoid gluten and maintain a balanced diet to ensure an adequate intake of nutrients, vitamins, fibre and calcium. A GFD improves symptoms in most patients with CD. The practicalities of this however, are difficult, as (i) many processed foods are contaminated with gluten, (ii) staple GF foods are not widely available, and (iii) the GF substitutes are often expensive. Furthermore, (iv) the restrictions of the diet may adversely affect social interactions and quality of life. The inclusion of oats and wheat starch in the diet remains controversial.

  15. Potential beneficial effects of a gluten-free diet in newly diagnosed children with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Jannet; Sildorf, Stine Møller; Pipper, Christian B.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Gluten-free diet has shown promising effects in preventing type 1 diabetes (T1D) in animals as well as beneficial effects on the immune system. Gluten-free diet at diabetes onset may alter the natural course and outcome of autoimmune diseases such as T1D. Methods: In a 12-month study, 15...... children newly diagnosed with T1D were instructed to follow a gluten-free diet. Questionnaires were used to evaluate adherence to the gluten-free diet. Partial remission (PR) was defined by insulin dose-adjusted A1c (IDAA1c) ≤9 or stimulated C-peptide (SCP) >300 pmol/L measured 90 min after a liquid mixed...... meal at the inclusion, six and 12 months after onset. The intervention group was compared with two previous cohorts. Linear mixed models were used to estimate differences between cohorts. Results: After 6 months, more children on a gluten-free diet tended to have SCP values above 300 pmol/L compared...

  16. Nutritional Impact of a Gluten-Free Casein-Free Diet in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marí-Bauset, Salvador; Llopis-González, Agustín; Zazpe, Itziar; Marí-Sanchis, Amelia; Suárez-Varela, María Morales

    2016-01-01

    We compared anthropometric values, nutrient intake, the Healthy Eating Index and food variety in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), 20 on a gluten-free casein-free (GFCF) diet and 85 on a regular diet in Valencia (Spain) using 3-days food diaries. Those on the GFCF diet had a lower weight, body mass index, and total energy, pantothenic…

  17. The relationship between quality of life and coping strategies of adults with celiac disease adhering to a gluten-free diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Melissa M; Goodfellow, Linda

    2011-01-01

    In the United States, the prevalence of celiac disease has increased from 1 in 4,600 persons to 1 in 133 persons during the past 10 years. Although celiac disease can be managed by strict adherence to a gluten-free diet, dietary management can be challenging. A descriptive, correlational design was used to examine factors and perceived causes that interfere with adherence to a gluten-free diet, identify coping strategies, and examine the relationship between coping strategies and quality of life in 156 adults with a diagnosis of celiac disease. The Psychological General Well-Being Index and the Brief COPE were used to measure the major variables. Results indicated that problems outside the home interfere with dietary adherence. A moderate negative significant relationship (r [154] = -.46, p Emotion-focused coping was found to have a significant negative effect on quality of life (H[18] = 56.67, p effects of stress on quality of life for adults with celiac disease adhering to a gluten-free diet.

  18. Gluten-free diet and steroid treatment are effective therapy for most patients with collagenous sprue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Tapia, Alberto; Talley, Nicholas J; Gurudu, Suryakanth R; Wu, Tsung-Teh; Murray, Joseph A

    2010-04-01

    Collagenous sprue (CS) is characterized by the presence of a distinctive band of subepithelial collagen deposition in the small bowel. We evaluated the clinical characteristics, treatments, and outcomes of patients with CS. Thirty patients with CS were identified at the 3 Mayo Clinic sites between 1993 and 2009. Clinical data from medical records were reviewed. The study cohort was 70% female (age range, 53-91 years). Most patients had severe diarrhea and weight loss. Hospitalization to treat dehydration was necessary in 16 (53%) patients. Associated immune-mediated diseases were noted in 70% of the patients; celiac disease was the most frequent. Other associated diseases were microscopic colitis, hypothyroidism, and autoimmune enteropathy. The median thickness of the layer of subepithelial collagen deposition in the small bowel was 29 mum (20-56.5 mum). Subepithelial collagen deposition in the colon or stomach was noted in 8 patients. A clinical response was observed in 24 (80%) patients after treatment with a combination of a gluten-free diet and immunosuppressive drugs. Histologic improvement was confirmed in 9 patients, with complete remission in 5. Two patients died (1 of complications of CS and 1 of another illness). Most patients with CS are treated effectively with a combination of gluten-free diet and steroids. CS is often associated with collagen deposition or chronic inflammation in other segments of the gastrointestinal tract as well as other immune-mediated disorders. Copyright 2010 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Profile of volatile organic compounds in exhaled breath changes as a result of gluten-free diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baranska, Agnieszka; Tigchelaar, Ettje; Smolinska, Agnieszka; Dallinga, Jan W.; Moonen, Edwin J. C.; Dekens, Jackie A. M.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Zhernakova, Alexandra; van Schooten, Frederik J.

    In the present longitudinal study, we followed volatile organic compounds (VOCs) excreted in exhaled breath of 20 healthy individuals over time, while adhering to a gluten-free diet for 4 weeks prior to adherence to a normal diet. We used gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry

  20. Addendum to "Gluten-Free and Casein-Free Diets in Treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulloy, Austin; Lang, Russell; O'Reilly, Mark; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio; Rispoli, Mandy

    2011-01-01

    Shortly after the publication of our literature review on gluten-free and casein-free (GFCF) diets in the treatment of autism spectrum disorders (ASD; Mulloy et al., 2010), Whiteley et al. (2010) published the results of experimental evaluation of a GFCF diet. To update our previous literature review, we herein provide an analysis of the Whiteley…

  1. Obesogenic habits among children and their families in response to initiation of gluten-free diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levran, Neriya; Wilschanski, Michael; Livovsky, Jessica; Shachar, Edna; Moskovitz, Moti; Assaf-Jabrin, Lama; Shteyer, Eyal

    2018-03-29

    Initiation of a lifelong, gluten-free diet (GFD) in children with celiac disease (CD) influences the child's life in many ways. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of GFD on the child and his/her family's eating habits and lifestyle behaviors. To study this, we asked children and their parents completed the Family Eating and Activity Habits Questionnaire (FEAHQ) at the time of diagnosis of CD and at least 6 months after initiation of GFD and a questionnaires assessing symptoms related to CD and adherence to the GFD diet. We analyzed questionnaires from 40 children with CD and their families. There were 21 females, ranging in age from 4 to 15.7 years (median age 7.4 years±2.8 years). The control group comprised 15 healthy children. After initiation of GFD the family ate more junk food including snacks and candies (p = 0.05), with the significant change reported by children and fathers (p = 0.001 and 0.03 respectively). All family members in the control group had significantly less snacks. Parents and children reported a significant increase in obesogenic eating styles, such as eating from the cooking pot and eating while doing other activities (mothers, p = 0.001; fathers, 0.02; and children, 0.02 respectively). Our study shows that initiation of GFD in children with CD leads to changes in eating habits and staple food eating that may lead to a more obesogenic environment. Care givers, pediatricians, gastroenterologists, and dieticians alike should be aware of these implications and educate families towards a healthier lifestyle and diet beyond the GFD itself. What's Known: • Gluten-free diet has been shown to affect various psychosocial aspects of children with celiac disease. • Obesity and celiac are associated. What is New: • Initiation of gluten-free diet led to increased eating of junk food both in the patient and his/her family. • After initiation of GFD pro-obesogenic eating habits is increased.

  2. Efficacy of gluten-free diet alone on recovery from iron deficiency anemia in adult celiac patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annibale, B; Severi, C; Chistolini, A; Antonelli, G; Lahner, E; Marcheggiano, A; Iannoni, C; Monarca, B; Delle Fave, G

    2001-01-01

    Iron deficiency anemia has been reported as the most frequent extraintestinal symptom in adult celiac disease. Prospective studies on the effect of gluten-free diet on recovery from iron deficiency anemia are lacking. The aim of this study was to verify in adult patients with celiac disease the efficacy of and the time course of recovery from iron deficiency anemia by a gluten-free diet alone. We studied 190 consecutive adult patients with iron deficiency anemia, screened for celiac disease by duodenal biopsies. New diagnosed celiac patients were invited to follow a gluten-free diet alone without iron supplementation. After 6 months of diet, duodenal biopsies were performed and hematological tests were repeated at 6, 12, and 24 months. Celiac disease was diagnosed in 26 (24 women, 2 men; 13.7%) adult patients. After 6 months of gluten-free diet 14 of 18 (77.8%) female patients recovered from anemia, but only 5 of 18 (27.8%) reversed from iron deficiency. At 12-month control all but one patient (94.4%) recovered from anemia and 9 patients (50%) from iron deficiency. After 24 months of diet, only the patient who did not recover from anemia at 12-month control was still anemic, whereas 10 patients (55.5%) reversed from iron deficiency. A significant inverse correlation (r = -0.7141, p = 0.0003) between increase of Hb concentrations and decrease of individual histological scores of duodenitis was observed. A screening for celiac disease should be carried out in adult patients with iron deficiency anemia. Recovery from anemia occurs between 6 and 12 months on a gluten-free diet alone as a consequence of normalization of histological alterations of the intestinal mucosa.

  3. Osteoporosis reversibility in a patient with celiac disease and primary autoimmune hypothyroidism on gluten free diet: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Kovačev-Zavišić Branka; Ičin Tijana; Novaković-Paro Jovanka; Medić-Stojanoska Milica; Bajkin Ivana

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Secondary osteoporosis occurs in many diseases. Celiac disease-induced osteoporosis is the consequence of secondary hyperparathyroidism. Biochemical bone markers show predominance of bone resorption, thus making the bisphosphonates the first line therapy option. Intestinal mucosal changes are reversible on gluten-free diet. Osteoporosis reversibility is also possible, provided postmenopausal osteoporosis risk factors independent from celiac di...

  4. Gluten-Free Diet Does Not Appear to Induce Endoscopic Remission of Eosinophilic Esophagitis in Children with Coexistent Celiac Disease

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    Joseph R Abraham

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Celiac disease and eosinophilic esophagitis are usually considered to be separate gastrointestinal diseases; however, it appears that they may coexist more often than would be expected. It is unknown whether eosinophilic esophagitis in patients with celiac disease responds to a gluten-free diet.

  5. Gluten-Free and Casein-Free Diets in the Treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulloy, Austin; Lang, Russell; O'Reilly, Mark; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio; Rispoli, Mandy

    2010-01-01

    This paper systematically reviews research on the effects of gluten-free and/or casein-free (GFCF) diets in the treatment of ASD. Database, hand, and ancestry searches identified 15 articles for review. Each study was analyzed and summarized in terms of (a) participants, (b) specifics of the intervention, (c) dependent variables, (d) results, and…

  6. The Gluten-Free, Casein-Free Diet in Autism: Results of a Preliminary Double Blind Clinical Trial

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    Elder, Jennifer Harrison; Shankar, Meena; Shuster, Jonathan; Theriaque, Douglas; Burns, Sylvia; Sherrill, Lindsay

    2006-01-01

    This study tested the efficacy of a gluten-free and casein-free (GFCF) diet in treating autism using a randomized, double blind repeated measures crossover design. The sample included 15 children aged 2-16 years with autism spectrum disorder. Data on autistic symptoms and urinary peptide levels were collected in the subjects' homes over the 12…

  7. Essential amino acids in the gluten-free diet and serum in relation to depression in patients with celiac disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hees, Van Nathalie J.M.; Giltay, E.J.; Tielemans, Susanne M.A.J.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Puvill, Thomas; Janssen, Nadine; Does, Van Der Willem

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Celiac disease (CD) is associated with an increased risk of major depressive disorder, possibly due to deficiencies in micronutrients in the gluten-free diet. We aimed to investigate whether essential amino acids (i.e., the precursors of serotonin, dopamine and other

  8. "But we're not hypochondriacs": the changing shape of gluten-free dieting and the contested illness experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Lauren Renée

    2014-03-01

    "Gluten free" exploded onto the American foodscape in recent years: as of January 2013, 30 percent of U.S. adults reported reducing or eliminating gluten in their diets. How do individuals participate in the expansion of gluten-free dieting, and what are the implications of that expansion? This article is based on 31 in-depth, semi-structured interviews conducted between May and October 2012 with gluten-free and -restricted persons. I identify three interrelated factors contributing to the expansion of gluten-free dieting among non-celiacs. Participants broaden the lay understanding of gluten-related disorders, undermine biomedical authority, and diagnose others. Such participant-driven change, termed self-ascriptive looping, is one factor in the diet's rapid popularization. I show how participants question the doctor-patient relationship and increase social contestability for other dieters. My findings challenge previous work on contested illness and suggest food intolerances may require a reconceptualization of contested illness experience. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. LOWER BIFIDOBACTERIA COUNTS IN ADULT PATIENTS WITH CELIAC DISEASE ON A GLUTEN-FREE DIET

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    Lisléia GOLFETTO

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Context The ingestion of gluten is responsible for the symptoms of Celiac disease, but other environmental factors can also influence. Strains of the Bifidobacterium genus have been shown to afford protection against the inflammatory response and mucosal damage caused by gliadin peptides in vitro. Objectives This study was designed to compare the concentration of fecal bifidobacteria and pH of patients with celiac disease on gluten-free diet and control subjects in order to identify if the imbalance on fecal microbiota still remain during the treatment of celiac disease and identify the necessity of dietary supplementation with pre- or probiotics. Methods It was analyzed the feces of 42 healthy subjects and 14 celiac patients. The bifidobacteria count in feces was done in selective medium BIM-25. Microscopic analysis of the colonies was performed by Gram stain. The identification of the genus Bifidobacterium was performed by determination of fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase. Fecal pH was measured using a pH meter. Results The concentration of bifidobacteria per gram of feces was significantly higher in healthy subjects (controls (1.5 ± 0.63 x108 CFU/g when compared to celiac patients (2.5 ± 1.5 x107 CFU/g. The fecal pH was not different between celiac patients (7.19 ± 0.521 and controls (7.18 ± 0.522. Conclusions These results suggest that with lower levels of bifidobacteria, celiac patients have an imbalance in the intestinal microbiota, regardless of pH, even while on a gluten-free diet. This fact could favor the pathological process of the disorder.

  10. Difficulties related to compliance with gluten-free diet by patients with coeliac disease living in Upper Silesia

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    Magdalena Ferster

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Compliance with gluten-free diet is the basic method for controlling coeliac disease in patients regardless of their age. It may be, however, challenging to follow in daily life. The prevalence of the disease (approx. 1% of European population is affected makes it an important public health problem. Aim of the study: Investigating the difficulties and obstacles related to compliance with gluten-free diet by children and adult patients living in Upper Silesia region. Material and method: The study included 30 mothers of children with coeliac disease (Group I and 30 adult coeliac disease patients (Group II. The patients kept a gluten-free diet. Data were obtained in an anonymous survey drawn up for the purpose of this study, conducted in 2010. Results: The respondents reported a very limited access to gluten-free meals in mass-catering establishments (76.7% of the participants in Group II, and 70% children at nurseries, kindergartens and schools, lack of adequate food product labelling (93% in both groups, difficulties experienced in social life (60% in Group II, difficulties experienced when travelling within Poland (76.7% in Group II and abroad (83.3% in Group II, and no existing reimbursement plan for the high diet costs (16.7% in Group I vs. 26.7% in Group II. Conclusions: 1 The necessity of compliance with gluten-free diet causes a lot of difficulties in everyday life to patients with coeliac disease and parents of children suffering from coeliac disease. Proper treatment requires their identification by the attending physician. 2 Improved food labelling as regards gluten content as well as inclusion of gluten-free meals in the menu of food-serving establishments will contribute to improved quality of life of children and adults suffering from coeliac disease. 3 Associations of patients on a gluten-free diet should continue their efforts to have high costs of this diet refunded.

  11. Gluten-free diet does not appear to induce endoscopic remission of eosinophilic esophagitis in children with coexistent celiac disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Joseph R; Persad, Rabin; Turner, Justine M; Huynh, Hien Q

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Celiac disease and eosinophilic esophagitis are usually considered to be separate gastrointestinal diseases; however, it appears that they may coexist more often than would be expected. It is unknown whether eosinophilic esophagitis in patients with celiac disease responds to a gluten-free diet. OBJEVTIVES: To examine the clinical, endoscopic and histological features of children with both conditions to evaluate whether eosinophilic esophagitis responds to a gluten-free diet. METHODS: From January 1, 2009, to June 30, 2011, the medical records of children <18 years of age diagnosed with eosinophilic esophagitis and/or celiac disease were reviewed. Patients with clinical, endoscopic and histological diagnoses of both diseases were identified and included. These findings were analyzed, as were laboratory results, treatment and follow-up. RESULTS: During the study period, there were 206 celiac disease patients, 86 eosinophilic esophagitis patients and nine (4.4% of total celiac) patients with both diagnoses. Gluten-free diet was the primary treatment for both conditions in seven of nine (78%) cases. In six of these seven (86%) patients, no endoscopic or histological improvement of eosinophilic esophagitis was observed, while in one patient, histological remission of esophageal eosinophilia occurred while on a gluten-free diet. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of eosinophilic esophagitis in patients with celiac disease was 4.4%, confirming a higher than expected prevalence of eosinophilic esophagitis compared with the general population. In patients with celiac disease, a gluten-free diet did not appear to induce remission of coexistent endoscopic and histological features of eosinophilic esophagitis. PMID:22891176

  12. The Gluten-Free/Casein-Free Diet: A Double-Blind Challenge Trial in Children with Autism

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    Hyman, Susan L.; Stewart, Patricia A.; Foley, Jennifer; Cain, Usa; Peck, Robin; Morris, Danielle D.; Wang, Hongyue; Smith, Tristram

    2016-01-01

    To obtain information on the safety and efficacy of the gluten-free/casein-free (GFCF) diet, we placed 14 children with autism, age 3-5 years, on the diet for 4-6 weeks and then conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled challenge study for 12 weeks while continuing the diet, with a 12-week follow-up. Dietary challenges were delivered via weekly…

  13. Gambaran Pola Perilaku Anak Penyandang Autisme dengan Penerapan Diet Gluten Free-casein Free (Gfcf) di Sekolah Inklusi Cahaya Bangsa Khatulistiwa Pontianak

    OpenAIRE

    Yesi Putri Ari Hartiningrum

    2013-01-01

    Diet Gluten-Free Casein-Free (GFCF) merupakan salahsatu terapi yang kontroversial pada gangguan autistik. Tujuan: Penelitianini bertujuan mengetahui gambaran pola perilaku pada anak penyandangautisme dengan penerapan diet GFCF.

  14. Prevalence of antigliadin IgA antibodies in psoriasis vulgaris and response of seropositive patients to a gluten-free diet

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    Kolchak NA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Nikolai A Kolchak,1 Maria K Tetarnikova,2 Maria S Theodoropoulou,3 Alexandra P Michalopoulou,4 Demetrios S Theodoropoulos5 1Department of Hematology, Omsk State Medical Academy, Omsk, Russia; 2Dermatology Private Practice, Chelyabinsk, Russia; 3Department of Pharmacy, Trikala General Hospital, Trikala, Greece; 4Department of Philosophy and Social Studies, School of Philosophy, University of Crete, Rethymnon, Greece; 5Allergy Associates of La Crosse, Onalaska, WI, USA Introduction: The course of psoriasis relies on a variety of metabolic and immunological parameters. Identification of underlying pro-inflammatory conditions and their control is desired for optimal management. Background: Increased prevalence of serum markers for celiac disease has been reported among patients with psoriasis. The likelihood of occult celiac disease in a subpopulation of patients has been postulated and gluten-free diets have been reported to be effective. Patients and methods: The prevalence of gliadin IgA antibodies was assessed among patients with psoriasis in an urban population. The clinical effects of a strict gluten-free diet were followed. Results: Over a 2-year period, 97 patients with Psoriasis Area and Severity Index greater than 2.4 were recruited from a population followed in a dermatology clinic. Gliadin IgA antibodies were assessed in all participants and in 91 controls. Elevated gliadin IgA antibodies were found in 13 patients (14% and two controls (2%. Values in five patients were assessed as greater than 30.0 U/mL or “strong positive” according to the manufacturer of the assay. All 13 patients were placed on a strict gluten-free diet without any other modifications in their ongoing treatment of psoriasis. Improvement of psoriatic lesions was observed in all patients with positive gliadin IgA antibodies but the decline in the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index score and the scaling down of pharmaceutical treatment was more pronounced in the five

  15. Vegetarian, Gluten-Free, and Energy Restricted Diets in Female Athletes

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    Lynn Cialdella-Kam

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Female athletes who follow a diet that fails to meet energy and nutrient needs are at risk for musculoskeletal injuries, menstrual disturbances, and poor sports performance. Common nutritional concerns for the female athlete include low energy availability (EA (i.e., energy intake from food remaining for metabolic processes after accounting for energy expended during exercise and inadequate dietary intakes (i.e., not meeting sports nutrition guidelines of carbohydrates, protein, essential fatty acids (EFAs, B-vitamins, calcium, iron, and vitamin D. Low EA and the associated nutrient deficiencies are more common in athletes who compete in weight-sensitive sports (i.e., aesthetic, gravitational, and weight category sports because low body fat and mass confer a competitive advantage. Other athletes at risk for energy and nutrient deficits include athletes following a vegetarian or gluten-free diet (GFD. Careful dietary planning can help an athlete meet energy and nutrient needs. This review covers the nutrition issues associated with low EA and special diets (i.e., vegetarian and GFD and describes strategies to help female athletes meet their energy and nutrient needs.

  16. Addition of a Short Course of Prednisolone to a Gluten-Free Diet vs. Gluten-Free Diet Alone in Recovery of Celiac Disease: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Asad; Shahab, Tabassum; Sherwani, Rana K; Alam, Seema

    2018-01-28

    Background A gluten-free diet (GFD) is the standard of care in the management of patients with celiac disease, but clinical and histological recovery are often delayed. In newly diagnosed patients, strict compliance to GFD is difficult to achieve; this is especially true in developing countries where gluten-free food is often difficult to obtain. Steroids, when used alone, can be effective in inducing recovery in patients with celiac disease. We performed a randomized controlled trial to study the effect of a short course of prednisolone combined with a GFD on the recovery of celiac disease. Materials and methods This study was a single-center, randomised, open-label trial. This investigation was done in a pediatric gastroenterology unit of a tertiary teaching hospital in north India.Twenty-eight newly diagnosed celiac disease patients were enrolled in the study. Prednisolone was given at 1 mg/kg for four weeks; duodenal biopsies and IgA anti-tissue transglutaminase (tTg) levels were assessed at eight weeks, six months, and 12 months from the start of the study. Outcome measures The primary outcome measures used to indicate clinical, histological, and immunological recovery of celiac disease were clinical improvement at eight weeks and the proportion of patients with improved histology by at least one grade and who were tissue transglutaminase (tTg) seronegative at eight weeks. The secondary measures were the proportion of patients showing normalization of histological features and the proportions of patients becoming seronegative at six months and one year of GFD. Results Patients were randomized into the GFD only (n = 14) or GFD with prednisolone (GFD+P) (n = 14) groups. No significant differences were detected in clinical recovery at eight weeks; none of the patients became seronegative at eight weeks, six months, or 12 months. The proportion of patients with improvement in histology by at least one grade was higher in the GFD+P group at eight weeks, and there

  17. The influence of a short-term gluten-free diet on the human gut microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonder, Marc Jan; Tigchelaar, Ettje F; Cai, Xianghang; Trynka, Gosia; Cenit, Maria C; Hrdlickova, Barbara; Zhong, Huanzi; Vatanen, Tommi; Gevers, Dirk; Wijmenga, Cisca; Wang, Yang; Zhernakova, Alexandra

    2016-04-21

    A gluten-free diet (GFD) is the most commonly adopted special diet worldwide. It is an effective treatment for coeliac disease and is also often followed by individuals to alleviate gastrointestinal complaints. It is known there is an important link between diet and the gut microbiome, but it is largely unknown how a switch to a GFD affects the human gut microbiome. We studied changes in the gut microbiomes of 21 healthy volunteers who followed a GFD for four weeks. We collected nine stool samples from each participant: one at baseline, four during the GFD period, and four when they returned to their habitual diet (HD), making a total of 189 samples. We determined microbiome profiles using 16S rRNA sequencing and then processed the samples for taxonomic and imputed functional composition. Additionally, in all 189 samples, six gut health-related biomarkers were measured. Inter-individual variation in the gut microbiota remained stable during this short-term GFD intervention. A number of taxon-specific differences were seen during the GFD: the most striking shift was seen for the family Veillonellaceae (class Clostridia), which was significantly reduced during the intervention (p = 2.81 × 10(-05)). Seven other taxa also showed significant changes; the majority of them are known to play a role in starch metabolism. We saw stronger differences in pathway activities: 21 predicted pathway activity scores showed significant association to the change in diet. We observed strong relations between the predicted activity of pathways and biomarker measurements. A GFD changes the gut microbiome composition and alters the activity of microbial pathways.

  18. Transcultural adaptation and validation of the Celiac Dietary Adherence Test: a simple questionnaire to measure adherence to a gluten-free diet

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    Ricardo Fueyo-Díaz

    Full Text Available Background and aims: A gluten-free diet is to date the only treatment available to celiac disease sufferers. However, systematic reviews indicate that, depending on the method of evaluation used, only 42% to 91% of patients adhere to the diet strictly. Transculturally adapted tools that evaluate adherence beyond simple self-informed questions or invasive analyses are, therefore, of importance. The aim is to obtain a Spanish transcultural adaption and validation of Leffler's Celiac Dietary Adherence Test. Methods: A two-stage observational transversal study: translation and back translation by four qualified translators followed by a validation stage in which the questionnaire was administered to 306 celiac disease patients aged between 12 and 72 years and resident in Aragon. Factorial structure, criteria validity and internal consistency were evaluated. Results: The Spanish version maintained the 7 items in a 3-factor structure. Feasibility was very high in all the questions answered and the floor and ceiling effects were very low (4.3% and 1%, respectively. The Spearman correlation with the self-efficacy and life quality scales and the self-informed question were statistically significant (p < 0.01. According to the questionnaire criteria, adherence was 72.3%. Conclusion: The Spanish version of the Celiac Dietary Adherence Test shows appropriate psychometric properties and is, therefore, suitable for studying adherence to a gluten-free diet in clinical and research environments.

  19. Gluten-free diet may improve obstructive sleep apnea-related symptoms in children with celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerushalmy-Feler, Anat; Tauman, Riva; Derowe, Ari; Averbuch, Eran; Ben-Tov, Amir; Weintraub, Yael; Weiner, Dror; Amir, Achiya; Moran-Lev, Hadar; Cohen, Shlomi

    2018-02-07

    Enlarged tonsils and adenoids are the major etiology of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in children. Lymphatic hyperplasia is common to both OSA and celiac disease. We aimed to investigate the effect of a gluten-free diet on OSA symptoms in children with celiac disease. Children with celiac disease aged 2-18 years were prospectively recruited before the initiation of a gluten-free diet. Children with negative celiac serology who underwent gastrointestinal endoscopies for other indications served as controls. All participants completed a validated OSA-related symptoms questionnaire and the pediatric sleep questionnaire (PSQ) at baseline and 6 months later. Thirty-four children with celiac disease (mean age 6.6 ± 3.5 years) and 24 controls (mean age 7.3 ± 4.6 years, P = 0.5) were recruited. There were no significant differences in gender, body mass index or season at recruitment between the two groups. The rate of positive PSQ scores was higher (more OSA-related symptoms) in the control group compared to the celiac group, both at recruitment and at the 6-month follow-up (33.3% vs. 11.8%, P = 0.046, and 16.7% vs. 0, P = 0.014, respectively). PSQ scores improved significantly in both groups at the 6-month follow-up (P celiac group compared to controls (0.1 ± 0.09 vs.0.06 ± 0.06, respectively, P = 0.04). Children with celiac disease had fewer OSA-related symptoms than controls, but the degree of improvement following the initiation of a gluten-free diet was significantly higher. These findings suggest that a gluten-free diet may improve OSA-related symptoms in children with celiac disease.

  20. HLA Genetics and Clinical Features of Self-Treated Patients on a Gluten-Free Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coburn, John A.; Vande Voort, Jennifer L.; Lahr, Brian D.; Van Dyke, Carol T.; Kroning, Cynthia M.; Wu, Tsung-Teh; Gandhi, Manish J.; Murray, Joseph A.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Increasingly, persons start a gluten-free diet (GFD) without a clear celiac disease (CD) diagnosis. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotyping is useful in ruling out CD in patients with equivocal results of serologic testing or small-bowel biopsy (SBB), but its utility and the clinical features of patients on self-treated GFD (ST-GFD) are largely unknown. Methods Retrospective study of single tertiary care center cohort compared 137 patients on ST-GFD and 443 patients with well-defined CD. We compared HLA genotype, symptoms, serologic and SBB results, and response to GFD between the 2 groups. Analysis used univariate logistic regression modeling, adjusted for age and sex. Results Patients with ST-GFD presented more often with diarrhea (PPP=.002), cramping (P=.02), itchy skin (P=.02), oral inflammation (P=.04), and constipation (P=.01) and less often with anemia (PP=.02) than CD patients. In addition, 41% did not carry DQ2.5 and DQ8 vs 6% of CD patients (PP=.77). Although CD patients had a statistically higher rate of GFD benefit, both groups had a high responsiveness rate (98% vs 94%; P=.03). Conclusions HLA genotyping is useful in evaluating patients on a ST-GFD. Although confirmed CD is rare in self-treated patients, most still report benefit from GFD regardless of DQ2 and DQ8 status. Nonceliac gluten sensitivity may play a role. PMID:23632357

  1. Salivary and fecal microbiota and metabolome of celiac children under gluten-free diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angelis, Maria; Vannini, Lucia; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Cavallo, Noemi; Minervini, Fabio; Francavilla, Ruggiero; Ercolini, Danilo; Gobbetti, Marco

    2016-12-19

    Celiac disease (CD) is an inflammatory autoimmune disorder resulting from the combination of genetic predisposition and gluten ingestion. A life-long gluten free diet (GFD) is the only therapeutic approach. Dysbiosis, which can precede the CD pathogenesis and/or persist when subjects are on GFD, is reviewed and discussed. Salivary microbiota and metabolome differed between healthy and celiac children treated under GFD (T-CD) for at least two years. The type of GFD (African- vs Italian-style) modified the microbiota and metabolome of Saharawi T-CD children. Different studies showed bacterial dysbiosis at duodenal and/or fecal level of patients with active untreated CD (U-CD) and T-CD compared to healthy subjects. The ratio of protective anti-inflammatory bacteria such as Lactobacillus-Bifidobacterium to potentially harmful Bacteroides-Enterobacteriaceae was the lowest in U-CD and T-CD children. In agreement with dysbiosis, serum, fecal and urinary metabolome from U-CD and T-CD patients showed altered levels of free amino acids and volatile organic compounds. However, consensus across studies defining specific bacteria and metabolites in U-CD or T-CD patients is still lacking. Future research efforts are required to determine the relationships between CD and oral and intestinal microbiotas to improve the composition of GFD for restoring the gut dysbiosis as a preventative or therapeutic approach for CD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Gluten-free diet or alternative therapy: a survey on what parents of celiac children want.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norsa, Lorenzo; Tomba, Carolina; Agostoni, Carlo; Branchi, Federica; Bardella, Maria Teresa; Roncoroni, Leda; Conte, Dario; Elli, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is treated by life-long gluten-free diet (GFD). Novel therapies are under development. Willingness of CD children's parents to alternative therapies and GFD impact were evaluated. Parents of celiac children on GFD were investigated on need and preference for novel CD therapies, children's enrolment in trials, compliance to and personal judgment on GFD, health status (HS) and quality of life (QoL). About 59.5% surveyed parents expressed the need for alternative therapies with a preference for vaccine-based strategy (39.9%). About 37.7% would accept enrollment in an ad hoc trial, 20.3% would agree to endoscopy during the trial. GFD compliance was 97.4% and well accepted by 93.8%. HS and QoL significantly improved during GFD (p < 0.001). The introduction of novel therapies for CD is desirable for over half of parents, with preference for vaccines. Parents frown upon enrolment in new clinical trials and the subsequent need for additional endoscopy.

  3. Pure Oats as Part of the Canadian Gluten-Free Diet in Celiac Disease: The Need to Revisit the Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, M Cristina P; Deschênes, Marie-Eve; Laurencelle, Suzanne; Godet, Patrick; Roy, Claude C; Djilali-Saiah, Idriss

    2016-01-01

    The question about recommending pure, noncontaminated oats as part of the gluten-free diet of patients with celiac disease remains controversial. This might be due to gluten cross contamination and to the possible immunogenicity of some oat cultivars. In view of this controversy, a review of the scientific literature was conducted to highlight the latest findings published between 2008 and 2014 to examine the current knowledge on oats safety and celiac disease in Europe and North America. Results showed that regular oats consumed in Canada are largely contaminated. Overall, the consumption of pure oats has been generally considered to be safe for adults and children. However, it appears that some oat cultivars may trigger an immune response in sensitive individuals. Therefore, further long-term studies on the impact of consumption of oats identifying the cultivar(s) constitute an important step forward for drawing final recommendations. Furthermore, a closer and more accurate monitoring of the dietary intake of noncontaminated oats would be paramount to better determine what its actual contribution in the gluten-free diet of adults and children with celiac disease are in order to draw sound recommendations on the safety of pure oats as part of the gluten-free diet.

  4. Characteristics and comorbidities of inpatients without celiac disease on a gluten-free diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackett, John W; Shamsunder, Meghana; Reilly, Norelle R; Green, Peter H R; Lebwohl, Benjamin

    2018-01-08

    Despite the increasing popularity of gluten-free diet (GFD), the demographic characteristics and medical features of patients without celiac disease on this diet have not been extensively investigated.We aimed to characterize the medical conditions and demographic backgrounds of hospitalized patients without celiac disease who adhere to a GFD, to further understand their reasons for gluten avoidance. We performed an observational cohort study on all inpatients at Columbia University Medical Center on a GFD in 2011-2016, excluding those with celiac disease, compared with age-matched and sex-matched inpatients on a regular diet. We determined the odds ratio (OR) of being on a GFD for various comorbidities using conditional logistic regression. Of 769 inpatients on a GFD, most (63.6%) did not have celiac disease. Gluten-avoiding patients were more likely to be non-Hispanic Whites [OR: 2.92; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.31-3.70]. They had a lower prevalence of hypertension (OR: 0.38; 95% CI: 0.27-0.52) and diabetes (OR: 0.58; 95% CI: 0.32-0.75) and higher prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease (OR: 1.56; 95% CI: 1.02-2.41), irritable bowel syndrome (OR: 6.16; 95% CI: 2.11-10.23), hyperthyroidism (OR: 2.73; 95% CI: 1.22-6.10), hypothyroidism (OR: 2.06; 95% CI: 1.39-3.06), lupus (OR: 2.87; 95% CI: 1.13-7.29), and autism spectrum disorder (OR: 23.42; 95% CI: 5.29-103.73). Nonceliac gluten-avoiding patients have higher prevalences of inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, thyroid disease, lupus, and autism spectrum disorder, suggesting patients with these disorders have turned to a GFD for perceived benefit, despite a scant evidence basis.

  5. Gluten-free but also gluten-enriched (gluten+) diet prevent diabetes in NOD mice; the gluten enigma in type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funda, David P; Kaas, Anne; Tlaskalová-Hogenová, Helena; Buschard, Karsten

    2008-01-01

    Environmental factors such as nutrition or exposure to infections play a substantial role in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes (T1D). We have previously shown that gluten-free, non-purified diet largely prevented diabetes in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. In this study we tested hypothesis that early introduction of gluten-enriched (gluten+) diet may increase diabetes incidence in NOD mice. Standard, gluten-free, gluten+ modified Altromin diets and hydrolysed-casein-based Pregestimil diet were fed to NOD females and diabetes incidence was followed for 310 days. Insulitis score and numbers of gut mucosal lymphocytes were determined in non-diabetic animals. A significantly lower diabetes incidence (p gluten-free diet (5.9%, n = 34) and Pregestimil diet (10%, n = 30) compared to mice on the standard Altromin diet (60.6%, n = 33). Surprisingly, gluten+ diet also prevented diabetes incidence, even at the level found with the gluten-free diet (p gluten+, gluten-free, Pregestimil) diets, did that slightly later compared to those on the standard diet. Lower insulitis score compared to control mice was found in non-diabetic NOD mice on the gluten-free, and to a lesser extent also gluten+ and Pregestimil diets. No substantial differences in the number of CD3(+), TCR-gammadelta(+), and IgA(+) cells in the small intestine were documented. Gluten+ diet prevents diabetes in NOD mice at the level found with the non-purified gluten-free diet. Possible mechanisms of the enigmatic, dual effect of dietary gluten on the development of T1D are discussed. 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

  6. Gluten-free and casein-free diets in the treatment of autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Reissmann

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Autism is a complex psychiatric disorder characterized by three core symptoms, i.e. impairments in social interaction, restricted patterns of behavior and impairments in communication. In the framework of the “opioid excess theory”, the disorder symptoms are compared to the behavioral effects of opiates. Based on this, a possible nutritional basis of autism has been proposed, hypothesizing that certain food proteins such as gluten and casein can be transformed to opioid peptides during digestion. These peptides might eventually be able to enter the blood stream and act upon the central nervous system. As a consequence, a diet low in such proteins has been hypothesized to ameliorate the behavioral symptoms of autistic children. Objective: The scope of this review was to analyze the effects of gluten-free and casein-free (GFCF diets on children with autism, as well as to provide information concerning additional aspects related to the GFCF diet in autism. Methods: A literature search was conducted including scientific publications up until December 2013. Search results were screened for any kind of GFCF dietary intervention as well as surveys dealing with GFCF as a treatment for autism. Results: A review of survey data shows that up to 25 % of parents of affected children report on current use of a GFCF diet. The majority of identified studies evaluating GFCF diet outcomes failed to meet basic methodological standards of interventional science. Comparison of study results did not show any clear-cut results, with a substantial proportion of studies failing to show any positive dietary effect. The results of more sophisticated trials were far from equivocal and the studies differed by many methodological aspects. Some variables such as information source and trial duration seemed to affect outcome. Conclusions: Evidence for the effectiveness of the GFCF diet in the treatment of autism is sparse. Rigorous scientific evaluations partly

  7. Health Benefits and Adverse Effects of a Gluten-Free Diet in Non-Celiac Disease Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niland, Benjamin; Cash, Brooks D

    2018-02-01

    Gluten-related diseases such as celiac disease and gluten ataxia are rare conditions, affecting less than 1% of the population in the United States. Despite the rarity of these diseases, there have been significant increases in the adoption of a gluten-free lifestyle and the consumption of gluten-free foods in the United States over the last 3 decades. More than $15.5 billion were spent on retail sales of gluten-free foods in 2016. The gluten-free diet is driven by multiple factors, including social and traditional media coverage, aggressive consumer-directed marketing by manufacturers and retail outlets, and reports in the medical literature and mainstream press of the clinical benefits of gluten avoidance. Individuals may restrict gluten from their diets for a variety of reasons, such as improvement of gastrointestinal and nongastrointestinal symptoms, as well as a perception that gluten is potentially harmful and, thus, restriction represents a healthy lifestyle. Emerging evidence shows that gluten avoidance may be beneficial for some patients with gastrointestinal symptoms, such as those commonly encountered with irritable bowel syndrome. However, high-quality evidence supporting gluten avoidance for physical symptoms or diseases other than those specifically known to be caused by immune-mediated responses to gluten is neither robust nor convincing. In fact, gluten avoidance may be associated with adverse effects in patients without proven gluten-related diseases. This article provides insight regarding gluten avoidance patterns and effects on patients without gluten-related diseases, and highlights concerns surrounding gluten avoidance in the absence of a gluten-mediated immunologic disease.

  8. Coeliac disease in adolescence: Coping strategies and personality factors affecting compliance with gluten-free diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Gudrun; Zeiler, Michael; Grylli, Vasileia; Berger, Gabriele; Huber, Wolf-Dietrich; Woeber, Christian; Rhind, Charlotte; Karwautz, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    Patients suffering from a chronic condition such as coeliac disease (CD) need to develop coping strategies in order to preserve emotional balance and psychosocial functioning while adhering to their obligatory life-long gluten free diet (GFD). However, this can be particularly challenging for adolescents and may lead to dietary transgressions. Little is currently known about the influence of coping strategies and personality factors on dietary compliance. This study aims to explore these factors for the first time in adolescents with biopsy-proven CD. We included 281 adolescents with CD and 95 healthy controls. We classified patients according to their GFD adherence status (adherent vs. non-adherent) and assessed coping strategies using the KIDCOPE and personality traits using the Junior-Temperament and Character Inventory (J-TCI). Adolescents with CD adherent to GFD used less emotional regulation and distraction as coping strategies than non-adherent patients. In terms of personality traits, adherent patients differed from non-adherent patients with respect to temperament, but not with respect to character, showing lower scores in novelty seeking, impulsivity and rule transgressions and higher scores in eagerness with work and perfectionism compared to non-adherent patients. No differences were found between healthy controls and adherent CD patients across these personality traits. Coping strategies and personality traits differ in adolescent patients with CD adherent to GFD from those not adherent, and may therefore relate to risk or protective factors in adherence. Targeting coping and temperament using psychological interventions may therefore be beneficial to support adolescents with CD and optimise their adherence to GFD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Gluten-free but also gluten-enriched (gluten+) diet prevent diabetes in NOD mice; the gluten enigma in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funda, D.P.; Kaas, A.; Tlaskalova-Hogenova, H.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Environmental factors such as nutrition or exposure to infections play a substantial role in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes (T1D). We have previously shown that gluten-free, non-purified diet largely prevented diabetes in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. In this study we tested...... hypothesis that early introduction of gluten-enriched (gluten+) diet may increase diabetes incidence in NOD mice. METHODS: Standard, gluten-free, gluten+ modified Altromin diets and hydrolysed-casein-based Pregestimil diet were fed to NOD females and diabetes incidence was followed for 310 days. Insulitis...... score and numbers of gut mucosal lymphocytes were determined in non-diabetic animals. RESULTS: A significantly lower diabetes incidence (p gluten-free diet (5.9%, n = 34) and Pregestimil diet (10%, n = 30) compared to mice on the standard Altromin diet (60.6%, n...

  10. Essential amino acids in the gluten-free diet and serum in relation to depression in patients with celiac disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie J M van Hees

    Full Text Available Celiac disease (CD is associated with an increased risk of major depressive disorder, possibly due to deficiencies in micronutrients in the gluten-free diet. We aimed to investigate whether essential amino acids (i.e., the precursors of serotonin, dopamine and other neurotransmitters are depleted in the diet and serum of CD patients with major depressive disorder.In a cross-sectional study we assessed dietary intake of amino acids and serum levels of amino acids, in 77 CD patients on a gluten-free diet and in 33 healthy controls. Major depressive disorder was assessed with structured interviews (using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview Plus. Dietary intake was assessed using a 203-item food frequency questionnaire.Participants had a mean age of 55 years and 74% were women. The intake of vegetable protein was significantly lower in CD patients than in healthy controls (mean difference of 7.8 g/d; 95% CI: 4.7-10.8, as were serum concentrations of tyrosine, phenylalanine and tryptophan (all p < 0.005. However, within the CD patient group, the presence of major depressive disorder (n = 42 was not associated with intake or serum levels of essential amino acids.Patients with CD on a long-term gluten-free diet, with good adherence, consume significantly less vegetable protein than controls, and their serum levels of several essential amino acids were also lower. Despite its potential adverse effect, intake and serum levels of essential amino acids were not related to major depression.

  11. Persistent Intraepithelial Lymphocytosis in Celiac Patients Adhering to Gluten-Free Diet Is Not Abolished Despite a Gluten Contamination Elimination Diet

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    Barbara Zanini

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The gluten-free diet (GFD is the only validated treatment for celiac disease (CD, but despite strict adherence, complete mucosal recovery is rarely obtained. The aim of our study was to assess whether complete restitutio ad integrum could be achieved by adopting a restrictive diet (Gluten Contamination Elimination Diet, GCED or may depend on time of exposure to GFD. Two cohorts of CD patients, with persisting Marsh II/Grade A lesion at duodenal biopsy after 12–18 months of GFD (early control were identified. Patients in Cohort A were re-biopsied after a three-month GCED (GCED control and patients in Cohort B were re-biopsied after a minimum of two years on a standard GFD subsequent to early control (late control. Ten patients in Cohort A and 19 in Cohort B completed the study protocol. There was no change in the classification of duodenal biopsies in both cohorts. The number of intraepithelial lymphocytes, TCRγδ+ (T-Cell Receptor gamma delta T cell and eosinophils significantly decreased at GCED control (Cohort A and at late control (Cohort B, compared to early control. Duodenal intraepithelial lymphocytosis persisting in CD patients during GFD is not eliminated by a GCED and is independent of the length of GFD. [NCT 02711696

  12. Navigating the gluten-free boom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaesser, Glenn A; Angadi, Siddhartha S

    2015-08-01

    Gluten-free diets have gained popularity with the public at a rate greater than would be expected based on the prevalence of gluten-related disorders such celiac disease, nonceliac gluten sensitivity, and wheat allergy. This article reviews gluten-related disorders, indications for gluten-free diets, and the possible health benefits of gluten. Despite the health claims for gluten-free eating, no published experimental evidence supports weight-loss with a gluten-free diet or suggests that the general population would benefit from avoiding gluten.

  13. Prevalence of coeliac disease in idiopathic hypoparathyroidism and effect of gluten-free diet on calcaemic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Soma; Saini, Savita; Makharia, Govind K; Datta Gupta, Siddhartha; Goswami, Ravinder

    2016-04-01

    Patients with idiopathic hypoparathyroidism (IH) require variable doses of calcium and 1-α-(OH)D. The reasons for such variability are not clear. As autoimmune mechanisms may play a role in IH, there is a possibility of coexistent coeliac disease with calcium/vitamin D malabsorption. We assessed the prevalence of coeliac disease and antitissue transglutaminase autoantibodies (anti-tTGAbs) in IH and analysed the effect of a gluten-free diet on calcaemic control. A total of 171 patients with IH and 126 healthy controls were screened for anti-tTGAb. IH patients with anti-tTGAb >20 RU/ml underwent duodenoscopy and intestinal biopsy; those with biopsy-proven coeliac disease were followed up on a gluten-free diet. Eleven of 171 (6·4%) patients with IH and seven of 126 (5·6%) controls had anti-tTGAb (P = 0·81). There was no difference in the clinical and biochemical parameters at diagnosis and during long-term follow-up of 7·2 ± 4·8 year (mean serum total calcium = 1·88 ± 0·16 vs 1·82 ± 0·36 mmol/l, P = 0·52; phosphorus = 1·81 ± 0·17 vs 1·87 ± 0·36 mmol/l, P = 0·53) in IH patients with and without anti-tTGAb. Although CaSRAb positivity was comparable in the two groups, IH patients with anti-tTGAb had higher TPOAb positivity (45·5% vs 12·8%, P = 0·02). Coeliac disease was diagnosed in only 2/9 patients with IH on biopsy, both of whom showed improved calcaemic control with a gluten-free diet. The prevalence of coeliac autoimmunity (6·4%) and coeliac disease (1·2%) in patients with IH seems to be similar to that in the general population. Notwithstanding this modest prevalence, it is important to be aware of the potential occurrence of coeliac disease with IH and the beneficial effect of a gluten-free diet on calcium control. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Long term effects of gluten-free diet in non-celiac wheat sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovoli, Francesco; Granito, Alessandro; Negrini, Giulia; Guidetti, Elena; Faggiano, Chiara; Bolondi, Luigi

    2017-12-26

    Information about the clinical outcome of patients with non-celiac wheat sensitivity (NCWS) treated with gluten-free diet (GFD) derive from studies assessing the symptom response in the first few weeks of treatment. We aimed to evaluate the clinical response to the GFD and the quality of life (QoL) of NCWS patients in the long term. Forty-four NCWS (diagnosed according to the Salerno criteria) participated in the study. Participants rated their symptoms according to a 0-10 scale patients and filled in a QoL questionnaire (CDQ) before the beginning of the GFD and during a follow-up evaluation performed after at least one year. To assess the reliability of the questionnaire we also included a control group of 43 matched patients with celiac disease (CD). Upon diagnosis, NCWS patients had a high prevalence of intestinal and extraintestinal symptoms. Also, most symptoms were described as severe and the QoL questionnaire showed high scores. On follow-up, both prevalence and severity of the most common symptoms were significantly reduced. However, persistent intestinal and extraintestinal symptoms of mild severity were found in 65.9 and 72.7% of NCWS patients. In comparison, in the CD group, the prevalence was lower (32.6 and 23.2% respectively) and consistent with previous studies. The analyses of the determinant of QoL showed that, upon diagnosis, NCWS patients had higher scores in the CDQ "gastrointestinal symptoms" (p < 0.001), "emotional aspects" (p < 0.001) and "social problems" (p < 0.001) subclasses compared to CD patients. After the GFD, NCWS and CD patients shared similar scores in all of the subclasses. A significant proportion of NCWS patients still complains of intestinal and extraintestinal symptoms, even if significantly attenuated by the GFD, even years after the diagnosis. A comprehensive nutritional evaluation of these patients is required to further improve their symptoms and their QoL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for

  15. Prevalence of gluten-free diet adherence among individuals without celiac disease in the USA: results from the Continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGiacomo, Daniel V; Tennyson, Christina A; Green, Peter H; Demmer, Ryan T

    2013-08-01

    Clinical inference suggests the prevalence of non-celiac gluten sensitivity is substantially higher than that of celiac disease in the USA. Unfortunately, there are currently no data supporting these claims. The authors analyzed nationally representative data to estimate the prevalence of adherence to a gluten-free diet among participants without celiac disease and also to characterize the demographics and general health status of these participants. The Continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2009-2010 enrolled 7762 individuals representing the civilian, non-institutionalized, US population free of celiac disease. Participants responded to interviewer administered questionnaires regarding current adherence to a gluten-free diet. Prevalence estimates were computed using SAS survey procedures. There were 49 individuals who reported current adherence to a gluten-free diet reflecting a weighted prevalence of 0.548% (95% CI 0.206-0.889). The prevalence of a gluten-free diet was higher in females (0.58%) than males (0.37%), although this was not statistically significant (p = 0.34). Participants reporting a gluten-free diet were older (46.6 vs. 40.5 years, p = 0.005), had higher high-density lipoprotein, lower iron and lower body mass index. The estimated national prevalence of non-celiac gluten sensitivity is 0.548%, approximately half that of celiac disease. Future studies are merited in order to better understand the population burden of non-celiac gluten sensitivity.

  16. Gluten Contamination in Naturally or Labeled Gluten-Free Products Marketed in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Anil K.; Gatti, Simona; Galeazzi, Tiziana; Monachesi, Chiara; Padella, Lucia; Baldo, Giada Del; Annibali, Roberta; Lionetti, Elena; Catassi, Carlo

    2017-01-01

    Background: A strict and lifelong gluten-free diet is the only treatment of celiac disease. Gluten contamination has been frequently reported in nominally gluten-free products. The aim of this study was to test the level of gluten contamination in gluten-free products currently available in the Italian market. Method: A total of 200 commercially available gluten-free products (including both naturally and certified gluten-free products) were randomly collected from different Italian supermarkets. The gluten content was determined by the R5 ELISA Kit approved by EU regulations. Results: Gluten level was lower than 10 part per million (ppm) in 173 products (86.5%), between 10 and 20 ppm in 9 (4.5%), and higher than 20 ppm in 18 (9%), respectively. In contaminated foodstuff (gluten > 20 ppm) the amount of gluten was almost exclusively in the range of a very low gluten content. Contaminated products most commonly belonged to oats-, buckwheat-, and lentils-based items. Certified and higher cost gluten-free products were less commonly contaminated by gluten. Conclusion: Gluten contamination in either naturally or labeled gluten-free products marketed in Italy is nowadays uncommon and usually mild on a quantitative basis. A program of systematic sampling of gluten-free food is needed to promptly disclose at-risk products. PMID:28178205

  17. Gluten-free diet increases beta-cell volume and improves glucose tolerance in an animal model of type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haupt-Jørgensen, Martin; Buschard, Karsten; Hansen, Axel Kornerup

    2016-01-01

    Background Gluten-free (GF) diet alleviates type 1 diabetes in animal models and possibly in humans. We recently showed that fatty acid-induced insulin secretion is enhanced by enzymatically digested gluten (gliadin) stimulation in INS-1E insulinoma cells. We therefore hypothesized that GF diet...... would induce beta-cell rest and ameliorate type 2 diabetes. Methods C57BL/6JBomTac (B6) mice were fed a high-fat (HF), gluten-free high-fat (GF–HF), standard (STD) or gluten-free (GF) diet for 42 weeks. Results Short-term (6–24 weeks) GF–HF versus HF feeding impaired glucose tolerance and increased...... capacity controls pancreas volume. Thus, long-term GF diets may be beneficial for obese type 2 diabetes patients and trials should be performed....

  18. A Maternal Gluten-Free Diet Reduces Inflammation and Diabetes Incidence in the Offspring of NOD Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Camilla Hartmann Friis; Krych, Lukasz; Buschard, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    Early-life interventions in the intestinal environment have previously been shown to influence diabetes incidence. We therefore hypothesized that a gluten-free (GF) diet, known to decrease the incidence of type 1 diabetes, would protect against the development of diabetes when fed only during...... the pregnancy and lactation period. Pregnant nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice were fed a GF or standard diet until all pups were weaned to a standard diet. The early-life GF environment dramatically decreased the incidence of diabetes and insulitis. Gut microbiota analysis by 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed...... to the pancreas. In conclusion, a GF diet during fetal and early postnatal life reduces the incidence of diabetes. The mechanism may involve changes in gut microbiota and shifts to a less proinflammatory immunological milieu in the gut and pancreas....

  19. Reduction of tissue transglutaminase autoantibody levels by gluten-free diet is associated with changes in subsets of peripheral blood lymphocytes in children with newly diagnosed coeliac disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agardh, D; Lynch, K; Brundin, C; Ivarsson, S-A; Lernmark, Å; Cilio, C M

    2006-01-01

    Tissue transglutaminase (tTG) autoantibodies decline after gluten-free diet in patients with coeliac disease. We tested the hypothesis that gluten-free diet-induced change in tTG autoantibody levels affects subsets of peripheral blood lymphocytes. Peripheral blood was obtained from 20 children with biopsy-proven active coeliac disease. Gluten-free diet was initiated and the children examined again after three and six months. tTG autoantibodies were measured in radioligand binding assays and lymphocyte subsets by flow cytometry. IgA-tTG levels at diagnosis, 2204 U/ml (median, range 113–24990), were reduced over six months to 76 U/ml (median, range 1–1261) (Pcoeliac disease. PMID:16542367

  20. Bio-physical characteristics of gastrointestinal mucosa of celiac patients: comparison with control subjects and effect of gluten free diet-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villanacci Vincenzo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intestinal mucosa is leaky in celiac disease (CD, and this alteration may involve changes in hydrophobicity of the mucus surface barrier in addition to alteration of the epithelial barrier. The aims of our study were i to compare duodenal hydrophobicity as an index of mucus barrier integrity in CD patients studied before (n = 38 and during gluten- free diet (GFD, n = 68, and in control subjects (n = 90, and ii to check for regional differences of hydrophobicity in the gastro-intestinal tract. Methods Hydrophobicity was assessed by measurement of contact angle (CA (Rame Hart 100/10 goniometer generated by a drop of water placed on intestinal mucosal biopsies. Results CA (mean ± SD of distal duodenum was significantly lower in CD patients (56° ± 10° than in control subjects (69° ± 9°, p corpus > rectum > duodenum > oesophagus > ileum. Conclusions We conclude that the hydrophobicity of duodenal mucous layer is reduced in CD patients, and that the resulting decreased capacity to repel luminal contents may contribute to the increased intestinal permeability of CD. This alteration mirrors the severity of the mucosal lesions and is not completely reverted by gluten-free diet. Intestinal hydrophobicity exhibits regional differences in the human intestinal tract.

  1. Osteoporosis reversibility in a patient with celiac disease and primary autoimmune hypothyroidism on gluten free diet--a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovačev-Zavišić, Branka; Ičin, Tijana; Novaković-Paro, Jovanka; Medić-Stojanoska, Milica; Bajkin, Ivana

    2015-01-01

    Secondary osteoporosis occurs in many diseases. Celiac disease-induced osteoporosis is the consequence of secondary hyperparathyroidism. Biochemical bone markers show predominance of bone resorption, thus making the bisphosphonates the first line therapy option. Intestinal mucosal changes are reversible on gluten-free diet. Osteoporosis reversibility is also possible, provided postmenopausal osteoporosis risk factors independent from celiac disease are not present. We presented a postmenopausal woman with at least a 10-year history of celiac disease prior to diagnosis, which had overt secondary hyperparathyroidism with insufficient status of vitamin D and a significant bone mass reduction. At the time of diagnosis of celiac disease the patient was receiving 250 μg of levothyroxine daily without achieving optimal substitution. Three years after the initiation of gluten-free diet the patient was without any signs and symptoms of the disease. All laboratory findings were within normal range. It was decided to treat the underlying disease and to supplement calcium and vitamin D without the initiation of bisphosponate therapy. Osteoporosis regression justified this therapeutic approach. The presence of primary autoimmune hypothyroidism makes this case specific, since the inability for optimal substitution therapy with a high daily dose of levothyroxine provoked the suspicion of celiac disease.

  2. Osteoporosis reversibility in a patient with celiac disease and primary autoimmune hypothyroidism on gluten free diet: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačev-Zavišić Branka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Secondary osteoporosis occurs in many diseases. Celiac disease-induced osteoporosis is the consequence of secondary hyperparathyroidism. Biochemical bone markers show predominance of bone resorption, thus making the bisphosphonates the first line therapy option. Intestinal mucosal changes are reversible on gluten-free diet. Osteoporosis reversibility is also possible, provided postmenopausal osteoporosis risk factors independent from celiac disease are not present. Case report. We presented a postmenopausal woman with at least a 10-year history of celiac disease prior to diagnosis, which had overt secondary hyperparathyroidism with insufficient status of vitamin D and a significant bone mass reduction. At the time of diagnosis of celiac disease the patient was receiving 250 g of levothyroxine daily without achieving optimal substitution. Three years after the initiation of gluten-free diet the patient was without any signs and symptoms of the disease. All laboratory findings were within normal range. It was decided to treat the underlying disease and to supplement calcium and vitamin D without the initiation of bisphosponate therapy. Conclusion. Osteoporosis regression justified this therapeutic approach. The presence of primary autoimmune hypothyroidism makes this case specific, since the inability for optimal substitution therapy with a high daily dose of levothyroxine provoked the suspicion of celiac disease.

  3. The Role of Celiac Disease in Severity of Liver Disorders and Effect of a Gluten Free Diet on Diseases Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami-Nejad, Mohammad; Haldane, Thea; AlDulaimi, David; Alavian, Seyed Moayed; Zali, Mohammad Reza; Rostami, Kamran

    2013-01-01

    Context Celiac disease (CD) is defined as a permanent intolerance to ingested gluten. The intolerance to gluten results in immune-mediated damage of small intestine mucosa manifested by villous atrophy and crypt hyperplasia. These abnormalities resolve with initiationa gluten-free diet. Evidence Acquisition PubMed, Ovid, and Google were searched for full text articles published between 1963 and 2012. The associated keywords were used, and papers described particularly the impact of celiac disease on severity of liver disorder were identified. Results Recently evidence has emerged revealingthat celiac disease not only is associated with small intestine abnormalities and malabsorption, but is also a multisystem disorder affecting other systems outside gastrointestinal tract, including musculo-skeletal, cardiovascular and nervous systems. Some correlations have been assumed between celiac and liver diseases. In particular, celiac disease is associated with changes in liver biochemistry and linked to alter the prognosis of other disorders. This review will concentrate on the effect of celiac disease and gluten-free diets on the severity of liver disorders. Conclusions Although GFD effect on the progression of CD associated liver diseases is not well defined, it seems that GFD improves liver function tests in patients with a hypertransaminasemia. PMID:24348636

  4. The association between semaphorin 3A levels and gluten-free diet in patients with celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel, Aharon; Lin, Chen; Vadasz, Zahava; Peri, Regina; Eiza, Nasren; Berkowitz, Drora

    2017-11-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is an inflammatory disease affecting the small intestine. We aim to assess serum level and expression of semaphorin 3A (Sema3A) on T regulatory (Treg) cells in CD patients. Twenty-six newly diagnosed celiac patients, 13 celiac patients on a gluten-free diet and 16 healthy controls included in the study. Sema3A protein level in the serum of celiac patients was significantly higher compared to healthy group (7.17±1.8ng/ml vs. 5.67±1.5ng/ml, p=0.012). Sema3A expression on Treg cells was statistically lower in celiac patients compared to healthy subjects (p=0.009) and significantly lower in celiac patients compared to celiac patients on gluten free diet (p=0.04). Negative correlation was found between Sema3A on Teg cells and the level of IgA anti-tTG antibodies (r=-0.346, p<0.01) and anti-DGP (r=-0.448, p<0.01). This study suggests involvement of the Sema3A in the pathogenesis of CD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies and EEG pattern in celiac patients on prolonged gluten-free diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Berio

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Authors investigate the relationship between serum anti-tTG antibodies and EEG pattern in 12 celiac patients of various age on gluten-free diet for 1-10 years. In a group of 6 patients with good compliance with the diet, anti-tTG antibodies were normal in all and EEG in 5; in another group of 6 patients with poor compliance with the diet, serum anti-tTG antibodies were raised in all; EEG abnormalities of various gravity were reported in 5 patients. The concomitance of raised anti-tTG antibodies and EEG abnormalities is stressed, as possible expression of an immune-inflammatory reaction persistent in Central Nervous System.

  6. Early elevation of albumin excretion rate is associated with poor gluten-free diet adherence in young people with coeliac disease and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham-Short, A; C Donaghue, K; Ambler, G; K Chan, A; Hing, S; Cusumano, J; E Craig, M

    2014-02-01

    There are conflicting data on microvascular complications in coexisting Type 1 diabetes and coeliac disease. We compared complications rates in youth with or without coeliac disease and examined the association between gluten-free diet adherence and complications. This was a comparative study of adolescents (2510 without coeliac disease, 129 with coeliac disease); 60 (47%) did not adhere to a gluten-free diet--defined as elevated anti-tissue transglutaminase or endomysial immunoglobulin A titres. Retinopathy was detected using 7-field fundal photography and albumin excretion rate by timed overnight urine collections, with early elevation defined as albumin excretion rate ≥ 7.5 μg/min. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between complications and explanatory variables, including coeliac disease vs. no coeliac disease, gluten-free diet adherence vs. non-adherence, diabetes duration and HbA1c . Median age at last assessment was 16.5 years. Those with coeliac disease vs. those without were younger at diabetes diagnosis (7.1 vs. 8.6 years, P coeliac disease vs. those without (67 vs. 70 mmol/mol, 8.3 vs. 8.6%, P = 0.04) and adherence to a gluten-free diet vs. non-adherence (66 vs. 72 mmol/mol, 8.2 vs. 8.7%, P = 0.003). There were no differences in complication rates between those with coeliac disease vs. those without (retinopathy 22 vs. 23%, elevated albumin excretion rate 31 vs. 28%). Non-adherence to a gluten-free diet was associated with elevated albumin excretion rate (40 vs. 23%, P = 0.04). In multivariable logistic regression, elevated albumin excretion rate was associated with non-adherence to a gluten-free diet (odds ratio 2.37, 95% CI 1.04-5.40, P = 0.04) and diabetes duration (odds ratio 1.13, 95% CI 1.02-1.25, P = 0.03), but not HbA1c . While glycaemic control is better in patients with coeliac disease, non-adherence to a gluten-free diet is associated with elevated albumin excretion rate. The possible protection of a gluten-free diet

  7. Accumulation of Heavy Metals in People on a Gluten-Free Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raehsler, Stephanie L; Choung, Rok Seon; Marietta, Eric V; Murray, Joseph A

    2018-02-01

    Specific foods such as fish and rice have high concentrations of metals such as arsenic, mercury, lead, cadmium, and cobalt. Many gluten-free diets (GFDs) include these foods, so we evaluated whether a GFD was associated with increased metal bioaccumulation. We performed a population-based, cross-sectional study using data collected from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), from 2009 through 2012, collecting information on the diagnosis of celiac disease and adherence to a GFD. We tested NHANES blood samples to identify individuals with undiagnosed celiac disease, using assays for immunoglobulin A tissue transglutaminase followed by a confirmatory test for endomysial antibody. Among a total of 11,354 NHANES participants, celiac disease was diagnosed in 55 participants, based on test results or a reported clinical diagnosis. We collected NHANES survey data on blood levels of lead, mercury, and cadmium from subjects who were on a GFD (n = 115) and participants who were not on a GFD (n = 11,239). Levels of total arsenic in urine samples were available from 3901 subjects not following a GFD and 32 individuals following a GFD. NHANES participants were asked questions about fish and shellfish consumption. We performed multivariate logistic regression analyses to associate gluten-related conditions with blood concentrations of mercury, cadmium, and lead and urine concentration of total arsenic, adjusting for demographic characteristics, as well as for rice consumption or seafood intake. Geometric means were reported for urinary concentrations of total arsenic and blood concentrations of mercury, cadmium, and lead for demographic groups and subjects with gluten-related conditions (subjects without celiac disease who avoid gluten). Persons following a GFD had significantly increased total blood mercury levels (1.37 mcg/L) compared with persons not on a GFD (0.93 mcg/L) (P = .008), as well as increased blood levels of lead (1.42 vs 1.13 mcg/L; P

  8. Gluten-free diet may alleviate depressive and behavioural symptoms in adolescents with coeliac disease: a prospective follow-up case-series study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sipilä Ilkka

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coeliac disease in adolescents has been associated with an increased prevalence of depressive and disruptive behavioural disorders, particularly in the phase before diet treatment. We studied the possible effects of a gluten-free diet on psychiatric symptoms, on hormonal status (prolactin, thyroidal function and on large neutral amino acid serum concentrations in adolescents with coeliac disease commencing a gluten-free diet. Methods Nine adolescents with celiac disease, aged 12 to 16 years, were assessed using the semi-structured K-SADS-Present and Lifetime Diagnostic interview and several symptom scales. Seven of them were followed at 1 to 2, 3, and 6 months on a gluten-free diet. Results Adolescent coeliac disease patients with depression had significantly lower pre-diet tryptophan/ competing amino-acid (CAA ratios and free tryptophan concentrations, and significantly higher biopsy morning prolactin levels compared to those without depression. A significant decrease in psychiatric symptoms was found at 3 months on a gluten-free diet compared to patients' baseline condition, coinciding with significantly decreased coeliac disease activity and prolactin levels and with a significant increase in serum concentrations of CAAs. Conclusion Although our results of the amino acid analysis and prolactin levels in adolescents are only preliminary, they give support to previous findings on patients with coeliac disease, suggesting that serotonergic dysfunction due to impaired availability of tryptophan may play a role in vulnerability to depressive and behavioural disorders also among adolescents with untreated coeliac disease.

  9. Effects of a Gluten-Free Diet on Rate of Learning in Autistic Children in an Applied Behavioral Analysis Program: Summary Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontino, Jamie Lyn; Schaal, Kelly; Chambliss, Catherine

    This summary analysis discusses a series of studies that used both between-subjects and within-subjects analyses to examine the effects of a gluten-free diet on the academic achievement of children with autism. In the first study, the between-subjects analysis included data from eight children with autism (ages 5-7), with four on a gluten-free…

  10. Clinical benefit of a gluten-free diet in type 1 diabetic children with screening-detected celiac disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Dorte; Brock-Jacobsen, Bendt; Lund, Elisabeth

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study was performed to 1) determine the prevalence of celiac disease in Danish children with type 1 diabetes and 2) estimate the clinical effects of a gluten-free diet (GFD) in patients with diabetes and celiac disease. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In a region comprising 24......% of the Danish population, all patients diabetes were identified and 269 (89%) were included in the study. The diagnosis of celiac disease was suspected in patients with endomysium and tissue transglutaminase antibodies in serum and confirmed by intestinal biopsy. Patients with celiac...... a lower SD score (SDS) for height (P diabetes onset (P = 0.041). A GFD was obtained in 31 of 33 patients. After 2 years of follow-up, there was an increase in weight SDS (P = 0.006) and in children

  11. Bone Mineral Density at Diagnosis of Celiac Disease and after 1 Year of Gluten-Free Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Pantaleoni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Atypical or silent celiac disease may go undiagnosed for many years and can frequently lead to loss of bone mineral density, with evolution to osteopenia or osteoporosis. The prevalence of the latter conditions, in case of new diagnosis of celiac disease, has been evaluated in many studies but, due to the variability of epidemiologic data and patient features, the results are contradictory. The aim of this study was to evaluate bone mineral density by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in 175 consecutive celiac patients at time of diagnosis (169 per-protocol, 23 males, 146 females; average age 38.9 years. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was repeated after 1 year of gluten-free diet in those with T-score value 30 years, taking into account each risk factor in single patients.

  12. Human leukocyte antigen genetics and clinical features of self-treated patients on a gluten-free diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coburn, John A; Vande Voort, Jennifer L; Lahr, Brian D; Van Dyke, Carol T; Kroning, Cynthia M; Wu, Tsung-Teh; Gandhi, Manish J; Murray, Joseph A

    2013-01-01

    Increasingly, people start a gluten-free diet (GFD) without a clear celiac disease (CD) diagnosis. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotyping is useful in ruling out CD in patients with equivocal results of serologic testing or small-bowel biopsy (SBB), but its utility and the clinical features of patients on self-treated GFD (ST-GFD) are largely unknown. Retrospective study of single tertiary care center cohort compared 137 patients on ST-GFD and 443 patients with well-defined CD. We compared HLA genotype, symptoms, serologic and SBB results, and response to GFD between the 2 groups. Analysis used univariate logistic regression modeling, adjusted for age and sex. Patients with ST-GFD presented more often with diarrhea (Pgluten sensitivity may play a role.

  13. Gluten-free but also gluten-enriched (gluten+) diet prevent diabetes in NOD mice; the gluten enigma in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funda, D.P.; Kaas, A.; Tlaskalova-Hogenova, H.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Environmental factors such as nutrition or exposure to infections play a substantial role in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes (T1D). We have previously shown that gluten-free, non-purified diet largely prevented diabetes in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. In this study we tested...... hypothesis that early introduction of gluten-enriched (gluten+) diet may increase diabetes incidence in NOD mice. METHODS: Standard, gluten-free, gluten+ modified Altromin diets and hydrolysed-casein-based Pregestimil diet were fed to NOD females and diabetes incidence was followed for 310 days. Insulitis...... score and numbers of gut mucosal lymphocytes were determined in non-diabetic animals. RESULTS: A significantly lower diabetes incidence (p diet (5.9%, n = 34) and Pregestimil diet (10%, n = 30) compared to mice on the standard Altromin diet (60.6%, n...

  14. Effect of gluten-free diet on the growth and nutritional status of children with coeliac disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radlović Nedeljko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Gluten-free diet (GFD presents the basis of coeliac disease (CD treatment. If strictly applied, the disorders of the small bowel mucosa and other disease signs rapidly resolve. Objective. The goal of the study was to evaluate the effect of GFD on the growth and nutritional status of children with the classical form of CD. In addition, we analyzed the differences between these parameters with the duration and the patients' compliance with GFD. Methods. The study goals were achieved on a sample of 90 children, 56 female and 34 male, aged 0.5-7.5 (1.53±1.05 years, with the classic CD diagnosed on the basis of typical pathohistological findings of the small bowel mucosa and clinical recovery of patients on GFD. The duration of the patients' follow-up was 1.08-8.75 (3.03±1.14 years, i.e. until the age of 2.5-15 (4.59±1.78 years. The initial and control values of body height (BH in relation to matched values for age and gender were expressed in percentiles, while the deviation in body weight (BW for the matched values of height and gender was expressed in percentages. The referent haemoglobin (Hb rate in blood, as a laboratory indicator of nutritional status in children aged up to 5 years was ≥110 g/L, and for those aged above 5 years it was ≥115 g/L. Compliance with GFD was based on the pathohistological findings of the small bowel mucosa or determination of tissue transglutaminase. Results. Over the studied period, the effect of GFD was highly significant, both on the increase of BH percentiles (37.62±26.26 vs. 57.22±25.29; p<0.001, and on the decrease of BW deficit 11.58±10.80 vs. 0.89±8.194; p<0.001. After the treatment period, none of the children showed slowed growth rate or BW deficit above 20%, while BW deviation ranging between 10-20% in relation to the referent values was registered in 17 (18.19% and the excess of over 20% in 2 patients. In 86 (95.56% patients, control Hb values in blood were normal, while mild

  15. Self-Reported Prevalence of Symptomatic Adverse Reactions to Gluten and Adherence to Gluten-Free Diet in an Adult Mexican Population

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    Noe Ontiveros

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of symptomatic adverse reactions to gluten and adherence to gluten-free diet in Latin American countries is unknown. These measurements are strongly linked to gluten-related disorders. This work aimed to estimate the prevalence of adverse reactions to oral gluten and the adherence to gluten-free diet in the adult Mexican population. To reach this aim, a self-administered questionnaire was designed and tested for clarity/comprehension and reproducibility. Then, a self-administered questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was conducted in the Mexican population. The estimated prevalence rates were (95% CI: 11.9% (9.9–13.5 and 7.8 (6.4–9.4 for adverse and recurrent adverse reactions to gluten respectively; adherence to gluten-free diet 3.7% (2.7–4.8, wheat allergy 0.72% (0.38–1.37; celiac disease 0.08% (0.01–0.45, and NCGS 0.97% (0.55–1.68. Estimated pooled prevalence of self-reported physician-diagnosis of gluten-related disorders was 0.88% (0.49–1.5, and 93.3% respondents reported adherence to gluten-free diet without a physician-diagnosis of gluten-related disorders. Symptom comparisons between those who reported recurrent adverse reactions to gluten and other foods showed statistically significant differences for bloating, constipation, and tiredness (p < 0.05. Gluten-related disorders may be underdiagnosed in the Mexican population and most people adhering to a gluten-free diet are doing it without proper diagnostic work-up of these disorders, and probably without medical/dietician advice.

  16. Self-Reported Prevalence of Symptomatic Adverse Reactions to Gluten and Adherence to Gluten-Free Diet in an Adult Mexican Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ontiveros, Noe; López-Gallardo, Jesús A; Vergara-Jiménez, Marcela J; Cabrera-Chávez, Francisco

    2015-07-21

    The prevalence of symptomatic adverse reactions to gluten and adherence to gluten-free diet in Latin American countries is unknown. These measurements are strongly linked to gluten-related disorders. This work aimed to estimate the prevalence of adverse reactions to oral gluten and the adherence to gluten-free diet in the adult Mexican population. To reach this aim, a self-administered questionnaire was designed and tested for clarity/comprehension and reproducibility. Then, a self-administered questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was conducted in the Mexican population. The estimated prevalence rates were (95% CI): 11.9% (9.9-13.5) and 7.8 (6.4-9.4) for adverse and recurrent adverse reactions to gluten respectively; adherence to gluten-free diet 3.7% (2.7-4.8), wheat allergy 0.72% (0.38-1.37); celiac disease 0.08% (0.01-0.45), and NCGS 0.97% (0.55-1.68). Estimated pooled prevalence of self-reported physician-diagnosis of gluten-related disorders was 0.88% (0.49-1.5), and 93.3% respondents reported adherence to gluten-free diet without a physician-diagnosis of gluten-related disorders. Symptom comparisons between those who reported recurrent adverse reactions to gluten and other foods showed statistically significant differences for bloating, constipation, and tiredness (p Gluten-related disorders may be underdiagnosed in the Mexican population and most people adhering to a gluten-free diet are doing it without proper diagnostic work-up of these disorders, and probably without medical/dietician advice.

  17. Functionality of alternative protein in gluten-free product development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deora, Navneet Singh; Deswal, Aastha; Mishra, Hari Niwas

    2015-07-01

    Celiac disease is an immune-mediated disease triggered in genetically susceptible individuals by ingested gluten from wheat, rye, barley, and other closely related cereal grains. The current treatment for celiac disease is life-long adherence to a strict gluten-exclusion diet. The replacement of gluten presents a significant technological challenge, as it is an essential structure-building protein, which is necessary for formulating high-quality baked goods. A major limitation in the production of gluten-free products is the lack of protein functionality in non-wheat cereals. Additionally, commercial gluten-free mixes usually contain only carbohydrates, which may significantly limit the amount of protein in the diet. In the recent past, various approaches are attempted to incorporate protein-based ingredients and to modify the functional properties for gluten-free product development. This review aims to the highlight functionality of the alternative protein-based ingredients, which can be utilized for gluten-free product development both functionally as well as nutritionally. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Assessing Nutritional Quality and Adherence to the Gluten-free Diet in Children and Adolescents with Celiac Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzaben, Abeer S; Turner, Justine; Shirton, Leanne; Samuel, Tarah M; Persad, Rabin; Mager, Diana

    2015-06-01

    Little is known regarding nutritional adequacy of the gluten free diet (GFD) in children and adolescents with celiac disease (CD). The study aim was to examine macro- and micronutrient intake in children with CD. A cross-sectional study was conducted in children and adolescents (4-18 years of age) with CD (n = 32) and healthy controls (n = 32). Macro- and micronutrient intake, and glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) intake was assessed using validated measures. Diet quality was assessed using the Canadian Healthy Eating Index (HEI-C) and the Alberta Nutrition Guidelines. Values are shown as mean ± SE. Age (10.4 ± 0.7 years vs 8.7 ± 0.7 years; P = 0.06), weight-for-age z score (P = 0.27), and height-for-age z score (P = 0.23) were not different between groups. CD children consumed more fibre (15.9 ± 1.2 g per day(CD) vs 10.8 ± 0.8 g per day (controls); P 80) were observed between groups (P > 0.05). Children with CD had high intakes of fibre, GI, and GL and lower intakes of folate. This has implications for dietary counselling in this population.

  19. Frequency and Cause of Persistent Symptoms in Celiac Disease Patients on a Long-term Gluten-free Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasi, Elisa; Marafini, Irene; Caruso, Roberta; Soderino, Federica; Angelucci, Erika; Del Vecchio Blanco, Giovanna; Paoluzi, Omero A; Calabrese, Emma; Sedda, Silvia; Zorzi, Francesca; Pallone, Francesco; Monteleone, Giovanni

    2016-03-01

    To estimate the frequency and cause of nonresponsive celiac disease (CD). Treatment of CD is based on life-long adherence to a gluten-free diet (GFD). Some celiac patients experience persistence of symptoms despite a GFD. This condition is defined as nonresponsive CD. Celiac patients on a GFD for at least 12 months underwent diet compliance assessment, laboratory tests, breath tests, endoscopic, and histologic evaluations according to the symptoms/signs reported. Seventy of 321 (21.8%) patients had persistent or recurrent symptoms/signs. The cause of symptom persistence was evaluated in 56 of 70 patients. Thirteen of 56 (23%) patients were antiendomysial antibody positive. Among the patients with negative serology, 1 had fibromyalgia, and 3 had evidence that disproved the diagnosis of CD. The remaining 39 patients with negative serology underwent duodenal biopsy sampling, which evidenced histologic alterations in 24 patients. Among the 15 patients with normal histology 3 were lactose intolerant, 9 had irritable bowel syndrome, 2 had gastroesophageal reflux disease, and in 1 patient a cause for the persistent symptom was not identified. In patients with confirmed diagnosis of CD, exposure to dietary gluten was the main cause of persistence of symptoms/signs, and consistently after dietary modification, symptoms resolved in 63% of the patients at later time points during follow-up. Nonresponsive CD occurs in nearly one fifth of celiac patients on GFD and its occurrence suggests further investigations to optimize the management of celiac patients.

  20. Nutritional therapy - Facing the gap between coeliac disease and gluten-free food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foschia, Martina; Horstmann, Stefan; Arendt, Elke K; Zannini, Emanuele

    2016-12-19

    The market of gluten-free bakery products is considerably growing since better diagnostic methods allow identifying an increasing number of people suffering coeliac disease and other gluten-related disorders such as dermatitis herpetiformis, gluten ataxia, wheat allergy and non-coeliac gluten sensitivity. The only and safe treatment available nowadays for these types of disorders is to follow a strict and permanent lifelong gluten-free diet. Beside the people needing to follow a gluten-free diet for health reasons, a new segment of consumers has arisen who consume gluten-free products as a lifestyle choice. Among the bakery products, bread is a major staple food consumed daily all over the world. The dough and bread quality characteristics (such as gas retaining ability, mixing tolerance, resistance to stretch and extensibility and crumb structure) are mostly attributed to the presence of gluten. Despite the improved quality of gluten-free breads in the last number of years, most products on the market are still described as low quality product. In addition to the low overall quality of gluten-free products, the nutritional value of a large number of them is quite poor. In this context, this review gives an overview on the consumers, which need to follow a gluten-free diet for health reasons. The trends in this gluten-free bakery segment will also be reviewed based on the current analysis of marketing studies. An overview of the major ingredients used in gluten-free bread products will be given. The choice of the ingredients discussed in this paper is based on a comprehensive study of the leading gluten-free breads available on the market, as well as a detailed study of the scientific literature. The impact of the various ingredients on bread-making process and bread quality is also part of this review. Major emphasis will be placed on the application of sourdough as a means to improve gluten-free bread quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Administration of Inulin-Supplemented Gluten-Free Diet Modified Calcium Absorption and Caecal Microbiota in Rats in a Calcium-Dependent Manner

    OpenAIRE

    Krupa-Kozak, Urszula; Markiewicz, Lidia H.; Lamparski, Grzegorz; Ju?kiewicz, Jerzy

    2017-01-01

    In coeliac disease (CD), the risk of adverse calcium balance and reduced bone density is induced mainly by the disease, but also by a gluten-free diet (GFD), the only accepted CD therapy. Prebiotics through the beneficial impact on intestinal microbiota may stimulate calcium (Ca) absorption. In the present study, we hypothesised that the dietary inulin in GFD would influence positively the intestinal microbiota, and by that will stimulate the absorption of calcium (Ca), especially in the cond...

  2. A comparison of antibody testing, permeability testing, and zonulin levels with small-bowel biopsy in celiac disease patients on a gluten-free diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerksen, D R; Wilhelm-Boyles, C; Veitch, R; Kryszak, D; Parry, D M

    2010-04-01

    Active celiac disease is associated with positive endomysial (EMA) and tissue transglutaminase (TTG) antibodies, elevated zonulin levels, and increased intestinal permeability. There is little known about what happens to these immunologic and structural abnormalities in patients on a gluten-free diet and their correlation with small-bowel biopsy changes. Adult patients previously diagnosed with celiac disease and on a gluten-free diet for greater than 1 year were considered for the study. All patients underwent the following: measurement of EMA and TTG antibodies, serum zonulin levels, intestinal permeability (IP) testing with lactulose/mannitol ratios, food diary analysis for gluten ingestion and small- bowel biopsy. A total of 21 patients on a gluten-free diet for a mean of 9.7 years completed the study. There were ten patients who had normalization of intestinal biopsies, IP and TTG, and EM antibodies. Six patients had Marsh type 2 or 3 lesions and all had either abnormal IP (5/6) or TTG antibody (4/6). In patients with Marsh type 3 lesions, there was a correlation between IP and zonulin levels. A subgroup of patients with celiac disease on a gluten-free diet has complete normalization of intestinal biopsies, intestinal permeability defects, and antibody levels. Patients with Marsh type 3 lesions have abnormal TTG antibodies and intestinal permeability with zonulin levels that correlate with IP. These abnormalities may be due to continued gluten ingestion. Further study is needed to determine the clinical utility of TTG antibodies and IP testing in following patients with celiac disease.

  3. Osteogenesis Imperfecta with Celiac Disease and Type II Diabetes Mellitus Associated: Improvement with a Gluten-Free Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Rodrigo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI is a genetic disease, with a connective tissue alteration, consisting in the presence of multiple spontaneous fractures or after minimal traumatism. Its association with other metabolic processes is rarely described. We present the clinical case of a female adult patient of 43 years. From her infancy, she has had multiple fractures, needing several surgical interventions, and she was diagnosed of OI type 2 at adolescence age. Due mainly to difficulties in walking remaining in wheel-chair in the last three years, she was overweight with morbid obesity (BMI=45.4 and had a type-II DM associated. She suffered from recurrent abdominal pain and chronic diarrhea and was diagnosed of celiac disease (CD with increased intraepithelial duodenal infiltration, being classified as lymphocytic enteritis, Marsh I type. She was put on a gluten-free diet (GFD, having lost 6 kg of weight after 6 months, with a good control of DM-II and presenting a significant clinical improvement. It is rewarding to search the presence of two coincidental metabolic diseases associated to OI, specially CD, because of the dramatic clinical benefit in the general found after putting on a GFD.

  4. Osteogenesis Imperfecta with Celiac Disease and Type II Diabetes Mellitus Associated: Improvement with a Gluten-Free Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, Luis; Pérez-Martinez, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a genetic disease, with a connective tissue alteration, consisting in the presence of multiple spontaneous fractures or after minimal traumatism. Its association with other metabolic processes is rarely described. We present the clinical case of a female adult patient of 43 years. From her infancy, she has had multiple fractures, needing several surgical interventions, and she was diagnosed of OI type 2 at adolescence age. Due mainly to difficulties in walking remaining in wheel-chair in the last three years, she was overweight with morbid obesity (BMI = 45.4) and had a type-II DM associated. She suffered from recurrent abdominal pain and chronic diarrhea and was diagnosed of celiac disease (CD) with increased intraepithelial duodenal infiltration, being classified as lymphocytic enteritis, Marsh I type. She was put on a gluten-free diet (GFD), having lost 6 kg of weight after 6 months, with a good control of DM-II and presenting a significant clinical improvement. It is rewarding to search the presence of two coincidental metabolic diseases associated to OI, specially CD, because of the dramatic clinical benefit in the general found after putting on a GFD. PMID:22481956

  5. Reduced-Gliadin Wheat Bread: An Alternative to the Gluten-Free Diet for Consumers Suffering Gluten-Related Pathologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Humanes, Javier; Pistón, Fernando; Altamirano-Fortoul, Rossana; Real, Ana; Comino, Isabel; Sousa, Carolina; Rosell, Cristina M.; Barro, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Wheat flour cannot be tolerated by those who suffer allergies to gluten. Human pathologies associated with grain proteins have increased worldwide in recent years, and the only effective treatment available is a lifelong gluten-free diet, which is complicated to follow and detrimental to gut health. This manuscript describes the development of wheat bread potentially suitable for celiac patients and other gluten-intolerant individuals. We have made bread using wheat flour with very low content of the specific gluten proteins (near gliadin-free) that are the causal agents for pathologies such as celiac disease. Loaves were compared with normal wheat breads and rice bread. Organoleptic, nutritional, and immunotoxic properties were studied. The reduced-gliadin breads showed baking and sensory properties, and overall acceptance, similar to those of normal flour, but with up to 97% lower gliadin content. Moreover, the low-gliadin flour has improved nutritional properties since its lysine content is significantly higher than that of normal flour. Conservative estimates indicate that celiac patients could safely consume 67 grams of bread per day that is made with low-gliadin flour. However, additional studies, such as feeding trials with gluten-intolerant patients, are still needed in order to determine whether or not the product can be consumed by the general celiac population, as well as the actual tolerated amount that can be safely ingested. The results presented here offer a major opportunity to improve the quality of life for millions of sufferers of gluten intolerance throughout the world. PMID:24621595

  6. Effect of Bifidobacterium breve on the Intestinal Microbiota of Coeliac Children on a Gluten Free Diet: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Quagliariello

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Coeliac disease (CD is associated with alterations of the intestinal microbiota. Although several Bifidobacterium strains showed anti-inflammatory activity and prevention of toxic gliadin peptides generation in vitro, few data are available on their efficacy when administered to CD subjects. This study evaluated the effect of administration for three months of a food supplement based on two Bifidobacterium breve strains (B632 and BR03 to restore the gut microbial balance in coeliac children on a gluten free diet (GFD. Microbial DNA was extracted from faeces of 40 coeliac children before and after probiotic or placebo administration and 16 healthy children (Control group. Sequencing of the amplified V3-V4 hypervariable region of 16S rRNA gene as well as qPCR of Bidobacterium spp., Lactobacillus spp., Bacteroides fragilis group Clostridium sensu stricto and enterobacteria were performed. The comparison between CD subjects and Control group revealed an alteration in the intestinal microbial composition of coeliacs mainly characterized by a reduction of the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio, of Actinobacteria and Euryarchaeota. Regarding the effects of the probiotic, an increase of Actinobacteria was found as well as a re-establishment of the physiological Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio. Therefore, a three-month administration of B. breve strains helps in restoring the healthy percentage of main microbial components.

  7. Decrease in lactobacilli in the intestinal microbiota of celiac children with a gluten-free diet, and selection of potentially probiotic strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo Pisarello, María J; Vintiñi, Elisa O; González, Silvia N; Pagani, Florencia; Medina, Marcela S

    2015-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota would be implicated in pathology associated with celiac disease caused by an abnormal immune system reaction against gluten present in cereal grains. The objectives of this work were to detect through basic methods the changes in the composition of the most common genera of bacteria from the intestinal microbiota of symptom-free celiac disease children with a gluten-free diet compared with healthy children from Tucumán and to select lactobacilli (Lb) strains with probiotic potential from the feces of healthy children. Results demonstrated that the feces of celiac children with a gluten-free diet showed significantly lower counts of Lb (P LC4) showed the highest percentage of autoaggregation while Lactobacillus paracasei (LC9) showed high hydrophobicity. Based on these results, LC4 and LC9 were selected, and their use as potential probiotic strains to improve signs and symptoms associated with celiac disease is discussed. This is the first study performed in Argentina concerning the relationship between intestinal microbiota and celiac disease in celiac children with a gluten-free diet. In addition, the development of a probiotic food addressed towards celiac patients and designed with Lb isolated from the feces of healthy children from our province represents a promising alternative to improve the quality of life of celiac patients.

  8. Altered duodenal microbiota composition in celiac disease patients suffering from persistent symptoms on a long-term gluten-free diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacklin, Pirjo; Laurikka, Pilvi; Lindfors, Katri; Collin, Pekka; Salmi, Teea; Lähdeaho, Marja-Leena; Saavalainen, Päivi; Mäki, Markku; Mättö, Jaana; Kurppa, Kalle; Kaukinen, Katri

    2014-12-01

    A significant fraction of celiac disease patients suffer from persistent symptoms despite a long-term gluten-free diet (GFD) and normalized small bowel mucosa. The commonly suggested reasons, such as inadvertent gluten-intake or presence of other gastrointestinal disease, do not explain the symptoms in all these patients. Recently, alterations in intestinal microbiota have been associated with autoimmune disorders, including celiac disease. This led us to test a hypothesis that abnormal intestinal microbiota may be associated with persisting gastrointestinal symptoms in treated celiac disease patients. Duodenal microbiota was analyzed in 18 GFD-treated patients suffering from persistent symptoms and 18 treated patients without symptoms by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. The celiac disease patients had been following a strict GFD for several years and had restored small bowel mucosa and negative celiac autoantibodies. Their symptoms on GFD were assessed with Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale. The results of several clustering methods showed that the treated celiac disease patients with persistent symptoms were colonized by different duodenal microbiota in comparison with patients without symptoms. The treated patients with persistent symptoms had a higher relative abundance of Proteobacteria (P=0.04) and a lower abundance of Bacteroidetes (P=0.01) and Firmicutes (P=0.05). Moreover, their microbial richness was reduced. The results indicated intestinal dysbiosis in patients with persistent symptoms even while adhering to a strict GFD. Our findings indicate that dysbiosis of microbiota is associated with persistent gastrointestinal symptoms in treated celiac disease patients and open new possibilities to treat this subgroup of patients.

  9. Evaluation of commercial gluten-free foods from the Brazilian market

    Science.gov (United States)

    In addition to Celiac Disease, there are other gluten related disorders classified according to immunological response, e.g. autoimmune, allergic and sensitivity (non-autoimmune and non-allergic). In all cases, the only effective therapy is strict adherence to a gluten free diet, which consists of a...

  10. Fecal Gluten Peptides Reveal Limitations of Serological Tests and Food Questionnaires for Monitoring Gluten-Free Diet in Celiac Disease Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comino, Isabel; Fernández-Bañares, Fernando; Esteve, María; Ortigosa, Luís; Castillejo, Gemma; Fambuena, Blanca; Ribes-Koninckx, Carmen; Sierra, Carlos; Rodríguez-Herrera, Alfonso; Salazar, José Carlos; Caunedo, Ángel; Marugán-Miguelsanz, J M; Garrote, José Antonio; Vivas, Santiago; lo Iacono, Oreste; Nuñez, Alejandro; Vaquero, Luis; Vegas, Ana María; Crespo, Laura; Fernández-Salazar, Luis; Arranz, Eduardo; Jiménez-García, Victoria Alejandra; Antonio Montes-Cano, Marco; Espín, Beatriz; Galera, Ana; Valverde, Justo; Girón, Francisco José; Bolonio, Miguel; Millán, Antonio; Cerezo, Francesc Martínez; Guajardo, César; Alberto, José Ramón; Rosinach, Mercé; Segura, Verónica; León, Francisco; Marinich, Jorge; Muñoz-Suano, Alba; Romero-Gómez, Manuel; Cebolla, Ángel; Sousa, Carolina

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Treatment for celiac disease (CD) is a lifelong strict gluten-free diet (GFD). Patients should be followed-up with dietary interviews and serology as CD markers to ensure adherence to the diet. However, none of these methods offer an accurate measure of dietary compliance. Our aim was to evaluate the measurement of gluten immunogenic peptides (GIP) in stools as a marker of GFD adherence in CD patients and compare it with traditional methods of GFD monitoring. Methods: We performed a prospective, nonrandomized, multicenter study including 188 CD patients on GFD and 84 healthy controls. Subjects were given a dietary questionnaire and fecal GIP quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Serological anti-tissue transglutaminase (anti-tTG) IgA and anti-deamidated gliadin peptide (anti-DGP) IgA antibodies were measured simultaneously. Results: Of the 188 celiac patients, 56 (29.8%) had detectable GIP levels in stools. There was significant association between age and GIP in stools that revealed increasing dietary transgressions with advancing age (39.2% in subjects ≥13 years old) and with gender in certain age groups (60% in men ≥13 years old). No association was found between fecal GIP and dietary questionnaire or anti-tTG antibodies. However, association was detected between GIP and anti-DGP antibodies, although 46 of the 53 GIP stool-positive patients were negative for anti-DGP. Conclusions: Detection of gluten peptides in stools reveals limitations of traditional methods for monitoring GFD in celiac patients. The GIP ELISA enables direct and quantitative assessment of gluten exposure early after ingestion and could aid in the diagnosis and clinical management of nonresponsive CD and refractory CD. Trial registration number NCT02711397. PMID:27644734

  11. The Gluten-Free Frenzy: Fad or Fitting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johanson, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Although the gluten-free diet has been recognized as therapeutic for individuals suffering from celiac disease, it has been promoted recently for other indications, such as autism, chronic fatigue syn- drome, and irritable bowel syndrome, or simply as a healthy dietary choice for anyone. The basics of the gluten-free diet are explored, with evidence-based indications and nursing implications when patients choose gluten-free.

  12. Calcium in Gluten-Free Life: Health-Related and Nutritional Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula Krupa-Kozak

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Calcium deficiency and metabolic bone diseases are a frequent co-morbidity of coeliac disease (CD. Gluten-free diet (GFD is the only effective treatment of CD. However, CD patients on the strict GFD consume less than the recommended amounts of calcium. In this review, the main etiological factors responsible for calcium deficiency in CD were presented. Additionally, the research on the application of calcium supplements in the gluten-free breadmaking was reviewed, and its effect on the technological and sensory properties of baked products was indicated. Calcium-fortified gluten-free products could increase the calcium content in the diet of CD patients, supplying the amount of calcium they need for prophylactic or therapeutic use. Apart from this, the consumption of the naturally GF products as well as functional ingredients beneficially affecting calcium absorption need to be encouraged.

  13. Prevalence of Self-Reported Gluten Sensitivity and Adherence to a Gluten-Free Diet in Argentinian Adult Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Chávez, Francisco; Dezar, Gimena V. A.; Islas-Zamorano, Anna P.; Espinoza-Alderete, Jesús G.; Vergara-Jiménez, Marcela J.; Magaña-Ordorica, Dalia; Ontiveros, Noé

    2017-01-01

    Background: Previous studies suggest that the prevalence of wheat/gluten sensitivity and adherence to a gluten-free diet (GFD) are high in Latin population despite a poor diagnosis of celiac disease. However, these prevalence rates still remain unknown in most Latin American countries. Methods: A cross-sectional survey study was conducted in Santa Fe, Argentina. Results: The estimated self-reported prevalence rates were (95% Confidence Interval [CI]): self-reported gluten sensitivity (SR-GS) 7.61% (6.2–9.2), SR-GS currently following a GFD 1.82% (1.2–2.7), celiac disease 0.58% (0.3–1.2), wheat allergy 0.33% (0.12–0.84), self-reported non-celiac gluten sensitivity (SR-NCGS) 6.28% (5.1–7.8), SR-NCGS currently following a GFD 0.91% (0.5–1.6), and adherence to a GFD 6.37% (5.1–7.9). SR-GS was more common in women (6.0%; p < 0.001) and associated with irritable bowel syndrome (p < 0.001). Among the GFD followers, 71.4% were doing it for reasons other than health-related benefits and 50.6% without medical/dietitian advice. In the non-SR-GS group, the main motivations for following a GFD were weight control and the perception that a GFD is healthier. Conclusion: In Argentina, gluten sensitivity is commonly reported and it seems that physicians/gastroenterologists are aware of celiac disease diagnosis. Trustable information about the benefits and potential consequences of following a GFD should be given to the general population. PMID:28117706

  14. Prevalence of Self-Reported Gluten Sensitivity and Adherence to a Gluten-Free Diet in Argentinian Adult Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Cabrera-Chávez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous studies suggest that the prevalence of wheat/gluten sensitivity and adherence to a gluten-free diet (GFD are high in Latin population despite a poor diagnosis of celiac disease. However, these prevalence rates still remain unknown in most Latin American countries. Methods: A cross-sectional survey study was conducted in Santa Fe, Argentina. Results: The estimated self-reported prevalence rates were (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: self-reported gluten sensitivity (SR-GS 7.61% (6.2–9.2, SR-GS currently following a GFD 1.82% (1.2–2.7, celiac disease 0.58% (0.3–1.2, wheat allergy 0.33% (0.12–0.84, self-reported non-celiac gluten sensitivity (SR-NCGS 6.28% (5.1–7.8, SR-NCGS currently following a GFD 0.91% (0.5–1.6, and adherence to a GFD 6.37% (5.1–7.9. SR-GS was more common in women (6.0%; p < 0.001 and associated with irritable bowel syndrome (p < 0.001. Among the GFD followers, 71.4% were doing it for reasons other than health-related benefits and 50.6% without medical/dietitian advice. In the non-SR-GS group, the main motivations for following a GFD were weight control and the perception that a GFD is healthier. Conclusion: In Argentina, gluten sensitivity is commonly reported and it seems that physicians/gastroenterologists are aware of celiac disease diagnosis. Trustable information about the benefits and potential consequences of following a GFD should be given to the general population.

  15. Coeliac disease, gluten-free diet and the development and progression of albuminuria in children with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopee, Esha; van den Oever, Eva L M; Cameron, Fergus; Thomas, Merlin C

    2013-09-01

    Although a diagnosis of coeliac disease (CD) may be confronting to children with type 1 diabetes and their families, we hypothesize that children with CD have lower urinary albumin excretion, a marker of renal dysfunction. Twenty-four children with type 1 diabetes and biopsy-proven CD, on a gluten-free diet for at least 1 yr, were recruited from a single paediatric diabetes clinic alongside 55 children with type 1 diabetes but without CD matched for age, gender, duration of diabetes, and glycaemic control. Despite comparable diabetes exposure, glycaemic control and nutritional status, children with type 1 diabetes and CD had a lower urinary albumin creatinine ratio than in diabetic subjects without CD (0.9 ± 0.3 mg/mmol vs. 1.6 ± 0.3 mg/mmol; p = 0.01). Participants with CD also showed slower progression in albuminuria over 5-yr of follow-up while a small but significant increase was observed in the children with diabetes alone (1.6 ± 0.3 mg/mmol; follow-up 2.4 ± 0.5 mg/mmol; p = 0.02). As urinary albumin excretion is continuously associated with the risk of kidney disease, it is possible to speculate that CD or its management confers a degree of renoprotection. Larger studies are required to test this hypothesis. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Vegetarian, Gluten-Free, and Energy Restricted Diets in Female Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Lynn Cialdella-Kam; Danielle Kulpins; Melinda M. Manore

    2016-01-01

    Female athletes who follow a diet that fails to meet energy and nutrient needs are at risk for musculoskeletal injuries, menstrual disturbances, and poor sports performance. Common nutritional concerns for the female athlete include low energy availability (EA) (i.e., energy intake from food remaining for metabolic processes after accounting for energy expended during exercise) and inadequate dietary intakes (i.e., not meeting sports nutrition guidelines) of carbohydrates, protein, essential ...

  17. Gluten-free diet increases beta-cell volume and improves glucose tolerance in an animal model of type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haupt-Jorgensen, Martin; Buschard, Karsten; Hansen, Axel K; Josefsen, Knud; Antvorskov, Julie Christine

    2016-10-01

    Gluten-free (GF) diet alleviates type 1 diabetes in animal models and possibly in humans. We recently showed that fatty acid-induced insulin secretion is enhanced by enzymatically digested gluten (gliadin) stimulation in INS-1E insulinoma cells. We therefore hypothesized that GF diet would induce beta-cell rest and ameliorate type 2 diabetes. C57BL/6JBomTac (B6) mice were fed a high-fat (HF), gluten-free high-fat (GF-HF), standard (STD) or gluten-free (GF) diet for 42 weeks. Short-term (6-24 weeks) GF-HF versus HF feeding impaired glucose tolerance and increased fasting glucose. Long-term (36-42 weeks) GF-HF versus HF feeding improved glucose tolerance and decreased fasting leptin. Mice fed a GF-HF versus HF diet for 42 weeks showed higher volumes of beta cells, islets and pancreas. The beta-cell volume correlated with the islet- and pancreas volume as well as body weight. GF-HF versus HF diet did not influence toll-like receptor 4 (Tlr4), interleukin 1 (IL-1), interleukin 6 (IL-6) or tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) mRNA expression in intestine. STD versus GF feeding did not affect any parameter studied. Long-term feeding with GF-HF versus HF increases beta-cell volume and improves glucose tolerance in B6 mice. The mechanism may include beta-cell rest, but is unlikely to include TLR4 and proinflammatory cytokines in the intestine. Beta-cell volume correlates with pancreas volume and body weight, indicating that insulin secretion capacity controls pancreas volume. Thus, long-term GF diets may be beneficial for obese type 2 diabetes patients and trials should be performed. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Maintenance of a gluten free diet in coeliac disease: The roles of self-regulation, habit, psychological resources, motivation, support, and goal priority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainsbury, Kirby; Halmos, Emma P; Knowles, Simon; Mullan, Barbara; Tye-Din, Jason A

    2018-02-24

    A strict lifelong gluten free diet (GFD) is the only treatment for coeliac disease (CD). Theory-based research has focused predominantly on initiation, rational, and motivational processes in predicting adherence. The aim of this study was to evaluate an expanded collection of theoretical constructs specifically relevant to the maintenance of behaviour change, in the understanding and prediction of GFD adherence. Respondents with CD (N = 5573) completed measures of GFD adherence, psychological distress, intentions, self-efficacy, and the maintenance-relevant constructs of self-regulation, habit, temptation and intentional and unintentional lapses (cognitive and behavioural consequences of lowered or fluctuating psychological resources and self-control), motivation, social and environmental support, and goal priority, conflict, and facilitation. Correlations and multiple regression were used to determine their influence on adherence, over and above intention and self-efficacy, and how relationships changed in the presence of distress. Better adherence was associated with greater self-regulation, habit, self-efficacy, priority, facilitation, and support; and lower psychological distress, conflict, and fewer self-control lapses (e.g., when busy/stressed). Autonomous and wellbeing-based, but not controlled motivations, were related to adherence. In the presence of distress, the influence of self-regulation and intentional lapses on adherence were increased, while temptation and unintentional lapses were decreased. The findings point to the importance of considering intentional, volitional, automatic, and emotional processes in the understanding and prediction of GFD adherence. Behaviour change interventions and psychological support are now needed so that theoretical knowledge can be translated into evidence-based care, including a role for psychologists within the multi-disciplinary treatment team. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Rapid Partial Repigmentation of Vitiligo in a Young Female Adult with a Gluten-Free Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit N. Khandalavala

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vitiligo is a common pigmentary skin condition with a profound impact. Despite a number of therapeutic modalities, few have been demonstrated to result in significant repigmentation within a brief period of time. Reported dietary interventions are sparse. Following exclusion of gluten in the diet, early and extensive repigmentation of facial lesions were noted in a young female adult of Asian ethnicity with acrofacial vitiligo. The majority of the benefits occurred within the first month and stabilized at 4 months. Previous topical and phototherapy had not been found to be effective. The patient was maintained on the previously prescribed dapsone therapy. Dietary elimination can potentially be a disease-modifying intervention for vitiligo and should be considered even in patients without concomitant celiac disease.

  20. Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae and perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies in coeliac disease before and after gluten-free diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granito, A; Zauli, D; Muratori, P; Muratori, L; Grassi, A; Bortolotti, R; Petrolini, N; Veronesi, L; Gionchetti, P; Bianchi, F B; Volta, U

    2005-04-01

    Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae and perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies are markers of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis respectively. To determine the prevalence of anti-S. cerevisiae and perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies in a large series of coeliac disease patients before and after gluten free diet, and to correlate anti-S. cerevisiae-positivity with intestinal mucosal damage. One hundred and five consecutive coeliac disease patients and 141 controls (22 ulcerative colitis, 24 Crohn's disease, 30 primary sclerosing cholangitis, 15 postenteritis syndrome, 50 blood donors) were tested for anti-S. cerevisiae by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and for perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies by indirect immunofluorescence. In coeliac disease anti-S. cerevisiae (immunoglobulin G and/or immunoglobulin A) were slightly less frequent (59%) than in Crohn's disease (75%, P = 0.16) and significantly more frequent than in ulcerative colitis (27%), primary sclerosing cholangitis (30%), postenteritis syndrome (26%) and blood donors (4%) (P = 0.009, P = 0.0002, P = 0.025, P < 0.0001). No correlation was found between anti-S. cerevisiae and degree of mucosal damage. Perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies were detected only in one coeliac. After gluten free diet the disappearance of anti-S. cerevisiae-immunoglobulin A (93%) was more frequent than that of immunoglobulin G (17%, P = 0.0001); perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies disappeared in the only coeliac positive at diagnosis. More than half of untreated coeliacs are anti-S. cerevisiae-positive irrespective of the severity of mucosal damage. Differently from immunoglobulin A, anti-S. cerevisiae-immunoglobulin G persisted in more than 80% after gluten free diet. The high prevalence of anti-S. cerevisiae in coeliac disease suggests that they may be the effect of a non-specific immune response in course of chronic small bowel disease.

  1. Low incidence of spontaneous type 1 diabetes in non-obese diabetic mice raised on gluten-free diets is associated with changes in the intestinal microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marietta, Eric V; Gomez, Andres M; Yeoman, Carl; Tilahun, Ashenafi Y; Clark, Chad R; Luckey, David H; Murray, Joseph A; White, Bryan A; Kudva, Yogish C; Rajagopalan, Govindarajan

    2013-01-01

    Human and animal studies strongly suggest that dietary gluten could play a causal role in the etiopathogenesis of type 1 diabetes (T1D). However, the mechanisms have not been elucidated. Recent reports indicate that the intestinal microbiome has a major influence on the incidence of T1D. Since diet is known to shape the composition of the intestinal microbiome, we investigated using non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice whether changes in the intestinal microbiome could be attributed to the pro- and anti-diabetogenic effects of gluten-containing and gluten-free diets, respectively. NOD mice were raised on gluten-containing chows (GCC) or gluten-free chows (GFC). The incidence of diabetes was determined by monitoring blood glucose levels biweekly using a glucometer. Intestinal microbiome composition was analyzed by sequencing 16S rRNA amplicons derived from fecal samples. First of all, GCC-fed NOD mice had the expected high incidence of hyperglycemia whereas NOD mice fed with a GFC had significantly reduced incidence of hyperglycemia. Secondly, when the fecal microbiomes were compared, Bifidobacterium, Tannerella, and Barnesiella species were increased (p = 0.03, 0.02, and 0.02, respectively) in the microbiome of GCC mice, where as Akkermansia species was increased (p = 0.02) in the intestinal microbiomes of NOD mice fed GFC. Thirdly, both of the gluten-free chows that were evaluated, either egg white based (EW-GFC) or casein based (C-GFC), significantly reduced the incidence of hyperglycemia. Interestingly, the gut microbiome from EW-GFC mice was similar to C-GFC mice. Finally, adding back gluten to the gluten-free diet reversed its anti-diabetogenic effect, reduced Akkermansia species and increased Bifidobacterium, Tannerella, and Barnesiella suggesting that the presence of gluten is directly responsible for the pro-diabetogenic effects of diets and it determines the gut microflora. Our novel study thus suggests that dietary gluten could modulate the incidence of

  2. Larazotide acetate for persistent symptoms of celiac disease despite a gluten-free diet: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leffler, Daniel A; Kelly, Ciaran P; Green, Peter H R; Fedorak, Richard N; DiMarino, Anthony; Perrow, Wendy; Rasmussen, Henrik; Wang, Chao; Bercik, Premysl; Bachir, Natalie M; Murray, Joseph A

    2015-06-01

    Celiac disease (CeD) is a prevalent autoimmune condition. Recurrent signs and symptoms are common despite treatment with a gluten-free diet (GFD), yet no approved or proven nondietary treatment is available. In this multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we assessed larazotide acetate 0.5, 1, or 2 mg 3 times daily to relieve ongoing symptoms in 342 adults with CeD who had been on a GFD for 12 months or longer and maintained their current GFD during the study. The study included a 4-week placebo run-in, 12 weeks of treatment, and a 4-week placebo run-out phase. The primary end point was the difference in average on-treatment Celiac Disease Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale score. The primary end point was met with the 0.5-mg dose of larazotide acetate, with fewer symptoms compared with placebo by modified intention to treat (n = 340) (analysis of covariance, P = .022; mixed model for repeated measures, P = .005). The 0.5-mg dose showed an effect on exploratory end points including a 26% decrease in celiac disease patient-reported outcome symptomatic days (P = .017), a 31% increase in improved symptom days (P = .034), a 50% or more reduction from baseline of the weekly average abdominal pain score for 6 or more of 12 weeks of treatment (P = .022), and a decrease in the nongastrointestinal symptoms of headache and tiredness (P = .010). The 1- and 2-mg doses were no different than placebo for any end point. Safety was comparable with placebo. Larazotide acetate 0.5 mg reduced signs and symptoms in CeD patients on a GFD better than a GFD alone. Although results were mixed, this study was a successful trial of a novel therapeutic agent targeting tight junction regulation in patients with CeD who are symptomatic despite a GFD. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01396213. Copyright © 2015 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Improvement in Psychotic Symptoms After a Gluten-Free Diet in a Boy With Complex Autoimmune Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, William W.; Chen, Lian-Yu; Dohan, F. Curtis; Kelly, Deanna L.; Cascella, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    CASE PRESENTATION At age 8, “Chris,” a Caucasian boy, experienced intermittent auditory and visual hallucinations, but without bizarre behaviors or much deterioration in functioning. At age 15, he developed a depressed mood, started talking to himself, and became socially withdrawn, and his academic performance declined. He was hospitalized and diagnosed as having major depressive disorder with psychotic features. MRI and EEG showed no abnormalities. Treatment with escitalopram (10 mg/day) and aripiprazole (5 mg/day) had little effect. Several weeks after discharge, he was admitted for a second time with the same diagnosis; a third admission, again with the same diagnosis, occurred several months after that. At age 16, Chris developed visual and auditory hallucinations with homicidal ideations. He cut himself superficially following the command of voice hallucinations, and he was hospitalized again, with the diagnosis changed to schizophrenia, paranoid type. During this inpatient stay, he was treated with venlafaxine (150 mg/day) and risperidone (1.5 mg/day). During the same admission, a blood test showed the presence of antinuclear antibodies (ANAs), but the patient had no symptoms of any autoimmune disease. In the meantime, he was also receiving clindamycin/benzoyl peroxide and adapaline gels and minocycline for acne and fluticasone nasal spray and albuterol for asthma. An allergy to gluten was demonstrated by an assay (Accessa Labs) that showed only IgE antigluten antibodies. Chris’sparents reported that he developed anallergy to peanuts and soy at about the same time. Gluten was removed from his diet at the suggestion of the mother, a licensed dietitian. After the dietary change, the intensity of Chris’s auditory hallucinations declined dramatically and the violent element diminished, and he was discharged after 9 weeks. During the next 2 years, Chris remained on a gluten-free diet, which he and his family associated with the disappearance of his

  4. Confirmation of gluten-free status of wheatgrass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celiac Disease (CD) and other gluten related disorders causes both malabsorption of nutrients and an abnormal immune reaction to gluten, the only effective therapy is a gluten-free diet. Codex Alimentarius sets the threshold level at 20 mg/kg gluten for gluten-free foods and this threshold has been ...

  5. Swedish children with celiac disease comply well with a gluten-free diet, and most include oats without reporting any adverse effects: a long-term follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapsas, Dimitrios; Fälth-Magnusson, Karin; Högberg, Lotta; Hammersjö, Jan-Åke; Hollén, Elisabet

    2014-05-01

    The only known treatment for celiac disease is a gluten-free diet (GFD), which initially meant abstention from wheat, rye, barley, and oats. Recently, oats free from contamination with wheat have been accepted in the GFD. Yet, reports indicate that all celiac disease patients may not tolerate oats. We hypothesized that celiac children comply well with a GFD and that most have included oats in their diet. A food questionnaire was used to check our patients; 316 questionnaires were returned. Mean time on the GFD was 6.9 years, and 96.8% of the children reported that they were trying to keep a strict GFD. However, accidental transgressions occurred in 263 children (83.2%). In 2 of 3 cases, mistakes took place when the patients were not at home. Symptoms after incidental gluten intake were experienced by 162 (61.6%) patients, mostly (87.5%) from the gastrointestinal tract. Small amounts of gluten (gluten consumption. Oats were included in the diet of 89.4% of the children for a mean of 3.4 years. Most (81.9%) ate purified oats, and 45.3% consumed oats less than once a week. Among those who did not consume oats, only 5.9% refrained because of symptoms. General compliance with the GFD was good. Only the duration of the GFD appeared to influence adherence to the diet. Most patients did not report adverse effects after long-term consumption of oats. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effectiveness of the gluten-free, casein-free diet for children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder: based on parental report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennesi, Christine M; Klein, Laura Cousino

    2012-03-01

    Studies on the gluten-free and/or casein-free (GFCF) dietary intervention for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) suggest that some children may positively respond to implementation of the dietary intervention. Other research suggests that children diagnosed with ASD can be classified into subpopulations based on various factors, including gastrointestinal (GI) abnormalities and immune function. This study analyzes parental report data collected using a 90-item online questionnaire from 387 parents or primary caregivers of children diagnosed with ASD on the efficacy of the GFCF diet. Parents reported on their child's GI symptoms, food allergy diagnoses, and suspected food sensitivities, as well as the degree and length of their diet implementation. Overall, diet efficacy among children whose parents reported the presence of GI symptoms, food allergy diagnoses, and suspected food sensitivities included greater improvement in ASD behaviors, physiological symptoms, and social behaviors compared with children whose parents reported none of these symptoms, diagnoses, or sensitivities (P diet implementation, indicated by complete gluten/casein elimination and infrequent diet errors during and outside of parental care, also corresponded to improvement in ASD behaviors, physiological symptoms, and social behaviors (P diet implementation and GI and immune factors may play a role in differentiating diet responders from diet non-responders and substantiate the importance of further investigations into the various, nuanced factors that influence efficacy of the intervention among children with ASDs.

  7. A 70-year-old male with peripheral neuropathy, ataxia and antigliadin antibodies shows improvement in neuropathy, but not ataxia, after intravenous immunoglobulin and gluten-free diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharshan Anandacoomaraswamy

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Dharshan Anandacoomaraswamy1, Jagdeesh Ullal2, Aaron I Vinik21Department of Internal Medicine, Coney Island Hospital, Brooklyn, NY, USA; 2Strelitz Diabetes Center, Department of Internal Medicine, Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, VA, USAAbstract: This is a case of a 70-year-old man with severe peripheral neuropathy, type 2 diabetes and progressively worsening cerebellar ataxia. He was found to have circulating antigliadin and antireticulin antibodies compatible with celiac disease in the absence of intestinal pathology. The peripheral neuropathy improved with a gluten-free diet, antioxidants and intravenous immunoglobulin, whereas the ataxia did not. This case illustrates the need to test for celiac disease in patients with idiopathic ataxia and peripheral neuropathy and the need for alternative therapies for ataxia. Keywords: celiac disease, peripheral neuropathy, autoimmune disease, cerebellar ataxia, type 2 diabetes

  8. Gluten-free vegan diet induces decreased LDL and oxidized LDL levels and raised atheroprotective natural antibodies against phosphorylcholine in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkan, Ann-Charlotte; Sjöberg, Beatrice; Kolsrud, Björn; Ringertz, Bo; Hafström, Ingiäld; Frostegård, Johan

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of vegan diet in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) on blood lipids oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) and natural atheroprotective antibodies against phosphorylcholine (anti-PCs). Sixty-six patients with active RA were randomly assigned to either a vegan diet free of gluten (38 patients) or a well-balanced non-vegan diet (28 patients) for 1 year. Thirty patients in the vegan group completed more than 3 months on the diet regimen. Blood lipids were analyzed by routine methods, and oxLDL and anti-PCs were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Data and serum samples were obtained at baseline and after 3 and 12 months. Mean ages were 50.0 years for the vegan group and 50.8 years for controls. Gluten-free vegan diet induced lower body mass index (BMI) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and higher anti-PC IgM than control diet (p vegan group, BMI, LDL, and cholesterol decreased after both 3 and 12 months (p vegan patients into clinical responders and non-responders at 12 months, the effects on oxLDL and anti-PC IgA were seen only in responders (p vegan diet in RA induces changes that are potentially atheroprotective and anti-inflammatory, including decreased LDL and oxLDL levels and raised anti-PC IgM and IgA levels.

  9. Food label usage and reported difficulty with following a gluten-free diet among individuals in the USA with coeliac disease and those with noncoeliac gluten sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrill, L; Zhang, Y; Kane, R

    2013-10-01

    Individuals with coeliac disease (CD) and those with noncoeliac gluten sensitivity (GS) have reported difficulty following a gluten-free diet (GFD); however, few studies have explored the link between the food label, gluten-free (GF) claims and the difficulty associated with following a GFD. The present study surveyed adults with CD (n = 1,583) and adults with GS (n = 797) about their reported difficulty following a GFD, including assessing the role of food labels and GF claims, as well as other factors known to contribute to this difficulty. A two-sample t-test and chi-squared tests for equality of means or proportions were used for the descriptive data and ordinal logistic regression (OLR) was used to model associations. On average, individuals with GS reported slightly more difficulty following the GFD than did participants with CD. According to the OLR results, reading the food label often was significantly associated with less reported difficulty following a GFD, whereas consuming packaged processed foods and looking for GF claims more often were significantly associated with more reported difficulty for both respondent groups. Individuals with GS may rely more heavily on the GF claim for information about a product's gluten content. Individuals with CD, on the other hand, may be more experienced food label readers and may rely more on the ingredient list for finding GF foods. More studies are needed aiming to understand the role of the food label in facilitating consumers' ability to follow a GFD. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  10. PENGEMBANGAN TORTILA BERKALSIUM SEBAGAI ALTERNATIF PANGAN DIET CASEIN FREE-GLUTEN FREE PADA INDUSTRI KECIL DENGAN METODE VALUE ENGINEERING (Development of Fortified Calcium Tortilla Snack as an Alternative Food for Casein-Free Gluten-Free Diet with Value Engineering Method for Small Scale Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Yonathan Sadikin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The number of people with autism increased 56% in 1998 – 2013, and it was a global problem. People with autism need special treatments and CFGF diet (casein free, gluten free was one of those treatments. That’s why, the development The calcium content was expected to substitute the calcium from dairy consumption, which shouldn’t be consumed by people with autism. The method used in this product development was value engineering which separated in three steps: information, creativity, and analysis steps. Respectively, this research was also further completed with chemical The goal of this research was to design some product implemented in small scale industry. Respondends and panelist in this research were consisted of students and teachers. They acted as the market of the product, especially as a  part of general society. This product were designed to provide CFGF snack for people with autism, and those who need CFGF diet. But this product was not limited to that market, it can be consumed by general society not only for people with autism, hence the students and teachers were used. The research showed that the best concept was a product produced with to get 200 grams of dough. This product concept was also designed to be packed in big size gusset packaging materials and the chips was triangle-shaped with size of feasible to be produced in small scale industry. Keywords: value engineering, casein-free gluten-free diet,autism   ABSTRAK Dengan jumlah penyandang autis yang terus meningkat, misalnya peningkatan sebesar 56% pada 1998 – 2013, maka produk tortila berkalsium potensial dikembangkan sebagai alternatif pangan untuk diet CFGF (, dan kandungan kalsiumnya bisa membantu menggantikan kalsium dari susu sapi yang mengandung kasein. Tujuan penelitian adalah merancang sejumlah konsep produk tortila berkalsium dan memilih satu konsep yang paling disukai Metode penelitian adalah yang terdiri dari tiga tahap: informasi, kreativitas dan

  11. Applying Simulation Method in Formulation of Gluten-Free Cookies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikitina Marina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available At present time priority direction in the development of new food products its developing of technology products for special purposes. These types of products are gluten-free confectionery products, intended for people with celiac disease. Gluten-free products are in demand among consumers, it needs to expand assortment, and improvement of quality indicators. At this article results of studies on the development of pastry products based on amaranth flour does not contain gluten. Study based on method of simulation recipes gluten-free confectionery functional orientation to optimize their chemical composition. The resulting products will allow to diversify and supplement the necessary nutrients diet for people with gluten intolerance, as well as for those who follow a gluten-free diet.

  12. Administration of Inulin-Supplemented Gluten-Free Diet Modified Calcium Absorption and Caecal Microbiota in Rats in a Calcium-Dependent Manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula Krupa-Kozak

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In coeliac disease (CD, the risk of adverse calcium balance and reduced bone density is induced mainly by the disease, but also by a gluten-free diet (GFD, the only accepted CD therapy. Prebiotics through the beneficial impact on intestinal microbiota may stimulate calcium (Ca absorption. In the present study, we hypothesised that the dietary inulin in GFD would influence positively the intestinal microbiota, and by that will stimulate the absorption of calcium (Ca, especially in the conditions of Ca malnutrition. In a six-weeks nutritional experiment on growing a significant (p < 0.05 luminal acidification, decrease in ammonia concentration and stimulation of short chain fatty acids formation indicated inulin-mediated beneficial effects on the caecal microbiota. However, the effect of inulin on characteristics of intestinal microbiota and mineral utilization depended on the dietary Ca intake from GFDs. Inulin stimulated bifidobacteria, in particular B. animalis species, only if a recommended amount of Ca was provided. Most benefits to mineral utilization from inulin consumption were seen in rats fed Ca-restricted GFD where it increased the relative Ca absorption. Administration of inulin to a GFDs could be a promising dietary strategy for beneficial modulation of intestinal ecosystem and by that for the improvement the Ca absorption.

  13. Predicting intention and behaviour following participation in a theory-based intervention to improve gluten free diet adherence in coeliac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainsbury, Kirby; Mullan, Barbara; Sharpe, Louise

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether changes in theory of planned behaviour (TPB) constructs could predict intention and gluten-free diet (GFD) adherence following participation in an online theory-based intervention designed to improve adherence in coeliac disease. Theory-based process evaluation of the mechanisms of change over the course of a six-week online intervention. Measures of GFD adherence and TPB variables were administered at baseline and follow-up (immediate post-intervention: n = 74; three-month: n = 68; six-month: n = 65). Hierarchical regression analyses using residualised change scores were conducted at each time point (dependent variables: intention and adherence). Baseline intention and GFD adherence were the strongest predictors of follow-up intention and adherence, respectively. Change in attitude accounted for significant variance in intention. Change in intention accounted for significant variance in GFD adherence immediately post-intervention; by the six-month follow-up change in perceived behavioural control was the stronger predictor. Partial support for the hypotheses suggests that, for certain behaviours, the TPB may be relevant in explaining the mechanism of action responsible for changes in intention and behaviour following participation in a behaviour change intervention. Additional predictive pathways are also likely to exist and, in the area of GFD adherence, may include habit strength and actual behavioural control.

  14. Administration of Inulin-Supplemented Gluten-Free Diet Modified Calcium Absorption and Caecal Microbiota in Rats in a Calcium-Dependent Manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupa-Kozak, Urszula; Markiewicz, Lidia H; Lamparski, Grzegorz; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy

    2017-07-06

    In coeliac disease (CD), the risk of adverse calcium balance and reduced bone density is induced mainly by the disease, but also by a gluten-free diet (GFD), the only accepted CD therapy. Prebiotics through the beneficial impact on intestinal microbiota may stimulate calcium (Ca) absorption. In the present study, we hypothesised that the dietary inulin in GFD would influence positively the intestinal microbiota, and by that will stimulate the absorption of calcium (Ca), especially in the conditions of Ca malnutrition. In a six-weeks nutritional experiment on growing a significant ( p inulin-mediated beneficial effects on the caecal microbiota. However, the effect of inulin on characteristics of intestinal microbiota and mineral utilization depended on the dietary Ca intake from GFDs. Inulin stimulated bifidobacteria, in particular B. animalis species, only if a recommended amount of Ca was provided. Most benefits to mineral utilization from inulin consumption were seen in rats fed Ca-restricted GFD where it increased the relative Ca absorption. Administration of inulin to a GFDs could be a promising dietary strategy for beneficial modulation of intestinal ecosystem and by that for the improvement the Ca absorption.

  15. Changes in body composition, substrate oxidation, and resting metabolic rate in adult celiac disease patients after a 1-y gluten-free diet treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capristo, E; Addolorato, G; Mingrone, G; De Gaetano, A; Greco, A V; Tataranni, P A; Gasbarrini, G

    2000-07-01

    The incidence of celiac disease has been on the rise in both Europe and the United States. Celiac disease patients are at high risk of undernutrition because of nutrient malabsorption. The aim of the present study was to evaluate changes in body composition and energy metabolism in a group of patients with celiac disease before and after consumption of a gluten-free diet (GFD). Body composition (by anthropometry and isotopic dilution), resting metabolic rate (RMR), and substrate oxidation rates (by indirect calorimetry) were assessed in 39 adult celiac disease patients (16 men and 23 women) with a mean (+/-SD) age of 29. 9 +/- 7.6 y, weight of 58.3 +/- 6.6 kg, and percentage body fat of 20.1 +/- 6.7%, and in 63 (29 men and 34 women) age- and height-matched control subjects (age: 33.2 +/- 8.1 y; weight: 66.8 +/- 6.6 kg; and percentage body fat: 25.4 +/- 3.7%). Celiac disease patients were studied twice, at diagnosis and 1 y after treatment with a GFD. Before treatment, celiac disease patients had a lower body weight (P celiac disease patients (r = 0.80, P celiac disease patients than in control subjects (P consequence of both lipid malabsorption and a high carbohydrate intake, and lipid utilization increased with the restoration of the intestinal mucosa.

  16. Nutritional inadequacies of the gluten-free diet in both recently-diagnosed and long-term patients with coeliac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, S J; Gibson, P R

    2013-08-01

    Life-long gluten-free diet (GFD) is the only recognised treatment for coeliac disease (CD). The present study aimed to determine the nutritional adequacy of the 'no detectable gluten' diet. Seven-day prospective food intake was assessed in 55 patients who were adherent to a GFD for more than 2 years and in 50 newly-diagnosed age- and sex-matched patients (18-71 years, 24% male) studied prospectively over 12 months on GFD. Historical precoeliac intake was also assessed in the latter group. Intake was compared with Australian Nutritional Recommendations and the Australian population data. Nutritional intake was similar between groups. Of macronutrients, only starch intake fell over 12 months (26% to 23%, P = 0.04). Fibre intake was inadequate for all except in diet-experienced men. More than one in 10 of both newly-diagnosed and experienced women had inadequate thiamin, folate, vitamin A, magnesium, calcium and iron intakes. More than one in 10 newly-diagnosed men had inadequate thiamin, folate, magnesium, calcium and zinc intakes. Inadequate intake did not relate to nutrient density of the GFD. Inadequacies of folate, calcium, iron and zinc occurred more frequently than in the Australian population. The frequency of inadequacies was similar pre- and post-diagnosis, except for thiamin and vitamin A, where inadequacies were more common after GFD implementation. Dietary intake patterns at 12 months on a GFD are similar to longer-term intake. Dietary inadequacies are common and may relate to habitual poor food choices in addition to inherent deficiencies in the GFD. Dietary education should also address the achievement of adequate micronutrient intake. Fortification of GF foods also need to be considered. © 2012 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2012 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  17. Adherence to the gluten-free diet can achieve the therapeutic goals in almost all patients with coeliac disease: A 5-year longitudinal study from diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newnham, Evan D; Shepherd, Susan J; Strauss, Boyd J; Hosking, Patrick; Gibson, Peter R

    2016-02-01

    Key aims of treatment of coeliac disease are to heal the intestinal mucosa and correct nutritional abnormalities. We aim to determine prospectively the degree of success and time course of achieving those goals with a gluten-free diet. Ninety-nine patients were enrolled at diagnosis and taught the diet. The first 52 were reassessed at 1 year and 46 at 5 years, 25 being assessed at the three time points regarding dietary compliance (dietitian-assessed), coeliac serology, bone mineral density and body composition analysis by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and intestinal histology. Mean age (range) was 40 (18-71) years and 48 (76%) were female. Dietary compliance was very good to excellent in all but one. Tissue transglutaminase IgA was persistently elevated in 44% at 1 year and 30% at 5 years and were poorly predictive of mucosal disease. Rates of mucosal remission (Marsh 0) and response (Marsh 0/1) were 37% and 54%, and 50% and 85% at 1 and 5 years, respectively. Fat mass increased significantly over the first year in those with normal/reduced body mass index. Lean body mass indices more slowly improved irrespective of status at diagnosis with significant improvement at 5 years. Bone mass increased only in those with osteopenia or osteoporosis, mostly in year 1. Dietary compliance is associated with a high chance of healing the intestinal lesion and correction of specific body compositional abnormalities. The time course differed with body fat improving within 1 year, and correction of the mucosal lesion and improvement in lean mass and bone mass taking longer. © 2015 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  18. Clinical impact of a gluten-free diet on health-related quality of life in seven fibromyalgia syndrome patients with associated celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, Luis; Blanco, Ignacio; Bobes, Julio; de Serres, Frederick J

    2013-11-09

    Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune disorder, characterized by the presence of gastrointestinal and multisystem symptoms, which occasionally mimic those of Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) and Fibromyalgia Syndrome (FMS). To assess the effectiveness of a Gluten-Free Diet (GFD) in seven adult female screening-detected CD subjects, categorized as severe IBS and FMS patients. All subjects showed villous atrophy in duodenal biopsies, were HLA-DQ2/DQ8-positive, and fulfilled the Rome III and ACR 1990 criteria respectively for IBS and FMS classification. GFD effectiveness was assessed at baseline and after 1 year, examining the score changes in the Tender Points (TPs) test, Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), Visual Analogue Scales (VAS) for gastrointestinal complaints, pain and tiredness, drug prescriptions and tissue-Trans-Glutaminase (tTG) serum levels. At baseline, all patients had poor Quality of Life and VAS scores, a high number of TPs and drug prescriptions, and increased tTG levels. After 1 year of GFD, all outcome measures significantly improved, with a decrease of 51-60% in TPs, FIQ, HAQ, and VAS scales, and in the number of prescribed drugs, accompanied by an increase of 48-60% in SF-36 Physical and Mental Component Summary scores, and a decrease of tTG to normal values. Results of this pilot study show that the adherence to a GFD by CD-related IBS/FMS patients can simultaneously improve CD and IBS/FMS symptoms, and indicate the merit of further research on a larger cohort.

  19. Improved Xenobiotic Metabolism and Reduced Susceptibility to Cancer in Gluten-Sensitive Macaques upon Introduction of a Gluten-Free Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sestak, Karol; Conroy, Lauren; Aye, Pyone P.; Mehra, Smriti; Doxiadis, Gaby G.; Kaushal, Deepak

    2011-01-01

    Background A non-human primate (NHP) model of gluten sensitivity was employed to study the gene perturbations associated with dietary gluten changes in small intestinal tissues from gluten-sensitive rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Methodology Stages of remission and relapse were accomplished in gluten-sensitive animals by administration of gluten-free (GFD) and gluten-containing (GD) diets, as described previously. Pin-head-sized biopsies, obtained non-invasively by pediatric endoscope from duodenum while on GFD or GD, were used for preparation of total RNA and gene profiling, using the commercial Rhesus Macaque Microarray (Agilent Technologies),targeting expression of over 20,000 genes. Principal Findings When compared with normal healthy control, gluten-sensitive macaques showed differential gene expressions induced by GD. While observed gene perturbations were classified into one of 12 overlapping categories - cancer, metabolism, digestive tract function, immune response, cell growth, signal transduction, autoimmunity, detoxification of xenobiotics, apoptosis, actin-collagen deposition, neuronal and unknown function - this study focused on cancer-related gene networks such as cytochrome P450 family (detoxification function) and actin-collagen-matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) genes. Conclusions/Significance A loss of detoxification function paralleled with necessity to metabolize carcinogens was revealed in gluten-sensitive animals while on GD. An increase in cancer-promoting factors and a simultaneous decrease in cancer-preventing factors associated with altered expression of actin-collagen-MMP gene network were noted. In addition, gluten-sensitive macaques showed reduced number of differentially expressed genes including the cancer-associated ones upon withdrawal of dietary gluten. Taken together, these findings indicate potentially expanded utility of gluten-sensitive rhesus macaques in cancer research. PMID:21533263

  20. Gluten-free diet does not influence the occurrence and the Th1/Th17-Th2 nature of immune-mediated diseases in patients with coeliac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imperatore, Nicola; Rispo, Antonio; Capone, Pietro; Donetto, Sara; De Palma, Giovanni Domenico; Gerbino, Nicolò; Rea, Matilde; Caporaso, Nicola; Tortora, Raffaella

    2016-07-01

    Coeliac disease (CD) is the most common Th1-mediated enteropathy, frequently associated with other immune-mediated disorders (IMD). To evaluate: (1) the prevalence of IMD at the time of and after CD diagnosis; (2) a possible change in immune response to gluten free diet (GFD); (3) the potential role of GFD in reducing and/or preventing IMD in CD. Prospective study including all consecutive adult CD patients who underwent investigations for Th1-Th17/Th2-IMD at the time of CD diagnosis and after a 5-year follow-up period. 1255 CD were enrolled. Of these, 257 patients (20.5%) showed IMD at the time of CD diagnosis, with 58.4% presenting a Th1/Th17-IMD. After a 5-year follow-up period, 682 patients (54.3%) showed new IMD despite GFD. Of these, 57.3% presented a Th1/Th17-IMD and 42.7% a Th2-IMD (p=0.8). When compared the prevalence of each type of IMD before and after CD diagnosis, we did not identify any significant "switch" from Th1/Th17- to Th2-IMD or vice versa. The number of patients with Th1/Th17- and/or Th2-IMD increased during the GFD period (20.5% vs 54.3%; p<0.01; OR 1.9). The prevalence of IMD at the time of CD diagnosis is high and it seems to increase in the follow-up period despite GFD. Copyright © 2016 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The obestatin/ghrelin ratio and ghrelin genetics in adult celiac patients before and after a gluten-free diet, in irritable bowel syndrome patients and healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Francesco; Chimienti, Guglielmina; Linsalata, Michele; Clemente, Caterina; Orlando, Antonella; Riezzo, Giuseppe

    2017-02-01

    Ghrelin levels and obestatin/ghrelin ratio have been proposed as activity markers in ulcerative colitis, but no data are available in celiac disease (CD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Our aims were as follows: (a) to assess obestatin and ghrelin concentrations in adult active CD patients, diarrhea-predominant IBS (IBS-d), and healthy controls (HC) in relation to intestinal permeability; (b) to evaluate the ghrelin-obestatin profile in CD patients after a 1-year gluten-free diet (GFD); and (c) to establish the impact of ghrelin genetics. The study included 31 CD patients, 28 IBS-d patients, and 19 HC. Intestinal permeability, assayed by high-performance liquid chromatography determination of urinary lactulose (La)/mannitol (Ma), and circulating concentrations of obestatin, ghrelin, and their ratio were evaluated at enrollment and after GFD. The ghrelin single nucleotide polymorphisms Arg51Gln (rs34911341), Leu72Met (rs696217), and Gln90Leu (rs4684677) were analyzed. Intestinal permeability was impaired in CD patients and ameliorated after GFD. Ghrelin was significantly (P=0.048) higher and the obestatin/ghrelin ratio was significantly (P=0.034) lower in CD patients compared with both IBS-d and HC, and GFD reduced the peptide levels, but without reaching the concentrations in HC. Significant differences (PIntestinal permeability is altered in CD, but not in IBS-d patients, and ghrelin levels increase in CD patients as observed in other inflammatory conditions. Moreover, a role for ghrelin genetics is hypothesized in sustaining the many pathogenetic components of these different pathologies, but with a similar symptom profile.

  2. Improved xenobiotic metabolism and reduced susceptibility to cancer in gluten-sensitive macaques upon introduction of a gluten-free diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sestak, Karol; Conroy, Lauren; Aye, Pyone P; Mehra, Smriti; Doxiadis, Gaby G; Kaushal, Deepak

    2011-04-12

    A non-human primate (NHP) model of gluten sensitivity was employed to study the gene perturbations associated with dietary gluten changes in small intestinal tissues from gluten-sensitive rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Stages of remission and relapse were accomplished in gluten-sensitive animals by administration of gluten-free (GFD) and gluten-containing (GD) diets, as described previously. Pin-head-sized biopsies, obtained non-invasively by pediatric endoscope from duodenum while on GFD or GD, were used for preparation of total RNA and gene profiling, using the commercial Rhesus Macaque Microarray (Agilent Technologies),targeting expression of over 20,000 genes. When compared with normal healthy control, gluten-sensitive macaques showed differential gene expressions induced by GD. While observed gene perturbations were classified into one of 12 overlapping categories--cancer, metabolism, digestive tract function, immune response, cell growth, signal transduction, autoimmunity, detoxification of xenobiotics, apoptosis, actin-collagen deposition, neuronal and unknown function--this study focused on cancer-related gene networks such as cytochrome P450 family (detoxification function) and actin-collagen-matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) genes. A loss of detoxification function paralleled with necessity to metabolize carcinogens was revealed in gluten-sensitive animals while on GD. An increase in cancer-promoting factors and a simultaneous decrease in cancer-preventing factors associated with altered expression of actin-collagen-MMP gene network were noted. In addition, gluten-sensitive macaques showed reduced number of differentially expressed genes including the cancer-associated ones upon withdrawal of dietary gluten. Taken together, these findings indicate potentially expanded utility of gluten-sensitive rhesus macaques in cancer research.

  3. Detection of gluten immunogenic peptides in the urine of patients with coeliac disease reveals transgressions in the gluten-free diet and incomplete mucosal healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, María de Lourdes; Cebolla, Ángel; Muñoz-Suano, Alba; Carrillo-Carrion, Carolina; Comino, Isabel; Pizarro, Ángeles; León, Francisco; Rodríguez-Herrera, Alfonso; Sousa, Carolina

    2017-02-01

    Gluten-free diet (GFD) is the only management for coeliac disease (CD). Available methods to assess GFD compliance are insufficiently sensitive to detect occasional dietary transgressions that may cause gut mucosal damage. We aimed to develop a method to determine gluten intake and monitor GFD compliance in patients with CD and to evaluate its correlation with mucosal damage. Urine samples of 76 healthy subjects and 58 patients with CD subjected to different gluten dietary conditions were collected. A lateral flow test (LFT) with the highly sensitive and specific G12 monoclonal antibody for the most dominant gluten immunogenic peptides (GIP) and a LFT reader were used to quantify GIP in solid-phase extracted urines. GIP were detectable in concentrated urines from healthy individuals previously subjected to GFD as early as 4-6 h after single gluten intake, and remained detectable for 1-2 days. The urine assay revealed infringement of the GFD in about 50% of the patients. Analysis of duodenal biopsies revealed that most of patients with CD (89%) with no villous atrophy had no detectable GIP in urine, while all patients with quantifiable GIP in urine showed incomplete intestinal mucosa recovery. GIP are detected in urine after gluten consumption, enabling a new and non-invasive method to monitor GFD compliance and transgressions. The method was sensitive, specific and simple enough to be convenient for clinical monitoring of patients with CD as well as for basic and clinical research applications including drug development. NCT02344758. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. The effect of oligofructose-enriched inulin supplementation on gut microbiota, nutritional status and gastrointestinal symptoms in paediatric coeliac disease patients on a gluten-free diet: study protocol for a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupa-Kozak, Urszula; Drabińska, Natalia; Jarocka-Cyrta, Elżbieta

    2017-08-22

    A lifelong gluten-free diet (GFD) is regarded as the only proven and accepted therapy for coeliac disease (CD). However, even patients who strictly follow a GFD often suffer from intestinal symptoms and malabsorption. Selective modulation of intestinal microbiota with prebiotics could remedy various symptoms associated with CD. The use of prebiotics in the treatment of intestinal diseases remains insufficiently investigated. To our knowledge, this study makes the first attempt to evaluate the effect of prebiotic supplementation on gastrointestinal symptoms and nutritional status of children with CD. We hypothesized that adherence to a GFD supplemented with oligofructose-enriched inulin (Synergy 1) would deliver health benefits to children suffering from CD without any side effects, and that it would alleviate intestinal inflammation, restore and stabilize gut microbial balance and reverse nutritional deficiencies through enhanced absorption of vitamins and minerals. A randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial was designed to assess the impact of the Synergy 1 on paediatric CD patients following a GFD. We randomized 34 children diagnosed with CD into an intervention group receiving 10 g of the Synergy 1 supplement daily and a placebo group (receiving maltodextrin) during a 12-week nutritional intervention. Selected biochemical parameters, nutritional status and the characteristics of faecal bacteria will be determined in samples collected before and after the intervention. Analysis of vitamins and amino acids concentration in biological fluids will allow to assess the dietary intake of crucial nutrients. The compliance to a GFD will be confirmed by a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ-6) and the analysis of serum anti-tissue transglutaminase and faecal gluten immunogenic peptides (GIP). The identification of the beneficial effects of the Synergy 1 supplement on children with CD could have important implications for nutritional recommendations for CD patients and

  5. Gluten-free but also gluten-enriched (gluten+) diet prevent diabetes in NOD mice; the gluten enigma in type 1 diabetes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Funda, David P.; Kaas, A.; Tlaskalová, Helena; Buschard, K.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 24, - (2007), s. 59-63 ISSN 1520-7552 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA5020405; GA ČR GA303/06/1329 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : gluten * gluten-free * type 1 diabetes Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.087, year: 2007

  6. Safety of Adding Oats to a Gluten-Free Diet for Patients With Celiac Disease: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Clinical and Observational Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto-Sánchez, María Inés; Causada-Calo, Natalia; Bercik, Premysl; Ford, Alexander C; Murray, Joseph A; Armstrong, David; Semrad, Carol; Kupfer, Sonia S; Alaedini, Armin; Moayyedi, Paul; Leffler, Daniel A; Verdú, Elena F; Green, Peter

    2017-08-01

    Patients with celiac disease should maintain a gluten-free diet (GFD), excluding wheat, rye, and barley. Oats might increase the nutritional value of a GFD, but their inclusion is controversial. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the safety of oats as part of a GFD in patients with celiac disease. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, and EMBASE databases for clinical trials and observational studies of the effects of including oats in GFD of patients with celiac disease. The studies reported patients' symptoms, results from serology tests, and findings from histologic analyses. We used the GRADE approach to assess the quality of evidence. We identified 433 studies; 28 were eligible for analysis. Of these, 6 were randomized and 2 were not randomized controlled trials comprising a total of 661 patients-the remaining studies were observational. All randomized controlled trials used pure/uncontaminated oats. Oat consumption for 12 months did not affect symptoms (standardized mean difference: reduction in symptom scores in patients who did and did not consume oats, -0.22; 95% CI, -0.56 to 0.13; P = .22), histologic scores (relative risk for histologic findings in patients who consumed oats, 0.24; 95% CI, 0.01-4.8; P = .35), intraepithelial lymphocyte counts (standardized mean difference, 0.21; 95% CI, reduction of 1.44 to increase in 1.86), or results from serologic tests. Subgroup analyses of adults vs children did not reveal differences. The overall quality of evidence was low. In a systematic review and meta-analysis, we found no evidence that addition of oats to a GFD affects symptoms, histology, immunity, or serologic features of patients with celiac disease. However, there were few studies for many endpoints, as well as limited geographic distribution and low quality of evidence. Rigorous double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized controlled trials, using commonly available oats sourced from

  7. Tests for Serum Transglutaminase and Endomysial Antibodies Do Not Detect Most Patients With Celiac Disease and Persistent Villous Atrophy on Gluten-free Diets: a Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvester, Jocelyn A; Kurada, Satya; Szwajcer, Andrea; Kelly, Ciarán P; Leffler, Daniel A; Duerksen, Donald R

    2017-09-01

    Tests to measure serum endomysial antibodies (EMA) and antibodies to tissue transglutaminase (tTG) were developed to screen for celiac disease in patients consuming gluten. However, they are commonly used to monitor patients on a gluten-free diet (GFD). We conducted a meta-analysis to assess the sensitivity and specificity of tTG IgA and EMA IgA assays in identifying patients with celiac disease who have persistent villous atrophy despite a GFD. We searched PUBMED, EMBASE, BIOSIS, SCOPUS, clinicaltrials.gov, Science Citation Index, and Cochrane Library databases through November 2016. Inclusion criteria were studies of subjects with biopsy-confirmed celiac disease, follow-up biopsies, and measurement of serum antibodies on a GFD, biopsy performed on subjects regardless of symptoms, or antibody test results. Our analysis excluded subjects with refractory celiac disease, undergoing gluten challenge, or consuming a prescribed oats-containing GFD. Tests were considered to have positive or negative findings based on manufacturer cut-off values. Villous atrophy was defined as a Marsh 3 lesion or villous height:crypt depth ratio below 3.0. We constructed forest plots to determine the sensitivity and specificity of detection for individual studies. For the meta-analysis, a bivariate random effects model was used to jointly model sensitivity and specificity. Our search identified 5408 unique citations. Following review of abstracts, 442 articles were reviewed in detail. Only 26 studies (6 of tTG assays, 15 of EMA assays, and 5 of tTG and EMA assays) met our inclusion criteria. The most common reason studies were excluded from our analysis was inability to cross-tabulate histologic and serologic findings. The serum assays identified patients with persistent villous atrophy with high levels of specificity: 0.83 for the tTG IgA assay (95% CI, 0.79-0.87) and 0.91 for the EMA IgA assay (95% CI, 0.87-0.94). However, they detected villous atrophy with low levels of sensitivity: 0

  8. Health-related quality of life in adolescents with screening-detected celiac disease, before and one year after diagnosis and initiation of gluten-free diet, a prospective nested case-referent study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nordyke Katrina

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Celiac disease (CD is a chronic disorder in genetically predisposed individuals in which a small intestinal immune-mediated enteropathy is precipitated by dietary gluten. It can be difficult to diagnose because signs and symptoms may be absent, subtle, or not recognized as CD related and therefore not prompt testing within routine clinical practice. Thus, most people with CD are undiagnosed and a public health intervention, which involves screening the general population, is an option to find those with unrecognized CD. However, how these screening-detected individuals experience the diagnosis and treatment (gluten-free diet is not fully understood. The aim of this study is to investigate the health-related quality of life (HRQoL of adolescents with screening-detected CD before and one year after diagnosis and treatment. Methods A prospective nested case-referent study was done involving Swedish adolescents who had participated in a CD screening study when they were in the sixth grade and about 12 years old. Screening-detected adolescents (n = 103 and referents without CD who participated in the same screening (n = 483 answered questionnaires at the time of the screening and approximately one year after the screening-detected adolescents had received their diagnosis that included the EQ-5D instrument used to measure health status and report HRQoL. Results The HRQoL for the adolescents with screening-detected CD is similar to the referents, both before and one year after diagnosis and initiation of the gluten-free diet, except in the dimension of pain at follow-up. In the pain dimension at follow-up, fewer cases reported problems than referents (12.6% and 21.9% respectively, Adjusted OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.27-0.94. However, a sex stratified analysis revealed that the significant difference was for boys at follow-up, where fewer screening-detected boys reported problems (4.3% compared to referent boys (18.8% (Adjusted OR 0

  9. Safety evaluation of transgenic low-gliadin wheat in Sprague Dawley rats: An alternative to the gluten free diet with no subchronic adverse effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozuna, Carmen Victoria; Barro, Francisco

    2017-09-01

    Gluten-associated pathologies have increased in recent years and there is a greater demand for low or gluten-free products. Transgenic low-gliadin wheat lines showed low T-cell response, good bread-making properties, and excellent sensory assets. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety of the whole-wheat flour from one transgenic low-gliadin line (named E82) in a 90-day feeding study. In this study males (n = 50) and females (n = 50) SD rats were used. They were fed with doses of 1.42, 2.83 and 5.67 g/kg/day of the transgenic E82 line, 5.67 g/kg/day of the WT and a blank group. We found that there were no significant differences in the development of animals. Biochemistry for liver and kidney function were similar for males and females of all groups. Other haematological and metabolic blood parameters, as well as organ weight did not show significant differences in the five groups of animals. In the histopathological study performed for the higher dose of transgenic E82 line, WT and blank group no abnormalities were observed. The whole-wheat flour of E82 line administered to rats at tested doses for 90 days did not have any adverse effects and there was no difference with the rats which ate WT wheat. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Effects of a Gluten-free Diet Versus a Hypocaloric Diet Among Patients With Fibromyalgia Experiencing Gluten Sensitivity-like Symptoms: A Pilot, Open-Label Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slim, Mahmoud; Calandre, Elena P; Garcia-Leiva, Juan M; Rico-Villademoros, Fernando; Molina-Barea, Rocio; Rodriguez-Lopez, Carmen M; Morillas-Arques, Piedad

    2017-07-01

    Patients with fibromyalgia frequently present with symptoms similar to those experienced by patients with gluten-related disorders, raising the possibility that a subgroup of these patients could be experiencing underlying gluten sensitivity. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a gluten-free diet (GFD) compared with a hypocaloric diet (HCD) among patients with fibromyalgia. Adult patients diagnosed with fibromyalgia were randomly allocated to receive a GFD or a HCD over a 24-week period. The primary outcome measure was the change in the number of gluten sensitivity symptoms. The following secondary outcomes were evaluated: body mass index, Revised Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Brief Pain Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory-II, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Short-Form Health Survey, Patient Global Impression Scale of Severity, Patient Global Impression Scale of Improvement, and adverse events. Seventy-five subjects were randomly allocated to receive either a GFD (n=35) or an HCD (n=40). The least squares mean change in the total number of gluten sensitivity symptoms from baseline did not differ significantly between the GFD and HCD groups (-2.44±0.40 for the GFD; -2.10±0.37 for the HCD; P=0.343). Similarly, the 2 dietary interventions did not differ in any of the remaining measured secondary outcomes. Both dietary interventions were well tolerated. Both dietary interventions were associated with similar beneficial outcomes in reducing gluten sensitivity symptoms and other secondary outcomes. However, despite its specificity, GFD was not superior to HCD in reducing the number of gluten sensitivity symptoms or secondary outcomes.

  11. RHEOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF GLUTEN-FREE DOUGH

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    Iva Burešová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic oscillation rheometry was used to determine the viscoelastic properties of gluten-free dough prepared from amaranth, chickpea, millet, corn, quinoa, buckwheat and rice flours. The viscoelastic properties was described by storage modulus G´, loss modulus G´´ and phase angle tg(δ. The relationship between viscoelastic properties of gluten-free dough and bread-making quality was evaluated. The results of this study indicated that dynamic oscillation rheometry may be used to differentiate the bread-making quality of gluten-free flour. Bread-making quality of gluten-free flour is the best characterised by curve slope of storage modulus G´and phase angle tg(δ while bread made from the flour with storage modulus and phase angle with non-linear slope in low deformation frequencies 0.01–0.10 Hz achieved the largest volume.

  12. What happens to food choices when a gluten-free diet is required? A prospective longitudinal population-based study among Swedish adolescent with coeliac disease and their peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautto, E; Rydén, P J; Ivarsson, A; Olsson, C; Norström, F; Högberg, L; Carlsson, A; Hagfors, L; Hörnell, A

    2014-01-01

    A dietary survey was performed during a large screening study in Sweden among 13-year-old adolescents. The aim was to study how the intake of food groups was affected by a screening-detected diagnosis of coeliac disease (CD) and its gluten-free (GF) treatment. Food intake was reported using a FFQ, and intake reported by the adolescents who were diagnosed with CD was compared with the intake of two same-aged referent groups: (i) adolescents diagnosed with CD prior to screening; and (ii) adolescents without CD. The food intake groups were measured at baseline before the screening-detected cases were aware of their CD, and 12-18 months later. The results showed that food intakes were affected by screen-detected CD and its dietary treatment. Many flour-based foods were reduced such as pizza, fish fingers and pastries. The results also indicated that bread intake was lower before the screened diagnosis compared with the other studied groups, but increased afterwards. Specially manufactured GF products (for example, pasta and bread) were frequently used in the screened CD group after changing to a GF diet. The present results suggest that changing to a GF diet reduces the intake of some popular foods, and the ingredients on the plate are altered, but this do not necessarily include a change of food groups. The availability of manufactured GF replacement products makes it possible for adolescents to keep many of their old food habits when diagnosed with CD in Sweden.

  13. Enrichment of dry mixes for gluten-free muffins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. P. Dombrovskaya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Now we are focusing on the production of food products that meet the modern requirements of quality and safety, the development of domestic production of food ingredients and production technologies, and specialized functional purpose. The interest for the modern confectionery manufacture are ready to dry semi-finished products - multi-component mixture, designed to produce a wide range of confectionery products like functional purpose and specialized. These mixtures are possible for use not only at home but also in production (capacity of small enterprises and public catering. Semi-finished bakery products are food concentrates and dry mixes are pre-preliminarily prepared foods: flour, sugar, milk, egg powder and other components for the preparation of various types of flour confectionery products – cakes, pies, cookies and others. One way to improve the quality and range of bakery is the use in the production of dry mixes that have a number of advantages compared with other types of materials. They contain minimal amounts of moisture, have a small volume and weight, and no active enzyme systems they contribute to a longer storage. This article discusses the development of a vital topic of gluten-free mix and improved assortment of gluten-free flour confectionery products for people with celiac disease and aspiring to a healthy diet. On getting products out experiments: determination of acidity and moisture performance of products, the study of organoleptic indicators of quality of the product. Received innovative gluten-free mixture of nutritional therapy.

  14. The Effect of Oligofructose-Enriched Inulin on Faecal Bacterial Counts and Microbiota-Associated Characteristics in Celiac Disease Children Following a Gluten-Free Diet: Results of a Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarocka-Cyrta, Elżbieta; Markiewicz, Lidia Hanna

    2018-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is associated with intestinal microbiota alterations. The administration of prebiotics could be a promising method of restoring gut homeostasis in CD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of prolonged oligofructose-enriched inulin (Synergy 1) administration on the characteristics and metabolism of intestinal microbiota in CD children following a gluten-free diet (GFD). Thirty-four paediatric CD patients (mean age 10 years; 62% females) on a GFD were randomized into two experimental groups receiving Synergy 1 (10 g/day) or placebo (maltodextrin; 7 g/day) for 3 months. The quantitative gut microbiota characteristics and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) concentration were analysed. In addition, side effects were monitored. Generally, the administration of Synergy 1 in a GFD did not cause any side effects. After the intervention period, Bifidobacterium count increased significantly (p < 0.05) in the Synergy 1 group. Moreover, an increase in faecal acetate and butyrate levels was observed in the prebiotic group. Consequently, total SCFA levels were 31% higher than at the baseline. The presented trial shows that Synergy 1 applied as a supplement of a GFD had a moderate effect on the qualitative characteristics of faecal microbiota, whereas it stimulated the bacterial metabolite production in CD children. PMID:29439526

  15. The Effect of Oligofructose-Enriched Inulin on Faecal Bacterial Counts and Microbiota-Associated Characteristics in Celiac Disease Children Following a Gluten-Free Diet: Results of a Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drabińska, Natalia; Jarocka-Cyrta, Elżbieta; Markiewicz, Lidia Hanna; Krupa-Kozak, Urszula

    2018-02-12

    Celiac disease (CD) is associated with intestinal microbiota alterations. The administration of prebiotics could be a promising method of restoring gut homeostasis in CD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of prolonged oligofructose-enriched inulin (Synergy 1) administration on the characteristics and metabolism of intestinal microbiota in CD children following a gluten-free diet (GFD). Thirty-four paediatric CD patients (mean age 10 years; 62% females) on a GFD were randomized into two experimental groups receiving Synergy 1 (10 g/day) or placebo (maltodextrin; 7 g/day) for 3 months. The quantitative gut microbiota characteristics and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) concentration were analysed. In addition, side effects were monitored. Generally, the administration of Synergy 1 in a GFD did not cause any side effects. After the intervention period, Bifidobacterium count increased significantly ( p < 0.05) in the Synergy 1 group. Moreover, an increase in faecal acetate and butyrate levels was observed in the prebiotic group. Consequently, total SCFA levels were 31% higher than at the baseline. The presented trial shows that Synergy 1 applied as a supplement of a GFD had a moderate effect on the qualitative characteristics of faecal microbiota, whereas it stimulated the bacterial metabolite production in CD children.

  16. Advances in gluten-free bread technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngemakwe, P H Nitcheu; Le Roes-Hill, M; Jideani, V A

    2015-06-01

    The unattractive appearance of gluten-free bread still remains a challenge in gluten-free breadmaking. In response to this, additives such as dairy products, soya and eggs have been used to improve the quality of gluten-free bread, but with limited success. In recent years, enzymes (transglutaminase and cyclodextrinase) and hydrocolloids (carboxymethylcellulose and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose) have become the main focus for the improvement of gluten-free bread. Transglutaminase has been shown to improve the dough viscoelasticity and decrease crumb hardness (6.84-5.73 N) of the resulting bread. Cyclodextrinase also enhances dough viscoelasticity, resulting in an improvement of 53% in shape index and crumb firmness. Similarly, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose improves gas retention and water absorption of dough and reduces crumb hardening rate of the resulting bread, while carboxymethylcellulose significantly increases dough elasticity (60-70 BU) and bread volume (230-267 cm(3)/100 g bread). © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  17. Treating autism spectrum disorder with gluten-free and casein-free diet: the underlying microbiota-gut-brain axis mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciéslińska, Anna; Kostyra, Elzbieta; Savelkoul, H.F.J.

    2017-01-01

    There is a rising interest in the use of dietary interventions to
    ameliorate prevalent brain diseases, including Autism Spectrum
    Disorder (ASD). Nowadays, the existence of communication between
    gut and brain is well accepted and thus diet can influence
    brain functioning. A well-known

  18. La salute del christifidelis celiaco tra dieta gluten free e invalidità delle ostie quibus glutinum ablatum est

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Di Iorio

    2015-04-01

    SOMMARIO: 1. L’Eucarestia: “augusto” strumento per la salute deichristifideles nell’economia della salvezza - 2. La transustanziazione - 3. La malattia celiaca e l’unico rimedio terapeutico: la dieta gluten free - 4. Ilchristifidelis affetto dalla sprue celiaca tra dieta gluten free e pane mere triticeus - 5. Prime disposizioni sul divieto dell’uso di ostie quibus glutinum ablatum est - 6. La particola con “una minima quantità di glutine” - 7. Le vigenti prescrizioni sulla validità della materia eucaristica e l’uso di ostie a basso contenuto di glutine - 8. La normativa sulla comunione dei celiaci tra sospetti e apprezzamenti - 9. Ultime precisazioni sull’uso del pane con poca quantità di glutine - 10. Conclusioni. The health of the christifidelis celiac between diet gluten free and invalidity of the hosts quibus glutinum ablatum est.  ABSTRACT: The communion of celiac has aroused the attention of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith for the direct connection between gluten, cause of the disease, and bread mere triticeus, precious element of the Eucharist. The complex matter concerns the impelling urgency to allow the christifidelis celiac to follow a super stricte gluten free diet, necessary way to the protection of his mental and physical health, without expelling him from the eucharistic banquet, indispensable instrument of salvation of his own soul. Therefore, in the saving mission of the Church called to the salus animarum of every man, without discriminating exclusions, direct specific norms are emanated to harmonize the dogmatic demands, connected to the Eucharestic, and the therapeutic needs related to mental and physical health of the faithful with the disease. Such norms have faced the validity of the eucharistic matter sealing the invalidity of the hosts quibus glutinum ablatum est, with a meaningful evolution, during the time. It stays, nevertheless, the suspect of an exhaustive solution of the question

  19. Effect of one year of a gluten-free diet on the clinical evolution of irritable bowel syndrome plus fibromyalgia in patients with associated lymphocytic enteritis: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, Luis; Blanco, Ignacio; Bobes, Julio; de Serres, Frederick J

    2014-08-27

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), lymphocytic enteritis (LE) and fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) are three common disorders. Since a gluten-free diet (GFD) has been shown to be helpful in LE, we aimed to assess its effect in a series of LE patients also diagnosed with IBS and FMS. The study sample comprised 97 IBS plus FMS adult females, of whom 58 had LE (Marsh stage 1), and 39 had a normal duodenal biopsy (Marsh stage 0). All patients fulfilled the Rome III and American College of Rheumatology 1990 criteria. All participants followed a GFD, the effectiveness of which was assessed by changes in the results of several tests, including those of the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), tender points (TPs), the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), and the Visual Analogue Scales (VAS) for gastrointestinal complaints, pain and fatigue. At baseline, all patients had a poor quality of life (QoL) and high VAS scores. After one year on a GFD, all outcome measures were somewhat better in the Marsh stage 1 group, with a mean decrease of 26 to 29% in the TPs, FIQ, HAQ and VAS scales, accompanied by an increase of 27% in the SF-36 physical and mental component scores. However, in the IBS plus FMS/Marsh stage 0 group, the GFD had almost no effect. This pilot study shows that a GFD in the LE-related IBS/FMS subgroup of patients can produce a slight but significant improvement in all symptoms. Our findings suggest that further studies of this subject are warranted.

  20. Cereal-Based Gluten-Free Food: How to Reconcile Nutritional and Technological Properties of Wheat Proteins with Safety for Celiac Disease Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Lamacchia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The gluten-free diet is, to date, the only efficacious treatment for patients with Celiac Disease. In recent years, the impressive rise of Celiac Disease incidence, dramatically prompted changes in the dietary habit of an increasingly large population, with a rise in demand of gluten-free products. The formulation of gluten-free bakery products presents a formidable challenge to cereal technologists. As wheat gluten contributes to the formation of a strong protein network, that confers visco-elasticity to the dough and allows the wheat flour to be processed into a wide range of products, the preparation of cereal-based gluten-free products is a process somehow difficult process. This review focuses on nutritional and technological quality of products made with gluten-free cereals available on the market. The possibility of using flour from naturally low toxic ancient wheat species or detoxified wheat for the diet of celiacs is also discussed.

  1. Cereal-based gluten-free food: how to reconcile nutritional and technological properties of wheat proteins with safety for celiac disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamacchia, Carmela; Camarca, Alessandra; Picascia, Stefania; Di Luccia, Aldo; Gianfrani, Carmen

    2014-01-29

    The gluten-free diet is, to date, the only efficacious treatment for patients with Celiac Disease. In recent years, the impressive rise of Celiac Disease incidence, dramatically prompted changes in the dietary habit of an increasingly large population, with a rise in demand of gluten-free products. The formulation of gluten-free bakery products presents a formidable challenge to cereal technologists. As wheat gluten contributes to the formation of a strong protein network, that confers visco-elasticity to the dough and allows the wheat flour to be processed into a wide range of products, the preparation of cereal-based gluten-free products is a somehow difficult process. This review focuses on nutritional and technological quality of products made with gluten-free cereals available on the market. The possibility of using flour from naturally low toxic ancient wheat species or detoxified wheat for the diet of celiacs is also discussed.

  2. Learn about gluten-free diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nutrients like these: Calcium Fiber Folate Iron Niacin Riboflavin Thiamin To get all the vitamins and minerals you need, eat a variety of healthy foods. Working with your provider or a dietitian can ...

  3. Gluten-Free Diet Guide for Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rack to avoid contamination. • Clean counter tops and cutting boards often to remove gluten-containing crumbs. • Cooking ... used may not be a healthy alternative. Good nutrition is also important as you select foods in ...

  4. Refractory iron-deficiency anemia and gluten intolerance: Response to gluten-free diet Anemia ferropénica refractaria e intolerancia al gluten: respuesta a la dieta sin gluten

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    Luis Rodrigo-Sáez

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: refractory iron-deficiency anemia has a multifactorial origin related to various gastrointestinal conditions, with celiac disease plus malabsorption and IBD together with isolated gluten intolerance being most common. Objectives: to determine the prevalence of serum, genetic, and histological markers for gluten intolerance, and to analyze the response to gluten withdrawal from the diet in these patients. Methods: a number of patients with refractory anemia were prospectively and consecutively enrolled. A protocol to measure serum (TGt-2, genetic (HLA-DQ2/DQ8, and histological markers for celiac disease was applied. All followed a gluten-free diet for a median 3.6 years. Sustained remission of anemia during follow-up was interpreted as positive response. Results: ninety-eight patients (84% females with a mean age of 54 years were studied. Anti-TGt2 antibodies were positive in 5% of cases. A total of 67 cases (68% were haplotype HLA-DQ2 or -DQ8 (+. We found villous atrophy (Marsh III in 13% of patients, and an inflammatory pattern (Marsh I or II in 13%. All remaining 72 patients (74% had no histological duodenal changes. Age, anemia duration, number of transfusions, number of parenteral iron doses, and time on a gluten-free diet were all compared according to the presence or absence of villous atrophy and HLA-DQ2/8 positivity, and no significant differences were found for any of the analyzed variables. Response was positive in 92% of subjects. Conclusions: celiac disease with villous atrophy is rarely a cause of refractory anemia. Gluten intolerance with no histological lesions is seen in almost 75% of patients, and therefore plays a relevant role in its development.Introducción: la anemia ferropénica refractaria presenta un origen multifactorial, relacionado con diversas enfermedades digestivas, siendo las más frecuentes la enfermedad celiaca con malabsorción y la EII junto con la intolerancia al gluten aislada. Objetivos

  5. Restaurant Dining: Seven Tips for Staying Gluten Free

    Science.gov (United States)

    GiG Education Bulletin Restaurant Dining: Seven Tips for Staying Gluten-Free Updated May 2014 Tips for Dining Away from Home 1. Selection of eating establishment. • Your success at gluten-free dining will be determined by a number of factors, including the ...

  6. BUCKWHEAT AS A GLUTEN-FREE CEREAL IN COMBINATION WITH MAIZE FLOUR

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    Stanislav Kráčmar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder of the small intestine that occurs in genetically predisposed people of all ages. Symptoms include chronic diarrhoea, and fatigue. The only treatment is long life diet with absence of gluten. Many researches concerning gluten-free nutrition have been done but it is still a big challenge. The main aim of this work was to observe changes in gluten-free breads quality made from maize-buckwheat mixtures depending on ratio of maize and buckwheat flour. To obtain samples, bread baking test was applied and these were provided to analyses (dough and pastry yield, baking loss, specific volume and texture analysis. The results showed that rising amount of maize flour in mixtures improved texture characteristics such as chewiness and gumminess, concerning specific volume of breads no significant differences were found and it was proved, that all texture parameters deteriorate with staling time.

  7. Cereals for developing gluten-free products and analytical tools for gluten detection

    OpenAIRE

    Rosell, Cristina M.; Barro Losada, Francisco; Sousa Martín, Carolina; Mena, M. Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Recently, gluten free foods have attracted much research interest motivated by the increasing market. Despite the motivation for developing gluten-free foods it is necessary to have a scientific basis for developing gluten-free foods and the tools for detecting the peptide sequence that could be immune-toxic to some persons. This review will be focused primarily on the cereal-based commodities available for developing gluten free blends, considering naturally gluten-free cereals in addition t...

  8. Biochemical and immunochemical evidences supporting the inclusion of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) as a gluten-free ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñas, Elena; Uberti, Francesca; di Lorenzo, Chiara; Ballabio, Cinzia; Brandolini, Andrea; Restani, Patrizia

    2014-12-01

    To date, the only acceptable therapeutic approach for celiac disease (CD) is a strict elimination from the diet of gluten-containing foods, but this diet does not always guarantee an adequate nutritional intake. Pseudocereals are receiving considerable attention as interesting alternatives for the formulation of gluten-free products, and quinoa grains arise as nutritive substitutes of conventional cereals. The aim of this study was the characterization of different quinoa samples corresponding to 11 quinoa varieties, using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblotting techniques to assess their suitability for celiac subjects. Some of these varieties were grown in Italy to assess if the reproduction in a new habitat can guarantee the retention of the "safe" protein pattern. None of the quinoa varieties studied presented protein bands with electrophoretic mobility comparable with those of wheat gliadins, the toxic protein for celiac subjects. All the quinoa samples showed a low binding affinity for both specific anti-gliadin antibodies and IgAs from celiac subjects, confirming that quinoa can be considered as a safe ingredient for celiac patients. However, reliable varieties should be previously selected since the immuno cross-reactivity with anti-gliadin antibodies can vary significantly.

  9. Plant use in the medicinal practices known as "strict diets" in Chazuta valley (Peruvian Amazon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Biset, Jaume; Cañigueral, Salvador

    2011-09-01

    Strict diets are traditional medicinal practices where plant remedies are consumed with nearly fasting and with some sort of social seclusion. The aim of this work was to describe these practices of Chazuta and the use of plants within, as well as to analyse the possible functions of the last. The information was obtained through interviews to the 6.3% of the district rural adult population (140 individuals, 75% of which was considered Quechua). In total, 122 strict diets were recorded and 106 different plant species were reported to be used. Strict diets present a characteristic structure and plant use. The main effects reported in strict diets were antinflammatory, antiinfective, brain function alteration and depuration. Strict diets are well structured traditional medicinal practices, also with a symbolic significance in the life cycle of chazutian men. Plants used in strict diets can contribute to the main effects through antinflammation, antiinfective actions, psychoactivity and depurative related activities. The correlation between literature evidence of activity of most used plants and effects reported for the correspondent diet (i.e. in which the plant was used) are 36% for antinflammatory activity, 29% for antimicrobial activity, 18% for psychoactivity and 5% for depurative related activities. The percentages go to 77%, 64%, 73% and 32%, respectively, when literature evidences on related taxa are also considered. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Eating, Diet, and Nutrition for Celiac Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to a new approach to eating. Is a gluten-free diet safe if I don't have celiac disease? ... she will put you on a gluten-free diet. Gluten-free food labeling requirements The U.S. Food and Drug ...

  11. Evolution of Gluten Content in Cereal-Based Gluten-Free Products: An Overview from 1998 to 2016

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    María Ángeles Bustamante

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of Celiac disease consists in a strict lifelong gluten-free (GF diet. As the ingestion of small amounts can have damaging complications, there has been an ongoing discussion regarding the safe threshold for dietary residual gluten. The aim was to analyze the evolution of gluten content in cereal-based GF foodstuffs (n = 3141 from 1998 to 2016 measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA technique. Eight categories were defined: flours, breakfast cereals/bars, bakery, pasta, breads, dough, snacks, and yeasts, and these were divided into GF labeled-foods (GF-L or reportedly GF foodstuffs, but not certified (GF-NC. Gluten-detection was decreased over time in line with the evolving European regulations about food information and gluten content claims. This decline started sooner in GF-L products than in GF-NC. As a whole, gluten was detected in 371 samples, with breakfast cereals/bars being the most contaminated group. Snacks and yeasts changed from being high gluten-detected samples to being totally GF over the years. The downside is that, of contaminated samples, those in the low levels of gluten detection range have decreased while flour samples containing over 100 mg/kg gluten have risen in the 2013–2016 period. Obtained data confirm that GF cereal-based foods are becoming safer but gluten control must be maintained.

  12. Starch Characteristics Linked to Gluten-Free Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan W. Horstmann

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The increasing prevalence of coeliac disease (CD and gluten-related disorders has led to increasing consumer demand for gluten-free products with quality characteristics similar to wheat bread. The replacement of gluten in cereal-based products remains a challenge for scientists, due to its unique role in network formation, which entraps air bubbles. When gluten is removed from a flour, starch is the main component left. Starch is used as gelling, thickening, adhesion, moisture-retention, stabilizing, film forming, texturizing and anti-staling ingredient. The extent of these properties varies depending on the starch source. The starches can additionally be modified increasing or decreasing certain properties of the starch, depending on the application. Starch plays an important role in the formulation of bakery products and has an even more important role in gluten-free products. In gluten-free products, starch is incorporated into the food formulation to improve baking characteristics such as the specific volume, colour and crumb structure and texture. This review covers a number of topics relating to starch; including; an overview of common and lesser researched starches; chemical composition; morphology; digestibility; functionality and methods of modification. The emphasis of this review is on starch and its properties with respect to the quality of gluten-free products.

  13. State of the art in gluten-free research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Norah; Arendt, Elke; Gallagher, Eimear

    2014-06-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is widespread and is often under diagnosed. It can affect a variety of genetically susceptible people from the young to the old. Presently, the only treatment for celiac patients is lifelong avoidance of any food, drink, sauce, or dressing containing gluten. Scientists and technologists continue in their quest to improve the quality of gluten-free products. Their main goal is to create a product of a similar standard to the gluten-containing products, currently on the market. However, the quality of these products still tends to be poor. Bread products have a low volume, pale crust, crumbly texture, bland flavor and a high rate of staling. Other gluten-free products contain minimal nutrition and substandard product characteristics, for example, pasta having an inferior texture, sauces which separate more easily. The main focus of this review is to discuss the most recent advances in gluten-free research which have arisen between the years 2011 and 2013. In particular, the manuscript focuses on ingredients and processing methods which have been documented to develop or improve the processing characteristics and nutritional properties of gluten-free products. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  14. Quinoa ancient whole grain gluten-free snacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four kinds of whole grain gluten-free low fat and salt quinoa snacks were evaluated. The snacks were Quinoa, Quinoa-Pepper, Quinoa-Ginger and Quinoa-Turmeric. In the Asian cuisines ginger and turmeric are very common. Ginger has been reported to improve blood flow and prevent joint pains. Turmer...

  15. Sensory evaluation of gluten-free quinoa whole grain snacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinoa gluten-free whole grain low fat and salt snacks were evaluated. The snacks were Quinoa, Quinoa-Cayenne Pepper, Quinoa-Ginger and Quinoa-Turmeric. Cayenne pepper, ginger and turmeric are common spices that contain health promoting nutrients. Cayenne pepper has been associated with enhancing ...

  16. Starch Characteristics Linked to Gluten-Free Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horstmann, Stefan W; Lynch, Kieran M; Arendt, Elke K

    2017-04-06

    The increasing prevalence of coeliac disease (CD) and gluten-related disorders has led to increasing consumer demand for gluten-free products with quality characteristics similar to wheat bread. The replacement of gluten in cereal-based products remains a challenge for scientists, due to its unique role in network formation, which entraps air bubbles. When gluten is removed from a flour, starch is the main component left. Starch is used as gelling, thickening, adhesion, moisture-retention, stabilizing, film forming, texturizing and anti-staling ingredient. The extent of these properties varies depending on the starch source. The starches can additionally be modified increasing or decreasing certain properties of the starch, depending on the application. Starch plays an important role in the formulation of bakery products and has an even more important role in gluten-free products. In gluten-free products, starch is incorporated into the food formulation to improve baking characteristics such as the specific volume, colour and crumb structure and texture. This review covers a number of topics relating to starch; including; an overview of common and lesser researched starches; chemical composition; morphology; digestibility; functionality and methods of modification. The emphasis of this review is on starch and its properties with respect to the quality of gluten-free products.

  17. Increased Mercury Levels in Patients with Celiac Disease following a Gluten-Free Regimen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Elli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim. Although mercury is involved in several immunological diseases, nothing is known about its implication in celiac disease. Our aim was to evaluate blood and urinary levels of mercury in celiac patients. Methods. We prospectively enrolled 30 celiac patients (20 treated with normal duodenal mucosa and 10 untreated with duodenal atrophy and 20 healthy controls from the same geographic area. Blood and urinary mercury concentrations were measured by means of flow injection inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Enrolled patients underwent dental chart for amalgam fillings and completed a food-frequency questionnaire to evaluate diet and fish intake. Results. Mercury blood/urinary levels were 2.4±2.3/1.0±1.4, 10.2±6.7/2.2±3.0 and 3.7±2.7/1.3±1.2 in untreated CD, treated CD, and healthy controls, respectively. Resulting mercury levels were significantly higher in celiac patients following a gluten-free diet. No differences were found regarding fish intake and number of amalgam fillings. No demographic or clinical data were significantly associated with mercury levels in biologic samples. Conclusion. Data demonstrate a fourfold increase of mercury blood levels in celiac patients following a gluten-free diet. Further studies are needed to clarify its role in celiac mechanism.

  18. Fundamental Study on the Impact of Gluten-Free Starches on the Quality of Gluten-Free Model Breads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan W. Horstmann

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Starch is widely used as an ingredient and significantly contributes to texture, appearance, and overall acceptability of cereal based foods, playing an important role due to its ability to form a matrix, entrapping air bubbles. A detailed characterisation of five gluten-free starches (corn, wheat, rice, tapioca, potato was performed in this study. In addition, the influence of these starches, with different compositional and morphological properties, was evaluated on a simple gluten-free model bread system. The morphological characterisation, evaluated using scanning electron microscopy, revealed some similarities among the starches, which could be linked to the baking performance of the breads. Moreover, the lipid content, though representing one of the minor components in starch, was found to have an influence on pasting, bread making, and staling. Quality differences in cereal root and tuber starch based breads were observed. However, under the baking conditions used, gluten-free rendered wheat starch performed best, followed by potato starch, in terms of loaf volume and cell structure. Tapioca starch and rice starch based breads were not further analysed, due to an inferior baking performance. This is the first study to evaluate gluten-free starch on a simple model bread system.

  19. Trends in the development of gluten-free bakery products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena BADIU

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Food intolerance became an important public health concern, and identification of effective strategies for prevention is required. There is an increasing incidence of coeliac disease or other allergic reactions/intolerances to gluten, so the coeliac disease became one of the most common food intolerances. This intolerance can be present at any age, from early childhood to elderly. The present paper presents an overview of the results/approaches of the latest scientific investigations on gluten-free products based on (i the use of different gluten-free base flours (rice, maize, sorghum, oat, buckwheat, amaranth, quinoa, teff; (ii the use of different ingredients/additives (starches, dairy products, egg proteins, dietary fibre, gum and hydrocolloids for improving nutritional quality and consumer acceptability; (iii developing alternative technologies such as enzymatic or sourdough technology and high hydrostatic pressure processing.

  20. Sensory evaluation of gluten-free quinoa whole grain snacks

    OpenAIRE

    Kahlon, Talwinder S.; Avena-Bustillos, Roberto J.; Chiu, Mei-Chen M.

    2016-01-01

    Sensory evaluation of quinoa gluten-free whole grain low fat and salt snacks was conducted. The snacks were Quinoa, Quinoa-Cayenne Pepper, Quinoa-Ginger and Quinoa-Turmeric. Cayenne pepper, ginger and turmeric are common spices that contain health promoting nutrients. Cayenne pepper has been associated with enhancing heat production. Ginger has been reported to improve blood flow and prevent joint pains. Turmeric has been observed to have wound healing potential. All the snacks contained 6% c...

  1. QUALITY OF GLUTEN-FREE BUCKWHEAT-RICE BREAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Dvořáková

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In case of celiac disease the products containing gluten must be excluded from the nutrition. The offer of gluten-free products (especially pastry is low and in addition the gluten-free breads are typical of dry crust and crumb and higher firmness in comparison with wheat bread. This work deals with gluten-free mixtures prepared from buckwheat and rice flour and the effect of rising amount of these flours on bread quality, crumb hardness, elasticity, chewiness and gumminess. With rising portion of buckwheat flour in the mixture the bread volume, dough and bread yield increased. The biggest improvement was found for mean bread volume (30% between the samples FO 1090 (166.7 cm3 and FO 9010 (216.7 cm3. The texture analysis showed positive effect of rice flour on hardness, chewiness and gumminess. Hardness decreased from 114.5 N (F 100 to 91.3 N (FO 1090. Very similar results showed chewiness and gumminess. Chewiness of F 100 (314.0 was reduced by 32.5% to 212.2 at the sample FO 1090. Gumminess was improved almost linearly through the samples, the biggest difference (44.3% was found between the check sample F 100 (88.3 and FO 1090 (49.7.

  2. The Success Rate of Initial {sup 131I} Ablation in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: Comparison Between Less strict and Very Strict Low Iodine Diets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Ik Dong; Kim, Sung Hoon; Seo, Ye Young; Oh, Jin Kyoung; O, Joo Hyun; Chung, Soo Kyo [The Catholic Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    To decrease the risk of recurrence or metastasis in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), selected patients receive radioactive iodine ablation of remnant thyroid tissue or tumor. A low iodine diet can enhance uptake of radioactive iodine. We compared the success rates of radioactive iodine ablation therapy in patients who followed two different low iodine diets (LIDs). The success rates of postsurgical radioactive iodine ablation in DTC patients receiving empiric doses of 150 mCi were retrospectively reviewed. First-time radioactive iodine ablation therapy was done in 71 patients following less strict LID. Less strict LID restricted seafood, iodized salt, egg yolk, dairy products, processed meat, instant prepared meals, and multivitamins. Very strict LID additionally restricted rice, freshwater fish, spinach, and soybean products. Radioactive iodine ablation therapy was considered successful when follow up {sup 123I} whole body scan was negative and stimulated serum thyroglobulin level was less than 2.0 ng/mL. The success rate of patients following less strict LID was 80.3% and for very strict LID 75.6%. There was no statistically significant difference in the success rates between the two LID groups (P=0.48). Very strict LID may not contribute to improving the success rate of initial radioactive iodine ablation therapy at the cost of great inconvenience to the patient.

  3. Gluten-free is not enough--perception and suggestions of celiac consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento, Amanda Bagolin; Fiates, Giovanna Medeiros Rataichesck; dos Anjos, Adilson; Teixeira, Evanilda

    2014-06-01

    The present study investigated the perceptions of individuals with celiac disease about gluten-free (GF) products, their consumer behavior and which product is the most desired. A survey was used to collect information. Descriptive analysis, χ² tests and Multiple Logistic Regressions were conducted. Ninety-one questionnaires were analyzed. Limited variety and availability, the high price of products and the social restrictions imposed by the diet were the factors that caused the most dissatisfaction and difficulty. A total of 71% of the participants confirmed having moderate to high difficulty finding GF products. The logistic regression identified a significant relationship between dissatisfaction, texture and variety (p dissatisfaction with GF products. The desire for bread with better sensory characteristics reinforces the challenge to develop higher quality baking products.

  4. [Gluten-free cookies prepared with sorghum flour].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues Ferreira, Sila Mary; Luparelli, Paola Cordeiro; Schieferdecker, Maria Eliana Madalozzo; Vilela, Regina Maria

    2009-12-01

    Considering that sorghum is a gluten free flour, it could be proposed as an ingredient to produce alternative bakery products for the subjects with Celiac Disease, since they do not have many food options available in the market. For this reason, the main goal of this study is to develop chocolate cookies with sorghum flour (Sorghum vulgare). The experimental design used was the simplex-lattice factor to compare the following variables: sorghum flour (50-100%), rice flour (0-50%) and corn starch (0-50%), totaling up to ten experiments. The formulations IX and X were selected as the ones with the highest sensorial scores The sorghum flour, regular chocolate cookies and gluten free cookies were submitted to physicochemical analysis. Physical and sensorial analysis using Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA) and hedonic analysis were performed for the two cookies preparation. Sorghum flour presented characteristics compared with the described by the food regulation laws. The preparations that presented satisfactory sensorial characteristics were the ones that had 58 and 67% of sorghum flour, 8 and 17% of rice flour, 33 and 17% of corn starch, respectively. The performance for both IX and X formulations was 0,92 and the specific volume was 1,54 and 1.46 cm3/g, respectively. When compared with regular cookies, the differences on most of the sensorial attributes evaluated on sorghum cookies were not statistically significant (P cookies.

  5. quality of corn-field bean gluten-free pasta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dib Ahlem

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Corn semolina supplemented by field bean semolina in ratio of 2/1 (w/w were used for obtaining protein and fiber enriched gluten-free pasta. The effect of hydrothermal treatment of corn flour on its applicability as gluten-free pasta improver was tested. A central composite design involving water hydration level and the amount of hydrothermal treated corn flour were used. Instrumental analyses of pasta (cooking loss, water absorption capacity, hydration and pasting properties, textural parameters and microstructure were carried out to assess the impact of experimental factors. Results showed that hydrothermal treatment of corn flour affected in different extent on pasta properties, improving cooking and textural characteristics of pasta. The optimum formulation of corn-field bean contained 7.41 g of treated corn flour and 77.26 mL of water was selected on the base of desirability function approach with value of 0.825 which showed the best pasta properties. Obtained results showed also that addition of treated flour induced significant differences (p < 0.05 in all parameters in comparison with control pasta.

  6. Multivariate study and regression analysis of gluten-free granola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Maria Pagamunici

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study developed a gluten-free granola and evaluated it during storage with the application of multivariate and regression analysis of the sensory and instrumental parameters. The physicochemical, sensory, and nutritional characteristics of a product containing quinoa, amaranth and linseed were evaluated. The crude protein and lipid contents ranged from 97.49 and 122.72 g kg-1 of food, respectively. The polyunsaturated/saturated, and n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratios ranged from 2.82 and 2.59:1, respectively. Granola had the best alpha-linolenic acid content, nutritional indices in the lipid fraction, and mineral content. There were good hygienic and sanitary conditions during storage; probably due to the low water activity of the formulation, which contributed to inhibit microbial growth. The sensory attributes ranged from 'like very much' to 'like slightly', and the regression models were highly fitted and correlated during the storage period. A reduction in the sensory attribute levels and in the product physical stabilisation was verified by principal component analysis. The use of the affective test acceptance and instrumental analysis combined with statistical methods allowed us to obtain promising results about the characteristics of gluten-free granola.

  7. Divergent changes in serum sterols during a strict uncooked vegan diet in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agren, J J; Tvrzicka, E; Nenonen, M T; Helve, T; Hänninen, O

    2001-02-01

    The effects of a strict uncooked vegan diet on serum lipid and sterol concentrations were studied in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The subjects were randomized into a vegan diet group (n 16), who consumed a vegan diet for 2-3 months, or into a control group (n 13), who continued their usual omnivorous diets. Serum total and LDL-cholesterol and -phospholipid concentrations were significantly decreased by the vegan diet. The levels of serum cholestanol and lathosterol also decreased, but serum cholestanol:total cholesterol and lathosterol:total cholesterol did not change. The effect of a vegan diet on serum plant sterols was divergent as the concentration of campesterol decreased while that of sitosterol increased. This effect resulted in a significantly greater sitosterol:campesterol value in the vegan diet group than in the control group (1.48 (SD 0.39) v. 0.72 (SD 0.14); P vegan diet changes the relative absorption rates of these sterols and/or their biliary clearance.

  8. 76 FR 46671 - Food Labeling; Gluten-Free Labeling of Foods; Reopening of the Comment Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ... proposed to define the term ``gluten-free'' for the voluntary use in the labeling of foods to mean that the... level to define the food labeling term ``gluten-free'' (72 FR 2795 at 2803). Based upon the analytical... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 101 [Docket No...

  9. Gluten-Free Diet: Nutrition and Healthy Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the small intestine. Studies show that the immune system plays a role, but the process isn't well-understood. Gluten ataxia, an autoimmune disorder, affects certain nerve tissues and causes ... result of the immune system mistaking gluten or some other protein found in ...

  10. Gluten-free diet prevents diabetes in NOD mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Funda, David P.; Kaas, A.; Bock, T.; Tlaskalová, Helena; Buschard, K.

    1999-01-01

    Roč. 15, - (1999), s. 323-327 ISSN 1520-7552 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA306/98/0433; GA ČR GA311/97/0784; GA MZd NI5051; GA AV ČR IAA7020716; GA AV ČR IAA7020808 Institutional research plan: CEZ:A53/98:Z5-020-9ii Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.417, year: 1999

  11. Legumes as Functional Ingredients in Gluten-Free Bakery and Pasta Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foschia, Martina; Horstmann, Stefan W; Arendt, Elke K; Zannini, Emanuele

    2017-02-28

    The increasing demand for gluten-free food products from consumers has triggered food technologists to investigate a wide range of gluten-free ingredients from different sources to reproduce the unique network structure developed by gluten in a wheat-dough system. In recent times, the attention has been focused on novel application of legume flour or ingredients. The interest in this crop category is mainly attributed to their functional properties, such as solubility and water-binding capacity, which play an important role in gluten-free food formulation and processing. Their nutritional profile may also counteract the lack of nutrients commonly highlighted in commercial gluten-free bakery and pasta products, providing valuable sources of protein, dietary fiber, vitamins, minerals, and complex carbohydrates, which in turn have a positive impact on human health. This review reports the main chemical and functional characteristics of legumes and their functional application in gluten-free products.

  12. Structural analysis of gluten-free doughs by fractional rheological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orczykowska, Magdalena; Dziubiński, Marek; Owczarz, Piotr

    2015-02-01

    This study examines the effects of various components of tested gluten-free doughs, such as corn starch, amaranth flour, pea protein isolate, and cellulose in the form of plantain fibers on rheological properties of such doughs. The rheological properties of gluten-free doughs were assessed by using the rheological fractional standard linear solid model (FSLSM). Parameter analysis of the Maxwell-Wiechert fractional derivative rheological model allows to state that gluten-free doughs present a typical behavior of viscoelastic quasi-solid bodies. We obtained the contribution dependence of each component used in preparations of gluten-free doughs (either hard-gel or soft-gel structure). The complicate analysis of the mechanical structure of gluten-free dough was done by applying the FSLSM to explain quite precisely the effects of individual ingredients of the dough on its rheological properties.

  13. Sensory evaluation of gluten-free quinoa whole grain snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlon, Talwinder S; Avena-Bustillos, Roberto J; Chiu, Mei-Chen M

    2016-12-01

    Sensory evaluation of quinoa gluten-free whole grain low fat and salt snacks was conducted. The snacks were Quinoa, Quinoa-Cayenne Pepper, Quinoa-Ginger and Quinoa-Turmeric. Cayenne pepper, ginger and turmeric are common spices that contain health promoting nutrients. Cayenne pepper has been associated with enhancing heat production. Ginger has been reported to improve blood flow and prevent joint pains. Turmeric has been observed to have wound healing potential. All the snacks contained 6% corn oil and 2% salt. Snack dough was prepared using 120 mL water for 100 g dry ingredients. About 20 g of snack dough was placed on center of preheated KrumKake Express Baker and cooked for 2 min. Seventy in-house volunteers judged Color/Appearance of Quinoa, Quinoa-Cayenne Pepper and Quinoa-Ginger snacks significantly ( p ≤ 0.05) higher than Quinoa-Turmeric snacks. Odor/Aroma of Quinoa-Ginger snacks was significantly higher than other snacks tested. Texture/Mouth-feel of Quinoa-Cayenne Pepper, Quinoa-Ginger and Quinoa-Turmeric snacks was similar and significantly higher than Quinoa snacks. Taste/Flavor and Acceptance was similar in four kinds of snacks tested. Water activity of all the snacks tested ranged from 0.41-0.55 suggesting that these snacks were crispy with good antimicrobial stability. These snacks would be quite filling due to their expansion of 2.6-3.1 times due to high porosity. Acceptance of snacks tested was Quinoa 79%, Quinoa-Cayenne Pepper 77%, Quinoa-Ginger 73% and Quinoa-Turmeric 70%. These snacks contained only 3-4 ingredients and could be made in any house kitchen or commercial production. Acceptance of 70-79% is very desirable. These healthy nutritious gluten-free quinoa snacks offer choice for all including vegetarians and individuals hypersensitive to gluten.

  14. Sensory evaluation of gluten-free quinoa whole grain snacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talwinder S. Kahlon

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sensory evaluation of quinoa gluten-free whole grain low fat and salt snacks was conducted. The snacks were Quinoa, Quinoa-Cayenne Pepper, Quinoa-Ginger and Quinoa-Turmeric. Cayenne pepper, ginger and turmeric are common spices that contain health promoting nutrients. Cayenne pepper has been associated with enhancing heat production. Ginger has been reported to improve blood flow and prevent joint pains. Turmeric has been observed to have wound healing potential. All the snacks contained 6% corn oil and 2% salt. Snack dough was prepared using 120 mL water for 100 g dry ingredients. About 20 g of snack dough was placed on center of preheated KrumKake Express Baker and cooked for 2 min. Seventy in-house volunteers judged Color/Appearance of Quinoa, Quinoa-Cayenne Pepper and Quinoa-Ginger snacks significantly (p ≤ 0.05 higher than Quinoa-Turmeric snacks. Odor/Aroma of Quinoa-Ginger snacks was significantly higher than other snacks tested. Texture/Mouth-feel of Quinoa-Cayenne Pepper, Quinoa-Ginger and Quinoa-Turmeric snacks was similar and significantly higher than Quinoa snacks. Taste/Flavor and Acceptance was similar in four kinds of snacks tested. Water activity of all the snacks tested ranged from 0.41–0.55 suggesting that these snacks were crispy with good antimicrobial stability. These snacks would be quite filling due to their expansion of 2.6–3.1 times due to high porosity. Acceptance of snacks tested was Quinoa 79%, Quinoa-Cayenne Pepper 77%, Quinoa-Ginger 73% and Quinoa-Turmeric 70%. These snacks contained only 3–4 ingredients and could be made in any house kitchen or commercial production. Acceptance of 70–79% is very desirable. These healthy nutritious gluten-free quinoa snacks offer choice for all including vegetarians and individuals hypersensitive to gluten.

  15. Celiac disease and school food service in Piedmont Region: Evaluation of gluten-free meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioletti, L; Capuano, M T; Vietti, F; Cesari, L; Emma, L; Leggio, K; Fransos, L; Marzullo, A; Ropolo, S; Strumia, C

    2016-01-01

    least 3 parameters. Schools with a good self-control plan have a significant correlation with schools suitable for the analysis process, instead schools appeared insufficient in the process analysis have an increased chance of being insufficient also in the distribution of meals. The schools that provide a transported meal (municipalities highly populated, generally) have many differences in distribution of meals respect schools that prepare food in the school kitchen. In fact, 88% of school that provide a transported meal achieved an appropriate score in distribution of meals section and collected fewer failures in overall assessment than the others. 120 structures are included in the indirect comparison between the checklist's sections with criticisms, during years 2010 and 2012: in 2010 32% of schools were recorded acceptable in all of the eight sections of the checklist and in 2012 this percentage rose to 54%. An improvement can be observed in all areas, but a statistical significant result do not turn out. Data show that carry on the control activities of production of gluten free meal in school canteens would be appropriate. Actions focused on improving the methods of preparing meal without gluten were recommended, especially in under populated municipalities with school kitchen on site. The constant presence of ASL staff in school has promoted important changes: cultural change and about the management of allergy and food intolerance. An improvement can be observed: a transition from a suspicion about "special diet" management to an appropriate and responsible management of meals for children and young people suffering from this specific condition.

  16. Effects of gluten-free breads, with varying functional supplements, on the biochemical parameters and antioxidant status of rat serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świeca, Michał; Reguła, Julita; Suliburska, Joanna; Złotek, Urszula; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula

    2015-09-01

    This paper examines the effects of gluten-free bread enriched with functional ingredients (milk powder, poppy, sunflower and pumpkin seeds, egg yolk, carum, hazel nuts and amaranth) on the morphological and biochemical parameters and antioxidant status of rats serum. Rats were provided test diets--gluten-free breads and water ad libitum. After 14 days, the animals were weighed and killed. A hazel nut-amaranth bread diet significantly increased the level of thrombocytes when compared to control bread. A mixed bread diet significantly decreased cholesterol levels in rats. All fortified breads decreased triglyceride levels and alanine transaminase activity and caused an increase in antiradical activity of the serum. In rats fed with poppy-milk bread, milk-seed bread and mixed bread, a marked decrease in superoxide dismutase activity was found. Enriched breads reduced the levels of triglyceride and improved the antiradical properties of serum, although the physiological relevance of this needs to be confirmed by human studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of partial substitution of gluten-free flour mixtures with chia (Salvia hispanicaL.) flour on quality of gluten-free noodles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levent, Hacer

    2017-06-01

    In this study, chia seed flour (CSF) was used in gluten-free noodle formulation at different levels (0, 10, 20 and 30%, w/w) with and without diacetyl tartaric esters of mono (and di) glycerides (DATEM). Chemical, nutritional, sensory properties and cooking quality of gluten-free noodle samples were investigated. Protein, fat, antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of gluten-free noodles increased by 1.7, 5.5, 2.6 and 2.0 times at 30% usage level of CSF as compared to control sample. Phytic acid and phytate phosphorus content increased from 168.30 mg/100 g and 47.46 mg/100 g to 1057.69 mg/100 g and 298.27 mg/100 g, respectively with CSF usage. Increase of CSF level in gluten-free noodle samples caused an expected increase in the amounts of Ca, P, K, Mg, Fe and Zn. Noodle samples containing CSF showed darker colour than control. Significant increase was observed in volume increase and weight increase values with CSF addition. DATEM reduced cooking loss values of noodle samples. The use of CSF improved the gluten-free noodles taste and odor score. As a result, 20% of CSF with DATEM can be used in gluten-free noodle formulation with acceptable sensory attributes of raw and cooked samples. The present results showed that CSF had a good potential to improve the nutritional quality of noodle.

  18. Nutritional and sensory challenges of gluten-free bakery products: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stantiall, Sophie E; Serventi, Luca

    2017-09-28

    There is a growing need for gluten-free bakery products. Currently, gluten-free bakery products deliver lower protein, fibre and mineral content and elevated glycaemic index (GI) than gluten-containing foods. Only a mixture of rice and buckwheat flour or a low addition of either egg white or whey protein, has shown potential for the improvement of both nutrition and sensory qualities. To increase the fibre content, isolated cereal fibre and soluble fibre isolates have been incorporated into gluten-free formulations with some sensory success. Studies have shown that the GI of modern gluten-free products is no longer a major concern with the improvement of ingredient formulations and processing methods. The currently low mineral content can be increased with the use of mineral-rich ingredients such as amaranth, buckwheat or flaxseed flour. Nonetheless, consumers still show a preference to refined, low fibre breads over wholegrain fibre-rich bread.

  19. Celiac disease, wheat allergy, and gluten sensitivity: when gluten free is not a fad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietzak, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    As the gluten-free diet (GFD) gains in popularity with the general public, health practitioners are beginning to question its real health benefits. For those patients with celiac disease (CD), the GFD is considered medical nutrition therapy, as well as the only proven treatment that results in improvements in symptomatology and small bowel histology. Those with wheat allergy also benefit from the GFD, although these patients often do not need to restrict rye, barley, and oats from their diet. Gluten sensitivity is a controversial subject, where patients who have neither CD nor wheat allergy have varying degrees of symptomatic improvement on the GFD. Conditions in this category include dermatitis herpetiformis (DH), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and neurologic diseases such as gluten-sensitive ataxia and autism. It is important for patients and healthcare practitioners to understand the differences between these conditions, even though they may all respond to a GFD. Patients with CD can experience comorbid nutrition deficiencies and are at higher risk for the development of cancers and other autoimmune conditions. Those with wheat allergy and gluten sensitivity are thought not to be at higher risk for these complications. Defining the symptoms and biochemical markers for gluten-sensitive conditions is an important area for future investigations, and high-quality, large-scale randomized trials are needed to prove the true benefits of the GFD in this evolving field.

  20. Development of fibre-enriched gluten-free bread: a response surface methodology study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabanis, Dimitrios; Lebesi, Dimitra; Tzia, Constantina

    2009-01-01

    The enrichment of gluten-free (GF) baked products with dietary fibre (DF) seems to be necessary since it has been reported that coeliac patients have generally a low intake of DF due to their GF diet. Response surface methodology was used to optimize a fibre-enriched GF bread formulation based on corn starch, rice flour and hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose. Maize fibre and water were the predictor variables (factors), and loaf specific volume, crumb firmness and crumb L value were the dependent variables (responses) used to assess the product quality. The optimal formulation, determined from the data, contained 6.5% maize fibre and 102.5% water, starch/flour base. The developed mathematical models for the measured responses could be successfully used for their prediction during baking. Shelf-life study of the optimized formulation revealed that bread stored under modified atmosphere packaging exhibited lower crumb firmness and moisture content values, and thus remained softer through storage. Scanning electron microscopy of the crumb showed a continuum matrix between starch and maize fibre, in the optimized formulation, obtaining a more aerated structure.

  1. Doença celíaca: avaliação da obediência à dieta isenta de glúten e do conhecimento da doença pelos pacientes cadastrados na Associação dos Celíacos do Brasil (ACELBRA Celiac disease: evaluation of compliance to a gluten-free diet and knowledge of the disease in celiac patients registered at the Brazilian Celiac Association (BCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lucia SDEPANIAN

    2001-10-01

    . Conclusões - Quanto maior o grau de conhecimento da doença e seu tratamento, maior a obediência à dieta isenta de glúten.Background — The compliance to a gluten-free diet may prevent the development of both non-malignant and malignant complications. Aim - To evaluate compliance to a gluten-free diet and knowledge of the disease in celiac patients registered at the Brazilian Celiac Association (BCA. Methods - A structured questionnaire was designed to assess compliance to a gluten-free diet as well as knowledge of the celiac disease. It was mailed to 584 members of BCA. Results - Five hundred and twenty nine (90.6% of a total of 534 (91.4% answered questionnaires were analyzed; 69.4% were classified as compliant patients whereas 29.5% were classified as noncompliant. The proportion of patients age 21 or older who consume gluten frequently or without any restriction is larger (17.7% than those who were younger than 21 years (9.9%. Frequency of dietary compliance was higher when the diagnosis had taken less than 5 years to be established; 82% of the patients replied that the small intestine was the part of the body affected by the disease. The most common symptoms of the disease according to the answers were diarrhea (96.6%, weight loss (93.4%, protuberant abdomen (90.4%, anemia (68.1% and vomiting (59.6%. Only 59.0% agreed with the existence of genetic predisposition; 90.4% answered that the disease is permanent and 96.2% stated that the diet should exclude gluten absolutely; 67.1% answered that the gluten is a protein and according to 92.1% questionnaires this protein is present in wheat, rye, barley and oat. Greater compliance was observed when there was an understanding of the disease and diet. The small intestine biopsy was considered necessary for just 67.5% of the patients, and greater compliance was observed in patients who had undergone at least one small intestine biopsy. Conclusion - Our findings indicate that the more the patients know and understand about

  2. Development of gluten-free bread formulations containing whole chia flour with acceptable sensory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandri, Luciana T B; Santos, Fernanda G; Fratelli, Camilly; Capriles, Vanessa D

    2017-09-01

    Increasing the variety of better-tasting and healthier gluten-free products is important for consumers with gluten-related disorders. This work aimed to develop a gluten-free bread formulation containing whole chia flour with acceptable sensory properties. A mixture design for three ingredients and response surface methodology were used to identify the proportions of potato starch, rice flour and whole chia flour to achieve the best physical properties and result in sensory-accepted products. The physical properties and visual appearance showed that whole chia flour alone is not suitable for bread production. Nevertheless, it is possible to add up to 14% whole chia flour to a rice flour-based gluten-free bread formulation while negligibly diminishing the loaf volume, crumb firmness and crumb moisture. The best formulations were prepared from rice flour blends with 5, 10, and 14% whole chia flour, which received overall acceptability scores of 8.7, 8.1 and 7.9 on a 10-cm scale, respectively, similar to those of their white gluten-free bread and wheat bread counterparts. Incorporating 5%-14% whole chia flour in the formulation increased the levels of ash, lipid, protein and dietary fiber compared to those of the white gluten-free bread.

  3. Catering Gluten-Free When Simultaneously Using Wheat Flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kathryn; McGough, Norma; Urwin, Heidi

    2016-02-01

    A European law on gluten-free (GF) labeling came into force in 2012, covering foods sold prepacked and in food service establishments, and a similar U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulation covers GF labeling from August 2014. Gluten is found in the grains wheat, rye, and barley. A common source of gluten in the kitchen is wheat flour. This research aimed to determine variables that have a significant effect on gluten contamination in commercial kitchens when wheat flour is in use and to establish controls necessary to assure GF production. A pilot study was used to test the following hypotheses: (i) increasing duration of exposure to wheat flour would increase gluten contamination, (ii) increasing distance between the site of preparation and the site of wheat flour would reduce gluten contamination, (iii) the use of a ventilation hood would decrease gluten contamination, and (iv) the use of a barrier segregating the site of preparation of a GF meal and the use of wheat flour would decrease gluten contamination. Petri dishes containing GF rice pudding were placed in three directions at increasing distances (0.5 to 2 m) from a site of wheat flour use. A barrier was in place between a third of samples and the site of wheat flour. After wheat flour was handled for 0.5 and 4.0 h, petri dishes were sealed and the contents were analyzed for gluten. The experiment was duplicated with the ventilation hood on and off. The pilot study revealed that a distance of 2 m from the use of wheat flour was required to control gluten contamination at ≤20 ppm if wheat flour had been in use for 4.0 h. The identified control of distance was tested in five different study sites. In each of the study sites, a test meal was prepared a minimum of 2 m away from the site of wheat flour use. Although kitchens vary and must be considered individually, the established control of a minimum 2 m distance, along with good hygiene practices, was found to be effective in preparing GF meals

  4. Regulatory framework for "gluten-free" foods in India: Magic bullet for celiac disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puja Dudeja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Coeliac disease (CD remains largely unrecognized and actual burden is much more than reported or diagnosed. The treatment essentially remains ′gluten free′ foods. Adulteration of these foods with gluten can occur anywhere in the chain from farm to fork. The current Food Safety and Standards Regulations (FSSR 2011 brought a ray of hope for CD patients by including prevention of contamination of food with gluten and labeling of gluten-free items under regulatory framework. The definition of "gluten-free" includes food items containing <20 ppm of gluten. These guidelines are at par with those given in USA and Canada. These regulations provide a reference point for manufacturers, physicians, and CD patients and ensure easy availability, accessibility, and identification of "gluten-free" food items. This step forward by Government of India constitutes the first comprehensive step taken toward management of the disease.

  5. Antioxidant Capacity, Mineral Content and Sensory Properties of Gluten-Free Rice and Buckwheat Cookies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenka Pestorić

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Light buckwheat flour was used to substitute rice fl our at the level of 10, 20 and 30 % to produce gluten-free cookies. The substitution of gluten-free cookie formulation with light buckwheat fl our contributed to the signifi cantly higher mineral content, especially magnesium, potassium, iron and copper, in comparison with the control rice cookies (p<0.05. Gluten-free cookies made with rice fl our and buckwheat fl our exhibited signifi cantly higher total phenolic and rutin content, scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl 2-picrylhydrazyl radicals (DPPH•, antioxidant activity and reducing power than the control cookies (p<0.05. Comparing all evaluated sensory properties, cookies containing 20 % of light buckwheat flour had the most acceptable sensory properties. The obtained results of principal component analysis showed that the cookies with 20 and 30 % buckwheat flour had better antioxidant and sensory properties in comparison with other two cookie samples.

  6. THE INFLUENCE OF GLUTEN - FREE FLOURS ON THE QUALITY INDICATORS OF BISCUIT SEMI - FINISHED PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    К. G. IORGACHOVA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the research of applicability of gluten-free flours from cereal crops and from by-products of cereal crop processing - ground crumbs sifted out in a process of flake production from rice, corn and millet during the production of biscuit semi-finished products. Taking into account that viscosity is an important technological characteristic of foam-like biscuit dough, as it determines foam strength and dispersed medium stability, the influence of gluten-free flours on the structural and rheological properties of biscuit dough was studied. It is determined that the substitution of wheat flour for cereal flours leads to viscosity reduction of the dough as a consequence of absence of gluten-forming proteins in them. A comparative analysis of changes in viscous properties of biscuit dough based on flour from flakes crumb while warming it up to 60°C with dough based on cereal flours and dough based on wheat flour was held. It is shown that the presence of partially gelatinized starch granules in flour from flake crumb, as a result of technological peculiarities of their extraction, promotes greater demonstration of thickening properties already at the initial stage of baking than in cereal flours. This leads to an increase of dough viscosity and formation of desired rheological characteristics, which provide the porous structure of finished products. To provide the high quality of gluten-free biscuit semi-finished products, the recipe composition of gluten-free biscuit semi-finished product, based on flour mixture from millet flakes crumb, corn and rice flour, was optimized by using the method of mathematical design of experiments.  The porosity indicator was chosen as the criteria for the evaluation of influence of proportion of gluten-free flours on the quality of biscuit semi-finished products. The response surfaces of dependency of biscuit porosity from mass ratio of recipe components in the composite mixture were

  7. Nutritionally recommended food for semi- to strict vegetarian diets based on large-scale nutrient composition data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seunghyeon; Fenech, Michael F; Kim, Pan-Jun

    2018-03-12

    Diet design for vegetarian health is challenging due to the limited food repertoire of vegetarians. This challenge can be partially overcome by quantitative, data-driven approaches that utilise massive nutritional information collected for many different foods. Based on large-scale data of foods' nutrient compositions, the recent concept of nutritional fitness helps quantify a nutrient balance within each food with regard to satisfying daily nutritional requirements. Nutritional fitness offers prioritisation of recommended foods using the foods' occurrence in nutritionally adequate food combinations. Here, we systematically identify nutritionally recommendable foods for semi- to strict vegetarian diets through the computation of nutritional fitness. Along with commonly recommendable foods across different diets, our analysis reveals favourable foods specific to each diet, such as immature lima beans for a vegan diet as an amino acid and choline source, and mushrooms for ovo-lacto vegetarian and vegan diets as a vitamin D source. Furthermore, we find that selenium and other essential micronutrients can be subject to deficiency in plant-based diets, and suggest nutritionally-desirable dietary patterns. We extend our analysis to two hypothetical scenarios of highly personalised, plant-based methionine-restricted diets. Our nutrient-profiling approach may provide a useful guide for designing different types of personalised vegetarian diets.

  8. Evaluation of gluten-free amaranth and navy bean flour blends on quality of sugar cookies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluten free sugar cookies were made from amaranth (Salvia hispanica L.) and navy bean flours of different ratios. The physical properties of flour blends, dough, and cookies were evaluated. This study found that navy bean and its blends with amaranth had higher water holding capacities (WHC) compare...

  9. Preparation of gluten-free bread using a meso-structured whey protein particle system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riemsdijk, van L.E.; Goot, van der A.J.; Hamer, R.J.; Boom, R.M.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a novel method for making gluten-free bread using mesoscopically structured whey protein. The use of the meso-structured protein is based on the hypothesis that the gluten structure present in a developed wheat dough features a particle structure on a mesoscopic length scale

  10. Correlation analysis of protein quality characteristics with gluten-free bread properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horstmann, S W; Foschia, M; Arendt, E K

    2017-07-19

    The interest in gluten-free cereal products has increased significantly over the last number of years and there is still a high demand for high quality products. This study aims to establish possible connections between protein properties and dough and bread quality which could advance the knowledge for gluten-free product development. The objective of the present study was to correlate protein properties with bread characteristics. Therefore, a wide range of tests (solubility, emulsifying, foaming, water hydration properties) was performed to characterize a range of food proteins (potato, pea, carob, lupin and soy). Furthermore, the performance of these proteins in a dough matrix (pasting, rheology) and bread formulation (volume, structure, and texture) was analysed. Statistical analysis showed significant (p bread characteristics. The addition of the proteins to the gluten-free bread formulation affected pasting rheological and bread characteristics such as crumb density, crumb hardness and specific volume. The addition of potato and soy protein resulted in the lowest volume with a dense crumb structure and a low consumer acceptance score. However, lupin, pea and carob containing gluten-free breads had a higher specific volume and softer and less dense crumb structure. The protein solubility (r, 0.89; p bread quality.

  11. Physical and antioxidant properties of gluten-free bread enriched with carob fibre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Różyło, Renata; Dziki, Dariusz; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula; Biernacka, Beata; Wójcik, Monika; Ziemichód, Alicja

    2017-07-01

    There are no reports of addition of carob fibre to gluten-free bread, as only carob germ flour was used. The research task was to determine what level of carob fibre can be used and how it influences the physical and sensorial properties of gluten-free bread. Especially, the knowledge of the antioxidant properties of such bread is very valuable. The gluten-free bread from rice, corn, and buckwheat flour (35:35:30%) was prepared after mixing (5 min), proofing (40 min, 30°C), and baking (45-50 min, 230°C) of dough. Carob fibre was added in the amounts of 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5% of the total flour content. The results showed that increased content of carob fibre induced significant and favourable changes in the volume, colour, and texture (hardness and springiness) of the bread crumb. Carob fibre enriched the breads with lipophilic compounds able to chelate metal ions. The activity of hydrophilic compounds was significantly higher in the case of control bread and bread with the lowest percentage of the additive. In conclusion, the highest increase in antioxidant activity was found for breads with 1 and 2% of carob fibre. The most acceptable gluten-free bread can be obtained by adding up to 2% of carob.

  12. Physical properties of gluten free sugar cookies containing teff and functional oat products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teff-oat composites were developed using gluten free teff flour containing essential 15 amino acids with oat products containing ß-glucan, known for lowering blood cholesterol and improving texture. The teff-oat composites were used in sugar cookies for improving nutritional and physical properties....

  13. Effect of tiger nut-derived products in gluten-free batter and bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Núria; Albanell, Elena; Miñarro, Begoña; Guamis, Buenaventura; Capellas, Marta

    2015-07-01

    Tiger nut is a tuber used to produce tiger nut milk that yields a high quantity of solid waste, which can be dried and used as fiber source. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the quality of gluten-free bread formulated with different tiger nut-derived products in order to substitute soya flour (which is an allergen ingredient) and, at the same time, increase the use of tiger nut-derived products. Four gluten-free formulations based on corn starch and containing tiger nut milk, tiger nut milk by-product, tiger nut flour, or soya flour (as reference formulation) were studied. Tiger nut milk increased G' of gluten-free batter and rendered breads with the softest crumb (502.46 g ± 102.05), the highest loaf-specific volume (3.35 cm(3)/g ± 0.25), and it was mostly preferred by consumers (61.02%). Breads elaborated with tiger nut flour had similar characteristics than soya flour breads (except in color and crumb structure). The addition of tiger nut milk by-product resulted in a hard (1047.64 g ± 145.74) and dark (L(*)  = 70.02 ± 3.38) crumb bread, which was the least preferred by consumers. Results showed that tiger nut is a promising ingredient to formulate gluten-free baked products. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Ancient whole grain Gluten-free egg-free Teff, Buckwheat, Quinoa and Amaranth pasta (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report demonstrates innovative ancient whole grain, gluten-free, egg-free pasta (no chemicals added) made using a kitchen counter-top appliance. Whole grain, fusilli pasta was prepared with teff, buckwheat, quinoa and amaranth flours. These ancient grains are called “Super Foods” due to thei...

  15. Teff, buckwheat, quinoa and amaranth: Ancient whole grain gluten-free egg-free pasta

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report demonstrates innovative ancient whole grains, gluten-free, egg-free pasta (no chemicals added) made using a kitchen counter-top appliance. Whole grain, fusilli pasta was prepared with teff, buckwheat, quinoa and amaranth flours. These ancient grains are called “Super Foods” due to thei...

  16. Application of extruded broken bean flour for formulation of gluten-free cake blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana de Oliveira Froes Gomes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the physical and microbiological characteristics of extruded broken beans flour, in addition to developing mixtures for gluten-free cake with these flours, evaluating their technological and sensory quality. Gluten-free formulations were prepared with 45%, 60% and 75% of extruded broken beans. All analyzes of the flours and mixtures for cakes were performed according to standard techniques found in the literature. Sensory analyzes of cakes applied the 9-point structured hedonic scale. Results were submitted to variance analysis and comparison of means test (Tukey, p<0.05. The use of extruded broken beans improved the water absorbed and water solubility index of the mixtures for gluten-free cake, and for the lower viscosity and retrogradation when compared to the standard formulation. All cakes were accepted (rate ≥ 7 for all the analyzed attributes. From the technological and sensory standpoints, the development of gluten-free cake mixtures is feasible with up to 75% of extruded broken beans.

  17. Dynamic viscoelasticity of protease-treated rice batters for gluten-free rice bread making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Yuji; Inoue, Nanami; Sugimoto, Reina; Matsumoto, Kenji; Koda, Tomonori; Nishioka, Akihiro

    2018-03-01

    Papain (cysteine protease), subtilisin (Protin SD-AY10, serine protease), and bacillolysin (Protin SD-NY10, metallo protease) increased the specific volume of gluten-free rice breads by 19-63% compared to untreated bread. In contrast, Newlase F (aspartyl protease) did not expand the volume of the rice bread. In a rheological analysis, the viscoelastic properties of the gluten-free rice batters also depended on the protease categories. Principal component analysis (PCA) analysis suggested that the storage and loss moduli (G' and G″, respectively) at 35 °C, and the maximum values of G' and G″, were important factors in the volume expansion. Judging from the PCA of the viscoelastic parameters of the rice batters, papain and Protin SD-AY10 improved the viscoelasticity for gluten-free rice bread making, and Protin SD-NY effectively expanded the gluten-free rice bread. The rheological properties differed between Protin SD-NY and the other protease treatments.

  18. Application of Dairy Proteins as Technological and Nutritional Improvers of Calcium-Supplemented Gluten-Free Bread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupa-Kozak, Urszula; Bączek, Natalia; Rosell, Cristina M.

    2013-01-01

    Effect of dairy proteins on gluten-free dough behavior, and nutritional and technological properties of gluten-free bread was evaluated. Experimental doughs, containing dairy powders, showed low consistency. Obtained gluten-free breads were rich in proteins, and, regarding the energy value delivered by proteins, they could be considered as a source of proteins or high in proteins. Applied dairy proteins affected the technological properties of experimental breads causing a significant (p bread with beneficial effects on technological and nutritional properties. PMID:24241213

  19. Antioxidant Capacity, Mineral Content and Sensory Properties of Gluten-Free Rice and Buckwheat Cookies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakač, Marijana; Pestorić, Mladenka; Mišan, Aleksandra; Nedeljković, Nataša; Jambrec, Dubravka; Jovanov, Pavle; Banjac, Vojislav; Torbica, Aleksandra; Hadnađev, Miroslav; Mandić, Anamarija

    2015-03-01

    Light buckwheat flour was used to substitute rice flour at the level of 10, 20 and 30% to produce gluten-free cookies. The substitution of gluten-free cookie formulation with light buckwheat flour contributed to the significantly higher mineral content, especially magnesium, potassium, iron and copper, in comparison with the control rice cookies (pcookies made with rice flour and buckwheat flour exhibited significantly higher total phenolic and rutin content, scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals (DPPH • ), antioxidant activity and reducing power than the control cookies (pcookies containing 20% of light buckwheat flour had the most acceptable sensory properties. The obtained results of principal component analysis showed that the cookies with 20 and 30% buckwheat flour had better antioxidant and sensory properties in comparison with other two cookie samples.

  20. Gluten contamination in gluten-free bakery products: a risk for coeliac disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farage, Priscila; de Medeiros Nóbrega, Yanna Karla; Pratesi, Riccardo; Gandolfi, Lenora; Assunção, Pedro; Zandonadi, Renata Puppin

    2017-02-01

    The present study aimed to assess the safety of gluten-free bakery products for consumption by coeliac patients. Design/setting In the current exploratory cross-sectional quantitative study, a total of 130 samples were collected from twenty-five bakeries in Brasilia (Brazil). For the quantification of gluten, an ELISA was used. The threshold of 20 ppm gluten was considered as the safe upper limit for gluten-free food, as proposed in the Codex Alimentarius. The results revealed a total of 21·5 % of contamination among the bakery products sampled. Sixty-four per cent of the bakeries sold at least one contaminated product in our sample. These findings represent a risk for coeliac patients since the ingestion of gluten traces may be sufficient to adversely impact on their health.

  1. Improving gluten-free bread quality by enrichment with acidic food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Carlos A; Ronda, Felicidad; Pérez, Blanca; Pando, Valentín

    2011-08-01

    An experimental design has been developed to improve gluten-free bread formulation, on the basis of rice flour and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) as alternative baking ingredients. In order to improve the quality of gluten-free bread, several levels of acidic food additives (acetic acid, lactic acid, citric acid and monosodium phosphate) have been tested. The influence of these compounds on the dough and on bread properties has been determined, including a hedonic sensory test of appearance, odour, taste and texture of bread. Results suggest that monosodium phosphate yields bread producing better texture scores, associated with the highest volumes of the loaf. Discussions are made on the basis of CO2 transport pathway across the HPMC network and simultaneous interactions with acidic food additives present. Chemical properties of the acids justify the bread's alveolus size and the preservative effects of acetic acid in the dough. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Application of Dairy Proteins as Technological and Nutritional Improvers of Calcium-Supplemented Gluten-Free Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina M. Rosell

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Effect of dairy proteins on gluten-free dough behavior, and nutritional and technological properties of gluten-free bread was evaluated. Experimental doughs, containing dairy powders, showed low consistency. Obtained gluten-free breads were rich in proteins, and, regarding the energy value delivered by proteins, they could be considered as a source of proteins or high in proteins. Applied dairy proteins affected the technological properties of experimental breads causing a significant (p < 0.05 increase of the specific volume, crust darkening, and crumb lightness, depending on the dairy supplementation level, rather than the protein type. Dairy proteins incorporated at a 12% level, significantly (p < 0.05 decreased the hardness; nevertheless, the highest amount of proteins tested led to the opposite effect. These results indicate that milk proteins tested could be successfully added to gluten-free bread with beneficial effects on technological and nutritional properties.

  3. Quality characteristics of gluten free cookies prepared from different flour combinations

    OpenAIRE

    Rai, Sweta; Kaur, Amarjeet; Singh, Baljit

    2011-01-01

    The present investigation was undertaken on the utilization of alternate flours/meals (rice (Oryza sativa), maize (Zea mays), sorghum (Sorghum vulgare) and pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) for the preparation of gluten free cookies as compared to conventional wheat (Triticum aestivum) flour cookies. The physicochemical parameters, sensory qualities and functional properties of flours/cookies were studied and compared with control cookies. The blend of maize and pearl millet had best pasting ...

  4. Formulation of gluten-free flour culinary products of high nutritional value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. P. Dombrovskaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the production of gluten-free foods that are necessary for people suffering from this disease as celiac disease. The article reveals the relevance of developing recipes for gluten-free foods, which are not inferior to traditional in many respects. Classic recipes gluten-free bakery products, mainly based on rice, buckwheat, corn flour, which have little nutritional value. In this regard, the current development of technologies and formulations pastry dishes with use of nonconventional vegetable raw materials rich in dietary fibers, proteins and other beneficial substances that improve the biological and nutritional value of these products. The paper describes the formulation of gluten-free muffins, was based on the recipe of the cake "Capital". The main raw material for the new compositions of selected rice flour, and as enriching additives – flax flour and flour from the eggshell. Was conducted baking tests on the basis of which was chosen percentage of the input substances and the assessment of quality of semifinished and finished products. The quality of semi-finished products was evaluated by such indicators as humidity and the microstructure of the test. The quality of finished products was assessed using organoleptic and physical-chemical parameters, the results presented in the tables. Investigated the antioxidant activity of products. Produced sensometrical evaluation of aroma of control and experimental samples. Calculated chemical composition. The content of protein, vitamins, mineral substances in the experimental sample is significantly increased compared to control. Making flour egg shell has achieved the ratio of Ca-Mg-P as close to a perfect 1:0,39:1,53 Replacement of wheat flour with flaxseed and rice flour and the introduction of egg shell improve the amino acid composition of the product. The biological value increased by 2.3%.

  5. Modelling the effects of orange pomace using response surface design for gluten-free bread baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, N; Rößle, C; Arendt, E; Gallagher, E

    2015-01-01

    The development of gluten-free bread creates many challenges; producing bread that will match the properties of its wheat counterpart can be difficult. Fruit by-products are know from literature to contain a high level of dietary fibre which could improve the bread properties and fibre contents of gluten-free bread. Therefore, a mathematical design was created; three variables were identified from preliminary tests (water (85-100% flour weight, OP 0-8% flour weight and proofing time 35-100 min) as being crucial in the development of acceptable bread. Results illustrated longer proofing times (pbaking. The optimised formulation was calculated to contain 5.5% OP, 94.6% water and a proofing time of 49 min. Total fibre content of the control bread (2.1%) was successfully increased t o 3.9% in the OP containing bread. Substituting gluten-free flours with orange pomace flour can help improve the total dietary intake of a coeliac while not negating on the quality properties of the bread. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of different iron compounds on wheat and gluten-free breads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiskini, Alexandra; Kapsokefalou, Maria; Yanniotis, Stavros; Mandala, Ioanna

    2010-05-01

    Iron fortification of bread often results in sub-optimal quality of the final product due to undesirable changes in the physical characteristics and sensory properties of the bread. In this study both the form of iron (soluble, insoluble or encapsulated) and the type of bread (wheat or gluten-free) were varied in order to investigate the effect of iron and gluten on the product characteristics. The effect of iron on the quality characteristics of the breads investigated depended on iron type, but not on iron solubility. Colour, crust firmness, specific volume, cell number and uniformity as well as aroma were the attributes that were mainly affected in iron-enriched wheat bread. In some cases, specific volume was 30% lower than that of the control sample, while cell uniformity was significantly lower, as low as 50% of the control sample in some fortified samples. In gluten-free breads, differences between unfortified and fortified samples included colour, crust firmness, cell number, 'moisture' odour, metallic taste and stickiness. In some cases, the sensory scores were better for fortified samples. Differences due to iron fortification were less pronounced in gluten-free compared to wheat breads. The choice of the appropriate iron compound which will not cause adverse quality changes is still a challenge.

  7. Mimicking gluten functionality with β-conglycinin concentrate: Evaluation in gluten free yeast-leavened breads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Ramírez, Johanan; Garzon, Raquel; Serna-Saldivar, Sergio O; Rosell, Cristina M

    2018-04-01

    Fractionation of soy proteins has proved to produce protein concentrates with viscoelastic properties. In the present study, a β-conglycinin concentrate (βCC) obtained by a pH fractionation of soy flour was tested as structuring agent in gluten-free yeast-leavened bread model. A lean formulation with βCC and corn starch was used to produce gluten-free breads with two hydration conditions and three levels of protein (5%, 10% and 15%). Vital gluten was used to compare the functionality of βCC protein and its performance for breadmaking. Breads were characterized in moisture, color, textural parameters and image analysis. βCC presented lower hydration properties and higher emulsifying activity compared to vital gluten. Blends βCC:starch had higher water binding capacity compared to vital gluten blends. The hydration conditions tested affected the moisture, color and cell density of breads. Breads produced with βCC presented higher 2D area and height and presented higher crumb softness and cohesiveness, and did not present significant differences in springiness and resilience compared to vital gluten breads. The image analysis of crumbs showed higher cell density but lower porosity and mean cell areas in βCC breads. Thus, βCC proved to have potential as a structuring agent in gluten-free breads. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Gluten-free snacks using plantain-chickpea and maize blend: chemical composition, starch digestibility, and predicted glycemic index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Silva, Pamela C; Rodriguez-Ambriz, Sandra L; Bello-Pérez, Luis A

    2015-05-01

    An increase in celiac consumers has caused an increasing interest to develop good quality gluten-free food products with high nutritional value. Snack foods are consumed worldwide and have become a normal part of the eating habits of the celiac population making them a target to improve their nutritive value. Extrusion and deep-frying of unripe plantain, chickpea, and maize flours blends produced gluten-free snacks with high dietary fiber contents (13.7-18.2 g/100 g) and low predicted glycemic index (28 to 35). The gluten-free snacks presented lower fat content (12.7 to 13.6 g/100 g) than those reported in similar commercial snacks. The snack with the highest unripe plantain flour showed higher slowly digestible starch (11.6 and 13.4 g/100 g) than its counterpart with the highest chickpea flour level (6 g/100 g). The overall acceptability of the gluten-free snacks was similar to that chili-flavored commercial snack. It was possible to develop gluten-free snacks with high dietary fiber content and low predicted glycemic index with the blend of the 3 flours, and these gluten-free snacks may also be useful as an alternative to reduce excess weight and obesity problems in the general population and celiac community. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  9. Macrocospic and physiochemical characterization of a sugarless and gluten-free cake enriched with fibers made from pumpkin seed (Cucurbita maxima, L. flour and cornstarch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Mesquita da Silva Gorgônio

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Consumers' interest for products with caloric reduction has increased, and their development is a technological challenge. The consumption of cakes has grown in importance and the demand for dietary products has stimulated the use of sweeteners and the optimization of bakery products. The consumption of fibers is related to chronic diseases prevention. Pumpkin seeds (maximum Cucurbita, L., rich in fibers, can be used as a source of fiber in food products. A gluten-free diet is not easy to follow since gluten free products are not always available. The objective of this work was to perform a physicochemical characterization of cakes prepared with flours blends (FB based on Pumpkin Seed Flour (PSF. The cakes were elaborated with FB in the ratios of 30:70 (C30 and 40:60 (C40 of PSF and cornstarch (CS, respectively. The results showed gluten absence and near-neutral pH. The chemical analysis of C30 and B40 showed increase of ashes, lipids, proteins, and insoluble dietary fiber and a decrease in the content of carbohydrates and calories. The chemical composition of C40 presented the greatest content of lipids, proteins, and dietary fibers, the lowest content of calories, and the best physical parameters. Therefore, both products proved suitable for human consumption.

  10. The influence of gluten-free bakery products consumption on selected anthropometric parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Gažarová

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of a short-term consumption (six weeks of gluten-free bakery products on the anthropometric parameters. The study group was composed of volunteers from the general population and consisted of 30 healthy adults. The amount of bakery product was determined as follows: women consumed 150 - 200 grams per day; men 200 - 250 grams per day. Anthropometric measurements were made by using InBody 720, we received data such as body weight, Body Mass Index (BMI and Waist-to-Hip Ratio (WHR, which we evaluated the presence of overweight and obesity in the monitored groups. We also observed visceral fat area (VFA. We found out that the 6-week consumption of gluten-free bread and bakery products showed a significant reduction in body weight and BMI (p <0.01, but also to a significant increase in VFA (p <0.05. By the impact of consumption we recorded the increase of body weight and BMI in 70% of participants (in 30% there was slight increase, decrease of WHR in 33% (increase in 43% and decrease of VFA in 43% (increase in 57%. For other participants, the values remained unchanged. Two months after the termination of the consumption of gluten-free products we found out the increase of body weight and BMI, WHR remained unchanged, however in the case of VFA showed significant increase of values. We can summarize that dietary habits play a crucial role in the development of overweight and obesity and the consumption of bread and bakery products can also affect it. However, the overall effect of bread and bakery consumption on the development of overweight depends on many factors, such as the composition of the bread and bakery products and the presence of gluten.

  11. Effect of Ingredients on the Quality of Gluten-Free Sorghum Pasta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palavecino, Pablo Martín; Bustos, Mariela Cecilia; Heinzmann Alabí, María Belén; Nicolazzi, Melani Solange; Penci, María Cecilia; Ribotta, Pablo Daniel

    2017-09-01

    Sorghum is an underutilized cereal in human food production, despite its flour being a potential gluten-free (GF) source in the development of several foods. Thus, the aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the effects and interactions of different ingredients on cooking quality and texture of GF pasta. Egg albumen (A), egg powder (E), xanthan gum (X), and pregelatinized corn starch (P) were used as ingredients, and Box-Behnken experimental design was applied to study the effects of these ingredients on pasta cooking behavior, color, and texture attributes. Responses were fitted to a second order polynomial equation, and multivariable optimization was performed using maximization of general desirability. Next, optimal formulations were validated, compared with two commercial gluten-free pastas by sensory evaluation, and finally, an industrial assay was carried out. Regression coefficients indicated that A and P improved cooking properties while A and E contributed the most to improving the pasta textural properties. As, X and P effects varied depending on the kind of sorghum flour used, the optimal formulations levels were different, but in both cases these models were satisfactory and capable of predicting responses. The industrial assay was carried out with white sorghum flour because it showed a higher acceptability in the sensory evaluation than brown sorghum flour pasta. This industrially made pasta resulted in slightly better cooking properties than the laboratory produced one, with the formulation adapting well to the conventional wheat pasta industrial process. Gluten-free sorghum pasta was produced, showing good cooking and textural properties and being a suitable option for gluten-sensitive individuals. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  12. Skepticism Regarding Vaccine and Gluten-Free Food Safety Among Patients with Celiac Disease and Non-celiac Gluten Sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, Loren G; Zylberberg, Haley M; Levinovitz, Alan; Stockwell, Melissa S; Green, Peter H R; Lebwohl, Benjamin

    2017-12-14

    There has been a marked increase in the adoption of the gluten-free (GF) diet. To query individuals with celiac disease (CD) and non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) on their beliefs toward the health effects of gluten, and safety of vaccines and GF food products. We distributed a Web-based survey to individuals with CD and NCGS on a CD center e-mail list. We used univariate and multivariate analysis to compare responses of respondents with CD and NCGS. The overall response rate was 27% (NCGS n = 217, CD n = 1291). Subjects with NCGS were more likely than those with CD to disagree with the statement that "vaccines are safe for people with celiac disease" (NCGS 41.3% vs. CD 26.4% (p < 0.0001), and were more likely to decline vaccination when offered (30.9 vs. 24.2%, p = 0.007). After adjusting for age and gender, NCGS subjects were more likely than CD subjects to avoid genetically modified (GMO) foods (aOR 2.30; 95% CI 1.71-3.10), eat only organic products (aOR 2.87; 95% CI 2.04-4.03), believe that the FDA is an unreliable source of information (aOR 1.82, 95% CI 1.26-2.64), and believe a GF diet improves energy and concentration (aOR 2.52; 95% CI 1.86-3.43). Subjects with NCGS were more likely than those with CD to have doubts about vaccine safety and believe in the value of non-GMO and organic foods. Our findings suggest that the lack of reliable information on gluten and its content in food and medications may reinforce beliefs that result in a detriment to public health.

  13. Effects of different hydrocolloids on properties of gluten-free bread based on small broken rice berry flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numfon, Rakkhumkaew

    2017-06-01

    Gluten-free bread formulations based on small broken rice berry using various types of hydrocolloids (xanthan gum, guar gum, and locust bean gum) at different concentrations (0, 1, 1.5, and 2 g/100 g) were tested in this study. The effects of hydrocolloid addition on the pasting properties of flour were also investigated, including the quality parameters of the breads. The pasting properties of small broken rice berry flour incorporated with guar gum were most affected. Gluten-free bread containing hydrocolloid showed improved qualities in terms of loaf specific volume, texture, sensory values, and microstructure. A 1 g/100 g of hydrocolloid addition was sufficient to improve the physical and chemical qualities of bread. The highest score of all attributes from the sensory evaluation was obtained by gluten-free bread containing 1 g/100 g guar gum.

  14. Sugar beet molasses as an ingredient to enhance the nutritional and functional properties of gluten-free cookies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipčev, Bojana; Mišan, Aleksandra; Šarić, Bojana; Šimurina, Olivera

    2016-01-01

    Sugar beet molasses is a raw material with high potential to be a functional ingredient in baked goods. This paper investigated the nutritional and functional properties of gluten-free cookies enriched with sugar beet molasses. At all enrichment levels and forms tested (liquid and dry), the addition of beet molasses improved the micronutrient pattern and antioxidative status of gluten-free cookies. The cookies prepared with molasses were significantly higher in potassium, magnesium, calcium, iron, betaine, total phenolics and DPPH radical scavenging abilities. Molasses contributed to wider spectra of phenolic compounds. The dominating phenolic compounds in the molasses-enriched cookies were catechin, ferulic, syringic and vanillic acid. Molasses also contributed to the presence of p-hydroxybenzoic acid in the cookies. Addition of molasses increased the content of hydroxymethyfurfural in the cookies, but not above values commonly reported for this product type. Molasses addition improved the overall acceptance of gluten-free cookies up to 30% enrichment level.

  15. Influence of final baking technologies in partially baked frozen gluten-free bread quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Núria; Albanell, Elena; Miñarro, Begoña; Gallardo, Joan; Capellas, Marta

    2015-03-01

    The effect of final baking in convection oven (FBC), microwave oven (FBM), and microwave oven with susceptor packaging material (FBMS) on partially baked (PB) frozen gluten-free bread characteristics was investigated. Specific volume and crust color of loaves were measured at day 0. Bread moisture, water activity, and crumb and crust texture (at 15, 45, and 90 min after baking) were analyzed at day 0 and after 28 d of frozen storage (-18 °C). Volatile compounds from breads baked in convection oven or microwave oven with susceptor packaging material were also evaluated. Bread finally baked in convection oven or in microwave oven with susceptor packaging increased crust browning. Crumb and roll hardness increased with time after final baking (measured at 15, 45, 90 min) and after 28 d of frozen storage. Bread finally baked in microwave oven was the hardest, due to high water losses. At day 0, bread finally baked in convection oven had softer crumb than bread finally baked in microwave oven with susceptor packaging but, after 28 d of frozen storage, there were no differences between them. Moreover, FBC and FBMS rendered gluten-free breads that could not be distinguished in a triangular test and had the same volatile compounds profile. In conclusion, FBMS could be an alternative to FBC. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  16. Quality characteristics of gluten free cookies prepared from different flour combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Sweta; Kaur, Amarjeet; Singh, Baljit

    2014-04-01

    The present investigation was undertaken on the utilization of alternate flours/meals (rice (Oryza sativa), maize (Zea mays), sorghum (Sorghum vulgare) and pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) for the preparation of gluten free cookies as compared to conventional wheat (Triticum aestivum) flour cookies. The physicochemical parameters, sensory qualities and functional properties of flours/cookies were studied and compared with control cookies. The blend of maize and pearl millet had best pasting qualities followed by blend of pearl millet and sorghum flour. The control cookies showed a higher yield (186.8%) but stronger peak force (2.69 kg). The cookies prepared from rice and maize combination had highest spread ratio whereas, the lowest spread ratio was observed in rice and sorghum combination. The cookies with pearl millet and sorghum flour combination had higher fat, protein, ash and calorific values as compared to control cookies. The maximum sensory overall acceptability scores were found for cookies prepared from combination of pearl millet and sorghum flour followed by rice and sorghum, maize and sorghum, rice and maize, maize and pearl millet, rice and pearl millet and control cookies. All gluten free cookies had higher nutritional value as compared to control cookies and were acceptable by panelists.

  17. Consumer acceptability of gluten-free cookies containing raw cooked and germinated pinto bean flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Courtney Wayne; Hall, Clifford

    2018-01-01

    Beany and grassy flavors in raw edible bean flours reduce consumer acceptability of bean-based baked products. In order to improve consumer acceptability, beans may be further processed by cooking and germination. However, these operations drive up the cost of end-products. Therefore, it is necessary to develop formulations, using raw edible bean flours that have acceptable sensory attributes. In this study, cooked, germinated, and germinated/steam-blanched (GSB) pinto bean flours were used to make gluten-free cookies, and their sensory characteristics evaluated to determine how their consumer acceptability scores compared. Taste panelists (31) graded cookies made from raw pinto beans with an overall value of 6 on a 9-point hedonic scale ( p  cookies formulated with germinated and GSB flours. Therefore, gluten-free cookies can be made using raw pinto bean flours at a 40% inclusion level, with similar sensory characteristics as those prepared with flours treated by cooking and germination. Instrumental measurement of cookie hardness and color showed no significant difference in hardness, but significant differences in color. The germinated bean flour produced cookies with a significantly lower L* value and significantly higher a*, b*, Chroma and hue values compared to the other treatments. There was no significant difference in the cookie spread ratio. Proximate composition, water absorption index (WAI), water solubility index (WSI) and gelatinization properties of the flour treatments were characterized.

  18. Products of chickpea processing as texture improvers in gluten-free bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Libby G; Pilkington, Casey L; Saputra, Agung; Serventi, Luca

    2017-12-01

    Recent market developments raised the need for alternatives to hydrocolloids as texture improver in gluten-free bread. Chickpea exerts several physicochemical properties (water- and oil-binding, emulsifying and foaming) that might address this need. Therefore, the effect of processing on chickpea functionality was tested on low ingredient dose, comparably to that of common hydrocolloids. Control bread was small, hard and with low gas retention ability as shown by microscopy, depicting holes inside crumb pores. Addition of chickpea flour in low dose (2% w/w) enhanced loaf volume by 20% and reduced crumb hardness by 40%, due to increased gas retention (no holes within pores) and superior homogeneity of the starch-protein network. On the contrary, chickpea paste deleteriously affected bread quality due to loss of solubility upon cooking. Interestingly, both soaking and cooking water significantly reduced crumb hardness, although to a lower extent than the flour. More homogeneous crumb structure and gas retention were observed in the micrographs, possibly due to the emulsifying activity of flavonoids and saponins (soaking) and insoluble fibre (cooking). Chickpea ingredients are promising substitute of hydrocolloids such as xanthan gum for texture improvement of gluten-free bread, although acting with different mechanisms.

  19. Use of baru (Brazilian almond) waste from physical extraction of oil to produce gluten free cakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineli, Lívia de Lacerda de Oliveira; de Aguiar, Lorena Andrade; de Oliveira, Guilherme Theodoro; Botelho, Raquel Braz Assunção; Ibiapina, Maria do Desterro Ferreira Pereira; de Lima, Herbert Cavalcanti; Costa, Ana Maria

    2015-03-01

    The extraction of oil from baru almonds produces a waste that carries part of their nutritional qualities and antioxidants. It can be used to produce partially deffated baru flour (PDBF). We aimed to evaluate the applicability of PDBF and the effect of the addition of xanthan gum (XG) to produce gluten free cakes. Cakes were prepared with 100% wheat flour (WF cake) and with 100% PDBF and four different levels of XG (0%-PDBF cake, 0.1%-X1, 0.2%-X2 and 0.3%-X3 cakes), and evaluated for composition, antioxidants, moisture, specific volume, texture and sensory acceptance. PDBF cakes showed lower carbohydrate values, but higher protein, lipids, calories and antioxidant contents. They were rich in fiber, as well as iron, zinc and copper. The replacement of WF by PDBF resulted in an increased hardness and adhesiveness and a decreased cohesiveness, elasticity and moisture. Chewiness of X2 cake was similar to that of WF cake. X2 and X3 cakes showed specific volume closer to that of WF cake. No difference was found among the treatments for texture and appearance acceptances. Flavor of X2 and X3 cakes were more accepted than WF cake. Acceptance of all cakes were in the liking region of hedonic scale. PBDF associated to XG is a feasible option to substitute WF in gluten free cake, improving its nutritional quality.

  20. Commercially available gluten-free pastas elevate postprandial glycemia in comparison to conventional wheat pasta in healthy adults: a double-blind randomized crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, C S; Snyder, D; Smith, C

    2017-09-20

    Given the popularity of gluten-free diets, research regarding the health implications of gluten-free (GF) products is necessary. This study compared the postprandial glycemic responses to three GF pastas commonly available in the U.S. market to that of wheat pasta in healthy adults. Thirteen healthy non-smoking men and women from a university campus population were enrolled in this randomized 4 × 4 block crossover study and completed all four treatments. Participants followed a standardized diet and activity protocol the day prior to testing, and one week separated testing periods. The test meal (a macaroni and cheese dish prepared with conventional wheat pasta or with GF pasta composed of either brown rice, rice and corn, or corn and quinoa flours) was consumed under observation, and blood was sampled in the fasted state and at one-half hour intervals for the first 2 hours following meal ingestion. A significant pasta × time interaction was observed for the incremental postprandial glycemia curves (p = 0.036, repeated measures ANOVA; effect size [partial eta squared], 0.943). Post-hoc analysis revealed a significant difference for the 30-minute postprandial blood glucose concentrations: the plasma glucose concentration was 57% higher for the GF rice and corn pasta compared to traditional wheat pasta (p = 0.011). Since postprandial glycemia was higher for GF pasta composed of rice and corn flours compared to wheat pasta, more research is needed to understand how the substitute ingredients for GF pastas impact health parameters and disease risk.

  1. Quality characteristics of gluten-free cookies made of buckwheat, corn, and rice flour with/without transglutaminase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altındağ, Gülçin; Certel, Muharrem; Erem, Fundagül; İlknur Konak, Ülgen

    2015-04-01

    Buckwheat is one of the most valuable pseudo-cereals in terms of its nutritional composition, and it is suitable for celiac patients because of its gluten-free characteristic. However, gluten is the main structure-forming protein responsible for the development of structure in baked products. Therefore, it is a challenge to produce high-quality gluten-free products. Transglutaminase addition is a relatively common application used in the production of gluten-free baked goods. The objective of this study was to investigate the combination of buckwheat flour with rice and corn flour at different levels in gluten-free cookie formulations and the impact of transglutaminase on the quality of cookies. Quality parameters evaluated were proximal chemical composition, spread ratio, color, and textural parameters (hardness and fracturability). Spread ratio, protein, crude fiber, ash content, and also b* and hardness values were significantly (p < 0.05) affected by flour combinations. Further, addition of transglutaminase resulted in increased moisture content, spread ratio, and fracturability but decreased hardness values. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  2. Sourdough fermentation and chestnut flour in gluten-free bread: A shelf-life evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Massimiliano; Paciulli, Maria; Caligiani, Augusta; Scazzina, Francesca; Chiavaro, Emma

    2017-06-01

    The effect of sourdough fermentation combined with chestnut flour was investigated for improving technological and nutritional quality of gluten-free bread during 5day shelf life by means of chemico-physical and nutritional properties. Sourdough fermentation by itself and with chestnut flour reduced volume of loaves and heterogeneity in crumb grain. Sourdough technology allowed increasing crumb moisture content with no significant variations during shelf-life. Chestnut flour darkened crumb and crust while no effects on colour were observed for sourdough. Sourdough and/or chestnut flour addition caused a significant increase in crumb hardness at time 0 while a significant reduction of staling was observed only at 5days, even if a decrease in amylopectin fusion enthalpy was observed. The percentage of hydrolysed starch during in vitro digestion was significantly reduced by sourdough fermentation with a presumable lower glycaemic index. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Improvements in the bread-making quality of gluten-free rice batter by glutathione.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Hiroyuki

    2010-07-14

    The wide prevalence of celiac disease and wheat allergy has led to a growing demand for gluten-free foods. Rice proteins do not possess the viscoelastic properties typically found in gluten, thus making rice flour unsuitable for the production of yeast-leavened products. In the present study, we found that the addition of glutathione to rice batter improves its gas-retaining properties. Glutathione was found to prevent the formation of the disulfide-linked macromolecular protein barrier, which is reported to confer resistance to the deformation of rice batter in the baking process. Also, glutathione appeared to gelatinize rice starch at lower temperatures. Microstructure analyses of glutathione-added rice bread revealed it to have a perforated structure like wheat bread but with a smoother-looking surface. These data collectively suggest that glutathione facilitates the deformation of rice batter, thus increasing its elasticity in the early stages of bread baking and the volume of the resulting bread.

  4. Secoisolariciresinol Diglucoside and Cyanogenic Glycosides in Gluten-free Bread Fortified with Flaxseed Meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Youn Young; Olivia, Clara M; Liu, Jun; Boonen, Rineke; Shen, Jianheng; Reaney, Martin J T

    2016-12-21

    Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) meal contains cyanogenic glycosides (CGs) and the lignan secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (1). Gluten-free (GF) doughs and baked goods were produced with added flaxseed meal (20%, w/w) then 1, and CGs were determined in fortified flour, dough, and bread with storage (0, 1, 2, and 4 weeks) at different temperatures (-18, 4, and 22-23 °C). 1 was present in flour, dough, and GF bread after baking. 1 was stable with extensive storage (up to 4 weeks) and was not affected by storage temperature. CGs in flaxseed meal and fortified GF samples were analyzed by 1 H NMR of the cyanohydrins. Linamarin and/or linustatin were the primary CGs in both flaxseed meal and fortified flour. CGs decreased with storage in dough fortified with flaxseed meal or GF bread after baking. GF bakery food products fortified with flaxseed meal had reduced CGs but remained a good source of dietary 1.

  5. Incorporation of Okara into Gluten-Free Cookies with High Quality and Nutritional Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María V. Ostermann-Porcel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Soy products are a source of protein relatively inexpensive and recognized for their high nutritional value and functional properties. Okara is a byproduct from soy milk production. Gluten-free cookies have been developed using okara and commercial manioc flour. Four formulations were developed with different proportions of okara: 50%; 30%; 15%; and 0%. Physicochemical, physical properties, sensory analysis, and nutritional studies were performed. The use of inulin as partial replacement of sugar was evaluated. The incorporation of okara increased protein and fiber content. Furthermore, the hardness of cookies increased while the index of whiteness decreased. From the sensory evaluation, it could be concluded that the cookies presented a great acceptability. The cookies developed in this study have functional characteristics, providing added value to a waste product; furthermore the products were suitable for celiacs with acceptable quality and improved nutrition value.

  6. Effect of baking on reduction of free and hidden fumonisins in gluten-free bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryła, Marcin; Roszko, Marek; Szymczyk, Krystyna; Jędrzejczak, Renata; Słowik, Elżbieta; Obiedziński, Mieczysław W

    2014-10-22

    The aim of the present work was to assess the influence of the baking process on the fumonisin content in gluten-free bread. The dough was made using two methods: without sourdough and with sourdough. Fumonisins were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography with ion-trap mass spectrometry. This study showed that the bread baking process caused a statistically significant drop in the mean concentration of free fumonisins: the reduction levels were 30 and 32% for the direct and sourdough-based methods, respectively. The lower reduction after baking was observed for hidden fumonisins: 19 and 10%, respectively. The presence of some compounds (such as proteins or starch) capable of stabilizing fumonisins during the baking process might be responsible for the observed increase in the hidden-to-free ratio from an initial 0.72 in flour to 0.83 in bread made from sourdough and to 0.95 in sourdough-free bread.

  7. Genetics Home Reference: celiac disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... own tissues and organs. Without a strict, lifelong gluten-free diet, inflammation resulting from immune system overactivity may cause ... cases, celiac disease does not improve with a gluten-free diet and progresses to a condition called refractory sprue. ...

  8. Characterization of the Bread Made with Durum Wheat Semolina Rendered Gluten Free by Sourdough Biotechnology in Comparison with Commercial Gluten-Free Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Montemurro, Marco; Gobbetti, Marco

    2016-09-01

    Durum wheat semolina was fermented with sourdough lactic acid bacteria and fungal proteases aiming at a complete gluten hydrolysis. The gluten-free (GF) semolina, added with naturally GF ingredients and structuring agents, was used to produce bread (rendered GF bread; rGFB) at industrial level. An integrated approach including the characterization of the main chemical, nutritional, structural, and sensory features was used to compare rGFB to a gluten-containing bread and to 5 commercial naturally GF breads. High-performance liquid chromatography was used for free amino acids (FAAs), organic acids, and ethanol analysis. A methanolic extract was used for determining total phenols and antioxidant activity. The bread characterization also included the analysis of dietary fibers, mycotoxins, vitamins, and heavy metals. Beyond chemical analysis, nutritional profile was evaluated considering the in vitro protein digestibility and the predicted glycemic index, while the instrumental texture profile analysis was performed to investigate the structure and the physical/mechanical properties of the baked goods. Beyond the huge potential of market expansion, the main advantages of durum wheat semolina rendered GF can be resumed in the high availability of FAAs, the high protein digestibility, the low starch hydrolysis index, and the better technological properties of bread compared to the commercial GF products currently present on the market. Vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber profiles are comparable to those of gluten-containing wheat bread. Also the sensory profile, determined by a panel test, can be considered the most similar to those of conventional baked goods, showing all the sourdough bread classic attributes. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  9. Gluten-Free Diet Only during Pregnancy Efficiently Prevents Diabetes in NOD Mouse Offspring

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Antvorskov, J.C.; Josefsen, K.; Haupt-Jorgensen, M.; Fundová, Petra; Funda, David P.; Buschard, K.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 2016, July (2016), s. 3047574 ISSN 2314-6745 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-24487S Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : ISLET AUTOIMMUNITY * RISK * MICE Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 2.717, year: 2016

  10. A radioimmunoassay for wheat gliadin to assess the suitability of gluten free foods for patients with coeliac disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciclitira, P.J.; Ellis, H.J.; Evans, D.J.; Lennox, E.S.

    1985-01-01

    Coeliac disease is a clinical condition characterised by malabsorption secondary to abnormalities of the small intestine. The condition is known to be exacerbated by wheat gliadin, rye, barley and possibly oats. The only assays that are available for testing for the presence of wheat gluten in foods are double diffusion against rabbit anti-gliadin antiserum and measurement of Kjeldahl nitrogen in products derived from wheat flour. We have developed a radioimmunoassay for wheat gliadin with a detection limit of 1 ng. Nominally gluten free foods based on wheat starch have been shown to contain up to 1.9x10 -2 % wheat gliadin. Bread made from Nutregen wheat starch which has now been withdrawn contains 6.4 mg gliadin per standard 30 g slice. A radioimmunoassay for wheat gliadin could be used to define standards for the suitability of gluten free products based on wheat starch for patients with coeliac disease. (author)

  11. Effect of acorn meal-water combinations on technological properties and fine structure of gluten-free bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skendi, Adriana; Mouselemidou, Panagiota; Papageorgiou, Maria; Papastergiadis, Efthimios

    2018-07-01

    Gluten-free breads were developed from rice flour and corn starch at a constant ratio 1:1 with acorn meal addition (5, 15, 25%), at three levels of water (65, 70, 75%). Acorn supplemented gluten free breads better met sensory preference than rice breads in terms of colour (brown hue was enhanced) and were also nutritionally improved in terms of total phenolics. The specific volume of breads significantly decreased with increasing acorn addition while crumb hardness was also increased. SEM images confirmed that the decrease in the ΔH values at low water level (65%) was due to less swelling of starch as observed from large starch granule remnants present after baking. XRD measurements revealed coexistence of "B" and "V" type starch structures. Increasing of acorn concentration enhanced the intensity of FTIR bands at 994, 1016 and 1077 cm -1 . Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Radioimmunoassay for wheat gliadin to assess the suitability of gluten free foods for patients with coeliac disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciclitira, P.J.; Ellis, H.J. (United Medical School of Guy' s and St. Thomas' Hospital, London (UK)); Evans, D.J. (Hammersmith Hospital, London (UK)); Lennox, E.S. (Medical Research Council, Cambridge (UK))

    1985-03-01

    Coeliac disease is a clinical condition characterised by malabsorption secondary to abnormalities of the small intestine. The condition is known to be exacerbated by wheat gliadin, rye, barley and possibly oats. The only assays that are available for testing for the presence of wheat gluten in foods are double diffusion against rabbit anti-gliadin antiserum and measurement of Kjeldahl nitrogen in products derived from wheat flour. We have developed a radioimmunoassay for wheat gliadin with a detection limit of 1 ng. Nominally gluten free foods based on wheat starch have been shown to contain up to 1.9 x 10/sup -2/% wheat gliadin. Bread made from Nutregen wheat starch which has now been withdrawn contains 6.4 mg gliadin per standard 30 g slice. A radioimmunoassay for wheat gliadin could be used to define standards for the suitability of gluten free products based on wheat starch for patients with coeliac disease.

  13. In Vitro Bioavailability of Calcium, Magnesium, Iron, Zinc, and Copper from Gluten-Free Breads Supplemented with Natural Additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regula, J; Cerba, A; Suliburska, J; Tinkov, A A

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the content of calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc, and copper and determine the bioavailability of these ingredients in gluten-free breads fortified with milk and selected seeds. Due to the increasing prevalence of celiac disease and mineral deficiencies, it has become necessary to produce food with higher nutritional values which maintains the appropriate product characteristics. This study was designed for gluten-free breads fortified with milk and seeds such as flax, poppy, sunflower seeds, pumpkin seeds or nuts, and flour with amaranth. Subsequently, digestion was performed in vitro and the potential bioavailability of the minerals was measured. In the case of calcium, magnesium, iron, and copper, higher bioavailability was observed in rice bread, and, in the case of copper and zinc, in buckwheat bread. This demonstrated a clear increase in bioavailability of all the minerals when the bread were enriched. However, satisfactory results are obtained only for the individual micronutrients.

  14. Utilization of sorghum, rice, corn flours with potato starch for the preparation of gluten-free pasta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Sila Mary Rodrigues; de Mello, Ana Paula; de Caldas Rosa dos Anjos, Mônica; Krüger, Cláudia Carneiro Hecke; Azoubel, Patrícia Moreira; de Oliveira Alves, Márcia Aurelina

    2016-01-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of mixture of sorghum-rice-corn flour and potato starch in the development of gluten-free pasta for celiac disease patients. The experiment was designed according to simplex-lattice method and different types of gluten-free flours were used, such as sorghum, rice, corn, and potato starch. The fifteen formulations were subjected to sensory analysis (Mixed Structured Scale - MSS) and seven formulations were selected in respect to taste and grittiness. These formulations were subjected to Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA), which evaluated the attributes: appearance, color, odor, hardness, elasticity, stickiness, grittiness, taste, residual bitterness and overall quality. Results showed significant difference in appearance, color and hardness. The formulations that showed the best sensory results were submitted to chemical analysis and cooking quality of pasta. It was observed that the best results for mixing is sorghum flour, rice flour and potato starch. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Biotechnological Treatments of Gluten and Gluten-Free Flours to Improve Dough Texture Properties and Aroma Profiles of the Product

    OpenAIRE

    Scarnato, Lucilla

    2017-01-01

    This project is focused on the improvement of gluten and gluten-free bakery products using a new biotechnological process based on the combined use of a protein cross-linking enzyme, microbial transglutaminase from Streptoverticillum mobaraense and, a selected microbial consortium of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts (i. e. selected strains of Lactobacillus sanfrancisciensis and Candida milleri). The transglutaminase enzyme is studied for its ability to organize and create protein networks a...

  16. How do xanthan and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose individually affect the physicochemical properties in a model gluten-free dough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, Rachel; Ie, Pauline; Vodovotz, Yael

    2011-04-01

    To better understand the physicochemical changes imparted by hydrocolloids on gluten-free dough, 2 hydroxypropyl methylcelluloses (HPMCs) and xanthan gum were added at 2%, 3%, and 5% to rice cassava dough without the addition of alternative proteins. The formulated doughs were analyzed using thermoanalytic and rheological techniques to determine the role of water and subsequent flow behavior upon hydrocolloid addition. The baked loaves were then measured for specific loaf volume and tensile strength to determine bread quality. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) results revealed that hydrocolloid-added dough held water more tightly than the rice cassava control with an additional water distribution at 85 to 88 °C. Rheologically, the increase of elastic moduli in the low methoxy HPMC and xanthan-added dough became more pronounced with gum addition; however, both HPMC formulations had increased viscous moduli allowing the gas cells to expand without collapsing. In the bread, the final specific loaf volume increased with high methoxy HPMC (2% to 5%) and low methoxy HPMC (2%) but was depressed with increased addition of low methoxy HPMC (5%) and xanthan (3% and 5%). Crumb hardness was decreased in high methoxy HPMC loaves but was increased significantly in low methoxy HPMC (5%) and xanthan (5%) formulations. From the gums studied, it was concluded that high methoxy HPMC was the optimum hydrocolloid in the rice cassava gluten-free dough.   Two types of hydrocolloids, xanthan gum and HPMC, were individually added to a gluten-free rice cassava formulation. Based on the thermoanalytic and rheological studies on dough, as well as the bread quality studies, high methoxy HPMC at 5% addition was determined to optimally improve the bread quality when only gum addition was considered. This study indicates the potential use of high methoxy HPMC as an additive in gluten-free bread formulations prior to considering alternative proteins.

  17. Gluten-Free Bread: Influence of Sourdough and Compressed Yeast on Proofing and Baking Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carola Cappa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of sourdough is the oldest biotechnological process to leaven baked goods, and it represents a suitable technology to improve traditional bread texture, aroma, and shelf life. A limited number of studies concerning the use of sourdough in gluten-free (GF breadmaking have been published in comparison to those on traditional bread. The aim of this study was to compare the properties of GF breads obtained by using a previously in-lab developed GF-sourdough (SD, compressed yeast (CY; Saccharomyces cerevisiae or their mixture (SDCY as leavening agents; more specifically, it aims to confirm the findings of a previous studies and to further improve (both in terms of recipe and process the features of the resulting GF breads. Dough pH and rheological properties were measured. Fresh and stored breads were characterized for weight, height, specific volume, crust and crumb color, moisture, water activity, crumb hardness, and porosity. The combination SDCY was effective in improving bread volume and softness when compared to SD only. Furthermore, SD- and SDCY-crumbs exhibited a less crumbly behavior during storage (69 h, 25 °C, 60% of relative humidity in comparison to CY-breads. This study confirms the positive effect of SD in GF breadmaking, in particular when used in combination with CY.

  18. Degree of roasting of carob flour affecting the properties of gluten-free cakes and cookies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román, Laura; González, Ana; Espina, Teresa; Gómez, Manuel

    2017-06-01

    Carob flour is a product rich in fibre obtained from by-products of the locust bean gum extraction processing. The flour is commercialised with different degrees of roasting in order to improve its organoleptic characteristics. In this study, carob flour with three different roasting degrees was used to replace rice flour (15%) in gluten-free cakes and cookies. The influence of this replacement was studied on the psychochemical characteristics and acceptability of the final products. The incorporation of carob flour increased the viscosity of cake batters and increased the solid elastic-like behaviour of the cookie doughs, indicating a stronger interaction among the formula ingredients. The inclusion of carob flour, with a low time of roasting, did not lead to any significant differences in the specific volume and hardness of the cakes, but reduced cake staling and the thickness and width of the cookies. Darker colours were obtained when carob flour was incorporated into the product. The acceptability of cakes was only reduced with the addition of highly roasted carob flour, while in the case of cookies there was a decline in the acceptability of all carob flour cookies, which was mostly perceived with the highest roasting degree, something mainly attributed to the bitter taste of the products.

  19. Effect of hydrocolloids on selected properties of gluten-free dough and bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabanis, D; Tzia, C

    2011-08-01

    Addition of hydrocolloids (H/C) in gluten-free (GF) bread formulation is necessary in order to act as polymeric substances that should mimic the viscoelastic properties of gluten and increase the dough's gas-retaining ability. The properties of H/C vary depending on their origin and chemical structure. Addition of H/C (hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC), xanthan, κ-carrageenan and guar gum) of different origins at 1%, 1.5% and 2% (w/w) in GF formulations based on corn starch and rice flour was carried out to investigate the effects on dough rheology and bread quality. The consistency, viscosity and thermal properties of doughs were evaluated. According to results, 1% and 1.5% addition of H/C (except from xanthan) contributed to bread with higher loaf volume and better color compared to control GF bread as well as to increased shelf life due to its moisture-absorption ability. Sensory evaluation by a trained panel revealed a preference for bread containing 1.5% HPMC because of its loaf volume, appearance and firmness characteristics. The micrographs of the dough showed a continuous matrix between starch and HPMC obtaining a more aerated structure.

  20. Quality improvement of gluten-free bread based on soybean and enriched with sugar beet molasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šimurina Olivera D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to improve the quality of gluten-free bread made with high content of soy flour and enriched with sugar beet molasses by incorporating ingredients with a potential to simultaneously enhance the nutritional quality of the breads. The following ingredients were used: pea protein isolate, pea fibre and chia seeds. The chosen ingredients exerted positive effects on bread quality. They promoted volume increase and crumb softening. In this respect, the most effective ingredients were pea protein isolate (at 1% supplementation level, pea fibre (at up to 2% supplementation level and chia seeds (at 1% supplementation level. The sensory analysis revealed that pea fibre and chia addition at 1 and 2% supplementation level provided bread with higher scores regarding overall acceptance, crumb texture and taste. At 1% supplementation level, there was not found statistically significant difference in sensory attributes of bread supplemented with pea protein isolate in comparison to the control. However, pea protein isolate was found to strongly diminish bread taste at 4% supplementation level due to presence of beany taste.

  1. Stability of gluten free sweet biscuit elaborated with rice bran, broken rice and okara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Oliveira TAVARES

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A challenge to the food sector has been the development of new products incorporating co-products from the food processing industry with minimal impact on their pre-determined structures and adding nutritional quality. In order to add value and develop alternatives for the use of co-products generated during the agroindustrial processing, this work aimed to study the stability of gluten-free sweet biscuits developed with soybean okara, rice bran and broken rice. The formulations were elaborated with increasing percentages of these ingredients and compared with the standard (commercial sweet biscuit for ten months. The analyses were: weight, diameters (internal and external, thickness, specific volume, instrumental parameters of color, texture, scanning electron microscopy, water activity, proximal composition and isoflavones. The experimental sweet biscuits had characteristics of color, weight, volume and diameters (internal and external very similar to the commercial, whereas texture, lipids and energy value decreased, and aw, moisture and protein increased during storage. The sweet biscuits showed the same stability when compared to the standard, and the

  2. Sensory, digestion, and texture quality of commercial gluten-free bread: Impact of broken rice flour type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feizollahi, Ehsan; Mirmoghtadaie, Leila; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin; Jazaeri, Sahar; Hadaegh, Haleh; Nazari, Bahman; Lalegani, Sajjad

    2018-02-08

    This research investigated the effects of two varieties of broken rice (Khouzestan and Lenjan) from warm and dry regions, and two (Hashemi and Tarom) from mild and humid regions on different parameters including dough rheology, digestibility, and quality (color, specific volume, textural properties, and sensorial properties) of a commercial gluten-free bread (GFB). Furthermore, the rice varieties' hydration properties, gelatinization temperatures, and starch-granule morphology were assessed. Significant differences were observed in the varieties' proximate composition and hydration properties from both climate zones. The granules' average size was 3.17-4.9 µm. The specific volume of the breads showed no correlation with either the damaged starch content or the amylose content, but had a significant negative correlation with hardness (r = -.923, p variety in Iran, was the most appropriate variety for GFB production. Moreover, it was determined that the rice varieties currently used in commercial manufacture of gluten-free bread do not necessarily yield the highest-quality bread. Gluten-free breads (GFBs) are generally used by Coeliac patients. In comparison to wheat bread, the quality of GFBs is lower. Rice is one of the main ingredients of GFBs' formulation, thence by determining the quality-related features of the rice, improvement in the final product could be achieved. In addition, by implementing the cheap and the broken rice variety, the price of the final product could be decreased and be more affordable for the patients. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Comparison of the volatile profiles of the crumb of gluten-free breads by DHE-GC/MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pico, Joana; Hansen, Åse Solvej; Petersen, Mikael Agerlin

    2017-01-01

    The aroma of gluten-free bread has been considered of lower quality than that of the common wheat bread. With the aim of improving the aroma of gluten-free bread, the volatile profiles of the crumb of gluten-free breads made from rice, teff, buckwheat, amaranth and quinoa flours as well as corn....... Rice bread was characterised by the highest levels in nonanal and 2,4-decadienal and corn starch bread by 2,3-pentanedione and 2-furaldehyde. Teff presented the highest abundance of ethyl hexanoate and ethyl nonanoate, but also of alcohols and aldehydes from lipid oxidation. Quinoa and amaranth were...... classified by the highest content in Strecker and Ehrlich aldehydes as well as 1-propanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol or 3-hydroxy-2-butanone from fermentation. Corn starch bread was the closest to wheat bread in the PCA due to the highest content mainly in 2,3-butanedione and furfural as well...

  4. A curated gluten protein sequence database to support development of proteomics methods for determination of gluten in gluten-free foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromilow, Sophie; Gethings, Lee A; Buckley, Mike; Bromley, Mike; Shewry, Peter R; Langridge, James I; Clare Mills, E N

    2017-06-23

    The unique physiochemical properties of wheat gluten enable a diverse range of food products to be manufactured. However, gluten triggers coeliac disease, a condition which is treated using a gluten-free diet. Analytical methods are required to confirm if foods are gluten-free, but current immunoassay-based methods can unreliable and proteomic methods offer an alternative but require comprehensive and well annotated sequence databases which are lacking for gluten. A manually a curated database (GluPro V1.0) of gluten proteins, comprising 630 discrete unique full length protein sequences has been compiled. It is representative of the different types of gliadin and glutenin components found in gluten. An in silico comparison of their coeliac toxicity was undertaken by analysing the distribution of coeliac toxic motifs. This demonstrated that whilst the α-gliadin proteins contained more toxic motifs, these were distributed across all gluten protein sub-types. Comparison of annotations observed using a discovery proteomics dataset acquired using ion mobility MS/MS showed that more reliable identifications were obtained using the GluPro V1.0 database compared to the complete reviewed Viridiplantae database. This highlights the value of a curated sequence database specifically designed to support the proteomic workflows and the development of methods to detect and quantify gluten. We have constructed the first manually curated open-source wheat gluten protein sequence database (GluPro V1.0) in a FASTA format to support the application of proteomic methods for gluten protein detection and quantification. We have also analysed the manually verified sequences to give the first comprehensive overview of the distribution of sequences able to elicit a reaction in coeliac disease, the prevalent form of gluten intolerance. Provision of this database will improve the reliability of gluten protein identification by proteomic analysis, and aid the development of targeted mass

  5. Effect of ingredients on the quality characteristics of gluten free snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Monika; Bhattacharya, Sila

    2017-11-01

    Grain-based fabricated snacks from non-wheat grains (amaranth, finger millet, sorghum and black gram) were used to prepare puffed snacks employing the method of hot air toasting. The functional characteristics and sensory attributes of the snack were determined by varying the moisture content and time of toasting. The quality attributes of the snacks like the instrumental color parameters, peak force and puff thickness of the snack correlated well with the sensory attributes (appearance/color, texture and overall acceptability). A snack made from amaranth showed a bright reddish brown colour at a moisture content of 20-40%; the product had a good puffing and high overall acceptability. The moisture content of all the snacks was around 3% and had a fat content of 1-2%; protein and dietary fiber contents were in the ranges of 22-23 and 10-11%, respectively. The principal component analysis (PCA) accounted for a total of 89.6% variation. The PCA biplot showed that sensory appearance, sensory texture and sensory overall acceptability were closely related to the puff thickness. The microstructure of the snack indicated the presence of air cells to offer a porous structure. On toasting, the flakes increased their thickness creating a porous microstructure such that the toasted snacks were crispy having a brittle texture. Popped sorghum and gelatinized starch added doughs exhibited good puffing when toasted at 20-30% moisture content while popped amaranth samples required higher moisture content (30-40%). The grain based gluten-free snacks with improved sensory and nutritional characteristics can be prepared by using different ingredients.

  6. Quality assessment of dried okara as a source of production of gluten-free flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostermann-Porcel, María V; Rinaldoni, Ana N; Rodriguez-Furlán, Laura T; Campderrós, Mercedes E

    2017-07-01

    Okara is a by-product of soymilk and of tofu elaboration that is rich in protein, fiber and vegetable oils as a source of gluten-free flour. In order to take advantage of the nutritional characteristics of okara and to be able to determine an appropriate drying methodology, microwave, rotary dryer and freeze-drying were assessed. Furthermore, flour with an enzymatic treatment was characterized as well as its functional, physicochemical, and textural properties. The results showed that the physiochemical characteristics of the flour were affected by the drying process, reaching adequate water content, and high protein and fiber content. The freeze-drying process produced clearer flours with porous structure and high water absorption capacity, and with a higher protein denaturation. Okara dried by microwave and rotary dryer exhibited a denser structure with similar functional properties and improved textural characteristics such as firmness and consistency. The microwave-produced flour was darker due to the non-enzymatic browning reactions. The enzymatic treatment employed improved the consistency of the flour. It was possible to choose the drying process to be applied according to the feasible use of the flour, intended to preserve the favorable nutritional aspects of the okara flour. Based on the results, it can be affirmed that the physicochemical properties and attributes of okara are influenced by the drying process employed. Okara dried by freeze-drying resulted in a better product because it had a low final moisture content and the highest whiteness index. The flour presented a porous structure with high solubility, which is an indicator of potential applications in foods developments. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Impact of boiling on free and bound phenolic profile and antioxidant activity of commercial gluten-free pasta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocchetti, Gabriele; Lucini, Luigi; Chiodelli, Giulia; Giuberti, Gianluca; Montesano, Domenico; Masoero, Francesco; Trevisan, Marco

    2017-10-01

    Cooking by boiling dry pasta could have varying degrees of influence on nutritional and functional components. In the present study, its effect on total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity, as well as on the comprehensive profile of free and bound phenolics, was investigated in six commercial gluten-free (GF) pasta products. Overall, the heat treatment caused a significant reduction (Pboiling strongly lowered the bound-to-free ratio of phenolic compounds, by an averaged factor ranging from 14-folds for flavonoids to 5-folds for other classes of phenolics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of germination temperatures on proteolysis of the gluten-free grains sorghum and millet during malting and mashing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Y; Bryce, J H; Goodfellow, V; MacKinlay, J; Agu, R C; Brosnan, J M; Bringhurst, T A; Harrison, B

    2012-04-11

    Our study showed that sorghum and millet followed a similar pattern of changes when they were malted under similar conditions. When the malt from these cereals was mashed, both cereal types produced wide spectra of substrates (sugars and amino acids) that are required for yeast fermentation when malted at either lower or higher temperatures. At the germination temperatures of 20, 25, and 30 °C used in malting both cereal types, production of reducing sugars and that of free amino nitrogen (FAN) were similar. This is an important quality attribute for both cereals because it implies that variation in temperature during the malting of sorghum and millet, especially when malting temperature is difficult to control, and also reflecting temperature variations, experienced in different countries, will not have an adverse effect on the production and release of amino acids and sugars required by yeast during fermentation. Such consistency in the availability of yeast food (substrates) for metabolism during fermentation when sorghum and millet are malted at various temperatures is likely to reduce processing issues when their malts are used for brewing. Although sorghum has gained wide application in the brewing industry, and has been used extensively in brewing gluten-free beer on industrial scale, this is not the case with millet. The work described here provides novel information regarding the potential of millet for brewing. When both cereals were malted, the results obtained for millet in this study followed patterns similar to those of sorghum. This suggests that millet, in terms of sugars and amino acids, can play a role similar to that of sorghum in the brewing industry. This further suggests that millet, like sorghum, would be a good raw material for brewing gluten-free beer. Inclusion of millet as a brewing raw material will increase the availability of suitable materials (raw material sustainability) for use in the production of gluten-free beer, beverages, and

  9. Improvement of gluten-free bread properties by the incorporation of bovine plasma proteins and different saccharides into the matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Furlán, Laura T; Pérez Padilla, Antonio; Campderrós, Mercedes E

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this work was to improve the quality of gluten-free bread, incorporating plasma bovine proteins concentrated by ultrafiltration and freeze-dried with saccharides (inulin and sucrose). The influence of these compounds on textural properties and final bread quality was assessed. The textural studies revealed that with the addition of proteins and inulin, homogeneous and smaller air cells were achieved improving the textural properties while the bread hardness was comparable with breads with gluten. The volume of gluten-free breads increased with increasing proteins and inulin concentrations, reaching a maximum at a protein concentration of 3.5% (w/w). The addition of the enhancers improved moisture retention of the loaves after cooking and an increase of lightness of crumb with respect to the control was observed. The sensory analysis found no statistically significant difference in sensory attributes evaluated with respect to the control, so these ingredients do not negatively affect the organoleptic properties of bread. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Incorporation of buriti endocarp flour in gluten-free whole cookies as potential source of dietary fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Fernanda Salamoni; Damiani, Clarissa; de Melo, Adriane Alexandre Machado; Borges, Paulo Rogério Siriano; Boas, Eduardo Valério de Barros Vilas

    2014-12-01

    Cookies were prepared by replacing a mixture of brown rice flour (70%) and corn starch (30%) (BRFCS) by buriti endocarp flour (BEF) (0, 5, 10, 15 or 20%). BEF figured as a potential source of dietary fiber (70.53 g 100 g(-1)), especially of insoluble fiber (67.50 g 100 g(-1)), and gluten-free whole cookies showed increased dietary fiber content by adding 5, 10, 15 and 20% BEF (8.58 to 20.02 g 100 g(-1)) when compared to control cookie (6.91 g 100 g(-1)). The addition of BEF affected diameter, spread ratio, color and texture of cookies. All cookies added with BEF were darker, harder and presented smaller diameter and smaller spread ratio than the control cookie. These difference increased proportionally to level of substitution of BRFSC by BEF. Gluten-free whole cookies with up to 15% BEF were well accepted by consumers. Therefore, the use of BEF in cookies may increase the availability of functional ingredients source of dietary fiber for celiac consumers, add economic value to buriti processing by-products and decrease environmental impacts due to the high amounts of waste generated by buriti processing industries.

  11. Valorisation of raspberry and blueberry pomace through the formulation of value-added gluten-free cookies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šarić, Bojana; Mišan, Aleksandra; Mandić, Anamarija; Nedeljković, Nataša; Pojić, Milica; Pestorić, Mladenka; Đilas, Sonja

    2016-02-01

    Successful valorisation of raspberry and blueberry pomace was achieved through their application, as dried and ground powders, in the formulation of value-added gluten-free cookies. Simplex-lattice mixture design approach was applied to obtain the product with the best sensory properties, nutritional profile and antioxidant activity. The highest desirability of 90.0 % was accomplished with the substitution of gluten-free flour mixture with 28.2 % of blueberry and 1.8 % of raspberry pomace. The model was verified. Optimized cookies had similar protein (3.72 %) and carbohydrate (66.7 %) contents as gluten-containing counterparts used for comparison, but significantly lower fat content (10.97 %). Daily portion of the optimized cookies meets: 5.00 % and 7.73 % of dietary reference intakes (DRIs) for linoleic acid, 23.6 % and 34.3 % of DRIs for α-linolenic acid and 10.3 % and 15.6 % of DRIs for dietary fibers, for male and female adults, respectively. The nutritional profile of the optimized formulation makes it comparable with added-value gluten-containing counterparts.

  12. The influence of baking time and temperature on characteristics of gluten free cookies enriched with blueberry pomace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šarić Bojana M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Blueberry pomace, by-product of juice production, was processed into a new food ingredient by drying and grinding and used for a new gluten-free cookies' formulation, with the aim of improving nutritional profile and antioxidant capacity. Since duration and temperature at which dough is thermally treated during baking highly influence the quality of a baked product, the objective of this work was to optimise the baking conditions in order to obtain the best technological quality of the cookies. Referring to the results obtained at 160 and 170 °C and different baking times, the following was found: the difference in baking conditions caused variation between cookies' diameters of less than 1%, more regular shape of the cookies was obtained when baking time was shorter, hardness of cookies is highly correlated with moisture content, water activity, baking loss and short/long diameter ratio values. The colour characteristics (L*, a* and b* of cookies' top and bottom surfaces indicated that the cookies were not overbaked under the chosen baking conditions. Baking time of 14 min at 170°C was found to be the optimal baking conditions for the blueberry pomace enriched gluten-free cookies.

  13. Analysis of volatile compounds in gluten-free bread crusts with an optimised and validated SPME-GC/QTOF methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pico, Joana; Antolín, Beatriz; Román, Laura; Gómez, Manuel; Bernal, José

    2018-04-01

    The aroma of bread crust, as one of the first characteristics perceived, is essential for bread acceptance. However, gluten-free bread crusts exhibit weak aroma. A SPME-GC/QTOF methodology was optimised with PCA and RSM and validated for the quantification of 44 volatile compounds in bread crust, extracting 0.75 g of crust at 60 °C for 51 min. LODs ranged between 3.60 and 1760 μg Kg -1 , all the R 2 were higher than 0.99 and %RSD for precision and %Er for accuracy were lower than 9% and 12%, respectively. A commercial wheat bread crust was quantified, and furfural was the most abundant compound. Bread crusts of wheat starch and of japonica rice, basmati rice and teff flours were also quantified. Teff flour and wheat starch crusts were very suitable for improving gluten-free bread crust aroma, due to their similar content in 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline and 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone compared to wheat flour crust and also for their high content in pyrazines. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Physical, chemical and sensory properties of gluten-free kibbeh formulated with millet flour (Pennisetum glaucum (L. R. Br.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tcherena Amorim Brasil

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pearl millet flour was utilized in kibbeh formulations instead of whole-wheat flour. Physicochemical properties, oxidation stability and sensorial characteristics of control kibbeh made with whole-wheat flour (CT were compared with kibbehs prepared with millet flour (roasted or wet and stored for 90 days (–18 °C. Kibbeh prepared with millet flour presented good oxidation stability (TBARS concentration. Baked kibbehs (with roasted millet flour presented good acceptability and kibbeh samples did not differ significantly (p > 0.05 from the whole-wheat flour sample, when global appearance, texture and flavor were evaluated. Millet flour could be a suitable ingredient for kibbeh formulations, maintaining their nutritional value and sensorial quality in addition to being a gluten-free product.

  15. Effect of germination temperatures on proteolysis of the gluten-free grains rice and buckwheat during malting and mashing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agu, R C; Chiba, Y; Goodfellow, V; MacKinlay, J; Brosnan, J M; Bringhurst, T A; Jack, F R; Harrison, B; Pearson, S Y; Bryce, J H

    2012-10-10

    This study examined the performance of rice and buckwheat when malted under various temperature conditions and for different lengths of time. The mashed malts produced from both rice and buckwheat contained a wide spectra of sugars and amino acids that are required for yeast fermentation, regardless of malting temperature. At the germination temperatures of 20, 25, and 30 °C used, production of reducing sugars and free amino nitrogen (FAN) followed similar patterns. This implies that temperature variations, experienced in different countries, will not have an adverse effect on the production and release of amino acids and sugars, required by yeast during fermentation, from these grains. Such consistency in the availability of yeast substrates is likely to reduce differences in processing when these malts are used for brewing. This study revealed that, while rice malt consistently produced more maltose than glucose, buckwheat malt gave several times more glucose than maltose, across all germination temperatures. Buckwheat malt also produced more soluble and free amino nitrogen than rice malt. Unlike sorghum, which has gained wide application in the brewing industry for the production of gluten-free beer, the use of rice and buckwheat is minimal. This study provides novel information regarding the potential of rice and buckwheat for brewing. Both followed similar patterns to sorghum, suggesting that they could play a similar role to sorghum in the brewing industry. Inclusion of rice and buckwheat as brewing raw materials will increase the availability of suitable materials for use in the production of gluten-free beer, potentially making it more sustainable, cheaper, and more widely available.

  16. Coeliac disease. Following the diet and eating habits of participating individuals in the Federal District, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Halina Mayer Chaves; Araújo, Wilma Maria Coelho

    2011-08-01

    The western diet includes several food items based on wheat. Adherence and obedience to a gluten-free diet requires self-determination on the part of the person with Coeliac disease, as well as their family members. The objective of this research is to identify the main difficulties noted by people with Coeliac disease in their eating habits, the frequency of consumption and their satisfaction with gluten-free products. We employed an adapted already validated questionnaire, with open, closed, and multiple choice questions. Of the 105 participants with Coeliac disease, 90.38% of them followed, where possible, a gluten-free diet; 67.12% consumed food with gluten inadvertently or because of a lack of alternatives and/or information in food found in public places. Seventy percent affirmed that their diet provided all the energy and nutrients they need; 77.67% of the Coeliac participants prepared their meals by themselves or this task was assumed by their caregivers; 77.14% read the manufacturers labels on products, and, 74.49% expressed dissatisfaction regarding the price and availability of gluten-free products. The data show an association only between the energy and nutrients needed for good health and gluten-free dietary tracking (p=0.0315). That is, people with Coeliac disease who avoided gluten consumed more calories and were more likely to have adequate nutrients in their diet. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Perspective: Gluten-Free Products for Patients with Celiac Disease Should Not Contain Trace Levels

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Makovický, Peter; Makovický, P.; Lupan, L.; Samasca, G.; Sur, G.; Freeman, H.J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 3 (2017), s. 409-411 ISSN 2161-8313 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : united-states * double-blind * oats * diet * complications * prevalence * children Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Nutrition, Dietetics Impact factor: 5.233, year: 2016

  18. Indications and Use of the Gluten Contamination Elimination Diet for Patients with Non-Responsive Celiac Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Maureen M; Cureton, Pamela; Fasano, Alessio

    2017-10-18

    For the majority of patients diagnosed with celiac disease, once a gluten-free diet is initiated, symptoms improve within weeks and may completely resolve in months. However, up to 30% of patients may show signs, symptoms or persistent small intestinal damage after one year on a gluten-free diet. These patients require evaluation for other common GI etiologies and assessment of their celiac disease status in order to make a diagnosis and suggest treatment. Here, we propose an approach to evaluating patients with celiac disease with persistent symptoms, persistently elevated serology, and or persistent villous atrophy despite a gluten-free diet. We detail how to diagnose and distinguish between non-responsive and refractory celiac disease. Finally, we introduce the indications for use of the gluten contamination elimination diet and provide information for practitioners to implement the diet when necessary in their practice.

  19. Acid hydrolysis of wheat gluten induces formation of new epitopes but does not enhance sensitizing capacity by the oral route: a study in "gluten free" Brown Norway rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroghsbo, Stine; Andersen, Nanna B; Rasmussen, Tina F; Jacobsen, Susanne; Madsen, Charlotte B

    2014-01-01

    Acid hydrolyzed wheat proteins (HWPs) are used in the food and cosmetic industry as emulsifiers. Cases of severe food allergic reactions caused by HWPs have been reported. Recent data suggest that these reactions are caused by HWPs produced by acid hydrolysis. To examine the sensitizing capacity of gluten proteins per se when altered by acid or enzymatic hydrolysis relative to unmodified gluten in rats naïve to gluten. High IgE-responder Brown Norway (BN) rats bred on a gluten-free diet were sensitized without the use of adjuvant to three different gluten products (unmodified, acid hydrolyzed and enzymatic hydrolyzed). Rats were sensitized by intraperitoneal (i.p.) immunization three times with 200 µg gluten protein/rat or by oral dosing for 35 days with 0.2, 2 or 20 mg gluten protein/rat/day. Sera were analyzed for specific IgG and IgE and IgG-binding capacity by ELISA. IgE functionality was measured by rat basophilic leukemia (RBL) assay. Regardless of the route of dosing, all products had sensitizing capacity. When sensitized i.p., all three gluten products induced a strong IgG1 response in all animals. Acid hydrolyzed gluten induced the highest level of specific IgE but with a low functionality. Orally all three gluten products induced specific IgG1 and IgE but with different dose-response relations. Sensitizing rats i.p. or orally with unmodified or enzymatic hydrolyzed gluten induced specific IgG1 responses with similar binding capacity which was different from that of acid hydrolyzed gluten indicating that acid hydrolysis of gluten proteins induces formation of 'new' epitopes. In rats not tolerant to gluten acid hydrolysis of gluten enhances the sensitizing capacity by the i.p. but not by the oral route. In addition, acid hydrolysis induces formation of new epitopes. This is in contrast to the enzymatic hydrolyzed gluten having an epitope pattern similar to unmodified gluten.

  20. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay gliadin assessment in processed food products available for persons with celiac disease: a feasibility study for developing a gluten-free food database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agakidis, Charalampos; Karagiozoglou-Lampoudi, Thomais; Kalaitsidou, Marina; Papadopoulos, Theodoros; Savvidou, Afroditi; Daskalou, Efstratia; Dimitrios, Triantafyllou

    2011-12-01

    Inappropriate food labeling and unwillingness of food companies to officially register their own gluten-free products in the Greek National Food Intolerance Database (NFID) result in a limited range of processed food products available for persons with celiac disease (CDP). The objective of the study was to evaluate the feasibility of developing a gluten-free food product database based on the assessment of the gluten content in processed foods available for CDP. Gluten was assessed in 41 processed food products available for CDP. Group A consisted of 26 products for CDP included in the NFID, and group B contained 15 food products for CDP not registered in the NFID but listed in the safe lists of the local Celiac Association (CA). High-sensitivity ω-gliadin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used for analysis. Gluten was lower than 20 ppm in 37 of 41 analyzed products (90.2%): in 24 of 26 (92.3%) products in group A and in 13 of 15 (86.7%) products in group B (P = .61). No significant difference was found between the 2 groups regarding gluten content. No product in either group contained gluten in excess of 100 ppm. Most of the analyzed products included in the Greek NFID or listed in the lists of the local CA, even those not officially labeled "gluten free," can be safely consumed by CDP. The use of commercially available ω-gliadin ELISA is able to identify those products that contain inappropriate levels of gluten, making feasible it to develop an integrated gluten-free processed food database.

  1. Using chemometric techniques to characterize gluten-free cookies containing the whole flour of a new quinoa cultivar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagamunici, Lilian M.; Gohara, Aline K.; Souza, Aloisio H.P. [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias; Bittencourt, Paulo R.S.; Torquato, Alex S. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Medianeira, PR (Brazil); Batiston, Weliton P.; Gomes, Sandra T.M.; Visentainer, Jesui V.; Matsushita, Makoto, E-mail: mmakoto@uem.br [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Souza, Nilson E. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Londrina, PR (Brazil)

    2014-02-15

    Celiac disease is defined as intolerance to the gluten proteins present in certain cereals used to prepare foodstuffs. We developed and performed physico-chemical, sensory, and nutritional assessments of three formulations of gluten-free cookies containing Linum usitatissimum L. and different levels of whole Chenopodium quinoa BRS Piabiru flour. No gluten was detected in the prepared cookie formulations. The crude protein and total lipid contents ranged from 85.58 to 97.55 and 121.69 to 166.19 g per kg of sample, respectively. The polyunsaturated/saturated and n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratios ranged from 0.85:1 to 0.92:1 and 3.08:1 to 4.38:1, respectively. Formulation C had the best alpha-linolenic acid content, lipid fraction nutritional indices and mineral content per portion, with excellent sensory characteristics. Multivariate analysis highlighted the effect of the concentration of quinoa on the nutritional and sensory qualities of the product. (author)

  2. WATER BOND FORMS IN THE DOUGH AND SORBTION PROPERTIES OF GLUTEN-FREE MACARONI PRODUCTS MADE FROM CORN FLOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olexandr ROZHNO

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Authors have developed macaroni products made from fine meal corn flour by structure forming additives of different nature and without them. The correlation between water of different bond forms in macaroni dough with different structural forming additives and without them has been investigated. Results show that water of macro and microcapillaries is prevalent in the corn dough – 39.40 - 54.69 % of overall amount of water. Osmotically bound water amounts 18.75 – 28.04 %, adsorbically bound water -18.49 – 23.13 % of overall amount of water. The absorbtion capability of the macaroni products and amount of adsorbed water has been determined. The micropore structure of these samples was characterized. The correlation between structures of macaroni products, both amount of adsorbed moisture and energy of sorption were proven. The amount of monomolecular layer’s moisture for gluten-free corn macaroni products is significantly higher – in 1.2 – 1.5 times – when compared to the wheat macaroni products. Due to this fact, corn samples obtained higher energy of moisture sorption. The correlation between structural characteristics of the macaroni samples and their quality was shown.

  3. Approaches to reduce the glycemic response of gluten-free products: in vivo and in vitro studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capriles, V D; Arêas, J A G

    2016-03-01

    This article aims to discuss the current approaches used to reduce the postprandial glycemic response (GR) of starchy gluten-free products (GFP) and to provide some further prospects. The GR is evaluated through in vivo trials to determine the glycemic index (GI) and the glycemic load (GL) of foods or using the in vitro starch digestibility method to predict the GI. The reviewed studies demonstrated that a reduction in the GR of GFP can be achieved by replacing traditionally used refined flours and starches with nutrient-dense alternative raw materials due to an increase in dietary fiber, resistant starch and protein contents, which can alter the rate of starch digestion, reduce the GI and dilute the amount of available carbohydrate; both the factors contribute to reduce the GL. The addition of viscous dietary fibers could also be a successful way to reduce the GR of GFP. Some studies have demonstrated the potential of germination of GF grains and sourdough fermentation in decreasing the GR of GF bread. Further studies could evaluate alternative GF flours, soluble fibers, resistant starch, and other formulation factors that may affect the GR of different types of GFP. New studies should be performed to test and optimize processing methods by considering the reduction of GR of GFP. Another key aspect for further investigation is the confirmation of the promising results obtained through in vitro assays by in vivo GI evaluation.

  4. Exploitation of alfalfa seed (Medicago sativa L.) flour into gluten-free rice cookies: Nutritional, antioxidant and quality characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuberti, Gianluca; Rocchetti, Gabriele; Sigolo, Samantha; Fortunati, Paola; Lucini, Luigi; Gallo, Antonio

    2018-01-15

    In an effort to increase the nutritional value of common gluten-free (GF) cereal-based foods, GF cookies using alfalfa seed flour (ASF), at different substitution levels to common rice flour (0% as control, 15%, 30% and 45% w/w), were produced. Crude protein, total dietary fibre, total polyunsaturated, total n-3 and n-6 fatty acid contents increased linearly (p<0.05) by raising the substitution levels of rice with ASF. The hardness, the total phenolic content, the in vitro antioxidant capacity and the resistant starch increased linearly (p<0.05), whereas the starch hydrolysis index decreased linearly (p<0.05) by raising the substitution levels of rice flour with ASF. Despite the fact that ASF-substituted GF cookies had inferior sensory attributes compared to the control, the score given by the panellists remained at fairly good levels for all tested parameters, showing acceptability of the substituted GF cookies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Using chemometric techniques to characterize gluten-free cookies containing the whole flour of a new quinoa cultivar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagamunici, Lilian M.; Gohara, Aline K.; Souza, Aloisio H.P.; Batiston, Weliton P.; Gomes, Sandra T.M.; Visentainer, Jesui V.; Matsushita, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    Celiac disease is defined as intolerance to the gluten proteins present in certain cereals used to prepare foodstuffs. We developed and performed physico-chemical, sensory, and nutritional assessments of three formulations of gluten-free cookies containing Linum usitatissimum L. and different levels of whole Chenopodium quinoa BRS Piabiru flour. No gluten was detected in the prepared cookie formulations. The crude protein and total lipid contents ranged from 85.58 to 97.55 and 121.69 to 166.19 g per kg of sample, respectively. The polyunsaturated/saturated and n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratios ranged from 0.85:1 to 0.92:1 and 3.08:1 to 4.38:1, respectively. Formulation C had the best alpha-linolenic acid content, lipid fraction nutritional indices and mineral content per portion, with excellent sensory characteristics. Multivariate analysis highlighted the effect of the concentration of quinoa on the nutritional and sensory qualities of the product. (author)

  6. Nutritional and sensory characteristics of gluten-free quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd)-based cookies development using an experimental mixture design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Isabelle L; de Souza, Evandro Leite; Felex, Suênia Samara Santos; Madruga, Marta Suely; Yamashita, Fábio; Magnani, Marciane

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a gluten-free formulation of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)-based cookies using experimental design of mixture to optimize a ternary mixture of quinoa flour, quinoa flakes and corn starch for parameters of colour, specific volume and hardness. Nutritional and sensory aspects of the optimized formulation were also assessed. Corn starch had a positive effect on the lightness of the cookies, but increased amounts of quinoa flour and quinoa flakes in the mixture resulted in darker product. Quinoa flour showed a negative effect on the specific volume, producing less bulky cookies, and quinoa flour and quinoa flakes had a positive synergistic effect on the hardness of the cookies. According the results and considering the desirability profile for colour, hardness and specific volume in gluten-free cookies, the optimized formulation contains 30 % quinoa flour, 25 % quinoa flakes and 45 % corn starch. The quinoa-based cookie obtained was characterized as a product rich in dietary fibre, a good source of essential amino acids, linolenic acid and minerals, with good sensory acceptability. These findings reports for the first time the application of quinoa processed as flour and flakes in mixture with corn starch as an alternative ingredient for formulations of gluten-free cookies-type biscuits.

  7. Medical nutrition therapy: use of sourdough lactic acid bacteria as a cell factory for delivering functional biomolecules and food ingredients in gluten free bread

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2011-08-30

    Abstract Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated disease, triggered in genetically susceptible individuals by ingesting gluten from wheat, rye, barley, and other closely related cereal grains. Currently, the estimated prevalence of CD is around 1 % of the population in the western world and medical nutritional therapy (MNT) is the only accepted treatment for celiac disease. To date, the replacement of gluten in bread presents a significant technological challenge for the cereal scientist due to the low baking performance of gluten free products (GF). The increasing demand by the consumer for high quality gluten-free (GF) bread, clean labels and natural products is rising. Sourdough has been used since ancient times for the production of rye and wheat bread, its universal usage can be attributed to the improved quality, nutritional properties and shelf life of sourdough based breads. Consequently, the exploitation of sourdough for the production of GF breads appears tempting. This review will highlight how sourdough LAB can be an efficient cell factory for delivering functional biomolecules and food ingredients to enhance the quality of gluten free bread.

  8. Diabetes preventive gluten-free diet decreases the number of caecal bacteria in non-obese diabetic mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hansen, A. K.; Ling, F.; Kaas, A.; Funda, David P.; Farlov, H.; Buschard, K.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 22, - (2006), s. 220-225 ISSN 1520-7552 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA5020405 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : type 1 diabetes mellitus * non-obese diabetic mice * gluten Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.551, year: 2006

  9. Gluten-free dough-making of specialty breads: Significance of blended starches, flours and additives on dough behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collar, Concha; Conte, Paola; Fadda, Costantino; Piga, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    The capability of different gluten-free (GF) basic formulations made of flour (rice, amaranth and chickpea) and starch (corn and cassava) blends, to make machinable and viscoelastic GF-doughs in absence/presence of single hydrocolloids (guar gum, locust bean and psyllium fibre), proteins (milk and egg white) and surfactants (neutral, anionic and vegetable oil) have been investigated. Macroscopic (high deformation) and macromolecular (small deformation) mechanical, viscometric (gelatinization, pasting, gelling) and thermal (gelatinization, melting, retrogradation) approaches were performed on the different matrices in order to (a) identify similarities and differences in GF-doughs in terms of a small number of rheological and thermal analytical parameters according to the formulations and (b) to assess single and interactive effects of basic ingredients and additives on GF-dough performance to achieve GF-flat breads. Larger values for the static and dynamic mechanical characteristics and higher viscometric profiles during both cooking and cooling corresponded to doughs formulated with guar gum and Psyllium fibre added to rice flour/starch and rice flour/corn starch/chickpea flour, while surfactant- and protein-formulated GF-doughs added to rice flour/starch/amaranth flour based GF-doughs exhibited intermediate and lower values for the mechanical parameters and poorer viscometric profiles. In addition, additive-free formulations exhibited higher values for the temperature of both gelatinization and retrogradation and lower enthalpies for the thermal transitions. Single addition of 10% of either chickpea flour or amaranth flour to rice flour/starch blends provided a large GF-dough hardening effect in presence of corn starch and an intermediate effect in presence of cassava starch (chickpea), and an intermediate reinforcement of GF-dough regardless the source of starch (amaranth). At macromolecular level, both chickpea and amaranth flours, singly added, determined

  10. Effects of carrot pomace powder and a mixture of pectin and xanthan on the quality of gluten-free batter and cakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majzoobi, Mahsa; Vosooghi Poor, Zahra; Mesbahi, Gholamreza; Jamalian, Jalal; Farahnaky, Asgar

    2017-12-01

    Carrot pomace powder (CPP) is a valuable by-product of carrot processing containing nutrients and fiber and can be utilized for enrichment of gluten-free products. The main purpose of this study was to determine the effects of various levels of CPP (0, 10, 20, and 30%) and a mixture of hydrocolloids (HC) including pectin and xanthan (1.5% of each) on the quality of batter and gluten-free cakes. With increasing the level of CPP and inclusion of HC the viscosity of the batter increased significantly from 87 mPa s for the control to >7000 mPa s for 30%CCP + HC sample. The density of the control batter was 1.2 g/cm 3 which reduced significantly to 0.899 g/cm 3 for HC sample. The pH of the cake reduced from 7.23 to 6.78 with addition of CPP but increased slightly with inclusion of HC. The density of the cake reduced from 0.510 g/cm 3 for the control to 0.395 g/cm 3 for 20%CCP + C sample. The texture of the cakes became softer, more springy and chewable with addition of CPP, CPP + HC, and HC. The control sample had the lowest uniformity index (0.178) which improved with addition of CPP and CPP + HC and a highly uniform cake with a uniformity index of 0.045 was obtained for the 30%CCP + HC cake. Addition of CPP increased the dark color of the cakes while inclusion of HC had no effect on the appearance of the cake and color. It was concluded that inclusion of maximum 30%CCP and 20%CPP + HC promoted the quality and sensory attributes of gluten-free cakes. Although different types of gluten-free products are available in the market, most of them contain insufficient amount of fiber and nutrients. Despite popularity, gluten-free cakes are poor in fiber and nutrient contents. Therefore, improving the nutritional value of these products has received an increasing attention by the food industry. Carrot pomace powder (CPP) is an available source of fiber and nutrients and hence can be utilized for enrichment of gluten-free products. This study showed that

  11. Living Gluten Free

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... wheat starch, wheat bran, wheat germ, cracked wheat, hydrolyzed wheat protein barley rye triticale (a cross between wheat and rye) bromated flour durum flour enriched flour farina graham ... sauce vegetables in sauce Read More "Celiac Disease" Articles Celiac ...

  12. Gluten-Free Recipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Toast Casserole Heavenly Hash Brown Casserole Make Ahead Scrambled Eggs Pear Flip Flop Praline Topping Casserole Recipes Chicken ... Stew Lobster Newburg Lobster Newburg Macaroons Make Ahead Scrambled Eggs Maple-Glazed Brussels Sprouts Meatballs for Cocktails Meringue ...

  13. Gluten-Free Recipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Veggies Zucchini Pancakes Vegetarian Lentil and Sweet Potato Stew Mock Tuna Salad Spinach and Ricotta Dumplings Spinach Frittata Strata Turkey Veggies Warm Spinach Salad with Soft Poached Eggs Zucchini Parmigianino with Tomato ... Latest Restaurants Molly's Cupcakes Monica's Crepes Paulette ...

  14. Diabetes and Celiac Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medication malabsorption. • The only treatment is a strict gluten-free diet. If the diet is followed, the intestinal damage ... following grains and starches are allowed on a gluten-free diet: Amaranth Arrowroot Beans/legumes Buckwheat Corn Millet Nut ...

  15. Strict confluent drawing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Eppstein

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We define strict confluent drawing, a form of confluent drawing in which the existence of an edge is indicated by the presence of a smooth path through a system of arcs and junctions (without crossings, and in which such a path, if it exists, must be unique. We prove that it is NP-complete to determine whether a given graph has a strict confluent drawing but polynomial to determine whether it has an outerplanar strict confluent drawing with a fixed vertex ordering (a drawing within a disk, with the vertices placed in a given order on the boundary.

  16. The Effects of Egg and Diacetyl Tartaric Acid Esters of Monoglycerides Addition on Storage Stability, Texture, and Sensory Properties of Gluten-Free Sorghum Bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bize, Magali; Smith, Brennan M; Aramouni, Fadi M; Bean, Scott R

    2017-01-01

    The impact of whole egg addition (as is) at 20%, 25%, or 30% (flour basis) on sorghum bread quality was evaluated. The use of the antistaling agent diacetyl tartaric acid esters of monoglycerides (DATEM) at 0.5% (flour basis) at each of the egg addition levels was also studied. Evaluated quality factors included color, specific volume, and crumb structure. Texture analysis was performed to evaluate the rate of quality loss based on changes in crumb hardness values over time. A trained sensory panel evaluated bread quality attributes by descriptive analysis. Sorghum breads with egg had larger specific volumes than the control, while DATEM had a negative effect on the volume of sorghum gluten-free bread. Inclusion of egg in the bread formula improved cell structure and produced darker crust (P bread hardness and slowed the rate of quality loss over a 12-d storage period. Descriptive analysis confirmed the findings of texture analysis. Control breads were significantly harder (P bread at days 0 and 4. This research demonstrates that addition of eggs to a gluten-free sorghum bread formulation results in improved storage stability and better overall quality and acceptability of the product. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  17. Influence of different hydrocolloids on dough thermo-mechanical properties and in vitro starch digestibility of gluten-free steamed bread based on potato flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xingli; Mu, Taihua; Sun, Hongnan; Zhang, Miao; Chen, Jingwang; Fauconnier, Marie Laure

    2018-01-15

    The effects of hydrocolloids (hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC), Carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), xanthan gum (XG), and apple pectin (AP)) at different concentrations on dough thermo-mechanical properties and in vitro starch digestibility of gluten-free potato steamed bread were investigated. Results showed that hydrocolloids addition significantly increased the gelatinization temperature (from 52.0 to 64.2°C) and water absorption (from 56.22 to 66.50%) of potato dough. Moreover, hydrocolloids may be interacted with protein and starch, the density of potato protein bands was decreased by hydrocolloids addition, the reason might be that higher molecular weight complexes might be formed between proteins-hydrocolloids or proteins-proteins, thus change the protein solubility. Furthermore, steamed breads with hydrocolloids presented higher specific volume and lower hardness, and the rapidly digestible starch and estimated glycemic index were significantly decreased from 45.51 to 20.64, from 69.54 to 55.17, respectively. In conclusion, HPMC and XG could be used as improvers in the gluten-free potato steamed bread. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Effects of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) seed oil press-cake and decaffeinated green tea leaves (Camellia sinensis) on functional characteristics of gluten-free crackers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radočaj, Olga; Dimić, Etelka; Tsao, Rong

    2014-03-01

    A mixture, simplex centroid, 2 components experimental design was used to evaluate the addition of hemp seed oil press-cake and decaffeinated green tea leaves, as functional ingredients to assess nutritional characteristics and antioxidant properties of gluten-free crackers. All samples with added hemp flour had much better nutritional qualities than the brown rice flour crackers in terms of higher protein, crude fibers, minerals, and essential fatty acids content. Likewise, all samples with added decaffeinated green tea leaves had much better antioxidant properties than crackers with no added green tea leaves. All crackers with added hemp flour had a significantly increased fiber content (39% to 249%) and decreased carbohydrate content (8.4% to 42.3%), compared to the brown rice flour crackers. All samples had antioxidant properties, even without the addition of green tea leaves. Optimization of the responses was conducted based on the maximized values for protein, fibers, omega-3 fatty acids content, as well as for the antioxidant activity and overall score. The suggested values for the addition of the hemp oil press-cake was 20% (total flour weight) with 4 g of decaffeinated green tea leaves that would provide protein content of 14.1 g/100 g; fibers content of 8.4 g/100 g; omega-3 fatty acids content of 3.2 g/100 g; antioxidant activity measured via 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl value of 30.3 μmol TE/g d.w.; and an overall score of 8.9. This formulation has demonstrated potential application in the baking industry and marketing of these gluten-free crackers as a value-added functional product. Hemp seed oil press-cake as a by-product of cold-pressed oil processing and brown rice flour were used to design a functional gluten-free snack-type product-savory crackers. All crackers were high in minerals, fibers, and omega-3 fatty acids with a desirable omega-6/omega-3 fatty acids ratio. Green tea leaves were added to improve antioxidant activity, which greatly

  19. Strictly convex renormings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moltó, A.; Orihuela, J.; Troyanski, S.; Zizler, Václav

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 75, č. 3 (2007), s. 647-658 ISSN 0024-6107 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190502 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : strictly convex norms * lattice norm * quasi-diagonal sets Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.733, year: 2007

  20. Quine's "Strictly Vegetarian" Analyticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Decock, L.B.

    2017-01-01

    I analyze Quine’s later writings on analyticity from a linguistic point of view. In Word and Object Quine made room for a “strictly vegetarian” notion of analyticity. In later years, he developed this notion into two more precise notions, which I have coined “stimulus analyticity” and “behaviorist

  1. End-product quality characteristics and consumer response of chickpea flour-based gluten-free muffins containing corn starch and egg white.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, María Dolores; Herranz, Beatriz; Jiménez, María José; Canet, Wenceslao

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this work was to study changes in technological characteristics and sensory properties of gluten-free muffins when using chickpea flour (CF) alone and/or with partial CF replacement by corn starch (CS). The effect of partial whole egg replacement by egg white (EW) was also investigated. Four different CF:CS ratios (100:0, 75:25, 50:50, and 25:75) were used in formulations with and without incorporated EW, and compared with wheat flour (WF) muffins (0:0). Muffins prepared from CF alone had lower hardness, springiness, cohesiveness, chewiness, and resilience than control ones. However, reducing protein content by CS addition significantly increased texture profile analysis parameters of muffin crumb. Muffins prepared with 25:75 ratio had a structure with springiness similar to muffins made with WF but were too hard. Reducing whole egg content by partial replacement with EW also significantly increased muffin hardness. Flash profile performed by consumers showed a clear discrimination of muffins according to CF:CS ratio. Muffins containing both CF and CS at 50:50 ratio had the same high overall acceptability and purchase intention as gluten ones. Gluten-free CF-based muffins of satisfactory quality can be manufactured by CS incorporation, either with or without EW. By decreasing and increasing protein and starch contents of chickpea flour (CF) by incorporation of corn starch (CS), muffins formulated from a combination of CF and CS at different CF:CS ratios, either with or without partial replacement of whole egg with egg white, result in high-quality muffins with similar technological and sensory characteristics to those of their gluten counterparts. Sensory overall acceptability and purchase intention of muffins made with a 50:50 ratio did not differ significantly from those of the controls. These findings will benefit celiac population, while promoting the value and utilization of pulses through muffins. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. The effects of gluten-free diet versus hypocaloric diet among patients with fibromyalgia experiencing gluten sensitivity symptoms: Pilot, open-label, randomized clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Slim, Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    El s??ndrome de Fibromialgia, un trastorno de dolor cr??nico musculoesquel??tico, presenta una prevalencia de 2-5% en la poblaci??n general. Se trata de una patolog??a compleja con un amplio espectro de s??ntomas, entre los que destacan el cansancio cr??nico, el sue??o no reparador y los problemas cognitivos. Tambi??n son frecuentes s??ntomas gastrointestinales, parcialmente atribuibles a la comorbilidad entre la fibromialgia y el s??ndrome de intestino irritable que se estima ...

  3. Mixture Design Applied to the Development of Chickpea-Based Gluten-Free Bread with Attractive Technological, Sensory, and Nutritional Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Fernanda G; Fratelli, Camilly; Muniz, Denise G; Capriles, Vanessa D

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the study was utilized chickpea to create appealing, nutritious, and palatable gluten-free bread (GFB). The performance of chickpea flour (CF) in single and composite GFB formulations was studied with a mixture design and response surface methodology. Six simplex-centroid designs for 3 ingredients were used to identify the ideal proportions of CF in various blends with cassava starch (CS), maize starch (MS), potato starch (PS), and rice flour (RF) achieving the best physical properties. For each design, 3 single, 3 binary, and 3 ternary formulations were prepared. The results showed that CF alone is suitable for bread production, resulting in GFB with higher volume and crumb firmness and lower crumb moisture than single formulations of other raw materials. However, the interactions between CF and PS or CS enhanced the loaf volume and decreased the crumb firmness values. The GFB prepared with only CF was accepted (overall acceptability score of 7.1- on a 10-cm scale). Nevertheless, the composite formulations prepared with CF75:PS25 or CF75:CS25 (flour basis) received overall acceptability scores of 8.2, like those of their white GFB, prepared with RF50:PS50 blend (flour basis), and wheat bread counterparts, used as positive controls. Compared to white GFB, both composite formulations presented nearly a twofold increase in ash and protein contents and a threefold increase in total fiber content. These results show that blends of CF75:PS25 or CF75:CS25 can be used to develop GFB with a good physical and sensory properties, as well as an enhanced nutritional composition. Gluten-free bread (GFB) made with 75% chickpea flour (CF) blend with 25% potato or cassava starch showed improved total minerals, protein and dietary fiber content and bread quality characteristics. Therefore, CF is a valuable ingredient for food technologists in manufacturing better-tasting and healthy GFB, which is important for consumers with gluten-related disorders since GFB often lack

  4. Development of gluten-free bread using tartary buckwheat and chia flour rich in flavonoids and omega-3 fatty acids as ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, Lara; Lukšič, Lea; Molinari, Romina; Kreft, Ivan; Bonafaccia, Giovanni; Manzi, Laura; Merendino, Nicolò

    2014-12-15

    In this study, chia seed flour, which is rich in omega-3 alpha-linolenic acid, and common and tartary buckwheat flour, which has a high antioxidant activity, were integrated into different types of bread with the aim of improving their nutritional value and healthy features. Our results indicate that bread made with chia and tartary buckwheat flour was more acceptable in many nutritional aspects compared to the control (common wheat bread); it contained a higher amount of protein (20%), insoluble dietary fibres (74%), ash (51%), and alpha-linolenic acid (67.4%). Moreover, this bread possessed lower energy (14%) and carbohydrate contents (24%) compared to the control. Tartary buckwheat also improved the total antioxidant capacity of the bread (about 75%) and provided a considerable amount of flavonoids, which are healthy non-nutritional compounds. Overall, chia and tartary buckwheat represent excellent raw materials for the formulation of gluten-free bread with high nutritional value. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A stepwise, 'test-all-positives' methodology to assess gluten-kernel contamination at the serving-size level in gluten-free (GF) oat production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yumin; Fritz, Ronald D; Kock, Lindsay; Garg, Dinesh; Davis, R Mark; Kasturi, Prabhakar

    2018-02-01

    A step-wise, 'test-all-positive-gluten' analytical methodology has been developed and verified to assess kernel-based gluten contamination (i.e., wheat, barley and rye kernels) during gluten-free (GF) oat production. It targets GF claim compliance at the serving-size level (of a pouch or approximately 40-50g). Oat groats are collected from GF oat production following a robust attribute-based sampling plan then split into 75-g subsamples, and ground. R-Biopharm R5 sandwich ELISA R7001 is used for analysis of all the first15-g portions of the ground sample. A >20-ppm result disqualifies the production lot, while a >5 to <20-ppm result triggers complete analysis of the remaining 60-g of ground sample, analyzed in 15-g portions. If all five 15-g test results are <20ppm, and their average is <10.67ppm (since a 20-ppm contaminant in 40g of oats would dilute to 10.67ppm in 75-g), the lot is passed. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Rheometric Non-Isothermal Gelatinization Kinetics of Chickpea Flour-Based Gluten-Free Muffin Batters with Added Biopolymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Dolores Alvarez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An attempt was made to analyze the elastic modulus (G0 of chickpea flour (CF-based muffin batters made with CF alone and with added biopolymers (whey protein (WP, xanthan gum (XG, inulin (INL, and their blends in order to evaluate their suitability to be a wheat flour (WF substitute in muffins, and to model the heat-induced gelatinization of batters under non-isothermal heating condition from 25 ◦C to 90 ◦C. A rheological approach is proposed to determine the kinetic parameters (reaction order (n, frequency factor (k0, and activation energy (Ea using linearly-increasing temperature. Zero-order reaction kinetics adequately described batter gelatinization process, therefore assuming a constant rate independent of the initial G0 value. The change of the derivative of G0 with respect to time (dG0/dt versus temperature is described by one exponential function with activation energies ranging from 118 to 180 kJ·mol−1. Control wheat gluten batter, with higher and lower starch and protein contents, respectively, than CF-based batters, exhibited the highest Ea value. Formulation of CF-based gluten-free batters with starch and protein contents closer to the levels of WF-based batter could be a strategy to decrease differences in kinetic parameters of muffin batters and, therefore, in technological characteristics of baked muffins.

  7. Effects of chemical composition and baking on in vitro digestibility of proteins in breads made from selected gluten-containing and gluten-free flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tong; Taylor, Cheryl; Nebl, Thomas; Ng, Ken; Bennett, Louise E

    2017-10-15

    Breads prepared from cereal grains are a dietary staple, providing a significant proportion of daily energy, but not necessarily of dietary protein. However, good digestibility of proteins in bread is important to avoid potential immunogenic effects of undigested peptides, including for those gluten-intolerant. Four gluten-containing (white wheat, wholemeal wheat, spelt and rye) and four gluten-free (chick pea, lupin, buckwheat, amaranth) flours were used to make yeast-leavened breads standardized for protein. In vitro gastro-intestinal digestion of pre-mixes, doughs and breads baked for 20 and 35min was conducted followed by correlation analysis between fitted parameters of digestion profiles, chemical composition (protein, non-fibre carbohydrates, fibre, ash and total polyphenolics) and amino acid profiles. The results indicated that digestibility generally increased during proofing and decreased during baking. Relatively higher protein digestibility was correlated with ratio of non-fibre carbohydrate to protein and lower digestibility with increasing contents of fibre and total polyphenolics in pre-mixes. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Gluten-free pasta incorporating chia (Salvia hispanica L.) as thickening agent: An approach to naturally improve the nutritional profile and the in vitro carbohydrate digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menga, Valeria; Amato, Mariana; Phillips, Tim D; Angelino, Donato; Morreale, Federico; Fares, Clara

    2017-04-15

    A gluten-free pasta was prepared adding chia at rice flour for testing the thickening and nutritional properties of this specie. Chemical analysis showed chia is a source of protein (19.52% and 15.81%, seeds and mucilage respectively), insoluble/soluble dietary fiber ratio (4.3 and 1.79 seeds and mucilage respectively), fat and ash content. The total phenolic acids content ranged from 734.5μg/g to 923.9μg/g for seeds and mucilage respectively. Chia was a good thickening agent and, improved the nutritional profile of enriched samples compared to CGF. After cooking TPAs increased in all samples, ranging from 5.3% in DW to 52.8% in CM5. The addition of chia seeds also increased the slowly digestible starch fraction of rice flour, commonly known to have a high glycemic index. Results suggest that chia should be added as thickening agent in the formulation of GF pasta for conferring healthier characteristics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Development, characterization and chemometric analysis of a gluten-free food bar containing whole flour from a new cultivar of amaranth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Maria Pagamunici

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Food bars are consumed heavily, especially because of their practicality; however they cannot be ingested by celiac patients and present low contents of essential nutrients. The goal of this study was the development and physical-chemical, nutritional and sensory evaluation of a gluten-free food bar containing amaranth and linseed. Gluten fractions were not detected in the food bar formulations. Crude protein and total lipid contents ranged from 68.32 to 76.60 and 74.56 to 82.06 g kg-1 of food, respectively. The polyunsaturated/saturated and n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratios ranged from 0.45:1 to 0.55:1 and 1.44:1 to 2.50:1, respectively. Calcium, magnesium, copper, iron, manganese and zinc were the principal minerals. Application of multivariate analysis enabled sample B to be distinguished according to its mineral and alfa-linolenic acid content. All food bar formulations had good sensory acceptance and high purchase intent.

  10. Multiplex liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the detection of wheat, oat, barley and rye prolamins towards the assessment of gluten-free product safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manfredi, Anita [Dipartimento di Chimica, Università degli Studi di Parma, Parco Area delle Scienze 17/A, 43124, Parma (Italy); Mattarozzi, Monica, E-mail: monica.mattarozzi@unipr.it [Dipartimento di Chimica, Università degli Studi di Parma, Parco Area delle Scienze 17/A, 43124, Parma (Italy); Giannetto, Marco; Careri, Maria [Dipartimento di Chimica, Università degli Studi di Parma, Parco Area delle Scienze 17/A, 43124, Parma (Italy); Centro Interdipartimentale SITEIA.PR, Università degli Studi di Parma, Parco Area delle Scienze 181/A, 43124 Parma (Italy)

    2015-10-01

    Celiac patients should feel confident in the safety of foods labelled or expected to be gluten-free. In this context, a targeted proteomic approach based on liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) technique was proposed to assess the presence of celiotoxic cereals, namely wheat, oats, barley and rye, in raw and processed food products. To this aim, unique marker peptides were properly selected in order to distinguish between the different cereal types. A revised cocktail solution based on reducing and denaturing agents was exploited for prolamin extraction from raw and processed food; in addition, defatting with hexane was carried out for sample clean-up, allowing to largely reduce problems related to matrix effect. Method validation on fortified rice flour showed good analytical performance in terms of sensitivity (limits of detection in the 2–18 mg kg{sup −1} range). However, poor trueness was calculated for self-made incurred bread (between 3 and 30% depending on the peptide), probably due to baking processes, which reduce gluten extractability. Thus, it is evident that in the case of processed foods further insights into sample treatment efficiency and reference materials for protein calibration are required to obtain accurate gluten determination. Finally, the developed method was applied for the analysis of market food products, offering the possibility to discriminate among cereals, with good agreement with labelled ingredients for gluten-containing foodstuffs. - Highlights: • Multiplex LC-MS/MS detection of wheat, oats, barley and rye in food. • Discrimination among celiotoxic cereals by selection of unique marker peptides. • Defatting step for matrix complexity reduction and improved sensitivity. • Investigation of gluten presence in different kinds of food product samples.

  11. Multiplex liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the detection of wheat, oat, barley and rye prolamins towards the assessment of gluten-free product safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manfredi, Anita; Mattarozzi, Monica; Giannetto, Marco; Careri, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Celiac patients should feel confident in the safety of foods labelled or expected to be gluten-free. In this context, a targeted proteomic approach based on liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) technique was proposed to assess the presence of celiotoxic cereals, namely wheat, oats, barley and rye, in raw and processed food products. To this aim, unique marker peptides were properly selected in order to distinguish between the different cereal types. A revised cocktail solution based on reducing and denaturing agents was exploited for prolamin extraction from raw and processed food; in addition, defatting with hexane was carried out for sample clean-up, allowing to largely reduce problems related to matrix effect. Method validation on fortified rice flour showed good analytical performance in terms of sensitivity (limits of detection in the 2–18 mg kg −1 range). However, poor trueness was calculated for self-made incurred bread (between 3 and 30% depending on the peptide), probably due to baking processes, which reduce gluten extractability. Thus, it is evident that in the case of processed foods further insights into sample treatment efficiency and reference materials for protein calibration are required to obtain accurate gluten determination. Finally, the developed method was applied for the analysis of market food products, offering the possibility to discriminate among cereals, with good agreement with labelled ingredients for gluten-containing foodstuffs. - Highlights: • Multiplex LC-MS/MS detection of wheat, oats, barley and rye in food. • Discrimination among celiotoxic cereals by selection of unique marker peptides. • Defatting step for matrix complexity reduction and improved sensitivity. • Investigation of gluten presence in different kinds of food product samples.

  12. Efficient Strictness Analysis of Haskell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristian Damm; Hjæresen, Peter; Rosendahl, Mads

    1994-01-01

    Strictness analysis has been a living field of investigation since Mycroft's original work in 1980, and is getting increasingly significant with the still wider use of lazy functional programming languages. This paper focuses on an actual implementation of a strictness analyser for Haskell...

  13. Specificity analysis of anti-gliadin mouse monoclonal antibodies used for detection of gliadin in food for gluten-free diet

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sánchez, Daniel; Tučková, Ludmila; Burkhard, M.; Plicka, J.; Mothes, T.; Hoffmanová, I.; Tlaskalová, Helena

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 55, - (2007), s. 2627-2632 ISSN 0021-8561 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1QS500200572; GA AV ČR IAA500200709; GA ČR GP310/04/P242; GA ČR GA310/05/2245; GA ČR GA310/07/0414; GA MZe 1B53002; GA MŠk 2B06155 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : antibody specificity * gliadin * celiac disease Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.532, year: 2007

  14. Effectiveness of Gluten-Free and Casein-Free Diets for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders: An Evidence-Based Research Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Mayton, Michael R.; Wheeler, John J.

    2013-01-01

    In order to better assist practitioners and better serve persons with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and their families, it is vital for professionals to systematically evaluate the existing body of literature and synthesize its scientific evidence, so that the efficacy of research can be translated to evidence-based practices (EBPs) (Wheeler,…

  15. Obtention and characterization of gluten-free baked products Obtenção e caraterização de produtos panificados livres de glúten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Schamne

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This work had as objective the development of gluten-free breads and muffins using rice flour and maize and cassava starches. From seven samples resulting from a Simplex-Centroid design, the sensory and instrumental analyses of specific volume, elasticity, and firmness were performed. For the sensory analysis, the optimized formulation contained 50% of rice flour and 50% of cassava starch, and for the instrumental evaluation, the optimal simultaneous point for the three conducted analyses were 20% of rice flour, 30% of cassava starch, and 50% of maize starch. A comparative analysis of specific volume, elasticity, firmness, and triangular test was performed with pre-baked, baked, and frozen bread. Physicochemical, nutritional, and microbiological analyses were performed for both bread and muffin according to the Brazilian legislation.Este trabalho teve como objetivo o desenvolvimento de pães e bolos tipo muffin livres de glúten, usando farinha de arroz e amidos de milho e de mandioca. A partir de sete amostras resultantes de um delineamento Simplex-Centroide, foram realizadas análises sensoriais e instrumentais de volume específico, elasticidade e firmeza. Para a análise sensorial, a formulação ótima de mistura encontrada foi 50% de creme de arroz e 50% de amido de mandioca e, para a análise instrumental, o ponto ótimo simultâneo das três análises realizadas foi 20% de creme de arroz, 30% de amido de mandioca e 50% de amido de milho. Análises comparativas foram feitas para volume específico, elasticidade e firmeza, e teste triangular entre o pão assado e o pão pré-assado e congelado. Para ambos os produtos, foram realizadas análises físico-químicas e nutricionais, as quais estão de acordo com a legislação vigente.

  16. Trace gluten contamination may play a role in mucosal and clinical recovery in a subgroup of diet-adherent non-responsive celiac disease patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients with persistent symptoms and/or villous atrophy despite strict adherence to a gluten-free diet (GFD) have non-responsive celiac disease (NRCD). A subset of these patients has refractory celiac disease (RCD), yet some NRCD patients may simply be reacting to gluten cross-contamination. Here we describe the effects of a 3-6 month diet of whole, unprocessed foods, termed the Gluten Contamination Elimination Diet (GCED), on NRCD. We aim to demonstrate that this diet reclassifies the majority of patients thought to have RCD type 1 (RCD1). Methods We reviewed the records of all GFD-adherent NRCD patients cared for in our celiac center from 2005-2011 who were documented to have started the GCED. Response to the GCED was defined as being asymptomatic after the diet, with normal villous architecture on repeat biopsy, if performed. Results Prior to the GCED, all patients were interviewed by an experienced dietitian and no sources of hidden gluten ingestion were identified. 17 patients completed the GCED; 15 were female (88%). Median age at start of the GCED was 42 years (range 6-73). Fourteen patients (82%) responded to the GCED. Six patients met criteria for RCD prior to the GCED; 5 (83%) were asymptomatic after the GCED and no longer meet RCD criteria. Of the 14 patients who responded to the GCED, 11 (79%) successfully returned to a traditional GFD without resurgence of symptoms. Conclusions The GCED may be an effective therapeutic option for GFD-adherent NRCD patients. Response to this diet identifies a subgroup of patients, previously classified as RCD1, that is not truly refractory to dietary treatment. Preventing an inaccurate diagnosis of RCD1 avoids immunotherapy. Most patients are able to return to a traditional GFD without return of symptoms. PMID:23448408

  17. Development, characterization and chemometric analysis of gluten-free granolas containing whole flour of pseudo-cereals new cultivars - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v36i1.19195

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloisio Henrique Pereira Souza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was the development, quimiometric analysis, physical-chemical, microbiological, nutritional, and sensory evaluation of gluten-free granolas containing quinoa, amaranth and linseed. Gluten fractions were not detected in the granola formulations prepared. The crude protein and total lipids contents ranged from 86.72 to 97.49 and 97.84 to 134.03 g kg-1 of food, respectively. The polyunsaturated/saturated and n-6: n-3 fatty acid ratios were 3:1. Calcium was the major mineral and the contents of trace minerals copper, iron, magnesium, manganese and zinc were over 10% of the dietary reference intake values. The granola color tended to light brown. The absence of Bacillus cereus, thermotolerant coliforms, coagulase positive staphylococcus, and Salmonella sp. ensured the product safety. All the granola formulations had good sensory acceptance and high purchase intent. The gluten-free granola formulations had good physical-chemical, sensory and nutritional quality. The use of chemometric analysis enabled to distinguish the samples with respect to their fatty acid composition, minerals content and sensory aspects.

  18. Species Protection in the European Union : How Strict is Strict?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoukens, Hendrik; Bastmeijer, Kees; Born et al., Charles-Hubert

    2015-01-01

    European Union law to protect wild species of plants and animals is generally considered as ‘strict’. Opponents of nature conservation law often pick the species protection components of the EU Bird Directive and Habitat Directive as a prime example of an unnecessary strict regulatory scheme that

  19. Strictness Analysis for Attribute Grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    1992-01-01

    interpretation of attribute grammars. The framework is used to construct a strictness analysis for attribute grammars. Results of the analysis enable us to transform an attribute grammar such that attributes are evaluated during parsing, if possible. The analysis is proved correct by relating it to a fixpoint...... semantics for attribute grammars. An implementation of the analysis is discussed and some extensions to the analysis are mentioned....

  20. Flexible or Strict Taxonomic Organization?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Fumiko Kano; Mørup, Morten

    2012-01-01

    This work compares methods for constructing feature-based ontologies that are supposed to be used for culturally-specific knowledge transfer. The methods to be compared are the Terminological Ontology (TO) [1], a method of constructing ontology based on strict principles and rules, and the Infinite...... Relational Model (IRM) [2], a novel unsupervised machine learning method that learns multi-dimensional relations among concepts and features from loosely structured datasets. These methods are combined with a novel cognitive model, the Bayesian Model of Generalization (BMG) [3] that maps culturally...

  1. Celiac Disease Diet: How Do I Get Enough Grains?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you. These include brown, black or wild rice, quinoa, amaranth, pure buckwheat, corn, cornmeal, popcorn, millet, gluten- ... from corn (hominy, grits), rice, pure buckwheat, amaranth, quinoa or gluten-free oats Gluten-free puffed rice ...

  2. Almond and peanut flours suppelmented with iron as potential ingredients to develop gluten-free cookies Farinhas de amêndoa e amendoim suplementadas com ferro como ingredientes potenciais para desenvolvimento de biscoitos sem glúten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Granato

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is the second biggest worldwide producer of cookies and there are many varieties in the market; however, only a few are gluten-free. The objectives of this work were to formulate two gluten-free cookies added with iron, peanut or almond, and analyze their physicochemical, chromatic and sensory properties. Moisture, instrumental color (L*, a*, b* and C*, ash, proteins, lipids, iron, carbohydrates (estimated by difference, and water activity were determined. The acceptance of the products was assessed by 115 untrained taste panelists using a five-point hedonic scale. The data collected from the physicochemical analyses were submitted to Levene's, ANOVA, and Tukey's tests, which showed statistical difference (p O Brasil é o segundo maior produtor de biscoitos do mundo e possui muitas variedades no mercado, entretanto, poucos são destituídos de glúten. O objetivo deste trabalho foi formular dois biscoitos sem glúten: um de amendoim e outro de amêndoa adicionados com ferro e analisar suas propriedades físico-químicas e sensoriais. Os parâmetros físico-químicos avaliados foram: umidade, cor (L*, a*, b* e C*, cinzas, proteínas, lipídios, ferro, carboidratos (estimados por diferença e atividade de água. A aceitação dos produtos foi testada por 115 provadores não treinados que utilizaram uma escala hedônica de cinco pontos. Os dados coletados foram submetidos aos testes de Levene, de ANOVA e de Tukey, que mostraram a diferença estatística (p < 0,05 em todos os atributos da composição centesimal, atividade de água e da cor dos biscoitos desenvolvidos. Os biscoitos de amendoim e de amêndoa apresentaram ferro em uma concentração que faz com que possam ser considerados fonte (pelo menos 15% IDR. Apresentam também índice de aceitação de 80% e 85%, respectivamente, concluindo que ambas as formulações desenvolvidas neste estudo apresentaram satisfatórias quantidades de ferro em sua composição e elevados teores de lip

  3. Celiac Family Health Education Video Series

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is Celiac Disease Diet Information At Home Shopping Cooking Gluten Free Baking School Eating Out Away From ... How to shop for gluten-free food. VI. Cooking : How to cook and bake gluten-free foods. ...

  4. Extremely strict ideals in Banach spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Motivated by the notion of an ideal introduced by Godefroy {\\it et al.} ({\\it Studia Math.} {\\bf 104} (1993) 13–59), in this article, we introduce and study the notion of an extremely strict ideal. For a Poulsen simplex K , we show that the space of affine continuous functions on K is an extremely strict ideal in the space of continuous ...

  5. Hyperbolic spaces are of strictly negative type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.; Kokkendorff, Simon L.; Markvorsen, Steen

    2002-01-01

    We study finite metric spaces with elements picked from, and distances consistent with, ambient Riemannian manifolds. The concepts of negative type and strictly negative type are reviewed, and the conjecture that hyperbolic spaces are of strictly negative type is settled, in the affirmative...

  6. Extremely strict ideals in Banach spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Motivated by the notion of an ideal introduced by Godefroy et al. (Stu- dia Math. 104 (1993) 13–59), in this article, we introduce and study the notion of an extremely strict ideal. For a Poulsen simplex K, we show that the space of affine contin- uous functions on K is an extremely strict ideal in the space of continuous ...

  7. The management of psoriasis through diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duarte G

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Gleison Duarte,1 Luan Oliveira Barbosa,2 Maria Elisa A Rosa11Dermatology Division, Alergodermoclin, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil; 2Escola Bahiana de Medicina e Saúde Pública Salvador, Bahia, BrazilAbstract: Diet is an important factor in the management of several dermatological diseases, such as dermatitis herpetiformis, acne vulgaris, gout, phrynoderma, pellagra, psoriasis, and acrodermatitis enteropathica. New concepts have emerged concerning the influence of diet on psoriasis. For example, diet has an adjuvant role in the management of several cardiovascular comorbidities that exhibit a higher-than-expected prevalence in psoriatic patients. Functional foods, such as yellow saffron and fish oil, may exert favorable effects on immune and cardiovascular functions. A gluten-free diet may promote significant clinical and histologic improvement. Folate supplementation may induce clinical improvement of psoriasis, but side effects may also occur. Diets rich in fresh fruits and vegetables are associated with a lower prevalence of psoriasis, and vegetarian diets were associated with clinical improvement. Additionally, many drug-diet interactions (retinoids, methotrexate, cyclosporine must be considered in patients with psoriasis. Therefore, in addition to current nutritional advice given to psoriasis patients, further studies are necessary in the role of diet in psoriasis therapy.Keywords: diet, lifestyle, psoriasis, recommendations, supplementation

  8. Finite Metric Spaces of Strictly negative Type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.

    If a finite metric space is of strictly negative type then its transfinite diameter is uniquely realized by an infinite extent (“load vector''). Finite metric spaces that have this property include all trees, and all finite subspaces of Euclidean and Hyperbolic spaces. We prove that if the distance...... matrix of a finite metric space is both hypermetric and regular, then it is of strictly negative type. We show that the strictly negative type finite subspaces of spheres are precisely those which do not contain two pairs of antipodal points....

  9. Hyperbolic spaces are of strictly negative type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.; Kokkendorff, Simon L.; Markvorsen, Steen

    2002-01-01

    We study finite metric spaces with elements picked from, and distances consistent with, ambient Riemannian manifolds. The concepts of negative type and strictly negative type are reviewed, and the conjecture that hyperbolic spaces are of strictly negative type is settled, in the affirmative....... The technique of the proof is subsequently applied to show that every compact manifold of negative type must have trivial fundamental group, and to obtain a necessary criterion for product manifolds to be of negative type....

  10. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal ... Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook ...

  11. Oats in the Diet of Children with Celiac Disease: Preliminary Results of a Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Multicenter Italian Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, Simona; Caporelli, Nicole; Galeazzi, Tiziana; Francavilla, Ruggiero; Barbato, Maria; Roggero, Paola; Malamisura, Basilio; Iacono, Giuseppe; Budelli, Andrea; Gesuita, Rosaria; Catassi, Carlo; Lionetti, Elena

    2013-01-01

    A gluten-free diet (GFD) is currently the only available treatment for patients with celiac disease (CD). Several clinical trials have demonstrated that most celiac patients can tolerate a medium-high quantity of oats without any negative clinical effects; however, the inclusion of oats in GFD is still a matter of debate. In this study, Italian children with CD were enrolled in a 15-month, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter trial. Participants were randomized in two groups following either A-B treatment (6 months of diet “A”, 3 months of standard GFD, 6 months of diet “B”), or B-A treatment (6 months of diet “B”, 3 months of standard GFD, 6 months of diet “A”). A and B diets included gluten-free (GF) products (flour, pasta, biscuits, cakes and crisp toasts) with either purified oats or placebo. Clinical data (Gastrointestinal Symptoms Rate Scale [GSRS] score) and intestinal permeability tests (IPT), were measured through the study period. Although the study is still blinded, no significant differences were found in GSRS score or the urinary lactulose/mannitol (L/M) ratio between the two groups after 6 months of treatment. These preliminary results suggest that the addition of non-contaminated oats from selected varieties in the treatment of children with CD does not determine changes in intestinal permeability and gastrointestinal symptoms. PMID:24264227

  12. Oats in the Diet of Children with Celiac Disease: Preliminary Results of a Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Multicenter Italian Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Gatti

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A gluten-free diet (GFD is currently the only available treatment for patients with celiac disease (CD. Several clinical trials have demonstrated that most celiac patients can tolerate a medium-high quantity of oats without any negative clinical effects; however, the inclusion of oats in GFD is still a matter of debate. In this study, Italian children with CD were enrolled in a 15-month, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter trial. Participants were randomized in two groups following either A-B treatment (6 months of diet “A”, 3 months of standard GFD, 6 months of diet “B”, or B-A treatment (6 months of diet “B”, 3 months of standard GFD, 6 months of diet “A”. A and B diets included gluten-free (GF products (flour, pasta, biscuits, cakes and crisp toasts with either purified oats or placebo. Clinical data (Gastrointestinal Symptoms Rate Scale [GSRS] score and intestinal permeability tests (IPT, were measured through the study period. Although the study is still blinded, no significant differences were found in GSRS score or the urinary lactulose/mannitol (L/M ratio between the two groups after 6 months of treatment. These preliminary results suggest that the addition of non-contaminated oats from selected varieties in the treatment of children with CD does not determine changes in intestinal permeability and gastrointestinal symptoms.

  13. Development of Gluten-Free Cakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celiac (coeliac) disease, also known as celiac sprue and gluten–sensitive enteropathy, is one of the most frequent food intolerances in the world. It is an autoimmune disorder prevalent in 1:133 of the US population and 1:266 of the population worldwide. Celiac disease is characterized by the inflam...

  14. Gluten-Free Labeling of Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 語 | فارسی | English FDA Accessibility Careers FDA Basics FOIA No FEAR Act Site Map Nondiscrimination Website Policies U.S. Food and Drug Administration 10903 New Hampshire Avenue Silver ...

  15. 4-Week Gluten-Free Meal Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... berries, milk, and a sprinkle of brown sugar Scrambled eggs with a slice of GF toast on the ... the recipe) and Greek yogurt Monday Breakfast tacos: scrambled eggs in corn tortillas with salsa & avocado (optional) Lunch * ...

  16. Strictly convex functions on complete Finsler manifolds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Refresher Courses · Symposia · Live Streaming. Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Volume 126; Issue 4. Strictly convex functions on complete Finsler manifolds. YOE ITOKAWA KATSUHIRO SHIOHAMA BANKTESHWAR TIWARI. Research Article Volume 126 Issue 4 October 2016 pp 623-627 ...

  17. Finite Metric Spaces of Strictly Negative Type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul; Lisonek, P.; Markvorsen, Steen

    1998-01-01

    We prove that, if a finite metric space is of strictly negative type, then its transfinite diameter is uniquely realized by the infinite extender (load vector). Finite metric spaces that have this property include all spaces on two, three, or four points, all trees, and all finite subspaces of Eu...

  18. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook ... Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart- ...

  19. Celiac disease - nutritional considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluten-free diet; Gluten sensitive enteropathy - diet; Celiac sprue - diet ... To follow a gluten-free diet means, you need to avoid all foods, drinks, and medicines made with gluten. This means not eating anything made ...

  20. Decrease by 50% of plasma IgA tissue transglutaminase antibody concentrations within 2 months after start of gluten-free diet in children with celiac disease used as a confirming diagnostic test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Flemming; Hermansen, Mette N; Pedersen, Merete F

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Histological examination of small bowel biopsies is normally the gold standard for the diagnosis of celiac disease (CD). The objective of this study was to investigate whether the rate of decreases in elevated plasma IgA tissue transglutaminase antibody (IgA-tTG) and/or IgG deamidated...

  1. Extremely strict ideals in Banach spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the space of regular Borel measures, it is easy to see that with respect to the projection μ → μ|(0, 1), M is an extremely strict ideal in C([0, 1]) but as the Lebesgue measure is non-atomic, M. ∗. 1 is not the norm closed ..... (Grenoble) 28 (1978) 35–65. [10] Rao T S S R K, On ideals in Banach spaces, Rocky Mountain J. Math.

  2. Novel Therapeutic/Integrative Approaches for Celiac Disease and Dermatitis Herpetiformis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Fasano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease (CD is an immune-mediated enteropathy triggered by the ingestion of gluten in genetically susceptible individuals. Gluten is a protein component in wheat and other cereals like rye and barley. At present, the only available treatment is a strict gluten-free diet. Recent advances have increased our understanding of the molecular basis for this disorder. Last decade has seen new scientific developments in this disease and led to the formulation of new concepts of pathophysiology that offer possible targets for new treatments or interventions integrative to the gluten-free diet.

  3. Strictness Analysis and Denotational Abstract Interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming

    1988-01-01

    there and this sufices to make the framework applicable to strictness analysis for the lambda-calculus. This shows the possibility of a general theory for the analysis of functional programs and it gives more insight into the relative precision of the various analyses. In particular it is shown that a collecting (static......A theory of abstract interpretation () is developed for a typed lambda-calculus. The typed lambda-calculus may be viewed as the ''static'' part of a two-level denotational metalanguage for which abstract interpretation was developed by ). The present development relaxes a condition imposed...

  4. 7 CFR 28.441 - Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color. 28.441 Section... Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color. Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color is color which is deeper than that of Strict Middling Tinged Color. [57 FR 34498, Aug. 5, 1992] ...

  5. 7 CFR 28.412 - Strict Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.412 Section 28... Light Spotted Color. Strict Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Strict Middling Color and Strict Middling Spotted Color. ...

  6. Intraepithelial lymphocytes in refractory celiac disease : lost in transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitz, Frederike

    2014-01-01

    Refractory coeliac disease type II (RCDII) is a severe complication of coeliac disease. Whereas celiac disease can successfully be treated by the strict avoidance of gluten, refractory celiac patients show no remission despite a gluten-free diet. The pathology of RCDII is only partially understood,

  7. Azathioprine and prednisone combination therapy in refractory coeliac disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goerres, MS; Meijer, JW; Wahab, PJ; Kerckhaert, JA; Groenen, PJ; Krieken, JH Van; Mulder, C.J.J.

    2003-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Refractory coeliac disease (RCD) is a rare syndrome with a poor prognosis, defined by malabsorption due to gluten-related enteropathy after initial or subsequent failure of a strict gluten-free diet and after exclusion of any disorder mimicking coeliac disease. PATIENTS AND METHODS:

  8. Are strict vegetarians protected against prostate cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantamango-Bartley, Yessenia; Knutsen, Synnove F; Knutsen, Raymond; Jacobsen, Bjarne K; Fan, Jing; Beeson, W Lawrence; Sabate, Joan; Hadley, David; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Penniecook, Jason; Herring, Patti; Butler, Terry; Bennett, Hanni; Fraser, Gary

    2016-01-01

    According to the American Cancer Society, prostate cancer accounts for ∼27% of all incident cancer cases among men and is the second most common (noncutaneous) cancer among men. The relation between diet and prostate cancer is still unclear. Because people do not consume individual foods but rather foods in combination, the assessment of dietary patterns may offer valuable information when determining associations between diet and prostate cancer risk. This study aimed to examine the association between dietary patterns (nonvegetarian, lacto-ovo-vegetarian, pesco-vegetarian, vegan, and semi-vegetarian) and prostate cancer incidence among 26,346 male participants of the Adventist Health Study-2. In this prospective cohort study, cancer cases were identified by matching to cancer registries. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was performed to estimate HRs by using age as the time variable. In total, 1079 incident prostate cancer cases were identified. Around 8% of the study population reported adherence to the vegan diet. Vegan diets showed a statistically significant protective association with prostate cancer risk (HR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.49, 0.85). After stratifying by race, the statistically significant association with a vegan diet remained only for the whites (HR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.46, 0.86), but the multivariate HR for black vegans showed a similar but nonsignificant point estimate (HR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.41, 1.18). Vegan diets may confer a lower risk of prostate cancer. This lower estimated risk is seen in both white and black vegan subjects, although in the latter, the CI is wider and includes the null. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  9. Geometrical optimization for strictly localized structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Yirong

    2003-07-01

    Recently we proposed the block localized wavefunction (BLW) approach which takes the advantages of valence bond theory and molecular orbital theory and defines the wavefunctions for resonance structures based on the assumption that all electrons and orbitals are partitioned into a few subgroups. In this work, we implement the geometrical optimization of the BLW method based on the algorithm proposed by Gianinetti and coworkers. Thus, we can study the conjugation effect on not only the molecular stability, but also the molecular geometry. With this capability, the π conjugation effect in trans-polyenes C2nH2n+2 (n=2-5) as well as in formamide and its analogs are studied by optimizing their delocalized and strictly localized forms with the 6-31G(d) and 6-311+G(d,p) basis sets. Although it has been well presumed that the π resonance shortens the single bonds and lengthens the double bonds with the delocalization of π electrons across the whole line in polyenes, our optimization of the strictly localized structures quantitatively shows that when the conjugation effect is "turned off," the double bond lengths will be identical to the CC bond length in ethylene and the single Csp2-Csp2 bond length will be about 1.513-1.517 Å. In agreement with the classical Hückel theory, the resonance energies in polyenes are approximately in proportion to the number of double bonds. Similarly, resonance is responsible not only for the planarity of formamide, thioformamide, and selenoformamide, but also for the lengthening of the CX (X=O,S,Se) double bond and the shortening of the CN bonds. Although it is assumed that the CX bond polarization decreases in the order of O>S>Se, the π electronic delocalization increases in the opposite order, i.e., formamide

  10. From Regular to Strictly Locally Testable Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Crespi Reghizzi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A classical result (often credited to Y. Medvedev states that every language recognized by a finite automaton is the homomorphic image of a local language, over a much larger so-called local alphabet, namely the alphabet of the edges of the transition graph. Local languages are characterized by the value k=2 of the sliding window width in the McNaughton and Papert's infinite hierarchy of strictly locally testable languages (k-slt. We generalize Medvedev's result in a new direction, studying the relationship between the width and the alphabetic ratio telling how much larger the local alphabet is. We prove that every regular language is the image of a k-slt language on an alphabet of doubled size, where the width logarithmically depends on the automaton size, and we exhibit regular languages for which any smaller alphabetic ratio is insufficient. More generally, we express the trade-off between alphabetic ratio and width as a mathematical relation derived from a careful encoding of the states. At last we mention some directions for theoretical development and application.

  11. Truths, Myths and Needs of Special Diets: Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Autism, Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity, and Vegetarianism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruchet, Sylvia; Lucero, Yalda; Cornejo, Verónica

    2016-01-01

    Different dietary approaches have been attempted for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and autism, but only three of them have been subjected to clinical trials: education in healthy nutritional habits, supplementation and elimination diets. On the other hand, for multiple reasons, the number of people who adopt vegetarian and gluten-free diets (GFD) increases daily. More recently, a new entity, non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS), with a still evolving definition and clinical spectrum, has been described. Although, the benefits of GFD are clearly supported in this condition as well as in celiac disease, in the last two decades, GFD has expanded to a wider population. In this review, we will attempt to clarify, according to the existing evidence, which are the myths and facts of these diets. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. 7 CFR 28.404 - Strict Low Middling Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Low Middling Color. 28.404 Section 28.404... for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.404 Strict Low Middling Color. Strict Low Middling Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in the custody of the United...

  13. 7 CFR 28.406 - Strict Good Ordinary Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Good Ordinary Color. 28.406 Section 28.406... for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.406 Strict Good Ordinary Color. Strict Good Ordinary Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in the custody of the...

  14. 7 CFR 28.402 - Strict Middling Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Color. 28.402 Section 28.402... for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.402 Strict Middling Color. Strict Middling Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in the custody of the United States...

  15. Effect of incorporation of amaranth on the physical properties and nutritional value of cheese bread

    OpenAIRE

    Lemos,Andréa dos Reis; Capriles,Vanessa Dias; Pinto e Silva,Maria Elisabeth Machado; Arêas,José Alfredo Gomes

    2012-01-01

    At the present celiac disease has no known cure, and its only treatment is a strict lifelong adherence to a gluten-free diet. Cheese bread is a traditional Brazilian product and a safe option for celiacs. However, like other gluten-free breads, it has inherent low levels of fibers and minerals. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of incorporation of whole amaranth flour on the physical properties and nutritional value of cheese bread. Amaranth flour was incorporated at 10, ...

  16. Celiac disease - sprue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprue; Nontropical sprue; Gluten intolerance; Gluten-sensitive enteropathy; Gluten-free diet celiac disease ... intestines will heal if you follow a lifelong gluten-free diet . Do not eat foods, drink beverages, or take ...

  17. Celiac Disease: Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease and the intestinal disease respond to a gluten-free diet and recur if gluten is added back into ... intestinal condition, people with DH must maintain a gluten-free diet. Screening Screening for celiac disease means testing for ...

  18. What People with Celiac Disease Need to Know about Osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treatment for celiac disease is to follow a gluten-free diet. What Is Osteoporosis? The Link Between Celiac Disease ... with celiac disease who have successfully adopted a gluten-free diet also need to follow the same basic strategies ...

  19. Dermatitis Herpetiformis: Skin Manifestation of Celiac Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... will become negative with prolonged adherence to a gluten-free diet. A positive biopsy and serology confirm DH and ... Whether or not intestinal damage is evident, a gluten-free diet should be implemented because the rash of DH ...

  20. Mammalian evolution may not be strictly bifurcating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallström, Björn M; Janke, Axel

    2010-12-01

    The massive amount of genomic sequence data that is now available for analyzing evolutionary relationships among 31 placental mammals reduces the stochastic error in phylogenetic analyses to virtually zero. One would expect that this would make it possible to finally resolve controversial branches in the placental mammalian tree. We analyzed a 2,863,797 nucleotide-long alignment (3,364 genes) from 31 placental mammals for reconstructing their evolution. Most placental mammalian relationships were resolved, and a consensus of their evolution is emerging. However, certain branches remain difficult or virtually impossible to resolve. These branches are characterized by short divergence times in the order of 1-4 million years. Computer simulations based on parameters from the real data show that as little as about 12,500 amino acid sites could be sufficient to confidently resolve short branches as old as about 90 million years ago (Ma). Thus, the amount of sequence data should no longer be a limiting factor in resolving the relationships among placental mammals. The timing of the early radiation of placental mammals coincides with a period of climate warming some 100-80 Ma and with continental fragmentation. These global processes may have triggered the rapid diversification of placental mammals. However, the rapid radiations of certain mammalian groups complicate phylogenetic analyses, possibly due to incomplete lineage sorting and introgression. These speciation-related processes led to a mosaic genome and conflicting phylogenetic signals. Split network methods are ideal for visualizing these problematic branches and can therefore depict data conflict and possibly the true evolutionary history better than strictly bifurcating trees. Given the timing of tectonics, of placental mammalian divergences, and the fossil record, a Laurasian rather than Gondwanan origin of placental mammals seems the most parsimonious explanation.

  1. Systematic Characterization of the Immune Response to Gluten and Casein in Autism Spectrum Disorders. Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    unaffected siblings, and unrelated healthy controls are shown in Table 1. The patient cohort included four individuals on gluten - free diet . Because...cohort included four individuals on gluten - free diet . Because the effect of gluten - free diet on antibody levels in autism is not known, these...33 (24.2%) of the children with autism, excluding those who reported being on gluten - free diet , 8/37 (21.6%) of all autistic children, including those

  2. Role of Diet in Influencing Rheumatoid Arthritis Disease Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badsha, Humeira

    2018-01-01

    Background: Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) frequently ask their doctors about which diets to follow, and even in the absence of advice from their physicians, many patients are undertaking various dietary interventions. Discussion: However, the role of dietary modifications in RA is not well understood. Several studies have tried to address these gaps in our understanding. Intestinal microbial modifications are being studied for the prevention and management of RA. Some benefits of vegan diet may be explained by antioxidant constituents, lactobacilli and fibre, and by potential changes in intestinal flora. Similarly, Mediterranean diet shows anti-inflammatory effects due to protective properties of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamins, but also by influencing the gut microbiome. Gluten-free and elemental diets have been associated with some benefits in RA though the existing evidence is limited. Long-term intake of fish and other sources of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are protective for development of RA. The benefits of fasting, anti-oxidant supplementation, flavanoids, and probiotics in RA are not clear. Vitamin D has been shown to influence autoimmunity and specifically decrease RA disease activity. The role of supplements such as fish oils and vitamin D should be explored in future trials to gain new insights in disease pathogenesis and develop RA-specific dietary recommendations. Conclusion: Specifically more research is needed to explore the association of diet and the gut microbiome and how this can influence RA disease activity. PMID:29515679

  3. Maize Prolamins Could Induce a Gluten-Like Cellular Immune Response in Some Celiac Disease Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Sánchez, Juan P.; Cabrera-Chávez, Francisco; Calderón de la Barca, Ana M.

    2013-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune-mediated enteropathy triggered by dietary gluten in genetically prone individuals. The current treatment for CD is a strict lifelong gluten-free diet. However, in some CD patients following a strict gluten-free diet, the symptoms do not remit. These cases may be refractory CD or due to gluten contamination; however, the lack of response could be related to other dietary ingredients, such as maize, which is one of the most common alternatives to wheat used in the gluten-free diet. In some CD patients, as a rare event, peptides from maize prolamins could induce a celiac-like immune response by similar or alternative pathogenic mechanisms to those used by wheat gluten peptides. This is supported by several shared features between wheat and maize prolamins and by some experimental results. Given that gluten peptides induce an immune response of the intestinal mucosa both in vivo and in vitro, peptides from maize prolamins could also be tested to determine whether they also induce a cellular immune response. Hypothetically, maize prolamins could be harmful for a very limited subgroup of CD patients, especially those that are non-responsive, and if it is confirmed, they should follow, in addition to a gluten-free, a maize-free diet. PMID:24152750

  4. Is the diet important for psoriasis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Owczarczyk-Saczonek

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is a systemic disease, associated with the occurrence of metabolic disorders (obesity, diabetes, hyperuricemia, lipid disorders and rapid development of atherosclerosis; therefore diet can be an important adjuvant therapy. A low-calorie diet is an important complement treatment of patients with psoriasis, particularly those with concomitant obesity. There are a lot of studies indicating that obesity is a risk factor for psoriasis and vice versa. Visceral adipose tissue produces numerous proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, Il-8, Il-17, Il-18, the same ones that participate in development of psoriatic lesions. Important factors in the diet are the essential polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids. They have an anti-inflammatory effect because they inhibit the production of proinflammatory cytokines (I-1b, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α and adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, VCAM-1. In addition, supplementation of omega-3 and natural antioxidants in the diet may help to reduce "oxidative stress" and systemic inflammation. The use of a gluten-free diet is controversial, but in patients with positive anti gliadin antibodies it seems justified. An essential element of the procedure is to avoid alcohol and all its forms and stimulants that have pro-inflammatory effects. We should advise our patients to avoid grapefruit juice during treatment with cyclosporine and limit the supply of simple sugars, animal fats and alcohol during treatment with retinoids. Dietary recommendations for patients with psoriasis are an important part of a holistic approach to patients who expect comprehensive care, not just the prescription.

  5. Supplementation of Reduced Gluten Barley Diet with Oral Prolyl Endopeptidase Effectively Abrogates Enteropathy-Associated Changes in Gluten-Sensitive Macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Sestak

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease (CD is an autoimmune disorder that affects approximately three million people in the United States. Furthermore, non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS affects an estimated additional 6% of the population, e.g., 20 million in the U.S. The only effective treatment of CD and NCGS requires complete removal of gluten sources from the diet. While required adherence to a gluten-free diet (GFD is extremely difficult to accomplish, efforts to develop additional supportive treatments are needed. To facilitate these efforts, we developed a gluten-sensitive (GS rhesus macaque model to study the effects of novel therapies. Recently reported results from phase one of this project suggest that partial improvement—but not remission—of gluten-induced disease can be accomplished by 100-fold reduction of dietary gluten, i.e., 200 ppm—by replacement of conventional dietary sources of gluten with a mutant, reduced gluten (RG barley (lys3a-derived source. The main focus of this (phase two study was to determine if the inflammatory effects of the residual gluten in lys3a mutant barley grain could be further reduced by oral supplementation with a prolylendopeptidase (PE. Results reveal that PE supplementation of RG barley diet induces more complete immunological, histopathological and clinical remission than RG barley diet alone. The combined effects of RG barley diet and PE supplementation resulted in a further decrease of inflammatory mediators IFN-γ and TNF secretion by peripheral lymphocytes, as well as decreased plasma anti-gliadin and anti-intestinal tissue transglutaminase (TG2 antibodies, diminished active caspase production in small intestinal mucosa, and eliminated clinical diarrhea—all comparable with a gluten-free diet induced remission. In summary, the beneficial results of a combined RG barley and PE administration in GS macaques may warrant the investigation of similar synergistic approaches.

  6. Imaging active lymphocytic infiltration in coeliac disease with iodine-123-interleukin-2 and the response to diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signore, A.; Chianelli, M.; Annovazzi, A.; Rossi, M.; Greco, M.; Ronga, G.; Picarelli, A.; Maiuri, L.; Britton, K.E.

    2000-01-01

    Coeliac disease is diagnosed by the presence of specific antibodies and a jejunal biopsy showing mucosal atrophy and mononuclear cell infiltration. Mucosal cell-mediated immune response is considered the central event in the pathogenesis of coeliac disease, and untreated coeliac patients show specific features of T-cell activation in the small intestine. Here we describe the use of iodine-123-interleukin-2 scintigraphy in coeliac patients as a non-invasive tool for detection of lymphocytic infiltration in the small bowel and its use for therapy follow-up, and we demonstrate the specificity of binding of labelled-IL2 to activated lymphocytes by ex-vivo autoradiography of jejunal biopsies. 123 I-IL2 was administered i.v. [74 MBq (2 mCi)], and gamma camera images were acquired after 1 h. Ten patients were studied with 123 I-IL2 scintigraphy at diagnosis and seven were also investigated after 12-19 months of gluten-free diet. Results were expressed as target-to-background radioactivity ratios in six different bowel regions before and after the diet. At the time of diagnosis all patients showed a significantly higher bowel uptake of 123 I-IL2 than normal subjects (P 2 =0.66; P=0.008). Autoradiography of jejunal biopsies confirmed that labelled-IL2 only binds to activated T-lymphocytes infiltrating the gut mucosa. After 1 year of the diet, bowel uptake of 123 I-IL2 significantly decreased in five out of six regions (P 123 I-IL2 scintigraphy is a sensitive non-invasive technique for assessing in vivo the presence of activated mononuclear cells in the bowel of patients affected by coeliac disease. Unlike jejunal biopsy, this method provides information from the whole intestine and gives a non-invasive measure of the effectiveness of the gluten-free diet. (orig.)

  7. Modal Inclusion Logic: Being Lax is Simpler than Being Strict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hella, Lauri; Kuusisto, Antti Johannes; Meier, Arne

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the computational complexity of the satisfiability problem of modal inclusion logic. We distinguish two variants of the problem: one for strict and another one for lax semantics. The complexity of the lax version turns out to be complete for EXPTIME, whereas with strict semantics...

  8. 7 CFR 28.431 - Strict Middling Tinged Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Tinged Color. 28.431 Section 28.431 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Color. Strict Middling Tinged Color is color which is better than Middling Tinged Color. ...

  9. 7 CFR 28.433 - Strict Low Middling Tinged Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Low Middling Tinged Color. 28.433 Section 28.433 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Tinged Color. Strict Low Middling Tinged Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of...

  10. 7 CFR 28.424 - Strict Low Middling Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Low Middling Spotted Color. 28.424 Section 28.424 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Spotted Color. Strict Low Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a set...

  11. 7 CFR 28.426 - Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color. 28.426 Section 28.426 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Spotted Color. Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a set...

  12. 7 CFR 28.422 - Strict Middling Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Spotted Color. 28.422 Section 28.422 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Color. Strict Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples...

  13. Strictly-regular number system and data structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmasry, Amr Ahmed Abd Elmoneim; Jensen, Claus; Katajainen, Jyrki

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a new number system that we call the strictly-regular system, which efficiently supports the operations: digit-increment, digit-decrement, cut, concatenate, and add. Compared to other number systems, the strictly-regular system has distinguishable properties. It is superior to the re...

  14. A review of gluten- and casein-free diets for treatment of autism: 2005–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elder JH

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Jennifer Harrison Elder,1 Consuelo Maun Kreider,2 Nancy M Schaefer,3 Mary B de Laosa4 1Department of Family and Community Health Nursing Science, 2Department of Occupational Therapy, 3Health Science Center Library, 4Department of Psychology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA Background: The gluten-free, casein-free (GFCF diet is heralded by strong anecdotal parental reports to greatly improve and even "cure" symptoms of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs. Yet, to date, little conclusive empirical evidence exists supporting its use. Objective: The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the state of the recent evidence regarding the use of GFCF diet for treatment of individuals with ASD. Methods: Five database providers (PubMed, Web of Knowledge, EBSCO, ProQuest, and WorldCat were used to search 19 databases, yielding a total of 491 articles that were published through February 2015. Peer-reviewed articles published between January 2005 and February 2015 were included for review if study participants were identified as having ASD and if the study investigated the effects of the GFCF diet on ASD behaviors or the relationship between the diet and these behaviors. Results: Evaluation of search results yielded eleven reviews, seven group experimental studies including five randomized controlled trials, five case reports, and four group observational studies published during the last 10 years. These studies represent a marked increase in the number of reported studies as well as increased scientific rigor in investigation of GFCF diets in ASD. Conclusion: While strong empirical support for the GFCF diet in ASD is currently lacking, studies point to the need for identifying subsets of individuals (eg, those with documented gastrointestinal abnormalities who may be the best responders to the GFCF diet. Identifying these subsets is critically needed to enhance rigor in this research area. Until rigorous research supporting the use of

  15. Celiac Family Health Education Video Series

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... What is Celiac Disease Diet Information At Home Shopping Cooking Gluten Free Baking School Eating Out Away ... to keep your kitchen organized and safe. V. Shopping : How to shop for gluten-free food. VI. ...

  16. Celiac Family Health Education Video Series

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diet Information : How to start and maintain a gluten-free diet. IV. A Gluten-Free Home : How to keep your kitchen organized and safe. V. Shopping : How to shop for gluten-free food. VI. Cooking : How to cook and ...

  17. Love and Life without Gluten

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... aspect of their lives. Tips for Following a Gluten-Free Diet Eating a gluten-free diet can be overwhelming for newly diagnosed celiac patients. We’ve combined some fun gluten-free eating tips from Rose Perry and Jack Gottschalk, ...

  18. Long-term Follow-Up of Individuals with Celiac Disease: An Evaluation of Current Practice Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelyn A Silvester

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Celiac disease can be treated by following a strict gluten-free diet for life. If properly followed, the diet resolves symptoms and nutritional deficiencies. It is generally recommended that individuals with celiac disease have careful long-term follow-up. However, it is not clear which elements of disease status evaluation, laboratory investigations and self-management support should be included in follow-up.

  19. Food Allergies and Australian Combat Ration Packs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    coeliac disease is a strict gluten - free diet (no wheat, barley or rye). Oats themselves do not present a problem, although it is difficult to guarantee...However, constructing a suitable diet free of wheat can be challenging. Wheat allergy is relatively rare—most studies have found a prevalence of...would result in CR1M being free of nut/seed ingredients. However, there are nutrition- related penalties involved in this course of action. Designing

  20. Strategy and Aspects of Monitoring / Control Strictly in Coordinated Subsystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William José Borges

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to discuss the approach structures of the strictly coordinated theoretical framework developed by Zylbersztajn and Farina (1999 as an expanded perspective of the firm, taking into account the food supply chains as an extension of the nexus of contracts proposed by Coase (1937 and taken up by Williamson (1985. The structures stand out as strictly coordinated. Zylbersztajn and Farina (1999 turn to identifying points of common interests that encourage firms to promote contracts between themselves in a strictly coordinated way, considering the degree of asset specificity involved in the transaction and the competitive forces that determine the search for strategic positioning organizations to achieve sustainable superior results.

  1. Strict finitism and the logic of mathematical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ye, Feng

    2011-01-01

    Exploring the logic behind applied mathematics to the physical world, this volume illustrates how radical naturalism, nominalism and strict finitism can account for the applications of classical mathematics in current theories about natural phenomena.

  2. Strict monotonicity and unique continuation of the biharmonic operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najib Tsouli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we will show that the strict monotonicity of the eigenvalues of the biharmonic operator holds if and only if some unique continuation property is satisfied by the corresponding eigenfunctions.

  3. Two examples of non strictly convex large deviations

    OpenAIRE

    De Marco, Stefano; Jacquier, Antoine; Roome, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    We present two examples of a large deviations principle where the rate function is not strictly convex. This is motivated by a model used in mathematical finance (the Heston model), and adds a new item to the zoology of non strictly convex large deviations. For one of these examples, we show that the rate function of the Cramer-type of large deviations coincides with that of the Freidlin-Wentzell when contraction principles are applied.

  4. The food-gut human axis: the effects of diet on gut microbiota and metabolome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angelis, Maria; Garruti, Gabriella; Minervini, Fabio; Bonfrate, Leonilde; Portincasa, Piero; Gobbetti, Marco

    2017-04-27

    Gut microbiota, the largest symbiont community hosted in human organism, is emerging as a pivotal player in the relationship between dietary habits and health. Oral and, especially, intestinal microbes metabolize dietary components, affecting human health by producing harmful or beneficial metabolites, which are involved in the incidence and progression of several intestinal related and non-related diseases. Habitual diet (Western, Agrarian and Mediterranean omnivore diets, vegetarian, vegan and gluten-free diets) drives the composition of the gut microbiota and metabolome. Within the dietary components, polymers (mainly fibers, proteins, fat and polyphenols) that are not hydrolyzed by human enzymes seem to be the main leads of the metabolic pathways of gut microbiota, which in turn directly influences the human metabolome. Specific relationships between diet and microbes, microbes and metabolites, microbes and immune functions and microbes and/or their metabolites and some human diseases are being established. Dietary treatments with fibers are the most effective to benefit the metabolome profile, by improving the synthesis of short chain fatty acids and decreasing the level of molecules, such as p-cresyl sulfate, indoxyl sulfate and trimethylamine N-oxide, involved in disease state. Based on the axis diet-microbiota-health, this review aims at describing the most recent knowledge oriented towards a profitable use of diet to provide benefits to human health, both directly and indirectly, through the activity of gut microbiota. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. Strictly contractive quantum channels and physically realizable quantum computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raginsky, Maxim

    2002-01-01

    We study the robustness of quantum computers under the influence of errors modeled by strictly contractive channels. A channel T is defined to be strictly contractive if, for any pair of density operators ρ, σ in its domain, parallel Tρ-Tσ parallel 1 ≤k parallel ρ-σ parallel 1 for some 0≤k 1 denotes the trace norm). In other words, strictly contractive channels render the states of the computer less distinguishable in the sense of quantum detection theory. Starting from the premise that all experimental procedures can be carried out with finite precision, we argue that there exists a physically meaningful connection between strictly contractive channels and errors in physically realizable quantum computers. We show that, in the absence of error correction, sensitivity of quantum memories and computers to strictly contractive errors grows exponentially with storage time and computation time, respectively, and depends only on the constant k and the measurement precision. We prove that strict contractivity rules out the possibility of perfect error correction, and give an argument that approximate error correction, which covers previous work on fault-tolerant quantum computation as a special case, is possible

  6. The low-FODMAP diet for irritable bowel syndrome: Lights and shadows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Infante, Javier; Serra, Jordi; Fernandez-Bañares, Fernando; Mearin, Fermín

    2016-02-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) affects 10-15% of the western population. Drug therapy for this entity has shown limited efficacy. The low Fermentable Oligo-, Di-, Monosaccharides And Polyols (FODMAP) diet has recently emerged as an effective intervention for reducing gastrointestinal symptoms in IBS. Currently, several mechanistic studies have proven the rational basis of carbohydrate restriction. In addition, high-quality evidence (prospective studies and randomized controlled trials) from a variety of countries supports the high effectiveness of a low-FODMAP diet for IBS symptoms (70%), especially abdominal bloating, pain, and diarrhea. Importantly, this diet seems to be superior to a gluten-free diet for patients with non-celiac gluten sensitivity. The most controversial features of the low FODMAP diet are its short- and long-term limitations (a high level of restriction, the need for monitoring by an expert dietitian, potential nutritional deficiencies, significant gut microbiota reduction, lack of predictors of response), as well as the potential lack of advantage over alternative dietary, pharmacological and psychological interventions for IBS. Although liberalization of carbohydrate intake is recommended in the long-term, the reintroduction process remains to be clarified as, theoretically, global carbohydrate restriction is deemed to be necessary to avoid additive effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  7. Convergence theorems for strictly hemi-contractive maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidume, C.E.; Osilike, M.O.

    1992-04-01

    It is proved that each of two well-known fixed point iteration methods (the Mann and the Ishikawa iteration methods) converges strongly to the fixed point of strictly hemi-contractive map in real Banach spaces with property (U, λ, m+1,m), λ is an element of R, m is an element of IN. The class of strictly hemi-contractive maps includes all strictly pseudo-contractive maps with nonempty fixed point sets; and Banach spaces with property (U, λ, m+1, m), λ is an element of R, m is an element of IN include the L p (or l p ) spaces, p≥2. Our theorems generalize important known results. (author). 22 refs

  8. Solid-phase radioimmunoassay for IgG gliadin antibodies using /sup 125/I-labelled staphylococcal protein A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troncone, R.; Pignata, C.; Farris, E.; Ciccimarra, F. (Naples Univ. (Italy). II Facolta di Medicina)

    1983-10-14

    A sensitive radioimmunoassay for IgG gliadin antibodies is described. Serum specimens were added to wells of plastic microtitre plates coated with gliadin. After removal of the unbound material, gliadin antibodies were detected by adding /sup 125/I-labelled staphylococcal protein A (/sup 125/I-SpA). Serum specimens from coeliac patients on a normal diet or on a gluten-free diet were tested, as well as sera from an age-matched control group. Measurements to obtain precise quantitative values were made with gliadin antibody-rich serum as reference standard. High titres of gliadin antibodies were found in 18 out of 19 coeliac patients on a normal diet (95%); in patients on a strict gluten-free diet serum values did not exceed 2 S.D. of the control mean. Due to the high sensitivity of the method a low but detectable amount of gliadin antibody was present in the sera of all controls.

  9. Mann iteration with errors for strictly pseudo-contractive mappings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is well known that any fixed point of a Lipschitzian strictly pseudo-contractive self mapping of a nonempty closed convex and bounded subset K of a Banach space X is unique [6] and may be norm approximated by an iterative procedure. In this paper, we show that Mann iteration with errors can be used to approximate the ...

  10. Dominated operators, absolutely summing operators and the strict ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    b(X;E) be the space of all E-valued bounded continuous functions on X, equipped with the strict topology β. We study dominated and absolutely summing operators T : Cb(X;E) → F. We derive that if X is a locally compact Hausdorff space and E ...

  11. Convergence of GAOR Iterative Method with Strictly Diagonally Dominant Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangbin Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the convergence of GAOR method for linear systems with strictly diagonally dominant matrices. Moreover, we show that our results are better than ones of Darvishi and Hessari (2006, Tian et al. (2008 by using three numerical examples.

  12. Runaway selection for cooperation and strict-and-severe punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamaru, Mayuko; Dieckmann, Ulf

    2009-03-07

    Punishing defectors is an important means of stabilizing cooperation. When levels of cooperation and punishment are continuous, individuals must employ suitable social standards for defining defectors and for determining punishment levels. Here we investigate the evolution of a social reaction norm, or psychological response function, for determining the punishment level meted out by individuals in dependence on the cooperation level exhibited by their neighbors in a lattice-structured population. We find that (1) cooperation and punishment can undergo runaway selection, with evolution towards enhanced cooperation and an ever more demanding punishment reaction norm mutually reinforcing each other; (2) this mechanism works best when punishment is strict, so that ambiguities in defining defectors are small; (3) when the strictness of punishment can adapt jointly with the threshold and severity of punishment, evolution favors the strict-and-severe punishment of individuals who offer slightly less than average cooperation levels; (4) strict-and-severe punishment naturally evolves and leads to much enhanced cooperation when cooperation without punishment would be weak and neither cooperation nor punishment are too costly; and (5) such evolutionary dynamics enable the bootstrapping of cooperation and punishment, through which defectors who never punish gradually and steadily evolve into cooperators who punish those they define as defectors.

  13. Dominance on Strict Triangular Norms and Mulholland Inequality

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrík, Milan

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 335, 15 March (2018), s. 3-17 ISSN 0165-0114 R&D Projects: GA ČR GJ15-07724Y Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : dominance relation * Mulholland inequality * strict triangular norm * transitivity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 2.718, year: 2016

  14. Going Gluten Free? Necessary for Some, Optional for Others

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... challenging situations for both health care professionals and people who are trying to understand what’s wrong with them,” Fasano says. Your doctor can use a blood test to look for signs of celiac disease. Before the test, continue eating foods with gluten. Otherwise, the results may be ...

  15. Scurvy in the present times: vitamin C allergy leading to strict fast food diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaath, Tarek; Fischer, Ryan; Goeser, Megan; Rajpara, Anand; Aires, Daniel

    2016-01-15

    Scurvy results from a deficiency of vitamin C, a nutrient otherwise known as ascorbic acid. Today, scurvy is rare yet emerges in select patients. The patient reported herein developed scurvy secondary to deliberate avoidance of vitamin C-rich foods. Classic cutaneous manifestations of scurvy include follicular hyperkeratosis and perifollicular hemorrhage encompassing coiled "corkscrew" hairs and hairs bent into "swan-neck" deformities. Ecchymoses, purpura, and petechiae are also characteristically prominent. Classic oral abnormalities include erythematous, swollen gingivae that hemorrhage from subtle microtrauma.Subungual linear splinter hemorrhages may also manifest as a sign of the disease. To establish the diagnosis requirements include characteristic physical exam findings, evidence of inadequate dietary intake, and rapid reversal of symptoms upon supplementation. Although unnecessary for diagnosis, histological findings demonstrate perifollicular inflammation and hemorrhage, fibrosis, and hyperkeratosis, amongst dilated hair follicles and keratin plugging. Although citrus fruit allergies have been historically documented, ascorbic acid has not been previously reported as an allergen. Although lacking absolute certainty, this report suggests a presumed case of ascorbic acid allergy based on patient history and favorable response to ascorbic acid desensitization therapy.

  16. A multicentre case control study on complicated coeliac disease: two different patterns of natural history, two different prognoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagi, Federico; Marchese, Alessandra; Ferretti, Francesca; Ciccocioppo, Rachele; Schiepatti, Annalisa; Volta, Umberto; Caio, Giacomo; Ciacci, Carolina; Zingone, Fabiana; D'Odorico, Anna; Carroccio, Antonio; Ambrosiano, Giuseppe; Mansueto, Pasquale; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Piscaglia, Anna Chiara; Andrealli, Alida; Astegiano, Marco; Segato, Sergio; Neri, Matteo; Meggio, Alberto; de Pretis, Giovanni; De Vitis, Italo; Gobbi, Paolo; Corazza, Gino Roberto

    2014-08-07

    Coeliac disease is a common enteropathy characterized by an increased mortality mainly due to its complications. The natural history of complicated coeliac disease is characterised by two different types of course: patients with a new diagnosis of coeliac disease that do not improve despite a strict gluten-free diet (type A cases) and previously diagnosed coeliac patients that initially improved on a gluten-free diet but then relapsed despite a strict diet (type B cases). Our aim was to study the prognosis and survival of A and B cases. Clinical and laboratory data from coeliac patients who later developed complications (A and B cases) and sex- and age-matched coeliac patients who normally responded to a gluten-free diet (controls) were collected among 11 Italian centres. 87 cases and 136 controls were enrolled. Complications tended to occur rapidly after the diagnosis of coeliac disease and cumulative survival dropped in the first months after diagnosis of complicated coeliac disease. Thirty-seven cases died (30/59 in group A, 7/28 in group B). Type B cases presented an increased survival rate compared to A cases. Complicated coeliac disease is an extremely serious condition with a high mortality and a short survival. Survival depends on the type of natural history.

  17. Current epidemiology and accessibility to diet compliance in adult celiac disease Epidemiología actual y accesibilidad al seguimiento de la dieta de la enfermedad celiaca del adulto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Casellas

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: the widespread of serologic diagnosis for celiac disease has brought about an epidemiologic shift. Little up-to-date information is available on relevant epidemiologic issues regarding diagnosis, information, and therapy. Objective: to examine forms of presentation, diagnostic difficulties, follow-up, information sources, and treatment-related issues regarding celiac disease. Method: a cross-sectional observational study using a self-completed questionnaire. Results: seventy-three adult patients were included; 15.0% of cases were diagnosed over 60 years of age. Most were non-smokers (91.8%. The rate of first-degree relatives with celiac sprue was 10.9%. The disease had a classic presentation in only 54.7% of cases. A functional gastrointestinal disorder was initially suspected in 42.4% of patients. Diet adherence is adequate, with unintentional lack of compliance in 15.5% of patients. Diet results in absent or improved symptoms in virtually all patients, but most of them consider compliance a challenge. Forty percent had difficulty finding gluten-free food, and 50.8% had problems in labelling recognition. Conclusions: celiac disease presents at any age, has a great variety of manifestations, and responds very well to gluten-free diet. It is crucial that patients be highly motivated and informed, and that they know for certain which foods and manufactured products are to be to used. Therefore, adequate control will result from coordination and cooperation regarding all resources involved, including medical care, and information provided by associations and other sources such as the Web.

  18. Relaxation Methods for Strictly Convex Regularizations of Piecewise Linear Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiwiel, K. C.

    1998-01-01

    We give an algorithm for minimizing the sum of a strictly convex function and a convex piecewise linear function. It extends several dual coordinate ascent methods for large-scale linearly constrained problems that occur in entropy maximization, quadratic programming, and network flows. In particular, it may solve exact penalty versions of such (possibly inconsistent) problems, and subproblems of bundle methods for nondifferentiable optimization. It is simple, can exploit sparsity, and in certain cases is highly parallelizable. Its global convergence is established in the recent framework of B -functions (generalized Bregman functions)

  19. [From the diagnosis of celiac disease to the prospect of legislative changes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makovický, Peter; Makovický, Pavol

    2009-06-01

    Celiac disease is diagnosed in children as well as adults. For long now, this has not been a rare diagnosis. Publications by local authors have warned, as early as 1990s, that this disease is extremely under-diagnosed, as confirmed by current clinical practice. Despite this, it is evident that the prevalence ofthis disease in Slovakia and the Czech Republic is high. Currently, it is assumed that the traditional symptomatic form of the disease represents just a fraction of the overall prevalence. As a consequence to the gradual introduction of the disease screening and the efforts of the medical community to diagnose the disease in its early stages, the disease is now thought of in a surgery of a first-contact physician as well as in a specialist surgery. Continually increasing number of diagnosed patients leads to increasing demands related to their needs. Strict gluten-free diet is the only available causal therapy. Gluten-free products are marked with a universally recognised international symbol--crossed-out grain spike--or are labelled "gluten-free". Some specialized family-run businesses focusing on their production have all foodstuffs labelled. However, this labelling is rather lacking on the products sold in high street stores. Based on the increasing incidence of celiac disease in the population, or rather improved diagnostic methods and increased awareness within the medical community of this diagnosis, the authors review the possibility of labelling all food products. This would be a universally recognised symbol, or a clear warning that the product contains gluten. It is recommended that a proposal is submitted to improve legislation related to labelling of gluten-containing products. It is recommended that the products labelled as "gluten-free" contain no gluten. It is proposed that the production of gluten-free food products is submitted to accreditation with well-defined methodology including strict control.

  20. Non-strictly black body spectrum from the tunnelling mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corda, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The tunnelling mechanism is widely used to explain Hawking radiation. However, in many cases the analysis used to obtain the Hawking temperature only involves comparing the emission probability for an outgoing particle with the Boltzmann factor. Banerjee and Majhi improved this approach by explicitly finding a black body spectrum associated with black holes. Their result, obtained using a reformulation of the tunnelling mechanism, is in contrast to that of Parikh and Wilczek, who found an emission probability that is compatible with a non-strictly thermal spectrum. Using the recently identified effective state for a black hole, we solve this contradiction via a slight modification of the analysis by Banerjee and Majhi. The final result is a non-strictly black body spectrum from the tunnelling mechanism. We also show that for an effective temperature, we can express the corresponding effective metric using Hawking’s periodicity arguments. Potential important implications for the black hole information puzzle are discussed. -- Highlights: •We review an important result by Banerjee and Majhi on the tunnelling mechanism in the framework of Hawking radiation. •This result is in contrast to another result reported by Parikh and Wilczek. •We introduce the effective state of a black hole. •We explain the contrast via a slight modification of the analysis by Banerjee and Majhi. •We discuss potential important implications for the black hole information puzzle

  1. Are strict vegetarians protected against prostate cancer?1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutsen, Synnove F; Knutsen, Raymond; Jacobsen, Bjarne K; Fan, Jing; Beeson, W Lawrence; Sabate, Joan; Hadley, David; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Penniecook, Jason; Herring, Patti; Butler, Terry; Bennett, Hanni; Fraser, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Background: According to the American Cancer Society, prostate cancer accounts for ∼27% of all incident cancer cases among men and is the second most common (noncutaneous) cancer among men. The relation between diet and prostate cancer is still unclear. Because people do not consume individual foods but rather foods in combination, the assessment of dietary patterns may offer valuable information when determining associations between diet and prostate cancer risk. Objective: This study aimed to examine the association between dietary patterns (nonvegetarian, lacto-ovo-vegetarian, pesco-vegetarian, vegan, and semi-vegetarian) and prostate cancer incidence among 26,346 male participants of the Adventist Health Study-2. Design: In this prospective cohort study, cancer cases were identified by matching to cancer registries. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was performed to estimate HRs by using age as the time variable. Results: In total, 1079 incident prostate cancer cases were identified. Around 8% of the study population reported adherence to the vegan diet. Vegan diets showed a statistically significant protective association with prostate cancer risk (HR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.49, 0.85). After stratifying by race, the statistically significant association with a vegan diet remained only for the whites (HR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.46, 0.86), but the multivariate HR for black vegans showed a similar but nonsignificant point estimate (HR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.41, 1.18). Conclusion: Vegan diets may confer a lower risk of prostate cancer. This lower estimated risk is seen in both white and black vegan subjects, although in the latter, the CI is wider and includes the null. PMID:26561618

  2. Bland diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heartburn - bland diet; Nausea - bland diet; Diarrhea - bland diet; Peptic ulcer - bland diet ... A bland diet can be used alongside lifestyle changes to help treat ulcers, heartburn, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and gas. You may ...

  3. Coeliac disease in Asians in a single centre in southern Derbyshire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Geoffrey KT; Moor, Fiona

    2012-01-01

    Background Coeliac disease affects adult Asians from north India, Pakistan and Bangladesh in the UK but how commonly this occurs is unknown. An audit of coeliac disease was therefore conducted in a well-defined area in southern Derbyshire. Methods All white and Asian patients with biopsy-confirmed coeliac disease diagnosed between 1958 and 2008 were identified. Population data from the Office of National Statistics allowed the calculation of prevalence. Presenting symptoms, adherence to a gluten-free diet and follow-up record were determined for Asians and compared with matched white patients. Results Among 1305 coeliac patients diagnosed between 1958 and 2008, 82 were Asian. Coeliac disease occurred significantly more frequently in Asian than white individuals and this could be attributed to the significantly higher prevalence in women 16 years and older and under 60 years of age. No Asian man over the age of 65 years was diagnosed with coeliac disease. Asians are more likely to present with anaemia and less likely to present with diarrhoea than white individuals. Asians are less likely to adhere to a strict gluten-free diet than white patients. Conclusions This baseline audit indicates that increased efforts should be directed towards diagnosing coeliac disease in Asian men over the age of 65 years, in whom at present it is unrepresented. Strategies also need to be developed to help more Asian patients adhere strictly to the gluten-free diet. PMID:28839681

  4. Selected luminal mucosal complications of adult celiac disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh J Freeman

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Hugh J FreemanDepartment of Medicine (Gastroenterology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, CanadaAbstract: Celiac disease is a gluten-dependent intestinal disorder that appears to be associated with several clinical conditions. Some involve the luminal mucosa of the stomach and intestinal tract and may, occasionally, complicate the course of celiac disease. Collagenous colitis has been associated with celiac disease and may lead to chronic diarrhea. Conversely, some of these clinical disorders that involve the luminal mucosa of the stomach and intestine may represent the initial clinical presentation of celiac disease. These disorders should be considered in patients with celiac disease who develop recurrent or refractory symptoms despite adherence to a strict gluten-free diet. Detection of collagenous disorders that affect the luminal mucosa of the stomach or intestinal tract may result in recognition of underlying celiac disease.Keywords: celiac disease, collagenous gastritis, collagenous sprue, collagenous colitis, gluten-free diet

  5. Effects of a strict cutoff on Quantum Field Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturnfield, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    Standard Quantum Field Theory has a number of integrals which are infinite. Although these are eliminated for some cases by renormalization, this aspect of the theory is not fully satisfactory. A number of theories with fundamental lengths have been introduced as alternatives and it would be useful to be able to distinguish between them. In particular, the effects that a strict cutoff would have on Quantum Field Theory is studied. It is noted that care must be taken in the method used to apply a strict cutoff. This lead to considering a theory where the cutoffs are defined by restricting each internal line. This theory is only piece-wise analytic. The resulting scattering matrix is frame dependent, yet the theory still satisfies the special relativity view that all frames are subjectively identical. The renormalization of this theory is finite. The change in mass from the electron self-energy will be a spinor operator. The main distinctions of this theory from standard theory will occur at super high energies. New poles and resonances which arise from new endpoint singularities will be found. The locations of these singularities will be frame dependent. Some of these singularities will correspond to creations or interactions of the normal particles with tachyons. It will be shown that for the one loop diagram, the form of the cutoff singularities are closely related to the standard singularities. When there is more than one loop, there can appear some new type of behavior. In particular, a cube root type of behavior in the two loop self-energy diagram will be found. Also the asymptotic behavior of the ladder diagram is studied

  6. Imaging active lymphocytic infiltration in coeliac disease with iodine-123-interleukin-2 and the response to diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Signore, A.; Chianelli, M.; Annovazzi, A.; Rossi, M.; Greco, M.; Ronga, G.; Picarelli, A. [Nuclear Medicine Unit (Nu.M.E.D. Group) and Gastroenterology Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, University of Rome ' ' La Sapienza' ' (Italy); Maiuri, L. [Inst. of Paediatrics, Children' s Hospital Posilipon, University ' ' Federico II' ' , Naples (Italy); Britton, K.E. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, St. Bartholomew' s Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    2000-01-01

    Coeliac disease is diagnosed by the presence of specific antibodies and a jejunal biopsy showing mucosal atrophy and mononuclear cell infiltration. Mucosal cell-mediated immune response is considered the central event in the pathogenesis of coeliac disease, and untreated coeliac patients show specific features of T-cell activation in the small intestine. Here we describe the use of iodine-123-interleukin-2 scintigraphy in coeliac patients as a non-invasive tool for detection of lymphocytic infiltration in the small bowel and its use for therapy follow-up, and we demonstrate the specificity of binding of labelled-IL2 to activated lymphocytes by ex-vivo autoradiography of jejunal biopsies. {sup 123}I-IL2 was administered i.v. [74 MBq (2 mCi)], and gamma camera images were acquired after 1 h. Ten patients were studied with {sup 123}I-IL2 scintigraphy at diagnosis and seven were also investigated after 12-19 months of gluten-free diet. Results were expressed as target-to-background radioactivity ratios in six different bowel regions before and after the diet. At the time of diagnosis all patients showed a significantly higher bowel uptake of {sup 123}I-IL2 than normal subjects (P<0.003 in all regions). A significant correlation was found between jejunal radioactivity and the number of IL2R+ve lymphocytes per millimetre of jejunal mucosa as detected by immunostaining of jejunal biopsy (r{sup 2}=0.66; P=0.008). Autoradiography of jejunal biopsies confirmed that labelled-IL2 only binds to activated T-lymphocytes infiltrating the gut mucosa. After 1 year of the diet, bowel uptake of {sup 123}I-IL2 significantly decreased in five out of six regions (P<0.03), although two patients still had a positive IL2 scintigraphy in one region. We conclude that {sup 123}I-IL2 scintigraphy is a sensitive non-invasive technique for assessing in vivo the presence of activated mononuclear cells in the bowel of patients affected by coeliac disease. Unlike jejunal biopsy, this method provides

  7. Gluten sensitivity: new epidemic or new myth? Every major change in our diet carries with it the possibility of unforeseen risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, David T; Slutzky, Amy R

    2014-11-15

    Fueled in part by recent best-selling books that warn of the evils of gluten in our diets, a significant proportion of our population is now either avoiding foods that contain gluten or eliminating gluten entirely from their diets, and these numbers continue to grow. The gluten-free trend-and the accompanying multibillion dollar industry it has created-stems from the spreading belief that eating foods containing wheat or other gluten-laden grains may not only result in weight gain and obesity but can also lead to a laundry list of ailments ranging from depression and anxiety to arthritis and autism. One popular book contends that current recommendations for a high-grain, low-fat diet underlie much of today's chronic health problems and that a low-carbohydrate, high-fat/cholesterol diet is ideal. Every major change in our diet carries with it the possibility of unforeseen risks. Concern about the impact of such popularized dietary recommendations on overall well-being-and on cardiovascular health in particular-warrants discussion in the medical community. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Iodine Deficiency and Hypothyroidism From Voluntary Diet Restrictions in the US: Case Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booms, Stephanie; Hill, Elizabeth; Kulhanek, Leah; Vredeveld, Jennifer; Gregg, Brigid

    2016-06-01

    Iodine deficiency is rare in the United States today, and this is largely due to the effectiveness of iodization in the general food supply. Recent trends among specific populations of children in the United States include adopting food restrictions, such casein-free and gluten-free diets. Although the effect of these types of diets on overall nutrition status and certain micronutrients has been studied in children with autism spectrum disorder, the effect of these limitations on iodine levels in children has not been assessed. We present here 2 cases of iodine deficiency resulting from severe food restriction and associated primary hypothyroidism. In 1 case a classic presentation with a goiter was seen. These children were able to discontinue thyroid hormone treatment once iodine levels were normalized. There were no adverse events or unanticipated outcomes. The occurrence of these cases of iodine deficiency in the United States points to the need for thyroid function testing in children with severe food restrictions, especially those who have limited exposure to dairy, baked goods, and table salt. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  9. 7 CFR 28.414 - Strict Low Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Light Spotted Cotton § 28.414 Strict Low Middling Light Spotted Color. Strict Low Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or...

  10. On N. Chomsky’s strict subcategorization of verbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janez Orešnik

    1966-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the so-called strict subcategorization rules, and the theory associated with them, in the transformational grammar of. Erigl·ish as proposed by Noarn Chomsky in his Aspects. The syntactic component of English transformational grammar consists of two mutually ordered parts, viz., the base and the transformational subcomponents. The initial part of the base are the so-called categorial rules, which are of almost exclusive interest to us here. Their primary task is to generate what are usually called basic sentence patterns, and will here, with Chomsky (Aspects, p.ll3, be designated with the expression, frames of category symbols.- The rules of the transformational subcomponent modify, in various ways, the frames generated by the base. For several reasons - one of them being that the correct work of the transformational subcomponent quite often depends on the kind of lexical items with which the syntactic positions in the frames of category symbols have been filled, the lexical items must be introduced from the lexicon into the empty positions in the frames before the rules of the transformational subcomponent can be allowed to modify the frames.

  11. Managing Hanford Site solid waste through strict acceptance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasen, W.G.; Pierce, R.D.; Willis, N.P.

    1993-02-01

    Various types of waste have been generated during the 50-year history of the Hanford Site. Regulatory changes in the last 20 years have provided the emphasis for better management of these wastes. Interpretations of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (AEA) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) have led to the definition of a group of wastes called radioactive mixed wastes (RMW). As a result of the radioactive and hazardous properties of these wastes, strict management programs have been implemented for the management of these wastes. Solid waste management is accomplished through a systems performance approach to waste management that used best-demonstrated available technology (BDAT) and best management practices. The solid waste program at the Hanford Site strives to integrate all aspects of management relative to the treatment, storage and disposal (TSD) of solid waste. Often there are many competing and important needs. It is a difficult task to balance these needs in a manner that is both equitable and productive. Management science is used to help the process of making decisions. Tools used to support the decision making process include five-year planning, cost estimating, resource allocation, performance assessment, waste volume forecasts, input/output models, and waste acceptance criteria. The purpose of this document is to describe how one of these tools, waste acceptance criteria, has helped the Hanford Site manage solid wastes

  12. Effects of strict prolonged bed rest on cardiorespiratory fitness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ried-Larsen, Mathias; Aarts, Hugo M; Joyner, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    with larger declines in V̇o2max). Furthermore, the systematic review revealed a gap in the knowledge about the cardiovascular response to extreme physical inactivity, particularly in older subjects and women of any age group. In addition to its relevance to spaceflight, this lack of data has significant....... Since 1949, 80 studies with a total of 949 participants (>90% men) have been published with data on strict bed rest and V̇o2max The studies were conducted mainly in young participants [median age (interquartile range) 24.5 (22.4-34.0) yr]. The duration of bed rest ranged from 1 to 90 days. V̇o2max...... declined linearly across bed rest duration. No statistical difference in the decline among studies reporting V̇o2max as l/min (-0.3% per day) compared with studies reporting V̇o2max normalized to body weight (ml·kg-1·min-1; -0.43% per day) was observed. Although both total body weight and lean body mass...

  13. Fixed point iterations for strictly hemi-contractive maps in uniformly smooth Banach spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidume, C.E.; Osilike, M.O.

    1993-05-01

    It is proved that the Mann iteration process converges strongly to the fixed point of a strictly hemi-contractive map in real uniformly smooth Banach spaces. The class of strictly hemi-contractive maps includes all strictly pseudo-contractive maps with nonempty fixed point sets. A related result deals with the Ishikawa iteration scheme when the mapping is Lipschitzian and strictly hemi-contractive. Our theorems generalize important known results. (author). 29 refs

  14. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal Planning What Can I Eat? Making ... Forecast® magazine: wcie-meal-planning, . In this ... Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook ...

  15. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart- ... Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods ...

  16. Strict or graduated punishment? Effect of punishment strictness on the evolution of cooperation in continuous public goods games.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajime Shimao

    Full Text Available Whether costly punishment encourages cooperation is one of the principal questions in studies on the evolution of cooperation and social sciences. In society, punishment helps deter people from flouting rules in institutions. Specifically, graduated punishment is a design principle for long-enduring common-pool resource institutions. In this study, we investigate whether graduated punishment can promote a higher cooperation level when each individual plays the public goods game and has the opportunity to punish others whose cooperation levels fall below the punisher's threshold. We then examine how spatial structure affects evolutionary dynamics when each individual dies inversely proportional to the game score resulting from the social interaction and another player is randomly chosen from the population to produce offspring to fill the empty site created after a player's death. Our evolutionary simulation outcomes demonstrate that stricter punishment promotes increased cooperation more than graduated punishment in a spatially structured population, whereas graduated punishment increases cooperation more than strict punishment when players interact with randomly chosen opponents from the population. The mathematical analysis also supports the results.

  17. Strict or Graduated Punishment? Effect of Punishment Strictness on the Evolution of Cooperation in Continuous Public Goods Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimao, Hajime; Nakamaru, Mayuko

    2013-01-01

    Whether costly punishment encourages cooperation is one of the principal questions in studies on the evolution of cooperation and social sciences. In society, punishment helps deter people from flouting rules in institutions. Specifically, graduated punishment is a design principle for long-enduring common-pool resource institutions. In this study, we investigate whether graduated punishment can promote a higher cooperation level when each individual plays the public goods game and has the opportunity to punish others whose cooperation levels fall below the punisher’s threshold. We then examine how spatial structure affects evolutionary dynamics when each individual dies inversely proportional to the game score resulting from the social interaction and another player is randomly chosen from the population to produce offspring to fill the empty site created after a player’s death. Our evolutionary simulation outcomes demonstrate that stricter punishment promotes increased cooperation more than graduated punishment in a spatially structured population, whereas graduated punishment increases cooperation more than strict punishment when players interact with randomly chosen opponents from the population. The mathematical analysis also supports the results. PMID:23555826

  18. Obchodní a právní aspekty ochranné známky v oblasti bezlepkových výrobků

    OpenAIRE

    Lášková, Tereza

    2012-01-01

    The diploma thesis deals with the gluten-free labelling placing emphasis on a trademark. The introductory chapter depicts specification of products suitable for gluten-free diet. The thesis assesses and compares commercial and legal aspects of trademark, quality mark and designation specified in public law. These are evaluated in connection with products suitable for gluten-free diet. The concluding part is devoted to an analysis of the European Licensing System.

  19. Clinical and Histologic Mimickers of Celiac Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamboj, Amrit K; Oxentenko, Amy S

    2017-08-17

    Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder of the small bowel, classically associated with diarrhea, abdominal pain, and malabsorption. The diagnosis of celiac disease is made when there are compatible clinical features, supportive serologic markers, representative histology from the small bowel, and response to a gluten-free diet. Histologic findings associated with celiac disease include intraepithelial lymphocytosis, crypt hyperplasia, villous atrophy, and a chronic inflammatory cell infiltrate in the lamina propria. It is important to recognize and diagnose celiac disease, as strict adherence to a gluten-free diet can lead to resolution of clinical and histologic manifestations of the disease. However, many other entities can present with clinical and/or histologic features of celiac disease. In this review article, we highlight key clinical and histologic mimickers of celiac disease. The evaluation of a patient with serologically negative enteropathy necessitates a carefully elicited history and detailed review by a pathologist. Medications can mimic celiac disease and should be considered in all patients with a serologically negative enteropathy. Many mimickers of celiac disease have clues to the underlying diagnosis, and many have a targeted therapy. It is necessary to provide patients with a correct diagnosis rather than subject them to a lifetime of an unnecessary gluten-free diet.

  20. The present and the future in the diagnosis and management of celiac disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Natalia E.; Theethira, Thimmaiah G.; Leffler, Daniel A.

    2015-01-01

    Celiac disease is an autoimmune enteropathy caused by gluten in genetically predisposed individuals. In celiac disease, adaptive and innate immune activation results in intestinal damage and a wide range of clinical manifestations. In the past, celiac disease was thought to result in signs and symptoms solely related to the gastrointestinal tract. Now, more than half of the adult population presents with extra-intestinal manifestations that can also be expected to improve on a gluten-free diet. For this reason, it is recommended that physicians have a low threshold of suspicion for celiac disease. Current knowledge of the immune pathogenesis of this autoimmune disease has served as a catalyst for the development of novel diagnostic tools and therapeutics. Over the years, highly sensitive and specific serological assays, in addition to genetic markers, have been found to target specific steps in the cascade pathway of celiac disease. Also the advent of the gluten challenge has enabled experts to design diagnostic algorithms and monitor clinical responses in clinical trials. The gluten challenge has provided substantial benefit in the advance of novel therapeutics as an adjuvant treatment to the gluten free diet. Generally, a strict gluten-free diet is highly burdensome to patients and can be limited in its efficacy. Alternative therapies—including gluten modification, modulation of intestinal permeability and immune response—could be central to the future treatment of celiac disease. PMID:25326000

  1. Mediterranean diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000110.htm Mediterranean diet To use the sharing features on this page, ... and other health problems. How to Follow the Diet The Mediterranean diet is based on: Plant-based ...

  2. Systematic review with meta-analysis: Dietary adherence influences normalization of health-related quality of life in coeliac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Jordy P W; de Brouwer, Bart; IntHout, Joanna; Wahab, Peter J; Tummers, Marcia; Drenth, Joost P H

    2017-04-01

    Gluten-free diet is the keystone of coeliac disease treatment. Despite adherence, some patients continue to suffer from symptoms that negatively influence health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Therefore we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the effect of gluten-free diet on HRQoL in coeliac disease. We specifically sought for determinants that negatively influenced HRQoL. We systematically searched PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO and Cochrane Library for studies assessing HRQoL in untreated or treated adults using validated HRQoL-questionnaires from 1960 to September 2015, comparing HRQoL: (1) before and after gluten-free diet initiation or (2) in patients and non-coeliac controls. We included eighteen studies and sixteen were suitable for meta-analysis. Gluten-free diet significantly improves HRQoL, for psychological general well-being (PGWB)-Total (mean difference (MD) 7.34, 95% confidence interval (CI) [1.96; 12.72]; p = 0.008), SF-36 Mental Component Score (MCS) (MD 7.37, 95% CI [1.84; 12.90]; p = 0.009) and SF-36 Physical Component Score (PCS) (MD 5.72, 95% CI [1.50; 9.95]; p = 0.008). Treated patients had similar HRQoL compared with controls for PGWB-Total (MD -0.72, 95% CI [-2.71; 1.27]; p = 0.48), but significantly lower levels for SF-36 MCS (MD -4.09, 95% CI [-6.17; -2.01]; p = 0.0001) and PCS (MD -4.57, 95% CI [-6.97; -2.17]; p = 0.0002). Symptom-detected gluten-free diet adhering patients have lower HRQoL compared with screening-detected patients (MD -3.73, 95% CI [-6.77;-0.69]; p = 0.02) Strict adhering patients have better HRQoL compared with non-strict adhering patients for SF-36 MCS (MD 7.70, 95% CI [4.61; 10.79]; p coeliac disease. Dietary adherence improves HRQoL. Better (self-reported) dietary adherence results in higher HRQoL. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of incorporation of amaranth on the physical properties and nutritional value of cheese bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa dos Reis Lemos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available At the present celiac disease has no known cure, and its only treatment is a strict lifelong adherence to a gluten-free diet. Cheese bread is a traditional Brazilian product and a safe option for celiacs. However, like other gluten-free breads, it has inherent low levels of fibers and minerals. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of incorporation of whole amaranth flour on the physical properties and nutritional value of cheese bread. Amaranth flour was incorporated at 10, 15, and 20% proportions in different formulations. The increasing amaranth levels darkened the product, reduced specific volume, and increased compression force. Ten percent amaranth-content cheese breads exhibited slight differences in physical properties compared with the controls. These results demonstrated the possibility of incorporating 10% of whole amaranth flour in the formulation of cheese bread resulting in a product with higher dietary fiber and iron contents and the same level of acceptance as that of the conventional formulation. The aim of this approach is to increase the availability of gluten-free bakery products with added nutritional value contributing to increase the variety of the diet of celiac patients.

  4. Validation of an automatic diagnosis of strict left bundle branch block criteria using 12-lead electrocardiograms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xia, Xiaojuan; Ruwald, Anne-Christine; Ruwald, Martin H

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: Strict left bundle branch block (LBBB) criteria were recently proposed to identify LBBB patients to benefit most from cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). The aim of our study was to automate identification of strict LBBB in order to facilitate its broader application. METHODS: We devel...

  5. 7 CFR 28.416 - Strict Good Ordinary Light Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Light Spotted Cotton § 28.416 Strict Good Ordinary Light Spotted Color. Strict Good Ordinary Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or... Cotton Source: 57 FR 34498, Aug. 5, 1992, unless otherwise noted. ...

  6. Paleolithic diet

    OpenAIRE

    Malus, Katja

    2014-01-01

    The paleolithic diet is a diet which imitates the nutrition eaten by various species of hominoids living in the paleolithic era by using foodstuffs available today. The objectives of our thesis were to research the nutrition of human ancestors, to describe a modern paleolithic diet and compare it to healthy dietary guidelines and present experience of individuals who were experimentally eating a paleolithic diet. The aim was to determine whether consuming a paleolithic diet could have benefic...

  7. Follow-Up Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... second should occur after 1 year on the gluten-free diet. After that, a celiac should receive follow-up ... test result is straightforward—a celiac on the gluten-free diet should have a negative test. The numerical value ...

  8. Avoiding Gluten Cross-Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Meal Options for Kids with Food Allergies The Gluten-Free Diet Watch and Learn Videos View More What a ... source of gluten. If you're following a gluten-free diet, that can spell trouble. Follow these tips to ...

  9. Synchronization control of cross-strict feedback hyperchaotic system based on cross active backstepping design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jing; Gao Jinfeng; Ma Xikui

    2007-01-01

    This Letter presents a novel cross active backstepping design method for synchronization control of cross-strict feedback hyperchaotic system, in which the ordinary backstepping design is unavailable. The proposed control method, combining backstepping design and active control approach, extends the application of backstepping technique in chaos control. Based on this method, different combinations of controllers can be designed to meet the needs of different applications. The proposed method is applied to achieve chaos synchronization of two identical cross-strict feedback hyperchaotic systems. Also it is used to implement synchronization between cross-strict feedback hyperchaotic system and Roessler hyperchaotic system. Numerical examples illustrate the validity of the control method

  10. The Effect of Strict Segregation on Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Cystic Fibrosis Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Mansfeld, Rosa; de Vrankrijker, Angelica; Brimicombe, Roland; Heijerman, Harry; Teding van Berkhout, Ferdinand; Spitoni, Cristian|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304625957; Grave, Sanne; van der Ent, Cornelis; Wolfs, Tom; Willems, Rob; Bonten, Marc

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Segregation of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) was implemented to prevent chronic infection with epidemic Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains with presumed detrimental clinical effects, but its effectiveness has not been carefully evaluated. METHODS: The effect of strict segregation on

  11. Strict deformation quantization for actions of a class of symplectic lie groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieliavsky, Pierre; Massar, Marc

    2002-01-01

    We present explicit universal strict deformation quantization formulae for actions of Iwasawa subgroups AN of SN(1, n). This answers a question raised by Rieffel in [Contemp. Math. 228 (1998), 315]. (author)

  12. Vegetarian Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    A vegetarian diet focuses on plants for food. These include fruits, vegetables, dried beans and peas, grains, seeds and nuts. There is no single type of vegetarian diet. Instead, vegetarian eating patterns usually fall into the ...

  13. Strict optical orthogonal codes for purely asynchronous code-division multiple-access applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian-Guo

    1996-12-01

    Strict optical orthogonal codes are presented for purely asynchronous optical code-division multiple-access (CDMA) applications. The proposed code can strictly guarantee the peaks of its cross-correlation functions and the sidelobes of any of its autocorrelation functions to have a value of 1 in purely asynchronous data communications. The basic theory of the proposed codes is given. An experiment on optical CDMA systems is also demonstrated to verify the characteristics of the proposed code.

  14. Portable gliadin-immunochip for contamination control on the food production chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiriacò, Maria Serena; de Feo, Francesco; Primiceri, Elisabetta; Monteduro, Anna Grazia; de Benedetto, Giuseppe Egidio; Pennetta, Antonio; Rinaldi, Ross; Maruccio, Giuseppe

    2015-09-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is one of the most common digestive disorders caused by an abnormal immune reaction to gluten. So far there are no available therapies, the only solution is a strict gluten-free diet, which however could be very challenging as gluten can be hidden in many food products. Furthermore an additional problem is related to cross-contamination of nominal gluten-free foods with gluten-based ones during manufacturing. Here we propose a lab on chip platform as a powerful tool to help food manufacturers to evaluate the real amount of gluten in their products by an accurate in-situ control of the production chain and maybe to specify the real gluten content in packages labeling. Our portable gliadin-immunochips, based on an electrochemical impedance spectroscopy transduction method, were first calibrated and then validated for both liquid and solid food matrixes by analyzing different beers and flours. The high specificity of our assay was also demonstrated by performing control experiments on rice and potatoes flours containing prolamin-like proteins. We achieved limit of quantification of 0.5 ppm for gliadin that is 20 times lower than the worldwide limit established for gluten-free food while the method of analysis is faster and cheaper than currently employed ELISA-based methods. Moreover our results on food samples were validated through a mass spectrometry standard analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Coeliac disease - clinical presentation and diagnosis by anti tissue transglutaminase antibodies titre in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, S.; Sabir, M.U.D.; Afzal, M.; Asghar, I.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study the spectrum of clinical presentation of coeliac disease and the role of IgA anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies titer in the diagnosis and effect of gluten-free diet on such titers in children. Methods: The prospective study was conducted in the paediatric department of Combined Military Hospital, Kharian from Sep 2011 to Sep 2012. Children of 1-12 years of age presenting with chronic diarrhoea, malnutrition and failure to thrive were included regardless of gender, socioeconomic status, ethnicity and geographical distribution. Anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies titers were done on enrolment. Patients with levels more than 30u/ml were enrolled. They were advised strict gluten-free diet for six months. These titers were repeated after six months to document the effect of gluten-free diet on these titers. Paediatric endoscopy and duodenal biopsy facilities were not available at the study site, so the response was monitored through titers. Data was analysed using SPSS-20. Results: Out of 61 patients with IgA levels more than 10 u/ml, 52 (85.24%) were found to have a positive (>30u/ml) anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies titers with a mean value of 42.67+-7.60 U/ml. These 52 patients were then put on a trial of gluten-free diet for six months after which significant reduction in titer was noticed, with a mean value of 13.25+-2.59 U/ml. This reduction in titer was associated with marked clinical improvement and regression of symptoms. Frequency of different clinical features in descending order revealed that chronic diarrhoea, abdominal distension, iron deficiency anaemia, failure to thrive, pallor and rickets were present in 38 (73.1%), 30 (57.7%), 29 (55.8%), 29 (53.8%), 28 (53.8%) patients respectively. Conclusion: Chronic diarrhoea, failure to thrive, pallor, abdominal distention and iron deficiency anaemia were common modes of presentation. The antibodies were strongly positive in most of the cases. All children showed significant

  16. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal Planning What Can I ... Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods donate en -- A Future Without Diabetes - ...

  17. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal Planning What Can I Eat? Making Healthy ... Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods donate ...

  18. The Effects of Reduced Gluten Barley Diet on Humoral and Cell-Mediated Systemic Immune Responses of Gluten-Sensitive Rhesus Macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Sestak

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease (CD affects approximately 1% of the general population while an estimated additional 6% suffers from a recently characterized, rapidly emerging, similar disease, referred to as non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS. The only effective treatment of CD and NCGS requires removal of gluten sources from the diet. Since required adherence to a gluten-free diet (GFD is difficult to accomplish, efforts to develop alternative treatments have been intensifying in recent years. In this study, the non-human primate model of CD/NCGS, e.g., gluten-sensitive rhesus macaque, was utilized with the objective to evaluate the treatment potential of reduced gluten cereals using a reduced gluten (RG; 1% of normal gluten barley mutant as a model. Conventional and RG barleys were used for the formulation of experimental chows and fed to gluten-sensitive (GS and control macaques to determine if RG barley causes a remission of dietary gluten-induced clinical and immune responses in GS macaques. The impacts of the RG barley diet were compared with the impacts of the conventional barley-containing chow and the GFD. Although remission of the anti-gliadin antibody (AGA serum responses and an improvement of clinical diarrhea were noted after switching the conventional to the RG barley diet, production of inflammatory cytokines, e.g., interferon-gamma (IFN-γ, tumor necrosis factor (TNF and interleukin-8 (IL-8 by peripheral CD4+ T helper lymphocytes, persisted during the RG chow treatment and were partially abolished only upon re-administration of the GFD. It was concluded that the RG barley diet might be used for the partial improvement of gluten-induced disease but its therapeutic value still requires upgrading—by co-administration of additional treatments.

  19. The effects of reduced gluten barley diet on humoral and cell-mediated systemic immune responses of gluten-sensitive rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sestak, Karol; Thwin, Hazel; Dufour, Jason; Aye, Pyone P; Liu, David X; Moehs, Charles P

    2015-03-06

    Celiac disease (CD) affects approximately 1% of the general population while an estimated additional 6% suffers from a recently characterized, rapidly emerging, similar disease, referred to as non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS). The only effective treatment of CD and NCGS requires removal of gluten sources from the diet. Since required adherence to a gluten-free diet (GFD) is difficult to accomplish, efforts to develop alternative treatments have been intensifying in recent years. In this study, the non-human primate model of CD/NCGS, e.g., gluten-sensitive rhesus macaque, was utilized with the objective to evaluate the treatment potential of reduced gluten cereals using a reduced gluten (RG; 1% of normal gluten) barley mutant as a model. Conventional and RG barleys were used for the formulation of experimental chows and fed to gluten-sensitive (GS) and control macaques to determine if RG barley causes a remission of dietary gluten-induced clinical and immune responses in GS macaques. The impacts of the RG barley diet were compared with the impacts of the conventional barley-containing chow and the GFD. Although remission of the anti-gliadin antibody (AGA) serum responses and an improvement of clinical diarrhea were noted after switching the conventional to the RG barley diet, production of inflammatory cytokines, e.g., interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) by peripheral CD4+ T helper lymphocytes, persisted during the RG chow treatment and were partially abolished only upon re-administration of the GFD. It was concluded that the RG barley diet might be used for the partial improvement of gluten-induced disease but its therapeutic value still requires upgrading-by co-administration of additional treatments.

  20. Label free targeted detection and quantification of celiac disease immunogenic epitopes by mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeck, van den H.C.; Cordewener, J.H.G.; Nessen, M.A.; America, A.H.P.; Meer, van der I.M.

    2015-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is a food-related disease caused by certain gluten peptides containing T-cell stimulating epitopes from wheat, rye, and barley. CD-patients have to maintain a gluten-free diet and are therefore dependent on reliable testing and labeling of gluten-free products. So far, the

  1. Actions of a separately strict cpo-monoid on pointed directed complete posets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halimeh Moghbeli Damaneh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available ‎ In the present article‎, ‎we study some categorical properties of the category {$bf‎ Cpo_{Sep}$-$S$} of all {separately strict $S$-cpo's}; cpo's equipped with‎ a compatible right action of a separately strict cpo-monoid $S$ which is‎ strict continuous in each component‎. ‎In particular‎, we show that this category is reflective and coreflective in the‎ category of $S$-cpo's‎, ‎find the free and cofree functors‎, characterize products and coproducts‎. ‎Furthermore‎, ‎epimorphisms and‎  monomorphisms in {$bf Cpo_{Sep}$-$S$} are studied‎, ‎and show that‎ {$bf Cpo_{Sep}$-$S$} is not cartesian closed‎.

  2. Ketogenic diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Bregant

    2009-04-01

    conclusions This review traces a history of ketogenic diet, reviews its uses and side effects, and discusses possible alternatives and the diet’s possible mechanisms of action. We show how to use the diet in practice. Protocol and calculations are presented. We look toward possible future uses of the ketogenic diet, since it is efficient, under doctor’s supervison safe, but very demanding, additional treatment.

  3. The photon is no strict particle and nonlocality is far from being proven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greulich, Karl Otto [Fritz Lipmann Institut, Jena (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Two aspects of philosophical discussions on physics are the wave particle dualism and non locality including entanglement. However the strict particle aspect of the photon, in the common sense view, has never been proven. The accumulation time argument, the only experimental verification of a strictly particle like photon, has so far not yet been satisfied. Also, experiments thought to prove nonlocality have loophole which have so far not yet been safely closed, and now an even more serious loophole emerges. Thus, also nonlocality cannot be seen as proven. This demands some fine tuning of philosophical discussions on critical experiments in physics.

  4. Consumer acceptance of eggs from Hy-Line Brown layers fed soybean or soybean-free diets using cage or free-range rearing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ajeeli, M N; Miller, R K; Leyva, H; Hashim, M M; Abdaljaleel, R A; Jameel, Y; Bailey, C A

    2018-05-01

    Consumers have begun to awaken to the food on their plates with respect to human health and the environment, as well as animal welfare. They have become more demanding about what they buy or prefer in their food, such as soy-free, gluten-free, or organic products. The objective of this study was to evaluate consumer acceptance of eggs from hens fed soybean meal or soybean-free diets utilizing cottonseed meal and distillers' dried grains, using cage or free-range rearing systems. All eggs were stored at the sensory lab at Texas A&M University (TAMU) for a d prior to each test at 4°C. A panel of consumers (n = 60) made up of TAMU students, faculty, and staff, ages 18 to 50, were recruited to evaluate consumer acceptance based on 2 tests using scrambled and hard cooked eggs. Samples were placed in separate weigh boats labeled with 3-digit codes to avoid visual bias. Sensory ballots were based on overall like or dislike of flavor, texture, odor, and color using the 9-point hedonic scales. For scrambled eggs, flavor did not differ (P > 0.05), but texture liking was higher (P = 0.064) for scrambled eggs from the soybean-free diet (7.08) vs. scrambled eggs from the soybean meal diet (6.65). With respect to the hard cooked eggs, the consumer panel preferred the flavor of the eggs from the caged rearing system (7.11) vs. eggs from the free-range system (6.60; P = 0.014). Consumers liked the texture (P = 0.018) for eggs collected from hens fed soybean meal (6.91) vs. eggs from hens fed the soybean-free diet (6.30).

  5. More strictly protected areas are not necessarily more protective: evidence from Bolivia, Costa Rica, Indonesia, and Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferraro, Paul J; Hanauer, Merlin M; Miteva, Daniela A; Pattanayak, Subhrendu K; Canavire-Bacarreza, Gustavo Javier; Sims, Katharine R E

    2013-01-01

    National parks and other protected areas are at the forefront of global efforts to protect biodiversity and ecosystem services. However, not all protection is equal. Some areas are assigned strict legal protection that permits few extractive human uses. Other protected area designations permit a wider range of uses. Whether strictly protected areas are more effective in achieving environmental objectives is an empirical question: although strictly protected areas legally permit less anthropogenic disturbance, the social conflicts associated with assigning strict protection may lead politicians to assign strict protection to less-threatened areas and may lead citizens or enforcement agents to ignore the strict legal restrictions. We contrast the impacts of strictly and less strictly protected areas in four countries using IUCN designations to measure de jure strictness, data on deforestation to measure outcomes, and a quasi-experimental design to estimate impacts. On average, stricter protection reduced deforestation rates more than less strict protection, but the additional impact was not always large and sometimes arose because of where stricter protection was assigned rather than regulatory strictness per se. We also show that, in protected area studies contrasting y management regimes, there are y 2 policy-relevant impacts, rather than only y, as earlier studies have implied. (letter)

  6. Strict Monotonicity and Unique Continuation for the Third-Order Spectrum of Biharmonic Operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil Ben Haddouch

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We will study the spectrum for the biharmonic operator involving the laplacian and the gradient of the laplacian with weight, which we call third-order spectrum. We will show that the strict monotonicity of the eigenvalues of the operator , where , holds if some unique continuation property is satisfied by the corresponding eigenfunctions.

  7. "Let the Master Respond": Should Schools Be Strictly Liable When Employees Sexually Abuse Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossey, Richard; DeMitchell, Todd

    Although sexual abuse against children is a problem in the public schools, school officials have generally not acted aggressively to stop it. This paper argues for a strict liability standard--the assessment of liability without fault--against a school district in cases of student sexual abuse by a school employee. Part 1 explores the principle of…

  8. Detection of low numbers of microplastics in North Sea fish using strict quality assurance criteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermsen, E.; Pompe, R.; Besseling, E.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2017-01-01

    We investigated 400 individual fish of four North Sea species: Atlantic Herring, Sprat, Common Dab, and Whiting on ingestion of > 20 μm microplastic. Strict quality assurance criteria were followed in order to control contamination during the study. Two plastic particles were found in only 1 (a

  9. History, administration, goals, values, and long-term data of Russia's strictly protected scientific nature reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin A. Spetich; Anna E. Kvashnina; Y.D. Nukhimovskya; Olin E. Jr. Rhodes

    2009-01-01

    One of the most comprehensive attempts at biodiversity conservation in Russia and the former Soviet Union has been the establishment of an extensive network of protected natural areas. Among all types of protected areas in Russia, zapovedniks (strictly protected scientific preserve) have been the most effective in protecting biodiversity at the ecosystem scale. Russia...

  10. The Preventive Effect of Strict Gun Control Laws on Suicide and Homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, David; Murrell, Mary E.

    1982-01-01

    Examined state gun control laws and used a multidimensional scaling technique to study the relationship of strictness and death rates. Results showed states with stricter laws had lower suicide rates by firearms but higher rates by other means. No effect on homicide was found. (JAC)

  11. Multiclinic Observations on the Simplified Diet in PKU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Laurie; Burns, Casey; Sailer-Hammons, Melissa; Kurtz, Angela; Rohr, Frances

    2017-01-01

    Phenylketonuria is an inborn error of metabolism that historically has been treated with a strict phenylalanine-restricted diet where all foods are weighed and measured. This is cumbersome and difficult for patients and caregivers, especially patients with high phenylalanine blood concentrations who often have neurocognitive deficits. The Simplified Diet is an alternative approach that allows for increased flexibility, promotes healthy food choices, and is easier to manage than a traditional diet for PKU. This paper describes the implementation of the Simplified Diet and outlines education, counseling strategies, and challenges encountered by three metabolic clinics in the United States.

  12. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with ... re new to type 2 diabetes, join our free Living With Type 2 Diabetes program to get ...

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    Full Text Available ... Cookbooks Gluten Free Recipes Videos Experiencing Celiac Disease What is Celiac Disease Diet Information At Home Shopping ... health professionals. I. Introduction : Experiencing Celiac Disease II. What is Celiac Disease? : Diagnosis and treatment III. Diet ...

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    Full Text Available ... Videos Experiencing Celiac Disease What is Celiac Disease Diet Information At Home Shopping Cooking Gluten Free Baking ... What is Celiac Disease? : Diagnosis and treatment III. Diet Information : How to start and maintain a gluten- ...

  15. Facts about Type 2

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  16. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  17. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... October 8, 2015 Last Edited: September 14, 2016 Articles from Diabetes Forecast® ... Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart-Healthy ...

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  19. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Recipes Association Cookbook Recipes Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning ... your dietitian to make changes in your meal plan. If exercise and changes in your diet don' ...