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Sample records for striatum caudate putamen

  1. Morphometric and volumetric study of caudate and putamen nuclei in normal individuals by MRI: Effect of normal aging, gender and hemispheric differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abedelahi, Ali; Hasanzadeh, Hadi; Hadizadeh, Homaioon; Joghataie, Mohammad Taghi

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine age, gender, and hemispheric differences in the volume of the human neostriatum (striatum) nucleus in healthy humans. This study was performed on 120 normal human subjects (60 males, 60 females, right-handed) 15–65 years old, divided into two groups: young (<40 yrs) and old (=≥40 yrs). Sectional brain images were obtained via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), analyzed and processed using the Image-J software, and the striatum volume was calculated using the Cavalieri’s principle, retrospectively. The analyses revealed bilateral age-related shrinkage of the putamen in both genders and the putamen and caudate nucleus were significantly smaller in older than in younger subjects (P-value <0.001). The age-related shrinkage of the caudate and putamen nucleus in men and women was about 5%, 5% and 4%, 4%, respectively, and there were statistically significant volume differences between males and females (P-value <0.05). In both genders, a significant rightward asymmetry was observed in the caudate and putamen nucleus (3.89%, 4.21% in men and 4.51%, 3.32% in women). Bilateral age-related shrinkage and rightward asymmetry of the striate nucleus was found in healthy adults and there were significant volume differences between men and women. Obtained results provide useful baseline data on age and gender-related changes of the volume of the striatum

  2. [Effect of injection of enkephalin and bestatin in caudate-putamen on operant conditioning in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S Y; Zhang, Y P; Zhang, M L; Qi, H X; Wang, B

    1992-10-01

    Female Wistar rats were trained in a Skinner-box, 30 trials per day in a dark room to establish operant defence conditioning. Training started with a light (15 s), then combined with footshock for further 8 s. When the rats learned to press the key to avoid footshock within 15 s, conditioned response was considered established. After the rats reached a conditioning rate (CR) above 80% for 5 days, cannulae were implanted into caudate-putamen. Two to three days later, Met-enkephalin (MEK) or bestatin (an aminopeptidase inhibitor) was injected bilaterally into caudate-putamen. 30 min, 2 h, 24 h and 48 h after injection, conditioning tests were conducted, with each session consisting of 30 trials. Control experiments were done when 0.9% NaCl (NS) was injected. After injection of NS, CR maintained above 80% in all 4 test sessions. MEK (60 ng/rat) or bestatin (10 micrograms/rat) significantly lowered the CR during the 30 min and 2 h test session. In the latter case, the latency (L) was also prolonged. However both CR and L returned to the control level in the 24 h and 48 h test sessions. Naloxone (2 mg/kg, i.p.) blocked the conditioning-depression effect of bestatin. No significant alteration was seen in locomotor activity after MEK or bestatin injection. The results suggest that enkephalin in caudate-putamen may be involved in the regulation of retrieval of conditioning. Bestatin mimics the effect of MEK on conditioning reflex probably by increasing production of endogenous enkephalin.

  3. Morphological alterations in the caudate, putamen, pallidum and thalamus in Parkinson’s disease.

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    Amanmeet eGarg

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Like many neurodegenerative diseases, the clinical symptoms of Parkinson’s disease (PD do not manifest until significant progression of the disease has already taken place, motivating the need for sensitive biomarkers of the disease. While structural imaging is a potentially attractive method due to its widespread availability and non-invasive nature, global morphometric measures (e.g. volume have proven insensitive to subtle disease change. Here we use individual surface displacements from deformations of an average surface model to capture disease related changes in shape of the subcortical structures in Parkinson’s disease. Data were obtained from both the University of British Columbia (UBC (n=54 healthy controls (HC & n=55 Parkinson’s disease (PD patients and the publicly available Parkinson’s Progression Marker’s Initiative (PPMI(n=137(HC & n=189 (PD database. A high dimensional non-rigid registration algorithm was used to register target segmentation labels (caudate, putamen, pallidum and thalamus to a set of segmentation labels defined on the average-template. The vertex-wise surface displacements were significantly different between PD and HC in thalamic and caudate structures. However overall displacements did not correlate with disease severity, as assessed by the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS. The results from this study suggest disease-relevant shape abnormalities can be robustly detected in subcortical structures in Parkinson’s disease. Future studies will be required to determine if shape changes in subcortical structures are seen in the prodromal phases of the disease.

  4. CRFR1 in the ventromedial caudate putamen modulates acute stress-enhanced expression of cocaine locomotor sensitization.

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    Liu, Shuli; Wang, Zhiyan; Li, Yijing; Sun, Xiaowei; Ge, Feifei; Yang, Mingda; Wang, Xinjuan; Wang, Na; Wang, Junkai; Cui, Cailian

    2017-07-15

    Repeated exposure to psychostimulants induces a long-lasting enhancement of locomotor activity called behavioral sensitization, which is often reinforced by stress after drug withdrawal. The mechanisms underlying these phenomena remain elusive. Here we explored the effects of acute stress 3 or 14 days after the cessation of chronic cocaine treatment on the expression of locomotor sensitization induced by a cocaine challenge in rats and the key brain region and molecular mechanism underlying the phenomenon. A single session of forced swimming, as an acute stress (administered 2 days after the cessation of cocaine), significantly enhanced the expression of cocaine locomotor sensitization 14 days after the final cocaine injection (challenge at 12 days after acute stress) but not 3 days after the cessation of cocaine (challenge at 1 day after acute stress). The result indicated that acute stress enhanced the expression of cocaine locomotor sensitization after incubation for 12 days rather than 1 day after the last cocaine injection. Moreover, the enhancement in locomotor sensitization was paralleled by a selective increase in the number of the c-Fos + cells, the level of CRFR1 mRNA in the ventromedial caudate putamen (vmCPu). Furthermore, the enhancement was significantly attenuated by CRFR1 antagonist NBI-27914 into the vmCPu, implying that the up-regulation of CRFR1 in the vmCPu seems to be critical in the acute stress-enhanced expression of cocaine locomotor sensitization. The findings demonstrate that the long-term effect of acute stress on the expression of cocaine locomotor sensitization is partially mediated by CRFR1 in the vmCPu. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. A multivariate surface-based analysis of the putamen in premature newborns: regional differences within the ventral striatum.

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    Jie Shi

    Full Text Available Many children born preterm exhibit frontal executive dysfunction, behavioral problems including attentional deficit/hyperactivity disorder and attention related learning disabilities. Anomalies in regional specificity of cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuits may underlie deficits in these disorders. Nonspecific volumetric deficits of striatal structures have been documented in these subjects, but little is known about surface deformation in these structures. For the first time, here we found regional surface morphological differences in the preterm neonatal ventral striatum. We performed regional group comparisons of the surface anatomy of the striatum (putamen and globus pallidus between 17 preterm and 19 term-born neonates at term-equivalent age. We reconstructed striatal surfaces from manually segmented brain magnetic resonance images and analyzed them using our in-house conformal mapping program. All surfaces were registered to a template with a new surface fluid registration method. Vertex-based statistical comparisons between the two groups were performed via four methods: univariate and multivariate tensor-based morphometry, the commonly used medial axis distance, and a combination of the last two statistics. We found statistically significant differences in regional morphology between the two groups that are consistent across statistics, but more extensive for multivariate measures. Differences were localized to the ventral aspect of the striatum. In particular, we found abnormalities in the preterm anterior/inferior putamen, which is interconnected with the medial orbital/prefrontal cortex and the midline thalamic nuclei including the medial dorsal nucleus and pulvinar. These findings support the hypothesis that the ventral striatum is vulnerable, within the cortico-stiato-thalamo-cortical neural circuitry, which may underlie the risk for long-term development of frontal executive dysfunction, attention deficit hyperactivity

  6. Double dissociation of the anterior and posterior dorsomedial caudate-putamen in the acquisition and expression of associative learning with the nicotine stimulus.

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    Charntikov, Sergios; Pittenger, Steven T; Swalve, Natashia; Li, Ming; Bevins, Rick A

    2017-07-15

    Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable deaths worldwide. This habit is not only debilitating to individual users but also to those around them (second-hand smoking). Nicotine is the main addictive component of tobacco products and is a moderate stimulant and a mild reinforcer. Importantly, besides its unconditional effects, nicotine also has conditioned stimulus effects that may contribute to the tenacity of the smoking habit. Because the neurobiological substrates underlying these processes are virtually unexplored, the present study investigated the functional involvement of the dorsomedial caudate putamen (dmCPu) in learning processes with nicotine as an interoceptive stimulus. Rats were trained using the discriminated goal-tracking task where nicotine injections (0.4 mg/kg; SC), on some days, were paired with intermittent (36 per session) sucrose deliveries; sucrose was not available on interspersed saline days. Pre-training excitotoxic or post-training transient lesions of anterior or posterior dmCPu were used to elucidate the role of these areas in acquisition or expression of associative learning with nicotine stimulus. Pre-training lesion of p-dmCPu inhibited acquisition while post-training lesions of p-dmCPu attenuated the expression of associative learning with the nicotine stimulus. On the other hand, post-training lesions of a-dmCPu evoked nicotine-like responding following saline treatment indicating the role of this area in disinhibition of learned motor behaviors. These results, for the first time, show functionally distinct involvement of a- and p-dmCPu in various stages of associative learning using nicotine stimulus and provide an initial account of neural plasticity underlying these learning processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Shape abnormalities of the striatum in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Laura W; Ferrarini, Luca; van der Grond, Jeroen; Milles, Julien R; Reiber, Johan H C; Westendorp, Rudi G J; Bollen, Edward L E M; Middelkoop, Huub A M; van Buchem, Mark A

    2011-01-01

    Postmortem studies show pathological changes in the striatum in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we examine the surface of the striatum in AD and assess whether changes of the surface are associated with impaired cognitive functioning. The shape of the striatum (n. accumbens, caudate nucleus, and putamen) was compared between 35 AD patients and 35 individuals without cognitive impairment. The striatum was automatically segmented from 3D T1 magnetic resonance images and automatic shape modeling tools (Growing Adaptive Meshes) were applied for morphometrical analysis. Repeated permutation tests were used to identify locations of consistent shape deformities of the striatal surface in AD. Linear regression models, corrected for age, gender, educational level, head size, and total brain parenchymal volume were used to assess the relation between cognitive performance and local surface deformities. In AD patients, differences of shape were observed on the medial head of the caudate nucleus and on the ventral lateral putamen, but not on the accumbens. The head of the caudate nucleus and ventral lateral putamen are characterized by extensive connections with the orbitofrontal and medial temporal cortices. Severity of cognitive impairment was associated with the degree of deformity of the surfaces of the accumbens, rostral medial caudate nucleus, and ventral lateral putamen. These findings provide evidence for the hypothesis that in AD primarily associative and limbic cerebral networks are affected.

  8. Functional connectivity of the dorsal striatum in female musicians

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    Shoji eTanaka

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The dorsal striatum (caudate/putamen is a node of the cortico-striato-pallido-thalamo-cortical (CSPTC motor circuit, which plays a central role in skilled motor learning, a critical feature of musical performance. The dorsal striatum receives input from a large part of the cerebral cortex, forming a hub in the cortical-subcortical network. This study sought to examine how the functional network of the dorsal striatum differs between musicians and nonmusicians.Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data were acquired from female university students majoring in music and nonmusic disciplines. The data were subjected to graph theoretical analysis and functional connectivity analysis. The graph theoretical analysis of the entire brain revealed that the degree, which represents the number of connections, of the bilateral putamen was significantly lower in musicians than in nonmusicians. The functional connectivity analysis indicated that compared with nonmusicians, musicians had significantly decreased connectivity between the left putamen and bilateral frontal operculum and between the left caudate nucleus and cerebellum. In conclusion, compared with nonmusicians, female musicians have a smaller functional network of the dorsal striatum, with decreased connectivity. These data are consistent with previous anatomical studies reporting a reduced volume of the dorsal striatum in musicians and ballet dancers. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study suggesting that long-term musical training results in a less extensive or selective functional network of the dorsal striatum.

  9. Comparison of four methods of measurement on [11C]Raclopride  binding potential using regional specificity in the striatum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterson, Ericka; Gjedde, Albert; Møller, Arne

    Background: Dopamine transmission in the striatum and especially the ventral striatum (VST), a structure which includes the nucleus  accumbens, ventral caudate, and ventral putamen, plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of psychotic states and the reinforcing effects of virtually all drugs...... as reference for all three methods. Mean pB were calculated for left and right putamen, caudate and VST. Correlations between the left and right pB were examined for each striatal region. The results of the three methods were also compared. Results: For all three methods, there was a highly significant...... correlation between the left and right caudate and putamen (pVST (0.01

  10. Altered structural covariance of the striatum in functional dyspepsia patients.

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    Liu, P; Zeng, F; Yang, F; Wang, J; Liu, X; Wang, Q; Zhou, G; Zhang, D; Zhu, M; Zhao, R; Wang, A; Gong, Q; Liang, F

    2014-08-01

    Functional dyspepsia (FD) is thought to be involved in dysregulation within the brain-gut axis. Recently, altered striatum activation has been reported in patients with FD. However, the gray matter (GM) volumes in the striatum and structural covariance patterns of this area are rarely explored. The purpose of this study was to examine the GM volumes and structural covariance patterns of the striatum between FD patients and healthy controls (HCs). T1-weighted magnetic resonance images were obtained from 44 FD patients and 39 HCs. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis was adopted to examine the GM volumes in the two groups. The caudate- or putamen-related regions identified from VBM analysis were then used as seeds to map the whole brain voxel-wise structural covariance patterns. Finally, a correlation analysis was used to investigate the effects of FD symptoms on the striatum. The results showed increased GM volumes in the bilateral putamen and right caudate. Compared with the structural covariance patterns of the HCs, the FD-related differences were mainly located in the amygdala, hippocampus/parahippocampus (HIPP/paraHIPP), thalamus, lingual gyrus, and cerebellum. And significant positive correlations were found between the volumes in the striatum and the FD duration in the patients. These findings provided preliminary evidence for GM changes in the striatum and different structural covariance patterns in patients with FD. The current results might expand our understanding of the pathophysiology of FD. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Neurochemical characterization of the tree shrew dorsal striatum

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    MATTHEW W RICE

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The striatum is a major component of the basal ganglia and is associated with motor and cognitive functions. Striatal pathologies have been linked to several disorders, including Huntington's, Tourette's syndrome, obsessive-compulsive disorders and schizophrenia. For the study of these striatal pathologies different animal models have been used, including rodents and non-human primates. Rodents lack on morphological complexity (for example, the lack of well defined caudate and putamen nuclei, which makes it difficult to translate data to the human paradigm. Primates, and especially higher primates, are the closest model to humans, but there are ever-increasing restrictions to the use of these animals for research. In our search for a non-primate animal model with a striatum that anatomically (and perhaps functionally can resemble that of humans, we turned our attention to the tree shrew. Evolutionary genetic studies have provided strong data supporting that the tree shrews (Scadentia are one of the closest groups to primates, although their brain anatomy has only been studied in detail for specific brain areas. Morphologically, the tree shrew striatum resembles the primate striatum with the presence of an internal capsule separating the caudate and putamen, but little is known about its neurochemical composition. Here we analyzed the expression of calcium-binding proteins, the presence and distribution of the striosome and matrix compartments (by the use of calbindin, tyrosine hydroxylase and acetylcholinesterase immunohistochemistry, and the GABAergic system by immunohistochemistry against glutamic acid decarboxylase and Golgi impregnation. In summary, our results show that when compared to primates, the tree shrew dorsal striatum presents striking similarities in the distribution of most of the markers studied, while presenting some marked divergences when compared to the rodent striatum.

  12. Synaptic adaptations to chronic ethanol intake in male rhesus monkey dorsal striatum depend on age of drinking onset.

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    Cuzon Carlson, Verginia C; Grant, Kathleen A; Lovinger, David M

    2018-03-15

    One in 12 adults suffer with alcohol use disorder (AUD). Studies suggest the younger the age in which alcohol consumption begins the higher the probability of being diagnosed with AUD. Binge/excessive alcohol drinking involves a transition from flexible to inflexible behavior likely involving the dorsal striatum (caudate and putamen nuclei). A major focus of this study was to examine the effect of age of drinking onset on subsequent chronic, voluntary ethanol intake and dorsal striatal circuitry. Data from rhesus monkeys (n = 45) that started drinking as adolescents, young adults or mature adults confirms an age-related risk for heavy drinking. Striatal neuroadaptations were examined using whole-cell patch clamp electrophysiology to record AMPA receptor-mediated miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) and GABA A receptor-mediated miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs) from medium-sized spiny projection neurons located in the caudate or putamen nuclei. In controls, greater GABAergic transmission (mIPSC frequency and amplitude) was observed in the putamen compared to the caudate. With advancing age, in the absence of ethanol, an increase in mIPSC frequency concomitant with changes in mIPSC amplitude was observed in both regions. Chronic ethanol drinking decreased mIPSC frequency in the putamen regardless of age of onset. In the caudate, an ethanol drinking-induced increase in mIPSC frequency was only observed in monkeys that began drinking as young adults. Glutamatergic transmission did not differ between the dorsal striatal subregions in controls. With chronic ethanol drinking there was a decrease in the postsynaptic characteristics of rise time and area of mEPSCs in the putamen but an increase in mEPSC frequency in the caudate. Together, the observed changes in striatal physiology indicate a combined disinhibition due to youth and ethanol leading to abnormally strong activation of the putamen that could contribute to the increased risk

  13. Study on microstructure of corpus striatum in patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder using magnetic resonance imaging

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    Ya-meng ZHANG

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the structure of corpus striatum and the integrity of white matter fiber in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD and idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (iRBD.  Methods Twelve patients with iRBD, 12 patients with PD and 10 healthy subjects that were well matched in gender, age and education were enrolled in this study. Head MRI examination was performed to all subjects to observe the changes of corpus striatum structure (the gray matter volume and the integrity of white matter fiber [fractional anisotropy (FA] by combining voxel?based morphometry (VBM and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI.  Results Compared with healthy subjects, the gray matter volume of left caudate nucleus was significantly decreased (P < 0.005, and FA values of left caudate nucleus (P < 0.005, right caudate nucleus (P < 0.001 and right putamen (P < 0.05 were all significantly reduced in iRBD patients; FA value of right putamen was significantly decreased in PD patients (P < 0.05. Compared with PD patients, the gray matter volume of left caudate nucleus of iRBD patients was significantly reduced (P < 0.001, FA values of left caudate nucleus (P < 0.01 and right caudate nucleus (P < 0.005 of iRBD patients were significantly reduced.  Conclusions There is atrophy of gray matter volume and extensive white matter fiber impairment in corpus striatum of patients with iRBD, and the white matter fiber impairment was similar to PD, which provides an anatomical evidence for iRBD being presymptom of PD. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2017.05.008

  14. Decreased resting-state BOLD regional homogeneity and the intrinsic functional connectivity within dorsal striatum is associated with greater impulsivity in food-related decision-making and BMI change at 6-month follow up.

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    Gao, Xiao; Liang, Qianlin; Wu, Guorong; She, Ying; Sui, Nan; Chen, Hong

    2018-04-30

    Increasing animal models as well as brain imaging studies among human suggest an association between substance-related impulsivity in decision-making and decreased function of dorsal striatum. However, the resting-state intrinsic functional organization of dorsal striatum underlying food-choice impulsivity remains unknown. To address this issue, we used resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) to measure brain activity among adult females. Subjects underwent the food rating task, during which they rated each food item according to their subjective perception of its taste (from Dislike it very much to Like it very much), its long term effect on health (from very unhealthy to very healthy) and decision strength to eat it (from Strong no to Strong yes). Behaviorally, impulsivity in food-choice was indexed by the decision strength of the palatable high-calorie food rather than of the low-caloric food. Results on rs-fMRI showed that greater impulsivity in food-related decision-making was inversely correlated with spontaneous regional homogeneity in the dorsal striatum (dorsal caudate), as well as the resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) between the dorsal caudate seed and the rostral putamen. Furthermore, the caudate-putamen rs-FC inversely predicted BMI change at six-month follow-up. These findings may suggest the insensitivity to reward signals in dorsal caudate in decision-making coupled with an imbalance between goal-directed behaviors (modulated by dorsal caudate) and habitual actions (modulated by putamen) underlying impulsivity and future weight gain. In sum, these findings extend our understanding on the neural basis of food-related impulsivity, and provide evidence for the dorsal striatum as one of the landmarks in over eating and weight change. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging evidence for presymptomatic change in thalamus and caudate in familial Alzheimer's disease.

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    Ryan, Natalie S; Keihaninejad, Shiva; Shakespeare, Timothy J; Lehmann, Manja; Crutch, Sebastian J; Malone, Ian B; Thornton, John S; Mancini, Laura; Hyare, Harpreet; Yousry, Tarek; Ridgway, Gerard R; Zhang, Hui; Modat, Marc; Alexander, Daniel C; Rossor, Martin N; Ourselin, Sebastien; Fox, Nick C

    2013-05-01

    Amyloid imaging studies of presymptomatic familial Alzheimer's disease have revealed the striatum and thalamus to be the earliest sites of amyloid deposition. This study aimed to investigate whether there are associated volume and diffusivity changes in these subcortical structures during the presymptomatic and symptomatic stages of familial Alzheimer's disease. As the thalamus and striatum are involved in neural networks subserving complex cognitive and behavioural functions, we also examined the diffusion characteristics in connecting white matter tracts. A cohort of 20 presenilin 1 mutation carriers underwent volumetric and diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging, neuropsychological and clinical assessments; 10 were symptomatic, 10 were presymptomatic and on average 5.6 years younger than their expected age at onset; 20 healthy control subjects were also studied. We conducted region of interest analyses of volume and diffusivity changes in the thalamus, caudate, putamen and hippocampus and examined diffusion behaviour in the white matter tracts of interest (fornix, cingulum and corpus callosum). Voxel-based morphometry and tract-based spatial statistics were also used to provide unbiased whole-brain analyses of group differences in volume and diffusion indices, respectively. We found that reduced volumes of the left thalamus and bilateral caudate were evident at a presymptomatic stage, together with increased fractional anisotropy of bilateral thalamus and left caudate. Although no significant hippocampal volume loss was evident presymptomatically, reduced mean diffusivity was observed in the right hippocampus and reduced mean and axial diffusivity in the right cingulum. In contrast, symptomatic mutation carriers showed increased mean, axial and in particular radial diffusivity, with reduced fractional anisotropy, in all of the white matter tracts of interest. The symptomatic group also showed atrophy and increased mean diffusivity in all of the subcortical

  16. Neuroimaging Studies Of Striatum In Cognition, Part I: Healthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Sebastien eProvost

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The striatum has traditionally mainly been associated with playing a key role in the modulation of motor functions. Indeed, lesion studies in animals and studies of some neurological conditions in humans have brought further evidence to this idea. However, better methods of investigation have raised concerns about this notion, and it was proposed that the striatum could also be involved in different types of functions including cognitive ones. Although the notion was originally a matter of debate, it is now well accepted that the caudate nucleus contributes to cognition, while the putamen could be involved in motor functions, and to some extent in cognitive functions as well. With the arrival of modern neuroimaging techniques in the early 1990, knowledge supporting the cognitive aspect of the striatum has greatly increased, and a substantial number of scientific papers were published studying the role of the striatum in healthy individuals. For the first time, it was possible to assess the contribution of specific areas of the brain during the execution of a cognitive task. Neuroanatomical studies have described functional loops involving the striatum and the prefrontal cortex suggesting a specific interaction between these two structures. This review examines the data up to date and provides strong evidence for a specific contribution of the fronto-striatal regions in different cognitive processes, such as set-shifting, self-initiated responses, rule learning, action-contingency, and planning. Finally, a new two-level functional model involving the prefrontal cortex and the dorsal striatum is proposed suggesting an essential role of the dorsal striatum in selecting between competing potential responses or actions, and in resolving a high level of ambiguity.

  17. Attention modulates the dorsal striatum response to love stimuli.

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    Langeslag, Sandra J E; van der Veen, Frederik M; Röder, Christian H

    2014-02-01

    In previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies concerning romantic love, several brain regions including the caudate and putamen have consistently been found to be more responsive to beloved-related than control stimuli. In those studies, infatuated individuals were typically instructed to passively view the stimuli or to think of the viewed person. In the current study, we examined how the instruction to attend to, or ignore the beloved modulates the response of these brain areas. Infatuated individuals performed an oddball task in which pictures of their beloved and friend served as targets and distractors. The dorsal striatum showed greater activation for the beloved than friend, but only when they were targets. The dorsal striatum actually tended to show less activation for the beloved than the friend when they were distractors. The longer the love and relationship duration, the smaller the response of the dorsal striatum to beloved-distractor stimuli was. We interpret our findings in terms of reinforcement learning. By virtue of using a cognitive task with a full factorial design, we show that the dorsal striatum is not activated by beloved-related information per se, but only by beloved-related information that is attended. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Pulvinar projections to the striatum and amygdala

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    Jonathan D Day-Brown

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Visually-guided movement is possible in the absence of conscious visual perception, a phenomenon referred to as blindsight. Similarly, fearful images can elicit emotional responses in the absence of their conscious perception. Both capabilities are thought to be mediated by pathways from the retina through the superior colliculus (SC and pulvinar nucleus. To define potential pathways that underlie behavioral responses to unperceived visual stimuli, we examined the projections from the pulvinar nucleus to the striatum and amygdala in the tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri, a species considered to be a protypical primate. The tree shrew brain has a large pulvinar nucleus that contains two SC-recipient subdivisions; the dorsal (Pd and central (Pc pulvinar both receive topographic (specific projections from SC, and Pd receives an additional nontopographic (diffuse projection from SC (Chomsung et al., 2008; JCN 510:24-46. Anterograde and retrograde tract tracing revealed that both Pd and Pc project to the caudate and putamen, and Pd, but not Pc, additionally projects to the lateral amygdala. Using immunocytochemical staining for substance P (SP and parvalbumin (PV to reveal the patch/matrix organization of tree shrew striatum, we found that SP-rich/PV-poor patches interlock with a PV-rich/SP-poor matrix. Confocal microscopy revealed that tracer-labeled pulvinostriatal terminals preferentially innervate the matrix. Electron microscopy revealed that the postsynaptic targets of tracer-labeled pulvino-striatal and pulvino-amygdala terminals are spines, demonstrating that the pulvinar nucleus projects to the spiny output cells of the striatum matrix and the lateral amygdala, potentially relaying: 1 topographic visual information from SC to striatum to aid in guiding precise movements, and 2 nontopographic visual information from SC to the amygdala alerting the animal to potentially dangerous visual images.

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging evidence for presymptomatic change in thalamus and caudate in familial Alzheimer’s disease

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    Keihaninejad, Shiva; Shakespeare, Timothy J.; Lehmann, Manja; Crutch, Sebastian J.; Malone, Ian B.; Thornton, John S.; Mancini, Laura; Hyare, Harpreet; Yousry, Tarek; Ridgway, Gerard R.; Zhang, Hui; Modat, Marc; Alexander, Daniel C.; Rossor, Martin N.; Ourselin, Sebastien; Fox, Nick C.

    2013-01-01

    Amyloid imaging studies of presymptomatic familial Alzheimer’s disease have revealed the striatum and thalamus to be the earliest sites of amyloid deposition. This study aimed to investigate whether there are associated volume and diffusivity changes in these subcortical structures during the presymptomatic and symptomatic stages of familial Alzheimer’s disease. As the thalamus and striatum are involved in neural networks subserving complex cognitive and behavioural functions, we also examined the diffusion characteristics in connecting white matter tracts. A cohort of 20 presenilin 1 mutation carriers underwent volumetric and diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging, neuropsychological and clinical assessments; 10 were symptomatic, 10 were presymptomatic and on average 5.6 years younger than their expected age at onset; 20 healthy control subjects were also studied. We conducted region of interest analyses of volume and diffusivity changes in the thalamus, caudate, putamen and hippocampus and examined diffusion behaviour in the white matter tracts of interest (fornix, cingulum and corpus callosum). Voxel-based morphometry and tract-based spatial statistics were also used to provide unbiased whole-brain analyses of group differences in volume and diffusion indices, respectively. We found that reduced volumes of the left thalamus and bilateral caudate were evident at a presymptomatic stage, together with increased fractional anisotropy of bilateral thalamus and left caudate. Although no significant hippocampal volume loss was evident presymptomatically, reduced mean diffusivity was observed in the right hippocampus and reduced mean and axial diffusivity in the right cingulum. In contrast, symptomatic mutation carriers showed increased mean, axial and in particular radial diffusivity, with reduced fractional anisotropy, in all of the white matter tracts of interest. The symptomatic group also showed atrophy and increased mean diffusivity in all of the

  20. The role of the putamen in language: a meta-analytic connectivity modeling study.

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    Viñas-Guasch, Nestor; Wu, Yan Jing

    2017-12-01

    The putamen is a subcortical structure that forms part of the dorsal striatum of basal ganglia, and has traditionally been associated with reinforcement learning and motor control, including speech articulation. However, recent studies have shown involvement of the left putamen in other language functions such as bilingual language processing (Abutalebi et al. 2012) and production, with some authors arguing for functional segregation of anterior and posterior putamen (Oberhuber et al. 2013). A further step in exploring the role of putamen in language would involve identifying the network of coactivations of not only the left, but also the right putamen, given the involvement of right hemisphere in high order language functions (Vigneau et al. 2011). Here, a meta-analytic connectivity modeling technique was used to determine the patterns of coactivation of anterior and bilateral putamen in the language domain. Based on previous evidence, we hypothesized that left putamen coactivations would include brain regions directly associated with language processing, whereas right putamen coactivations would encompass regions involved in broader semantic processes, such as memory and visual imagery. The results showed that left anterior putamen coactivated with clusters predominantly in left hemisphere, encompassing regions directly associated with language processing, a left posterior putamen network spanning both hemispheres, and cerebellum. In right hemisphere, coactivations were in both hemispheres, in regions associated with visual and orthographic processing. These results confirm the differential involvement of right and left putamen in different language components, thus highlighting the need for further research into the role of putamen in language.

  1. Neuroimaging studies of the striatum in cognition Part I: healthy individuals.

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    Provost, Jean-Sebastien; Hanganu, Alexandru; Monchi, Oury

    2015-01-01

    The striatum has traditionally mainly been associated with playing a key role in the modulation of motor functions. Indeed, lesion studies in animals and studies of some neurological conditions in humans have brought further evidence to this idea. However, better methods of investigation have raised concerns about this notion, and it was proposed that the striatum could also be involved in different types of functions including cognitive ones. Although the notion was originally a matter of debate, it is now well-accepted that the caudate nucleus contributes to cognition, while the putamen could be involved in motor functions, and to some extent in cognitive functions as well. With the arrival of modern neuroimaging techniques in the early 1990, knowledge supporting the cognitive aspect of the striatum has greatly increased, and a substantial number of scientific papers were published studying the role of the striatum in healthy individuals. For the first time, it was possible to assess the contribution of specific areas of the brain during the execution of a cognitive task. Neuroanatomical studies have described functional loops involving the striatum and the prefrontal cortex suggesting a specific interaction between these two structures. This review examines the data up to date and provides strong evidence for a specific contribution of the fronto-striatal regions in different cognitive processes, such as set-shifting, self-initiated responses, rule learning, action-contingency, and planning. Finally, a new two-level functional model involving the prefrontal cortex and the dorsal striatum is proposed suggesting an essential role of the dorsal striatum in selecting between competing potential responses or actions, and in resolving a high level of ambiguity.

  2. Functional contributions and interactions between the human hippocampus and subregions of the striatum during arbitrary associative learning and memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattfeld, Aaron T.; Stark, Craig E. L.

    2015-01-01

    The hippocampus and striatum are thought to have different functional roles in learning and memory. It is unknown under what experimental conditions their contributions are dissimilar or converge, and the extent to which they interact over the course of learning. In order to evaluate both the functional contributions of as well as the interactions between the human hippocampus and striatum, the present study used high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and variations of a conditional visuomotor associative learning task that either taxed arbitrary associative learning (Experiment 1) or stimulus-response learning (Experiment 2). In the first experiment we observed changes in activity in the hippocampus and anterior caudate that reflect differences between the two regions consistent with distinct computational principles. In the second experiment we observed activity in the putamen that reflected content specific representations during the learning of arbitrary conditional visuomotor associations. In both experiments the hippocampus and ventral striatum demonstrated dynamic functional coupling during the learning of new arbitrary associations, but not during retrieval of well-learned arbitrary associations using control variants of the tasks that did not preferentially tax one system versus the other. These findings suggest that both the hippocampus and subregions of the dorsal striatum contribute uniquely to the learning of arbitrary associations while the hippocampus and ventral striatum interact over the course of learning. PMID:25560298

  3. Caudate Microstimulation Increases Value of Specific Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santacruz, Samantha R; Rich, Erin L; Wallis, Joni D; Carmena, Jose M

    2017-11-06

    Value-based decision-making involves an assessment of the value of items available and the actions required to obtain them. The basal ganglia are highly implicated in action selection and goal-directed behavior [1-4], and the striatum in particular plays a critical role in arbitrating between competing choices [5-9]. Previous work has demonstrated that neural activity in the caudate nucleus is modulated by task-relevant action values [6, 8]. Nonetheless, how value is represented and maintained in the striatum remains unclear since decision-making in these tasks relied on spatially lateralized responses, confounding the ability to generalize to a more abstract choice task [6, 8, 9]. Here, we investigate striatal value representations by applying caudate electrical stimulation in macaque monkeys (n = 3) to bias decision-making in a task that divorces the value of a stimulus from motor action. Electrical microstimulation is known to induce neural plasticity [10, 11], and caudate microstimulation in primates has been shown to accelerate associative learning [12, 13]. Our results indicate that stimulation paired with a particular stimulus increases selection of that stimulus, and this effect was stimulus dependent and action independent. The modulation of choice behavior using microstimulation was best modeled as resulting from changes in stimulus value. Caudate neural recordings (n = 1) show that changes in value-coding neuron activity are stimulus value dependent. We argue that caudate microstimulation can differentially increase stimulus values independent of action, and unilateral manipulations of value are sufficient to mediate choice behavior. These results support potential future applications of microstimulation to correct maladaptive plasticity underlying dysfunctional decision-making related to neuropsychiatric conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Increased putamen volume in adults with autism spectrum disorder

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    Wataru eSato

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Basal ganglia (BG abnormalities are implicated in the pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD. However, studies measuring the volume of the entire BG in individuals with ASD have reported discrepant findings, and no study conducted volume measurement of the entire substructures of the BG (the caudate, putamen, nucleus accumbens, and globus pallidus in individuals with ASD. We delineated the BG substructures and measured their volumes in 29 adults with ASD without intellectual disabilities and 29 age- and gender-matched typically developed adult controls. We acquired T1-weighted anatomical images and performed semi-automated delineation and volume measurements of the above-mentioned subregions. Total cerebral volumes, sex, and ages were partialed out. Compared with controls, the putamen was significantly larger in the ASD group. The increased volume of the putamen found in high-functioning adults with ASD suggests that structural or histological abnormalities of the putamen may underlie the pathologies of ASD such as repetitive and stereotyped behaviors and impaired social interactions.

  5. Topography and chemoarchitecture of the striatum and pallidum in a monotreme, the short-beaked echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwell, K W S

    2008-09-01

    The topography and chemoarchitecture of the striatum and pallidum in a monotreme, the short-beaked echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus) have been studied using Nissl staining in conjunction with myelin staining, enzyme reactivity to acetylcholinesterase and NADPH diaphorase, and immunoreactivity to parvalbumin, calbindin, calretinin, tyrosine hydroxylase, neuropeptide Y, and neurofilament protein (SMI-32 antibody). All those components of the striatum and pallidum found in eutherian mammals could also be identified in the echidna's brain, with broad chemoarchitectural similarities to those regions in eutherian brains also apparent. There was a clear chemoarchitectural gradient visible with parvalbumin immunoreactivity of neurons and fibers, suggesting a subdivision of the echidna caudatoputamen into weakly reactive rostrodorsomedial and strongly reactive caudoventrolateral components. This may, in turn, relate to subdivision into associative versus sensorimotor CPu and reflect homology to the caudate and putamen of primates. Moreover, the chemoarchitecture of the echidna striatum suggested the presence of striosome-matrix architecture. The morphology of identified neuronal groups (i.e., parvalbumin, calbindin, and neuropeptide Y immunoreactive) in the echidna striatum and pallidum showed many similarities to those seen in eutherians, although the pattern of distribution of calbindin immunoreactive neurons was more uniform in the caudatoputamen of the echidna than in therians. These observations indicate that the same broad features of striatal and pallidal organization apply across all mammals and suggest that these common features may have arisen before the divergence of the monotreme and therian lineages.

  6. Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer MR Imaging Is Superior to Diffusion Tensor Imaging in the Diagnosis and Severity Evaluation of Parkinson's Disease: a Study on Substantia Nigra and Striatum

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    Chunmei eLi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by nigrostriatal cell loss. To date the diagnosis of PD is still based primarily on the clinical manifestations which may be typical and obvious only in advanced-stage PD. Thus, it is crucial to find a reliable marker for the diagnosis of PD. We conducted this study to assess the diagnostic efficiency of chemical-exchange-saturation-transfer (CEST imaging and diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI in PD at 3 Tesla by evaluating changes on substantia nigra and striatum. Twenty-three PD patients and twenty-three age-matched normal controls were recruited. All patients and controls were imaged on a 3 Tesla MR system, using an 8-channel head coil. CEST imaging was acquired in two transverse slices of the head, including substantia nigra and striatum. The magnetization-transfer-ratio asymmetry at 3.5 ppm, MTRasym(3.5ppm, and the total CEST signal intensity between 0 and 4 ppm were calculated. Multi-slice DTI was acquired for all the patients and normal controls. Quantitative analysis was performed on the substantia nigra, globus pallidus, putamen and caudate. The MTRasym(3.5ppm value, the total CEST signal intensity and fractional anisotropy (FA value of the substantia nigra were all significantly lower in PD patients than in normal controls (P = 0.003, P = 0.004 and P < 0.001, respectively. The MTRasym(3.5ppm values of the putamen and the caudate were significantly higher in PD patients than in normal controls (P = 0.010 and P = 0.009, respectively. There were no significant differences for the mean diffusivity (MD in these four regions between PD patients and normal controls. In conclusion, CEST MR imaging provided multiple CEST image contrasts in the substantia nigra and the striatum in PD and may be superior to DTI in the diagnosis of PD.

  7. A common neural code for social and monetary rewards in the human striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wake, Stephanie J; Izuma, Keise

    2017-10-01

    Although managing social information and decision making on the basis of reward is critical for survival, it remains uncertain whether differing reward type is processed in a uniform manner. Previously, we demonstrated that monetary reward and the social reward of good reputation activated the same striatal regions including the caudate nucleus and putamen. However, it remains unclear whether overlapping activations reflect activities of identical neuronal populations or two overlapping but functionally independent neuronal populations. Here, we re-analyzed the original data and addressed this question using multivariate-pattern-analysis and found evidence that in the left caudate nucleus and bilateral nucleus accumbens, social vs monetary reward were represented similarly. The findings suggest that social and monetary rewards are processed by the same population of neurons within these regions of the striatum. Additional findings demonstrated similar neural patterns when participants experience high social reward compared to viewing others receiving low social reward (potentially inducing schadenfreude). This is possibly an early indication that the same population of neurons may be responsible for processing two different types of social reward (good reputation and schadenfreude). These findings provide a supplementary perspective to previous research, helping to further elucidate the mechanisms behind social vs non-social reward processing. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  8. Neurosteroid biosynthetic pathway changes in substantia nigra and caudate nucleus in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luchetti, Sabina; Bossers, Koen; Frajese, Giovanni Vanni; Swaab, Dick F.

    2010-01-01

    There is emerging evidence from animal studies for a neuroprotective role of sex steroids in neurodegenerative diseases, but studies in human brain are lacking. We have carried out an extensive study of the neurosteroid biosynthetic pathways in substantia nigra (SN), caudate nucleus (CN) and putamen

  9. Effects of head motion correction on the evaluation of endogenous dopamine release in striatum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Sung; Cho, Sang Soo; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul; Kim, Sang Eun

    2004-01-01

    Neuroreceptor PET studies require 60-90 minutes to complete. Head motion of the subject increases the uncertainty in measured activity. In this study, the effects of the data-driven head motion correction on the evaluation of endogenous dopamine (DA) release in the striatum were investigated. [ 11 C]raclopride PET scans on 4 normal volunteers acquired with bolus plus constant infusion protocol were retrospectively analyzed. Following the 50 min resting period, the participants played a video game with a monetary reward for 40 min. Dynamic frames acquired during the equilibrium condition (rest: 30-50 min, game: 70-90 min) were realigned to the first frame at resting condition. Intra-condition registration between the frames during both the rest and game condition were performed, and average image for each condition was created and registered with each other again (inter-condition registration). Resting PET image was then co-registered to own MRI of each participant and transformation parameters were reapplied to the other one. Volumes of interest (VOl) for dorsal putamen (PU) and caudate (CA), ventral striatum (VS), and cerebellum were defined on the MRI. Binding potential (BP) was measured and DA release was calculated as the percent change of BP after the video game. Changes in position and orientation of the striatum during the PET scan were observed before the head motion correction. BP values at resting condition were not changed significantly after the intra-condition registration. However, the BP values during the video game and DA release (PU: 29.2→3.9%, CA: 57.4→14.1%, ST: 17.7→0.6%) were significantly changed after the correction. The results suggest that overestimation of the DA release caused by the head motion during PET scan and misalignment of MRI-based VOl and the striatum in PET image was remedied by the data-driven head motion correction

  10. Effects of head motion correction on the evaluation of endogenous dopamine release in striatum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Sung; Cho, Sang Soo; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul; Kim, Sang Eun [College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Neuroreceptor PET studies require 60-90 minutes to complete. Head motion of the subject increases the uncertainty in measured activity. In this study, the effects of the data-driven head motion correction on the evaluation of endogenous dopamine (DA) release in the striatum were investigated. [{sup 11}C]raclopride PET scans on 4 normal volunteers acquired with bolus plus constant infusion protocol were retrospectively analyzed. Following the 50 min resting period, the participants played a video game with a monetary reward for 40 min. Dynamic frames acquired during the equilibrium condition (rest: 30-50 min, game: 70-90 min) were realigned to the first frame at resting condition. Intra-condition registration between the frames during both the rest and game condition were performed, and average image for each condition was created and registered with each other again (inter-condition registration). Resting PET image was then co-registered to own MRI of each participant and transformation parameters were reapplied to the other one. Volumes of interest (VOl) for dorsal putamen (PU) and caudate (CA), ventral striatum (VS), and cerebellum were defined on the MRI. Binding potential (BP) was measured and DA release was calculated as the percent change of BP after the video game. Changes in position and orientation of the striatum during the PET scan were observed before the head motion correction. BP values at resting condition were not changed significantly after the intra-condition registration. However, the BP values during the video game and DA release (PU: 29.2{yields}3.9%, CA: 57.4{yields}14.1%, ST: 17.7{yields}0.6%) were significantly changed after the correction. The results suggest that overestimation of the DA release caused by the head motion during PET scan and misalignment of MRI-based VOl and the striatum in PET image was remedied by the data-driven head motion correction.

  11. Increased insula-putamen connectivity in X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism

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    Anne J. Blood

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary evidence from postmortem studies of X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism (XDP suggests tissue loss may occur first and/or most severely in the striatal striosome compartment, followed later by cell loss in the matrix compartment. However, little is known about how this relates to pathogenesis and pathophysiology. While MRI cannot visualize these striatal compartments directly in humans, differences in relative gradients of afferent cortical connectivity across compartments (weighted toward paralimbic versus sensorimotor cortex, respectively can be used to infer potential selective loss in vivo. In the current study we evaluated relative connectivity of paralimbic versus sensorimotor cortex with the caudate and putamen in 17 individuals with XDP and 17 matched controls. Although caudate and putamen volumes were reduced in XDP, there were no significant reductions in either “matrix-weighted”, or “striosome-weighted” connectivity. In fact, paralimbic connectivity with the putamen was elevated, rather than reduced, in XDP. This was driven most strongly by elevated putamen connectivity with the anterior insula. There was no relationship of these findings to disease duration or striatal volume, suggesting insula and/or paralimbic connectivity in XDP may develop abnormally and/or increase in the years before symptom onset.

  12. Ebselen (PZ-51) protects the Caudate putamen against hypoxia/ischemia induced neuronal damage.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knollema, S; Elting, JW; Dijkhuizen, RM; Nicolay, K; Korf, J; TerHorst, GJ

    1996-01-01

    Ebselen, a synthetic selenium-containing compound which exhibits glutathione peroxidase-like activity in vivo, is known for its beneficial effects on inflammation and tissue injury. Experiments were conducted to test whether ebselen dissolved in DiMethylSulfOxide (DMSO) could prevent damage in a rat

  13. Ebselen (PZ-51) protects the caudate putamen against hypoxia/ischemia induced neuronal damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knollema, S.; Elting, J.W.; Dijkhuizen, R.M.; Nicolaij, K.; Korf, J.; Horst, ter G.J.

    1996-01-01

    Ebselen, a synthetic selenium-containing compound which exhibits glutathione peroxidase-like activity in vivo, is known for its beneficial effects on inflammation and tissue injury. Experiments were conducted to test whether ebselen dissolved in DiMethylSulfOxide (DMSO) could prevent damage in a rat

  14. Metabolomics of Neurotransmitters and Related Metabolites in Post-Mortem Tissue from the Dorsal and Ventral Striatum of Alcoholic Human Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashem, Mohammed Abul; Ahmed, Selina; Sultana, Nilufa; Ahmed, Eakhlas U; Pickford, Russell; Rae, Caroline; Šerý, Omar; McGregor, Iain S; Balcar, Vladimir J

    2016-02-01

    We report on changes in neurotransmitter metabolome and protein expression in the striatum of humans exposed to heavy long-term consumption of alcohol. Extracts from post mortem striatal tissue (dorsal striatum; DS comprising caudate nucleus; CN and putamen; P and ventral striatum; VS constituted by nucleus accumbens; NAc) were analysed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Proteomics was studied in CN by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by mass-spectrometry. Proteomics identified 25 unique molecules expressed differently by the alcohol-affected tissue. Two were dopamine-related proteins and one a GABA-synthesizing enzyme GAD65. Two proteins that are related to apoptosis and/or neuronal loss (BiD and amyloid-β A4 precursor protein-binding family B member 3) were increased. There were no differences in the levels of dopamine (DA), 3,4-dihydrophenylacetic acid (DOPAC), serotonin (5HT), homovanillic acid (HVA), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (HIAA), histamine, L-glutamate (Glu), γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), tyrosine (Tyr) and tryptophan (Tryp) between the DS (CN and P) and VS (NAc) in control brains. Choline (Ch) and acetylcholine (Ach) were higher and norepinephrine (NE) lower, in the VS. Alcoholic striata had lower levels of neurotransmitters except for Glu (30 % higher in the alcoholic ventral striatum). Ratios of DOPAC/DA and HIAA/5HT were higher in alcoholic striatum indicating an increase in the DA and 5HT turnover. Glutathione was significantly reduced in all three regions of alcohol-affected striatum. We conclude that neurotransmitter systems in both the DS (CN and P) and the VS (NAc) were significantly influenced by long-term heavy alcohol intake associated with alcoholism.

  15. Increased turnover of dopamine in caudate nucleus of detoxified alcoholic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumakura, Yoshitaka; Gjedde, Albert; Caprioli, Daniele

    2013-01-01

    ventral striatum. We conclude that craving is most pronounced in the individuals with relatively rapid dopamine turnover in the left ventral striatum. The blood-brain clearance rate (K), corrected for subsequent loss of radiolabeled molecules from brain, was completely normal throughout the brain...... of the alcoholics, in whom the volume of distribution (V(d)) was found to be significantly lower in the left caudate nucleus. The magnitude of Vd in the left caudate head was reduced by 43% relative to the 16 controls, consistent with a 58% increase of k(loss). We interpret the findings as indicating that a trait...... for rapid dopamine turnover in the ventral striatum subserves craving and reward-dependence, leading to an acquired state of increased dopamine turnover in the dorsal striatum of detoxified alcoholic patients....

  16. A selective involvement of putamen functional connectivity in youth with internet gaming disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Soon-Beom; Harrison, Ben J; Dandash, Orwa; Choi, Eun-Jung; Kim, Seong-Chan; Kim, Ho-Hyun; Shim, Do-Hyun; Kim, Chang-Dai; Kim, Jae-Won; Yi, Soon-Hyung

    2015-03-30

    Brain cortico-striatal circuits have consistently been implicated in the pathology of addiction related disorders. We applied a reliable seed-based analysis of the resting-state brain activity to comprehensively delineate the subdivisions of striatal functional connectivity implicated in internet gaming disorder. Among twelve right-handed male adolescents with internet gaming disorder and 11 right-handed and gender-matched healthy controls, we examined group differences in the functional connectivity of dorsal and ventral subdivisions of the caudate nucleus and putamen, as well as the association of these connectivity indices with behavioral measures of internet use. Adolescents with internet gaming disorder showed significantly reduced dorsal putamen functional connectivity with the posterior insula-parietal operculum. More time spent playing online games predicted significantly greater functional connectivity between the dorsal putamen and bilateral primary somatosensory cortices in adolescents with internet gaming disorder, and significantly lower functional connectivity between the dorsal putamen and bilateral sensorimotor cortices in healthy controls. The dorsal putamen functional connectivity was significantly and specifically different in adolescents with internet gaming disorder. The findings suggest a possible biomarker of internet gaming disorder. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Time and decision making: differential contribution of the posterior insular cortex and the striatum during a delay discounting task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Marc; Leland, David S; Paulus, Martin P

    2007-06-01

    Delay discounting refers to the fact that an immediate reward is valued more than the same reward if it occurs some time in the future. To examine the neural substrates underlying this process, we studied 13 healthy volunteers who repeatedly had to decide between an immediate and parametrically varied delayed hypothetical reward using a delay discounting task during event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging. Subject's preference judgments resulted in different discounting slopes for shorter ( or =1 year) delays. Neural activation associated with the shorter delays relative to the longer delays was associated with increased activation in the head of the left caudate nucleus and putamen. When individuals selected the delayed relative to the immediate reward, a strong activation was found in bilateral posterior insular cortex. Several brain areas including the left caudate nucleus showed a correlation between the behaviorally determined discounting and brain activation for the contrast of intervals with delays or =1 year. These results suggest that (1) the posterior insula, which is a critical component of the decision-making neural network, is involved in delaying gratification and (2) the degree of neural activation in the striatum, which plays a fundamental role in reward prediction and in time estimation, may code for the time delay.

  18. Shape Abnormalities of the Caudate Nucleus Correlate with Poorer Gait and Balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macfarlane, Matthew D; Looi, Jeffrey C L; Walterfang, Mark

    2015-01-01

    published method and volumes calculated. The relationships between volume and physical performance on the SPPB were investigated with shape analysis using the spherical harmonic shape description toolkit. RESULTS: There was no correlation between the severity of WMHs and striatal volumes. Caudate nuclei...... volume correlated with performance on the SPPB at baseline but not at follow-up, with subsequent shape analysis showing left caudate changes occurred in areas corresponding to inputs of the dorsolateral prefrontal, premotor, and motor cortex. There was no correlation between putamen volumes...

  19. Decreased Left Putamen and Thalamus Volume Correlates with Delusions in First-Episode Schizophrenia Patients

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    Xiaojun Huang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundDelusional thinking is one of the hallmark symptoms of schizophrenia. However, the underlying neural substrate for delusions in schizophrenia remains unknown. In an attempt to further our understanding of the neural basis of delusions, we explored gray matter deficits and their clinical associations in first-episode schizophrenia patients with and without delusions.MethodsTwenty-four first-episode schizophrenia patients with delusions and 18 without delusions as well as 26 healthy controls (HC underwent clinical assessment and whole-brain structural imaging which were acquired a 3.0 T scanner. Voxel-based morphometry was used to explore inter-group differences in gray matter volume using analysis of covariance, and Spearman correlation coefficients (rho between the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS-delusion scores and mean regional brain volumes was obtained.ResultsPatients with delusions showed decreased brain gray matter volumes in the left putamen, thalamus, and caudate regions compared with HC. Patients with delusions also showed decreased regional volume in the left putamen and thalamus compared with patients without delusions. SAPS-delusion scores were negatively correlated with the gray matter volumes of the left putamen and thalamus.DiscussionLeft putamen and thalamus volume loss may be biological correlates of delusions in schizophrenia.

  20. Response properties of neurons in the cat's putamen during auditory discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhenling; Sato, Yu; Qin, Ling

    2015-10-01

    The striatum integrates diverse convergent input and plays a critical role in the goal-directed behaviors. To date, the auditory functions of striatum are less studied. Recently, it was demonstrated that auditory cortico-striatal projections influence behavioral performance during a frequency discrimination task. To reveal the functions of striatal neurons in auditory discrimination, we recorded the single-unit spike activities in the putamen (dorsal striatum) of free-moving cats while performing a Go/No-go task to discriminate the sounds with different modulation rates (12.5 Hz vs. 50 Hz) or envelopes (damped vs. ramped). We found that the putamen neurons can be broadly divided into four groups according to their contributions to sound discrimination. First, 40% of neurons showed vigorous responses synchronized to the sound envelope, and could precisely discriminate different sounds. Second, 18% of neurons showed a high preference of ramped to damped sounds, but no preference for modulation rate. They could only discriminate the change of sound envelope. Third, 27% of neurons rapidly adapted to the sound stimuli, had no ability of sound discrimination. Fourth, 15% of neurons discriminated the sounds dependent on the reward-prediction. Comparing to passively listening condition, the activities of putamen neurons were significantly enhanced by the engagement of the auditory tasks, but not modulated by the cat's behavioral choice. The coexistence of multiple types of neurons suggests that the putamen is involved in the transformation from auditory representation to stimulus-reward association. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Dopamine Transporters in Striatum Correlate with Deactivation in the Default Mode Network during Visuospatial Attention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomasi, D.; Fowler, J.; Tomasi, D.; Volkow, N.D.; Wang, R.L.; Telang, F.; Wang, Chang L.; Ernst, T.; Fowler, J.S.

    2009-01-01

    Dopamine and dopamine transporters (DAT, which regulate extracellular dopamine in the brain) are implicated in the modulation of attention but their specific roles are not well understood. Here we hypothesized that dopamine modulates attention by facilitation of brain deactivation in the default mode network (DMN). Thus, higher striatal DAT levels, which would result in an enhanced clearance of dopamine and hence weaker dopamine signals, would be associated to lower deactivation in the DMN during an attention task. For this purpose we assessed the relationship between DAT in striatum (measured with positron emission tomography and [ 11 C]cocaine used as DAT radiotracer) and brain activation and deactivation during a parametric visual attention task (measured with blood oxygenation level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging) in healthy controls. We show that DAT availability in caudate and putamen had a negative correlation with deactivation in ventral parietal regions of the DMN (precuneus, BA 7) and a positive correlation with deactivation in a small region in the ventral anterior cingulate gyrus (BA 24/32). With increasing attentional load, DAT in caudate showed a negative correlation with load-related deactivation increases in precuneus. These findings provide evidence that dopamine transporters modulate neural activity in the DMN and anterior cingulate gyrus during visuospatial attention. Our findings suggest that dopamine modulates attention in part by regulating neuronal activity in posterior parietal cortex including precuneus (region involved in alertness) and cingulate gyrus (region deactivated in proportion to emotional interference). These findings suggest that the beneficial effects of stimulant medications (increase dopamine by blocking DAT) in inattention reflect in part their ability to facilitate the deactivation of the DMN.

  2. Utility of a tripolar stimulating electrode for eliciting dopamine release in the rat striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergstrom, B P; Garris, P A

    1999-03-01

    The present study evaluated tripolar stimulating electrodes for eliciting dopamine release in the rat brain in vivo. Stimulating electrodes were placed either in the medial forebrain bundle or in the ventral mesencephalon associated with the ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra. The concentration of extracellular dopamine was monitored in dopamine terminal fields at 100-ms intervals using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry at carbon-fiber microelectrodes. To characterize the stimulated area, recordings were collected in several striatal regions including the caudate putamen and the core and shell of the nucleus accumbens. The tripolar electrode was equally effective in stimulating dopamine release in medial and lateral regions of the striatum. In contrast, responses evoked by a bipolar electrode were typically greater in one mediolateral edge versus the other. The added size of the tripolar electrode did not appear to cause complications as signals were stable over the course of the experiment (3 h). Subsets of mesostriatal dopamine neurons could also be selectively activated using the tripolar electrode in excellent agreement with previously described topography. Taken together, these results suggested that the tripolar stimulating electrode is well suited for studying the regulation of midbrain dopamine neurons in vivo.

  3. Separate groups of dopamine neurons innervate caudate head and tail encoding flexible and stable value memories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyoung F Kim

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine neurons are thought to be critical for reward value-based learning by modifying synaptic transmissions in the striatum. Yet, different regions of the striatum seem to guide different kinds of learning. Do dopamine neurons contribute to the regional differences of the striatum in learning? As a first step to answer this question, we examined whether the head and tail of the caudate nucleus of the monkey (Macaca mulatta receive inputs from the same or different dopamine neurons. We chose these caudate regions because we previously showed that caudate head neurons learn values of visual objects quickly and flexibly, whereas caudate tail neurons learn object values slowly but retain them stably. Here we confirmed the functional difference by recording single neuronal activity while the monkey performed the flexible and stable value tasks, and then injected retrograde tracers in the functional domains of caudate head and tail. The projecting dopaminergic neurons were identified using tyrosine hydroxylase immunohistochemistry. We found that two groups of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta project largely separately to the caudate head and tail. These groups of dopamine neurons were mostly separated topographically: head-projecting neurons were located in the rostral-ventral-medial region, while tail-projecting neurons were located in the caudal-dorsal-lateral regions of the substantia nigra. Furthermore, they showed different morphological features: tail-projecting neurons were larger and less circular than head-projecting neurons. Our data raise the possibility that different groups of dopamine neurons selectively guide learning of flexible (short-term and stable (long-term memories of object values.

  4. [Right extremities pain caused by a malacia lesion in the left putamen:a resting functional magnetic resonance imaging of the marginal division of the human brain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi-Ye; Ma, Lin

    2014-04-01

    To explore the role of marginal division of the human brain in the pain modulation. Resting functional magnetic resonance imaging was applied in a patient with right extremities pain caused by a malacia lesion in the left putamen and in 8 healthy volunteers. Marginal division was defined using manual drawing on structure images, and was applied to the computation of fuctional connectivity maps. The functional connectivities in the left marginal division showed an evident decrease in the patient when compared with healthy controls. These connectivities were mainly located in the bilateral head of caudate nucleus, putamen, and left globus pallidus. The marginal division may be involved in the pain modulation.

  5. Effects of cysteamine on dopamine-mediated behaviors: evidence for dopamine-somatostatin interactions in the striatum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin-Iverson, M.T.; Radke, J.M.; Vincent, S.R.

    1986-06-01

    The effects of prior treatment with cysteamine, a drug which appears to deplete selectively the neuropeptide somatostatin, on apomorphine-induced stereotypy and amphetamine-induced locomotor activity and conditioned place preferences were investigated. Twelve hours following systemic cysteamine injections apomorphine-induced stereotypy was attenuated and striatal somatostatin levels were reduced by half. Systemic cysteamine also decreased the motor stimulant effects of amphetamine, without influencing the rewarding properties as determined by the conditioned place preference procedure. Direct injections of cysteamine into the nucleus accumbens also decreased the locomotor response to amphetamine, and produced a local reduction in somatostatin levels in the accumbens. Cysteamine did not appear to alter monoamine turnover in the striatum after either systemic or intra-accumbens injections. These results suggest that somatostatin in the nucleus accumbens and caudate-putamen modulates the motor, but not the reinforcing properties of dopaminergic drugs, possibly via an action postsynaptic to dopamine-releasing terminals. Furthermore, it is evident from these results that cysteamine is an important tool with which to study the central actions of somatostatin.

  6. Differential reward coding in the subdivisions of the primate caudate during an oculomotor task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kae; Santos, Gustavo S; Matsuzaki, Ryuichi; Nakahara, Hiroyuki

    2012-11-07

    The basal ganglia play a pivotal role in reward-oriented behavior. The striatum, an input channel of the basal ganglia, is composed of subdivisions that are topographically connected with different cortical and subcortical areas. To test whether reward information is differentially processed in the different parts of the striatum, we compared reward-related neuronal activity along the dorsolateral-ventromedial axis in the caudate nucleus of monkeys performing an asymmetrically rewarded oculomotor task. In a given block, a target in one position was associated with a large reward, whereas the other target was associated with a small reward. The target position-reward value contingency was switched between blocks. We found the following: (1) activity that reflected the block-wise reward contingency emerged before the appearance of a visual target, and it was more prevalent in the dorsal, rather than central and ventral, caudate; (2) activity that was positively related to the reward size of the current trial was evident, especially after reward delivery, and it was more prevalent in the ventral and central, rather than dorsal, caudate; and (3) activity that was modulated by the memory of the outcomes of the previous trials was evident in the dorsal and central caudate. This multiple reward information, together with the target-direction information, was represented primarily by individual caudate neurons, and the different reward information was represented in caudate subpopulations with distinct electrophysiological properties, e.g., baseline firing and spike width. These results suggest parallel processing of different reward information by the basal ganglia subdivisions defined by extrinsic connections and intrinsic properties.

  7. The dorsal striatum and ventral striatum play different roles in the programming of social behaviour: a tribute to Lex Cools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bos, Ruud

    2015-02-01

    Early work by Lex Cools suggested that the caudate nucleus (dorsal striatum) plays a role in programming social behaviour: enhanced activity in the caudate nucleus increased the extent to which ongoing behaviour is controlled by the individual's own behaviour (internal control) rather than by that of its partners (external control). Interestingly, later studies by others have indicated that the ventral striatum plays a role in external rather than internal control. Here, I discuss the role of these different striatal areas - and the emotional (ventral striatum) and cognitive control (dorsal striatum) system in which they are embedded - in the organization of social behaviour in the context of locus of control. Following on from this discussion, I will pay particular attention to individual differences in social behaviour (individuals with more internal or external control), focusing on the role of dopamine, serotonin and the effects of stress-related challenges in relation to their different position in a dominance hierarchy. I will subsequently allude to potential psychological and behavioural problems in the social domain following on from these differences in locus of control ['social obliviousness' (dorsal stratum) and 'social impulsivity' (ventral striatum)]. In doing so, I provide as a tribute a historical account of the early research by Lex Cools.

  8. Effects of motion correction for dynamic [{sup 11}C]Raclopride brain PET data on the evaluation of endogenous dopamine release in striatum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Sung; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Cho, Sang Soo; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choe, Yearn Seong [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Eun Joo [Kangwon University, Chunchon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-10-15

    Neuroreceptor PET studies require 60-120 minutes to complete and head motion of the subject during the PET scan increases the uncertainty in measured activity. In this study, we investigated the effects of the data-driven head motion correction on the evaluation of endogenous dopamine release (DAR) in the striatum during the motor task which might have caused significant head motion artifact. [{sup 11}C]raclopride PET scans on 4 normal volunteers acquired with bolus plus constant infusion protocol were retrospectively analyzed. Following the 50 min resting period, the participants played a video game with a momentary reward for 40 min. Dynamic frames acquired during the equilibrium condition (pre-task: 30-50 min, task: 70-90 min, post-task:110-120 min) were realigned to the first frame in pre-task condition. Intra-condition registrations between the frames were performed, and average image for each condition was created and registered to the pre-task image (inter-condition registration). Pre-task PET image was then co-registered to own MRI of each participant and transformation parameters were reapplied to the others. Volumes of interest (VOI) for dorsal putamen (PU) and caudate (CA), ventral striatum (VS), and cerebellum were defined on the MRI. Binding potential (BP) was measured and DAR was calculated as the percent change of BP during and after the task. SPM analyses on the BP parametric images were also performed to explore the regional difference in the effects of head motion on BP and DAR estimation. Changes in position and orientation of the striatum during the PET scans were observed before the head motion correction. BP values at pre-task condition were not changed significantly after the intra-condition registration. However, the BP values during and after the task and DAR were significantly changed after the correction. SPM analysis also showed that the extent and significance of the BP differences were significantly changed by the head motion

  9. Effects of motion correction for dynamic [11C]Raclopride brain PET data on the evaluation of endogenous dopamine release in striatum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Sung; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Cho, Sang Soo; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul; Kim, Sang Eun; Choe, Yearn Seong; Kang, Eun Joo

    2005-01-01

    Neuroreceptor PET studies require 60-120 minutes to complete and head motion of the subject during the PET scan increases the uncertainty in measured activity. In this study, we investigated the effects of the data-driven head motion correction on the evaluation of endogenous dopamine release (DAR) in the striatum during the motor task which might have caused significant head motion artifact. [ 11 C]raclopride PET scans on 4 normal volunteers acquired with bolus plus constant infusion protocol were retrospectively analyzed. Following the 50 min resting period, the participants played a video game with a momentary reward for 40 min. Dynamic frames acquired during the equilibrium condition (pre-task: 30-50 min, task: 70-90 min, post-task:110-120 min) were realigned to the first frame in pre-task condition. Intra-condition registrations between the frames were performed, and average image for each condition was created and registered to the pre-task image (inter-condition registration). Pre-task PET image was then co-registered to own MRI of each participant and transformation parameters were reapplied to the others. Volumes of interest (VOI) for dorsal putamen (PU) and caudate (CA), ventral striatum (VS), and cerebellum were defined on the MRI. Binding potential (BP) was measured and DAR was calculated as the percent change of BP during and after the task. SPM analyses on the BP parametric images were also performed to explore the regional difference in the effects of head motion on BP and DAR estimation. Changes in position and orientation of the striatum during the PET scans were observed before the head motion correction. BP values at pre-task condition were not changed significantly after the intra-condition registration. However, the BP values during and after the task and DAR were significantly changed after the correction. SPM analysis also showed that the extent and significance of the BP differences were significantly changed by the head motion correction

  10. Altered caudate connectivity is associated with executive dysfunction after traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Simoni, Sara; Jenkins, Peter O; Bourke, Niall J; Fleminger, Jessica J; Hellyer, Peter J; Jolly, Amy E; Patel, Maneesh C; Cole, James H; Leech, Robert; Sharp, David J

    2018-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury often produces executive dysfunction. This characteristic cognitive impairment often causes long-term problems with behaviour and personality. Frontal lobe injuries are associated with executive dysfunction, but it is unclear how these injuries relate to corticostriatal interactions that are known to play an important role in behavioural control. We hypothesized that executive dysfunction after traumatic brain injury would be associated with abnormal corticostriatal interactions, a question that has not previously been investigated. We used structural and functional MRI measures of connectivity to investigate this. Corticostriatal functional connectivity in healthy individuals was initially defined using a data-driven approach. A constrained independent component analysis approach was applied in 100 healthy adult dataset from the Human Connectome Project. Diffusion tractography was also performed to generate white matter tracts. The output of this analysis was used to compare corticostriatal functional connectivity and structural integrity between groups of 42 patients with traumatic brain injury and 21 age-matched controls. Subdivisions of the caudate and putamen had distinct patterns of functional connectivity. Traumatic brain injury patients showed disruption to functional connectivity between the caudate and a distributed set of cortical regions, including the anterior cingulate cortex. Cognitive impairments in the patients were mainly seen in processing speed and executive function, as well as increased levels of apathy and fatigue. Abnormalities of caudate functional connectivity correlated with these cognitive impairments, with reductions in right caudate connectivity associated with increased executive dysfunction, information processing speed and memory impairment. Structural connectivity, measured using diffusion tensor imaging between the caudate and anterior cingulate cortex was impaired and this also correlated with measures of

  11. Altered caudate connectivity is associated with executive dysfunction after traumatic brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Simoni, Sara; Jenkins, Peter O; Bourke, Niall J; Fleminger, Jessica J; Jolly, Amy E; Patel, Maneesh C; Leech, Robert; Sharp, David J

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Traumatic brain injury often produces executive dysfunction. This characteristic cognitive impairment often causes long-term problems with behaviour and personality. Frontal lobe injuries are associated with executive dysfunction, but it is unclear how these injuries relate to corticostriatal interactions that are known to play an important role in behavioural control. We hypothesized that executive dysfunction after traumatic brain injury would be associated with abnormal corticostriatal interactions, a question that has not previously been investigated. We used structural and functional MRI measures of connectivity to investigate this. Corticostriatal functional connectivity in healthy individuals was initially defined using a data-driven approach. A constrained independent component analysis approach was applied in 100 healthy adult dataset from the Human Connectome Project. Diffusion tractography was also performed to generate white matter tracts. The output of this analysis was used to compare corticostriatal functional connectivity and structural integrity between groups of 42 patients with traumatic brain injury and 21 age-matched controls. Subdivisions of the caudate and putamen had distinct patterns of functional connectivity. Traumatic brain injury patients showed disruption to functional connectivity between the caudate and a distributed set of cortical regions, including the anterior cingulate cortex. Cognitive impairments in the patients were mainly seen in processing speed and executive function, as well as increased levels of apathy and fatigue. Abnormalities of caudate functional connectivity correlated with these cognitive impairments, with reductions in right caudate connectivity associated with increased executive dysfunction, information processing speed and memory impairment. Structural connectivity, measured using diffusion tensor imaging between the caudate and anterior cingulate cortex was impaired and this also correlated with

  12. The visual corticostriatal loop through the tail of the caudate: Circuitry and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol A Seger

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Although high level visual cortex projects to a specific region of the striatum, the tail of the caudate, and participates in corticostriatal loops, the function of this visual corticostriatal system is not well understood. This article first reviews what is known about the anatomy of the visual corticostriatal loop across mammals, including rodents, cats, monkeys, and humans. Like other corticostriatal systems, the visual corticostriatal system includes both closed loop components (recurrent projections that return to the originating cortical location and open loop components (projections that terminate in other neural regions. The article then reviews what previous empircal research has shown about the function of the tail of the caudate. The article finally addresses the possible functions of the closed and open loop connections of the visual loop in the context of theories and computational models of corticostriatal function.

  13. Dopamine D2 receptor-mediated G-protein activation in rat striatum: functional autoradiography and influence of unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the substantia nigra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman-Tancredi, A; Cussac, D; Brocco, M; Rivet, J M; Chaput, C; Touzard, M; Pasteau, V; Millan, M J

    2001-11-30

    Unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesions of substantia nigra pars compacta (SNPC) neurons in rats induce behavioural hypersensitivity to dopaminergic agonists. However, the role of specific dopamine receptors is unclear, and potential alterations in their transduction mechanisms remain to be evaluated. The present study addressed these issues employing the dopaminergic agonist, quinelorane, which efficaciously stimulated G-protein activation (as assessed by [35S]GTPgammaS binding) at cloned hD2 (and hD3) receptors. At rat striatal membranes, dopamine stimulated [35S]GTPgammaS binding by 1.9-fold over basal, but its actions were only partially reversed by the selective D2/D3 receptor antagonist, raclopride, indicating the involvement of other receptor subtypes. In contrast, quinelorane-induced stimulation (48% of the effect of dopamine) was abolished by raclopride, and by the D2 receptor antagonist, L741,626. Further, novel antagonists selective for D3 and D4 receptors, S33084 and S18126, respectively, blocked the actions of quinelorane at concentrations corresponding to their affinities for D2 receptors. Quinelorane potently induced contralateral rotation in unilaterally 6-OHDA-lesioned rats, an effect abolished by raclopride and L741,626, but not by D3 and D4 receptor-selective doses of S33084 and S18126, respectively. In functional ([35S]GTPgammaS) autoradiography experiments, quinelorane stimulated G-protein activation in caudate putamen and, to a lesser extent, in nucleus accumbens and cingulate cortex of naive rats. In unilaterally SNPC-lesioned rats, quinelorane-induced G-protein activation in the caudate putamen on the non-lesioned side was similar to that seen in naive animals (approximately 50% stimulation), but significantly greater on the lesioned side (approximately 80%). This increase was both pharmacologically and regionally specific since it was reversed by raclopride, and was not observed in nucleus accumbens or cingulate cortex. In conclusion

  14. Regional specialization within the human striatum for diverse psychological functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauli, Wolfgang M; O'Reilly, Randall C; Yarkoni, Tal; Wager, Tor D

    2016-02-16

    Decades of animal and human neuroimaging research have identified distinct, but overlapping, striatal zones, which are interconnected with separable corticostriatal circuits, and are crucial for the organization of functional systems. Despite continuous efforts to subdivide the human striatum based on anatomical and resting-state functional connectivity, characterizing the different psychological processes related to each zone remains a work in progress. Using an unbiased, data-driven approach, we analyzed large-scale coactivation data from 5,809 human imaging studies. We (i) identified five distinct striatal zones that exhibited discrete patterns of coactivation with cortical brain regions across distinct psychological processes and (ii) identified the different psychological processes associated with each zone. We found that the reported pattern of cortical activation reliably predicted which striatal zone was most strongly activated. Critically, activation in each functional zone could be associated with distinct psychological processes directly, rather than inferred indirectly from psychological functions attributed to associated cortices. Consistent with well-established findings, we found an association of the ventral striatum (VS) with reward processing. Confirming less well-established findings, the VS and adjacent anterior caudate were associated with evaluating the value of rewards and actions, respectively. Furthermore, our results confirmed a sometimes overlooked specialization of the posterior caudate nucleus for executive functions, often considered the exclusive domain of frontoparietal cortical circuits. Our findings provide a precise functional map of regional specialization within the human striatum, both in terms of the differential cortical regions and psychological functions associated with each striatal zone.

  15. Early and Degressive Putamen Atrophy in Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Krämer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Putamen atrophy and its long-term progress during disease course were recently shown in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS. Here we investigated retrospectively the time point of atrophy onset in patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS. 68 patients with RRMS and 26 healthy controls (HC were admitted to 3T MRI in a cross-sectional study. We quantitatively analyzed the putamen volume of individual patients in relation to disease duration by correcting for age and intracranial volume (ICV. Patient’s relative putamen volume (RPV, expressed in percent of ICV, was significantly reduced compared to HC. Based on the correlation between RPV and age, we computed the age-corrected RPV deviation (ΔRPV from HC. Patients showed significantly negative ΔRPV. Interestingly, the age-corrected ΔRPV depended logarithmically on disease duration: Directly after first symptom manifestation, patients already showed a reduced RPV followed by a further degressive volumetric decline. This means that atrophy progression was stronger in the first than in later years of disease. Putamen atrophy starts directly after initial symptom manifestation or even years before, and progresses in a degressive manner. Due to its important role in neurological functions, early detection of putamen atrophy seems necessary. High-resolution structural MRI allows monitoring of disease course.

  16. Subcortical intelligence: caudate volume predicts IQ in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazioplene, Rachael G; G Ryman, Sephira; Gray, Jeremy R; Rustichini, Aldo; Jung, Rex E; DeYoung, Colin G

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the association between size of the caudate nuclei and intelligence. Based on the central role of the caudate in learning, as well as neuroimaging studies linking greater caudate volume to better attentional function, verbal ability, and dopamine receptor availability, we hypothesized the existence of a positive association between intelligence and caudate volume in three large independent samples of healthy adults (total N = 517). Regression of IQ onto bilateral caudate volume controlling for age, sex, and total brain volume indicated a significant positive correlation between caudate volume and intelligence, with a comparable magnitude of effect across each of the three samples. No other subcortical structures were independently associated with IQ, suggesting a specific biological link between caudate morphology and intelligence. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. The left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and caudate pathway: New evidence for cue-induced craving of smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Kai; Yu, Dahua; Bi, Yanzhi; Wang, Ruonan; Li, Min; Zhang, Yajuan; Dong, Minghao; Zhai, Jinquan; Li, Yangding; Lu, Xiaoqi; Tian, Jie

    2017-09-01

    Although the activation of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the striatum had been found in smoking cue induced craving task, whether and how the functional interactions and white matter integrity between these brain regions contribute to craving processing during smoking cue exposure remains unknown. Twenty-five young male smokers and 26 age- and gender-matched nonsmokers participated in the smoking cue-reactivity task. Craving related brain activation was extracted and psychophysiological interactions (PPI) analysis was used to specify the PFC-efferent pathways contributed to smoking cue-induced craving. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and probabilistic tractography was used to explore whether the fiber connectivity strength facilitated functional coupling of the circuit with the smoking cue-induced craving. The PPI analysis revealed the negative functional coupling of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and the caudate during smoking cue induced craving task, which positively correlated with the craving score. Neither significant activation nor functional connectivity in smoking cue exposure task was detected in nonsmokers. DTI analyses revealed that fiber tract integrity negatively correlated with functional coupling in the DLPFC-caudate pathway and activation of the caudate induced by smoking cue in smokers. Moreover, the relationship between the fiber connectivity integrity of the left DLPFC-caudate and smoking cue induced caudate activation can be fully mediated by functional coupling strength of this circuit in smokers. The present study highlighted the left DLPFC-caudate pathway in smoking cue-induced craving in smokers, which may reflect top-down prefrontal modulation of striatal reward processing in smoking cue induced craving processing. Hum Brain Mapp 38:4644-4656, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Basketball training increases striatum volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, In Sung; Lee, Kea Joo; Han, Jong Woo; Lee, Nam Joon; Lee, Won Teak; Park, Kyung Ah; Rhyu, Im Joo

    2011-02-01

    The striatum is associated with the learning and retention of motor skills. Several studies have shown that motor learning induces neuronal changes in the striatum. We investigated whether macroscopic change in striatum volume occurs in a segment of the human population who learned basketball-related motor skills and practiced them throughout their entire athletic life. Three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging volumetry was performed in basketball players and healthy controls, and striatum volumes were compared based on basketball proficiency, region and side. We identified morphological enlargement in the striatum of basketball players in comparison with controls. Our results suggest that continued practice and repetitive performance of basketball-related motor skills may induce plastic structural changes in the human striatum. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Genome-wide imaging association study implicates functional activity and glial homeostasis of the caudate in smoking addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, David C; Molfese, David L; Jin, Jennifer L; Titus, Alexander J; He, Yixuan; Li, Yafang; Vaissié, Maxime; Viswanath, Humsini; Baldwin, Philip R; Krahe, Ralf; Salas, Ramiro; Amos, Christopher I

    2017-09-19

    Nearly 6 million deaths and over a half trillion dollars in healthcare costs worldwide are attributed to tobacco smoking each year. Extensive research efforts have been pursued to elucidate the molecular underpinnings of smoking addiction and facilitate cessation. In this study, we genotyped and obtained both resting state and task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging from 64 non-smokers and 42 smokers. Smokers were imaged after having smoked normally ("sated") and after having not smoked for at least 12 h ("abstinent"). While abstinent smokers did not differ from non-smokers with respect to pairwise resting state functional connectivities (RSFCs) between 12 brain regions of interest, RSFCs involving the caudate and putamen of sated smokers significantly differed from those of non-smokers (P smoking status (P = 0.015). Moreover, abstinent smokers with lower CR experienced greater withdrawal symptoms (P = 0.024), which suggests CR may be related to smoking urges. Associations between genetic variants and CR, adjusted for smoking status, were identified by genome-wide association study (GWAS). Genes containing or exhibiting caudate-specific expression regulation by these variants were enriched within Gene Ontology terms that describe cytoskeleton functions, synaptic organization, and injury response (P < 0.001, FDR < 0.05). By integrating genomic and imaging data, novel insights into potential mechanisms of caudate activation and homeostasis are revealed that may guide new directions of research toward improving our understanding of addiction pathology.

  20. 3D texture analysis reveals imperceptible MRI textural alterations in the thalamus and putamen in progressive myoclonic epilepsy type 1, EPM1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanna Suoranta

    Full Text Available Progressive myoclonic epilepsy type 1 (EPM1 is an autosomal recessively inherited neurodegenerative disorder characterized by young onset age, myoclonus and tonic-clonic epileptic seizures. At the time of diagnosis, the visual assessment of the brain MRI is usually normal, with no major changes found later. Therefore, we utilized texture analysis (TA to characterize and classify the underlying properties of the affected brain tissue by means of 3D texture features. Sixteen genetically verified patients with EPM1 and 16 healthy controls were included in the study. TA was performed upon 3D volumes of interest that were placed bilaterally in the thalamus, amygdala, hippocampus, caudate nucleus and putamen. Compared to the healthy controls, EPM1 patients had significant textural differences especially in the thalamus and right putamen. The most significantly differing texture features included parameters that measure the complexity and heterogeneity of the tissue, such as the co-occurrence matrix-based entropy and angular second moment, and also the run-length matrix-based parameters of gray-level non-uniformity, short run emphasis and long run emphasis. This study demonstrates the usability of 3D TA for extracting additional information from MR images. Textural alterations which suggest complex, coarse and heterogeneous appearance were found bilaterally in the thalamus, supporting the previous literature on thalamic pathology in EPM1. The observed putamenal involvement is a novel finding. Our results encourage further studies on the clinical applications, feasibility, reproducibility and reliability of 3D TA.

  1. Distinct changes in CREB phosphorylation in frontal cortex and striatum during contingent and non-contingent performance of a visual attention task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana eCarli

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The cyclic-AMP response element binding protein (CREB family of transcription factors has been implicated in numerous forms of behavioural plasticity. We investigated CREB phosphorylation along some nodes of corticostriatal circuitry such as frontal cortex (FC and dorsal (caudate putamen, CPu and ventral (nucleus accumbens, NAC striatum in response to the contingent or non-contingent performance of the five-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT used to assess visuospatial attention. Three experimental manipulations were used; an attentional performance group (contingent, master, a group trained previously on the task but for whom the instrumental contingency coupling responding with stimulus detection and reward was abolished (non-contingent, yoked and a control group matched for food deprivation and exposure to the test apparatus (untrained. Rats trained on the 5-CSRTT (both master and yoked had higher levels of CREB protein in the FC, CPu and NAC compared to untrained controls. Despite the divergent behaviour of master and yoked rats CREB activity in the FC was not substantially different. In rats performing the 5-CSRTT (master, CREB activity was completely abolished in the CPu whereas in the NAC it remained unchanged. In contrast, CREB phosphorylation in CPu and NAC increased only when the contingency changed from goal-dependent to goal-independent reinforcement (yoked. The present results indicate that up-regulation of CREB protein expression across cortical and striatal regions possibly reflects the extensive instrumental learning and performance whereas increased CREB activity in striatal regions may signal the unexpected change in the relationship between instrumental action and reinforcement.

  2. File list: ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Putamen [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Putamen hg19 All antigens Neural Putamen SRX998291,SRX1096826,SRX9...98289 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Putamen.bed ...

  4. File list: ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Putamen [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Putamen hg19 All antigens Neural Putamen SRX998291,SRX1096826,SRX9...98289 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Putamen.bed ...

  5. Hippocampal and caudate volume reductions in antipsychotic-naive first-episode schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebdrup, Bjørn Hylsebeck; Glenthøj, Birte; Rasmussen, Hans

    2010-01-01

    of a false discovery rate correction (p brain structure volumes. We grouped patients as those with (n = 9) or without (n = 29) any lifetime substance abuse to examine the possible effects of substance abuse. RESULTS: We found......BACKGROUND: Enlarged ventricles and reduced hippocampal volume are consistently found in patients with first-episode schizophrenia. Studies investigating brain structure in antipsychotic-naive patients have generally focused on the striatum. In this study, we examined whether ventricular...... healthy controls by use of a 3-T scanner. We warped the brain images to each other by use of a high-dimensional intersubject registration algorithm. We performed voxel-wise group comparisons with permutation tests. We performed small volume correction for the hippocampus, caudate and ventricles by use...

  6. Bilateral symmetrical low density areas in the striatum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okabe, Ichiro; Shimoizumi, Hideo; Miyao, Masutomo; Kamoshita, Shigehiko

    1986-01-01

    A 10-year-old boy, who showed low density areas at bilateral striatal portion on brain CT, was reported. Characteristic clinical features were summarized as follows: 1. Onset in childhood (3 years old), 2. gait disturbance, dysarthria, involuntaly movement such as choreoathetosis and dystonia, 3. mild mental retardation (IQ 70), and 4. slowly progressive course over several years. Family history was unremarkable. His parents were not consanguineous. He was well until 3 years old, when he developed gait disturbance. At the age of 4, CT showed hypodensity lesions in the bilateral putamens, and right caudate was involved at 7, followed by bilateral caudate involvements at 10. Laboratory findings including blood lactate, pyruvate, serum copper, ceruloplasmin, aminoacids, urine and CSF catecholamines were within normal limits. TRH and thiamine therapies were ineffective L-dopa was slightly effective in movements, but symptoms were slowly progressive. We reviewed fourteen reported cases which were similar to our case in their onset, symptoms, clinical course and CT findings. Although the etiology was unknown, this case is possibly a new disease entity. (author)

  7. Modulation of neurotransmitter release in the region of the caudate nucleus by diet and neurotoxins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurstjens, N P

    1987-01-01

    In this thesis the effects of dietary manipulation, ethanol and neurotoxins on the basal and electrically evoked release of dopamine and acetylcholine from the caudate nucleus of mature animals are presented together with an evaluation of the presynaptic acetylcholine and dopamine receptors controlling acetylcholine and dopamine release. A standardised superfusion technique was used to monitor the effect of apomorphine, in the presence of (R-S)- sulpiride or haloperidol, on the electrically induced release of (/sup 3/ H)-acetylcholine in slices of rat corpus striatum. The effect of ethanol and dietary manipulation on the basal and electrically evoke release of (/sup 3/H)-acetylfholine from rat striatal slices, in the presence of specific agonists and antagonists was evaluated. From this study it is possible to deduce that diet and neurotoxins exerted a measurable effect on the mechanisms controlling release of neurotransmitters in the region of the caudate nucleus. These changes were determined in mature animals previously considered to have cerebral activity, which was not subject to dietary fluctuaations. No changes in the activity of the presynaptic dopamine receptor of the acetylcholine nerve terminals of the striatal slice could be measured.

  8. Virtual water maze learning in human increases functional connectivity between posterior hippocampus and dorsal caudate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolley, Daniel G; Mantini, Dante; Coxon, James P; D'Hooge, Rudi; Swinnen, Stephan P; Wenderoth, Nicole

    2015-04-01

    Recent work has demonstrated that functional connectivity between remote brain regions can be modulated by task learning or the performance of an already well-learned task. Here, we investigated the extent to which initial learning and stable performance of a spatial navigation task modulates functional connectivity between subregions of hippocampus and striatum. Subjects actively navigated through a virtual water maze environment and used visual cues to learn the position of a fixed spatial location. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans were collected before and after virtual water maze navigation in two scan sessions conducted 1 week apart, with a behavior-only training session in between. There was a large significant reduction in the time taken to intercept the target location during scan session 1 and a small significant reduction during the behavior-only training session. No further reduction was observed during scan session 2. This indicates that scan session 1 represented initial learning and scan session 2 represented stable performance. We observed an increase in functional connectivity between left posterior hippocampus and left dorsal caudate that was specific to scan session 1. Importantly, the magnitude of the increase in functional connectivity was correlated with offline gains in task performance. Our findings suggest cooperative interaction occurs between posterior hippocampus and dorsal caudate during awake rest following the initial phase of spatial navigation learning. Furthermore, we speculate that the increase in functional connectivity observed during awake rest after initial learning might reflect consolidation-related processing. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Habitual action video game playing is associated with caudate nucleus-dependent navigational strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Greg L; Drisdelle, Brandi Lee; Konishi, Kyoko; Jackson, Jonathan; Jolicoeur, Pierre; Bohbot, Veronique D

    2015-06-07

    The habitual playing of video games is associated with increased grey matter and activity in the striatum. Studies in humans and rodents have shown an inverse relationship between grey matter in the striatum and hippocampus. We investigated whether action video game playing is also associated with increased use of response learning strategies during navigation, known to be dependent on the caudate nucleus of the striatum, when presented in a dual solution task. We tested 26 action video game players (actionVGPs) and 33 non-action video game players (nonVGPs) on the 4-on-8 virtual maze and a visual attention event-related potential (ERP) task, which elicits a robust N-2-posterior-controlateral (N2pc) component. We found that actionVGPs had a significantly higher likelihood of using a response learning strategy (80.76%) compared to nonVGPs (42.42%). Consistent with previous evidence, actionVGPs and nonVGPs differed in the way they deployed visual attention to central and peripheral targets as observed in the elicited N2pc component during an ERP visual attention task. Increased use of the response strategy in actionVGPs is consistent with previously observed increases in striatal volume in video game players (VGPs). Using response strategies is associated with decreased grey matter in the hippocampus. Previous studies have shown that decreased volume in the hippocampus precedes the onset of many neurological and psychiatric disorders. If actionVGPs have lower grey matter in the hippocampus, as response learners normally do, then these individuals could be at increased risk of developing neurological and psychiatric disorders during their lifetime. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  10. PROJECTIONS OF DORSAL AND MEDIAN RAPHE NUCLEI TO DORSAL AND VENTRAL STRIATUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R. Hassanzadeh G. Behzadi

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The ascending serotonergic projections are derived mainly from mesencephalic raphe nuclei. Topographical projections from mesencephalic raphe nuclei to the striatum were examined in the rat by the retrograde transport technique of HRP (horseradish peroxidase. In 29 rats stereotaxically injection of HRP enzyme were performed in dorsal and ventral parts of striatum separately. The extent of the injection sites and distribution of retrogradely labeled neuronal cell bodies were drawed on representative sections using a projection microscope. Following ipsilateral injection of HRP into the dorsal striatum, numerous labeled neurons were seen in rostral portion of dorsal raphe (DR nucleus. In the same level the cluster of labeled neurons were hevier through caudal parts of DR. A few neurons were also located in lateral wing of DR. More caudally some labeled neurons were found in lateral, medial line of DR. In median raphe nucleus (MnR the labeled neurons were scattered only in median portion of this nucleus. The ipsilateral injection of HRP into the ventral region of striatum resulted on labeling of numerous neurons in rostral, caudal and lateral portions of DR. Through the caudal extension of DR on 4th ventricle level, a large number of labeled neurons were distributed along the ventrocaudal parts of DR. In MnR, labeled neurons were observed only in median part of this nucleus. These findings suggest the mesencephalic raphe nuclei projections to caudo-putamen are topographically organized. In addition dorsal and median raphe nuclei have a stronger projection to the ventral striatum.

  11. Dopamine D4 receptor counteracts morphine-induced changes in M opioid receptor signaling in the striosomes of the rat caudate putamen.

    OpenAIRE

    Rivera, Alicia; Valderrama-Carvajal, Alejandra; Roales-Buján, Ruth; Suárez-Boomgaard, Diana; Medina-Luque, José; Shumilov, Kirill; De-la-Calle-Martin, Adelaida

    2015-01-01

    Morphine is one of the most potent analgesic drugs used to relieve moderate to severe pain. After long-term use of morphine, neuroadaptive changes in the brain promotes tolerance, which result in a reduced sensitivity to most of its effects with attenuation of analgesic efficacy, and dependence, revealed by drug craving and physical or psychological manifestations of drug withdrawal. The mu opioid receptor (MOR) is critical, not only in mediating morphine analgesia, but also in addictive beha...

  12. Dopamine D4 Receptor Counteracts Morphine-Induced Changes in µ Opioid Receptor Signaling in the Striosomes of the Rat Caudate Putamen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Suárez-Boomgaard

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The mu opioid receptor (MOR is critical in mediating morphine analgesia. However, prolonged exposure to morphine induces adaptive changes in this receptor leading to the development of tolerance and addiction. In the present work we have studied whether the continuous administration of morphine induces changes in MOR protein levels, its pharmacological profile, and MOR-mediated G-protein activation in the striosomal compartment of the rat CPu, by using immunohistochemistry and receptor and DAMGO-stimulated [35S]GTPγS autoradiography. MOR immunoreactivity, agonist binding density and its coupling to G proteins are up-regulated in the striosomes by continuous morphine treatment in the absence of changes in enkephalin and dynorphin mRNA levels. In addition, co-treatment of morphine with the dopamine D4 receptor (D4R agonist PD168,077 fully counteracts these adaptive changes in MOR, in spite of the fact that continuous PD168,077 treatment increases the [3H]DAMGO Bmax values to the same degree as seen after continuous morphine treatment. Thus, in spite of the fact that both receptors can be coupled to Gi/0 protein, the present results give support for the existence of antagonistic functional D4R-MOR receptor-receptor interactions in the adaptive changes occurring in MOR of striosomes on continuous administration of morphine.

  13. Developmentally Stable Whole-Brain Volume Reductions and Developmentally Sensitive Caudate and Putamen Volume Alterations in Those With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Their Unaffected Siblings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greven, Corina U.; Bralten, Janita; Mennes, Maarten; O'Dwyer, Laurence; van Hulzen, Kimm J. E.; Rommelse, Nanda; Schweren, Lizanne J. S.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Heslenfeld, Dirk; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Faraone, Stephen V.; Franke, Barbara; Zwiers, Marcel P.; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    IMPORTANCE Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heritable neurodevelopmental disorder. It has been linked to reductions in total brain volume and subcortical abnormalities. However, owing to heterogeneity within and between studies and limited sample sizes, findings on the

  14. Symptomatic laterality and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the putamen in striatonigral degeneration (SND)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanagihara, Chie; Ichikawa, Keiji; Kageyama, Yasufumi; Satou, Mutsumi; Hoshino, Masataka (Hyogo Prefectural Amagasaki Hospital (Japan))

    1994-04-01

    The relationship between sympatomatic laterality and lesions of the putamen was investigated by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in 6 patients with striatonigral degeneration (SND). According to Yahr's classification, one patient had I, III, and V each, and 3 had IV. All patients had asymmetric onset of parkinsonism. They developed variable cerebellar ataxia and/or autonomic failure. T1-weighted imaging was most superior in delineating atrophy of the putamen and laterality. The atrophy and lateral difference of the putamen were associated with progression of symptoms. Both the area and the maximum transverse diameter of the putamen were significantly decreased. Atophied putamen extended from the dorsal to the abdominal sides with symptom progression. Attention should be paid to the dorsal side of the putamen in delineating the atrophy and bilateral difference. The measurement of the maximum transverse diameter of the dorsal atrophy of the putamen was a simple, useful means for assessing the atrophy of the putamen. The diameter 7.4 mm or less of the putamen suggested the presence of atrophy. (N.K.).

  15. Regional differences in gene expression and promoter usage in aged human brains

    KAUST Repository

    Pardo, Luba M.; Rizzu, Patrizia; Francescatto, Margherita; Vitezic, Morana; Leday, Gwenaë l G.R.; Sanchez, Javier Simon; Khamis, Abdullah M.; Takahashi, Hazuki; van de Berg, Wilma D.J.; Medvedeva, Yulia A.; van de Wiel, Mark A.; Daub, Carsten O.; Carninci, Piero; Heutink, Peter

    2013-01-01

    To characterize the promoterome of caudate and putamen regions (striatum), frontal and temporal cortices, and hippocampi from aged human brains, we used high-throughput cap analysis of gene expression to profile the transcription start sites

  16. Increased putamen hypercapnic vasoreactivity in levodopa-induced dyskinesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourdain, Vincent A; Schindlbeck, Katharina A; Tang, Chris C; Niethammer, Martin; Choi, Yoon Young; Markowitz, Daniel; Nazem, Amir; Nardi, Dominic; Carras, Nicholas; Feigin, Andrew; Ma, Yilong; Peng, Shichun; Dhawan, Vijay; Eidelberg, David

    2017-10-19

    In a rodent model of Parkinson's disease (PD), levodopa-induced involuntary movements have been linked to striatal angiogenesis - a process that is difficult to document in living human subjects. Angiogenesis can be accompanied by localized increases in cerebral blood flow (CBF) responses to hypercapnia. We therefore explored the possibility that, in the absence of levodopa, local hypercapnic CBF responses are abnormally increased in PD patients with levodopa-induced dyskinesias (LID) but not in their nondyskinetic (NLID) counterparts. We used H215O PET to scan 24 unmedicated PD subjects (12 LID and 12 NLID) and 12 matched healthy subjects in the rest state under normocapnic and hypercapnic conditions. Hypercapnic CBF responses were compared to corresponding levodopa responses from the same subjects. Group differences in hypercapnic vasoreactivity were significant only in the posterior putamen, with greater CBF responses in LID subjects compared with the other subjects. Hypercapnic and levodopa-mediated CBF responses measured in this region exhibited distinct associations with disease severity: the former correlated with off-state motor disability ratings but not symptom duration, whereas the latter correlated with symptom duration but not motor disability. These are the first in vivo human findings linking LID to microvascular changes in the basal ganglia.

  17. Learning and motivation in the human striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shohamy, Daphna

    2011-06-01

    The past decade has seen a dramatic change in our understanding of the role of the striatum in behavior. Early perspectives emphasized a role for the striatum in habitual learning of stimulus-response associations and sequences of actions. Recent advances from human neuroimaging research suggest a broader role for the striatum in motivated learning. New findings demonstrate that the striatum represents multiple learning signals and highlight the contribution of the striatum across many cognitive domains and contexts. Recent findings also emphasize interactions between the striatum and other specialized brain systems for learning. Together, these findings suggest that the striatum contributes to a distributed network that learns to select actions based on their predicted value in order to optimize behavior. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Hemiballism due to the lesion in the striatum demonstrated by CT scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojima, S; Ito, N; Hirayama, K [Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Tochigi, S

    1981-09-01

    Two cases of hemiballism due to vascular lesions in the striatum demonstrated by CT scan were reported. Case 1 was a 58-year-old man with hypertension and diabetes mellitus, who had cerebral hemorrhage in the right striatum. Hemiballistic movements, which were confined to his face, neck and trunk as well as limbs of the left side, appeared soon after CVA and improved on treatment with haloperidol up to 4 mg per day. Case 2 was a 63-year-old woman with hypertension, who had probable cerebral infarct in the right striatum. The hemiballistic movements, confined to her right side, appeared soon after CVA and improved on treatment with chlorpromazine up to 50 mg per day, and perphenazine up to 6 mg per day. Whereas case 1 had contralateral hemiballism, case 2 had homolateral hemiballism, both due to vascular lesions in the striatum. Although it has been generally accepted, from postmortem and experimental studies, that the lesion responsible for hemiballism was localized in the contralateral subthalamic nucleus, a few cases of hemiballism have been reported, in which the subthalamic nucleus (Luys' body) and its connections appeared to be intact at necropsy. The present cases of hemiballism with involvement of the striatum without involvement of the subthalamic nucleus by CT scan, seem to be the first reported cases. It is not clear in the CT scan whether the subthalamic nucleus is also involved in addition to the striatal lesion, however, it is unlikely due to different vascular supplies to these areas. From a clinical and an experimental point of view, we would like to propose that hemiballism can occur due to the lesion in the striatum, especially the caudate nucleus even when the subthalamic nucleus and its connections are intact.

  19. Functionally distinct contributions of the anterior and posterior putamen during sublexical and lexical reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion eOberhuber

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have investigated orthographic-to-phonological mapping during reading by comparing brain activation for (1 reading words to object naming, or (2 reading pseudowords (e.g. phume to words (e.g. plume. Here we combined both approaches to provide new insights into the underlying neural mechanisms. In fMRI data from 25 healthy adult readers, we first identified activation that was greater for reading words and pseudowords relative to picture and color naming. The most significant effect was observed in the left putamen, extending to both anterior and posterior borders. Second, consistent with previous studies, we show that both the anterior and posterior putamen are involved in articulating speech with greater activation during our overt speech production tasks (reading, repetition, object naming and color naming than silent one-back-matching on the same stimuli. Third, we compared putamen activation for words versus pseudowords during overt reading and auditory repetition. This revealed that the anterior putamen was most activated by reading pseudowords, whereas the posterior putamen was most activated by words irrespective of whether the task was reading words or auditory word repetition. The pseudoword effect in the anterior putamen is consistent with prior studies that associated this region with the initiation of novel sequences of movements. In contrast, the heightened word response in the posterior putamen is consistent with other studies that associated this region with memory guided movement. Our results illustrate how the functional dissociation between the anterior and posterior putamen supports sublexical and lexical processing during reading.

  20. Contribution to speech development of the right anterior putamen revealed with multivariate tensor-based morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasova, Roza; Yalin Wang; Dirks, Holly; Dean, Douglas; O'Muircheartaigh, Jonathan; Gonzalez, Sara; Binh Kien Nguyen; Nelson, Marvin D; Deoni, Sean; Lepore, Natasha

    2017-07-01

    In our previous study1, we suggested that the difference between tensor-based metrics in the anterior part of the right putamen between 21 and 18 months age groups associated with speech development during this ages. Here we used a correlational analysis between verbal scores and determinant of the Jacobian matrix to confirm our hypothesis. Significant correlations in anterior part of the right putamen between verbal scores and surface metric were revealed in the 18 and 21 age groups.

  1. Right putamen and age are the most discriminant features to diagnose Parkinson's disease by using 123I-FP-CIT brain SPET data by using an artificial neural network classifier, a classification tree (ClT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascianelli, S; Tranfaglia, C; Fravolini, M L; Bianconi, F; Minestrini, M; Nuvoli, S; Tambasco, N; Dottorini, M E; Palumbo, B

    2017-01-01

    The differential diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD) and other conditions, such as essential tremor and drug-induced parkinsonian syndrome or normal aging brain, represents a diagnostic challenge. 123 I-FP-CIT brain SPET is able to contribute to the differential diagnosis. Semiquantitative analysis of radiopharmaceutical uptake in basal ganglia (caudate nuclei and putamina) is very useful to support the diagnostic process. An artificial neural network classifier using 123 I-FP-CIT brain SPET data, a classification tree (CIT), was applied. CIT is an automatic classifier composed of a set of logical rules, organized as a decision tree to produce an optimised threshold based classification of data to provide discriminative cut-off values. We applied a CIT to 123 I-FP-CIT brain SPET semiquantitave data, to obtain cut-off values of radiopharmaceutical uptake ratios in caudate nuclei and putamina with the aim to diagnose PD versus other conditions. We retrospectively investigated 187 patients undergoing 123 I-FP-CIT brain SPET (Millenium VG, G.E.M.S.) with semiquantitative analysis performed with Basal Ganglia (BasGan) V2 software according to EANM guidelines; among them 113 resulted affected by PD (PD group) and 74 (N group) by other non parkinsonian conditions, such as Essential Tremor and drug-induced PD. PD group included 113 subjects (60M and 53F of age: 60-81yrs) having Hoehn and Yahr score (HY): 0.5-1.5; Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) score: 6-38; N group included 74 subjects (36M and 38 F range of age 60-80 yrs). All subjects were clinically followed for at least 6-18 months to confirm the diagnosis. To examinate data obtained by using CIT, for each of the 1,000 experiments carried out, 10% of patients were randomly selected as the CIT training set, while the remaining 90% validated the trained CIT, and the percentage of the validation data correctly classified in the two groups of patients was computed. The expected performance of an "average

  2. The Crossed Projection to the Striatum in Two Species of Monkey and in Humans: Behavioral and Evolutionary Significance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Innocenti, Giorgio M.; Dyrby, Tim Bjørn; Andersen, Kasper Winther

    2017-01-01

    The corpus callosum establishes the anatomical continuity between the 2 hemispheres and coordinates their activity. Using histological tracing, single axon reconstructions, and diffusion tractography, we describe a callosal projection to n caudatus and putamen in monkeys and humans. In both species......, the origin of this projection is more restricted than that of the ipsilateral projection. In monkeys, it consists of thin axons (0.4–0.6 µm), appropriate for spatial and temporal dispersion of subliminal inputs. For prefrontal cortex, contralateral minus ipsilateral delays to striatum calculated from axon...... diameters and conduction distance are monkey and, by extrapolation,

  3. The role of the dorsoanterior striatum in implicit motivation: The case of the need for power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver C Schultheiss

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Implicit motives like the need for power (nPower scale affective responses to need-specific rewards or punishments and thereby influence activity in motivational-brain structures. In this paper, we review evidence specifically supporting a role of the striatum in nPower. Individual differences in nPower predict (a enhanced implicit learning accuracy, but not speed, on serial-response tasks that are reinforced by power-related incentives (e.g., winning or losing a contest; dominant or submissive emotional expressions in behavioral studies and (b activation of the anterior caudate in response to dominant emotional expressions in brain imaging research. We interpret these findings on the basis of Hikosaka, Nakamura, Sakai, and Nakahara's (2002; Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 12(2, 217-222 model of central mechanisms of motor skill learning. The model assigns a critical role to the dorsoanterior striatum in dopamine-driven learning of spatial stimulus sequences. Based on this model, we suggest that the dorsoanterior striatum is the locus of nPower-dependent reinforcement. However, given the centrality of this structure in a wide range of motivational pursuits, we also propose that activity in the dorsoanterior striatum may not only reflect individual differences in nPower, but also in other implicit motives, like the need for achievement or the need for affiliation, provided that the proper incentives for these motives are present during reinforcement learning. We discuss evidence in support of such a general role of the dorsoanterior striatum in implicit motivation.

  4. Brain putamen volume changes in newly-diagnosed patients with obstructive sleep apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is accompanied by cognitive, motor, autonomic, learning, and affective abnormalities. The putamen serves several of these functions, especially motor and autonomic behaviors, but whether global and specific sub-regions of that structure are damaged is unclear. We assessed global and regional putamen volumes in 43 recently-diagnosed, treatment-naïve OSA (age, 46.4 ± 8.8 years; 31 male and 61 control subjects (47.6 ± 8.8 years; 39 male using high-resolution T1-weighted images collected with a 3.0-Tesla MRI scanner. Global putamen volumes were calculated, and group differences evaluated with independent samples t-tests, as well as with analysis of covariance (covariates; age, gender, and total intracranial volume. Regional differences between groups were visualized with 3D surface morphometry-based group ratio maps. OSA subjects showed significantly higher global putamen volumes, relative to controls. Regional analyses showed putamen areas with increased and decreased tissue volumes in OSA relative to control subjects, including increases in caudal, mid-dorsal, mid-ventral portions, and ventral regions, while areas with decreased volumes appeared in rostral, mid-dorsal, medial-caudal, and mid-ventral sites. Global putamen volumes were significantly higher in the OSA subjects, but local sites showed both higher and lower volumes. The appearance of localized volume alterations points to differential hypoxic or perfusion action on glia and other tissues within the structure, and may reflect a stage in progression of injury in these newly-diagnosed patients toward the overall volume loss found in patients with chronic OSA. The regional changes may underlie some of the specific deficits in motor, autonomic, and neuropsychologic functions in OSA.

  5. CT cold areas in both putamens in cases with history of perinatal asphyxia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishizaki, Asayo; Maruyama, Hiroshi (Tokyo Women' s Medical Coll. (Japan))

    1982-12-01

    CT bilaterally showed a cold area in the putamen of 5 infants with cerebral palsy who had had asphyxia at birth. The etiology was discussed, and 4 of the cases were clinically studied. All four patients had convulsive tetraplegia, or convulsive bilateral paralysis with the element of athetosis. Three of them had a history of infantile epilepsy, accompanied by abnormal ocular movement. Two patients with tetraplegia showed marked hypotonia of the trunk in ventral support (Landau). Impairment of the bilateral putamens in the abnormal muscle tone was inferred.

  6. Lesser sac hematoma as a sign of rupture of hepatocellular carcinoma in the caudate lobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, Yoshie; Tani, Ichiro; Nakajima, Yasuo; Ishikawa, Tohru; Umeda, Satoshi; Kusano, Shoichi

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the CT findings of rupture of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in the caudate lobe of the liver. The CT scans of five cases of rupture of HCC in the caudate lobe of the liver were retrospectively reviewed and correlated with clinical records. All cases showed exophytic tumors in the caudate lobe of the liver and high-attenuation hematomas in the lesser sac on CT. A lesser sac hematoma may be a sentinel clot sign of rupture of HCC in the caudate lobe. (orig.)

  7. Mindfulness meditation modulates reward prediction errors in the striatum in a passive conditioning task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich eKirk

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Reinforcement learning models have demonstrated that phasic activity of dopamine neurons during reward expectation encodes information about the predictability of rewards and cues that predict reward. Evidence indicates that mindfulness-based approaches reduce reward anticipation signal in the striatum to negative and positive incentives suggesting the hypothesis that such training influence basic reward processing. Using a passive conditioning task and fMRI in a group of experienced mindfulness meditators and age-matched controls, we tested the hypothesis that mindfulness meditation influence reward and reward prediction error signals. We found diminished positive and negative prediction error-related blood-oxygen level-dependent (BOLD responses in the putamen in meditators compared with controls. In the meditators, this decrease in striatal BOLD responses to reward prediction was paralleled by increased activity in posterior insula, a primary interoceptive region. Critically, responses in the putamen during early trials of the conditioning procedure (run 1 were elevated in both meditators and controls. These results provide evidence that experienced mindfulness meditators show attenuated reward prediction signals to valenced stimuli, which may be related to interoceptive processes encoded in the posterior insula.

  8. Hyperechoic caudate nuclei: a potential mimic of germinal matrix hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlesinger, A.E.; Shackelford, G.D.; Adcock, L.M.

    1998-01-01

    Background. We have encountered bilateral hyperechoic foci in the region of the germinal matrix on cranial sonograms in neonates that have an appearance similar to germinal matrix hemorrhage (GMH), but are unusual either due to the age of the patient at presentation or to the evolution of the foci on follow-up. We believe that these findings represent hyperechoic caudate nuclei (HCN) rather than GMH. Objective. To demonstrate that bilateral HCN can be seen on cranial sonography in neonates and can mimic bilateral GMH. Materials and methods. The cranial sonograms were reviewed in nine neonates (three term and six premature) who had HCN identified on at least one sonographic examination. CT (two patients) and MR (one patient) studies were also reviewed, as well as the neuropathological examination in one patient who died and had an autopsy. The patients' medical records were reviewed to identify any clinical markers for significant risk of perinatal ischemia. Results. There was clinical evidence for risk of ischemia in five of the nine neonates. All nine patients had bilateral HCN on the initial or follow-up studies. Small cysts were seen sonographically in two patients. CT was normal in one patient and revealed a small unilateral focus of increased attenuation in one infant (very small compared to the bilateral HCN). MR was normal in one patient. Histopathological examination of the brain was normal in the one patient who died and had an autopsy. Conclusion. Hyperechoic caudate nuclei can occur in neonates either as a normal finding, or possibly related to ischemia, and should not always be attributed to GMH. (orig.)

  9. L-DOPA reverses the elevated density of D/sub 2/ dopamine receptors in Parkinson's diseased striatum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guttman, M; Seeman, P

    1985-01-01

    Striatal dopamine receptors werde studied using (/sup 3/H)-spiperone in postmortem tissues of thirty-six patients with Parkinson's Disease. Each tissue was analyzed by the receptor saturation method. In non-treated patients, the D/sub 2/ dopamine receptor density was elevated in the caudate nucleus and putamen compared to controls. In L-DOPA-treated patients, the receptor density was the same as controls. The dissociation constant for (/sup 3/H)-spiperone was similar in all groups. The elevated density of D/sub 2/ receptors in non-treated patients may indicate dopaminergic supersensitivity in this disease. The elevated density was reversed with dopamine agonist therapy, but the density was not lower than control tissues.

  10. Low putamen activity associated with poor reward sensitivity in childhood chronic fatigue syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kei Mizuno, Ph.D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivational signals influence a wide variety of cognitive processes and components of behavioral performance. Cognitive dysfunction in patients with childhood chronic fatigue syndrome (CCFS may be closely associated with a low motivation to learn induced by impaired neural reward processing. However, the extent to which reward processing is impaired in CCFS patients is unclear. The aim of the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study was to determine whether brain activity in regions related to reward sensitivity is impaired in CCFS patients. fMRI data were collected from 13 CCFS patients (mean age, 13.6 ± 1.0 years and 13 healthy children and adolescents (HCA (mean age, 13.7 ± 1.3 years performing a monetary reward task. Neural activity in high- and low-monetary-reward conditions was compared between CCFS and HCA groups. Severity of fatigue and the reward obtained from learning in daily life were evaluated by questionnaires. Activity of the putamen was lower in the CCFS group than in the HCA group in the low-reward condition, but not in the high-reward condition. Activity of the putamen in the low-reward condition in CCFS patients was negatively and positively correlated with severity of fatigue and the reward from learning in daily life, respectively. We previously revealed that motivation to learn was correlated with striatal activity, particularly the neural activity in the putamen. This suggests that in CCFS patients low putamen activity, associated with altered dopaminergic function, decreases reward sensitivity and lowers motivation to learn.

  11. Evidence for a caudate role in aphasia from FDG positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metter, E.J.; Riege, W.H.; Hanson, W.R.; Phelps, M.; Kuhl, D.E.

    1982-01-01

    In a recent study correlations between language function and regional glucose metabolism from FDG positron computed tomography were examined. Caudate metabolism correlated with PICA speaking and comprehension factors, as well as BDAE mean writing and reading scores. To identify the language function implicated with caudate metabolism in these eleven patients, twenty subtests making up these two PICA factors and mean BDAE scores were correlated to caudate metabolism. Also a principle components analysis on the twenty subtests identified three factors, only one of which correlated with caudate metabolism. Evidence was found that the caudate has a functional relationship to recognition or motor planning of simple and overlearned materials. This involved simple syntax, low levels of abstraction, identification or sequencing of phonetic and semantic material. This role appeared related to but independent of Broca and frontal lobe function, and may involve the focusing of cortical functions, by allowing two or more regions to interact together

  12. Complex population response of dorsal putamen neurons predicts the ability to learn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laquitaine, Steeve; Piron, Camille; Abellanas, David; Loewenstein, Yonatan; Boraud, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Day-to-day variability in performance is a common experience. We investigated its neural correlate by studying learning behavior of monkeys in a two-alternative forced choice task, the two-armed bandit task. We found substantial session-to-session variability in the monkeys' learning behavior. Recording the activity of single dorsal putamen neurons we uncovered a dual function of this structure. It has been previously shown that a population of neurons in the DLP exhibits firing activity sensitive to the reward value of chosen actions. Here, we identify putative medium spiny neurons in the dorsal putamen that are cue-selective and whose activity builds up with learning. Remarkably we show that session-to-session changes in the size of this population and in the intensity with which this population encodes cue-selectivity is correlated with session-to-session changes in the ability to learn the task. Moreover, at the population level, dorsal putamen activity in the very beginning of the session is correlated with the performance at the end of the session, thus predicting whether the monkey will have a "good" or "bad" learning day. These results provide important insights on the neural basis of inter-temporal performance variability.

  13. Like mother like daughter: putamen activation as a mechanism underlying intergenerational risk for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colich, Natalie L; Ho, Tiffany C; Ellwood-Lowe, Monica E; Foland-Ross, Lara C; Sacchet, Matthew D; LeMoult, Joelle L; Gotlib, Ian H

    2017-09-01

    Having a depressed mother is one of the strongest predictors for developing depression in adolescence. Given the role of aberrant reward processing in the onset and maintenance of depression, we examined the association between mothers' and their daughters' neural response to the anticipation of reward and loss. Fifteen non-depressed mothers with a history of recurrent depression and their never-disordered daughters, and 23 mothers without past or current depression and their never-disordered daughters, underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing the monetary incentive delay task. To assess mother-daughter concordance, we first identified ROIs involved in the anticipation of reward and loss across all mother-daughter pairs. Within each of these ROIs, we examined the association between mothers' and daughters' neural response, and the interaction between group status and mothers' neural response in predicting daughters' neural response. We found a significant association between mothers' and daughters' putamen response to the anticipation of loss, regardless of mother's depression history. Furthermore, pubertal stage moderated the association between mother-daughter putamen concordance. Our findings suggest a unique role of the putamen in the maternal transmission of reward learning and have important implications for understanding disorders characterized by disturbances in reward learning and processing, such as major depression. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  14. Water dissection technique of Toth for the treatment of hypertensive intracerebral putamen hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jiandong; Qian Surong; Lin Liqing; Wang Chenqiu; Wang Jianren; Wang Chen; Ying Guangzhong; Hui Guozhen

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investige the possibility of water dissection technique of Toth for craniotomy with small bone flap through lateral fissure approach for the treatment of hypertensive intracerebral putamen hemorrhage. Methods: Twenty consecutive patients with hypertensive intracerebral putamen hemorrhage were treated by making a incision on sclap long about 6 cm across sylvian fissure, making a small bone flap about 3 cm x 3 cm, After opening dual, we injected water under microscopic control by a handheld syringe with a blunt needle applying repeated injection of physiological saline into the sylvian fissure to open it, opening the insular cortex, evacuation of intracerebral hematoma. Results: There was no further mortality. Patients who returned to ADL 1 and 2 (good recovery) after surgical treatment were 10, ADL 3 were 5, ADL 4 were 4, ADL 5 were 1. Conclusion: A method of water dissection technique of Toth for craniotomy with small bone flap through lateral fissure approach for the treatment of hypertensive intracerebral putamen hemorrhage is a method of convenient, safe, and with effective result. (authors)

  15. The relation of putamen nucleus 6-[18F]fluoro-L-m-tyrosine uptake to total Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale scores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchy, R.

    2002-01-01

    The contribution of dopaminergic deficiency in the striatum to the severity of locomotor disability in Parkinson's disease has been consistently shown with 6-[ 18 F]fluoro-L-DOPA in positron emission tomography. Recently, 6-[ 18 F]fluoro-L-m-tyrosine, an alternative tracer with similar distribution kinetics has been used to facilitate data analysis. Locomotor disability in Parkinson's disease can be measured using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale. The Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale was used in conjunction with 6-[ 18 F]fluoro-L-m-tyrosine -PET to clinically examine a group of five Parkinson's disease patients. An inverse relation similar to that previously demonstrated with 6-[ 18 F]fluoro-L-DOPA was found between the putamen nucleus 6-[ 18 F]fluoro-L-m-tyrosine influx constant and Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale score. This finding suggests that like 6-[ 18 F]fluoro-L-m-tyrosine can be used to accurately measure the degree of locomotor disability caused by Parkinson's disease. (author)

  16. Functional activity of substantia nigra grafts reinnervating the striatum: neurotransmitter metabolism and (14C)2-deoxy-D-glucose autoradiography. [Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, R H; Ingvar, M; Lindvall, O; Stenevi, U; Bjoerklund, A

    1982-03-01

    Dopaminergic innervation of the caudate nucleus in adult rats can be partially restored by the grafting of embryonic substantia nigra into the overlying parietal cortex with concomitant compensation of certain behavioral abnormalities. In this study the function of such grafts was investigated neurochemically by quantification of transmitter metabolism and glucose utilization in the reinnervated target. Rats with unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the nigrostriatal bundle received a single graft to the dorsal caudate-putamen and were screened for rotational behavior following 5 mg/kg methamphetamine. The grafts restored dopamine concentrations in the caudate-putamen from initially less than 0.5% to an average of 13.6% of normal in rats with behavioral compensation. The ratio of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid to dopamine, which is a measure of the rate of transmitter turnover, were equivalent in transplanted and normal control rats. Moreover, measurements of DOPA accumulation for a 30-min period after DOPA decarboxylase inhibition indicated similar fractional dopamine turnover rates in normal and transplant-reinnervated tissues. Correlations between rotational behavior and dopamine concentrations showed that reinnervation to only 3% of normal was sufficient to counterbalance the motor asymmetry. Measurements of glucose utilization by (14C)deoxyglucose autoradiography indicated equivalent metabolic rates for the grafted tissue and the intact substantia nigra. Overall the results indicate that behaviorally functional neuronal grafts spontaneously metabolize dopamine and utilize glucose at rates characteristic of the intact nigrostriatal system. This provides further evidence that ectopic intracortical nigral transplants can reinstate dopaminergic neurotransmission in regions of the host brain initially denervated by the 6-hydroxydopamine lesion.

  17. [Hepatocellular carcinoma originated in the caudate lobe. Surgical strategy for resection. A propos of a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Mier, Gustavo; Esquivel-Torres, Sergio; Calzada-Grijalva, José Francisco; Grube-Pagola, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma originating from the caudate lobe has a worse prognosis than other hepatocellular carcinoma in another segment of the liver. An isolated caudate lobe resection of the liver represents a significant technical challenge. Caudate lobe resection can be performed along with a lobectomy or as an isolated liver resection. There are very few reports about isolated caudate lobe liver resection. We report a case of successful isolated resection of hepatocellular carcinoma in the caudate lobe with excellent long-term survival. A 74 years old female with 8cm mass lesion in the caudate lobe without clinical or biochemical evidence of liver cirrhosis, serum alpha-fetoprotein 3.7 U/l, and negative hepatitis serology was evaluated for surgery. Complete resection of the lesion in 270minutes with Pringle maneuver for 13minutes was satisfactorily performed. Patient was discharged ten days after surgery without complications. Patient is currently asymptomatic, without deterioration of liver function and 48 month tumor free survival after the procedure. Isolated caudate lobe resection is an uncommon but technically possible procedure. In order to achieve a successful resection, one must have a detailed knowledge of complete liver anatomy. Tumor free margins must be obtained to provide long survival for these patients who have a malignancy in this anatomic location. Copyright © 2015. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A.

  18. Segmentation and volumetric analysis of the caudate nucleus in Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiji, Sudevan; Smitha, Karavallil Achuthan; Gupta, Arun Kumar; Pillai, Vellara Pappukutty Mahadevan; Jayasree, Ramapurath S.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: A quantitative volumetric analysis of caudate nucleus can provide valuable information in early diagnosis and prognosis of patients with Alzheimer's diseases (AD). Purpose of the study is to estimate the volume of segmented caudate nucleus from MR images and to correlate the variation in the segmented volume with respect to the total brain volume. We have also tried to evaluate the caudate nucleus atrophy with the age related atrophy of white matter (WM), gray matter (GM) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in a group of Alzheimer's disease patients. Methods: 3D fast low angle shot (3D FLASH) brain MR images of 15 AD patients, 15 normal volunteers and 15 patients who had normally diagnosed MR images were included in the study. Brain tissue and caudate nuclei were segmented using the statistical parametric mapping package and a semi-automatic tool, respectively and the volumes were estimated. Volume of segmented caudate nucleus is correlated with respect to the total brain volume. Further, the caudate nucleus atrophy is estimated with the age related atrophy of WM, GM and CSF in a group of AD patients. Results: Significant reduction in the caudate volume of AD patients was observed compared to that of the normal volunteers. Statistical analysis also showed significant variation in the volume of GM and CSF of AD patients. Among the patients who had normal appearing brain, 33% showed significant changes in the caudate volume. We hypothesize that these changes can be considered as an indication of early AD. Conclusion: The method of volumetric analysis of brain structures is simple and effective way of early diagnosis of neurological disorders like Alzheimer's disease. We have illustrated this with the observed changes in the volume of caudate nucleus in a group of patients. A detailed study with more subjects will be useful in correlating these results for early diagnosis of AD

  19. Dopamine release in human striatum induced by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over dorsolateral prefrontal cortex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Sang Soo; Yoon, Eun Jin; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Lee, Won Woo; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Animal study suggests that prefrontal cortex plays an important Animal studies suggest that prefrontal cortex plays an important role in the modulation of dopamine (DA) release in subcortical areas. However, little is known about the relationship between DA release and prefrontal activation in human. We investigated whether repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) influences DA release in human striatum with SPECT measurements of striatal binding of [123I)iodobenzamide (IBZM), a DA D2 receptor radioligand that is sensitive to endogenous DA. Five healthy male volunteers (age, 25{+-}2 yr) were studied with brain [123I]IBZM SPECT under three conditions (resting, Sham stimulation, and active rTMS over left DLPFC), while receiving a bolus plus constant infusion of [123I]IBZM DLPFC was defined as a 6 cm anterior and 1cm lateral from the primary motor cortex. rTMS session consisted of three blocks, in each block, 15 trains of 2 see duration were delivered with 10 Hz stimulation frequency, 100% motor threshold, and between-train intervals of 10 sec. Striatal V3', calculated as (striatal - occipital) / occipital activity ratio, was measured under equilibrium condition, at baseline and after sham and active rTMS. Sham stimulation did not affect striatal V3'. rTMS over DLPFC induced reduction of V3' in the ipsilateral and contralateral striatum by 9.7% {+-} 1.3% and 10.6% {+-} 3.2%, respectively, compared with sham procedures (P < 0.01 and P < 0.01, respectively), indicating striatal DA release elicited by rTMS over DLPFC. V3' reduction in the ipsilateral caudate nucleus was greater than that in the contralateral caudate nucleus (9.9% {+-} 4.5% vs. 6.6% {+-} 3.1%, P < 0.05). These data demonstrate DA release in human striatum induced by rTMS over DLPFC, supporting that cortico-striatal fibers originating in prefrontal cortex are involved in local DA release.

  20. Dopamine release in human striatum induced by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over dorsolateral prefrontal cortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Sang Soo; Yoon, Eun Jin; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Lee, Won Woo; Kim, Sang Eun

    2005-01-01

    Animal study suggests that prefrontal cortex plays an important Animal studies suggest that prefrontal cortex plays an important role in the modulation of dopamine (DA) release in subcortical areas. However, little is known about the relationship between DA release and prefrontal activation in human. We investigated whether repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) influences DA release in human striatum with SPECT measurements of striatal binding of [123I)iodobenzamide (IBZM), a DA D2 receptor radioligand that is sensitive to endogenous DA. Five healthy male volunteers (age, 25±2 yr) were studied with brain [123I]IBZM SPECT under three conditions (resting, Sham stimulation, and active rTMS over left DLPFC), while receiving a bolus plus constant infusion of [123I]IBZM DLPFC was defined as a 6 cm anterior and 1cm lateral from the primary motor cortex. rTMS session consisted of three blocks, in each block, 15 trains of 2 see duration were delivered with 10 Hz stimulation frequency, 100% motor threshold, and between-train intervals of 10 sec. Striatal V3', calculated as (striatal - occipital) / occipital activity ratio, was measured under equilibrium condition, at baseline and after sham and active rTMS. Sham stimulation did not affect striatal V3'. rTMS over DLPFC induced reduction of V3' in the ipsilateral and contralateral striatum by 9.7% ± 1.3% and 10.6% ± 3.2%, respectively, compared with sham procedures (P < 0.01 and P < 0.01, respectively), indicating striatal DA release elicited by rTMS over DLPFC. V3' reduction in the ipsilateral caudate nucleus was greater than that in the contralateral caudate nucleus (9.9% ± 4.5% vs. 6.6% ± 3.1%, P < 0.05). These data demonstrate DA release in human striatum induced by rTMS over DLPFC, supporting that cortico-striatal fibers originating in prefrontal cortex are involved in local DA release

  1. Automatic brain caudate nuclei segmentation and classification in diagnostic of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igual, Laura; Soliva, Joan Carles; Escalera, Sergio; Gimeno, Roger; Vilarroya, Oscar; Radeva, Petia

    2012-12-01

    We present a fully automatic diagnostic imaging test for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder diagnosis assistance based on previously found evidences of caudate nucleus volumetric abnormalities. The proposed method consists of different steps: a new automatic method for external and internal segmentation of caudate based on Machine Learning methodologies; the definition of a set of new volume relation features, 3D Dissociated Dipoles, used for caudate representation and classification. We separately validate the contributions using real data from a pediatric population and show precise internal caudate segmentation and discrimination power of the diagnostic test, showing significant performance improvements in comparison to other state-of-the-art methods. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. CT anatomy of para-caval portion of the caudate lobe of the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Osamu; Takashima, Tsutomu; Kadoya, Masumi; Hirose, Jinichiro; Kameyama, Tomiaki; Choto, Shuichi; Konishi, Hideo

    1988-01-01

    Computed tomographic (CT) anatomy of the right border of the caudate lobe had been unclear. Recently, Kumon studied in full detail the anatomy of the caudate branches of the portal vein by corrosion liver cast study and revealed the para-caval portion (PCP) of the caudate lobe extending just right to the Spiegel lobe from the caudate process to the area between the roots of the right and middle hepatic veins. According to Kumon's study, we analyzed the perfusion defects seen on CT during arterial portography performed in patients with intrahepatic portal vein obstruction and studied CT anatomy of PCP. As a result, we consider that the area between the roots of the right and middle hepatic veins belongs to PCP in more than 70 % of patients. Therefore, we think that the area between the roots of the right and middle hepatic veins which had been classified as being in the anterior suprior area (S 8 ) should be reclassified as being in the caudate lobe (S 1 ). (author)

  3. CT anatomy of para-caval portion of the caudate lobe of the liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsui, Osamu; Takashima, Tsutomu; Kadoya, Masumi; Hirose, Jinichiro; Kameyama, Tomiaki; Choto, Shuichi; Konishi, Hideo

    1988-07-01

    Computed tomographic (CT) anatomy of the right border of the caudate lobe had been unclear. Recently, Kumon studied in full detail the anatomy of the caudate branches of the portal vein by corrosion liver cast study and revealed the para-caval portion (PCP) of the caudate lobe extending just right to the Spiegel lobe from the caudate process to the area between the roots of the right and middle hepatic veins. According to Kumon's study, we analyzed the perfusion defects seen on CT during arterial portography performed in patients with intrahepatic portal vein obstruction and studied CT anatomy of PCP. As a result, we consider that the area between the roots of the right and middle hepatic veins belongs to PCP in more than 70 % of patients. Therefore, we think that the area between the roots of the right and middle hepatic veins which had been classified as being in the anterior suprior area (S/sub 8/) should be reclassified as being in the caudate lobe (S/sub 1/).

  4. Executive dysfunction correlates with caudate nucleus atrophy in patients with white matter changes on MRI: A subset of LADIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macfarlane, Matthew Duncan; Looi, Jeffrey Chee Leong; Walterfang, Mark

    2013-01-01

    and falls in cross-sectional and follow-up studies. Frontostriatal (or frontosubcortical) brain circuits may serve many of these functions, with the caudate nuclei playing a role in convergence of cognitive functions. This study aimed to determine whether reduced caudate volume relates to cognitive...... functions (executive functions, memory functions and speed of processing) and WMC. We determined caudate nuclei volumes, through manual tracing, on a subgroup of the LADIS study (n=66) from four centres with baseline and 3-year follow-up MRI scans. Regression analysis was used to assess relationships...... between caudate volume, cognitive function and WMC. Severity of WMC did not relate to caudate volume. Smaller caudate volumes were significantly associated with poorer executive functioning at baseline and at 3 years, but were not associated with scores of memory or speed of processing. Thus, in patients...

  5. Caudate volumes in childhood predict symptom severity in adults with Tourette syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Michael H; Leckman, James F; Zhu, Hongtu; Peterson, Bradley S

    2005-10-25

    Most children with Tourette syndrome (TS) experience a marked decline in the severity of tic symptoms during adolescence. Currently no clinical measures can predict whose tic symptoms will persist into adulthood. Previous cross-sectional imaging studies have identified reduced caudate nucleus volumes in subjects with TS. To evaluate whether caudate nucleus volumes in childhood can predict the severity of tic or obsessive-compulsive symptoms at follow-up in early adulthood. In a prospective longitudinal study, clinical status and basal ganglia volumes of 43 children with TS were measured on high-resolution magnetic resonance images before age 14 years. Follow-up clinical assessments were conducted after age 16 years, an average of 7.5 years later. Linear regression and Tobit regression analyses were used to assess the association of basal ganglia volumes measured in childhood with the severity of tic and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms at the time of childhood MRI and at follow-up in early adulthood. Volumes of the caudate nucleus correlated significantly and inversely with the severity of tic and OCD symptoms in early adulthood. Caudate volumes did not correlate with the severity of symptoms at the time of the MRI scan. Caudate volumes in children with Tourette syndrome predict the severity of tic and obsessive-compulsive symptoms in early adulthood. This study provides compelling evidence that morphologic disturbances of the caudate nucleus within cortico-striatal-thalamo-cortical circuits are central to the persistence of both tics and obsessive-compulsive symptoms into adulthood.

  6. Interest in politics modulates neural activity in the amygdala and ventral striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozzi, Marta; Zamboni, Giovanna; Krueger, Frank; Grafman, Jordan

    2010-11-01

    Studies on political participation have found that a person's interest in politics contributes to the likelihood that he or she will be involved in the political process. Here, we looked at whether or not interest in politics affects patterns of brain activity when individuals think about political matters. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we scanned individuals (either interested or uninterested in politics based on a self-report questionnaire) while they were expressing their agreement or disagreement with political opinions. After scanning, participants were asked to rate each political opinion presented in the scanner for emotional valence and emotional intensity. Behavioral results showed that those political opinions participants agreed with were perceived as more emotionally intense and more positive by individuals interested in politics relative to individuals uninterested in politics. In addition, individuals interested in politics showed greater activation in the amygdala and the ventral striatum (ventral putamen) relative to individuals uninterested in politics when reading political opinions in accordance with their own views. This study shows that having an interest in politics elicits activations in emotion- and reward-related brain areas even when simply agreeing with written political opinions. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Frontal-striatum dysfunction during reward processing: Relationships to amotivation in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yu Sun; Barch, Deanna M

    2016-04-01

    Schizophrenia is characterized by deficits of context processing, thought to be related to dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) impairment. Despite emerging evidence suggesting a crucial role of the DLPFC in integrating reward and goal information, we do not know whether individuals with schizophrenia can represent and integrate reward-related context information to modulate cognitive control. To address this question, 36 individuals with schizophrenia (n = 29) or schizoaffective disorder (n = 7) and 27 healthy controls performed a variant of a response conflict task (Padmala & Pessoa, 2011) during fMRI scanning, in both baseline and reward conditions, with monetary incentives on some reward trials. We used a mixed state-item design that allowed us to examine both sustained and transient reward effects on cognitive control. Different from predictions about impaired DLPFC function in schizophrenia, we found an intact pattern of increased sustained DLPFC activity during reward versus baseline blocks in individuals with schizophrenia at a group level but blunted sustained activations in the putamen. Contrary to our predictions, individuals with schizophrenia showed blunted cue-related activations in several regions of the basal ganglia responding to reward-predicting cues. Importantly, as predicted, individual differences in anhedonia/amotivation symptoms severity were significantly associated with reduced sustained DLPFC activation in the same region that showed overall increased activity as a function of reward. These results suggest that individual differences in motivational impairments in schizophrenia may be related to dysfunction of the DLPFC and striatum in motivationally salient situations. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Vomeronasal inputs to the rodent ventral striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubeda-Bañon, I; Novejarque, A; Mohedano-Moriano, A; Pro-Sistiaga, P; Insausti, R; Martinez-Garcia, F; Lanuza, E; Martinez-Marcos, A

    2008-03-18

    Vertebrates sense chemical signals through the olfactory and vomeronasal systems. In squamate reptiles, which possess the largest vomeronasal system of all vertebrates, the accessory olfactory bulb projects to the nucleus sphericus, which in turn projects to a portion of the ventral striatum known as olfactostriatum. Characteristically, the olfactostriatum is innervated by neuropeptide Y, tyrosine hydroxylase and serotonin immunoreactive fibers. In this study, the possibility that a structure similar to the reptilian olfactostriatum might be present in the mammalian brain has been investigated. Injections of dextran-amines have been aimed at the posteromedial cortical amygdaloid nucleus (the putative mammalian homologue of the reptilian nucleus sphericus) of rats and mice. The resulting anterograde labeling includes the olfactory tubercle, the islands of Calleja and sparse terminal fields in the shell of the nucleus accumbens and ventral pallidum. This projection has been confirmed by injections of retrograde tracers into the ventral striato-pallidum that render retrograde labeling in the posteromedial cortical amygdaloid nucleus. The analysis of the distribution of neuropeptide Y, tyrosine hydroxylase, serotonin and substance P in the ventral striato-pallidum of rats, and the anterograde tracing of the vomeronasal amygdaloid input in the same material confirm that, similar to reptiles, the ventral striatum of mammals includes a specialized vomeronasal structure (olfactory tubercle and islands of Calleja) displaying dense neuropeptide Y-, tyrosine hydroxylase- and serotonin-immunoreactive innervations. The possibility that parts of the accumbens shell and/or ventral pallidum could be included in the mammalian olfactostriatum cannot be discarded.

  9. Differential recruitment of the sensorimotor putamen and frontoparietal cortex during motor chunking in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wymbs, Nicholas F; Bassett, Danielle S; Mucha, Peter J; Porter, Mason A; Grafton, Scott T

    2012-06-07

    Motor chunking facilitates movement production by combining motor elements into integrated units of behavior. Previous research suggests that chunking involves two processes: concatenation, aimed at the formation of motor-motor associations between elements or sets of elements, and segmentation, aimed at the parsing of multiple contiguous elements into shorter action sets. We used fMRI to measure the trial-wise recruitment of brain regions associated with these chunking processes as healthy subjects performed a cued-sequence production task. A dynamic network analysis identified chunking structure for a set of motor sequences acquired during fMRI and collected over 3 days of training. Activity in the bilateral sensorimotor putamen positively correlated with chunk concatenation, whereas a left-hemisphere frontoparietal network was correlated with chunk segmentation. Across subjects, there was an aggregate increase in chunk strength (concatenation) with training, suggesting that subcortical circuits play a direct role in the creation of fluid transitions across chunks. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Somatic mtDNA mutation spectra in the aging human putamen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siôn L Williams

    Full Text Available The accumulation of heteroplasmic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA deletions and single nucleotide variants (SNVs is a well-accepted facet of the biology of aging, yet comprehensive mutation spectra have not been described. To address this, we have used next generation sequencing of mtDNA-enriched libraries (Mito-Seq to investigate mtDNA mutation spectra of putamen from young and aged donors. Frequencies of the "common" deletion and other "major arc" deletions were significantly increased in the aged cohort with the fold increase in the frequency of the common deletion exceeding that of major arc deletions. SNVs also increased with age with the highest rate of accumulation in the non-coding control region which contains elements necessary for translation and replication. Examination of predicted amino acid changes revealed a skew towards pathogenic SNVs in the coding region driven by mutation bias. Levels of the pathogenic m.3243A>G tRNA mutation were also found to increase with age. Novel multimeric tandem duplications that resemble murine control region multimers and yeast ρ(- mtDNAs, were identified in both young and aged specimens. Clonal ∼50 bp deletions in the control region were found at high frequencies in aged specimens. Our results reveal the complex manner in which the mitochondrial genome alters with age and provides a foundation for studies of other tissues and disease states.

  11. The importance of complete excision of the caudate lobe in resection of hilar cholangiocarcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dinant, Sander; Gerhards, Michael F.; Busch, Olivier R. C.; Obertop, Hugo; Gouma, Dirk J.; van Gulik, Thomas M.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The numbers of margin-negative resections and survival times have greatly improved because of a more aggressive surgical approach to resectable hilar cholanciocarcinoma (Klatskin tumour). It was shown initially by Japanese authors that complete resection of the caudate lobe together with

  12. Reduced caudate volume and enhanced striatal-DMN integration in chess experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xujun; He, Sheng; Liao, Wei; Liang, Dongmei; Qiu, Lihua; Wei, Luqing; Li, Yuan; Liu, Chengyi; Gong, Qiyong; Chen, Huafu

    2012-04-02

    The superior capability of chess experts largely depends on quick automatic processing skills which are considered to be mediated by the caudate nucleus. We asked whether continued practice or rehearsal of the skill over a long period of time can lead to structural changes in this region. We found that, comparing to novice controls, grandmaster and master level Chinese chess players (GM/Ms), who had a mean period of over 10years of tournament and training practice, exhibited significant smaller gray-matter volume in the bilateral caudate nuclei. When these regions were used as seeds in functional connectivity analysis in resting-state fMRI, significantly enhanced integration was found in GM/Ms between the caudate and the default mode network (DMN), a constellation of brain areas important for goal-directed cognitive performance and theory of mind. These findings demonstrate the structural changes in the caudate nucleus in response to its extensive engagement in chess problem solving, and its enhanced functional integration with widely distributed circuitry to better support high-level cognitive control of behavior. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Morphology and morphometry of the caudate lobe of the liver in two populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagoo, Mandeep Gill; Aland, R Claire; Gosden, Edward

    2018-01-01

    The caudate lobe of the liver has portal blood supply and hepatic vein drainage independent of the remainder of the liver and may be differentially affected in liver pathologies. Ultrasonographic measurement of the caudate lobe can be used to generate hepatic indices that may indicate cirrhosis. This study investigated the relationship of metrics of the caudate lobe and other morphological features of human livers from a northwest Indian Punjabi population (n = 50) and a UK Caucasian population (n = 25), which may affect the calculation of hepatic indices. The width of the right lobe of the liver was significantly smaller, while the anteroposterior diameter of the caudate lobe and both Harbin's Index and the Hess Index scores were significantly larger in NWI livers than in UKC livers. The Hess Index score, in particular, is much larger in the NWI population (265 %, p liver. These differences may affect the calculation of hepatic indices, resulting in a greater percentage of false positives of cirrhosis in the NWI population. Population-specific data are required to correctly determine normal ranges.

  14. Urethritis due to corynebacterium striatum: An emerging germ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frikh, Mohammed; El Yaagoubi, Imad; Lemnouer, Abdelhay; Elouennass, Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Corynedbacterium striatum (CS) is a Gram-positive coryneform bacillus that is part of mucous and skin flora. It has been considered as a causative agent of many infections in intensive care, neurology, traumatology and urology, but was never implicated in non-gonococcal urethritis. We report the case of a nosocomial urethritis due to Corynebacterium striatum following resection of an intrameatus condyloma.

  15. Mapping the human brain during a specific Vojta's tactile input: the ipsilateral putamen's role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Esteban, Ismael; Calvo-Lobo, Cesar; Ríos-Lago, Marcos; Álvarez-Linera, Juan; Muñoz-García, Daniel; Rodríguez-Sanz, David

    2018-03-01

    A century of research in human brain parcellation has demonstrated that different brain areas are associated with functional tasks. New neuroscientist perspectives to achieve the parcellation of the human brain have been developed to know the brain areas activation and its relationship with different stimuli. This descriptive study aimed to compare brain regions activation by specific tactile input (STI) stimuli according to the Vojta protocol (STI-group) to a non-STI stimulation (non-STI-group). An exploratory functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study was performed. The 2 groups of participants were passively stimulated by an expert physical therapist using the same paradigm structure, although differing in the place of stimulation. The stimulation was presented to participants using a block design in all cases. A sample of 16 healthy participants, 5 men and 11 women, with mean age 31.31 ± 8.13 years was recruited. Indeed, 12 participants were allocated in the STI-group and 4 participants in the non-STI-group. fMRI was used to map the human brain in vivo while these tactile stimuli were being applied. Data were analyzed using a general linear model in SPM12 implemented in MATLAB. Differences between groups showed a greater activation in the right cortical areas (temporal and frontal lobes), subcortical regions (thalamus, brainstem, and basal nuclei), and in the cerebellum (anterior lobe). STI-group had specific difference brain activation areas, such as the ipsilateral putamen. Future studies should study clinical implications in neurorehabilitation patients.

  16. Aberrant topology of striatum's connectivity is associated with the number of episodes in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Chun; Brandl, Felix; Tahmasian, Masoud; Shao, Junming; Manoliu, Andrei; Scherr, Martin; Schwerthöffer, Dirk; Bäuml, Josef; Förstl, Hans; Zimmer, Claus; Wohlschläger, Afra M; Riedl, Valentin; Sorg, Christian

    2014-02-01

    In major depressive disorder, depressive episodes reoccur in ∼60% of cases; however, neural mechanisms of depressive relapse are poorly understood. Depressive episodes are characterized by aberrant topology of the brain's intrinsic functional connectivity network, and the number of episodes is one of the most important predictors for depressive relapse. In this study we hypothesized that specific changes of the topology of intrinsic connectivity interact with the course of episodes in recurrent depressive disorder. To address this hypothesis, we investigated which changes of connectivity topology are associated with the number of episodes in patients, independently of current symptoms and disease duration. Fifty subjects were recruited including 25 depressive patients (two to 10 episodes) and 25 gender- and age-matched control subjects. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, Harvard-Oxford brain atlas, wavelet-transformation of atlas-shaped regional time-series, and their pairwise Pearson's correlation were used to define individual connectivity matrices. Matrices were analysed by graph-based methods, resulting in outcome measures that were used as surrogates of intrinsic network topology. Topological scores were subsequently compared across groups, and, for patients only, related with the number of depressive episodes and current symptoms by partial correlation analysis. Concerning the whole brain connectivity network of patients, small-world topology was preserved but global efficiency was reduced and global betweenness-centrality increased. Aberrant nodal efficiency and centrality of regional connectivity was found in the dorsal striatum, inferior frontal and orbitofrontal cortex as well as in the occipital and somatosensory cortex. Inferior frontal changes were associated with current symptoms, whereas aberrant right putamen network topology was associated with the number of episodes. Results were controlled for effects of total grey matter

  17. Mis-segmentation in voxel-based morphometry due to a signal intensity change in the putamen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Masami; Abe, Osamu; Miyati, Tosiaki; Aoki, Shigeki; Gomi, Tsutomu; Takeda, Tohoru

    2017-12-01

    The aims of this study were to demonstrate an association between changes in the signal intensity of the putamen on three-dimensional T1-weighted magnetic resonance images (3D-T1WI) and mis-segmentation, using the voxel-based morphometry (VBM) 8 toolbox. The sagittal 3D-T1WIs of 22 healthy volunteers were obtained for VBM analysis using the 1.5-T MR scanner. We prepared five levels of 3D-T1WI signal intensity (baseline, same level, background level, low level, and high level) in regions of interest containing the putamen. Groups of smoothed, spatially normalized tissue images were compared to the baseline group using a paired t test. The baseline was compared to the other four levels. In all comparisons, significant volume changes were observed around and outside the area that included the signal intensity change. The present study demonstrated an association between a change in the signal intensity of the putamen on 3D-T1WI and changed volume in segmented tissue images.

  18. Resting state functional connectivity of the anterior striatum and prefrontal cortex predicts reading performance in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcauter, Sarael; García-Mondragón, Liliana; Gracia-Tabuenca, Zeus; Moreno, Martha B; Ortiz, Juan J; Barrios, Fernando A

    2017-11-01

    The current study investigated the neural basis of reading performance in 60 school-age Spanish-speaking children, aged 6 to 9years. By using a data-driven approach and an automated matching procedure, we identified a left-lateralized resting state network that included typical language regions (Wernicke's and Broca's regions), prefrontal cortex, pre- and post-central gyri, superior and middle temporal gyri, cerebellum, and subcortical regions, and explored its relevance for reading performance (accuracy, comprehension and speed). Functional connectivity of the left frontal and temporal cortices and subcortical regions predicted reading speed. These results extend previous findings on the relationship between functional connectivity and reading competence in children, providing new evidence about such relationships in previously unexplored regions in the resting brain, including the left caudate, putamen and thalamus. This work highlights the relevance of a broad network, functionally synchronized in the resting state, for the acquisition and perfecting of reading abilities in young children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Loss of metabolites from monkey striatum during PET with FDOPA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cumming, P; Munk, O L; Doudet, D

    2001-01-01

    constants using data recorded during 240 min of FDOPA circulation in normal monkeys and in monkeys with unilateral 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) lesions. Use of the extended models increased the magnitudes of K(D)(i) and k(D)(3) in striatum; in the case of k(D)(3), variance...... of the estimate was substantially improved upon correction for metabolite loss. The rate constants for metabolite loss were higher in MPTP-lesioned monkey striatum than in normal striatum. The high correlation between individual estimates of k(Lin)(cl) and k(DA)(9) suggests that both rate constants reveal loss...

  20. Increased binding of (/sup 3/H)apomorphine in caudate membranes after dopamine pretreatment in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McManus, C; Hartley, E J; Seeman, P [Toronto Univ., Ontario (Canada)

    1978-07-01

    Most patients with Parkinson's disease treated with L-dopa show a progressively deteriorating response which may possibly be attributed to an L-dopa-induced process of unknown origin. Long-term administration of dopamine-mimetic drugs to animals sometimes produces behavioural facilitation. To investigate one possible molecular mechanism of this facilitation or sensitization the effects of prolonged exposure, in vitro, of dopamine on the dopamine/neuroleptic receptors in the caudate nucleus of the calf were tested. Calf caudate homogenates pretreated with dopamine or other drugs were tested for the binding of (/sup 3/H)apomorphine, (/sup 3/H)haloperidol, 3H-WB-4101, or (/sup 3/H)naloxine. Pre-exposure with dopamine or noradrenaline lead to an increased binding of (/sup 3/H)apomorphine. The significance of the results is discussed.

  1. Increased binding of [3H]apomorphine in caudate membranes after dopamine pretreatment in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McManus, C.; Hartley, E.J.; Seeman, P.

    1978-01-01

    Most patients with Parkinson's disease treated with L-dopa show a progressively deteriorating response which may possibly be attributed to an L-dopa-induced process of unknown origin. Long-term administration of dopamine-mimetic drugs to animals sometimes produces behavioural facilitation. To investigate one possible molecular mechanism of this facilitation or sensitization the effects of prolonged exposure, in vitro, of dopamine on the dopamine/neuroleptic receptors in the caudate nucleus of the calf were tested. Calf caudate homogenates pretreated with dopamine or other drugs were tested for the binding of [ 3 H]apomorphine, [ 3 H]haloperidol, 3H-WB-4101, or [ 3 H]naloxine. Pre-exposure with dopamine or noradrenaline lead to an increased binding of [ 3 H]apomorphine. The significance of the results is discussed. (author)

  2. Caudate Asymmetry: A Neurobiological Marker of Moderate Prenatal Alcohol Exposure in Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Willford, Jennifer; Day, Richard; Aizenstein, Howard; Day, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    This study identified structural changes in the caudate nucleus in offspring of mothers who drank moderate levels of alcohol during pregnancy. In addition, the effect of duration of alcohol use during pregnancy was assessed. Young adults were recruited from the Maternal Health Practices and Child Development Project. Three groups were evaluated: prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) during all three trimesters (3T), PAE during the first trimester only (1T), and controls with no PAE (0T). Magnetic r...

  3. Treating and Downstaging Hepatocellular Carcinoma in the Caudate Lobe with Yttrium-90 Radioembolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, Saad M. [Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, Section of Interventional Radiology (United States); Kulik, Laura [Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Division of Hepatology (United States); Baker, Talia [Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Division of Transplant Surgery (United States); Ryu, Robert K. [Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, Section of Interventional Radiology (United States); Mulcahy, Mary F. [Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center (United States); Abecassis, Michael [Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Division of Transplant Surgery (United States); Salem, Riad; Lewandowski, Robert J., E-mail: r-lewandowski@northwestern.edu [Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, Section of Interventional Radiology (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: This study was designed to determine the technical feasibility, safety, efficacy, and potential to downstage patients to within transplantation criteria when treating patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) of the caudate lobe using Y90 radioembolization. Methods: During a 4-year period, 8 of 291 patients treated with radioembolization for unresectable HCC had disease involving the caudate lobe. All patients were followed for treatment-related clinical/biochemical toxicities, serum tumor marker response, and treatment response. Imaging response was assessed with the World Health Organization (WHO) and European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL) classification schemes. Pathologic response was reported as percent necrosis at explantation. Results: Caudate lobe radioembolization was successfully performed in all eight patients. All patients presented with both cirrhosis and portal hypertension. Half were United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) stage T3 (n = 4, 50%). Fatigue was reported in half of the patients (n = 4, 50%). One (13%) grade 3/4 bilirubin toxicity was reported. One patient (13%) showed complete tumor response by WHO criteria, and three patients (38%) showed complete response using EASL guidelines. Serum AFP decreased by more than 50% in most patients (n = 6, 75%). Four patients (50%) were UNOS downstaged from T3 to T2, three of who underwent transplantation. One specimen showed histopathologic evidence of 100% complete necrosis, and two specimens demonstrated greater than 50% necrosis. Conclusions: Radioembolization with yttrium-90 appears to be a feasible, safe, and effective treatment option for patients with unresectable caudate lobe HCC. It has the potential to downstage patients to transplantation.

  4. Impaired Verbal Learning Is Associated with Larger Caudate Volumes in Early Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Juuhl-Langseth

    Full Text Available Both brain structural abnormalities and neurocognitive impairments are core features of schizophrenia. We have previously reported enlargements in subcortical brain structure volumes and impairment of neurocognitive functioning as measured by the MATRICS Cognitive Consensus Battery (MCCB in early onset schizophrenia spectrum disorders (EOS. To our knowledge, no previous study has investigated whether neurocognitive performance and volumetric abnormalities in subcortical brain structures are related in EOS.Twenty-four patients with EOS and 33 healthy controls (HC were included in the study. Relationships between the caudate nucleus, the lateral and fourth ventricles volumes and neurocognitive performance were investigated with multivariate linear regression analyses. Intracranial volume, age, antipsychotic medication and IQ were included as independent predictor-variables.The caudate volume was negatively correlated with verbal learning performance uniquely in the EOS group (r=-.454, p=.034. There were comparable positive correlations between the lateral ventricular volume and the processing speed, attention and reasoning and problem solving domains for both the EOS patients and the healthy controls. Antipsychotic medication was related to ventricular enlargements, but did not affect the brain structure-function relationship.Enlargement of the caudate volume was related to poorer verbal learning performance in patients with EOS. Despite a 32% enlargement of the lateral ventricles in the EOS group, associations to processing speed, attention and reasoning and problem solving were similar for both the EOS and the HC groups.

  5. Dopamine release in ventral striatum of pathological gamblers losing money

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, J; Peterson, E; Doudet, D J

    2010-01-01

    Linnet J, Peterson E, Doudet DJ, Gjedde A, Møller A. Dopamine release in ventral striatum of pathological gamblers losing money. Objective: To investigate dopaminergic neurotransmission in relation to monetary reward and punishment in pathological gambling. Pathological gamblers (PG) often continue...... gambling despite losses, known as 'chasing one's losses'. We therefore hypothesized that losing money would be associated with increased dopamine release in the ventral striatum of PG compared with healthy controls (HC). Method: We used Positron Emission Tomography (PET) with [(11)C]raclopride to measure...... dopamine release in the ventral striatum of 16 PG and 15 HC playing the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). Results: PG who lost money had significantly increased dopamine release in the left ventral striatum compared with HC. PG and HC who won money did not differ in dopamine release. Conclusion: Our findings...

  6. Egocentric and allocentric visuospatial working memory in premotor Huntington's disease: A double dissociation with caudate and hippocampal volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possin, Katherine L; Kim, Hosung; Geschwind, Michael D; Moskowitz, Tacie; Johnson, Erica T; Sha, Sharon J; Apple, Alexandra; Xu, Duan; Miller, Bruce L; Finkbeiner, Steven; Hess, Christopher P; Kramer, Joel H

    2017-07-01

    Our brains represent spatial information in egocentric (self-based) or allocentric (landmark-based) coordinates. Rodent studies have demonstrated a critical role for the caudate in egocentric navigation and the hippocampus in allocentric navigation. We administered tests of egocentric and allocentric working memory to individuals with premotor Huntington's disease (pmHD), which is associated with early caudate nucleus atrophy, and controls. Each test had 80 trials during which subjects were asked to remember 2 locations over 1-sec delays. The only difference between these otherwise identical tests was that locations could only be coded in self-based or landmark-based coordinates. We applied a multiatlas-based segmentation algorithm and computed point-wise Jacobian determinants to measure regional variations in caudate and hippocampal volumes from 3T MRI. As predicted, the pmHD patients were significantly more impaired on egocentric working memory. Only egocentric accuracy correlated with caudate volumes, specifically the dorsolateral caudate head, right more than left, a region that receives dense efferents from dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. In contrast, only allocentric accuracy correlated with hippocampal volumes, specifically intermediate and posterior regions that connect strongly with parahippocampal and posterior parietal cortices. These results indicate that the distinction between egocentric and allocentric navigation applies to working memory. The dorsolateral caudate is important for egocentric working memory, which can explain the disproportionate impairment in pmHD. Allocentric working memory, in contrast, relies on the hippocampus and is relatively spared in pmHD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Measuring the volume of caudate nucleus in healthy Chinese adults of the Han nationality on the high-resolution MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni Mingfei; Chen Nan; Wang Xing; Wu Jianlin; Li Kuncheng; Zhou Xin; Zhou Yan; Chen Lin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the normal range of the caudate nucleus' volume in Chinese adults of the Han nationality and provide morphological data for the construction of database for Chinese Standard Brain. Methods: This was a clinical multi-center study. One thousand Chinese healthy volunteers (age range =18 to 70) recruited from 16 hospitals were divided into 5 groups, i.e, Group A (age range = 18 to 30), B (age range =31 to 40), C (age range =41 to 50), D (age range =51 to 60), and E (age range =61 to 70). Each group contained 100 males and 100 females. All of the volunteers were scanned by MR using T 1 weighted three-dimensional magnetization prepared rapid acquisition gradient echo sequence. The volume of caudate was measured manually using 3D volume analysis software. The difference of volumes of the caudate between male and female were analyzed by independent sample t-test, and among age groups by ANOVA. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to characterize the relationship between volumes and age. The differences of measurements between left and right caudate nucleus were analyzed by paired t test. Results: (1) The mean volume of bilateral caudate nucleus in healthy Chinese adults was (10.973± 1.647) cm 3 . The mean volume of the the male's left and right caudate nucleus were (5.656±0.860) and (5.671±0.855) cm 3 respectively,no significant differences were found between the volume of left and right caudate nucleus (t=1.230, P>0.05). The mean volume of the the female's left and right caudate nucleus were (5.287±0.774) and (5.331±0.766) cm 3 respectively, and the right's was larger than the left's with significant differences (t=3.999, P<0.01); (2) Pearson correlation analysis showed a significant negative correlation between the nucleus volume and age (male and female's, left and right) (r=-0.561, -0.568, -0.548, -0.552, P<0.05). Conclusion: With high-resolution MRI and 3D volumetric analytic software (Midob), the volume of the caudate nucleus can be

  8. Surprised at all the entropy: hippocampal, caudate and midbrain contributions to learning from prediction errors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Marike Schiffer

    Full Text Available Influential concepts in neuroscientific research cast the brain a predictive machine that revises its predictions when they are violated by sensory input. This relates to the predictive coding account of perception, but also to learning. Learning from prediction errors has been suggested for take place in the hippocampal memory system as well as in the basal ganglia. The present fMRI study used an action-observation paradigm to investigate the contributions of the hippocampus, caudate nucleus and midbrain dopaminergic system to different types of learning: learning in the absence of prediction errors, learning from prediction errors, and responding to the accumulation of prediction errors in unpredictable stimulus configurations. We conducted analyses of the regions of interests' BOLD response towards these different types of learning, implementing a bootstrapping procedure to correct for false positives. We found both, caudate nucleus and the hippocampus to be activated by perceptual prediction errors. The hippocampal responses seemed to relate to the associative mismatch between a stored representation and current sensory input. Moreover, its response was significantly influenced by the average information, or Shannon entropy of the stimulus material. In accordance with earlier results, the habenula was activated by perceptual prediction errors. Lastly, we found that the substantia nigra was activated by the novelty of sensory input. In sum, we established that the midbrain dopaminergic system, the hippocampus, and the caudate nucleus were to different degrees significantly involved in the three different types of learning: acquisition of new information, learning from prediction errors and responding to unpredictable stimulus developments. We relate learning from perceptual prediction errors to the concept of predictive coding and related information theoretic accounts.

  9. Higher landing accuracy in expert pilots is associated with lower activity in the caudate nucleus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maheen M Adamson

    Full Text Available The most common lethal accidents in General Aviation are caused by improperly executed landing approaches in which a pilot descends below the minimum safe altitude without proper visual references. To understand how expertise might reduce such erroneous decision-making, we examined relevant neural processes in pilots performing a simulated landing approach inside a functional MRI scanner. Pilots (aged 20-66 were asked to "fly" a series of simulated "cockpit view" instrument landing scenarios in an MRI scanner. The scenarios were either high risk (heavy fog-legally unsafe to land or low risk (medium fog-legally safe to land. Pilots with one of two levels of expertise participated: Moderate Expertise (Instrument Flight Rules pilots, n = 8 or High Expertise (Certified Instrument Flight Instructors or Air-Transport Pilots, n = 12. High Expertise pilots were more accurate than Moderate Expertise pilots in making a "land" versus "do not land" decision (CFII: d' = 3.62 ± 2.52; IFR: d' = 0.98 ± 1.04; p<.01. Brain activity in bilateral caudate nucleus was examined for main effects of expertise during a "land" versus "do not land" decision with the no-decision control condition modeled as baseline. In making landing decisions, High Expertise pilots showed lower activation in the bilateral caudate nucleus (0.97 ± 0.80 compared to Moderate Expertise pilots (1.91 ± 1.16 (p<.05. These findings provide evidence for increased "neural efficiency" in High Expertise pilots relative to Moderate Expertise pilots. During an instrument approach the pilot is engaged in detailed examination of flight instruments while monitoring certain visual references for making landing decisions. The caudate nucleus regulates saccade eye control of gaze, the brain area where the "expertise" effect was observed. These data provide evidence that performing "real world" aviation tasks in an fMRI provide objective data regarding the relative expertise of pilots and brain regions

  10. Surprised at all the entropy: hippocampal, caudate and midbrain contributions to learning from prediction errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffer, Anne-Marike; Ahlheim, Christiane; Wurm, Moritz F; Schubotz, Ricarda I

    2012-01-01

    Influential concepts in neuroscientific research cast the brain a predictive machine that revises its predictions when they are violated by sensory input. This relates to the predictive coding account of perception, but also to learning. Learning from prediction errors has been suggested for take place in the hippocampal memory system as well as in the basal ganglia. The present fMRI study used an action-observation paradigm to investigate the contributions of the hippocampus, caudate nucleus and midbrain dopaminergic system to different types of learning: learning in the absence of prediction errors, learning from prediction errors, and responding to the accumulation of prediction errors in unpredictable stimulus configurations. We conducted analyses of the regions of interests' BOLD response towards these different types of learning, implementing a bootstrapping procedure to correct for false positives. We found both, caudate nucleus and the hippocampus to be activated by perceptual prediction errors. The hippocampal responses seemed to relate to the associative mismatch between a stored representation and current sensory input. Moreover, its response was significantly influenced by the average information, or Shannon entropy of the stimulus material. In accordance with earlier results, the habenula was activated by perceptual prediction errors. Lastly, we found that the substantia nigra was activated by the novelty of sensory input. In sum, we established that the midbrain dopaminergic system, the hippocampus, and the caudate nucleus were to different degrees significantly involved in the three different types of learning: acquisition of new information, learning from prediction errors and responding to unpredictable stimulus developments. We relate learning from perceptual prediction errors to the concept of predictive coding and related information theoretic accounts.

  11. Disruption of caudate working memory activation in chronic blast-related traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary R. Newsome

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mild to moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI due to blast exposure is frequently diagnosed in veterans returning from the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. However, it is unclear whether neural damage resulting from blast TBI differs from that found in TBI due to blunt-force trauma (e.g., falls and motor vehicle crashes. Little is also known about the effects of blast TBI on neural networks, particularly over the long term. Because impairment in working memory has been linked to blunt-force TBI, the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study sought to investigate whether brain activation in response to a working memory task would discriminate blunt-force from blast TBI. Twenty-five veterans (mean age = 29.8 years, standard deviation = 6.01 years, 1 female who incurred TBI due to blast an average of 4.2 years prior to enrollment and 25 civilians (mean age = 27.4 years, standard deviation = 6.68 years, 4 females with TBI due to blunt-force trauma performed the Sternberg Item Recognition Task while undergoing fMRI. The task involved encoding 1, 3, or 5 items in working memory. A group of 25 veterans (mean age = 29.9 years, standard deviation = 5.53 years, 0 females and a group of 25 civilians (mean age = 27.3 years, standard deviation = 5.81 years, 0 females without history of TBI underwent identical imaging procedures and served as controls. Results indicated that the civilian TBI group and both control groups demonstrated a monotonic relationship between working memory set size and activation in the right caudate during encoding, whereas the blast TBI group did not (p < 0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons using False Discovery Rate. Blast TBI was also associated with worse performance on the Sternberg Item Recognition Task relative to the other groups, although no other group differences were found on neuropsychological measures of episodic memory, inhibition, and general processing speed. These results

  12. Load-dependent dysfunction of the putamen during attentional processing in patients with clinically isolated syndrome suggestive of multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortorella, C; Romano, R; Direnzo, V; Taurisano, P; Zoccolella, S; Iaffaldano, P; Fazio, L; Viterbo, R; Popolizio, T; Blasi, G; Bertolino, A; Trojano, M

    2013-08-01

    Load-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) abnormalities of brain activity during performance of attention tasks have been described in definite multiple sclerosis (MS). No data are available in clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) suggestive of MS. The objective of this research is to evaluate in CIS patients the fMRI pattern of brain activation during an attention task and to explore the effect of increasing task load demand on neurofunctional modifications. Twenty-seven untreated CIS patients and 32 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HCs) underwent fMRI while performing the Variable Attentional Control (VAC) task, a cognitive paradigm requiring increasing levels of attentional control processing. Random-effects models were used for statistical analyses of fMRI data. CIS patients had reduced accuracy and greater reaction time at the VAC task compared with HCs (p=0.007). On blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD)-fMRI, CIS patients had greater activity in the right parietal cortex (p=0.0004) compared with HCs. Furthermore, CIS patients had greater activity at the lower (p=0.05) and reduced activity at the greater (p=0.04) level of attentional control demand in the left putamen, compared with HCs. This study demonstrates the failure of attentional control processing in CIS. The load-related fMRI dysfunction of the putamen supports the role of basal ganglia in the failure of attention observed at the earliest stage of MS.

  13. The Crossed Projection to the Striatum in Two Species of Monkey and in Humans: Behavioral and Evolutionary Significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innocenti, Giorgio M; Dyrby, Tim B; Andersen, Kasper Winther; Rouiller, Eric M; Caminiti, Roberto

    2017-06-01

    The corpus callosum establishes the anatomical continuity between the 2 hemispheres and coordinates their activity. Using histological tracing, single axon reconstructions, and diffusion tractography, we describe a callosal projection to n caudatus and putamen in monkeys and humans. In both species, the origin of this projection is more restricted than that of the ipsilateral projection. In monkeys, it consists of thin axons (0.4-0.6 µm), appropriate for spatial and temporal dispersion of subliminal inputs. For prefrontal cortex, contralateral minus ipsilateral delays to striatum calculated from axon diameters and conduction distance are <2 ms in the monkey and, by extrapolation, <4 ms in humans. This delay corresponds to the performance in Poffenberger's paradigm, a classical attempt to estimate central conduction delays, with a neuropsychological task. In both species, callosal cortico-striatal projections originate from prefrontal, premotor, and motor areas. In humans, we discovered a new projection originating from superior parietal lobule, supramarginal, and superior temporal gyrus, regions engaged in language processing. This projection crosses in the isthmus the lesion of which was reported to dissociate syntax and prosody. The projection might originate from an overproduction of callosal projections in development, differentially pruned depending on species. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. CT-Guided Percutaneous Step-by-Step Radiofrequency Ablation for the Treatment of Carcinoma in the Caudate Lobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jun; Li, Wang; Zeng, Qi; Li, Sheng; Gong, Xiao; Shen, Lujun; Mao, Siyue; Dong, Annan; Wu, Peihong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The location of the caudate lobe and its complex anatomy make caudate lobectomy and radiofrequency ablation (RFA) under ultrasound guidance technically challenging. The objective of the exploratory study was to introduce a novel modality of treatment of lesions in caudate lobe and discuss all details with our experiences to make this novel treatment modality repeatable and educational. The study enrolled 39 patients with liver caudate lobe tumor first diagnosed by computerized tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). After consultation of multi-disciplinary team, 7 patients with hepatic caudate lobe lesions were enrolled and accepted CT-guided percutaneous step-by-step RFA treatment. A total of 8 caudate lobe lesions of the 7 patients were treated by RFA in 6 cases and RFA combined with percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) in 1 case. Median tumor diameter was 29 mm (range, 18–69 mm). A right approach was selected for 6 patients and a dorsal approach for 1 patient. Median operative time was 64 min (range, 59–102 min). Median blood loss was 10 mL (range, 8-16 mL) and mainly due to puncture injury. Median hospitalization time was 4 days (range, 2–5 days). All lesions were completely ablated (8/8; 100%) and no recurrence at the site of previous RFA was observed during median 8 months follow-up (range 3–11 months). No major or life-threatening complications or deaths occurred. In conclusion, percutaneous step-by-step RFA under CT guidance is a novel and effective minimally invasive therapy for hepatic caudate lobe lesions with well repeatability. PMID:26426638

  15. Loss of metabolites from monkey striatum during PET with FDOPA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cumming, P; Munk, O L; Doudet, D

    2001-01-01

    diffusion of [(18)F]fluorodopamine metabolites from brain. Consequently, time-radioactivity recordings of striatum are progressively influenced by metabolite loss. In linear analyses, the net blood-brain clearance of FDOPA (K(D)(i), ml g(-1) min(-1)) can be corrected for this loss by the elimination rate...... constant k(Lin)(cl) (min(-1)). Similarly, the DOPA decarboxylation rate constant (k(D)(3), min(-1)) calculated by compartmental analysis can also be corrected for metabolite loss by the elimination rate constant k(DA)(9) (min(-1)). To compare the two methods, we calculated the two elimination rate...... of the estimate was substantially improved upon correction for metabolite loss. The rate constants for metabolite loss were higher in MPTP-lesioned monkey striatum than in normal striatum. The high correlation between individual estimates of k(Lin)(cl) and k(DA)(9) suggests that both rate constants reveal loss...

  16. Dispositional Mindfulness Co-Varies with Smaller Amygdala and Caudate Volumes in Community Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taren, Adrienne A.; Creswell, J. David; Gianaros, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Mindfulness, a psychological process reflecting attention and awareness to what is happening in the present moment, has been associated with increased well-being and decreased depression and anxiety in both healthy and patient populations. However, little research has explored underlying neural pathways. Recent work suggests that mindfulness (and mindfulness training interventions) may foster neuroplastic changes in cortico-limbic circuits responsible for stress and emotion regulation. Building on this work, we hypothesized that higher levels of dispositional mindfulness would be associated with decreased grey matter volume in the amgydala. In the present study, a self-report measure of dispositional mindfulness and structural MRI images were obtained from 155 healthy community adults. Volumetric analyses showed that higher dispositional mindfulness is associated with decreased grey matter volume in the right amygdala, and exploratory analyses revealed that higher dispositional mindfulness is also associated with decreased grey matter volume in the left caudate. Moreover, secondary analyses indicate that these amygdala and caudate volume associations persist after controlling for relevant demographic and individual difference factors (i.e., age, total grey matter volume, neuroticism, depression). Such volumetric differences may help explain why mindful individuals have reduced stress reactivity, and suggest new candidate structural neurobiological pathways linking mindfulness with mental and physical health outcomes. PMID:23717632

  17. Dispositional mindfulness co-varies with smaller amygdala and caudate volumes in community adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne A Taren

    Full Text Available Mindfulness, a psychological process reflecting attention and awareness to what is happening in the present moment, has been associated with increased well-being and decreased depression and anxiety in both healthy and patient populations. However, little research has explored underlying neural pathways. Recent work suggests that mindfulness (and mindfulness training interventions may foster neuroplastic changes in cortico-limbic circuits responsible for stress and emotion regulation. Building on this work, we hypothesized that higher levels of dispositional mindfulness would be associated with decreased grey matter volume in the amgydala. In the present study, a self-report measure of dispositional mindfulness and structural MRI images were obtained from 155 healthy community adults. Volumetric analyses showed that higher dispositional mindfulness is associated with decreased grey matter volume in the right amygdala, and exploratory analyses revealed that higher dispositional mindfulness is also associated with decreased grey matter volume in the left caudate. Moreover, secondary analyses indicate that these amygdala and caudate volume associations persist after controlling for relevant demographic and individual difference factors (i.e., age, total grey matter volume, neuroticism, depression. Such volumetric differences may help explain why mindful individuals have reduced stress reactivity, and suggest new candidate structural neurobiological pathways linking mindfulness with mental and physical health outcomes.

  18. Robotic resection of the liver caudate lobe: technical description and initial consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Marco Vito; Glagolieva, Anastasiia; Guarrasi, Domenico

    2018-03-01

    Firstly described in 2002, the robotic liver surgery has not spread widely due to its high cost and the lack of a standardized training program. Still being considered as a 'development in progress' technique, it has however a potential to overcome the traditional limitations of the laparoscopic approach in liver interventions. We analyzed the postoperative outcomes of 10 patients who had undergone robotic partial resection of the caudate lobe (Spiegel lobe) from March 2014 to May 2016 in order to evaluate the advantages of robotic technique in hands of a young surgeon. The mean operative time was 258min (150-522) and the estimated blood loss 137ml (50-359), in none of the cases a blood transfusion was required. No patient underwent a conversion to open surgery; the overall morbidity was 2/10 (20%) and all the complications occurred (biliary fistula and pleural effusion) did not require a surgical revision. At histological examination, the mean tumour size was 2.63cm and we achieved R0-resection rate of 100%. The 90-day mortality rate was null. The 1-year overall and disease free-survival rates were 100% and 80%, respectively. Despite several concerns regarding the cost-effectiveness, a fully robotic partial resection of caudate lobe is an advantageous, implementable technique providing promising short-term postoperative outcomes with acceptable benefit-risk profile. Copyright © 2018 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Beyond cytoarchitectonics: the internal and external connectivity structure of the caudate nucleus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja A Kotz

    Full Text Available While there is ample evidence on the functional and connectional differentiation of the caudate nucleus (CN, less is known about its potential microstructural subdivisions. However, this latter aspect is critical to the local information processing capabilities of the tissue. We applied diffusion MRI, a non-invasive in vivo method that has great potential for the exploration of the brain structure-behavior relationship, in order to characterize the local fiber structure in gray matter of the CN. We report novel evidence of a functionally meaningful structural tri-partition along the anterior-posterior axis of this region. The connectivity of the CN subregions is in line with connectivity evidence from earlier invasive studies in animal models. In addition, histological validation using polarized light imaging (PLI confirms these results, corroborating the notion that cortico-subcortico-cortical loops involve microstructurally differentiated regions in the caudate nucleus. Methodologically speaking, the comparison with advanced analysis of diffusion MRI shows that diffusion tensor imaging (DTI yields a simplified view of the CN fiber architecture which is refined by advanced high angular resolution imaging methods.

  20. Grey matter morphological anomalies in the caudate head in first-episode psychosis patients with delusions of reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Haojuan; Wong, Gloria H Y; Zhang, Huiran; Zhou, Yuan; Xue, Zhimin; Shan, Baoci; Chen, Eric Y H; Liu, Zhening

    2015-07-30

    Delusions of reference (DOR) are theoretically linked with aberrant salience and associative learning. Previous studies have shown that the caudate nucleus plays a critical role in the cognitive circuits of coding prediction errors and associative learning. The current study aimed at testing the hypothesis that abnormalities in the caudate nucleus may be involved in the neuroanatomical substrate of DOR. Structural magnetic resonance imaging of the brain was performed in 44 first-episode psychosis patients (with diagnoses of schizophrenia or schizophreniform disorder) and 25 healthy controls. Patients were divided into three groups according to symptoms: patients with DOR as prominent positive symptom; patients with prominent positive symptoms other than DOR; and patients with minimal positive symptoms. All groups were age-, gender-, and education-matched, and patient groups were matched for diagnosis, duration of illness, and antipsychotic treatment. Voxel-based morphometric analysis was performed to identify group differences in grey matter density. Relationships were explored between grey matter density and DOR. Patients with DOR were found to have reduced grey matter density in the caudate compared with patients without DOR and healthy controls. Grey matter density values of the left and right caudate head were negatively correlated with DOR severity. Decreased grey matter density in the caudate nucleus may underlie DOR in early psychosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Registration and Analysis of Bioelectric Activity of Sensory-Motor Cortex During the Electrical Stimulation of Nucleus Caudate in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snežana Medenica-Milanović

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and purposeThe caudate circuit takes part in cognitive control of motor activity The purpose of the present work was registration and analysis of basic bioelectrical activity of ventral and dorsal sensory-motor cortex and nucleus caudate, study of the changes in EEG after nucleus caudate electrical stimulation and to identify of threshold level of electrical stimuli responsible for changes of electrical activity in registered brain area.Materials and methodsWe used 28 albino Wistar rat of both genders. After the animal fixation on stereotaxic apparatus to dry bone, the places for electrode fixation were marked. Two days after the electrodes had been implanted an EEG was registered so that the animals would adjust to the conditions and so they would repair the tissue reactions. EEG was registered with bipolar electrodes with ten-channeled apparatus. For first half an hour spontaneous activity of the brain was registered, and after that the head of nucleus caudate was stimulated with altered impulses of various voltages, frequency and duration.Results and conclusionsThreshold values of electric stimulus intensity from 3 to 5 V, frequency from 3 to 5 Hz, duration from 3 to 5 ms, by stimulation the head of nucleus caudate of rat, lead to the change of basal bioelectric activity of cerebrum. The change of bioelectric activity is firstly recorded in equilateral cortex, and with the higher intensity of the stimulus the changes overtake the contra lateral cortex.

  2. An adaption of the push-pull cannula method to study the in vivo release of [3H]dopamine synthesised from [3H]tyrosine in the cat caudate nucleus: effects of various physical and pharmacological treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieoullon, A.; Cheramy, A.; Glowinski, J.

    1977-01-01

    The release of [ 3 H]dopamine ([ 3 H]DA) continuously synthesized from L-[3,5- 3 H]tyrosine from the caudate nucleus of the cat was estimated in halothane anaesthetized or 'encephale isole' animals. For this purpose, an improved superfusion cannula, avoiding tissue damage, was used. The best localization for the tip of the superfusion cannula was found first by determining the topographical distribution of endogenous DA within the caudate nucleus. A rostro-caudal heterogenous distribution of the transmitter was detected. In perfusion experiments, L-[3, 5 3 H]tyrosine was introduced continuously at a rate of 33 μl/min. [ 3 H]DA was the only catecholamine found in serial 15 min fractions as revealed by cochromatography. The spontaneous release of [ 3 H]DA was greater in anaesthetized than in 'encephale isole'cats; it represented 150 and 100 times the blank value, respectively. Depolarization by K + (30 mM) applied locally in the striatum or by electrical or mechanical stimulation of the substantia nigra caused a transitory increase in [ 3 H]DA release. Conversely, a decrease in nerve activity induced by tetrodotoxin (5 x 10 -7 M) or by electrocoagulation of the substantia nigra was associated with a decline in the amounts of [ 3 H]DA in superfusates. A temporary reduction in [ 3 H]DA release could also be obtained by a short-lasting cooling block of the substantia nigra. As expected, d-amphetamine (10 -5 M) and benzotropine (10 -6 M) added to the superfusing medium increased [ 3 H]DA release. These pharmacological results, as well as the changes in [ 3 H]DA release observed after various manipulations of the activity of dopaminergic neurones, confirms the validity and the high sensitivity of this approach. (author)

  3. Opposing Amygdala and Ventral Striatum Connectivity during Emotion Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterthwaite, Theodore D.; Wolf, Daniel H.; Pinkham, Amy E.; Ruparel, Kosha; Elliott, Mark A.; Valdez, Jeffrey N.; Overton, Eve; Seubert, Janina; Gur, Raquel E.; Gur, Ruben C.; Loughead, James

    2011-01-01

    Lesion and electrophysiological studies in animals provide evidence of opposing functions for subcortical nuclei such as the amygdala and ventral striatum, but the implications of these findings for emotion identification in humans remain poorly described. Here we report a high-resolution fMRI study in a sample of 39 healthy subjects who performed…

  4. Dopamine, Noradrenaline and Serotonin Receptor Densities in the Striatum of Hemiparkinsonian Rats following Botulinum Neurotoxin-A Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, T; Zilles, K; Dikow, H; Hellfritsch, A; Cremer, M; Piel, M; Rösch, F; Hawlitschka, A; Schmitt, O; Wree, A

    2018-03-15

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by a degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) that causes a dopamine (DA) deficit in the caudate-putamen (CPu) accompanied by compensatory changes in other neurotransmitter systems. These changes result in severe motor and non-motor symptoms. To disclose the role of various receptor binding sites for DA, noradrenaline, and serotonin in the hemiparkinsonian (hemi-PD) rat model induced by unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) injection, the densities of D 1 , D 2 /D 3 , α 1 , α 2 , and 5HT 2A receptors were longitudinally visualized and measured in the CPu of hemi-PD rats by quantitative in vitro receptor autoradiography. We found a moderate increase in D 1 receptor density 3 weeks post lesion that decreased during longer survival times, a significant increase of D 2 /D 3 receptor density, and 50% reduction in 5HT 2A receptor density. α 1 receptor density remained unaltered in hemi-PD and α 2 receptors demonstrated a slight right-left difference increasing with post lesion survival. In a second step, the possible role of receptors on the known reduction of apomorphine-induced rotations in hemi-PD rats by intrastriatally injected Botulinum neurotoxin-A (BoNT-A) was analyzed by measuring the receptor densities after BoNT-A injection. The application of this neurotoxin reduced D 2 /D 3 receptor density, whereas the other receptors mainly remained unaltered. Our results provide novel data for an understanding of the postlesional plasticity of dopaminergic, noradrenergic and serotonergic receptors in the hemi-PD rat model. The results further suggest a therapeutic effect of BoNT-A on the impaired motor behavior of hemi-PD rats by reducing the interhemispheric imbalance in D 2 /D 3 receptor density. Copyright © 2018 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Avoiding boredom: Caudate and insula activity reflects boredom-elicited purchase bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Mas, Dennis E; Wittmann, Bianca C

    2017-07-01

    People show a strong tendency to avoid boring situations, but the neural systems mediating this behavioural bias are yet unknown. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate how the anticipation of a boring task influences decisions to purchase entertainment. Participants accepted higher prices to avoid boredom compared to control tasks, and individual differences in boredom experience predicted the increase in price. This behavioural bias was associated with higher activity in the caudate nucleus during music purchases driven by boredom avoidance. Insula activation was increased during performance of the boring task and subsequently associated with individual differences in boredom-related decision making. These results identify a mechanism that drives decisions to avoid boring situations and potentially underlies consumer decisions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Perfusion abnormality of the caudate nucleus in patients with paroxysmal kinesigenic choreoathetosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo, Eun Yeon; Hong, Seung Bong; Tae, Woo Suk; Kim, Jee Hyun; Han, Sun Jung; Seo, Dae Won; Lee, Kyung-Han; Kim, Byung Tae; Kim, Myoung-Hee; Kim, Seunghwan; Lee, Mann Hyung

    2005-01-01

    Previous cerebral blood flow and glucose metabolism studies suggest that the basal ganglia or thalamus is involved in the pathogenesis of paroxysmal kinesigenic choreoathetosis (PKC). However, the underlying cerebral abnormalities in idiopathic PKC have not been elucidated. To localise cerebral perfusion abnormalities in PKC, we performed interictal brain perfusion 99m Tc-ethylcysteinate dimer (ECD) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in PKC patients and in normal controls. Sixteen patients with idiopathic PKC and 18 age- and sex-matched normal controls were included. The patients were de novo diagnosed as having PKC, or had not taken medication for at least 3 months; none of them had structural abnormalities on MRI. Patients had a history of PKC attacks of a duration not exceeding 5 min and starting either on one side or on both sides of the body. These attacks were always induced by a sudden initiation of voluntary movement. PKC attacks were recorded in a hospital after being induced by neurology staff in 13 of the 16 patients. Interictal brain perfusion 99m Tc-ECD SPECT was performed in all 16 patients and 18 normal controls. Differences between the cerebral perfusion in the PKC group and the normal control group were tested by statistical parametric mapping. Student's t test was used for inter-group comparisons. Compared with normal controls, patients with idiopathic PKC showed interictal hypoperfusion in the posterior regions of the bilateral caudate nuclei (false discovery rate-corrected P<0.001 with a small volume correction). This study showed that cerebral perfusion abnormality of bilateral caudate nuclei is present in idiopathic PKC. (orig.)

  7. Nicotine-induced activation of caudate and anterior cingulate cortex in response to errors in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Lauren V; Stoeckel, Luke E; Wang, Kristina; Caine, Carolyn E; Villafuerte, Rosemond; Calderon, Vanessa; Baker, Justin T; Ongur, Dost; Janes, Amy C; Evins, A Eden; Pizzagalli, Diego A

    2018-03-01

    Nicotine improves attention and processing speed in individuals with schizophrenia. Few studies have investigated the effects of nicotine on cognitive control. Prior functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) research demonstrates blunted activation of dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) in response to error and decreased post-error slowing in schizophrenia. Participants with schizophrenia (n = 13) and healthy controls (n = 12) participated in a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study of the effects of transdermal nicotine on cognitive control. For each drug condition, participants underwent fMRI while performing the stop signal task where participants attempt to inhibit prepotent responses to "go (motor activation)" signals when an occasional "stop (motor inhibition)" signal appears. Error processing was evaluated by comparing "stop error" trials (failed response inhibition) to "go" trials. Resting-state fMRI data were collected prior to the task. Participants with schizophrenia had increased nicotine-induced activation of right caudate in response to errors compared to controls (DRUG × GROUP effect: p corrected  state functional connectivity analysis, relative to controls, participants with schizophrenia had significantly decreased connectivity between the right caudate and dACC/bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortices. In sum, we replicated prior findings of decreased post-error slowing in schizophrenia and found that nicotine was associated with more adaptive (i.e., increased) post-error reaction time (RT). This proof-of-concept pilot study suggests a role for nicotinic agents in targeting cognitive control deficits in schizophrenia.

  8. Perfusion abnormality of the caudate nucleus in patients with paroxysmal kinesigenic choreoathetosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Eun Yeon; Hong, Seung Bong; Tae, Woo Suk; Kim, Jee Hyun; Han, Sun Jung; Seo, Dae Won [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Samsung Medical Center and Center for Clinical Medicine, SBRI, Seoul (Korea); Lee, Kyung-Han; Kim, Byung Tae [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Samsung Medical Center and Center for Clinical Medicine, SBRI, Seoul (Korea); Kim, Myoung-Hee [Ewha Women' s University, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Seoul (Korea); Kim, Seunghwan [POSTECH, APCTP/NCSL, Department of Physics, Pohang (Korea); Lee, Mann Hyung [Catholic University of Daegue, College of Pharmacy, Gyongbook (Korea)

    2005-10-01

    Previous cerebral blood flow and glucose metabolism studies suggest that the basal ganglia or thalamus is involved in the pathogenesis of paroxysmal kinesigenic choreoathetosis (PKC). However, the underlying cerebral abnormalities in idiopathic PKC have not been elucidated. To localise cerebral perfusion abnormalities in PKC, we performed interictal brain perfusion {sup 99m}Tc-ethylcysteinate dimer (ECD) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in PKC patients and in normal controls. Sixteen patients with idiopathic PKC and 18 age- and sex-matched normal controls were included. The patients were de novo diagnosed as having PKC, or had not taken medication for at least 3 months; none of them had structural abnormalities on MRI. Patients had a history of PKC attacks of a duration not exceeding 5 min and starting either on one side or on both sides of the body. These attacks were always induced by a sudden initiation of voluntary movement. PKC attacks were recorded in a hospital after being induced by neurology staff in 13 of the 16 patients. Interictal brain perfusion {sup 99m}Tc-ECD SPECT was performed in all 16 patients and 18 normal controls. Differences between the cerebral perfusion in the PKC group and the normal control group were tested by statistical parametric mapping. Student's t test was used for inter-group comparisons. Compared with normal controls, patients with idiopathic PKC showed interictal hypoperfusion in the posterior regions of the bilateral caudate nuclei (false discovery rate-corrected P<0.001 with a small volume correction). This study showed that cerebral perfusion abnormality of bilateral caudate nuclei is present in idiopathic PKC. (orig.)

  9. A clinico-MRI study of extrapyramidal symptoms in multiple system atrophy; Linear hyperintensity in the outer margin of the putamen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konagaya, Masaaki; Iida, Mitsuo [Suzuka National Hospital, Mie (Japan); Konagaya, Yoko; Honda, Hitoshi

    1993-06-01

    We studied extrapyramidal symptoms and T2-weighted MRI findings of the putamen in 20 patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA) and 25 with idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Nine of the 20 MSA patients showed extrapyramidal symptoms. We could not observe cerebellar ataxia in two of the 9 patients because of severe rigidity and skinesia. Eight of the 9 MSA patients with extrapyramidal symptoms showed linear hyperintensity in the outer margin of the putamen. This abnormal intensity was bilateral and symmetric in most patients. However, in MSA patients without extrapyramidal symptoms, only one patient showed the linear hyperintensity. We could not find such abnormal intensity in any of the patients with Parkinson's disease. On proton density MRI, the signal intensity in the lesion was higher than that in the gray matter, which leads the speculation that the hyperintensity is gliosis of the putamen or increased extracellular fluid space caused by severe shrinkage of the putamen. These characteristic MRI findings may distinguish MSA with extrapyramidal symptoms from Parkinson's disease. (J.P.N.).

  10. Abnormal Degree Centrality of Bilateral Putamen and Left Superior Frontal Gyrus in Schizophrenia with Auditory Hallucinations: A Resting-state Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng; Wang, Hui-Ling; Wu, Shi-Hao; Huang, Huan; Zou, Ji-Lin; Chen, Jun; Jiang, Tian-Zi; Zhou, Yuan; Wang, Gao-Hua

    2015-12-05

    Dysconnectivity hypothesis of schizophrenia has been increasingly emphasized. Recent researches showed that this dysconnectivity might be related to occurrence of auditory hallucination (AH). However, there is still no consistent conclusion. This study aimed to explore intrinsic dysconnectivity pattern of whole-brain functional networks at voxel level in schizophrenic with AH. Auditory hallucinated patients group (n = 42 APG), no hallucinated patients group (n = 42 NPG) and normal controls (n = 84 NCs) were analyzed by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. The functional connectivity metrics index (degree centrality [DC]) across the entire brain networks was calculated and evaluated among three groups. DC decreased in the bilateral putamen and increased in the left superior frontal gyrus in all the patients. However, in APG, the changes of DC were more obvious compared with NPG. Symptomology scores were negatively correlated with the DC of bilateral putamen in all patients. AH score of APG positively correlated with the DC in left superior frontal gyrus but negatively correlated with the DC in bilateral putamen. Our findings corroborated that schizophrenia was characterized by functional dysconnectivity, and the abnormal DC in bilateral putamen and left superior frontal gyrus might be crucial in the occurrence of AH.

  11. The impact of caudate lobe resection on margin status and outcomes in patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma: a multi-institutional analysis from the US Extrahepatic Biliary Malignancy Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhutiani, Neal; Scoggins, Charles R; McMasters, Kelly M; Ethun, Cecilia G; Poultsides, George A; Pawlik, Timothy M; Weber, Sharon M; Schmidt, Carl R; Fields, Ryan C; Idrees, Kamran; Hatzaras, Ioannis; Shen, Perry; Maithel, Shishir K; Martin, Robert C G

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the impact of caudate resection on margin status and outcomes during resection of extrahepatic hilar cholangiocarcinoma. A database of 1,092 patients treated for biliary malignancies at institutions of the Extrahepatic Biliary Malignancy Consortium was queried for individuals undergoing curative-intent resection for extrahepatic hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Patients who did versus did not undergo concomitant caudate resection were compared with regard to demographic, baseline, and tumor characteristics as well as perioperative outcomes. A total of 241 patients underwent resection for a hilar cholangiocarcinoma, of whom 85 underwent caudate resection. Patients undergoing caudate resection were less likely to have a final positive margin (P = .01). Kaplan-Meier curve of overall survival for patients undergoing caudate resection indicated no improvement over patients not undergoing caudate resection (P = .16). On multivariable analysis, caudate resection was not associated with improved overall survival or recurrence-free survival, although lymph node positivity was associated with worse overall survival and recurrence-free survival, and adjuvant chemoradiotherapy was associated with improved overall survival and recurrence-free survival. Caudate resection is associated with a greater likelihood of margin-negative resection in patients with extrahepatic hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Precise preoperative imaging is critical to assess the extent of biliary involvement, so that all degrees of hepatic resections are possible at the time of the initial operation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Amygdala and ventral striatum make distinct contributions to reinforcement learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Vincent D.; Monte, Olga Dal; Lucas, Daniel R.; Murray, Elisabeth A.; Averbeck, Bruno B.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Reinforcement learning (RL) theories posit that dopaminergic signals are integrated within the striatum to associate choices with outcomes. Often overlooked is that the amygdala also receives dopaminergic input and is involved in Pavlovian processes that influence choice behavior. To determine the relative contributions of the ventral striatum (VS) and amygdala to appetitive RL we tested rhesus macaques with VS or amygdala lesions on deterministic and stochastic versions of a two-arm bandit reversal learning task. When learning was characterized with a RL model relative to controls, amygdala lesions caused general decreases in learning from positive feedback and choice consistency. By comparison, VS lesions only affected learning in the stochastic task. Moreover, the VS lesions hastened the monkeys’ choice reaction times, which emphasized a speed-accuracy tradeoff that accounted for errors in deterministic learning. These results update standard accounts of RL by emphasizing distinct contributions of the amygdala and VS to RL. PMID:27720488

  13. Spike-timing dependent plasticity in the striatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Fino

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The striatum is the major input nucleus of basal ganglia, an ensemble of interconnected sub-cortical nuclei associated with fundamental processes of action-selection and procedural learning and memory. The striatum receives afferents from the cerebral cortex and the thalamus. In turn, it relays the integrated information towards the basal ganglia output nuclei through which it operates a selected activation of behavioral effectors. The striatal output neurons, the GABAergic medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs, are in charge of the detection and integration of behaviorally relevant information. This property confers to the striatum the ability to extract relevant information from the background noise and select cognitive-motor sequences adapted to environmental stimuli. As long-term synaptic efficacy changes are believed to underlie learning and memory, the corticostriatal long-term plasticity provides a fundamental mechanism for the function of the basal ganglia in procedural learning. Here, we reviewed the different forms of spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP occurring at corticostriatal synapses. Most of the studies have focused on MSNs and their ability to develop long-term plasticity. Nevertheless, the striatal interneurons (the fast-spiking GABAergic, the NO synthase and cholinergic interneurons also receive monosynaptic afferents from the cortex and tightly regulated corticostriatal information processing. Therefore, it is important to take into account the variety of striatal neurons to fully understand the ability of striatum to develop long-term plasticity. Corticostriatal STDP with various spike-timing dependence have been observed depending on the neuronal sub-populations and experimental conditions. This complexity highlights the extraordinary potentiality in term of plasticity of the corticostriatal pathway.

  14. Neuronal basis for evaluating selected action in the primate striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Hiroshi; Inokawa, Hitoshi; Matsumoto, Naoyuki; Ueda, Yasumasa; Kimura, Minoru

    2011-08-01

    Humans and animals optimize their behavior by evaluating outcomes of individual actions and predicting how much reward the actions will yield. While the estimated values of actions guide choice behavior, the choices are also governed by other behavioral norms, such as rules and strategies. Values, rules and strategies are represented in neuronal activity, and the striatum is one of the best qualified brain loci where these signals meet. To understand the role of the striatum in value- and strategy-based decision-making, we recorded striatal neurons in macaque monkeys performing a behavioral task in which they searched for a reward target by trial-and-error among three alternatives, earned a reward for a target choice, and then earned additional rewards for choosing the same target. This task allowed us to examine whether and how values of targets and strategy, which were defined as negative-then-search and positive-then-repeat (or win-stay-lose-switch), are represented in the striatum. Large subsets of striatal neurons encoded positive and negative outcome feedbacks of individual decisions and actions. Once monkeys made a choice, signals related to chosen actions, their values and search- or repeat-type actions increased and persisted until the outcome feedback appeared. Subsets of neurons exhibited a tonic increase in activity after the search- and repeat-choices following negative and positive feedback in the last trials as the task strategy monkeys adapted. These activity profiles as a heterogeneous representation of decision variables may underlie a part of the process for reinforcement- and strategy-based evaluation of selected actions in the striatum. © 2011 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2011 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Aversive counterconditioning attenuates reward signalling in the ventral striatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Marije Kaag

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Appetitive conditioning refers to the process of learning cue-reward associations and is mediated by the mesocorticolimbic system. Appetitive conditioned responses are difficult to extinguish, especially for highly salient rewards such as food and drugs. We investigate whether aversive counterconditioning can alter reward reinstatement in the ventral striatum in healthy volunteers using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI. In the initial conditioning phase, two different stimuli were reinforced with a monetary reward. In the subsequent counterconditioning phase, one of these stimuli was paired with an aversive shock to the wrist. In the following extinction phase, none of the stimuli were reinforced. In the final reinstatement phase, reward was reinstated by informing the participants that the monetary gain could be doubled. Our fMRI data revealed that reward signalling in the ventral striatum and ventral tegmental area following reinstatement was smaller for the stimulus that was counterconditioned with an electrical shock, compared to the non-counterconditioned stimulus. A functional connectivity analysis showed that aversive counterconditioning strengthened striatal connectivity with the hippocampus and insula. These results suggest that reward signalling in the ventral striatum can be attenuated through aversive counterconditioning, possibly by concurrent retrieval of the aversive association through enhanced connectivity with hippocampus and insula.

  16. The involvement of the striatum in decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulet-Kennedy, Julie; Labbe, Sara; Fecteau, Shirley

    2016-01-01

    Decision making has been extensively studied in the context of economics and from a group perspective, but still little is known on individual decision making. Here we discuss the different cognitive processes involved in decision making and its associated neural substrates. The putative conductors in decision making appear to be the prefrontal cortex and the striatum. Impaired decision-making skills in various clinical populations have been associated with activity in the prefrontal cortex and in the striatum. We highlight the importance of strengthening the degree of integration of both cognitive and neural substrates in order to further our understanding of decision-making skills. In terms of cognitive paradigms, there is a need to improve the ecological value of experimental tasks that assess decision making in various contexts and with rewards; this would help translate laboratory learnings into real-life benefits. In terms of neural substrates, the use of neuroimaging techniques helps characterize the neural networks associated with decision making; more recently, ways to modulate brain activity, such as in the prefrontal cortex and connected regions (eg, striatum), with noninvasive brain stimulation have also shed light on the neural and cognitive substrates of decision making. Together, these cognitive and neural approaches might be useful for patients with impaired decision-making skills. The drive behind this line of work is that decision-making abilities underlie important aspects of wellness, health, security, and financial and social choices in our daily lives. PMID:27069380

  17. Computed tomography in the diagnosis of hepatic cirrhosis. Splenomegaly index and caudate to right lobe ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yajima, Y; Narui, T; Ohtsuki, M; Gotoh, Y [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). School of Medicine; Endo, S

    1982-03-01

    In order to evaluate the faculty of computed tomography in the diagnosis of hepatic cirrhosis, we analyzed the transverse image of the liver and spleen with morphometric approach. Splenomegaly index (S max) was defined as the ratio of maximum area of the cross section of the spleen to the total area of intraperitoneal space. If the S max is greater than 10%, cirrhosis can be diagnosed with 38% sensitivity (8 cases among 21 cases) and 10.3% false positive rate. On the other hand, the best index for separating cirrhotic livers from noncirrhotic ones is the caudate to right lobe (C/RL) ratio proposed by Harbin et al. If the C/RL ratio is greater than 50%, cirrhosis can be diagnosed with 67% sensitivity (12 cases among 18 cases) and 13% false positive rate. The combination of these two indices showed 89% sensitivity and 22% false positive rate. Not only did it improve the diagnostic sensitivity, but it also seemed to be useful in etiological analysis of cirrhotic livers and differential diagnosis between hepatic cirrhosis and idiopathic portal hypertension.

  18. Semantic memory retrieval circuit: role of pre-SMA, caudate, and thalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, John; Maguire, Mandy J; Motes, Michael; Mudar, Raksha Anand; Chiang, Hsueh-Sheng; Womack, Kyle B; Kraut, Michael A

    2013-07-01

    We propose that pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA)-thalamic interactions govern processes fundamental to semantic retrieval of an integrated object memory. At the onset of semantic retrieval, pre-SMA initiates electrical interactions between multiple cortical regions associated with semantic memory subsystems encodings as indexed by an increase in theta-band EEG power. This starts between 100-150 ms after stimulus presentation and is sustained throughout the task. We posit that this activity represents initiation of the object memory search, which continues in searching for an object memory. When the correct memory is retrieved, there is a high beta-band EEG power increase, which reflects communication between pre-SMA and thalamus, designates the end of the search process and resultant in object retrieval from multiple semantic memory subsystems. This high beta signal is also detected in cortical regions. This circuit is modulated by the caudate nuclei to facilitate correct and suppress incorrect target memories. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Abnormal resting-state functional connectivity of the left caudate nucleus in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yunhui; Juhás, Michal; Greenshaw, Andrew J; Hu, Qiang; Meng, Xin; Cui, Hongsheng; Ding, Yongzhuo; Kang, Lu; Zhang, Yubo; Wang, Yuhua; Cui, Guangcheng; Li, Ping

    2016-06-03

    Altered brain activities in the cortico-striato-thalamocortical (CSTC) circuitry are implicated in the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, whether the underlying changes occur only within this circuitry or in large-scale networks is still not thoroughly understood. This study performed voxel-based functional connectivity analysis on resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from thirty OCD patients and thirty healthy controls to investigate whole-brain intrinsic functional connectivity patterns in OCD. Relative to the healthy controls, OCD patients showed decreased functional connectivity within the CSTC circuitry but increased functional connectivity in other brain regions. Furthermore, decreased left caudate nucleus-thalamus connectivity within the CSTC circuitry was positively correlated with the illness duration of OCD. This study provides additional evidence that CSTC circuitry may play an essential role and alteration of large-scale brain networks may be involved in the pathophysiology of OCD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Feedback on Trait or Action Impacts on Caudate and Paracingulum Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelgren, Alva; Bengtsson, Sara L

    2015-01-01

    There is a general conception that positive associations to one’s trait, e.g. ‘I’m clever’, are beneficial for cognitive performance. Scientific evidence shows that this is a simplification. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study we used written trial-based trait feedback ‘you are clever’, or task feedback ‘your choice was correct’, on each correct response of a rule-switching task, to investigate how the character of positive self-associations influences performance outcome. Twenty participants took part in this crossover design study. We found that trait feedback was less beneficial for motivation and performance improvement, and resulting in enhanced neural activation on more difficult bivalent rule trials. This indicates that the task was treated as more complex in this condition. For example, ‘you are clever’ feedback led to enhanced activation in anterior caudate nucleus, an area known to process uncertainty. We further observed that activation in anterior paracingulate cortex was sensitive to whether self-reflection was imposed by external feedback or generated from internal processes, where the latter activation correlated positively with performance when following after task feedback. Our results illustrate how feedback can evoke self-reflections that either help or hinder motivation and performance, most likely by impacting on processes of uncertainty. The results support social psychological models stipulating that trait focus take resources away from task focus. PMID:26102501

  1. Feedback on Trait or Action Impacts on Caudate and Paracingulum Activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alva Appelgren

    Full Text Available There is a general conception that positive associations to one's trait, e.g. 'I'm clever', are beneficial for cognitive performance. Scientific evidence shows that this is a simplification. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study we used written trial-based trait feedback 'you are clever', or task feedback 'your choice was correct', on each correct response of a rule-switching task, to investigate how the character of positive self-associations influences performance outcome. Twenty participants took part in this crossover design study. We found that trait feedback was less beneficial for motivation and performance improvement, and resulting in enhanced neural activation on more difficult bivalent rule trials. This indicates that the task was treated as more complex in this condition. For example, 'you are clever' feedback led to enhanced activation in anterior caudate nucleus, an area known to process uncertainty. We further observed that activation in anterior paracingulate cortex was sensitive to whether self-reflection was imposed by external feedback or generated from internal processes, where the latter activation correlated positively with performance when following after task feedback. Our results illustrate how feedback can evoke self-reflections that either help or hinder motivation and performance, most likely by impacting on processes of uncertainty. The results support social psychological models stipulating that trait focus take resources away from task focus.

  2. The determination of trace metals by INAA in cortex cerebellum and putamen of human brain and in their neuromelanins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giaveri, G.; Rizzio, E.; Bergamaschi, L.; Gallorini, M.; Zecca, L.

    2002-01-01

    Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) was used for all the measurements. Irradiations were performed at the Triga Mark II (General Atomic - USA) research reactor of the University of Pavia. Depending on the elements to be determined, two different irradiation procedures were followed: Short irradiations were performed in the pneumatic irradiation facility at a neutron flux of 5x10 12 n x cm -2 x s - 1 . Samples and standards sealed in plastic vials were irradiated for 5 minutes. Long irradiations were carried out in the central thimble facility at a nominal neutron flux of 1013 n x cm-2 x s - 1. Samples and standards were sealed in quartz vials and then neutron irradiated for 40 h. For the gamma spectra evaluation HPGe (gamma -x) detectors (ORTEC - USA) coupled to computerized multichannel analysers (ORTEC ADCAM - USA) were used. The concentrations of trace elements in Cortex, Cerebellum, Putamen and in their Neuromelanins are reported. Fe is the most abundant element in tissues, followed by Zinc. The ability of NMs to sequestrate metals is well shown, being their concentrations in NMs much higher than in their respective tissues, where some of them (Hg, Mo) were not even detectable. Strong differences are shown between the different pigments in interaction with metals. NM from SN shows a higher affinity for iron than all the other pigments isolated from other brain areas; nevertheless, the tissue that contains the highest concentration of this metal is PU and not SN. These results would confirm that NM from SN plays a protective role in neurons by quenching Fenton's reaction, so far considered the cause of the pathogenesis of PD. A protective role could be played by the other pigments as well, as the concentrations of analysed elements show that they bind large amounts of potentially toxic metals different from iron. This might be explained as the need of the neurons to defend themselves from the toxicity of this metal by the development of a specific

  3. Chemoembolization of Extrahepatic Collateral Arteries for Treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in the Caudate Lobe of the Liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Sungmin; Kim, Hyo-Cheol; Chung, Jin Wook; Jung, Hyun-Seok; Hur, Saebeom; Lee, Myungsu; Jae, Hwan Jun

    2015-01-01

    PurposeThis study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety in performing chemoembolization of extrahepatic collateral arteries (EHC) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) located in the caudate lobe.MethodsBetween January 2006 and November 2013, chemoembolization via EHC was performed in 35 patients with 35 caudate HCCs. Preprocedural and follow-up CT or MR scans, angiographic images, and medical records were reviewed retrospectively in consensus. Chi-square analysis was used to evaluate the relationship between tumor characteristics and type of EHC and that between tumor response and the characteristics of the tumor and chemoembolization.ResultsIn 31 (88.6 %) patients, EHCs supplying the caudate HCC originated from the right inferior phrenic artery (RIPA). The remaining four HCCs were supplied by the gastroduodenal artery, dorsal pancreatic artery, and right and left gastric arteries. Superselective catheterization of tumor-feeding vessels from the EHC was achieved in 27 patients (77.1 %). There were no major complications. Individual tumor response supplied by the EHC at follow-up contrast-enhanced CT were as follows: complete response (n = 18), partial response (n = 9), stable disease (n = 3), and progressive disease (n = 3). Non-RIPA EHCs were significantly more common in patients who had previously received chemoembolization via the RIPA (50 %) than those who had not (6.5 %; P = 0.01). There was no significant predictive factor associated with tumor response.ConclusionsHCC in the caudate lobe can be supplied by several EHCs. Chemoembolization via these arteries can be performed safely and effectively

  4. One pair of hands is not like another: caudate BOLD response in dogs depends on signal source and canine temperament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter F. Cook

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Having previously used functional MRI to map the response to a reward signal in the ventral caudate in awake unrestrained dogs, here we examined the importance of signal source to canine caudate activation. Hand signals representing either incipient reward or no reward were presented by a familiar human (each dog’s respective handler, an unfamiliar human, and via illustrated images of hands on a computer screen to 13 dogs undergoing voluntary fMRI. All dogs had received extensive training with the reward and no-reward signals from their handlers and with the computer images and had minimal exposure to the signals from strangers. All dogs showed differentially higher BOLD response in the ventral caudate to the reward versus no reward signals, and there was a robust effect at the group level. Further, differential response to the signal source had a highly significant interaction with a dog’s general aggressivity as measured by the C-BARQ canine personality assessment. Dogs with greater aggressivity showed a higher differential response to the reward signal versus no-reward signal presented by the unfamiliar human and computer, while dogs with lower aggressivity showed a higher differential response to the reward signal versus no-reward signal from their handler. This suggests that specific facets of canine temperament bear more strongly on the perceived reward value of relevant communication signals than does reinforcement history, as each of the dogs were reinforced similarly for each signal, regardless of the source (familiar human, unfamiliar human, or computer. A group-level psychophysiological interaction (PPI connectivity analysis showed increased functional coupling between the caudate and a region of cortex associated with visual discrimination and learning on reward versus no-reward trials. Our findings emphasize the sensitivity of the domestic dog to human social interaction, and may have other implications and applications

  5. Chemoembolization of Extrahepatic Collateral Arteries for Treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in the Caudate Lobe of the Liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Sungmin; Kim, Hyo-Cheol, E-mail: angiointervention@gmail.com; Chung, Jin Wook; Jung, Hyun-Seok; Hur, Saebeom; Lee, Myungsu; Jae, Hwan Jun [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, and Clinical Research Institute (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    PurposeThis study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety in performing chemoembolization of extrahepatic collateral arteries (EHC) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) located in the caudate lobe.MethodsBetween January 2006 and November 2013, chemoembolization via EHC was performed in 35 patients with 35 caudate HCCs. Preprocedural and follow-up CT or MR scans, angiographic images, and medical records were reviewed retrospectively in consensus. Chi-square analysis was used to evaluate the relationship between tumor characteristics and type of EHC and that between tumor response and the characteristics of the tumor and chemoembolization.ResultsIn 31 (88.6 %) patients, EHCs supplying the caudate HCC originated from the right inferior phrenic artery (RIPA). The remaining four HCCs were supplied by the gastroduodenal artery, dorsal pancreatic artery, and right and left gastric arteries. Superselective catheterization of tumor-feeding vessels from the EHC was achieved in 27 patients (77.1 %). There were no major complications. Individual tumor response supplied by the EHC at follow-up contrast-enhanced CT were as follows: complete response (n = 18), partial response (n = 9), stable disease (n = 3), and progressive disease (n = 3). Non-RIPA EHCs were significantly more common in patients who had previously received chemoembolization via the RIPA (50 %) than those who had not (6.5 %; P = 0.01). There was no significant predictive factor associated with tumor response.ConclusionsHCC in the caudate lobe can be supplied by several EHCs. Chemoembolization via these arteries can be performed safely and effectively.

  6. The Caudate Lobe: The Blind Spot in Radioembolization or an Overlooked Opportunity?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braat, Manon N. G. J. A., E-mail: M.N.G.Braat-3@umcutrecht.nl; Hoven, Andor F. van den, E-mail: a.f.vandenhoven@umcutrecht.nl; Doormaal, Pieter J. van, E-mail: P.J.vanDoormaal-4@umcutrecht.nl; Bruijnen, Rutger C., E-mail: R.Bruijnen@umcutrecht.nl; Lam, Marnix G. E. H., E-mail: M.Lam@umcutrecht.nl; Bosch, Maurice A. A. J. van den, E-mail: mbosch@umcutrecht.nl [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (Netherlands)

    2016-06-15

    PurposeThe caudate lobe (CL) is impartial to the functional left and right hemi-liver and has outspoken inter-individual differences in arterial vascularization. Unfortunately, this complexity is not specifically taken into account during radioembolization treatment (RE), potentially resulting in under- or overtreatment of the CL. The objective of this study was to evaluate the CL coverage in RE and determine the detection rate of the CL arteries on CT angiography during work-up.MethodsIn all consecutive patients who underwent RE treatment between May 2012–January 2015, {sup 99m}Tc-MAA SPECT/CT and posttreatment scans ({sup 90}Y-bremsstrahlung SPECT/CT, {sup 90}Y-PET/CT, or {sup 166}Ho-SPECT/CT) were reviewed for activity in the CL. Pretreatment CT angiographies were reviewed for the visibility of the CL arteries.ResultsEighty-two patients were treated. In 32/82 (39 %) the CL was involved. In 6/32 (19 %) patients, no activity was seen on the posttreatment scan in the CL, whereas in 40/50 (80 %) patients without CL tumor involvement, the CL was treated. {sup 99m}Tc-MAA SPECT/CT and final posttreatment scans were discordant in 16/78 (21 %). {sup 99m}Tc-MAA SPECT/CT had a positive and negative predictive value of 94 % and 46 %, respectively, for activity in the CL after RE. In untreated CLs, significant hypertrophy was observed with a median volume increase of 33 % (p = 0.02). CL arteries were seldom visible on the pretreatment CT; the identification rate was 12–17 %.ConclusionCurrently in RE treatments, targeting or sparing of the CL is highly erratic and independent of tumor involvement. Intentional treatment or bypassing of the CL seems worthwhile to either improve tumor coverage or enhance the functional liver remnant.

  7. Distinct presynaptic control of dopamine release in striosomal and matrix areas of the cat caudate nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemel, M.L.; Desban, M.; Glowinski, J.; Gauchy, C.

    1989-01-01

    By use of a sensitive in vitro microsuperfusion method, the cholinergic presynaptic control of dopamine release was investigated in a prominent striosome (areas poor in acetylcholinesterase activity) located within the core of cat caudate nucleus and also in adjacent matrix area. The spontaneous release of [ 3 H]dopamine continuously synthesized from [ 3 H]tyrosine in the matrix area was found to be twice that in the striosomal area; the spontaneous and potassium-evoked releases of [ 3 H]dopamine were calcium-dependent in both compartments. With 10 -6 M tetrodotoxin, 5 x 10 -5 M acetylcholine stimulated [ 3 H]dopamine release in both striosomal and matrix areas, effects completely antagonized by atropine, thus showing the involvement of muscarinic receptors located on dopaminergic nerve terminals. Experiments without tetrodotoxin revealed a more complex regulation of dopamine release in the matrix: (i) in contrast to results seen in the striosome, acetylcholine induced only a transient stimulatory effect on matrix dopamine release. (ii) Although 10 -6 M atropine completely abolished the cholinergic stimulatory effect on [ 3 H]dopamine release in striosomal area, delayed and prolonged stimulation of [ 3 H] dopamine release was seen with atropine in the matrix. The latter effect was completely abolished by the nicotinic antagonist pempidine. Therefore, in the matrix, in addition to its direct (tetrodotoxin-insensitive) facilitatory action on [ 3 H]dopamine release, acetylcholine exerts two indirect (tetrodotoxin-sensitive) opposing effects: an inhibition and a stimulation of [ 3 H]dopamine release mediated by muscarinic and nicotinic receptors, respectively

  8. Caudate nucleus reactivity predicts perceptual learning rate for visual feature conjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reavis, Eric A; Frank, Sebastian M; Tse, Peter U

    2015-04-15

    Useful information in the visual environment is often contained in specific conjunctions of visual features (e.g., color and shape). The ability to quickly and accurately process such conjunctions can be learned. However, the neural mechanisms responsible for such learning remain largely unknown. It has been suggested that some forms of visual learning might involve the dopaminergic neuromodulatory system (Roelfsema et al., 2010; Seitz and Watanabe, 2005), but this hypothesis has not yet been directly tested. Here we test the hypothesis that learning visual feature conjunctions involves the dopaminergic system, using functional neuroimaging, genetic assays, and behavioral testing techniques. We use a correlative approach to evaluate potential associations between individual differences in visual feature conjunction learning rate and individual differences in dopaminergic function as indexed by neuroimaging and genetic markers. We find a significant correlation between activity in the caudate nucleus (a component of the dopaminergic system connected to visual areas of the brain) and visual feature conjunction learning rate. Specifically, individuals who showed a larger difference in activity between positive and negative feedback on an unrelated cognitive task, indicative of a more reactive dopaminergic system, learned visual feature conjunctions more quickly than those who showed a smaller activity difference. This finding supports the hypothesis that the dopaminergic system is involved in visual learning, and suggests that visual feature conjunction learning could be closely related to associative learning. However, no significant, reliable correlations were found between feature conjunction learning and genotype or dopaminergic activity in any other regions of interest. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Aberrant functioning of the putamen links delusions, antipsychotic drug dose, and compromised connectivity in first episode psychosis--Preliminary fMRI findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raij, Tuukka T; Mäntylä, Teemu; Kieseppä, Tuula; Suvisaari, Jaana

    2015-08-30

    The dopamine theory proposes the relationship of delusions to aberrant signaling in striatal circuitries that can be normalized with dopamine D2 receptor-blocking drugs. Localization of such circuitries, as well as their upstream and downstream signaling, remains poorly known. We collected functional magnetic resonance images from first-episode psychosis patients and controls during an audiovisual movie. Final analyses included 20 patients and 20 controls; another sample of 10 patients and 10 controls was used to calculate a comparison signal-time course. We identified putamen circuitry in which the signal aberrance (poor correlation with the comparison signal time course) was predicted by the dopamine theory, being greater in patients than controls; correlating positively with delusion scores; and correlating negatively with antipsychotic-equivalent dosage. In Granger causality analysis, patients showed a compromised contribution of the cortical salience network to the putamen and compromised contribution of the putamen to the default mode network. Results were corrected for multiple comparisons at the cluster level with primary voxel-wise threshold p < 0.005 for the salience network contribution, but liberal primary threshold p < 0.05 was used in other group comparisons. If replicated in larger studies, these findings may help unify and extend current hypotheses on dopaminergic dysfunction, salience processing and pathogenesis of delusions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of striatal dopamine transporter density using ({sup 123}I)-{beta}-CIT SPECT in schizophrenic patients treated with olanzapine: pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chul Eung; Moon, Hey Won; Choe, Won Sick; Kim, Chang Ho; Chi, Dae Yoon [Inha Univ., Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-08-01

    This pilot study was performed to understand the pharmacological effect of olanzapine, an atypical antipsychotic agent, on dopamine transporter in schizophrenic patients. Six patients (3 male, 3 female) with schizophrenia, who had not taken any psychotropic drugs for at least four weeks, were studied. Nuclear imaging using ({sup 123}I)-{beta}-CIT SPECT was obtained before and after 4-week treatment with olanzapine. Analysis of ROI on the striatum, caudate nucleus, and putamen was performed. Post-treatment uptake was significantly increased in all the ROIs compared with pre-treatment uptake. This preliminary study with the small number of schizophrenic patients suggested an increase in uptake of dopamine transporter in the striatum, caudate nucleus, and putamen after 4-week treatment with olanzapine, which warrants a large-scaled controlled study to confirm the current findings.

  11. Gene expression in rat striatum following carbon monoxide poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuichi Hara

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO poisoning causes brain damage, which is attenuated by treatment with hydrogen [1,2], a scavenger selective to hydroxyl radical (·≡OH [3]. This suggests a role of ·≡OH in brain damage due to CO poisoning. Studies have shown strong enhancement of ·≡OH production in rat striatum by severe CO poisoning with a blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb level >70% due to 3000 ppm CO, but not less severe CO poisoning with a blood COHb level at approximately 50% due to 1000 ppm CO [4]. Interestingly, 5% O2 causes hypoxia comparable with that by 3000 ppm CO and produces much less •OH than 3000 ppm CO does [4]. In addition, cAMP production in parallel with ·≡OH production [5] might contribute to ·≡OH production [6]. It is likely that mechanisms other than hypoxia contribute to brain damage due to CO poisoning [7]. To search for the mechanisms, we examined the effects of 1000 ppm CO, 3000 ppm CO and 5% O2 on gene expression in rat striatum. All array data have been deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO database under accession number GSE94780.

  12. The measurement of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic function and glucose metabolism in patients with movement disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otsuka, Makoto; Ichiya, Yuichi; Kuwabara, Yasuo; Sasaki, Masayuki; Fukumura, Toshimitsu; Masuda, Kouji; Shima, Fumio; Kato, Motohiro [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1992-12-01

    The nigrostriatal dopaminergic function and glucose metabolism were evaluated in 34 patients with various movement disorders by using positron emission tomography with [sup 18]F-Dopa and [sup 18]F-FDG respectively. The [sup 18]F-Dopa uptake in the striatum (the caudate head and the putamen) decreased in patients with Parkinson's disease but was relatively unaffected in the caudate. The cerebral glucose metabolism was normal in patients with Parkinson's disease. The [sup 18]F-Dopa uptake in the striatum also decreased in cases of atypical parkinsonism and in cases of progressive supranuclear palsy, but there was no difference in the uptake between the caudate and the putamen. The glucose metabolism decreased in the cerebral hemisphere including the striatum; this finding was also different from those of Parkinson's disease. A normal [sup 18]F-Dopa uptake in the striatum with a markedly decreased striatal glucose metabolism and a mildly decreased cortical glucose metabolism was observed in cases of Huntington's disease and Wilson's disease. The [sup 18]F-Dopa uptake in the striatum increased and the glucose metabolism was normal in cases of idiopathic dystonia. Various patterns of [sup 18]F-Dopa uptake and glucose metabolism were thus observed in the various movement disorders. These results suggest that the measurements of the [sup 18]F-Dopa uptake and the cerebral glucose metabolism would be useful for the evaluation of the striatal function in various movement disorders. (author).

  13. Dynorphin/KOP and nociceptin/NOP gene expression and epigenetic changes by cocaine in rat striatum and nucleus accumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputi, Francesca Felicia; Di Benedetto, Manuela; Carretta, Donatella; Bastias del Carmen Candia, Sussy; D'Addario, Claudio; Cavina, Chiara; Candeletti, Sanzio; Romualdi, Patrizia

    2014-03-03

    Cocaine induces neurochemical changes of endogenous prodynorphin-kappa opioid receptor (pDYN-KOP) and pronociceptin/orphaninFQ-nociceptin receptor (pN/OFQ-NOP) systems. Both systems play an important role in rewarding mechanisms and addictive stimulus processing by modulating drug-induced dopaminergic activation in the mesocortico-limbic brain areas. They are also involved in regulating stress mechanisms related to addiction. The aim of this study was to investigate possible changes of gene expression of the dynorphinergic and nociceptinergic system components in the nucleus accumbens (NA) and in medial and lateral caudate putamen (mCPu and lCPu, respectively) of rats, following chronic subcutaneous infusion of cocaine. In addition, the epigenetic histone modifications H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 (an activating and a repressive marker, respectively) at the promoter level of the pDYN, KOP, pN/OFQ and NOP genes were investigated. Results showed that cocaine induced pDYN gene expression up-regulation in the NA and lCPu, and its down-regulation in the mCPu, whereas KOP mRNA levels were unchanged. Moreover, cocaine exposure decreased pN/OFQ gene expression in the NA and lCPu, while NOP mRNA levels appeared significantly increased in the NA and decreased in the lCPu. Specific changes of the H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 levels were found at pDYN, pN/OFQ, and NOP gene promoter, consistent with the observed gene expression alterations. The present findings contribute to better define the role of endogenous pDYN-KOP and pN/OFQ-NOP systems in neuroplasticity mechanisms following chronic cocaine treatment. The epigenetic histone modifications underlying the gene expression changes likely mediate the effects of cocaine on transcriptional regulation of specific gene promoters that result in long-lasting drug-induced plasticity. © 2013.

  14. Basal ganglia disorders studied by positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinotoh, Hitoshi

    1994-01-01

    Recent development of positron emitting radioligands has made it possible to investigate the alterations of neurotransmitter systems associated with basal ganglia disorders in vivo. The functional integrity of nigro-striatal dopaminergic terminals may be studied with [ 18 F]6-fluoro-L-dopa ([ 18 F]dopa), and striatal dopamine receptor density with suitable PET ligands. [ 18 F]dopa uptake in the striatum (putamen) is markedly reduced in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). [ 18 F]dopa-PET is capable of detecting sub-clinical nigral dysfunction in asymptomatic patients with familial PD and those who become Parkinsonian on conventional doses of dopamine receptor antagonists. While putamen [ 18 F]dopa uptake is reduced to a similar level in patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA) and PD, caudate [ 18 F] dopa uptake is lower in MSA than PD. However, [ 18 F]dopa PET cannot consistently distinguish MSA from PD because individual ranges of caudate [ 18 F]dopa uptake overlap. D 1 and D 2 receptor binding is markedly reduced in the striatum (posterior putamen) of MSA patients. Therefore, dopamine receptor imaging is useful for the differential diagnosis of MSA and PD. Similar marked reductions in putamen and caudate [ 18 F]dopa uptake have been observed in patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). Moderate reductions in D 2 receptor binding have been reported in the striatum of PSP patients. The reduction in D 2 receptor binding is more prominent in the caudate than putamen. Striatal [ 18 F]dopa uptake is normal or only mildly reduced in patients with dopa responsive dystonia (DRD). D 2 receptor binding is markedly reduced in patients with Huntington's disease, while striatal [ 18 F]dopa uptake is normal or mildly reduced. In summary, PET can demonstrate characteristic patterns of disruption of dopaminergic systems associated with basal ganglia disorders. These PET findings are useful in the differential diagnosis of basal ganglia disorders. (J.P.N.) 55 refs

  15. Anhedonia correlates with abnormal functional connectivity of the superior temporal gyrus and the caudate nucleus in patients with first-episode drug-naive major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin-Hua; Tian, Kai; Wang, Dong-Fang; Wang, Yi; Cheung, Eric F C; Xie, Guang-Rong; Chan, Raymond C K

    2017-08-15

    Recent empirical findings have suggested that imbalanced neural networks may underlie the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, the contribution of the superior temporal gyrus (STG) and the caudate nucleus to its pathophysiology remains unclear. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) date were acquired from 40 patients with first-episode drug-naive MDD and 36 matched healthy controls during wakeful rest. We used whole-brain voxel-wise statistical maps to quantify within-group resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) and between-group differences of bilateral caudate and STG seeds. Compared with healthy controls, first-episode MDD patients were found to have reduced connectivity between the ventral caudate and several brain regions including the superior frontal gyrus (SFG), the superior parietal lobule (SPL) and the middle temporal gyrus (MTG), as well as increased connectivity with the cuneus. We also found increased connectivity between the left STG and the precuneus, the angular gyrus and the cuneus. Moreover, we found that increased anhedonia severity was correlated with the magnitude of ventral caudate functional connectivity with the cuneus and the MTG in MDD patients. Due to our small sample size, we did not correct the statistical threshold in the correlation analyses between clinical variables and connectivity abnormalities. The present study suggests that anhedonia is mainly associated with altered ventral caudate-cortical connectivity and highlights the importance of the ventral caudate in the neurobiology of MDD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Cocaine exposure shifts the balance of associative encoding from ventral to dorsolateral striatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji Takahashi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Both dorsal and ventral striatum are implicated in the "habitization" of behavior that occurs in addiction. Here we examined the effect of cocaine exposure on associative encoding in these two regions. Neural activity was recorded during go/no-go discrimination learning and reversal. Activity in ventral striatum developed and reversed rapidly, tracking the valence of the predicted outcome, whereas activity in dorsolateral striatum developed and reversed more slowly, tracking discriminative responding. This difference is consistent with the putative roles of these two areas in promoting habit-like behavior. Dorsolateral striatum has been directly implicated in habit or stimulus response learning, whereas ventral striatum appears to be involved indirectly by allowing cues associated with reward to exert a general motivational influence on responding. Interestingly cocaine exposure did not uniformly enhance processing across both regions. Instead cocaine reduced the degree and flexibility of cue-evoked firing in ventral striatum while marginally enhanced cue-selective firing in dorsolateral striatum. Thus cocaine exposure causes regionally specific effects on neural processing in striatum; these effects may promote the habitization of behavior by shifting control from ventral to dorsolateral regions.

  17. Excessive cocaine use results from decreased phasic dopamine signaling in the striatum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willuhn, Ingo; Burgeno, Lauren M; Groblewski, Peter A; Phillips, Paul E M

    Drug addiction is a neuropsychiatric disorder marked by escalating drug use. Dopamine neurotransmission in the ventromedial striatum (VMS) mediates acute reinforcing effects of abused drugs, but with protracted use the dorsolateral striatum is thought to assume control over drug seeking. We measured

  18. Molecular and functional definition of the developing human striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onorati, Marco; Castiglioni, Valentina; Biasci, Daniele; Cesana, Elisabetta; Menon, Ramesh; Vuono, Romina; Talpo, Francesca; Laguna Goya, Rocio; Lyons, Paul A; Bulfamante, Gaetano P; Muzio, Luca; Martino, Gianvito; Toselli, Mauro; Farina, Cinthia; Barker, Roger A; Biella, Gerardo; Cattaneo, Elena

    2014-12-01

    The complexity of the human brain derives from the intricate interplay of molecular instructions during development. Here we systematically investigated gene expression changes in the prenatal human striatum and cerebral cortex during development from post-conception weeks 2 to 20. We identified tissue-specific gene coexpression networks, differentially expressed genes and a minimal set of bimodal genes, including those encoding transcription factors, that distinguished striatal from neocortical identities. Unexpected differences from mouse striatal development were discovered. We monitored 36 determinants at the protein level, revealing regional domains of expression and their refinement, during striatal development. We electrophysiologically profiled human striatal neurons differentiated in vitro and determined their refined molecular and functional properties. These results provide a resource and opportunity to gain global understanding of how transcriptional and functional processes converge to specify human striatal and neocortical neurons during development.

  19. Paralimbic system and striatum are involved in motivational behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Masahiko; Yoshii, Yoshihiko; Watanabe, Jobu; Ishiuchi, Shogo

    2009-10-28

    Goal-directed rewarded behavior and goal-directed non-rewarded behavior are concerned with motivation. However, the neural substrates involved in goal-directed non-rewarded behaviors are unknown. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated the brain activities of healthy individuals during a novel tool use (turning a screwdriver) to elucidate the relationship between the brain mechanism relevant to goal-directed non-rewarded behavior and motivation. We found that our designed behavioral task evoked activities in the orbitofrontal cortex, striatum, anterior insula, lateral prefrontal cortex, and anterior cingulate cortex compared with a meaningless task. These results suggest that activation in these cerebral regions play important roles in motivational behavior without tangible rewards.

  20. Correlation between the availability of dopamine transporter and olfactory function in healthy subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pak, Kyoungjune; Kim, Keunyoung; Kim, In Joo; Lee, Myung Jun; Lee, Jae Meen; Kim, Bum Soo; Kim, Seong-Jang

    2018-01-01

    Olfactory dysfunction in Parkinson's disease is usually prodromal to other symptoms. In this study, we aimed to explore the association of olfactory function with the availabilities of striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) in healthy subjects. Data used in the preparation of this article were obtained from Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative database (www.ppmi-info.org/data). The study population consisted of healthy controls with screening 123 I-FP-CIT single photon emission tomography (SPECT). University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) was assessed to evaluate the olfactory function. Totally, 181 healthy subjects (117 male, 64 female) with 123 I-FP-CIT SPECT data were included in this study. Specific binding ratios (SBRs) of the caudate nucleus (rho = -0.4217, p < 0.0001), putamen (rho = -0.2292, p = 0.0019), and striatum (rho=-0.3425, p < 0.0001) showed a reduction with ageing. SBRs of the caudate nucleus, putamen, and striatum were positively correlated with UPSIT (rho = 0.3716, p < 0.0001; rho = 0.3655, p < 0.0001; rho = 0.3880, p < 0.0001). After controlling for age by partial correlation, SBRs of the caudate nucleus, putamen, and striatum showed an influence on UPSIT (rho = 0.3288, p < 0.0001; rho = 0.3374, p < 0.0001; rho = 0.3511, p < 0.0001). Olfactory function is associated with the availability of striatal DAT independent of age in healthy subjects. (orig.)

  1. Schizophrenia alters intra-network functional connectivity in the caudate for detecting speech under informational speech masking conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yingjun; Wu, Chao; Li, Juanhua; Li, Ruikeng; Peng, Hongjun; She, Shenglin; Ning, Yuping; Li, Liang

    2018-04-04

    Speech recognition under noisy "cocktail-party" environments involves multiple perceptual/cognitive processes, including target detection, selective attention, irrelevant signal inhibition, sensory/working memory, and speech production. Compared to health listeners, people with schizophrenia are more vulnerable to masking stimuli and perform worse in speech recognition under speech-on-speech masking conditions. Although the schizophrenia-related speech-recognition impairment under "cocktail-party" conditions is associated with deficits of various perceptual/cognitive processes, it is crucial to know whether the brain substrates critically underlying speech detection against informational speech masking are impaired in people with schizophrenia. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), this study investigated differences between people with schizophrenia (n = 19, mean age = 33 ± 10 years) and their matched healthy controls (n = 15, mean age = 30 ± 9 years) in intra-network functional connectivity (FC) specifically associated with target-speech detection under speech-on-speech-masking conditions. The target-speech detection performance under the speech-on-speech-masking condition in participants with schizophrenia was significantly worse than that in matched healthy participants (healthy controls). Moreover, in healthy controls, but not participants with schizophrenia, the strength of intra-network FC within the bilateral caudate was positively correlated with the speech-detection performance under the speech-masking conditions. Compared to controls, patients showed altered spatial activity pattern and decreased intra-network FC in the caudate. In people with schizophrenia, the declined speech-detection performance under speech-on-speech masking conditions is associated with reduced intra-caudate functional connectivity, which normally contributes to detecting target speech against speech masking via its functions of suppressing masking-speech signals.

  2. Art for reward's sake: visual art recruits the ventral striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Simon; Hagtvedt, Henrik; Patrick, Vanessa M; Anderson, Amy; Stilla, Randall; Deshpande, Gopikrishna; Hu, Xiaoping; Sato, João R; Reddy, Srinivas; Sathian, K

    2011-03-01

    A recent study showed that people evaluate products more positively when they are physically associated with art images than similar non-art images. Neuroimaging studies of visual art have investigated artistic style and esthetic preference but not brain responses attributable specifically to the artistic status of images. Here we tested the hypothesis that the artistic status of images engages reward circuitry, using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during viewing of art and non-art images matched for content. Subjects made animacy judgments in response to each image. Relative to non-art images, art images activated, on both subject- and item-wise analyses, reward-related regions: the ventral striatum, hypothalamus and orbitofrontal cortex. Neither response times nor ratings of familiarity or esthetic preference for art images correlated significantly with activity that was selective for art images, suggesting that these variables were not responsible for the art-selective activations. Investigation of effective connectivity, using time-varying, wavelet-based, correlation-purged Granger causality analyses, further showed that the ventral striatum was driven by visual cortical regions when viewing art images but not non-art images, and was not driven by regions that correlated with esthetic preference for either art or non-art images. These findings are consistent with our hypothesis, leading us to propose that the appeal of visual art involves activation of reward circuitry based on artistic status alone and independently of its hedonic value. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Reward-modulated motor information in identified striatum neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isomura, Yoshikazu; Takekawa, Takashi; Harukuni, Rie; Handa, Takashi; Aizawa, Hidenori; Takada, Masahiko; Fukai, Tomoki

    2013-06-19

    It is widely accepted that dorsal striatum neurons participate in either the direct pathway (expressing dopamine D1 receptors) or the indirect pathway (expressing D2 receptors), controlling voluntary movements in an antagonistically balancing manner. The D1- and D2-expressing neurons are activated and inactivated, respectively, by dopamine released from substantia nigra neurons encoding reward expectation. However, little is known about the functional representation of motor information and its reward modulation in individual striatal neurons constituting the two pathways. In this study, we juxtacellularly recorded the spike activity of single neurons in the dorsolateral striatum of rats performing voluntary forelimb movement in a reward-predictable condition. Some of these neurons were identified morphologically by a combination of juxtacellular visualization and in situ hybridization for D1 mRNA. We found that the striatal neurons exhibited distinct functional activations before and during the forelimb movement, regardless of the expression of D1 mRNA. They were often positively, but rarely negatively, modulated by expecting a reward for the correct motor response. The positive reward modulation was independent of behavioral differences in motor performance. In contrast, regular-spiking and fast-spiking neurons in any layers of the motor cortex displayed only minor and unbiased reward modulation of their functional activation in relation to the execution of forelimb movement. Our results suggest that the direct and indirect pathway neurons cooperatively rather than antagonistically contribute to spatiotemporal control of voluntary movements, and that motor information is subcortically integrated with reward information through dopaminergic and other signals in the skeletomotor loop of the basal ganglia.

  4. Response inhibition signals and miscoding of direction in dorsomedial striatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel W Bryden

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The ability to inhibit action is critical for everyday behavior and is affected by a variety of disorders. Behavioral control and response inhibition is thought to depend on a neural circuit that includes the dorsal striatum, yet the neural signals that lead to response inhibition and its failure are unclear. To address this issue, we recorded from neurons in rat dorsomedial striatum (mDS in a novel task in which rats responded to a spatial cue that signaled that reward would be delivered either to the left or to the right. On 80% of trials rats were instructed to respond in the direction cued by the light (GO. On 20% of trials a second light illuminated instructing the rat to refrain from making the cued movement and move in the opposite direction (STOP. Many neurons in mDS encoded direction, firing more or less strongly for GO movements made ipsilateral or contralateral to the recording electrode. Neurons that fired more strongly for contralateral GO responses were more active when rats were faster, showed reduced activity on STOP trials, and miscoded direction on errors, suggesting that when these neurons were overly active, response inhibition failed. Neurons that decreased firing for contralateral movement were excited during trials in which the rat was required to stop the ipsilateral movement. For these neurons activity was reduced when errors were made and was negatively correlated with movement time suggesting that when these neurons were less active on STOP trials, response inhibition failed. Finally, the activity of a significant number of neurons represented a global inhibitory signal, firing more strongly during response inhibition regardless of response direction. Breakdown by cell type suggests that putative medium spiny neurons tended to fire more strongly under STOP trials, whereas putative interneurons exhibited both activity patterns. 

  5. Estradiol receptors mediate estradiol-induced inhibition of mitochondrial Ca^{2+} efflux in rat caudate nucleus and brain stem

    OpenAIRE

    PETROVIC, SNJEZANA; MILOSEVIC, MAJA; RISTIC-MEDIC, DANIJELA; VELICKOVIC, NATASA; DRAKULIC, DUNJA; GRKOVIC, IVANA; HORVAT, ANICA

    2015-01-01

    Our earlier studies found that in vitro estradiol modulates mitochondrial Ca2+ transport in discrete brain regions. The present study examined the role of estradiol receptors (ERs) in estradiol-induced inhibition of Ca^{2+} efflux from synaptosomal mitochondria isolated from rat caudate nuclei and brain stems. Radioactively labeled CaCl_2 (0.6?0.75 µCi ^45CaCl_{2}) was used for Ca^{2+} transport monitoring. The results revealed that in the presence of ER antagonist 7\\alpha,17ß-[9[(4,4,5,5,5-...

  6. Tics are caused by alterations in prefrontal areas, thalamus and putamen, while changes in the cingulate gyrus reflect secondary compensatory mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Vahl, Kirsten R; Grosskreutz, Julian; Prell, Tino; Kaufmann, Jörn; Bodammer, Nils; Peschel, Thomas

    2014-01-07

    Despite strong evidence that the pathophysiology of Tourette syndrome (TS) involves structural and functional disturbances of the basal ganglia and cortical frontal areas, findings from in vivo imaging studies have provided conflicting results. In this study we used whole brain diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to investigate the microstructural integrity of white matter pathways and brain tissue in 19 unmedicated, adult, male patients with TS "only" (without comorbid psychiatric disorders) and 20 age- and sex-matched control subjects. Compared to normal controls, TS patients showed a decrease in the fractional anisotropy index (FA) bilaterally in the medial frontal gyrus, the pars opercularis of the left inferior frontal gyrus, the middle occipital gyrus, the right cingulate gyrus, and the medial premotor cortex. Increased apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps were detected in the left cingulate gyrus, prefrontal areas, left precentral gyrus, and left putamen. There was a negative correlation between tic severity and FA values in the left superior frontal gyrus, medial frontal gyrus bilaterally, cingulate gyrus bilaterally, and ventral posterior lateral nucleus of the right thalamus, and a positive correlation in the body of the corpus callosum, left thalamus, right superior temporal gyrus, and left parahippocampal gyrus. There was also a positive correlation between regional ADC values and tic severity in the left cingulate gyrus, putamen bilaterally, medial frontal gyrus bilaterally, left precentral gyrus, and ventral anterior nucleus of the left thalamus. Our results confirm prior studies suggesting that tics are caused by alterations in prefrontal areas, thalamus and putamen, while changes in the cingulate gyrus seem to reflect secondary compensatory mechanisms. Due to the study design, influences from comorbidities, gender, medication and age can be excluded.

  7. Tics are caused by alterations in prefrontal areas, thalamus and putamen, while changes in the cingulate gyrus reflect secondary compensatory mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite strong evidence that the pathophysiology of Tourette syndrome (TS) involves structural and functional disturbances of the basal ganglia and cortical frontal areas, findings from in vivo imaging studies have provided conflicting results. In this study we used whole brain diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to investigate the microstructural integrity of white matter pathways and brain tissue in 19 unmedicated, adult, male patients with TS “only” (without comorbid psychiatric disorders) and 20 age- and sex-matched control subjects. Results Compared to normal controls, TS patients showed a decrease in the fractional anisotropy index (FA) bilaterally in the medial frontal gyrus, the pars opercularis of the left inferior frontal gyrus, the middle occipital gyrus, the right cingulate gyrus, and the medial premotor cortex. Increased apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps were detected in the left cingulate gyrus, prefrontal areas, left precentral gyrus, and left putamen. There was a negative correlation between tic severity and FA values in the left superior frontal gyrus, medial frontal gyrus bilaterally, cingulate gyrus bilaterally, and ventral posterior lateral nucleus of the right thalamus, and a positive correlation in the body of the corpus callosum, left thalamus, right superior temporal gyrus, and left parahippocampal gyrus. There was also a positive correlation between regional ADC values and tic severity in the left cingulate gyrus, putamen bilaterally, medial frontal gyrus bilaterally, left precentral gyrus, and ventral anterior nucleus of the left thalamus. Conclusions Our results confirm prior studies suggesting that tics are caused by alterations in prefrontal areas, thalamus and putamen, while changes in the cingulate gyrus seem to reflect secondary compensatory mechanisms. Due to the study design, influences from comorbidities, gender, medication and age can be excluded. PMID:24397347

  8. (123I)β-CIT and SPECT in essential tremor and Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asenbaum, S.; Bruecke, T.; Pirker, W.; Bencsits, G.; Pruckmayer, M.; Angelberger, P.

    1997-01-01

    Resting and postural tremor may occur in essential tremor (ET) and Parkinson's disease (PD). The aim of the present study was to investigate the cocaine derivative [ 123 I] β-CIT, which labels striatal dopamine transporters, and SPECT in differentiating these diseases. Methods: 30 healthy volunteers, 32 patients with ET and 29 patients with idiopathic PD of Hoehn/Yahr stage I were investigated. Specific over nondisplaceable binding ratios (target/cerebellum-1) were calculated for the striatum, the caudate nucleus and the putamen separately as well as a ratio putamen/caudate and the percent deviation of each patient's ratio from ageexpected control values. Results: striatal ( 123 I]β-CIT binding ratios in ET were within normal ranges and showed only a discrete elevation to age-expected control values (+ 14.6 %). In PD significantly reduced specific binding was evident not only contralaterally to the clinically affected side (putamen: - 62 %, caudate nucleus: - 35 %), but also ipsilaterally (putamen: - 45 %, caudate nucleus: - 22 %). All investigated parameters differed significantly between PD and controls and ET respectively. Conclusion: imaging striatal dopamine transporters with ( 123 I)β-CIT and SPECT could clearly distinguish between ET and PD in an early stage of the disease. Findings do not suggest a subclinical involvement of dopaminergic nigrostriatal neurons in ET. (author)

  9. Inhibiting PKM[zeta] Reveals Dorsal Lateral and Dorsal Medial Striatum Store the Different Memories Needed to Support Adaptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauli, Wolfgang M.; Clark, Alexandra D.; Guenther, Heidi J.; O'Reilly, Randall C.; Rudy, Jerry W.

    2012-01-01

    Evidence suggests that two regions of the striatum contribute differential support to instrumental response selection. The dorsomedial striatum (DMS) is thought to support expectancy-mediated actions, and the dorsolateral striatum (DLS) is thought to support habits. Currently it is unclear whether these regions store task-relevant information or…

  10. Dissociation between vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 and blood vessel density in the caudate nucleus after chronic hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Abhishek; Dombrowski, Stephen M; Leichliter, Anna; Krajcir, Natalie; Zingales, Nicholas; Inoue, Masahiro; Schenk, Soren; Fukamachi, Kiyotaka; Luciano, Mark G

    2009-11-01

    Chronic hydrocephalus (CH) is characterized by the presence of ventricular enlargement, decreased cerebral blood flow (CBF), and brain tissue oxygen delivery. Although the underlying pathophysiological role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is not clear, ischemic-hypoxic events in CH are known to trigger its release. Previously, we have shown increased VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) and blood vessel density (BVd) in the hippocampus after CH. We investigated changes in neuronal and glial VEGFR-2 density and BVd in the caudate nucleus in an experimental model of CH. Animals with CH were divided into short term (ST, 2 to 4 weeks) and long term (LT, 12 to 16 weeks) and were compared with surgical controls (SCs, 12 to 16 weeks). The cellular and BVds were estimated using immunohistochemical and stereological counting methods. Overall, percentage (%)VEGFR-2 neurons were approximately two times greater in CH (ST, LT) than in SC. By comparison, glial cell %VEGFR-2 was greater by 10% to 17% in ST and 4% to 11% lower in LT compared with that in SC. Blood vessel density was significantly lower in CH than in SC in the superficial caudate. Changes in cerebrospinal fluid ventricular volume and pressure, as well as in CBF did not correlate with either VEGFR-2 or BVd. These observed findings suggest that destructive forces may outweigh angiogenic forces and possibly show a disassociation between VEGFR-2 and BV expressions.

  11. Task-related functional connectivity of the caudate mediates the association between trait mindfulness and implicit learning in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillman, Chelsea M; You, Xiaozhen; Seaman, Kendra L; Vaidya, Chandan J; Howard, James H; Howard, Darlene V

    2016-08-01

    Accumulating evidence shows a positive relationship between mindfulness and explicit cognitive functioning, i.e., that which occurs with conscious intent and awareness. However, recent evidence suggests that there may be a negative relationship between mindfulness and implicit types of learning, or those that occur without conscious awareness or intent. Here we examined the neural mechanisms underlying the recently reported negative relationship between dispositional mindfulness and implicit probabilistic sequence learning in both younger and older adults. We tested the hypothesis that the relationship is mediated by communication, or functional connectivity, of brain regions once traditionally considered to be central to dissociable learning systems: the caudate, medial temporal lobe (MTL), and prefrontal cortex (PFC). We first replicated the negative relationship between mindfulness and implicit learning in a sample of healthy older adults (60-90 years old) who completed three event-related runs of an implicit sequence learning task. Then, using a seed-based connectivity approach, we identified task-related connectivity associated with individual differences in both learning and mindfulness. The main finding was that caudate-MTL connectivity (bilaterally) was positively correlated with learning and negatively correlated with mindfulness. Further, the strength of task-related connectivity between these regions mediated the negative relationship between mindfulness and learning. This pattern of results was limited to the older adults. Thus, at least in healthy older adults, the functional communication between two interactive learning-relevant systems can account for the relationship between mindfulness and implicit probabilistic sequence learning.

  12. Ventral and Dorsal Striatum Networks in Obesity: Link to Food Craving and Weight Gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-Rodríguez, Oren; Martín-Pérez, Cristina; Vilar-López, Raquel; Verdejo-Garcia, Antonio

    2017-05-01

    The food addiction model proposes that obesity overlaps with addiction in terms of neurobiological alterations in the striatum and related clinical manifestations (i.e., craving and persistence of unhealthy habits). Therefore, we aimed to examine the functional connectivity of the striatum in excess-weight versus normal-weight subjects and to determine the extent of the association between striatum connectivity and individual differences in food craving and changes in body mass index (BMI). Forty-two excess-weight participants (BMI > 25) and 39 normal-weight participants enrolled in the study. Functional connectivity in the ventral and dorsal striatum was indicated by seed-based analyses on resting-state data. Food craving was indicated with subjective ratings of visual cues of high-calorie food. Changes in BMI between baseline and 12 weeks follow-up were assessed in 28 excess-weight participants. Measures of connectivity in the ventral striatum and dorsal striatum were compared between groups and correlated with craving and BMI change. Participants with excess weight displayed increased functional connectivity between the ventral striatum and the medial prefrontal and parietal cortices and between the dorsal striatum and the somatosensory cortex. Dorsal striatum connectivity correlated with food craving and predicted BMI gains. Obesity is linked to alterations in the functional connectivity of dorsal striatal networks relevant to food craving and weight gain. These neural alterations are associated with habit learning and thus compatible with the food addiction model of obesity. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Dorsolateral Striatum Engagement Interferes with Early Discrimination Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadley C. Bergstrom

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Summary: In current models, learning the relationship between environmental stimuli and the outcomes of actions involves both stimulus-driven and goal-directed systems, mediated in part by the DLS and DMS, respectively. However, though these models emphasize the importance of the DLS in governing actions after extensive experience has accumulated, there is growing evidence of DLS engagement from the onset of training. Here, we used in vivo photosilencing to reveal that DLS recruitment interferes with early touchscreen discrimination learning. We also show that the direct output pathway of the DLS is preferentially recruited and causally involved in early learning and find that silencing the normal contribution of the DLS produces plasticity-related alterations in a PL-DMS circuit. These data provide further evidence suggesting that the DLS is recruited in the construction of stimulus-elicited actions that ultimately automate behavior and liberate cognitive resources for other demands, but with a cost to performance at the outset of learning. : What is the contribution of the DLS in early discrimination learning? Bergstrom et al. show using in vivo optogenetics, fluorescence in situ hybridization, and brain-wide activity mapping that silencing the DLS facilitates early discrimination learning, drives activity in a parallel PL-DMS circuit, and preferentially recruits the DLS “direct” output pathway. Keywords: striatum, reward, goal-directed, habit, optogenetics, plasticity, cognition, Arc

  14. The dorsomedial striatum mediates Pavlovian appetitive conditioning and food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Sindy; Stone, Andrew D; Petrovich, Gorica D

    2017-12-01

    The dorsomedial striatum (DMS) is an important sensorimotor region mediating the acquisition of goal-directed instrumental reward learning and behavioral flexibility. However, whether the DMS also regulates Pavlovian cue-food learning is less clear. The current study used excitotoxic lesions to determine whether the DMS is critical in Pavlovian appetitive learning and behavior, using discriminative conditioning and reversal paradigms. The results showed that DMS lesions transiently retarded cue-food learning and subsequent reversal of this learning. Rats with DMS lesions selectively attenuated responding to a food cue but not a control cue, early in training, suggesting the DMS is involved when initial associations are formed. Similarly, initial reversal learning was attenuated in rats with DMS lesions, which suggests impaired flexibility to adjust behavior when the cue meaning is reversed. We also examined the effect of DMS lesions on food intake during tests with access to a highly palatable food along with standard chow diet. Rats with DMS lesions showed an altered pattern of intake, with an initial reduction in high-fat diet followed by an increase in chow consumption. These results demonstrate that the DMS has a role in mediating cue-food learning and its subsequent reversal, as well as changes in food intake when a choice is provided. Together, these results demonstrate the DMS is involved in reward associative learning and reward consumption, when behavioral flexibility is needed to adjust responding or consumption to match the current value. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Contingency learning in human fear conditioning involves the ventral striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klucken, Tim; Tabbert, Katharina; Schweckendiek, Jan; Merz, Christian Josef; Kagerer, Sabine; Vaitl, Dieter; Stark, Rudolf

    2009-11-01

    The ability to detect and learn contingencies between fearful stimuli and their predictive cues is an important capacity to cope with the environment. Contingency awareness refers to the ability to verbalize the relationships between conditioned and unconditioned stimuli. Although there is a heated debate about the influence of contingency awareness on conditioned fear responses, neural correlates behind the formation process of contingency awareness have gained only little attention in human fear conditioning. Recent animal studies indicate that the ventral striatum (VS) could be involved in this process, but in human studies the VS is mostly associated with positive emotions. To examine this question, we reanalyzed four recently published classical fear conditioning studies (n = 117) with respect to the VS at three distinct levels of contingency awareness: subjects, who did not learn the contingencies (unaware), subjects, who learned the contingencies during the experiment (learned aware) and subjects, who were informed about the contingencies in advance (instructed aware). The results showed significantly increased activations in the left and right VS in learned aware compared to unaware subjects. Interestingly, this activation pattern was only found in learned but not in instructed aware subjects. We assume that the VS is not involved when contingency awareness does not develop during conditioning or when contingency awareness is unambiguously induced already prior to conditioning. VS involvement seems to be important for the transition from a contingency unaware to a contingency aware state. Implications for fear conditioning models as well as for the contingency awareness debate are discussed.

  16. The Sensory Striatum Is Permanently Impaired by Transient Developmental Deprivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd M. Mowery

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Corticostriatal circuits play a fundamental role in regulating many behaviors, and their dysfunction is associated with many neurological disorders. In contrast, sensory disorders, like hearing loss (HL, are commonly linked with processing deficits at or below the level of the auditory cortex (ACx. However, HL can be accompanied by non-sensory deficits, such as learning delays, suggesting the involvement of regions downstream of ACx. Here, we show that transient developmental HL differentially affected the ACx and its downstream target, the sensory striatum. Following HL, both juvenile ACx layer 5 and striatal neurons displayed an excitatory-inhibitory imbalance and lower firing rates. After hearing was restored, adult ACx neurons recovered balanced excitatory-inhibitory synaptic gain and control-like firing rates, but striatal neuron synapses and firing properties did not recover. Thus, a brief period of abnormal cortical activity may induce cellular impairments that persist into adulthood and contribute to neurological disorders that are striatal in origin.

  17. Human dorsal striatum encodes prediction errors during observational learning of instrumental actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Jeffrey C; Dunne, Simon; Furey, Teresa; O'Doherty, John P

    2012-01-01

    The dorsal striatum plays a key role in the learning and expression of instrumental reward associations that are acquired through direct experience. However, not all learning about instrumental actions require direct experience. Instead, humans and other animals are also capable of acquiring instrumental actions by observing the experiences of others. In this study, we investigated the extent to which human dorsal striatum is involved in observational as well as experiential instrumental reward learning. Human participants were scanned with fMRI while they observed a confederate over a live video performing an instrumental conditioning task to obtain liquid juice rewards. Participants also performed a similar instrumental task for their own rewards. Using a computational model-based analysis, we found reward prediction errors in the dorsal striatum not only during the experiential learning condition but also during observational learning. These results suggest a key role for the dorsal striatum in learning instrumental associations, even when those associations are acquired purely by observing others.

  18. Transient alterations in neurotransmitter activity in the caudate nucleus of rat brain after a high dose of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, W.A.; Dalton, T.K.; Darden, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    A single 10,000-rad dose of high-energy electrons induced an increase in dopaminergic and cholinergic activity in the caudate nucleus of the rat brain as assessed by K + -stimulated dopamine release in vitro and high-affinity choline uptake. These alterations occur during early transient incapacitation (ETI) and dissipate as the animal recovers behaviorally, in about 30 min after irradiation. Although the responses observed resemble those that result from blockade of dopamine receptors, no radiation-induced changes were found in dopamine-sensitive adenylate cyclase activity and [ 3 H]haloperidol binding, two indices of dopaminergic receptor function. The data suggest that changes in dopaminergic and cholinergic activity are associated with the development of ETI and may play a role in the behavioral decrement observed under this condition

  19. Ventral striatum activity when watching preferred pornographic pictures is correlated with symptoms of Internet pornography addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Matthias; Snagowski, Jan; Laier, Christian; Maderwald, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    One type of Internet addiction is excessive pornography consumption, also referred to as cybersex or Internet pornography addiction. Neuroimaging studies found ventral striatum activity when participants watched explicit sexual stimuli compared to non-explicit sexual/erotic material. We now hypothesized that the ventral striatum should respond to preferred pornographic compared to non-preferred pornographic pictures and that the ventral striatum activity in this contrast should be correlated with subjective symptoms of Internet pornography addiction. We studied 19 heterosexual male participants with a picture paradigm including preferred and non-preferred pornographic materials. Subjects had to evaluate each picture with respect to arousal, unpleasantness, and closeness to ideal. Pictures from the preferred category were rated as more arousing, less unpleasant, and closer to ideal. Ventral striatum response was stronger for the preferred condition compared to non-preferred pictures. Ventral striatum activity in this contrast was correlated with the self-reported symptoms of Internet pornography addiction. The subjective symptom severity was also the only significant predictor in a regression analysis with ventral striatum response as dependent variable and subjective symptoms of Internet pornography addiction, general sexual excitability, hypersexual behavior, depression, interpersonal sensitivity, and sexual behavior in the last days as predictors. The results support the role for the ventral striatum in processing reward anticipation and gratification linked to subjectively preferred pornographic material. Mechanisms for reward anticipation in ventral striatum may contribute to a neural explanation of why individuals with certain preferences and sexual fantasies are at-risk for losing their control over Internet pornography consumption. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Diagnostic value of computed tomography for invasion toward the caudate bile duct branch in carcinoma of the hepatic hilum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagino, Masato; Nimura, Yuji; Hayakawa, Naokazu; Kamiya, Junichi; Kondoh, Satoshi; Shionoya, Shigehiko

    1988-01-01

    The visualization of the caudate bile duct branch (B 1 ) in computed tomography (CT-scan) with a high dose of contrast medium was evaluated in 71 patients with carcinoma of the liver, biliary tract and pancreas, preoperatively. The patients were classified into four groups: Group A, 22 patients (twelve hepatomas, six gall bladder cancers and four cancers of the pancreas body or tail) without abnormal findings in the biliary tract ; Group B, two patients (cancer of the pancreas head and the common bile duct) with obstructive jaundice whose CT-scans were taken before percutaneous transhepatic cholangiodrainage (PTCD) ; Group C, 22 patients (16 cancers of the pancreas head and six common bile duct cancers) whose CT-scans were taken after release of jaundice by PTCD ; Group D, 25 patients with carcinoma of the hepatic hilum whose CT-scans were taken after release of jaundice by PTCD. The results were as follows. 1) In Group A, B 1 was invisible in all the patients. 2) In Group B, B 1 was clearly visible in all the patients. But in Group C, B 1 was visible only in one patient. 3) In Group D, B 1 was visible in 19 out of 25 patients and in 18 patients out of these 19 patients, cancer invasion toward B 1 was histopathologically confirmed. In contrast, invasion was revealed only in one out of six patients whose B 1 s were invisible. From these results, it is concluded that in carcinoma of the hepatic hilum the visualization of B 1 in CT-scan after release of jaundice by PTCD strongly suggests the cancer invasion on B 1 , and requests the caudate lobe resection. (author)

  1. Hippocampus, caudate nucleus and entorhinal cortex volumetric MRI measurements in discrimination between Alzheimer’s disease, mild cognitive impairment, and normal aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasha Elshafey

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Semi-automated MR volumetric measurements can be used to determine atrophy in hippocampus, caudate nucleus and entorhinal cortex which aided in discrimination of healthy elderly control subjects from subjects with AD and MCI and predict clinical decline of MCI leading to increase the efficiency of clinical treatments, delay institutionalization and improve cognition and behavioral symptoms.

  2. Diminished caudate and superior temporal gyrus responses to effort-based decision making in patients with first-episode major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin-hua; Huang, Jia; Lan, Yong; Zhu, Cui-ying; Liu, Xiao-qun; Wang, Ye-fei; Cheung, Eric F C; Xie, Guang-rong; Chan, Raymond C K

    2016-01-04

    Anhedonia, the loss of interest or pleasure in reward processing, is a hallmark feature of major depressive disorder (MDD), but its underlying neurobiological mechanism is largely unknown. The present study aimed to examine the underlying neural mechanism of reward-related decision-making in patients with MDD. We examined behavioral and neural responses to rewards in patients with first-episode MDD (N=25) and healthy controls (N=25) using the Effort-Expenditure for Rewards Task (EEfRT). The task involved choices about possible rewards of varying magnitude and probability. We tested the hypothesis that individuals with MDD would exhibit a reduced neural response in reward-related brain structures involved in cost-benefit decision-making. Compared with healthy controls, patients with MDD showed significantly weaker responses in the left caudate nucleus when contrasting the 'high reward'-'low reward' condition, and blunted responses in the left superior temporal gyrus and the right caudate nucleus when contrasting high and low probabilities. In addition, hard tasks chosen during high probability trials were negatively correlated with superior temporal gyrus activity in MDD patients, while the same choices were negatively correlated with caudate nucleus activity in healthy controls. These results indicate that reduced caudate nucleus and superior temporal gyrus activation may underpin abnormal cost-benefit decision-making in MDD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Wernicke's encephalopathy induced by total parenteral nutrition in patient with acute leukaemia: unusual involvement of caudate nuclei and cerebral cortex on MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Aprile, P.; Tarantino, A.; Carella, A. [Division of Neuroradiology, Policlinico, Univ. of Bari (Italy); Santoro, N. [Inst. of Paediatric Clinic I, Policlinico, University of Bari, Bari (Italy)

    2000-10-01

    We report a 13-year-old girl with leukaemia and Wernicke's encephalopathy induced by total parenteral nutrition. MRI showed unusual bilateral lesions of the caudate nuclei and cerebral cortex, as well as typical lesions surrounding the third ventricle and aqueduct. After intravenous thiamine, the patient improved, and the abnormalities on MRI disappeared. (orig.)

  4. Oxycodone Self-Administration Induces Alterations in Expression of Integrin, Semaphorin and Ephrin Genes in the Mouse Striatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim Yuferov

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Oxycodone is one a commonly used medication for pain, and is also a widely abused prescription opioid, like other short-acting MOPr agonists. Neurochemical and structural adaptations in brain following chronic MOPr-agonist administration are thought to underlie pathogenesis and persistence of opiate addiction. Many axon guidance molecules, such as integrins, semaphorins, and ephrins may contribute to oxycodone-induced neuroadaptations through alterations in axon-target connections and synaptogenesis, that may be implicated in the behaviors associated with opiate addiction. However, little is known about this important area. The aim of this study is to investigate alterations in expression of selected integrin, semaphorin, ephrins, netrin, and slit genes in the nucleus accumbens (NAc and caudate putamen (CPu of mice following extended 14-day oxycodone self-administration (SA, using RNAseq.Methods: Total RNA from the NAc and CPu were isolated from adult male C57BL/6J mice within 1 h after the last session of oxycodone in a 14-day self-administration paradigm (4h/day, 0.25 mg/kg/infusion, FR1 or from yoked saline controls. Gene expressions were examined using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq technology. RNA-Seq libraries were prepared using Illumina's TruSeq® Stranded Total RNA LT kit. The reads were aligned to the mouse reference genome (version mm10 using STAR. DESeq2 was applied to the counts of protein coding genes to estimate the fold change between the treatment groups. False Discovery Rate (FDR q < 0.1 were used to select genes that have a significant expression change. For selection of a subset of genes related to axon guidance pathway, REACTOME was used.Results: Among 38 known genes of the integrin, semaphorin, and ephrin gene families, RNA-seq data revealed up-regulation of six genes in the NAc: heterodimer receptor, integrins Itgal, Itgb2, and Itgam, and its ligand semaphorin Sema7a, two semaphorin receptors, plexins Plxnd1 and Plxdc1. There was

  5. BAS-drive trait modulates dorsomedial striatum activity during reward response-outcome associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costumero, Víctor; Barrós-Loscertales, Alfonso; Fuentes, Paola; Rosell-Negre, Patricia; Bustamante, Juan Carlos; Ávila, César

    2016-09-01

    According to the Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory, behavioral studies have found that individuals with stronger reward sensitivity easily detect cues of reward and establish faster associations between instrumental responses and reward. Neuroimaging studies have shown that processing anticipatory cues of reward is accompanied by stronger ventral striatum activity in individuals with stronger reward sensitivity. Even though establishing response-outcome contingencies has been consistently associated with dorsal striatum, individual differences in this process are poorly understood. Here, we aimed to study the relation between reward sensitivity and brain activity while processing response-reward contingencies. Forty-five participants completed the BIS/BAS questionnaire and performed a gambling task paradigm in which they received monetary rewards or punishments. Overall, our task replicated previous results that have related processing high reward outcomes with activation of striatum and medial frontal areas, whereas processing high punishment outcomes was associated with stronger activity in insula and middle cingulate. As expected, the individual differences in the activity of dorsomedial striatum correlated positively with BAS-Drive. Our results agree with previous studies that have related the dorsomedial striatum with instrumental performance, and suggest that the individual differences in this area may form part of the neural substrate responsible for modulating instrumental conditioning by reward sensitivity.

  6. Dopamine neurons projecting to the posterior striatum form an anatomically distinct subclass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menegas, William; Bergan, Joseph F; Ogawa, Sachie K; Isogai, Yoh; Umadevi Venkataraju, Kannan; Osten, Pavel; Uchida, Naoshige; Watabe-Uchida, Mitsuko

    2015-01-01

    Combining rabies-virus tracing, optical clearing (CLARITY), and whole-brain light-sheet imaging, we mapped the monosynaptic inputs to midbrain dopamine neurons projecting to different targets (different parts of the striatum, cortex, amygdala, etc) in mice. We found that most populations of dopamine neurons receive a similar set of inputs rather than forming strong reciprocal connections with their target areas. A common feature among most populations of dopamine neurons was the existence of dense ‘clusters’ of inputs within the ventral striatum. However, we found that dopamine neurons projecting to the posterior striatum were outliers, receiving relatively few inputs from the ventral striatum and instead receiving more inputs from the globus pallidus, subthalamic nucleus, and zona incerta. These results lay a foundation for understanding the input/output structure of the midbrain dopamine circuit and demonstrate that dopamine neurons projecting to the posterior striatum constitute a unique class of dopamine neurons regulated by different inputs. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10032.001 PMID:26322384

  7. Memory-Guided Attention: Independent Contributions of the Hippocampus and Striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, Elizabeth V; Chun, Marvin M; Phelps, Elizabeth A

    2016-01-20

    Memory can strongly influence how attention is deployed in future encounters. Though memory dependent on the medial temporal lobes has been shown to drive attention, how other memory systems could concurrently and comparably enhance attention is less clear. Here, we demonstrate that both reinforcement learning and context memory facilitate attention in a visual search task. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we dissociate the mechanisms by which these memories guide attention: trial by trial, the hippocampus (not the striatum) predicted attention benefits from context memory, while the striatum (not the hippocampus) predicted facilitation from rewarded stimulus-response associations. Responses in these regions were also distinctly correlated with individual differences in each type of memory-guided attention. This study provides novel evidence for the role of the striatum in guiding attention, dissociable from hippocampus-dependent context memory.

  8. Habit formation coincides with shifts in reinforcement representations in the sensorimotor striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kyle S; Graybiel, Ann M

    2016-03-01

    Evaluating outcomes of behavior is a central function of the striatum. In circuits engaging the dorsomedial striatum, sensitivity to goal value is accentuated during learning, whereas outcome sensitivity is thought to be minimal in the dorsolateral striatum and its habit-related corticostriatal circuits. However, a distinct population of projection neurons in the dorsolateral striatum exhibits selective sensitivity to rewards. Here, we evaluated the outcome-related signaling in such neurons as rats performed an instructional T-maze task for two rewards. As the rats formed maze-running habits and then changed behavior after reward devaluation, we detected outcome-related spike activity in 116 units out of 1,479 recorded units. During initial training, nearly equal numbers of these units fired preferentially either after rewarded runs or after unrewarded runs, and the majority were responsive at only one of two reward locations. With overtraining, as habits formed, firing in nonrewarded trials almost disappeared, and reward-specific firing declined. Thus error-related signaling was lost, and reward signaling became generalized. Following reward devaluation, in an extinction test, postgoal activity was nearly undetectable, despite accurate running. Strikingly, when rewards were then returned, postgoal activity reappeared and recapitulated the original early response pattern, with nearly equal numbers responding to rewarded and unrewarded runs and to single rewards. These findings demonstrate that outcome evaluation in the dorsolateral striatum is highly plastic and tracks stages of behavioral exploration and exploitation. These signals could be a new target for understanding compulsive behaviors that involve changes to dorsal striatum function. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Lateralization and gender differences in the dopaminergic response to unpredictable reward in the human ventral striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Soelch, Chantal; Szczepanik, Joanna; Nugent, Allison; Barhaghi, Krystle; Rallis, Denise; Herscovitch, Peter; Carson, Richard E; Drevets, Wayne C

    2011-05-01

    Electrophysiological studies have shown that mesostriatal dopamine (DA) neurons increase activity in response to unpredicted rewards. With respect to other functions of the mesostriatal dopaminergic system, dopamine's actions show prominent laterality effects. Whether changes in DA transmission elicited by rewards also are lateralized, however, has not been investigated. Using [¹¹C]raclopride-PET to assess the striatal DA response to unpredictable monetary rewards, we hypothesized that such rewards would induce an asymmetric reduction in [¹¹C]raclopride binding in the ventral striatum, reflecting lateralization of endogenous dopamine release. In 24 healthy volunteers, differences in the regional D₂/₃ receptor binding potential (ΔBP) between an unpredictable reward condition and a sensorimotor control condition were measured using the bolus-plus-constant-infusion [¹¹C]raclopride method. During the reward condition subjects randomly received monetary awards while performing a 'slot-machine' task. The ΔBP between conditions was assessed in striatal regions-of-interest and compared between left and right sides. We found a significant condition × lateralization interaction in the ventral striatum. A significant reduction in binding potential (BP(ND) ) in the reward condition vs. the control condition was found only in the right ventral striatum, and the ΔBP was greater in the right than the left ventral striatum. Unexpectedly, these laterality effects appeared to be partly accounted for by gender differences, as our data showed a significant bilateral BP(ND) reduction in women while in men the reduction reached significance only in the right ventral striatum. These data suggest that DA release in response to unpredictable reward is lateralized in the human ventral striatum, particularly in males. © 2011 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2011 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Differences between Dorsal and Ventral Striatum in the Sensitivity of Tonically Active Neurons to Rewarding Events

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    Kevin Marche

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Within the striatum, cholinergic interneurons, electrophysiologically identified as tonically active neurons (TANs, represent a relatively homogeneous group in terms of their functional properties. They display typical pause in tonic firing in response to rewarding events which are of crucial importance for reinforcement learning. These responses are uniformly distributed throughout the dorsal striatum (i.e., motor and associative striatum, but it is unknown, at least in monkeys, whether differences in the modulation of TAN activity exist in the ventral striatum (i.e., limbic striatum, a region specialized for processing of motivational information. To address this issue, we examined the activity of dorsal and ventral TANs in two monkeys trained on a Pavlovian conditioning task in which a visual stimulus preceded the delivery of liquid reward by a fixed time interval. We found that the proportion of TANs responding to the stimulus predictive of reward did not vary significantly across regions (58%–80%, whereas the fraction of TANs responding to reward was higher in the limbic striatum (100% compared to the motor (65% and associative striatum (52%. By examining TAN modulation at the level of both the population and the individual neurons, we showed that the duration of pause responses to the stimulus and reward was longer in the ventral than in the dorsal striatal regions. Also, the magnitude of the pause was greater in ventral than dorsal striatum for the stimulus predictive of reward but not for the reward itself. We found similar region-specific differences in pause response duration to the stimulus when the timing of reward was less predictable (fixed replaced by variable time interval. Regional variations in the duration and magnitude of the pause response were transferred from the stimulus to reward when reward was delivered in the absence of any predictive stimulus. It therefore appears that ventral TANs exhibit stronger responses to

  11. Effects of Bilateral Electrolytic Lesions of the Dorsomedial Striatum on Motor Behavior and Instrumental Learning in Rats

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    Pamphyle Abedi Mukutenga

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The dorsal striatum plays an important role in the control of motor activity and learning processes within the basal ganglia circuitry. Furthermore, recent works have suggested functional differentiation between subregions of the dorsal striatum Methods: The present study examined the effects of bilateral electrolytic lesions of the dorsomedial striatum on motor behavior and learning ability in rats using a series of behavioral tests. 20 male wistar rats were used in the experiment and behavioral assessment were conducted using open field test, rotarod test and 8-arm radial maze. Results: In the open field test, rats with bilateral electrolytic lesions of the dorsomedial striatum showed a normal motor function in the horizontal locomotor activity, while in rearing activity they displayed a statistically significant motor impairment when compared to sham operated group. In the rotarod test, a deficit in motor coordination and acquisition of skilled behavior was observed in rats with bilateral electrolytic lesions of the dorsomedial striatum compared to sham. However, radial maze performance revealed similar capacity in the acquisition of learning task between experimental groups. Discussion: Our results support the premise of the existence of functional dissociation between the dorsomedial and the dorsolateral regions of the dorsal striatum. In addition, our data suggest that the associative dorsomedial striatum may be as critical in striatum-based motor control.

  12. Arterial blood supply to the caudate lobe of the liver from the proximal branches of the right inferior phrenic artery in patients with recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma after chemoembolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyayama, Shiro; Yamashiro, Masashi; Shibata, Yoshihiro; Hashimoto, Masahiro; Yoshida, Miki; Tsuji, Kazunobu; Toshima, Fumihito; Matsui, Osamu

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the arterial blood supply to the caudate lobe of the liver from the proximal branches of the right inferior phrenic artery (RIPA) in patients with recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE). Thirteen patients, including 10 who had a history of TACE of the caudate artery (A1), underwent TACE of the proximal RIPA branches. Iodized oil distribution was evaluated by computed tomography (CT) 1-week after TACE. Angiographic findings were also evaluated. Previously embolized A1 was occluded (n=15) or attenuated (n=2). In one of three patients without A1 TACE, A1 was also attenuated. TACE was performed at the first branch of the proximal RIPA (n=8), the first branch of the anterior branch (n=6), and the first branch of the posterior branch (n=1), respectively. Iodized oil was mainly distributed into the dorsal part of the Siegel lobe (SP) (n=10), the caudate process (n=1), and both (n=2). In three of seven patients who had undergone serial RIPA angiography, RIPA parasitization to SP was suspected before A1 TACE. The proximal RIPA branches mainly supply the SP when A1 is attenuated. (author)

  13. Relationship of striatal 99Tcm-TRODAT-1 specific uptake and motor's severity in patients with Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bian Yanzhu; Liu Huang; Feng Jue; Wei Qiang; Li Jinfu; Liu Guozhang

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship of striatal 99 Tc m -2β-((N, N'-bis (2-mercap-toethyl) ethylene diamino) methyl), 3β-(4-chlorophenyl) tropane, ( 99 Tc m -TRODAT-1) specific uptake values (SUVs) and motor's severity in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods: 35 patients with PD were examined by 99 Tc m -TRODAT-1 SPECT dopamine transporter brain imaging. The SUVs of the striatum and its subregions, including the putamen and caudate nucleus, were calculated by semi-quantity region of interest (ROI) technique with the radiation ratios of target/cerebellum. Motor's severity of PD was measured by Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). Motor UPDRS scores were divided into four subscales, bradykinesia scores, rigidity scores, postural instability scores and tremor scores. Results: SUVs of putamen correlated best with the motor UPDRS scores(r=-0.846, P<0.001), followed by that of striatum and caudate nucleus. Among the four major clinical signs of PD, the bradykinesia scores (X1) correlated best with SUVs of putamen(r=-0.858, P<0.001), followed by rigidity scores (X2) and postural instability scores. There was no significant correlation between tremor scores and SUVs of putamen (Y). A regression equation (Y=2.345-0.0418 X1-0.0580 X2) was founded by stepwise multiple linear regression analysis. Conclusions: The SUVs of striatum (especially SUVs of putamen) was a useful marker to evaluate the motor's severity of PD and monitor the progression of PD. (authors)

  14. Contralateral Disconnection of the Rat Prelimbic Cortex and Dorsomedial Striatum Impairs Cue-Guided Behavioral Switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Phillip M.; Ragozzino, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Switches in reward outcomes or reward-predictive cues are two fundamental ways in which information is used to flexibly shift response patterns. The rat prelimbic cortex and dorsomedial striatum support behavioral flexibility based on a change in outcomes. The present experiments investigated whether these two brain regions are necessary for…

  15. [Single and combining effects of Calculus Bovis and zolpidem on inhibitive neurotransmitter of rat striatum corpora].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ping; He, Xinrong; Guo, Mei

    2010-04-01

    To investigate the correlation effects between single or combined administration of Calculus Bovis or zolpidem and changes of inhibitive neurotransmitter in rat striatum corpora. Sampling from rat striatum corpora was carried out through microdialysis. The content of two inhibitive neurotransmitters in rat corpus striatum- glycine (Gly) and gama aminobutyric acid (GABA), was determined by HPLC, which involved pre-column derivation with orthophthaladehyde, reversed-phase gradient elution and fluorescence detection. GABA content of rat striatum corpora in Calculus Bovis group was significantly increased compared with saline group (P Calculus Boris plus zolpidem group were increased largely compared with saline group as well (P Calculus Bovis group was higher than combination group (P Calculus Bovis or zolpidem group was markedly increased compared with saline group or combination group (P Calculus Bovis group, zolpidem group and combination group. The magnitude of increase was lower in combination group than in Calculus Bovis group and Zolpidem group, suggesting that Calculus Bovis promoted encephalon inhibition is more powerful than zolpidem. The increase in two inhibitive neurotransmitters did not show reinforcing effect in combination group, suggesting that Calculus Bovis and zolpidem may compete the same receptors. Therefore, combination of Calculus Bovis containing drugs and zolpidem has no clinical significance. Calculus Bovis shouldn't as an aperture-opening drugs be used for resuscitation therapy.

  16. Ventral striatum and amygdala activity as convergence sites for early adversity and conduct disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holz, N.E.; Boecker-Schlier, R.; Buchmann, A.F.; Blomeyer, D.; Jennen-Steinmetz, C.; Baumeister, S.; Plichta, M.M.; Cattrell, A.; Schumann, G.; Esser, G.; Schmidt, M.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Meyer-Lindenberg, A.; Banaschewski, T.; Brandeis, D.; Laucht, M.

    2017-01-01

    Childhood family adversity (CFA) increases the risk for conduct disorder (CD) and has been associated with alterations in regions of affective processing like ventral striatum (VS) and amygdala. However, no study so far has demonstrated neural converging effects of CFA and CD in the same sample. At

  17. Materials as regard about ecology and spreading of lycodine striatum bicolor nik in Tajikistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattorov, T.S.; Khidirov, Kh.; Mukhammadkulov, M.

    2003-01-01

    In this article is placed new scientific information about biology, ecology and spreading of Lycodine striatum bicolor within the territory of Tajikistan. Finding available in this article concerning spreading of flus snake are considered to be new. This scarce snake was discovered for the first time in Northern part of Tajikistan. This new information will enrich our notions about Reptile fauna of Tajikistan

  18. Extensive training and hippocampus or striatum lesions: effect on place and response strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Tara K; Gruenbaum, Benjamin F; Markus, Etan J

    2012-02-01

    The hippocampus has been linked to spatial navigation and the striatum to response learning. The current study focuses on how these brain regions continue to interact when an animal is very familiar with the task and the environment and must continuously switch between navigation strategies. Rats were trained to solve a plus maze using a place or a response strategy on different trials within a testing session. A room cue (illumination) was used to indicate which strategy should be used on a given trial. After extensive training, animals underwent dorsal hippocampus, dorsal lateral striatum or sham lesions. As expected hippocampal lesions predominantly caused impairment on place but not response trials. Striatal lesions increased errors on both place and response trials. Competition between systems was assessed by determining error type. Pre-lesion and sham animals primarily made errors to arms associated with the wrong (alternative) strategy, this was not found after lesions. The data suggest a qualitative change in the relationship between hippocampal and striatal systems as a task is well learned. During acquisition the two systems work in parallel, competing with each other. After task acquisition, the two systems become more integrated and interdependent. The fact that with extensive training (as something becomes a "habit"), behaviors become dependent upon the dorsal lateral striatum has been previously shown. The current findings indicate that dorsal lateral striatum involvement occurs even when the behavior is spatial and continues to require hippocampal processing. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Excessive D1 Dopamine Receptor Activation in the Dorsal Striatum Promotes Autistic-Like Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yunjin; Kim, Hannah; Kim, Ji-Eun; Park, Jin-Young; Choi, Juli; Lee, Jung-Eun; Lee, Eun-Hwa; Han, Pyung-Lim

    2018-07-01

    The dopamine system has been characterized in motor function, goal-directed behaviors, and rewards. Recent studies recognize various dopamine system genes as being associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, how dopamine system dysfunction induces ASD pathophysiology remains unknown. In the present study, we demonstrated that mice with increased dopamine functions in the dorsal striatum via the suppression of dopamine transporter expression in substantia nigra neurons or the optogenetic stimulation of the nigro-striatal circuitry exhibited sociability deficits and repetitive behaviors relevant to ASD pathology in animal models, while these behavioral changes were blocked by a D1 receptor antagonist. Pharmacological activation of D1 dopamine receptors in normal mice or the genetic knockout (KO) of D2 dopamine receptors also produced typical autistic-like behaviors. Moreover, the siRNA-mediated inhibition of D2 dopamine receptors in the dorsal striatum was sufficient to replicate autistic-like phenotypes in D2 KO mice. Intervention of D1 dopamine receptor functions or the signaling pathways-related D1 receptors in D2 KO mice produced anti-autistic effects. Together, our results indicate that increased dopamine function in the dorsal striatum promotes autistic-like behaviors and that the dorsal striatum is the neural correlate of ASD core symptoms.

  20. Anatomical Inputs From the Sensory and Value Structures to the Tail of the Rat Striatum

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    Haiyan Jiang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The caudal region of the rodent striatum, called the tail of the striatum (TS, is a relatively small area but might have a distinct function from other striatal subregions. Recent primate studies showed that this part of the striatum has a unique function in encoding long-term value memory of visual objects for habitual behavior. This function might be due to its specific connectivity. We identified inputs to the rat TS and compared those with inputs to the dorsomedial striatum (DMS in the same animals. The TS directly received anatomical inputs from both sensory structures and value-coding regions, but the DMS did not. First, inputs from the sensory cortex and sensory thalamus to the TS were found; visual, auditory, somatosensory and gustatory cortex and thalamus projected to the TS but not to the DMS. Second, two value systems innervated the TS; dopamine and serotonin neurons in the lateral part of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc and dorsal raphe nucleus projected to the TS, respectively. The DMS received inputs from the separate group of dopamine neurons in the medial part of the SNc. In addition, learning-related regions of the limbic system innervated the TS; the temporal areas and the basolateral amygdala selectively innervated the TS, but not the DMS. Our data showed that both sensory and value-processing structures innervated the TS, suggesting its plausible role in value-guided sensory-motor association for habitual behavior.

  1. Sensory Processing in the Dorsolateral Striatum: The Contribution of Thalamostriatal Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin D. Alloway

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The dorsal striatum has two functionally-defined subdivisions: a dorsomedial striatum (DMS region involved in mediating goal-directed behaviors that require conscious effort, and a dorsolateral striatum (DLS region involved in the execution of habitual behaviors in a familiar sensory context. Consistent with its presumed role in forming stimulus-response (S-R associations, neurons in DLS receive massive inputs from sensorimotor cortex and are responsive to both active and passive sensory stimulation. While several studies have established that corticostriatal inputs contribute to the stimulus-induced responses observed in the DLS, there is growing awareness that the thalamus has a significant role in conveying sensory-related information to DLS and other parts of the striatum. The thalamostriatal projections to DLS originate mainly from the caudal intralaminar region, which contains the parafascicular (Pf nucleus, and from higher-order thalamic nuclei such as the medial part of the posterior (POm nucleus. Based on recent findings, we hypothesize that the thalamostriatal projections from these two regions exert opposing influences on the expression of behavioral habits. This article reviews the subcortical circuits that regulate the transmission of sensory information through these thalamostriatal projection systems, and describes the evidence that indicates these circuits could be manipulated to ameliorate the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease (PD and related neurological disorders.

  2. Hippocampal projections to the ventral striatum: from spatial memory to motivated behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, M.M.A; Ito, R.; Lansink, C.S.; Pennartz, C.M.A.; Derdikman, D.; Knierim, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple regions of the hippocampal formation project to the ventral striatum, a central node in brain circuits that subserve aspects of motivation. These projections emphasize information flow from the ventral (temporal) pole of the hippocampus and interact with converging projections and

  3. Stress Induces a Shift Towards Striatum-Dependent Stimulus-Response Learning via the Mineralocorticoid Receptor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, S.; Klumpers, F.; Navarro Schröder, T.; Oplaat, K.T.; Krugers, H.J.; Oitzl, M.S.; Joëls, M.; Doeller, C.F.; Fernández, G.

    2017-01-01

    Stress is assumed to cause a shift from flexible 'cognitive' memory to more rigid 'habit' memory. In the spatial memory domain, stress impairs place learning depending on the hippocampus whereas stimulus-response learning based on the striatum appears to be improved. While the neural basis of this

  4. Stress induces a shift towards striatum-dependent stimulus-response learning via the mineralocorticoid receptor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, S.; Klumpers, F.; Navarro Schröder, T.; Oplaat, K.T.; Krugers, H.J.; Oitzl, M.S.; Joëls, M.; Doeller, C.F.; Fernandez, G.

    2017-01-01

    Stress is assumed to cause a shift from flexible 'cognitive' memory to more rigid 'habit' memory. In the spatial memory domain, stress impairs place learning depending on the hippocampus whereas stimulus-response learning based on the striatum appears to be improved. While the neural basis of this

  5. Stress Induces a Shift Towards Striatum-Dependent Stimulus-Response Learning via the Mineralocorticoid Receptor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, Susanne; Klumpers, Floris; Schroeder, Tobias Navarro; Oplaat, Krista T.; Krugers, Harm J.; Oitzl, Melly S.; Joels, Marian; Doeller, Christian F.; Fernandez, Guillen

    Stress is assumed to cause a shift from flexible 'cognitive' memory to more rigid 'habit' memory. In the spatial memory domain, stress impairs place learning depending on the hippocampus whereas stimulus-response learning based on the striatum appears to be improved. While the neural basis of this

  6. Sensory Processing in the Dorsolateral Striatum: The Contribution of Thalamostriatal Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alloway, Kevin D.; Smith, Jared B.; Mowery, Todd M.; Watson, Glenn D. R.

    2017-01-01

    The dorsal striatum has two functionally-defined subdivisions: a dorsomedial striatum (DMS) region involved in mediating goal-directed behaviors that require conscious effort, and a dorsolateral striatum (DLS) region involved in the execution of habitual behaviors in a familiar sensory context. Consistent with its presumed role in forming stimulus-response (S-R) associations, neurons in DLS receive massive inputs from sensorimotor cortex and are responsive to both active and passive sensory stimulation. While several studies have established that corticostriatal inputs contribute to the stimulus-induced responses observed in the DLS, there is growing awareness that the thalamus has a significant role in conveying sensory-related information to DLS and other parts of the striatum. The thalamostriatal projections to DLS originate mainly from the caudal intralaminar region, which contains the parafascicular (Pf) nucleus, and from higher-order thalamic nuclei such as the medial part of the posterior (POm) nucleus. Based on recent findings, we hypothesize that the thalamostriatal projections from these two regions exert opposing influences on the expression of behavioral habits. This article reviews the subcortical circuits that regulate the transmission of sensory information through these thalamostriatal projection systems, and describes the evidence that indicates these circuits could be manipulated to ameliorate the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and related neurological disorders. PMID:28790899

  7. Interaction of Instrumental and Goal-Directed Learning Modulates Prediction Error Representations in the Ventral Striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Rong; Böhmer, Wendelin; Hebart, Martin; Chien, Samson; Sommer, Tobias; Obermayer, Klaus; Gläscher, Jan

    2016-12-14

    Goal-directed and instrumental learning are both important controllers of human behavior. Learning about which stimulus event occurs in the environment and the reward associated with them allows humans to seek out the most valuable stimulus and move through the environment in a goal-directed manner. Stimulus-response associations are characteristic of instrumental learning, whereas response-outcome associations are the hallmark of goal-directed learning. Here we provide behavioral, computational, and neuroimaging results from a novel task in which stimulus-response and response-outcome associations are learned simultaneously but dominate behavior at different stages of the experiment. We found that prediction error representations in the ventral striatum depend on which type of learning dominates. Furthermore, the amygdala tracks the time-dependent weighting of stimulus-response versus response-outcome learning. Our findings suggest that the goal-directed and instrumental controllers dynamically engage the ventral striatum in representing prediction errors whenever one of them is dominating choice behavior. Converging evidence in human neuroimaging studies has shown that the reward prediction errors are correlated with activity in the ventral striatum. Our results demonstrate that this region is simultaneously correlated with a stimulus prediction error. Furthermore, the learning system that is currently dominating behavioral choice dynamically engages the ventral striatum for computing its prediction errors. This demonstrates that the prediction error representations are highly dynamic and influenced by various experimental context. This finding points to a general role of the ventral striatum in detecting expectancy violations and encoding error signals regardless of the specific nature of the reinforcer itself. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/3612650-11$15.00/0.

  8. Quantitative Imaging of Cholinergic Interneurons Reveals a Distinctive Spatial Organization and a Functional Gradient across the Mouse Striatum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Matamales

    Full Text Available Information processing in the striatum requires the postsynaptic integration of glutamatergic and dopaminergic signals, which are then relayed to the output nuclei of the basal ganglia to influence behavior. Although cellularly homogeneous in appearance, the striatum contains several rare interneuron populations which tightly modulate striatal function. Of these, cholinergic interneurons (CINs have been recently shown to play a critical role in the control of reward-related learning; however how the striatal cholinergic network is functionally organized at the mesoscopic level and the way this organization influences striatal function remains poorly understood. Here, we systematically mapped and digitally reconstructed the entire ensemble of CINs in the mouse striatum and quantitatively assessed differences in densities, spatial arrangement and neuropil content across striatal functional territories. This approach demonstrated that the rostral portion of the striatum contained a higher concentration of CINs than the caudal striatum and that the cholinergic content in the core of the ventral striatum was significantly lower than in the rest of the regions. Additionally, statistical comparison of spatial point patterns in the striatal cholinergic ensemble revealed that only a minor portion of CINs (17% aggregated into cluster and that they were predominantly organized in a random fashion. Furthermore, we used a fluorescence reporter to estimate the activity of over two thousand CINs in naïve mice and found that there was a decreasing gradient of CIN overall function along the dorsomedial-to-ventrolateral axis, which appeared to be independent of their propensity to aggregate within the striatum. Altogether this work suggests that the regulation of striatal function by acetylcholine across the striatum is highly heterogeneous, and that signals originating in external afferent systems may be principally determining the function of CINs in the

  9. METHAMPHETAMINE-INDUCED CELL DEATH: SELECTIVE VULNERABILITY IN NEURONAL SUBPOPULATIONS OF THE STRIATUM IN MICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZHU, J. P. Q.; XU, W.; ANGULO, J. A.

    2010-01-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) is an illicit and potent psychostimulant, which acts as an indirect dopamine agonist. In the striatum, METH has been shown to cause long lasting neurotoxic damage to dopaminergic nerve terminals and recently, the degeneration and death of striatal cells. The present study was undertaken to identify the type of striatal neurons that undergo apoptosis after METH. Male mice received a single high dose of METH (30 mg/kg, i.p.) and were killed 24 h later. To demonstrate that METH induces apoptosis in neurons, we combined terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining with immunohistofluorescence for the neuronal marker neuron-specific nuclear protein (NeuN). Staining for TUNEL and NeuN was colocalized throughout the striatum. METH induces apoptosis in approximately 25% of striatal neurons. Cell counts of TUNEL-positive neurons in the dorsomedial, ventromedial, dorsolateral and ventrolateral quadrants of the striatum did not reveal anatomical preference. The type of striatal neuron undergoing cell death was determined by combining TUNEL with immunohistofluorescence for selective markers of striatal neurons: dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein, of apparent Mr 32,000, parvalbumin, choline acetyltransferase and somatostatin (SST). METH induces apoptosis in approximately 21% of dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein, of apparent Mr 32,000-positive neurons (projection neurons), 45% of GABA-parvalbumin-positive neurons in the dorsal striatum, and 29% of cholinergic neurons in the dorsal–medial striatum. In contrast, the SST-positive interneurons were refractory to METH-induced apoptosis. Finally, the amount of cell loss determined with Nissl staining correlated with the amount of TUNEL staining in the striatum of METH-treated animals. In conclusion, some of the striatal projection neurons and the GABA-parvalbumin and cholinergic interneurons were removed by apoptosis in the aftermath of METH. This

  10. The Neural Representation of Goal-Directed Actions and Outcomes in the Ventral Striatum's Olfactory Tubercle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadziola, Marie A.

    2016-01-01

    The ventral striatum is critical for evaluating reward information and the initiation of goal-directed behaviors. The many cellular, afferent, and efferent similarities between the ventral striatum's nucleus accumbens and olfactory tubercle (OT) suggests the distributed involvement of neurons within the ventral striatopallidal complex in motivated behaviors. Although the nucleus accumbens has an established role in representing goal-directed actions and their outcomes, it is not known whether this function is localized within the nucleus accumbens or distributed also within the OT. Answering such a fundamental question will expand our understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying motivated behaviors. Here we address whether the OT encodes natural reinforcers and serves as a substrate for motivational information processing. In recordings from mice engaged in a novel water-motivated instrumental task, we report that OT neurons modulate their firing rate during initiation and progression of the instrumental licking behavior, with some activity being internally generated and preceding the first lick. We further found that as motivational drive decreases throughout a session, the activity of OT neurons is enhanced earlier relative to the behavioral action. Additionally, OT neurons discriminate the types and magnitudes of fluid reinforcers. Together, these data suggest that the processing of reward information and the orchestration of goal-directed behaviors is a global principle of the ventral striatum and have important implications for understanding the neural systems subserving addiction and mood disorders. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Goal-directed behaviors are widespread among animals and underlie complex behaviors ranging from food intake, social behavior, and even pathological conditions, such as gambling and drug addiction. The ventral striatum is a neural system critical for evaluating reward information and the initiation of goal-directed behaviors. Here we

  11. Effect of ginseng saponina on nicotine-induced dopamine release in the rat nucleus accumbens and striatum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Eun [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shim, In Sop [Kyunghee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-10-01

    We investigated the effect of ginseng total saponin (GTS) on nicotine-induced dopamine (DA) release in the striatum and nucleus accumbens of freely moving rats using in vivo microdialysis technique. Systemic pretreatment with GTS decreased striatal DA release induced by local infusion of nicotine into the striatum. However, GTS had no effect on the resting levels of extracellular DA in the striatum. GTS also blocked nicotine-induced DA release in the nucleus accumbens. The results of the present study suggest that GTS acts on the DA terminals to prevent DA release induced by nicotine. This may reflect the blocking effect of GTS on behavioral hyperactivity induced by psychostimulants.

  12. Effect of ginseng saponina on nicotine-induced dopamine release in the rat nucleus accumbens and striatum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang Eun; Shim, In Sop; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the effect of ginseng total saponin (GTS) on nicotine-induced dopamine (DA) release in the striatum and nucleus accumbens of freely moving rats using in vivo microdialysis technique. Systemic pretreatment with GTS decreased striatal DA release induced by local infusion of nicotine into the striatum. However, GTS had no effect on the resting levels of extracellular DA in the striatum. GTS also blocked nicotine-induced DA release in the nucleus accumbens. The results of the present study suggest that GTS acts on the DA terminals to prevent DA release induced by nicotine. This may reflect the blocking effect of GTS on behavioral hyperactivity induced by psychostimulants

  13. The measurement of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic function and glucose metabolism in patients with movement disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otsuka, Makoto; Ichiya, Yuichi; Kuwabara, Yasuo; Sasaki, Masayuki; Fukumura, Toshimitsu; Masuda, Kouji; Shima, Fumio; Kato, Motohiro (Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1992-12-01

    The nigrostriatal dopaminergic function and glucose metabolism were evaluated in 34 patients with various movement disorders by using positron emission tomography with [sup 18]F-Dopa and [sup 18]F-FDG respectively. The [sup 18]F-Dopa uptake in the striatum (the caudate head and the putamen) decreased in patients with Parkinson's disease but was relatively unaffected in the caudate. The cerebral glucose metabolism was normal in patients with Parkinson's disease. The [sup 18]F-Dopa uptake in the striatum also decreased in cases of atypical parkinsonism and in cases of progressive supranuclear palsy, but there was no difference in the uptake between the caudate and the putamen. The glucose metabolism decreased in the cerebral hemisphere including the striatum; this finding was also different from those of Parkinson's disease. A normal [sup 18]F-Dopa uptake in the striatum with a markedly decreased striatal glucose metabolism and a mildly decreased cortical glucose metabolism was observed in cases of Huntington's disease and Wilson's disease. The [sup 18]F-Dopa uptake in the striatum increased and the glucose metabolism was normal in cases of idiopathic dystonia. Various patterns of [sup 18]F-Dopa uptake and glucose metabolism were thus observed in the various movement disorders. These results suggest that the measurements of the [sup 18]F-Dopa uptake and the cerebral glucose metabolism would be useful for the evaluation of the striatal function in various movement disorders. (author).

  14. Corynebacterium striatum infecting a malignant cutaneous lesion: the emergence of an opportunistic pathogen Corynebacterium striatum infectando lesão cutânea maligna: a emergência de um patógeno oportunista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Vargas Superti

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available We described a case of a 27-year old male patient with skin and soft tissue infection of a neoplastic lesion caused by Corynebacterium striatum, an organism which has been rarely described as a human pathogen. Identification was confirmed by DNA sequencing. Successful treatment with penicillin was achieved. The role of the C. striatum as an emerging opportunistic pathogen is discussed.Descrevemos infecção de lesão neoplásica em paciente masculino de 27 anos, envolvendo pele e partes moles, causada por Corynebacterium striatum, um microrganismo raramente descrito como patógeno humano. A identificação foi confirmada por seqüenciamento de DNA. O paciente foi tratado com penicilina, com sucesso. O papel do C. striatum como patógeno oportunista é discutido.

  15. Isolation and characterization of neural stem cells from human fetal striatum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaoxia; Xu Jinchong; Bai Yun; Wang Xuan; Dai Xin; Liu Yinan; Zhang Jun; Zou Junhua; Shen Li; Li Lingsong

    2005-01-01

    This paper described that neural stem cells (hsNSCs) were isolated and expanded rapidly from human fetal striatum in adherent culture. The population was serum- and growth factor-dependent and expressed neural stem cell markers. They were capable of multi-differentiation into neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. When plated in the dopaminergic neuron inducing medium, human striatum neural stem cells could differentiate into tyrosine hydroxylase positive neurons. hsNSCs were morphologically homogeneous and possessed high proliferation ability. The population doubled every 44.28 h and until now it has divided for more than 82 generations in vitro. Normal human diploid karyotype was unchanged throughout the in vitro culture period. Together, this study has exploited a method for continuous and rapid expansion of human neural stem cells as pure population, which maintained the capacity to generate almost fifty percent neurons. The availability of such cells may hold great interest for basic and applied neuroscience

  16. Ventral striatum activation to prosocial rewards predicts longitudinal declines in adolescent risk taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telzer, Eva H; Fuligni, Andrew J; Lieberman, Matthew D; Galván, Adriana

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is a period of intensified emotions and an increase in motivated behaviors and passions. Evidence from developmental neuroscience suggests that this heightened emotionality occurs, in part, due to a peak in functional reactivity to rewarding stimuli, which renders adolescents more oriented toward reward-seeking behaviors. Most prior work has focused on how reward sensitivity may create vulnerabilities, leading to increases in risk taking. Here, we test whether heightened reward sensitivity may potentially be an asset for adolescents when engaged in prosocial activities. Thirty-two adolescents were followed over a one-year period to examine whether ventral striatum activation to prosocial rewards predicts decreases in risk taking over a year. Results show that heightened ventral striatum activation to prosocial stimuli relates to longitudinal declines in risk taking. Therefore, the very same neural region that has conferred vulnerability for adolescent risk taking may also be protective against risk taking. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of quercetin and desferrioxamine on 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) induced neurotoxicity in striatum of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haleagrahara, Nagaraja; Siew, Cheng Jun; Ponnusamy, Kumar

    2013-02-01

    The catecholaminergic neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine is used to lesion dopaminergic pathways in the experimental animal models of Parkinson's disease. The present study was aimed to evaluate the combined treatment with bioflavonoid quercetin (QN) and desferrioxamine (DFO) on 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) - induced neurotoxicity in the striatum of rats. Adult, male Sprague - Dawley rats were divided into control, sham lesion, 6-OHDA treated (300 µg, intracisternal), 6-OHDA with QN (50 mg/kg) treated, 6-OHDA with DFO (50 mg/kg) treated and 6-OHDA with QN and DFO treated groups. Striatal dopamine, protein carbonyl content (PCC), glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were estimated. There was a significant increase (p protection. Combined treatment has a more significant effect (p protecting the neurons and increasing the antioxidant enzymes in the striatum. In conclusion, an antioxidant with iron chelator treatment showed a significant neuroprotective effect against 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) by preventing dopaminergic neuronal loss and maintaining the striatal dopamine level.

  18. Spatially Compact Neural Clusters in the Dorsal Striatum Encode Locomotion Relevant Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbera, Giovanni; Liang, Bo; Zhang, Lifeng; Gerfen, Charles R; Culurciello, Eugenio; Chen, Rong; Li, Yun; Lin, Da-Ting

    2016-10-05

    An influential striatal model postulates that neural activities in the striatal direct and indirect pathways promote and inhibit movement, respectively. Normal behavior requires coordinated activity in the direct pathway to facilitate intended locomotion and indirect pathway to inhibit unwanted locomotion. In this striatal model, neuronal population activity is assumed to encode locomotion relevant information. Here, we propose a novel encoding mechanism for the dorsal striatum. We identified spatially compact neural clusters in both the direct and indirect pathways. Detailed characterization revealed similar cluster organization between the direct and indirect pathways, and cluster activities from both pathways were correlated with mouse locomotion velocities. Using machine-learning algorithms, cluster activities could be used to decode locomotion relevant behavioral states and locomotion velocity. We propose that neural clusters in the dorsal striatum encode locomotion relevant information and that coordinated activities of direct and indirect pathway neural clusters are required for normal striatal controlled behavior. VIDEO ABSTRACT. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. SELEKSI RUMPUT LAUT Kappaphycus striatum DALAM UPAYA PENINGKATAN LAJU PERTUMBUHAN BIBIT UNTUK BUDIDAYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Parenrengi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Budidaya rumput laut di Indonesia semakin berkembang seiring dengan peningkatan permintaan bahan baku industri untuk pasar domestik dan eksport. Rumput laut Kappaphycus striatum, salah satu spesies rumput laut komersil, telah intensif dibudidayakan di perairan pantai. Saat ini, masalah utama yang dihadapi pembudidaya adalah rendahnya kualitas bibit yang berasal dari hasil budidaya. Seleksi varietas merupakan salah satu metode yang diharapkan dapat meningkatkan laju pertumbuhan rumput laut. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan tujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh seleksi varietas terhadap pertumbuhan rumput laut sehingga dapat dilakukan produksi bibit unggul untuk keperluan budidaya. Budidaya rumput laut K. striatum telah dilakukan di Teluk Laikang, Kabupaten Takalar, Provinsi Sulawesi Selatan dengan menggunakan metode long line. Seleksi varietas dilakukan berdasarkan parameter laju pertumbuhan harian (LPH dan metode seleksi mengacu pada protokol seleksi yang telah dikembangkan pada rumput laut K. alvarezii. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa LPH bibit hasil seleksi lebih tinggi (P

  20. Disrupted reinforcement signaling in the orbitofrontal cortex and caudate in youths with conduct disorder or oppositional defiant disorder and a high level of psychopathic traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, Elizabeth C; Marsh, Abigail A; Blair, Karina S; Reid, Marguerite E; Sims, Courtney; Ng, Pamela; Pine, Daniel S; Blair, R James R

    2011-02-01

    Dysfunction in the amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex has been reported in youths and adults with psychopathic traits. The specific nature of the functional irregularities within these structures remains poorly understood. The authors used a passive avoidance task to examine the responsiveness of these systems to early stimulus-reinforcement exposure, when prediction errors are greatest and learning maximized, and to reward in youths with psychopathic traits and comparison youths. While performing the passive avoidance learning task, 15 youths with conduct disorder or oppositional defiant disorder plus a high level of psychopathic traits and 15 healthy subjects completed a 3.0-T fMRI scan. Relative to the comparison youths, the youths with a disruptive behavior disorder plus psychopathic traits showed less orbitofrontal responsiveness both to early stimulus-reinforcement exposure and to rewards, as well as less caudate response to early stimulus-reinforcement exposure. There were no group differences in amygdala responsiveness to these two task measures, but amygdala responsiveness throughout the task was lower in the youths with psychopathic traits. Compromised sensitivity to early reinforcement information in the orbitofrontal cortex and caudate and to reward outcome information in the orbitofrontal cortex of youths with conduct disorder or oppositional defiant disorder plus psychopathic traits suggests that the integrated functioning of the amygdala, caudate, and orbitofrontal cortex may be disrupted. This provides a functional neural basis for why such youths are more likely to repeat disadvantageous decisions. New treatment possibilities are raised, as pharmacologic modulations of serotonin and dopamine can affect this form of learning.

  1. Disrupted Reinforcement Signaling in Orbital Frontal Cortex and Caudate in Youths with Conduct Disorder/Oppositional Defiant Disorder and High Psychopathic Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, Elizabeth C.; Marsh, Abigail A.; Blair, Karina S.; Reid, Marguerite. E.; Sims, Courtney; Ng, Pamela; Pine, Daniel S.; Blair, R. James. R.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Dysfunction in amygdala and orbital frontal cortex functioning has been reported in youths and adults with psychopathic traits. However, the specific nature of the computational irregularities within these brain structures remains poorly understood. The current study used the passive avoidance task to examine responsiveness of these systems to early stimulus-reinforcement exposure, when prediction errors are greatest and learning maximized, and to reward in youths with psychopathic traits and comparison youths. METHOD 30 youths (N=15 with conduct disorder or oppositional defiant disorder plus high psychopathic traits and N=15 comparison subjects) completed a 3.0 T fMRI scan while performing a passive avoidance learning task. RESULTS Relative to comparison youth, youths with conduct disorder or oppositional defiant disorder plus psychopathic traits showed reduced orbitofrontal cortex responsiveness both to early stimulus-reinforcement exposure and to rewards, as well as reduced caudate response to early stimulus-reinforcement exposure. Contrary to other predictions, however, there were no group differences in amygdala responsiveness specifically to these two task parameters. However, amygdala responsiveness throughout the task was reduced in the youths with conduct disorder or oppositional defiant disorder plus psychopathic traits. CONCLUSIONS This study demonstrates that youths with conduct disorder or oppositional defiant disorder plus psychopathic traits are marked by a compromised sensitivity to early reinforcement information in both orbitofrontal cortex and caudate and to reward outcome information within orbitofrontal cortex. They further suggest that the integrated functioning of the amygdala, caudate and orbitofrontal cortex may be disrupted in individuals with this disorder. PMID:21078707

  2. Treatment of Small Hepatocellular Carcinoma (≤2 cm) in the Caudate Lobe with Sequential Transcatheter Arterial Chemoembolization and Radiofrequency Ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyun, Dongho; Cho, Sung Ki; Shin, Sung Wook; Rhim, Hyunchul; Koh, Kwang Cheol; Paik, Seung Woon

    2016-01-01

    PurposeTo evaluate technical feasibility and treatment results of sequential transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) and cone-beam computed tomography-guided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (CBCT-RFA) for small hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in the caudate lobe.Materials and MethodsInstitutional review board approved this retrospective study. Radiologic database was searched for the patients referred to perform TACE and CBCT-RFA for small caudate HCCs (≤2 cm) between February 2009 and February 2014. A total of 14 patients (12 men and 2 women, mean age; 61.3 years) were included. Percutaneous ultrasonography-guided RFA (pUS-RFA) and surgery were infeasible due to poor conspicuity, inconspicuity or no safe electrode pathway, and poor hepatic reserve. Procedural success (completion of both TACE and CBCT-RFA), technique efficacy (absence of tumor enhancement at 1 month after treatment), and complication were evaluated. Treatment results including local tumor progression (LTP), intrahepatic distant recurrence (IDR), overall survival (OS), and progression-free survival (PFS) were analyzed.ResultsProcedural success and technique efficacy rates were 78.6 % (11/14) and 90.9 % (10/11), respectively. Average follow-up period was 45.3 months (range, 13.4–64.6 months). The 1-, 3-, and 5-year LTP probabilities were 0, 12.5, and 12.5 %, respectively. IDR occurred in seven patients (63.6 %, 7/11). The 1-, 3-, and 5-year PFS probabilities were 81.8, 51.9, and 26 %, respectively. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year OS probabilities were 100, 80.8, and 80.8 %, respectively.ConclusionCombination of TACE and CBCT-RFA seems feasible for small HCC in the caudate lobe not amenable to pUS-RFA and effective in local tumor control.

  3. Treatment of Small Hepatocellular Carcinoma (≤2 cm) in the Caudate Lobe with Sequential Transcatheter Arterial Chemoembolization and Radiofrequency Ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyun, Dongho; Cho, Sung Ki, E-mail: sungkismc.cho@samsung.com; Shin, Sung Wook; Rhim, Hyunchul [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center (Korea, Republic of); Koh, Kwang Cheol; Paik, Seung Woon [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    PurposeTo evaluate technical feasibility and treatment results of sequential transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) and cone-beam computed tomography-guided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (CBCT-RFA) for small hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in the caudate lobe.Materials and MethodsInstitutional review board approved this retrospective study. Radiologic database was searched for the patients referred to perform TACE and CBCT-RFA for small caudate HCCs (≤2 cm) between February 2009 and February 2014. A total of 14 patients (12 men and 2 women, mean age; 61.3 years) were included. Percutaneous ultrasonography-guided RFA (pUS-RFA) and surgery were infeasible due to poor conspicuity, inconspicuity or no safe electrode pathway, and poor hepatic reserve. Procedural success (completion of both TACE and CBCT-RFA), technique efficacy (absence of tumor enhancement at 1 month after treatment), and complication were evaluated. Treatment results including local tumor progression (LTP), intrahepatic distant recurrence (IDR), overall survival (OS), and progression-free survival (PFS) were analyzed.ResultsProcedural success and technique efficacy rates were 78.6 % (11/14) and 90.9 % (10/11), respectively. Average follow-up period was 45.3 months (range, 13.4–64.6 months). The 1-, 3-, and 5-year LTP probabilities were 0, 12.5, and 12.5 %, respectively. IDR occurred in seven patients (63.6 %, 7/11). The 1-, 3-, and 5-year PFS probabilities were 81.8, 51.9, and 26 %, respectively. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year OS probabilities were 100, 80.8, and 80.8 %, respectively.ConclusionCombination of TACE and CBCT-RFA seems feasible for small HCC in the caudate lobe not amenable to pUS-RFA and effective in local tumor control.

  4. Decreased Left Caudate Volume Is Associated with Increased Severity of Autistic-Like Symptoms in a Cohort of ADHD Patients and Their Unaffected Siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Dwyer, Laurence; Tanner, Colby; van Dongen, Eelco V.; Greven, Corina U.; Bralten, Janita; Zwiers, Marcel P.; Franke, Barbara; Heslenfeld, Dirk; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Groen, Wouter; Rommelse, Nanda; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms frequently occur in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). While there is evidence that both ADHD and ASD have differential structural brain correlates, knowledge of the structural brain profile of individuals with ADHD with raised ASD symptoms is limited. The presence of ASD-like symptoms was measured by the Children's Social Behavior Questionnaire (CSBQ) in a sample of typically developing controls (n = 154), participants with ADHD (n = 239), and their unaffected siblings (n = 144) between the ages of 8 and 29. Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) correlates of ASD ratings were analysed by studying the relationship between ASD ratings and grey matter volumes using mixed effects models which controlled for ADHD symptom count and total brain volume. ASD ratings were significantly elevated in participants with ADHD relative to controls and unaffected siblings. For the entire group (participants with ADHD, unaffected siblings and TD controls), mixed effect models revealed that the left caudate nucleus volume was negatively correlated with ASD ratings (t = 2.83; P = 0.005). The current findings are consistent with the role of the caudate nucleus in executive function, including the selection of goals based on the evaluation of action outcomes and the use of social reward to update reward representations. There is a specific volumetric profile associated with subclinical ASD-like symptoms in participants with ADHD, unaffected siblings and controls with the caudate nucleus and globus pallidus being of critical importance in predicting the level of ASD-like symptoms in all three groups. PMID:27806078

  5. Existence and control of Go/No-Go decision transition threshold in the striatum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyotika Bahuguna

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A typical Go/No-Go decision is suggested to be implemented in the brain via the activation of the direct or indirect pathway in the basal ganglia. Medium spiny neurons (MSNs in the striatum, receiving input from cortex and projecting to the direct and indirect pathways express D1 and D2 type dopamine receptors, respectively. Recently, it has become clear that the two types of MSNs markedly differ in their mutual and recurrent connectivities as well as feedforward inhibition from FSIs. Therefore, to understand striatal function in action selection, it is of key importance to identify the role of the distinct connectivities within and between the two types of MSNs on the balance of their activity. Here, we used both a reduced firing rate model and numerical simulations of a spiking network model of the striatum to analyze the dynamic balance of spiking activities in D1 and D2 MSNs. We show that the asymmetric connectivity of the two types of MSNs renders the striatum into a threshold device, indicating the state of cortical input rates and correlations by the relative activity rates of D1 and D2 MSNs. Next, we describe how this striatal threshold can be effectively modulated by the activity of fast spiking interneurons, by the dopamine level, and by the activity of the GPe via pallidostriatal backprojections. We show that multiple mechanisms exist in the basal ganglia for biasing striatal output in favour of either the `Go' or the `No-Go' pathway. This new understanding of striatal network dynamics provides novel insights into the putative role of the striatum in various behavioral deficits in patients with Parkinson's disease, including increased reaction times, L-Dopa-induced dyskinesia, and deep brain stimulation-induced impulsivity.

  6. Existence and control of Go/No-Go decision transition threshold in the striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahuguna, Jyotika; Aertsen, Ad; Kumar, Arvind

    2015-04-01

    A typical Go/No-Go decision is suggested to be implemented in the brain via the activation of the direct or indirect pathway in the basal ganglia. Medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in the striatum, receiving input from cortex and projecting to the direct and indirect pathways express D1 and D2 type dopamine receptors, respectively. Recently, it has become clear that the two types of MSNs markedly differ in their mutual and recurrent connectivities as well as feedforward inhibition from FSIs. Therefore, to understand striatal function in action selection, it is of key importance to identify the role of the distinct connectivities within and between the two types of MSNs on the balance of their activity. Here, we used both a reduced firing rate model and numerical simulations of a spiking network model of the striatum to analyze the dynamic balance of spiking activities in D1 and D2 MSNs. We show that the asymmetric connectivity of the two types of MSNs renders the striatum into a threshold device, indicating the state of cortical input rates and correlations by the relative activity rates of D1 and D2 MSNs. Next, we describe how this striatal threshold can be effectively modulated by the activity of fast spiking interneurons, by the dopamine level, and by the activity of the GPe via pallidostriatal backprojections. We show that multiple mechanisms exist in the basal ganglia for biasing striatal output in favour of either the `Go' or the `No-Go' pathway. This new understanding of striatal network dynamics provides novel insights into the putative role of the striatum in various behavioral deficits in patients with Parkinson's disease, including increased reaction times, L-Dopa-induced dyskinesia, and deep brain stimulation-induced impulsivity.

  7. 5HT2A receptor blockade in dorsomedial striatum reduces repetitive behaviors in BTBR mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amodeo, D A; Rivera, E; Cook, E H; Sweeney, J A; Ragozzino, M E

    2017-03-01

    Restricted and repetitive behaviors are a defining feature of autism, which can be expressed as a cognitive flexibility deficit or stereotyped, motor behaviors. There is limited knowledge about the underlying neuropathophysiology contributing to these behaviors. Previous findings suggest that central 5HT 2A receptor activity is altered in autism, while recent work indicates that systemic 5HT 2A receptor antagonist treatment reduces repetitive behaviors in an idiopathic model of autism. 5HT 2A receptors are expressed in the orbitofrontal cortex and striatum. These two regions have been shown to be altered in autism. The present study investigated whether 5HT 2A receptor blockade in the dorsomedial striatum or orbitofrontal cortex in the BTBR mouse strain, an idiopathic model of autism, affects the phenotype related to restricted and repetitive behaviors. Microinfusion of the 5HT 2A receptor antagonist, M100907 into the dorsomedial striatum alleviated a reversal learning impairment and attenuated grooming behavior. M100907 infusion into the orbitofrontal cortex increased perseveration during reversal learning and potentiated grooming. These findings suggest that increased 5HT 2A receptor activity in the dorsomedial striatum may contribute to behavioral inflexibility and stereotyped behaviors in the BTBR mouse. 5HT 2A receptor signaling in the orbitofrontal cortex may be critical for inhibiting a previously learned response during reversal learning and expression of stereotyped behavior. The present results suggest which brain areas exhibit abnormalities underlying repetitive behaviors in an idiopathic mouse model of autism, as well as which brain areas systemic treatment with M100907 may principally act on in BTBR mice to attenuate repetitive behaviors. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  8. The influence of cannabinoids on learning and memory processes of the dorsal striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Jarid; Packard, Mark G

    2015-11-01

    Extensive evidence indicates that the mammalian endocannabinoid system plays an integral role in learning and memory. Our understanding of how cannabinoids influence memory comes predominantly from studies examining cognitive and emotional memory systems mediated by the hippocampus and amygdala, respectively. However, recent evidence suggests that cannabinoids also affect habit or stimulus-response (S-R) memory mediated by the dorsal striatum. Studies implementing a variety of maze tasks in rats indicate that systemic or intra-dorsolateral striatum infusions of cannabinoid receptor agonists or antagonists impair habit memory. In mice, cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptor knockdown can enhance or impair habit formation, whereas Δ(9)THC tolerance enhances habit formation. Studies in human cannabis users also suggest an enhancement of S-R/habit memory. A tentative conclusion based on the available data is that acute disruption of the endocannabinoid system with either agonists or antagonists impairs, whereas chronic cannabinoid exposure enhances, dorsal striatum-dependent S-R/habit memory. CB1 receptors are required for multiple forms of striatal synaptic plasticity implicated in memory, including short-term and long-term depression. Interactions with the hippocampus-dependent memory system may also have a role in some of the observed effects of cannabinoids on habit memory. The impairing effect often observed with acute cannabinoid administration argues for cannabinoid-based treatments for human psychopathologies associated with a dysfunctional habit memory system (e.g. post-traumatic stress disorder and drug addiction/relapse). In addition, the enhancing effect of repeated cannabinoid exposure on habit memory suggests a novel neurobehavioral mechanism for marijuana addiction involving the dorsal striatum-dependent memory system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Identification of Functional Clusters in the Striatum Using Infinite Relational Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kasper Winther; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard; Siebner, Hartwig

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we investigate how the Infinite Relational Model can be used to infer functional groupings of the human striatum using resting state fMRI data from 30 healthy subjects. The Infinite Relational Model is a non-parametric Bayesian method for infering community structure in complex netw...... and non-links in the graphs as missing. We find that the model is performing well above chance for all subjects....

  10. Differences between Neural Activity in Prefrontal Cortex and Striatum during Learning of Novel Abstract Categories

    OpenAIRE

    Antzoulatos, Evan G.; Miller, Earl K.

    2011-01-01

    Learning to classify diverse experiences into meaningful groups, like categories, is fundamental to normal cognition. To understand its neural basis, we simultaneously recorded from multiple electrodes in the lateral prefrontal cortex and dorsal striatum, two interconnected brain structures critical for learning. Each day, monkeys learned to associate novel, abstract dot-based categories with a right vs. left saccade. Early on, when they could acquire specific stimulus-response associations, ...

  11. A common currency for the computation of motivational values in the human striatum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yansong; Dreher, Jean-Claude

    2015-01-01

    Reward comparison in the brain is thought to be achieved through the use of a ‘common currency’, implying that reward value representations are computed on a unique scale in the same brain regions regardless of the reward type. Although such a mechanism has been identified in the ventro-medial prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum in the context of decision-making, it is less clear whether it similarly applies to non-choice situations. To answer this question, we scanned 38 participants with fMRI while they were presented with single cues predicting either monetary or erotic rewards, without the need to make a decision. The ventral striatum was the main brain structure to respond to both cues while showing increasing activity with increasing expected reward intensity. Most importantly, the relative response of the striatum to monetary vs erotic cues was correlated with the relative motivational value of these rewards as inferred from reaction times. Similar correlations were observed in a fronto-parietal network known to be involved in attentional focus and motor readiness. Together, our results suggest that striatal reward value signals not only obey to a common currency mechanism in the absence of choice but may also serve as an input to adjust motivated behaviour accordingly. PMID:24837478

  12. Integrated regulation of AMPA glutamate receptor phosphorylation in the striatum by dopamine and acetylcholine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Bing; Chen, Elton C; He, Nan; Jin, Dao-Zhong; Mao, Li-Min; Wang, John Q

    2017-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) and acetylcholine (ACh) signals converge onto protein kinase A (PKA) in medium spiny neurons of the striatum to control cellular and synaptic activities of these neurons, although underlying molecular mechanisms are less clear. Here we measured phosphorylation of the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid receptor (AMPAR) at a PKA site (S845) as an indicator of AMPAR responses in adult rat brains in vivo to explore how DA and ACh interact to modulate AMPARs. We found that subtype-selective activation of DA D1 receptors (D1Rs), D2 receptors (D2Rs), or muscarinic M4 receptors (M4Rs) induced specific patterns of GluA1 S845 responses in the striatum. These defined patterns support a local multitransmitter interaction model in which D2Rs inhibited an intrinsic inhibitory element mediated by M4Rs to enhance the D1R efficacy in modulating AMPARs. Consistent with this, selective enhancement of M4R activity by a positive allosteric modulator resumed the cholinergic inhibition of D1Rs. In addition, D1R and D2R coactivation recruited GluA1 and PKA preferentially to extrasynaptic sites. In sum, our in vivo data support an existence of a dynamic DA-ACh balance in the striatum which actively modulates GluA1 AMPAR phosphorylation and trafficking. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Ionotropic glutamate receptors'. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Haloperidol-induced changes in neuronal activity in the striatum of the freely moving rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorin eYael

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The striatum is the main input structure of the basal ganglia, integrating input from the cerebral cortex and the thalamus, which is modulated by midbrain dopaminergic input. Dopamine modulators, including agonists and antagonists, are widely used to relieve motor and psychiatric symptoms in a variety of pathological conditions. Haloperidol, a dopamine D2 antagonist, is commonly used in multiple psychiatric conditions and motor abnormalities. This article reports the effects of haloperidol on the activity of three major striatal subpopulations: medium spiny projection neurons (MSNs, fast spiking interneurons (FSIs and tonically active neurons (TANs. We implanted multi-wire electrode arrays in the rat dorsal striatum and recorded the activity of multiple single units in freely moving animals before and after systemic haloperidol injection. Haloperidol decreased the firing rate of FSIs and MSNs while increasing their tendency to fire in an oscillatory manner in the high voltage spindle (HVS frequency range of 7-9 Hz. Haloperidol led to an increased firing rate of TANs but did not affect their non-oscillatory firing pattern and their typical correlated firing activity. Our results suggest that dopamine plays a key role in tuning both single unit activity and the interactions within and between different subpopulations in the striatum in a differential manner. These findings highlight the heterogeneous striatal effects of tonic dopamine regulation via D2 receptors which potentially enable the treatment of diverse pathological states associated with basal ganglia dysfunction.

  14. Re-thinking the role of the dorsal striatum in egocentric/response strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botreau, Fanny; Gisquet-Verrier, Pascale

    2010-01-01

    Rats trained in a dual-solution cross-maze task, which can be solved by place and response strategies, predominantly used a response strategy after extensive training. This paper examines the involvement of the medial and lateral dorsal striatum (mDS and lDS) in the choice of these strategies after partial and extensive training. Our results show that rats with lDS and mDS lesions used mainly a response strategy from the early phase of training. We replicated these unexpected data in rats with lDS lesions and confirmed their tendency to use the response strategy in a modified cross-maze task. When trained in a dual-solution water-maze task, however, control and lesioned rats consistently used a place strategy, demonstrating that lDS and mDS lesioned rats can use a place strategy and that the shift towards a response strategy did not systematically result from extensive training. The present data did not show any clear dissociation between the mDS and lDS in dual solution tasks. They further indicate that the dorsal striatum seems to determine the strategies adopted in a particular context but cannot be considered as a neural support for the response memory system. Accordingly, the role of the lateral and medial part of the dorsal striatum in egocentric/response memory should be reconsidered.

  15. Efferent projections of the dorsal ventricular ridge and the striatum in the Tegu lizard. Tupinambis nigropunctatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voneida, T J; Sligar, C M

    1979-07-01

    A H3 proline-leucine mixture was injected into the dorsal ventricular ridge (DVR) and striatum of the Tegu lizard in order to determine their efferent projections. The brains were processed according to standard radioautographic technique, and counterstained with cresyl violet. DVR projections were generally restricted to the telencephalon, while striatal projections were limited to diencephalic and mesencephalic structures. Thus the anterior DVR projects ipsilaterally to nuclei sphericus and lateralis amygdalae, striatum (ipsilateral and contralateral) ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus, nucleus accumbens, anterior olfactory nucleus, nucleus of the lateral olfactory tract and lateral pallium. Posterior DVR projections enter ipsilateral anterior olfactory nucleus, lateral and interstitial amygdalar nuclei, olfactory tubercle and bulb, nucleus of the lateral olfactory tract and a zone surrounding the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus. Labeled axons from striatal injections pass caudally in the lateral forebrain bundle to enter (via dorsal peduncle) nuclei dorsomedialis, medialis posterior, entopeduncularis anterior, and a zone surrounding nucleus rotundus. Others join the ventral peduncle of LFB and enter ventromedial nucleus (thalami), while the remaining fibers continue caudally in the ventral peduncle to the mesencephalic prerubral field, central gray, substantia nigra, nucleus intercollicularis, reticular formation and pretectal nucleus posterodorsalis. These results are discussed in relation to the changing notions regarding terminology, classification and functions of dorsl ventricular ridge and striatum.

  16. Subsecond dopamine fluctuations in human striatum encode superposed error signals about actual and counterfactual reward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishida, Kenneth T.; Saez, Ignacio; Lohrenz, Terry; Witcher, Mark R.; Laxton, Adrian W.; Tatter, Stephen B.; White, Jason P.; Ellis, Thomas L.; Phillips, Paul E. M.; Montague, P. Read

    2016-01-01

    In the mammalian brain, dopamine is a critical neuromodulator whose actions underlie learning, decision-making, and behavioral control. Degeneration of dopamine neurons causes Parkinson’s disease, whereas dysregulation of dopamine signaling is believed to contribute to psychiatric conditions such as schizophrenia, addiction, and depression. Experiments in animal models suggest the hypothesis that dopamine release in human striatum encodes reward prediction errors (RPEs) (the difference between actual and expected outcomes) during ongoing decision-making. Blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) imaging experiments in humans support the idea that RPEs are tracked in the striatum; however, BOLD measurements cannot be used to infer the action of any one specific neurotransmitter. We monitored dopamine levels with subsecond temporal resolution in humans (n = 17) with Parkinson’s disease while they executed a sequential decision-making task. Participants placed bets and experienced monetary gains or losses. Dopamine fluctuations in the striatum fail to encode RPEs, as anticipated by a large body of work in model organisms. Instead, subsecond dopamine fluctuations encode an integration of RPEs with counterfactual prediction errors, the latter defined by how much better or worse the experienced outcome could have been. How dopamine fluctuations combine the actual and counterfactual is unknown. One possibility is that this process is the normal behavior of reward processing dopamine neurons, which previously had not been tested by experiments in animal models. Alternatively, this superposition of error terms may result from an additional yet-to-be-identified subclass of dopamine neurons. PMID:26598677

  17. Dopamine dynamics and cocaine sensitivity differ between striosome and matrix compartments of the striatum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Armando G.; Davis, Margaret I.; Lovinger, David M.; Mateo, Yolanda

    2016-01-01

    The striatum is typically classified according to its major output pathways, which consist of dopamine D1 and D2 receptor-expressing neurons. The striatum is also divided into striosome and matrix compartments, based on the differential expression of a number of proteins, including the mu opioid receptor, dopamine transporter (DAT), and Nr4a1 (nuclear receptor subfamily 4, group A, member 1). Numerous functional differences between the striosome and matrix compartments are implicated in dopamine-related neurological disorders including Parkinson’s disease and addiction. Using Nr4a1-eGFP mice, we provide evidence that electrically evoked dopamine release differs between the striosome and matrix compartments in a regionally-distinct manner. We further demonstrate that this difference is not due to differences in inhibition of dopamine release by dopamine autoreceptors or nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Furthermore, cocaine enhanced extracellular dopamine in striosomes to a greater degree than in the matrix and concomitantly inhibited dopamine uptake in the matrix to a greater degree than in striosomes. Importantly, these compartment differences in cocaine sensitivity were limited to the dorsal striatum. These findings demonstrate a level of exquisite microanatomical regulation of dopamine by the DAT in striosomes relative to the matrix. PMID:27036891

  18. Cortical cholinergic deficiency enhances amphetamine-induced dopamine release in the accumbens but not striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, Anna; Olson, Lars; Svensson, Torgny H; Schilström, Björn

    2007-11-01

    Cholinergic dysfunction has been implicated as a putative contributing factor in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Recently, we showed that cholinergic denervation of the neocortex in adult rats leads to a marked increase in the behavioral response to amphetamine. The main objective of this study was to investigate if the enhanced locomotor response to amphetamine seen after cortical cholinergic denervation was paralleled by an increased amphetamine-induced release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens and/or striatum. The corticopetal cholinergic projections were lesioned by intraparenchymal infusion of 192 IgG-saporin into the nucleus basalis magnocellularis of adult rats. Amphetamine-induced dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens or striatum was monitored by in vivo microdialysis 2 to 3 weeks after lesioning. We found that cholinergic denervation of the rat neocortex leads to a significantly increased amphetamine-induced dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens. Interestingly, the cholinergic lesion did not affect amphetamine-induced release of dopamine in the striatum. The enhanced amphetamine-induced dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens in the cholinergically denervated rats could be reversed by administration of the muscarinic agonist oxotremorine, but not nicotine, prior to the amphetamine challenge, suggesting that loss of muscarinic receptor stimulation is likely to have caused the observed effect. The results suggest that abnormal responsiveness of dopamine neurons can be secondary to cortical cholinergic deficiency. This, in turn, might be of relevance for the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and provides a possible link between cholinergic disturbances and alteration of dopamine transmission.

  19. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Carbonylated Proteins from the Striatum and Cortex of Pesticide-Treated Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Coughlan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies indicate exposures to the herbicide paraquat (PQ and fungicide maneb (MB are associated with increased risk of Parkinson’s disease (PD. Oxidative stress appears to be a premier mechanism that underlies damage to the nigrostriatal dopamine system in PD and pesticide exposure. Enhanced oxidative stress leads to lipid peroxidation and production of reactive aldehydes; therefore, we conducted proteomic analyses to identify carbonylated proteins in the striatum and cortex of pesticide-treated mice in order to elucidate possible mechanisms of toxicity. Male C57BL/6J mice were treated biweekly for 6 weeks with saline, PQ (10 mg/kg, MB (30 mg/kg, or the combination of PQ and MB (PQMB. Treatments resulted in significant behavioral alterations in all treated mice and depleted striatal dopamine in PQMB mice. Distinct differences in 4-hydroxynonenal-modified proteins were observed in the striatum and cortex. Proteomic analyses identified carbonylated proteins and peptides from the cortex and striatum, and pathway analyses revealed significant enrichment in a variety of KEGG pathways. Further analysis showed enrichment in proteins of the actin cytoskeleton in treated samples, but not in saline controls. These data indicate that treatment-related effects on cytoskeletal proteins could alter proper synaptic function, thereby resulting in impaired neuronal function and even neurodegeneration.

  20. High signal of the striatum in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: sequential change on T2-weighted MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uemura, A.; O'uchi, T.; Sakamoto, T.; Yashiro, N.

    2002-01-01

    The object of this study is to describe the sequential change of high signal of the striatum on T2-weighted MRI in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). Three cases of autopsy-proven sporadic CJD and a total of 18 serial MR images are included in this study. The degree of high signal of the striatum on T2-weighted MRI was evaluated by two neuroradiologists and divided into four grades by mutual agreement. Initial MRI of all three cases showed a slightly high signal of the bilateral striatum, and the conspicuity of the high signal became more prominent as the disease progressed. In each case the pathological change of striatum and globus pallidus was compared with the high signal on the last MR image. (orig.)

  1. High signal of the striatum in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: sequential change on T2-weighted MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uemura, A.; O' uchi, T.; Sakamoto, T.; Yashiro, N. [Department of Radiology, Kameda Medical Center, Kamogawa, Chiba (Japan)

    2002-04-01

    The object of this study is to describe the sequential change of high signal of the striatum on T2-weighted MRI in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). Three cases of autopsy-proven sporadic CJD and a total of 18 serial MR images are included in this study. The degree of high signal of the striatum on T2-weighted MRI was evaluated by two neuroradiologists and divided into four grades by mutual agreement. Initial MRI of all three cases showed a slightly high signal of the bilateral striatum, and the conspicuity of the high signal became more prominent as the disease progressed. In each case the pathological change of striatum and globus pallidus was compared with the high signal on the last MR image. (orig.)

  2. Levodopa-induced dyskinesia is associated with increased thyrotropin releasing hormone in the dorsal striatum of hemi-parkinsonian rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ippolita Cantuti-Castelvetri

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Dyskinesias associated with involuntary movements and painful muscle contractions are a common and severe complication of standard levodopa (L-DOPA, L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine therapy for Parkinson's disease. Pathologic neuroplasticity leading to hyper-responsive dopamine receptor signaling in the sensorimotor striatum is thought to underlie this currently untreatable condition.Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR was employed to evaluate the molecular changes associated with L-DOPA-induced dyskinesias in Parkinson's disease. With this technique, we determined that thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH was greatly increased in the dopamine-depleted striatum of hemi-parkinsonian rats that developed abnormal movements in response to L-DOPA therapy, relative to the levels measured in the contralateral non-dopamine-depleted striatum, and in the striatum of non-dyskinetic control rats. ProTRH immunostaining suggested that TRH peptide levels were almost absent in the dopamine-depleted striatum of control rats that did not develop dyskinesias, but in the dyskinetic rats, proTRH immunostaining was dramatically up-regulated in the striatum, particularly in the sensorimotor striatum. This up-regulation of TRH peptide affected striatal medium spiny neurons of both the direct and indirect pathways, as well as neurons in striosomes.TRH is not known to be a key striatal neuromodulator, but intrastriatal injection of TRH in experimental animals can induce abnormal movements, apparently through increasing dopamine release. Our finding of a dramatic and selective up-regulation of TRH expression in the sensorimotor striatum of dyskinetic rat models suggests a TRH-mediated regulatory mechanism that may underlie the pathologic neuroplasticity driving dopamine hyper-responsivity in Parkinson's disease.

  3. Liver parenchyma transection-first approach in hemihepatectomy with en bloc caudate lobectomy for hilar cholangiocarcinoma: A safe technique to secure favorable surgical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Yasunari; Hayashi, Hikota; Yano, Seiji; Tajima, Yoshitsugu

    2017-06-01

    Although hemihepatectomy with total caudate lobectomy (hemiHx-tc) is essential for the surgical treatment of hilar cholangiocarcinoma, the advantage of an anterior approach for hemiHx-tc has not been fully discussed technically; the significance of an anterior approach without liver mobilization for preventing infectious complications also remains unknown. The liver parenchyma transection-first approach (Hp-first) technique is an early transection of the hepatic parenchyma without mobilization of the liver that utilizes a modified liver-hanging maneuver to avoid damaging the future remnant liver. Between May 2010 and August 2016, a total of 40 consecutive patients underwent surgery for hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Of these, 19 patients underwent a conventional hemihepatectomy with total caudate lobectomy (cHx), while 21 patients received a Hp-first. The patients in the Hp-first group had significantly less intraoperative blood loss (P hilar cholangiocarcinoma because it resulted in improved surgical outcomes as compared with the conventional approach. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. {sup 18}F-FDG PET uptake in the pre-Huntington disease caudate affects the time-to-onset independently of CAG expansion size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciarmiello, Andrea; Giovacchini, Giampiero; Bruselli, Laura [Nuclear Medicine Department, S. Andrea Hospital, La Spezia (Italy); Orobello, Sara; Elifani, Francesca; Squitieri, Ferdinando [Centre for Neurogenetics and Rare Diseases, IRCCS Neuromed, Pozzilli, IS (Italy)

    2012-06-15

    To test in a longitudinal follow-up study whether basal glucose metabolism in subjects with a genetic risk of Huntington disease (HD) may influence the onset of manifest symptoms. The study group comprised 43 presymptomatic (preHD) subjects carrying the HD mutation. They underwent a {sup 18}F-FDG PET scan and were prospectively followed-up for at least 5 years using the unified HD rating scale to detect clinical changes. Multiple regression analysis included subject's age, CAG mutation size and glucose uptake as variables in a model to predict age at onset. Of the 43 preHD subjects who manifested motor symptoms, suggestive of HD, after 5 years from the PET scan, 26 showed a mean brain glucose uptake below the cut-off of 1.0493 in the caudate, significantly lower than the 17 preHD subjects who remained symptom-free (P < 0.0001). This difference was independent of mutation size. Measurement of brain glucose uptake improved the CAG repeat number and age-based model for predicting age at onset by 37 %. A reduced level of glucose metabolism in the brain caudate may represent a predisposing factor that contributes to the age at onset of HD in preHD subjects, in addition to the mutation size. (orig.)

  5. 18F-FDG PET uptake in the pre-Huntington disease caudate affects the time-to-onset independently of CAG expansion size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciarmiello, Andrea; Giovacchini, Giampiero; Bruselli, Laura; Orobello, Sara; Elifani, Francesca; Squitieri, Ferdinando

    2012-01-01

    To test in a longitudinal follow-up study whether basal glucose metabolism in subjects with a genetic risk of Huntington disease (HD) may influence the onset of manifest symptoms. The study group comprised 43 presymptomatic (preHD) subjects carrying the HD mutation. They underwent a 18 F-FDG PET scan and were prospectively followed-up for at least 5 years using the unified HD rating scale to detect clinical changes. Multiple regression analysis included subject's age, CAG mutation size and glucose uptake as variables in a model to predict age at onset. Of the 43 preHD subjects who manifested motor symptoms, suggestive of HD, after 5 years from the PET scan, 26 showed a mean brain glucose uptake below the cut-off of 1.0493 in the caudate, significantly lower than the 17 preHD subjects who remained symptom-free (P < 0.0001). This difference was independent of mutation size. Measurement of brain glucose uptake improved the CAG repeat number and age-based model for predicting age at onset by 37 %. A reduced level of glucose metabolism in the brain caudate may represent a predisposing factor that contributes to the age at onset of HD in preHD subjects, in addition to the mutation size. (orig.)

  6. Basal ganglia disorders studied by positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinotoh, Hitoshi [Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1994-04-01

    Recent development of positron emitting radioligands has made it possible to investigate the alterations of neurotransmitter systems associated with basal ganglia disorders in vivo. The functional integrity of nigro-striatal dopaminergic terminals may be studied with [[sup 18]F]6-fluoro-L-dopa ([[sup 18]F]dopa), and striatal dopamine receptor density with suitable PET ligands. [[sup 18]F]dopa uptake in the striatum (putamen) is markedly reduced in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). [[sup 18]F]dopa-PET is capable of detecting sub-clinical nigral dysfunction in asymptomatic patients with familial PD and those who become Parkinsonian on conventional doses of dopamine receptor antagonists. While putamen [[sup 18]F]dopa uptake is reduced to a similar level in patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA) and PD, caudate [[sup 18]F] dopa uptake is lower in MSA than PD. However, [[sup 18]F]dopa PET cannot consistently distinguish MSA from PD because individual ranges of caudate [[sup 18]F]dopa uptake overlap. D[sub 1] and D[sub 2] receptor binding is markedly reduced in the striatum (posterior putamen) of MSA patients. Therefore, dopamine receptor imaging is useful for the differential diagnosis of MSA and PD. Similar marked reductions in putamen and caudate [[sup 18]F]dopa uptake have been observed in patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). Moderate reductions in D[sub 2] receptor binding have been reported in the striatum of PSP patients. The reduction in D[sub 2] receptor binding is more prominent in the caudate than putamen. Striatal [[sup 18]F]dopa uptake is normal or only mildly reduced in patients with dopa responsive dystonia (DRD). D[sub 2] receptor binding is markedly reduced in patients with Huntington's disease, while striatal [[sup 18]F]dopa uptake is normal or mildly reduced. In summary, PET can demonstrate characteristic patterns of disruption of dopaminergic systems associated with basal ganglia disorders. (J.P.N.) 55 refs.

  7. Dopamine receptor gene expression by enkephalin neurons in rat forebrain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Moine, C.; Normand, E.; Guitteny, A.F.; Fouque, B.; Teoule, R.; Bloch, B.

    1990-01-01

    In situ hybridization experiments were performed with brain sections from normal, control and haloperidol-treated rats to identify and map the cells expressing the D2 dopamine receptor gene. D2 receptor mRNA was detected with radioactive or biotinylated oligonucleotide probes. D2 receptor mRNA was present in glandular cells of the pituitary intermediate lobe and in neurons of the substantia nigra, ventral tegmental area, and forebrain, especially in caudate putamen, nucleus accumbens, olfactory tubercle, and piriform cortex. Hybridization with D2 and preproenkephalin A probes in adjacent sections, as well as combined hybridization with the two probes in the same sections, demonstrated that all detectable enkephalin neurons in the striatum contained the D2 receptor mRNA. Large neurons in caudate putamen, which were unlabeled with the preproenkephalin A probe and which may have been cholinergic, also expressed the D2 receptor gene. Haloperidol treatment (14 or 21 days) provoked an increase in mRNA content for D2 receptor and preproenkephalin A in the striatum. This suggests that the increase in D2 receptor number observed after haloperidol treatment is due to increased activity of the D2 gene. These results indicate that in the striatum, the enkephalin neurons are direct targets for dopamine liberated from mesostriatal neurons

  8. Dopamine receptor gene expression by enkephalin neurons in rat forebrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Moine, C.; Normand, E.; Guitteny, A.F.; Fouque, B.; Teoule, R.; Bloch, B. (Universite de Bordeaux II (France))

    1990-01-01

    In situ hybridization experiments were performed with brain sections from normal, control and haloperidol-treated rats to identify and map the cells expressing the D2 dopamine receptor gene. D2 receptor mRNA was detected with radioactive or biotinylated oligonucleotide probes. D2 receptor mRNA was present in glandular cells of the pituitary intermediate lobe and in neurons of the substantia nigra, ventral tegmental area, and forebrain, especially in caudate putamen, nucleus accumbens, olfactory tubercle, and piriform cortex. Hybridization with D2 and preproenkephalin A probes in adjacent sections, as well as combined hybridization with the two probes in the same sections, demonstrated that all detectable enkephalin neurons in the striatum contained the D2 receptor mRNA. Large neurons in caudate putamen, which were unlabeled with the preproenkephalin A probe and which may have been cholinergic, also expressed the D2 receptor gene. Haloperidol treatment (14 or 21 days) provoked an increase in mRNA content for D2 receptor and preproenkephalin A in the striatum. This suggests that the increase in D2 receptor number observed after haloperidol treatment is due to increased activity of the D2 gene. These results indicate that in the striatum, the enkephalin neurons are direct targets for dopamine liberated from mesostriatal neurons.

  9. Psychopathy Moderates the Relationship between Orbitofrontal and Striatal Alterations and Violence: The Investigation of Individuals Accused of Homicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bess Y. H. Lam

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Brain structural abnormalities in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC and striatum (caudate and putamen have been observed in violent individuals. However, a uni-modal neuroimaging perspective has been used and prior findings have been mixed. The present study takes the multimodal structural brain imaging approaches to investigate the differential gray matter volumes (GMV and cortical thickness (CTh in the OFC and striatum between violent (accused of homicide and non-violent (not accused of any violent crimes individuals with different levels of psychopathic traits (interpersonal and unemotional qualities, factor 1 psychopathy and the expressions of antisocial disposition and impulsivity, factor 2 psychopathy. Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging data, psychopathy and demographic information were assessed in sixty seven non-violent or violent adults. The results showed that the relationship between violence and the GMV in the right lateral OFC varied across different levels of the factor 1 psychopathy. At the subcortical level, the psychopathy level (the factor 1 psychopathy moderated the positive relationship of violence with both left and right putamen GMV as well as left caudate GMV. Although the CTh findings were not significant, overall findings suggested that psychopathic traits moderated the relationship between violence and the brain structural morphology in the OFC and striatum. In conclusion, psychopathy takes upon a significant role in moderating violent behavior which gives insight to design and implement prevention measures targeting violent acts, thereby possibly mitigating their occurrence within the society.

  10. Rostrocaudal gradients of dopamine D2/3 receptor binding in striatal subregions measured with [11C]raclopride and high-resolution positron emission tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alakurtti, Kati; Johansson, Jarkko J; Tuokkola, Terhi

    2013-01-01

    scanned with brain-dedicated high-resolution research tomography (HRRT, Siemens Medical Solutions, Knoxville, TN, USA) and [(11)C]raclopride. Coronally defined regions of interest (ROIs) of the caudate nucleus, putamen and ventral striatum (VST) were sampled plane-by-plane, 1.5mm apart, on spatially...... observed in the VST. The novelty of this study lies in the presentation, for the first time, of the D2/3 receptor binding gradients in each striatal subregion in the brains of living healthy humans. The high spatial resolution provided by HRRT enables frequent sampling of BPND along the longitudinal extent...

  11. Ratio of dopamine synthesis capacity to D2 receptor availability in ventral striatum correlates with central processing of affective stimuli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kienast, Thorsten; Rapp, Michael; Siessmeier, Thomas; Buchholz, Hans G.; Schreckenberger, Mathias; Wrase, Jana; Heinz, Andreas; Braus, Dieter F.; Smolka, Michael N.; Mann, Karl; Roesch, Frank; Cumming, Paul; Gruender, Gerhard; Bartenstein, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Dopaminergic neurotransmission in the ventral striatum may interact with limbic processing of affective stimuli, whereas dorsal striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission can affect habitual processing of emotionally salient stimuli in the pre-frontal cortex. We investigated the dopaminergic neurotransmission in the ventral and dorsal striatum with respect to central processing of affective stimuli in healthy subjects. Subjects were investigated with positron emission tomography and [ 18 F]DOPA for measurements of dopamine synthesis capacity and [ 18 F]DMFP for estimation of dopamine D2 receptor binding potential. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) response to affective pictures, which was correlated with the ratio of [ 18 F]DOPA net influx constant K in app /[ 18 F]DMFP-binding potential (BP N D) in the ventral and dorsal striatum. The magnitude of the ratio in the ventral striatum was positively correlated with BOLD signal increases elicited by negative versus neutral pictures in the right medial frontal gyrus (BA10), right inferior parietal lobe and left post-central gyrus. In the dorsal striatum, the ratio was positively correlated with BOLD signal activation elicited by negative versus neutral stimuli in the left post-central gyrus. The BOLD signal elicited by positive versus neutral stimuli in the superior parietal gyrus was positively correlated with the dorsal and ventral striatal ratio. The correlations of the ratio in the ventral and dorsal striatum with processing of affective stimuli in the named cortical regions support the hypothesis that dopamine transmission in functional divisions of the striatum modulates processing of affective stimuli in specific cortical areas. (orig.)

  12. Ratio of dopamine synthesis capacity to D2 receptor availability in ventral striatum correlates with central processing of affective stimuli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kienast, Thorsten; Rapp, Michael [Charite Campus Mitte, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy of the Charite University Medical Center, Berlin (Germany); Siessmeier, Thomas; Buchholz, Hans G.; Schreckenberger, Mathias [University of Mainz, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Mainz (Germany); Wrase, Jana; Heinz, Andreas [Charite Campus Mitte, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy of the Charite University Medical Center, Berlin (Germany); Central Institute of Mental Health, Mannheim (Germany); Braus, Dieter F. [University of Hamburg, Neuroimage Nord, Department of Psychiatry, Hamburg (Germany); Smolka, Michael N.; Mann, Karl [Central Institute of Mental Health, Mannheim (Germany); Roesch, Frank [University of Mainz, Institute of Nuclear Chemistry, Mainz (Germany); Cumming, Paul [PET Center and Center for Functionally Integrative Neuroscience, Aarhus (Denmark); Gruender, Gerhard [Aachen University Medical Center, Department of Psychiatry of the RWTH, Mainz (Germany); Bartenstein, Peter [Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany)

    2008-06-15

    Dopaminergic neurotransmission in the ventral striatum may interact with limbic processing of affective stimuli, whereas dorsal striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission can affect habitual processing of emotionally salient stimuli in the pre-frontal cortex. We investigated the dopaminergic neurotransmission in the ventral and dorsal striatum with respect to central processing of affective stimuli in healthy subjects. Subjects were investigated with positron emission tomography and [{sup 18}F]DOPA for measurements of dopamine synthesis capacity and [{sup 18}F]DMFP for estimation of dopamine D2 receptor binding potential. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) response to affective pictures, which was correlated with the ratio of [{sup 18}F]DOPA net influx constant K{sub in}{sup app} /[{sup 18}F]DMFP-binding potential (BP{sub N}D) in the ventral and dorsal striatum. The magnitude of the ratio in the ventral striatum was positively correlated with BOLD signal increases elicited by negative versus neutral pictures in the right medial frontal gyrus (BA10), right inferior parietal lobe and left post-central gyrus. In the dorsal striatum, the ratio was positively correlated with BOLD signal activation elicited by negative versus neutral stimuli in the left post-central gyrus. The BOLD signal elicited by positive versus neutral stimuli in the superior parietal gyrus was positively correlated with the dorsal and ventral striatal ratio. The correlations of the ratio in the ventral and dorsal striatum with processing of affective stimuli in the named cortical regions support the hypothesis that dopamine transmission in functional divisions of the striatum modulates processing of affective stimuli in specific cortical areas. (orig.)

  13. Endoplasmic reticulum stress responses differ in meninges and associated vasculature, striatum, and parietal cortex after a neurotoxic amphetamine exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Monzy; George, Nysia I; Saini, Upasana T; Patterson, Tucker A; Hanig, Joseph P; Bowyer, John F

    2010-08-01

    Amphetamine (AMPH) is used to treat attention deficit and hyperactivity disorders, but it can produce neurotoxicity and adverse vascular effects at high doses. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response (ERSR) entails the unfolded protein response, which helps to avoid or minimize ER dysfunction. ERSR is often associated with toxicities resulting from the accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins and has been associated with methamphetamine toxicity in the striatum. The present study evaluates the effect of AMPH on several ERSR elements in meninges and associated vasculature (MAV), parietal cortex, and striatum. Adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to saline, environmentally induced hyperthermia (EIH) or four consecutive doses of AMPH that produce hyperthermia. Expression changes (mRNA and protein levels) of key ERSR-related genes in MAV, striatum, and parietal cortex at 3 h or 1 day postdosing were monitored. AMPH increased the expression of some ERSR-related genes in all tissues. Atf4 (activating transcription factor 4, an indicator of Perk pathway activation), Hspa5/Grp78 (Glucose regulated protein 78, master regulator of ERSR), Pdia4 (protein disulfide isomerase, protein-folding enzyme), and Nfkb1 (nuclear factor of kappa b, ERSR sensor) mRNA increased significantly in MAV and parietal cortex 3 h after AMPH. In striatum, Atf4 and Hspa5/Grp78 mRNA significantly increased 3 h after AMPH, but Pdia4 and Nfkb11 did not. Thus, AMPH caused a robust activation of the Perk pathway in all tissues, but significant Ire1 pathway activation occurred only after AMPH treatment in the parietal cortex and striatum. Ddit3/Chop, a downstream effector of the ERSR pathway related to the neurotoxicity, was only increased in striatum and parietal cortex. Conversely, Pdia4, an enzyme protective in the ERSR, was only increased in MAV. The overall ERSR manifestation varied significantly between MAV, striatum, and parietal cortex after a neurotoxic exposure to AMPH.

  14. Functional inactivation of dorsal medial striatum alters behavioral flexibility and recognition process in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Yanhua; Wang, Xingyue; Ma, Lian; Li, Shengguang; Liang, Jing

    2017-10-01

    Deficits in behavioral flexibility and recognition memory are commonly observed in mental illnesses and neurodegenerative diseases. Abnormality of the striatum has been implicated in an association with the pathology of these diseases. However, the exact roles of striatal heterogeneous structures in these cognitive functions are still unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effects of suppressing neuronal activity in the dorsomedial striatum (DMStr) and nucleus accumbens core (NAcC) on reversal learning and novelty recognition in mice. In addition, the locomotor activity, anxiety-like behavior and social interaction were analyzed. Neuronal inactivation was performed by expressing lentivirus-mediated tetanus toxin (TeNT) in the target regions. The results showed that reversal learning was facilitated by neuronal inactivation in the DMStr but not the NAcC, which was attributable to accelerated extinction of acquired strategy but not to impaired memory retention. Furthermore, mice with NAcC inactivation spent more time exploring a novel object than a familiar one, comparable to control mice. In contrast, mice with DMStr inactivation exhibited no preference to a novel environment during the novel object or place recognition test. The DMStr mice also exhibited decreased anxiety level. No phenotypic effect was observed in the locomotion or social interaction in mice with either DMStr or NAcC inactivation. Altogether, these findings suggest that the DMStr but not the ventral area of the striatum plays a crucial role in learning and memory by coordinating spatial exploration as well as mediating information updating. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. CB1 cannabinoid receptor expression in the striatum: Association with corticostriatal circuits and developmental regulation

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    Vincent eVan Waes

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Corticostriatal circuits mediate various aspects of goal-directed behavior and are critically important for basal ganglia-related disorders. Activity in these circuits is regulated by the endocannabinoid system via stimulation of CB1 cannabinoid receptors. CB1 receptors are highly expressed in projection neurons and select interneurons of the striatum, but expression levels vary considerably between different striatal regions (functional domains. We investigated CB1 receptor expression within specific corticostriatal circuits by mapping CB1 mRNA levels in striatal sectors defined by their cortical inputs in rats. We also assessed changes in CB1 expression in the striatum during development. Our results show that CB1 expression is highest in juveniles (P25 and then progressively decreases towards adolescent (P40 and adult (P70 levels. At every age, CB1 receptors are predominantly expressed in sensorimotor striatal sectors, with considerably lower expression in associative and limbic sectors. Moreover, for most corticostriatal circuits there is an inverse relationship between cortical and striatal expression levels. Thus, striatal sectors with high CB1 expression (sensorimotor sectors tend to receive inputs from cortical areas with low expression, while striatal sectors with low expression (associative/limbic sectors receive inputs from cortical regions with higher expression (medial prefrontal cortex. In so far as CB1 mRNA levels reflect receptor function, our findings suggest differential CB1 signaling between different developmental stages and between sensorimotor and associative/limbic circuits. The regional distribution of CB1 receptor expression in the striatum further suggests that, in sensorimotor sectors, CB1 receptors mostly regulate GABA inputs from local axon collaterals of projection neurons, whereas in associative/limbic sectors, CB1 regulation of GABA inputs from interneurons and glutamate inputs may be more important.

  16. Evidence That Sleep Deprivation Downregulates Dopamine D2R in Ventral Striatum in the Human Brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkow N. D.; Fowler J.; Volkow, N.D.; Tomasi, D.; Wang, G.-J.; Fowler, J.S.; Logan, J.; Benveniste, H.; Kin, R.; Thanos, P.K.; Sergi F.

    2012-03-23

    Dopamine D2 receptors are involved with wakefulness, but their role in the decreased alertness associated with sleep deprivation is unclear. We had shown that sleep deprivation reduced dopamine D2/D3 receptor availability (measured with PET and [{sup 11}C]raclopride in controls) in striatum, but could not determine whether this reflected dopamine increases ([{sup 11}C]raclopride competes with dopamine for D2/D3 receptor binding) or receptor downregulation. To clarify this, we compared the dopamine increases induced by methylphenidate (a drug that increases dopamine by blocking dopamine transporters) during sleep deprivation versus rested sleep, with the assumption that methylphenidate's effects would be greater if, indeed, dopamine release was increased during sleep deprivation. We scanned 20 controls with [{sup 11}C]raclopride after rested sleep and after 1 night of sleep deprivation; both after placebo and after methylphenidate. We corroborated a decrease in D2/D3 receptor availability in the ventral striatum with sleep deprivation (compared with rested sleep) that was associated with reduced alertness and increased sleepiness. However, the dopamine increases induced by methylphenidate (measured as decreases in D2/D3 receptor availability compared with placebo) did not differ between rested sleep and sleep deprivation, and were associated with the increased alertness and reduced sleepiness when methylphenidate was administered after sleep deprivation. Similar findings were obtained by microdialysis in rodents subjected to 1 night of paradoxical sleep deprivation. These findings are consistent with a downregulation of D2/D3 receptors in ventral striatum with sleep deprivation that may contribute to the associated decreased wakefulness and also corroborate an enhancement of D2 receptor signaling in the arousing effects of methylphenidate in humans.

  17. Goal- and retrieval-dependent activity in the striatum during memory recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clos, Mareike; Schwarze, Ulrike; Gluth, Sebastian; Bunzeck, Nico; Sommer, Tobias

    2015-06-01

    The striatum has been associated with successful memory retrieval but the precise functional link still remains unclear. One hypothesis is that striatal activity reflects an active evaluation process of the retrieval outcome dependent on the current behavioral goals rather than being a consequence of memory reactivation. We have recently shown that the striatum also correlates with confidence in memory recognition, which could reflect high subjective value ascribed to high certainty decisions. To examine whether striatal activity during memory recognition reflects subjective value indeed, we conducted an fMRI study using a recognition memory paradigm in which the participants rated not only the recognition confidence but also indicated the pleasantness associated with the previous memory retrieval. The results demonstrated a high positive correlation between confidence and pleasantness both on the behavioral and brain activation level particularly in the striatum. As almost all of variance in the striatal confidence signal could be explained by experienced pleasantness, this part of the striatal memory recognition response probably corresponds to greater subjective value of high confidence responses. While perceived oldness was also strongly correlated with striatal activity, this activation pattern was clearly distinct from that associated with confidence and pleasantness and thus could not be explained by higher subjective value to detect "old" items. Together, these results show that at least two independent processes contribute to striatal activation in recognition memory: a more flexible evaluation response dependent on context and goals captured by memory confidence and a potentially retrieval-related response captured by perceived oldness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Evidence That Sleep Deprivation Downregulates Dopamine D2R in Ventral Striatum in the Human Brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkow, N.D.; Fowler, J.; Volkow, N.D.; Tomasi, D.; Wang, G.-J.; Fowler, J.S.; Logan, J.; Benveniste, H.; Kin, R.; Thanos, P.K.; Sergi, F.

    2012-01-01

    Dopamine D2 receptors are involved with wakefulness, but their role in the decreased alertness associated with sleep deprivation is unclear. We had shown that sleep deprivation reduced dopamine D2/D3 receptor availability (measured with PET and [ 11 C]raclopride in controls) in striatum, but could not determine whether this reflected dopamine increases ([ 11 C]raclopride competes with dopamine for D2/D3 receptor binding) or receptor downregulation. To clarify this, we compared the dopamine increases induced by methylphenidate (a drug that increases dopamine by blocking dopamine transporters) during sleep deprivation versus rested sleep, with the assumption that methylphenidate's effects would be greater if, indeed, dopamine release was increased during sleep deprivation. We scanned 20 controls with [ 11 C]raclopride after rested sleep and after 1 night of sleep deprivation; both after placebo and after methylphenidate. We corroborated a decrease in D2/D3 receptor availability in the ventral striatum with sleep deprivation (compared with rested sleep) that was associated with reduced alertness and increased sleepiness. However, the dopamine increases induced by methylphenidate (measured as decreases in D2/D3 receptor availability compared with placebo) did not differ between rested sleep and sleep deprivation, and were associated with the increased alertness and reduced sleepiness when methylphenidate was administered after sleep deprivation. Similar findings were obtained by microdialysis in rodents subjected to 1 night of paradoxical sleep deprivation. These findings are consistent with a downregulation of D2/D3 receptors in ventral striatum with sleep deprivation that may contribute to the associated decreased wakefulness and also corroborate an enhancement of D2 receptor signaling in the arousing effects of methylphenidate in humans.

  19. Vasogenic edema in striatum following ingestion of glufosinate-containing herbicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hui-Young; Song, Seo-Young; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Lee, Seo-Young; Kim, Sung-Hun; Ryu, Sook-Won

    2009-10-01

    Glufosinate-ammonium (GLA) is a broad-spectrum herbicide used worldwide. We report a patient who attempted suicide by ingesting a liquid herbicide containing GLA. A diffusion-weighted MRI showed cytotoxic edema in the hippocampus as well as vasogenic edema in the striata. To our knowledge, vasogenic edema caused by GLA-containing herbicide involving the striatum has not been reported in association with cytotoxic edema in the hippocampus. We assume that this herbicide affected the central nervous system via different mechanisms to produce both cytotoxic and vasogenic edema in the same patient.

  20. Release of /sup 3/H-. cap alpha. -methyl-m-tyramine from rat striatum in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorris, R L [Baylor College of Dentistry, Dallas, Tex. (USA). Dept. of Pharmacology

    1976-01-01

    Release of /sup 3/H-d-..cap alpha..-methyl-m-tyramine (/sup 3/H-MMTA), a false dopaminergic transmitter from rat striatum was studied in vitro. After its initial uptake, /sup 3/H-MMTA was released by high K/sup +/ and by amphetamine. The release requirements were essentially the same as those known to exist for release of dopamine in vitro. These studies indicate that /sup 3/H-MMTA might serve as a useful tool with which to study dopamine release mechanisms in vitro.

  1. Effects of acute chlorpyrifos exposure on in vivo acetylcholine accumulation in rat striatum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karanth, Subramanya; Liu, Jing; Mirajkar, Nikita; Pope, Carey

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the acute effects of chlorpyrifos (CPF) on cholinesterase inhibition and acetylcholine levels in the striatum of freely moving rats using in vivo microdialysis. Adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with vehicle (peanut oil, 2 ml/kg) or CPF (84, 156 or 279 mg/kg, sc) and functional signs of toxicity, body weight and motor activity recorded. Microdialysis was conducted at 1, 4 and 7 days after CPF exposure for measurement of acetylcholine levels in striatum. Rats were then sacrificed and the contralateral striatum and diaphragm were collected for biochemical measurements. Few overt signs of cholinergic toxicity were noted in any rats. Body weight gain was significantly affected in the high-dose (279 mg/kg) group only, while motor activity (nocturnal rearing) was significantly reduced in all CPF-treated groups at one day (84 mg/kg) or from 1-4 days (156 and 279 mg/kg) after dosing. Cholinesterase activities in both diaphragm and striatum were markedly inhibited (50-92%) in a time-dependent manner, but there were relatively minimal dose-related changes. In contrast, time- and dose-dependent changes in striatal acetylcholine levels were noted, with significantly higher levels noted in the high-dose group compared to other groups. Maximal increases in striatal acetylcholine levels were observed at 4-7 days after dosing (84 mg/kg, 7-9-fold; 156 mg/kg, 10-13-fold; 279 mg/kg, 35-57-fold). Substantially higher acetylcholine levels were noted when an exogenous cholinesterase inhibitor was included in the perfusion buffer, but CPF treatment-related differences were substantially lower in magnitude under those conditions. The results suggest that marked differences in acetylcholine accumulation can occur with dosages of CPF eliciting relatively similar degrees of cholinesterase inhibition. Furthermore, the minimal expression of classic signs of cholinergic toxicity in the presence of extensive brain acetylcholine accumulation suggests that some

  2. Separate populations of neurons in ventral striatum encode value and motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissonette, Gregory B; Burton, Amanda C; Gentry, Ronny N; Goldstein, Brandon L; Hearn, Taylor N; Barnett, Brian R; Kashtelyan, Vadim; Roesch, Matthew R

    2013-01-01

    Neurons in the ventral striatum (VS) fire to cues that predict differently valued rewards. It is unclear whether this activity represents the value associated with the expected reward or the level of motivation induced by reward anticipation. To distinguish between the two, we trained rats on a task in which we varied value independently from motivation by manipulating the size of the reward expected on correct trials and the threat of punishment expected upon errors. We found that separate populations of neurons in VS encode expected value and motivation.

  3. Sexual dimorphism in song-induced ZENK expression in the medial striatum of juvenile zebra finches

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, David J.; Wade, Juli

    2006-01-01

    In the brains of male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata), the nuclei that direct song learning and production are larger than the corresponding regions in females, who do not sing. The dimorphism in Area X of the medial striatum (MSt), an area important for song learning, is even more dramatic in that it is identifiable in males but not females by Nissl stain. In the present study, conspecific song, but not other auditory stimuli, induced expression of the immediate early gene ZENK in the MS...

  4. Amphetamine sensitization alters reward processing in the human striatum and amygdala.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owen G O'Daly

    Full Text Available Dysregulation of mesolimbic dopamine transmission is implicated in a number of psychiatric illnesses characterised by disruption of reward processing and goal-directed behaviour, including schizophrenia, drug addiction and impulse control disorders associated with chronic use of dopamine agonists. Amphetamine sensitization (AS has been proposed to model the development of this aberrant dopamine signalling and the subsequent dysregulation of incentive motivational processes. However, in humans the effects of AS on the dopamine-sensitive neural circuitry associated with reward processing remains unclear. Here we describe the effects of acute amphetamine administration, following a sensitising dosage regime, on blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD signal in dopaminoceptive brain regions during a rewarded gambling task performed by healthy volunteers. Using a randomised, double-blind, parallel-groups design, we found clear evidence for sensitization to the subjective effects of the drug, while rewarded reaction times were unchanged. Repeated amphetamine exposure was associated with reduced dorsal striatal BOLD signal during decision making, but enhanced ventromedial caudate activity during reward anticipation. The amygdala BOLD response to reward outcomes was blunted following repeated amphetamine exposure. Positive correlations between subjective sensitization and changes in anticipation- and outcome-related BOLD signal were seen for the caudate nucleus and amygdala, respectively. These data show for the first time in humans that AS changes the functional impact of acute stimulant exposure on the processing of reward-related information within dopaminoceptive regions. Our findings accord with pathophysiological models which implicate aberrant dopaminergic modulation of striatal and amygdala activity in psychosis and drug-related compulsive disorders.

  5. The implication of frontostriatal circuits in young smokers: A resting-state study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Kai; Yu, Dahua; Bi, Yanzhi; Li, Yangding; Guan, Yanyan; Liu, Jixin; Zhang, Yi; Qin, Wei; Lu, Xiaoqi; Tian, Jie

    2016-06-01

    The critical roles of frontostriatal circuits had been revealed in addiction. With regard to young smokers, the implication of frontostriatal circuits resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) in smoking behaviors and cognitive control deficits remains unclear. In this study, the volume of striatum subsets, i.e., caudate, putamen, and nucleus accumbens, and corresponding RSFC differences were investigated between young smokers (n1  = 60) and nonsmokers (n2  = 60), which were then correlated with cigarette smoking measures, such as pack_years-cumulative effect of smoking, Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND)-severity of nicotine addiction, Questionnaire on Smoking Urges (QSU)-craving state, and Stroop task performances. Additionally, mediation analysis was carried out to test whether the frontostriatal RSFC mediates the relationship between striatum morphometry and cognitive control behaviors in young smokers when applicable. We revealed increased volume of right caudate and reduced RSFC between caudate and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), orbitofrontal cortex in young smokers. Significant positive correlation between right caudate volume and QSU as well as negative correlation between anterior cingulate cortex-right caudate RSFC and FTND were detected in young smokers. More importantly, DLPFC-caudate RSFC strength mediated the relationship between caudate volume and incongruent errors during Stroop task in young smokers. Our results demonstrated that young smokers showed abnormal interactions within frontostriatal circuits, which were associated with smoking behaviors and cognitive control impairments. It is hoped that our study focusing on frontostriatal circuits could provide new insights into the neural correlates and potential novel therapeutic targets for treatment of young smokers. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2013-2026, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Metabolic Disturbances in the Striatum and Substantia Nigra in the Onset and Progression of MPTP-Induced Parkinsonism Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Lu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic confusion has been linked to the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD, while the dynamic changes associated with the onset and progression of PD remain unclear. Herein, dynamic changes in metabolites were detected from the initiation to the development of 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP -induced Parkinsonism model to elucidate its potential metabolic mechanism. Ex vivo1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy was used to measure metabolite changes in the striatum and substantia nigra (SN of mice at 1, 7, and 21 days after injection of MPTP. Metabolomic analysis revealed a clear separation of the overall metabolites between PD and control mice at different time points. Glutamate (Glu in the striatum was significantly elevated at induction PD day 1 mice, which persisted to day 21. N-acetylaspartate (NAA increased in the striatum of induction PD mice on days 1 and 7, but no significant difference was found in striatum on day 21. Myo-Inositol (mI and taurine (Tau were also disturbed in the striatum in induction PD day 1 mice. Additionally, key enzymes in the glutamate-glutamine cycle were significantly increased in PD mice. These findings suggest that neuron loss and motor function impairment in induction PD mice may be linked to overactive glutamate-glutamine cycle and altered membrane metabolism.

  7. Age-related decrease of 11C-N-methylspiperone in vivo binding to human striatum detected by PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyo, Masaomi; Yamasaki, Toshiro; Fukuda, Hiroshi

    1989-01-01

    The effect of aging on 11 C-N-methylspiperone binding to living human striatum was demonstrated using positron emission tomography. The ll normal volunteers (22 to 72 years old) participated in this study. The uptake of 11 C-N-methylspiperone in the brain following intravenous injection was highest in the striatum in individual subject. And the uptake in the striatum only gradually increased until the end of the study. The uptake of 11 C-N-methylspiperone in cerebellum peaked within 10 minutes following injection and then rapidly dropped. The association rate constant 'k 3 ' was calculated from the slope of the radioactivity-ratio of striatum to cerebellum versus the equivalent time. The equivalent time was calculated from the radioactivity of cerebellum as an input function. The exponential decrease of the k 3 value with aging was observed. The k 3 value of the youngest subject (22 years old, male) was 0.035/min, while that of the oldest one (72 years old, male) was found to be 0.020/min. These data suggested that the dopaminergic activity through D2 dopamine receptors reduces with aging in human striatum. (author)

  8. [Effect of stimulation of GABA-ergic structures of the substantia nigra and caudate nucleus on food-getting behavior in the cat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shugalev, N P

    1983-01-01

    A study was made of the functional significance of GABA-ergic structures of the substantia nigra (SN) and the caudate nucleus (CN) and their role in food-procuring behaviour of cats. Analysis was made of behavioral and EEG-effects of local GABA and the GABA antagonist, picrotoxin, microinjections into the studied brain structures. Stimulation of the GABA-ergic structures of the SN produced a sedative effect and depression of the cat food-procuring behaviour. Effects of stimulation of the CN GABA-ergic structures were to a great degree reverse. The conclusion has been made that GABA-ergic structures of the SN and the CN play different roles in controlling the CN inhibitory influence upon food-procuring behaviour.

  9. 99mTc-TRODAT-1 SPECT Imaging in Early and Late Onset Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payam Sasannezhad

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: 99mTc-TRODAT-1, which binds to the dopamine transporter, could be used to image the dopaminergic system in diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease (PD. PD can be classified into two groups: late onset Parkinson’s disease (LOPD and early onset Parkinson’s disease (EOPD. In this study we tried to determine the TRODAT SPECT findings in EOPD as compared to LOPD.Methods: Fifteen patients were studied. The diagnosis of PD was defined by clinical criteria based on UK Parkinson’s Disease Society Brain Bank criteria. Six patients whose age at onset of PD were younger than 50 were defined as patients with EOPD and 9 patients with older than 50 years were defined as patients with LOPD. All patients underwent 99mTc-TRODAT Brain SPECT.Results: There was a significant decrease of striatal 99mTc-TRODAT-1 (TRODAT binding in PD patients in both EOPD and LOPD. No significant difference was noticed between EOPD and LOPD in disease stage and symptoms. In visual analysis, 20 (66.67% caudate nucleuses had decreased tracer uptake while all 30 (100% putamens had decreased or absent tracer uptake. No significant difference between EOPD and LOPD was noticed in visual analysis. Striatum, Caudate and Putamen uptake ratio to background were calculated. No significant difference was noticed between EOPD and LOPD in these ratios. However there was significant difference in visual analysis (tracer uptake as well as in uptake ratio between putamen and caudate nucleuses in both groups (P=0.001. On the other word, we found more diminished uptake in putamen as compared the caudate. Frequency and severity of putamen involvement were much more than caudate.Conclusion: 99mTc-TRODAT-1 SPECT imaging showed lower presynaptical dopami-nergical terminals density in both EOPD and LOPD. There was no difference between EOPD and LOPD in TRODAT uptake. Putamen showed more involvement and more diminished TRODAT uptake.

  10. The role of the dorsal striatum in extinction: A memory systems perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Jarid; Packard, Mark G

    2018-04-01

    The present review describes a role for the dorsal striatum in extinction. Evidence from brain lesion and pharmacological studies indicate that the dorsolateral region of the striatum (DLS) mediates extinction in various maze learning and instrumental learning tasks. Within the context of a multiple memory systems view, the role of the DLS in extinction appears to be selective. Specifically, the DLS mediates extinction of habit memory and is not required for extinction of cognitive memory. Thus, extinction mechanisms mediated by the DLS may involve response-produced inhibition (e.g. inhibition of existing stimulus-response associations or formation of new inhibitory stimulus-response associations), as opposed to cognitive mechanisms (e.g. changes in expectation). Evidence also suggests that NMDA-dependent forms of synaptic plasticity may be part of the mechanism through which the DLS mediates extinction of habit memory. In addition, in some learning situations, DLS inactivation enhances extinction, suggesting a competitive interaction between multiple memory systems during extinction training. Consistent with a multiple memory systems perspective, it is suggested that the DLS represents one of several distinct neural systems that specialize in extinction of different kinds of memory. The relevance of these findings to the development of behavioral and pharmacological therapies that target the maladaptive habit-like symptoms in human psychopathology is also briefly considered. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Stress Induces a Shift Towards Striatum-Dependent Stimulus-Response Learning via the Mineralocorticoid Receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Susanne; Klumpers, Floris; Schröder, Tobias Navarro; Oplaat, Krista T; Krugers, Harm J; Oitzl, Melly S; Joëls, Marian; Doeller, Christian F; Fernández, Guillén

    2017-05-01

    Stress is assumed to cause a shift from flexible 'cognitive' memory to more rigid 'habit' memory. In the spatial memory domain, stress impairs place learning depending on the hippocampus whereas stimulus-response learning based on the striatum appears to be improved. While the neural basis of this shift is still unclear, previous evidence in rodents points towards cortisol interacting with the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) to affect amygdala functioning. The amygdala is in turn assumed to orchestrate the stress-induced shift in memory processing. However, an integrative study testing these mechanisms in humans is lacking. Therefore, we combined functional neuroimaging of a spatial memory task, stress-induction, and administration of an MR-antagonist in a full-factorial, randomized, placebo-controlled between-subjects design in 101 healthy males. We demonstrate that stress-induced increases in cortisol lead to enhanced stimulus-response learning, accompanied by increased amygdala activity and connectivity to the striatum. Importantly, this shift was prevented by an acute administration of the MR-antagonist spironolactone. Our findings support a model in which the MR and the amygdala play an important role in the stress-induced shift towards habit memory systems, revealing a fundamental mechanism of adaptively allocating neural resources that may have implications for stress-related mental disorders.

  12. Nrf2 deficiency potentiates methamphetamine-induced dopaminergic axonal damage and gliosis in the striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granado, Noelia; Lastres-Becker, Isabel; Ares-Santos, Sara; Oliva, Idaira; Martin, Eduardo; Cuadrado, Antonio; Moratalla, Rosario

    2011-12-01

    Oxidative stress that correlates with damage to nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons and reactive gliosis in the basal ganglia is a hallmark of methamphetamine (METH) toxicity. In this study, we analyzed the protective role of the transcription factor Nrf2 (nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2), a master regulator of redox homeostasis, in METH-induced neurotoxicity. We found that Nrf2 deficiency exacerbated METH-induced damage to dopamine neurons, shown by an increase in loss of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)- and dopamine transporter (DAT)-containing fibers in striatum. Consistent with these effects, Nrf2 deficiency potentiated glial activation, indicated by increased striatal expression of markers for microglia (Mac-1 and Iba-1) and astroglia (GFAP) one day after METH administration. At the same time, Nrf2 inactivation dramatically potentiated the increase in TNFα mRNA and IL-15 protein expression in GFAP+ cells in the striatum. In sharp contrast to the potentiation of striatal damage, Nrf2 deficiency did not affect METH-induced dopaminergic neuron death or expression of glial markers or proinflammatory molecules in the substantia nigra. This study uncovers a new role for Nrf2 in protection against METH-induced inflammatory and oxidative stress and striatal degeneration. Copyright © 2011 Wiley‐Liss, Inc.

  13. Striatum-dependent habits are insensitive to both increases and decreases in reinforcer value in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Jennifer J; Pittenger, Christopher; Lee, Anni S; Pierson, Jamie L; Taylor, Jane R

    2013-03-01

    The mouse has emerged as an advantageous species for studying the brain circuitry that underlies complex behavior and for modeling neuropsychiatric disease. The transition from flexible, goal-directed actions to inflexible, habitual responses is argued to be a valid and reliable behavioral model for studying a core aspect of corticostriatal systems that is implicated in certain forms of psychopathology. This transition is thought to correspond to a progression of behavioral control from associative to sensorimotor corticobasal ganglia networks. Habits form following extensive training and are characterized by reduced sensitivity of instrumental responding to reinforcer revaluation; few studies have examined this form of behavioral control in mice. Here we examined the involvement of the dorsolateral and dorsomedial striatum in this transition in the C57BL/6 inbred mouse strain. We provided evidence that damage to the dorsolateral striatum disrupted habitual responding, i.e. it preserved sensitivity to changes in outcome value following either outcome devaluation or, shown for the first time in mice, outcome inflation. Together, these data show that instrumental responding in lesioned mice tracks the current value of a reinforcer and provide evidence that neuroanatomical mechanisms underlying habit learning in rats are preserved in the mouse. This will allow for the genetic and molecular dissection of neural factors involved in decision-making and mechanisms of aberrant habit formation. © 2013 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Inputs to the dorsal striatum of the mouse conserve the parallel circuit architecture of the forebrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weixing X Pan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The basal ganglia play a critical role in the regulation of voluntary action in vertebrates. Our understanding of the function of the basal ganglia relies heavily upon anatomical information, but continued progress will require an understanding of the specific functional roles played by diverse cell types and their connectivity. An increasing number of mouse lines allow extensive identification, characterization, and, manipulation of specified cell types in the basal ganglia. Despite the promise of genetically modified mice for elucidating the functional roles of diverse cell types, there is relatively little anatomical data obtained directly in the mouse. Here we have characterized the retrograde labeling obtained from a series of tracer injections throughout the dorsal striatum of adult mice. We found systematic variations in input along both the medial-lateral and anterior-posterior neuraxes in close agreement with canonical features of basal ganglia anatomy in the rat. In addition to the canonical features we have provided experimental support for the importance of non-canonical inputs to the striatum from the raphe nuclei and the amygdala. To look for organization at a finer scale we have analyzed the correlation structure of labeling intensity across our entire dataset. Using this analysis we found substantial local heterogeneity within the large-scale order. From this analysis we conclude that individual striatal sites receive varied combinations of cortical and thalamic input from multiple functional areas, consistent with some earlier studies in the rat that have suggested the presence of a combinatorial map.

  15. Inputs to the dorsal striatum of the mouse reflect the parallel circuit architecture of the forebrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Weixing X; Mao, Tianyi; Dudman, Joshua T

    2010-01-01

    The basal ganglia play a critical role in the regulation of voluntary action in vertebrates. Our understanding of the function of the basal ganglia relies heavily upon anatomical information, but continued progress will require an understanding of the specific functional roles played by diverse cell types and their connectivity. An increasing number of mouse lines allow extensive identification, characterization, and manipulation of specified cell types in the basal ganglia. Despite the promise of genetically modified mice for elucidating the functional roles of diverse cell types, there is relatively little anatomical data obtained directly in the mouse. Here we have characterized the retrograde labeling obtained from a series of tracer injections throughout the dorsal striatum of adult mice. We found systematic variations in input along both the medial-lateral and anterior-posterior neuraxes in close agreement with canonical features of basal ganglia anatomy in the rat. In addition to the canonical features we have provided experimental support for the importance of non-canonical inputs to the striatum from the raphe nuclei and the amygdala. To look for organization at a finer scale we have analyzed the correlation structure of labeling intensity across our entire dataset. Using this analysis we found substantial local heterogeneity within the large-scale order. From this analysis we conclude that individual striatal sites receive varied combinations of cortical and thalamic input from multiple functional areas, consistent with some earlier studies in the rat that have suggested the presence of a combinatorial map.

  16. Modafinil abrogates methamphetamine-induced neuroinflammation and apoptotic effects in the mouse striatum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Raineri

    Full Text Available Methamphetamine is a drug of abuse that can cause neurotoxic damage in humans and animals. Modafinil, a wake-promoting compound approved for the treatment of sleeping disorders, is being prescribed off label for the treatment of methamphetamine dependence. The aim of the present study was to investigate if modafinil could counteract methamphetamine-induced neuroinflammatory processes, which occur in conjunction with degeneration of dopaminergic terminals in the mouse striatum. We evaluated the effect of a toxic methamphetamine binge in female C57BL/6 mice (4 × 5 mg/kg, i.p., 2 h apart and modafinil co-administration (2 × 90 mg/kg, i.p., 1 h before the first and fourth methamphetamine injections on glial cells (microglia and astroglia. We also evaluated the striatal expression of the pro-apoptotic BAX and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins, which are known to mediate methamphetamine-induced apoptotic effects. Modafinil by itself did not cause reactive gliosis and counteracted methamphetamine-induced microglial and astroglial activation. Modafinil also counteracted the decrease in tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine transporter levels and prevented methamphetamine-induced increases in the pro-apoptotic BAX and decreases in the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein expression. Our results indicate that modafinil can interfere with methamphetamine actions and provide protection against dopamine toxicity, cell death, and neuroinflammation in the mouse striatum.

  17. Induction of Autophagy in the Striatum and Hypothalamus of Mice after 835 MHz Radiofrequency Exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Hwan Kim

    Full Text Available The extensive use of wireless mobile phones and associated communication devices has led to increasing public concern about potential biological health-related effects of the exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs. EMFs emitted by a mobile phone have been suggested to influence neuronal functions in the brain and affect behavior. However, the affects and phenotype of EMFs exposure are unclear. We applied radiofrequency (RF of 835 MHz at a specific absorption rate (SAR of 4.0 W/kg for 5 hours/day for 4 and 12 weeks to clarify the biological effects on mouse brain. Interestingly, microarray data indicated that a variety of autophagic related genes showed fold-change within small range after 835 MHz RF exposure. qRT-PCR revealed significant up-regulation of the autophagic genes Atg5, LC3A and LC3B in the striatum and hypothalamus after a 12-week RF. In parallel, protein expression of LC3B-II was also increased in both brain regions. Autophagosomes were observed in the striatum and hypothalamus of RF-exposed mice, based on neuronal transmission electron microscopy. Taken together, the results indicate that RF exposure of the brain can induce autophagy in neuronal tissues, providing insight into the protective mechanism or adaptation to RF stress.

  18. Motor Planning under Unpredictable Reward: Modulations of Movement Vigor and Primate Striatum Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan eOpris

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Although reward probability is an important factor that shapes animal behavior, it is not well understood however, how the primate brain translates reward expectation into the vigor of movement (reaction time and speed. To address this question, we trained two monkeys in a reaction time task that required wrist movements in response to vibrotactile and visual stimuli, with a variable reward schedule. Correct performance was rewarded in 75 % of the trials. Monkeys were certain that they would be rewarded only in the trials immediately following withheld rewards. In these trials, the animals responded sooner and moved faster. Single-unit recordings from the dorsal striatum revealed that modulations in striatal neurons reflected such modulations of movement vigor. First, in the trials with certain rewards, striatal neurons modulated their firing rates earlier. Second, magnitudes of changes in neuronal firing rates depended on whether or not monkeys were certain about the reward. Third, these modulations depended on the sensory modality of the cue (visual vs. vibratory and/or movement direction (flexions vs. extensions. We conclude that dorsal striatum may be a part of the mechanism responsible for the modulation of movement vigor in response to changes of reward predictability.

  19. Change of striatum dopaminergic transporter and content of dopamine in rats with experimental hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Yansong; Wang Huicheng; Zhao Zhiying; Zhu Li; Zhang Yingqiang; Chen Zhengping

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The central dopamine system plays an important role in regulating movement and mood. In our routine clinical practice,we found that patients with hyperthyroidism often show tremor of their hands or legs. Meanwhile they also experienced emotional problems such as anxiety and depression. These reminded us that there might be close relationship between thyroid hormone and dopamine system. Based on our previous works, in this study we evaluated the change of striatum dopamine transporter (DAT) by using 99 Tc m -2β- [N, N'-bis (2-merecaptoethyl) ethylenediamino]methyl, 3β- (4-chlorophenyl) tropane (TRODAT-1) brain biodistribution, and the content of striatum dopamine and its metabolites 3.4-di-hydroxyphenylacetic (DOPAC) by high performace liquid chromatograph-electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD) in rats with experimental hyperthyroidism. Methods: All 24 rats were randomly divided into two groups, thyroxin group were induced by daily thyroxin infusion for 14 d to be experimental hyperthyroidism, the others were control group which received saline infusion. The blood samples were randomly taken from thyroxine group and control group, and the concentration of TT 3 and TT 4 were detected by radioimmunoassay. After 14 d,both experimental (thyroxine group) and control group were further divided into 2 sub-groups. One was for evaluation of the function of striatum DAT by 99 Tc m -TRODAT-1 biodistribution study and the other was for HPIJC-ECD measurement of the concentration of dopamine and its metabolites DOPAC. Results: Significantly hyperactivity and weight loss [(223.90 ± 8.40) VS (261.60 ± 14.20)g, t=6.98. P 3 and TT 4 after thyroxin infusion was significantly elevated than that of before thyroxin infusion [(2.72 ± 0.29) V8(1.46 ± 0.17) nmol/L, t=10.51, P 3 , and TT 4 after saline infusion showed no statistical significance as compared with before saline infusion [(1.71 ± 0.20) vs (1.54 ± O.09) nmol/L, t=1.68. P>0.05 and (88.38 ± 6.76) vs (98.38 ± 9

  20. Acute effects of three club drugs on the striatum of rats: Evaluation by quantitative autoradiography with [18F]FDOPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Chun-Kai; Chen, Hong-Wen; Wang, Wei-Hsun; Liu, Ren-Shen; Hwang, Jeng-Jong

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we used quantitative autoradiography to study the acute effect of cocaine, methamphetamine, and ketamine on the uptake of [ 18 F]FDOPA in the striatum of rats. Drugs were treated 0.5 h before (pre-treated), and 1.5 h after (post-treated) [ 18 F]FDOPA injections, rats were then sacrificed at 2 h post [ 18 F]FDOPA injections to determine the striatum/frontal cortex binding ratios in the striatum. The ratios were lower in the post-treated groups than those of the pre-treated groups, suggesting a net effect of inhibition of trapping of the tracer. The order of uptake inhibition is: ketamine>methamphetamine>cocaine

  1. Effect of naltrexone and ondansetron on alcohol cue-induced activation of the ventral striatum in alcohol-dependent people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrick, Hugh; Anton, Raymond F; Li, Xingbao; Henderson, Scott; Randall, Patrick K; Voronin, Konstantin

    2008-04-01

    Medication for the treatment of alcoholism is currently not particularly robust. Neuroimaging techniques might predict which medications could be useful in the treatment of alcohol dependence. To explore the effect of naltrexone, ondansetron hydrochloride, or the combination of these medications on cue-induced craving and ventral striatum activation. Functional brain imaging was conducted during alcohol cue presentation. Participants were recruited from the general community following media advertisement. Experimental procedures were performed in the magnetic resonance imaging suite of a major training hospital and medical research institute. Ninety non-treatment-seeking alcohol-dependent (by DSM-IV criteria) and 17 social drinking (analysis but intermediate in a region-specific analysis. Consistent with animal data that suggest that both naltrexone and ondansetron reduce alcohol-stimulated dopamine output in the ventral striatum, the current study found evidence that these medications, alone or in combination, could decrease alcohol cue-induced activation of the ventral striatum, consistent with their putative treatment efficacy.

  2. Infant rats can learn time intervals before the maturation of the striatum: evidence from odor fear conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie eBoulanger Bertolus

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Interval timing refers to the ability to perceive, estimate and discriminate durations in the range of seconds to minutes. Very little is currently known about the ontogeny of interval timing throughout development. On the other hand, even though the neural circuit sustaining interval timing is a matter of debate, the striatum has been suggested to be an important component of the system and its maturation occurs around the third post-natal week in rats. The global aim of the present study was to investigate interval timing abilities at an age for which striatum is not yet mature. We used odor fear conditioning, as it can be applied to very young animals. In odor fear conditioning, an odor is presented to the animal and a mild footshock is delivered after a fixed interval. Adult rats have been shown to learn the temporal relationships between the odor and the shock after a few associations. The first aim of the present study was to assess the activity of the striatum during odor fear conditioning using 2-Deoxyglucose autoradiography during development in rats. The data showed that although fear learning was displayed at all tested ages, activation of the striatum was observed in adults but not in juvenile animals. Next, we assessed the presence of evidence of interval timing in ages before and after the inclusion of the striatum into the fear conditioning circuit. We used an experimental setup allowing the simultaneous recording of freezing and respiration that have been demonstrated to be sensitive to interval timing in adult rats. This enabled the detection of duration-related temporal patterns for freezing and/or respiration curves in infants as young as 12 days post-natal during odor-fear conditioning. This suggests that infants are able to encode time durations as well as and as quickly as adults while their striatum is not yet functional. Alternative networks possibly sustaining interval timing in infant rats are discussed.

  3. Antioxidant responses and photosynthetic behaviors of Kappaphycus alvarezii and Kappaphycus striatum (Rhodophyta, Solieriaceae) during low temperature stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hu; Liu, Jianguo; Zhang, Litao; Pang, Tong

    2016-12-01

    Kappaphycus are farmed in tropical countries as raw material for carrageenan, which is widely used in food industry. The sea area available for farming is one limiting factor in the production of seaweeds. Though cultivation is spreading into subtropical regions, the lower seawater temperature is an important problem encountered in subtropical regions for the farming of Kappaphycus. This research of physiological response to low temperature stress will be helpful for screening Kappaphycus strains for growth in a lower temperature environment. Responses of antioxidant systems and photosystem II (PSII) behaviors in Kappaphycus alvarezii and Kappaphycus striatum were evaluated during low temperature treatments (23, 20, 17 °C). Compared with the controls at 26 °C, the H 2 O 2 concentrations increased in both species when the thalli were exposed to low temperatures (23, 20, 17 °C), but these increases were much greater in K. striatum than in K. alvarezii thalli, suggesting that K. striatum suffered more oxidative stress. The activities of some important antioxidant enzymes (e.g. superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase) and the hydroxyl free radical scavenging capacity were substantially higher at 23, 20 and 17 °C than at the control 26 °C in K. alvarezii, indicating that the antioxidant system of K. alvarezii enhanced its resistance to low temperature. However, no significant increases of antioxidant enzymes activities were observed at 20 and 17 °C in K. striatum. In addition, both the maximal efficiency of PSII photochemistry (F V /F m ) and the performance index (PI ABS ) decreased significantly in K. striatum at 23 °C, indicating that the photosynthetic apparatus was damaged at 23 °C. In contrast, no significant decreases of either F V /F m or PI ABS were observed in K. alvarezii at 23 °C. It is concluded that K. alvarezii has greater tolerance to low temperature than K. striatum.

  4. In vivo treatment with diphenyl ditelluride induces neurodegeneration in striatum of young rats: Implications of MAPK and Akt pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heimfarth, Luana; Loureiro, Samanta Oliveira; Dutra, Márcio Ferreira; Andrade, Cláudia; Pettenuzzo, Letícia; Guma, Fátima T. Costa Rodrigues; Gonçalves, Carlos Alberto Saraiva [Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Batista Teixeira da Rocha, João [Departamento de Química, Centro de Ciências Naturais e Exatas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, RS Brazil (Brazil); Pessoa-Pureur, Regina, E-mail: rpureur@ufrgs.br [Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2012-10-15

    In the present report 15 day-old Wistar rats were injected with 0.3 μmol of diphenyl ditelluride (PhTe){sub 2}/kg body weight and parameters of neurodegeneration were analyzed in slices from striatum 6 days afterwards. We found hyperphosphorylation of intermediate filament (IF) proteins from astrocyte (glial fibrillary acidic protein—GFAP and vimentin) and from neuron (low-, medium- and high molecular weight neurofilament subunits: NF-L, NF-M and NF-H, respectively) and increased MAPK (Erk, JNK and p38MAPK) as well as PKA activities. The treatment induced reactive astrogliosis in the striatum, evidenced by increased GFAP and vimentin immunocontent as well as their mRNA overexpression. Also, (PhTe){sub 2} significantly increased the propidium iodide (PI) positive cells in NeuN positive population without altering PI incorporation into GFAP positive cells, indicating that in vivo exposure to (PhTe){sub 2} provoked neuronal damage. Immunohistochemistry showed a dramatic increase of GFAP staining characteristic of reactive astrogliosis. Moreover, increased caspase 3 in (PhTe){sub 2} treated striatal slices suggested apoptotic cell death. (PhTe){sub 2} exposure decreased Akt immunoreactivity, however phospho-GSK-3-β (Ser9) was unaltered, suggesting that this kinase is not directly implicated in the neurotoxicity of this compound. Therefore, the present results shed light into the mechanisms of (PhTe){sub 2}-induced neurodegeneration in rat striatum, evidencing a critical role for the MAPK and Akt signaling pathways and disruption of cytoskeletal homeostasis, which could be related with apoptotic neuronal death and astrogliosis. -- Highlights: ► Diphenyl ditelluride causes apoptotic neuronal death in the striatum of young rats. ► Diphenyl ditelluride causes reactive astrogliosis in the striatum of rats. ► Diphenyl ditelluride disrupts the homeostasis of the cytoskeleton of the striatum. ► The actions of diphenyl ditelluride are mediated by MAPK and Akt

  5. Normalization of markers for dopamine innervation in striatum of MPTP-lesioned miniature pigs with intrastriatal grafts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cumming, P; Danielsen, E H; Vafaee, M

    2001-01-01

    , both pre-synaptic markers of dopamine fibres were normal in striatum. Dopamine depletion or grafting were without effect on the cerebral perfusion rate, measured with [15O]-water, did not alter the rate of oxygen metabolism (CMRO2) in brain, and did not alter the binding potential of tracers...... for dopamine D1 or D2 receptors in pig striatum. However, the grafting was associated with a local increase in the binding of [11C]PK 11195, a tracer for reactive gliosis, suggesting that an immunological reaction occurs at the site of graft, which might potentially have reduced the graft patency. However...

  6. Role of Anterior Intralaminar Nuclei of Thalamus Projections to Dorsomedial Striatum in Incubation of Methamphetamine Craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuan; Witonsky, Kailyn R; Lofaro, Olivia M; Surjono, Felicia; Zhang, Jianjun; Bossert, Jennifer M; Shaham, Yavin

    2018-02-28

    Relapse to methamphetamine (Meth) seeking progressively increases after withdrawal from drug self-administration (incubation of Meth craving). We previously demonstrated a role of dorsomedial striatum (DMS) dopamine D1 receptors (D1Rs) in this incubation. Here, we studied the role of afferent glutamatergic projections into the DMS and local D1R-glutamate interaction in this incubation in male rats. We first measured projection-specific activation on day 30 relapse test by using cholera toxin b (retrograde tracer) + Fos (activity marker) double-labeling in projection areas. Next, we determined the effect of pharmacological reversible inactivation of lateral or medial anterior intralaminar nuclei of thalamus (AIT-L or AIT-M) on incubated Meth seeking on withdrawal day 30. We then used an anatomical asymmetrical disconnection procedure to determine whether an interaction between AIT-L→DMS glutamatergic projections and postsynaptic DMS D1Rs contributes to incubated Meth seeking. We also determined the effect of unilateral inactivation of AIT-L and D1R blockade of DMS on incubated Meth seeking, and the effect of contralateral disconnection of AIT-L→DMS projections on nonincubated Meth seeking on withdrawal day 1. Incubated Meth seeking was associated with selective activation of AIT→DMS projections; other glutamatergic projections to DMS were not activated. AIT-L (but not AIT-M) inactivation or anatomical disconnection of AIT-L→DMS projections decreased incubated Meth seeking. Unilateral inactivation of AIT-L or D1R blockade of the DMS had no effect on incubated Meth craving, and contralateral disconnection of AIT-L→DMS projections had no effect on nonincubated Meth seeking. Our results identify a novel role of AIT-L and AIT-L→DMS glutamatergic projections in incubation of drug craving and drug seeking. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Methamphetamine seeking progressively increases after withdrawal from drug self-administration, a phenomenon termed incubation of

  7. Contributions of Hippocampus and Striatum to Memory-Guided Behavior Depend on Past Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The hippocampal and striatal memory systems are thought to operate independently and in parallel in supporting cognitive memory and habits, respectively. Much of the evidence for this principle comes from double dissociation data, in which damage to brain structure A causes deficits in Task 1 but not Task 2, whereas damage to structure B produces the reverse pattern of effects. Typically, animals are explicitly trained in one task. Here, we investigated whether this principle continues to hold when animals concurrently learn two types of tasks. Rats were trained on a plus maze in either a spatial navigation or a cue–response task (sequential training), whereas a third set of rats acquired both (concurrent training). Subsequently, the rats underwent either sham surgery or neurotoxic lesions of the hippocampus (HPC), medial dorsal striatum (DSM), or lateral dorsal striatum (DSL), followed by retention testing. Finally, rats in the sequential training condition also acquired the novel “other” task. When rats learned one task, HPC and DSL selectively supported spatial navigation and cue response, respectively. However, when rats learned both tasks, HPC and DSL additionally supported the behavior incongruent with the processing style of the corresponding memory system. Thus, in certain conditions, the hippocampal and striatal memory systems can operate cooperatively and in synergism. DSM significantly contributed to performance regardless of task or training procedure. Experience with the cue–response task facilitated subsequent spatial learning, whereas experience with spatial navigation delayed both concurrent and subsequent response learning. These findings suggest that there are multiple operational principles that govern memory networks. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Currently, we distinguish among several types of memories, each supported by a distinct neural circuit. The memory systems are thought to operate independently and in parallel. Here, we demonstrate

  8. Value and probability coding in a feedback-based learning task utilizing food rewards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricomi, Elizabeth; Lempert, Karolina M

    2015-01-01

    For the consequences of our actions to guide behavior, the brain must represent different types of outcome-related information. For example, an outcome can be construed as negative because an expected reward was not delivered or because an outcome of low value was delivered. Thus behavioral consequences can differ in terms of the information they provide about outcome probability and value. We investigated the role of the striatum in processing probability-based and value-based negative feedback by training participants to associate cues with food rewards and then employing a selective satiety procedure to devalue one food outcome. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we examined brain activity related to receipt of expected rewards, receipt of devalued outcomes, omission of expected rewards, omission of devalued outcomes, and expected omissions of an outcome. Nucleus accumbens activation was greater for rewarding outcomes than devalued outcomes, but activity in this region did not correlate with the probability of reward receipt. Activation of the right caudate and putamen, however, was largest in response to rewarding outcomes relative to expected omissions of reward. The dorsal striatum (caudate and putamen) at the time of feedback also showed a parametric increase correlating with the trialwise probability of reward receipt. Our results suggest that the ventral striatum is sensitive to the motivational relevance, or subjective value, of the outcome, while the dorsal striatum codes for a more complex signal that incorporates reward probability. Value and probability information may be integrated in the dorsal striatum, to facilitate action planning and allocation of effort. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Glucose Injections into the Dorsal Hippocampus or Dorsolateral Striatum of Rats Prior to T-Maze Training: Modulation of Learning Rates and Strategy Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canal, Clinton E.; Stutz, Sonja J.; Gold, Paul E.

    2005-01-01

    The present experiments examined the effects of injecting glucose into the dorsal hippocampus or dorsolateral striatum on learning rates and on strategy selection in rats trained on a T-maze that can be solved by using either a hippocampus-sensitive place or striatum-sensitive response strategy. Percentage strategy selection on a probe trial…

  10. Functional Specialization within the Striatum along Both the Dorsal/Ventral and Anterior/Posterior Axes during Associative Learning via Reward and Punishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattfeld, Aaron T.; Gluck, Mark A.; Stark, Craig E. L.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to elucidate the role of the human striatum in learning via reward and punishment during an associative learning task. Previous studies have identified the striatum as a critical component in the neural circuitry of reward-related learning. It remains unclear, however, under what task conditions, and to what…

  11. Test-retest reliability of {sup 11}C-ORM-13070 in PET imaging of α{sub 2C}-adrenoceptors in vivo in the human brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehto, Jussi; Peltonen, Juha M.; Volanen, Iina; Scheinin, Mika [University of Turku, Clinical Research Services Turku CRST, Turku (Finland); TYKSLAB, Unit of Clinical Pharmacology, Turku (Finland); Virta, Jere R. [University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku PET Centre, Turku (Finland); Turku University Hospital, Division of Clinical Neurosciences, Turku (Finland); Oikonen, Vesa; Roivainen, Anne; Luoto, Pauliina; Arponen, Eveliina; Helin, Semi; Virtanen, Kirsi [University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku PET Centre, Turku (Finland); Hietamaeki, Johanna; Holopainen, Aila; Rouru, Juha; Sallinen, Jukka [Orion Pharma, Turku (Finland); Kailajaervi, Marita [Turku Imanet, GE Healthcare, Turku (Finland); Rinne, Juha O. [University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku PET Centre, Turku (Finland); Turku University Hospital, Division of Clinical Neurosciences, Turku (Finland); University of Turku, Clinical Research Services Turku CRST, Turku (Finland)

    2015-01-15

    α{sub 2C}-Adrenoceptors share inhibitory presynaptic functions with the more abundant α{sub 2A}-adrenoceptor subtype, but they also have widespread postsynaptic modulatory functions in the brain. Research on the noradrenergic system of the human brain has been hampered by the lack of suitable PET tracers targeted to the α{sub 2}-adrenoceptor subtypes. PET imaging with the specific α{sub 2C}-adrenoceptor antagonist tracer [{sup 11}C]ORM-13070 was performed twice in six healthy male subjects to investigate the test-retest reliability of tracer binding. The bound/free ratio of tracer uptake relative to nonspecific uptake into the cerebellum during the time interval of 5 - 30 min was most prominent in the dorsal striatum: 0.77 in the putamen and 0.58 in the caudate nucleus. Absolute test-retest variability in bound/free ratios of tracer ranged from 4.3 % in the putamen to 29 % in the hippocampus. Variability was also <10 % in the caudate nucleus and thalamus. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) ranged from 0.50 in the hippocampus to 0.89 in the thalamus (ICC >0.70 was also reached in the caudate nucleus, putamen, lateral frontal cortex and parietal cortex). The pattern of [{sup 11}C]ORM-13070 binding, as determined by PET, was in good agreement with receptor density results previously derived from post-mortem autoradiography. PET data analysis results obtained with a compartmental model fit, the simplified reference tissue model and a graphical reference tissue analysis method were convergent with the tissue ratio method. The results of this study support the use of [{sup 11}C]ORM-13070 PET in the quantitative assessment of α{sub 2C}-adrenoceptors in the human brain in vivo. Reliable assessment of specific tracer binding in the dorsal striatum is possible with the help of reference tissue ratios. (orig.)

  12. Advanced Parkinson’s disease effect on goal-directed and habitual processes involved in visuomotor associative learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadila eHadj-Bouziane

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present behavioral study readdresses the question of habit learning in Parkinson's disease. Patients were early onset, non-demented, dopa-responsive, candidates for surgical treatment, similar to those we found earlier as suffering greater dopamine depletion in the putamen than in the caudate nucleus. The task was the same conditional associative learning task as that used previously in monkeys and healthy humans to unveil the striatum involvement in habit learning. Sixteen patients and 20 age- and education-matched healthy control subjects learned sets of 3 visuo-motor associations between complex patterns and joystick displacements during two testing sessions separated by a few hours. We distinguished errors preceding versus following the first correct response to compare patients' performance during the earliest phase of learning dominated by goal-directed actions with that observed later on, when responses start to become habitual. The disease significantly retarded both learning phases, especially in patients under sixty years of age. However, only the late phase deficit was disease severity-dependent and persisted on the second testing session. These findings provide the first corroboration in Parkinson patients of two ideas well-established in the animal literature. The first is the idea that associating visual stimuli to motor acts is a form of habit learning that engages the striatum. It is confirmed here by the global impairment in visuo-motor learning induced by Parkinson's disease. The second idea is that goal-directed behaviors are predominantly caudate-dependent whereas habitual responses are primarily putamen-dependent. At the advanced Parkinson's disease stages tested here, dopamine depletion is greater in the putamen than in the caudate nucleus. Accordingly, the late phase of learning corresponding to the emergence of habitual responses was more vulnerable to the disease than the early phase dominated by goal

  13. INCREASES IN FUNCTIONAL CONNECTIVITY BETWEEN PREFRONTAL CORTEX AND STRIATUM DURING CATEGORY LEARNING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antzoulatos, Evan G.; Miller, Earl K.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Functional connectivity between the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and striatum (STR) is thought critical for cognition, and has been linked to conditions like autism and schizophrenia. We recorded from multiple electrodes in PFC and STR while monkeys acquired new categories. Category learning was accompanied by an increase in beta-band synchronization of LFPs between, but not within, the PFC and STR. After learning, different pairs of PFC-STR electrodes showed stronger synchrony for one or the other category, suggesting category-specific functional circuits. This category-specific synchrony was also seen between PFC spikes and STR LFPs, but not the reverse, reflecting the direct monosynaptic connections from the PFC to STR. However, causal connectivity analyses suggested that the polysynaptic connections from STR to the PFC exerted a stronger overall influence. This supports models positing that the basal ganglia “train” the PFC. Category learning may depend on the formation of functional circuits between the PFC and STR. PMID:24930701

  14. Learning multiple variable-speed sequences in striatum via cortical tutoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, James M; Escola, G Sean

    2017-05-08

    Sparse, sequential patterns of neural activity have been observed in numerous brain areas during timekeeping and motor sequence tasks. Inspired by such observations, we construct a model of the striatum, an all-inhibitory circuit where sequential activity patterns are prominent, addressing the following key challenges: (i) obtaining control over temporal rescaling of the sequence speed, with the ability to generalize to new speeds; (ii) facilitating flexible expression of distinct sequences via selective activation, concatenation, and recycling of specific subsequences; and (iii) enabling the biologically plausible learning of sequences, consistent with the decoupling of learning and execution suggested by lesion studies showing that cortical circuits are necessary for learning, but that subcortical circuits are sufficient to drive learned behaviors. The same mechanisms that we describe can also be applied to circuits with both excitatory and inhibitory populations, and hence may underlie general features of sequential neural activity pattern generation in the brain.

  15. Progressive obtundation in a young woman with bilateral corpus striatum infarction: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zangana Hero M

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bilateral ischemic infarction involving the corpus striatum is a rare event which usually results from global cerebral hypoxia, intoxications, and drug abuse. Case presentation We report a 28 year old Caucasian woman who presented with progressive obtundation and later development of severe expressive dysphasia and Parkinsonism after sustaining ischemic stroke of both corpora striata. Hemorrhagic transformation developed on day four of admission. Conclusion This is a rare case of bilateral basal ganglia infarction with hemorrhagic transformation in a young patient. Our patient's work up did not reveal any cause behind this stroke; however, advanced investigations (such as genetic testing and conventional angiography were not done. The damage resulted in motor dysphasia and Parkinsonism. Neither dystonia nor other involuntary movements developed, and cognitive function was not assessed because of the language disorder.

  16. From the ventral to the dorsal striatum: devolving views of their roles in drug addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everitt, Barry J; Robbins, Trevor W

    2013-11-01

    We revisit our hypothesis that drug addiction can be viewed as the endpoint of a series of transitions from initial voluntarily drug use to habitual, and ultimately compulsive drug use. We especially focus on the transitions in striatal control over drug seeking behaviour that underlie these transitions since functional heterogeneity of the striatum was a key area of Ann Kelley's research interests and one in which she made enormous contributions. We also discuss the hypothesis in light of recent data that the emergence of a compulsive drug seeking habit both reflects a shift to dorsal striatal control over behaviour and impaired prefontal cortical inhibitory control mechanisms. We further discuss aspects of the vulnerability to compulsive drug use and in particular the impact of impulsivity. In writing this review we acknowledge the untimely death of an outstanding scientist and a dear personal friend. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Methamphetamine blocks exercise effects on Bdnf and Drd2 gene expression in frontal cortex and striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Andrew B; Stolyarova, Alexandra; Ying, Zhe; Zhuang, Yumei; Gómez-Pinilla, Fernando; Izquierdo, Alicia

    2015-12-01

    Exposure to drugs of abuse can produce many neurobiological changes which may lead to increased valuation of rewards and decreased sensitivity to their costs. Many of these behavioral alterations are associated with activity of D2-expressing medium spiny neurons in the striatum. Additionally, Bdnf in the striatum has been shown to play a role in flexible reward-seeking behavior. Given that voluntary aerobic exercise can affect the expression of these proteins in healthy subjects, and that exercise has shown promise as an anti-addictive therapy, we set out to quantify changes in D2 and Bdnf expression in methamphetamine-exposed rats given access to running wheels. Sixty-four rats were treated for two weeks with an escalating dose of methamphetamine or saline, then either sacrificed, housed in standard cages, or given free access to a running wheel for 6 weeks prior to sacrifice. Rats treated with methamphetamine ran significantly greater distances than saline-treated rats, suggesting an augmentation in the reinforcement value of voluntary wheel running. Transcription of Drd2 and Bdnf was assessed via RT-qPCR. Protein expression levels of D2 and phosphorylation of the TrkB receptor were measured via western blot. Drd2 and Bdnf mRNA levels were impacted independently by exercise and methamphetamine, but exposure to methamphetamine prior to the initiation of exercise blocked the exercise-induced changes seen in rats treated with saline. Expression levels of both proteins were elevated immediately after methamphetamine, but returned to baseline after six weeks, regardless of exercise status. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of the neonicotinoids thiametoxam and clothianidin on in vivo dopamine release in rat striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Iris Machado; Nunes, Brenda Viviane Ferreira; Barbosa, Durán Rafael; Pallares, Alfonso Miguel; Faro, Lilian Rosana Ferreira

    2010-02-15

    Thiamethoxam (TMX) and clothianidin (CLO) are neonicotinoids insecticides. The main characteristic of these pesticides is their agonist action on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). In the present work it was studied and characterized the effects of TMX and CLO, in different concentrations, on dopaminergic system of rat striatum using in vivo brain microdialysis coupled to HPLC-EC. Intrastriatal administration of 1mM or 5mM TMX has not produced significant increases on dopamine (DA) levels, nonetheless the infusion of 10mM TMX increases the DA output to 841+/-132%, when compared to basal levels. Infusion of 1mM CLO has not induced a significant increase in DA levels, even so 2, 3.5 and 5mM CLO have produced an increase of 438+/-8%, 2778+/-598% and 4604+/-516%, respectively, every compared to basal levels. Mecamylamine (MEC), a non-competitive nAChRs antagonist, was used to investigate the role of nAChRs on DA release induced by TMX and CLO. The increases in extracellular DA levels induced by TMX and CLO when associated to MEC are 80% and 68% lower than the effect produced by CLO and TMX isolated. These results confirm that TMX and CLO appear to induce in vivo DA increased release in striatum of rats and it seems to be concentration dependent. Moreover, these results indicate that this effect might be related to nAChRs. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Gene expression profiling in the striatum of inbred mouse strains with distinct opioid-related phenotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piechota Marcin

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mouse strains with a contrasting response to morphine provide a unique model for studying the genetically determined diversity of sensitivity to opioid reward, tolerance and dependence. Four inbred strains selected for this study exhibit the most distinct opioid-related phenotypes. C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice show remarkable differences in morphine-induced antinociception, self-administration and locomotor activity. 129P3/J mice display low morphine tolerance and dependence in contrast to high sensitivity to precipitated withdrawal observed in SWR/J and C57BL/6J strains. In this study, we attempted to investigate the relationships between genetic background and basal gene expression profile in the striatum, a brain region involved in the mechanism of opioid action. Results Gene expression was studied by Affymetrix Mouse Genome 430v2.0 arrays with probes for over 39.000 transcripts. Analysis of variance with the control for false discovery rate (q Khdrbs1 and ATPase Na+/K+ alpha2 subunit (Atp1a2 with morphine self-administration and analgesic effects, respectively. Finally, the examination of transcript structure demonstrated a possible inter-strain variability of expressed mRNA forms as for example the catechol-O-methyltransferase (Comt gene. Conclusion The presented study led to the recognition of differences in the gene expression that may account for distinct phenotypes. Moreover, results indicate strong contribution of genetic background to differences in gene transcription in the mouse striatum. The genes identified in this work constitute promising candidates for further animal studies and for translational genetic studies in the field of addictive and analgesic properties of opioids.

  20. Regulation of Pleiotrophin and Fyn in the striatum of rats undergoing L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Gimena; Saborido, Mariano D; Bernardi, M Alejandra; Gershanik, Oscar S; Taravini, Irene R; Ferrario, Juan E

    2018-02-14

    L-DOPA is the gold standard pharmacological therapy for symptomatic treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD), however, its long-term use is associated with the emergence of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID). Understanding the underlying molecular mechanisms of LID is crucial for the development of newer and more effective therapeutic approaches. In previous publications, we have shown that Pleiotrophin (PTN), a developmentally regulated trophic factor, is up-regulated by L-DOPA in the striatum of dopamine denervated rats. We have also shown that both mRNA and protein levels of RPTPζ/β, a PTN receptor, were upregulated in the same experimental condition and expressed in striatal medium spiny neurons. The PTN-RPTPζ/β intracellular pathway has not been fully explored and it might be implicated in the striatal plastic changes triggered by L-DOPA treatment. RPTPζ/β is part of the postsynaptic density zone and modulates Fyn, a Src tyrosine kinase that regulates the NR2A and NR2B subunits of the NMDA receptor and has been singled out as a key molecule in the development of LID. In this study, we evaluated the changes in PTN and Fyn protein levels and Fyn phosphorylation status in the 6-OHDA rat model of PD rendered dyskinetic with L-DOPA. We found an increase in the number of PTN immunoreactive neurons, no changes in the amount of total Fyn but a significant increase in Fyn phosphorylation in the dorsolateral striatum of dyskinetic rats. Our results support the idea that both PTN and Fyn may be involved in the development of LID, further contributing to the understanding of its molecular mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Dysfunctional mitochondrial respiration in the striatum of the Huntington's disease transgenic R6/2 mouse model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aidt, Frederik Heurlin; Nielsen, Signe Marie Borch; Kanters, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic dysfunction and mitochondrial involvement are recognised as part of the pathology in Huntington's Disease (HD). Post-mortem examinations of the striatum from end-stage HD patients have shown a decrease in the in vitro activity of complexes II, III and IV of the electron transport system...

  2. Abnormal nuclear envelopes in the striatum and motor deficits in DYT11 myoclonus-dystonia mouse models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoi, Fumiaki; Dang, Mai T.; Zhou, Tong; Li, Yuqing

    2012-01-01

    DYT11 myoclonus-dystonia (M-D) is a movement disorder characterized by myoclonic jerks with dystonic symptoms and caused by mutations in paternally expressed SGCE, which codes for ɛ-sarcoglycan. Paternally inherited Sgce heterozygous knock-out (KO) mice exhibit motor deficits and spontaneous myoclonus. Abnormal nuclear envelopes have been reported in cellular and mouse models of early-onset DYT1 generalized torsion dystonia; however, the relationship between the abnormal nuclear envelopes and motor symptoms are not clear. Furthermore, it is not known whether abnormal nuclear envelope exists in non-DYT1 dystonia. In the present study, abnormal nuclear envelopes in the striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) were found in Sgce KO mice. To analyze whether the loss of ɛ-sarcoglycan in the striatum alone causes abnormal nuclear envelopes, motor deficits or myoclonus, we produced paternally inherited striatum-specific Sgce conditional KO (Sgce sKO) mice and analyzed their phenotypes. Sgce sKO mice exhibited motor deficits in both beam-walking and accelerated rotarod tests, while they did not exhibit abnormal nuclear envelopes, alteration in locomotion, or myoclonus. The results suggest that the loss of ɛ-sarcoglycan in the striatum contributes to motor deficits, while it alone does not produce abnormal nuclear envelopes or myoclonus. Development of therapies targeting the striatum to compensate for the loss of ɛ-sarcoglycan function may rescue the motor deficits in DYT11 M-D patients. PMID:22080833

  3. Abnormal nuclear envelopes in the striatum and motor deficits in DYT11 myoclonus-dystonia mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoi, Fumiaki; Dang, Mai T; Zhou, Tong; Li, Yuqing

    2012-02-15

    DYT11 myoclonus-dystonia (M-D) is a movement disorder characterized by myoclonic jerks with dystonic symptoms and caused by mutations in paternally expressed SGCE, which codes for ε-sarcoglycan. Paternally inherited Sgce heterozygous knock-out (KO) mice exhibit motor deficits and spontaneous myoclonus. Abnormal nuclear envelopes have been reported in cellular and mouse models of early-onset DYT1 generalized torsion dystonia; however, the relationship between the abnormal nuclear envelopes and motor symptoms are not clear. Furthermore, it is not known whether abnormal nuclear envelope exists in non-DYT1 dystonia. In the present study, abnormal nuclear envelopes in the striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) were found in Sgce KO mice. To analyze whether the loss of ε-sarcoglycan in the striatum alone causes abnormal nuclear envelopes, motor deficits or myoclonus, we produced paternally inherited striatum-specific Sgce conditional KO (Sgce sKO) mice and analyzed their phenotypes. Sgce sKO mice exhibited motor deficits in both beam-walking and accelerated rotarod tests, while they did not exhibit abnormal nuclear envelopes, alteration in locomotion, or myoclonus. The results suggest that the loss of ε-sarcoglycan in the striatum contributes to motor deficits, while it alone does not produce abnormal nuclear envelopes or myoclonus. Development of therapies targeting the striatum to compensate for the loss of ε-sarcoglycan function may rescue the motor deficits in DYT11 M-D patients.

  4. Control of Huntington’s Disease-Associated Phenotypes by the Striatum-Enriched Transcription Factor Foxp2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea J. Hachigian

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Alteration of corticostriatal glutamatergic function is an early pathophysiological change associated with Huntington’s disease (HD. The factors that regulate the maintenance of corticostriatal glutamatergic synapses post-developmentally are not well understood. Recently, the striatum-enriched transcription factor Foxp2 was implicated in the development of these synapses. Here, we show that, in mice, overexpression of Foxp2 in the adult striatum of two models of HD leads to rescue of HD-associated behaviors, while knockdown of Foxp2 in wild-type mice leads to development of HD-associated behaviors. We note that Foxp2 encodes the longest polyglutamine repeat protein in the human reference genome, and we show that it can be sequestered into aggregates with polyglutamine-expanded mutant Huntingtin protein (mHTT. Foxp2 overexpression in HD model mice leads to altered expression of several genes associated with synaptic function, genes that present additional targets for normalization of corticostriatal dysfunction in HD. : Hachigian et al. demonstrate that manipulating levels of the striatum-enriched transcription factor Foxp2 can either rescue or mimic HD-associated behaviors in vivo. They link Foxp2 to the post-developmental regulation of the structure and function of the corticostriatal synapse. Keywords: Huntington’s disease, Foxp2, striatum, corticostriatal synapse

  5. Manganese-induced hydroxyl radical formation in rat striatum is not attenuated by dopamine depletion or iron chelation in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.N. Sloot (W.); J. Korf (Jakob); J.F. Koster (Johan); L.E.A. de Wit (Elly); J.-B.P. Gramsbergen (J. B P)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractThe present studies were aimed at investigating the possible roles of dopamine (DA) and iron in production of hydroxyl radicals (.OH) in rat striatum after Mn2+ intoxication. For this purpose, DA depletions were assessed concomitant with in vivo 2,3- and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA)

  6. Amphetamine-enhanced accumulation of [3H]-spiperone in mouse corpus striatum in vivo: Modification by other drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorris, R.L.

    1989-01-01

    Other investigators have reported that amphetamine administered to rodents results in an increase in the in vivo accumulation of either the tritiated dopamine receptor ligand, spiperone or pimozide in the dopaminergic corpus striatum, (specific binding) while not altering that in the sparsely dopaminergically innervated cerebellum (non-specific binding). Experiments were undertaken to determine if the results could be replicated and if some other drugs would modify the effect. Male mice were injected with [ 3 H]-spiperone (20 μCi/Kg, 0.0003 mg/kg) s.c. and killed 2 hrs later for determination of radioactivity in corpus striatum and cerebellum. Amphetamine (20 mg/kg, i.p.) given 15 min before [ 3 H]-spiperone, increased accumulation in striatum but not cerebellum. The increase was inhibited by α - methyltyrosine (α-MT), haloperidol, reserpine or amantadine. It is suggested that the amphetamine-induced increase in accumulation of [ 3 H]-spiperone in corpus striatum (specific binding) depends on release of large amounts of dopamine, which then must be able to interact with the dopamine receptor. The antagonism of the effect by α-MT or reserpine can be explained by dopamine depletion, that of haloperidol by antagonism for binding at the receptor site. It is suggested that amantadine acts by a dual mechanism: (1) as a low efficacy agonist, it competes for binding to the receptor and (2) it has some ability to block dopamine release

  7. Reduced activation in the ventral striatum during probabilistic decision-making in patients in an at-risk mental state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rausch, Franziska; Mier, Daniela; Eifler, Sarah; Fenske, Sabrina; Schirmbeck, Frederike; Englisch, Susanne; Schilling, Claudia; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Kirsch, Peter; Zink, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia display metacognitive impairments, such as hasty decision-making during probabilistic reasoning - the "jumping to conclusion" bias (JTC). Our recent fMRI study revealed reduced activations in the right ventral striatum (VS) and the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to be

  8. Chronic stress may facilitate the recruitment of habit- and addiction-related neurocircuitries through neuronal restructuring of the striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, S B; Anglin, J M; Paode, P R; Riggert, A G; Olive, M F; Conrad, C D

    2014-11-07

    Chronic stress is an established risk factor in the development of addiction. Addiction is characterized by a progressive transition from casual drug use to habitual and compulsive drug use. The ability of chronic stress to facilitate the transition to addiction may be mediated by increased engagement of the neurocircuitries underlying habitual behavior and addiction. In the present study, striatal morphology was evaluated after 2 weeks of chronic variable stress in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Dendritic complexity of medium spiny neurons was visualized and quantified with Golgi staining in the dorsolateral and dorsomedial striatum, as well as in the nucleus accumbens core and shell. In separate cohorts, the effects of chronic stress on habitual behavior and the acute locomotor response to methamphetamine were also assessed. Chronic stress resulted in increased dendritic complexity in the dorsolateral striatum and nucleus accumbens core, regions implicated in habitual behavior and addiction, while decreased complexity was found in the nucleus accumbens shell, a region critical for the initial rewarding effects of drugs of abuse. Chronic stress did not affect dendritic complexity in the dorsomedial striatum. A parallel shift toward habitual learning strategies following chronic stress was also identified. There was an initial reduction in acute locomotor response to methamphetamine, but no lasting effect as a result of chronic stress exposure. These findings suggest that chronic stress may facilitate the recruitment of habit- and addiction-related neurocircuitries through neuronal restructuring in the striatum. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A novel syndrome of abnormal striatum and congenital cataract: evidence for linkage to chromosomes 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Owain, M; Al-Zahrani, J; Al-Bakheet, A; Abudheim, N; Al-Younes, B; Aldhalaan, H; Al-Zaidan, H; Colak, D; Almohaileb, F; Abouzied, M E; Al-Fadhli, F; Meyer, B; Kaya, N

    2013-09-01

    We report a consanguineous family of three girls and one boy affected with a novel syndrome involving the lens and the basal ganglia. The phenotype is strikingly similar between affected siblings with cognitive impairment, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), microcephaly, growth retardation, congenital cataract, and dystonia. The magnetic resonance imaging showed unusual pattern of swelling of the caudate heads and thinning of the putamina with severe degree of hypometabolism on the [18F] deoxyglucose positron emission tomography. Furthermore, the clinical assessment provides the evidence that the neurological phenotype is very slowly progressive. We utilized the 10K single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) microarray genotyping for linkage analysis. Genome-wide scan indicated a 45.9-Mb region with a 4.2353 logarithm of the odds score on chromosome 11. Affymetrix genome-wide human SNP array 6.0 assay did not show any gross chromosomal abnormality. Targeted sequencing of two candidate genes within the linkage interval (PAX6 and B3GALTL) as well as mtDNA genome sequencing did not reveal any putative mutations. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Histamine H3 Receptors Decrease Dopamine Release in the Ventral Striatum by Reducing the Activity of Striatal Cholinergic Interneurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varaschin, Rafael Koerich; Osterstock, Guillaume; Ducrot, Charles; Leino, Sakari; Bourque, Marie-Josée; Prado, Marco A M; Prado, Vania Ferreira; Salminen, Outi; Rannanpää Née Nuutinen, Saara; Trudeau, Louis-Eric

    2018-04-15

    Histamine H 3 receptors are widely distributed G i -coupled receptors whose activation reduces neuronal activity and inhibits release of numerous neurotransmitters. Although these receptors are abundantly expressed in the striatum, their modulatory role on activity-dependent dopamine release is not well understood. Here, we observed that histamine H 3 receptor activation indirectly diminishes dopamine overflow in the ventral striatum by reducing cholinergic interneuron activity. Acute brain slices from C57BL/6 or channelrhodopsin-2-transfected DAT-cre mice were obtained, and dopamine transients evoked either electrically or optogenetically were measured by fast-scan cyclic voltammetry. The H 3 agonist α-methylhistamine significantly reduced electrically- evoked dopamine overflow, an effect blocked by the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist dihydro-β-erythroidine, suggesting involvement of cholinergic interneurons. None of the drug treatments targeting H 3 receptors affected optogenetically evoked dopamine overflow, indicating that direct H 3 -modulation of dopaminergic axons is unlikely. Next, we used qPCR and confirmed the expression of histamine H 3 receptor mRNA in cholinergic interneurons, both in ventral and dorsal striatum. Activation of H 3 receptors by α-methylhistamine reduced spontaneous firing of cholinergic interneurons in the ventral, but not in the dorsal striatum. Resting membrane potential and number of spontaneous action potentials in ventral-striatal cholinergic interneurons were significantly reduced by α-methylhistamine. Acetylcholine release from isolated striatal synaptosomes, however, was not altered by α-methylhistamine. Together, these results indicate that histamine H 3 receptors are important modulators of dopamine release, specifically in the ventral striatum, and that they do so by decreasing the firing rate of cholinergic neurons and, consequently, reducing cholinergic tone on dopaminergic axons. Copyright © 2018 IBRO

  11. Being in a romantic relationship is associated with reduced gray matter density in striatum and increased subjective happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Kawamichi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Romantic relationship, a widespread feature of human society, is one of the most influential factors in daily life. Although stimuli related to romantic love or being in a romantic relationship commonly result in enhancement of activation or functional connectivity of the reward system, including the striatum, the structure underlying romantic relationship-related regions remain unclear. Because individual experiences can alter gray matter within the adult human brain, we hypothesized that romantic relationship is associated with structural differences in the striatum related to the positive subjective experience of being in a romantic relationship. Because intimate romantic relationships contribute to perceived subjective happiness, this subjective enhancement of happiness might be accompanied by the experience of positive events related to being in a romantic relationship. To test this hypothesis and elucidate the structure involved, we compared subjective happiness, an indirect measure of the existence of positive experiences caused by being in a romantic relationship, of participants with or without romantic partners (N = 68. Furthermore, we also conducted a voxel-based morphometry (VBM study of the effects of being in a romantic relationship (N = 113. Being in a romantic relationship was associated with greater subjective happiness and reduced gray matter density within the right dorsal striatum. These results suggest that being in a romantic relationship enhances perceived subjective happiness via positive experiences. Furthermore, the observed reduction in gray matter density in the right dorsal striatum may reflect an increase in saliency of social reward within a romantic relationship. Thus, being in a romantic relationship is associated with positive experiences and a reduction of gray matter density in the right dorsal striatum, representing a modulation of social reward.

  12. Enhanced muscarinic M1 receptor gene expression in the corpus striatum of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew Jobin

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Acetylcholine (ACh, the first neurotransmitter to be identified, regulate the activities of central and peripheral functions through interactions with muscarinic receptors. Changes in muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR have been implicated in the pathophysiology of many major diseases of the central nervous system (CNS. Previous reports from our laboratory on streptozotocin (STZ induced diabetic rats showed down regulation of muscarinic M1 receptors in the brainstem, hypothalamus, cerebral cortex and pancreatic islets. In this study, we have investigated the changes of acetylcholine esterase (AChE enzyme activity, total muscarinic and muscarinic M1 receptor binding and gene expression in the corpus striatum of STZ – diabetic rats and the insulin treated diabetic rats. The striatum, a neuronal nucleus intimately involved in motor behaviour, is one of the brain regions with the highest acetylcholine content. ACh has complex and clinically important actions in the striatum that are mediated predominantly by muscarinic receptors. We observed that insulin treatment brought back the decreased maximal velocity (Vmax of acetylcholine esterase in the corpus striatum during diabetes to near control state. In diabetic rats there was a decrease in maximal number (Bmax and affinity (Kd of total muscarinic receptors whereas muscarinic M1 receptors were increased with decrease in affinity in diabetic rats. We observed that, in all cases, the binding parameters were reversed to near control by the treatment of diabetic rats with insulin. Real-time PCR experiment confirmed the increase in muscarinic M1 receptor gene expression and a similar reversal with insulin treatment. These results suggest the diabetes-induced changes of the cholinergic activity in the corpus striatum and the regulatory role of insulin on binding parameters and gene expression of total and muscarinic M1 receptors.

  13. Reduction of 3-methoxytyramine concentrations in the caudate nucleus of rats after exposure to high-energy iron particles: evidence for deficits in dopaminergic neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, W.A.; Dalton, T.K.; Joseph, J.A.; Rabin, B.M.

    1990-01-01

    Exposure to low doses of high-energy iron particles can alter motor behavior. The ability of rats to hang from a wire has been reported to be significantly degraded after exposure to doses as low as 0.5 Gy. In addition, deficits in the ability of acetylcholine to regulate dopamine release in the caudate nucleus (an area in the brain important for motor function) have been found. The concentrations of 3-methoxytyramine (3-MT), a metabolite of dopamine whose concentrations reflect dopamine release in vivo, were measured after rats were exposed to different doses of high-energy iron particles to gain further information about the effect of radiation on the dopaminergic system. Concentrations of 3-MT were significantly reduced 3 days after exposure to 5 Gy but returned to control values by 8 days. After 6 months, concentrations were again less than control values. Exposure to 5 Gy of high-energy electrons or gamma photons had no effect 3 days after exposure. Very high doses of electrons were needed to alter 3-MT concentrations. One hundred grays of electrons decreased 3-MT 30 min after irradiation but levels returned to control values by 60 min. Gamma photons had no effect after doses up to 200 Gy. These results provide further evidence that exposure to heavy particles can degrade motor behavior through an action on dopaminergic mechanisms and that this can occur after doses much lower than those needed for low-LET radiation

  14. Brain structure and functional connectivity associated with pornography consumption: the brain on porn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, Simone; Gallinat, Jürgen

    2014-07-01

    Since pornography appeared on the Internet, the accessibility, affordability, and anonymity of consuming visual sexual stimuli have increased and attracted millions of users. Based on the assumption that pornography consumption bears resemblance with reward-seeking behavior, novelty-seeking behavior, and addictive behavior, we hypothesized alterations of the frontostriatal network in frequent users. To determine whether frequent pornography consumption is associated with the frontostriatal network. In a study conducted at the Max Planck Institute for Human Development in Berlin, Germany, 64 healthy male adults covering a wide range of pornography consumption reported hours of pornography consumption per week. Pornography consumption was associated with neural structure, task-related activation, and functional resting-state connectivity. Gray matter volume of the brain was measured by voxel-based morphometry and resting state functional connectivity was measured on 3-T magnetic resonance imaging scans. We found a significant negative association between reported pornography hours per week and gray matter volume in the right caudate (P < .001, corrected for multiple comparisons) as well as with functional activity during a sexual cue-reactivity paradigm in the left putamen (P < .001). Functional connectivity of the right caudate to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex was negatively associated with hours of pornography consumption. The negative association of self-reported pornography consumption with the right striatum (caudate) volume, left striatum (putamen) activation during cue reactivity, and lower functional connectivity of the right caudate to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex could reflect change in neural plasticity as a consequence of an intense stimulation of the reward system, together with a lower top-down modulation of prefrontal cortical areas. Alternatively, it could be a precondition that makes pornography consumption more rewarding.

  15. Different loss of dopamine transporter according to subtype of multiple system atrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hae Won [Keimyung University Dongsan Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Keimyung University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, School of Medicine, Jung-gu, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae Seung; Oh, Minyoung; Oh, Jungsu S.; Lee, Sang Joo; Oh, Seung Jun [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Songpa-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Sun Ju; Lee, Chong Sik [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) loss as measured by {sup 18}F-fluorinated-N-3-fluoropropyl-2-b-carboxymethoxy-3-b-(4-iodophenyl) nortropane ([{sup 18}F]FP-CIT) PET differs according to the metabolic subtype of multiple system atrophy (MSA) as assessed by [{sup 18}F]FDG PET. This retrospective study included 50 patients with clinically diagnosed MSA who underwent [{sup 18}F]FP-CIT and [{sup 18}F]FDG brain PET scans. The PET images were analysed using 12 striatal subregional volume-of-interest templates (bilateral ventral striatum, anterior caudate, posterior caudate, anterior putamen, posterior putamen, and ventral putamen). The patients were classified into three metabolic subtypes according to the [{sup 18}F]FDG PET findings: MSA-P{sub m} (striatal hypometabolism only), MSA-mixed{sub m} (both striatal and cerebellar hypometabolism), and MSA-C{sub m} (cerebellar hypometabolism only). The subregional glucose metabolic ratio (MR{sub gluc}), subregional DAT binding ratio (BR{sub DAT}), and intersubregional ratio (ISR{sub DAT}; defined as the BR{sub DAT} ratio of one striatal subregion to that of another striatal subregion) were compared according to metabolic subtype. Of the 50 patients, 13 presented with MSA-P{sub m}, 16 presented with MSA-mixed{sub m}, and 21 presented with MSA-C{sub m}. The BR{sub DAT} of all striatal subregions in the MSA-P{sub m} and MSA-mixed{sub m} groups were significantly lower than those in the MSA-C{sub m} group. The posterior putamen/anterior putamen ISR{sub DAT} and anterior putamen/ventral striatum ISR{sub DAT} in the MSA-P{sub m} and MSA-mixed{sub m} groups were significantly lower than those in the MSA-C{sub m} group. Patients with MSA-P{sub m} and MSA-mixed{sub m} showed more severe DAT loss in the striatum than patients with MSA-C{sub m}. Patients with MSA-C{sub m} had more diffuse DAT loss than patients with MSA-P{sub m} and MSA-mixed{sub m}. (orig.)

  16. The effects of age on resting state functional connectivity of the basal ganglia from young to middle adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manza, Peter; Zhang, Sheng; Hu, Sien; Chao, Herta H; Leung, Hoi-Chung; Li, Chiang-Shan R

    2015-02-15

    The basal ganglia nuclei are critical for a variety of cognitive and motor functions. Much work has shown age-related structural changes of the basal ganglia. Yet less is known about how the functional interactions of these regions with the cerebral cortex and the cerebellum change throughout the lifespan. Here, we took advantage of a convenient sample and examined resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 250 adults 18 to 49 years of age, focusing specifically on the caudate nucleus, pallidum, putamen, and ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra (VTA/SN). There are a few main findings to report. First, with age, caudate head connectivity increased with a large region of ventromedial prefrontal/medial orbitofrontal cortex. Second, across all subjects, pallidum and putamen showed negative connectivity with default mode network (DMN) regions such as the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and posterior cingulate cortex, in support of anti-correlation of the "task-positive" network (TPN) and DMN. This negative connectivity was reduced with age. Furthermore, pallidum, posterior putamen and VTA/SN connectivity to other TPN regions, such as somatomotor cortex, decreased with age. These results highlight a distinct effect of age on cerebral functional connectivity of the dorsal striatum and VTA/SN from young to middle adulthood and may help research investigating the etiologies or monitoring outcomes of neuropsychiatric conditions that implicate dopaminergic dysfunction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The influence of puberty on subcortical brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddings, Anne-Lise; Mills, Kathryn L; Clasen, Liv S; Giedd, Jay N; Viner, Russell M; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2014-03-01

    Puberty is characterized by hormonal, physical and psychological transformation. The human brain undergoes significant changes between childhood and adulthood, but little is known about how puberty influences its structural development. Using a longitudinal sample of 711 magnetic resonance imaging scans from 275 individuals aged 7-20years, we examined how subcortical brain regions change in relation to puberty. Our regions of interest included the amygdala, hippocampus and corpus striatum including the nucleus accumbens (NA), caudate, putamen and globus pallidus (GP). Pubertal development was significantly related to structural volume in all six regions in both sexes. Pubertal development and age had both independent and interactive influences on volume for the amygdala, hippocampus and putamen in both sexes, and the caudate in females. There was an interactive puberty-by-age effect on volume for the NA and GP in both sexes, and the caudate in males. These findings suggest a significant role for puberty in structural brain development. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Connexin31.1 deficiency in the mouse impairs object memory and modulates open-field exploration, acetylcholine esterase levels in the striatum, and cAMP response element-binding protein levels in the striatum and piriform cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dere, E; Zheng-Fischhöfer, Q; Viggiano, D; Gironi Carnevale, U A; Ruocco, L A; Zlomuzica, A; Schnichels, M; Willecke, K; Huston, J P; Sadile, A G

    2008-05-02

    Neuronal gap junctions in the brain, providing intercellular electrotonic signal transfer, have been implicated in physiological and behavioral correlates of learning and memory. In connexin31.1 (Cx31.1) knockout (KO) mice the coding region of the Cx31.1 gene was replaced by a LacZ reporter gene. We investigated the impact of Cx31.1 deficiency on open-field exploration, the behavioral response to an odor, non-selective attention, learning and memory performance, and the levels of memory-related proteins in the hippocampus, striatum and the piriform cortex. In terms of behavior, the deletion of the Cx31.1 coding DNA in the mouse led to increased exploratory behaviors in a novel environment, and impaired one-trial object recognition at all delays tested. Despite strong Cx31.1 expression in the peripheral and central olfactory system, Cx31.1 KO mice exhibited normal behavioral responses to an odor. We found increased levels of acetylcholine esterase (AChE) and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) in the striatum of Cx31.1 KO mice. In the piriform cortex the Cx31.1 KO mice had an increased heterogeneity of CREB expression among neurons. In conclusion, gap-junctions featuring the Cx31.1 protein might be involved in open-field exploration as well as object memory and modulate levels of AChE and CREB in the striatum and piriform cortex.

  19. Chronic cocaine administration induces opposite changes in dopamine receptors in the striatum and nucleus accumbens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goeders, N.E.; Kuhar, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    A variety of clinical and animal data suggest that the repeated administration of cocaine and related psychomotor stimulants may be associated with a behavioral sensitization whereby the same dose of the drug results in increasing behavioral pathology. This investigation was designed to determine the effects of chronic cocaine administration on the binding of [ 3 H]sulpiride, a relatively specific ligand for D2 dopaminergic receptors, in the rat brain using in vitro homogenate binding and light microscopic quantitative autoradiographic methodologies. Chronic daily injections of cocaine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) for 15 days resulted in a significant decrease in the maximum concentration of sulpiride binding sites in the striatum and a significant increase in the maximum number of these binding sites in the nucleus accumbens. No significant differences in binding affinity were observed in either brain region. These data suggest that chronic cocaine administration may result in differential effects on D2 receptors in the nigro-striatal and mesolimbic dopaminergic systems

  20. Ventral striatum and amygdala activity as convergence sites for early adversity and conduct disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boecker-Schlier, Regina; Buchmann, Arlette F.; Blomeyer, Dorothea; Jennen-Steinmetz, Christine; Baumeister, Sarah; Plichta, Michael M.; Cattrell, Anna; Schumann, Gunter; Esser, Günter; Schmidt, Martin; Buitelaar, Jan; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Banaschewski, Tobias; Brandeis, Daniel; Laucht, Manfred

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Childhood family adversity (CFA) increases the risk for conduct disorder (CD) and has been associated with alterations in regions of affective processing like ventral striatum (VS) and amygdala. However, no study so far has demonstrated neural converging effects of CFA and CD in the same sample. At age 25 years, functional MRI data during two affective tasks, i.e. a reward (N = 171) and a face-matching paradigm (N = 181) and anatomical scans (N = 181) were acquired in right-handed currently healthy participants of an epidemiological study followed since birth. CFA during childhood was determined using a standardized parent interview. Disruptive behaviors and CD diagnoses during childhood and adolescence were obtained by diagnostic interview (2–19 years), temperamental reward dependence was assessed by questionnaire (15 and 19 years). CFA predicted increased CD and amygdala volume. Both exposure to CFA and CD were associated with a decreased VS response during reward anticipation and blunted amygdala activity during face-matching. CD mediated the effect of CFA on brain activity. Temperamental reward dependence was negatively correlated with CFA and CD and positively with VS activity. These findings underline the detrimental effects of CFA on the offspring's affective processing and support the importance of early postnatal intervention programs aiming to reduce childhood adversity factors. PMID:27694318

  1. Chronically administered 3-nitropropionic acid produces selective lesions in the striatum and reduces muscle tonus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimano, Y; Kumazaki, M; Sakurai, T; Hida, H; Fujimoto, I; Fukuda, A; Nishino, H

    1995-12-01

    Systemically administered 3-nitropropionic acid (3- NPA), irreversible inhibitor of succinate dehydrogenase, produced characteristic bilateral lesions in the striatum (STR) in the rat. Inside the lesion, neutrophils invaded and strong immunoreaction for IgG as well as complement factor C3b/C4b receptor (C3b/C4br) were observed. The core of the lesion lost the immunoreaction for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) while the marginal area had abundant GFAP-labeled astrocytes around the vessels. Intoxicated rats often became somnolent and were awkward in cooperative movement on a pole climbing test, but they had a quite good memory retention in a passive avoidance learning. Muscle tonus in some of the intoxicated rats became hypotonic with low voltage electromyogram (EMG) activity, especially in lower limbs. In summary, 3-NPA intoxicated rats had selective bilateral lesions in the STR and exhibited disturbances in a cooperative movement owing to the impairment in muscle tonus, thus it would be a useful animal model to deduce the central pathogenesis of Huntington's disease.

  2. Acylethanolamides and endocannabinoid signaling system in dorsal striatum of rats exposed to perinatal asphyxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holubiec, Mariana I; Romero, Juan I; Blanco, Eduardo; Tornatore, Tamara Logica; Suarez, Juan; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Galeano, Pablo; Capani, Francisco

    2017-07-13

    Endocannabinoids (eCBs) and acylethanolamides (AEs) have lately received more attention due to their neuroprotective functions in neurological disorders. Here we analyze the alterations induced by perinatal asphyxia (PA) in the main metabolic enzymes and receptors of the eCBs/AEs in the dorsal striatum of rats. To induce PA, we used a model developed by Bjelke et al. (1991). Immunohistochemical techniques were carried out to determine the expression of neuronal and glial markers (NeuN and GFAP), eCBs/AEs synthesis and degradation enzymes (DAGLα, NAPE-PLD and FAAH) and their receptors (CB1 and PPARα). We found a decrease in NAPE-PLD and PPARα expression. Since NAPE-PLD and PPARα take part in the production and reception of biochemical actions of AEs, such as oleoylethanolamide, these results may suggest that PA plays a key role in the regulation of this system. These data agree with previous results obtained in the hippocampus and encourage us to develop further studies using AEs as potential neuroprotective compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Dorsomedial striatum lesions affect adjustment to reward uncertainty, but not to reward devaluation or omission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Carmen; Glueck, Amanda C; Conrad, Shannon E; Morón, Ignacio; Papini, Mauricio R

    2016-09-22

    The dorsomedial striatum (DMS) has been implicated in the acquisition of reward representations, a proposal leading to the hypothesis that it should play a role in situations involving reward loss. We report the results of an experiment in which the effects of DMS excitotoxic lesions were tested in consummatory successive negative contrast (reward devaluation), autoshaping training with partial vs. continuous reinforcement (reward uncertainty), and appetitive extinction (reward omission). Animals with DMS lesions exhibited reduced lever pressing responding, but enhanced goal entries, during partial reinforcement training in autoshaping. However, they showed normal negative contrast, acquisition under continuous reinforcement (CR), appetitive extinction, and response facilitation in early extinction trials. Open-field testing also indicated normal motor behavior. Thus, DMS lesions selectively affected the behavioral adjustment to a situation involving reward uncertainty, producing a behavioral reorganization according to which goal tracking (goal entries) became predominant at the expense of sign tracking (lever pressing). This pattern of results shows that the function of the DMS in situations involving reward loss is not general, but restricted to reward uncertainty. We suggest that a nonassociative, drive-related process induced by reward uncertainty requires normal output from DMS neurons. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Ventral striatum and amygdala activity as convergence sites for early adversity and conduct disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holz, Nathalie E; Boecker-Schlier, Regina; Buchmann, Arlette F; Blomeyer, Dorothea; Jennen-Steinmetz, Christine; Baumeister, Sarah; Plichta, Michael M; Cattrell, Anna; Schumann, Gunter; Esser, Günter; Schmidt, Martin; Buitelaar, Jan; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Banaschewski, Tobias; Brandeis, Daniel; Laucht, Manfred

    2017-02-01

    Childhood family adversity (CFA) increases the risk for conduct disorder (CD) and has been associated with alterations in regions of affective processing like ventral striatum (VS) and amygdala. However, no study so far has demonstrated neural converging effects of CFA and CD in the same sample. At age 25 years, functional MRI data during two affective tasks, i.e. a reward (N = 171) and a face-matching paradigm (N = 181) and anatomical scans (N = 181) were acquired in right-handed currently healthy participants of an epidemiological study followed since birth. CFA during childhood was determined using a standardized parent interview. Disruptive behaviors and CD diagnoses during childhood and adolescence were obtained by diagnostic interview (2-19 years), temperamental reward dependence was assessed by questionnaire (15 and 19 years).CFA predicted increased CD and amygdala volume. Both exposure to CFA and CD were associated with a decreased VS response during reward anticipation and blunted amygdala activity during face-matching. CD mediated the effect of CFA on brain activity. Temperamental reward dependence was negatively correlated with CFA and CD and positively with VS activity. These findings underline the detrimental effects of CFA on the offspring's affective processing and support the importance of early postnatal intervention programs aiming to reduce childhood adversity factors. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Chronic Caffeine Treatment Protects Against α-Synucleinopathy by Reestablishing Autophagy Activity in the Mouse Striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Yanan; Ren, Xiangpeng; Zheng, Wu; Zeng, Zhenhai; Guo, Yingzi; Hou, Zhidong; Guo, Wei; Chen, Xingjun; Li, Fei; Chen, Jiang-Fan

    2018-01-01

    Despite converging epidemiological evidence for the inverse relationship of regular caffeine consumption and risk of developing Parkinson's disease (PD) with animal studies demonstrating protective effect of caffeine in various neurotoxin models of PD, whether caffeine can protect against mutant α-synuclein (α-Syn) A53T-induced neurotoxicity in intact animals has not been examined. Here, we determined the effect of chronic caffeine treatment using the α-Syn fibril model of PD by intra-striatal injection of preformed A53T α-Syn fibrils. We demonstrated that chronic caffeine treatment blunted a cascade of pathological events leading to α-synucleinopathy, including pSer129α-Syn-rich aggregates, apoptotic neuronal cell death, microglia, and astroglia reactivation. Importantly, chronic caffeine treatment did not affect autophagy processes in the normal striatum, but selectively reversed α-Syn-induced defects in macroautophagy (by enhancing microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3, and reducing the receptor protein sequestosome 1, SQSTM1/p62) and chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA, by enhancing LAMP2A). These findings support that caffeine-a strongly protective environment factor as suggested by epidemiological evidence-may represent a novel pharmacological therapy for PD by targeting autophagy pathway.

  6. Reduced activation in ventral striatum and ventral tegmental area during probabilistic decision-making in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausch, Franziska; Mier, Daniela; Eifler, Sarah; Esslinger, Christine; Schilling, Claudia; Schirmbeck, Frederike; Englisch, Susanne; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Kirsch, Peter; Zink, Mathias

    2014-07-01

    Patients with schizophrenia suffer from deficits in monitoring and controlling their own thoughts. Within these so-called metacognitive impairments, alterations in probabilistic reasoning might be one cognitive phenomenon disposing to delusions. However, so far little is known about alterations in associated brain functionality. A previously established task for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), which requires a probabilistic decision after a variable amount of stimuli, was applied to 23 schizophrenia patients and 28 healthy controls matched for age, gender and educational levels. We compared activation patterns during decision-making under conditions of certainty versus uncertainty and evaluated the process of final decision-making in ventral striatum (VS) and ventral tegmental area (VTA). We replicated a pre-described extended cortical activation pattern during probabilistic reasoning. During final decision-making, activations in several fronto- and parietocortical areas, as well as in VS and VTA became apparent. In both of these regions schizophrenia patients showed a significantly reduced activation. These results further define the network underlying probabilistic decision-making. The observed hypo-activation in regions commonly associated with dopaminergic neurotransmission fits into current concepts of disrupted prediction error signaling in schizophrenia and suggests functional links to reward anticipation. Forthcoming studies with patients at risk for psychosis and drug-naive first episode patients are necessary to elucidate the development of these findings over time and the interplay with associated clinical symptoms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Golgi Study of Medium Spiny Neurons from Dorsolateral Striatum of the Turtle Trachemys scripta elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Carolina; Mendoza, Janeth; Avila-Costa, María Rosa; Arias, Juan M; Barral, Jaime

    2013-10-25

    Comparative anatomy has shown similarities between reptilian and mammalian basal ganglia. Here the morphological characteristics of the medium spiny neurons (MSN) in the dorsolateral striatum (DLS) of the turtle are described after staining them with the Golgi technique. The soma of MSN in DLS showed three main forms: spherical, ovoid, and fusiform. The number of primary dendritic branches (3-4 dendrites/cell) was less than observed in mammals. The MSN axon originates mainly from the soma, and randomly it emerges at the beginning of the primary dendrite. The main differences between turtle and mammalian MSN were detected on dendritic spines. Short, thin, bifurcated and fungiform types of dendritic spines were observed in the turtle's MSN, according to their shape. In most of the analyzed spines, it was found that its length considerably exceeded that reported in mammals, with dendritic spines up to 8μm in length. These differences could play an important role in the modulation of motor networks preserved along the vertebrate evolution. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  8. Sequentially switching cell assemblies in random inhibitory networks of spiking neurons in the striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponzi, Adam; Wickens, Jeff

    2010-04-28

    The striatum is composed of GABAergic medium spiny neurons with inhibitory collaterals forming a sparse random asymmetric network and receiving an excitatory glutamatergic cortical projection. Because the inhibitory collaterals are sparse and weak, their role in striatal network dynamics is puzzling. However, here we show by simulation of a striatal inhibitory network model composed of spiking neurons that cells form assemblies that fire in sequential coherent episodes and display complex identity-temporal spiking patterns even when cortical excitation is simply constant or fluctuating noisily. Strongly correlated large-scale firing rate fluctuations on slow behaviorally relevant timescales of hundreds of milliseconds are shown by members of the same assembly whereas members of different assemblies show strong negative correlation, and we show how randomly connected spiking networks can generate this activity. Cells display highly irregular spiking with high coefficients of variation, broadly distributed low firing rates, and interspike interval distributions that are consistent with exponentially tailed power laws. Although firing rates vary coherently on slow timescales, precise spiking synchronization is absent in general. Our model only requires the minimal but striatally realistic assumptions of sparse to intermediate random connectivity, weak inhibitory synapses, and sufficient cortical excitation so that some cells are depolarized above the firing threshold during up states. Our results are in good qualitative agreement with experimental studies, consistent with recently determined striatal anatomy and physiology, and support a new view of endogenously generated metastable state switching dynamics of the striatal network underlying its information processing operations.

  9. Inhibition of transcription and translation in the striatum after memory reactivation: Lack of evidence of reconsolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado-Alcalá, Roberto A; Medina, Andrea Cristina; Bello-Medina, Paola C; Quirarte, Gina L

    2017-07-01

    It has been found that interference with neural activity after a consolidated memory is retrieved produces an amnestic state; this has been taken has indicative of destabilization of the memory trace that would have been produced by a process of reconsolidation (allowing for maintenance of the original trace). However, a growing body of evidence shows that this is not a reliable effect, and that it is dependent upon some experimental conditions, such as the age of the memory, memory reactivation procedures, the predictability of the reactivation stimulus, and strength of training. In some instances, where post-retrieval treatments induce a retention deficit (which would be suggestive of interference with reconsolidation), memory is rescued by simple passing of time or by repeated retention tests. We now report that post-training and post-retrieval inhibition of transcription and translation in dorsal striatum, a structure where both of these manipulations have not been studied, produce interference with consolidation and a transitory retention deficit, respectively. These results do not give support to the reconsolidation hypothesis and lead to the conclusion that the post-activation deficiencies are due to interference with retrieval of information. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The role of the medial caudate nucleus, but not the hippocampus, in a matching-to sample task for a motor response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesner, Raymond P; Gilbert, Paul E

    2006-04-01

    A delayed-match-to-sample task was used to assess memory for motor responses in rats with control, hippocampus, or medial caudate nucleus (MCN) lesions. All testing was conducted on a cheeseboard maze in complete darkness using an infrared camera. A start box was positioned in the centre of the maze facing a randomly determined direction on each trial. On the sample phase, a phosphorescent object was randomly positioned to cover a baited food well in one of five equally spaced positions around the circumference of the maze forming a 180-degree arc 60 cm from the box. The rat had to displace the object to receive food and return to the start box. The box was then rotated to face a different direction. An identical baited phosphorescent object was placed in the same position relative to the start box. A second identical object was positioned to cover a different unbaited well. On the choice phase, the rat must remember the motor response made on the sample phase and make the same motor response on the choice phase to receive a reward. Hippocampus lesioned and control rats improved as a function of increased angle separation used to separate the correct object from the foil (45, 90, 135, and 180 degrees) and matched the performance of controls. However, rats with MCN lesions were impaired across all separations. Results suggest that the MCN, but not the hippocampus, supports working memory and/or a process aimed at reducing interference for motor response selection based on vector angle information.

  11. Dopamine release in ventral striatum during Iowa Gambling Task performance is associated with increased excitement levels in pathological gambling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Jakob; Møller, Arne; Peterson, Ericka

    2011-01-01

    Aims Gambling excitement is believed to be associated with biological measures of pathological gambling. Here, we tested the hypothesis that dopamine release would be associated with increased excitement levels in Pathological Gamblers compared with Healthy Controls. Design Pathological Gamblers...... and Healthy Controlswere experimentally compared in a non-gambling (baseline) and gambling condition. Measurements We used Positron Emission Tomography (PET) with the tracer raclopride to measure dopamine D 2/3 receptor availability in the ventral striatum during a non-gambling and gambling condition...... of the Iowa GamblingTask (IGT). After each condition participants rated their excitement level. Setting Laboratory experiment. Participants 18 Pathological Gamblers and 16 Healthy Controls. Findings Pathological Gamblers with dopamine release in the ventral striatum had significantly higher excitement levels...

  12. The role of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens and striatum during sexual behavior in the female rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, J B; Rudick, C N; Jenkins, W J

    2001-05-01

    Dopamine in dialysate from the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) increases during sexual and feeding behavior and after administration of drugs of abuse, even those that do not directly activate dopaminergic systems (e.g., morphine or nicotine). These findings and others have led to hypotheses that propose that dopamine is rewarding, predicts that reinforcement will occur, or attributes incentive salience. Examining increases in dopamine in NAcc or striatum during sexual behavior in female rats provides a unique situation to study these relations. This is because, for the female rat, sexual behavior is associated with an increase in NAcc dopamine and conditioned place preference only under certain testing conditions. This experiment was conducted to determine what factors are important for the increase in dopamine in dialysate from NAcc and striatum during sexual behavior in female rats. The factors considered were the number of contacts by the male, the timing of contacts by the male, or the ability of the female to control contacts by the male. The results indicate that increased NAcc dopamine is dependent on the timing of copulatory stimuli, independent of whether the female rat is actively engaged in regulating this timing. For the striatum, the timing of copulatory behavior influences the magnitude of the increase in dopamine in dialysate, but other factors are also involved. We conclude that increased extracellular dopamine in the NAcc and striatum conveys qualitative or interpretive information about the rewarding value of stimuli. Sexual behavior in the female rat is proposed as a model to determine the role of dopamine in motivated behavior.

  13. Adenosine A2A receptors in ventral striatum, hypothalamus and nociceptive circuitry. Implications for drug addiction, sleep and pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferré, S.; Diamond, I.; Goldberg, S.R.; Yao, L.; Hourani, S.M.O.; Huang, Z.L.; Urade, Y.; Kitchen, I.

    2007-01-01

    Adenosine A2A receptors localized in the dorsal striatum are considered as a new target for the development of antiparkinsonian drugs. Co-administration of A2A receptor antagonists has shown a significant improvement of the effects of L-DOPA. The present review emphasizes the possible application of A2A receptor antagonists in pathological conditions other than parkinsonism, including drug addiction, sleep disorders and pain. In addition to the dorsal striatum, the ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens) contains a high density of A2A receptors, which presynaptically and postsynaptically regulate glutamatergic transmission in the cortical glutamatergic projections to the nucleus accumbens. It is currently believed that molecular adaptations of the cortico-accumbens glutamatergic synapses are involved in compulsive drug seeking and relapse. Here we review recent experimental evidence suggesting that A2A antagonists could become new therapeutic agents for drug addiction. Morphological and functional studies have identified lower levels of A2A receptors in brain areas other than the striatum, such as the ventrolateral preoptic area of the hypothalamus, where adenosine plays an important role in sleep regulation. Although initially believed to be mostly dependent on A1 receptors, here we review recent studies that demonstrate that the somnogenic effects of adenosine are largely mediated by hypothalamic A2A receptors. A2A receptor antagonists could therefore be considered as a possible treatment for narcolepsy and other sleep-related disorders. Finally, nociception is another adenosine-regulated neural function previously thought to mostly involve A1 receptors. Although there is some conflicting literature on the effects of agonists and antagonists, which may partly be due to the lack of selectivity of available drugs, the studies in A2A receptor knockout mice suggest that A2A receptor antagonists might have some therapeutic potential in pain states, in particular where

  14. Parallel Representation of Value-Based and Finite State-Based Strategies in the Ventral and Dorsal Striatum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Ito

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous theoretical studies of animal and human behavioral learning have focused on the dichotomy of the value-based strategy using action value functions to predict rewards and the model-based strategy using internal models to predict environmental states. However, animals and humans often take simple procedural behaviors, such as the "win-stay, lose-switch" strategy without explicit prediction of rewards or states. Here we consider another strategy, the finite state-based strategy, in which a subject selects an action depending on its discrete internal state and updates the state depending on the action chosen and the reward outcome. By analyzing choice behavior of rats in a free-choice task, we found that the finite state-based strategy fitted their behavioral choices more accurately than value-based and model-based strategies did. When fitted models were run autonomously with the same task, only the finite state-based strategy could reproduce the key feature of choice sequences. Analyses of neural activity recorded from the dorsolateral striatum (DLS, the dorsomedial striatum (DMS, and the ventral striatum (VS identified significant fractions of neurons in all three subareas for which activities were correlated with individual states of the finite state-based strategy. The signal of internal states at the time of choice was found in DMS, and for clusters of states was found in VS. In addition, action values and state values of the value-based strategy were encoded in DMS and VS, respectively. These results suggest that both the value-based strategy and the finite state-based strategy are implemented in the striatum.

  15. Regulator of G protein signaling-12 modulates the dopamine transporter in ventral striatum and locomotor responses to psychostimulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Joshua D; Kaski, Shane W; Schroer, Adam B; Wix, Kimberley A; Siderovski, David P; Setola, Vincent

    2018-02-01

    Regulators of G protein signaling are proteins that accelerate the termination of effector stimulation after G protein-coupled receptor activation. Many regulators of G protein signaling proteins are highly expressed in the brain and therefore considered potential drug discovery targets for central nervous system pathologies; for example, here we show that RGS12 is highly expressed in microdissected mouse ventral striatum. Given a role for the ventral striatum in psychostimulant-induced locomotor activity, we tested whether Rgs12 genetic ablation affected behavioral responses to amphetamine and cocaine. RGS12 loss significantly decreased hyperlocomotion to lower doses of both amphetamine and cocaine; however, other outcomes of administration (sensitization and conditioned place preference) were unaffected, suggesting that RGS12 does not function in support of the rewarding properties of these psychostimulants. To test whether observed response changes upon RGS12 loss were caused by changes to dopamine transporter expression and/or function, we prepared crude membranes from the brains of wild-type and RGS12-null mice and measured dopamine transporter-selective [ 3 H]WIN 35428 binding, revealing an increase in dopamine transporter levels in the ventral-but not dorsal-striatum of RGS12-null mice. To address dopamine transporter function, we prepared striatal synaptosomes and measured [ 3 H]dopamine uptake. Consistent with increased [ 3 H]WIN 35428 binding, dopamine transporter-specific [ 3 H]dopamine uptake in RGS12-null ventral striatal synaptosomes was found to be increased. Decreased amphetamine-induced locomotor activity and increased [ 3 H]WIN 35428 binding were recapitulated with an independent RGS12-null mouse strain. Thus, we propose that RGS12 regulates dopamine transporter expression and function in the ventral striatum, affecting amphetamine- and cocaine-induced increases in dopamine levels that specifically elicit acute hyperlocomotor responses.

  16. Antioxidant effect of Spirulina (Arthrospira) maxima in a neurotoxic model caused by 6-OHDA in the rat striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobón-Velasco, J C; Palafox-Sánchez, Victoria; Mendieta, Liliana; García, E; Santamaría, A; Chamorro-Cevallos, G; Limón, I Daniel

    2013-08-01

    There is evidence to support that an impaired energy metabolism and the excessive generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to brain injury in neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD), whereas diets enriched in foods with an antioxidant action may modulate its progression. Several studies have proved that the antioxidant components produced by Spirulina, a microscopic blue-green alga, might prevent cell death by decreasing free radicals, inhibiting lipoperoxidation and upregulating the antioxidant enzyme systems. In our study, we investigated the protective effect of the Spirulina maxima (S. maxima) against the 6-OHDA-caused toxicity in the rat striatum. The S. maxima (700 mg/kg/day, vo) was administered for 40 days before and 20 days after a single injection of 6-OHDA (16 μg/2 μL) into the dorsal striatum. At 20-day postsurgery, the brain was removed and the striatum was obtained to evaluate the indicators of toxicity, such as nitric oxide levels, ROS formation, lipoperoxidation, and mitochondrial activity. These variables were found significantly stimulated in 6-OHDA-treated rats and were accompanied by declines in dopamine levels and motor activity. In contrast, the animals that received the chronic treatment with S. maxima had a restored locomotor activity, which is associated with the decreased levels of nitric oxide, ROS, and lipoperoxidation in the striatum, although mitochondrial functions and dopamine levels remained preserved. These findings suggest that supplementation with antioxidant phytochemicals (such as contained in S. maxima) represents an effective neuroprotective strategy against 6-OHDA-caused neurotoxicity vía free radical production to preserve striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission in vivo.

  17. Differential Arc expression in the hippocampus and striatum during the transition from attentive to automatic navigation on a plus maze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Robert S.; Suarez, Daniel F.; Robinson-Burton, Nadira K.; Rudnicky, Christopher J.; Gulati, Asish; Ascoli, Giorgio A.; Dumas, Theodore C.

    2016-01-01

    The strategies utilized to effectively perform a given task change with practice and experience. During a spatial navigation task, with relatively little training, performance is typically attentive enabling an individual to locate the position of a goal by relying on spatial landmarks. These (place) strategies require an intact hippocampus. With task repetition, performance becomes automatic; the same goal is reached using a fixed response or sequence of actions. These (response) strategies require an intact striatum. The current work aims to understand the activation patterns across these neural structures during this experience-dependent strategy transition. This was accomplished by region-specific measurement of activity-dependent immediate early gene expression among rats trained to different degrees on a dual-solution task (i.e., a task that can be solved using either place or response navigation). As expected, rats increased their reliance on response navigation with extended task experience. In addition, dorsal hippocampal expression of the immediate early gene Arc was considerably reduced in rats that used a response strategy late in training (as compared with hippocampal expression in rats that used a place strategy early in training). In line with these data, vicarious trial and error, a behavior linked to hippocampal function, also decreased with task repetition. Although Arc mRNA expression in dorsal medial or lateral striatum alone did not correlate with training stage, the ratio of expression in the medial striatum to that in the lateral striatum was relatively high among rats that used a place strategy early in training as compared with the ratio among over-trained response rats. Altogether, these results identify specific changes in the activation of dissociated neural systems that may underlie the experience-dependent emergence of response-based automatic navigation. PMID:26976088

  18. The brain cytoplasmic RNA BC1 regulates dopamine D-2 receptor-mediated transmission in the striatum

    OpenAIRE

    Centonze, Diego; Rossi, Silvia; Napoli, Ilaria; Mercaldo, Valentina; Lacoux, Caroline; Ferrari, Francesca; Ciotti, Maria Teresa; De Chiara, Valentina; Prosperetti, Chiara; Maccarrone, Mauro; Fezza, Filomena; Calabresi, Paolo; Bernardi, Giorgio; Bagni, Claudia

    2007-01-01

    Dopamine D-2 receptor (D2DR)-mediated transmission in the striatum is remarkably flexible, and changes in its efficacy have been heavily implicated in a variety of physiological and pathological conditions. Although receptor-associated proteins are clearly involved in specific forms of synaptic plasticity, the molecular mechanisms regulating the sensitivity of D-2 receptors in this brain area are essentially obscure. We have studied the physiological responses of the D2DR stimulations in mice...

  19. Electrical high frequency stimulation in the dorsal striatum: Effects on response learning and on GABA levels in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Anett; de Vasconcelos, Anne Pereira; Lecourtier, Lucas; Moser, Andreas; Cassel, Jean-Christophe

    2011-09-23

    Electrical high frequency stimulation (HFS) has been used to treat various neurological and psychiatric diseases. The striatal area contributes to response learning and procedural memory. Therefore, we investigated the effect of striatal HFS application on procedural/declarative-like memory in rats. All rats were trained in a flooded Double-H maze for three days (4 trials/day) to swim to an escape platform hidden at a constant location. The starting place was the same for all trials. After each training session, HFS of the left dorsal striatum was performed over 4h in alternating 20 min periods (during rest time, 10a.m. to 3p.m.). Nineteen hours after the last HFS and right after a probe trial assessing the rats' strategy (procedural vs. declarative-like memory-based choice), animals were sacrificed and the dorsal striatum was quickly removed. Neurotransmitter levels were measured by HPLC. Stimulated rats did not differ from sham-operated and control rats in acquisition performance, but exhibited altered behavior during the probe trial (procedural memory responses being less frequent than in controls). In stimulated rats, GABA levels were significantly increased in the dorsal striatum on both sides. We suggest that HFS of the dorsal striatum does not alter learning behavior in rats but influences the strategy by which the rats solve the task. Given that the HFS-induced increase of GABA levels was found 19 h after stimulation, it can be assumed that HFS has consequences lasting for several hours and which are functionally significant at a behavioral level, at least under our stimulation (frequency, timing, location, side and strength of stimulation) and testing conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The role of the striatum in effort-based decision-making in the absence of reward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouppe, Nathalie; Demanet, Jelle; Boehler, Carsten N; Ridderinkhof, K Richard; Notebaert, Wim

    2014-02-05

    Decision-making involves weighing costs against benefits, for instance, in terms of the effort it takes to obtain a reward of a given magnitude. This evaluation process has been linked to the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and the striatum, with activation in these brain structures reflecting the discounting effect of effort on reward. Here, we investigate how cognitive effort influences neural choice processes in the absence of an extrinsic reward. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging in humans, we used an effort-based decision-making task in which participants were required to choose between two options for a subsequent flanker task that differed in the amount of cognitive effort. Cognitive effort was manipulated by varying the proportion of incongruent trials associated with each choice option. Choice-locked activation in the striatum was higher when participants chose voluntarily for the more effortful alternative but displayed the opposite trend on forced-choice trials. The dACC revealed a similar, yet only trend-level significant, activation pattern. Our results imply that activation levels in the striatum reflect a cost-benefit analysis, in which a balance is made between effort discounting and the intrinsic motivation to choose a cognitively challenging task. Moreover, our findings indicate that it matters whether this challenge is voluntarily chosen or externally imposed. As such, the present findings contrast with classical findings on effort discounting that found reductions in striatum activation for higher effort by finding enhancements of the same neural circuits when a cognitively challenging task is voluntarily selected and does not entail the danger of losing reward.

  1. Parallel Representation of Value-Based and Finite State-Based Strategies in the Ventral and Dorsal Striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Makoto; Doya, Kenji

    2015-11-01

    Previous theoretical studies of animal and human behavioral learning have focused on the dichotomy of the value-based strategy using action value functions to predict rewards and the model-based strategy using internal models to predict environmental states. However, animals and humans often take simple procedural behaviors, such as the "win-stay, lose-switch" strategy without explicit prediction of rewards or states. Here we consider another strategy, the finite state-based strategy, in which a subject selects an action depending on its discrete internal state and updates the state depending on the action chosen and the reward outcome. By analyzing choice behavior of rats in a free-choice task, we found that the finite state-based strategy fitted their behavioral choices more accurately than value-based and model-based strategies did. When fitted models were run autonomously with the same task, only the finite state-based strategy could reproduce the key feature of choice sequences. Analyses of neural activity recorded from the dorsolateral striatum (DLS), the dorsomedial striatum (DMS), and the ventral striatum (VS) identified significant fractions of neurons in all three subareas for which activities were correlated with individual states of the finite state-based strategy. The signal of internal states at the time of choice was found in DMS, and for clusters of states was found in VS. In addition, action values and state values of the value-based strategy were encoded in DMS and VS, respectively. These results suggest that both the value-based strategy and the finite state-based strategy are implemented in the striatum.

  2. Repeated whisker stimulation evokes invariant neuronal responses in the dorsolateral striatum of anesthetized rats: a potential correlate of sensorimotor habits

    OpenAIRE

    Mowery, Todd M.; Harrold, Jon B.; Alloway, Kevin D.

    2011-01-01

    The dorsolateral striatum (DLS) receives extensive projections from primary somatosensory cortex (SI), but very few studies have used somesthetic stimulation to characterize the sensory coding properties of DLS neurons. In this study, we used computer-controlled whisker deflections to characterize the extracellular responses of DLS neurons in rats lightly anesthetized with isoflurane. When multiple whiskers were synchronously deflected by rapid back-and-forth movements, whisker-sensitive neur...

  3. Inhibiting PKMζ reveals dorsal lateral and dorsal medial striatum store the different memories needed to support adaptive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauli, Wolfgang M; Clark, Alexandra D; Guenther, Heidi J; O'Reilly, Randall C; Rudy, Jerry W

    2012-06-20

    Evidence suggests that two regions of the striatum contribute differential support to instrumental response selection. The dorsomedial striatum (DMS) is thought to support expectancy-mediated actions, and the dorsolateral striatum (DLS) is thought to support habits. Currently it is unclear whether these regions store task-relevant information or just coordinate the learning and retention of these solutions by other brain regions. To address this issue, we developed a two-lever concurrent variable-interval reinforcement operant conditioning task and used it to assess the trained rat's sensitivity to contingency shifts. Consistent with the view that these two regions make different contributions to actions and habits, injecting the NMDA antagonist DL-AP5 into the DMS just prior to the shift impaired the rat's performance but enhanced performance when injected into the DLS. To determine if these regions support memory content, we first trained rats on a biased concurrent schedule (Lever 1: VI 40" and Lever 2: VI 10"). With the intent of "erasing" the memory content stored in striatum, after this training we inhibited the putative memory-maintenance protein kinase C isozyme protein kinase Mζ (PKMζ). Infusing zeta inhibitory peptide (ZIP) into the DLS enhanced the rat's ability to adapt to the contingency shift 2 d later, whereas injecting it into the DMS had the opposite effect. Infusing GluR2(3Y) into the DMS 1 h before ZIP infusions prevented ZIP from impairing the rat's sensitivity to the contingency shift. These results support the hypothesis that the DMS stores information needed to support actions and the DLS stores information needed to support habits.

  4. Being in a romantic relationship is associated with reduced gray matter density in striatum and increased subjective happiness

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroaki Kawamichi; Hiroaki Kawamichi; Hiroaki Kawamichi; Sho K Sugawara; Yuki H Hamano; Yuki H Hamano; Kai Makita; Masahiro Matsunaga; Hiroki C Tanabe; Yuichi Ogino; Shigeru Saito; Norihiro Sadato; Norihiro Sadato

    2016-01-01

    Romantic relationship, a widespread feature of human society, is one of the most influential factors in daily life. Although stimuli related to romantic love or being in a romantic relationship commonly result in enhancement of activation or functional connectivity of the reward system, including the striatum, the structure underlying romantic relationship-related regions remain unclear. Because individual experiences can alter gray matter within the adult human brain, we hypothesized that ro...

  5. Being in a Romantic Relationship Is Associated with Reduced Gray Matter Density in Striatum and Increased Subjective Happiness

    OpenAIRE

    Kawamichi, Hiroaki; Sugawara, Sho K.; Hamano, Yuki H.; Makita, Kai; Matsunaga, Masahiro; Tanabe, Hiroki C.; Ogino, Yuichi; Saito, Shigeru; Sadato, Norihiro

    2016-01-01

    Romantic relationship, a widespread feature of human society, is one of the most influential factors in daily life. Although stimuli related to romantic love or being in a romantic relationship commonly result in enhancement of activation or functional connectivity of the reward system, including the striatum, the structure underlying romantic relationship-related regions remain unclear. Because individual experiences can alter gray matter within the adult human brain, we hypothesized that ro...

  6. The usefulness of fractional anisotropy maps in localization of lacunar infractions in striatum, internal capsule and thalamus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, H.K.; Lee, S.K.; Kim, D.I. [Dept. of Radiology and Research, Yonsei University Coll. of Medicine, Seoul (Korea); JHeo, J.H. [Dept. of Neurology, Yonsei University Coll. of Medicine, Seoul (Korea)

    2005-04-01

    We aimed in this study to assess the clinical usefulness of fractional anisotropy (FA) maps in the evaluation of lacunar infractions in striatum, internal capsule and thalamus. We retrospectively reviewed 28 patients (18 mean, 10 women; mean age 63 years) who had acute lacunar infraction in striatum, internal capsule and thalamus on diffusion weighted MR imaging (DWI). Fractional anisotropy (FA) maps were generated in addition to conventional T2 weigthed images (T2WI) and trace masp of DWI. Two radiologists reviewed the location of infraction was determined by FA maps. i.e. on the white band of internal capsule. Accuracy and inter-observer agreement on determination of the location of interfraction was evaluated. Accuracy of infract localization by T2WI-DWI only was varied from 72 to 91% according to the observers. Inter-observer agreement value was moderate (Kappa=0.446), when images were interpreted by T2WI-DWI only. Clinical manifestation of each lesions wre varied, but sensory motor stroke was mainly observed in thalamic lesion (50%) while pure motor hemiparesis was predominant in the case of infract involving internal capsule, corona radiata (91%) and basal ganglia (83%). The FA maps is useful in the evaluation of lacunar lesions in striatum, internal capsule and thalamus. Clinical presentation varies according to the exact location of lacunar infractions, and more accurate diagnosis can be made by FA maps as well as conventional T2-weighted image and DWI.

  7. Elimination of the vesicular acetylcholine transporter in the striatum reveals regulation of behaviour by cholinergic-glutamatergic co-transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica S Guzman

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Cholinergic neurons in the striatum are thought to play major regulatory functions in motor behaviour and reward. These neurons express two vesicular transporters that can load either acetylcholine or glutamate into synaptic vesicles. Consequently cholinergic neurons can release both neurotransmitters, making it difficult to discern their individual contributions for the regulation of striatal functions. Here we have dissected the specific roles of acetylcholine release for striatal-dependent behaviour in mice by selective elimination of the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT from striatal cholinergic neurons. Analysis of several behavioural parameters indicates that elimination of VAChT had only marginal consequences in striatum-related tasks and did not affect spontaneous locomotion, cocaine-induced hyperactivity, or its reward properties. However, dopaminergic sensitivity of medium spiny neurons (MSN and the behavioural outputs in response to direct dopaminergic agonists were enhanced, likely due to increased expression/function of dopamine receptors in the striatum. These observations indicate that previous functions attributed to striatal cholinergic neurons in spontaneous locomotor activity and in the rewarding responses to cocaine are mediated by glutamate and not by acetylcholine release. Our experiments demonstrate how one population of neurons can use two distinct neurotransmitters to differentially regulate a given circuitry. The data also raise the possibility of using VAChT as a target to boost dopaminergic function and decrease high striatal cholinergic activity, common neurochemical alterations in individuals affected with Parkinson's disease.

  8. Altered dopaminergic regulation of the dorsal striatum is able to induce tic-like movements in juvenile rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Francesca; Boeckers, Tobias; Schulze, Ulrike

    2018-01-01

    Motor tics are sudden, repetitive, involuntary movements representing the hallmark behaviors of the neurodevelopmental disease Tourette’s syndrome (TS). The primary cause of TS remains unclear. The initial observation that dopaminergic antagonists alleviate tics led to the development of a dopaminergic theory of TS etiology which is supported by post mortem and in vivo studies indicating that non-physiological activation of the striatum could generate tics. The striatum controls movement execution through the balanced activity of dopamine receptor D1 and D2-expressing medium spiny neurons of the direct and indirect pathway, respectively. Different neurotransmitters can activate or repress striatal activity and among them, dopamine plays a major role. In this study we introduced a chronic dopaminergic alteration in juvenile rats, in order to modify the delicate balance between direct and indirect pathway. This manipulation was done in the dorsal striatum, that had been associated with tic-like movements generation in animal models. The results were movements resembling tics, which were categorized and scored according to a newly developed rating scale and were reduced by clonidine and riluzole treatment. Finally, post mortem analyses revealed altered RNA expression of dopaminergic receptors D1 and D2, suggesting an imbalanced dopaminergic regulation of medium spiny neuron activity as being causally related to the observed phenotype. PMID:29698507

  9. Lentivirus-mediated delivery of sonic hedgehog into the striatum stimulates neuroregeneration in a rat model of Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Dong, Weiren; Guo, Suiqun; Zhao, Shu; He, Suifen; Zhang, Lihua; Tang, Yinjuan; Wang, Haihong

    2014-12-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder in which the nigrostriatal pathway, consisting of dopaminergic neuronal projections from the substantia nigra to the striatum, degenerates. Viral transduction is currently the most promising in vivo strategy for delivery of therapeutic proteins into the brain for treatment of PD. Sonic hedgehog (Shh) is necessary for cell proliferation, differentiation and neuroprotection in the central nervous system. In this study, we investigated the effects of overexpressed N-terminal product of SHH (SHH-N) in a PD model rat. A lentiviral vector containing SHH-N was stereotactically injected into the striatum 24 h after a striatal 6-OHDA lesion. We found that overexpressed SHH-N attenuated behavioral deficits and reduced the loss of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra and the loss of dopamine fibers in the striatum. In addition, fluoro-ruby-labeled nigrostriatal projections were also repaired. Together, our results demonstrate the feasibility and efficacy of using the strategy of lentivirus-mediated Shh-N delivery to delay nigrostriatal pathway degeneration. This strategy holds the potential for therapeutic application in the treatment of PD.

  10. Ventral Striatum Functional Connectivity as a Predictor of Adolescent Depressive Disorder in a Longitudinal Community-Based Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Pedro Mario; Sato, João R; Salum, Giovanni A; Rohde, Luis A; Gadelha, Ary; Zugman, Andre; Mari, Jair; Jackowski, Andrea; Picon, Felipe; Miguel, Eurípedes C; Pine, Daniel S; Leibenluft, Ellen; Bressan, Rodrigo A; Stringaris, Argyris

    2017-11-01

    Previous studies have implicated aberrant reward processing in the pathogenesis of adolescent depression. However, no study has used functional connectivity within a distributed reward network, assessed using resting-state functional MRI (fMRI), to predict the onset of depression in adolescents. This study used reward network-based functional connectivity at baseline to predict depressive disorder at follow-up in a community sample of adolescents. A total of 637 children 6-12 years old underwent resting-state fMRI. Discovery and replication analyses tested intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) among nodes of a putative reward network. Logistic regression tested whether striatal node strength, a measure of reward-related iFC, predicted onset of a depressive disorder at 3-year follow-up. Further analyses investigated the specificity of this prediction. Increased left ventral striatum node strength predicted increased risk for future depressive disorder (odds ratio=1.54, 95% CI=1.09-2.18), even after excluding participants who had depressive disorders at baseline (odds ratio=1.52, 95% CI=1.05-2.20). Among 11 reward-network nodes, only the left ventral striatum significantly predicted depression. Striatal node strength did not predict other common adolescent psychopathology, such as anxiety, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and substance use. Aberrant ventral striatum functional connectivity specifically predicts future risk for depressive disorder. This finding further emphasizes the need to understand how brain reward networks contribute to youth depression.

  11. A fundamental study on accumulation of [125I]IBZM in the rat striatum and on effect of non-labeled ligand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Nobuyoshi; Nakamura, Toshihiko; Satou, Motohiro; Takeda, Tohoru; Wu, Jin; Motoji, Naomi; Shigematsu, Akiyo.

    1995-01-01

    Iodo-125-labeled iodobenzamide ([ 125 I]IBZM) is used as a specific binding radioligand to dopamine D 2 receptors with high affinity and selectivity. The radioligand was homogeneously distributed in the whole brain initially after anministration, and rapidly washed out from the dopamine receptor-poor area followed by persistent retention in the striatum. Regression curve generated from striatum/cortex PSL ratio indicated the constant washout rate from striatum and cortex respectively. In the pretreated rat by cold benzamide (2 mg/kg), the accumulation of the radioligand was significantly suppressed in the striatum (48.8%). Iodine-125-labeled iodo-benzamide has the promise for investigation of dopamine D 2 receptors in the living brain. (author)

  12. Viral Vector Mediated Over-Expression of Estrogen Receptor–α in Striatum Enhances the Estradiol-induced Motor Activity in Female Rats and Estradiol Modulated GABA Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Kristin N.; von Esenwein, Silke A.; Hu, Ming; Bennett, Amy L.; Kennedy, Robert T.; Musatov, Sergei; Toran-Allerand, C. Dominique; Kaplitt, Michael G.; Young, Larry J.; Becker, Jill B.

    2009-01-01

    Classical estrogen receptor signaling mechanisms involve estradiol binding to intracellular nuclear receptors (estrogen receptor-α (ERα) and estrogen receptor-β (ERβ)) to promote changes in protein expression. Estradiol can also exert effects within seconds to minutes, however, a timescale incongruent with genomic signaling. In the brain, estradiol rapidly potentiates stimulated dopamine release in the striatum of female rats and enhances spontaneous rotational behavior. Furthermore, estradiol rapidly attenuates the K+- evoked increase of GABA in dialysate. We hypothesize that these rapid effects of estradiol in the striatum are mediated by ERα located on the membrane of medium spiny GABAergic neurons. This experiment examined whether over-expression of ERα in the striatum would enhance the effect of estradiol on rotational behavior and the K+- evoked increase in GABA in dialysate. Ovariectomized female rats were tested for rotational behavior or underwent microdialysis experiments after unilateral intrastriatal injections of a recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) containing the human ERα cDNA (AAV.ERα) into the striatum; controls received either the same vector into areas outside the striatum or an AAV containing the human alkaline phosphatase gene into the striatum (AAV.ALP). Animals that received AAV.ERα in the striatum exhibited significantly greater estradiol-induced contralateral rotations compared to controls and exhibited behavioral sensitization of contralateral rotations induced by a low dose of amphetamine. ERα over-expression also enhanced the inhibitory effect of estradiol on K+- evoked GABA release suggesting that disinhibition of dopamine release from terminals in the striatum resulted in the enhanced rotational behavior. PMID:19211896

  13. Viral vector-mediated overexpression of estrogen receptor-alpha in striatum enhances the estradiol-induced motor activity in female rats and estradiol-modulated GABA release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Kristin N; von Esenwein, Silke A; Hu, Ming; Bennett, Amy L; Kennedy, Robert T; Musatov, Sergei; Toran-Allerand, C Dominique; Kaplitt, Michael G; Young, Larry J; Becker, Jill B

    2009-02-11

    Classical estrogen receptor-signaling mechanisms involve estradiol binding to intracellular nuclear receptors [estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha) and estrogen receptor-beta (ERbeta)] to promote changes in protein expression. Estradiol can also exert effects within seconds to minutes, however, a timescale incongruent with genomic signaling. In the brain, estradiol rapidly potentiates stimulated dopamine release in the striatum of female rats and enhances spontaneous rotational behavior. Furthermore, estradiol rapidly attenuates the K(+)-evoked increase of GABA in dialysate. We hypothesize that these rapid effects of estradiol in the striatum are mediated by ERalpha located on the membrane of medium spiny GABAergic neurons. This experiment examined whether overexpression of ERalpha in the striatum would enhance the effect of estradiol on rotational behavior and the K(+)-evoked increase in GABA in dialysate. Ovariectomized female rats were tested for rotational behavior or underwent microdialysis experiments after unilateral intrastriatal injections of a recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) containing the human ERalpha cDNA (AAV.ERalpha) into the striatum; controls received either the same vector into areas outside the striatum or an AAV containing the human alkaline phosphatase gene into the striatum (AAV.ALP). Animals that received AAV.ERalpha in the striatum exhibited significantly greater estradiol-induced contralateral rotations compared with controls and exhibited behavioral sensitization of contralateral rotations induced by a low-dose of amphetamine. ERalpha overexpression also enhanced the inhibitory effect of estradiol on K(+)-evoked GABA release suggesting that disinhibition of dopamine release from terminals in the striatum resulted in the enhanced rotational behavior.

  14. L-Tyrosine availability affects basal and stimulated catecholamine indices in prefrontal cortex and striatum of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodnik, Zachary D; Double, Manda; España, Rodrigo A; Jaskiw, George E

    2017-09-01

    We previously found that L-tyrosine (L-TYR) but not D-TYR administered by reverse dialysis elevated catecholamine synthesis in vivo in medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and striatum of the rat (Brodnik et al., 2012). We now report L-TYR effects on extracellular levels of catecholamines and their metabolites. In MPFC, reverse dialysis of L-TYR elevated in vivo levels of dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) (L-TYR 250-1000 μM), homovanillic acid (HVA) (L-TYR 1000 μM) and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) (L-TYR 500-1000 μM). In striatum L-TYR 250 μM elevated DOPAC. We also examined L-TYR effects on extracellular dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) levels during two 30 min pulses (P2 and P1) of K+ (37.5 mM) separated by t = 2.0 h. L-TYR significantly elevated the ratio P2/P1 for DA (L-TYR 125 μM) and NE (L-TYR 125-250 μM) in MPFC but lowered P2/P1 for DA (L-TYR 250 μM) in striatum. Finally, we measured DA levels in brain slices using ex-vivo voltammetry. Perfusion with L-TYR (12.5-50 μM) dose-dependently elevated stimulated DA levels in striatum. In all the above studies, D-TYR had no effect. We conclude that acute increases within the physiological range of L-TYR levels can increase catecholamine metabolism and efflux in MPFC and striatum. Chronically, such repeated increases in L-TYR availability could induce adaptive changes in catecholamine transmission while amplifying the metabolic cost of catecholamine synthesis and degradation. This has implications for neuropsychiatric conditions in which neurotoxicity and/or disordered L-TYR transport have been implicated. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Effects of electroacupuncture on metabolic changes in motor cortex and striatum of 6-hydroxydopamine-induced Parkinsonian rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Wang, Ke; Su, Wen-Ting; Jia, Jun; Wang, Xiao-Min

    2017-10-06

    To explore the possible underlying mechanism by investigating the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) treatment on the primary motor cortex and striatum in a unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) induced rat Parkinson's disease (PD) model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham group (n=16), model group (n=14), and EA group (n=14). EA stimulation at Dazhui (GV 14) and Baihui (GV20) was applied to PD rats in the EA group for 4 weeks. Behavioral tests were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of EA treatment. Metabolites were detected by 7.0 T proton nuclear magnetic resonance. Following 4 weeks of EA treatment in PD model rats, the abnormal behavioral impairment induced by 6-OHDA was alleviated. In monitoring changes in metabolic activity, ratios of myoinositol/creatine (Cr) and N-acetyl aspartate (NAA)/Cr in the primary motor cortex were significantly lower at the injected side than the non-injected side in PD rats (P=0.024 and 0.020). The ratios of glutamate + glutamine (Glx)/Cr and NAA/Cr in the striatum were higher and lower, respectively, at the injected side than the non-injected side (P=0.046 and 0.008). EA treatment restored the balance of metabolic activity in the primary motor cortex and striatum. In addition, the taurine/Cr ratio and Glx/Cr ratio were elevated in the striatum of PD model rats compared to sham-lesioned rats (P=0.026 and 0.000). EA treatment alleviated the excessive glutamatergic transmission by down-regulating the striatal Glx/Cr ratio (P=0.001). The Glx/Cr ratio was negatively correlated with floor plane spontaneous locomotion in PD rats (P=0.027 and P=0.0007). EA treatment is able to normalize the metabolic balance in the primary motor cortex and striatum of PD rats, which may contribute to its therapeutic effect on motor deficits. The striatal Glx/Cr ratio may serve as a potential indicator of PD and a therapeutic target of EA treatment.

  16. Glucocorticoid enhancement of dorsolateral striatum-dependent habit memory requires concurrent noradrenergic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, J; Leong, K-C; Packard, M G

    2015-12-17

    Previous findings indicate that post-training administration of glucocorticoid stress hormones can interact with the noradrenergic system to enhance consolidation of hippocampus- or amygdala-dependent cognitive/emotional memory. The present experiments were designed to extend these findings by examining the potential interaction of glucocorticoid and noradrenergic mechanisms in enhancement of dorsolateral striatum (DLS)-dependent habit memory. In experiment 1, different groups of adult male Long-Evans rats received training in two DLS-dependent memory tasks. In a cued water maze task, rats were released from various start points and were reinforced to approach a visibly cued escape platform. In a response-learning version of the water plus-maze task, animals were released from opposite starting positions and were reinforced to make a consistent egocentric body-turn to reach a hidden escape platform. Immediately post-training, rats received peripheral injections of the glucocorticoid corticosterone (1 or 3 mg/kg) or vehicle solution. In both tasks, corticosterone (3 mg/kg) enhanced DLS-dependent habit memory. In experiment 2, a separate group of animals received training in the response learning version of the water plus-maze task and were given peripheral post-training injections of corticosterone (3 mg/kg), the β-adrenoreceptor antagonist propranolol (3 mg/kg), corticosterone and propranolol concurrently, or control vehicle solution. Corticosterone injections again enhanced DLS-dependent memory, and this effect was blocked by concurrent administration of propranolol. Propranolol administration by itself (3 mg/kg) did not influence DLS-dependent memory. Taken together, the findings indicate an interaction between glucocorticoid and noradrenergic mechanisms in DLS-dependent habit memory. Propranolol administration may be useful in treating stress-related human psychopathologies associated with a dysfunctional DLS-dependent habit memory system. Copyright © 2015

  17. Craving behavioral intervention for internet gaming disorder: remediation of functional connectivity of the ventral striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin-Tao; Ma, Shan-Shan; Li, Chiang-Shan R; Liu, Lu; Xia, Cui-Cui; Lan, Jing; Wang, Ling-Jiao; Liu, Ben; Yao, Yuan-Wei; Fang, Xiao-Yi

    2018-01-01

    Psychobehavioral intervention is an effective treatment of Internet addiction, including Internet gaming disorder (IGD). However, the neural mechanisms underlying its efficacy remain unclear. Cortical-ventral striatum (VS) circuitry is a common target of psychobehavioral interventions in drug addiction, and cortical-VS dysfunction has been reported in IGD; hence, the primary aim of the study was to investigate how the VS circuitry responds to psychobehavioral interventions in IGD. In a cross-sectional study, we examined resting-state functional connectivity of the VS in 74 IGD subjects (IGDs) and 41 healthy controls (HCs). In a follow-up craving behavioral intervention (CBI) study, of the 74 IGD subjects, 20 IGD subjects received CBI (CBI+) and 16 IGD subjects did not (CBI-). All participants were scanned twice with similar time interval to assess the effects of CBI. IGD subjects showed greater resting-state functional connectivity of the VS to left inferior parietal lobule (lIPL), right inferior frontal gyrus and left middle frontal gyrus, in positive association with the severity of IGD. Moreover, compared with CBI-, CBI+ showed significantly greater decrease in VS-lIPL connectivity, along with amelioration in addiction severity following the intervention. These findings demonstrated that functional connectivity between VS and lIPL, each presumably mediating gaming craving and attentional bias, may be a potential biomarker of the efficacy of psychobehavioral intervention. These results also suggested that non-invasive techniques such as transcranial magnetic or direct current stimulation targeting the VS-IPL circuitry may be used in the treatment of Internet gaming disorders. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  18. Dissociable effects of dopamine on neuronal firing rate and synchrony in the dorsal striatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M Burkhardt

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies showed that dopamine depletion leads to both changes in firing rate and in neuronal synchrony in the basal ganglia. Since dopamine D1 and D2 receptors are preferentially expressed in striatonigral and striatopallidal medium spiny neurons, respectively, we investigated the relative contribution of lack of D1 and/or D2-type receptor activation to the changes in striatal firing rate and synchrony observed after dopamine depletion. Similar to what was observed after dopamine depletion, co-administration of D1 and D2 antagonists to mice chronically implanted with multielectrode arrays in the striatum caused significant changes in firing rate, power of the local field potential (LFP oscillations, and synchrony measured by the entrainment of neurons to striatal local field potentials. However, although blockade of either D1 or D2 type receptors produced similarly severe akinesia, the effects on neural activity differed. Blockade of D2 receptors affected the firing rate of medium spiny neurons and the power of the LFP oscillations substantially, but it did not affect synchrony to the same extent. In contrast, D1 blockade affected synchrony dramatically, but had less substantial effects on firing rate and LFP power. Furthermore, there was no consistent relation between neurons changing firing rate and changing LFP entrainment after dopamine blockade. Our results suggest that the changes in rate and entrainment to the LFP observed in medium spiny neurons after dopamine depletion are somewhat dissociable, and that lack of D1- or D2-type receptor activation can exert independent yet interactive pathological effects during the progression of Parkinson’s disease.

  19. S175. AMOTIVATION IS ASSOCIATED WITH SMALLER VENTRAL STRIATUM VOLUMES IN OLDER PATIENTS WITH SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravaggio, Fernando; Fervaha, Gagan; Iwata, Yusuke; Plitman, Eric; Chung, Jun Ku; Nakajima, Shinichiro; Mar, Wanna; Gerretsen, Philip; Kim, Julia; Chakravarty, Mallar; Mulsant, Benoit; Pollock, Bruce; Mamo, David; Remington, Gary; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background Motivational deficits are prevalent in patients with schizophrenia, persist despite antipsychotic treatment, and predict long‐term outcomes. Evidence suggests that patients with greater amotivation have smaller ventral striatum (VS) volumes. We wished to replicate this finding in a sample of older, chronically medicated patients with schizophrenia. Using structural imaging and positron emission tomography, we examined whether amotivation uniquely predicted VS volumes beyond the effects of striatal dopamine D2/3 receptor (D2/3R) blockade by antipsychotics. Methods Data from 41 older schizophrenia patients (mean age: 60.2 ± 6.7; 11 female) were reanalysed from previously published imaging data. We constructed multivariate linear stepwise regression models with VS volumes as the dependent variable and various sociodemographic and clinical variables as the initial predictors: age, gender, total brain volume, and antipsychotic striatal D2/3R occupancy. Amotivation was included as a subsequent step to determine any unique relationships with VS volumes beyond the contribution of the covariates. In a reduced sample (n = 36), general cognition was also included as a covariate. Results Amotivation uniquely explained 8% and 6% of the variance in right and left VS volumes, respectively (right: β = -.38, t = -2.48, P = .01; left: β = -.31, t = -2.17, P = .03). Considering cognition, amotivation levels uniquely explained 9% of the variance in right VS volumes (β = -.43, t = -0.26, P = .03). Discussion We replicate and extend the finding of reduced VS volumes with greater amotivation. We demonstrate this relationship uniquely beyond the potential contributions of striatal D2/3R blockade by antipsychotics. Elucidating the structural correlates of amotivation in schizophrenia may help develop treatments for this presently irremediable deficit.

  20. Amotivation is associated with smaller ventral striatum volumes in older patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravaggio, Fernando; Fervaha, Gagan; Iwata, Yusuke; Plitman, Eric; Chung, Jun Ku; Nakajima, Shinichiro; Mar, Wanna; Gerretsen, Philip; Kim, Julia; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Mulsant, Benoit; Pollock, Bruce; Mamo, David; Remington, Gary; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel

    2018-03-01

    Motivational deficits are prevalent in patients with schizophrenia, persist despite antipsychotic treatment, and predict long-term outcomes. Evidence suggests that patients with greater amotivation have smaller ventral striatum (VS) volumes. We wished to replicate this finding in a sample of older, chronically medicated patients with schizophrenia. Using structural imaging and positron emission tomography, we examined whether amotivation uniquely predicted VS volumes beyond the effects of striatal dopamine D 2/3 receptor (D 2/3 R) blockade by antipsychotics. Data from 41 older schizophrenia patients (mean age: 60.2 ± 6.7; 11 female) were reanalysed from previously published imaging data. We constructed multivariate linear stepwise regression models with VS volumes as the dependent variable and various sociodemographic and clinical variables as the initial predictors: age, gender, total brain volume, and antipsychotic striatal D 2/3 R occupancy. Amotivation was included as a subsequent step to determine any unique relationships with VS volumes beyond the contribution of the covariates. In a reduced sample (n = 36), general cognition was also included as a covariate. Amotivation uniquely explained 8% and 6% of the variance in right and left VS volumes, respectively (right: β = -.38, t = -2.48, P = .01; left: β = -.31, t = -2.17, P = .03). Considering cognition, amotivation levels uniquely explained 9% of the variance in right VS volumes (β = -.43, t = -0.26, P = .03). We replicate and extend the finding of reduced VS volumes with greater amotivation. We demonstrate this relationship uniquely beyond the potential contributions of striatal D 2/3 R blockade by antipsychotics. Elucidating the structural correlates of amotivation in schizophrenia may help develop treatments for this presently irremediable deficit. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Stress-related anhedonia is associated with ventral striatum reactivity to reward and transdiagnostic psychiatric symptomatology

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    Corral-Frías, Nadia S.; Nikolova, Yuliya S.; Michalski, Lindsay J.; Baranger, David A.A.; Hariri, Ahmad R.; Bogdan, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    Background Early life stress (ELS) is consistently associated with increased risk for subsequent psychopathology. Individual differences in neural response to reward may confer vulnerability to stress-related psychopathology. Using data from the ongoing Duke Neurogenetics Study, the present study examined whether reward-related ventral striatum (VS) reactivity moderates the relationship between retrospectively reported ELS and anhedonic symptomatology. We further assessed whether individual differences in reward-related VS reactivity were associated with other depressive symptoms and problematic alcohol use via stress-related anhedonic symptoms and substance use-associated coping. Method Blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was collected while participants (n = 906) completed a card-guessing task, which robustly elicits VS reactivity. ELS, anhedonic symptoms, other depressive symptoms, coping behavior, and alcohol use behavior were assessed with self-report questionnaires. Linear regressions were run to examine whether VS reactivity moderated the relationship between ELS and anhedonic symptoms. Structural equation models examined whether this moderation was indirectly associated with other depression symptoms and problematic alcohol use through its association with anhedonia. Results Analyses of data from 820 participants passing quality control procedures revealed that the VS × ELS interaction was associated with anhedonic symptoms (p = 0.011). Moreover, structural equation models indirectly linked this interaction to non-anhedonic depression symptoms and problematic alcohol use through anhedonic symptoms and substance-related coping. Conclusions These findings suggest that reduced VS reactivity to reward is associated with increased risk for anhedonia in individuals exposed to ELS. Such stress-related anhedonia is further associated with other depressive symptoms and problematic alcohol use through substance-related coping

  2. Spiny Neurons of Amygdala, Striatum and Cortex Use Dendritic Plateau Potentials to Detect Network UP States

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    Katerina D Oikonomou

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Spiny neurons of amygdala, striatum, and cerebral cortex share four interesting features: [1] they are the most abundant cell type within their respective brain area, [2] covered by thousands of thorny protrusions (dendritic spines, [3] possess high levels of dendritic NMDA conductances, and [4] experience sustained somatic depolarizations in vivo and in vitro (UP states. In all spiny neurons of the forebrain, adequate glutamatergic inputs generate dendritic plateau potentials (dendritic UP states characterized by (i fast rise, (ii plateau phase lasting several hundred milliseconds and (iii abrupt decline at the end of the plateau phase. The dendritic plateau potential propagates towards the cell body decrementally to induce a long-lasting (longer than 100 ms, most often 200 – 800 ms steady depolarization (~20 mV amplitude, which resembles a neuronal UP state. Based on voltage-sensitive dye imaging, the plateau depolarization in the soma is precisely time-locked to the regenerative plateau potential taking place in the dendrite. The somatic plateau rises after the onset of the dendritic voltage transient and collapses with the breakdown of the dendritic plateau depolarization. We hypothesize that neuronal UP states in vivo reflect the occurrence of dendritic plateau potentials (dendritic UP states. We propose that the somatic voltage waveform during a neuronal UP state is determined by dendritic plateau potentials. A mammalian spiny neuron uses dendritic plateau potentials to detect and transform coherent network activity into a ubiquitous neuronal UP state. The biophysical properties of dendritic plateau potentials allow neurons to quickly attune to the ongoing network activity, as well as secure the stable amplitudes of successive UP states.

  3. Dopamine transporter gene variation modulates activation of striatum in youth with ADHD.

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    Bédard, Anne-Claude; Schulz, Kurt P; Cook, Edwin H; Fan, Jin; Clerkin, Suzanne M; Ivanov, Iliyan; Halperin, Jeffrey M; Newcorn, Jeffrey H

    2010-11-15

    Polymorphisms in the 3'UTR variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) of exon 15 of the dopamine transporter gene (DAT1) have been linked to attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); moreover, variability in DAT1 3'UTR genotype may contribute to both heterogeneity of the ADHD phenotype and differences in response to stimulant medications. The impact of this VNTR on neuronal function in individuals with ADHD remains unclear despite evidence that the polymorphisms influence dopamine transporter expression. Thus, we used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the impact of DAT1 3'UTR genotype on brain activation during response inhibition in unmedicated children and adolescents with ADHD. Twenty-one youth with ADHD who were homozygous for the 10-repeat (10R) allele of the DAT1 3'UTR and 12 youth who were carriers of the 9-repeat (9R) allele were scanned while they performed a Go/No-Go task. Response inhibition was modeled by contrasting activation during correct No-Go trials versus correct Go trials. Participants who were homozygous for the DAT1 3'UTR 10R allele and those who had a single 9R allele did not differ on percent of trials with successful inhibition, which was the primary measure of inhibitory control. Yet, youth with the DAT1 3'UTR 10R/10R genotype had significantly greater inhibitory control-related activation than those with one 9R allele in the left striatum, right dorsal premotor cortex, and bilaterally in the temporoparietal cortical junction. These findings provide preliminary evidence that neural activity related to inhibitory control may differ as a function of DAT1 3'UTR genotype in youth with ADHD. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Enhancing and impairing extinction of habit memory through modulation of NMDA receptors in the dorsolateral striatum.

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    Goodman, Jarid; Ressler, Reed L; Packard, Mark G

    2017-06-03

    The present experiments investigated the involvement of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors of the dorsolateral striatum (DLS) in consolidation of extinction in a habit memory task. Adult male Long-Evans rats were initially trained in a food-reinforced response learning version of a plus-maze task and were subsequently given extinction training in which the food was removed from the maze. In experiment 1, immediately after the first day of extinction training, rats received bilateral intra-DLS injections of the NMDA receptor antagonist 2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (AP5; 2µg/side) or physiological saline. In experiment 2, immediately following the first day of extinction training, animals were given intra-DLS injections of NMDA receptor partial agonist d-cycloserine (DCS; 10 or 20µg/side) or saline. In both experiments, the number of perseverative trials (a trial in which a rat made the same previously reinforced body-turn response) and latency to reach the previously correct food well were used as measures of extinction behavior. Results indicated that post-training intra-DLS injections of AP5 impaired extinction. In contrast, post-training intra-DLS infusions of DCS (20µg) enhanced extinction. Intra-DLS administration of AP5 or DCS given two hours after extinction training did not influence extinction of response learning, indicating that immediate post-training administration of AP5 and DCS specifically influenced consolidation of the extinction memory. The present results indicate a critical role for DLS NMDA receptors in modulating extinction of habit memory and may be relevant to developing therapeutic approaches to combat the maladaptive habits observed in human psychopathologies in which DLS-dependent memory has been implicated (e.g. drug addiction and relapse and obsessive compulsive disorder). Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Hyporeactivity of ventral striatum towards incentive stimuli in unmedicated depressed patients normalizes after treatment with escitalopram.

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    Stoy, Meline; Schlagenhauf, Florian; Sterzer, Philipp; Bermpohl, Felix; Hägele, Claudia; Suchotzki, Kristina; Schmack, Katharina; Wrase, Jana; Ricken, Roland; Knutson, Brian; Adli, Mazda; Bauer, Michael; Heinz, Andreas; Ströhle, Andreas

    2012-05-01

    Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) involves deficits in the reward system. While neuroimaging studies have focused on affective stimulus processing, few investigations have directly addressed deficits in the anticipation of incentives. We examined neural responses during gain and loss anticipation in patients with MDD before and after treatment with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). Fifteen adults with MDD and 15 healthy participants, matched for age, verbal IQ and smoking habits, were investigated in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study using a monetary incentive delay task. Patients were scanned drug-free and after 6 weeks of open-label treatment with escitalopram; controls were scanned twice at corresponding time points. We compared the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) response during the anticipation of gain and loss with a neutral condition. A repeated measures ANOVA was calculated to identify effects of group (MDD vs. controls), time (first vs. second scan) and group-by-time interaction. Severity of depression was measured with the Hamilton Rating Scale of Depression and the Beck Depression Inventory. MDD patients showed significantly less ventral striatal activation during anticipation of gain and loss compared with controls before, but not after, treatment. There was a significant group-by-time interaction during anticipation of loss in the left ventral striatum due to a signal increase in patients after treatment. Ventral striatal hyporesponsiveness was associated with the severity of depression and in particular anhedonic symptoms. These findings suggest that MDD patients show ventral striatal hyporesponsiveness during incentive cue processing, which normalizes after successful treatment.

  6. The significance of 18F-FP-β-CIT dopamine transporter PET imaging in early diagnosis of Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jian; Jiang Yuping; Guo Liping; Yang Liqin; Wu Jianjun; Ding Zhengtong; Guan Yihui; Zhao Jun; Xiang Jingde; Chen Zhengping; Su Huilin

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the 18 F-N-3-fluoropropyl-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl) nortropane ( 18 F-FP-β-CIT) dopamine transporter (DAT) PET imaging in diagnosing Parkinson's disease with early stage and assessing the severity of their disability. Methods: 4 healthy controls, 21 parkinsonian patients with early stage and 10 parkinsonian patients with advanced stage were studied, the ratio of [ region of interest (ROI)-cerebellum]/cerebellum was measured and compared. The correlation between DAT binding in striatum and unified Parkinson's disease rating scale (UPDRS) motor scores was also determined. Results: In patients with early stage (Hoehn and Yahr stage I-II) , the DAT binding uptake in the caudate, anterior putamen and posterior putamen was significantly reduced to 71.8%, 43.8% and 23.6% of the control value respectively, and more pronounced reduction of the uptake was found in the striatum contralateral to the predominant symptoms. Compared with age-matched controls, there was a significant reduction of DAT binding in the ipsilateral (preclinical) striatum of hemi-parkinsonian patients with Hoehn and Yahr stage 1 or 1.5. In the patients with advanced stage, the corresponding figure were further reduced to 51.9%, 31.8%, 15.8%. The DAT binding uptake in striatum of all parkinsonian patients showed significantly negative correlation with UPDRS motor scores, especially in the subregion of posterior putamen. Conclusion: 18 F-FP-β-CIT DAT PET imaging is helpful in diagnosing Parkinson's disease with early stage and assessing the severity of their disability

  7. The role of the intrinsic cholinergic system of the striatum: What have we learned from TAN recordings in behaving animals?

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    Apicella, Paul

    2017-09-30

    Cholinergic interneurons provide rich local innervation of the striatum and play an important role in controlling behavior, as evidenced by the variety of movement and psychiatric disorders linked to disrupted striatal cholinergic transmission. Much progress has been made in recent years regarding our understanding of how these interneurons contribute to the processing of information in the striatum. In particular, investigation of the activity of presumed striatal cholinergic interneurons, identified as tonically active neurons or TANs in behaving animals, has pointed to their role in the signaling and learning of the motivational relevance of environmental stimuli. Although the bulk of this work has been conducted in monkeys, several studies have also been carried out in behaving rats, but information remains rather disparate across studies and it is still questionable whether rodent TANs correspond to TANs described in monkeys. Consequently, our current understanding of the function of cholinergic transmission in the striatum is challenged by the rapidly growing, but often confusing literature on the relationship between TAN activity and specific behaviors. As regards the precise nature of the information conveyed by the cholinergic TANs, a recent influential view emphasized that these local circuit neurons may play a special role in the processing of contextual information that is important for reinforcement learning and selection of appropriate actions. This review provides a summary of recent progress in TAN physiology from which it is proposed that striatal cholinergic interneurons are crucial elements for flexible switching of behaviors under changing environmental conditions. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Subregion-specific modulation of excitatory input and dopaminergic output in the striatum by tonically activated glycine and GABAA receptors

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    Louise eAdermark

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The flow of cortical information through the basal ganglia is a complex spatiotemporal pattern of increased and decreased firing. The striatum is the biggest input nucleus to the basal ganglia and the aim of this study was to assess the role of inhibitory GABAA and glycine receptors in regulating synaptic activity in the dorsolateral (DLS and ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens, nAc. Local field potential recordings from coronal brain slices of juvenile and adult Wistar rats showed that GABAA receptors and strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors are tonically activated and inhibit excitatory input to the DLS and to the nAc. Strychnine-induced disinhibition of glutamatergic transmission was insensitive to the muscarinic receptor inhibitor scopolamine (10 µM, inhibited by the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist mecamylamine (10 µM and blocked by GABAA receptor inhibitors, suggesting that tonically activated glycine receptors depress excitatory input to the striatum through modulation of cholinergic and GABAergic neurotransmission. As an end-product example of striatal GABAergic output in vivo we measured dopamine release in the DLS and nAc by microdialysis in the awake and freely moving rat. Reversed dialysis of bicuculline (50 μM in perfusate only increased extrasynaptic dopamine levels in the nAc, while strychnine administered locally (200 μM in perfusate decreased dopamine output by 60% in both the DLS and nAc. Our data suggest that GABAA and glycine receptors are tonically activated and modulate striatal transmission in a partially sub-region specific manner.

  9. Functional relationships between the hippocampus and dorsomedial striatum in learning a visual scene-based memory task in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcasso, Sébastien; Huh, Namjung; Byeon, Jung Seop; Lee, Jihyun; Jung, Min Whan; Lee, Inah

    2014-11-19

    The hippocampus is important for contextual behavior, and the striatum plays key roles in decision making. When studying the functional relationships with the hippocampus, prior studies have focused mostly on the dorsolateral striatum (DLS), emphasizing the antagonistic relationships between the hippocampus and DLS in spatial versus response learning. By contrast, the functional relationships between the dorsomedial striatum (DMS) and hippocampus are relatively unknown. The current study reports that lesions to both the hippocampus and DMS profoundly impaired performance of rats in a visual scene-based memory task in which the animals were required to make a choice response by using visual scenes displayed in the background. Analysis of simultaneous recordings of local field potentials revealed that the gamma oscillatory power was higher in the DMS, but not in CA1, when the rat performed the task using familiar scenes than novel ones. In addition, the CA1-DMS networks increased coherence at γ, but not at θ, rhythm as the rat mastered the task. At the single-unit level, the neuronal populations in CA1 and DMS showed differential firing patterns when responses were made using familiar visual scenes than novel ones. Such learning-dependent firing patterns were observed earlier in the DMS than in CA1 before the rat made choice responses. The present findings suggest that both the hippocampus and DMS process memory representations for visual scenes in parallel with different time courses and that flexible choice action using background visual scenes requires coordinated operations of the hippocampus and DMS at γ frequencies. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3415534-14$15.00/0.

  10. Inability to acquire spatial information and deploy spatial search strategies in mice with lesions in dorsomedial striatum.

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    Pooters, Tine; Gantois, Ilse; Vermaercke, Ben; D'Hooge, Rudi

    2016-02-01

    Dorsal striatum has been shown to contribute to spatial learning and memory, but the role of striatal subregions in this important aspect of cognitive functioning remains unclear. Moreover, the spatial-cognitive mechanisms that underlie the involvement of these regions in spatial navigation have scarcely been studied. We therefore compared spatial learning and memory performance in mice with lesions in dorsomedial (DMS) and dorsolateral striatum (DLS) using the hidden-platform version of the Morris water maze (MWM) task. Compared to sham-operated controls, animals with DMS damage were impaired during MWM acquisition training. These mice displayed delayed spatial learning, increased thigmotaxis, and increased search distance to the platform, in the absence of major motor dysfunction, working memory defects or changes in anxiety or exploration. They failed to show a preference for the target quadrant during probe trials, which further indicates that spatial reference memory was impaired in these animals. Search strategy analysis moreover demonstrated that DMS-lesioned mice were unable to deploy cognitively advanced spatial search strategies. Conversely, MWM performance was barely affected in animals with lesions in DLS. In conclusion, our results indicate that DMS and DLS display differential functional involvement in spatial learning and memory. Our results show that DMS, but not DLS, is crucial for the ability of mice to acquire spatial information and their subsequent deployment of spatial search strategies. These data clearly identify DMS as a crucial brain structure for spatial learning and memory, which could explain the occurrence of neurocognitive impairments in brain disorders that affect the dorsal striatum. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Both neurons and astrocytes exhibited tetrodotoxin-resistant metabotropic glutamate receptor-dependent spontaneous slow Ca2+ oscillations in striatum.

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    Atsushi Tamura

    Full Text Available The striatum plays an important role in linking cortical activity to basal ganglia outputs. Group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs are densely expressed in the medium spiny projection neurons and may be a therapeutic target for Parkinson's disease. The group I mGluRs are known to modulate the intracellular Ca(2+ signaling. To characterize Ca(2+ signaling in striatal cells, spontaneous cytoplasmic Ca(2+ transients were examined in acute slice preparations from transgenic mice expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP in the astrocytes. In both the GFP-negative cells (putative-neurons and astrocytes of the striatum, spontaneous slow and long-lasting intracellular Ca(2+ transients (referred to as slow Ca(2+ oscillations, which lasted up to approximately 200 s, were found. Neither the inhibition of action potentials nor ionotropic glutamate receptors blocked the slow Ca(2+ oscillation. Depletion of the intracellular Ca(2+ store and the blockade of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors greatly reduced the transient rate of the slow Ca(2+ oscillation, and the application of an antagonist against mGluR5 also blocked the slow Ca(2+ oscillation in both putative-neurons and astrocytes. Thus, the mGluR5-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate signal cascade is the primary contributor to the slow Ca(2+ oscillation in both putative-neurons and astrocytes. The slow Ca(2+ oscillation features multicellular synchrony, and both putative-neurons and astrocytes participate in the synchronous activity. Therefore, the mGluR5-dependent slow Ca(2+ oscillation may involve in the neuron-glia interaction in the striatum.

  12. Singular Location and Signaling Profile of Adenosine A2A-Cannabinoid CB1 Receptor Heteromers in the Dorsal Striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Estefanía; Chiarlone, Anna; Medrano, Mireia; Puigdellívol, Mar; Bibic, Lucka; Howell, Lesley A; Resel, Eva; Puente, Nagore; Casarejos, María J; Perucho, Juan; Botta, Joaquín; Suelves, Nuria; Ciruela, Francisco; Ginés, Silvia; Galve-Roperh, Ismael; Casadó, Vicent; Grandes, Pedro; Lutz, Beat; Monory, Krisztina; Canela, Enric I; Lluís, Carmen; McCormick, Peter J; Guzmán, Manuel

    2018-04-01

    The dorsal striatum is a key node for many neurobiological processes such as motor activity, cognitive functions, and affective processes. The proper functioning of striatal neurons relies critically on metabotropic receptors. Specifically, the main adenosine and endocannabinoid receptors present in the striatum, ie, adenosine A 2A receptor (A 2A R) and cannabinoid CB 1 receptor (CB 1 R), are of pivotal importance in the control of neuronal excitability. Facilitatory and inhibitory functional interactions between striatal A 2A R and CB 1 R have been reported, and evidence supports that this cross-talk may rely, at least in part, on the formation of A 2A R-CB 1 R heteromeric complexes. However, the specific location and properties of these heteromers have remained largely unknown. Here, by using techniques that allowed a precise visualization of the heteromers in situ in combination with sophisticated genetically modified animal models, together with biochemical and pharmacological approaches, we provide a high-resolution expression map and a detailed functional characterization of A 2A R-CB 1 R heteromers in the dorsal striatum. Specifically, our data unveil that the A 2A R-CB 1 R heteromer (i) is essentially absent from corticostriatal projections and striatonigral neurons, and, instead, is largely present in striatopallidal neurons, (ii) displays a striking G protein-coupled signaling profile, where co-stimulation of both receptors leads to strongly reduced downstream signaling, and (iii) undergoes an unprecedented dysfunction in Huntington's disease, an archetypal disease that affects striatal neurons. Altogether, our findings may open a new conceptual framework to understand the role of coordinated adenosine-endocannabinoid signaling in the indirect striatal pathway, which may be relevant in motor function and neurodegenerative diseases.

  13. Projections from the posterolateral olfactory amygdala to the ventral striatum: neural basis for reinforcing properties of chemical stimuli

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    Lanuza Enrique

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vertebrates sense chemical stimuli through the olfactory receptor neurons whose axons project to the main olfactory bulb. The main projections of the olfactory bulb are directed to the olfactory cortex and olfactory amygdala (the anterior and posterolateral cortical amygdalae. The posterolateral cortical amygdaloid nucleus mainly projects to other amygdaloid nuclei; other seemingly minor outputs are directed to the ventral striatum, in particular to the olfactory tubercle and the islands of Calleja. Results Although the olfactory projections have been previously described in the literature, injection of dextran-amines into the rat main olfactory bulb was performed with the aim of delimiting the olfactory tubercle and posterolateral cortical amygdaloid nucleus in our own material. Injection of dextran-amines into the posterolateral cortical amygdaloid nucleus of rats resulted in anterograde labeling in the ventral striatum, in particular in the core of the nucleus accumbens, and in the medial olfactory tubercle including some islands of Calleja and the cell bridges across the ventral pallidum. Injections of Fluoro-Gold into the ventral striatum were performed to allow retrograde confirmation of these projections. Conclusion The present results extend previous descriptions of the posterolateral cortical amygdaloid nucleus efferent projections, which are mainly directed to the core of the nucleus accumbens and the medial olfactory tubercle. Our data indicate that the projection to the core of the nucleus accumbens arises from layer III; the projection to the olfactory tubercle arises from layer II and is much more robust than previously thought. This latter projection is directed to the medial olfactory tubercle including the corresponding islands of Calleja, an area recently described as critical node for the neural circuit of addiction to some stimulant drugs of abuse.

  14. Running Reduces Uncontrollable Stress-Evoked Serotonin and Potentiates Stress-Evoked Dopamine Concentrations in the Rat Dorsal Striatum.

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    Peter J Clark

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence from both the human and animal literature indicates that exercise reduces the negative consequences of stress. The neurobiological etiology for this stress protection, however, is not completely understood. Our lab reported that voluntary wheel running protects rats from expressing depression-like instrumental learning deficits on the shuttle box escape task after exposure to unpredictable and inescapable tail shocks (uncontrollable stress. Impaired escape behavior is a result of stress-sensitized serotonin (5-HT neuron activity in the dorsal raphe (DRN and subsequent excessive release of 5-HT into the dorsal striatum following exposure to a comparatively mild stressor. However, the possible mechanisms by which exercise prevents stress-induced escape deficits are not well characterized. The purpose of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that exercise blunts the stress-evoked release of 5-HT in the dorsal striatum. Changes to dopamine (DA levels were also examined, since striatal DA signaling is critical for instrumental learning and can be influenced by changes to 5-HT activity. Adult male F344 rats, housed with or without running wheels for 6 weeks, were either exposed to tail shock or remained undisturbed in laboratory cages. Twenty-four hours later, microdialysis was performed in the medial (DMS and lateral (DLS dorsal striatum to collect extracellular 5-HT and DA before, during, and following 2 mild foot shocks. We report wheel running prevents foot shock-induced elevation of extracellular 5-HT and potentiates DA concentrations in both the DMS and DLS approximately 24 h following exposure to uncontrollable stress. These data may provide a possible mechanism by which exercise prevents depression-like instrumental learning deficits following exposure to acute stress.

  15. Reinforcement learning signals in the human striatum distinguish learners from nonlearners during reward-based decision making.

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    Schönberg, Tom; Daw, Nathaniel D; Joel, Daphna; O'Doherty, John P

    2007-11-21

    The computational framework of reinforcement learning has been used to forward our understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying reward learning and decision-making behavior. It is known that humans vary widely in their performance in decision-making tasks. Here, we used a simple four-armed bandit task in which subjects are almost evenly split into two groups on the basis of their performance: those who do learn to favor choice of the optimal action and those who do not. Using models of reinforcement learning we sought to determine the neural basis of these intrinsic differences in performance by scanning both groups with functional magnetic resonance imaging. We scanned 29 subjects while they performed the reward-based decision-making task. Our results suggest that these two groups differ markedly in the degree to which reinforcement learning signals in the striatum are engaged during task performance. While the learners showed robust prediction error signals in both the ventral and dorsal striatum during learning, the nonlearner group showed a marked absence of such signals. Moreover, the magnitude of prediction error signals in a region of dorsal striatum correlated significantly with a measure of behavioral performance across all subjects. These findings support a crucial role of prediction error signals, likely originating from dopaminergic midbrain neurons, in enabling learning of action selection preferences on the basis of obtained rewards. Thus, spontaneously observed individual differences in decision making performance demonstrate the suggested dependence of this type of learning on the functional integrity of the dopaminergic striatal system in humans.

  16. [Quantitative analysis of the structure of neuronal dendritic spines in the striatum using the Leitz-ASM system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leontovich, T A; Zvegintseva, E G

    1985-10-01

    Two principal classes of striatum long axonal neurons (sparsely ramified reticular cells and densely ramified dendritic cells) were analyzed quantitatively in four animal species: hedgehog, rabbit, dog and monkey. The cross section area, total dendritic length and the area of dendritic field were measured using "LEITZ-ASM" system. Classes of neurons studied were significantly different in dogs and monkeys, while no differences were noted between hedgehog and rabbit. Reticular neurons of different species varied much more than dendritic ones. Quantitative analysis has revealed the progressive increase in the complexity of dendritic tree in mammals from rabbit to monkey.

  17. Development of striatal patch/matrix organization in organotypic co-cultures of perinatal striatum, cortex and substantia nigra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder-Keller, A; Costantini, L C; Graber, D J

    2001-01-01

    Organotypic cultures of fetal or early postnatal striatum were used to assess striatal patch formation and maintenance in the presence or absence of dopaminergic and glutamatergic influences. Vibratome-cut slices of the striatum prepared from embryonic day 19 to postnatal day 4 rat pups were maintained in static culture on clear membrane inserts in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium/F12 (1:1) with 20% horse serum. Some were co-cultured with embryonic day 12-16 ventral mesencephalon and/or embryonic day 19 to postnatal day 4 cortex, which produced a dense dopaminergic innervation and a modest cortical innervation. Donors of striatal and cortical tissue were previously injected with bromo-deoxyuridine (BrdU) on embryonic days 13 and 14 in order to label striatal neurons destined to populate the patch compartment of the striatum. Patches of BrdU-immunoreactive cells were maintained in organotypic cultures of late prenatal (embryonic days 20-22) or early postnatal striatum in the absence of nigral dopaminergic or cortical glutamatergic influences. In slices taken from embryonic day 19 fetuses prior to the time of in vivo patch formation, patches were observed to form after 10 days in vitro, in 39% of nigral-striatal co-cultures compared to 6% of striatal slices cultured alone or in the presence of cortex only. Patches of dopaminergic fibers, revealed by tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity, were observed in the majority of nigral-striatal co-cultures. Immunostaining for the AMPA-type glutamate receptor GluR1 revealed a dense patch distribution in nearly all cultures, which developed in embryonic day 19 cultures after at least six days in vitro. These findings indicate that striatal patch/matrix organization is maintained in organotypic culture, and can be induced to form in vitro in striatal slices removed from fetuses prior to the time of in vivo patch formation. Furthermore, dopaminergic innervation from co-cultured pieces of ventral mesencephalon enhances patch

  18. Proteomic Analysis of the Effect of Korean Red Ginseng in the Striatum of a Parkinson?s Disease Mouse Model

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Dongsoo; Jeon, Hyongjun; Ryu, Sun; Koo, Sungtae; Ha, Ki-Tae; Kim, Seungtae

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that Korean Red Ginseng (KRG) suppresses dopaminergic neuronal death in the brain of a Parkinson's disease (PD) mouse model, but the mechanism is still elusive. Using a 2-dimensional electrophoresis technique, we investigated whether KRG can restore the changes in protein expressions in the striatum (ST) of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-injected mice. Male C57BL/6 mice (9 weeks old) were injected with 20 mg/kg MPTP intraperitoneally four times a...

  19. Dopamine transporter SPECT in patients with Parkinson's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamano, Tadanori; Tsuchida, Tatsuro; Hirayama, Mikio; Fujiyama, Jiro; Mutoh, Tatsuro; Yonekura, Yoshiharu; Kuriyama, Masaru [Fukui Medical Univ., Matsuoka (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    The major neuropathological feature in Parkinson's disease (PD) is severe degeneration of the dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra. Dopamine transporter (DAT) is an important protein in the regulation of DA neurotransmission. It has been reported that PD patients show a loss of DAT in striatum. We report here the findings of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) of the DAT with 2{beta}-carboxymethoxy-3{beta}-(4[{sup 123}I]iodophenyl)tropane ([{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT) to investigate striatal DAT in 10 patients with PD, one patient with vascular parkinsonism (VP), and one patient with dystonia syndrome. Patients were evaluated using the Webster rating scale. Specific/nondisplaceable striatal binding ratio (V3'') was obtained in each case. In PD patients, the uptake of [{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT was reduced, especially in the tail of putamen compared with caudate nucleus. Even in the early stage of PD, the uptake of {beta}-CIT was reduced not only in the severely affected side, but also in the mildly disturbed side of the brain. Putamen caudate ratio was generally low in PD patients. In VP patient, the uptake was reduced, but putamen caudate ratio was not decreased. V3'' values showed significant correlation with the severity of clinical symptoms such as self-care, facies, posture, gait, speech, and Hoehn-Yahr's stage. On the other hand, V3'' values were not significantly correlated with the degree of tremor, seborrhea, and duration of the illness. In conclusion, we found that SPECT of the [{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT is a useful method for the diagnosis in the patients presenting parkinsonism, and for the clinico-physiological estimation of parkinsonian symptoms such as self-care, facies, posture, gait, and speech. (author)

  20. The discriminating nature of dopamine transporter image in parkinsonism: the competency of dopaminergic transporter imaging in differential diagnosis of parkinsonism 123I-FP-CIT SPECT study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Bom Sahn; Jang, Sung June; Eo, Jae Seon; Park, Eun Kyung; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Kim, Jong Min; Lee, Won Woo; Kim, Sang Eun

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the discriminating nature of 123 I-FP-CIT SPECT in patients with parkinsonism. 123 I-FP-CIT SPECT images acquired from the 18 normal controls; NC (60.4 ± 10.0 yr) and 237 patients with parkinsonism (65.9 ± 9.2 yr) were analyzed. From spatially normalized images, regional counts of the caudate, putamen, and occipital lobe were obtained using region of interest method. Binding potential (BP) was calculated with the ratio of specific to nonspecific binding activity at equilibrium. Additionally, the BP ratio of putamen to caudate (PCR) and asymmetric index (ASI) were measured. BPs of NC (3.37 ± 0.57, 3.10± 0.41, 3.23 ± 0.48 for caudate, putamen, whole striatum, respectively) had no significant difference with those of essential tremor; ET (3.31 ± 0.64, 3.06 ± 0.61, 3.14 ± 0.63) and Alzheimer's disease; AD (3.33 ± 0.60, 3.29 ± 0.79, 3.31 ± 0.70), but were higher than those of Parkinson's disease; PD (1.92 ± 0.74, 1.39 ±0.68, 1.64 ± 0.68), multiple system atrophy; MSA (2.36 ± 1.07, 2.16 ± 0.91, 2.26 ± 0.96), and dementia with Lewy body; DLB (1.95± 0.72, 1.64 ± 0.65, 1.79 ± 0.66)(ρ 123 I-FP-CIT SPECT was a good value in differential diagnosis of parkinsonism

  1. Inter regional correlations of glucose metabolism between the basal ganglia and different cortical areas: an ultra-high resolution PET/MRI fusion study using {sup 18}F-FDG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.H. [Research Institute for Advanced Industrial Technology, Korea University, Sejong (Korea, Republic of); Son, Y.D.; Kim, H.K.; Oh, C.H., E-mail: ohch@korea.ac.kr [College of Health Science, Gachon University, Incheon, (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J.M. [College of Science and Technology, Korea University, Sejong (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Y.B. [Gachon University School of Medicine, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, C. [Bioimaging Research Team, Korea Basic Science Institute, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2018-02-01

    Basal ganglia have complex functional connections with the cerebral cortex and are involved in motor control, executive functions of the forebrain, such as the planning of movement, and cognitive behaviors based on their connections. The aim of this study was to provide detailed functional correlation patterns between the basal ganglia and cerebral cortex by conducting an inter regional correlation analysis of the {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) data based on precise structural information. Fifteen participants were scanned with 7-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and high resolution research tomography (HRRT)-PET fusion system using {sup 18}F-FDG. For detailed inter regional correlation analysis, 24 subregions of the basal ganglia including pre-commissural dorsal caudate, post-commissural caudate, pre-commissural dorsal putamen, post-commissural putamen, internal globus pallidus, and external globus pallidus and 80 cerebral regions were selected as regions of interest on the MRI image and their glucose metabolism were calculated from the PET images. Pearson's product-moment correlation analysis was conducted for the inter regional correlation analysis of the basal ganglia. Functional correlation patterns between the basal ganglia and cerebral cortex were not only consistent with the findings of previous studies, but also showed new functional correlation between the dorsal striatum (i.e., caudate nucleus and putamen) and insula. In this study, we established the detailed basal ganglia subregional functional correlation patterns using {sup 18}F-FDG PET/MRI fusion imaging. Our methods and results could potentially be an important resource for investigating basal ganglia dysfunction as well as for conducting functional studies in the context of movement and psychiatric disorders. (author)

  2. Inter regional correlations of glucose metabolism between the basal ganglia and different cortical areas: an ultra-high resolution PET/MRI fusion study using 18F-FDG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.H.; Son, Y.D.; Kim, H.K.; Oh, C.H.; Kim, J.M.; Kim, Y.B.; Lee, C.

    2018-01-01

    Basal ganglia have complex functional connections with the cerebral cortex and are involved in motor control, executive functions of the forebrain, such as the planning of movement, and cognitive behaviors based on their connections. The aim of this study was to provide detailed functional correlation patterns between the basal ganglia and cerebral cortex by conducting an inter regional correlation analysis of the 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) data based on precise structural information. Fifteen participants were scanned with 7-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and high resolution research tomography (HRRT)-PET fusion system using 18 F-FDG. For detailed inter regional correlation analysis, 24 subregions of the basal ganglia including pre-commissural dorsal caudate, post-commissural caudate, pre-commissural dorsal putamen, post-commissural putamen, internal globus pallidus, and external globus pallidus and 80 cerebral regions were selected as regions of interest on the MRI image and their glucose metabolism were calculated from the PET images. Pearson's product-moment correlation analysis was conducted for the inter regional correlation analysis of the basal ganglia. Functional correlation patterns between the basal ganglia and cerebral cortex were not only consistent with the findings of previous studies, but also showed new functional correlation between the dorsal striatum (i.e., caudate nucleus and putamen) and insula. In this study, we established the detailed basal ganglia subregional functional correlation patterns using 18 F-FDG PET/MRI fusion imaging. Our methods and results could potentially be an important resource for investigating basal ganglia dysfunction as well as for conducting functional studies in the context of movement and psychiatric disorders. (author)

  3. Dopamine transporter SPECT in patients with Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamano, Tadanori; Tsuchida, Tatsuro; Hirayama, Mikio; Fujiyama, Jiro; Mutoh, Tatsuro; Yonekura, Yoshiharu; Kuriyama, Masaru

    2000-01-01

    The major neuropathological feature in Parkinson's disease (PD) is severe degeneration of the dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra. Dopamine transporter (DAT) is an important protein in the regulation of DA neurotransmission. It has been reported that PD patients show a loss of DAT in striatum. We report here the findings of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) of the DAT with 2β-carboxymethoxy-3β-(4[ 123 I]iodophenyl)tropane ([ 123 I]β-CIT) to investigate striatal DAT in 10 patients with PD, one patient with vascular parkinsonism (VP), and one patient with dystonia syndrome. Patients were evaluated using the Webster rating scale. Specific/nondisplaceable striatal binding ratio (V3'') was obtained in each case. In PD patients, the uptake of [ 123 I]β-CIT was reduced, especially in the tail of putamen compared with caudate nucleus. Even in the early stage of PD, the uptake of β-CIT was reduced not only in the severely affected side, but also in the mildly disturbed side of the brain. Putamen caudate ratio was generally low in PD patients. In VP patient, the uptake was reduced, but putamen caudate ratio was not decreased. V3'' values showed significant correlation with the severity of clinical symptoms such as self-care, facies, posture, gait, speech, and Hoehn-Yahr's stage. On the other hand, V3'' values were not significantly correlated with the degree of tremor, seborrhea, and duration of the illness. In conclusion, we found that SPECT of the [ 123 I]β-CIT is a useful method for the diagnosis in the patients presenting parkinsonism, and for the clinico-physiological estimation of parkinsonian symptoms such as self-care, facies, posture, gait, and speech. (author)

  4. Alternate cadmium exposure differentially affects the content of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and taurine within the hypothalamus, median eminence, striatum and prefrontal cortex of male rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esquifino, A.I. [Dept. de Bioquimica y Biologia Molecular III, Universidad Complutense, Madrid (Spain); Seara, R.; Fernandez-Rey, E.; Lafuente, A. [Lab. de Toxicologia, Universidad de Vigo, Orense (Spain)

    2001-05-01

    This work examines changes of gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) and taurine contents in the hypothalamus, striatum and prefrontal cortex of the rat after an alternate schedule of cadmium administration. Age-associated changes were also evaluated, of those before puberty and after adult age. In control rats GABA content decreased with age in the median eminence and in anterior, mediobasal and posterior hypothalamus, prefrontal cortex and the striatum. Taurine content showed similar results with the exception of mediobasal hypothalamus and striatum, where no changes were detected. In pubertal rats treated with cadmium from 30 to 60 days of life, GABA content significantly decreased in all brain regions except in the striatum. When cadmium was administered from day 60 to 90 of life, GABA content was significantly changed in prefrontal cortex only compared with the age matched controls. Taurine content showed similar results in pubertal rats, with the exception of the median eminence and the mediobasal hypothalamus, neither of which showed a change. However, when cadmium was administered to rats from day 60 to 90 of life, taurine content only changed in prefrontal cortex compared with the age matched controls. These results suggest that cadmium differentially affects GABA and taurine contents within the hypothalamus, median eminence, striatum and prefrontal cortex as a function of age. (orig.)

  5. Alternate cadmium exposure differentially affects the content of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and taurine within the hypothalamus, median eminence, striatum and prefrontal cortex of male rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esquifino, A.I.; Seara, R.; Fernandez-Rey, E.; Lafuente, A.

    2001-01-01

    This work examines changes of gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) and taurine contents in the hypothalamus, striatum and prefrontal cortex of the rat after an alternate schedule of cadmium administration. Age-associated changes were also evaluated, of those before puberty and after adult age. In control rats GABA content decreased with age in the median eminence and in anterior, mediobasal and posterior hypothalamus, prefrontal cortex and the striatum. Taurine content showed similar results with the exception of mediobasal hypothalamus and striatum, where no changes were detected. In pubertal rats treated with cadmium from 30 to 60 days of life, GABA content significantly decreased in all brain regions except in the striatum. When cadmium was administered from day 60 to 90 of life, GABA content was significantly changed in prefrontal cortex only compared with the age matched controls. Taurine content showed similar results in pubertal rats, with the exception of the median eminence and the mediobasal hypothalamus, neither of which showed a change. However, when cadmium was administered to rats from day 60 to 90 of life, taurine content only changed in prefrontal cortex compared with the age matched controls. These results suggest that cadmium differentially affects GABA and taurine contents within the hypothalamus, median eminence, striatum and prefrontal cortex as a function of age. (orig.)

  6. Aberrant resting-state corticostriatal functional connectivity in cirrhotic patients with hyperintense globus pallidus on T1-weighted MR imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi-Qi Zhu

    Full Text Available Neurobiological and neuroimaging studies have emphasized the structural and functional alterations in the striatum of cirrhotic patients, but alterations in the functional connections between the striatum and other brain regions have not yet been explored. Of note, manganese accumulation in the nervous system, frequently reflected by hyperintensity at the bilateral globus pallidus (GP on T1-weighted imaging, has been considered a factor affecting the striatal and cortical functions in hepatic decompensation. We employed resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to analyze the temporal correlation between the striatum and the remaining brain regions using seed-based correlation analyses. The two-sample t-test was conducted to detect the differences in corticostriatal connectivity between 44 cirrhotic patients with hyperintensity at the bilateral GP and 20 healthy controls. Decreased connectivity of the caudate was detected in the anterior/middle cingulate gyrus, and increased connectivity of the caudate was found in the left motor cortex. A reduction in functional connectivity was found between the putamen and several regions, including the anterior cingulate gyrus, right insular lobe, inferior frontal gyrus, left parahippocampal gyrus, and anterior lobe of the right cerebellum; increased connectivity was detected between the putamen and right middle temporal gyrus. There were significant correlations between the corticostriatal connectivity and neuropsychological performances in the patient group, but not between the striatal connectivity and GP signal intensity. These alterations in the corticostriatal functional connectivity suggested the abnormalities in the intrinsic brain functional organiztion among the cirrhotic patients with manganese deposition, and may be associated with development of metabolic encephalopathy. The manganese deposition in nervous system, however, can not be an independent factor predicting the resting

  7. Reward prediction error signal enhanced by striatum-amygdala interaction explains the acceleration of probabilistic reward learning by emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Noriya; Sakagami, Masamichi; Haruno, Masahiko

    2013-03-06

    Learning does not only depend on rationality, because real-life learning cannot be isolated from emotion or social factors. Therefore, it is intriguing to determine how emotion changes learning, and to identify which neural substrates underlie this interaction. Here, we show that the task-independent presentation of an emotional face before a reward-predicting cue increases the speed of cue-reward association learning in human subjects compared with trials in which a neutral face is presented. This phenomenon was attributable to an increase in the learning rate, which regulates reward prediction errors. Parallel to these behavioral findings, functional magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated that presentation of an emotional face enhanced reward prediction error (RPE) signal in the ventral striatum. In addition, we also found a functional link between this enhanced RPE signal and increased activity in the amygdala following presentation of an emotional face. Thus, this study revealed an acceleration of cue-reward association learning by emotion, and underscored a role of striatum-amygdala interactions in the modulation of the reward prediction errors by emotion.

  8. No differences in ventral striatum responsivity between adolescents with a positive family history of alcoholism and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Kathrin U; Gan, Gabriela; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J; Bokde, Arun L W; Büchel, Christian; Conrod, Patricia; Fauth-Bühler, Mira; Flor, Herta; Gallinat, Jürgen; Garavan, Hugh; Gowland, Penny; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Lawrence, Claire; Loth, Eva; Mann, Karl; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Nees, Frauke; Paus, Tomáš; Pausova, Zdenka; Rietschel, Marcella; Ströhle, Andreas; Struve, Maren; Schumann, Gunter; Smolka, Michael N

    2015-05-01

    Individuals with alcohol-dependent parents show an elevated risk of developing alcohol-related problems themselves. Modulations of the mesolimbic reward circuit have been postulated as a pre-existing marker of alcoholism. We tested whether a positive family history of alcoholism is correlated with ventral striatum functionality during a reward task. All participants performed a modified version of the monetary incentive delay task while their brain responses were measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging. We compared 206 healthy adolescents (aged 13-15) who had any first- or second-degree relative with alcoholism to 206 matched controls with no biological relative with alcoholism. Reward anticipation as well as feedback of win recruited the ventral striatum in all participants, but adolescents with a positive family history of alcoholism did not differ from their matched peers. Also we did not find any correlation between family history density and reward anticipation or feedback of win. This finding of no differences did not change when we analyzed a subsample of 77 adolescents with at least one parent with alcohol use disorder and their matched controls. Because this result is in line with another study reporting no differences between children with alcohol-dependent parents and controls at young age, but contrasts with studies of older individuals, one might conclude that at younger age the effect of family history has not yet exerted its influence on the still developing mesolimbic reward circuit. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  9. 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydroisoquinoline protects terminals of dopaminergic neurons in the striatum against the malonate-induced neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenc-Koci, Elzbieta; Gołembiowska, Krystyna; Wardas, Jadwiga

    2005-07-27

    Malonate, a reversible inhibitor of the mitochondrial enzyme succinate dehydrogenase, is frequently used as a model neurotoxin to produce lesion of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system in animals due to particular sensitivity of dopamine neurons to mild energy impairment. This model of neurotoxicity was applied in our study to explore neuroprotective potential of 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (TIQ), an endo- and exogenous substance whose function in the mammalian brain, despite extensive studies, has not been elucidated so far. Injection of malonate at a dose of 3 mumol unilaterally into the rat left medial forebrain bundle resulted in the 54% decrease in dopamine (DA) concentration in the ipsilateral striatum and, depending on the examined striatum regions, caused 24-44% reduction in [3H]GBR12,935 binding to the dopamine transporter (DAT). TIQ (50 mg/kg i.p.) administered 4 h before malonate infusion and next once daily for successive 7 days prevented both these effects of malonate. Such TIQ treatment restored DA content and DAT binding almost to the control level. The results of the present study indicate that TIQ may act as a neuroprotective agent in the rat brain. An inhibition of the enzymatic activities of monoamine oxidase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase as well as an increase in the striatal levels of glutathione and nitric oxide found after TIQ administration and reported in our earlier studies are considered to be potential factors that may be involved in the TIQ-mediated protection of dopamine terminals from malonate toxicity.

  10. MicroRNA-124 slows down the progression of Huntington′s disease by promoting neurogenesis in the striatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNA-124 contributes to neurogenesis through regulating its targets, but its expression both in the brain of Huntington′s disease mouse models and patients is decreased. However, the effects of microRNA-124 on the progression of Huntington′s disease have not been reported. Results from this study showed that microRNA-124 increased the latency to fall for each R6/2 Huntington′s disease transgenic mouse in the rotarod test. 5-Bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU staining of the striatum shows an increase in neurogenesis. In addition, brain-derived neurotrophic factor and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha protein levels in the striatum were increased and SRY-related HMG box transcription factor 9 protein level was decreased. These findings suggest that microRNA-124 slows down the progression of Huntington′s disease possibly through its important role in neuronal differentiation and survival.

  11. A dissociation of dorso-lateral striatum and amygdala function on the same stimulus-response habit task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, R J; Hong, N S

    2004-01-01

    This experiment tested the idea that the amygdala-based learning and memory system covertly acquires a stimulus-reward (stimulus-outcome) association during acquisition of a stimulus-response (S-R) habit task developed for the eight-arm radial maze. Groups of rats were given dorso-lateral striatal or amygdala lesions and then trained on the S-R habit task on the eight-arm radial maze. Rats with neurotoxic damage to the dorso-lateral striatum were severely impaired on the acquisition of the S-R habit task but showed a conditioned-cue preference for the stimulus reinforced during S-R habit training. Rats with neurotoxic damage to the amygdala were able to acquire the S-R habit task but did not show a conditioned-cue preference for the stimulus reinforced during S-R habit training. This pattern of results represents a dissociation of learning and memory functions of the dorsal striatum and amygdala on the same task.

  12. Effect of ligustrazine on levels of amino acid neurotransmitters in rat striatum after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jin; Wan, Hai-Tong; Yang, Jie-Hong; Zhang, Yu-Yan; Ge, Li-Jun; Bie, Xiao-Dong

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of ligustrazine on levels of amino acid transmitters in the extracellular fluid of striatum following cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) in male Sprague-Dawley rats. A microdialysis cannula guide was implanted into the right striatum. After recovery, animals underwent a sham operation or middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Those that developed cerebral ischemia after MCAO were randomized to receive propylene glycol salt water and ligustrazine respectively. Striatal fluid samples were collected from all animals at 15-min intervals after treatment and were subjected to HPLC analysis of aspartic acid, glutamic acid, taurine, and γ-amino butyric acid. Upon the last sample collection, animals were sacrificed and brain tissue specimens were collected for triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining and NeuN staining. Compared with the sham operation, MCAO induced significant neurological deficits and increased striatal concentrations of the four neurotransmitters assessed in a time-dependent manner (P cerebral infarction-protective agent may have potential clinical implications for I/R-related brain damage.

  13. Comparative study of D2 receptors and content of DA in striatum before and after electro-acupuncture treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Yansong; Lin Xiangtong

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the change of D 2 receptors and its relationship with DA content in experimental hemi-parkinsonism rats before and after electron-acupuncture treatment. Methods: 125 I-IBZM D 2 receptor cerebral autoradiographic analysis, HPLC-ECD DA and its metabolites, homovanillic acid (HVA), 3,4-di-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) content detection were used to study in striatum in before treatment, electro-acupuncture treatment and treatment control group. Results: 1) The DA, HVA and DOPAC level in striatum of lesioned side in electro-acupuncture group was increased comparing with the before treatment and treatment control group (P 125 I-IBZM uptake ratio was 8.04 +- 0.71, (29.34 +- 4.83)% more than that of the contralateral side, but no significant difference was observed as compared with that of the pretreatment group [(8.09 +- 0.52), P>0.05]; however it was much lower than that of the treatment control group (8.61 +- 0.63), P 2 receptors' up regulation in rats with experimental hemi-parkinsonism

  14. Mechanisms of Neuroplasticity and Ethanol’s Effects on Plasticity in the Striatum and Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovinger, David M.; Kash, Thomas L.

    2015-01-01

    Long-lasting changes in synaptic function (i.e., synaptic plasticity) have long been thought to contribute to information storage in the nervous system. Although synaptic plasticity mainly has adaptive functions that allow the organism to function in complex environments, it is now clear that certain events or exposure to various substances can produce plasticity that has negative consequences for organisms. Exposure to drugs of abuse, in particular ethanol, is a life experience that can activate or alter synaptic plasticity, often resulting in increased drug seeking and taking and in many cases addiction. Two brain regions subject to alcohol’s effects on synaptic plasticity are the striatum and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), both of which have key roles in alcohol’s actions and control of intake. The specific effects depend on both the brain region analyzed (e.g., specific subregions of the striatum and BNST) and the duration of ethanol exposure (i.e., acute vs. chronic). Plastic changes in synaptic transmission in these two brain regions following prolonged ethanol exposure are thought to contribute to excessive alcohol drinking and relapse to drinking. Understanding the mechanisms underlying this plasticity may lead to new therapies for treatment of these and other aspects of alcohol use disorder. PMID:26259092

  15. Manganese-Disrupted Interaction of Dopamine D1 and NMDAR in the Striatum to Injury Learning and Memory Ability of Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qifan; Deng, Yu; Yang, Xinxin; Bai, Ying; Xu, Bin; Liu, Wei; Zheng, Wenxue; Wang, Can; Zhang, Meng; Xu, Zhaofa

    2016-12-01

    Manganese (Mn) is widely regarded as a neurotoxic heavy metal that causes learning and memory deficits. Recently, it has been proved that the striatum is related to memory and learning ability. However, no previous study focused on the effect of Mn-induced learning and memory deficits on the striatum. This study aims to investigate the probable interaction of dopamine D1 receptor (DR1) and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), two cognition-related receptors in the striatum during Mn exposure. Mice are randomly divided into four groups, including control group, 12.5 mg/kg MnCl 2 group, 25 mg/kg MnCl 2 group, and 50 mg/kg MnCl 2 group. The mice receive intraperitoneal injections of 0, 12.5, 25, and 50 mg/kg MnCl 2 once daily for 2 weeks. Then, learning and memory ability, pathological changes, expression, and interaction of DR1 and NMDAR are determined. It has been found that Mn disrupted spatial learning and memory ability of mice by Morris water maze test and the passive avoidance test. Pathological and ultrastructure were injured. Mn decreased the immunohistochemical activities, protein levels, and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of DR1, NR1, and NR2A. Mn exposure inhibited interaction between DR1 and NMDAR in striatum by double immunofluorescent staining and co-immunoprecipitation. In conclusion, our study illustrated that Mn caused learning and memory dysfunction via injury of striatum and inhibition of interaction between DR1 and NMDAR in striatum.

  16. The discriminating nature of dopamine transporter image in parkinsonism: the competency of dopaminergic transporter imaging in differential diagnosis of parkinsonism {sup 123}I-FP-CIT SPECT study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bom Sahn; Jang, Sung June; Eo, Jae Seon; Park, Eun Kyung; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Kim, Jong Min; Lee, Won Woo; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-08-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the discriminating nature of {sup 123}I-FP-CIT SPECT in patients with parkinsonism. {sup 123}I-FP-CIT SPECT images acquired from the 18 normal controls; NC (60.4 {+-} 10.0 yr) and 237 patients with parkinsonism (65.9 {+-} 9.2 yr) were analyzed. From spatially normalized images, regional counts of the caudate, putamen, and occipital lobe were obtained using region of interest method. Binding potential (BP) was calculated with the ratio of specific to nonspecific binding activity at equilibrium. Additionally, the BP ratio of putamen to caudate (PCR) and asymmetric index (ASI) were measured. BPs of NC (3.37 {+-} 0.57, 3.10{+-} 0.41, 3.23 {+-} 0.48 for caudate, putamen, whole striatum, respectively) had no significant difference with those of essential tremor; ET (3.31 {+-} 0.64, 3.06 {+-} 0.61, 3.14 {+-} 0.63) and Alzheimer's disease; AD (3.33 {+-} 0.60, 3.29 {+-} 0.79, 3.31 {+-} 0.70), but were higher than those of Parkinson's disease; PD (1.92 {+-} 0.74, 1.39 {+-}0.68, 1.64 {+-} 0.68), multiple system atrophy; MSA (2.36 {+-} 1.07, 2.16 {+-} 0.91, 2.26 {+-} 0.96), and dementia with Lewy body; DLB (1.95{+-} 0.72, 1.64 {+-} 0.65, 1.79 {+-} 0.66)({rho} < 0.005). PD had statistically lower values of PCR and higher values of ASI than those of NC ({rho} < 0.005). And PD had significantly lower value of PCR, higher ASI and lower BP in the putamen and whole striatum than MSA ({rho} < 0.05). Dopamine transporter image of {sup 123}I-FP-CIT SPECT was a good value in differential diagnosis of parkinsonism.

  17. Exploration of D2 receptors and content of DA of striatum in hemi-parkinsonism model rats before and after madopar treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Yansong; Lin Xiangtong

    1998-01-01

    125 I-IBZM autoradiographic analysis, HPLC-ECD were used to study the relationship between D 2 receptors and the content of DA, HVA, DOPAC in striatum of hemi-parkinsonism model rats before and after Madopar treatment. After Madopar treatment, the striatum/cerebellum 125 I-IBZM uptake ratio of lesioned side was 7.23 +- 0.67, showed 17.22 +- 3.94% increasing as compared to the contralateral side, the increasing were significantly declined compared with the pretreatment group and control group (P 2 receptors

  18. Species differences in mGluR5 binding sites in mammalian central nervous system determined using in vitro binding with [{sup 18}F]F-PEB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Shil [Department of Research Imaging, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA 19486 (United States)], E-mail: shailendra_patel@merck.com; Hamill, Terence G.; Connolly, Brett; Jagoda, Elaine; Li Wenping; Gibson, Raymond E. [Department of Research Imaging, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA 19486 (United States)

    2007-11-15

    Binding of [{sup 18}F]3-fluoro-5-[(pyridin-3-yl)ethynyl]benzonitrile ([{sup 18}F]F-PEB) was evaluated in membranes and tissue sections prepared from rat, rhesus and human brain. Saturation equilibrium binding experiments with frozen brain cortex and caudate-putamen membranes of young adult rhesus and human and with cortex and striatum from rat yielded data indicative of specific high-affinity binding (K{sub D}=0.1-0.15 nM, n{>=}3) to a saturable site previously shown to be metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5; Patel S, Ndubizu O, Hamill T, Chaudhary A, Burns HD, Hargreaves RJ, Gibson RE. Screening cascade and development of potential positron emission tomography radiotracers for mGluR5: in vitro and in vivo characterization. Mol Imaging Biol 2005;7:314-323). High-affinity binding of [{sup 18}F]F-PEB was also detected in cerebellum membranes from rat, rhesus and human. The density of binding sites (B{sub max}) measured using [{sup 18}F]F-PEB followed the rank order cortex{approx}caudate-putamen/striatum>cerebellum for all three species, with the cerebellum B{sub max} being significantly lower than that observed in the other regions. Receptor autoradiography studies in tissue sections confirmed that the regional distribution of [{sup 18}F]F-PEB in mammalian central nervous system is consistent with that of mGluR5 and that a small but specific mGluR5 signal is observed in rhesus and human cerebellum. A small and quantifiable specific signal could also be observed in rat cerebellum using this radiotracer. Immunohistochemical analysis in brain sections revealed a rank order of staining in rhesus and human brain of cortex{approx}caudate-putamen>cerebellum. Rat brain immunohistochemistry followed the same rank order, although the staining in the cerebellum was significantly lower. Using a 'no-wash' wipe assay, the development of a specific signal within 20 min of incubation of tissue brain sections (>60% in the cortex and striatum; 36-49% in the cerebellum

  19. Species differences in mGluR5 binding sites in mammalian central nervous system determined using in vitro binding with [18F]F-PEB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Shil; Hamill, Terence G.; Connolly, Brett; Jagoda, Elaine; Li Wenping; Gibson, Raymond E.

    2007-01-01

    Binding of [ 18 F]3-fluoro-5-[(pyridin-3-yl)ethynyl]benzonitrile ([ 18 F]F-PEB) was evaluated in membranes and tissue sections prepared from rat, rhesus and human brain. Saturation equilibrium binding experiments with frozen brain cortex and caudate-putamen membranes of young adult rhesus and human and with cortex and striatum from rat yielded data indicative of specific high-affinity binding (K D =0.1-0.15 nM, n≥3) to a saturable site previously shown to be metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5; Patel S, Ndubizu O, Hamill T, Chaudhary A, Burns HD, Hargreaves RJ, Gibson RE. Screening cascade and development of potential positron emission tomography radiotracers for mGluR5: in vitro and in vivo characterization. Mol Imaging Biol 2005;7:314-323). High-affinity binding of [ 18 F]F-PEB was also detected in cerebellum membranes from rat, rhesus and human. The density of binding sites (B max ) measured using [ 18 F]F-PEB followed the rank order cortex∼caudate-putamen/striatum>cerebellum for all three species, with the cerebellum B max being significantly lower than that observed in the other regions. Receptor autoradiography studies in tissue sections confirmed that the regional distribution of [ 18 F]F-PEB in mammalian central nervous system is consistent with that of mGluR5 and that a small but specific mGluR5 signal is observed in rhesus and human cerebellum. A small and quantifiable specific signal could also be observed in rat cerebellum using this radiotracer. Immunohistochemical analysis in brain sections revealed a rank order of staining in rhesus and human brain of cortex∼caudate-putamen>cerebellum. Rat brain immunohistochemistry followed the same rank order, although the staining in the cerebellum was significantly lower. Using a 'no-wash' wipe assay, the development of a specific signal within 20 min of incubation of tissue brain sections (>60% in the cortex and striatum; 36-49% in the cerebellum) from all three species confirmed previous in vivo

  20. 5-HMF attenuates striatum oxidative damage via Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway following transient global cerebral ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ya, Bai-Liu; Li, Hong-Fang; Wang, Hai-Ying; Wu, Fei; Xin, Qing; Cheng, Hong-Ju; Li, Wen-Juan; Lin, Na; Ba, Zai-Hua; Zhang, Ru-Juan; Liu, Qian; Li, Ya-Nan; Bai, Bo; Ge, Feng

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have shown 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (5-HMF) has favorable biological effects, and its neuroprotection in a variety of neurological diseases has been noted. Our previous study showed that treatment of 5-HMF led to protection against permanent global cerebral ischemia. However, the underlying mechanisms in cerebral ischemic injury are not fully understood. This study was conducted to investigate the neuroprotective effect of 5-HMF and elucidate the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/antioxidant response element (ARE) signaling pathway mechanism in the striatum after transient global cerebral ischemia. C57BL/6 mice were subjected to bilateral common carotid artery occlusion for 20 min and sacrificed 24 h after reperfusion. 5-HMF (12 mg/kg) or an equal volume of vehicle was intraperitoneally injected 30 min before ischemia and 5 min after the onset of reperfusion. At 24 h after reperfusion, neurological function was evaluated by neurological disability status scale, locomotor activity test and inclined beam walking test. Histological injury of the striatum was observed by cresyl violet staining and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dNTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining. Oxidative stress was evaluated by the carbonyl groups introduced into proteins, and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based measurement was used to detect Nrf2 DNA binding activity. Nrf2 and its downstream ARE pathway protein expression such as heme oxygenase-1, NAD (P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1, glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit and glutamate-cysteine ligase modulatory subunit were detected by western blot. Our results showed that 5-HMF treatment significantly ameliorated neurological deficits, reduced brain water content, attenuated striatum neuronal damage, decreased the carbonyl groups and MDA levels, and activated Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway. Taken together, these results demonstrated that

  1. More consistently altered connectivity patterns for cerebellum and medial temporal lobes than for amygdala and striatum in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning ePeters

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brain architecture can be divided into a cortico-thalamic system and modulatory ‘subcortical-cerebellar’ systems containing key structures such as striatum, medial temporal lobes (MTLs, amygdala, and cerebellum. Subcortical-cerebellar systems are known to be altered in schizophrenia. In particular, intrinsic functional brain connectivity (iFC between these systems has been consistently demonstrated in patients. While altered connectivity is known for each subcortical-cerebellar system separately, it is unknown whether subcortical-cerebellar systems’ connectivity patterns with the cortico-thalamic system are comparably altered across systems, i.e., if separate subcortical-cerebellar systems’ connectivity patterns are consistent across patients. Methods: To investigate this question, 18 patients with schizophrenia (3 unmedicated, 15 medicated with atypical antipsychotics and 18 healthy controls were assessed by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Independent component analysis of fMRI data revealed cortical intrinsic brain networks (NWs with time courses representing proxies for cortico-thalamic system activity. Subcortical-cerebellar systems’ activity was represented by fMRI-based time courses of selected regions-of-interest (ROIs (i.e., striatum, MTL, amygdala, cerebellum. Correlation analysis among ROI- and NWs-time courses yielded individual connectivity matrices (i.e. connectivity between NW and ROIs (allROIs-NW, separateROI-NW, only NWs (NWs-NWs, and only ROIs (allROIs-allROIs as main outcome measures, which were classified by support-vector-machine-based leave-one-out cross-validation. Differences in classification accuracy were statistically evaluated for consistency across subjects and systems. Results: Correlation matrices based on allROIs-NWs yielded 91% classification accuracy, which was significantly superior to allROIs-allROIs and NWs-NWs (56% and 74%, respectively. Considering separate

  2. Reduced striatal dopamine D2/3 receptor availability in Body Dysmorphic Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vulink, Nienke C; Planting, Robin S; Figee, Martijn; Booij, Jan; Denys, Damiaan

    2016-02-01

    Though the dopaminergic system is implicated in Obsessive Compulsive and Related Disorders (OCRD), the dopaminergic system has never been investigated in-vivo in Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD). In line with consistent findings of reduced striatal dopamine D2/3 receptor availability in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD), we hypothesized that the dopamine D2/3 receptor availability in the striatum will be lower in patients with BDD in comparison to healthy subjects. Striatal dopamine D2/3 receptor Binding Potential (BPND) was examined in 12 drug-free BDD patients and 12 control subjects pairwise matched by age, sex, and handedness using [(123)I]iodobenzamide Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT; bolus/constant infusion technique). Regions of interest were the caudate nucleus and the putamen. BPND was calculated as the ratio of specific striatal to binding in the occipital cortex (representing nonspecific binding). Compared to controls, dopamine D2/3 receptor BPND was significantly lower in BDD, both in the putamen (p=0.017) and caudate nucleus (p=0.022). This study provides the first evidence of a disturbed dopaminergic system in BDD patients. Although previously BDD was classified as a separate disorder (somatoform disorder), our findings give pathophysiological support for the recent reclassification of BDD to the OCRD in DSM-5. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  3. 18F-FDG PET-CT pattern in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townley, Ryan A; Botha, Hugo; Graff-Radford, Jonathan; Boeve, Bradley F; Petersen, Ronald C; Senjem, Matthew L; Knopman, David S; Lowe, Val; Jack, Clifford R; Jones, David T

    2018-01-01

    Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is an important and treatable cause of neurologic impairment. Diagnosis is complicated due to symptoms overlapping with other age related disorders. The pathophysiology underlying iNPH is not well understood. We explored FDG-PET abnormalities in iNPH patients in order to determine if FDG-PET may serve as a biomarker to differentiate iNPH from common neurodegenerative disorders. We retrospectively compared 18 F-FDG PET-CT imaging patterns from seven iNPH patients (mean age 74 ± 6 years) to age and sex matched controls, as well as patients diagnosed with clinical Alzheimer's disease dementia (AD), Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) and Parkinson's Disease Dementia (PDD), and behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD). Partial volume corrected and uncorrected images were reviewed separately. Patients with iNPH, when compared to controls, AD, DLB/PDD, and bvFTD, had significant regional hypometabolism in the dorsal striatum, involving the caudate and putamen bilaterally. These results remained highly significant after partial volume correction. In this study, we report a FDG-PET pattern of hypometabolism in iNPH involving the caudate and putamen with preserved cortical metabolism. This pattern may differentiate iNPH from degenerative diseases and has the potential to serve as a biomarker for iNPH in future studies. These findings also further our understanding of the pathophysiology underlying the iNPH clinical presentation.

  4. Striatal dopamine transporter, regional cerebral blood flow and glucose utilization in MPTP-induced parkinson disease mice model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yunchao; Wu Chunying; Xiang Jingde; Lin Xiangtong; Zhu Huiqing

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore the variation of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), glucose utilization as well as the neurotoxic effect on dopaminergic neurons induced by neurotoxin 1-methy-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahy-dropyridine (MPTP). Methods: Eight-week old male C57BL/6 mice were given a total dose of 0-80 mg/kg MPTP intraperitoneally. Ten days later the mice were sacrificed for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-immunopositive cell count- ing in substantia nigra using SP immunohistochemistry. Vivo autoradiography was employed to measure striatal do- pamine transporter (DAT) loss, rCBF and glucose utilization in striatum and thalamus. Results: The extents of DAT depletion and TH-immunopositive cell loss were positively correlated (r=0.998, P O.2), while glucose utilization was only slightly reduced in caudate/putamen and thalamus by 3.0% and 5.4% in 80 mg/kg MPTP-treated mice (P<0.05). Conclusion: Significant dose-dependent relationship was in presence of MPTP induced dopaminergic neurons loss, changes of rCBF in caudate/putamen and thalamus were not significant, while the glucose utilization was slightly decreased in higher dose group. (authors)

  5. fMRI of Simultaneous Interpretation Reveals the Neural Basis of Extreme Language Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervais-Adelman, Alexis; Moser-Mercer, Barbara; Michel, Christoph M; Golestani, Narly

    2015-12-01

    We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the neural basis of extreme multilingual language control in a group of 50 multilingual participants. Comparing brain responses arising during simultaneous interpretation (SI) with those arising during simultaneous repetition revealed activation of regions known to be involved in speech perception and production, alongside a network incorporating the caudate nucleus that is known to be implicated in domain-general cognitive control. The similarity between the networks underlying bilingual language control and general executive control supports the notion that the frequently reported bilingual advantage on executive tasks stems from the day-to-day demands of language control in the multilingual brain. We examined neural correlates of the management of simultaneity by correlating brain activity during interpretation with the duration of simultaneous speaking and hearing. This analysis showed significant modulation of the putamen by the duration of simultaneity. Our findings suggest that, during SI, the caudate nucleus is implicated in the overarching selection and control of the lexico-semantic system, while the putamen is implicated in ongoing control of language output. These findings provide the first clear dissociation of specific dorsal striatum structures in polyglot language control, roles that are consistent with previously described involvement of these regions in nonlinguistic executive control. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Brain microstructural correlates of visuospatial choice reaction time in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kathrine Skak; Baaré, William F C; Skimminge, Arnold

    2011-01-01

    , and caudate. MD effects on RT were bilateral in the corticospinal tracts and putamen, whilst right caudate MD was more strongly related to performance than was left caudate MD. Our results suggest a link between motor performance variability in children and diffusivity in the motor system, which may...

  7. Kappa-opioid receptor signaling in the striatum as a potential modulator of dopamine transmission in cocaine dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre eTrifilieff

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Cocaine addiction is accompanied by a decrease in striatal dopamine signaling, measured as a decrease in dopamine D2 receptor binding as well as blunted dopamine release in the striatum. These alterations in dopamine transmission have clinical relevance, and have been shown to correlate with cocaine-seeking behavior and response to treatment for cocaine dependence. However, the mechanisms contributing to the hypodopaminergic state in cocaine addiction remain unknown. Here we review the Positron Emission Tomography (PET imaging studies showing alterations in D2 receptor binding potential and dopamine transmission in cocaine abusers and their significance in cocaine-seeking behavior. Based on animal and human studies, we propose that the kappa receptor/dynorphin system, because of its impact on dopamine transmission and upregulation following cocaine exposure, could contribute to the hypodopaminergic state reported in cocaine addiction, and could thus be a relevant target for treatment development.

  8. Antagonism by supidimide of haloperidol-induced augmentation of [3H]-spiperone binding in rat striatum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennies, H.H.; Hess, V.; Flohe, L.

    1984-01-01

    Rats were treated for two weeks with haloperidol alone or with additional test drugs and the D 2 receptor density in the striatum was investigated after a drug-free period of five days. The D 2 receptor system as analysed by [ 3 H]-spinerone binding was best characterized by a model with two binding sites of different affinity. Chronic haloperidol treatment substantially augmented the total binding capacity 2-(2-Oxo-3-piperidyl)-1,2-benzisothiazoline-3-one-1,1-dioxide (supidimide), a functional synergist of neuroleptics in acute experiments, surprisingly antagonized the haloperidol-induced receptor augmentation, whereas other CNS depressants (diazepam and phenobarbital) were ineffective. (orig./MG) [de

  9. Antagonism by supidimide of haloperidol-induced augmentation of (/sup 3/H)-spiperone binding in rat striatum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennies, H H; Hess, V; Flohe, L

    1984-01-01

    Rats were treated for two weeks with haloperidol alone or with additional test drugs and the D/sub 2/ receptor density in the striatum was investigated after a drug-free period of five days. The D/sub 2/ receptor system as analysed by (/sup 3/H)-spinerone binding was best characterized by a model with two binding sites of different affinity. Chronic haloperidol treatment substantially augmented the total binding capacity 2-(2-Oxo-3-piperidyl)-1,2-benzisothiazoline-3-one-1,1-dioxide (supidimide), a functional synergist of neuroleptics in acute experiments, surprisingly antagonized the haloperidol-induced receptor augmentation, whereas other CNS depressants (diazepam and phenobarbital) were ineffective.

  10. Chronic alcohol intake abolishes the relationship between dopamine synthesis capacity and learning signals in the ventral striatum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deserno, Lorenz; Beck, Anne; Huys, Quentin J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Drugs of abuse elicit dopamine release in the ventral striatum, possibly biasing dopamine-driven reinforcement learning towards drug-related reward at the expense of non-drug-related reward. Indeed, in alcohol-dependent patients, reactivity in dopaminergic target areas is shifted from non-drug......-related stimuli towards drug-related stimuli. Such ‘hijacked’ dopamine signals may impair flexible learning from non-drug-related rewards, and thus promote craving for the drug of abuse. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure ventral striatal activation by reward prediction errors (RPEs......) during a probabilistic reversal learning task in recently detoxified alcohol-dependent patients and healthy controls (N = 27). All participants also underwent 6-[18F]fluoro-DOPA positron emission tomography to assess ventral striatal dopamine synthesis capacity. Neither ventral striatal activation...

  11. A functional difference in information processing between orbitofrontal cortex and ventral striatum during decision-making behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stott, Jeffrey J; Redish, A David

    2014-11-05

    Both orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and ventral striatum (vStr) have been identified as key structures that represent information about value in decision-making tasks. However, the dynamics of how this information is processed are not yet understood. We recorded ensembles of cells from OFC and vStr in rats engaged in the spatial adjusting delay-discounting task, a decision-making task that involves a trade-off between delay to and magnitude of reward. Ventral striatal neural activity signalled information about reward before the rat's decision, whereas such reward-related signals were absent in OFC until after the animal had committed to its decision. These data support models in which vStr is directly involved in action selection, but OFC processes decision-related information afterwards that can be used to compare the predicted and actual consequences of behaviour. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of acute nicotine on hemodynamics and binding of [11C]raclopride to dopamine D2,3 receptors in pig brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, Paul; Rosa-Neto, Pedro; Watanabe, Hideaki; Smith, Donald; Bender, Dirk; Clarke, Paul B S; Gjedde, Albert

    2003-07-01

    Positive reinforcing properties of nicotine and the psychostimulants have been attributed to elevated dopamine release in the basal ganglia. It is well known that the specific binding of [(11)C]raclopride to dopamine D(2,3) receptors in living striatum is reduced by cocaine and amphetamines, revealing increased competition between endogenous dopamine and [(11)C]raclopride for dopamine D(2,3) receptors. However, the sensitivity of [(11)C]raclopride binding to nicotine-induced dopamine release is less well documented. In order to provide the basis for mapping effects of nicotine, we first optimized reference tissue methods for quantifying [(11)C]raclopride binding sites in striatum of living pigs (n = 16). In the same animals, the rate of cerebral blood flow (CBF) was mapped using [(15)O]water. Neither a low dose of nicotine (50 mu kg(-1), iv) nor a high dose of nicotine (500 microg kg(-1), iv) altered CBF in the pig brain, an important condition for calculating the binding of radioligands when using a reference tissue to estimate the free ligand concentration. The methods of Logan and of Lammertsma were compared using the cerebellum or the occipital cortex as reference tissues for calculating the binding potential (pB) of [(11)C]raclolpride in brain. Irrespective of the method used, the mean undrugged baseline pB in striatum (ca. 2.0) was significantly asymmetric, with highest binding in the left caudate and right putamen. Test-retest estimates of pB were stable. Subtraction of Logan pB maps revealed that the low dose of nicotine reduced the pB of [(11)C]raclopride by 10% in a cluster of voxels in the left anteroventral striatum, but this effect did not persist after correction for multiple comparisons. The high dose of nicotine (n = 9) acutely reduced pB by 10% bilaterally in the ventral striatum; 3 h after the high nicotine dose, the reductions had shifted dorsally and caudally into the caudate and putamen. Evidently, nicotine challenge enhances the competition

  13. Comparative effects of parathion and chlorpyrifos on endocannabinoid and endocannabinoid-like lipid metabolites in rat striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Parsons, Loren; Pope, Carey

    2015-09-01

    Parathion and chlorpyrifos are organophosphorus insecticides (OPs) that elicit acute toxicity by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The endocannabinoids (eCBs, N-arachidonoylethanolamine, AEA; 2-arachidonoylglycerol, 2AG) are endogenous neuromodulators that regulate presynaptic neurotransmitter release in neurons throughout the central and peripheral nervous systems. While substantial information is known about the eCBs, less is known about a number of endocannabinoid-like metabolites (eCBLs, e.g., N-palmitoylethanolamine, PEA; N-oleoylethanolamine, OEA). We report the comparative effects of parathion and chlorpyrifos on AChE and enzymes responsible for inactivation of the eCBs, fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), and changes in the eCBs AEA and 2AG and eCBLs PEA and OEA, in rat striatum. Adult, male rats were treated with vehicle (peanut oil, 2 ml/kg, sc), parathion (27 mg/kg) or chlorpyrifos (280 mg/kg) 6-7 days after surgical implantation of microdialysis cannulae into the right striatum, followed by microdialysis two or four days later. Additional rats were similarly treated and sacrificed for evaluation of tissue levels of eCBs and eCBLs. Dialysates and tissue extracts were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. AChE and FAAH were extensively inhibited at both time-points (85-96%), while MAGL activity was significantly but lesser affected (37-62% inhibition) by parathion and chlorpyrifos. Signs of toxicity were noted only in parathion-treated rats. In general, chlorpyrifos increased eCB levels while parathion had no or lesser effects. Early changes in extracellular AEA, 2AG and PEA levels were significantly different between parathion and chlorpyrifos exposures. Differential changes in extracellular and/or tissue levels of eCBs and eCBLs could potentially influence a number of signaling pathways and contribute to selective neurological changes following acute OP intoxications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Cannabinoid CB2 receptor agonists protect the striatum against malonate toxicity: relevance for Huntington’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagredo, Onintza; González, Sara; Aroyo, Ilia; Pazos, María Ruth; Benito, Cristina; Lastres-Becker, Isabel; Romero, Juan P.; Tolón, Rosa M.; Mechoulam, Raphael; Brouillet, Emmanuel; Romero, Julián; Fernández-Ruiz, Javier

    2009-01-01

    Cannabinoid agonists might serve as neuroprotective agents in neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we examined this hypothesis in a rat model of Huntington’s disease (HD) generated by intrastriatal injection of the mitochondrial complex II inhibitor malonate. Our results showed that only compounds able to activate CB2 receptors were capable of protecting striatal projection neurons from malonate-induced death. That CB2 receptor agonists are neuroprotective was confirmed by using the selective CB2 receptor antagonist, SR144528, and by the observation that mice deficient in CB2 receptor were more sensitive to malonate than wild-type animals. CB2 receptors are scarce in the striatum in healthy conditions but they are markedly up-regulated after the lesion with malonate. Studies of double immunostaining revealed a significant presence of CB2 receptors in cells labelled with the marker of reactive microglia OX-42, and also in cells labelled with GFAP (a marker of astrocytes). We further showed that the activation of CB2 receptors significantly reduced the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) that had been increased by the lesion with malonate. In summary, our results demonstrate that stimulation of CB2 receptors protect the striatum against malonate toxicity, likely through a mechanism involving glial cells, in particular reactive microglial cells in which CB2 receptors would be up-regulated in response to the lesion. Activation of these receptors would reduce the generation of proinflammatory molecules like TNF-α. Altogether our results support the hypothesis that CB2 receptors could constitute a therapeutic target to slowdown neurodegeneration in HD. PMID:19115380

  15. The Role of the Neuropeptide Somatostatin on Methamphetamine and Glutamate-Induced Neurotoxicity in the Striatum of Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanador, Lauriaselle; Mexhitaj, Ina; Diaz, Carolyn; Ordonez, Dalila; Baker, Lisa; Angulo, Jesus A.

    2014-01-01

    A large body of evidence shows that methamphetamine (METH) causes sustained damage to the brain in animal models and human METH users. In chronic users there are indications of cognitive and motor deficits. Striatal neuropeptides are in a position to modulate the neurochemical effects of METH and consequently striatal neural damage. Somatostatin (SST) is an intrinsic striatal neuropeptide that has been shown to inhibit glutamate transmission; glutamate is integral to METH toxicity and contributes to nitric oxide (NO) synthesis. We hypothesize that SST will protect from METH by inhibition of NO synthesis and thus reducing oxidative stress. To this end, the SST analogue octreotide (OCT) was microinjected into the striatum prior to a systemic injection of METH (30 mg/kg). We then assessed 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT), an indirect index of NO production, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) protein levels (dopamine terminal marker) and Fluoro-Jade C positive cells (degenerating cells). The SST agonist OCT dose dependently attenuated the METH-induced accumulation of striatal 3-NT. Moreover, pretreatment with OCT effectively mitigated cell death but failed to protect dopamine terminals. Next we co-infused OCT and NMDA and measured 3-NT and Fluoro-Jade C staining. Treatment with OCT had no effect on these parameters. The data demonstrate that SST attenuates the METH-induced production of NO protecting the striatum from the METH-induced cell loss. However, SST failed to prevent the toxicity of the dopamine terminals suggesting that pre- and post-synaptic striatal damage occur via independent mechanisms. PMID:23524190

  16. Ecto-ATPase inhibition: ATP and adenosine release under physiological and ischemic in vivo conditions in the rat striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melani, Alessia; Corti, Francesca; Stephan, Holger; Müller, Christa E; Donati, Chiara; Bruni, Paola; Vannucchi, Maria Giuliana; Pedata, Felicita

    2012-01-01

    In the central nervous system (CNS) ATP and adenosine act as transmitters and neuromodulators on their own receptors but it is still unknown which part of extracellular adenosine derives per se from cells and which part is formed from the hydrolysis of released ATP. In this study extracellular concentrations of adenosine and ATP from the rat striatum were estimated by the microdialysis technique under in vivo physiological conditions and after focal ischemia induced by medial cerebral artery occlusion. Under physiological conditions, adenosine and ATP concentrations were in the range of 130 nmol/L and 40 nmol/L, respectively. In the presence of the novel ecto-ATPase inhibitor, PV4 (100 nmol/L), the extracellular concentration of ATP increased 12-fold to ~360 nmol/L but the adenosine concentration was not altered. This demonstrates that, under physiological conditions, adenosine is not a product of extracellular ATP. In the first 4h after ischemia, adenosine increased to ~690 nmol/L and ATP to ~50 nmol/L. In the presence of PV4 the extracellular concentration of ATP was in the range of 450 nmol/L and a significant decrease in extracellular adenosine (to ~270 nmol/L) was measured. The contribution of extracellular ATP to extracellular adenosine was maximal in the first 20 min after ischemia onset. Furthermore we demonstrated, by immunoelectron microscopy, the presence of the concentrative nucleoside transporter CNT2 on plasma and vesicle membranes isolated from the rat striatum. These results are in favor that adenosine is transported in vesicles and is released in an excitation-secretion manner under in vivo physiological conditions. Early after ischemia, extracellular ATP is hydrolyzed by ecto-nucleotidases which significantly contribute to the increase in extracellular adenosine. To establish the contribution of extracellular ATP to adenosine might constitute the basis for devising a correct putative purinergic strategy aimed at protection from ischemic damage

  17. The brain cytoplasmic RNA BC1 regulates dopamine D2 receptor-mediated transmission in the striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centonze, Diego; Rossi, Silvia; Napoli, Ilaria; Mercaldo, Valentina; Lacoux, Caroline; Ferrari, Francesca; Ciotti, Maria Teresa; De Chiara, Valentina; Prosperetti, Chiara; Maccarrone, Mauro; Fezza, Filomena; Calabresi, Paolo; Bernardi, Giorgio; Bagni, Claudia

    2007-08-15

    Dopamine D(2) receptor (D(2)DR)-mediated transmission in the striatum is remarkably flexible, and changes in its efficacy have been heavily implicated in a variety of physiological and pathological conditions. Although receptor-associated proteins are clearly involved in specific forms of synaptic plasticity, the molecular mechanisms regulating the sensitivity of D(2) receptors in this brain area are essentially obscure. We have studied the physiological responses of the D(2)DR stimulations in mice lacking the brain cytoplasmic RNA BC1, a small noncoding dendritically localized RNA that is supposed to play a role in mRNA translation. We show that the efficiency of D(2)-mediated transmission regulating striatal GABA synapses is under the control of BC1 RNA, through a negative influence on D(2) receptor protein level affecting the functional pool of receptors. Ablation of the BC1 gene did not result in widespread dysregulation of synaptic transmission, because the sensitivity of cannabinoid CB(1) receptors was intact in the striatum of BC1 knock-out (KO) mice despite D(2) and CB(1) receptors mediated similar electrophysiological actions. Interestingly, the fragile X mental retardation protein FMRP, one of the multiple BC1 partners, is not involved in the BC1 effects on the D(2)-mediated transmission. Because D(2)DR mRNA is apparently equally translated in the BC1-KO and wild-type mice, whereas the protein level is higher in BC1-KO mice, we suggest that BC1 RNA controls D(2)DR indirectly, probably regulating translation of molecules involved in D(2)DR turnover and/or stability.

  18. Major depression in mothers predicts reduced ventral striatum activation in adolescent female offspring with and without depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Carla; Kim, Sohye; Herman, Levi; Pane, Heather; Reuter, Tyson; Strathearn, Lane

    2014-05-01

    Prior research has identified reduced reward-related brain activation as a promising endophenotype for the early identification of adolescents with major depressive disorder (MDD). However, it is unclear whether reduced reward-related brain activation constitutes a true vulnerability for MDD. One way of studying vulnerability is through a high-risk design. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to determine whether reward-related activation of the ventral striatum is reduced in nondepressed daughters of mothers with a history of MDD (high-risk) similarly to currently depressed adolescent girls, compared with healthy controls. By directly comparing groups with a shared risk profile during differing states, we aimed to shed light on the endophenotypic nature of reduced reward processing for adolescent depression. We compared reward-related neural activity through functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) between three groups of female biological offspring (N = 52) of mothers with differential MDD status: (a) currently depressed daughters of mothers with a history of MDD (MDD group; n = 14), (b) age- and socioeconomic status (SES)-matched never-depressed daughters of mothers with a history of MDD (high-risk group; n = 19), and (c) age- and SES-matched control daughters of mothers with no past or current psychopathology in either the mother or the daughter (healthy control group; n = 19). For the outcome phase of the reward task, right-sided ventral striatum activation was reduced for both currently depressed and high-risk girls compared with healthy controls. This ventral striatal activity correlated significantly with maternal depression scores. These findings provide further evidence of aberrant functioning for the United States Department of Health & Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) Research Domain Criteria (RDoC)-defined domain of positive valence systems as a vulnerability factor for MDD and a

  19. In vivo [3H]spiperone binding: evidence for accumulation in corpus striatum by agonist-mediated receptor internalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chugani, D.C.; Ackermann, R.F.; Phelps, M.E.

    1988-01-01

    The processes of receptor internalization and recycling have been well-documented for receptors for hormones, growth factors, lysosomal enzymes, and cellular substrates. Evidence also exists that these processes also occur for beta-adrenergic, muscarinic cholinergic, and delta-opiate receptors in frog erythrocytes or cultured nervous tissue. In this study, evidence is presented that agonist-mediated receptor internalization and recycling occurs at the dopamine receptor in rat corpus striatum. First, the in vivo binding of the dopamine antagonist [3H]spiperone was increased by both electrical stimulation and pharmacologically induced increases of dopamine release. Conversely, depletion of dopamine with reserpine decreased in vivo [3H]spiperone binding, but the same reserpine treatment did not alter its in vitro binding. Second, the rate of dissociation of [3H]spiperone from microsomal membranes prepared from rat striatum following in vivo binding was fivefold slower than its dissociation following in vitro equilibrium binding. Mild detergent treatment, employed to disrupt endocytic vesicle membranes, increased the rate of dissociation of in vivo bound [3H]spiperone from microsomal membranes to values not significantly different from its in vitro bound dissociation rate. Third, treatment of rats with chloroquine, a drug that prevents receptor recycling but not internalization, prior to [3H]spiperone injection resulted in a selective increase of in vivo [3H]spiperone binding in the light microsome membranes. The existence of mechanisms that rapidly alter the number of neurotransmitter receptors at synapses provides dynamic regulation of receptors in response to varied acute stimulation states

  20. The GABA[subscript A] Receptor Agonist Muscimol Induces an Age- and Region-Dependent Form of Long-Term Depression in the Mouse Striatum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoqun; Yao, Ning; Chergui, Karima

    2016-01-01

    Several forms of long-term depression (LTD) of glutamatergic synaptic transmission have been identified in the dorsal striatum and in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Such experience-dependent synaptic plasticity might play important roles in reward-related learning. The GABA[subscript A] receptor agonist muscimol was recently found to trigger a…

  1. Assessment of metabolic changes in the striatum of a MPTP-intoxicated canine model: in vivo ¹H-MRS study of an animal model for Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Chi-Bong; Kim, Sang-Young; Lee, Sung-Ho; Jahng, Geon-Ho; Kim, Hwi-Yool; Choe, Bo-Young; Ryu, Kyung-Nam; Yang, Dal-Mo; Yim, Sung-Vin; Choi, Woo-Suk

    2011-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the progressive loss of the dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta, which projects to the striatum. We induced a selective loss of nigrostriatal dopamine neurons, by infusing the mitochondrial complex 1 inhibitor 1-methyl 4-phenyl 1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) into adult beagle dogs (N=5). Single voxel ¹H water suppressed magnetic resonance spectroscopy (¹H-MRS) at 3 T was used to assess the metabolic changes in the striatum of canine before and after MPTP intoxication. The metabolite spectra obtained from the striatum (voxel size: 2 cm³) showed a lower N-acetyl aspartate to total creatine (creatine+phosphocreatine) ratio after MPTP intoxication. There were no significant differences in other metabolite ratios such as glutamate+glutamine, choline-containing compounds (glycerophosphocholine+phophorylcholine and myo-inositol). Our findings indicated that ¹H-MRS is a sensitive, noninvasive measure of neural toxicity and biochemical alterations of the striatum in a canine model of PD, and further studies are needed to confirm brain metabolic changes in association with progression of MPTP-intoxication. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. P300 amplitude variation is related to ventral striatum BOLD response during gain and loss anticipation: an EEG and fMRI experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfabigan, Daniela M; Seidel, Eva-Maria; Sladky, Ronald; Hahn, Andreas; Paul, Katharina; Grahl, Arvina; Küblböck, Martin; Kraus, Christoph; Hummer, Allan; Kranz, Georg S; Windischberger, Christian; Lanzenberger, Rupert; Lamm, Claus

    2014-08-01

    The anticipation of favourable or unfavourable events is a key component in our daily life. However, the temporal dynamics of anticipation processes in relation to brain activation are still not fully understood. A modified version of the monetary incentive delay task was administered during separate functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electroencephalogram (EEG) sessions in the same 25 participants to assess anticipatory processes with a multi-modal neuroimaging set-up. During fMRI, gain and loss anticipation were both associated with heightened activation in ventral striatum and reward-related areas. EEG revealed most pronounced P300 amplitudes for gain anticipation, whereas CNV amplitudes distinguished neutral from gain and loss anticipation. Importantly, P300, but not CNV amplitudes, were correlated to neural activation in the ventral striatum for both gain and loss anticipation. Larger P300 amplitudes indicated higher ventral striatum blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) response. Early stimulus evaluation processes indexed by EEG seem to be positively related to higher activation levels in the ventral striatum, indexed by fMRI, which are usually associated with reward processing. The current results, however, point towards a more general motivational mechanism processing salient stimuli during anticipation. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Different involvement of medial prefrontal cortex and dorso-lateral striatum in automatic and controlled processing of a future conditioned stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Díaz, Francisco; Díaz, Estrella; Sánchez, Natividad; Vargas, Juan Pedro; Pearce, John M; López, Juan Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies support the idea that stimulus processing in latent inhibition can vary during the course of preexposure. Controlled attentional mechanisms are said to be important in the early stages of preexposure, while in later stages animals adopt automatic processing of the stimulus to be used for conditioning. Given this distinction, it is possible that both types of processing are governed by different neural systems, affecting differentially the retrieval of information about the stimulus. In the present study we tested if a lesion to the dorso-lateral striatum or to the medial prefrontal cortex has a selective effect on exposure to the future conditioned stimulus (CS). With this aim, animals received different amounts of exposure to the future CS. The results showed that a lesion to the medial prefrontal cortex enhanced latent inhibition in animals receiving limited preexposure to the CS, but had no effect in animals receiving extended preexposure to the CS. The lesion of the dorso-lateral striatum produced a decrease in latent inhibition, but only in animals with an extended exposure to the future conditioned stimulus. These results suggest that the dorsal striatum and medial prefrontal cortex play essential roles in controlled and automatic processes. Automatic attentional processes appear to be impaired by a lesion to the dorso-lateral striatum and facilitated by a lesion to the prefrontal cortex.

  4. Deficits in water maze performance and oxidative stress in the hippocampus and striatum induced by extremely low frequency magnetic field exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghua Cui

    Full Text Available The exposures to extremely low frequency magnetic field (ELF-MF in our environment have dramatically increased. Epidemiological studies suggest that there is a possible association between ELF-MF exposure and increased risks of cardiovascular disease, cancers and neurodegenerative disorders. Animal studies show that ELF-MF exposure may interfere with the activity of brain cells, generate behavioral and cognitive disturbances, and produce deficits in attention, perception and spatial learning. Although, many research efforts have been focused on the interaction between ELF-MF exposure and the central nervous system, the mechanism of interaction is still unknown. In this study, we examined the effects of ELF-MF exposure on learning in mice using two water maze tasks and on some parameters indicative of oxidative stress in the hippocampus and striatum. We found that ELF-MF exposure (1 mT, 50 Hz induced serious oxidative stress in the hippocampus and striatum and impaired hippocampal-dependent spatial learning and striatum-dependent habit learning. This study provides evidence for the association between the impairment of learning and the oxidative stress in hippocampus and striatum induced by ELF-MF exposure.

  5. Age-Related Alterations in the Expression of Genes and Synaptic Plasticity Associated with Nitric Oxide Signaling in the Mouse Dorsal Striatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisa N. Chepkova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Age-related alterations in the expression of genes and corticostriatal synaptic plasticity were studied in the dorsal striatum of mice of four age groups from young (2-3 months old to old (18–24 months of age animals. A significant decrease in transcripts encoding neuronal nitric oxide (NO synthase and receptors involved in its activation (NR1 subunit of the glutamate NMDA receptor and D1 dopamine receptor was found in the striatum of old mice using gene array and real-time RT-PCR analysis. The old striatum showed also a significantly higher number of GFAP-expressing astrocytes and an increased expression of astroglial, inflammatory, and oxidative stress markers. Field potential recordings from striatal slices revealed age-related alterations in the magnitude and dynamics of electrically induced long-term depression (LTD and significant enhancement of electrically induced long-term potentiation in the middle-aged striatum (6-7 and 12-13 months of age. Corticostriatal NO-dependent LTD induced by pharmacological activation of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors underwent significant reduction with aging and could be restored by inhibition of cGMP hydrolysis indicating that its age-related deficit is caused by an altered NO-cGMP signaling cascade. It is suggested that age-related alterations in corticostriatal synaptic plasticity may result from functional alterations in receptor-activated signaling cascades associated with increasing neuroinflammation and a prooxidant state.

  6. Sub-chronic exposure to the insecticide dimethoate induces a proinflammatory status and enhances the neuroinflammatory response to bacterial lypopolysaccharide in the hippocampus and striatum of male mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astiz, Mariana, E-mail: marianaastiz@gmail.com; Diz-Chaves, Yolanda, E-mail: ydiz@cajal.csic.es; Garcia-Segura, Luis M., E-mail: lmgs@cajal.csic.es

    2013-10-15

    Dimethoate is an organophosphorus insecticide extensively used in horticulture. Previous studies have shown that the administration of dimethoate to male rats, at a very low dose and during a sub-chronic period, increases the oxidation of lipids and proteins, reduces t