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Sample records for striatal dopamine function

  1. Does human presynaptic striatal dopamine function predict social conformity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Paul R A; Benecke, Aaf; Puraite, Julita; Bloomfield, Michael A P; Shotbolt, Paul; Reeves, Suzanne J; Lingford-Hughes, Anne R; Howes, Oliver; Egerton, Alice

    2014-03-01

    Socially desirable responding (SDR) is a personality trait which reflects either a tendency to present oneself in an overly positive manner to others, consistent with social conformity (impression management (IM)), or the tendency to view one's own behaviour in an overly positive light (self-deceptive enhancement (SDE)). Neurochemical imaging studies report an inverse relationship between SDR and dorsal striatal dopamine D₂/₃ receptor availability. This may reflect an association between SDR and D₂/₃ receptor expression, synaptic dopamine levels or a combination of the two. In this study, we used a [¹⁸F]-DOPA positron emission tomography (PET) image database to investigate whether SDR is associated with presynaptic dopamine function. Striatal [¹⁸F]-DOPA uptake, (k(i)(cer), min⁻¹), was determined in two independent healthy participant cohorts (n=27 and 19), by Patlak analysis using a cerebellar reference region. SDR was assessed using the revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ-R) Lie scale, and IM and SDE were measured using the Paulhus Deception Scales. No significant associations were detected between Lie, SDE or IM scores and striatal [¹⁸F]-DOPA k(i)(cer). These results indicate that presynaptic striatal dopamine function is not associated with social conformity and suggests that social conformity may be associated with striatal D₂/₃ receptor expression rather than with synaptic dopamine levels.

  2. Elevated Striatal Dopamine Function in Immigrants and Their Children: A Risk Mechanism for Psychosis

    OpenAIRE

    Egerton, A.; Howes, O. D.; Houle, S.; McKenzie, K.; Valmaggia, L. R.; Bagby, M. R.; Tseng, H-H; Bloomfield, M. A. P.; Kenk, M.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Suridjan, I.; Chaddock, C. A.; Winton-Brown, T. T.; Allen, P.; Rusjan, P.

    2017-01-01

    Migration is a major risk factor for schizophrenia but the neurochemical processes involved are unknown. One candidate mechanism is through elevations in striatal dopamine synthesis and release. The objective of this research was to determine whether striatal dopamine function is elevated in immigrants compared to nonimmigrants and the relationship with psychosis. Two complementary case–control studies of in vivo dopamine function (stress-induced dopamine release and dopamine synthesis capaci...

  3. Adversity in childhood linked to elevated striatal dopamine function in adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Egerton, A.; Valmaggia, L. R.; Howes, O. D.; Day, F.; Chaddock, C. A.; Allen, P.; Winton-Brown, T. T.; Bloomfield, M. A. P.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Chilcott, J.; Lappin, J. M.; Murray, R. M.; McGuire, P.

    2016-01-01

    Childhood adversity increases the risk of psychosis in adulthood. Theoretical and animal models suggest that this effect may be mediated by increased striatal dopamine neurotransmission. The primary objective of this study was to examine the relationship between adversity in childhood and striatal dopamine function in early adulthood. Secondary objectives were to compare exposure to childhood adversity and striatal dopamine function in young people at ultra high risk (UHR) of psychosis and he...

  4. Elevated Striatal Dopamine Function in Immigrants and Their Children: A Risk Mechanism for Psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egerton, Alice; Howes, Oliver D; Houle, Sylvain; McKenzie, Kwame; Valmaggia, Lucia R; Bagby, Michael R; Tseng, Huai-Hsuan; Bloomfield, Michael A P; Kenk, Miran; Bhattacharyya, Sagnik; Suridjan, Ivonne; Chaddock, Chistopher A; Winton-Brown, Toby T; Allen, Paul; Rusjan, Pablo; Remington, Gary; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; McGuire, Philip K; Mizrahi, Romina

    2017-03-01

    Migration is a major risk factor for schizophrenia but the neurochemical processes involved are unknown. One candidate mechanism is through elevations in striatal dopamine synthesis and release. The objective of this research was to determine whether striatal dopamine function is elevated in immigrants compared to nonimmigrants and the relationship with psychosis. Two complementary case-control studies of in vivo dopamine function (stress-induced dopamine release and dopamine synthesis capacity) in immigrants compared to nonimmigrants were performed in Canada and the United Kingdom. The Canadian dopamine release study included 25 immigrant and 31 nonmigrant Canadians. These groups included 23 clinical high risk (CHR) subjects, 9 antipsychotic naïve patients with schizophrenia, and 24 healthy volunteers. The UK dopamine synthesis study included 32 immigrants and 44 nonimmigrant British. These groups included 50 CHR subjects and 26 healthy volunteers. Both striatal stress-induced dopamine release and dopamine synthesis capacity were significantly elevated in immigrants compared to nonimmigrants, independent of clinical status. These data provide the first evidence that the effect of migration on the risk of developing psychosis may be mediated by an elevation in brain dopamine function. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center.

  5. Adversity in childhood linked to elevated striatal dopamine function in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egerton, Alice; Valmaggia, Lucia R; Howes, Oliver D; Day, Fern; Chaddock, Christopher A; Allen, Paul; Winton-Brown, Toby T; Bloomfield, Michael A P; Bhattacharyya, Sagnik; Chilcott, Jack; Lappin, Julia M; Murray, Robin M; McGuire, Philip

    2016-10-01

    Childhood adversity increases the risk of psychosis in adulthood. Theoretical and animal models suggest that this effect may be mediated by increased striatal dopamine neurotransmission. The primary objective of this study was to examine the relationship between adversity in childhood and striatal dopamine function in early adulthood. Secondary objectives were to compare exposure to childhood adversity and striatal dopamine function in young people at ultra high risk (UHR) of psychosis and healthy volunteers. Sixty-seven young adults, comprising 47 individuals at UHR for psychosis and 20 healthy volunteers were recruited from the same geographic area and were matched for age, gender and substance use. Presynaptic dopamine function in the associative striatum was assessed using 18F-DOPA positron emission tomography. Childhood adversity was assessed using the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse questionnaire. Within the sample as a whole, both severe physical or sexual abuse (T63=2.92; P=0.005), and unstable family arrangements (T57=2.80; P=0.007) in childhood were associated with elevated dopamine function in the associative striatum in adulthood. Comparison of the UHR and volunteer subgroups revealed similar incidence of childhood adverse experiences, and there was no significant group difference in dopamine function. This study provides evidence that childhood adversity is linked to elevated striatal dopamine function in adulthood. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Speech-induced striatal dopamine release is left lateralized and coupled to functional striatal circuits in healthy humans: A combined PET, fMRI and DTI study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonyan, Kristina; Herscovitch, Peter; Horwitz, Barry

    2013-01-01

    Considerable progress has been recently made in understanding the brain mechanisms underlying speech and language control. However, the neurochemical underpinnings of normal speech production remain largely unknown. We investigated the extent of striatal endogenous dopamine release and its influences on the organization of functional striatal speech networks during production of meaningful English sentences using a combination of positron emission tomography (PET) with the dopamine D2/D3 receptor radioligand [11C]raclopride and functional MRI (fMRI). In addition, we used diffusion tensor tractography (DTI) to examine the extent of dopaminergic modulatory influences on striatal structural network organization. We found that, during sentence production, endogenous dopamine was released in the ventromedial portion of the dorsal striatum, in its both associative and sensorimotor functional divisions. In the associative striatum, speech-induced dopamine release established a significant relationship with neural activity and influenced the left-hemispheric lateralization of striatal functional networks. In contrast, there were no significant effects of endogenous dopamine release on the lateralization of striatal structural networks. Our data provide the first evidence for endogenous dopamine release in the dorsal striatum during normal speaking and point to the possible mechanisms behind the modulatory influences of dopamine on the organization of functional brain circuits controlling normal human speech. PMID:23277111

  7. Implantable microencapsulated dopamine (DA): prolonged functional release of DA in denervated striatal tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae, A; Hjorth, S; Mason, D; Dillon, L; Tice, T

    1990-01-01

    Biodegradable controlled-release microcapsule systems made with the biocompatible biodegradable polyester excipient poly [DL-lactide-co-gly-colide] constitute an exciting new technology for drug delivery to the central nervous system (CNS). The present study describes functional observations indicating that implantation of dopamine (DA) microcapsules encapsulated within two different polymer excipients into denervated striatal tissue assures a prolonged release of the transmitter in vivo. This technology has a considerable potential for basic and possibly clinical research.

  8. Dopamine-Related Disruption of Functional Topography of Striatal Connections in Unmedicated Patients With Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horga, Guillermo; Cassidy, Clifford M; Xu, Xiaoyan; Moore, Holly; Slifstein, Mark; Van Snellenberg, Jared X; Abi-Dargham, Anissa

    2016-08-01

    Despite the well-established role of striatal dopamine in psychosis, current views generally agree that cortical dysfunction is likely necessary for the emergence of psychotic symptoms. The topographic organization of striatal-cortical connections is central to gating and integration of higher-order information, so a disruption of such topography via dysregulated dopamine could lead to cortical dysfunction in schizophrenia. However, this hypothesis remains to be tested using multivariate methods ascertaining the global pattern of striatal connectivity and without the confounding effects of antidopaminergic medication. To examine whether the pattern of brain connectivity across striatal subregions is abnormal in unmedicated patients with schizophrenia and whether this abnormality relates to psychotic symptoms and extrastriatal dopaminergic transmission. In this multimodal, case-control study, we obtained resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 18 unmedicated patients with schizophrenia and 24 matched healthy controls from the New York State Psychiatric Institute. A subset of these (12 and 17, respectively) underwent positron emission tomography with the dopamine D2 receptor radiotracer carbon 11-labeled FLB457 before and after amphetamine administration. Data were acquired between June 16, 2011, and February 25, 2014. Data analysis was performed from September 1, 2014, to January 11, 2016. Group differences in the striatal connectivity pattern (assessed via multivariable logistic regression) across striatal subregions, the association between the multivariate striatal connectivity pattern and extrastriatal baseline D2 receptor binding potential and its change after amphetamine administration, and the association between the multivariate connectivity pattern and the severity of positive symptoms evaluated with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Of the patients with schizophrenia (mean [SEM] age, 35.6 [11.8] years), 9 (50%) were male and 9

  9. Altered effect of dopamine transporter 3'UTR VNTR genotype on prefrontal and striatal function in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prata, Diana P; Mechelli, Andrea; Picchioni, Marco M; Fu, Cynthia H Y; Toulopoulou, Timothea; Bramon, Elvira; Walshe, Muriel; Murray, Robin M; Collier, David A; McGuire, Philip

    2009-11-01

    The dopamine transporter plays a key role in the regulation of central dopaminergic transmission, which modulates cognitive processing. Disrupted dopamine function and impaired executive processing are robust features of schizophrenia. To examine the effect of a polymorphism in the dopamine transporter gene (the variable number of tandem repeats in the 3' untranslated region) on brain function during executive processing in healthy volunteers and patients with schizophrenia. We hypothesized that this variation would have a different effect on prefrontal and striatal activation in schizophrenia, reflecting altered dopamine function. Case-control study. Psychiatric research center. Eighty-five subjects, comprising 44 healthy volunteers (18 who were 9-repeat carriers and 26 who were 10-repeat homozygotes) and 41 patients with DSM-IV schizophrenia (18 who were 9-repeat carriers and 23 who were 10-repeat homozygotes). Regional brain activation during word generation relative to repetition in an overt verbal fluency task measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging. Main effects of genotype and diagnosis on activation and their interaction were estimated with analysis of variance in SPM5. Irrespective of diagnosis, the 10-repeat allele was associated with greater activation than the 9-repeat allele in the left anterior insula and right caudate nucleus. Trends for the same effect in the right insula and for greater deactivation in the rostral anterior cingulate cortex were also detected. There were diagnosis x genotype interactions in the left middle frontal gyrus and left nucleus accumbens, where the 9-repeat allele was associated with greater activation than the 10-repeat allele in patients but not controls. Insular, cingulate, and striatal function during an executive task is normally modulated by variation in the dopamine transporter gene. Its effect on activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum is altered in patients with schizophrenia

  10. Nature or Nurture? Determining the Heritability of Human Striatal Dopamine Function: an [18F]-DOPA PET Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Paul R A; Shotbolt, Paul; Mehta, Mitul A; Turkheimer, Eric; Benecke, Aaf; Copeland, Caroline; Turkheimer, Federico E; Lingford-Hughes, Anne R; Howes, Oliver D

    2013-01-01

    Striatal dopamine function is important for normal personality, cognitive processes and behavior, and abnormalities are linked to a number of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, no studies have examined the relative influence of genetic inheritance and environmental factors in determining striatal dopamine function. Using [18F]-DOPA positron emission tomography (PET), we sought to determine the heritability of presynaptic striatal dopamine function by comparing variability in uptake values in same sex monozygotic (MZ) twins to dizygotic (DZ) twins. Nine MZ and 10 DZ twin pairs underwent high-resolution [18F]-DOPA PET to assess presynaptic striatal dopamine function. Uptake values for the overall striatum and functional striatal subdivisions were determined by a Patlak analysis using a cerebellar reference region. Heritability, shared environmental effects and non-shared individual-specific effects were estimated using a region of interest (ROI) analysis and a confirmatory parametric analysis. Overall striatal heritability estimates from the ROI and parametric analyses were 0.44 and 0.33, respectively. We found a distinction between striatal heritability in the functional subdivisions, with the greatest heritability estimates occurring in the sensorimotor striatum and the greatest effect of individual-specific environmental factors in the limbic striatum. Our results indicate that variation in overall presynaptic striatal dopamine function is determined by a combination of genetic factors and individual-specific environmental factors, with familial environmental effects having no effect. These findings underline the importance of individual-specific environmental factors for striatal dopaminergic function, particularly in the limbic striatum, with implications for understanding neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and addictions. PMID:23093224

  11. Reduced striatal dopamine DA D2 receptor function in dominant-negative GSK-3 transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Sintes, Raquel; Bortolozzi, Analia; Artigas, Francesc; Lucas, José J

    2014-09-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is a serine/threonine kinase with constitutive activity involved in cellular architecture, gene expression, cell proliferation, fate decision and apoptosis, among others. GSK-3 expression is particularly high in brain where it may be involved in neurological and psychiatric disorders such as Alzheimer׳s disease, bipolar disorder and major depression. A link with schizophrenia is suggested by the antipsychotic drug-induced GSK-3 regulation and by the involvement of the Akt/GSK-3 pathway in dopaminergic neurotransmission. Taking advantage of the previous development of dominant negative GSK-3 transgenic mice (Tg) showing a selective reduction of GSK-3 activity in forebrain neurons but not in dopaminergic neurons, we explored the relationship between GSK-3 and dopaminergic neurotransmission in vivo. In microdialysis experiments, local quinpirole (DA D2-R agonist) in dorsal striatum reduced dopamine (DA) release significantly less in Tg mice than in wild-type (WT) mice. However, local SKF-81297 (selective DA D1-R agonist) in dorsal striatum reduced DA release equally in both control and Tg mice indicating a comparable function of DA D1-R in the direct striato-nigral pathway. Likewise, systemic quinpirole administration - acting preferentially on presynaptic DA D2- autoreceptors to modulate DA release-reduced striatal DA release similarly in both control and Tg mice. Quinpirole reduced locomotor activity and induced c-fos expression in globus pallidus (both striatal DA D2-R-mediated effects) significantly more in WT than in Tg mice. Taking together, the present results show that dominant negative GSK-3 transgenic mice show reduced DA D2-R-mediated function in striatum and further support a link between dopaminergic neurotransmission and GSK-3 activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  12. Functional variants of the dopamine receptor D2 gene modulate prefronto-striatal phenotypes in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolino, Alessandro; Fazio, Leonardo; Caforio, Grazia; Blasi, Giuseppe; Rampino, Antonio; Romano, Raffaella; Di Giorgio, Annabella; Taurisano, Paolo; Papp, Audrey; Pinsonneault, Julia; Wang, Danxin; Nardini, Marcello; Popolizio, Teresa; Sadee, Wolfgang

    2009-02-01

    Dopamine D2 receptor signalling is strongly implicated in the aetiology of schizophrenia. We have recently characterized the function of three DRD2 SNPs: rs12364283 in the promoter affecting total D2 mRNA expression; rs2283265 and rs1076560, respectively in introns 5 and 6, shifting mRNA splicing to two functionally distinct isoforms, the short form of D2 (D2S) and the long form (D2L). These two isoforms differentially contribute to dopamine signalling in prefrontal cortex and in striatum. We performed a case-control study to determine association of these variants and of their main haplotypes with several schizophrenia-related phenotypes. We demonstrate that the minor allele in the intronic variants is associated with reduced expression of %D2S of total mRNA in post-mortem prefrontal cortex, and with impaired working memory behavioural performance, both in patients and controls. However, the fMRI results show opposite effects in patients compared with controls: enhanced engagement of prefronto-striatal pathways in controls and reduced activity in patients. Moreover, the promoter variant is also associated with working memory activity in prefrontal cortex and striatum of patients, and less robustly with negative symptoms scores. Main haplotypes formed by the three DRD2 variants showed significant associations with these phenotypes consistent with those of the individual SNPs. Our results indicate that the three functional DRD2 variants modulate schizophrenia phenotypes possibly by modifying D2S/D2L ratios in the context of different total D2 density.

  13. Striatal Dopamine D2/D3 Receptor Availability Is Associated with Executive Function in Healthy Controls but Not Methamphetamine Users.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E Ballard

    Full Text Available Dopamine D2/D3 receptor availability in the striatum has been linked with executive function in healthy individuals, and is below control levels among drug addicts, possibly contributing to diminished executive function in the latter group. This study tested for an association of striatal D2/D3 receptor availability with a measure of executive function among research participants who met DSM-IV criteria for methamphetamine dependence.Methamphetamine users and non-user controls (n = 18 per group completed the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and positron emission tomography with [18F]fallypride.The methamphetamine users displayed significantly lower striatal D2/D3 receptor availability on average than controls after controlling for age and education (p = 0.008, but they did not register greater proportions of either perseverative or non-perseverative errors when controlling for education (both ps ≥ 0.622. The proportion of non-perseverative, but not perseverative, errors was negatively correlated with striatal D2/D3 receptor availability among controls (r = -0.588, p = 0.010, but not methamphetamine users (r = 0.281, p = 0.258, and the group-wise interaction was significant (p = 0.030.These results suggest that cognitive flexibility, as measured by perseverative errors on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, is not determined by signaling through striatal D2/D3 receptors in healthy controls, and that in stimulant abusers, who have lower D2/D3 receptor availability, compensation can effectively maintain other executive functions, which are associated with D2/D3 receptor signaling in controls.

  14. Exercise-induced rescue of tongue function without striatal dopamine sparing in a rat neurotoxin model of Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciucci, Michelle R; Schaser, Allison J; Russell, John A

    2013-09-01

    Unilateral lesions to the medial forebrain bundle with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lead to force and timing deficits during a complex licking task. We hypothesized that training targeting tongue force generation during licking would improve timing and force measures and also lead to striatal dopamine sparing. Nine month-old male Fisher344/Brown Norway rats were used in this experiment. Sixteen rats were in the control condition and received tongue exercise (n=8) or no exercise (n=8). Fourteen rats were in the 6-OHDA lesion condition and underwent tongue exercise (n=7) and or no exercise (n=7). Following 4 weeks of training and post-training measures, all animals underwent bilateral stimulation of the hypoglossal nerves to measure muscle contractile properties and were then transcardially perfused and brain tissues collected for immunohistochemistry to examine striatal dopamine content. Results demonstrated that exercise animals performed better for maximal force, average force, and press rate than their no-exercise counterparts, and the 6-OHDA animals that underwent exercise performed as well as the Control No Exercise group. Interestingly, there were no group differences for tetanic muscle force, despite behavioral recovery of forces. Additionally, behavioral and neurochemical analyses indicate that there were no differences in striatal dopamine. Thus, targeted exercise can improve tongue force and timing deficits related to 6-OHDA lesions and this exercise likely has a central, versus peripheral (muscle strength) mechanism. However, this mechanism is not related to sparing of striatal dopamine content. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Striatal dopamine release codes uncertainty in pathological gambling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Jakob; Mouridsen, Kim; Peterson, Ericka

    2012-01-01

    Two mechanisms of midbrain and striatal dopaminergic projections may be involved in pathological gambling: hypersensitivity to reward and sustained activation toward uncertainty. The midbrain—striatal dopamine system distinctly codes reward and uncertainty, where dopaminergic activation is a linear...... function of expected reward and an inverse U-shaped function of uncertainty. In this study, we investigated the dopaminergic coding of reward and uncertainty in 18 pathological gambling sufferers and 16 healthy controls. We used positron emission tomography (PET) with the tracer [11C]raclopride to measure...... dopamine release, and we used performance on the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) to determine overall reward and uncertainty. We hypothesized that we would find a linear function between dopamine release and IGT performance, if dopamine release coded reward in pathological gambling. If, on the other hand...

  16. Striatal dopamine release codes uncertainty in pathological gambling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Jakob; Mouridsen, Kim; Peterson, Ericka

    2012-01-01

    Two mechanisms of midbrain and striatal dopaminergic projections may be involved in pathological gambling: hypersensitivity to reward and sustained activation toward uncertainty. The midbrain-striatal dopamine system distinctly codes reward and uncertainty, where dopaminergic activation is a linear...... function of expected reward and an inverse U-shaped function of uncertainty. In this study, we investigated the dopaminergic coding of reward and uncertainty in 18 pathological gambling sufferers and 16 healthy controls. We used positron emission tomography (PET) with the tracer [(11)C......]raclopride to measure dopamine release, and we used performance on the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) to determine overall reward and uncertainty. We hypothesized that we would find a linear function between dopamine release and IGT performance, if dopamine release coded reward in pathological gambling. If, on the other hand...

  17. Akinetic Crisis in Parkinson's Disease Is Associated with a Severe Loss of Striatal Dopamine Transporter Function: A Report of Two Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valtteri Kaasinen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Akinetic crisis or acute akinesia is a life-threatening complication of Parkinson's disease (PD with unknown pathophysiological mechanisms. Clinically, it resembles the neuroleptic malignant syndrome, and dopaminergic drugs are transiently ineffective in the acute phase of the condition. There are no published dopaminergic functional imaging studies on PD patients with akinetic crisis. Here we report 2 advanced PD patients with akinetic crisis who were scanned with SPECT using brain dopamine transporter ligand [123I]FP-CIT. The first patient was additionally scanned before the condition developed, and the second patient was scanned after recovery. Striatal dopamine transporter binding was lower during than before the crisis, and both patients showed a nearly complete loss of dopamine transporter binding during the crisis. Serial imaging showed that the uptake remained negligible despite an improvement in motor function after recovery. Akinetic crisis in PD appears to be associated with a particularly severe loss of presynaptic striatal dopamine function that does not improve after recovery. Apart from presynaptic dopaminergic function, other dopaminergic or nondopaminergic mechanisms are involved in the clinical improvement of motor functions after akinetic crisis in PD.

  18. Striatal dopamine in Parkinson disease: A meta-analysis of imaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaasinen, Valtteri; Vahlberg, Tero

    2017-12-01

    A meta-analysis of 142 positron emission tomography and single photon emission computed tomography studies that have investigated striatal presynaptic dopamine function in Parkinson disease (PD) was performed. Subregional estimates of striatal dopamine metabolism are presented. The aromatic L-amino-acid decarboxylase (AADC) defect appears to be consistently smaller than the dopamine transporter and vesicular monoamine transporter 2 defects, suggesting upregulation of AADC function in PD. The correlation between disease severity and dopamine loss appears linear, but the majority of longitudinal studies point to a negative exponential progression pattern of dopamine loss in PD. Ann Neurol 2017;82:873-882. © 2017 American Neurological Association.

  19. Fractal analysis of striatal dopamine re-uptake sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuikka, J.T.; Bergstroem, K.A.; Tiihonen, J.; Raesaenen, P.; Karhu, J.

    1997-01-01

    Spatial variation in regional blood flow, metabolism and receptor density within the brain and in other organs is measurable even with a low spatial resolution technique such as emission tomography. It has been previously shown that the observed variance increases with increasing number of subregions in the organ/tissue studied. This resolution-dependent variance can be described by fractal analysis. We studied striatal dopamine re-uptake sites in 39 healthy volunteers with high-resolution single-photon emission tomography using iodine-123 labelled 2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl)tropane ([ 123 I]β-CIT). The mean fractal dimension was 1.15±0.07. The results indicate that regional striatal dopamine re-uptake sites involve considerable spatial heterogeneity which is higher than the uniform density (dimension=1.00) but much lower than complete randomness (dimension=1.50). There was a gender difference, with females having a higher heterogeneity in both the left and the right striatum. In addition, we found striatal asymmetry (left-to-right heterogeneity ratio of 1.19±0.15; P<0.001), suggesting functional hemispheric lateralization consistent with the control of motor behaviour and integrative functions. (orig.). With 5 figs., 1 tab

  20. Fractal analysis of striatal dopamine re-uptake sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuikka, J.T.; Bergstroem, K.A. [Department of Clinical Physiology, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio (Finland); Tiihonen, J.; Raesaenen, P. [Department of Forensic Psychiatry, University of Kuopio and Niuvanniemi Hospital, Kuopio (Finland); Karhu, J. [Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio (Finland)

    1997-09-01

    Spatial variation in regional blood flow, metabolism and receptor density within the brain and in other organs is measurable even with a low spatial resolution technique such as emission tomography. It has been previously shown that the observed variance increases with increasing number of subregions in the organ/tissue studied. This resolution-dependent variance can be described by fractal analysis. We studied striatal dopamine re-uptake sites in 39 healthy volunteers with high-resolution single-photon emission tomography using iodine-123 labelled 2{beta}-carbomethoxy-3{beta}-(4-iodophenyl)tropane ([{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT). The mean fractal dimension was 1.15{+-}0.07. The results indicate that regional striatal dopamine re-uptake sites involve considerable spatial heterogeneity which is higher than the uniform density (dimension=1.00) but much lower than complete randomness (dimension=1.50). There was a gender difference, with females having a higher heterogeneity in both the left and the right striatum. In addition, we found striatal asymmetry (left-to-right heterogeneity ratio of 1.19{+-}0.15; P<0.001), suggesting functional hemispheric lateralization consistent with the control of motor behaviour and integrative functions. (orig.). With 5 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Local control of striatal dopamine release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger eCachope

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The mesolimbic and nigrostriatal dopamine (DA systems play a key role in the physiology of reward seeking, motivation and motor control. Importantly, they are also involved in the pathophysiology of Parkinson’s and Huntington’s disease, schizophrenia and addiction. Control of DA release in the striatum is tightly linked to firing of DA neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA and the substantia nigra (SN. However, local influences in the striatum affect release by exerting their action directly on axon terminals. For example, endogenous glutamatergic and cholinergic activity is sufficient to trigger striatal DA release independently of cell body firing. Recent developments involving genetic manipulation, pharmacological selectivity or selective stimulation have allowed for better characterization of these phenomena. Such termino-terminal forms of control of DA release transform considerably our understanding of the mesolimbic and nigrostriatal systems, and have strong implications as potential mechanisms to modify impaired control of DA release in the diseased brain. Here, we review these and related mechanisms and their implications in the physiology of ascending DA systems.

  2. Where attention falls: Increased risk of falls from the converging impact of cortical cholinergic and midbrain dopamine loss on striatal function.

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    Sarter, Martin; Albin, Roger L; Kucinski, Aaron; Lustig, Cindy

    2014-07-01

    Falls are a major source of hospitalization, long-term institutionalization, and death in older adults and patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Limited attentional resources are a major risk factor for falls. In this review, we specify cognitive-behavioral mechanisms that produce falls and map these mechanisms onto a model of multi-system degeneration. Results from PET studies in PD fallers and findings from a recently developed animal model support the hypothesis that falls result from interactions between loss of basal forebrain cholinergic projections to the cortex and striatal dopamine loss. Striatal dopamine loss produces inefficient, low-vigor gait, posture control, and movement. Cortical cholinergic deafferentation impairs a wide range of attentional processes, including monitoring of gait, posture and complex movements. Cholinergic cell loss reveals the full impact of striatal dopamine loss on motor performance, reflecting loss of compensatory attentional supervision of movement. Dysregulation of dorsomedial striatal circuitry is an essential, albeit not exclusive, mediator of falls in this dual-system model. Because cholinergic neuromodulatory activity influences cortical circuitry primarily via stimulation of α4β2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, and because agonists at these receptors are known to benefit attentional processes in animals and humans, treating PD fallers with such agonists, as an adjunct to dopaminergic treatment, is predicted to reduce falls. Falls are an informative behavioral endpoint to study attentional-motor integration by striatal circuitry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Where attention falls: Increased risk of falls from the converging impact of cortical cholinergic and midbrain dopamine loss on striatal function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarter, Martin; Albin, Roger L.; Kucinski, Aaron; Lustig, Cindy

    2015-01-01

    Falls are a major source of hospitalization, long-term institutionalization, and death in older adults and patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). Limited attentional resources are a major risk factor for falls. In this review, we specify cognitive–behavioral mechanisms that produce falls and map these mechanisms onto a model of multi-system degeneration. Results from PET studies in PD fallers and findings from a recently developed animal model support the hypothesis that falls result from interactions between loss of basal forebrain cholinergic projections to the cortex and striatal dopamine loss. Striatal dopamine loss produces inefficient, low-vigor gait, posture control, and movement. Cortical cholinergic deafferentation impairs a wide range of attentional processes, including monitoring of gait, posture and complex movements. Cholinergic cell loss reveals the full impact of striatal dopamine loss on motor performance, reflecting loss of compensatory attentional supervision of movement. Dysregulation of dorsomedial striatal circuitry is an essential, albeit not exclusive, mediator of falls in this dual-system model. Because cholinergic neuromodulatory activity influences cortical circuitry primarily via stimulation of α4β2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, and because agonists at these receptors are known to benefit attentional processes in animals and humans, treating PD fallers with such agonists, as an adjunct to dopaminergic treatment, is predicted to reduce falls. Falls are an informative behavioral endpoint to study attentional–motor integration by striatal circuitry. PMID:24805070

  4. A C-terminal PDZ domain-binding sequence is required for striatal distribution of the dopamine transporter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rickhag, Karl Mattias; Hansen, Freja Herborg; Sørensen, Gunnar

    2013-01-01

    believed to bind synaptic scaffolding proteins, but its functional significance is uncertain. Here we demonstrate that two different dopamine transporter knock-in mice with disrupted PDZ-binding motifs (dopamine transporter-AAA and dopamine transporter+Ala) are characterized by dramatic loss of dopamine......The dopamine transporter mediates reuptake of dopamine from the synaptic cleft. The cellular mechanisms controlling dopamine transporter levels in striatal nerve terminals remain poorly understood. The dopamine transporters contain a C-terminal PDZ (PSD-95/Discs-large/ZO-1) domain-binding sequence...... transporter expression in the striatum, causing hyperlocomotion and attenuated response to amphetamine. In cultured dopaminergic neurons and striatal slices from dopamine transporter-AAA mice, we find markedly reduced dopamine transporter surface levels and evidence for enhanced constitutive internalization...

  5. D2 receptor genotype and striatal dopamine signaling predict motor cortical activity and behavior in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazio, Leonardo; Blasi, Giuseppe; Taurisano, Paolo; Papazacharias, Apostolos; Romano, Raffaella; Gelao, Barbara; Ursini, Gianluca; Quarto, Tiziana; Lo Bianco, Luciana; Di Giorgio, Annabella; Mancini, Marina; Popolizio, Teresa; Rubini, Giuseppe; Bertolino, Alessandro

    2011-02-14

    Pre-synaptic D2 receptors regulate striatal dopamine release and DAT activity, key factors for modulation of motor pathways. A functional SNP of DRD2 (rs1076560 G>T) is associated with alternative splicing such that the relative expression of D2S (mainly pre-synaptic) vs. D2L (mainly post-synaptic) receptor isoforms is decreased in subjects with the T allele with a putative increase of striatal dopamine levels. To evaluate how DRD2 genotype and striatal dopamine signaling predict motor cortical activity and behavior in humans, we have investigated the association of rs1076560 with BOLD fMRI activity during a motor task. To further evaluate the relationship of this circuitry with dopamine signaling, we also explored the correlation between genotype based differences in motor brain activity and pre-synaptic striatal DAT binding measured with [(123)I] FP-CIT SPECT. Fifty healthy subjects, genotyped for DRD2 rs1076560 were studied with BOLD-fMRI at 3T while performing a visually paced motor task with their right hand; eleven of these subjects also underwent [(123)I]FP-CIT SPECT. SPM5 random-effects models were used for statistical analyses. Subjects carrying the T allele had greater BOLD responses in left basal ganglia, thalamus, supplementary motor area, and primary motor cortex, whose activity was also negatively correlated with reaction time at the task. Moreover, left striatal DAT binding and activity of left supplementary motor area were negatively correlated. The present results suggest that DRD2 genetic variation was associated with focusing of responses in the whole motor network, in which activity of predictable nodes was correlated with reaction time and with striatal pre-synaptic dopamine signaling. Our results in humans may help shed light on genetic risk for neurobiological mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of disorders with dysregulation of striatal dopamine like Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. No association between striatal dopamine transporter binding and body mass index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van de Giessen, Elsmarieke; Hesse, Swen; Caan, Matthan W A

    2013-01-01

    Dopamine is one among several neurotransmitters that regulate food intake and overeating. Thus, it has been linked to the pathophysiology of obesity and high body mass index (BMI). Striatal dopamine D(2) receptor availability is lower in obesity and there are indications that striatal dopamine...... transporter (DAT) availability is also decreased. In this study, we tested whether BMI and striatal DAT availability are associated....

  7. In vivo neurochemical characterization of clothianidin induced striatal dopamine release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faro, L R F; Oliveira, I M; Durán, R; Alfonso, M

    2012-12-16

    Clothianidin (CLO) is a neonicotinoid insecticide with selective action on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. The aim of this study was to determine the neurochemical basis for CLO-induced striatal dopamine release using the microdialysis technique in freely moving and conscious rats. Intrastriatal administration of CLO (3.5mM), produced an increase in both spontaneous (2462 ± 627% with respect to basal values) and KCl-evoked (4672 ± 706% with respect to basal values) dopamine release. This effect was attenuated in Ca(2+)-free medium, and was prevented in reserpine pre-treated animals or in presence of tetrodotoxin (TTX). To investigate the involvement of dopamine transporter (DAT), the effect of CLO was observed in presence of nomifensine. The coadministration of CLO and nomifensine produced an additive effect on striatal dopamine release. The results suggest that the effect of CLO on striatal dopamine release is predominantly mediated by an exocytotic mechanism, Ca(2+), vesicular and TTX-dependent and not by a mechanism mediated by dopamine transporter. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  8. Impaired striatal Akt signaling disrupts dopamine homeostasis and increases feeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Speed

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity has increased dramatically worldwide. The obesity epidemic begs for novel concepts and therapeutic targets that cohesively address "food-abuse" disorders. We demonstrate a molecular link between impairment of a central kinase (Akt involved in insulin signaling induced by exposure to a high-fat (HF diet and dysregulation of higher order circuitry involved in feeding. Dopamine (DA rich brain structures, such as striatum, provide motivation stimuli for feeding. In these central circuitries, DA dysfunction is posited to contribute to obesity pathogenesis. We identified a mechanistic link between metabolic dysregulation and the maladaptive behaviors that potentiate weight gain. Insulin, a hormone in the periphery, also acts centrally to regulate both homeostatic and reward-based HF feeding. It regulates DA homeostasis, in part, by controlling a key element in DA clearance, the DA transporter (DAT. Upon HF feeding, nigro-striatal neurons rapidly develop insulin signaling deficiencies, causing increased HF calorie intake.We show that consumption of fat-rich food impairs striatal activation of the insulin-activated signaling kinase, Akt. HF-induced Akt impairment, in turn, reduces DAT cell surface expression and function, thereby decreasing DA homeostasis and amphetamine (AMPH-induced DA efflux. In addition, HF-mediated dysregulation of Akt signaling impairs DA-related behaviors such as (AMPH-induced locomotion and increased caloric intake. We restored nigro-striatal Akt phosphorylation using recombinant viral vector expression technology. We observed a rescue of DAT expression in HF fed rats, which was associated with a return of locomotor responses to AMPH and normalization of HF diet-induced hyperphagia.Acquired disruption of brain insulin action may confer risk for and/or underlie "food-abuse" disorders and the recalcitrance of obesity. This molecular model, thus, explains how even short-term exposure to "the fast food

  9. Contribution of vesicular and cytosolic dopamine to the increased striatal dopamine efflux elicited by intrastriatal injection of SKF38393.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saigusa, T.; Aono, Y.; Sekino, R.; Uchida, T.; Takada, K.; Oi, Y.; Koshikawa, N.; Cools, A.R.

    2009-01-01

    Like dexamphetamine, SKF38393 induces an increase in striatal dopamine efflux which is insensitive for tetrodotoxin, Ca(2+) independent and prevented by a dopamine transporter inhibitor. The dexamphetamine-induced striatal dopamine efflux originates from both the reserpine-sensitive vesicular

  10. Phasic dopamine release drives rapid activation of striatal D2-receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcott, Pamela F; Mamaligas, Aphroditi A; Ford, Christopher P

    2014-01-01

    Summary Striatal dopamine transmission underlies numerous goal-directed behaviors. Medium spiny neurons (MSNs) are a major target of dopamine in the striatum. However, as dopamine does not directly evoke a synaptic event in MSNs, the time course of dopamine signaling in these cells remains unclear. To examine how dopamine release activates D2-receptors on MSNs, G-protein activated inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK2; Kir 3.2) channels were virally overexpressed in the striatum and the resulting outward currents were used as a sensor of D2-receptor activation. Electrical and optogenetic stimulation of dopamine terminals evoked robust D2-receptor inhibitory post-synaptic currents (IPSCs) in GIRK2-expressing MSNs that occurred in under a second. Evoked D2-IPSCs could be driven by repetitive stimulation and were not occluded by background dopamine tone. Together, the results indicate that D2-receptors on MSNs exhibit functional low affinity and suggest that striatal D2-receptors can encode both tonic and phasic dopamine signals. PMID:25242218

  11. Decreased spontaneous eye blink rates in chronic cannabis users: evidence for striatal cannabinoid-dopamine interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael A Kowal

    Full Text Available Chronic cannabis use has been shown to block long-term depression of GABA-glutamate synapses in the striatum, which is likely to reduce the extent to which endogenous cannabinoids modulate GABA- and glutamate-related neuronal activity. The current study aimed at investigating the effect of this process on striatal dopamine levels by studying the spontaneous eye blink rate (EBR, a clinical marker of dopamine level in the striatum. 25 adult regular cannabis users and 25 non-user controls matched for age, gender, race, and IQ were compared. Results show a significant reduction in EBR in chronic users as compared to non-users, suggesting an indirect detrimental effect of chronic cannabis use on striatal dopaminergic functioning. Additionally, EBR correlated negatively with years of cannabis exposure, monthly peak cannabis consumption, and lifetime cannabis consumption, pointing to a relationship between the degree of impairment of striatal dopaminergic transmission and cannabis consumption history.

  12. Distinctive striatal dopamine signaling after dieting and gastric bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankir, Mohammed K; Ashrafian, Hutan; Hesse, Swen; Horstmann, Annette; Fenske, Wiebke K

    2015-05-01

    Highly palatable and/or calorically dense foods, such as those rich in fat, engage the striatum to govern and set complex behaviors. Striatal dopamine signaling has been implicated in hedonic feeding and the development of obesity. Dieting and bariatric surgery have markedly different outcomes on weight loss, yet how these interventions affect central homeostatic and food reward processing remains poorly understood. Here, we propose that dieting and gastric bypass produce distinct changes in peripheral factors with known roles in regulating energy homeostasis, resulting in differential modulation of nigrostriatal and mesolimbic dopaminergic reward circuits. Enhancement of intestinal fat metabolism after gastric bypass may also modify striatal dopamine signaling contributing to its unique long-term effects on feeding behavior and body weight in obese individuals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Dopamine D(1) receptor-mediated control of striatal acetylcholine release by endogenous dopamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acquas, E; Di Chiara, G

    1999-10-27

    The role of dopamine D(1) and D(2) receptors in the control of acetylcholine release in the dorsal striatum by endogenous dopamine was investigated by monitoring with microdialysis the effect of the separate or combined administration of the dopamine D(1) receptor antagonist, SCH 39166 ¿(-)-trans-6,7,7a,8,9, 13b-exahydro-3-chloro-2-hydroxy-N-methyl-5H-benzo-[d]-nap hto-[2, 1b]-azepine hydrochloride¿ (50 microg/kg subcutaneous (s.c.)), of the dopamine D(2)/D(3) receptor agonist, quinpirole (trans-(-)-4aR, 4a,5,6,7,8,8a,9-octahydro-5-propyl-1H-pyrazolo-(3,4-g)-quinoline hydrochloride) (5 and 10 microg/kg s.c.), and of the D(3) receptor selective agonist, PD 128,907 [S(+)-(4aR,10bR)-3,4,4a, 10b-tetrahydro-4-propyl-2H,5H-[1]benzopyrano-[4,3-b]-1,4-oxazin -9-ol hydrochloride] (50 microg/kg s.c.), on in vivo dopamine and acetylcholine release. Microdialysis was performed with a Ringer containing low concentrations (0.01 microM) of the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, neostigmine. Quinpirole (10 microg/kg s.c.) decreased striatal dopamine and acetylcholine release. Administration of PD 128,907 (50 microg/kg) decreased dopamine but failed to affect acetylcholine release. SCH 39166 (50 microg/kg s.c.) stimulated dopamine release and reduced acetylcholine release. Pretreatment with quinpirole reduced (5 microg/kg s.c.) or completely prevented (10 microg/kg s.c.) the stimulation of dopamine release elicited by SCH 39166 (50 microg/kg s.c.); on the other hand, pretreatment with quinpirole (5 and 10 microg/kg) potentiated the reduction of striatal acetylcholine release induced by SCH 39166 (50 microg/kg s.c.). Similarly, pretreatment with PD 128,907 (50 microg/kg) which prevented the increase of dopamine release induced by SCH 39166 (50 microg/kg), potentiated the reduction of striatal acetylcholine transmission elicited by SCH 39166. Thus, pretreatment with low doses of quinpirole or PD 128,907 influences in opposite manner the effect of SCH 39166 on striatal dopamine and

  14. Single cocaine exposure does not alter striatal pre-synaptic dopamine function in mice: an [18 F]-FDOPA PET study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonsall, David R; Kokkinou, Michelle; Veronese, Mattia; Coello, Christopher; Wells, Lisa A; Howes, Oliver D

    2017-12-01

    Cocaine is a recreational drug of abuse that binds to the dopamine transporter, preventing reuptake of dopamine into pre-synaptic terminals. The increased presence of synaptic dopamine results in stimulation of both pre- and post-synaptic dopamine receptors, considered an important mechanism by which cocaine elicits its reinforcing properties. However, the effects of acute cocaine administration on pre-synaptic dopamine function remain unclear. Non-invasive imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography have revealed impaired pre-synaptic dopamine function in chronic cocaine users. Similar impairments have been seen in animal studies, with microdialysis experiments indicating decreased basal dopamine release. Here we use micro positron emission tomography imaging techniques in mice to measure dopamine synthesis capacity and determine the effect of acute cocaine administration of pre-synaptic dopamine function. We show that a dose of 20 mg/kg cocaine is sufficient to elicit hyperlocomotor activity, peaking 15-20 min post treatment (p dopamine synthesis capacity in the striatum was not significantly altered by acute cocaine treatment (KiCer: 0.0097 per min vs. 0.0112 per min in vehicle controls, p > 0.05). Furthermore, expression levels of two key enzymes related to dopamine synthesis, tyrosine hydroxylase and aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase, within the striatum of scanned mice were not significantly affected by acute cocaine pre-treatment (p > 0.05). Our findings suggest that while the regulation of dopamine synthesis and release in the striatum have been shown to change with chronic cocaine use, leading to a reduced basal tone, these adaptations to pre-synaptic dopaminergic neurons are not initiated following a single exposure to the drug. © 2017 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  15. Differences in striatal dopamine transporter density between tremor dominant and non-tremor Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaasinen, Valtteri; Kinos, Maija; Joutsa, Juho; Seppaenen, Marko; Noponen, Tommi

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) can manifest with a tremor-dominant or a non-tremor (akinetic-rigid) phenotype. Although the tremor-dominant subtype may show a better prognosis, there is limited information on the phenotypic differences regarding the level of striatal dopamine transmission. The present study investigated striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) binding characteristics in a large sample of patients with and without tremor. [ 123 I]FP-CIT SPECT scans of 231 patients with a clinical diagnosis of PD and abnormal FP-CIT binding (157 with tremor, 74 without tremor) and 230 control patients with normal FP-CIT binding (148 with tremor, 82 without tremor) were analysed using an automated region-of-interest analysis of the scans (BRASS). Specific striatal binding ratios were compared between phenotypes and groups using age, sex, and symptom duration, predominant side of symptoms, dopaminergic medications and scanner as covariates. Patients with PD had 28.1 - 65.0 % lower binding in all striatal regions compared to controls (p < 0.001). The mean FP-CIT caudate nucleus uptake and the left caudate nucleus uptake were higher in PD patients with tremor than in PD patients without tremor (mean 9.0 % higher, left 10.5 % higher; p < 0.05), whereas there were no differences between tremor and non-tremor control patients. No significant effects of tremor on DAT binding were observed in the anterior or posterior putamen. The motor phenotype is associated with the extent of caudate dopamine terminal loss in PD, as dopamine function is relatively more preserved in tremor patients. Symptom type is related to caudate dopamine function only in association with Parkinsonian dopaminergic degeneration, not in intact dopamine systems in patients with non-PD tremor. (orig.)

  16. Further human evidence for striatal dopamine release induced by administration of ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC): selectivity to limbic striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossong, Matthijs G; Mehta, Mitul A; van Berckel, Bart N M; Howes, Oliver D; Kahn, René S; Stokes, Paul R A

    2015-08-01

    Elevated dopamine function is thought to play a key role in both the rewarding effects of addictive drugs and the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Accumulating epidemiological evidence indicates that cannabis use is a risk factor for the development of schizophrenia. However, human neurochemical imaging studies that examined the impact of ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive component in cannabis, on striatal dopamine release have provided inconsistent results. The objective of this study is to assess the effect of a THC challenge on human striatal dopamine release in a large sample of healthy participants. We combined human neurochemical imaging data from two previous studies that used [(11)C]raclopride positron emission tomography (PET) (n = 7 and n = 13, respectively) to examine the effect of THC on striatal dopamine neurotransmission in humans. PET images were re-analysed to overcome differences in PET data analysis. THC administration induced a significant reduction in [(11)C]raclopride binding in the limbic striatum (-3.65 %, from 2.39 ± 0.26 to 2.30 ± 0.23, p = 0.023). This is consistent with increased dopamine levels in this region. No significant differences between THC and placebo were found in other striatal subdivisions. In the largest data set of healthy participants so far, we provide evidence for a modest increase in human striatal dopamine transmission after administration of THC compared to other drugs of abuse. This finding suggests limited involvement of the endocannabinoid system in regulating human striatal dopamine release and thereby challenges the hypothesis that an increase in striatal dopamine levels after cannabis use is the primary biological mechanism underlying the associated higher risk of schizophrenia.

  17. Regulation of dopamine synthesis and release in striatal and prefrontal cortical brain slices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, M.E.

    1986-01-01

    Brain slices were used to investigate the role of nerve terminal autoreceptors in modulating dopamine (DA) synthesis and release in striatum and prefrontal cortex. Accumulation of dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) was used as an index of tyrosine hydroxylation in vitro. Nomifensine, a DA uptake blocker, inhibited DOPA synthesis in striatal but not prefrontal slices. This effect was reversed by the DA antagonist sulpiride, suggesting it involved activation of DA receptors by elevated synaptic levels of DA. The autoreceptor-selective agonist EMD-23-448 also inhibited striatal but not prefrontal DOPA synthesis. DOPA synthesis was stimulated in both brain regions by elevated K + , however only striatal synthesis could be further enhanced by sulpiride. DA release was measured by following the efflux of radioactivity from brain slices prelabeled with [ 3 H]-DA. EMD-23-448 and apomorphine inhibited, while sulpiride enhanced, the K + -evoked overflow of radioactivity from both striatal and prefrontal cortical slices. These findings suggest that striatal DA nerve terminals possess autoreceptors which modulate tyrosine hydroxylation as well as autoreceptors which modulate release. Alternatively, one site may be coupled to both functions through distinct transduction mechanisms. In contrast, autoreceptors on prefrontal cortical terminals appear to regulate DA release but not DA synthesis

  18. Dopamine signaling negatively regulates striatal phosphorylation of Cdk5 at tyrosine 15 in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukio eYamamura

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Striatal functions depend on the activity balance between the dopamine and glutamate neurotransmissions. Glutamate inputs activate cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5, which inhibits postsynaptic dopamine signaling by phosphorylating DARPP-32 (dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein, 32 kDa at Thr75 in the striatum. c-Abelson tyrosine kinase (c-Abl is known to phosphorylate Cdk5 at Tyr15 (Tyr15-Cdk5 and thereby facilitates the Cdk5 activity. We here report that Cdk5 with Tyr15 phosphorylation (Cdk5-pTyr15 is enriched in the mouse striatum, where dopaminergic stimulation inhibited phosphorylation of Tyr15-Cdk5 by acting through the D2 class dopamine receptors. Moreover, in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,4,6-tetrahydropyridine mouse model, dopamine deficiency caused increased phosphorylation of both Tyr15-Cdk5 and Thr75-DARPP-32 in the striatum, which could be attenuated by administration of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine and imatinib (STI-571, a selective c-Abl inhibitor. Our results suggest a functional link of Cdk5-pTyr15 with postsynaptic dopamine and glutamate signals through the c-Abl kinase activity in the striatum.

  19. Interaction of structural analogs of dopamine, chlorpromazine and sulpiride with striatal dopamine receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    The objectives of these studies were to determine if the nitrogen atom of dopaminergic agonists and antagonists drugs is required for interaction with the D-1 and D-2 dopamine receptors and whether the positively charged or uncharged molecular species interacts with these receptors. To address these issues, permanently charged analogs of dopamine, chlorpromazine and sulpiride were synthesized in which a dimethylsulfonium, dimethylselenonium or quaternary ammonium group replaced the amine group. Permanently uncharged analogs which contained a methylsulfide, methylselenide and sulfoxide group instead of an amine group were also synthesized. The interactions of these compounds with striatal dopamine receptors were studied. We found that the permanently charged dopamine analogs bound to the D-2 receptor of striatal membranes like conventional dopaminergic agonists and displayed agonist activity at the D-2 receptor regulating potassium-evoked [ 3 H] acetylcholine release. In contrast, the permanently uncharged analogs bound only to the high affinity state of the D-2 receptor and had neither agonist or antagonist activity

  20. Striatal dopamine D1 and D2 receptors: widespread influences on methamphetamine-induced dopamine and serotonin neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Noah B; Duncker, Patrick C; Marshall, John F

    2011-11-01

    Methamphetamine (mAMPH) is an addictive psychostimulant drug that releases monoamines through nonexocytotic mechanisms. In animals, binge mAMPH dosing regimens deplete markers for monoamine nerve terminals, for example, dopamine and serotonin transporters (DAT and SERT), in striatum and cerebral cortex. Although the precise mechanism of mAMPH-induced damage to monoaminergic nerve terminals is uncertain, both dopamine D1 and D2 receptors are known to be important. Systemic administration of dopamine D1 or D2 receptor antagonists to rodents prevents mAMPH-induced damage to striatal dopamine nerve terminals. Because these studies employed systemic antagonist administration, the specific brain regions involved remain to be elucidated. The present study examined the contribution of dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in striatum to mAMPH-induced DAT and SERT neurotoxicities. In this experiment, either the dopamine D1 antagonist, SCH23390, or the dopamine D2 receptor antagonist, sulpiride, was intrastriatally infused during a binge mAMPH regimen. Striatal DAT and cortical, hippocampal, and amygdalar SERT were assessed as markers of mAMPH-induced neurotoxicity 1 week following binge mAMPH administration. Blockade of striatal dopamine D1 or D2 receptors during an otherwise neurotoxic binge mAMPH regimen produced widespread protection against mAMPH-induced striatal DAT loss and cortical, hippocampal, and amygdalar SERT loss. This study demonstrates that (1) dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in striatum, like nigral D1 receptors, are needed for mAMPH-induced striatal DAT reductions, (2) these same receptors are needed for mAMPH-induced SERT loss, and (3) these widespread influences of striatal dopamine receptor antagonists are likely attributable to circuits connecting basal ganglia to thalamus and cortex. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. [3H]Dopamine accumulation and release from striatal slices in young, mature and senescent rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    Examinations of [ 3 H]dopamine ([ 3 H]DA) release following KCl or amphetamine administration in striatal slices from young (7 month), mature (12 month) and senescent (24 month) Wistar rats showed no age-related changes. Further, the amount of [ 3 H]DA accumulated in the striatal slices showed no changes with age. Thus, previously reported age-related deficits in motor behavior (i.e. rotational) are not produced by changes in striatal DA accumulation or release. (Auth.)

  2. Impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease: decreased striatal dopamine transporter levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voon, Valerie; Rizos, Alexandra; Chakravartty, Riddhika; Mulholland, Nicola; Robinson, Stephanie; Howell, Nicholas A; Harrison, Neil; Vivian, Gill; Ray Chaudhuri, K

    2014-02-01

    Impulse control disorders are commonly associated with dopaminergic therapy in Parkinson's disease (PD). PD patients with impulse control disorders demonstrate enhanced dopamine release to conditioned cues and a gambling task on [(11)C]raclopride positron emission tomography (PET) imaging and enhanced ventral striatal activity to reward on functional MRI. We compared PD patients with impulse control disorders and age-matched and gender-matched controls without impulse control disorders using [(123)I]FP-CIT (2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl)tropane) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), to assess striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) density. The [(123)I]FP-CIT binding data in the striatum were compared between 15 PD patients with and 15 without impulse control disorders using independent t tests. Those with impulse control disorders showed significantly lower DAT binding in the right striatum with a trend in the left (right: F(1,24)=5.93, p=0.02; left: F(1,24)=3.75, p=0.07) compared to controls. Our findings suggest that greater dopaminergic striatal activity in PD patients with impulse control disorders may be partly related to decreased uptake and clearance of dopamine from the synaptic cleft. Whether these findings are related to state or trait effects is not known. These findings dovetail with reports of lower DAT levels secondary to the effects of methamphetamine and alcohol. Although any regulation of DAT by antiparkinsonian medication appears to be modest, PD patients with impulse control disorders may be differentially sensitive to regulatory mechanisms of DAT expression by dopaminergic medications.

  3. Role of DARPP-32 and ARPP-21 in the Emergence of Temporal Constraints on Striatal Calcium and Dopamine Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, Upinder S.; Hellgren Kotaleski, Jeanette

    2016-01-01

    In reward learning, the integration of NMDA-dependent calcium and dopamine by striatal projection neurons leads to potentiation of corticostriatal synapses through CaMKII/PP1 signaling. In order to elicit the CaMKII/PP1-dependent response, the calcium and dopamine inputs should arrive in temporal proximity and must follow a specific (dopamine after calcium) order. However, little is known about the cellular mechanism which enforces these temporal constraints on the signal integration. In this computational study, we propose that these temporal requirements emerge as a result of the coordinated signaling via two striatal phosphoproteins, DARPP-32 and ARPP-21. Specifically, DARPP-32-mediated signaling could implement an input-interval dependent gating function, via transient PP1 inhibition, thus enforcing the requirement for temporal proximity. Furthermore, ARPP-21 signaling could impose the additional input-order requirement of calcium and dopamine, due to its Ca2+/calmodulin sequestering property when dopamine arrives first. This highlights the possible role of phosphoproteins in the temporal aspects of striatal signal transduction. PMID:27584878

  4. Measurement of striatal dopamine metabolism with 6-[18F]-fluoro-L-dopa and PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwabara, Y.; Otsuka, M.; Ichiya, Y.; Yoshikai, T.; Fukumura, T.; Masuda, K.; Kato, M.; Taniwaki, T.

    1992-01-01

    Striatal dopamine metabolism was studied with 6-[ 18 F]-fluoro-L-dopa ( 18 F-DOPA) and PET. The subjects were normal controls, and patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), parkinsonism, multiple system atrophy (MSA), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), Alzheimer's disease (AD), Huntington's disease (HD) and other cerebral disorders. Cerebral glucose metabolism (CMRGlc) was also measured in these patients. Striatal dopamine metabolism was evaluated by the relative striatal uptake of 18 F-DOPA referring cerebellum (S/C ratio). In normal controls, the S/C ratio was 2.82 ± 0.32 (n = 6, mean ± SD) at 120 min after injection of 18 F-DOPA. The S/C ratio was low in patients with PD, parkinsonism, MSA and PSP compared to the normal controls and thus coincident with the symptoms of parkinsonism due to decrease in striatal dopamine concentration. The decrease in the striatal CMRGlc was also observed in patients with parkinsonism and PSP, and it was preserved in patients with PD, thus representing that more neurons were damaged in patients with parkinsonism and PSP than in patients with PD. A patient with AD having symptoms of parkinsonism also showed a decrease in S/C ratio. In a patient with HD, the striatal CMRGlc sharply decreased, but the S/C ratio was normal. The measurements of striatal dopamine and glucose metabolism with PET may be useful for studying the pathophysiological mechanism in patients with cerebral disorders. (author)

  5. Differences in striatal dopamine transporter density between tremor dominant and non-tremor Parkinson's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaasinen, Valtteri; Kinos, Maija; Joutsa, Juho [University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Division of Clinical Neurosciences, Turku (Finland); University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku PET Centre, Turku (Finland); Seppaenen, Marko [University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku PET Centre, Turku (Finland); University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Turku (Finland); Noponen, Tommi [University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Turku (Finland)

    2014-10-15

    Parkinson's disease (PD) can manifest with a tremor-dominant or a non-tremor (akinetic-rigid) phenotype. Although the tremor-dominant subtype may show a better prognosis, there is limited information on the phenotypic differences regarding the level of striatal dopamine transmission. The present study investigated striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) binding characteristics in a large sample of patients with and without tremor. [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT scans of 231 patients with a clinical diagnosis of PD and abnormal FP-CIT binding (157 with tremor, 74 without tremor) and 230 control patients with normal FP-CIT binding (148 with tremor, 82 without tremor) were analysed using an automated region-of-interest analysis of the scans (BRASS). Specific striatal binding ratios were compared between phenotypes and groups using age, sex, and symptom duration, predominant side of symptoms, dopaminergic medications and scanner as covariates. Patients with PD had 28.1 - 65.0 % lower binding in all striatal regions compared to controls (p < 0.001). The mean FP-CIT caudate nucleus uptake and the left caudate nucleus uptake were higher in PD patients with tremor than in PD patients without tremor (mean 9.0 % higher, left 10.5 % higher; p < 0.05), whereas there were no differences between tremor and non-tremor control patients. No significant effects of tremor on DAT binding were observed in the anterior or posterior putamen. The motor phenotype is associated with the extent of caudate dopamine terminal loss in PD, as dopamine function is relatively more preserved in tremor patients. Symptom type is related to caudate dopamine function only in association with Parkinsonian dopaminergic degeneration, not in intact dopamine systems in patients with non-PD tremor. (orig.)

  6. Reduced Striatal Dopamine Transporters in People with Internet Addiction Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifeng Hou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, internet addiction disorder (IAD has become more prevalent worldwide and the recognition of its devastating impact on the users and society has rapidly increased. However, the neurobiological mechanism of IAD has not bee fully expressed. The present study was designed to determine if the striatal dopamine transporter (DAT levels measured by T99mc-TRODAT-1 single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT brain scans were altered in individuals with IAD. SPECT brain scans were acquired on 5 male IAD subjects and 9 healthy age-matched controls. The volume (V and weight (W of bilateral corpus striatum as well as the T99mc-TRODAT-1 uptake ratio of corpus striatum/the whole brain (Ra were calculated using mathematical models. It was displayed that DAT expression level of striatum was significantly decreased and the V, W, and Ra were greatly reduced in the individuals with IAD compared to controls. Taken together, these results suggest that IAD may cause serious damages to the brain and the neuroimaging findings further illustrate IAD is associated with dysfunctions in the dopaminergic brain systems. Our findings also support the claim that IAD may share similar neurobiological abnormalities with other addictive disorders.

  7. History of childhood adversity is positively associated with ventral striatal dopamine responses to amphetamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Lynn M; Wand, Gary S; Kuwabara, Hiroto; Wong, Dean F; Zhu, Shijun; Brasic, James R

    2014-06-01

    Childhood exposure to severe or chronic trauma is an important risk factor for the later development of adult mental health problems, such as substance abuse. Even in nonclinical samples of healthy adults, persons with a history of significant childhood adversity seem to experience greater psychological distress than those without this history. Evidence from rodent studies suggests that early life stress may impair dopamine function in ways that increase risks for drug abuse. However, the degree to which these findings translate to other species remains unclear. This study was conducted to examine associations between childhood adversity and dopamine and subjective responses to amphetamine in humans. Following intake assessment, 28 healthy male and female adults, aged 18-29 years, underwent two consecutive 90-min positron emission tomography studies with high specific activity [(11)C]raclopride. The first scan was preceded by intravenous saline; the second by amphetamine (AMPH 0.3 mg/kg). Consistent with prior literature, findings showed positive associations between childhood trauma and current levels of perceived stress. Moreover, greater number of traumatic events and higher levels of perceived stress were each associated with higher ventral striatal dopamine responses to AMPH. Findings of mediation analyses further showed that a portion of the relationship between childhood trauma and dopamine release may be mediated by perceived stress. Overall, results are consistent with preclinical findings suggesting that early trauma may lead to enhanced sensitivity to psychostimulants and that this mechanism may underlie increased vulnerability for drug abuse.

  8. Effects of isomers of apomorphines on dopamine receptors in striatal and limbic tissue of rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kula, N.S.; Baldessarini, R.J.; Bromley, S.; Neumeyer, J.L.

    1985-09-16

    The optical isomers of apomorphine (APO) and N-propylnorapomorphine (NPA) were interacted with three biochemical indices of dopamine (Da) receptors in extrapyramidal and limbic preparations of rat brain tissues. There were consistent isomeric preferences for the R(-) configuration of both DA analogs in stimulation adenylate cyclase (D-1 sites) and in competing for high affinity binding of /sup 3/H-spiroperidol (D-2 sites) and of /sup 3/H-ADTN (DA agonist binding sites) in striatal tissue, with lesser isomeric differences in the limbic tissue. The S(+) apomorphines did not inhibit stimulation of adenylate cyclase by DA. The tendency for greater activity of higher apparent affinity of R(-) apomorphines in striatum may reflect the evidently greater abundance of receptor sites in that region. There were only small regional differences in interactions of the apomorphine isomers with all three receptor sites, except for a strong preference of (-)NPA for striatal D-2 sites. These results do not parallel our recent observations indicating potent and selective antidopaminergic actions of S(+) apomorphines in the rat limbic system. They suggest caution in assuming close parallels between current biochemical functional, especially behavioral, methods of evaluating dopamine receptors of mammalian brain.

  9. Revisiting the 'self-medication' hypothesis in light of the new data linking low striatal dopamine to comorbid addictive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, A George; Voruganti, Lakshmi L N P

    2015-06-01

    Persons with schizophrenia are at a high risk, almost 4.6 times more likely, of having drug abuse problems than persons without psychiatric illness. Among the influential proposals to explain such a high comorbidity rate, the 'self-medication hypothesis' proposed that persons with schizophrenia take to drugs in an effort to cope with the illness and medication side effects. In support of the self-medication hypothesis, data from our earlier clinical study confirmed the strong association between neuroleptic dysphoria and negative subjective responses and comorbid drug abuse. Though dopamine has been consistently suspected as one of the major culprits for the development of neuroleptic dysphoria, it is only recently our neuroimaging studies correlated the emergence of neuroleptic dysphoria to the low level of striatal dopamine functioning. Similarly, more evidence has recently emerged linking low striatal dopamine with the development of vulnerability for drug addictive states in schizophrenia. The convergence of evidence from both the dysphoria and comorbidity research, implicating the role of low striatal dopamine in both conditions, has led us to propose that the person with schizophrenia who develops dysphoria and comorbid addictive disorder is likely to be one and the same.

  10. 6-hydroxydopamine-induced degeneration of nigral dopamine neurons: differential effect on nigral and striatal D-1 dopamine receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porceddu, M.L.; Giorgi, O.; De Montis, G.; Mele, S.; Cocco, L.; Ongini, E.; Biggio, G.

    1987-01-01

    Dopamine-sensitive adenylate cyclase and 3 H-SCH 23390 binding parameters were measured in the rat substantia nigra and striatum 15 days after the injection of 6-hydroxydopamine into the medial forebrain bundle. The activity of nigral dopamine-sensitive adenylate cyclase and the binding of 3 H-SCH 23390 to rat nigral D-1 dopamine receptors were markedly decreased after the lesion. On the contrary, 6-hydroxydopamine-induced degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopamine pathway enhanced both adenylate cyclase activity and the density of 3 H-SCH 23390 binding sites in striatal membrane preparations. The changes in 3 H-SCH 23390 binding found in both nigral and striatal membrane preparations were associated with changes in the total number of binding sites with no modifications in their apparent affinity. The results indicate that: a) within the substantia nigra a fraction (30%) of D-1 dopamine receptors coupled to the adenylate cyclase is located on cell bodies and and/or dendrites of dopaminergic neurons; b) striatal D-1 dopamine receptors are tonically innervated by nigrostriatal afferent fibers. 24 references, 1 figure, 1 table

  11. MK-801 protection against methamphetamine-induced striatal dopamine terminal injury is associated with attenuated dopamine overflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weihmuller, F B; O'Dell, S J; Marshall, J F

    1992-06-01

    Repeated administrations of methamphetamine (m-AMPH) produce high extracellular levels of dopamine (DA) and subsequent striatal DA terminal damage. Pharmacological blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors has been shown previously to prevent m-AMPH-induced striatal DA terminal injury, but the mechanism for this protection is unclear. In the present study, in vivo microdialysis was used to determine the effects of blockade of NMDA receptors with the noncompetitive antagonist MK-801 on m-AMPH-induced striatal DA overflow. Four injections of MK-801 (0.5 mg/kg, ip) alone did not significantly change extracellular striatal DA concentrations from pretreatment values. Four treatments with m-AMPH (4.0 mg/kg, sc at 2-hr intervals) increased striatal DA overflow, and the overflow was particularly extensive following the fourth injection. This m-AMPH regimen produced a 40% reduction in striatal DA tissue content 1 week later. Treatment with MK-801 15 min before each of the four m-AMPH injections or prior to only the last two m-AMPH administrations attenuated the m-AMPH-induced increase in striatal DA overflow and protected completely against striatal DA depletions. Other MK-801 treatment regimens less effectively reduced the m-AMPH-induced striatal DA efflux and were ineffective in protecting against striatal DA depletions. Linear regression analysis indicated that cumulative DA overflow was strongly predictive (r = -.68) of striatal DA tissue levels measured one week later. These findings suggest that the extensive DA overflow seen during a neurotoxic regimen of m-AMPH is a crucial component of the subsequent neurotoxicity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Differential regulation of striatal motor behavior and related cellular responses by dopamine D2L and D2S isoforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radl, Daniela; Chiacchiaretta, Martina; Lewis, Robert G; Brami-Cherrier, Karen; Arcuri, Ludovico; Borrelli, Emiliana

    2018-01-02

    The dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) is a major component of the dopamine system. D2R-mediated signaling in dopamine neurons is involved in the presynaptic regulation of dopamine levels. Postsynaptically, i.e., in striatal neurons, D2R signaling controls complex functions such as motor activity through regulation of cell firing and heterologous neurotransmitter release. The presence of two isoforms, D2L and D2S, which are generated by a mechanism of alternative splicing of the Drd2 gene, raises the question of whether both isoforms may equally control presynaptic and postsynaptic events. Here, we addressed this question by comparing behavioral and cellular responses of mice with the selective ablation of either D2L or D2S isoform. We establish that the presence of either D2L or D2S can support postsynaptic functions related to the control of motor activity in basal conditions. On the contrary, absence of D2S but not D2L prevents the inhibition of tyrosine hydroxylase phosphorylation and, thereby, of dopamine synthesis, supporting a major presynaptic role for D2S. Interestingly, boosting dopamine signaling in the striatum by acute cocaine administration reveals that absence of D2L, but not of D2S, strongly impairs the motor and cellular response to the drug, in a manner similar to the ablation of both isoforms. These results suggest that when the dopamine system is challenged, D2L signaling is required for the control of striatal circuits regulating motor activity. Thus, our findings show that D2L and D2S share similar functions in basal conditions but not in response to stimulation of the dopamine system.

  13. Effects of cholecystokinin octapeptide on striatal dopamine metabolism and on apomorphine-induced stereotyped cage-climbing in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovacs, G L; Szabo, G; Telegdy, G [Institute of Pathophysiology, University Medical School, Szeged, Hungary; Penke, B [Institute of Medical Chemistry, University Medical School, Szeged, Hungary

    1981-01-29

    The effects of sulfated (CCK-8-SE) and non-sulfated (CCK-8-NS) cholecystokinin octapeptide on striatal dopamine (DA) metabolism have been investigated on mice. CCK-8-NS facilitated the disappearance of striatal DA, measured after synthesis inhibition with 350 mg/kg of ..cap alpha..-methyl-p-tyrosine. CCK-8-SE did not affect DA disappearance. In vitro uptake of (/sup 3/H)DA by striatal slices was affected by neither CCK-8-SE, nor CCK-8-NS (10/sup -5/ M). Potassium-induced in vitro release of (/sup 3/H)DA from striatal slices was significantly increased by 10/sup -5/ M CCK-8-NS: however, CCK-8-SE likewise increased DA release in this model system. Apomorphine-induced (1.0 mg/kg) stereotyped cage-climbing behavior was not affected by CCK-8-SE but was enhanced by CCK-8-NS. This effect could be antagonized by haloperidol, but not by naloxone. The data suggest that CCK-8-NS affects striatal DA release, disappearance and receptor sensitivity in the mouse. Dopaminergic mechanisms should therefore be regarded as a possible mode of action of CCK-8-NS on brain functions.

  14. Effects of cholecystokinin octapeptide on striatal dopamine metabolism and on apomorphine-induced stereotyped cage-climbing in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, G.L.; Szabo, G.; Telegdy, G.; Penke, B.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of sulfated (CCK-8-SE) and non-sulfated (CCK-8-NS) cholecystokinin octapeptide on striatal dopamine (DA) metabolism have been investigated on mice. CCK-8-NS facilitated the disappearance of striatal DA, measured after synthesis inhibition with 350 mg/kg of α-methyl-p-tyrosine. CCK-8-SE did not affect DA disappearance. In vitro uptake of [ 3 H]DA by striatal slices was affected by neither CCK-8-SE, nor CCK-8-NS (10 -5 M). Potassium-induced in vitro release of [ 3 H]DA from striatal slices was significantly increased by 10 -5 M CCK-8-NS: however, CCK-8-SE likewise increased DA release in this model system. Apomorphine-induced (1.0 mg/kg) stereotyped cage-climbing behavior was not affected by CCK-8-SE but was enhanced by CCK-8-NS. This effect could be antagonized by haloperidol, but not by naloxone. The data suggest that CCK-8-NS affects striatal DA release, disappearance and receptor sensitivity in the mouse. Dopaminergic mechanisms should therefore be regarded as a possible mode of action of CCK-8-NS on brain functions. (Auth.)

  15. Striatal dopamine release in vivo following neurotoxic doses of methamphetamine and effect of the neuroprotective drugs, chlormethiazole and dizocilpine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, H A; Colado, M I; Murray, T K; De Souza, R J; Green, A R

    1993-03-01

    1. Administration to rats of methamphetamine (15 mg kg-1, i.p.) every 2 h to a total of 4 doses resulted in a neurotoxic loss of striatal dopamine of 36% and of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in the cortex (43%) and hippocampus (47%) 3 days later. 2. Administration of chlormethiazole (50 mg kg-1, i.p.) 15 min before each dose of methamphetamine provided complete protection against the neurotoxic loss of monoamines while administration of dizocilpine (1 mg kg-1, i.p.) using the same dose schedule provided substantial protection. 3. Measurement of dopamine release in the striatum by in vivo microdialysis revealed that methamphetamine produced an approximate 7000% increase in dopamine release after the first injection. The enhanced release response was somewhat diminished after the third injection but still around 4000% above baseline. Dizocilpine (1 mg kg-1, i.p.) did not alter this response but chlormethiazole (50 mg kg-1, i.p.) attenuated the methamphetamine-induced release by approximately 40%. 4. Dizocilpine pretreatment did not influence the decrease in the dialysate concentration of the dopamine metabolites dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA) produced by administration of methamphetamine while chlormethiazole pretreatment decreased the dialysate concentration of these metabolites still further. 5. The concentration of dopamine in the dialysate during basal conditions increased modestly during the course of the experiment. This increase did not occur in chlormethiazole-treated rats. HVA concentrations were unaltered by chlormethiazole administration. 6. Chlormethiazole (100-1000 microM) did not alter methamphetamine (100 microM) or K+ (35 mM)-evoked release of endogenous dopamine from striatal prisms in vitro. 7. Several NMDA antagonists prevent methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity; however chlormethiazole is not an NMDA antagonist. Inhibition of striatal dopamine function prevents methamphetamine-induced toxicity of both dopamine and 5

  16. Striatal dopamine release and genetic variation of the serotonin 2C receptor in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickey, Brian J; Sanford, Benjamin J; Love, Tiffany M; Shen, Pei-Hong; Hodgkinson, Colin A; Stohler, Christian S; Goldman, David; Zubieta, Jon-Kar

    2012-07-04

    Mesoaccumbal and nigrostriatal projections are sensitive to stress, and heightened stress sensitivity is thought to confer risk for neuropsychiatric disorders. Serotonin 2C (5-HT(2C)) receptors mediate the inhibitory effects of serotonin on dopaminergic circuitry in experimental animals, and preclinical findings have implicated 5-HT(2C) receptors in motivated behaviors and psychotropic drug mechanisms. In humans, a common missense single-nucleotide change (rs6318, Cys23Ser) in the 5-HT(2C) receptor gene (HTR2C) has been associated with altered activity in vitro and with clinical mood disorders. We hypothesized that dopaminergic circuitry would be more sensitive to stress in humans carrying the Ser23 variant. To test this hypothesis, we studied 54 healthy humans using positron emission tomography and the displaceable D(2)/D(3) receptor radiotracer [(11)C]raclopride. Binding potential (BP(ND)) was quantified before and after a standardized stress challenge consisting of 20 min of moderate deep muscular pain, and reduction in BP(ND) served as an index of dopamine release. The Cys23Ser variant was genotyped on a custom array, and ancestry informative markers were used to control for population stratification. We found greater dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens, caudate nucleus, and putamen among Ser23 carriers, after controlling for sex, age, and ancestry. Genotype accounted for 12% of the variance in dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens. There was no association of Cys23Ser with baseline BP(ND). These findings indicate that a putatively functional HTR2C variant (Ser23) is associated with greater striatal dopamine release during pain in healthy humans. Mesoaccumbal stress sensitivity may mediate the effects of HTR2C variation on risk of neuropsychiatric disorders.

  17. An inquiry into the semiquantitative parameters of striatal dopamine receptor imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Guoxiang; Tan Tianzhi; Kuang Anren; Liang Zhenglu

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To inquire into the optimal striatal reference region for nonspecific IBZM uptake in brain dopamine receptor imaging. Methods: Using in vivo data from rats, the authors compared the results of 125 I-iodobenzamide ( 125 I-IBZM) striatal specific binding that were respectively obtained taking cerebellum and frontal cortex as striatal reference region of nonspecific uptake of ligand. Results: Radioiodination labelled IBZM bound stereoselectively and reversibly to striatal D2 receptors. Frontal cortex and cerebellum showed rapid uptake and rapid washout of ligand. When cerebellar uptake was used as a reference of nonspecific uptake in striatum, IBZM saturation could not be demonstrated. But when the frontal cortex was used as reference region, saturation could be demonstrated with B max = 44 pmol/g striatum tissue. The percentage of haloperidol replacement and the percentage of uptake difference between striatum and other brain regions which were derived from competitive inhibition experiments with a large does of spiperone or haloperidol, suggested that the cerebellar uptake underestimated nonspecific uptake in the striatum while frontal cortex was an appropriate reference region for nonspecific uptake of ligand in striatum. Conclusions: For the calculation of specific IBZM binding and other semiquantitative parameters of striatal dopamine D2 receptor imaging, frontal cortex would be the nonspecific reference region of choice

  18. Reduced striatal dopamine D2/3 receptor availability in Body Dysmorphic Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vulink, Nienke C; Planting, Robin S; Figee, Martijn; Booij, Jan; Denys, Damiaan

    2016-02-01

    Though the dopaminergic system is implicated in Obsessive Compulsive and Related Disorders (OCRD), the dopaminergic system has never been investigated in-vivo in Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD). In line with consistent findings of reduced striatal dopamine D2/3 receptor availability in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD), we hypothesized that the dopamine D2/3 receptor availability in the striatum will be lower in patients with BDD in comparison to healthy subjects. Striatal dopamine D2/3 receptor Binding Potential (BPND) was examined in 12 drug-free BDD patients and 12 control subjects pairwise matched by age, sex, and handedness using [(123)I]iodobenzamide Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT; bolus/constant infusion technique). Regions of interest were the caudate nucleus and the putamen. BPND was calculated as the ratio of specific striatal to binding in the occipital cortex (representing nonspecific binding). Compared to controls, dopamine D2/3 receptor BPND was significantly lower in BDD, both in the putamen (p=0.017) and caudate nucleus (p=0.022). This study provides the first evidence of a disturbed dopaminergic system in BDD patients. Although previously BDD was classified as a separate disorder (somatoform disorder), our findings give pathophysiological support for the recent reclassification of BDD to the OCRD in DSM-5. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  19. Chronic exposure to dopamine agonists affects the integrity of striatal D2 receptors in Parkinson's patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marios Politis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to investigate the integrity and clinical relevance of striatal dopamine receptor type-2 (D2R availability in Parkinson's disease (PD patients. We studied 68 PD patients, spanning from early to advanced disease stages, and 12 healthy controls. All participants received one [11C]raclopride PET scan in an OFF medication condition for quantification of striatal D2R availability in vivo. Parametric images of [11C]raclopride non-displaceable binding potential were generated from the dynamic [11C]raclopride scans using implementation of the simplified reference tissue model with cerebellum as the reference tissue. PET data were interrogated for correlations with clinical data related to disease burden and dopaminergic treatment. PD patients showed a mean 16.7% decrease in caudate D2R and a mean 3.5% increase in putaminal D2R availability compared to healthy controls. Lower caudate [11C]raclopride BPND correlated with longer PD duration. PD patients on dopamine agonist treatment had 9.2% reduced D2R availability in the caudate and 12.8% in the putamen compared to PD patients who never received treatment with dopamine agonists. Higher amounts of lifetime dopamine agonist therapy correlated with reduced D2Rs availability in both caudate and putamen. No associations between striatal D2R availability and levodopa treatment and dyskinesias were found. In advancing PD the caudate and putamen D2R availability are differentially affected. Chronic exposure to treatment with dopamine agonists, but no levodopa, suppresses striatal D2R availability, which may have relevance to output signaling to frontal lobes and the occurrence of executive deficits, but not dyskinesias.

  20. Striatal dopamine release induced by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over dorsolateral prefrontal cortex: effect of aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, Seong Ae; Cho, Sang Soo; Yoon, Eun Jin; Kim, Ji Sun; Lee, Byung Chul; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Kim, Sang Eun

    2007-01-01

    We previously demonstrated dopamine (DA) release in the bilateral striatal regions following prefrontal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in young subjects. Several lines of evidence support substantial age-related changes in human dopaminergic neurotransmission. One possible explanation is alteration of cortico striatal neural connection with aging. Therefore, we investigated how frontal activation by rTMS influences striatal DA release in the elderly with SPECT measurements of striatal binding of [123I]iodobenzamide (lBZM), a DA D2 receptor radioligand that is sensitive to endogenous DA. Five healthy elderly male subjects (age, 64 3 y) were studied with brain [123I]IBZM SPECT under three conditions (resting, sham stimulation, and active rTMS over left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC)), while receiving a bolus plus constant infusion of [123I]IBZM. rTMS session consisted of three blocks. In each block, 15 trains of 2 sec duration were delivered with 10 Hz stimulation frequency and 100% motor threshold. Striatal V3', calculated as (striatal - occipital)/occipital radioactivity, was measured under equilibrium condition at baseline and after sham and active rTMS. Sham stimulation did not affect striatal V3'. rTMS over left DLPFC induced no significant change in V3' in the right striatum compared with baseline condition (0.91 0.25 vs. 0.96 0.25, P = NS). Interestingly, left striatal V3' showed a significant increase after rTMS over left DLPFC compared with sham condition (1.09 0.33 vs. 0.93 0.27, P < 0.05; 17.0 11.1% increase). These results are discrepant from previous ones from young subjects, who showed frontal rTMS-induced reduction of striatal V3', indicating rTMS-induced striatal DA release. We found no significant striatal DA release induced by rTMS over DLPFC in healthy elderly subjects using in vivo binding competition techniques. These results may support an altered cortico striatal circuit in normal aging

  1. Striatal dopamine release induced by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over dorsolateral prefrontal cortex: effect of aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Seong Ae; Cho, Sang Soo; Yoon, Eun Jin; Kim, Ji Sun; Lee, Byung Chul; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    We previously demonstrated dopamine (DA) release in the bilateral striatal regions following prefrontal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in young subjects. Several lines of evidence support substantial age-related changes in human dopaminergic neurotransmission. One possible explanation is alteration of cortico striatal neural connection with aging. Therefore, we investigated how frontal activation by rTMS influences striatal DA release in the elderly with SPECT measurements of striatal binding of [123I]iodobenzamide (lBZM), a DA D2 receptor radioligand that is sensitive to endogenous DA. Five healthy elderly male subjects (age, 64 3 y) were studied with brain [123I]IBZM SPECT under three conditions (resting, sham stimulation, and active rTMS over left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC)), while receiving a bolus plus constant infusion of [123I]IBZM. rTMS session consisted of three blocks. In each block, 15 trains of 2 sec duration were delivered with 10 Hz stimulation frequency and 100% motor threshold. Striatal V3', calculated as (striatal - occipital)/occipital radioactivity, was measured under equilibrium condition at baseline and after sham and active rTMS. Sham stimulation did not affect striatal V3'. rTMS over left DLPFC induced no significant change in V3' in the right striatum compared with baseline condition (0.91 0.25 vs. 0.96 0.25, P = NS). Interestingly, left striatal V3' showed a significant increase after rTMS over left DLPFC compared with sham condition (1.09 0.33 vs. 0.93 0.27, P < 0.05; 17.0 11.1% increase). These results are discrepant from previous ones from young subjects, who showed frontal rTMS-induced reduction of striatal V3', indicating rTMS-induced striatal DA release. We found no significant striatal DA release induced by rTMS over DLPFC in healthy elderly subjects using in vivo binding competition techniques. These results may support an altered cortico striatal circuit in normal aging.

  2. Detection of phasic dopamine by D1 and D2 striatal medium spiny neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yapo, Cedric; Nair, Anu G; Clement, Lorna; Castro, Liliana R; Hellgren Kotaleski, Jeanette; Vincent, Pierre

    2017-12-15

    Brief dopamine events are critical actors of reward-mediated learning in the striatum; the intracellular cAMP-protein kinase A (PKA) response of striatal medium spiny neurons to such events was studied dynamically using a combination of biosensor imaging in mouse brain slices and in silico simulations. Both D1 and D2 medium spiny neurons can sense brief dopamine transients in the sub-micromolar range. While dopamine transients profoundly change cAMP levels in both types of medium spiny neurons, the PKA-dependent phosphorylation level remains unaffected in D2 neurons. At the level of PKA-dependent phosphorylation, D2 unresponsiveness depends on protein phosphatase-1 (PP1) inhibition by DARPP-32. Simulations suggest that D2 medium spiny neurons could detect transient dips in dopamine level. The phasic release of dopamine in the striatum determines various aspects of reward and action selection, but the dynamics of the dopamine effect on intracellular signalling remains poorly understood. We used genetically encoded FRET biosensors in striatal brain slices to quantify the effect of transient dopamine on cAMP or PKA-dependent phosphorylation levels, and computational modelling to further explore the dynamics of this signalling pathway. Medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs), which express either D 1 or D 2 dopamine receptors, responded to dopamine by an increase or a decrease in cAMP, respectively. Transient dopamine showed similar sub-micromolar efficacies on cAMP in both D1 and D2 MSNs, thus challenging the commonly accepted notion that dopamine efficacy is much higher on D 2 than on D 1 receptors. However, in D2 MSNs, the large decrease in cAMP level triggered by transient dopamine did not translate to a decrease in PKA-dependent phosphorylation level, owing to the efficient inhibition of protein phosphatase 1 by DARPP-32. Simulations further suggested that D2 MSNs can also operate in a 'tone-sensing' mode, allowing them to detect transient dips in basal dopamine

  3. Effect of in vitro inorganic lead on dopamine release from superfused rat striatal synaptosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minnema, D.J.; Greenland, R.D.; Michaelson, I.A.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of inorganic lead in vitro in several aspects of [ 3 H]dopamine release from superfused rat striatal synaptosomes was examined. Under conditions of spontaneous release, lead (1-30 microM) induced dopamine release in a concentration-dependent manner. The onset of the lead-induced release was delayed by approximately 15-30 sec. The magnitude of dopamine release induced by lead was increased when calcium was removed from the superfusing buffer. Lead-induced release was unaffected in the presence of putative calcium, sodium, and/or potassium channel blockers (nickel, tetrodotoxin, tetraethylammonium, respectively). Depolarization-evoked dopamine release, produced by a 1-sec exposure to 61 mM potassium, was diminished at calcium concentrations below 0.254 mM. The onset of depolarization-evoked release was essentially immediate following exposure of the synaptosomes to high potassium. The combination of lead (3 or 10 microM) with high potassium reduced the magnitude of depolarization-evoked dopamine release. This depression of depolarization-evoked release by lead was greater in the presence of 0.25 mM than 2.54 mM calcium in the superfusing buffer. These findings demonstrate multiple actions of lead on synaptosomal dopamine release. Lead can induce dopamine release by yet unidentified neuronal mechanisms independent of external calcium. Lead can also reduce depolarization-evoked dopamine release by apparent competition with calcium influx at the neuronal membrane calcium channel

  4. Overeating Behavior and Striatal Dopamine with 6-[18F]-Fluoro-L--Tyrosine PET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire E. Wilcox

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Eating behavior may be affected by dopamine synthesis capacity. In this study, 6-[18F]-fluoro-L--tyrosine (FMT positron emission tomography (PET uptake in striatal subregions was correlated with BMI (kg/m2 and an estimate of the frequency of prior weight loss attempts in 15 healthy subjects. BMI was negatively correlated with FMT uptake in the dorsal caudate. Although the association between BMI and FMT uptake in the dorsal caudate was not significant upon correction for age and sex, the association fell within the range of a statistical trend. Weight loss attempts divided by years trying was also negatively correlated with FMT uptake in the dorsal putamen (=.05. These results suggest an association between low dorsal striatal presynaptic dopamine synthesis capacity and overeating behavior.

  5. Dopamine D2 receptors in striatal output neurons enable the psychomotor effects of cocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharkwal, Geetika; Radl, Daniela; Lewis, Robert; Borrelli, Emiliana

    2016-10-11

    The psychomotor effects of cocaine are mediated by dopamine (DA) through stimulation of striatal circuits. Gabaergic striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) are the only output of this pivotal structure in the control of movements. The majority of MSNs express either the DA D1 or D2 receptors (D1R, D2R). Studies have shown that the motor effect of cocaine depends on the DA-mediated stimulation of D1R-expressing MSNs (dMSNs), which is mirrored at the cellular level by stimulation of signaling pathways leading to phosphorylation of ERKs and induction of c-fos Nevertheless, activation of dMSNs by cocaine is necessary but not sufficient, and D2R signaling is required for the behavioral and cellular effects of cocaine. Indeed, cocaine motor effects and activation of signaling in dMSNs are blunted in mice with the constitutive knockout of D2R (D2RKO). Using mouse lines with a cell-specific knockout of D2R either in MSNs (MSN-D2RKO) or in dopaminergic neurons (DA-D2RKO), we show that D2R signaling in MSNs is required and permissive for the motor stimulant effects of cocaine and the activation of signaling in dMSNs. MSN-D2RKO mice show the same phenotype as constitutive D2RKO mice both at the behavioral and cellular levels. Importantly, activation of signaling in dMSNs by cocaine is rescued by intrastriatal injection of the GABA antagonist, bicuculline. These results are in support of intrastriatal connections of D2R + -MSNs (iMSNs) with dMSNs and indicate that D2R signaling in MSNs is critical for the function of intrastriatal circuits.

  6. Behavioral control by striatal adenosine A2A -dopamine D2 receptor heteromers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taura, J; Valle-León, M; Sahlholm, K; Watanabe, M; Van Craenenbroeck, K; Fernández-Dueñas, V; Ferré, S; Ciruela, F

    2018-04-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) exhibit the ability to form receptor complexes that include molecularly different GPCR (ie, GPCR heteromers), which endow them with singular functional and pharmacological characteristics. The relative expression of GPCR heteromers remains a matter of intense debate. Recent studies support that adenosine A 2A receptors (A 2A R) and dopamine D 2 receptors (D 2 R) predominantly form A 2A R-D 2 R heteromers in the striatum. The aim of the present study was evaluating the behavioral effects of pharmacological manipulation and genetic blockade of A 2A R and D 2 R within the frame of such a predominant striatal heteromeric population. First, in order to avoid possible strain-related differences, a new D 2 R-deficient mouse with the same genetic background (CD-1) than the A 2A R knock-out mouse was generated. Locomotor activity, pre-pulse inhibition (PPI) and drug-induced catalepsy were then evaluated in wild-type, A 2A R and D 2 R knock-out mice, with and without the concomitant administration of either the D 2 R agonist sumanirole or the A 2A R antagonist SCH442416. SCH442416-mediated locomotor effects were demonstrated to be dependent on D 2 R signaling. Similarly, a significant dependence on A 2A R signaling was observed for PPI and for haloperidol-induced catalepsy. The results could be explained by the existence of one main population of striatal postsynaptic A 2A R-D 2 R heteromers, which may constitute a relevant target for the treatment of Parkinson's disease and other neuropsychiatric disorders. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  7. Rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder and striatal dopamine depletion in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, S J; Lee, Y; Lee, J J; Lee, P H; Sohn, Y H

    2017-10-01

    Rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) is related to striatal dopamine depletion. This study was performed to confirm whether clinically probable RBD (cpRBD) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with a specific pattern of striatal dopamine depletion. A prospective survey was conducted using the RBD Screening Questionnaire (RBDSQ) in 122 patients with PD who had undergone dopamine transporter (DAT) positron emission tomography scan. Patients with cpRBD (RBDSQ ≥ 7) exhibited greater motor deficits, predominantly in the less-affected side and axial symptoms, and were prescribed higher levodopa-equivalent doses at follow-up than those without cpRBD (RBDSQ ≤ 4), despite their similar disease and treatment durations. Compared to patients without cpRBD, those with cpRBD showed lower DAT activities in the putamen, particularly in the less-affected side in all putaminal subregions, and a tendency to be lower in the ventral striatum. In addition, greater motor deficits in patients with cpRBD than in those without cpRBD remained significant after controlling for DAT binding in the putamen and other confounding variables. These results demonstrated that the presence of RBD in patients with PD is associated with different patterns of both motor deficit distribution and striatal DAT depletion, suggesting that the presence of RBD represents a distinct PD subtype with a malignant motor parkinsonism. © 2017 EAN.

  8. Gender Differences in Age-Related Striatal Dopamine Depletion in Parkinson’s Disease

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    Jae Jung Lee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective Gender differences are a well-known clinical characteristic of Parkinson’s disease (PD. In-vivo imaging studies demonstrated that women have greater striatal dopamine transporter (DAT activity than do men, both in the normal population and in PD patients. We hypothesize that women exhibit more rapid aging-related striatal DAT reduction than do men, as the potential neuroprotective effect of estrogen wanes with age. Methods This study included 307 de novo PD patients (152 men and 155 women who underwent DAT scans for an initial diagnostic work-up. Gender differences in age-related DAT decline were assessed in striatal sub-regions using linear regression analysis. Results Female patients exhibited greater DAT activity compared with male patients in all striatal sub-regions. The linear regression analysis revealed that age-related DAT decline was greater in the anterior and posterior caudate, and the anterior putamen in women compared with men; we did not observe this difference in other sub-regions. Conclusions This study demonstrated the presence of gender differences in age-related DAT decline in striatal sub-regions, particularly in the antero-dorsal striatum, in patients with PD, presumably due to aging-related decrease in estrogen. Because this difference was not observed in the sensorimotor striatum, this finding also suggests that women may not have a greater capacity to tolerate PD pathogenesis than do men.

  9. Striatal Dopamine Depletion Patterns and Early Non-Motor Burden in Parkinsons Disease.

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    Su Jin Chung

    Full Text Available The mechanism underlying non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease has not yet been elucidated. In this study, we hypothesized that Parkinson patients with more non-motor symptoms have a different pattern of striatal dopamine depletion, particularly in areas other than the sensorimotor striatum, compared to those with fewer non-motor symptoms.We conducted a prospective survey of the degree of non-motor symptoms (using the Korean version of the Non-Motor Symptoms Scale; K-NMSS in 151 patients with early-stage Parkinson's disease who had undergone a dopamine transporter PET scan as an initial diagnostic procedure. We classified the patients into two groups; high non-motor patients (HNM-PD; K-NMSS score ≥ 41 and low non-motor patients (LNM-PD.Patients in the HNM-PD group (n = 71 were older, had longer symptom duration, exhibited more severe motor deficits, and had been prescribed higher levodopa-equivalent doses at follow-up than those in the LNM-PD group. However, dopamine transporter binding to the striatal sub-regions and inter-sub-regional binding ratios were comparable between the two groups. A general linear model showed that the HNM-PD group had significantly more severe motor deficits than the LNM-PD group after controlling for age, gender, symptom duration, and dopamine transporter binding to the sensorimotor striatum.This study demonstrated that the pattern of striatal dopamine depletion does not contribute to early non-motor burden in Parkinson's disease. Our results suggest that LNM-PD patients may have a more benign course of motor symptom progression than HNM-PD patients.

  10. Striatal and extra-striatal dopamine transporter in cannabis and tobacco addiction: a high resolution PET study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroy, C.; Martinot, J.L.; Duchesnay, E.; Artiges, E.; Ribeiro, M.J.; Trichard, Ch.; Karila, L.; Lukasiewicz, M.; Benyamina, A.; Reynaud, M.; Martinot, J.L.; Duchesnay, E.; Artiges, E.; Comtat, C.; Artiges, E.; Trichard, Ch.

    2011-01-01

    The dopamine (DA) system is known to be involved in the reward and dependence mechanisms of addiction. However, modifications in dopaminergic neurotransmission associated with long-term tobacco and cannabis use have been poorly documented in vivo. In order to assess striatal and extra-striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) availability in tobacco and cannabis addiction, three groups of male age-matched subjects were compared: 11 healthy non-smoker subjects, 14 tobacco-dependent smokers (17.6 ± 5.3 cigarettes/day for 12.1 ± 8.5 years) and 13 cannabis and tobacco smokers (CTS) (4.8 ± 5.3 cannabis joints/day for 8.7 ± 3.9 years). DAT availability was examined in positron emission tomography (HRRT) with a high resolution research tomograph after injection of [ 11 C]PE2I, a selective DAT radioligand. Region of interest and voxel-by-voxel approaches using a simplified reference tissue model were performed for the between-group comparison of DAT availability. Measurements in the dorsal striatum from both analyses were concordant and showed a mean 20% lower DAT availability in drug users compared with controls. Whole-brain analysis also revealed lower DAT availability in the ventral striatum, the midbrain, the middle cingulate and the thalamus (ranging from -15 to -30%). The DAT availability was slightly lower in all regions in CTS than in subjects who smoke tobacco only, but the difference does not reach a significant level. These results support the existence of a decrease in DAT availability associated with tobacco and cannabis addictions involving all dopaminergic brain circuits. These findings are consistent with the idea of a global decrease in cerebral DA activity in dependent subjects. (authors)

  11. Adenosine Receptor Heteromers and their Integrative Role in Striatal Function

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    Sergi Ferré

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available By analyzing the functional role of adenosine receptor heteromers, we review a series of new concepts that should modify our classical views of neurotransmission in the central nervous system (CNS. Neurotransmitter receptors cannot be considered as single functional units anymore. Heteromerization of neurotransmitter receptors confers functional entities that possess different biochemical characteristics with respect to the individual components of the heteromer. Some of these characteristics can be used as a “biochemical fingerprint” to identify neurotransmitter receptor heteromers in the CNS. This is exemplified by changes in binding characteristics that are dependent on coactivation of the receptor units of different adenosine receptor heteromers. Neurotransmitter receptor heteromers can act as “processors” of computations that modulate cell signaling, sometimes critically involved in the control of pre- and postsynaptic neurotransmission. For instance, the adenosine A1-A2A receptor heteromer acts as a concentration-dependent switch that controls striatal glutamatergic neurotransmission. Neurotransmitter receptor heteromers play a particularly important integrative role in the “local module” (the minimal portion of one or more neurons and/or one or more glial cells that operates as an independent integrative unit, where they act as processors mediating computations that convey information from diverse volume-transmitted signals. For instance, the adenosine A2A-dopamine D2 receptor heteromers work as integrators of two different neurotransmitters in the striatal spine module.

  12. 125I-β-CIT imaging study of striatal dopamine transporters in mice model of parkinsonism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhenguo; Sun Wenshan; Weng Zhongfang; Chen Shengdi; Shen Minghua; Zhu Chengmo

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To detect the activity of striatal dopamine transporters (DAT) in lesions of different order of severity of MPTP-induced mice model of parkinsonism by autoradiography with 125 I-β-CIT and to evaluate the clinical use of the β-CIT imaging for DAT detection. Methods: With regard to the different duration (days) of MPTP treatment, the C57BL mice were randomly divided into 5 groups, that is MPTP 1, 3, 5 and 7 day groups and control group treated with normal saline instead of MPTP. Two hours after intravenous administration with 125 I-β-CIT of 148 kBq, the brain tissue sections were imaged by autoradiography. The levels of dopamine (DA) and its metabolites were measured by high performance liquid chromatography and electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD). The tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive cells and fibres in the substantia nigra and striatum of the mice were observed by means of immunohistochemical technique. Results: As compared with control group, the radioactivity ratios of striatum to cortex (ST/CX) in 4 MPTP-treated groups were significantly reduced, by 20%, 42%, 45% and 52%, respectively. The concentrations of DA in the striatum of 4 MPTP-treated groups were remarkably decreased, by 47%, 75%, 95% and 95%, respectively. The gradual loss of DA neurons and fibres in the substantia nigra and striatum in 4 MPTP-treated groups was observed under microscopy. Conclusions: The functional abnormality of DAT paralleled the changes observed in neurochemistry and neuropathology studies in the lesions of different order of injury of the MPTP-treated mice. The β-CIT scanning for the activity of DAT may be useful for diagnosing PD at earlier phase and for monitoring the progression of the disease

  13. Striatal dopamine transmission is subtly modified in human A53Tα-synuclein overexpressing mice.

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    Nicola J Platt

    Full Text Available Mutations in, or elevated dosage of, SNCA, the gene for α-synuclein (α-syn, cause familial Parkinson's disease (PD. Mouse lines overexpressing the mutant human A53Tα-syn may represent a model of early PD. They display progressive motor deficits, abnormal cellular accumulation of α-syn, and deficits in dopamine-dependent corticostriatal plasticity, which, in the absence of overt nigrostriatal degeneration, suggest there are age-related deficits in striatal dopamine (DA signalling. In addition A53Tα-syn overexpression in cultured rodent neurons has been reported to inhibit transmitter release. Therefore here we have characterized for the first time DA release in the striatum of mice overexpressing human A53Tα-syn, and explored whether A53Tα-syn overexpression causes deficits in the release of DA. We used fast-scan cyclic voltammetry to detect DA release at carbon-fibre microelectrodes in acute striatal slices from two different lines of A53Tα-syn-overexpressing mice, at up to 24 months. In A53Tα-syn overexpressors, mean DA release evoked by a single stimulus pulse was not different from wild-types, in either dorsal striatum or nucleus accumbens. However the frequency responsiveness of DA release was slightly modified in A53Tα-syn overexpressors, and in particular showed slight deficiency when the confounding effects of striatal ACh acting at presynaptic nicotinic receptors (nAChRs were antagonized. The re-release of DA was unmodified after single-pulse stimuli, but after prolonged stimulation trains, A53Tα-syn overexpressors showed enhanced recovery of DA release at old age, in keeping with elevated striatal DA content. In summary, A53Tα-syn overexpression in mice causes subtle changes in the regulation of DA release in the striatum. While modest, these modifications may indicate or contribute to striatal dysfunction.

  14. Striatal dopamine D2/3 receptor availability in treatment resistant depression.

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    Bart P de Kwaasteniet

    Full Text Available Several studies demonstrated improvement of depressive symptoms in treatment resistant depression (TRD after administering dopamine agonists which suggest abnormal dopaminergic neurotransmission in TRD. However, the role of dopaminergic signaling through measurement of striatal dopamine D(2/3 receptor (D2/3R binding has not been investigated in TRD subjects. We used [(123I]IBZM single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT to investigate striatal D2/3R binding in TRD. We included 6 severe TRD patients, 11 severe TRD patients on antipsychotics (TRD AP group and 15 matched healthy controls. Results showed no significant difference (p = 0.75 in striatal D2/3R availability was found between TRD patients and healthy controls. In the TRD AP group D2/3R availability was significantly decreased (reflecting occupancy of D2/3Rs by antipsychotics relative to TRD patients and healthy controls (p<0.001 but there were no differences in clinical symptoms between TRD AP and TRD patients. This preliminary study therefore does not provide evidence for large differences in D2/3 availability in severe TRD patients and suggests this TRD subgroup is not characterized by altered dopaminergic transmission. Atypical antipsychotics appear to have no clinical benefit in severe TRD patients who remain depressed, despite their strong occupancy of D2/3Rs.

  15. Repeated cocaine administration results in supersensitivity of striatal D-2 dopamine autoreceptors to pergolide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwoskin, L.P.; Peris, J.; Yasuda, R.P.; Philpott, K.; Zahniser, N.R.

    1988-01-01

    Groups of rats administered cocaine-HCl (10 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline either acutely or once daily for 8 or 14 days were killed 24 hrs after the last dose. In striatal slices prelabelled with [ 3 H]DA, modulation of [ 3 H]-overflow by pergolide was used to measure D-2 autoreceptor activity. Compared to the contemporaneous control group pergolide produced a greater inhibition only in striatal slices from rats treated repeatedly with cocaine. In radioligand binding studies using striatal membranes from control rats, pergolide had a 500-fold greater affinity for the D-2, as opposed to the D-1, dopamine (DA) receptor subtype. These results indicate that repeated treatment with cocaine produces supersensitive striatal D-2 release-modulating autoreceptors consistent with a compensatory change to diminish the effect of elevated synaptic concentrations of DA produced by cocaine. In contrast, supersensitivity of D-2 receptors was not detected in [ 3 H]spiperone binding assays. 31 references, 2 figures, 1 table

  16. Diet-induced obesity: dopamine transporter function, impulsivity and motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanaswami, V; Thompson, A C; Cassis, L A; Bardo, M T; Dwoskin, L P

    2013-08-01

    A rat model of diet-induced obesity (DIO) was used to determine dopamine transporter (DAT) function, impulsivity and motivation as neurobehavioral outcomes and predictors of obesity. To evaluate neurobehavioral alterations following the development of DIO induced by an 8-week high-fat diet (HF) exposure, striatal D2-receptor density, DAT function and expression, extracellular dopamine concentrations, impulsivity, and motivation for high- and low-fat reinforcers were determined. To determine predictors of DIO, neurobehavioral antecedents including impulsivity, motivation for high-fat reinforcers, DAT function and extracellular dopamine were evaluated before the 8-week HF exposure. Striatal D2-receptor density was determined by in vitro kinetic analysis of [(3)H]raclopride binding. DAT function was determined using in vitro kinetic analysis of [(3)H]dopamine uptake, methamphetamine-evoked [(3)H]dopamine overflow and no-net flux in vivo microdialysis. DAT cell-surface expression was determined using biotinylation and western blotting. Impulsivity and food-motivated behavior were determined using a delay discounting task and progressive ratio schedule, respectively. Relative to obesity-resistant (OR) rats, obesity-prone (OP) rats exhibited 18% greater body weight following an 8-week HF-diet exposure, 42% lower striatal D2-receptor density, 30% lower total DAT expression, 40% lower in vitro and in vivo DAT function, 45% greater extracellular dopamine and twofold greater methamphetamine-evoked [(3)H]dopamine overflow. OP rats exhibited higher motivation for food, and surprisingly, were less impulsive relative to OR rats. Impulsivity, in vivo DAT function and extracellular dopamine concentration did not predict DIO. Importantly, motivation for high-fat reinforcers predicted the development of DIO. Human studies are limited by their ability to determine if impulsivity, motivation and DAT function are causes or consequences of DIO. The current animal model shows that

  17. Pre-existing differences and diet-induced alterations in striatal dopamine systems of obesity-prone rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollbrecht, Peter J; Mabrouk, Omar S; Nelson, Andrew D; Kennedy, Robert T; Ferrario, Carrie R

    2016-03-01

    Interactions between pre-existing differences in mesolimbic function and neuroadaptations induced by consumption of fatty, sugary foods are thought to contribute to human obesity. This study examined basal and cocaine-induced changes in striatal neurotransmitter levels without diet manipulation and D2 /D3 dopamine receptor-mediated transmission prior to and after consumption of "junk-foods" in obesity-prone and obesity-resistant rats. Microdialysis and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry were used to determine basal and cocaine-induced changes in neurotransmitter levels in real time with cocaine-induced locomotor activity. Sensitivity to the D2 /D3 dopamine receptor agonist quinpirole was examined before and after restricted junk-food exposure. Selectively bred obesity-prone and obesity-resistant rats were used. Cocaine-induced locomotion was greater in obesity-prone rats versus obesity-resistant rats prior to diet manipulation. Basal and cocaine-induced increases in dopamine and serotonin levels did not differ. Obesity-prone rats were more sensitive to the D2 receptor-mediated effects of quinpirole, and junk-food produced modest alterations in quinpirole sensitivity in obesity-resistant rats. These data show that mesolimbic systems differ prior to diet manipulation in susceptible versus resistant rats, and that consumption of fatty, sugary foods produce different neuroadaptations in these populations. These differences may contribute to enhanced food craving and an inability to limit food intake in susceptible individuals. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  18. Striatal dopamine D2/3 receptor regulation by stress inoculation in squirrel monkeys

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    Alex G. Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent mildly stressful situations provide opportunities to learn, practice, and improve coping in a process called stress inoculation. Stress inoculation also enhances cognitive control and response inhibition of impulsive motivated behavior. Cognitive control and motivation have been linked to striatal dopamine D2 and/or D3 receptors (DRD2/3 in rodents, monkeys, and humans. Here, we study squirrel monkeys randomized early in life to stress inoculation with or without maternal companionship and a no-stress control treatment condition. Striatal DRD2/3 availability in adulthood was measured in vivo by [11C]raclopride binding using positron emission tomography (PET. DRD2/3 availability was greater in caudate and putamen compared to ventral striatum as reported in PET studies of humans and other non-human primates. DRD2/3 availability in ventral striatum was also consistently greater in stress inoculated squirrel monkeys compared to no-stress controls. Squirrel monkeys exposed to stress inoculation in the presence of their mother did not differ from squirrel monkeys exposed to stress inoculation without maternal companionship. Similar effects in different social contexts extend the generality of our findings and together suggest that stress inoculation increases striatal DRD2/3 availability as a correlate of cognitive control in squirrel monkeys.

  19. Tamoxifen counteracts estradiol induced effects on striatal and hypophyseal dopamine receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferretti, C.; Blengio, M.; Ghi, P.; Racca, S.; Genazzani, E.; Portaleone, P.

    1988-01-01

    We investigated the ability of Tamoxifen (TAM), an antiestrogen drug, to counteract the modification induced by estrogens on dopamine (DA) receptors on striatum and on adenohypophysis of ovex female rats. Subacute treatment with 17..beta..-estradiol (E/sub 2/) at both low (0.1 ..mu..g/kg) and high (20 ..mu..g/kg) doses confirmed its ability to increase the number of striatal /sup 3/H-Spiperone (/sup 3/H-SPI) binding sites in a dose dependent manner. By contrast in the pituitary, only high doses of estrogen were effective in reducing the number of DA receptors. We treated ovex female rats for 15 days with TAM alone or associated with E/sub 2/, to see if these estrogenic effects could be suppressed by an antiestrogenic drug. TAM did not affect the number of striatal DA receptors, but significantly increased the adenohypophy-seal DA binding sites, without varying their affinity. No changes were observed in pituitary and striatal DA receptor density, even when TAM was injected in association with estradiol. In conclusions: TAM is able to counteract the effects estrogens have on DA receptors. However there is some evidence that it could influence the pituitary DA systems independently of it antiestrogenic activity.

  20. Tamoxifen counteracts estradiol induced effects on striatal and hypophyseal dopamine receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferretti, C.; Blengio, M.; Ghi, P.; Racca, S.; Genazzani, E.; Portaleone, P.

    1988-01-01

    We investigated the ability of Tamoxifen (TAM), an antiestrogen drug, to counteract the modification induced by estrogens on dopamine (DA) receptors on striatum and on adenohypophysis of ovex female rats. Subacute treatment with 17β-estradiol (E 2 ) at both low (0.1 μg/kg) and high (20 μg/kg) doses confirmed its ability to increase the number of striatal 3 H-Spiperone ( 3 H-SPI) binding sites in a dose dependent manner. By contrast in the pituitary, only high doses of estrogen were effective in reducing the number of DA receptors. We treated ovex female rats for 15 days with TAM alone or associated with E 2 , to see if these estrogenic effects could be suppressed by an antiestrogenic drug. TAM did not affect the number of striatal DA receptors, but significantly increased the adenohypophy-seal DA binding sites, without varying their affinity. No changes were observed in pituitary and striatal DA receptor density, even when TAM was injected in association with estradiol. In conclusions: TAM is able to counteract the effects estrogens have on DA receptors. However there is some evidence that it could influence the pituitary DA systems independently of it antiestrogenic activity

  1. The effects of gestational and chronic atrazine exposure on motor behaviors and striatal dopamine in male Sprague-Dawley rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walters, Jennifer L.; Lansdell, Theresa A.; Lookingland, Keith J.; Baker, Lisa E.

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to investigate the effects of environmentally relevant gestational followed by continued chronic exposure to the herbicide, atrazine, on motor function, cognition, and neurochemical indices of nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) activity in male rats. Dams were treated with 100 μg/kg atrazine, 10 mg/kg atrazine, or vehicle on gestational day 1 through postnatal day 21. Upon weaning, male offspring continued daily vehicle or atrazine gavage treatments for an additional six months. Subjects were tested in a series of behavioral assays, and 24 h after the last treatment, tissue samples from the striatum were analyzed for DA and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC). At 10 mg/kg, this herbicide was found to produce modest disruptions in motor functioning, and at both dose levels it significantly lowered striatal DA and DOPAC concentrations. These results suggest that exposures to atrazine have the potential to disrupt nigrostriatal DA neurons and behaviors associated with motor functioning. - Highlights: • Male rats received gestational and chronic exposure to ATZ (10 mg/kg and 100 μg/kg). • ATZ altered locomotor activity and impaired motor coordination. • ATZ lowered striatal DA and DOPAC concentrations. • ATZ produced a potential anxiogenic effect. • ATZ did not impair performance in learning and memory assessments.

  2. The effects of gestational and chronic atrazine exposure on motor behaviors and striatal dopamine in male Sprague-Dawley rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, Jennifer L., E-mail: Jennifer.l.walters@wmich.edu [Western Michigan University, Department of Psychology, 1903 W Michigan Ave, Kalamazoo, MI 49008-5439 (United States); Lansdell, Theresa A., E-mail: lansdel1@msu.edu [Michigan State University, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 1355 Bogue Street, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Lookingland, Keith J., E-mail: lookingl@msu.edu [Michigan State University, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 1355 Bogue Street, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Baker, Lisa E., E-mail: lisa.baker@wmich.edu [Western Michigan University, Department of Psychology, 1903 W Michigan Ave, Kalamazoo, MI 49008-5439 (United States)

    2015-12-01

    This study sought to investigate the effects of environmentally relevant gestational followed by continued chronic exposure to the herbicide, atrazine, on motor function, cognition, and neurochemical indices of nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) activity in male rats. Dams were treated with 100 μg/kg atrazine, 10 mg/kg atrazine, or vehicle on gestational day 1 through postnatal day 21. Upon weaning, male offspring continued daily vehicle or atrazine gavage treatments for an additional six months. Subjects were tested in a series of behavioral assays, and 24 h after the last treatment, tissue samples from the striatum were analyzed for DA and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC). At 10 mg/kg, this herbicide was found to produce modest disruptions in motor functioning, and at both dose levels it significantly lowered striatal DA and DOPAC concentrations. These results suggest that exposures to atrazine have the potential to disrupt nigrostriatal DA neurons and behaviors associated with motor functioning. - Highlights: • Male rats received gestational and chronic exposure to ATZ (10 mg/kg and 100 μg/kg). • ATZ altered locomotor activity and impaired motor coordination. • ATZ lowered striatal DA and DOPAC concentrations. • ATZ produced a potential anxiogenic effect. • ATZ did not impair performance in learning and memory assessments.

  3. Cue-induced striatal dopamine release in Parkinson's disease-associated impulsive-compulsive behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Sean S; Wu, Kit; Politis, Marios; Lawrence, Andrew D; Evans, Andrew H; Bose, Subrata K; Djamshidian, Atbin; Lees, Andrew J; Piccini, Paola

    2011-04-01

    Impulsive-compulsive behaviours are a significant source of morbidity for patients with Parkinson's disease receiving dopaminergic therapy. The development of these behaviours may reflect sensitization of the neural response to non-drug rewards, similar to that proposed for sensitization to drug rewards in addiction. Here, by using (11)C-raclopride positron emission tomography imaging, we investigated the effects of reward-related cues and L-dopa challenge in patients with Parkinson's disease with and without impulsive-compulsive behaviours on striatal levels of synaptic dopamine. Eighteen patients (11 with and seven without impulsive-compulsive behaviours) underwent three (11)C-raclopride positron emission tomography scans. The impulsive-compulsive behaviours included hypersexuality, binge eating, punding, compulsive use of dopamine replacement therapy, compulsive buying and pathological gambling, with eight patients exhibiting more than one impulsive-compulsive behaviour. There were no significant differences in baseline dopamine D2 receptor availability between the Parkinson's disease groups. No differences were found when comparing the percentage change of raclopride binding potential between the two Parkinson's disease groups following L-dopa challenge with neutral cues. The group with Parkinson's disease with impulsive-compulsive behaviours had a greater reduction of ventral striatum (11)C-raclopride binding potential following reward-related cue exposure, relative to neutral cue exposure, following L-dopa challenge (16.3% compared with 5.8% in Parkinson's disease controls, P = 0.016). The heightened response of striatal reward circuitry to heterogeneous reward-related visual cues among a group of patients with different impulsive-compulsive behaviours is consistent with a global sensitization to appetitive behaviours with dopaminergic therapy in vulnerable individuals. Our findings are relevant for the broader debate on the relation between impulsive

  4. Acute effect of intravenously applied alcohol in the human striatal and extrastriatal D2 /D3 dopamine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Philippe; Tüscher, Oliver; Buchholz, Hans Georg; Gründer, Gerhard; Vernaleken, Ingo; Paulzen, Michael; Zimmermann, Ulrich S; Maus, Stephan; Lieb, Klaus; Eggermann, Thomas; Fehr, Christoph; Schreckenberger, Mathias

    2017-09-01

    Investigations on the acute effects of alcohol in the human mesolimbic dopamine D 2 /D 3 receptor system have yielded conflicting results. With respect to the effects of alcohol on extrastriatal D 2 /D 3 dopamine receptors no investigations have been reported yet. Therefore we applied PET imaging using the postsynaptic dopamine D 2 /D 3 receptor ligand [ 18 F]fallypride addressing the question, whether intravenously applied alcohol stimulates the extrastriatal and striatal dopamine system. We measured subjective effects of alcohol and made correlation analyses with the striatal and extrastriatal D 2 /D 3 binding potential. Twenty-four healthy male μ-opioid receptor (OPRM1)118G allele carriers underwent a standardized intravenous and placebo alcohol administration. The subjective effects of alcohol were measured with a visual analogue scale. For the evaluation of the dopamine response we calculated the binding potential (BP ND ) by using the simplified reference tissue model (SRTM). In addition, we calculated distribution volumes (target and reference regions) in 10 subjects for which metabolite corrected arterial samples were available. In the alcohol condition no significant dopamine response in terms of a reduction of BP ND was observed in striatal and extrastriatal brain regions. We found a positive correlation for 'liking' alcohol and the BP ND in extrastriatal brain regions (Inferior frontal cortex (IFC) (r = 0.533, p = 0.007), orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) (r = 0.416, p = 0.043) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) (r = 0.625, p = 0.001)). The acute alcohol effects on the D 2 /D 3 dopamine receptor binding potential of the striatal and extrastriatal system in our experiment were insignificant. A positive correlation of the subjective effect of 'liking' alcohol with cortical D 2 /D 3 receptors may hint at an addiction relevant trait. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  5. Glutamatergic Tuning of Hyperactive Striatal Projection Neurons Controls the Motor Response to Dopamine Replacement in Parkinsonian Primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Arun; Jenkins, Meagan A; Burke, Kenneth J; Beck, Goichi; Jenkins, Andrew; Scimemi, Annalisa; Traynelis, Stephen F; Papa, Stella M

    2018-01-23

    Dopamine (DA) loss in Parkinson's disease (PD) alters the function of striatal projection neurons (SPNs) and causes motor deficits, but DA replacement can induce further abnormalities. A key pathological change in animal models and patients is SPN hyperactivity; however, the role of glutamate in altered DA responses remains elusive. We tested the effect of locally applied AMPAR or NMDAR antagonists on glutamatergic signaling in SPNs of parkinsonian primates. Following a reduction in basal hyperactivity by antagonists at either receptor, DA inputs induced SPN firing changes that were stable during the entire motor response, in clear contrast with the typically unstable effects. The SPN activity reduction over an extended putamenal area controlled the release of involuntary movements in the "on" state and therefore improved motor responses to DA replacement. These results demonstrate the pathophysiological role of upregulated SPN activity and support strategies to reduce striatal glutamate signaling for PD therapy. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Disease-toxicant interactions in manganese exposed Huntington disease mice: early changes in striatal neuron morphology and dopamine metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Madison

    Full Text Available YAC128 Huntington's disease (HD transgenic mice accumulate less manganese (Mn in the striatum relative to wild-type (WT littermates. We hypothesized that Mn and mutant Huntingtin (HTT would exhibit gene-environment interactions at the level of neurochemistry and neuronal morphology. Twelve-week-old WT and YAC128 mice were exposed to MnCl(2-4H(2O (50 mg/kg on days 0, 3 and 6. Striatal medium spiny neuron (MSN morphology, as well as levels of dopamine (DA and its metabolites (which are known to be sensitive to Mn-exposure, were analyzed at 13 weeks (7 days from initial exposure and 16 weeks (28 days from initial exposure. No genotype-dependent differences in MSN morphology were apparent at 13 weeks. But at 16 weeks, a genotype effect was observed in YAC128 mice, manifested by an absence of the wild-type age-dependent increase in dendritic length and branching complexity. In addition, genotype-exposure interaction effects were observed for dendritic complexity measures as a function of distance from the soma, where only YAC128 mice were sensitive to Mn exposure. Furthermore, striatal DA levels were unaltered at 13 weeks by genotype or Mn exposure, but at 16 weeks, both Mn exposure and the HD genotype were associated with quantitatively similar reductions in DA and its metabolites. Interestingly, Mn exposure of YAC128 mice did not further decrease DA or its metabolites versus YAC128 vehicle exposed or Mn exposed WT mice. Taken together, these results demonstrate Mn-HD disease-toxicant interactions at the onset of striatal dendritic neuropathology in YAC128 mice. Our results identify the earliest pathological change in striatum of YAC128 mice as being between 13 to 16 weeks. Finally, we show that mutant HTT suppresses some Mn-dependent changes, such as decreased DA levels, while it exacerbates others, such as dendritic pathology.

  7. Imaging of striatal dopamine transporters in rat brain with single pinhole SPECT and co-aligned MRI is highly reproducible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booij, Jan; Bruin, Kora de; Win, Maartje M.L. de; Lavini, Cristina Mphil; Heeten, Gerard J. den; Habraken, Jan

    2003-01-01

    A recently developed pinhole high-resolution SPECT system was used to measure striatal to non-specific binding ratios in rats (n = 9), after injection of the dopamine transporter ligand 123 I-FP-CIT, and to assess its test/retest reproducibility. For co-alignment purposes, the rat brain was imaged on a 1.5 Tesla clinical MRI scanner using a specially developed surface coil. The SPECT images showed clear striatal uptake. On the MR images, cerebral and extra-cerebral structures could be easily delineated. The mean striatal to non-specific [ 123 I]FP-CIT binding ratios of the test/retest studies were 1.7 ± 0.2 and 1.6 ± 0.2, respectively. The test/retest variability was approximately 9%. We conclude that the assessment of striatal [ 123 I]FP-CIT binding ratios in rats is highly reproducible

  8. Lower levels of uric acid and striatal dopamine in non-tremor dominant Parkinson's disease subtype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Huertas

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD patients who present with tremor and maintain a predominance of tremor have a better prognosis. Similarly, PD patients with high levels of uric acid (UA, a natural neuroprotectant, have also a better disease course. Our aim was to investigate whether PD motor subtypes differ in their levels of UA, and if these differences correlate with the degree of dopamine transporter (DAT availability. We included 75 PD patients from whom we collected information about their motor symptoms, DAT imaging and UA concentration levels. Based on the predominance of their motor symptoms, patients were classified into postural instability and gait disorder (PIGD, n = 36, intermediate (I, n = 22, and tremor-dominant (TD, n = 17 subtypes. The levels of UA and striatal DAT were compared across subtypes and the correlation between these two measures was also explored. We found that PIGD patients had lower levels of UA (3.7 vs 4.5 vs 5.3 mg/dL; P<0.001 and striatal DAT than patients with an intermediate or TD phenotype. Furthermore, UA levels significantly correlated with the levels of striatal DAT. We also observed that some PIGD (25% and I (45% patients had a predominance of tremor at disease onset. We speculate that UA might be involved in the maintenance of the less damaging TD phenotype and thus also in the conversion from TD to PIGD. Low levels of this natural antioxidant could lead to a major neuronal damage and therefore influence the conversion to a more severe motor phenotype.

  9. The effect of amperozide on uptake and release of [3H]-dopamine in vitro from perfused rat striatal and limbic brain areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, E.; Christensson, E.

    1990-01-01

    Amperozide, a putatively antipsychotic drug, was studied for its effects on uptake and release of [ 3 H]-dopamine in rat brain in vitro. Amperozide inhibited uptake of [ 3 H]-dopamine in striatal chopped tissue in vitro with an IC 50 of 18 μM. It also increased basal release of [ 3 H]-dopamine from perfused rat striatal and limbic tissue in vitro at concentrations above 5 μM. Release of [ 3 H]-dopamine from perfused rat striatal and limbic tissue stimulated with 5 μM amphetamine, was inhibited by 1 μM amperozide to 46%. No significant difference was found for the effect of amperozide on in vitro release of [ 3 H]-dopamine from corpus striatum compared to tissue from limbic grain regions; neither on basal release nor on amphetamine-stimulated release of dopamine. (author)

  10. Dopamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walters, L.

    1983-01-01

    Dopamine is an important neurotransmittor in the central nervous system. The physiological function of the peripheral dopamine receptors is unknown, but they are of therapeutic importance as dopamine is used to improve renal blood flow in shocked patients. There are 4 dopamine receptors. The classification of these dopamine receptors has been made possible by research with radiopharmaceuticals. Dopamine sensitive adenylate cyclase is an inherent part of the dopamine-1-receptor. Dopamine-1-receptors are stimulated by micromolar (physiological) concentrations of dopamine and inhibited by micromolar (supratherapeutic) concentrations of the antipsychotic drugs. The vascular effect of dopamine is mediated through the dopamine-1-receptors. Dopamine-2-receptors are responsible for the effect of dopamine at the mesolimbic, nigrostriatal and chemoreceptortrigger areas. It is activated by micromolar concentrations of dopamine and blocked by nanomolar (therapeutic) concentrations of the anti-psychotic drugs. Dopamine-3-receptors are activated by nanomolar concentrations of dopamine and inhibited by micromolar concentrations of the antipsychotic drugs. They occur on presynaptic nerve terminals and have a negative feedback effect on the liberation of dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin. The dopamine-4-receptors are activated by nanomolar concentrations of dopamine. These are the only dopamine receptors that could be responsible for effects in the hypophysis as only nanomolar concentrations of dopamine occur there. These receptors are blocked by nanomolar concentrations of the antipsychotic drugs

  11. Correlation of individual differences in schizotypal personality traits with amphetamine-induced dopamine release in striatal and extrastriatal brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Neil D; Cowan, Ronald L; Park, Sohee; Ansari, M Sib; Baldwin, Ronald M; Li, Rui; Doop, Mikisha; Kessler, Robert M; Zald, David H

    2011-04-01

    Schizotypal personality traits are associated with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, and individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorders demonstrate increased dopamine transmission in the striatum. The authors sought to determine whether individual differences in normal variation in schizotypal traits are correlated with dopamine transmission in the striatum and in extrastriatal brain regions. Sixty-three healthy volunteers with no history of psychiatric illness completed the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire and underwent positron emission tomography imaging with [(18)F]fallypride at baseline and after administration of oral d-amphetamine (0.43 mg/kg). Dopamine release, quantified by subtracting each participant's d-amphetamine scan from his or her baseline scan, was correlated with Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire total and factor scores using region-of-interest and voxel-wise analyses. Dopamine release in the striatum was positively correlated with overall schizotypal traits. The association was especially robust in the associative subdivision of the striatum. Voxel-wise analyses identified additional correlations between dopamine release and schizotypal traits in the left middle frontal gyrus and left supramarginal gyrus. Exploratory analyses of Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire factor scores revealed correlations between dopamine release and disorganized schizotypal traits in the striatum, thalamus, medial prefrontal cortex, temporal lobe, insula, and inferior frontal cortex. The association between dopamine signaling and psychosis phenotypes extends to individual differences in normal variation in schizotypal traits and involves dopamine transmission in both striatal and extrastriatal brain regions. Amphetamine-induced dopamine release may be a useful endophenotype for investigating the genetic basis of schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

  12. No difference in striatal dopamine transporter availability between active smokers, ex-smokers and non-smokers using [I-123]FP-CIT (DaTSCAN) and SPECT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomsen, Gerda; Knudsen, Gitte Moos; Jensen, Peter S.; Ziebell, Morten; Holst, Klaus K.; Asenbaum, Susanne; Booij, Jan; Darcourt, Jacques; Dickson, John C.; Kapucu, Ozlem L.; Nobili, Flavio; Sabri, Osama; Sera, Terez; Tatsch, Klaus; Tossici-Bolt, Livia; van Laere, Koen; Borght, Thierry Vander; Varrone, Andrea; Pagani, Marco; Pinborg, Lars Hageman

    2013-01-01

    Background: Mesolimbic and nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathways play important roles in both the rewarding and conditioning effects of drugs. The dopamine transporter (DAT) is of central importance in regulating dopaminergic neurotransmission and in particular in activating the striatal D-2-like

  13. Cortical Regulation of Striatal Medium Spiny Neuron Dendritic Remodeling in Parkinsonism: Modulation of Glutamate Release Reverses Dopamine Depletion–Induced Dendritic Spine Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, Bonnie G.; Neely, M. Diana; Deutch, Ariel Y.

    2010-01-01

    Striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) receive glutamatergic afferents from the cerebral cortex and dopaminergic inputs from the substantia nigra (SN). Striatal dopamine loss decreases the number of MSN dendritic spines. This loss of spines has been suggested to reflect the removal of tonic dopamine inhibitory control over corticostriatal glutamatergic drive, with increased glutamate release culminating in MSN spine loss. We tested this hypothesis in two ways. We first determined in vivo if dec...

  14. Genetically determined interaction between the dopamine transporter and the D2 receptor on prefronto-striatal activity and volume in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolino, Alessandro; Fazio, Leonardo; Di Giorgio, Annabella; Blasi, Giuseppe; Romano, Raffaella; Taurisano, Paolo; Caforio, Grazia; Sinibaldi, Lorenzo; Ursini, Gianluca; Popolizio, Teresa; Tirotta, Emanuele; Papp, Audrey; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Borrelli, Emiliana; Sadee, Wolfgang

    2009-01-28

    Dopamine modulation of neuronal activity during memory tasks identifies a nonlinear inverted-U shaped function. Both the dopamine transporter (DAT) and dopamine D(2) receptors (encoded by DRD(2)) critically regulate dopamine signaling in the striatum and in prefrontal cortex during memory. Moreover, in vitro studies have demonstrated that DAT and D(2) proteins reciprocally regulate each other presynaptically. Therefore, we have evaluated the genetic interaction between a DRD(2) polymorphism (rs1076560) causing reduced presynaptic D(2) receptor expression and the DAT 3'-VNTR variant (affecting DAT expression) in a large sample of healthy subjects undergoing blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD)-functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) during memory tasks and structural MRI. Results indicated a significant DRD(2)/DAT interaction in prefrontal cortex and striatum BOLD activity during both working memory and encoding of recognition memory. The differential effect on BOLD activity of the DAT variant was mostly manifest in the context of the DRD(2) allele associated with lower presynaptic expression. Similar results were also evident for gray matter volume in caudate. These interactions describe a nonlinear relationship between compound genotypes and brain activity or gray matter volume. Complementary data from striatal protein extracts from wild-type and D(2) knock-out animals (D2R(-/-)) indicate that DAT and D(2) proteins interact in vivo. Together, our results demonstrate that the interaction between genetic variants in DRD(2) and DAT critically modulates the nonlinear relationship between dopamine and neuronal activity during memory processing.

  15. Effects of Ketamine and Ketamine Metabolites on Evoked Striatal Dopamine Release, Dopamine Receptors, and Monoamine Transporters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Adem; Zanos, Panos; Moaddel, Ruin; Kang, Hye Jin; Dossou, Katinia S. S.; Wainer, Irving W.; Cheer, Joseph F.; Frost, Douglas O.; Huang, Xi-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Following administration at subanesthetic doses, (R,S)-ketamine (ketamine) induces rapid and robust relief from symptoms of depression in treatment-refractory depressed patients. Previous studies suggest that ketamine’s antidepressant properties involve enhancement of dopamine (DA) neurotransmission. Ketamine is rapidly metabolized to (2S,6S)- and (2R,6R)-hydroxynorketamine (HNK), which have antidepressant actions independent of N-methyl-d-aspartate glutamate receptor inhibition. These antidepressant actions of (2S,6S;2R,6R)-HNK, or other metabolites, as well as ketamine’s side effects, including abuse potential, may be related to direct effects on components of the dopaminergic (DAergic) system. Here, brain and blood distribution/clearance and pharmacodynamic analyses at DA receptors (D1–D5) and the DA, norepinephrine, and serotonin transporters were assessed for ketamine and its major metabolites (norketamine, dehydronorketamine, and HNKs). Additionally, we measured electrically evoked mesolimbic DA release and decay using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry following acute administration of subanesthetic doses of ketamine (2, 10, and 50 mg/kg, i.p.). Following ketamine injection, ketamine, norketamine, and multiple hydroxynorketamines were detected in the plasma and brain of mice. Dehydronorketamine was detectable in plasma, but concentrations were below detectable limits in the brain. Ketamine did not alter the magnitude or kinetics of evoked DA release in the nucleus accumbens in anesthetized mice. Neither ketamine’s enantiomers nor its metabolites had affinity for DA receptors or the DA, noradrenaline, and serotonin transporters (up to 10 μM). These results suggest that neither the side effects nor antidepressant actions of ketamine or ketamine metabolites are associated with direct effects on mesolimbic DAergic neurotransmission. Previously observed in vivo changes in DAergic neurotransmission following ketamine administration are likely indirect. PMID

  16. Intranasal dopamine reduces in vivo [123I]FP-CIT binding to striatal dopamine transporter: correlation with behavioral changes and evidence for Pavlovian conditioned dopamine response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A de Souza Silva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Dopamine (DA, which does not cross the blood-brain barrier, has central and behavioral effects when administered via the nasal route. Neither the mechanisms of central action of intranasal dopamine (IN-DA, nor its mechanisms of diffusion and transport into the brain are well understood. We here examined whether IN-DA application influences dopamine transporter (DAT binding in the dorsal striatum and assessed the extent of binding in relation to motor and exploratory behaviors. We hypothesized that, based on the finding of increased extracellular DA in the striatum induced by application of IN-DA, binding of [123I]FP-CIT to the DAT should be decreased due to competition at the receptor.Methods: Rats were administered intranasal application of 3 mg/kg IN-DA and vehicle (VEH, with IN-DA injection either preceding or following VEH. Then motor and exploratory behaviors (traveled distance, velocity, center time, sitting, rearing, head-shoulder motility, grooming were assessed for 30 min in an open field prior to administration of [123I]FP-CIT. DAT binding after IN-DA and VEH was measured with small animal SPECT two hours following administration of the radioligand. Results: 1 After IN-DA application, striatal DAT binding was significantly lower as compared to VEH, indicating that the nasally delivered dopamine had central action and increased DA levels comparable to that found previously with L-DOPA administration. 2 DAT binding in response to intranasal VEH was lower when IN-DA application preceded VEH treatment. This finding is suggestive of Pavlovian conditioning of DA at the level of the DAT, since the DA treatment modified (decreased the binding in response to the subsequent VEH treatment. VEH treatment also reduced motor and exploratory behaviors more when applied before, as compared to when it followed IN-DA application, also indicative of behavioral Pavlovian conditioning akin to that found upon application of various psychostimulant

  17. Membrane properties of striatal direct and indirect pathway neurons in mouse and rat slices and their modulation by dopamine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrike Planert

    Full Text Available D1 and D2 receptor expressing striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs are ascribed to striatonigral ("direct" and striatopallidal ("indirect" pathways, respectively, that are believed to function antagonistically in motor control. Glutamatergic synaptic transmission onto the two types is differentially affected by Dopamine (DA, however, less is known about the effects on MSN intrinsic electrical properties. Using patch clamp recordings, we comprehensively characterized the two pathways in rats and mice, and investigated their DA modulation. We identified the direct pathway by retrograde labeling in rats, and in mice we used transgenic animals in which EGFP is expressed in D1 MSNs. MSNs were subjected to a series of current injections to pinpoint differences between the populations, and in mice also following bath application of DA. In both animal models, most electrical properties were similar, however, membrane excitability as measured by step and ramp current injections consistently differed, with direct pathway MSNs being less excitable than their counterparts. DA had opposite effects on excitability of D1 and D2 MSNs, counteracting the initial differences. Pronounced changes in AP shape were seen in D2 MSNs. In direct pathway MSNs, excitability increased across experimental conditions and parameters, and also when applying DA or the D1 agonist SKF-81297 in presence of blockers of cholinergic, GABAergic, and glutamatergic receptors. Thus, DA induced changes in excitability were D1 R mediated and intrinsic to direct pathway MSNs, and not a secondary network effect of altered synaptic transmission. DAergic modulation of intrinsic properties therefore acts in a synergistic manner with previously reported effects of DA on afferent synaptic transmission and dendritic processing, supporting the antagonistic model for direct vs. indirect striatal pathway function.

  18. Interactions of MK-801 with glutamate-, glutamine- and methamphetamine-evoked release of [3H]dopamine from striatal slices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowyer, J.F.; Scallet, A.C.; Holson, R.R.; Lipe, G.W.; Slikker, W. Jr.; Ali, S.F.

    1991-01-01

    The interactions of MK-801 [(+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d] cyclohepten-5,10-imine], glutamate and glutamine with methamphetamine (METH)-evoked release of [ 3 H]dopamine were assessed in vitro to determine whether MK-801 inhibition of METH neurotoxicity might be mediated presynaptically, and to evaluate the effects of glutamatergic stimulation on METH-evoked dopamine release. MK-801 inhibition of glutamate- or METH-evoked dopamine release might reduce synaptic dopamine levels during METH exposure and decrease the formation of 6-hydroxydopamine or other related neurotoxins. Without Mg 2+ present, 40 microM and 1 mM glutamate evoked a N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-mediated [ 3 H]dopamine and [ 3 H]metabolite (tritium) release of 3 to 6 and 12 to 16% of total tritium stores, respectively, from striatal slices. With 1.50 mM Mg 2+ present, 10 mM glutamate alone or in combination with the dopamine uptake blocker nomifensine released only 2.1 or 4.2%, respectively, of total tritium stores, and release was only partially dependent on N-methyl-D-aspartate-type glutamate receptors. With or without 1.50 mM Mg 2+ present, 0.5 or 5 microM METH evoked a substantial release of tritium (5-8 or 12-21% of total stores, respectively). METH-evoked dopamine release was not affected by 5 microM MK-801 but METH-evoked release was additive with glutamate-evoked release. Without Mg 2+ present, 1 mM glutamine increased glutamate release and induced the release of [ 3 H]dopamine and metabolites. Both 0.5 and 5 microM METH also increased tritium release with 1 mM glutamine present. When striatal slices were exposed to 5 microM METH this glutamine-evoked release of glutamate was increased more than 50%

  19. Effects of the modern food environment on striatal function, cognition and regulation of ingestive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Mary V; Small, Dana M

    2016-06-01

    Emerging evidence from human and animal studies suggest that consumption of palatable foods rich in fat and/or carbohydrates may produce deleterious influences on brain function independently of body weight or metabolic disease. Here we consider two mechanisms by which diet can impact striatal circuits to amplify food cue reactivity and impair inhibitory control. First, we review findings demonstrating that the energetic properties of foods regulate nucleus accumbens food cue reactivity, a demonstrated predictor of weight gain susceptibility, which is then sensitized by chronic consumption of an energy dense diet. Second, we consider evidence for diet-induced adaptations in dorsal striatal dopamine signaling that is associated with impaired inhibitory control and negative outcome learning.

  20. A53T-alpha-synuclein overexpression impairs dopamine signaling and striatal synaptic plasticity in old mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Kurz

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD, the second most frequent neurodegenerative disorder at old age, can be caused by elevated expression or the A53T missense mutation of the presynaptic protein alpha-synuclein (SNCA. PD is characterized pathologically by the preferential vulnerability of the dopaminergic nigrostriatal projection neurons.Here, we used two mouse lines overexpressing human A53T-SNCA and studied striatal dysfunction in the absence of neurodegeneration to understand early disease mechanisms. To characterize the progression, we employed young adult as well as old mice. Analysis of striatal neurotransmitter content demonstrated that dopamine (DA levels correlated directly with the level of expression of SNCA, an observation also made in SNCA-deficient (knockout, KO mice. However, the elevated DA levels in the striatum of old A53T-SNCA overexpressing mice may not be transmitted appropriately, in view of three observations. First, a transcriptional downregulation of the extraneural DA degradation enzyme catechol-ortho-methytransferase (COMT was found. Second, an upregulation of DA receptors was detected by immunoblots and autoradiography. Third, extensive transcriptome studies via microarrays and quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qPCR of altered transcript levels of the DA-inducible genes Atf2, Cb1, Freq, Homer1 and Pde7b indicated a progressive and genotype-dependent reduction in the postsynaptic DA response. As a functional consequence, long term depression (LTD was absent in corticostriatal slices from old transgenic mice.Taken together, the dysfunctional neurotransmission and impaired synaptic plasticity seen in the A53T-SNCA overexpressing mice reflect early changes within the basal ganglia prior to frank neurodegeneration. As a model of preclinical stages of PD, such insights may help to develop neuroprotective therapeutic approaches.

  1. Suppression of serotonin hyperinnervation does not alter the dysregulatory influences of dopamine depletion on striatal neuropeptide gene expression in rodent neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basura, G J; Walker, P D

    1999-10-15

    Sixty days following neonatal dopamine depletion (>98%) with 6-hydroxydopamine, preprotachykinin and preprodynorphin mRNA levels were significantly reduced (67 and 78% of vehicle controls, respectively) in the anterior striatum as determined by in situ hybridization while preproenkephalin mRNA expression was elevated (133% of vehicle controls). Suppression of the serotonin hyperinnervation phenomenon in the dopamine-depleted rat with 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine yielded no significant alterations in reduced striatal preprotachykinin (66%) or preprodynorphin (64%) mRNA levels, while preproenkephalin mRNA expression remained significantly elevated (140%). These data suggest that striatal serotonin hyperinnervation does not contribute to the development of dysregulated striatal neuropeptide transmission in either direct or indirect striatal output pathways following neonatal dopamine depletion.

  2. No correlation between body mass index and striatal dopamine transporter availability in healthy volunteers using SPECT and [123I]PE2I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, G; Ziebell, M; Jensen, Peter Steen

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Dopamine plays an important role in both the rewarding and conditioning effects of food. These effects involve mesolimbic, mesocortical, and nigrostriatal pathways. In humans, the most consistent finding has been reduced striatal dopamine D-2/3 receptor availability. In striatum...... controls (BMI...

  3. Homeostatic regulation of excitatory synapses on striatal medium spiny neurons expressing the D2 dopamine receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, Dominic; Giguère, Nicolas; Loustalot, Fabien; Bourque, Marie-Josée; Ducrot, Charles; El Mestikawy, Salah; Trudeau, Louis-Éric

    2016-05-01

    Striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) are contacted by glutamatergic axon terminals originating from cortex, thalamus and other regions. The striatum is also innervated by dopaminergic (DAergic) terminals, some of which release glutamate as a co-transmitter. Despite evidence for functional DA release at birth in the striatum, the role of DA in the establishment of striatal circuitry is unclear. In light of recent work suggesting activity-dependent homeostatic regulation of glutamatergic terminals on MSNs expressing the D2 DA receptor (D2-MSNs), we used primary co-cultures to test the hypothesis that stimulation of DA and glutamate receptors regulates the homeostasis of glutamatergic synapses on MSNs. Co-culture of D2-MSNs with mesencephalic DA neurons or with cortical neurons produced an increase in spines and functional glutamate synapses expressing VGLUT2 or VGLUT1, respectively. The density of VGLUT2-positive terminals was reduced by the conditional knockout of this gene from DA neurons. In the presence of both mesencephalic and cortical neurons, the density of synapses reached the same total, compatible with the possibility of a homeostatic mechanism capping excitatory synaptic density. Blockade of D2 receptors increased the density of cortical and mesencephalic glutamatergic terminals, without changing MSN spine density or mEPSC frequency. Combined blockade of AMPA and NMDA glutamate receptors increased the density of cortical terminals and decreased that of mesencephalic VGLUT2-positive terminals, with no net change in total excitatory terminal density or in mEPSC frequency. These results suggest that DA and glutamate signaling regulate excitatory inputs to striatal D2-MSNs at both the pre- and postsynaptic level, under the influence of a homeostatic mechanism controlling functional output of the circuit.

  4. In vivo evaluation of striatal dopamine reuptake sites using 11C-nomifensine and positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquilonius, S.-M.; Bergstroem, K.; Eckernaes, S.-Aa.; Leenders, K.L.; Hartvig, P.; Lundquist, H.; Antoni, G.; Gee, A.; Rimland, A.; Uhlin, J.; Langstroem, B.

    1987-01-01

    In vitro nomifensine demonstrates high affinity and specificity for dopamine reuptake sites in the brain. In the present study 11 C-nomifensine was administered i.v. in trace amounts (10-50 μg) to ketamine anaesthetized Rhesus monkeys (6-10 kg b.w.) and the timecourse of radioactivity within different brain regions was measured by positron emission tomography (PET). Six base-line experiments lasting for 60-80 min were performed. The procedure was repeated after pretreatment with nomifensine (2-6 mg/kg i.v.), another reuptake inhibitor, mazindol (0.3 mg/kg i.v.), desipramine (0.5 mg/kg i.v.) or spiperone (0.3 mg/kg i.v.) before the administration of a second 11 C-nomifensine dose. The highest radioactivity uptake was found in the dopamine innervated striatum and the lowest in a region containing the cerebellum, known to be almost devoid of dopaminergic neurons. The difference between striatal and cerebellar uptake of 11 C-nomifensine derived radioactivity was markedly reduced after nomifensine and mazindol but not after desipramine and spiperone. These results indicate that in vivo the striatal uptake of 11 C-nomifensine, as measured with PET, involves specific binding with the dopamine reuptake sites. In the first human applications of 11 C-nomifensine and PET in a healthy volunteer, the regional uptake of radioactivity was similar to that in base-line experiments with Rhesus monkeys. In the healthy subject the striatal/cerebellar ratio was 1.6, 50 min after the injection of 11 C-nomifensine. In a hemi-parkinsonian patient this ratio was 1.1 contralaterally and 1.3 ipsilaterally to the affected side. 11 C-nomifensine and PET seems to be an auspicious method to measure the striatal dopaminergic nerve terminals of man in vivo. (author)

  5. Differences in the time course of haloperidol-induced up-regulation of rat striatal and mesolimbic dopamine receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prosser, E.S.; Csernansky, J.G.; Hollister, L.E.

    1988-01-01

    Regional differences in the onset and persistence of increased dopamine D2 receptor density in rat brain were studied following daily injections of haloperidol for 3, 7, 14, or 28 days. Striatal [ 3 H]-spiroperidol Bmax values were significantly increased following 3 - 28 days of haloperidol treatment, as compared to saline controls. Olfactory tubercle Bmax values were significantly increased only after 14 or 28 days of haloperidol treatment. Nucleus accumbens Bmax values were significantly increased only in the 14-day drug treatment group, suggesting that dopamine D2 receptor up-regulation in nucleus accumbens may reverse during ongoing neuroleptic treatment. These findings suggest that important differences in adaptive responses to chronic dopamine blockade may exist between dopaminergic synapses located in various rat brain regions

  6. Histamine H3 Receptors Decrease Dopamine Release in the Ventral Striatum by Reducing the Activity of Striatal Cholinergic Interneurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varaschin, Rafael Koerich; Osterstock, Guillaume; Ducrot, Charles; Leino, Sakari; Bourque, Marie-Josée; Prado, Marco A M; Prado, Vania Ferreira; Salminen, Outi; Rannanpää Née Nuutinen, Saara; Trudeau, Louis-Eric

    2018-04-15

    Histamine H 3 receptors are widely distributed G i -coupled receptors whose activation reduces neuronal activity and inhibits release of numerous neurotransmitters. Although these receptors are abundantly expressed in the striatum, their modulatory role on activity-dependent dopamine release is not well understood. Here, we observed that histamine H 3 receptor activation indirectly diminishes dopamine overflow in the ventral striatum by reducing cholinergic interneuron activity. Acute brain slices from C57BL/6 or channelrhodopsin-2-transfected DAT-cre mice were obtained, and dopamine transients evoked either electrically or optogenetically were measured by fast-scan cyclic voltammetry. The H 3 agonist α-methylhistamine significantly reduced electrically- evoked dopamine overflow, an effect blocked by the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist dihydro-β-erythroidine, suggesting involvement of cholinergic interneurons. None of the drug treatments targeting H 3 receptors affected optogenetically evoked dopamine overflow, indicating that direct H 3 -modulation of dopaminergic axons is unlikely. Next, we used qPCR and confirmed the expression of histamine H 3 receptor mRNA in cholinergic interneurons, both in ventral and dorsal striatum. Activation of H 3 receptors by α-methylhistamine reduced spontaneous firing of cholinergic interneurons in the ventral, but not in the dorsal striatum. Resting membrane potential and number of spontaneous action potentials in ventral-striatal cholinergic interneurons were significantly reduced by α-methylhistamine. Acetylcholine release from isolated striatal synaptosomes, however, was not altered by α-methylhistamine. Together, these results indicate that histamine H 3 receptors are important modulators of dopamine release, specifically in the ventral striatum, and that they do so by decreasing the firing rate of cholinergic neurons and, consequently, reducing cholinergic tone on dopaminergic axons. Copyright © 2018 IBRO

  7. Intranasal Dopamine Reduces In Vivo [(123)I]FP-CIT Binding to Striatal Dopamine Transporter: Correlation with Behavioral Changes and Evidence for Pavlovian Conditioned Dopamine Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Silva, Maria A; Mattern, Claudia; Decheva, Cvetana; Huston, Joseph P; Sadile, Adolfo G; Beu, Markus; Müller, H-W; Nikolaus, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine (DA), which does not cross the blood-brain barrier, has central and behavioral effects when administered via the nasal route. Neither the mechanisms of central action of intranasal dopamine (IN-DA), nor its mechanisms of diffusion and transport into the brain are well understood. We here examined whether IN-DA application influences dopamine transporter (DAT) binding in the dorsal striatum and assessed the extent of binding in relation to motor and exploratory behaviors. We hypothesized that, based on the finding of increased extracellular DA in the striatum induced by application of IN-DA, binding of [(123)I]FP-CIT to the DAT should be decreased due to competition at the receptor. Rats were administered 3 mg/kg IN-DA and vehicle (VEH), with IN-DA injection either preceding or following VEH. Then motor and exploratory behaviors (traveled distance, velocity, center time, sitting, rearing, head-shoulder motility, grooming) were assessed for 30 min in an open field prior to administration of [(123)I]FP-CIT. DAT binding after IN-DA and VEH was measured with small animal SPECT 2 h following administration of the radioligand. (1) After IN-DA application, striatal DAT binding was significantly lower as compared to VEH, indicating that the nasally delivered DA had central action and increased DA levels comparable to that found previously with L-DOPA administration; and (2) DAT binding in response to intranasal VEH was lower when IN-DA application preceded VEH treatment. This finding is suggestive of Pavlovian conditioning of DA at the level of the DAT, since the DA treatment modified (decreased) the binding in response to the subsequent VEH treatment. VEH treatment also reduced motor and exploratory behaviors more when applied before, as compared to when it followed IN-DA application, also indicative of behavioral Pavlovian conditioning akin to that found upon application of various psychostimulant drugs. (a) demonstrate a direct central action of intranasally

  8. Monetary discounting and ventral striatal dopamine receptor availability in nontreatment-seeking alcoholics and social drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberlin, Brandon G; Albrecht, Daniel S; Herring, Christine M; Walters, James W; Hile, Karen L; Kareken, David A; Yoder, Karmen K

    2015-06-01

    Dopamine (DA) in the ventral striatum (VST) has long been implicated in addiction pathologies, yet its role in temporal decision-making is not well-understood. To determine if VST DA D2 receptor availability corresponds with greater impulsive choice in both nontreatment-seeking alcoholics (NTS) and social drinkers (SD). NTS subjects (n = 10) and SD (n = 13) received PET scans at baseline with the D2/D3 radioligand [(11)C]raclopride (RAC). Outside the scanner, subjects performed a delay discounting procedure with monetary rewards. RAC binding potential (BPND) was estimated voxelwise, and correlations were performed to test for relationships between VST BPND and delay discounting performance. Self-reported impulsivity was also tested for correlations with BPND. Across all subjects, greater impulsive choice for $20 correlated with lower BPND in the right VST. NTS showed greater impulsive choice than SD and were more impulsive by self-report. Across all subjects, the capacity of larger rewards to reduce impulsive choice (the magnitude effect) correlated negatively (p = 0.028) with problematic alcohol use (AUDIT) scores. Self-reported impulsivity did not correlate with BPND in VST. Preference for immediate reinforcement may reflect greater endogenous striatal DA or lower D2 number, or both. Alcoholic status did not mediate significant effects on VST BPND, suggesting minimal effects from alcohol exposure. The apparent lack of BPND correlation with self-reported impulsivity highlights the need for objective behavioral assays in the study of the neurochemical substrates of behavior. Finally, our results suggest that the magnitude effect may be more sensitive to alcohol-induced problems than single discounting measures.

  9. Ascorbic acid and striatal transport of [3H]1-methyl-4-phenylpyridine (MPP+) and [3H]dopamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debler, E.A.; Hashim, A.; Lajtha, A.; Sershen, H.

    1988-01-01

    The inhibition of uptake of [ 3 H]dopamine and [ 3 H]1-methyl-4-phenylpyridine (MPP + ) was examined in mouse striatal synaptosomal preparations. Kinetic analysis indicated that ascorbic acid is a noncompetitive inhibitor of [ 3 H]MPP + uptake. No inhibition of [ 3 H]dopamine uptake is observed. The dopamine uptake blockers, GBR-12909, cocaine, and mazindol strongly inhibit (IC 50 3 H]dopamine and [ 3 H]MPP + transport. Nicotine, its metabolites, and other tobacco alkaloids are weak inhibitors except 4-phenylpyridine and lobeline, which are moderate inhibitors of both [ 3 H]dopamine and [ 3 H]MPP + uptake. These similarities in potencies are in agreement with the suggestion that [ 3 H]MPP + and [ 3 H] are transported by the same carrier. The differences observed in the alteration of dopaminergic transport and mazindol binding by ascorbic acid suggest that ascorbic acid's effects on [ 3 H]MPP + transport are related to translocation and/or dissociation processes occurring subsequent to the initial binding event

  10. Extrasynaptic neurotransmission in the modulation of brain function. Focus on the striatal neuronal-glial networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjell eFuxe

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Extrasynaptic neurotransmission is an important short distance form of volume transmission (VT and describes the extracellular diffusion of transmitters and modulators after synaptic spillover or extrasynaptic release in the local circuit regions binding to and activating mainly extrasynaptic neuronal and glial receptors in the neuroglial networks of the brain. Receptor-receptor interactions in G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR heteromers play a major role, on dendritic spines and nerve terminals including glutamate synapses, in the integrative processes of the extrasynaptic signaling. Heteromeric complexes between GPCR and ion-channel receptors play a special role in the integration of the synaptic and extrasynaptic signals. Changes in extracellular concentrations of the classical synaptic neurotransmitters glutamate and GABA found with microdialysis is likely an expression of the activity of the neuron-astrocyte unit of the brain and can be used as an index of VT-mediated actions of these two neurotransmitters in the brain. Thus, the activity of neurons may be functionally linked to the activity of astrocytes, which may release glutamate and GABA to the extracellular space where extrasynaptic glutamate and GABA receptors do exist. Wiring transmission (WT and VT are fundamental properties of all neurons of the CNS but the balance between WT and VT varies from one nerve cell population to the other. The focus is on the striatal cellular networks, and the WT and VT and their integration via receptor heteromers are described in the GABA projection neurons, the glutamate, dopamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT and histamine striatal afferents, the cholinergic interneurons and different types of GABA interneurons. In addition, the role in these networks of VT signaling of the energy-dependent modulator adenosine and of endocannabinoids mainly formed in the striatal projection neurons will be underlined to understand the communication in the striatal

  11. Exploring personality traits related to dopamine D2/3 receptor availability in striatal subregions of humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravaggio, Fernando; Fervaha, Gagan; Chung, Jun Ku; Gerretsen, Philip; Nakajima, Shinichiro; Plitman, Eric; Iwata, Yusuke; Wilson, Alan; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel

    2016-04-01

    While several studies have examined how particular personality traits are related to dopamine D2/3 receptor (D2/3R) availability in the striatum of humans, few studies have reported how multiple traits measured in the same persons are differentially related to D2/3R availability in different striatal sub-regions. We examined how personality traits measured with the Karolinska Scales of Personality are related to striatal D2/3R availability measured with [(11)C]-raclopride in 30 healthy humans. Based on previous the literature, five personality traits were hypothesized to be most likely related to D2/3R availability: impulsiveness, monotony avoidance, detachment, social desirability, and socialization. We found self-reported impulsiveness was negatively correlated with D2/3R availability in the ventral striatum and globus pallidus. After controlling for age and gender, monotony avoidance was also negatively correlated with D2/3R availability in the ventral striatum and globus pallidus. Socialization was positively correlated with D2/3R availability in the ventral striatum and putamen. After controlling for age and gender, the relationship between socialization and D2/3R availability in these regions survived correction for multiple comparisons (p-threshold=.003). Thus, within the same persons, different personality traits are differentially related to in vivo D2/3R availability in different striatal sub-regions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of postnatal anoxia on striatal dopamine metabolism and prepulse inhibition in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandager-Nielsen, Karin; Andersen, Maibritt B; Sager, Thomas N

    2004-01-01

    (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA) concentrations. Furthermore, in the anoxic group only, striatal HVA concentrations were negatively correlated to prefrontal cortical N-acetylaspartate (NAA) levels. Similar findings of distorted prefrontal-subcortical interactions have recently been reported...

  13. Enhanced striatal dopamine release during food stimulation in binge eating disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, g.j.; Wang, G.-J.; Geliebter, A.; Volkow, N.D.; Telang, F.W.; Logan, Jaynbe, M.C.; Galanti, K.; Selig, P.A.; Han, H.; Zhu, W.; Wong, C.T.; Fowler, J.S.

    2011-01-13

    Subjects with binge eating disorder (BED) regularly consume large amounts of food in short time periods. The neurobiology of BED is poorly understood. Brain dopamine, which regulates motivation for food intake, is likely to be involved. We assessed the involvement of brain dopamine in the motivation for food consumption in binge eaters. Positron emission tomography (PET) scans with [{sup 11}C]raclopride were done in 10 obese BED and 8 obese subjects without BED. Changes in extracellular dopamine in the striatum in response to food stimulation in food-deprived subjects were evaluated after placebo and after oral methylphenidate (MPH), a drug that blocks the dopamine reuptake transporter and thus amplifies dopamine signals. Neither the neutral stimuli (with or without MPH) nor the food stimuli when given with placebo increased extracellular dopamine. The food stimuli when given with MPH significantly increased dopamine in the caudate and putamen in the binge eaters but not in the nonbinge eaters. Dopamine increases in the caudate were significantly correlated with the binge eating scores but not with BMI. These results identify dopamine neurotransmission in the caudate as being of relevance to the neurobiology of BED. The lack of correlation between BMI and dopamine changes suggests that dopamine release per se does not predict BMI within a group of obese individuals but that it predicts binge eating.

  14. Enhanced striatal dopamine release during food stimulation in binge eating disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, G.-J.; Geliebter, A.; Volkow, N.D.; Telang, F.W.; Logan, J.; Jaynbe, M.C.; Galanti, K.; Selig, P.A.; Han, H.; Zhu, W.; Wong, C.T.; Fowler, J.S.

    2011-01-01

    Subjects with binge eating disorder (BED) regularly consume large amounts of food in short time periods. The neurobiology of BED is poorly understood. Brain dopamine, which regulates motivation for food intake, is likely to be involved. We assessed the involvement of brain dopamine in the motivation for food consumption in binge eaters. Positron emission tomography (PET) scans with [ 11 C]raclopride were done in 10 obese BED and 8 obese subjects without BED. Changes in extracellular dopamine in the striatum in response to food stimulation in food-deprived subjects were evaluated after placebo and after oral methylphenidate (MPH), a drug that blocks the dopamine reuptake transporter and thus amplifies dopamine signals. Neither the neutral stimuli (with or without MPH) nor the food stimuli when given with placebo increased extracellular dopamine. The food stimuli when given with MPH significantly increased dopamine in the caudate and putamen in the binge eaters but not in the nonbinge eaters. Dopamine increases in the caudate were significantly correlated with the binge eating scores but not with BMI. These results identify dopamine neurotransmission in the caudate as being of relevance to the neurobiology of BED. The lack of correlation between BMI and dopamine changes suggests that dopamine release per se does not predict BMI within a group of obese individuals but that it predicts binge eating.

  15. Striatal dopamine D2 receptor availability predicts the thalamic and medial prefrontal responses to reward in cocaine abusers three years later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asensio, S.; Goldstein, R.; Romero, M.J.; Romero, F.J.; Wong, C.T.; Alia-Klein, N.; Tomasi, D.; Wang, G.-J.; Telang, F.; Volkow, N.D.; Goldstein, R.Z.

    2010-01-01

    Low levels of dopamine (DA) D2 receptor availability at a resting baseline have been previously reported in drug addicted individuals and have been associated with reduced ventral and dorsal prefrontal metabolism. The reduction in DA D2 receptor availability along with the reduced ventral frontal metabolism is thought to underlie compromised sensitivity to nondrug reward, a core characteristic of drug addiction. We therefore hypothesized that variability in DA D2 receptor availability at baseline will covary with dynamic responses to monetary reward in addicted individuals. Striatal DA D2 receptor availability was measured with ( 11 C)raclopride and positron emission tomography and response to monetary reward was measured (an average of three years later) with functional magnetic resonance imaging in seven cocaine-addicted individuals. Results show that low DA D2 receptor availability in the dorsal striatum was associated with decreased thalamic response to monetary reward; while low availability in ventral striatum was associated with increased medial prefrontal (Brodmann Area 6/8/32) response to monetary reward. These preliminary results, that need to be replicated in larger sample sizes and validated with healthy controls, suggest that resting striatal DA D2 receptor availability predicts variability in functional responses to a nondrug reinforcer (money) in prefrontal cortex, implicated in behavioral monitoring, and in thalamus, implicated in conditioned responses and expectation, in cocaine-addicted individuals.

  16. Striatal dopamine D2 receptor availability predicts the thalamic and medial prefrontal responses to reward in cocaine abusers three years later

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asensio, S.; Goldstein, R.; Asensio, S.; Romero, M.J.; Romero, F.J.; Wong, C.T.; Alia-Klein, N.; Tomasi, D.; Wang, G.-J.; Telang, F..; Volkow, N.D.; Goldstein, R.Z.

    2010-05-01

    Low levels of dopamine (DA) D2 receptor availability at a resting baseline have been previously reported in drug addicted individuals and have been associated with reduced ventral and dorsal prefrontal metabolism. The reduction in DA D2 receptor availability along with the reduced ventral frontal metabolism is thought to underlie compromised sensitivity to nondrug reward, a core characteristic of drug addiction. We therefore hypothesized that variability in DA D2 receptor availability at baseline will covary with dynamic responses to monetary reward in addicted individuals. Striatal DA D2 receptor availability was measured with [{sup 11}C]raclopride and positron emission tomography and response to monetary reward was measured (an average of three years later) with functional magnetic resonance imaging in seven cocaine-addicted individuals. Results show that low DA D2 receptor availability in the dorsal striatum was associated with decreased thalamic response to monetary reward; while low availability in ventral striatum was associated with increased medial prefrontal (Brodmann Area 6/8/32) response to monetary reward. These preliminary results, that need to be replicated in larger sample sizes and validated with healthy controls, suggest that resting striatal DA D2 receptor availability predicts variability in functional responses to a nondrug reinforcer (money) in prefrontal cortex, implicated in behavioral monitoring, and in thalamus, implicated in conditioned responses and expectation, in cocaine-addicted individuals.

  17. Centrality of striatal cholinergic transmission in basal ganglia function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola eBonsi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Work over the past two decades revealed a previously unexpected role for striatal cholinergic interneurons in the context of basal ganglia function. The recognition that these interneurons are essential in synaptic plasticity and motor learning represents a significant step ahead in deciphering how the striatum processes cortical inputs, and why pathological circumstances cause motor dysfunction.Loss of the reciprocal modulation between dopaminergic inputs and the intrinsic cholinergic innervation within the striatum appears to be the trigger for pathophysiological changes occurring in basal ganglia disorders. Accordingly, there is now compelling evidence showing profound changes in cholinergic markers in these disorders, in particular Parkinson’s disease and dystonia.Based on converging experimental and clinical evidence, we provide an overview of the role of striatal cholinergic transmission in physiological and pathological conditions, in the context of the pathogenesis of movement disorders.

  18. Amphetamine-induced dopamine release and neurocognitive function in treatment-naive adults with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkasova, Mariya V; Faridi, Nazlie; Casey, Kevin F; O'Driscoll, Gillian A; Hechtman, Lily; Joober, Ridha; Baker, Glen B; Palmer, Jennifer; Dagher, Alain; Leyton, Marco; Benkelfat, Chawki

    2014-05-01

    Converging evidence from clinical, preclinical, neuroimaging, and genetic research implicates dopamine neurotransmission in the pathophysiology of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The in vivo neuroreceptor imaging evidence also suggests alterations in the dopamine system in ADHD; however, the nature and behavioral significance of those have not yet been established. Here, we investigated striatal dopaminergic function in ADHD using [(11)C]raclopride PET with a d-amphetamine challenge. We also examined the relationship of striatal dopamine responses to ADHD symptoms and neurocognitive function. A total of 15 treatment-free, noncomorbid adult males with ADHD (age: 29.87 ± 8.65) and 18 healthy male controls (age: 25.44 ± 6.77) underwent two PET scans: one following a lactose placebo and the other following d-amphetamine (0.3 mg/kg, p.o.), administered double blind and in random order counterbalanced across groups. In a separate session without a drug, participants performed a battery of neurocognitive tests. Relative to the healthy controls, the ADHD patients, as a group, showed greater d-amphetamine-induced decreases in striatal [(11)C]raclopride binding and performed more poorly on measures of response inhibition. Across groups, a greater magnitude of d-amphetamine-induced change in [(11)C]raclopride binding potential was associated with poorer performance on measures of response inhibition and ADHD symptoms. Our findings suggest an augmented striatal dopaminergic response in treatment-naive ADHD. Though in contrast to results of a previous study, this finding appears consistent with a model proposing exaggerated phasic dopamine release in ADHD. A susceptibility to increased phasic dopamine responsivity may contribute to such characteristics of ADHD as poor inhibition and impulsivity.

  19. Effects of an acute therapeutic or rewarding dose of amphetamine on acquisition of Pavlovian autoshaping and ventral striatal dopamine signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuweiler, D R; Athens, J M; Thompson, J M; Vazhayil, S T; Garris, P A

    2018-01-15

    Rewarding doses of amphetamine increase the amplitude, duration, and frequency of dopamine transients in the ventral striatum. Debate continues at the behavioral level about which component of reward, learning or incentive salience, is signaled by these dopamine transients and thus altered in addiction. The learning hypothesis proposes that rewarding drugs result in pathological overlearning of drug-predictive cues, while the incentive sensitization hypothesis suggests that rewarding drugs result in sensitized attribution of incentive salience to drug-predictive cues. Therapeutic doses of amphetamine, such as those used to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, are hypothesized to enhance the ventral striatal dopamine transients that are critical for reward-related learning and to enhance Pavlovian learning. However, the effects of therapeutic doses of amphetamine on Pavlovian learning are poorly understood, and the effects on dopamine transients are completely unknown. We determined the effects of an acute pre-training therapeutic or rewarding amphetamine injection on the acquisition of Pavlovian autoshaping in the intact rat. We also determined the effects of these doses on electrically evoked transient-like dopamine signals using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry in the anesthetized rat. The rewarding dose enhanced the amplitude and duration of DA signals, caused acute task disengagement, impaired learning for several days, and triggered incentive sensitization. The therapeutic dose produced smaller enhancements in DA signals but did not have similar behavioral effects. These results underscore the necessity of more studies using therapeutic doses, and suggest a hybrid learning/incentive sensitization model may be required to explain the development of addiction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Long-term changes of striatal dopamine D-2 receptors in patients with Parkinson's disease : A study with positron emission tomography and [C-11]Raclopride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonini, A; Schwarz, J; Oertel, WH; Pogarell, O; Leenders, KL

    We used [C-11]raclopride (RACLO) and positron emission tomography (PET) to study longitudinally striatal dopamine D-2 receptor binding in nine patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) at an early drug-naive stage and 3-5 years later, when motor fluctuations had appeared in seven of them. Patients were

  1. A Bacoside containing Bacopa monnieri extract reduces both morphine hyperactivity plus the elevated striatal dopamine and serotonin turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauf, Khalid; Subhan, Fazal; Sewell, Robert D E

    2012-05-01

    Bacopa monnieri (BM) has been used in Ayurvedic medicine as a nootropic, anxiolytic, antiepileptic and antidepressant. An n-butanol extract of the plant (nBt-ext BM) was analysed and found to contain Bacoside A (Bacoside A3, Bacopaside II and Bacopasaponin C). The effects of the BM extract were then studied on morphine-induced hyperactivity as well as dopamine and serotonin turnover in the striatum since these parameters have a role in opioid sensitivity and dependence. Mice were pretreated with saline or nBt-ext BM (5, 10 and 15 mg/kg, orally), 60 min before morphine administration and locomotor activity was subsequently recorded. Immediately after testing, striatal tissues were analysed for dopamine (DA), serotonin (5HT) and their metabolites using HPLC coupled with electrochemical detection. The results indicated that nBt-ext BM significantly (p < 0.001) decreased locomotor activity in both the saline and morphine treated groups. Additionally, nBt-ext BM significantly lowered morphine-induced dopamine (DA), dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), homovanillic acid (HVA) and 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-H1AA) upsurges in the striatum but failed to affect DA, 5-HT and their metabolites in the saline treated group. These findings suggest that nBt-ext BM has an antidopaminergic/serotonergic effect and may have potential beneficial effects in the treatment of morphine dependence. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Classification of H2O2 as a Neuromodulator that Regulates Striatal Dopamine Release on a Subsecond Time Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Here we review evidence that the reactive oxygen species, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), meets the criteria for classification as a neuromodulator through its effects on striatal dopamine (DA) release. This evidence was obtained using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry to detect evoked DA release in striatal slices, along with whole-cell and fluorescence imaging to monitor cellular activity and H2O2 generation in striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs). The data show that (1) exogenous H2O2 suppresses DA release in dorsal striatum and nucleus accumbens shell and the same effect is seen with elevation of endogenous H2O2 levels; (2) H2O2 is generated downstream from glutamatergic AMPA receptor activation in MSNs, but not DA axons; (3) generation of modulatory H2O2 is activity dependent; (4) H2O2 generated in MSNs diffuses to DA axons to cause transient DA release suppression by activating ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channels on DA axons; and (5) the amplitude of H2O2-dependent inhibition of DA release is attenuated by enzymatic degradation of H2O2, but the subsecond time course is determined by H2O2 diffusion rate and/or KATP-channel kinetics. In the dorsal striatum, neuromodulatory H2O2 is an intermediate in the regulation of DA release by the classical neurotransmitters glutamate and GABA, as well as other neuromodulators, including cannabinoids. However, modulatory actions of H2O2 occur in other regions and cell types, as well, consistent with the widespread expression of KATP and other H2O2-sensitive channels throughout the CNS. PMID:23259034

  3. Striatal dopamine D2 receptors, metabolism, and volume in preclinical Huntington disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oostrom, JCH; Maguire, RP; Verschuuren-Bemelmans, CC; van der Duin, LV; Pruim, J; Roos, RAC; Leenders, KL

    2005-01-01

    Among 27 preclinical carriers of the Huntington disease mutation (PMC), the authors found normal striatal values for MRI volumetry in 88% and for fluorodesoxyglucose PET metabolic index in 67%. Raclopride PET binding potential (RAC-BP) was decreased in 50% and correlated with increases in the

  4. Striatal Dopamine Transporter Binding Does Not Correlate with Clinical Severity in Dementia with Lewy Bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziebell, Morten; Andersen, Birgitte B; Pinborg, Lars H

    2013-01-01

    cognitively evaluated with the Mini Mental State Examination. RESULTS: There was no correlation between Mini Mental State Examination, Hoehn and Yahr score, fluctuations or hallucinations, and striatal DAT availability as measured with (123)I-PE2I and SPECT. CONCLUSION: In patients with newly diagnosed DLB...

  5. Leptin Increases Striatal Dopamine D2 Receptor Binding in Leptin-Deficient Obese (ob/ob) Mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfaffly, J.; Michaelides, M.; Wang, G-J.; Pessin, J.E.; Volkow, N.D.; Thanos, P.K.

    2010-06-01

    Peripheral and central leptin administration have been shown to mediate central dopamine (DA) signaling. Leptin-receptor deficient rodents show decreased DA D2 receptor (D2R) binding in striatum and unique DA profiles compared to controls. Leptin-deficient mice show increased DA activity in reward-related brain regions. The objective of this study was to examine whether basal D2R-binding differences contribute to the phenotypic behaviors of leptin-deficient ob/ob mice, and whether D2R binding is altered in response to peripheral leptin treatment in these mice. Leptin decreased body weight, food intake, and plasma insulin concentration in ob/ob mice but not in wild-type mice. Basal striatal D2R binding (measured with autoradiography [{sup 3}H] spiperone) did not differ between ob/ob and wild-type mice but the response to leptin did. In wild-type mice, leptin decreased striatal D2R binding, whereas, in ob/ob mice, leptin increased D2R binding. Our findings provide further evidence that leptin modulates D2R expression in striatum and that these effects are genotype/phenotype dependent.

  6. Intranasal dopamine reduces in vivo [123I]FP-CIT binding to striatal dopamine transporter: correlation with behavioral changes and evidence for Pavlovian conditioned dopamine response

    OpenAIRE

    Maria A de Souza Silva; C. eMattern; C. eMattern; C.I. eDecheva; Joseph P. Huston; A. eSadile; M. eBeu; H.W. eMüller; Susanne eNikolaus

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Dopamine (DA), which does not cross the blood-brain barrier, has central and behavioral effects when administered via the nasal route. Neither the mechanisms of central action of intranasal dopamine (IN-DA), nor its mechanisms of diffusion and transport into the brain are well understood. We here examined whether IN-DA application influences dopamine transporter (DAT) binding in the dorsal striatum and assessed the extent of binding in relation to motor and exploratory behaviors. We ...

  7. A kinetic model of dopamine- and calcium-dependent striatal synaptic plasticity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Nakano

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Corticostriatal synapse plasticity of medium spiny neurons is regulated by glutamate input from the cortex and dopamine input from the substantia nigra. While cortical stimulation alone results in long-term depression (LTD, the combination with dopamine switches LTD to long-term potentiation (LTP, which is known as dopamine-dependent plasticity. LTP is also induced by cortical stimulation in magnesium-free solution, which leads to massive calcium influx through NMDA-type receptors and is regarded as calcium-dependent plasticity. Signaling cascades in the corticostriatal spines are currently under investigation. However, because of the existence of multiple excitatory and inhibitory pathways with loops, the mechanisms regulating the two types of plasticity remain poorly understood. A signaling pathway model of spines that express D1-type dopamine receptors was constructed to analyze the dynamic mechanisms of dopamine- and calcium-dependent plasticity. The model incorporated all major signaling molecules, including dopamine- and cyclic AMP-regulated phosphoprotein with a molecular weight of 32 kDa (DARPP32, as well as AMPA receptor trafficking in the post-synaptic membrane. Simulations with dopamine and calcium inputs reproduced dopamine- and calcium-dependent plasticity. Further in silico experiments revealed that the positive feedback loop consisted of protein kinase A (PKA, protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A, and the phosphorylation site at threonine 75 of DARPP-32 (Thr75 served as the major switch for inducing LTD and LTP. Calcium input modulated this loop through the PP2B (phosphatase 2B-CK1 (casein kinase 1-Cdk5 (cyclin-dependent kinase 5-Thr75 pathway and PP2A, whereas calcium and dopamine input activated the loop via PKA activation by cyclic AMP (cAMP. The positive feedback loop displayed robust bi-stable responses following changes in the reaction parameters. Increased basal dopamine levels disrupted this dopamine-dependent plasticity. The

  8. [Effects of acupuncture stimulation of different acupoint groups on sleeping duration and serum and striatal dopamine contents in rats with gastric mucosal injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ping; Peng, Lei; Li, Jie-Ting; Ma, Hui-Fang

    2014-02-01

    To observe the effect of acupuncture intervention on gastric ulcer (GU) and sleeping quality from the viewpoint of brain-gut axis which plays an important role in the regulation of many vital functions in health and disease. Forty male Wistar rats were randomized into normal control, GU model, acupuncture of "Zhongwan" (CV 12)-"Zusanli" (ST 36, gastric treatment acupoints), acupuncture of "Shenmai" (BL 62)-"Zhaohai" (KI 6, sleep-promotion acupoints), and acupuncture of CV 12-ST 36-BL 62-KI 6 (combined treatment) groups, with 8 rats in each group. GU model was established by intragastric perfusion of dehydrated alcohol (1 mL/rat), and sleep model established by intraperitoneal injection of pentobarbital sodium (40 mg/kg) after the last treatment. The abovementioned acupoints were punctured with filiform needles and stimulated by manipulating the needle for about 30 s, once every 5 mm during 20 mm of needle retention. The treatment was conducted once daily for five days. Gastric mucosal lesion index was assessed by Guth's method, and the mucosal pathological changes were observed under microscope after H. E. staining. The contents of dopamine (DA) in the serum and striatal tissues were detected by ELISA kit. Compared with the normal control group, the rats' sleeping duration, and serum DA content were markedly decreased and the gastric mucosal lesion index, and the striatal DA content remarkably increased in the model group (P sleeping duration, and serum DA content were significantly increased, and the gastric mucosal lesion index, and the striatal DA content remarkably down-regulated in the CV 12-ST 36 (gastric treatment acupoints), BL 62-KI 6 (sleep-promotion acupoints) and CV 12-ST 36-BL 62-KI 6 (combined treatment) groups (P sleep promotion acupoints group in reducing mucosal lesion index and in increasing serum DA level (P sleeping duration in gastric lesion rats, which may be related to its effects in increasing blood DA and lowering striatal DA level

  9. A Role for D1 Dopamine Receptors in Striatal Methamphetamine-Induced Neurotoxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Friend, Danielle M.; Keefe, Kristen A.

    2013-01-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) exposure results in long-term damage to the dopamine system in both human METH abusers and animal models. One factor that has been heavily implicated in this METH-induced damage to the dopaminergic system is the activation of D1 Dopamine (DA) receptors. However, a significant caveat to the studies investigating the role of the receptor in such toxicity is that genetic and pharmacological manipulations of the D1 DA receptor also mitigate METH-induced hyperthermia. Import...

  10. Association of Novelty Seeking Scores and Striatal Dopamine D2/D3 Receptor Availability of Healthy Volunteers: Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography With 123I-iodobenzamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiang Yu Huang

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available It has been speculated that novelty seeking (NS behavior is related to the dopaminergic system. Fifty-two subjects completed the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire and underwent single photon emission computed tomography with 123I-iodobenzamide. A marginally positive correlation was noted between NS and striatal dopamine D2/D3 receptor availability (r = 0.25, p =0.07. A positive association was noted between the NS scores and left striatal D2/D3 receptor availability (r= 0.29, p =0.04. The results suggest that a relationship might exist between NS score and dopaminergic activity.

  11. Amphetamine Self-Administration Attenuates Dopamine D2 Autoreceptor Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calipari, Erin S; Sun, Haiguo; Eldeeb, Khalil; Luessen, Deborah J; Feng, Xin; Howlett, Allyn C; Jones, Sara R; Chen, Rong

    2014-01-01

    Dopamine D2 autoreceptors located on the midbrain dopaminergic neurons modulate dopamine (DA) neuron firing, DA release, and DA synthesis through a negative-feedback mechanism. Dysfunctional D2 autoreceptors following repeated drug exposure could lead to aberrant DA activity in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and projection areas such as nucleus accumbens (NAcc), promoting drug-seeking and -taking behavior. Therefore, it is important to understand molecular mechanisms underlying drug-induced changes in D2 autoreceptors. Here, we reported that 5 days of amphetamine (AMPH) self-administration reduced the ability of D2 autoreceptors to inhibit DA release in the NAcc as determined by voltammetry. Using the antibody-capture [35S]GTPγS scintillation proximity assay, we demonstrated for the first time that midbrain D2/D3 receptors were preferentially coupled to Gαi2, whereas striatal D2/D3 receptors were coupled equally to Gαi2 and Gαo for signaling. Importantly, AMPH abolished the interaction between Gαi2 and D2/D3 receptors in the midbrain while leaving striatal D2/D3 receptors unchanged. The disruption of the coupling between D2/D3 receptors and Gαi2 by AMPH is at least partially explained by the enhanced RGS2 (regulator of G-protein signaling 2) activity resulting from an increased RGS2 trafficking to the membrane. AMPH had no effects on the midbrain expression and trafficking of other RGS proteins such as RGS4 and RGS8. Our data suggest that midbrain D2/D3 receptors are more susceptible to AMPH-induced alterations. Reduced D2 autoreceptor function could lead to enhanced DA signaling and ultimately addiction-related behavior. RGS2 may be a potential non-dopaminergic target for pharmacological intervention of dysfunctional DA transmission and drug addiction. PMID:24513972

  12. Dopaminergic modulation of striatal acetylcholine release in rats depleted of dopamine as neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B J; Bruno, J P

    1995-02-01

    A repeated sessions, in vivo microdialysis design was used to determine the D1- and D2-like receptor modulation of striatal ACh efflux in intact adult rats and those depleted of DA on postnatal Day 3. Systemic administration of the D1-like agonist SKF 38393 (1.0 or 10.0 mg/kg, or the D2-like antagonist clebopride (1.0 or 10.0 mg/kg) increased ACh efflux in both controls and DA-depleted animals. Systemic administration of the D1-like antagonist SCH 23390 (0.05 or 0.2 mg/kg) or D2-like agonist quinpirole (0.5 or 1.0 mg/kg) decreased ACh efflux in both groups of animals. DA-depleted animals exhibited a larger response than did controls to the lower doses of these drugs. Intrastriatal administration of clebopride (10 microM) increased ACh efflux in DA-depleted animals. Finally, basal and clebopride-stimulated ACh efflux were unaffected by the repeated microdialysis sessions. These data demonstrate that the reciprocal modulation of striatal ACh efflux, seen in controls and in rats depleted of DA as adults, is also present in adults depleted of DA as neonates. Because the roles of D1- and D2-receptors in the expression of motor behavior differ between rats depleted of DA as adults vs as neonates, these data suggest that alterations in the dopaminergic modulation of striatal ACh release do not underlie the sparing from motoric deficits seen in animals depleted of DA as neonates.

  13. No difference in striatal dopamine transporter availability between active smokers, ex-smokers and non-smokers using (123I)FP-CIT (DaTSCAN) and SPECT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, G; Knudsen, Gitte Moos; Jensen, PS

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mesolimbic and nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathways play important roles in both the rewarding and conditioning effects of drugs. The dopamine transporter (DAT) is of central importance in regulating dopaminergic neurotransmission and in particular in activating the striatal D2-like...... receptors. Molecular imaging studies of the relationship between DAT availability/dopamine synthesis capacity and active cigarette smoking have shown conflicting results. Through the collaboration between 13 SPECT centres located in 10 different European countries, a database of FP-CIT-binding in healthy...... controls was established. We used the database to test the hypothesis that striatal DAT availability is changed in active smokers compared to non-smokers and ex-smokers. METHODS: A total of 129 healthy volunteers were included. Subjects were divided into three categories according to past and present...

  14. Effects of age on reactive capacity and nigrostriatal dopamine function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilliam, P.E.

    1984-01-01

    This investigation examined the effects of aging on reactive capacity (reaction time), and striatal dopamine function in the same animals. Twenty, 3 month old, and twenty, 24 month old, male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained in a reactive capacity test to quickly release a lever, in response to an auditory and visual stimulus, in order to avoid footshocks. The young animals were tested at 3, 6, and 9 months of age, while the Old animals were tested at 18, 21, and 24 months of age. Twenty-four hours after the last testing session the animals were sacrificed and their striata dissected for biochemical assays. A [ 3 H]-spiperone receptor binding assay was performed to determine the density and affinity of striatial D-2 receptors. It was hypothesized that the improvement in reactive capacity performance of the Old animals over days was due to their ability to compensate for their decrease in receptor density by an increase in the production and utilization of dopamine. Significant positive correlations were also found between reactive capacity performance and receptor density as well as between reactive capacity and the ratio of DOPAC + HVA/DA

  15. Voluntary Exercise Improves Performance of a Discrimination Task through Effects on the Striatal Dopamine System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, Meghan C.; Stansfield, Katherine J.; Green, John T.

    2014-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that voluntary exercise facilitates discrimination learning in a modified T-maze. There is evidence implicating the dorsolateral striatum (DLS) as the substrate for this task. The present experiments examined whether changes in DLS dopamine receptors might underlie the exercise-associated facilitation. Infusing a…

  16. Sex differences, learning flexibility, and striatal dopamine D1 and D2 following adolescent drug exposure in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo, Alicia; Pozos, Hilda; De La Torre, Adrianna; DeShields, Simone; Cevallos, James; Rodriguez, Jonathan; Stolyarova, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Corticostriatal circuitry supports flexible reward learning and emotional behavior from the critical neurodevelopmental stage of adolescence through adulthood. It is still poorly understood how prescription drug exposure in adolescence may impact these outcomes in the long-term. We studied adolescent methylphenidate (MPH) and fluoxetine (FLX) exposure in rats and their impact on learning and emotion in adulthood. In Experiment 1, male and female rats were administered MPH, FLX, or saline (SAL), and compared with methamphetamine (mAMPH) treatment beginning in postnatal day (PND) 37. The rats were then tested on discrimination and reversal learning in adulthood. In Experiment 2, animals were administered MPH or SAL also beginning in PND 37 and later tested in adulthood for anxiety levels. In Experiment 3, we analyzed striatal dopamine D1 and D2 receptor expression in adulthood following either extensive learning (after Experiment 1) or more brief emotional measures (after Experiment 2). We found sex differences in discrimination learning and attenuated reversal learning after MPH and only sex differences in adulthood anxiety. In learners, there was enhanced striatal D1, but not D2, after either adolescent MPH or mAMPH. Lastly, also in learners, there was a sex x treatment group interaction for D2, but not D1, driven by the MPH-pretreated females, who expressed significantly higher D2 levels compared to SAL. These results show enduring effects of adolescent MPH on reversal learning in rats. Developmental psychostimulant exposure may interact with learning to enhance D1 expression in adulthood, and affect D2 expression in a sex-dependent manner. PMID:27091300

  17. Stimulated serotonin release from hyperinnervated terminals subsequent to neonatal dopamine depletion regulates striatal tachykinin, but not enkephalin gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basura, G J; Walker, P D

    2000-09-30

    Dopamine (DA) depletion in neonatal rodents results in depressed tachykinin and elevated enkephalin gene expression in the adult striatum (STR). Concurrently, serotonin (5-HT) fibers sprout to hyperinnervate the DA-depleted anterior striatum (A-STR). The present study was designed to determine if increased 5-HT release from sprouted terminals influences dysregulated preprotachykinin (PPT) and preproenkephalin (PPE) mRNA expression in the DA-depleted STR. Three-day-old Sprague-Dawley rat pups received bilateral intracerebroventricular injections of vehicle or the DA neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA, 100 microg). Two months later, rats received a single intraperitoneal injection of vehicle or the acute 5-HT releasing agent p-chloroamphetamine (PCA; 10 mg/kg). Rats were killed 4 h later and striata processed for monoamine content by HPLC-ED and mRNA expression by in situ hybridization within specific subregions of the A-STR and posterior striatum (P-STR). 6-OHDA treatment severely (>98%) reduced striatal DA levels, while 5-HT content in the A-STR was significantly elevated (doubled), indicative of 5-HT hyperinnervation. Following 6-OHDA, PPT mRNA levels were depressed 60-66% across three subregions of the A-STR and 52-59% across two subregions of the P-STR, while PPE mRNA expression was elevated in both the A-STR (50-62%) and P-STR (55-82%). PCA normalized PPT mRNA levels in all regions of the DA-depleted A-STR and P-STR, yet did not alter PPE levels in either dorsal central or medial regions from 6-OHDA alone, but reduced PPE to control levels in the dorsal lateral A-STR. These data indicate that increased 5-HT neurotransmission, following neonatal 6-OHDA treatment, primarily influences PPT-containing neurons of the direct striatal output pathway.

  18. Striatal D1- and D2-type dopamine receptors are linked to motor response inhibition in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Chelsea L; Ishibashi, Kenji; Mandelkern, Mark A; Brown, Amira K; Ghahremani, Dara G; Sabb, Fred; Bilder, Robert; Cannon, Tyrone; Borg, Jacqueline; London, Edythe D

    2015-04-15

    Motor response inhibition is mediated by neural circuits involving dopaminergic transmission; however, the relative contributions of dopaminergic signaling via D1- and D2-type receptors are unclear. Although evidence supports dissociable contributions of D1- and D2-type receptors to response inhibition in rats and associations of D2-type receptors to response inhibition in humans, the relationship between D1-type receptors and response inhibition has not been evaluated in humans. Here, we tested whether individual differences in striatal D1- and D2-type receptors are related to response inhibition in human subjects, possibly in opposing ways. Thirty-one volunteers participated. Response inhibition was indexed by stop-signal reaction time on the stop-signal task and commission errors on the continuous performance task, and tested for association with striatal D1- and D2-type receptor availability [binding potential referred to nondisplaceable uptake (BPND)], measured using positron emission tomography with [(11)C]NNC-112 and [(18)F]fallypride, respectively. Stop-signal reaction time was negatively correlated with D1- and D2-type BPND in whole striatum, with significant relationships involving the dorsal striatum, but not the ventral striatum, and no significant correlations involving the continuous performance task. The results indicate that dopamine D1- and D2-type receptors are associated with response inhibition, and identify the dorsal striatum as an important locus of dopaminergic control in stopping. Moreover, the similar contribution of both receptor subtypes suggests the importance of a relative balance between phasic and tonic dopaminergic activity subserved by D1- and D2-type receptors, respectively, in support of response inhibition. The results also suggest that the stop-signal task and the continuous performance task use different neurochemical mechanisms subserving motor response inhibition. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/355990-08$15.00/0.

  19. Alteration of striatal dopamine levels under various partial pressure of oxygen in pre-convulsive and convulsive phases in freely-moving rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoute, Cécile; Weiss, Michel; Risso, Jean-Jacques; Rostain, Jean-Claude

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the change in the striatal dopamine (DA) level in freely-moving rat exposed to different partial pressure of oxygen (from 1 to 5 ATA). Some works have suggested that DA release by the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) neurons in the striatum could be disturbed by hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) exposure, altering therefore the basal ganglia activity. Such changes could result in a change in glutamatergic and GABAergic control of the dopaminergic neurons into the SNc. Such alterations could provide more information about the oxygen-induced seizures observed at 5 ATA in rat. DA-sensitive electrodes were implanted into the striatum under general anesthesia. After 1 week rest, awaked rats were exposed to oxygen-nitrogen mixture at a partial pressure of oxygen of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 ATA. DA level was monitored continuously (every 3 min) by in vivo voltammetry before and during HBO exposure. HBO induced a decrease in DA level in relationship to the increase in partial pressure of oxygen from 1 ATA to 4 ATA (-15 % at 1 ATA, -30 % at 2 ATA, -40 % at 3 ATA, -45 % at 4 ATA), without signs of oxygen toxicity. At 5 ATA, DA level strongly decreases (-75 %) before seizure which occurred after 27 min ± 7 HBO exposure. After the epileptic seizure the decrease in DA level disappeared. These changes and the biphasic effect of HBO were discussed in function of HBO action on neurochemical regulations of the nigro striatal pathway.

  20. Differential up-regulation of striatal dopamine transporter and α-synuclein by the pyrethroid insecticide permethrin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillette, Jeffrey S.; Bloomquist, Jeffrey R.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of permethrin on striatal dopaminergic biomarkers were assessed in this study. Retired breeder male C57 B1/6 mice were given an ip dose of permethrin (0.1-200 mg/kg) at 7-day intervals, over a 2-week period (Days 0, 7, and 14). Animals were then sacrificed 1 day (t = 1), 14 days (t 14), or 28 days after the last treatment (t = 28). Dopamine transporter (DAT) protein as assayed by Western blotting was increased to 115% in the 0.8 mg/kg group over that of control mice at t = 1 (P 3 H]GBR 12935, used to assay DAT binding, followed the same trend as that for the Western blotting data for 0.8 and 1.5 mg/kg doses of permethrin over the 4 weeks posttreatment. At 200 mg/kg permethrin, DAT protein was unchanged vs controls (t = 1), but had significantly increased by t = 14 and continued to increase at t = 28, suggesting that the reduced dopamine transport at this dose was due to nerve terminal stress and that recovery had occurred. The protein α-synuclein was also significantly induced at the 1.5 mg/kg dose at t = 1; however, unlike DAT up-regulation, this effect had declined to control values by t 14. Maximal induction of α-synuclein protein occurred at a dose of 50 mg/kg permethrin. These data provide evidence that the pyrethroid class of insecticides can modulate the dopaminergic system at low doses, in a persistent manner, which may render neurons more vulnerable to toxicant injury

  1. Further human evidence for striatal dopamine release induced by administration of ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC): selectivity to limbic striatum.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossong, MG; Mehta, Mitul; van Berckel, Bart; Howes, Oliver; Kahn, RS; Stokes, Paul

    2015-01-01

    RATIONALE: Elevated dopamine function is thought to play a key role in both the rewarding effects of addictive drugs and the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Accumulating epidemiological evidence indicates that cannabis use is a risk factor for the development of schizophrenia. However, human

  2. Dopamine D(3) receptors contribute to methamphetamine-induced alterations in dopaminergic neuronal function: role of hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baladi, Michelle G; Newman, Amy H; Nielsen, Shannon M; Hanson, Glen R; Fleckenstein, Annette E

    2014-06-05

    Methamphetamine administration causes long-term deficits to dopaminergic systems that, in humans, are thought to be associated with motor slowing and memory impairment. Methamphetamine interacts with the dopamine transporter (DAT) and increases extracellular concentrations of dopamine that, in turn, binds to a number of dopamine receptor subtypes. Although the relative contribution of each receptor subtype to the effects of methamphetamine is not fully known, non-selective dopamine D2/D3 receptor antagonists can attenuate methamphetamine-induced changes to dopamine systems. The present study extended these findings by testing the role of the dopamine D3 receptor subtype in mediating the long-term dopaminergic, and for comparison serotonergic, deficits caused by methamphetamine. Results indicate that the dopamine D3 receptor selective antagonist, PG01037, attenuated methamphetamine-induced decreases in striatal DAT, but not hippocampal serotonin (5HT) transporter (SERT), function, as assessed 7 days after treatment. However, PG01037 also attenuated methamphetamine-induced hyperthermia. When methamphetamine-induced hyperthermia was maintained by treating rats in a warm ambient environment, PG01037 failed to attenuate the effects of methamphetamine on DAT uptake. Furthermore, PG01037 did not attenuate methamphetamine-induced decreases in dopamine and 5HT content. Taken together, the present study demonstrates that dopamine D3 receptors mediate, in part, the long-term deficits in DAT function caused by methamphetamine, and that this effect likely involves an attenuation of methamphetamine-induced hyperthermia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Dopamine D3 receptors contribute to methamphetamine-induced alterations in dopaminergic neuronal function: Role of hyperthermia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baladi, Michelle G.; Newman, Amy H.; Nielsen, Shannon M.; Hanson, Glen R.; Fleckenstein, Annette E.

    2014-01-01

    Methamphetamine administration causes long-term deficits to dopaminergic systems that, in humans, are thought to be associated with motor slowing and memory impairment. Methamphetamine interacts with the dopamine transporter (DAT) and increases extracellular concentrations of dopamine that, in turn, binds to a number of dopamine receptor subtypes. Although the relative contribution of each receptor subtype to the effects of methamphetamine is not fully known, non-selective dopamine D2/D3 receptor antagonists can attenuate methamphetamine-induced changes to dopamine systems. The present study extended these findings by testing the role of the dopamine D3 receptor subtype in mediating the long-term dopaminergic, and for comparison serotonergic, deficits caused by methamphetamine. Results indicate that the dopamine D3 receptor selective antagonist, PG01037, attenuated methamphetamine-induced decreases in striatal DAT, but not hippocampal serotonin (5HT) transporter (SERT), function, as assessed 7 days after treatment. However, PG01037 also attenuated methamphetamine-induced hyperthermia. When methamphetamine-induced hyperthermia was maintained by treating rats in a warm ambient environment, PG01037 failed to attenuate the effects of methamphetamine on DAT uptake. Furthermore, PG01037 did not attenuate methamphetamine-induced decreases in dopamine and 5HT content. Taken together, the present study demonstrates that dopamine D3 receptors mediate, in part, the long-term deficits in DAT function caused by methamphetamine, and that this effect likely involves an attenuation of methamphetamine-induced hyperthermia. PMID:24685638

  4. Methamphetamine-induced changes in the striatal dopamine pathway in μ-opioid receptor knockout mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Sang Won

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Repeated exposure to methamphetamine (METH can cause not only neurotoxicity but also addiction. Behavioral sensitization is widely used as an animal model for the study of drug addiction. We previously reported that the μ-opioid receptor knockout mice were resistant to METH-induced behavioral sensitization but the mechanism is unknown. Methods The present study determined whether resistance of the μ-opioid receptor (μ-OR knockout mice to behavioral sensitization is due to differential expression of the stimulatory G protein α subunit (Gαs or regulators of G-protein signaling (RGS coupled to the dopamine D1 receptor. Mice received daily intraperitoneal injections of saline or METH (10 mg/kg for 7 consecutive days to induce sensitization. On day 11(following 4 abstinent days, mice were either given a test dose of METH (10 mg/kg for behavioral testing or sacrificed for neurochemical assays without additional METH treatment. Results METH challenge-induced stereotyped behaviors were significantly reduced in the μ-opioid receptor knockout mice when compared with those in wild-type mice. Neurochemical assays indicated that there is a decrease in dopamine D1 receptor ligand binding and an increase in the expression of RGS4 mRNA in the striatum of METH-treated μ-opioid receptor knockout mice but not of METH-treated wild-type mice. METH treatment had no effect on the expression of Gαs and RGS2 mRNA in the striatum of either strain of mice. Conclusions These results indicate that down-regulation of the expression of the dopamine D1 receptor and up-regulation of RGS4 mRNA expression in the striatum may contribute to the reduced response to METH-induced stereotypy behavior in μ-opioid receptor knockout mice. Our results highlight the interactions of the μ-opioid receptor system to METH-induced behavioral responses by influencing the expression of RGS of dopamine D1 receptors.

  5. A role for D1 dopamine receptors in striatal methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Danielle M; Keefe, Kristen A

    2013-10-25

    Methamphetamine (METH) exposure results in long-term damage to the dopamine system in both human METH abusers and animal models. One factor that has been heavily implicated in this METH-induced damage to the dopaminergic system is the activation of D1 dopamine (DA) receptors. However, a significant caveat to the studies investigating the role of the receptor in such toxicity is that genetic and pharmacological manipulations of the D1 DA receptor also mitigate METH-induced hyperthermia. Importantly, METH-induced hyperthermia is tightly associated with the neurotoxicity, such that simply cooling animals during METH exposure protects against the neurotoxicity. Therefore, it is difficult to determine whether D1 DA receptors per se play an important role in METH-induced neurotoxicity or whether the protection observed simply resulted from a mitigation of METH-induced hyperthermia. To answer this important question, the current study infused a D1 DA receptor antagonist into striatum during METH exposure while controlling for METH-induced hyperthermia. Here we found that even when METH-induced hyperthermia is maintained, the coadministration of a D1 DA receptor antagonist protects against METH-induced neurotoxicity, strongly suggesting that D1 DA receptors play an important role in METH-induced neurotoxicity apart from the mitigation of METH-induced hyperthermia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Temporal changes of striatal dopamine release during and after a video game with a monetary reward: a PET study with [{sup 11}C]raclopride continuous infusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S. E. [Sungkyunkwon University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, S. S.; Choe, Y. S.; Lee, S. Y.; Kang, E.; Kim, B. T. [Seoul National University hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    In an attempt to understand the neurochemical changes associated with rewarded motor learning in human brain, we investigated the temporal changes of striatal dopamine (DA) release during and after a goal-directed psychomotor task (a video game) with a monetary incentive using [{sup 11}C]raclopride PET. Seven healthy, right-handed, nonsmokers were studied with PET for 120 min (50 min resting followed by 40 min video game and another 30 min resting) while receiving a bolus plus constant infusion of the DA D2 receptor radioligand [{sup 11}C]raclopride. During the video game (from 50 to 90 min postinjection), subjects played Tetris, which involved learning of joystick movement to fit falling jigsaw blocks, and periodically rewarded with unpredictable amount monetary incentives for improved performance. Striatal V3', calculated as striatal-cerebellar/cerebellar activity ratio, was measured under equilibrium condition, at baseline and during and after the video game. Striatal V3' was significantly reduced during the video game compared with baseline levels, indicating increased DA release in this region (caudate, -15{+-}6%; putamen, -30{+-}10%). During the 30 min after the game ended, striatal [{sup 11}C]raclopride binding was gradually increased and the V3' approached baseline levels. There was a significant correlation between the reduction in striatal V3' and the task performance during the video game. These results demonstrate DA release in the human striatum during a psychomotor task with a monetary reward and to our knowledge for the first time a gradual DA restoration to baseline levels following the offset of stimulation. They also illustrate that acute fluctuations of synaptic DA can be measured in vivo using [{sup 11}C]raclopride PET.

  7. Temporal changes of striatal dopamine release during and after a video game with a monetary reward: a PET study with [11C]raclopride continuous infusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. E.; Cho, S. S.; Choe, Y. S.; Lee, S. Y.; Kang, E.; Kim, B. T.

    2002-01-01

    In an attempt to understand the neurochemical changes associated with rewarded motor learning in human brain, we investigated the temporal changes of striatal dopamine (DA) release during and after a goal-directed psychomotor task (a video game) with a monetary incentive using [ 11 C]raclopride PET. Seven healthy, right-handed, nonsmokers were studied with PET for 120 min (50 min resting followed by 40 min video game and another 30 min resting) while receiving a bolus plus constant infusion of the DA D2 receptor radioligand [ 11 C]raclopride. During the video game (from 50 to 90 min postinjection), subjects played Tetris, which involved learning of joystick movement to fit falling jigsaw blocks, and periodically rewarded with unpredictable amount monetary incentives for improved performance. Striatal V3', calculated as striatal-cerebellar/cerebellar activity ratio, was measured under equilibrium condition, at baseline and during and after the video game. Striatal V3' was significantly reduced during the video game compared with baseline levels, indicating increased DA release in this region (caudate, -15±6%; putamen, -30±10%). During the 30 min after the game ended, striatal [ 11 C]raclopride binding was gradually increased and the V3' approached baseline levels. There was a significant correlation between the reduction in striatal V3' and the task performance during the video game. These results demonstrate DA release in the human striatum during a psychomotor task with a monetary reward and to our knowledge for the first time a gradual DA restoration to baseline levels following the offset of stimulation. They also illustrate that acute fluctuations of synaptic DA can be measured in vivo using [ 11 C]raclopride PET

  8. Temporal changes of striatal dopamine release during and after a video game with a monetary reward: a PET study with [11C] raclopride continuous infusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sang Eun Kim; Yearn Seong Choe; Eunjoo Kang; Dong Soo Lee; June-Key Chung; Myung-Chul Lee; Sang Soo Cho

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: In an attempt to understand the neurochemical changes associated with rewarded motor learning in human brain, we investigated the temporal changes of striatal dopamine (DA) release during and after a goal-directed psychomotor task (a video game) with a monetary incentive using [ 11 C] raclopride PET. Methods: Seven healthy, right-handed, nonsmokers were studied with PET for 120 min (50 min resting followed by 40 min video game and another 30 min resting) while receiving a bolus plus constant infusion of the DA D2 receptor radioligand [ 11 C] raclopride. During the video game (from 50 to 90 min postinjection), subjects played Tetris, which involved learning of joystick movement to fit falling jigsaw blocks, and periodically rewarded with unpredictable amount monetary incentives for improved performance. Striatal V 3 ', calculated as striatal-cerebellar/cerebellar activity ratio, was measured under equilibrium condition, at baseline and during and after the video game. Results: Striatal V 3 ' was significantly reduced during the video game compared with baseline levels, indicating increased DA release in this region (caudate, -15±6%; putamen, -30±10%). During the 30 min after the game ended, striatal [ 11 C] raclopride binding was gradually increased and the V 3 ' approached baseline levels. There was a significant correlation between the reduction in striatal V 3 ' and the task performance during the video game. Conclusions: These results demonstrate DA release in the human striatum during a psychomotor task with a monetary reward and to our knowledge for the first time a gradual DA restoration to baseline levels following the offset of stimulation. They also illustrate that acute fluctuations of synaptic DA can be measured in vivo using [ 11 C] raclopride PET. (authors)

  9. N-linked oligosaccharides are responsible for rat striatal dopamine D2 receptor heterogeneity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clagett-Dame, M.; McKelvy, J.F. (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL (USA))

    1989-10-01

    The glycoprotein nature of the binding subunit of the dopamine D2 receptor in rat striatum has been examined by photoaffinity labeling receptor preparations with N-(p-azido-m-(125I)iodophenethyl)spiperone followed by treatment of crude membrane receptor or receptor fractions isolated from sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) polyacrylamide gels with endo- and exoglycosidases. The major photoaffinity labeled protein migrates as a heterogeneous species on 10% SDS polyacrylamide gels and ranges from 130,000 to 75,000 relative molecular mass (Mr). This heterogeneity can be explained by glycosylation of the receptor by complex-type N-linked oligosaccharides. Three fractions of labeled receptor were isolated from SDS polyacrylamide gels over a range of 130,000 to 75,000 Mr; after digestion with peptide-N4-(N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminyl) asparagine amidase, all fractions yielded a single peptide approximately 40,000 Mr. Treatment of photoaffinity labeled membranes with alpha-mannosidase was without effect. The dopamine D2 receptor appears to contain substantial amounts of sialic acid as treatment of photoaffinity labeled membranes with neuraminidase increased the receptor mobility on SDS polyacrylamide gels to a species of 50,000-54,000 Mr. Treatment of the receptor with neuraminidase followed by endo-alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase did not change the electrophoretic migration pattern from that seen after neuraminidase treatment alone, suggesting that the binding peptide contains no serine- or threonine-linked oligosaccharides. A smaller binding peptide of approximately 31,000 Mr is also apparent in crude photoaffinity labeled membranes. This material also contains N-linked oligosaccharide.

  10. N-linked oligosaccharides are responsible for rat striatal dopamine D2 receptor heterogeneity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clagett-Dame, M.; McKelvy, J.F.

    1989-01-01

    The glycoprotein nature of the binding subunit of the dopamine D2 receptor in rat striatum has been examined by photoaffinity labeling receptor preparations with N-(p-azido-m-[125I]iodophenethyl)spiperone followed by treatment of crude membrane receptor or receptor fractions isolated from sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) polyacrylamide gels with endo- and exoglycosidases. The major photoaffinity labeled protein migrates as a heterogeneous species on 10% SDS polyacrylamide gels and ranges from 130,000 to 75,000 relative molecular mass (Mr). This heterogeneity can be explained by glycosylation of the receptor by complex-type N-linked oligosaccharides. Three fractions of labeled receptor were isolated from SDS polyacrylamide gels over a range of 130,000 to 75,000 Mr; after digestion with peptide-N4-[N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminyl] asparagine amidase, all fractions yielded a single peptide approximately 40,000 Mr. Treatment of photoaffinity labeled membranes with alpha-mannosidase was without effect. The dopamine D2 receptor appears to contain substantial amounts of sialic acid as treatment of photoaffinity labeled membranes with neuraminidase increased the receptor mobility on SDS polyacrylamide gels to a species of 50,000-54,000 Mr. Treatment of the receptor with neuraminidase followed by endo-alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase did not change the electrophoretic migration pattern from that seen after neuraminidase treatment alone, suggesting that the binding peptide contains no serine- or threonine-linked oligosaccharides. A smaller binding peptide of approximately 31,000 Mr is also apparent in crude photoaffinity labeled membranes. This material also contains N-linked oligosaccharide

  11. Neurodevelopmental disruption of cortico-striatal function caused by degeneration of habenula neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-A Lee

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The habenula plays an important role on cognitive and affective functions by regulating monoamines transmission such as the dopamine and serotonin, such that its dysfunction is thought to underlie a number of psychiatric conditions. Given that the monoamine systems are highly vulnerable to neurodevelopmental insults, damages in the habenula during early neurodevelopment may cause devastating effects on the wide-spread brain areas targeted by monoamine innervations.Using a battery of behavioral, anatomical, and biochemical assays, we examined the impacts of neonatal damage in the habenula on neurodevelopmental sequelae of the prefrontal cortex (PFC and nucleus accumbens (NAcc and associated behavioral deficits in rodents. Neonatal lesion of the medial and lateral habenula by ibotenic acid produced an assortment of behavioral manifestations consisting of hyper-locomotion, impulsivity, and attention deficit, with hyper-locomotion and impulsivity being observed only in the juvenile period, whereas attention deficit was sustained up until adulthood. Moreover, these behavioral alterations were also improved by amphetamine. Our study further revealed that impulsivity and attention deficit were associated with disruption of PFC volume and dopamine (DA receptor expression, respectively. In contrast, hyper-locomotion was associated with decreased DA transporter expression in the NAcc. We also found that neonatal administration of nicotine into the habenula of neonatal brains produced selective lesion of the medial habenula. Behavioral deficits with neonatal nicotine administration were similar to those caused by ibotenic acid lesion of both medial and lateral habenula during the juvenile period, whereas they were different in adulthood.Because of similarity between behavioral and brain alterations caused by neonatal insults in the habenula and the symptoms and suggested neuropathology in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, these results

  12. Repeated administration of D-amphetamine induces loss of [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT binding to striatal dopamine transporters in rat brain: a validation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booij, Jan [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Academic Medical Center, 1105 AZ Amsterdam (Netherlands)]. E-mail: j.booij@amc.uva.nl; Bruin, Kora de [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Academic Medical Center, 1105 AZ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Gunning, W. Boudewijn [Department of Neurology, Epilepsy Centre Kempenhaeghe, 5590 AB Heeze (Netherlands)

    2006-04-15

    In recent years, several PET and SPECT studies have shown loss of striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) binding in amphetamine (AMPH) users. However, the use of DAT SPECT tracers to detect AMPH-induced changes in DAT binding has not been validated. We therefore examined if repeated administration of D-AMPH or methamphetamine (METH) may induce loss of binding to striatal DATs in rats by using an experimental biodistribution study design and a SPECT tracer for the DAT ([{sup 123}I]FP-CIT). Methods: Groups of male rats (n=10 per group) were treated with D-AMPH (10 mg/kg body weight), METH (10 mg/kg body weight), or saline, twice a day for 5 consecutive days. Five days later, [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT was injected intravenously, and 2 h later, the rats were sacrificed and radioactivity was assayed. Results: In D-AMPH but not METH-treated rats, striatal [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT uptake was significantly lower (approximately 17%) than in the control group. Conclusion: These data show that [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT can be used to detect AMPH-induced changes in DAT binding and may validate the use of DAT radiotracers to study AMPH-induced changes in striatal DAT binding in vivo.

  13. Repeated administration of D-amphetamine induces loss of [123I]FP-CIT binding to striatal dopamine transporters in rat brain: a validation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booij, Jan; Bruin, Kora de; Gunning, W. Boudewijn

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, several PET and SPECT studies have shown loss of striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) binding in amphetamine (AMPH) users. However, the use of DAT SPECT tracers to detect AMPH-induced changes in DAT binding has not been validated. We therefore examined if repeated administration of D-AMPH or methamphetamine (METH) may induce loss of binding to striatal DATs in rats by using an experimental biodistribution study design and a SPECT tracer for the DAT ([ 123 I]FP-CIT). Methods: Groups of male rats (n=10 per group) were treated with D-AMPH (10 mg/kg body weight), METH (10 mg/kg body weight), or saline, twice a day for 5 consecutive days. Five days later, [ 123 I]FP-CIT was injected intravenously, and 2 h later, the rats were sacrificed and radioactivity was assayed. Results: In D-AMPH but not METH-treated rats, striatal [ 123 I]FP-CIT uptake was significantly lower (approximately 17%) than in the control group. Conclusion: These data show that [ 123 I]FP-CIT can be used to detect AMPH-induced changes in DAT binding and may validate the use of DAT radiotracers to study AMPH-induced changes in striatal DAT binding in vivo

  14. Carbon-11 epidepride: a suitable radioligand for PET investigation of striatal and extrastriatal dopamine D{sub 2} receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langer, Oliver; Halldin, Christer E-mail: christer.halldin@neuro.ks.se; Dolle, Frederic; Swahn, Carl-Gunnar; Olsson, Hans; Lundkvist, Per Karlsson; Hall, Haakan; Sandell, Johan; Vaufrey, Camilla; Loc' h, Christian; Franzoise; Crouzel, Christian; Maziere, Bernard; Farde, Lars

    1999-07-01

    Epidepride {l_brace}(S)-(-)-N-([1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl]methyl)-5-iodo-2,3-dimethoxybenzamide= {r_brace} binds with a picomolar affinity (K{sub i}=24 pM) to the dopamine D{sub 2} receptor. Iodine-123-labeled epidepride has been used previously to study striatal and extrastriatal dopamine D{sub 2} receptors with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Our aim was to label epidepride with carbon-11 for comparative quantitative studies between positron emission tomography (PET) and SPECT. Epidepride was synthesized from its bromo-analogue FLB 457 via the corresponding trimethyl-tin derivative. In an alternative synthetic pathway, the corresponding substituted benzoic acid was reacted with the optically pure aminomethylpyrrolidine-derivative. Demethylation of epidepride gave the desmethyl-derivative, which was reacted with [{sup 11}C]methyl triflate. Total radiochemical yield was 40-50% within a total synthesis time of 30 min. The specific radioactivity at the end of synthesis was 37-111 GBq/{mu}mol (1,000-3,000 Ci/mmol). Human postmortem whole-hemisphere autoradiography demonstrated dense binding in the caudate putamen, and also in extrastriatal areas such as the thalamus and the neocortex. The binding was inhibited by unlabeled raclopride. PET studies in a cynomolgus monkey demonstrated high uptake in the striatum and in several extrastriatal regions. At 90 min after injection, uptake in the striatum, thalamus and neocortex was about 11, 4, and 2 times higher than in the cerebellum, respectively. Pretreatment experiment with unlabeled raclopride (1 mg/kg) inhibited 50-70% of [{sup 11}C]epidepride binding. The fraction of unchanged [{sup 11}C]epidepride in monkey plasma determined by a gradient high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was about 30% of the total radioactivity at 30 min after injection of [{sup 11}C]epidepride. The availability of [{sup 11}C]epidepride allows the PET-verification of the data obtained from quantitation studies with

  15. Single versus multiple impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease: an ¹¹C-raclopride positron emission tomography study of reward cue-evoked striatal dopamine release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kit; Politis, Marios; O'Sullivan, Sean S; Lawrence, Andrew D; Warsi, Sarah; Bose, Subrata; Lees, Andrew J; Piccini, Paola

    2015-06-01

    Impulse control disorders (ICDs) are reported in Parkinson's disease (PD) in association with dopaminergic treatment. Approximately 25 % of patients with ICDs have multiple co-occurring ICDs (i.e. more than one diagnosed ICD). The extent to which dopaminergic neurotransmission in PD patients with multiple ICDs differs from those with only one diagnosed ICD is unknown. The aims of this study are: (1) to investigate dopamine neurotransmission in PD patients diagnosed with multiple ICDs, single ICDs and non-ICD controls in response to reward-related visual cues using positron emission tomography with (11)C-raclopride. (2) to compare clinical features of the above three groups. PD individuals with mulitple ICDs (n = 10), single ICD (n = 7) and no ICDs (n = 9) were recruited and underwent two positron emission tomography (PET) scans with (11)C-raclopride: one where they viewed neutral visual cues and the other where they viewed a range of visual cues related to different rewards. Individuals with both multiple ICDs and single ICDs showed significantly greater ventral striatal dopamine release compared to non-ICD PD individuals in response to reward cues, but the two ICD groups did not differ from each other in the extent of dopamine release. Subjects with multiple ICDs were, however, significantly more depressed, and had higher levels of impulsive sensation-seeking compared to subjects with single ICDs and without ICDs. This is the first study to compare dopamine neurotransmission using PET neuroimaging in PD subjects with multiple vs. single ICDs. Our results suggest that striatal dopamine neurotransmission is not directly related to the co-occurrence of ICDs in PD, potentially implicating non-dopaminergic mechanisms linked to depression; and suggest that physicians should be vigilant in managing depression in PD patients with ICDs.

  16. The transfection of BDNF to dopamine neurons potentiates the effect of dopamine D3 receptor agonist recovering the striatal innervation, dendritic spines and motor behavior in an aged rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis F Razgado-Hernandez

    Full Text Available The progressive degeneration of the dopamine neurons of the pars compacta of substantia nigra and the consequent loss of the dopamine innervation of the striatum leads to the impairment of motor behavior in Parkinson's disease. Accordingly, an efficient therapy of the disease should protect and regenerate the dopamine neurons of the substantia nigra and the dopamine innervation of the striatum. Nigral neurons express Brain Derived Neurotropic Factor (BDNF and dopamine D3 receptors, both of which protect the dopamine neurons. The chronic activation of dopamine D3 receptors by their agonists, in addition, restores, in part, the dopamine innervation of the striatum. Here we explored whether the over-expression of BDNF by dopamine neurons potentiates the effect of the activation of D3 receptors restoring nigrostriatal innervation. Twelve-month old Wistar rats were unilaterally injected with 6-hydroxydopamine into the striatum. Five months later, rats were treated with the D3 agonist 7-hydroxy-N,N-di-n-propy1-2-aminotetralin (7-OH-DPAT administered i.p. during 4½ months via osmotic pumps and the BDNF gene transfection into nigral cells using the neurotensin-polyplex nanovector (a non-viral transfection that selectively transfect the dopamine neurons via the high-affinity neurotensin receptor expressed by these neurons. Two months after the withdrawal of 7-OH-DPAT when rats were aged (24 months old, immunohistochemistry assays were made. The over-expression of BDNF in rats receiving the D3 agonist normalized gait and motor coordination; in addition, it eliminated the muscle rigidity produced by the loss of dopamine. The recovery of motor behavior was associated with the recovery of the nigral neurons, the dopamine innervation of the striatum and of the number of dendritic spines of the striatal neurons. Thus, the over-expression of BDNF in dopamine neurons associated with the chronic activation of the D3 receptors appears to be a promising strategy

  17. Striatal dopamine D2/3 receptor-mediated neurotransmission in major depression: Implications for anhedonia, anxiety and treatment response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peciña, Marta; Sikora, Magdalena; Avery, Erich T; Heffernan, Joseph; Peciña, Susana; Mickey, Brian J; Zubieta, Jon-Kar

    2017-10-01

    Dopamine (DA) neurotransmission within the brain's reward circuit has been implicated in the pathophysiology of depression and in both, cognitive and pharmacological mechanisms of treatment response. Still, a direct relationship between measures of DA neurotransmission and reward-related deficits in patients with depression has not been demonstrated. To gain insight into the symptom-specific alterations in the DA system in patients with depression, we used positron emission tomography (PET) and the D 2/3 receptor-selective radiotracer [ 11 C]raclopride in twenty-three non-smoking un-medicated Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) patients and sixteen healthy controls (HC). We investigated the relationship between D 2/3 receptor availability and baseline measures of depression severity, anxiety, anhedonia, and cognitive and pharmacological mechanisms of treatment response. We found that, compared to controls, patients with depression showed greater D 2/3 receptor availability in several striatal regions, including the bilateral ventral pallidum/nucleus accumbens (vPAL/NAc), and the right ventral caudate and putamen. In the depressed sample, D 2/3 receptor availability in the caudal portion of the ventral striatum (NAc/vPAL) correlated with higher anxiety symptoms, whereas D 2/3 receptor availability in the rostral area of the ventral striatum correlated negatively with the severity of motivational anhedonia. Finally, MDD non-remitters showed greater baseline anxiety, greater D 2/3 availability in the NAc/vPAL, and greater placebo-induced DA release in the bilateral NAc. Our results demonstrate abnormally high D 2/3 receptor availability in the ventral striatum of patients with MDD, which seem to be associated with comorbid anxiety symptoms and lack of response to antidepressants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of ghrelin on the motor deficit caused by the ablation of nigrostriatal dopaminergic cells or the inhibition of striatal dopamine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suda, Yukari; Kuzumaki, Naoko; Narita, Michiko; Hamada, Yusuke; Shibasaki, Masahiro; Tanaka, Kenichi; Tamura, Hideki; Kawamura, Takashi; Kondo, Takashige; Yamanaka, Akihiro; Narita, Minoru

    2018-02-19

    Ghrelin plays roles in a wide range of central functions by activating the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR). This receptor has recently been found in the substantia nigra (SN) to control dopamine (DA)-related physiological functions. The dysregulation of DA neurons in the SN pars compacta (SNc) and the consequent depletion of striatal DA are known to underlie the motor deficits observed in Parkinson's disease (PD). In the present study, we further investigated the role of the SN-ghrelin system in motor function under the stereotaxic injection of AAV-CMV-FLEX-diphtheria toxin A (DTA) into the SN of dopamine transporter (DAT)-Cre (DAT SN ::DTA) mice to expunge DA neurons of the SNc. First, we confirmed the dominant expression of GHSR1a, which is a functional GHSR, in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive DA neurons in the SNc of control mice. In DAT SN ::DTA mice, we clearly observed motor dysfunction using several behavioral tests. An immunohistochemical study revealed a dramatic loss of TH-positive DA neurons in the SNc and DAT-labeled axon terminals in the striatum, and an absence of mRNAs for TH and DAT in the SN of DAT SN ::DTA mice. The mRNA level of GHSR1a was drastically decreased in the SN of these mice. In normal mice, we also found the mRNA expression of GHSR1a within GABAergic neurons in the SN pars reticulata (SNr). Under these conditions, a single injection of ghrelin into the SN failed to improve the motor deficits caused by ablation of the nigrostriatal DA network using DAT SN ::DTA mice, whereas intra-SN injection of ghrelin suppressed the motor dysfunction caused by the administration of haloperidol, which is associated with the transient inhibition of DA transmission. These findings suggest that phasic activation of the SNc-ghrelin system could improve the dysregulation of nigrostriatal DA transmission related to the initial stage of PD, but not the motor deficits under the depletion of nigrostriatal DA. Although GHSRs are found in non

  19. Dopamine D4 Receptor Gene Associated with the Frontal-Striatal-Cerebellar Loop in Children with ADHD: A Resting-State fMRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Andan; Wang, Xin; Liu, Huiru; Tao, Jiejie; Zhou, Jiejie; Ye, Qiong; Li, Jiance; Yang, Chuang; Cheng, Jingliang; Zhao, Ke; Wang, Meihao

    2018-03-21

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common childhood neuropsychiatric disorder that has been linked to the dopaminergic system. This study aimed to investigate the effects of regulation of the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) on functional brain activity during the resting state in ADHD children using the methods of regional homogeneity (ReHo) and functional connectivity (FC). Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data were analyzed in 49 children with ADHD. All participants were classified as either carriers of the DRD4 4-repeat/4-repeat (4R/4R) allele (n = 30) or the DRD4 2-repeat (2R) allele (n = 19). The results showed that participants with the DRD4 2R allele had decreased ReHo bilaterally in the posterior lobes of the cerebellum, while ReHo was increased in the left angular gyrus. Compared with participants carrying the DRD4 4R/4R allele, those with the DRD4 2R allele showed decreased FC to the left angular gyrus in the left striatum, right inferior frontal gyrus, and bilateral lobes of the cerebellum. The increased FC regions included the left superior frontal gyrus, medial frontal gyrus, and rectus gyrus. These data suggest that the DRD4 polymorphisms are associated with localized brain activity and specific functional connections, including abnormality in the frontal-striatal-cerebellar loop. Our study not only enhances the understanding of the correlation between the cerebellar lobes and ADHD, but also provides an imaging basis for explaining the neural mechanisms underlying ADHD in children.

  20. Maternal separation affects dopamine transporter function in the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat: An in vivo electrochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Womersley Jacqueline S

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a developmental disorder characterised by symptoms of inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity. The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR is a well-characterised model of this disorder and has been shown to exhibit dopamine dysregulation, one of the hypothesised causes of ADHD. Since stress experienced in the early stages of life can have long-lasting effects on behaviour, it was considered that early life stress may alter development of the dopaminergic system and thereby contribute to the behavioural characteristics of SHR. It was hypothesized that maternal separation would alter dopamine regulation by the transporter (DAT in ways that distinguish SHR from control rat strains. Methods SHR and control Wistar-Kyoto (WKY rats were subjected to maternal separation for 3 hours per day from postnatal day 2 to 14. Rats were tested for separation-induced anxiety-like behaviour followed by in vivo chronoamperometry to determine whether changes had occurred in striatal clearance of dopamine by DAT. The rate of disappearance of ejected dopamine was used as a measure of DAT function. Results Consistent with a model for ADHD, SHR were more active than WKY in the open field. SHR entered the inner zone more frequently and covered a significantly greater distance than WKY. Maternal separation increased the time that WKY spent in the closed arms and latency to enter the open arms of the elevated plus maze, consistent with other rat strains. Of note is that, maternal separation failed to produce anxiety-like behaviour in SHR. Analysis of the chronoamperometric data revealed that there was no difference in DAT function in the striatum of non-separated SHR and WKY. Maternal separation decreased the rate of dopamine clearance (k-1 in SHR striatum. Consistent with this observation, the dopamine clearance time (T100 was increased in SHR. These results suggest that the chronic mild stress of

  1. Behavioral and Neurophysiological Correlates of Striatal Dopamine Depletion: A Rodent Model of Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plowman, Emily K.; Kleim, Jeffrey A.

    2011-01-01

    Both limb and cranial motor functions are adversely impacted by Parkinson's disease (PD). While current pharmacological and surgical interventions are effective in alleviating general limb motor symptoms of PD, they have failed to provide significant benefit for cranial motor functions. This suggests that the neuropathologies mediating limb and…

  2. Complementary PET studies of striatal neuronal function in the differential diagnosis between multiple system atrophy and Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonini, A; Leenders, KL; Vontobel, P; Maguire, RP; Missimer, J; Psylla, M; Gunther, [No Value

    1997-01-01

    We used PET with the tracers [F-18]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), [F-18]fluorodopa (FDOPA) and [C-11]raclopride (RACLO) to study striatal glucose and dopa metabolism, and dopamine D-2 receptor binding, respectively, in nine patients with multiple system atrophy. Ten patients with classical Parkinson's

  3. Disruption of the ErbB signaling in adolescence increases striatal dopamine levels and affects learning and hedonic-like behavior in the adult mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golani, Idit; Tadmor, Hagar; Buonanno, Andres; Kremer, Ilana; Shamir, Alon

    2014-11-01

    The ErbB signaling pathway has been genetically and functionally implicated in schizophrenia. Numerous findings support the dysregulation of Neuregulin (NRG) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling in schizophrenia. However, it is unclear whether alterations of these pathways in the adult brain or during development are involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Herein we characterized the behavioral profile and molecular changes resulting from pharmacologically blocking the ErbB signaling pathway during a critical period in the development of decision making, planning, judgments, emotions, social cognition and cognitive skills, namely adolescence. We demonstrate that chronic administration of the pan-ErbB kinase inhibitor JNJ-28871063 (JNJ) to adolescent mice elevated striatal dopamine levels and reduced preference for sucrose without affecting locomotor activity and exploratory behavior. In adulthood, adolescent JNJ-treated mice continue to consume less sucrose and needed significantly more correct-response trials to reach the learning criterion during the discrimination phase of the T-maze reversal learning task than their saline-injected controls. In addition, JNJ mice exhibited deficit in reference memory but not in working memory as measured in the radial arm maze. Inhibition of the pathway during adolescence did not affect exploratory behavior and locomotor activity in the open field, social interaction, social memory, and reversal learning in adult mice. Our data suggest that alteration of ErbB signaling during adolescence resulted in changes in the dopaminergic systems that emerge in pathological learning and hedonic behavior in adulthood, and pinpoints the possible role of the pathway in the development of cognitive skills and motivated behavior. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of scatter correction on the compartmental measurement of striatal and extrastriatal dopamine D2 receptors using [123I]epidepride SPET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Masahiro; Seneca, Nicholas; Innis, Robert B.; Varrone, Andrea; Kim, Kyeong Min; Watabe, Hiroshi; Iida, Hidehiro; Zoghbi, Sami S.; Tipre, Dnyanesh; Seibyl, John P.

    2004-01-01

    Prior studies with anthropomorphic phantoms and single, static in vivo brain images have demonstrated that scatter correction significantly improves the accuracy of regional quantitation of single-photon emission tomography (SPET) brain images. Since the regional distribution of activity changes following a bolus injection of a typical neuroreceptor ligand, we examined the effect of scatter correction on the compartmental modeling of serial dynamic images of striatal and extrastriatal dopamine D 2 receptors using [ 123 I]epidepride. Eight healthy human subjects [age 30±8 (range 22-46) years] participated in a study with a bolus injection of 373±12 (354-389) MBq [ 123 I]epidepride and data acquisition over a period of 14 h. A transmission scan was obtained in each study for attenuation and scatter correction. Distribution volumes were calculated by means of compartmental nonlinear least-squares analysis using metabolite-corrected arterial input function and brain data processed with scatter correction using narrow-beam geometry μ (SC) and without scatter correction using broad-beam μ (NoSC). Effects of SC were markedly different among brain regions. SC increased activities in the putamen and thalamus after 1-1.5 h while it decreased activity during the entire experiment in the temporal cortex and cerebellum. Compared with NoSC, SC significantly increased specific distribution volume in the putamen (58%, P=0.0001) and thalamus (23%, P=0.0297). Compared with NoSC, SC made regional distribution of the specific distribution volume closer to that of [ 18 F]fallypride. It is concluded that SC is required for accurate quantification of distribution volumes of receptor ligands in SPET studies. (orig.)

  5. Effect of scatter correction on the compartmental measurement of striatal and extrastriatal dopamine D{sub 2} receptors using [{sup 123}I]epidepride SPET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, Masahiro; Seneca, Nicholas; Innis, Robert B. [Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine and VA Connecticut Healthcare System, West Haven, CT (United States); Molecular Imaging Branch, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Varrone, Andrea [Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine and VA Connecticut Healthcare System, West Haven, CT (United States); Biostructure and Bioimaging Institute, National Research Council, Napoli (Italy); Kim, Kyeong Min; Watabe, Hiroshi; Iida, Hidehiro [Department of Investigative Radiology, National Cardiovascular Center Research Institute, Osaka (Japan); Zoghbi, Sami S. [Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine and VA Connecticut Healthcare System, West Haven, CT (United States); Molecular Imaging Branch, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Department of Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine and VA Connecticut Healthcare System, West Haven, CT (United States); Tipre, Dnyanesh [Molecular Imaging Branch, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Seibyl, John P. [Institute for Neurodegenerative Disorders, New Haven, CT (United States)

    2004-05-01

    Prior studies with anthropomorphic phantoms and single, static in vivo brain images have demonstrated that scatter correction significantly improves the accuracy of regional quantitation of single-photon emission tomography (SPET) brain images. Since the regional distribution of activity changes following a bolus injection of a typical neuroreceptor ligand, we examined the effect of scatter correction on the compartmental modeling of serial dynamic images of striatal and extrastriatal dopamine D{sub 2} receptors using [{sup 123}I]epidepride. Eight healthy human subjects [age 30{+-}8 (range 22-46) years] participated in a study with a bolus injection of 373{+-}12 (354-389) MBq [{sup 123}I]epidepride and data acquisition over a period of 14 h. A transmission scan was obtained in each study for attenuation and scatter correction. Distribution volumes were calculated by means of compartmental nonlinear least-squares analysis using metabolite-corrected arterial input function and brain data processed with scatter correction using narrow-beam geometry {mu} (SC) and without scatter correction using broad-beam {mu} (NoSC). Effects of SC were markedly different among brain regions. SC increased activities in the putamen and thalamus after 1-1.5 h while it decreased activity during the entire experiment in the temporal cortex and cerebellum. Compared with NoSC, SC significantly increased specific distribution volume in the putamen (58%, P=0.0001) and thalamus (23%, P=0.0297). Compared with NoSC, SC made regional distribution of the specific distribution volume closer to that of [{sup 18}F]fallypride. It is concluded that SC is required for accurate quantification of distribution volumes of receptor ligands in SPET studies. (orig.)

  6. Effects of hypoxic–ischemic brain injury on striatal dopamine transporter in newborn piglets: evaluation of 11C-CFT PET/CT for DAT quantification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yanfen; Wang Xiaoyu; Cao Li; Guo Qiyong; Wang Xiaoming

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Alterations of dopamine in striatal presynaptic terminals play an important role in the hypoxic–ischemic (HI) brain injury. Quantification of DAT levels in the presynaptic site using 11 C-N-2-carbomethoxy-3-(4-fluorophenyl)-tropane ( 11 C-CFT) with positron emission tomography (PET) was applied in studies for Parkinson's disease. The current study investigated the changes in striatal DAT following HI brain injury in newborn piglets using 11 C-CFT PET. Methods: Newborn piglets were subjected to occlusion of bilateral common carotid arteries for 30 min and simultaneous peripheral hypoxia. Brain DAT imaging was performed using PET/CT with 11 C-CFT as the probe in each group (including the control group and HI insult groups). Brain tissues were collected for DAT immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis at each time point post the PET/CT procedure. Sham controls had some operation without HI procedure. Results: A few minutes after intravenous injection of 11 C-CFT, radioactive signals for DAT clearly appeared in the cortical area, striatum and cerebellum of newborn piglets of sham control group and HI insult groups. HI brain insult markedly increased striatal DAT at an early period (P 11 C-CFT PET imaging data and IHC DAT staining data were highly correlated (r=0.844, P 11 C-CFT PET/CT imaging data reflected the dynamic changes of DAT in the striatum in vivo.

  7. A Neurocomputational Model of Dopamine and Prefrontal-Striatal Interactions during Multicue Category Learning by Parkinson Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, Ahmed A.; Gluck, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Most existing models of dopamine and learning in Parkinson disease (PD) focus on simulating the role of basal ganglia dopamine in reinforcement learning. Much data argue, however, for a critical role for prefrontal cortex (PFC) dopamine in stimulus selection in attentional learning. Here, we present a new computational model that simulates…

  8. Pre-pulse inhibition and striatal dopamine in subjects at an ultra-high risk for psychosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Koning, Mariken B.; Bloemen, Oswald J. N.; van Duin, Esther D. A.; Booij, Jan; Abel, Kathryn M.; de Haan, Lieuwe; Linszen, Don H.; van Amelsvoort, Thérèse A. M. J.

    2014-01-01

    Reduced prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle response is thought to represent a robust biomarker in schizophrenia. Reduced PPI has been demonstrated in subjects at ultra high risk (UHR) for developing psychosis. Imaging studies report disruption of striatal dopaminergic

  9. Serotonin 2A receptor regulation of striatal neuropeptide gene expression is selective for tachykinin, but not enkephalin neurons following dopamine depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basura, G J; Walker, P D

    2001-08-15

    Serotonin (5-HT) 2A receptor-mediated regulation of striatal preprotachykinin (PPT) and preproenkephalin (PPE) mRNAs was studied in adult rodents that had been subjected to near-total dopamine (DA) depletion as neonates. Two months following bilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesion, PPT mRNA levels decreased 59-73% across dorsal subregions of the rostral and caudal striatum while PPE transcripts increased 61-94%. Four hours after a single injection of the serotonin 2A/2C receptor agonist, (+/-)-1-(2,5-Dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOI; 1 mg/kg), PPT mRNA expression was significantly increased in DA-depleted rats across all dorsal subregions of the rostral and caudal striatum as compared to 6-OHDA-treated animals alone. In the intact rat, DOI did not influence PPT mRNA levels in the rostral striatum, but did raise expression in the caudal striatum where 5-HT2A receptors are prominent. DOI did not regulate PPE mRNA levels in any striatal sub-region of the intact or DA-depleted rat. Prior administration of the 5-HT2A/2C receptor antagonist, ritanserin (1 mg/kg) or the 5-HT2A receptor antagonist, ketanserin (1 mg/kg) completely blocked the DOI-induced increases in striatal PPT mRNA in both lesioned and intact animals. The ability of ketanserin to produce identical results as ritanserin suggests that 5-HT2A receptor-mediated regulation is selectively strengthened within tachykinin neurons of the rostral striatum which are suppressed by DA depletion. The selectivity suggests that 5-HT2A receptor upregulation following DA depletion is capable of regulating tachykinin biosynthesis without influencing enkephalin expression in striatal output neurons.

  10. Decreased striatal dopamine transporter binding assessed with [123I] FP-CIT in first-episode schizophrenic patients with and without short-term antipsychotic-induced parkinsonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos, Jose J; Lomeña, Francisco; Parellada, Eduardo; Font, Mireia; Fernandez, Emili; Pavia, Javier; Prats, Alberto; Pons, Francisca; Bernardo, Miquel

    2005-09-01

    Drug-induced parkinsonism (DIP) is one of the main causes of treatment drop-out in schizophrenic patients causing a high incidence of relapse that leads patients to a bad clinical prognosis. The dopaminergic nigrostriatal pathway is involved in the movement control, so the study of the dopamine transporter (DAT) could be of great value to determine its implication in the appearance of DIP. The goal of the study is to determine the striatal DAT binding assessed with [(123)I] FP-CIT SPECT in first-episode neuroleptic-naive schizophrenic in-patients with DIP after short-term antipsychotic treatment. The [(123)I] FP-CIT binding ratios of ten schizophrenic in-patients who developed DIP during the first 4-week period of risperidone treatment (6+/-2 mg/day) were compared with ten schizophrenic in-patients treated with the same doses of risperidone and who do not developed DIP and with ten age-matched healthy subjects. Quantitative analyses of SPECTs were performed using regions of interest located in caudate, putamen and occipital cortex. Parkinsonism was assessed by the Simpson-Angus Scale and the psychopathological status by the Clinical General Impression and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scales. Whole striatal [(123)I] FP-CIT binding ratios were significantly lower in patients with and without DIP than in healthy subjects (p<0.001). This was also observed in whole putamen (p<0.001) and caudate nucleus (p<0.001). Females showed higher whole striatal [(123)I] FP-CIT binding ratios than males (p<0.05). No differences in psychopathological scales were observed between patients with and without DIP. Our first-episode schizophrenic patients with and without DIP after short-term risperidone treatment have a decreased striatal DAT binding assessed with [(123)I] FP-CIT. This alteration could be related to the schizophrenic disease or may be secondary to the antipsychotic treatment.

  11. Effect of Exercise Training on Striatal Dopamine D2/D3 Receptors in Methamphetamine Users during Behavioral Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Chelsea L; Ishibashi, Kenji; Chudzynski, Joy; Mooney, Larissa J; Rawson, Richard A; Dolezal, Brett A; Cooper, Christopher B; Brown, Amira K; Mandelkern, Mark A; London, Edythe D

    2016-05-01

    Methamphetamine use disorder is associated with striatal dopaminergic deficits that have been linked to poor treatment outcomes, identifying these deficits as an important therapeutic target. Exercise attenuates methamphetamine-induced neurochemical damage in the rat brain, and a preliminary observation suggests that exercise increases striatal D2/D3 receptor availability (measured as nondisplaceable binding potential (BPND)) in patients with Parkinson's disease. The goal of this study was to evaluate whether adding an exercise training program to an inpatient behavioral intervention for methamphetamine use disorder reverses deficits in striatal D2/D3 receptors. Participants were adult men and women who met DSM-IV criteria for methamphetamine dependence and were enrolled in a residential facility, where they maintained abstinence from illicit drugs of abuse and received behavioral therapy for their addiction. They were randomized to a group that received 1 h supervised exercise training (n=10) or one that received equal-time health education training (n=9), 3 days/week for 8 weeks. They came to an academic research center for positron emission tomography (PET) using [(18)F]fallypride to determine the effects of the 8-week interventions on striatal D2/D3 receptor BPND. At baseline, striatal D2/D3 BPND did not differ between groups. However, after 8 weeks, participants in the exercise group displayed a significant increase in striatal D2/D3 BPND, whereas those in the education group did not. There were no changes in D2/D3 BPND in extrastriatal regions in either group. These findings suggest that structured exercise training can ameliorate striatal D2/D3 receptor deficits in methamphetamine users, and warrants further evaluation as an adjunctive treatment for stimulant dependence.

  12. The clinical benefit of imaging striatal dopamine transporters with [123I]FP-CIT SPET in differentiating patients with presynaptic parkinsonism from those with other forms of parkinsonism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booij, J.; Speelman, J.DE.; Horstink, M. W.I.M.; Wolters, E.C.

    2001-01-01

    [ 123 I]FP-CIT (N-ω-fluoropropyl-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl)nortropane) has been developed successfully as a radioligand for single-photon emission tomography (SPET) imaging of dopamine transporters, which are situated in the membrane of dopaminergic neurons. Imaging of these transporters has shown promise as a clinical tool to detect degeneration of the dopaminergic nigrostriatal pathway. Several ''presynaptic parkinsonian'' syndromes, such as Parkinson's disease or multiple system atrophy, are characterised by degeneration of the nigrostriatal pathway. [ 123 I]FP-CIT SPET imaging studies have shown the ability to detect loss of striatal dopamine transporters in such syndromes. However, in clinical practice it is sometimes difficult, but important, to discriminate patients with ''presynaptic parkinsonism'' from those with other forms of parkinsonism not characterised by loss of presynaptic dopaminergic cells (e.g. psychogenic parkinsonism or drug-induced postsynaptic parkinsonism). In these inconclusive cases, it may be of value to confirm or exclude the existence of degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic cells by using imaging techniques such as [ 123 I]FP-CIT SPET. Using [ 123 I]FP-CIT SPET, we have imaged the striatal dopamine transporters in a group of patients with inconclusive forms of parkinsonism, and, moreover, have been able to perform clinical follow-up of these patients 2-4 years after imaging. In 33 inconclusive cases, ratios of specific to non-specific binding were calculated for the caudate nucleus and putamen following [ 123 I]FP-CIT SPET imaging and compared with ratios obtained in healthy controls. In nine of the patients, degeneration of the nigrostriatal pathway was found scintigraphically and in all these cases, presynaptic parkinsonism was confirmed by clinical follow-up. In the other 24 subjects no degeneration was found scintigraphically. Forms of parkinsonism other than the presynaptic were confirmed at follow-up in 19 cases

  13. Striatal dopamine D2 receptor binding and dopamine release during cue-elicited craving in recently abstinent opiate-dependent males

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, Fleur; Booij, Jan; van den Brink, Wim; Franken, Ingmar H. A.

    2008-01-01

    Opiate addiction is a chronic disorder characterized by relapse behaviour, often preceded by craving and anhedonia. Chronic craving and anhedonia have been associated with low availability of dopamine D2 receptors (D2Rs) and cue-elicited craving has been linked with endogenous dopamine release. We

  14. HIV Infection Is Associated with Impaired Striatal Function during Inhibition with Normal Cortical Functioning on Functional MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    du Plessis, Stéfan; Vink, Matthijs; Joska, John A; Koutsilieri, Eleni; Bagadia, Asif; Stein, Dan J; Emsley, Robin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of HIV infection on cortical and subcortical regions of the frontal-striatal system involved in the inhibition of voluntary movement. Functional MRI (fMRI) studies suggest that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with

  15. Functional connectivity modeling of consistent cortico-striatal degeneration in Huntington's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imis Dogan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Huntington's disease (HD is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a complex neuropsychiatric phenotype. In a recent meta-analysis we identified core regions of consistent neurodegeneration in premanifest HD in the striatum and middle occipital gyrus (MOG. For early manifest HD convergent evidence of atrophy was most prominent in the striatum, motor cortex (M1 and inferior frontal junction (IFJ. The aim of the present study was to functionally characterize this topography of brain atrophy and to investigate differential connectivity patterns formed by consistent cortico-striatal atrophy regions in HD. Using areas of striatal and cortical atrophy at different disease stages as seeds, we performed task-free resting-state and task-based meta-analytic connectivity modeling (MACM. MACM utilizes the large data source of the BrainMap database and identifies significant areas of above-chance co-activation with the seed-region via the activation-likelihood-estimation approach. In order to delineate functional networks formed by cortical as well as striatal atrophy regions we computed the conjunction between the co-activation profiles of striatal and cortical seeds in the premanifest and manifest stages of HD, respectively. Functional characterization of the seeds was obtained using the behavioral meta-data of BrainMap. Cortico-striatal atrophy seeds of the premanifest stage of HD showed common co-activation with a rather cognitive network including the striatum, anterior insula, lateral prefrontal, premotor, supplementary motor and parietal regions. A similar but more pronounced co-activation pattern, additionally including the medial prefrontal cortex and thalamic nuclei was found with striatal and IFJ seeds at the manifest HD stage. The striatum and M1 were functionally connected mainly to premotor and sensorimotor areas, posterior insula, putamen and thalamus. Behavioral characterization of the seeds confirmed that experiments

  16. Rats classified as low or high cocaine locomotor responders: A unique model involving striatal dopamine transporters that predicts cocaine addiction-like behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Dorothy J.; Nelson, Anna M.; Mandt, Bruce H.; Larson, Gaynor A.; Rorabaugh, Jacki M.; Ng, Christopher M.C.; Barcomb, Kelsey M.; Richards, Toni L.; Allen, Richard M.; Zahniser, Nancy R.

    2013-01-01

    Individual differences are a hallmark of drug addiction. Here, we describe a rat model based on differential initial responsiveness to low dose cocaine. Despite similar brain cocaine levels, individual outbred Sprague-Dawley rats exhibit markedly different magnitudes of acute cocaine-induced locomotor activity and, thereby, can be classified as low or high cocaine responders (LCRs or HCRs). LCRs and HCRs differ in drug-induced, but not novelty-associated, hyperactivity. LCRs have higher basal numbers of striatal dopamine transporters (DATs) than HCRs and exhibit marginal cocaine inhibition of in vivo DAT activity and cocaine-induced increases in extracellular DA. Importantly, lower initial cocaine response predicts greater locomotor sensitization, conditioned place preference and greater motivation to self-administer cocaine following low dose acquisition. Further, outbred Long-Evans rats classified as LCRs, versus HCRs, are more sensitive to cocaine’s discriminative stimulus effects. Overall, results to date with the LCR/HCR model underscore the contribution of striatal DATs to individual differences in initial cocaine responsiveness and the value of assessing the influence of initial drug response on subsequent expression of addiction-like behaviors. PMID:23850581

  17. Varenicline increases in vivo striatal dopamine D2/3 receptor binding: an ultra-high-resolution pinhole [123I]IBZM SPECT study in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crunelle, Cleo L.; Wit, Tim C. de; Bruin, Kora de; Ramakers, Ruud M.; Have, Frans van der; Beekman, Freek J.; Brink, Wim van den; Booij, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Ex vivo storage phosphor imaging rat studies reported increased brain dopamine D 2/3 receptor (DRD 2/3 ) availability following treatment with varenicline, a nicotinergic drug. However, ex vivo studies can only be performed using cross-sectional designs. Small-animal imaging offers the opportunity to perform serial assessments. We evaluated whether high-resolution pinhole single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging in rats was able to reproduce previous ex vivo findings. Methods: Rats were imaged for baseline striatal DRD 2/3 availability using ultra-high-resolution pinhole SPECT (U-SPECT-II) and [ 123 I]IBZM as a radiotracer, and randomized to varenicline (n=7; 2 mg/kg) or saline (n=7). Following 2 weeks of treatment, a second scan was acquired. Results: Significantly increased striatal DRD 2/3 availability was found following varenicline treatment compared to saline (time⁎treatment effect): posttreatment difference in binding potential between groups corrected for initial baseline differences was 2.039 (P=.022), indicating a large effect size (d=1.48). Conclusions: Ultra-high-resolution pinhole SPECT can be used to assess varenicline-induced changes in DRD 2/3 availability in small laboratory animals over time. Future small-animal studies should include imaging techniques to enable repeated within-subjects measurements and reduce the amount of animals.

  18. Cross-hemispheric dopamine projections have functional significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Megan E.; Mikhailova, Maria A.; Bass, Caroline E.; Takmakov, Pavel; Gainetdinov, Raul R.; Budygin, Evgeny A.; Wightman, R. Mark

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine signaling occurs on a subsecond timescale, and its dysregulation is implicated in pathologies ranging from drug addiction to Parkinson’s disease. Anatomic evidence suggests that some dopamine neurons have cross-hemispheric projections, but the significance of these projections is unknown. Here we report unprecedented interhemispheric communication in the midbrain dopamine system of awake and anesthetized rats. In the anesthetized rats, optogenetic and electrical stimulation of dopamine cells elicited physiologically relevant dopamine release in the contralateral striatum. Contralateral release differed between the dorsal and ventral striatum owing to differential regulation by D2-like receptors. In the freely moving animals, simultaneous bilateral measurements revealed that dopamine release synchronizes between hemispheres and intact, contralateral projections can release dopamine in the midbrain of 6-hydroxydopamine–lesioned rats. These experiments are the first, to our knowledge, to show cross-hemispheric synchronicity in dopamine signaling and support a functional role for contralateral projections. In addition, our data reveal that psychostimulants, such as amphetamine, promote the coupling of dopamine transients between hemispheres. PMID:27298371

  19. The effects of donor stage on the survival and function of embryonic striatal grafts in the adult rat brain; II. Correlation between positron emission tomography and reaching behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunnett, S.B.; Brooks, D.J.; Ashworth, S.; Opacka-Juffrey, J.; Myers, R.; Hume, S.P.; Torres, E.M.; Fricker, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    Grafts of embryonic striatal primordia are able to elicit behavioural recovery in rats which have received an excitotoxic lesion to the striatum, and it is believed that the P zones or striatal-like tissue within the transplants play a crucial role in these functional effects. We performed this study to compare the effects of different donor stage of embryonic tissue on both the morphology (see accompanying paper) and function of striatal transplants. Both the medial and lateral ganglionic eminence was dissected from rat embryos of either 10 mm, 15 mm, 19 mm, or 23 mm crown-rump length, and implanted as a cell suspension into adult rats which had received an ibotenic acid lesion 10 days prior to transplantation. After four months the animals were tested on the 'staircase task' of skilled forelimb use. At 10-14 months rats from the groups which had received grafts from 10 mm or 15 mm donor embryos were taken for positron emission tomography scanning in a small diameter postiron emission tomography scanner, using ligands to the dopamine D 1 and D 2 receptors, [ 11 C]SCH 23390 and [ 11 C]raclopride, respectively. A lesion-alone group was also scanned with the same ligands for comparison. Animals which had received transplants from the 10 mm donors showed a significant recovery with their contralateral paw on the 'staircase test'. No other groups showed recovery on this task. Similarly, the animals with grafts from the youngest donors showed a significant increase in D 1 and D 2 receptor binding when compared to the lesion-alone group. No increase in signal was observed with either ligand in the group which had received grafts from 15 mm donors. Success in paw reaching showed a strong correlation to both the positron emission tomography signal obtained and the P zone volume of the grafts.These results suggest that striatal grafts from younger donors (10 mm CRL) give greater behavioural recovery than grafts prepared from older embryos. This recovery is due to both the

  20. Effects of fluoxetine treatment on striatal dopamine transporter binding and cerebrospinal fluid insulin-like growth factor-1 in children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkonen, I; Kokki, H; Kuikka, J; Turpeinen, U; Riikonen, R

    2011-10-01

    A positive effect of fluoxetine has been shown in some children with autism. The present study was undertaken to correlate striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) binding and cerebrospinal fluid insulin-like growth factor-1 (CSF-IGF-1) with clinical response in autistic children (n=13, age 5-16 years) after a 6-month fluoxetine treatment. Good clinical responders (n=6) had a decrease (p=0.031) in DAT binding as assessed using single-photon emission computed tomography with [123I]-nor-β-CIT, whereas poor responders had a trend to an increase. An increase in CSF-IGF-1 (p=0.003) was detected after the treatment period, but no correlation between the clinical response and CSF-IGF-1 was found. In conclusion, fluoxetine decreases DAT binding indicating alleviation of the hyperdopaminergic state and increases CSF-IGF-1 concentration, which may also have a neuroprotective effect against dopamine-induced neurotoxicity in autistic children. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Characterization of the effects of serotonin on the release of [3H]dopamine from rat nucleus accumbens and striatal slices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurse, B.; Russell, V.A.; Taljaard, J.J.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of serotonin agonists on the depolarization (K+)-induced, calcium-dependent, release of [ 3 H]dopamine (DA) from rat nucleus accumbens and striatal slices was investigated. Serotonin enhanced basal 3 H overflow and reduced K+-induced release of [ 3 H]DA from nucleus accumbens slices. The effect of serotonin on basal 3 H overflow was not altered by the serotonin antagonist, methysergide, or the serotonin re-uptake blocker, chlorimipramine, but was reversed by the DA re-uptake carrier inhibitors nomifensine and benztropine. With the effect on basal overflow blocked, serotonin did not modulate K+-induced release of [ 3 H]DA in the nucleus accumbens or striatum. The serotonin agonists, quipazine (in the presence of nomifensine) and 5-methoxytryptamine, did not significantly affect K+-induced release of [ 3 H]DA in the nucleus accumbens. This study does not support suggestions that serotonin receptors inhibit the depolarization-induced release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens or striatum of the rat brain. The present results do not preclude the possibility that serotonin may affect the mesolimbic reward system at a site which is post-synaptic to dopaminergic terminals in the nucleus accumbens

  2. Correlation between the availability of dopamine transporter and olfactory function in healthy subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pak, Kyoungjune; Kim, Keunyoung; Kim, In Joo; Lee, Myung Jun; Lee, Jae Meen; Kim, Bum Soo; Kim, Seong-Jang

    2018-01-01

    Olfactory dysfunction in Parkinson's disease is usually prodromal to other symptoms. In this study, we aimed to explore the association of olfactory function with the availabilities of striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) in healthy subjects. Data used in the preparation of this article were obtained from Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative database (www.ppmi-info.org/data). The study population consisted of healthy controls with screening 123 I-FP-CIT single photon emission tomography (SPECT). University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) was assessed to evaluate the olfactory function. Totally, 181 healthy subjects (117 male, 64 female) with 123 I-FP-CIT SPECT data were included in this study. Specific binding ratios (SBRs) of the caudate nucleus (rho = -0.4217, p < 0.0001), putamen (rho = -0.2292, p = 0.0019), and striatum (rho=-0.3425, p < 0.0001) showed a reduction with ageing. SBRs of the caudate nucleus, putamen, and striatum were positively correlated with UPSIT (rho = 0.3716, p < 0.0001; rho = 0.3655, p < 0.0001; rho = 0.3880, p < 0.0001). After controlling for age by partial correlation, SBRs of the caudate nucleus, putamen, and striatum showed an influence on UPSIT (rho = 0.3288, p < 0.0001; rho = 0.3374, p < 0.0001; rho = 0.3511, p < 0.0001). Olfactory function is associated with the availability of striatal DAT independent of age in healthy subjects. (orig.)

  3. Protection against amphetamine-induced neurotoxicity toward striatal dopamine neurons in rodents by LY274614, an excitatory amino acid antagonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, R W; Hemrick-Luecke, S K; Ornstein, P L

    1992-10-01

    LY274614, 3SR,4aRS,6SR,8aRS-6-[phosphonomethyl]decahydr oisoquinoline-3- carboxylic acid, has been described as a potent antagonist of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) subtype of glutamate receptor. Here its ability to antagonize the prolonged depletion of dopamine in the striatum by amphetamine in iprindole-treated rats is reported. A single 18.4 mg/kg (i.p.) dose of (+/-)-amphetamine hemisulfate, given to rats pretreated with iprindole, resulted in persistent depletion of dopamine in the striatum 1 week later. This prolonged depletion of dopamine in the striatum was antagonized by dizocilpine (MK-801, a non-competitive antagonist of NMDA receptors) or by LY274614 (a competitive antagonist of NMDA receptors). The protective effect of LY274614 was dose-dependent, being maximum at 10-40 mgkg (i.p.). A 10 mg/kg dose of LY274614 was effective in antagonizing the depletion of dopamine in the striatum, when given as long as 8 hr prior to amphetamine but not when given 24 hr prior to amphetamine. Depletion of dopamine in the striatum was also antagonized when LY274614 was given after the injection of amphetamine; LY274614 protected when given up to 4 hr after but not when given 8 or 24 hr after amphetamine. The prolonged depletion of dopamine in the striatum in mice, given multiple injections of methamphetamine, was also antagonized dose-dependently and completely by LY274614. The data strengthen the evidence that the neurotoxic effect of amphetamine and related compounds toward nigrostriatal dopamine neurons involves NMDA receptors and that LY274614 is an NMDA receptor antagonist with long-lasting in vivo effects in rats.

  4. Diagnostic imaging of dementia with Lewy bodies by susceptibility-weighted imaging of nigrosomes versus striatal dopamine transporter single-photon emission computed tomography: a retrospective observational study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamagata, Koji; Sato, Kanako; Suzuki, Michimasa; Hori, Masaaki; Kumamaru, Kanako K.; Aoki, Shigeki [Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Nakatsuka, Tomoya; Inaoka, Tsutomu; Terada, Hitoshi [Toho University Sakura Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Sakura, Sakura (Japan); Sakakibara, Ryuji; Tsuyusaki, Yohei [Toho University Sakura Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Sakura, Sakura (Japan); Takamura, Tomohiro [University of Yamanashi, Department of Radiology, Chuo-shi, Yamanashi (Japan)

    2017-01-15

    The characteristics of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), Alzheimer's disease (AD) and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI) overlap but require different treatments; therefore, it is important to differentiate these pathologies. Assessment of dopamine uptake in the striatum using dopamine transporter (DaT) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is the gold standard for diagnosing DLB; however, this modality is expensive, time consuming and involves radiation exposure. Degeneration of the substantia nigra nigrosome-1, which occurs in DLB, but not in AD/a-MCI, can be identified by 3T susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI). Therefore, the aim of this retrospective observational study was to compare SWI with DaT-SPECT for differentiation of DLB from AD/a-MCI. SWI data were acquired for patients with clinically diagnosed DLB (n = 29), AD (n = 18), a-MCI (n = 13) and healthy controls (n = 26). Images were analysed for nigrosome-1 degeneration. Diagnostic accuracy was evaluated for DLB, AD and a-MCI compared with striatal dopamine uptake using DaT-SPECT. SWI achieved 90% diagnostic accuracy (93% sensitivity, 87% specificity) for the detection of nigrosome-1 degeneration in DLB and not in AD/a-MCI as compared with 88.3% accuracy (93% sensitivity, 84% specificity) using DaT-SPECT. SWI nigrosome-1 evaluation was useful in differentiating DLB from AD/a-MCI, with high accuracy. This less invasive and less expensive method is a potential alternative to DaT-SPECT for the diagnosis of DLB. (orig.)

  5. PCBs Alter Dopamine Mediated Function in Aging Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    PCBs Alter Dopamine Mediated Function in Aging Workers 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER DAMD17-02-1-0173 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...hypothesized that occupational exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) reduces dopamine (DA) terminal densities in the basal ganglia. We found...motor function in women compared to similarly aged men with similar bone lead levels. These latter findings are the first to demonstrate a sexual

  6. Functional recovery of supersensitive dopamine receptors after intrastriatal grafts of fetal substantia nigra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, T.M.; Dawson, V.L.; Gage, F.H.; Fisher, L.J.; Hunt, M.A.; Wamsley, J.K.

    1991-01-01

    Interruption of the ascending dopamine neurons of the nigrostriatal pathway, by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesion in rats, produced a significant loss of the dopamine transport complexes labeled with the phencyclidine derivative [3H]BTCP. This loss of dopamine innervation in the striatum was present at least 12 to 14 months after lesioning and was functionally manifested by ipsilateral rotation of the animals in response to amphetamine. In these same animals, in comparison to controls, there was a significant increase in the number (Bmax) of [3H]SCH 23390-labeled D-1 receptors in the striatum (36.7%) and the substantia nigra (35.1%) and a 54.4% increase in the number (Bmax) of [3H]sulpiride-labeled striatal D-2 receptors without an apparent change in affinity (Kd). Ten to twelve months after the transplantation of homologous fetal substantia nigra into the denervated striatum, there was a significant decrease in amphetamine-induced turning behavior. In these animals, there was an ingrowth of dopamine nerve terminals in the striatum as demonstrated by a return of [3H]BTCP binding. Accompanying this reinnervation was the normalization of D-1 and D-2 receptors to control values in the striatum as well as the return of D-1 receptors to prelesion densities in the substantia nigra. In a subgroup of transplanted rats, amphetamine continued to induce ipsilateral turning. In these animals both D-1 and D-2 receptors remained supersensitive. These results support the hypothesis that the functional recovery of transplanted animals is due, in part, to reinnervation of the striatum. In addition, long-term alterations in receptor density may be related to the behavioral deficits that are associated with the 6-OHDA-lesioned rat

  7. Effect of Zishenpingchan Granule on Neurobehavioral Manifestations and the Activity and Gene Expression of Striatal Dopamine D1 and D2 Receptors of Rats with Levodopa-Induced Dyskinesias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Ye

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to observe the effects of Zishenpingchan granule on neurobehavioral manifestations and the activity and gene expression of striatal dopamine D1 and D2 receptors of rats with levodopa-induced dyskinesias (LID. We established normal control group, LID model group, and TCM intervention group. Each group received treatment for 4 weeks. Artificial neural network (ANN was applied to excavate the main factor influencing variation in neurobehavioral manifestations of rats with LID. The results showed that overactivation in direct pathway mediated by dopamine D1 receptor and overinhibition in indirect pathway mediated by dopamine D2 receptor may be the main mechanism of LID. TCM increased the efficacy time of LD to ameliorate LID symptoms effectively mainly by upregulating dopamine D2 receptor gene expression.

  8. Striatal Distribution and Cytoarchitecture of Dopamine Receptor Subtype 1 and 2: Evidence from Double-Labeling Transgenic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keke Ren

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available As the main input nucleus of the basal ganglion, the striatum executes different functions, including motivation, reward and attention. The functions of the striatum highly rely on its subregions that receive projections from various cortical areas and the distribution of striatonigral neurons that express D1 dopamine (DA receptors (or D1 medium-sized spiny neurons, D1 MSNs and striatopallidal neurons that express D2 DA receptors (or D2 MSNs. Using bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC transgenic mice, several studies have recently been performed on the spatial distribution of D1 and D2 MSNs. However, these studies mainly focused on enumeration of either D1-enhanced fluorescent protein (eGFP or D2-eGFP in mice. In the present work, we used Drd1a-tdTamato and Drd2-eGFP double BAC transgenic mice to evaluate the spatial pattern of D1 MSNs (red fluorescence and D2 MSNs (green fluorescence along the rostro-caudal axis of the dorsal striatum. The dorsal striatum was divided into three subregions: rostral caudoputamen (CPr, intermediate CP (CPi, and caudal CP (CPc across the rostral–caudal extent of the striatum. The results demonstrate that D1 and D2 MSNs were intermingled with each other in most of these regions. The cell density of D1 MSNs was slightly higher than D2 MSNs through CPr, CPi, and CPc, though it did not reach significance. However, in CPi, the ratio of D1/D2 in the ventromedial CPi group was significantly higher than those in dorsolateral, dorsomedial, and ventrolateral CPi. There was similar proportion of cells that co-expressed D1 and D2 receptors. Moreover, we demonstrated a pathway-specific activation pattern of D1 MSNs and D2 MSNs in a manic like mouse model induced by D-Amphetamine by utilizing this double transgenic mice and c-fos immunoreactivity. Our results may provide a morphological basis for the function or pathophysiology of striatonigral and striatopallidal neurons with diverse cortical inputs to the dorsal striatum.

  9. Timing of caloric intake during weight loss differentially affects striatal dopamine transporter and thalamic serotonin transporter binding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteeg, Ruth I.; Schrantee, Anouk; Adriaanse, Sofie M.; Unmehopa, Unga A.; Booij, Jan; Reneman, Liesbeth; Fliers, Eric; la Fleur, Susanne E.; Serlie, Mireille J.

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that meal timing throughout the day contributes to maintaining or regaining weight after hypocaloric diets. Although brain serotonin and dopamine are well known to be involved in regulating feeding, it is unknown whether meal timing during energy restriction affects these

  10. Beyond Neuronal Activity Markers: Select Immediate Early Genes in Striatal Neuron Subtypes Functionally Mediate Psychostimulant Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Chandra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Immediate early genes (IEGs were traditionally used as markers of neuronal activity in striatum in response to stimuli including drugs of abuse such as psychostimulants. Early studies using these neuronal activity markers led to important insights in striatal neuron subtype responsiveness to psychostimulants. Such studies have helped identify striatum as a critical brain center for motivational, reinforcement and habitual behaviors in psychostimulant addiction. While the use of IEGs as neuronal activity markers in response to psychostimulants and other stimuli persists today, the functional role and implications of these IEGs has often been neglected. Nonetheless, there is a subset of research that investigates the functional role of IEGs in molecular, cellular and behavioral alterations by psychostimulants through striatal medium spiny neuron (MSN subtypes, the two projection neuron subtypes in striatum. This review article will address and highlight the studies that provide a functional mechanism by which IEGs mediate psychostimulant molecular, cellular and behavioral plasticity through MSN subtypes. Insight into the functional role of IEGs in striatal MSN subtypes could provide improved understanding into addiction and neuropsychiatric diseases affecting striatum, such as affective disorders and compulsive disorders characterized by dysfunctional motivation and habitual behavior.

  11. Age related changes in striatal resting state functional connectivity in autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarthi ePadmanabhan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Characterizing the nature of developmental change is critical to understanding the mechanisms that are impaired in complex neurodevelopment disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD and, pragmatically, may allow us to pinpoint periods of plasticity when interventions are particularly useful. Although aberrant brain development has long been theorized as a characteristic feature of ASD, the neural substrates have been difficult to characterize, in part due to a lack of developmental data and to performance confounds. To address these issues, we examined the development of intrinsic functional connectivity with resting state fMRI from late childhood to early adulthood (8-36 years, using a seed based functional connectivity method with the striatum. Overall, we found that both groups show decreases in cortico-striatal circuits over age. However, when controlling for age, ASD participants showed increased connectivity with parietal cortex and decreased connectivity with prefrontal cortex relative to TD participants. In addition, ASD participants showed aberrant age-related changes in connectivity with anterior aspects of cerebellum, and posterior temporal regions (e.g. fusiform gyrus, inferior and superior temporal gyri. In sum, we found prominent differences in the development of striatal connectivity in ASD, most notably, atypical development of connectivity in striatal networks that may underlie cognitive and social reward processing. Our findings highlight the need to identify the biological mechanisms of perturbations in brain reorganization over development, which also may help clarify discrepant findings in the literature.

  12. Sex-Dependent Changes in Striatal Dopamine Transport in Preadolescent Rats Exposed Prenatally and/or Postnatally to Methamphetamine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šírová, J.; Krištofíková, Z.; Vrajová, M.; Fujakova-Lipski, M.; Řípová, D.; Klaschka, Jan; Šlamberová, R.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 8 (2016), s. 1911-1923 ISSN 0364-3190 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ED2.1.00/03.0078; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-03708S; Univerzita Karlova(CZ) Prvouk P34; GA UK(CZ) 88315; SVV(CZ) 260277/2016 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : methamphetamine * dopamine transporte * sex differences * membrane fluidity Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 2.581, year: 2016

  13. Delayed post-treatment with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells is neurorestorative of striatal medium-spiny projection neurons and improves motor function after neonatal rat hypoxia-ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Stella H; Alwakeel, Amr J; Goddard, Liping; Hobbs, Catherine E; Gowing, Emma K; Barnett, Elizabeth R; Kohe, Sarah E; Sizemore, Rachel J; Oorschot, Dorothy E

    2015-09-01

    Perinatal hypoxia-ischemia is a major cause of striatal injury and may lead to cerebral palsy. This study investigated whether delayed administration of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), at one week after neonatal rat hypoxia-ischemia, was neurorestorative of striatal medium-spiny projection neurons and improved motor function. The effect of a subcutaneous injection of a high-dose, or a low-dose, of MSCs was investigated in stereological studies. Postnatal day (PN) 7 pups were subjected to hypoxia-ischemia. At PN14, pups received treatment with either MSCs or diluent. A subset of high-dose pups, and their diluent control pups, were also injected intraperitoneally with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), every 24h, on PN15, PN16 and PN17. This permitted tracking of the migration and survival of neuroblasts originating from the subventricular zone into the adjacent injured striatum. Pups were euthanized on PN21 and the absolute number of striatal medium-spiny projection neurons was measured after immunostaining for DARPP-32 (dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein-32), double immunostaining for BrdU and DARPP-32, and after cresyl violet staining alone. The absolute number of striatal immunostained calretinin interneurons was also measured. There was a statistically significant increase in the absolute number of DARPP-32-positive, BrdU/DARPP-32-positive, and cresyl violet-stained striatal medium-spiny projection neurons, and fewer striatal calretinin interneurons, in the high-dose mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) group compared to their diluent counterparts. A high-dose of MSCs restored the absolute number of these neurons to normal uninjured levels, when compared with previous stereological data on the absolute number of cresyl violet-stained striatal medium-spiny projection neurons in the normal uninjured brain. For the low-dose experiment, in which cresyl violet-stained striatal medium-spiny neurons alone were measured, there was a lower statistically

  14. Evaluation of the effects and mechanisms of action of glufosinate, an organophosphate insecticide, on striatal dopamine release by using in vivo microdialysis in freely moving rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira Nunes, Brenda V; Durán, Rafael; Alfonso, Miguel; de Oliveira, Iris Machado; Ferreira Faro, Lilian R

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of the present work was to assess the effects of glufosinate ammonium (GLA), an aminoacid structurally related to glutamate, on in vivo dopamine (DA) release from rat striatum, using brain microdialysis coupled to HPLC-EC. Intrastriatal administration of GLA produced significant concentration-dependent increases in DA levels. At least two mechanisms can be proposed to explain these increases: GLA could be inducing DA release from synaptic vesicles or producing an inhibition of DA transporter (DAT). Thus, we investigated the effects of GLA under Ca(++)-free condition, and after pretreatment with reserpine and TTX. It was observed that the pretreatment with Ca(++)-free Ringer, reserpine or TTX significantly reduced the DA release induced by GLA. Coinfusion of GLA and nomifensine shows that the GLA-induced DA release did not involve the DAT. These results show that GLA-induced striatal DA release is probably mediated by an exocytotic-, Ca(++)-, action potential-dependent mechanism, being independent of DAT.

  15. Plasma functionalized surface of commodity polymers for dopamine detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabregat, Georgina [Departament d’Enginyeria Química, E.T.S. d’Enginyeria Industrial de Barcelona, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, 08028, Barcelona (Spain); Center for Research in Nano-Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Campus Sud, Edifici C’, C/Pasqual i Vila s/n, Barcelona, E-08028 (Spain); Osorio, Joaquin [Departament d’Enginyeria Química, E.T.S. d’Enginyeria Industrial de Barcelona, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, 08028, Barcelona (Spain); Castedo, Alejandra [Center for Research in Nano-Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Campus Sud, Edifici C’, C/Pasqual i Vila s/n, Barcelona, E-08028 (Spain); Institut de Tècniques Energètiques, E.T.S. d’Enginyeria Industrial de Barcelona, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, 08028, Barcelona (Spain); Armelin, Elaine [Departament d’Enginyeria Química, E.T.S. d’Enginyeria Industrial de Barcelona, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, 08028, Barcelona (Spain); Center for Research in Nano-Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Campus Sud, Edifici C’, C/Pasqual i Vila s/n, Barcelona, E-08028 (Spain); and others

    2017-03-31

    Highlights: • Electrochemically inert polymers become electroactive after plasma functionalization. • Selective dopamine detection has been achieved functionalizing polymers with plasma. • Plasma-functionalized polymers are sensitive dopamine detectors. • XPS analyses reflect the transformation of inert polymers into electrosensors. - Abstract: We have fabricated potentially generalizable sensors based on polymeric-modified electrodes for the electrochemical detection of dopamine. Sensitive and selective sensors have been successfully obtained by applying a cold-plasma treatment during 1–2 min not only to conducting polymers but also to electrochemically inert polymers, such as polyethylene, polypropylene, polyvinylpyrrolidone, polycaprolactone and polystyrene. The effects of the plasma in the electrode surface activation, which is an essential requirement for the dopamine detection when inert polymers are used, have been investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Results indicate that exposure of polymer-modified electrodes to cold-plasma produces the formation of a large variety of reactive species adsorbed on the electrode surface, which catalyse the dopamine oxidation. With this technology, which is based on the application of a very simple physical functionalization, we have defined a paradox-based paradigm for the fabrication of electrochemical sensors by using inert and cheap plastics.

  16. Genetically determined measures of striatal D2 signaling predict prefrontal activity during working memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolino, Alessandro; Taurisano, Paolo; Pisciotta, Nicola Marco; Blasi, Giuseppe; Fazio, Leonardo; Romano, Raffaella; Gelao, Barbara; Lo Bianco, Luciana; Lozupone, Madia; Di Giorgio, Annabella; Caforio, Grazia; Sambataro, Fabio; Niccoli-Asabella, Artor; Papp, Audrey; Ursini, Gianluca; Sinibaldi, Lorenzo; Popolizio, Teresa; Sadee, Wolfgang; Rubini, Giuseppe

    2010-02-22

    Variation of the gene coding for D2 receptors (DRD2) has been associated with risk for schizophrenia and with working memory deficits. A functional intronic SNP (rs1076560) predicts relative expression of the two D2 receptors isoforms, D2S (mainly pre-synaptic) and D2L (mainly post-synaptic). However, the effect of functional genetic variation of DRD2 on striatal dopamine D2 signaling and on its correlation with prefrontal activity during working memory in humans is not known. Thirty-seven healthy subjects were genotyped for rs1076560 (G>T) and underwent SPECT with [123I]IBZM (which binds primarily to post-synaptic D2 receptors) and with [123I]FP-CIT (which binds to pre-synaptic dopamine transporters, whose activity and density is also regulated by pre-synaptic D2 receptors), as well as BOLD fMRI during N-Back working memory. Subjects carrying the T allele (previously associated with reduced D2S expression) had striatal reductions of [123I]IBZM and of [123I]FP-CIT binding. DRD2 genotype also differentially predicted the correlation between striatal dopamine D2 signaling (as identified with factor analysis of the two radiotracers) and activity of the prefrontal cortex during working memory as measured with BOLD fMRI, which was positive in GG subjects and negative in GT. Our results demonstrate that this functional SNP within DRD2 predicts striatal binding of the two radiotracers to dopamine transporters and D2 receptors as well as the correlation between striatal D2 signaling with prefrontal cortex activity during performance of a working memory task. These data are consistent with the possibility that the balance of excitatory/inhibitory modulation of striatal neurons may also affect striatal outputs in relationship with prefrontal activity during working memory performance within the cortico-striatal-thalamic-cortical pathway.

  17. Genetically determined measures of striatal D2 signaling predict prefrontal activity during working memory performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Bertolino

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Variation of the gene coding for D2 receptors (DRD2 has been associated with risk for schizophrenia and with working memory deficits. A functional intronic SNP (rs1076560 predicts relative expression of the two D2 receptors isoforms, D2S (mainly pre-synaptic and D2L (mainly post-synaptic. However, the effect of functional genetic variation of DRD2 on striatal dopamine D2 signaling and on its correlation with prefrontal activity during working memory in humans is not known.Thirty-seven healthy subjects were genotyped for rs1076560 (G>T and underwent SPECT with [123I]IBZM (which binds primarily to post-synaptic D2 receptors and with [123I]FP-CIT (which binds to pre-synaptic dopamine transporters, whose activity and density is also regulated by pre-synaptic D2 receptors, as well as BOLD fMRI during N-Back working memory.Subjects carrying the T allele (previously associated with reduced D2S expression had striatal reductions of [123I]IBZM and of [123I]FP-CIT binding. DRD2 genotype also differentially predicted the correlation between striatal dopamine D2 signaling (as identified with factor analysis of the two radiotracers and activity of the prefrontal cortex during working memory as measured with BOLD fMRI, which was positive in GG subjects and negative in GT.Our results demonstrate that this functional SNP within DRD2 predicts striatal binding of the two radiotracers to dopamine transporters and D2 receptors as well as the correlation between striatal D2 signaling with prefrontal cortex activity during performance of a working memory task. These data are consistent with the possibility that the balance of excitatory/inhibitory modulation of striatal neurons may also affect striatal outputs in relationship with prefrontal activity during working memory performance within the cortico-striatal-thalamic-cortical pathway.

  18. Abstinence duration modulates striatal functioning during monetary reward processing in cocaine patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, Juan-Carlos; Barrós-Loscertales, Alfonso; Costumero, Víctor; Fuentes-Claramonte, Paola; Rosell-Negre, Patricia; Ventura-Campos, Noelia; Llopis, Juan-José; Ávila, César

    2014-09-01

    Pre-clinical and clinical studies in cocaine addiction highlight alterations in the striatal dopaminergic reward system that subserve maintenance of cocaine use. Using an instrumental conditioning paradigm with monetary reinforcement, we studied striatal functional alterations in long-term abstinent cocaine-dependent patients and striatal functioning as a function of abstinence and treatment duration. Eighteen patients and 20 controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging during a Monetary Incentive Delay task. Region of interest analyses based on masks of the dorsal and ventral striatum were conducted to test between-group differences and the functional effects in the cocaine group of time (in months) with no more than two lapses from the first time patients visited the clinical service to seek treatment at the scanning time (duration of treatment), and the functional effects of the number of months with no lapses or relapses at the scanning session time (length of abstinence). We applied a voxel-wise and a cluster-wise FWE-corrected level (pFWE) at a threshold of P reward anticipation than the control group. The regression analyses in the patients group revealed a positive correlation between duration of treatment and brain activity in the left caudate during reward anticipation. Likewise, length of abstinence negatively correlated with brain activity in the bilateral nucleus accumbens during monetary outcome processing. In conclusion, caudate and nucleus accumbens show a different brain response pattern to non-drug rewards during cocaine addiction, which can be modulated by treatment success. © 2013 The Authors, Addiction Biology © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  19. PET/CT imaging of striatal dopamine transporters in a newborn piglet model of hypoxic-ischemic brain injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yanfen; Wang Xiaoming; Wang Xiaoyu; Cao Li; Guo Qiyong

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate changes of striatal DAT following hypoxic ischemic (HI) brain injury in newborn piglets using 11 C-N-2-carbomethoxy-3-(4-fluorophenyl)-tropane (CFT) PET/CT, and to evaluate the value of 11 C-CFT PET/CT in brain injury. Methods: Newborn piglets with HI brain injury (n=20) were taken as a model group,and five piglets were used as a control group. Radioligand 11 C-CFT (55.5-74.0 MBq) was injected through the jugular vein, and PET/CT imaging was performed to observe the changes of striatal DAT in newborn piglets. The ST/occipital lobe (OC) ratio was calculated. Model group was divided into 0-6 h, 20-24 h, 44-48 h and 68-72 h sub-groups after HI in accordance with the imaging time. The piglets were sacrificed immediately after 11 C-CFT PET/CT scanning, and then the brains were removed for pathological analysis. Data analysis was performed with one-way analysis of variance and Pearson linear correlation analysis. Results: After intravenous injection of 11 C-CFT, the radioactivity accumulation in cortical, striatum, and cerebellum was shown clearly in the control and model groups. The radioactivity accumulation was lower in the white matter. The radioactivity in cortical and cerebellum exhibited decreased with time, while the striatum was still clear. After HI, the ST/OC activity ratio in the striatum was initially increased, and the ratio of 0-6 h group (1.34 ± 0.04) was statistically significant compared with that of the control group (1.18 ± 0.06; F=4.658, P<0.05), followed by a gradual decrease. ST/OC ratios of other HI subgroups were 1.27 ±0.01, 1.27 ±0.10 and 1.18 ±0.05, respectively. There was a positive correlation between the number of DAT positive neurons ((13 ± 3), (13 ± 4), (8 ±3) and (4 ±4)/high power field) and 11 C-CFT ST/OC activity ratios (r=0.844, P<0.05). Conclusion: 11 C-CFT PET/CT study can accurately reflect the changes of DAT in the striatum, and the amount of DAT is related to the severity of the ischemic insult

  20. Prefronto-striatal physiology is associated with schizotypy and is modulated by a functional variant of DRD2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taurisano, Paolo; Romano, Raffaella; Mancini, Marina; Giorgio, Annabella Di; Antonucci, Linda A; Fazio, Leonardo; Rampino, Antonio; Quarto, Tiziana; Gelao, Barbara; Porcelli, Annamaria; Papazacharias, Apostolos; Ursini, Gianluca; Caforio, Grazia; Masellis, Rita; Niccoli-Asabella, Artor; Todarello, Orlando; Popolizio, Teresa; Rubini, Giuseppe; Blasi, Giuseppe; Bertolino, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    "Schizotypy" is a latent organization of personality related to the genetic risk for schizophrenia. Some evidence suggests that schizophrenia and schizotypy share some biological features, including a link to dopaminergic D2 receptor signaling. A polymorphism in the D2 gene (DRD2 rs1076560, guanine > thymine (G > T)) has been associated with the D2 short/long isoform expression ratio, as well as striatal dopamine signaling and prefrontal cortical activity during different cognitive operations, which are measures that are altered in patients with schizophrenia. Our aim is to determine the association of schizotypy scores with the DRD2 rs1076560 genotype in healthy individuals and their interaction with prefrontal activity during attention and D2 striatal signaling. A total of 83 healthy subjects were genotyped for DRD2 rs1076560 and completed the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ). Twenty-six participants underwent SPECT with [(123)I]IBZM D2 receptor radiotracer, while 68 performed an attentional control task during fMRI. We found that rs1076560 GT subjects had greater SPQ scores than GG individuals. Moreover, the interaction between schizotypy and the GT genotype predicted prefrontal activity and related attentional behavior, as well as striatal binding of IBZM. No interaction was found in GG individuals. These results suggest that rs1076560 GT healthy individuals are prone to higher levels of schizotypy, and that the interaction between rs1076560 and schizotypy scores modulates phenotypes related to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, such as prefrontal activity and striatal dopamine signaling. These results provide systems-level qualitative evidence for mapping the construct of schizotypy in healthy individuals onto the schizophrenia continuum.

  1. Presence and function of dopamine transporter (DAT in stallion sperm: dopamine modulates sperm motility and acrosomal integrity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier A Urra

    Full Text Available Dopamine is a catecholamine with multiple physiological functions, playing a key role in nervous system; however its participation in reproductive processes and sperm physiology is controversial. High dopamine concentrations have been reported in different portions of the feminine and masculine reproductive tract, although the role fulfilled by this catecholamine in reproductive physiology is as yet unknown. We have previously shown that dopamine type 2 receptor is functional in boar sperm, suggesting that dopamine acts as a physiological modulator of sperm viability, capacitation and motility. In the present study, using immunodetection methods, we revealed the presence of several proteins important for the dopamine uptake and signalling in mammalian sperm, specifically monoamine transporters as dopamine (DAT, serotonin (SERT and norepinephrine (NET transporters in equine sperm. We also demonstrated for the first time in equine sperm a functional dopamine transporter using 4-[4-(Dimethylaminostyryl]-N-methylpyridinium iodide (ASP(+, as substrate. In addition, we also showed that dopamine (1 mM treatment in vitro, does not affect sperm viability but decreases total and progressive sperm motility. This effect is reversed by blocking the dopamine transporter with the selective inhibitor vanoxerine (GBR12909 and non-selective inhibitors of dopamine reuptake such as nomifensine and bupropion. The effect of dopamine in sperm physiology was evaluated and we demonstrated that acrosome integrity and thyrosine phosphorylation in equine sperm is significantly reduced at high concentrations of this catecholamine. In summary, our results revealed the presence of monoamine transporter DAT, NET and SERT in equine sperm, and that the dopamine uptake by DAT can regulate sperm function, specifically acrosomal integrity and sperm motility.

  2. Transcriptional profiling of striatal neurons in response to single or concurrent activation of dopamine D2, adenosine A(2A) and metabotropic glutamate type 5 receptors: focus on beta-synuclein expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canela, Laia; Selga, Elisabet; García-Martínez, Juan Manuel; Amaral, Olavo B; Fernández-Dueñas, Víctor; Alberch, Jordi; Canela, Enric I; Franco, Rafael; Noé, Véronique; Lluís, Carme; Ciudad, Carlos J; Ciruela, Francisco

    2012-10-25

    G protein-coupled receptor oligomerization is a concept which is changing the understanding of classical pharmacology. Both, oligomerization and functional interaction between adenosine A(2A,) dopamine D(2) and metabotropic glutamate type 5 receptors have been demonstrated in the striatum. However, the transcriptional consequences of receptors co-activation are still unexplored. We aim here to determine the changes in gene expression of striatal primary cultured neurons upon isolated or simultaneous receptor activation. Interestingly, we found that 95 genes of the total analyzed (15,866 transcripts and variants) changed their expression in response to simultaneous stimulation of all three receptors. Among these genes, we focused on the β-synuclein (β-Syn) gene (SCNB). Quantitative PCR verified the magnitude and direction of change in expression of SCNB. Since β-Syn belongs to the homologous synuclein family and may be considered a natural regulator of α-synuclein (α-Syn), it has been proposed that β-Syn might act protectively against α-Syn neuropathology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Adenosine A2A receptors and A2A receptor heteromers as key players in striatal function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergi eFerre

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A very significant density of adenosine adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs is present in the striatum, where they are preferentially localized postsynaptically in striatopallidal medium spiny neurons (MSNs. In this localization A2ARs establish reciprocal antagonistic interactions with dopamine D2 receptors (D2Rs. In one type of interaction, A2AR and D2R are forming heteromers and, by means of an allosteric interaction, A2AR counteracts D2R-mediated inhibitory modulation of the effects of NMDA receptor stimulation in the striato-pallidal neuron. This interaction is probably mostly responsible for the locomotor depressant and activating effects of A2AR agonist and antagonists, respectively. The second type of interaction involves A2AR and D2R that do not form heteromers and takes place at the level of adenylyl-cyclase (AC. Due to a strong tonic effect of endogenous dopamine on striatal D2R, this interaction keeps A2AR from signaling through AC. However, under conditions of dopamine depletion or with blockade of D2R, A2AR-mediated AC activation is unleashed with an increased gene expression and activity of the striato-pallidal neuron and with a consequent motor depression. This interaction is probably the main mechanism responsible for the locomotor depression induced by D2R antagonists. Finally, striatal A2ARs are also localized presynaptically, in cortico-striatal glutamatergic terminals that contact the striato-nigral MSN. These presynaptic A2ARs heteromerize with A1 receptors (A1Rs and their activation facilitates glutamate release. These three different types of A2ARs can be pharmacologically dissected by their ability to bind ligands with different affinity and can therefore provide selective targets for drug development in different basal ganglia disorders.

  4. Striatal dopamine transporter, regional cerebral blood flow and glucose utilization in MPTP-induced parkinson disease mice model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yunchao; Wu Chunying; Xiang Jingde; Lin Xiangtong; Zhu Huiqing

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore the variation of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), glucose utilization as well as the neurotoxic effect on dopaminergic neurons induced by neurotoxin 1-methy-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahy-dropyridine (MPTP). Methods: Eight-week old male C57BL/6 mice were given a total dose of 0-80 mg/kg MPTP intraperitoneally. Ten days later the mice were sacrificed for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-immunopositive cell count- ing in substantia nigra using SP immunohistochemistry. Vivo autoradiography was employed to measure striatal do- pamine transporter (DAT) loss, rCBF and glucose utilization in striatum and thalamus. Results: The extents of DAT depletion and TH-immunopositive cell loss were positively correlated (r=0.998, P O.2), while glucose utilization was only slightly reduced in caudate/putamen and thalamus by 3.0% and 5.4% in 80 mg/kg MPTP-treated mice (P<0.05). Conclusion: Significant dose-dependent relationship was in presence of MPTP induced dopaminergic neurons loss, changes of rCBF in caudate/putamen and thalamus were not significant, while the glucose utilization was slightly decreased in higher dose group. (authors)

  5. Dopamine D1-D2 receptor heteromer in dual phenotype GABA/glutamate-coexpressing striatal medium spiny neurons: regulation of BDNF, GAD67 and VGLUT1/2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa L Perreault

    Full Text Available In basal ganglia a significant subset of GABAergic medium spiny neurons (MSNs coexpress D1 and D2 receptors (D1R and D2R along with the neuropeptides dynorphin (DYN and enkephalin (ENK. These coexpressing neurons have been recently shown to have a region-specific distribution throughout the mesolimbic and basal ganglia circuits. While the functional relevance of these MSNs remains relatively unexplored, they have been shown to exhibit the unique property of expressing the dopamine D1-D2 receptor heteromer, a novel receptor complex with distinct pharmacology and cell signaling properties. Here we showed that MSNs coexpressing the D1R and D2R also exhibited a dual GABA/glutamate phenotype. Activation of the D1R-D2R heteromer in these neurons resulted in the simultaneous, but differential regulation of proteins involved in GABA and glutamate production or vesicular uptake in the nucleus accumbens (NAc, ventral tegmental area (VTA, caudate putamen and substantia nigra (SN. Additionally, activation of the D1R-D2R heteromer in NAc shell, but not NAc core, differentially altered protein expression in VTA and SN, regions rich in dopamine cell bodies. The identification of a MSN with dual inhibitory and excitatory intrinsic functions provides new insights into the neuroanatomy of the basal ganglia and demonstrates a novel source of glutamate in this circuit. Furthermore, the demonstration of a dopamine receptor complex with the potential to differentially regulate the expression of proteins directly involved in GABAergic inhibitory or glutamatergic excitatory activation in VTA and SN may potentially provide new insights into the regulation of dopamine neuron activity. This could have broad implications in understanding how dysregulation of neurotransmission within basal ganglia contributes to dopamine neuronal dysfunction.

  6. alpha-Phenyl-N-tert-butyl nitrone attenuates methamphetamine-induced depletion of striatal dopamine without altering hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappon, G D; Broening, H W; Pu, C; Morford, L; Vorhees, C V

    1996-10-01

    Methamphetamine (MA) administration to adult rats (4 x 10 mg/kg s.c.) induces neurotoxicity predominately characterized by a persistent reduction of neostriatal dopamine (DA) content. Hyperthermia following MA administration potentiates the resulting DA depletion. DA-derived free radicals are postulated to be a mechanism through which MA-induced neurotoxicity is produced. The spin trapping agent PBN reacts with free radicals to form nitroxyl adducts, thereby preventing damaging free radical reactions with cellular substrates. MA with saline pretreatment (Sal-MA) reduced neostriatal DA by 55% (P protection. PBN pretreatment did not alter MA-induced hyperthermia. Thus, PBN does not attenuate MA-induced neurotoxicity by reducing MA-induced hyperthermia. These results support a role for free radicals in the generation of MA-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity.

  7. Variability in Dopamine Genes Dissociates Model-Based and Model-Free Reinforcement Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doll, Bradley B; Bath, Kevin G; Daw, Nathaniel D; Frank, Michael J

    2016-01-27

    Considerable evidence suggests that multiple learning systems can drive behavior. Choice can proceed reflexively from previous actions and their associated outcomes, as captured by "model-free" learning algorithms, or flexibly from prospective consideration of outcomes that might occur, as captured by "model-based" learning algorithms. However, differential contributions of dopamine to these systems are poorly understood. Dopamine is widely thought to support model-free learning by modulating plasticity in striatum. Model-based learning may also be affected by these striatal effects, or by other dopaminergic effects elsewhere, notably on prefrontal working memory function. Indeed, prominent demonstrations linking striatal dopamine to putatively model-free learning did not rule out model-based effects, whereas other studies have reported dopaminergic modulation of verifiably model-based learning, but without distinguishing a prefrontal versus striatal locus. To clarify the relationships between dopamine, neural systems, and learning strategies, we combine a genetic association approach in humans with two well-studied reinforcement learning tasks: one isolating model-based from model-free behavior and the other sensitive to key aspects of striatal plasticity. Prefrontal function was indexed by a polymorphism in the COMT gene, differences of which reflect dopamine levels in the prefrontal cortex. This polymorphism has been associated with differences in prefrontal activity and working memory. Striatal function was indexed by a gene coding for DARPP-32, which is densely expressed in the striatum where it is necessary for synaptic plasticity. We found evidence for our hypothesis that variations in prefrontal dopamine relate to model-based learning, whereas variations in striatal dopamine function relate to model-free learning. Decisions can stem reflexively from their previously associated outcomes or flexibly from deliberative consideration of potential choice outcomes

  8. Developmental imaging genetics: linking dopamine function to adolescent behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanabhan, Aarthi; Luna, Beatriz

    2014-08-01

    Adolescence is a period of development characterized by numerous neurobiological changes that significantly influence behavior and brain function. Adolescence is of particular interest due to the alarming statistics indicating that mortality rates increase two to three-fold during this time compared to childhood, due largely to a peak in risk-taking behaviors resulting from increased impulsivity and sensation seeking. Furthermore, there exists large unexplained variability in these behaviors that are in part mediated by biological factors. Recent advances in molecular genetics and functional neuroimaging have provided a unique and exciting opportunity to non-invasively study the influence of genetic factors on brain function in humans. While genes do not code for specific behaviors, they do determine the structure and function of proteins that are essential to the neuronal processes that underlie behavior. Therefore, studying the interaction of genotype with measures of brain function over development could shed light on critical time points when biologically mediated individual differences in complex behaviors emerge. Here we review animal and human literature examining the neurobiological basis of adolescent development related to dopamine neurotransmission. Dopamine is of critical importance because of (1) its role in cognitive and affective behaviors, (2) its role in the pathogenesis of major psychopathology, and (3) the protracted development of dopamine signaling pathways over adolescence. We will then focus on current research examining the role of dopamine-related genes on brain function. We propose the use of imaging genetics to examine the influence of genetically mediated dopamine variability on brain function during adolescence, keeping in mind the limitations of this approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Risky Decision-Making and Ventral Striatal Dopamine Responses to Amphetamine: A Positron Emission Tomography [11C] Raclopride Study in Healthy Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Oswald, Lynn M.; Wand, Gary S.; Wong, Dean F.; Brown, Clayton H.; Kuwabara, Hiroto; Brašić, James R.

    2015-01-01

    Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have provided compelling evidence that corticolimbic brain regions are integrally involved in human decision-making. Although much less is known about molecular mechanisms, there is growing evidence that the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) neurotransmitter system may be an important neural substrate. Thus far, direct examination of DA signaling in human risk-taking has centered onl gambling disorder. Findings from several positron emission ...

  10. In the Blink of an Eye: Relating Positive-Feedback Sensitivity to Striatal Dopamine D2-Like Receptors through Blink Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groman, Stephanie M.; James, Alex S.; Seu, Emanuele; Tran, Steven; Clark, Taylor A.; Harpster, Sandra N.; Crawford, Maverick; Burtner, Joanna Lee; Feiler, Karen; Roth, Robert H.; Elsworth, John D.; London, Edythe D.

    2014-01-01

    For >30 years, positron emission tomography (PET) has proven to be a powerful approach for measuring aspects of dopaminergic transmission in the living human brain; this technique has revealed important relationships between dopamine D2-like receptors and dimensions of normal behavior, such as human impulsivity, and psychopathology, particularly behavioral addictions. Nevertheless, PET is an indirect estimate that lacks cellular and functional resolution and, in some cases, is not entirely pharmacologically specific. To identify the relationships between PET estimates of D2-like receptor availability and direct in vitro measures of receptor number, affinity, and function, we conducted neuroimaging and behavioral and molecular pharmacological assessments in a group of adult male vervet monkeys. Data gathered from these studies indicate that variation in D2-like receptor PET measurements is related to reversal-learning performance and sensitivity to positive feedback and is associated with in vitro estimates of the density of functional dopamine D2-like receptors. Furthermore, we report that a simple behavioral measure, eyeblink rate, reveals novel and crucial links between neuroimaging assessments and in vitro measures of dopamine D2 receptors. PMID:25339755

  11. Perineuronal nets play a role in regulating striatal function in the mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunchul Lee

    Full Text Available The striatum is the primary input nucleus of the basal ganglia, a collection of nuclei that play important roles in motor control and associative learning. We have previously reported that perineuronal nets (PNNs, aggregations of chondroitin-sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs, form in the matrix compartment of the mouse striatum during the second postnatal week. This period overlaps with important developmental changes, including the attainment of an adult-like gait. Here, we investigate the identity of the cells encapsulated by PNNs, characterize their topographical distribution and determine their function by assessing the impact of enzymatic digestion of PNNs on two striatum-dependent behaviors: ambulation and goal-directed spatial learning. We show PNNs are more numerous caudally, and that a substantial fraction (41% of these structures surrounds parvalbumin positive (PV+ interneurons, while approximately 51% of PV+ cells are ensheathed by PNNs. The colocalization of these structures is greatest in dorsal, lateral and caudal regions of the striatum. Bilateral digestion of striatal PNNs led to an increase in both the width and variability of hind limb gait. Intriguingly, this also resulted in an improvement in the acquisition rate of the Morris water maze. Together, these data show that PNNs are associated with specific elements of striatal circuits and play a key role in regulating the function of this important structure in the mouse.

  12. Perineuronal nets play a role in regulating striatal function in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunchul; Leamey, Catherine A; Sawatari, Atomu

    2012-01-01

    The striatum is the primary input nucleus of the basal ganglia, a collection of nuclei that play important roles in motor control and associative learning. We have previously reported that perineuronal nets (PNNs), aggregations of chondroitin-sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), form in the matrix compartment of the mouse striatum during the second postnatal week. This period overlaps with important developmental changes, including the attainment of an adult-like gait. Here, we investigate the identity of the cells encapsulated by PNNs, characterize their topographical distribution and determine their function by assessing the impact of enzymatic digestion of PNNs on two striatum-dependent behaviors: ambulation and goal-directed spatial learning. We show PNNs are more numerous caudally, and that a substantial fraction (41%) of these structures surrounds parvalbumin positive (PV+) interneurons, while approximately 51% of PV+ cells are ensheathed by PNNs. The colocalization of these structures is greatest in dorsal, lateral and caudal regions of the striatum. Bilateral digestion of striatal PNNs led to an increase in both the width and variability of hind limb gait. Intriguingly, this also resulted in an improvement in the acquisition rate of the Morris water maze. Together, these data show that PNNs are associated with specific elements of striatal circuits and play a key role in regulating the function of this important structure in the mouse.

  13. Nigrostriatal proteasome inhibition impairs dopamine neurotransmission and motor function in minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillethorup, Thea Pinholt; Glud, Andreas Nørgaard; Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen

    2018-01-01

    weeks after the unilateral administration of 100 μg lactacystin into the MFB. Compared to their baseline values, minipigs injected with lactacystin showed on average a 36% decrease in ipsilateral striatal binding potential corresponding to impaired presynaptic dopamine terminals. Behaviourally, minipigs....... In conclusion, direct injection of lactacystin into the MFB of minipigs provides a model of PD with reduced dopamine neurotransmission, TH-positive neuron reduction, microglial activation and behavioural deficits. This large animal model could be useful in studies of symptomatic and neuroprotective therapies...

  14. Optogenetic approaches to evaluate striatal function in animal models of Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Krystal L; Kim, Youngcho; Alberico, Stephanie L; Emmons, Eric B; Narayanan, Nandakumar S

    2016-03-01

    Optogenetics refers to the ability to control cells that have been genetically modified to express light-sensitive ion channels. The introduction of optogenetic approaches has facilitated the dissection of neural circuits. Optogenetics allows for the precise stimulation and inhibition of specific sets of neurons and their projections with fine temporal specificity. These techniques are ideally suited to investigating neural circuitry underlying motor and cognitive dysfunction in animal models of human disease. Here, we focus on how optogenetics has been used over the last decade to probe striatal circuits that are involved in Parkinson disease, a neurodegenerative condition involving motor and cognitive abnormalities resulting from degeneration of midbrain dopaminergic neurons. The precise mechanisms underlying the striatal contribution to both cognitive and motor dysfunction in Parkinson disease are unknown. Although optogenetic approaches are somewhat removed from clinical use, insight from these studies can help identify novel therapeutic targets and may inspire new treatments for Parkinson disease. Elucidating how neuronal and behavioral functions are influenced and potentially rescued by optogenetic manipulation in animal models could prove to be translatable to humans. These insights can be used to guide future brain-stimulation approaches for motor and cognitive abnormalities in Parkinson disease and other neuropsychiatric diseases.

  15. Altered cingulo-striatal function underlies reward drive deficits in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Il Ho; Chun, Ji Won; Park, Hae-Jeong; Koo, Min-Seong; Park, Sunyoung; Kim, Seok-Hyeong; Kim, Jae-Jin

    2015-02-01

    Amotivation in schizophrenia is assumed to involve dysfunctional dopaminergic signaling of reward prediction or anticipation. It is unclear, however, whether the translation of neural representation of reward value to behavioral drive is affected in schizophrenia. In order to examine how abnormal neural processing of response valuation and initiation affects incentive motivation in schizophrenia, we conducted functional MRI using a deterministic reinforcement learning task with variable intervals of contingency reversals in 20 clinically stable patients with schizophrenia and 20 healthy controls. Behaviorally, the advantage of positive over negative reinforcer in reinforcement-related responsiveness was not observed in patients. Patients showed altered response valuation and initiation-related striatal activity and deficient rostro-ventral anterior cingulate cortex activation during reward approach initiation. Among these neural abnormalities, rostro-ventral anterior cingulate cortex activation was correlated with positive reinforcement-related responsiveness in controls and social anhedonia and social amotivation subdomain scores in patients. Our findings indicate that the central role of the anterior cingulate cortex is in translating action value into driving force of action, and underscore the role of the cingulo-striatal network in amotivation in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Essential Control of the Function of the Striatopallidal Neuron by Pre-coupled Complexes of Adenosine A2A-Dopamine D2 Receptor Heterotetramers and Adenylyl Cyclase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergi Ferré

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The central adenosine system and adenosine receptors play a fundamental role in the modulation of dopaminergic neurotransmission. This is mostly achieved by the strategic co-localization of different adenosine and dopamine receptor subtypes in the two populations of striatal efferent neurons, striatonigral and striatopallidal, that give rise to the direct and indirect striatal efferent pathways, respectively. With optogenetic techniques it has been possible to dissect a differential role of the direct and indirect pathways in mediating “Go” responses upon exposure to reward-related stimuli and “NoGo” responses upon exposure to non-rewarded or aversive-related stimuli, respectively, which depends on their different connecting output structures and their differential expression of dopamine and adenosine receptor subtypes. The striatopallidal neuron selectively expresses dopamine D2 receptors (D2R and adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR, and numerous experiments using multiple genetic and pharmacological in vitro, in situ and in vivo approaches, demonstrate they can form A2AR-D2R heteromers. It was initially assumed that different pharmacological interactions between dopamine and adenosine receptor ligands indicated the existence of different subpopulations of A2AR and D2R in the striatopallidal neuron. However, as elaborated in the present essay, most evidence now indicates that all interactions can be explained with a predominant population of striatal A2AR-D2R heteromers forming complexes with adenylyl cyclase subtype 5 (AC5. The A2AR-D2R heteromer has a tetrameric structure, with two homodimers, which allows not only multiple allosteric interactions between different orthosteric ligands, agonists, and antagonists, but also the canonical Gs-Gi antagonistic interaction at the level of AC5. We present a model of the function of the A2AR-D2R heterotetramer-AC5 complex, which acts as an integrative device of adenosine and dopamine signals that

  17. Study on dopamine D2 binding capacity in vascular parkinsonism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terashi, Hiroo; Nagata, Ken; Hirata, Yutaka; Hatazawa, Jun; Utsumi, Hiroya

    2001-01-01

    To investigate whether the striatal dopamine receptor function is involved in the development of vascular parkinsonism (VP), a positron emission tomography (PET) study was conducted on 9 patients with VP by using [ 11 C] N-methylspiperone as the tracer. The rate of binding availability in the striatal dopamine D 2 receptor (k 3 ) was determined semiquantitatively, and the values were compared to the predicted normal values based on the results from 7 normal volunteers. Of 9 patients with VP, the normalized D 2 receptor binding [%k 3 ] was more than 90% in 5 patients, 89 to 87% in 3, and 75% in one. These values showed no evident correlation with the Hoehn and Yahr stage. The laterality of the striatal %k 3 did not correspond to that of the parkinsonism. Thus, the striatal dopamine D 2 receptor binding was not severely impaired and did not correlate with the neurological status in patients with VP. This may indicate that striatal dopamine D 2 receptor function is not primarily associated with the development of the parkinsonism in VP. (author)

  18. Functional characterization of dopamine transporter in vivo using Drosophila melanogaster behavioral analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taro eUeno

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine mediates diverse functions such as motivation, reward, attention, learning/memory and sleep/arousal. Recent studies using model organisms including the fruit fly, have elucidated various physiological functions of dopamine, and identified specific neural circuits for these functions. Flies with mutations in the Drosophila dopamine transporter (dDAT gene show enhanced dopamine signaling, and short sleep and memory impairment phenotypes. However, understanding the mechanism by which dopamine signaling causes these phenotypes requires an understanding of the dynamics of dopamine release. Here we report the effects of dDAT expression on behavioral traits. We show that dDAT expression in a subset of dopaminergic neurons is sufficient for normal sleep. dDAT expression in other cell types such as Kenyon cells and glial cells can also rescue the short sleep phenotype of dDAT mutants. dDAT mutants also show a down-regulation of the D1-like dopamine receptor dDA1, and this phenotype is rescued when dDAT is expressed in the same cell types in which it rescues sleep. On the other hand, dDAT overexpression in mushroom bodies, which are the target of memory forming dopamine neurons, abolishes olfactory aversive memory. Our data demonstrate that expression of extrasynaptic dopamine transporters can rescue some aspects of dopamine signaling in dopamine transporter mutants. These results provide novel insights into regulatory systems that modulate dopamine signaling.

  19. THE EFFECT OF INTRASTRIATAL APPLICATION OF DIRECTLY AND INDIRECTLY ACTING DOPAMINE AGONISTS AND ANTAGONISTS ON THE INVIVO RELEASE OF ACETYLCHOLINE MEASURED BY BRAIN MICRODIALYSIS - THE IMPORTANCE OF THE POSTSURGERY INTERVAL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEBOER, P; DAMSMA, G; SCHRAM, Q; STOOF, JC; ZAAGSMA, J; WESTERINK, BHC

    The effect of intrastriatal application of D-1, D-2 and indirect dopaminergic drugs on the release of striatal acetylcholine as a function of the post-implantation intervals was studied using in vivo microdialysis. The dopamine D-2 agonists LY 171555 and (-)N0437 inhibited the release of striatal

  20. PET evidence for a role for striatal dopamine in the attentional blink: functional implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slagter, H.A.; Tomer, R.; Christian, B.T.; Fox, A.S.; Colzato, L.S.; King, C.R.; Murali, D.; Davidson, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    Our outside world changes continuously, for example, when driving through traffic. An important question is how our brain deals with this constant barrage of rapidly changing sensory input and flexibly selects only newly goal-relevant information for further capacity-limited processing in working

  1. Dopamine in high-risk populations: A comparison of subjects with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome and subjects at ultra high-risk for psychosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vingerhoets, Claudia; Bloemen, Oswald J. N.; Boot, Erik; Bakker, Geor; de Koning, Mariken B.; da Silva Alves, Fabiana; Booij, Jan; van Amelsvoort, Thérèse A. M. J.

    2018-01-01

    Striatal dopamine (DA) dysfunction has been consistently reported in psychotic disorders. Differences and similarities in the pathogenesis between populations at clinical and genetic risk for developing psychosis are yet to be established. Here we explored markers of dopamine (DA) function in

  2. Simultaneous 99mTc and 123I dual-isotope brain striatal phantom single photon emission computed tomography: validation of 99mTc-TRODAT-1 and 123I-IBZM simultaneous dopamine system brain imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Pan-Fu; Wey, Shiaw-Pyng; Yang, An-Shoei

    2009-11-01

    [2[[2-[[[3-(4-chlorophenyl)-8-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3,2,1]-oct-2-yl]-methyl](2-mercaptoethyl)-amino]ethyl]amino]ethanethiolato(3-)-N2,N2',S2,S2]oxo-[1R-exo-exo)])-[99mTc]-technetium (99mTc-TRODAT-1) and 123I-iodobenzamide (123I-IBZM) are radiotracers for brain dopamine pre- and postsynaptic neuron imaging. The purpose of this study was to evaluate imaging parameters and crossed energy interference using simultaneous single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) 99mTc and 123I data acquisition. A five-compartment brain striatal phantom was filled with 99mTc and/or 123I radioactive solutions with different striatal-to-background ratios, ranging from 3:1 to 9:1. SPECT data were acquired with energy window settings of 15% for the centered window at 140 keV for 99mTc and a 10% asymmetric window at 159 keV for 123I. The experiments were carried out using either individual (99mTc or 123I only) or both radionuclides. The striatal-to-background ratios and energy crossed interference between 99mTc and 123I were calculated. The phantom SPECT images demonstrated that the energy crossed interferences from 123I to 99mTc, and vice versa, were 22 +/- 12.4% and 0.4 +/- 1.0%, respectively. A net interference of 7.1 +/- 4.0% for the counts in the 15% centered 99mTc window can be expected from 123I and a net interference of 1.6 +/- 3.3% for the counts in the 10% asymmetric 123I window was derived from 99mTc. The correlation of striatal-to-background ratios between single isotope and simultaneous dual-isotope was excellent (R2 = 0.99). The imaging parameters used in this simultaneous dualisotope SPECT imaging could be used in future clinical practice for imaging patients with movement disorders by using 99mTc-TRODAT-1 and 123I-IBZM. The striatal-to-background ratios were not affected by the crossed interference between 99mTc and 123I.

  3. Simultaneous 99mTC and 123I Dual-Isotope Brain Striatal Phantom Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography: Validation of 99mTC-Trodat-1 and 123I-IBZM Simultaneous Dopamine System Brain Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan-Fu Kao

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available [2[[2-[[[3-(4-chlorophenyl-8-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3,2,1]-oct-2-yl]-methyl](2-mercaptoethylamino]ethyl]amino]ethanethiolato(3--N2,N2′,S2,S2]oxo-[1R-exo-exo]-[99mTc]-technetium (99mTc-TRODAT-1 and 123I-iodobenzamide (123I-IBZM are radiotracers for brain dopamine preand postsynaptic neuron imaging. The purpose of this study was to evaluate imaging parameters and crossed energy interference using simultaneous single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT 99mTc and 123I data acquisition. A five-compartment brain striatal phantom was filled with 99mTc and/or 123I radioactive solutions with different striatal-to-background ratios, ranging from 3:1 to 9:1. SPECT data were acquired with energy window settings of 15% for the centered window at 140 keV for 99mTc and a 10% asymmetric window at 159 keV for 123I. The experiments were carried out using either individual (99mTc or 123I only or both radionuclides. The striatal-to-background ratios and energy crossed interference between 99mTc and 123I were calculated. The phantom SPECT images demonstrated that the energy crossed interferences from 123I to 99mTc, and vice versa, were 22 ± 12.4% and 0.4 ± 1.0%, respectively. A net interference of 7.1 ± 4.0% for the counts in the 15% centered 99mTc window can be expected from 123I and a net interference of 1.6 ± 3.3% for the counts in the 10% asymmetric 123I window was derived from 99mTc. The correlation of striatal-to-background ratios between single isotope and simultaneous dual-isotope was excellent (R2 = 0.99. The imaging parameters used in this simultaneous dual-isotope SPECT imaging could be used in future clinical practice for imaging patients with movement disorders by using 99mTc-TRODAT-1 and 123I-IBZM. The striatal-to-background ratios were not affected by the crossed interference between 99mTc and 123I.

  4. Sexual dimorphism in striatal dopaminergic responses promotes monogamy in social songbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokarev, Kirill; Hyland Bruno, Julia; Ljubičić, Iva; Kothari, Paresh J; Helekar, Santosh A; Tchernichovski, Ofer; Voss, Henning U

    2017-08-11

    In many songbird species, males sing to attract females and repel rivals. How can gregarious, non-territorial songbirds such as zebra finches, where females have access to numerous males, sustain monogamy? We found that the dopaminergic reward circuitry of zebra finches can simultaneously promote social cohesion and breeding boundaries. Surprisingly, in unmated males but not in females, striatal dopamine neurotransmission was elevated after hearing songs. Behaviorally too, unmated males but not females persistently exchanged mild punishments in return for songs. Song reinforcement diminished when dopamine receptors were blocked. In females, we observed song reinforcement exclusively to the mate's song, although their striatal dopamine neurotransmission was only slightly elevated. These findings suggest that song-triggered dopaminergic activation serves a dual function in social songbirds: as low-threshold social reinforcement in males and as ultra-selective sexual reinforcement in females. Co-evolution of sexually dimorphic reinforcement systems can explain the coexistence of gregariousness and monogamy.

  5. Chronic alcohol intake abolishes the relationship between dopamine synthesis capacity and learning signals in the ventral striatum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deserno, Lorenz; Beck, Anne; Huys, Quentin J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Drugs of abuse elicit dopamine release in the ventral striatum, possibly biasing dopamine-driven reinforcement learning towards drug-related reward at the expense of non-drug-related reward. Indeed, in alcohol-dependent patients, reactivity in dopaminergic target areas is shifted from non-drug......-related stimuli towards drug-related stimuli. Such ‘hijacked’ dopamine signals may impair flexible learning from non-drug-related rewards, and thus promote craving for the drug of abuse. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure ventral striatal activation by reward prediction errors (RPEs......) during a probabilistic reversal learning task in recently detoxified alcohol-dependent patients and healthy controls (N = 27). All participants also underwent 6-[18F]fluoro-DOPA positron emission tomography to assess ventral striatal dopamine synthesis capacity. Neither ventral striatal activation...

  6. Transfer functions for protein signal transduction: application to a model of striatal neural plasticity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Scheler

    Full Text Available We present a novel formulation for biochemical reaction networks in the context of protein signal transduction. The model consists of input-output transfer functions, which are derived from differential equations, using stable equilibria. We select a set of "source" species, which are interpreted as input signals. Signals are transmitted to all other species in the system (the "target" species with a specific delay and with a specific transmission strength. The delay is computed as the maximal reaction time until a stable equilibrium for the target species is reached, in the context of all other reactions in the system. The transmission strength is the concentration change of the target species. The computed input-output transfer functions can be stored in a matrix, fitted with parameters, and even recalled to build dynamical models on the basis of state changes. By separating the temporal and the magnitudinal domain we can greatly simplify the computational model, circumventing typical problems of complex dynamical systems. The transfer function transformation of biochemical reaction systems can be applied to mass-action kinetic models of signal transduction. The paper shows that this approach yields significant novel insights while remaining a fully testable and executable dynamical model for signal transduction. In particular we can deconstruct the complex system into local transfer functions between individual species. As an example, we examine modularity and signal integration using a published model of striatal neural plasticity. The modularizations that emerge correspond to a known biological distinction between calcium-dependent and cAMP-dependent pathways. Remarkably, we found that overall interconnectedness depends on the magnitude of inputs, with higher connectivity at low input concentrations and significant modularization at moderate to high input concentrations. This general result, which directly follows from the properties of

  7. Dopamine systems adaptation during acquisition and consolidation of a skill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang H Sommer

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The striatum plays a key role in motor learning. Striatal function depends strongly on dopaminergic neurotransmission, but little is known about neuroadaptions of the dopamine system during striatal learning. Using an established task that allows differentiation between acquisition and consolidation of motor learning, we here investigate D1 and D2-like receptor binding and transcriptional levels after initial and long-term training of mice. We found profound reduction in D1 binding within the dorsomedial striatum (DMS after the first training session on the accelerated rotarod and a progressive reduction in D2-like binding within the dorsolateral striatum (DLS after extended training. Given that similar phase- and region-specific striatal neuroadaptations have been found also during learning of complex procedural tasks including habit formation and automatic responding, the here observed neurochemical alterations are important for our understanding of neuropsychiatric disorders that show a dysbalance in the function of striatal circuits, such as in addictive behaviours.

  8. PF 9601N [N-(2-propynyl)-2-(5-benzyloxy-indolyl) methylamine], a new MAO-B inhibitor, attenuates MPTP-induced depletion of striatal dopamine levels in C57/BL6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Virgili; Unzeta, Mercedes

    2003-02-01

    Monoamine oxidase isoform B (MAO-B) is involved in Parkinson's disease (PD) induced by the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine toxin (MPTP) in human and non-human-primate. MAO-B inhibitors, such as L-deprenyl have shown to prevent against MPTP-toxicity in different species, and it has been used in Parkinson therapy, however, the fact that it is metabolized to (-)-methamphetamine and (-)-amphetamine highlights the need to find out new MAO-B inhibitors without a structural amphetaminic moiety. In this context we herein report, for the first time, anywhere a novel non-amphetamine-like MAO-B inhibitor, PF 9601N, N-(2-propynyl)-2-(5-benzyloxy-indolyl) methylamine. This attenuates the MPTP-induced striatal dopamine depletion in young-adult and adult-old C57/BL mice, using different schedules of administration, and which behave "ex vivo" as a slightly more potent and selective MAO-B inhibitor than L-deprenyl, assayed for comparative purposes in the same experimental conditions. The MAO-B ID(50) values were calculated from the total MAO-B activity measured against [14C] phenylethylamine (22 microM) as substrate, at each inhibitor concentration. The MAO-B ID(50) values resulted to be 381 and 577 nmol/kg for PF 9601N and L-deprenyl, respectively. The intraperitoneally (i.p.) co-administration to young-adult C57/BL6 mice of MPTP (30 mg/kg), with different concentrations of PF 9601N or L-deprenyl (29.5-0.357 micromol/kg) showed a dose-dependent protective effect against striatal dopamine depletion, measuring the dopamine contents and its metabolites by HPLC. The ED(50) value proved to be 3.07 micromol/kg without any significant differences between either MAO-B inhibitor. Nevertheless, lower doses of PF 9601N (1.5 micromol/kg) were necessary to get almost total protection, without any change in the DOPAC and HVA content, when administered 2 h before MPTP (30 mg/kg), whereas partial protection (45%) against dopamine depletion was observed in the case of L-deprenyl. In

  9. DRD2 genotype-based variation of default mode network activity and of its relationship with striatal DAT binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambataro, Fabio; Fazio, Leonardo; Taurisano, Paolo; Gelao, Barbara; Porcelli, Annamaria; Mancini, Marina; Sinibaldi, Lorenzo; Ursini, Gianluca; Masellis, Rita; Caforio, Grazia; Di Giorgio, Annabella; Niccoli-Asabella, Artor; Popolizio, Teresa; Blasi, Giuseppe; Bertolino, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    The default mode network (DMN) comprises a set of brain regions with "increased" activity during rest relative to cognitive processing. Activity in the DMN is associated with functional connections with the striatum and dopamine (DA) levels in this brain region. A functional single-nucleotide polymorphism within the dopamine D2 receptor gene (DRD2, rs1076560 G > T) shifts splicing of the 2 D2 isoforms, D2 short and D2 long, and has been associated with striatal DA signaling as well as with cognitive processing. However, the effects of this polymorphism on DMN have not been explored. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of rs1076560 on DMN and striatal connectivity and on their relationship with striatal DA signaling. Twenty-eight subjects genotyped for rs1076560 underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging during a working memory task and 123 55 I-Fluoropropyl-2-beta-carbomethoxy-3-beta(4-iodophenyl) nortropan Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography ([(123)I]-FP-CIT SPECT) imaging (a measure of dopamine transporter [DAT] binding). Spatial group-independent component (IC) analysis was used to identify DMN and striatal ICs. Within the anterior DMN IC, GG subjects had relatively greater connectivity in medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), which was directly correlated with striatal DAT binding. Within the posterior DMN IC, GG subjects had reduced connectivity in posterior cingulate relative to T carriers. Additionally, rs1076560 genotype predicted connectivity differences within a striatal network, and these changes were correlated with connectivity in MPFC and posterior cingulate within the DMN. These results suggest that genetically determined D2 receptor signaling is associated with DMN connectivity and that these changes are correlated with striatal function and presynaptic DA signaling.

  10. Study on dopamine D{sub 2} binding capacity in vascular parkinsonism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terashi, Hiroo; Nagata, Ken; Hirata, Yutaka; Hatazawa, Jun [Research Inst. for Brain and Blood Vessels, Akita (Japan); Utsumi, Hiroya [Tokyo Medical Coll. (Japan)

    2001-10-01

    To investigate whether the striatal dopamine receptor function is involved in the development of vascular parkinsonism (VP), a positron emission tomography (PET) study was conducted on 9 patients with VP by using [{sup 11}C] N-methylspiperone as the tracer. The rate of binding availability in the striatal dopamine D{sub 2} receptor (k{sub 3}) was determined semiquantitatively, and the values were compared to the predicted normal values based on the results from 7 normal volunteers. Of 9 patients with VP, the normalized D{sub 2} receptor binding [%k{sub 3}] was more than 90% in 5 patients, 89 to 87% in 3, and 75% in one. These values showed no evident correlation with the Hoehn and Yahr stage. The laterality of the striatal %k{sub 3} did not correspond to that of the parkinsonism. Thus, the striatal dopamine D{sub 2} receptor binding was not severely impaired and did not correlate with the neurological status in patients with VP. This may indicate that striatal dopamine D{sub 2} receptor function is not primarily associated with the development of the parkinsonism in VP. (author)

  11. Hypothermia-induced loss of endothelial barrier function is restored after dopamine pretreatment : Role of p42/p44 activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkkoetter, Paul-Thomas; Beck, Grietje C.; Gottmann, Uwe; Loesel, Ralf; Schnetzke, Ulf; Rudic, Boris; Hanusch, Christine; Rafat, Neysan; Liu, Zhenzi; Weiss, Christel; Leuvinik, Henri G. D.; Ploeg, Rutger; Braun, Claude; Schnuelle, Peter; van der Woude, Fokko J.; Yard, Benito A.

    2006-01-01

    Background. Donor dopamine usage is associated with improved immediate graft function after renal transplantation. Although prolonged cold preservation results in an increased vascular permeability, the present study was conducted to examine in vitro and in vivo if dopamine Pretreatment influences

  12. Dopamine transporter-dependent and -independent striatal binding of the benztropine analog JHW 007, a cocaine antagonist with low abuse liability

    Science.gov (United States)

    The benztropine analog JHW 007 displays high affinity for the dopamine transporter (DAT), but unlike typical DAT ligands, has relatively low abuse liability and blocks effects of cocaine,including its self-administration. To determine sites responsible for the cocaine-antagonist effects of JHW 007, ...

  13. Functional Connectome Analysis of Dopamine Neuron Glutamatergic Connections in Forebrain Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingote, Susana; Chuhma, Nao; Kusnoor, Sheila V; Field, Bianca; Deutch, Ariel Y; Rayport, Stephen

    2015-12-09

    In the ventral tegmental area (VTA), a subpopulation of dopamine neurons express vesicular glutamate transporter 2 and make glutamatergic connections to nucleus accumbens (NAc) and olfactory tubercle (OT) neurons. However, their glutamatergic connections across the forebrain have not been explored systematically. To visualize dopamine neuron forebrain projections and to enable photostimulation of their axons independent of transmitter status, we virally transfected VTA neurons with channelrhodopsin-2 fused to enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (ChR2-EYFP) and used DAT(IREScre) mice to restrict expression to dopamine neurons. ChR2-EYFP-expressing neurons almost invariably stained for tyrosine hydroxylase, identifying them as dopaminergic. Dopamine neuron axons visualized by ChR2-EYFP fluorescence projected most densely to the striatum, moderately to the amygdala and entorhinal cortex (ERC), sparsely to prefrontal and cingulate cortices, and rarely to the hippocampus. Guided by ChR2-EYFP fluorescence, we recorded systematically from putative principal neurons in target areas and determined the incidence and strength of glutamatergic connections by activating all dopamine neuron terminals impinging on recorded neurons with wide-field photostimulation. This revealed strong glutamatergic connections in the NAc, OT, and ERC; moderate strength connections in the central amygdala; and weak connections in the cingulate cortex. No glutamatergic connections were found in the dorsal striatum, hippocampus, basolateral amygdala, or prefrontal cortex. These results indicate that VTA dopamine neurons elicit widespread, but regionally distinct, glutamatergic signals in the forebrain and begin to define the dopamine neuron excitatory functional connectome. Dopamine neurons are important for the control of motivated behavior and are involved in the pathophysiology of several major neuropsychiatric disorders. Recent studies have shown that some ventral midbrain dopamine neurons are

  14. Dysregulation of striatal projection neurons in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Goichi; Singh, Arun; Papa, Stella M

    2018-03-01

    The loss of nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) is the primary cause of motor dysfunction in Parkinson's disease (PD), but the underlying striatal mechanisms remain unclear. In spite of abundant literature portraying structural, biochemical and plasticity changes of striatal projection neurons (SPNs), in the past there has been a data vacuum from the natural human disease and its close model in non-human primates. Recently, single-cell recordings in advanced parkinsonian primates have generated new insights into the altered function of SPNs. Currently, there are also human data that provide direct evidence of profoundly dysregulated SPN activity in PD. Here, we review primate recordings that are impacting our understanding of the striatal dysfunction after DA loss, particularly through the analysis of physiologic correlates of parkinsonian motor behaviors. In contrast to recordings in rodents, data obtained in primates and patients demonstrate similar major abnormalities of the spontaneous SPN firing in the alert parkinsonian state. Furthermore, these studies also show altered SPN responses to DA replacement in the advanced parkinsonian state. Clearly, there is yet much to learn about the striatal discharges in PD, but studies using primate models are contributing unique information to advance our understanding of pathophysiologic mechanisms.

  15. Dopamine treatment and cognitive functioning in individuals with Parkinson's disease: the "cognitive flexibility" hypothesis seems to work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Alberto; Peppe, Antonella; Mazzù, Ilenia; Longarzo, Mariachiara; Caltagirone, Carlo; Carlesimo, Giovanni A

    2014-01-01

    Previous data suggest that (i) dopamine modulates the ability to implement nonroutine schemata and update operations (flexibility processes) and that (ii) dopamine-related improvement may be related to baseline dopamine levels in target pathways (inverted U-shaped hypothesis). To investigate above hypotheses in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). Twenty PD patients were administered tasks varying as to flexibility load in two treatment conditions: (i) "off" condition, about 18 hours after dopamine dose and (ii) "on" condition, after dopamine administration. PD patients were separated into two groups: low performers (i.e., performance on Digit Span Backward below the sample mean) and high performers (i.e., performance above the mean). Twenty healthy individuals performed the tasks in two sessions without taking drugs. Passing from the "off" to the "on" state, only low performer PD patients significantly improved their performance on high-flexibility measures (interference condition of the Stroop test; P flexibility tasks. These findings document that high-flexibility processes are sensitive to dopamine neuromodulation in the early phases of PD. This is in line with the hypothesis that striatal dopamine pathways, affected early by PD, are precociously implicated in the expression of cognitive disorders in these individuals.

  16. D1 dopamine receptor signaling is modulated by the R7 RGS protein EAT-16 and the R7 binding protein RSBP-1 in Caenoerhabditis elegans motor neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khursheed A Wani

    Full Text Available Dopamine signaling modulates voluntary movement and reward-driven behaviors by acting through G protein-coupled receptors in striatal neurons, and defects in dopamine signaling underlie Parkinson's disease and drug addiction. Despite the importance of understanding how dopamine modifies the activity of striatal neurons to control basal ganglia output, the molecular mechanisms that control dopamine signaling remain largely unclear. Dopamine signaling also controls locomotion behavior in Caenorhabditis elegans. To better understand how dopamine acts in the brain we performed a large-scale dsRNA interference screen in C. elegans for genes required for endogenous dopamine signaling and identified six genes (eat-16, rsbp-1, unc-43, flp-1, grk-1, and cat-1 required for dopamine-mediated behavior. We then used a combination of mutant analysis and cell-specific transgenic rescue experiments to investigate the functional interaction between the proteins encoded by two of these genes, eat-16 and rsbp-1, within single cell types and to examine their role in the modulation of dopamine receptor signaling. We found that EAT-16 and RSBP-1 act together to modulate dopamine signaling and that while they are coexpressed with both D1-like and D2-like dopamine receptors, they do not modulate D2 receptor signaling. Instead, EAT-16 and RSBP-1 act together to selectively inhibit D1 dopamine receptor signaling in cholinergic motor neurons to modulate locomotion behavior.

  17. Effects of dopamine D1 receptor blockade in the prelimbic prefrontal cortex or lateral dorsal striatum on frontostriatal function in Wistar and Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Jamie M; Tassin, David H; Dwoskin, Linda P; Kantak, Kathleen M

    2014-07-15

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is associated with dysfunctional prefrontal and striatal circuitry and dysregulated dopamine neurotransmission. Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR), a heuristically useful animal model of ADHD, were evaluated against normotensive Wistar (WIS) controls to determine whether dopamine D1 receptor blockade of either prelimbic prefrontal cortex (plPFC) or lateral dorsal striatum (lDST) altered learning functions of both interconnected sites. A strategy set shifting task measured plPFC function (behavioral flexibility/executive function) and a reward devaluation task measured lDST function (habitual responding). Prior to tests, rats received bilateral infusions of SCH 23390 (1.0 μg/side) or vehicle into plPFC or lDST. Following vehicle, SHR exhibited longer lever press reaction times, more trial omissions, and fewer completed trials during the set shift test compared to WIS, indicating slower decision-making and attentional/motivational impairment in SHR. After reward devaluation, vehicle-treated SHR responded less than WIS, indicating relatively less habitual responding in SHR. After SCH 23390 infusions into plPFC, WIS expressed the same behavioral phenotype as vehicle-treated SHR during set shift and reward devaluation tests. In SHR, SCH 23390 infusions into plPFC exacerbated behavioral deficits in the set shift test and maintained the lower rate of responding in the reward devaluation test. SCH 23390 infusions into lDST did not modify set shifting in either strain, but produced lower rates of responding than vehicle infusions after reward devaluation in WIS. This research provides pharmacological evidence for unidirectional interactions between prefrontal and striatal brain regions, which has implications for the neurological basis of ADHD and its treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of dopamine on renal haemodynamics tubular function and sodium excretion in normal humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Niels Vidiendal

    1998-01-01

    The renal functional changes following infusion of dopamine are well documented. The most pronounced effect is the increase in renal blood flow and a marked natriuretic response. Due to its specific renal effects, dopamine has become one of the most frequently used drugs in the treatment...... of critically ill patients with low cardiac output states and/or acute oliguric renal failure. Pharmacological effects of dopamine are dose dependent. Low doses of dopamine predominantly stimulate dopaminergic receptors, but with increasing doses actions secondary to stimulation of adrenergic beta(1) and alpha...... indirectly may dilate the vessels by inhibition of norepinephrine release. Consistent with previous results in animals, the present haemodynamic studies revealed that dopamine in normal subjects elicits a dose dependent biphasic effect on the mean arterial blood pressure. With 1 and 2 micrograms...

  19. α2A- and α2C-Adrenoceptors as Potential Targets for Dopamine and Dopamine Receptor Ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Soto, Marta; Casadó-Anguera, Verònica; Yano, Hideaki; Bender, Brian Joseph; Cai, Ning-Sheng; Moreno, Estefanía; Canela, Enric I; Cortés, Antoni; Meiler, Jens; Casadó, Vicent; Ferré, Sergi

    2018-03-18

    The poor norepinephrine innervation and high density of Gi/o-coupled α 2A - and α 2C -adrenoceptors in the striatum and the dense striatal dopamine innervation have prompted the possibility that dopamine could be an effective adrenoceptor ligand. Nevertheless, the reported adrenoceptor agonistic properties of dopamine are still inconclusive. In this study, we analyzed the binding of norepinephrine, dopamine, and several compounds reported as selective dopamine D 2 -like receptor ligands, such as the D 3 receptor agonist 7-OH-PIPAT and the D 4 receptor agonist RO-105824, to α 2 -adrenoceptors in cortical and striatal tissue, which express α 2A -adrenoceptors and both α 2A - and α 2C -adrenoceptors, respectively. The affinity of dopamine for α 2 -adrenoceptors was found to be similar to that for D 1 -like and D 2 -like receptors. Moreover, the exogenous dopamine receptor ligands also showed high affinity for α 2A - and α 2C -adrenoceptors. Their ability to activate Gi/o proteins through α 2A - and α 2C -adrenoceptors was also analyzed in transfected cells with bioluminescent resonance energy transfer techniques. The relative ligand potencies and efficacies were dependent on the Gi/o protein subtype. Furthermore, dopamine binding to α 2 -adrenoceptors was functional, inducing changes in dynamic mass redistribution, adenylyl cyclase activity, and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Binding events were further studied with computer modeling of ligand docking. Docking of dopamine at α 2A - and α 2C -adrenoceptors was nearly identical to its binding to the crystallized D 3 receptor. Therefore, we provide conclusive evidence that α 2A - and α 2C -adrenoceptors are functional receptors for norepinephrine, dopamine, and other previously assumed selective D 2 -like receptor ligands, which calls for revisiting previous studies with those ligands.

  20. Evaluation of striatal dopamine transporter density using ({sup 123}I)-{beta}-CIT SPECT in schizophrenic patients treated with olanzapine: pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chul Eung; Moon, Hey Won; Choe, Won Sick; Kim, Chang Ho; Chi, Dae Yoon [Inha Univ., Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-08-01

    This pilot study was performed to understand the pharmacological effect of olanzapine, an atypical antipsychotic agent, on dopamine transporter in schizophrenic patients. Six patients (3 male, 3 female) with schizophrenia, who had not taken any psychotropic drugs for at least four weeks, were studied. Nuclear imaging using ({sup 123}I)-{beta}-CIT SPECT was obtained before and after 4-week treatment with olanzapine. Analysis of ROI on the striatum, caudate nucleus, and putamen was performed. Post-treatment uptake was significantly increased in all the ROIs compared with pre-treatment uptake. This preliminary study with the small number of schizophrenic patients suggested an increase in uptake of dopamine transporter in the striatum, caudate nucleus, and putamen after 4-week treatment with olanzapine, which warrants a large-scaled controlled study to confirm the current findings.

  1. The effects of surgical and chemical lesions on striatal [3H]threo-(+-)-methylphenidate binding: correlation with [3H]dopamine uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janowsky, A.; Berger, P.; Long, R.; Paul, S.M.; Schweri, M.M.; Skolnick, P.

    1985-01-01

    The specific binding of [ 3 H]threo-(+-)-methylphenidate to membranes prepared from rat striatum was significantly reduced following either surgical lesions of the medial forebrain bundle or intracerebroventricular administration of 6-hydroxydopamine. The decrease in the density of [ 3 H]threo-(+-)-methylphenidate binding sites in striatum following chemical or surgical denervation was highly correlated with the decrease in [ 3 H]dopamine uptake. In contrast, intracerebroventricular administration of 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine, AF64A, or chronic parenteral administration of reserpine did not alter either the number or apparent affinity of [ 3 H]threo-(+-)-methylphenidate binding sites. These data suggest that the specific binding sites for [ 3 H]threo-(+-)-methylphenidate in striatum are localized to dopaminergic nerve terminals, and may be associated with the dopamine transport complex. (orig.)

  2. Parsing Heterogeneous Striatal Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kae Nakamura

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The striatum is an input channel of the basal ganglia and is well known to be involved in reward-based decision making and learning. At the macroscopic level, the striatum has been postulated to contain parallel functional modules, each of which includes neurons that perform similar computations to support selection of appropriate actions for different task contexts. At the single-neuron level, however, recent studies in monkeys and rodents have revealed heterogeneity in neuronal activity even within restricted modules of the striatum. Looking for generality in the complex striatal activity patterns, here we briefly survey several types of striatal activity, focusing on their usefulness for mediating behaviors. In particular, we focus on two types of behavioral tasks: reward-based tasks that use salient sensory cues and manipulate outcomes associated with the cues; and perceptual decision tasks that manipulate the quality of noisy sensory cues and associate all correct decisions with the same outcome. Guided by previous insights on the modular organization and general selection-related functions of the basal ganglia, we relate striatal activity patterns on these tasks to two types of computations: implementation of selection and evaluation. We suggest that a parsing with the selection/evaluation categories encourages a focus on the functional commonalities revealed by studies with different animal models and behavioral tasks, instead of a focus on aspects of striatal activity that may be specific to a particular task setting. We then highlight several questions in the selection-evaluation framework for future explorations.

  3. Dopamine-dependent changes in the functional connectivity between basal ganglia and cerebral cortex in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, D; Tijssen, M; van Bruggen, G; Bosch, A; Insola, A; Di Lazzaro, V; Mazzone, P; Oliviero, A; Quartarone, A; Speelman, H; Brown, P

    2002-01-01

    We test the hypothesis that interaction between the human basal ganglia and cerebral cortex involves activity in multiple functional circuits characterized by their frequency of oscillation, phase characteristics, dopamine dependency and topography. To this end we took recordings from

  4. Levodopa administration modulates striatal processing of punishment-associated items in healthy participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Bianca C; D'Esposito, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Appetitive and aversive processes share a number of features such as their relevance for action and learning. On a neural level, reward and its predictors are associated with increased firing of dopaminergic neurons, whereas punishment processing has been linked to the serotonergic system and to decreases in dopamine transmission. Recent data indicate, however, that the dopaminergic system also responds to aversive stimuli and associated actions. In this pharmacological functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we investigated the contribution of the dopaminergic system to reward and punishment processing in humans. Two groups of participants received either placebo or the dopamine precursor levodopa and were scanned during alternating reward and punishment anticipation blocks. Levodopa administration increased striatal activations for cues presented in punishment blocks. In an interaction with individual personality scores, levodopa also enhanced striatal activation for punishment-predictive compared with neutral cues in participants scoring higher on the novelty-seeking dimension. These data support recent indications that dopamine contributes to punishment processing and suggest that the novelty-seeking trait is a measure of susceptibility to drug effects on motivation. These findings are also consistent with the possibility of an inverted U-shaped response function of dopamine in the striatum, suggesting an optimal level of dopamine release for motivational processing.

  5. Independent mediation of unconditioned motor behavior by striatal D1 and D2 receptors in rats depleted of dopamine as neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, J P; Byrnes, E M; Johnson, B J

    1995-11-01

    The effects of systemic administration of DA receptor antagonists suggest that unconditioned motor behavior in rats depleted of DA as neonates continues to be dependent upon dopaminergic transmission, yet the specific contribution of D1 and D2 receptors to these behaviors has been altered. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether these depletion-induced receptor changes are occurring at the level of striatal DA terminals and their targets. The ability of bilateral intrastriatal injections (0.5 microliter) of DA receptor antagonists to induce motoric deficits was determined in adult rats treated with vehicle or 6-OHDA (100 micrograms, intraventricular) on postnatal day 3. Administration of the D1-like antagonist SCH 23390 (0.5-2.0 micrograms) or the D2-like antagonist clebopride (1.0-4.0 micrograms) induced dose-dependent akinesia, catalepsy, and somatosensory neglect in vehicle-treated controls. In contrast, neither antagonist produced deficits in rats depleted of forebrain DA as neonates. However, combined administration of SCH 23390 + clebopride induced similar akinesia, catalepsy, and somatosensory neglect in both controls and DA depleted animals. Animals depleted of DA were more sensitive than controls to the low doses of this combined D1 + D2 antagonism. These results demonstrate that activation of striatal DA receptors remains necessary for unconditioned motor behavior in rats depleted of DA as neonates. However, the specific contributions of D1- and D2-like receptors to these behaviors differ between intact animals and those depleted of DA as neonates. The ability of endogenous DA acting at either D1 or D2 receptors to support spontaneous motor behavior in rats depleted of DA as neonates may contribute to their relative sparing from parkinsonian deficits.

  6. Surface functionalization of dopamine coated iron oxide nanoparticles for various surface functionalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherwood, Jennifer; Xu, Yaolin; Lovas, Kira [Chemical and Biological Engineering, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa , AL 35487 (United States); Qin, Ying [Alabama Innovation and Mentoring of Entrepreneurs, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Bao, Yuping, E-mail: ybao@eng.ua.edu [Chemical and Biological Engineering, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa , AL 35487 (United States)

    2017-04-01

    We present effective conjugation of four small molecules (glutathione, cysteine, lysine, and Tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane) onto dopamine-coated iron oxide nanoparticles. Conjugation of these molecules could improve the surface functionality of nanoparticles for more neutral surface charge at physiological pH and potentially reduce non-specific adsorption of proteins to nanoparticles surfaces. The success of conjugation was evaluated with dynamic light scattering by measuring the surface charge changes and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for surface chemistry analysis. The stability of dopamine-coated nanoparticles and the ability of conjugated nanoparticles to reduce the formation of protein corona were evaluated by measuring the size and charge of the nanoparticles in biological medium. This facile conjugation method opens up possibilities for attaching various surface functionalities onto iron oxide nanoparticle surfaces for biomedical applications.

  7. Surface functionalization of dopamine coated iron oxide nanoparticles for various surface functionalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherwood, Jennifer; Xu, Yaolin; Lovas, Kira; Qin, Ying; Bao, Yuping

    2017-01-01

    We present effective conjugation of four small molecules (glutathione, cysteine, lysine, and Tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane) onto dopamine-coated iron oxide nanoparticles. Conjugation of these molecules could improve the surface functionality of nanoparticles for more neutral surface charge at physiological pH and potentially reduce non-specific adsorption of proteins to nanoparticles surfaces. The success of conjugation was evaluated with dynamic light scattering by measuring the surface charge changes and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for surface chemistry analysis. The stability of dopamine-coated nanoparticles and the ability of conjugated nanoparticles to reduce the formation of protein corona were evaluated by measuring the size and charge of the nanoparticles in biological medium. This facile conjugation method opens up possibilities for attaching various surface functionalities onto iron oxide nanoparticle surfaces for biomedical applications.

  8. In vivo effects of olanzapine on striatal dopamine D[sub 2]/D[sub 3] receptor binding in schizophrenic patients: an iodine-123 iodobenzamide single-photon emission tomography study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, S.; Rossmueller, B.; Hahn, K.; Tatsch, K. (Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Munich (Germany)); Mager, T.; Meisenzahl, E.; Moeller, H.J. (Department of Psychiatry, University of Munich (Germany))

    1999-08-01

    Olanzapine is a new atypical antipsychotic agent that belongs to the same chemical class as clozapine. The pharmacological efficacy of olanzapine (in contrast to that of risperidone) has been shown to be comparable to that of clozapine, but olanzapine has the advantage of producing a less pronounced bone marrow depressing effect than clozapine. The specific aims of this study were (a) to assess dopamine D[sub 2]/D[sub 3] receptor availability in patients treated with olanzapine by means of iodine-123 iodobenzamide [[sup 123]I]IBZM single-photon emission tomography (SPET), (b) to compare the results with findings of [[sup 123]I]IBZM SPET in patients under treatment with risperidone and (c) to correlate the results with the occurrance of extrapyramidal side-effects (EPMS). Brain SPET scans were performed in 20 schizophrenic patients (DSM III R) at 2 h after i.v. administration of 185 MBq [[sup 123]I]IBZM. Images were acquired using a triple-head gamma camera (Picker Prism 3000 XP). For semiquantitative evaluation of D[sub 2]/D[sub 3] receptor binding, transverse slices corrected for attenuation were used to calculate specific uptake values [STR-BKG]/BKG (STR=striatum; BKG=background). The mean daily dose of olanzapine ranged from 0.05 to 0.6 mg/kg body weight. The dopamine D[sub 2]/D[sub 3] receptor binding was reduced in all patients treated with olanzapine. Specific IBZM binding [STR-BKG]/BKG ranged from 0.13 to 0.61 (normal controls >0.95). The decreased D[sub 2]/D[sub 3] receptor availability revealed an exponential dose-response relationship (r=-0.85, P<0.001). The slope of the curve was similar to that of risperidone and considerably higher than that of clozapine as compared with the results of a previously published study. EPMS were observed in only one patient, presenting with the lowest D[sub 2]/D[sub 3] availability. The frequency of EPMS induced by olanzapine (5%) was considerably lower than the frequency under risperidone treatment (40%). Our findings

  9. In vivo effects of olanzapine on striatal dopamine D{sub 2}/D{sub 3} receptor binding in schizophrenic patients: an iodine-123 iodobenzamide single-photon emission tomography study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, S.; Rossmueller, B.; Hahn, K.; Tatsch, K. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Munich (Germany); Mager, T.; Meisenzahl, E.; Moeller, H.J. [Department of Psychiatry, University of Munich (Germany)

    1999-08-01

    Olanzapine is a new atypical antipsychotic agent that belongs to the same chemical class as clozapine. The pharmacological efficacy of olanzapine (in contrast to that of risperidone) has been shown to be comparable to that of clozapine, but olanzapine has the advantage of producing a less pronounced bone marrow depressing effect than clozapine. The specific aims of this study were (a) to assess dopamine D{sub 2}/D{sub 3} receptor availability in patients treated with olanzapine by means of iodine-123 iodobenzamide [{sup 123}I]IBZM single-photon emission tomography (SPET), (b) to compare the results with findings of [{sup 123}I]IBZM SPET in patients under treatment with risperidone and (c) to correlate the results with the occurrance of extrapyramidal side-effects (EPMS). Brain SPET scans were performed in 20 schizophrenic patients (DSM III R) at 2 h after i.v. administration of 185 MBq [{sup 123}I]IBZM. Images were acquired using a triple-head gamma camera (Picker Prism 3000 XP). For semiquantitative evaluation of D{sub 2}/D{sub 3} receptor binding, transverse slices corrected for attenuation were used to calculate specific uptake values [STR-BKG]/BKG (STR=striatum; BKG=background). The mean daily dose of olanzapine ranged from 0.05 to 0.6 mg/kg body weight. The dopamine D{sub 2}/D{sub 3} receptor binding was reduced in all patients treated with olanzapine. Specific IBZM binding [STR-BKG]/BKG ranged from 0.13 to 0.61 (normal controls >0.95). The decreased D{sub 2}/D{sub 3} receptor availability revealed an exponential dose-response relationship (r=-0.85, P<0.001). The slope of the curve was similar to that of risperidone and considerably higher than that of clozapine as compared with the results of a previously published study. EPMS were observed in only one patient, presenting with the lowest D{sub 2}/D{sub 3} availability. The frequency of EPMS induced by olanzapine (5%) was considerably lower than the frequency under risperidone treatment (40%). Our findings

  10. Pyrethroid pesticide-induced alterations in dopamine transporter function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elwan, Mohamed A.; Richardson, Jason R.; Guillot, Thomas S.; Caudle, W. Michael; Miller, Gary W.

    2006-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease affecting the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway. Several epidemiological studies have demonstrated an association between pesticide exposure and the incidence of PD. Studies from our laboratory and others have demonstrated that certain pesticides increase levels of the dopamine transporter (DAT), an integral component of dopaminergic neurotransmission and a gateway for dopaminergic neurotoxins. Here, we report that repeated exposure (3 injections over 2 weeks) of mice to two commonly used pyrethroid pesticides, deltamethrin (3 mg/kg) and permethrin (0.8 mg/kg), increases DAT-mediated dopamine uptake by 31 and 28%, respectively. Using cells stably expressing DAT, we determined that exposure (10 min) to deltamethrin and permethrin (1 nM-100 μM) had no effect on DAT-mediated dopamine uptake. Extending exposures to both pesticides for 30 min (10 μM) or 24 h (1, 5, and 10 μM) resulted in significant decrease in dopamine uptake. This reduction was not the result of competitive inhibition, loss of DAT protein, or cytotoxicity. However, there was an increase in DNA fragmentation, an index of apoptosis, in cells exhibiting reduced uptake at 30 min and 24 h. These data suggest that up-regulation of DAT by in vivo pyrethroid exposure is an indirect effect and that longer-term exposure of cells results in apoptosis. Since DAT can greatly affect the vulnerability of dopamine neurons to neurotoxicants, up-regulation of DAT by deltamethrin and permethrin may increase the susceptibility of dopamine neurons to toxic insult, which may provide insight into the association between pesticide exposure and PD

  11. β1-adrenergic receptors activate two distinct signaling pathways in striatal neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meitzen, John; Luoma, Jessie I.; Stern, Christopher M.; Mermelstein, Paul G.

    2010-01-01

    Monoamine action in the dorsal striatum and nucleus accumbens plays essential roles in striatal physiology. Although research often focuses on dopamine and its receptors, norepinephrine and adrenergic receptors are also crucial in regulating striatal function. While noradrenergic neurotransmission has been identified in the striatum, little is known regarding the signaling pathways activated by β-adrenergic receptors in this brain region. Using cultured striatal neurons, we characterized a novel signaling pathway by which activation of β1-adrenergic receptors leads to the rapid phosphorylation of cAMP Response Element Binding Protein (CREB), a transcription-factor implicated as a molecular switch underlying long-term changes in brain function. Norepinephrine-mediated CREB phosphorylation requires β1-adrenergic receptor stimulation of a receptor tyrosine kinase, ultimately leading to the activation of a Ras/Raf/MEK/MAPK/MSK signaling pathway. Activation of β1-adrenergic receptors also induces CRE-dependent transcription and increased c-fos expression. In addition, stimulation of β1-adrenergic receptors produces cAMP production, but surprisingly, β1-adrenergic receptor activation of adenylyl cyclase was not functionally linked to rapid CREB phosphorylation. These findings demonstrate that activation of β1-adrenergic receptors on striatal neurons can stimulate two distinct signaling pathways. These adrenergic actions can produce long-term changes in gene expression, as well as rapidly modulate cellular physiology. By elucidating the mechanisms by which norepinephrine and β1-adrenergic receptor activation affects striatal physiology, we provide the means to more fully understand the role of monoamines in modulating striatal function, specifically how norepinephrine and β1-adrenergic receptors may affect striatal physiology. PMID:21143600

  12. Altered resting state cortico-striatal connectivity in mild to moderate stage Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngbin Kwak

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that is characterized by dopamine depletion in the striatum. One consistent pathophysiological hallmark of PD is an increase in spontaneous oscillatory activity in the basal ganglia thalamocortical networks. We evaluated these effects using resting state functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI in mild to moderate stage Parkinson’s patients on and off L-DOPA and age-matched controls using six different striatal seed regions. We observed an overall increase in the strength of cortico-striatal functional connectivity in PD patients off L-DOPA compared to controls. This enhanced connectivity was down-regulated by L-DOPA as shown by an overall decrease in connectivity strength, particularly within motor cortical regions. We also performed a frequency content analysis of the BOLD signal time course extracted from the six striatal seed regions. PD off L-DOPA exhibited increased power in the frequency band 0.02 – 0.05 Hz compared to controls and to PD on L-DOPA. The L-DOPA associated decrease in the power of this frequency range modulated the L-DOPA associated decrease in connectivity strength between striatal seeds and the thalamus. In addition, the L-DOPA associated decrease in power in this frequency band also correlated with the L-DOPA associated improvement in cognitive performance. Our results demonstrate that PD and L-DOPA modulate striatal resting state BOLD signal oscillations and corticostriatal network coherence.

  13. Nigrostriatal proteasome inhibition impairs dopamine neurotransmission and motor function in minipigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillethorup, Thea P; Glud, Andreas N; Alstrup, Aage K O; Mikkelsen, Trine W; Nielsen, Erik H; Zaer, Hamed; Doudet, Doris J; Brooks, David J; Sørensen, Jens Christian H; Orlowski, Dariusz; Landau, Anne M

    2018-05-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra leading to slowness and stiffness of limb movement with rest tremor. Using ubiquitin proteasome system inhibitors, rodent models have shown nigrostriatal degeneration and motor impairment. We translated this model to the Göttingen minipig by administering lactacystin into the medial forebrain bundle (MFB). Minipigs underwent positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with (+)-α-[ 11 C]dihydrotetrabenazine ([ 11 C]DTBZ), a marker of vesicular monoamine transporter 2 availability, at baseline and three weeks after the unilateral administration of 100 μg lactacystin into the MFB. Compared to their baseline values, minipigs injected with lactacystin showed on average a 36% decrease in ipsilateral striatal binding potential corresponding to impaired presynaptic dopamine terminals. Behaviourally, minipigs displayed asymmetrical motor disability with spontaneous rotations in one of the animals. Immunoreactivity for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and HLA-DR-positive microglia confirmed asymmetrical reduction in nigral TH-positive neurons with an inflammatory response in the lactacystin-injected minipigs. In conclusion, direct injection of lactacystin into the MFB of minipigs provides a model of PD with reduced dopamine neurotransmission, TH-positive neuron reduction, microglial activation and behavioural deficits. This large animal model could be useful in studies of symptomatic and neuroprotective therapies with translatability to human PD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The Role of Genes, Stress, and Dopamine in the Development of Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Oliver D; McCutcheon, Robert; Owen, Michael J; Murray, Robin M

    2017-01-01

    The dopamine hypothesis is the longest standing pathoetiologic theory of schizophrenia. Because it was initially based on indirect evidence and findings in patients with established schizophrenia, it was unclear what role dopamine played in the onset of the disorder. However, recent studies in people at risk of schizophrenia have found elevated striatal dopamine synthesis capacity and increased dopamine release to stress. Furthermore, striatal dopamine changes have been linked to altered cortical function during cognitive tasks, in line with preclinical evidence that a circuit involving cortical projections to the striatum and midbrain may underlie the striatal dopamine changes. Other studies have shown that a number of environmental risk factors for schizophrenia, such as social isolation and childhood trauma, also affect presynaptic dopaminergic function. Advances in preclinical work and genetics have begun to unravel the molecular architecture linking dopamine, psychosis, and psychosocial stress. Included among the many genes associated with risk of schizophrenia are the gene encoding the dopamine D 2 receptor and those involved in the upstream regulation of dopaminergic synthesis, through glutamatergic and gamma-aminobutyric acidergic pathways. A number of these pathways are also linked to the stress response. We review these new lines of evidence and present a model of how genes and environmental factors may sensitize the dopamine system so that it is vulnerable to acute stress, leading to progressive dysregulation and the onset of psychosis. Finally, we consider the implications for rational drug development, in particular regionally selective dopaminergic modulation, and the potential of genetic factors to stratify patients. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Excessive D1 Dopamine Receptor Activation in the Dorsal Striatum Promotes Autistic-Like Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yunjin; Kim, Hannah; Kim, Ji-Eun; Park, Jin-Young; Choi, Juli; Lee, Jung-Eun; Lee, Eun-Hwa; Han, Pyung-Lim

    2018-07-01

    The dopamine system has been characterized in motor function, goal-directed behaviors, and rewards. Recent studies recognize various dopamine system genes as being associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, how dopamine system dysfunction induces ASD pathophysiology remains unknown. In the present study, we demonstrated that mice with increased dopamine functions in the dorsal striatum via the suppression of dopamine transporter expression in substantia nigra neurons or the optogenetic stimulation of the nigro-striatal circuitry exhibited sociability deficits and repetitive behaviors relevant to ASD pathology in animal models, while these behavioral changes were blocked by a D1 receptor antagonist. Pharmacological activation of D1 dopamine receptors in normal mice or the genetic knockout (KO) of D2 dopamine receptors also produced typical autistic-like behaviors. Moreover, the siRNA-mediated inhibition of D2 dopamine receptors in the dorsal striatum was sufficient to replicate autistic-like phenotypes in D2 KO mice. Intervention of D1 dopamine receptor functions or the signaling pathways-related D1 receptors in D2 KO mice produced anti-autistic effects. Together, our results indicate that increased dopamine function in the dorsal striatum promotes autistic-like behaviors and that the dorsal striatum is the neural correlate of ASD core symptoms.

  16. Continuous cerebroventricular administration of dopamine: A new treatment for severe dyskinesia in Parkinson's disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laloux, C; Gouel, F; Lachaud, C; Timmerman, K; Do Van, B; Jonneaux, A; Petrault, M; Garcon, G; Rouaix, N; Moreau, C; Bordet, R; Duce, J A; Devedjian, J C; Devos, D

    2017-07-01

    In Parkinson's disease (PD) depletion of dopamine in the nigro-striatal pathway is a main pathological hallmark that requires continuous and focal restoration. Current predominant treatment with intermittent oral administration of its precursor, Levodopa (l-dopa), remains the gold standard but pharmacological drawbacks trigger motor fluctuations and dyskinesia. Continuous intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of dopamine previously failed as a therapy because of an inability to resolve the accelerated dopamine oxidation and tachyphylaxia. We aim to overcome prior challenges by demonstrating treatment feasibility and efficacy of continuous i.c.v. of dopamine close to the striatum. Dopamine prepared either anaerobically (A-dopamine) or aerobically (O-dopamine) in the presence or absence of a conservator (sodium metabisulfite, SMBS) was assessed upon acute MPTP and chronic 6-OHDA lesioning and compared to peripheral l-dopa treatment. A-dopamine restored motor function and induced a dose dependent increase of nigro-striatal tyrosine hydroxylase positive neurons in mice after 7days of MPTP insult that was not evident with either O-dopamine or l-dopa. In the 6-OHDA rat model, continuous circadian i.c.v. injection of A-dopamine over 30days also improved motor activity without occurrence of tachyphylaxia. This safety profile was highly favorable as A-dopamine did not induce dyskinesia or behavioral sensitization as observed with peripheral l-dopa treatment. Indicative of a new therapeutic strategy for patients suffering from l-dopa related complications with dyskinesia, continuous i.c.v. of A-dopamine has greater efficacy in mediating motor impairment over a large therapeutic index without inducing dyskinesia and tachyphylaxia. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A Genetic Toolkit for Dissecting Dopamine Circuit Function in Drosophila

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    Tingting Xie

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The neuromodulator dopamine (DA plays a key role in motor control, motivated behaviors, and higher-order cognitive processes. Dissecting how these DA neural networks tune the activity of local neural circuits to regulate behavior requires tools for manipulating small groups of DA neurons. To address this need, we assembled a genetic toolkit that allows for an exquisite level of control over the DA neural network in Drosophila. To further refine targeting of specific DA neurons, we also created reagents that allow for the conversion of any existing GAL4 line into Split GAL4 or GAL80 lines. We demonstrated how this toolkit can be used with recently developed computational methods to rapidly generate additional reagents for manipulating small subsets or individual DA neurons. Finally, we used the toolkit to reveal a dynamic interaction between a small subset of DA neurons and rearing conditions in a social space behavioral assay. : The rapid analysis of how dopaminergic circuits regulate behavior is limited by the genetic tools available to target and manipulate small numbers of these neurons. Xie et al. present genetic tools in Drosophila that allow rational targeting of sparse dopaminergic neuronal subsets and selective knockdown of dopamine signaling. Keywords: dopamine, genetics, behavior, neural circuits, neuromodulation, Drosophila

  18. Molecular substrates of action control in cortico-striatal circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiflett, Michael W; Balleine, Bernard W

    2011-09-15

    The purpose of this review is to describe the molecular mechanisms in the striatum that mediate reward-based learning and action control during instrumental conditioning. Experiments assessing the neural bases of instrumental conditioning have uncovered functional circuits in the striatum, including dorsal and ventral striatal sub-regions, involved in action-outcome learning, stimulus-response learning, and the motivational control of action by reward-associated cues. Integration of dopamine (DA) and glutamate neurotransmission within these striatal sub-regions is hypothesized to enable learning and action control through its role in shaping synaptic plasticity and cellular excitability. The extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) appears to be particularly important for reward-based learning and action control due to its sensitivity to combined DA and glutamate receptor activation and its involvement in a range of cellular functions. ERK activation in striatal neurons is proposed to have a dual role in both the learning and performance factors that contribute to instrumental conditioning through its regulation of plasticity-related transcription factors and its modulation of intrinsic cellular excitability. Furthermore, perturbation of ERK activation by drugs of abuse may give rise to behavioral disorders such as addiction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Mammal-like striatal functions in Anolis. I. Distribution of serotonin receptor subtypes, and absence of striosome and matrix organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, E C; Baxter, L R

    2000-11-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(2C) receptors are thought to play important roles in the mammalian striatum. As basal ganglia functions in general are thought highly conserved among amniotes, we decided to use in situ autoradiographic methods to determine the occurrence and distribution of pharmacologically mammal-like 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(2C) receptors in the lizard, Anolis carolinensis, with particular attention to the striatum. We also determined the distributions of 5-HT(1A), 5-HT(1B/D), 5 HT(3), and 5-HT(uptake) receptors for comparison. All 5-HT receptors examined showed pharmacological binding specificity, and forebrain binding density distributions that resembled those reported for mammals. Anolis 5 HT(2A/C) and 5-HT(1A) site distributions were similar in both in vivo and ex vivo binding experiments. 5-HT(2A & C) receptors occur in both high and low affinity states, the former having preferential affinity for (125)I-(+/-)-2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodo-amphetamine hydrochloride ((125)I-DOI). In mammals (125)I-DOI binding shows a patchy density distribution in the striatum, being more dense in striosomes than in surrounding matrix. There was no evidence of any such patchy density of (125)I-DOI binding in the anole striatum, however. As a further indication that anoles do not possess a striosome and matrix striatal organization, neither (3)H-naloxone binding nor histochemical staining for acetylcholinesterase activity (AChE) were patchy. AChE did show a band-like striatal distribution, however, similar to that seen in birds. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

  20. Dopamine denervation does not alter in vivo 3H-spiperone binding in rat striatum: implications for external imaging of dopamine receptors in Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, J.P. Jr.; Wooten, G.F.

    1986-01-01

    Striatal particulate preparations, both from rats with lesion-induced striatal dopamine (DA) loss and from some striatal dopamine (DA) loss and from some patients with Parkinson's disease, exhibit increased 3 H-neuroleptic binding, which is interpreted to be the mechanism of denervation-induced behavioral supersensitivity to dopaminergic compounds. After intravenous 3 H-spiperone ( 3 H-SP) administration to rats with unilateral nigral lesions, we found no differences in accumulation of total or particulate-bound 3 H-SP in dopamine-denervated compared with intact striata. 3 H-SP in vivo binds to less than 10% of striatal sites labeled by 3 H-SP incubated with striatal particulate preparations in vitro. Quantitative autoradiography of 3 H-SP binding to striatal sections in vitro also failed to reveal any effects of dopamine denervation. 3 H-SP bound to striatal sites in vivo dissociates more slowly than that bound to striatal particulate preparations labeled in vitro. Striatal binding properties of 3 H-SP administered in vivo are quite different from the same kinetic binding parameters estimated in vitro using crude membrane preparations of striatum. In addition, striatal binding of in vivo-administered 3H-SP is not affected by prior lesion of the substantia nigra, which results in profound ipsilateral striatal dopamine depletion. Thus, behavioral supersensitivity to dopaminergic compounds may not be associated with altered striatal binding properties for dopamine receptor ligands in vivo

  1. Intrastriatal administration of botulinum neurotoxin A normalizes striatal D2 R binding and reduces striatal D1 R binding in male hemiparkinsonian rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedekind, Franziska; Oskamp, Angela; Lang, Markus; Hawlitschka, Alexander; Zilles, Karl; Wree, Andreas; Bauer, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    Cerebral administration of botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT-A) has been shown to improve disease-specific motor behavior in a rat model of Parkinson disease (PD). Since the dopaminergic system of the basal ganglia fundamentally contributes to motor function, we investigated the impact of BoNT-A on striatal dopamine receptor expression using in vitro and in vivo imaging techniques (positron emission tomography and quantitative autoradiography, respectively). Seventeen male Wistar rats were unilaterally lesioned with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) and assigned to two treatment groups 7 weeks later: 10 rats were treated ipsilaterally with an intrastriatal injection of 1 ng BoNT-A, while the others received vehicle (n = 7). All animals were tested for asymmetric motor behavior (apomorphine-induced rotations and forelimb usage) and for striatal expression of dopamine receptors and transporters (D 1 R, D 2 R, and DAT). The striatal D 2 R availability was also quantified longitudinally (1.5, 3, and 5 months after intervention) in 5 animals per treatment group. The 6-OHDA lesion alone induced a unilateral PD-like phenotype and a 13% increase of striatal D 2 R. BoNT-A treatment reduced the asymmetry in both apomorphine-induced rotational behavior and D 2 R expression, with the latter returning to normal values 5 months after intervention. D 1 R expression was significantly reduced, while DAT concentrations showed no alteration. Independent of the treatment, higher interhemispheric symmetry in raclopride binding to D 2 R was generally associated with reduced forelimb akinesia. Our findings indicate that striatal BoNT-A treatment diminishes motor impairment and induces changes in D 1 and D 2 binding site density in the 6-OHDA rat model of PD. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Functional role for suppression of the insular-striatal circuit in modulating interoceptive effects of alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Anel A; Agan, Verda E; Makhijani, Viren H; Pedroza, Stephen; McElligott, Zoe A; Besheer, Joyce

    2017-09-27

    The insular cortex (IC) is a region proposed to modulate, in part, interoceptive states and motivated behavior. Interestingly, IC dysfunction and deficits in interoceptive processing are often found among individuals with substance-use disorders. Furthermore, the IC projects to the nucleus accumbens core (AcbC), a region known to modulate the discriminative stimulus/interoceptive effects of alcohol and other drug-related behaviors. Therefore, the goal of the present work was to investigate the possible role of the IC ➔ AcbC circuit in modulating the interoceptive effects of alcohol. Thus, we utilized a chemogenetic technique (hM4D i designer receptor activation by designer drugs) to silence neuronal activity in the IC of rats trained to discriminate alcohol (1 g/kg, IG) versus water using an operant or Pavlovian alcohol discrimination procedure. Chemogenetic silencing of the IC or IC ➔ AcbC neuronal projections resulted in potentiated sensitivity to the interoceptive effects of alcohol in both the operant and Pavlovian tasks. Together, these data provide critical evidence for the nature of the complex IC circuitry and, specifically, suppression of the insular-striatal circuit in modulating behavior under a drug stimulus control. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  3. The relationship between subcortical brain volume and striatal dopamine D2/3 receptor availability in healthy humans assessed with [11 C]-raclopride and [11 C]-(+)-PHNO PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravaggio, Fernando; Ku Chung, Jun; Plitman, Eric; Boileau, Isabelle; Gerretsen, Philip; Kim, Julia; Iwata, Yusuke; Patel, Raihaan; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Remington, Gary; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel

    2017-11-01

    Abnormalities in dopamine (DA) and brain morphology are observed in several neuropsychiatric disorders. However, it is not fully understood how these abnormalities may relate to one another. For such in vivo findings to be used as biomarkers for neuropsychiatric disease, it must be understood how variability in DA relates to brain structure under healthy conditions. We explored how the availability of striatal DA D 2/3 receptors (D 2/3 R) is related to the volume of subcortical brain structures in a sample of healthy humans. Differences in D 2/3 R availability measured with an antagonist radiotracer ([ 11 C]-raclopride) versus an agonist radiotracer ([ 11 C]-(+)-PHNO) were examined. Data from 62 subjects scanned with [ 11 C]-raclopride (mean age = 38.98 ± 14.45; 23 female) and 68 subjects scanned with [ 11 C]-(+)-PHNO (mean age = 38.54 ± 14.59; 25 female) were used. Subcortical volumes were extracted from T1-weighted images using the Multiple Automatically Generated Templates (MAGeT-Brain) algorithm. Partial correlations were used controlling for age, gender, and total brain volume. For [ 11 C]-(+)-PHNO, ventral caudate volumes were positively correlated with BP ND in the dorsal caudate and globus pallidus (GP). Ventral striatum (VS) volumes were positively correlated with BP ND in the VS. With [ 11 C]-raclopride, BP ND in the VS was negatively correlated with subiculum volume of the hippocampus. Moreover, BP ND in the GP was negatively correlated with the volume of the lateral posterior nucleus of the thalamus. Findings are purely exploratory and presented corrected and uncorrected for multiple comparisons. We hope they will help inform the interpretation of future PET studies where concurrent changes in D 2/3 R and brain morphology are observed. Hum Brain Mapp 38:5519-5534, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Beyond the Classic VTA: Extended Amygdala Projections to DA-Striatal Paths in the Primate.

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    Fudge, Julie L; Kelly, Emily A; Pal, Ria; Bedont, Joseph L; Park, Lydia; Ho, Brian

    2017-07-01

    The central extended amygdala (CEA) has been conceptualized as a 'macrosystem' that regulates various stress-induced behaviors. Consistent with this, the CEA highly expresses corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), an important modulator of stress responses. Stress alters goal-directed responses associated with striatal paths, including maladaptive responses such as drug seeking, social withdrawal, and compulsive behavior. CEA inputs to the midbrain dopamine (DA) system are positioned to influence striatal functions through mesolimbic DA-striatal pathways. However, the structure of this amygdala-CEA-DA neuron path to the striatum has been poorly characterized in primates. In primates, we combined neuronal tracer injections into various arms of the circuit through specific DA subpopulations to assess: (1) whether the circuit connecting amygdala, CEA, and DA cells follows CEA intrinsic organization, or a more direct topography involving bed nucleus vs central nucleus divisions; (2) CRF content of the CEA-DA path; and (3) striatal subregions specifically involved in CEA-DA-striatal loops. We found that the amygdala-CEA-DA path follows macrostructural subdivisions, with the majority of input/outputs converging in the medial central nucleus, the sublenticular extended amygdala, and the posterior lateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. The proportion of CRF+ outputs is >50%, and mainly targets the A10 parabrachial pigmented nucleus (PBP) and A8 (retrorubal field, RRF) neuronal subpopulations, with additional inputs to the dorsal A9 neurons. CRF-enriched CEA-DA projections are positioned to influence outputs to the 'limbic-associative' striatum, which is distinct from striatal regions targeted by DA cells lacking CEA input. We conclude that the concept of the CEA is supported on connectional grounds, and that CEA termination over the PBP and RRF neuronal populations can influence striatal circuits involved in associative learning.

  5. Dopamine transporter polymorphism modulates oculomotor function and DAT1 mRNA expression in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonodi, Ikwunga; Hong, L Elliot; Stine, O Colin; Mitchell, Braxton D; Elliott, Amie; Roberts, Rosalinda C; Conley, Robert R; McMahon, Robert P; Thaker, Gunvant K

    2009-03-05

    Smooth pursuit eye movement (SPEM) deficit is an established schizophrenia endophenotype with a similar neurocognitive construct to working memory. Frontal eye field (FEF) neurons controlling SPEM maintain firing when visual sensory information is removed, and their firing rates directly correlate with SPEM velocity. We previously demonstrated a paradoxical association between a functional polymorphism of dopamine signaling (COMT gene) and SPEM. Recent evidence implicates the dopamine transporter gene (DAT1) in modulating cortical dopamine and associated neurocognitive functions. We hypothesized that DAT1 10/10 genotype, which reduces dopamine transporter expression and increases extracellular dopamine, would affect SPEM. We examined the effects of DAT1 genotype on: Clinical diagnosis in the study sample (n = 418; 190 with schizophrenia), SPEM measures in a subgroup with completed oculomotor measures (n = 200; 87 schizophrenia), and DAT1 gene expression in FEF tissue obtained from postmortem brain samples (n = 32; 16 schizophrenia). DAT1 genotype was not associated with schizophrenia. DAT1 10/10 genotype was associated with better SPEM in healthy controls, intermediate SPEM in unaffected first-degree relatives of schizophrenia subjects, and worse SPEM in schizophrenia subjects. In the gene expression study, DAT1 10/10 genotype was associated with significantly reduced DAT1 mRNA transcript in FEF tissue from healthy control donors (P < 0.05), but higher expression in schizophrenia donors. Findings suggest regulatory effects of another gene(s) or etiological factor in schizophrenia, which modulate DAT1 gene function. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Aberrant dopamine D2-like receptor function in a rodent model of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Stephanie M; Lodge, Daniel J

    2012-11-01

    Based on the observation that antipsychotic medications display antagonist properties at dopamine D2-like receptors, aberrant dopamine signaling has been proposed to underlie psychosis in patients with schizophrenia. Thus, it is not surprising that considerable research has been devoted to understanding the mechanisms involved in the antipsychotic action of these compounds. It is important to note that the majority of these studies have been performed in "normal" experimental animals. Given that these animals do not possess the aberrant neuronal information processing typically associated with schizophrenia, the aim of the current study was to examine the dopamine D2 receptor system in a rodent model of schizophrenia. Here, we demonstrate that methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM)-treated rats display an enhanced effect of quinpirole on dopamine neuron activity and an aberrant locomotor response to D2-like receptor activation, suggesting changes in postsynaptic D2-like receptor function. To better understand the mechanisms underlying the enhanced response to D2-like ligands in MAM-treated rats, we examined the expression of D2, D3, and dopamine transporter mRNA in the nucleus accumbens and ventral tegmental area by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. MAM-treated rats displayed a significant increase in dopamine D3 receptor mRNA expression in the nucleus accumbens with no significant changes in the expression of the D2 receptor. Taken together, these data demonstrate robust alterations in dopamine D2-like receptor function in a rodent model of schizophrenia and provide evidence that preclinical studies examining the mechanisms of antipsychotic drug action should be performed in animal models that mirror aspects of the abnormal neuronal transmission thought to underlie symptoms of schizophrenia.

  7. Interactive Effects of Dopamine Baseline Levels and Cycle Phase on Executive Functions: The Role of Progesterone

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    Esmeralda Hidalgo-Lopez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Estradiol and progesterone levels vary along the menstrual cycle and have multiple neuroactive effects, including on the dopaminergic system. Dopamine relates to executive functions in an “inverted U-shaped” manner and its levels are increased by estradiol. Accordingly, dopamine dependent changes in executive functions along the menstrual cycle have been previously studied in the pre-ovulatory phase, when estradiol levels peak. Specifically it has been demonstrated that working memory is enhanced during the pre-ovulatory phase in women with low dopamine baseline levels, but impaired in women with high dopamine baseline levels. However, the role of progesterone, which peaks in the luteal cycle phase, has not been taken into account previously. Therefore, the main goals of the present study were to extend these findings (i to the luteal cycle phase and (ii to other executive functions. Furthermore, the usefulness of the eye blink rate (EBR as an indicator of dopamine baseline levels in menstrual cycle research was explored. 36 naturally cycling women were tested during three cycle phases (menses–low sex hormones; pre-ovulatory–high estradiol; luteal–high progesterone and estradiol. During each session, women performed a verbal N-back task, as measure of working memory, and a single trial version of the Stroop task, as measure of response inhibition and cognitive flexibility. Hormone levels were assessed from saliva samples and spontaneous eye blink rate was recorded during menses. In the N-back task, women were faster during the luteal phase the higher their progesterone levels, irrespective of their dopamine baseline levels. In the Stroop task, we found a dopamine-cycle interaction, which was also driven by the luteal phase and progesterone levels. For women with higher EBR performance decreased during the luteal phase, whereas for women with lower EBR performance improved during the luteal phase. These findings suggest an important

  8. Altered Functional Connectivity of Fronto-Cingulo-Striatal Circuits during Error Monitoring in Adolescents with a History of Childhood Abuse

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    Heledd Hart

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood maltreatment is associated with error hypersensitivity. We examined the effect of childhood abuse and abuse-by-gene (5-HTTLPR, MAOA interaction on functional brain connectivity during error processing in medication/drug-free adolescents. Functional connectivity was compared, using generalized psychophysiological interaction (gPPI analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data, between 22 age- and gender-matched medication-naïve and substance abuse-free adolescents exposed to severe childhood abuse and 27 healthy controls, while they performed an individually adjusted tracking stop-signal task, designed to elicit 50% inhibition failures. During inhibition failures, abused participants relative to healthy controls exhibited reduced connectivity between right and left putamen, bilateral caudate and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, and between right supplementary motor area (SMA and right inferior and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Abuse-related connectivity abnormalities were associated with longer abuse duration. No group differences in connectivity were observed for successful inhibition. The findings suggest that childhood abuse is associated with decreased functional connectivity in fronto-cingulo-striatal networks during error processing. Furthermore that the severity of connectivity abnormalities increases with abuse duration. Reduced connectivity of error detection networks in maltreated individuals may be linked to constant monitoring of errors in order to avoid mistakes which, in abusive contexts, are often associated with harsh punishment.

  9. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-induced dopamine release as a function of psychosis risk: 18F-fallypride positron emission tomography study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Kuepper

    Full Text Available Cannabis use is associated with psychosis, particularly in those with expression of, or vulnerability for, psychotic illness. The biological underpinnings of these differential associations, however, remain largely unknown. We used Positron Emission Tomography and (18F-fallypride to test the hypothesis that genetic risk for psychosis is expressed by differential induction of dopamine release by Δ(9-THC (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, the main psychoactive ingredient of cannabis. In a single dynamic PET scanning session, striatal dopamine release after pulmonary administration of Δ(9-THC was measured in 9 healthy cannabis users (average risk psychotic disorder, 8 patients with psychotic disorder (high risk psychotic disorder and 7 un-related first-degree relatives (intermediate risk psychotic disorder. PET data were analyzed applying the linear extension of the simplified reference region model (LSRRM, which accounts for time-dependent changes in (18F-fallypride displacement. Voxel-based statistical maps, representing specific D2/3 binding changes, were computed to localize areas with increased ligand displacement after Δ(9-THC administration, reflecting dopamine release. While Δ(9-THC was not associated with dopamine release in the control group, significant ligand displacement induced by Δ(9-THC in striatal subregions, indicative of dopamine release, was detected in both patients and relatives. This was most pronounced in caudate nucleus. This is the first study to demonstrate differential sensitivity to Δ(9-THC in terms of increased endogenous dopamine release in individuals at risk for psychosis.

  10. The role of genes, stress and dopamine in the development of schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Oliver D; McCutcheon, Robert; Owen, Michael J; Murray, Robin

    2017-01-01

    The dopamine hypothesis is the longest standing pathoaetiological theory of schizophrenia. As it was initially based on indirect evidence and findings in patients with established schizophrenia it was unclear what role dopamine played in the onset of the disorder. However, recent studies in people at risk of schizophrenia have found elevated striatal dopamine synthesis capacity, and increased dopamine release to stress. Furthermore, striatal dopamine changes have been linked to altered cortical function during cognitive tasks, in-line with preclinical evidence that a circuit involving cortical projections to the striatum and midbrain may underlie the striatal dopamine changes. Other studies have shown that a number of environmental risk factors for schizophrenia, such as social isolation and childhood trauma, also impact on presynaptic dopaminergic function. Advances in preclinical work and genetics have begun to unravel the molecular architecture linking dopamine, psychosis and psychosocial stress. Included among the many genes associated with risk of schizophrenia, are the gene encoding the DRD2 receptor and those involved in the up-stream regulation of dopaminergic synthesis, through glutamatergic and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic pathways. A number of these pathways are also linked to the stress response. We review these new lines of evidence and present a model of how genes and environmental factors may sensitise the dopamine system so that it is vulnerable to acute stress, leading to progressive dysregulation and the onset of psychosis. Finally, we consider the implications for rational drug development, in particular regionally selective dopaminergic modulation, and the potential of genetic factors to stratify patients. PMID:27720198

  11. Striatal D2/3 Binding Potential Values in Drug-Naïve First-Episode Schizophrenia Patients Correlate With Treatment Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulff, Sanne; Pinborg, Lars Hageman; Svarer, Claus; Jensen, Lars Thorbjørn; Nielsen, Mette Ødegaard; Allerup, Peter; Bak, Nikolaj; Rasmussen, Hans; Frandsen, Erik; Rostrup, Egill; Glenthøj, Birte Yding

    2015-01-01

    One of best validated findings in schizophrenia research is the association between blockade of dopamine D2 receptors and the effects of antipsychotics on positive psychotic symptoms. The aim of the present study was to examine correlations between baseline striatal D2/3 receptor binding potential (BPp) values and treatment outcome in a cohort of antipsychotic-naïve first-episode schizophrenia patients. Additionally, we wished to investigate associations between striatal dopamine D2/3 receptor blockade and alterations of negative symptoms as well as functioning and subjective well-being. Twenty-eight antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenia patients and 26 controls were included in the study. Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with [123I]iodobenzamide ([123I]-IBZM) was used to examine striatal D2/3 receptor BPp. Patients were examined before and after 6 weeks of treatment with the D2/3 receptor antagonist amisulpride. There was a significant negative correlation between striatal D2/3 receptor BPp at baseline and improvement of positive symptoms in the total group of patients. Comparing patients responding to treatment to nonresponders further showed significantly lower baseline BPp in the responders. At follow-up, the patients demonstrated a negative correlation between the blockade and functioning, whereas no associations between blockade and negative symptoms or subjective well-being were observed. The results show an association between striatal BPp of dopamine D2/3 receptors in antipsychotic-naïve first-episode patients with schizophrenia and treatment response. Patients with a low BPp have a better treatment response than patients with a high BPp. The results further suggest that functioning may decline at high levels of dopamine receptor blockade. PMID:25698711

  12. Neuroglial plasticity at striatal glutamatergic synapses in Parkinson's disease

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    Rosa M Villalba

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Striatal dopamine denervation is the pathological hallmark of Parkinson’s disease (PD. Another major pathological change described in animal models and PD patients is a significant reduction in the density of dendritic spines on medium spiny striatal projection neurons. Simultaneously, the ultrastructural features of the neuronal synaptic elements at the remaining corticostriatal and thalamostriatal glutamatergic axo-spinous synapses undergo complex ultrastructural remodeling consistent with increased synaptic activity (Villalba et al., 2011. The concept of tripartite synapses (TS was introduced a decade ago, according to which astrocytes process and exchange information with neuronal synaptic elements at glutamatergic synapses (Araque et al., 1999a. Although there has been compelling evidence that astrocytes are integral functional elements of tripartite glutamatergic synaptic complexes in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus, their exact functional role, degree of plasticity and preponderance in other CNS regions remain poorly understood. In this review, we discuss our recent findings showing that neuronal elements at cortical and thalamic glutamatergic synapses undergo significant plastic changes in the striatum of MPTP-treated parkinsonian monkeys. We also present new ultrastructural data that demonstrate a significant expansion of the astrocytic coverage of striatal TS synapses in the parkinsonian state, providing further evidence for ultrastructural compensatory changes that affect both neuronal and glial elements at TS. Together with our limited understanding of the mechanisms by which astrocytes respond to changes in neuronal activity and extracellular transmitter homeostasis, the role of both neuronal and glial components of excitatory synapses must be considered, if one hopes to take advantage of glia-neuronal communication knowledge to better understand the pathophysiology of striatal processing in parkinsonism, and develop new PD

  13. Endocannabinoid Signaling in Motivation, Reward, and Addiction: Influences on Mesocorticolimbic Dopamine Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagheddu, Claudia; Muntoni, Anna Lisa; Pistis, Marco; Melis, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    Evidence suggests that the endocannabinoid system has been conserved in the animal kingdom for 500 million years, and this system influences many critical behavioral processes including associative learning, reward signaling, goal-directed behavior, motor skill learning, and action-habit transformation. Additionally, the neurotransmitter dopamine has long been recognized to play a critical role in the processing of natural rewards, as well as of motivation that regulates approach and avoidance behavior. This motivational role of dopamine neurons is also based upon the evidence provided by several studies investigating disorders of dopamine pathways such as drug addiction and Parkinson's disease. From an evolutionary point of view, individuals engage in behaviors aimed at maximizing and minimizing positive and aversive consequences, respectively. Accordingly, those with the greatest fitness have a better potential to survival. Hence, deviations from fitness can be viewed as a part of the evolutionary process by means of natural selection. Given the long evolutionary history of both the endocannabinoid and dopaminergic systems, it is plausible that they must serve as fundamental and basic modulators of physiological functions and needs. Notably, endocannabinoids regulate dopamine neuronal activity and its influence on behavioral output. The goal of this chapter is to examine the endocannabinoid influence on dopamine signaling specifically related to (i) those behavioral processes that allow us to successfully adapt to ever-changing environments (i.e., reward signaling and motivational processes) and (ii) derangements from behavioral flexibility that underpin drug addiction. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Drug induced increases in CNS dopamine alter monocyte, macrophage and T cell functions: implications for HAND

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskill, Peter J.; Calderon, Tina M.; Coley, Jacqueline S.; Berman, Joan W.

    2013-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) complications resulting from HIV infection remain a major public health problem as individuals live longer due to the success of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). As many as 70% of HIV infected people have HIV associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Many HIV infected individuals abuse drugs, such as cocaine, heroin or methamphetamine, that may be important cofactors in the development of HIV CNS disease. Despite different mechanisms of action, all drugs of abuse increase extracellular dopamine in the CNS. The effects of dopamine on HIV neuropathogenesis are not well understood, and drug induced increases in CNS dopamine may be a common mechanism by which different types of drugs of abuse impact the development of HAND. Monocytes and macrophages are central to HIV infection of the CNS and to HAND. While T cells have not been shown to be a major factor in HIV-associated neuropathogenesis, studies indicate that T cells may play a larger role in the development of HAND in HIV infected drug abusers. Drug induced increases in CNS dopamine may dysregulate functions of, or increase HIV infection in, monocytes, macrophages and T cells in the brain. Thus, characterizing the effects of dopamine on these cells is important for understanding the mechanisms that mediate the development of HAND in drug abusers. PMID:23456305

  15. Blink Rate in Boys with Fragile X Syndrome: Preliminary Evidence for Altered Dopamine Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, J. E.; Symons, F. J.; Johnson, A.-M.; Hatton, D. D.; Boccia, M. L.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Dopamine, a neurotransmitter involved in motor and cognitive functioning, can be non-invasively measured via observation of spontaneous blink rates. Blink rates have been studied in a number of clinical conditions including schizophrenia, autism, Parkinsons, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder with results implicating either…

  16. Striatal dopaminergic reward response relates to age of first drunkenness and feedback response in at-risk youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, Barbara J; Zucker, Robert A; Zubieta, Jon-Kar; Heitzeg, Mary M

    2017-03-01

    Dopamine receptor concentrations, primarily in the striatum, are hypothesized to contribute to a developmental imbalance between subcortical and prefrontal control systems in emerging adulthood potentially biasing motivation and increasing risky behaviors. Positron emission tomography studies have found significant reductions in striatal dopamine D2 receptors, and blunted amphetamine-induced dopamine release, in substance users compared with healthy controls. Extant literature is limited and inconsistent concerning vulnerability associated with having a family history of substance abuse (FH+). Some studies have reported familial liability associated with higher dopamine receptor levels, reduced dopamine response to stimulant challenges and decreased response to oral alcohol. However, other reports have failed to find group differences based on family history. We explored the interaction of familial liability and behavioral risk with multi-modal molecular and neural imaging of the dopaminergic system. Forty-four young adult male subjects performed monetary incentive delay tasks during both [ 11 C]raclopride positron emission tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging scans. FH+ subjects were identified as low (n = 24) or high risk (n = 9) based on early initiation of drunkenness. FH+ high-risk subjects exhibited heightened striatal dopamine response to monetary reward but did not differ in neural activations compared with FH+ low risk subjects and controls with no familial loading (n = 11). Across all subjects, a negative relationship was found between dopamine release and age of first drunkenness and a positive relationship with neural response to reward receipt. These results suggest that in at-risk individuals, higher dopamine transmission associated with monetary reward may represent a particularly useful neurobiological phenotype. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  17. Dissociable contribution of prefrontal and striatal dopaminergic genes to learning in economic games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Set, Eric; Saez, Ignacio; Zhu, Lusha; Houser, Daniel E; Myung, Noah; Zhong, Songfa; Ebstein, Richard P; Chew, Soo Hong; Hsu, Ming

    2014-07-01

    Game theory describes strategic interactions where success of players' actions depends on those of coplayers. In humans, substantial progress has been made at the neural level in characterizing the dopaminergic and frontostriatal mechanisms mediating such behavior. Here we combined computational modeling of strategic learning with a pathway approach to characterize association of strategic behavior with variations in the dopamine pathway. Specifically, using gene-set analysis, we systematically examined contribution of different dopamine genes to variation in a multistrategy competitive game captured by (i) the degree players anticipate and respond to actions of others (belief learning) and (ii) the speed with which such adaptations take place (learning rate). We found that variation in genes that primarily regulate prefrontal dopamine clearance--catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) and two isoforms of monoamine oxidase--modulated degree of belief learning across individuals. In contrast, we did not find significant association for other genes in the dopamine pathway. Furthermore, variation in genes that primarily regulate striatal dopamine function--dopamine transporter and D2 receptors--was significantly associated with the learning rate. We found that this was also the case with COMT, but not for other dopaminergic genes. Together, these findings highlight dissociable roles of frontostriatal systems in strategic learning and support the notion that genetic variation, organized along specific pathways, forms an important source of variation in complex phenotypes such as strategic behavior.

  18. Reduced striatal D2 receptor binding in myoclonus-dystonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beukers, R.J.; Weisscher, N.; Tijssen, M.A.J.; Booij, J.; Zijlstra, F.; Amelsvoort, T.A.M.J. van

    2009-01-01

    To study striatal dopamine D 2 receptor availability in DYT11 mutation carriers of the autosomal dominantly inherited disorder myoclonus-dystonia (M-D). Fifteen DYT11 mutation carriers (11 clinically affected) and 15 age- and sex-matched controls were studied using 123 I-IBZM SPECT. Specific striatal binding ratios were calculated using standard templates for striatum and occipital areas. Multivariate analysis with corrections for ageing and smoking showed significantly lower specific striatal to occipital IBZM uptake ratios (SORs) both in the left and right striatum in clinically affected patients and also in all DYT11 mutation carriers compared to control subjects. Our findings are consistent with the theory of reduced dopamine D 2 receptor (D2R) availability in dystonia, although the possibility of increased endogenous dopamine, and consequently, competitive D2R occupancy cannot be ruled out. (orig.)

  19. Structural and Functional Effect of an Oscillating Electric Field on the Dopamine-D3 Receptor: A Molecular Dynamics Simulation Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Fallah

    Full Text Available Dopamine as a neurotransmitter plays a critical role in the functioning of the central nervous system. The structure of D3 receptor as a member of class A G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs has been reported. We used MD simulation to investigate the effect of an oscillating electric field, with frequencies in the range 0.6-800 GHz applied along the z-direction, on the dopamine-D3R complex. The simulations showed that at some frequencies, the application of an external oscillating electric field along the z-direction has a considerable effect on the dopamine-D3R. However, there is no enough evidence for prediction of changes in specific frequency, implying that there is no order in changes. Computing the correlation coefficient parameter showed that increasing the field frequency can weaken the interaction between dopamine and D3R and may decrease the Arg128{3.50}-Glu324{6.30} distance. Because of high stability of α helices along the z-direction, applying an oscillating electric field in this direction with an amplitude 10-time higher did not have a considerable effect. However, applying the oscillating field at the frequency of 0.6 GHz along other directions, such as X-Y and Y-Z planes, could change the energy between the dopamine and the D3R, and the number of internal hydrogen bonds of the protein. This can be due to the effect of the direction of the electric field vis-à-vis the ligands orientation and the interaction of the oscillating electric field with the dipole moment of the protein.

  20. Differential effects of a selective dopamine D1-like receptor agonist on motor activity and c-fos expression in the frontal-striatal circuitry of SHR and Wistar-Kyoto rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diaz Heijtz Rochellys

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular genetic studies suggest the dopamine D1 receptor (D1R may be implicated in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. As little is known about the potential motor role of D1R in ADHD, animal models may provide important insights into this issue. Methods We investigated the effects of a full and selective D1R agonist, SKF-81297 (0.3, 3 and 10 mg/kg, on motor behaviour and expression of the plasticity-associated gene, c-fos, in habituated young adult male Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR, the most commonly used animal model of ADHD, and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY; the strain from which SHR were derived. Results SHR rats were more behaviourally active than WKY rats after injection with vehicle. The 0.3 mg/kg dose of SKF-81297 increased motor behaviour (locomotion, sifting, rearing, and sniffing in both SHR and WKY rats. Total grooming was also stimulated, but only in WKY rats. The same dose increased c-fos mRNA expression in the piriform cortex of both strains. The 3 mg/kg dose increased sifting and sniffing in both strains. Locomotion was also stimulated towards the end of the testing period. The intermediate dose decreased total rearing in both strains, and produced a significant increase in c-fos mRNA in the striatum, nucleus accumbens, olfactory tuberculum, and in the cingulate, agranular insular and piriform cortices. The 10 mg/kg dose of SKF-81297 produced a biphasic effect on locomotion, which was characterized by an initial decrease followed by later stimulation. The latter stimulatory effect was more pronounced in SHR than in WKY rats when compared to their respective vehicle-injected groups. The 10 mg/kg dose also stimulated sifting and sniffing in both strains. Both the 3 and 10 mg/kg doses had no effect on total grooming. The 10 mg/kg dose induced significantly higher levels of c-fos mRNA expression in the nucleus accumbens and adjacent cortical regions (but not striatum of SHR when compared to WKY rats

  1. Dopamine precursor depletion impairs structure and efficiency of resting state brain functional networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonell, Felix; Nagano-Saito, Atsuko; Leyton, Marco; Cisek, Paul; Benkelfat, Chawki; He, Yong; Dagher, Alain

    2014-09-01

    Spatial patterns of functional connectivity derived from resting brain activity may be used to elucidate the topological properties of brain networks. Such networks are amenable to study using graph theory, which shows that they possess small world properties and can be used to differentiate healthy subjects and patient populations. Of particular interest is the possibility that some of these differences are related to alterations in the dopamine system. To investigate the role of dopamine in the topological organization of brain networks at rest, we tested the effects of reducing dopamine synthesis in 13 healthy subjects undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. All subjects were scanned twice, in a resting state, following ingestion of one of two amino acid drinks in a randomized, double-blind manner. One drink was a nutritionally balanced amino acid mixture, and the other was tyrosine and phenylalanine deficient. Functional connectivity between 90 cortical and subcortical regions was estimated for each individual subject under each dopaminergic condition. The lowered dopamine state caused the following network changes: reduced global and local efficiency of the whole brain network, reduced regional efficiency in limbic areas, reduced modularity of brain networks, and greater connection between the normally anti-correlated task-positive and default-mode networks. We conclude that dopamine plays a role in maintaining the efficient small-world properties and high modularity of functional brain networks, and in segregating the task-positive and default-mode networks. This article is part of the Special Issue Section entitled 'Neuroimaging in Neuropharmacology'. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Cholinergic modulation of mesolimbic dopamine function and reward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Gregory P; Shabani, Shkelzen; Dobbs, Lauren K; Hansen, Stephen T

    2011-07-25

    The substantial health risk posed by obesity and compulsive drug use has compelled a serious research effort to identify the neurobiological substrates that underlie the development these pathological conditions. Despite substantial progress, an understanding of the neurochemical systems that mediate the motivational aspects of drug-seeking and craving remains incomplete. Important work from the laboratory of Bart Hoebel has provided key information on neurochemical systems that interact with dopamine (DA) as potentially important components in both the development of addiction and the expression of compulsive behaviors such as binge eating. One such modulatory system appears to be cholinergic pathways that interact with DA systems at all levels of the reward circuit. Cholinergic cells in the pons project to DA-rich cell body regions in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and substantial nigra (SN) where they modulate the activity of dopaminergic neurons and reward processing. The DA terminal region of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) contains a small but particularly important group of cholinergic interneurons, which have extensive dendritic arbors that make synapses with a vast majority of NAc neurons and afferents. Together with acetylcholine (ACh) input onto DA cell bodies, cholinergic systems could serve a vital role in gating information flow concerning the motivational value of stimuli through the mesolimbic system. In this report we highlight evidence that CNS cholinergic systems play a pivotal role in behaviors that are motivated by both natural and drug rewards. We argue that the search for underlying neurochemical substrates of compulsive behaviors, as well as attempts to identify potential pharmacotherapeutic targets to combat them, must include a consideration of central cholinergic systems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Acute phenylalanine/tyrosine depletion of phasic dopamine in the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shnitko, Tatiana A; Taylor, Sarah C; Stringfield, Sierra J; Zandy, Shannon L; Cofresí, Roberto U; Doherty, James M; Lynch, William B; Boettiger, Charlotte A; Gonzales, Rueben A; Robinson, Donita L

    2016-06-01

    Dopamine plays a critical role in striatal and cortical function, and depletion of the dopamine precursors phenylalanine and tyrosine is used in humans to temporarily reduce dopamine and probe the role of dopamine in behavior. This method has been shown to alter addiction-related behaviors and cognitive functioning presumably by reducing dopamine transmission, but it is unclear what specific aspects of dopamine transmission are altered. We performed this study to confirm that administration of an amino acid mixture omitting phenylalanine and tyrosine (Phe/Tyr[-]) reduces tyrosine tissue content in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and nucleus accumbens (NAc), and to test the hypothesis that Phe/Tyr[-] administration reduces phasic dopamine release in the NAc. Rats were injected with a Phe/Tyr[-] amino acid mixture, a control amino acid mixture, or saline. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to determine the concentration of tyrosine, dopamine, or norepinephrine in tissue punches from the PFC and ventral striatum. In a separate group of rats, phasic dopamine release was measured with fast-scan cyclic voltammetry in the NAc core after injection with either the Phe/Tyr[-] mixture or the control amino acid solution. Phe/Tyr[-] reduced tyrosine content in the PFC and NAc, but dopamine and norepinephrine tissue content were not reduced. Moreover, Phe/Tyr[-] decreased the frequency of dopamine transients, but not their amplitude, in freely moving rats. These results indicate that depletion of tyrosine via Phe/Tyr[-] decreases phasic dopamine transmission, providing insight into the mechanism by which this method modifies dopamine-dependent behaviors in human imaging studies.

  4. Serotonin hyperinnervation and upregulated 5-HT2A receptor expression and motor-stimulating function in nigrostriatal dopamine-deficient Pitx3 mutant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Qiu, Guozhen; Ding, Shengyuan; Zhou, Fu-Ming

    2013-01-23

    The striatum receives serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) innervation and expresses 5-HT2A receptors (5-HT2ARs) and other 5-HT receptors, raising the possibility that the striatal 5-HT system may undergo adaptive changes after chronic severe dopamine (DA) loss and contribute to the function and dysfunction of the striatum. Here we show that in transcription factor Pitx3 gene mutant mice with a selective, severe DA loss in the dorsal striatum mimicking the DA denervation in late Parkinson's disease (PD), both the 5-HT innervation and the 5-HT2AR mRNA expression were increased in the dorsal striatum. Functionally, while having no detectable motor effect in wild type mice, the 5-HT2R agonist 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine increased both the baseline and l-dopa-induced normal ambulatory and dyskinetic movements in Pitx3 mutant mice, whereas the selective 5-HT2AR blocker volinanserin had the opposite effects. These results demonstrate that Pitx3 mutant mice are a convenient and valid mouse model to study the compensatory 5-HT upregulation following the loss of the nigrostriatal DA projection and that the upregulated 5-HT2AR function in the DA deficient dorsal striatum may enhance both normal and dyskinetic movements. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Brief exposure to obesogenic diet disrupts brain dopamine networks.

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    Robert L Barry

    Full Text Available We have previously demonstrated that insulin signaling, through the downstream signaling kinase Akt, is a potent modulator of dopamine transporter (DAT activity, which fine-tunes dopamine (DA signaling at the synapse. This suggests a mechanism by which impaired neuronal insulin receptor signaling, a hallmark of diet-induced obesity, may contribute to impaired DA transmission. We tested whether a short-term (two-week obesogenic high-fat (HF diet could reduce striatal Akt activity, a marker of central insulin, receptor signaling and blunt striatal and dopaminergic network responsiveness to amphetamine (AMPH.We examined the effects of a two-week HF diet on striatal DAT activity in rats, using AMPH as a probe in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI assay, and mapped the disruption in AMPH-evoked functional connectivity between key dopaminergic targets and their projection areas using correlation and permutation analyses. We used phosphorylation of the Akt substrate GSK3α in striatal extracts as a measure of insulin receptor signaling. Finally, we confirmed the impact of HF diet on striatal DA D2 receptor (D2R availability using [18F]fallypride positron emission tomography (PET.We found that rats fed a HF diet for only two weeks have reductions in striatal Akt activity, a marker of decreased striatal insulin receptor signaling and blunted striatal responsiveness to AMPH. HF feeding also reduced interactions between elements of the mesolimbic (nucleus accumbens-anterior cingulate and sensorimotor circuits (caudate/putamen-thalamus-sensorimotor cortex implicated in hedonic feeding. D2R availability was reduced in HF-fed animals.These studies support the hypothesis that central insulin signaling and dopaminergic neurotransmission are already altered after short-term HF feeding. Because AMPH induces DA efflux and brain activation, in large part via DAT, these findings suggest that blunted central nervous system insulin receptor signaling

  6. Elevated functional connectivity in a striatal-amygdala circuit in pathological gamblers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Peters

    Full Text Available Both substance-based addiction and behavioural impulse control disorders (ICDs have been associated with dysfunctions of the ventral striatum. Recent studies using functional connectivity techniques have revealed increased coupling of the ventral striatum with other limbic regions such as amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex in patients with substance abuse disorders and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. In the present study, we re-analyzed previously published functional magnetic resonance imaging data acquired in pathological gamblers and controls during value-based decision-making to investigate whether PG is associated with similar functional connectivity effects. In line with previous studies in other ICDs, we observed reliable increases in functional coupling between striatum and bilateral amygdala in gamblers vs. controls. Implications of these findings for neural models of self-control and addiction are discussed.

  7. Beyond the Dopamine Receptor: Regulation and Roles of Serine/Threonine Protein Phosphatases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven I Walaas

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine plays an important modulatory role in the central nervous system, helping to control critical aspects of motor function and reward learning. Alteration in normal dopaminergic neurotransmission underlies multiple neurological diseases including schizophrenia, Huntington's disease and Parkinson's disease. Modulation of dopamine-regulated signaling pathways is also important in the addictive actions of most drugs of abuse. Our studies over the last 30 years have focused on the molecular actions of dopamine acting on medium spiny neurons, the predominant neurons of the neostriatum. Striatum-enriched phosphoproteins, particularly DARPP-32, RCS (Regulator of Calmodulin Signaling and ARPP-16, mediate pleiotropic actions of dopamine. Notably, each of these proteins, either directly or indirectly, regulates the activity of one of the three major subclasses of serine/threonine protein phosphatases, PP1, PP2B and PP2A, respectively. For example, phosphorylation of DARPP-32 at Thr34 by protein kinase A results in potent inhibition of PP1, leading to potentiation of dopaminergic signaling at multiple steps from the dopamine receptor to the nucleus. The discovery of DARPP-32 and its emergence as a critical molecular integrator of striatal signaling will be discussed, as will more recent studies that highlight novel roles for RCS and ARPP-16 in dopamine-regulated striatal signaling pathways.

  8. Motor Function and Dopamine Release Measurements in Transgenic Huntington’s Disease Model Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Andrea N.; Osterhaus, Gregory L.; Lauderdale, Kelli; Mahoney, Luke; Fowler, Stephen C.; von Hörsten, Stephan; Riess, Olaf; Johnson, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Huntington’s disease (HD) is a fatal, genetic, neurodegenerative disorder characterized by deficits in motor and cognitive function. Here, we have quantitatively characterized motor deficiencies and dopamine release dynamics in transgenic HD model rats. Behavioral analyses were conducted using a newly-developed force-sensing runway and a previously-developed force-plate actometer. Gait disturbances were readily observed in transgenic HD rats at 12 to 15 months of age. Additionally, dopamine system challenge by ip injection of amphetamine also revealed that these rats were resistant to the expression of focused stereotypy compared to wild-type controls. Moreover, dopamine release, evoked by the application of single and multiple electrical stimulus pulses applied at different frequencies, and measured using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry at carbon-fiber microelectrodes, was diminished in transgenic HD rats compared to age-matched wild-type control rats. Collectively, these results underscore the potential contribution of dopamine release alterations to the expression of motor impairments in transgenic HD rats. PMID:22418060

  9. Selective augmentation of striatal functional connectivity following NMDA receptor antagonism: implications for psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandash, Orwa; Harrison, Ben J; Adapa, Ram; Gaillard, Raphael; Giorlando, Francesco; Wood, Stephen J; Fletcher, Paul C; Fornito, Alex

    2015-02-01

    The psychotomimetic effect of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist ketamine is thought to arise from a functional modulation of the brain's fronto-striato-thalamic (FST) circuits. Animal models suggest a pronounced effect on ventral 'limbic' FST systems, although recent work in patients with psychosis and high-risk individuals suggests specific alterations of dorsal 'associative' FST circuits. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the effects of a subanesthetic dose of ketamine on measures of functional connectivity as indexed by the temporal coherence of spontaneous neural activity in both dorsal and ventral FST circuits, as well as their symptom correlates. We adopted a placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized, repeated-measures design in which 19 healthy participants received either an intravenous saline infusion or a racemic mixture of ketamine (100 ng/ml) separated by at least 1 week. Compared with placebo, ketamine increased functional connectivity between the dorsal caudate and both the thalamus and midbrain bilaterally. Ketamine additionally increased functional connectivity of the ventral striatum/nucleus accumbens and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Both connectivity increases significantly correlated with the psychosis-like and dissociative symptoms under ketamine. Importantly, dorsal caudate connectivity with the ventrolateral thalamus and subthalamic nucleus showed inverse correlation with ketamine-induced symptomatology, pointing to a possible resilience role to disturbances in FST circuits. Although consistent with the role of FST in mediating psychosis, these findings contrast with previous research in clinical samples by suggesting that acute NMDAR antagonism may lead to psychosis-like experiences via a mechanism that is distinct from that implicated in frank psychotic illness.

  10. Dopamine in the medial amygdala network mediates human bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atzil, Shir; Touroutoglou, Alexandra; Rudy, Tali; Salcedo, Stephanie; Feldman, Ruth; Hooker, Jacob M; Dickerson, Bradford C; Catana, Ciprian; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2017-02-28

    Research in humans and nonhuman animals indicates that social affiliation, and particularly maternal bonding, depends on reward circuitry. Although numerous mechanistic studies in rodents demonstrated that maternal bonding depends on striatal dopamine transmission, the neurochemistry supporting maternal behavior in humans has not been described so far. In this study, we tested the role of central dopamine in human bonding. We applied a combined functional MRI-PET scanner to simultaneously probe mothers' dopamine responses to their infants and the connectivity between the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), the amygdala, and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), which form an intrinsic network (referred to as the "medial amygdala network") that supports social functioning. We also measured the mothers' behavioral synchrony with their infants and plasma oxytocin. The results of this study suggest that synchronous maternal behavior is associated with increased dopamine responses to the mother's infant and stronger intrinsic connectivity within the medial amygdala network. Moreover, stronger network connectivity is associated with increased dopamine responses within the network and decreased plasma oxytocin. Together, these data indicate that dopamine is involved in human bonding. Compared with other mammals, humans have an unusually complex social life. The complexity of human bonding cannot be fully captured in nonhuman animal models, particularly in pathological bonding, such as that in autistic spectrum disorder or postpartum depression. Thus, investigations of the neurochemistry of social bonding in humans, for which this study provides initial evidence, are warranted.

  11. Insulin, Central Dopamine D2 Receptors, and Monetary Reward Discounting in Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenstein, Sarah A; Gredysa, Danuta M; Antenor-Dorsey, Jo Ann; Green, Leonard; Arbeláez, Ana Maria; Koller, Jonathan M; Black, Kevin J; Perlmutter, Joel S; Moerlein, Stephen M; Hershey, Tamara

    2015-01-01

    Animal research finds that insulin regulates dopamine signaling and reward behavior, but similar research in humans is lacking. We investigated whether individual differences in body mass index, percent body fat, pancreatic β-cell function, and dopamine D2 receptor binding were related to reward discounting in obese and non-obese adult men and women. Obese (n = 27; body mass index>30) and non-obese (n = 20; body mass indexmonetary rewards relative to immediate, certain smaller monetary rewards was measured using delayed and probabilistic reward discounting tasks. Positron emission tomography using a non-displaceable D2-specific radioligand, [11C](N-methyl)benperidol quantified striatal D2 receptor binding. Groups differed in body mass index, percent body fat, and disposition index, but not in striatal D2 receptor specific binding or reward discounting. Higher percent body fat in non-obese women related to preference for a smaller, certain reward over a larger, less likely one (greater probabilistic discounting). Lower β-cell function in the total sample and lower insulin sensitivity in obese related to stronger preference for an immediate and smaller monetary reward over delayed receipt of a larger one (greater delay discounting). In obese adults, higher striatal D2 receptor binding related to greater delay discounting. Interestingly, striatal D2 receptor binding was not significantly related to body mass index, percent body fat, or β-cell function in either group. Our findings indicate that individual differences in percent body fat, β-cell function, and striatal D2 receptor binding may each contribute to altered reward discounting behavior in non-obese and obese individuals. These results raise interesting questions about whether and how striatal D2 receptor binding and metabolic factors, including β-cell function, interact to affect reward discounting in humans.

  12. Striatal Function Explored Through a Biophysical Model of a Medium Spiny Neuron

    OpenAIRE

    Guthrie, Martin

    2006-01-01

    The basal ganglia are a dynamic neural network of telencephalic subcortical nuclei, involved in adaptive control of behaviour. There has been much experimental evidence on the anatomy and physiology of the basal ganglia published over the last 25 years showing that the basal ganglia are involved in the learning of many adaptive behaviours, including motor planning, working memory and cognitive functions. Current qualitative basal ganglia models of the box and arrow type, whi...

  13. Decreased dopamine activity predicts relapse in methamphetamine abusers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang G. J.; Wang, G.-J.; Smith, L.; Volkow, N.D.; Telang, F.; Logan, J.; Tomasi, D.; Wong, C.T.; Hoffman, W.; Jayne, M.; Alia-Klein, N.; Thanos, P.; Fowler, J.S.

    2011-01-20

    Studies in methamphetamine (METH) abusers showed that the decreases in brain dopamine (DA) function might recover with protracted detoxification. However, the extent to which striatal DA function in METH predicts recovery has not been evaluated. Here we assessed whether striatal DA activity in METH abusers is associated with clinical outcomes. Brain DA D2 receptor (D2R) availability was measured with positron emission tomography and [{sup 11}C]raclopride in 16 METH abusers, both after placebo and after challenge with 60 mg oral methylphenidate (MPH) (to measure DA release) to assess whether it predicted clinical outcomes. For this purpose, METH abusers were tested within 6 months of last METH use and then followed up for 9 months of abstinence. In parallel, 15 healthy controls were tested. METH abusers had lower D2R availability in caudate than in controls. Both METH abusers and controls showed decreased striatal D2R availability after MPH and these decreases were smaller in METH than in controls in left putamen. The six METH abusers who relapsed during the follow-up period had lower D2R availability in dorsal striatum than in controls, and had no D2R changes after MPH challenge. The 10 METH abusers who completed detoxification did not differ from controls neither in striatal D2R availability nor in MPH-induced striatal DA changes. These results provide preliminary evidence that low striatal DA function in METH abusers is associated with a greater likelihood of relapse during treatment. Detection of the extent of DA dysfunction may be helpful in predicting therapeutic outcomes.

  14. Decreased dopamine activity predicts relapse in methamphetamine abusers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, G.J.; Smith, L.; Volkow, N.D.; Telang, F.; Logan, J.; Tomasi, D.; Wong, C.T.; Hoffman, W.; Jayne, M.; Alia-Klein, N.; Thanos, P.; Fowler, J.S.

    2011-01-01

    Studies in methamphetamine (METH) abusers showed that the decreases in brain dopamine (DA) function might recover with protracted detoxification. However, the extent to which striatal DA function in METH predicts recovery has not been evaluated. Here we assessed whether striatal DA activity in METH abusers is associated with clinical outcomes. Brain DA D2 receptor (D2R) availability was measured with positron emission tomography and ( 11 C)raclopride in 16 METH abusers, both after placebo and after challenge with 60 mg oral methylphenidate (MPH) (to measure DA release) to assess whether it predicted clinical outcomes. For this purpose, METH abusers were tested within 6 months of last METH use and then followed up for 9 months of abstinence. In parallel, 15 healthy controls were tested. METH abusers had lower D2R availability in caudate than in controls. Both METH abusers and controls showed decreased striatal D2R availability after MPH and these decreases were smaller in METH than in controls in left putamen. The six METH abusers who relapsed during the follow-up period had lower D2R availability in dorsal striatum than in controls, and had no D2R changes after MPH challenge. The 10 METH abusers who completed detoxification did not differ from controls neither in striatal D2R availability nor in MPH-induced striatal DA changes. These results provide preliminary evidence that low striatal DA function in METH abusers is associated with a greater likelihood of relapse during treatment. Detection of the extent of DA dysfunction may be helpful in predicting therapeutic outcomes.

  15. Striatal [123I]β-CIT SPECT and prefrontal cognitive functions in Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, U.; Waechter, T.; Barthel, H.; Reuter, M.; Cramon, D.Y. von

    2000-01-01

    Twenty non-demented patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) underwent single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with [ 123 I]β-CIT to further investigate the contribution of nigrostriatal dysfunction to cognitive and motor deficits. Compared to matched controls PD patients showed normal verbal intelligence, short-term memory and phasic alertness. There were significant (p 123 I]β-CIT SPECT. These results support the view that the striatum is part of a neuronal network that is mediating prefrontal cognitive functions. (author)

  16. Similar effects of substance P on learning and memory function between hippocampus and striatal marginal division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yan; Zeng, Changchun; Shu, Siyun; Liu, Xuemei; Li, Chuhua

    2014-01-01

    Substance P is an endogenous neurokinin that is present in the central and peripheral nervous systems. The neuropeptide substance P and its high-affinity receptor neurokinin 1 receptor are known to play an important role in the central nervous system in inflammation, blood pressure, motor behavior and anxiety. The effects of substance P in the hippocampus and the marginal division of the striatum on memory remain poorly understood. Compared with the hippocampus as a control, immunofluorescence showed high expression of the substance P receptor, neurokinin 1, in the marginal division of the striatum of normal rats. Unilateral or bilateral injection of an antisense oligonucleotide against neurokinin 1 receptor mRNA in the rat hippocampus or marginal division of the striatum effectively reduced neurokinin 1 receptor expression. Independent of injection site, rats that received this antisense oligonucleotide showed obviously increased footshock times in a Y-maze test. These results indicate that the marginal division of the striatum plays a similar function in learning and memory to the hippocampus, which is a valuable addition to our mechanistic understanding of the learning and memory functions of the marginal division of the striatum. PMID:25206901

  17. Effects of Methylphenidate on Resting-State Functional Connectivity of the Mesocorticolimbic Dopamine Pathways in Cocaine Addiction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konova, Anna B.; Moeller, Scott J.; Tomasi, Dardo; Volkow, Nora D.; Goldstein, Rita Z.

    2013-08-01

    Cocaine addiction is associated with altered resting-state functional connectivity among regions of the mesocorticolimbic dopamine pathways. Methylphenidate hydrochloride, an indirect dopamine agonist, normalizes task-related regional brain activity and associated behavior in cocaine users; however, the neural systems–level effects of methylphenidate in this population have not yet been described. To use resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine changes in mesocorticolimbic connectivity with methylphenidate and how connectivity of affected pathways relates to severity of cocaine addiction.

  18. Striatal D2/3 Binding Potential Values in Drug-Naïve First-Episode Schizophrenia Patients Correlate With Treatment Outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff, Sanne; Pinborg, Lars Hageman; Svarer, Claus

    2015-01-01

    potential (BP(p)) values and treatment outcome in a cohort of antipsychotic-naïve first-episode schizophrenia patients. Additionally, we wished to investigate associations between striatal dopamine D(2/3) receptor blockade and alterations of negative symptoms as well as functioning and subjective well......-being. Twenty-eight antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenia patients and 26 controls were included in the study. Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with [(123)I]iodobenzamide ([(123)I]-IBZM) was used to examine striatal D(2/3) receptor BP(p). Patients were examined before and after 6 weeks...... of treatment with the D(2/3) receptor antagonist amisulpride. There was a significant negative correlation between striatal D(2/3) receptor BP(p) at baseline and improvement of positive symptoms in the total group of patients. Comparing patients responding to treatment to nonresponders further showed...

  19. Thinking and doing: the effects of dopamine and oxytocin genes and executive function on mothering behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombeau Cost, K; Unternaehrer, E; Plamondon, A; Steiner, M; Meaney, M; Atkinson, L; Kennedy, J L; Fleming, A S

    2017-02-01

    Animal and human studies suggest that initial expression of maternal behaviour depends on oxytocin and dopamine systems. However, the mechanism by which these systems affect parenting behaviours and the timing of these effects are not well understood. This article explores the role of mothers' executive function in mediating the relation between oxytocin and dopamine gene variants and maternal responsiveness at 48 months post-partum. Participants (n = 157) were mothers recruited in the Maternal Adversity, Vulnerability and Neurodevelopment Study, which assesses longitudinally two cohorts of mothers and children in Canada. We examined single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to the dopamine and oxytocin systems (DRD1 rs686, DRD1 rs265976, OXTR rs237885 and OXTR rs2254298), assessed mothers' decision-making at 48 months using the Cambridge Neurological Automated Testing Battery (CANTAB) and evaluated maternal responsiveness from videotaped interactions during the Etch-A-Sketch co-operation task. Mediation analyses showed that OXTR rs2254298 A-carriers had an indirect effect on positive parenting which was mediated by mothers' performance on decision-making task (estimate = 0.115, P Dopamine SNPs were not associated with any measure of executive function or parenting (all P > 0.05). While oxytocin has previously been associated with only the early onset of maternal behaviour, we show that an OXTR polymorphism is involved in maternal behaviour at 48 months post-partum through mothers' executive function. This research highlights the importance of the oxytocin system to maternal parenting beyond infancy. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  20. Advances in the understanding of early Huntington's disease using the functional imaging techniques of PET and SPET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, T.C.; Brooks, D.J.

    1998-01-01

    The functional imaging techniques of positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission tomography (SPET) have been used to study regional brain function in Huntington's disease (HD) in vivo. Reduced striatal glucose metabolism and dopamine receptor binding are evident in all symptomatic HD patients and in ∼50% of asymptomatic adult mutation carriers. These characteristics correlate with clinical measures of disease severity. Reduced cortical glucose metabolism and dopamine receptor binding, together with reduced striatal and cortical opioid receptor binding, have also been demonstrated in symptomatic patients with HD. Repeat PET measures of striatal function have been used to monitor the progression of this disease objectively. In the future, functional imaging will provide a valuable way of assessing the efficacy of both fetal striatal cell implants and putative neuroprotective agents, such as nerve growth factors. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  1. Neurovascular coupling to D2/D3 dopamine receptor occupancy using simultaneous PET/functional MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Christin Y; Hooker, Jacob M; Catana, Ciprian

    2013-01-01

    This study employed simultaneous neuroimaging with positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to demonstrate the relationship between changes in receptor occupancy measured by PET and changes in brain activity inferred by fMRI. By administering the D2/D3...... dopamine receptor antagonist [(11)C]raclopride at varying specific activities to anesthetized nonhuman primates, we mapped associations between changes in receptor occupancy and hemodynamics [cerebral blood volume (CBV)] in the domains of space, time, and dose. Mass doses of raclopride above tracer levels...... caused increases in CBV and reductions in binding potential that were localized to the dopamine-rich striatum. Moreover, similar temporal profiles were observed for specific binding estimates and changes in CBV. Injection of graded raclopride mass doses revealed a monotonic coupling between neurovascular...

  2. Circadian perinatal photoperiod has enduring effects on retinal dopamine and visual function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Chad R; Capozzi, Megan; Dai, Heng; McMahon, Douglas G

    2014-03-26

    Visual system development depends on neural activity, driven by intrinsic and light-sensitive mechanisms. Here, we examined the effects on retinal function due to exposure to summer- and winter-like circadian light cycles during development and adulthood. Retinal light responses, visual behaviors, dopamine content, retinal morphology, and gene expression were assessed in mice reared in seasonal photoperiods consisting of light/dark cycles of 8:16, 16:8, and 12:12 h, respectively. Mice exposed to short, winter-like, light cycles showed enduring deficits in photopic retinal light responses and visual contrast sensitivity, but only transient changes were observed for scotopic measures. Dopamine levels were significantly lower in short photoperiod mice, and dopaminergic agonist treatment rescued the photopic light response deficits. Tyrosine hydroxylase and Early Growth Response factor-1 mRNA expression were reduced in short photoperiod retinas. Therefore, seasonal light cycles experienced during retinal development and maturation have lasting influence on retinal and visual function, likely through developmental programming of retinal dopamine.

  3. Dopamine D2 receptors photolabeled by iodo-azido-clebopride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niznik, H B; Dumbrille-Ross, A; Guan, J H; Neumeyer, J L; Seeman, P

    1985-04-19

    Iodo-azido-clebopride, a photoaffinity compound for dopamine D2 receptors, had high affinity for canine brain striatal dopamine D2 receptors with a dissociation constant (Kd) of 14 nM. Irradiation of striatal homogenate with iodo-azido-clebopride irreversibly inactivated 50% of dopamine D2 receptors at 20 nM (as indicated by subsequent [3H]spiperone binding). Dopamine agonists and antagonists prevented this photo-inactivation with the appropriate rank-order of potency. Striatal dopamine D1, serotonin (S2), alpha 1- and beta-adrenoceptors were not significantly inactivated following irradiation with iodo-azido-clebopride. Thus, iodo-azido-clebopride is a selective photoaffinity probe for dopamine D2 receptors, the radiolabelled form of which may aid in the molecular characterization of these proteins.

  4. Regulator of G protein signaling-12 modulates the dopamine transporter in ventral striatum and locomotor responses to psychostimulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Joshua D; Kaski, Shane W; Schroer, Adam B; Wix, Kimberley A; Siderovski, David P; Setola, Vincent

    2018-02-01

    Regulators of G protein signaling are proteins that accelerate the termination of effector stimulation after G protein-coupled receptor activation. Many regulators of G protein signaling proteins are highly expressed in the brain and therefore considered potential drug discovery targets for central nervous system pathologies; for example, here we show that RGS12 is highly expressed in microdissected mouse ventral striatum. Given a role for the ventral striatum in psychostimulant-induced locomotor activity, we tested whether Rgs12 genetic ablation affected behavioral responses to amphetamine and cocaine. RGS12 loss significantly decreased hyperlocomotion to lower doses of both amphetamine and cocaine; however, other outcomes of administration (sensitization and conditioned place preference) were unaffected, suggesting that RGS12 does not function in support of the rewarding properties of these psychostimulants. To test whether observed response changes upon RGS12 loss were caused by changes to dopamine transporter expression and/or function, we prepared crude membranes from the brains of wild-type and RGS12-null mice and measured dopamine transporter-selective [ 3 H]WIN 35428 binding, revealing an increase in dopamine transporter levels in the ventral-but not dorsal-striatum of RGS12-null mice. To address dopamine transporter function, we prepared striatal synaptosomes and measured [ 3 H]dopamine uptake. Consistent with increased [ 3 H]WIN 35428 binding, dopamine transporter-specific [ 3 H]dopamine uptake in RGS12-null ventral striatal synaptosomes was found to be increased. Decreased amphetamine-induced locomotor activity and increased [ 3 H]WIN 35428 binding were recapitulated with an independent RGS12-null mouse strain. Thus, we propose that RGS12 regulates dopamine transporter expression and function in the ventral striatum, affecting amphetamine- and cocaine-induced increases in dopamine levels that specifically elicit acute hyperlocomotor responses.

  5. Interactions between lysergic acid diethylamide and dopamine-sensitive adenylate cyclase systems in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hungen, K V; Roberts, S; Hill, D F

    1975-08-22

    Investigations were carried out on the interactions of the hallucinogenic drug, D-lysergic acid diethylamide (D-LSD), and other serotonin antagonists with catecholamine-sensitive adenylate cyclase systems in cell-free preparations from different regions of rat brain. In equimolar concentration, D-LSD, 2-brono-D-lysergic acid diethylamide (BOL), or methysergide (UML) strongly blocked maximal stimulation of adenylate cyclase activity by either norepinephrine or dopamine in particulate preparations from cerebral cortices of young adult rats. D-LSD also eliminated the stimulation of adenylate cyclase activity of equimolar concentrations of norepinephrine or dopamine in particulate preparations from rat hippocampus. The effects of this hallucinogenic agent on adenylate cyclase activity were most striking in particulate preparations from corpus striatum. Thus, in 10 muM concentration, D-LSD not only completely eradicated the response to 10 muM dopamine in these preparations but also consistently stimulated adenylate cyclase activity. L-LSD (80 muM) was without effect. Significant activation of striatal adenylate cyclase was produced by 0.1 muM D-LSD. Activation of striatal adenylate cyclase of either D-LSD or dopamine was strongly blocked by the dopamine-blocking agents trifluoperazine, thioridazine, chlorpromazine, and haloperidol. The stimulatory effects of D-LSD and dopamine were also inhibited by the serotonin-blocking agents, BOL, 1-methyl-D-lysergic acid diethylamide (MLD), and cyproheptadine, but not by the beta-adrenergic-blocking agent, propranolol. However, these serotonin antagonists by themselves were incapable of stimulating adenylate cyclase activity in the striatal preparations. Several other hallucinogens, which were structurally related to serotonin, were also inactive in this regard, e.g., mescaline, N,N-dimethyltryptamine, psilocin and bufotenine. Serotonin itself produced a small stimulation of adenylate cyclase activity in striatal preparations and

  6. Global actions of nicotine on the striatal microcircuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor E Plata

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The question to solve in the present work is: what is the predominant action induced by the activation of cholinergic-nicotinic receptors (nAChrs in the striatal network given that nAChrs are expressed by several elements of the circuit: cortical terminals, dopamine terminals, and various striatal GABAergic interneurons. To answer this question some type of multicellular recording has to be used without losing single cell resolution. Here, we used calcium imaging and nicotine. It is known that in the presence of low micromolar N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA, the striatal microcircuit exhibits neuronal activity consisting in the spontaneous synchronization of different neuron pools that interchange their activity following determined sequences. The striatal circuit also exhibits profuse spontaneous activity in pathological states (without NMDA such as dopamine depletion. However, in this case, most pathological activity is mostly generated by the same neuron pool. Here, we show that both types of activity are inhibited during the application of nicotine. Nicotine actions were blocked by mecamylamine, a non specific antagonist of nAChrs. Interestingly, inhibitory actions of nicotine were also blocked by the GABAA-receptor antagonist bicuculline, in which case, the actions of nicotine on the circuit became excitatory and facilitated neuronal synchronization. We conclude that the predominant action of nicotine in the striatal microcircuit is indirect, via the activation of networks of inhibitory interneurons. This action inhibits striatal pathological activity in early Parkinsonian animals almost as potently as L-DOPA.

  7. Global actions of nicotine on the striatal microcircuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plata, Víctor; Duhne, Mariana; Pérez-Ortega, Jesús; Hernández-Martinez, Ricardo; Rueda-Orozco, Pavel; Galarraga, Elvira; Drucker-Colín, René; Bargas, José

    2013-01-01

    what is the predominant action induced by the activation of cholinergic-nicotinic receptors (nAChrs) in the striatal network given that nAChrs are expressed by several elements of the circuit: cortical terminals, dopamine terminals, and various striatal GABAergic interneurons. To answer this question some type of multicellular recording has to be used without losing single cell resolution. Here, we used calcium imaging and nicotine. It is known that in the presence of low micromolar N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), the striatal microcircuit exhibits neuronal activity consisting in the spontaneous synchronization of different neuron pools that interchange their activity following determined sequences. The striatal circuit also exhibits profuse spontaneous activity in pathological states (without NMDA) such as dopamine depletion. However, in this case, most pathological activity is mostly generated by the same neuron pool. Here, we show that both types of activity are inhibited during the application of nicotine. Nicotine actions were blocked by mecamylamine, a non-specific antagonist of nAChrs. Interestingly, inhibitory actions of nicotine were also blocked by the GABAA-receptor antagonist bicuculline, in which case, the actions of nicotine on the circuit became excitatory and facilitated neuronal synchronization. We conclude that the predominant action of nicotine in the striatal microcircuit is indirect, via the activation of networks of inhibitory interneurons. This action inhibits striatal pathological activity in early Parkinsonian animals almost as potently as L-DOPA.

  8. Inflammation alters AMPA-stimulated calcium responses in dorsal striatal D2 but not D1 spiny projection neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winland, Carissa D; Welsh, Nora; Sepulveda-Rodriguez, Alberto; Vicini, Stefano; Maguire-Zeiss, Kathleen A

    2017-11-01

    Neuroinflammation precedes neuronal loss in striatal neurodegenerative diseases and can be exacerbated by the release of proinflammatory molecules by microglia. These molecules can affect trafficking of AMPARs. The preferential trafficking of calcium-permeable versus impermeable AMPARs can result in disruptions of [Ca 2+ ] i and alter cellular functions. In striatal neurodegenerative diseases, changes in [Ca 2+ ] i and L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) have been reported. Therefore, this study sought to determine whether a proinflammatory environment alters AMPA-stimulated [Ca 2+ ] i through calcium-permeable AMPARs and/or L-type VGCCs in dopamine-2- and dopamine-1-expressing striatal spiny projection neurons (D2 and D1 SPNs) in the dorsal striatum. Mice expressing the calcium indicator protein, GCaMP in D2 or D1 SPNs, were utilized for calcium imaging. Microglial activation was assessed by morphology analyses. To induce inflammation, acute mouse striatal slices were incubated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Here we report that LPS treatment potentiated AMPA responses only in D2 SPNs. When a nonspecific VGCC blocker was included, we observed a decrease of AMPA-stimulated calcium fluorescence in D2 but not D1 SPNs. The remaining agonist-induced [Ca 2+ ] i was mediated by calcium-permeable AMPARs because the responses were completely blocked by a selective calcium-permeable AMPAR antagonist. We used isradipine, the highly selective L-type VGCC antagonist to determine the role of L-type VGCCs in SPNs treated with LPS. Isradipine decreased AMPA-stimulated responses selectively in D2 SPNs after LPS treatment. Our findings suggest that dorsal striatal D2 SPNs are specifically targeted in proinflammatory conditions and that L-type VGCCs and calcium-permeable AMPARs are important mediators of this effect. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. A novel dopamine transporter transgenic mouse line for identification and purification of midbrain dopaminergic neurons reveals midbrain heterogeneity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Mia Apuschkin; Stilling, Sara; Rahbek-Clemmensen, Troels

    2015-01-01

    Midbrain dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons are a heterogeneous cell group, composed of functionally distinct cell populations projecting to the basal ganglia, prefrontal cortex and limbic system. Despite their functional significance, the midbrain population of DAergic neurons is sparse, constituting...... of the dopamine transporter (DAT) promoter was characterized. Confocal microscopy analysis of brain sections showed strong eGFP signal reporter in midbrain regions and striatal terminals that co-localized with the DAergic markers DAT and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). Thorough quantification of co...

  10. The pathophysiological functions mediated by D-1 dopamine receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, M.; Kuga, S.; Meller, E.; SHimizu, Y.

    1986-01-01

    This chapter describes some behavioral responses which might be mediated by D 1 and D 2 DA receptors, and the authors discuss their clinical relevance. It was of considerable interest to determine whether a selective D 1 DA antagonist, such as SCH 23390, will induce catalepsy and whether this behavior is mediated by D 1 , or by both D 1 and D 2 DA receptors. Rats were used in the experiments. The authors examined whether the addition of the S 2 antagonist ketanserin affects the displacement of 3 H-Spi by SCH 23390. Induction of self-mutilating biting (SMB) behavior in monkeys with unilateral ventromedial tegmental (VMT) lesions by DA agonists and its prevention by DA antagonists is examined. The authors also discuss the possible relationships between abnormal guanine nucleotide metabolism and dopaminergic neuronal function through the implications in LeschNyhan syndrome and in some mental disorders

  11. Dopamine D2 receptor function is compromised in the brain of the methionine sulfoxide reductase A knockout mouse

    OpenAIRE

    Oien, Derek B.; Ortiz, Andrea N.; Rittel, Alexander G.; Dobrowsky, Rick T.; Johnson, Michael A.; Levant, Beth; Fowler, Stephen C.; Moskovitz, Jackob

    2010-01-01

    Previous research suggests that brain oxidative stress and altered rodent locomotor behavior are linked. We observed bio-behavioral changes in methionine sulfoxide reductase A knockout mice associated with abnormal dopamine signaling. Compromised ability of these knockout mice to reduce methionine sulfoxide enhances accumulation of sulfoxides in proteins. We examined the dopamine D2-receptor function and expression, which has an atypical arrangement and quantity of methionine residues. Indeed...

  12. Dopamine D2 receptor-mediated G-protein activation in rat striatum: functional autoradiography and influence of unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the substantia nigra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman-Tancredi, A; Cussac, D; Brocco, M; Rivet, J M; Chaput, C; Touzard, M; Pasteau, V; Millan, M J

    2001-11-30

    Unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesions of substantia nigra pars compacta (SNPC) neurons in rats induce behavioural hypersensitivity to dopaminergic agonists. However, the role of specific dopamine receptors is unclear, and potential alterations in their transduction mechanisms remain to be evaluated. The present study addressed these issues employing the dopaminergic agonist, quinelorane, which efficaciously stimulated G-protein activation (as assessed by [35S]GTPgammaS binding) at cloned hD2 (and hD3) receptors. At rat striatal membranes, dopamine stimulated [35S]GTPgammaS binding by 1.9-fold over basal, but its actions were only partially reversed by the selective D2/D3 receptor antagonist, raclopride, indicating the involvement of other receptor subtypes. In contrast, quinelorane-induced stimulation (48% of the effect of dopamine) was abolished by raclopride, and by the D2 receptor antagonist, L741,626. Further, novel antagonists selective for D3 and D4 receptors, S33084 and S18126, respectively, blocked the actions of quinelorane at concentrations corresponding to their affinities for D2 receptors. Quinelorane potently induced contralateral rotation in unilaterally 6-OHDA-lesioned rats, an effect abolished by raclopride and L741,626, but not by D3 and D4 receptor-selective doses of S33084 and S18126, respectively. In functional ([35S]GTPgammaS) autoradiography experiments, quinelorane stimulated G-protein activation in caudate putamen and, to a lesser extent, in nucleus accumbens and cingulate cortex of naive rats. In unilaterally SNPC-lesioned rats, quinelorane-induced G-protein activation in the caudate putamen on the non-lesioned side was similar to that seen in naive animals (approximately 50% stimulation), but significantly greater on the lesioned side (approximately 80%). This increase was both pharmacologically and regionally specific since it was reversed by raclopride, and was not observed in nucleus accumbens or cingulate cortex. In conclusion

  13. The Dopamine Imbalance Hypothesis of Fatigue in Multiple Sclerosis and Other Neurological Disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina eDobryakova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue is one of the most pervasive symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS, and has engendered hundreds of investigations on the topic. While there is a growing literature using various methods to study fatigue, a unified theory of fatigue in MS is yet to emerge. In the current review, we synthesize findings from neuroimaging, pharmacological, neuropsychological and immunological studies of fatigue in MS, which point to a specific hypothesis of fatigue in MS: the dopamine imbalance hypothesis. The communication between the striatum and prefrontal cortex is reliant on dopamine, a modulatory neurotransmitter. Neuroimaging findings suggest that fatigue results from the disruption of communication between these regions. Supporting the dopamine imbalance hypothesis, structural and functional neuroimaging studies show abnormalities in the frontal and striatal regions that are heavily innervated by dopamine neurons. Further, dopaminergic psychostimulant medication has been shown to alleviate fatigue in individuals with traumatic brain injury, chronic fatigue syndrome and in cancer patients, also indicating that dopamine might play an important role in fatigue perception. This paper reviews the structural and functional neuroimaging evidence as well as pharmacological studies that suggest that dopamine plays a critical role in the phenomenon of fatigue. We conclude with how specific aspects of the dopamine imbalance hypothesis can be tested in future research.

  14. Stronger Dopamine D1 Receptor-Mediated Neurotransmission in Dyskinesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farré, Daniel; Muñoz, Ana; Moreno, Estefanía; Reyes-Resina, Irene; Canet-Pons, Júlia; Dopeso-Reyes, Iria G; Rico, Alberto J; Lluís, Carme; Mallol, Josefa; Navarro, Gemma; Canela, Enric I; Cortés, Antonio; Labandeira-García, José L; Casadó, Vicent; Lanciego, José L; Franco, Rafael

    2015-12-01

    Radioligand binding assays to rat striatal dopamine D1 receptors showed that brain lateralization of the dopaminergic system were not due to changes in expression but in agonist affinity. D1 receptor-mediated striatal imbalance resulted from a significantly higher agonist affinity in the left striatum. D1 receptors heteromerize with dopamine D3 receptors, which are considered therapeutic targets for dyskinesia in parkinsonian patients. Expression of both D3 and D1-D3 receptor heteromers were increased in samples from 6-hydroxy-dopamine-hemilesioned rats rendered dyskinetic by treatment with 3, 4-dihydroxyphenyl-L-alanine (L-DOPA). Similar findings were obtained using striatal samples from primates. Radioligand binding studies in the presence of a D3 agonist led in dyskinetic, but not in lesioned or L-DOPA-treated rats, to a higher dopamine sensitivity. Upon D3-receptor activation, the affinity of agonists for binding to the right striatal D1 receptor increased. Excess dopamine coming from L-DOPA medication likely activates D3 receptors thus making right and left striatal D1 receptors equally responsive to dopamine. These results show that dyskinesia occurs concurrently with a right/left striatal balance in D1 receptor-mediated neurotransmission.

  15. Development and function of the midbrain dopamine system: what we know and what we need to

    OpenAIRE

    Bissonette, G. B.; Roesch, M. R.

    2015-01-01

    The past two decades have seen an explosion in our understanding of the origin and development of the midbrain dopamine system. Much of this work has been focused on the aspects of dopamine neuron development related to the onset of movement disorders such as Parkinson’s disease, with the intent of hopefully delaying, preventing or fixing symptoms. While midbrain dopamine degeneration is a major focus for treatment and research, many other human disorders are impacted by abnormal dopamine, in...

  16. Abnormal Striatal BOLD Responses to Reward Anticipation and Reward Delivery in ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Emi; Bado, Patricia; Tripp, Gail; Mattos, Paulo; Wickens, Jeff R.; Bramati, Ivanei E.; Alsop, Brent; Ferreira, Fernanda Meireles; Lima, Debora; Tovar-Moll, Fernanda; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Moll, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Altered reward processing has been proposed to contribute to the symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The neurobiological mechanism underlying this alteration remains unclear. We hypothesize that the transfer of dopamine release from reward to reward-predicting cues, as normally observed in animal studies, may be deficient in ADHD. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to investigate striatal responses to reward-predicting cues and reward delivery in a classical conditioning paradigm. Data from 14 high-functioning and stimulant-naïve young adults with elevated lifetime symptoms of ADHD (8 males, 6 females) and 15 well-matched controls (8 males, 7 females) were included in the analyses. During reward anticipation, increased blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) responses in the right ventral and left dorsal striatum were observed in controls, but not in the ADHD group. The opposite pattern was observed in response to reward delivery; the ADHD group demonstrated significantly greater BOLD responses in the ventral striatum bilaterally and the left dorsal striatum relative to controls. In the ADHD group, the number of current hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms was inversely related to ventral striatal responses during reward anticipation and positively associated with responses to reward. The BOLD response patterns observed in the striatum are consistent with impaired predictive dopamine signaling in ADHD, which may explain altered reward-contingent behaviors and symptoms of ADHD. PMID:24586543

  17. Striatal [[sup 11]C]-N-methyl-spiperone binding in patients with focal dystonia (torticollis) using positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leenders, K [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Hartvig, P [Hospital Pharmacy, Univ. Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden); Forsgren, L; Holmgren, G; Almay, B [Dept. of Neurology, Umeaa Univ., Umeaa (Sweden); Eckernaes, S A [Dept. of Neurology, Univ. Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden); Lundqvist, H; Laangstroem, B [Uppsala Univ. PET-Center, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1993-01-01

    Specific binding of [[sup 11]C]-N-methyl-spiperone to striatal dopamine D2 receptors was assessed using positron emission tomography (PET) in 6 patients with adult-onset focal dystonia (predominantly spasmodic torticollis) and in 5 healthy subjects. No significant difference in average specific striatal tracer uptake between patients and healthy subjects was found. However, in the 5 patients showing lateralisation of clinical signs a trend to higher striatal tracer uptake in the contralateral hemisphere was observed. (authors).

  18. A surface acoustic wave sensor functionalized with a polypyrrole molecularly imprinted polymer for selective dopamine detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maouche, Naima; Ktari, Nadia; Bakas, Idriss; Fourati, Najla; Zerrouki, Chouki; Seydou, Mahamadou; Maurel, François; Chehimi, Mohammed Mehdi

    2015-11-01

    A surface acoustic wave sensor operating at 104 MHz and functionalized with a polypyrrole molecularly imprinted polymer has been designed for selective detection of dopamine (DA). Optimization of pyrrole/DA ratio, polymerization and immersion times permitted to obtain a highly selective sensor, which has a sensitivity of 0.55°/mM (≈ 550 Hz/mM) and a detection limit of ≈ 10 nM. Morphology and related roughness parameters of molecularly imprinted polymer surfaces, before and after extraction of DA, as well as that of the non imprinted polymer were characterized by atomic force microscopy. The developed chemosensor selectively recognized dopamine over the structurally similar compound 4-hydroxyphenethylamine (referred as tyramine), or ascorbic acid,which co-exists with DA in body fluids at a much higher concentration. Selectivity tests were also carried out with dihydroxybenzene, for which an unexpected phase variation of order of 75% of the DA one was observed. Quantum chemical calculations, based on the density functional theory, were carried out to determine the nature of interactions between each analyte and the PPy matrix and the DA imprinted PPy polypyrrole sensing layer in order to account for the important phase variation observed during dihydroxybenzene injection. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles with versatile surface functions based on dopamine anchors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Mykola; Barras, Alexandre; Kuncser, Victor; Galatanu, Andrei; Zaitzev, Vladimir; Turcheniuk, Kostiantyn V.; Woisel, Patrice; Lyskawa, Joel; Laure, William; Siriwardena, Aloysius; Boukherroub, Rabah; Szunerits, Sabine

    2013-03-01

    The synthesis of multifunctional magnetic nanoparticles (MF-MPs) is one of the most active research areas in advanced materials as their multifunctional surfaces allow conjugation of biological and chemical molecules, thus making it possible to achieve target-specific diagnostic in parallel to therapeutics. We report here a simple strategy to integrate in a one-step reaction several reactive sites onto the particles. The preparation of MF-MPs is based on their simultaneous modification with differently functionalized dopamine derivatives using simple solution chemistry. The formed MF-MPs show comparable magnetic properties to those of naked nanoparticles with almost unaltered particle size of around 25 nm. The different termini, amine, azide and maleimide functions, enable further functionalization of MF-MPs by the grafting-on approach. Michael addition, Cu(i) catalyzed « click » chemistry and amidation reactions are performed on the MF-MPs integrating subsequently 6-(ferrocenyl)-hexanethiol, horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and mannose.

  20. BMI modulates calorie-dependent dopamine changes in accumbens from glucose intake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gene-Jack Wang

    Full Text Available Dopamine mediates the rewarding effects of food that can lead to overeating and obesity, which then trigger metabolic neuroadaptations that further perpetuate excessive food consumption. We tested the hypothesis that the dopamine response to calorie intake (independent of palatability in striatal brain regions is attenuated with increases in weight.We used positron emission tomography with [11C]raclopride to measure dopamine changes triggered by calorie intake by contrasting the effects of an artificial sweetener (sucralose devoid of calories to that of glucose to assess their association with body mass index (BMI in nineteen healthy participants (BMI range 21-35.Neither the measured blood glucose concentrations prior to the sucralose and the glucose challenge days, nor the glucose concentrations following the glucose challenge vary as a function of BMI. In contrast the dopamine changes in ventral striatum (assessed as changes in non-displaceable binding potential of [11C]raclopride triggered by calorie intake (contrast glucose - sucralose were significantly correlated with BMI (r = 0.68 indicating opposite responses in lean than in obese individuals. Specifically whereas in normal weight individuals (BMI <25 consumption of calories was associated with increases in dopamine in the ventral striatum in obese individuals it was associated with decreases in dopamine.These findings show reduced dopamine release in ventral striatum with calorie consumption in obese subjects, which might contribute to their excessive food intake to compensate for the deficit between the expected and the actual response to food consumption.

  1. DISC1 and striatal volume: a potential risk phenotype for mental illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mallar eChakravarty

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1 was originally discovered in a large Scottish family with abnormally high rates of severe mental illness, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and depression. An accumulating body of evidence from genetic, postmortem, and animal data supports a role for DISC1 in different forms of mental illness. DISC1 may play an important role in determining structure and function of several brain regions. One brain region of particular importance for several mental disorders is the striatum, and DISC1 mutant mice have demonstrated an increase in dopamine (D2 receptors in this structure. However, association between DISC1 functional polymorphisms and striatal structure have not been examined in humans to our knowledge. We, therefore hypothesized that there would be a relationship between human striatal volume and DISC1 genotype, specifically in the Leu607Phe (rs6675281 and Ser704Cys (rs821618 single nucleotide polymorphisms. We tested our hypothesis by automatically identifying the striatum in fifty-four healthy volunteers recruited for this study. We also performed an exploratory analysis of cortical thickness, cortical surface area, and structure volume. Our results demonstrate that Phe allele carriers have larger striatal volume bilaterally (left striatum: p=0.017; right striatum: p=0.016. From the exploratory analyses we found that Phe carriers also had larger right hemisphere volumes and right occipital lobe surface area (p=0.014 compared to LeuLeu homozygotes (p=0.0074. However, these exploratory findings do not survive a conservative correction for multiple comparisons. Our findings demonstrate that a functional DISC1 variant influences striatal volumes. Taken together with animal data that this gene influences D2 receptor levels in striatum, a key risk pathway for mental illnesses such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder may be conferred via DISC1’s effects on the striatum .

  2. Combination of behaviorally sub-effective doses of glutamate NMDA and dopamine D1 receptor antagonists impairs executive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Sagar J; Allman, Brian L; Rajakumar, Nagalingam

    2017-04-14

    Impairment of executive function is a core feature of schizophrenia. Preclinical studies indicate that injections of either N-methyl d-aspartate (NMDA) or dopamine D 1 receptor blockers impair executive function. Despite the prevailing notion based on postmortem findings in schizophrenia that cortical areas have marked suppression of glutamate and dopamine, recent in vivo imaging studies suggest that abnormalities of these neurotransmitters in living patients may be quite subtle. Thus, we hypothesized that modest impairments in both glutamate and dopamine function can act synergistically to cause executive dysfunction. In the present study, we investigated the effect of combined administration of "behaviorally sub-effective" doses of NMDA and dopamine D 1 receptor antagonists on executive function. An operant conditioning-based set-shifting task was used to assess behavioral flexibility in rats that were systemically injected with NMDA and dopamine D 1 receptor antagonists individually or in combination prior to task performance. Separate injections of the NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801, and the dopamine D 1 receptor antagonist, SCH 23390, at low doses did not impair set-shifting; however, the combined administration of these same behaviorally sub-effective doses of the antagonists significantly impaired the performance during set-shifting without affecting learning, retrieval of the memory of the initial rule, latency of responses or the number of omissions. The combined treatment also produced an increased number of perseverative errors. Our results indicate that NMDA and D 1 receptor blockade act synergistically to cause behavioral inflexibility, and as such, subtle abnormalities in glutamatergic and dopaminergic systems may act cooperatively to cause deficits in executive function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Increased presynaptic regulation of dopamine neurotransmission in the nucleus accumbens core following chronic ethanol self-administration in female macaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siciliano, Cody A.; Calipari, Erin S.; Yorgason, Jordan T.; Lovinger, David M.; Mateo, Yolanda; Jimenez, Vanessa A.; Helms, Christa M.; Grant, Kathleen A.; Jones, Sara R.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Hypofunction of striatal dopamine neurotransmission, or hypodopaminergia, is a consequence of excessive ethanol use, and is hypothesized to be a critical component of alcoholism, driving alcohol intake in an attempt to restore dopamine levels; however, the neurochemical mechanisms involved in these dopaminergic deficiencies are unknown. Objective Here we examined the specific dopaminergic adaptations that produce hypodopaminergia and contribute to alcohol use disorders using direct, sub-second measurements of dopamine signaling in nonhuman primates following chronic ethanol self-administration. Methods Female rhesus macaques completed one year of daily (22 hr/day) ethanol self-administration. Subsequently, fast-scan cyclic voltammetry was used in nucleus accumbens core brain slices to determine alterations in dopamine terminal function, including release and uptake kinetics, and sensitivity to quinpirole (D2/D3 dopamine receptor agonist) and U50,488 (kappa-opioid receptor agonist) induced inhibition of dopamine release. Results Ethanol drinking greatly increased uptake rates, which were positively correlated with lifetime ethanol intake. Furthermore, the sensitivity of dopamine D2/D3 autoreceptors and kappa-opioid receptors, which both act as negative regulators of presynaptic dopamine release, were moderately and robustly enhanced in ethanol drinkers. Conclusions Greater uptake rates and sensitivity to D2-type autoreceptor and kappa-opioid receptor agonists could converge to drive a hypodopaminergic state, characterized by reduced basal dopamine and an inability to mount appropriate dopaminergic responses to salient stimuli. Together, we outline the specific alterations to dopamine signaling that may drive ethanol-induced hypofunction of the dopamine system, and suggest that the dopamine and dynorphin/kappa-opioid receptor systems may be efficacious pharmcotherapeutic targets in the treatment of alcohol use disorders. PMID:26892380

  4. Increased presynaptic regulation of dopamine neurotransmission in the nucleus accumbens core following chronic ethanol self-administration in female macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siciliano, Cody A; Calipari, Erin S; Yorgason, Jordan T; Lovinger, David M; Mateo, Yolanda; Jimenez, Vanessa A; Helms, Christa M; Grant, Kathleen A; Jones, Sara R

    2016-04-01

    Hypofunction of striatal dopamine neurotransmission, or hypodopaminergia, is a consequence of excessive ethanol use and is hypothesized to be a critical component of alcoholism, driving alcohol intake in an attempt to restore dopamine levels; however, the neurochemical mechanisms involved in these dopaminergic deficiencies are not fully understood. Here we examined the specific dopaminergic adaptations that produce hypodopaminergia and contribute to alcohol use disorders using direct, sub-second measurements of dopamine signaling in nonhuman primates following chronic ethanol self-administration. Female rhesus macaques completed 1 year of daily (22 h/day) ethanol self-administration. Subsequently, fast-scan cyclic voltammetry was used in nucleus accumbens core brain slices to determine alterations in dopamine terminal function, including release and uptake kinetics, and sensitivity to quinpirole (D2/D3 dopamine receptor agonist) and U50,488 (kappa opioid receptor agonist) induced inhibition of dopamine release. Ethanol drinking greatly increased uptake rates, which were positively correlated with lifetime ethanol intake. Furthermore, the sensitivity of dopamine D2/D3 autoreceptors and kappa opioid receptors, which both act as negative regulators of presynaptic dopamine release, was moderately and robustly enhanced in ethanol drinkers. Greater uptake rates and sensitivity to D2-type autoreceptor and kappa opioid receptor agonists could converge to drive a hypodopaminergic state, characterized by reduced basal dopamine and an inability to mount appropriate dopaminergic responses to salient stimuli. Together, we outline the specific alterations to dopamine signaling that may drive ethanol-induced hypofunction of the dopamine system and suggest that the dopamine and dynorphin/kappa opioid receptor systems may be efficacious pharmacotherapeutic targets in the treatment of alcohol use disorders.

  5. Dopamine synapse is a neuroligin-2–mediated contact between dopaminergic presynaptic and GABAergic postsynaptic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchigashima, Motokazu; Ohtsuka, Toshihisa; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Watanabe, Masahiko

    2016-01-01

    Midbrain dopamine neurons project densely to the striatum and form so-called dopamine synapses on medium spiny neurons (MSNs), principal neurons in the striatum. Because dopamine receptors are widely expressed away from dopamine synapses, it remains unclear how dopamine synapses are involved in dopaminergic transmission. Here we demonstrate that dopamine synapses are contacts formed between dopaminergic presynaptic and GABAergic postsynaptic structures. The presynaptic structure expressed tyrosine hydroxylase, vesicular monoamine transporter-2, and plasmalemmal dopamine transporter, which are essential for dopamine synthesis, vesicular filling, and recycling, but was below the detection threshold for molecules involving GABA synthesis and vesicular filling or for GABA itself. In contrast, the postsynaptic structure of dopamine synapses expressed GABAergic molecules, including postsynaptic adhesion molecule neuroligin-2, postsynaptic scaffolding molecule gephyrin, and GABAA receptor α1, without any specific clustering of dopamine receptors. Of these, neuroligin-2 promoted presynaptic differentiation in axons of midbrain dopamine neurons and striatal GABAergic neurons in culture. After neuroligin-2 knockdown in the striatum, a significant decrease of dopamine synapses coupled with a reciprocal increase of GABAergic synapses was observed on MSN dendrites. This finding suggests that neuroligin-2 controls striatal synapse formation by giving competitive advantage to heterologous dopamine synapses over conventional GABAergic synapses. Considering that MSN dendrites are preferential targets of dopamine synapses and express high levels of dopamine receptors, dopamine synapse formation may serve to increase the specificity and potency of dopaminergic modulation of striatal outputs by anchoring dopamine release sites to dopamine-sensing targets. PMID:27035941

  6. Methamphetamine Increases Locomotion and Dopamine Transporter Activity in Dopamine D5 Receptor-Deficient Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Hayashizaki, Seiji; Hirai, Shinobu; Ito, Yumi; Honda, Yoshiko; Arime, Yosefu; Sora, Ichiro; Okado, Haruo; Kodama, Tohru; Takada, Masahiko

    2013-01-01

    Dopamine regulates the psychomotor stimulant activities of amphetamine-like substances in the brain. The effects of dopamine are mediated through five known dopamine receptor subtypes in mammals. The functional relevance of D5 dopamine receptors in the central nervous system is not well understood. To determine the functional relevance of D5 dopamine receptors, we created D5 dopamine receptor-deficient mice and then used these mice to assess the roles of D5 dopamine receptors in the behaviora...

  7. Dopamine D2-like receptors (DRD2 and DRD4) in chickens: Tissue distribution, functional analysis, and their involvement in dopamine inhibition of pituitary prolactin expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Can; Mo, Chunheng; Liu, Haikun; Wu, Chao; Li, Zhengyang; Li, Juan; Wang, Yajun

    2018-04-20

    Dopamine (DA) D2-like (and D1-like) receptors are suggested to mediate the dopamine actions in the anterior pituitary and/or CNS of birds. However, the information regarding the structure, functionality, and expression of avian D2-like receptors have not been fully characterized. In this study, we cloned two D2-like receptors (cDRD2, cDRD4) from chicken brain using RACE PCR. The cloned cDRD4 is a 378-amino acid receptor, which shows 57% amino acid (a.a.) identity with mouse DRD4. As in mammals, two cDRD2 isoforms, cDRD2L (long isoform, 437 a.a.) and cDRD2S (short isoform, 408 a.a.), which differ in their third intracellular loop, were identified in chickens. Using cell-based luciferase reporter assays or Western blot, we demonstrated that cDRD4, cDRD2L and cDRD2S could be activated by dopamine and quinpirole (a D2-like receptor agonist) dose-dependently, and their activation inhibits cAMP signaling pathway and stimulates MAPK/ERK signaling cascade, indicating that they are functional receptors capable of mediating dopamine actions. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that cDRD2 and cDRD4 are widely expressed in chicken tissues with abundant expression noted in anterior pituitary, and their expressions are likely controlled by their promoters near exon 1, as demonstrated by dual-luciferase reporter assays in DF-1 cells. In accordance with cDRD2/cDRD4 expression in the pituitary, DA or quinpirole could partially inhibit vasoactive intestinal peptide-induced prolactin expression in cultured chick pituitary cells. Together, our data proves the functionality of DRD2 and DRD4 in birds and aids to uncover the conserved roles of DA/D2-like receptor system in vertebrates, such as its action on the pituitary. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Basal ganglia disorders associated with imbalances in the striatal striosome and matrix compartments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill R. Crittenden

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The striatum is composed principally of GABAergic, medium spiny projection neurons (MSNs that can be categorized based on their gene expression, electrophysiological profiles and input-output circuits. Major subdivisions of MSN populations include 1 those in ventromedial and dorsolateral striatal regions, 2 those giving rise to the direct and indirect pathways, and 3 those that lie in the striosome and matrix compartments. The first two classificatory schemes have enabled advances in understanding of how basal ganglia circuits contribute to disease. However, despite the large number of molecules that are differentially expressed in the striosomes or the extra-striosomal matrix, and the evidence that these compartments have different input-output connections, our understanding of how this compartmentalization contributes to striatal function is still not clear. A broad view is that the matrix contains the direct and indirect pathway MSNs that form parts of sensorimotor and associative circuits, whereas striosomes contain MSNs that receive input from parts of limbic cortex and project directly or indirectly to the dopamine-containing neurons of the substantia nigra, pars compacta. Striosomes are widely distributed within the striatum and are thought to exert global, as well as local, influences on striatal processing by exchanging information with the surrounding matrix, including through interneurons that send processes into both compartments. It has been suggested that striosomes exert and maintain limbic control over behaviors driven by surrounding sensorimotor and associative parts of the striatal matrix. Consistent with this possibility, imbalances between striosome and matrix functions have been reported in relation to neurological disorders, including Huntington’s disease, L-DOPA-induced dyskinesias, dystonia and drug addiction. Here, we consider how signaling imbalances between the striosomes and matrix might relate to symptomatology in

  9. Rostrocaudal gradients of dopamine D2/3 receptor binding in striatal subregions measured with [11C]raclopride and high-resolution positron emission tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alakurtti, Kati; Johansson, Jarkko J; Tuokkola, Terhi

    2013-01-01

    scanned with brain-dedicated high-resolution research tomography (HRRT, Siemens Medical Solutions, Knoxville, TN, USA) and [(11)C]raclopride. Coronally defined regions of interest (ROIs) of the caudate nucleus, putamen and ventral striatum (VST) were sampled plane-by-plane, 1.5mm apart, on spatially...... observed in the VST. The novelty of this study lies in the presentation, for the first time, of the D2/3 receptor binding gradients in each striatal subregion in the brains of living healthy humans. The high spatial resolution provided by HRRT enables frequent sampling of BPND along the longitudinal extent...

  10. [{sup 99m}Tc]TRODAT-1: a novel technetium-99m complex as a dopamine transporter imaging agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meiping, Kung [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (United States); Stevenson, D A [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (United States); Ploessl, K [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (United States); Meegalla, S K [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (United States); Beckwith, A [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (United States); Essman, W D [Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (United States); Mu, M [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (United States); Lucki, I [Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (United States); [Department of Pharmacology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (United States); Kung, H F [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (United States); [Department of Pharmacology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Technetium-99m is the most commonly used radionuclide in routine nuclear medicine imaging procedures. Development of {sup 99m}Tc-labeled receptor-specific imaging agents for studying the central nervous system is potentially useful for evaluation of brain function in normal and disease states. A novel {sup 99m}Tc-labeled tropane derivative, [{sup 99m}Tc]TRODAT-1, which is useful as a potential CNS dopamine transporter imaging agent, was evaluated and characterized. After i.v. injection into rats, [{sup 99m}Tc]TRODAT-1 displayed specific brain uptake in the rat striatal region (striatum-cerebellum/cerebellum ratio 1.8 at 60 min), where dopamine neurons are concentrated. The specific striatal uptake could be blocked by pretreating rats with a dose of competing dopamine transporter ligand, {beta}-CIT (or RTI-55, i.v., 1 mg/kg). However, the specific striatal uptake of [{sup 99m}Tc]TRODAT-1 was not affected by co-injection of excess free ligand (TRODAT-1, up to 200 {mu}g per rat) or by pretreating the rats with haloperidol (i.v., 1 mg/kg). The specific uptake in striatal regions of rats that had prior 6-hydroxydopamine lesion in the substantia nigra area showed a dramatic reduction. The radioactive material recovered from the rat striatal homogenates at 60 min after i.v. injection of [{sup 99m}Tc]TRODAT-1 showed primarily the original compound (>95%), a good indication of in vivo stability in brain tissue. Similar and comparable organ distribution patterns and brain regional uptakes of [{sup 99m}Tc]TRODAT-1 were obtained for male and female rats. (orig./AJ). With 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. [99mTc[TRODAT-1: a novel technetium-99m complex as a dopamine transporter imaging agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kung Meiping; Stevenson, D.A.; Ploessl, K.; Meegalla, S.K.; Beckwith, A.; Essman, W.D.; Mu, M.; Lucki, I.; Kung, H.F.

    1997-01-01

    Technetium-99m is the most commonly used radionuclide in routine nuclear medicine imaging procedures. Development of 99m Tc-labeled receptor-specific imaging agents for studying the central nervous system is potentially useful for evaluation of brain function in normal and disease states. A novel 99m Tc-labeled tropane derivative, [ 99m Tc[TRODAT-1, which is useful as a potential CNS dopamine transporter imaging agent, was evaluated and characterized. After i.v. injection into rats, [ 99m Tc[TRODAT-1 displayed specific brain uptake in the rat striatal region (striatum-cerebellum/cerebellum ratio 1.8 at 60 min), where dopamine neurons are concentrated. The specific striatal uptake could be blocked by pretreating rats with a dose of competing dopamine transporter ligand, β-CIT (or RTI-55, i.v., 1 mg/kg). However, the specific striatal uptake of [ 99m Tc[TRODAT-1 was not affected by co-injection of excess free ligand (TRODAT-1, up to 200 μg per rat) or by pretreating the rats with haloperidol (i.v., 1 mg/kg). The specific uptake in striatal regions of rats that had prior 6-hydroxydopamine lesion in the substantia nigra area showed a dramatic reduction. The radioactive material recovered from the rat striatal homogenates at 60 min after i.v. injection of [ 99m Tc[TRODAT-1 showed primarily the original compound (>95%), a good indication of in vivo stability in brain tissue. Similar and comparable organ distribution patterns and brain regional uptakes of [ 99m Tc[TRODAT-1 were obtained for male and female rats. (orig./AJ). With 4 figs., 6 tabs

  12. Limonene inhibits methamphetamine-induced locomotor activity via regulation of 5-HT neuronal function and dopamine release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Jaesuk

    2014-05-15

    Methamphetamine is a psychomotor stimulant that produces hyperlocomotion in rodents. Limonene (a cyclic terpene from citrus essential oils) has been reported to induce sedative effects. In this study, we demonstrated that limonene administration significantly inhibited serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT)-induced head twitch response in mice. In rats, pretreatment with limonene decreased hyperlocomotion induced by methamphetamine injection. In addition, limonene reversed the increase in dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens of rats given methamphetamine. These results suggest that limonene may inhibit stimulant-induced behavioral changes via regulating dopamine levels and 5-HT receptor function. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Increased Motor Activity During REM Sleep Is Linked with Dopamine Function in Idiopathic REM Sleep Behavior Disorder and Parkinson Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoetmulder, Marielle; Nikolic, Miki; Biernat, Heidi B

    2016-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia characterized by impaired motor inhibition during REM sleep, and dream-enacting behavior. RBD is especially associated with α-synucleinopathies, such as Parkinson disease (PD). Follow-up studies have shown......-FP-CIT uptake in the putamen. In PD patients, EMG-activity was correlated to anti-Parkinson medication. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the hypothesis that increased EMG-activity during REM sleep is at least partly linked to the nigrostriatal dopamine system in iRBD, and with dopamine function in PD....... the relation between this system and electromyographic (EMG) activity during sleep. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between the nigrostriatal dopamine system and muscle activity during sleep in iRBD and PD. METHODS: 10 iRBD patients, 10 PD patients with PD, 10 PD patients...

  14. Increased Motor Activity During REM Sleep Is Linked with Dopamine Function in Idiopathic REM Sleep Behaviour Disorder and Parkinson Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoetmulder, Marielle; Nikolic, Miki; Biernat, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia characterized by impaired motor inhibition during REM sleep, and dream-enacting behavior. RBD is especially associated with α-synucleinopathies, such as Parkinson disease (PD). Follow-up studies have shown...... in the putamen. In PD patients, EMG-activity was correlated to anti-Parkinson medication. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the hypothesis that increased EMG-activity during REM sleep is at least partly linked to the nigrostriatal dopamine system in iRBD, and with dopamine function in PD....... the relation between this system and electromyographic (EMG) activity during sleep. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between the nigrostriatal dopamine system and muscle activity during sleep in iRBD and PD. METHODS: 10 iRBD patients, 10 PD patients with PD, 10 PD patients...

  15. Development and function of the midbrain dopamine system: what we know and what we need to.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissonette, G B; Roesch, M R

    2016-01-01

    The past two decades have seen an explosion in our understanding of the origin and development of the midbrain dopamine system. Much of this work has been focused on the aspects of dopamine neuron development related to the onset of movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease, with the intent of hopefully delaying, preventing or fixing symptoms. While midbrain dopamine degeneration is a major focus for treatment and research, many other human disorders are impacted by abnormal dopamine, including drug addiction, autism and schizophrenia. Understanding dopamine neuron ontogeny and how dopamine connections and circuitry develops may provide us with key insights into potentially important avenues of research for other dopamine-related disorders. This review will provide a brief overview of the major molecular and genetic players throughout the development of midbrain dopamine neurons and what we know about the behavioral- and disease-related implications associated with perturbations to midbrain dopamine neuron development. We intend to combine the knowledge of two broad fields of neuroscience, both developmental and behavioral, with the intent on fostering greater discussion between branches of neuroscience in the service of addressing complex cognitive questions from a developmental perspective and identifying important gaps in our knowledge for future study. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  16. Microwave-assisted deposition of silver nanoparticles on bamboo pulp fabric through dopamine functionalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Linghui [College of Light Industry, Textile and Food Engineering, Sichuan University, No.24 South Section 1, Yihuan Road, Chengdu (China); Guo, Ronghui, E-mail: ronghuiguo214@126.com [College of Light Industry, Textile and Food Engineering, Sichuan University, No.24 South Section 1, Yihuan Road, Chengdu (China); Lan, Jianwu [College of Light Industry, Textile and Food Engineering, Sichuan University, No.24 South Section 1, Yihuan Road, Chengdu (China); Jiang, Shouxiang [Institute of Textiles and Clothing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Lin, Shaojian [Institute for Technical and Macromolecular Chemistry, University of Hamburg Bundesstrasse 45, D-20146 Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Silver nanoparticles were synthesized on bamboo pulp fabric using dopamine as an adhesive and reducing agent under microwave radiation. • Silver coated bamboo pulp fabric modified with dopamine has good UV protection and hydrophobic property. • Silver nanoparticles can be strongly fixed on dopamine modified bamboo pulp fabric. - Abstract: Silver nanoparticles were synthesized on bamboo pulp fabric with dopamine as the adhesive and reducing agent under microwave radiation. The silver nanoparticle coated bamboo pulp fabrics were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction. Ultraviolet (UV) protection, color and water contact angles of the silver nanoparticle coated bamboo pulp fabrics were evaluated. In addition, the influences of concentrations of dopamine and treatment time on color strength (K/S values) of the silver nanoparticle coated fabric were investigated. Fastness to washing was employed to evaluate the adhesive strength between the silver coating and the bamboo pulp fabric modified with dopamine. The results show that the dopamine modified bamboo pulp fabric is evenly covered with silver nanoparticles. The silver nanoparticle coated bamboo pulp fabric modified with dopamine shows the excellent UV protection with an ultraviolet protection factor of 157.75 and the hydrophobicity with a water contact angle of 132.4°. In addition, the adhesive strength between the silver nanoparticles and bamboo pulp fabric is significantly improved. Silver nanoparticles coating on bamboo pulp fabric modified with dopamine is environmentally friendly, easy to carry out and highly efficient.

  17. A targeted drug delivery system based on dopamine functionalized nano graphene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoudipour, Elham; Kashanian, Soheila; Maleki, Nasim

    2017-01-01

    The cellular targeting property of a biocompatible drug delivery system can widely increase the therapeutic effect against various diseases. Here, we report a dopamine conjugated nano graphene oxide (DA-nGO) carrier for cellular delivery of the anticancer drug, Methotrexate (MTX) into DA receptor positive human breast adenocarcinoma cell line. The material was characterized using scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and UV-vis spectroscopy. Furthermore, the antineoplastic action of MTX loaded DA-nGO against DA receptor positive and negative cell lines were explored. The results presented in this article demonstrated that the application of DA functionalized GO as a targeting drug carrier can improve the drug delivery efficacy for DA receptor positive cancer cell lines and promise future designing of carrier conjugates based on it.

  18. Norepinephrine versus dopamine and their interaction in modulating synaptic function in the prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Bo; Li, Yan-Chun; Gao, Wen-Jun

    2016-06-15

    Among the neuromodulators that regulate prefrontal cortical circuit function, the catecholamine transmitters norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) stand out as powerful players in working memory and attention. Perturbation of either NE or DA signaling is implicated in the pathogenesis of several neuropsychiatric disorders, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), schizophrenia, and drug addiction. Although the precise mechanisms employed by NE and DA to cooperatively control prefrontal functions are not fully understood, emerging research indicates that both transmitters regulate electrical and biochemical aspects of neuronal function by modulating convergent ionic and synaptic signaling in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). This review summarizes previous studies that investigated the effects of both NE and DA on excitatory and inhibitory transmissions in the prefrontal cortical circuitry. Specifically, we focus on the functional interaction between NE and DA in prefrontal cortical local circuitry, synaptic integration, signaling pathways, and receptor properties. Although it is clear that both NE and DA innervate the PFC extensively and modulate synaptic function by activating distinctly different receptor subtypes and signaling pathways, it remains unclear how these two systems coordinate their actions to optimize PFC function for appropriate behavior. Throughout this review, we provide perspectives and highlight several critical topics for future studies. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Noradrenergic System. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrest produces a chronic striatal hyperdopaminergic state that is worsened by methylphenidate treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nora, Gerald J; Harun, Rashed; Fine, David F; Hutchison, Daniel; Grobart, Adam C; Stezoski, Jason P; Munoz, Miranda J; Kochanek, Patrick M; Leak, Rehana K; Drabek, Tomas; Wagner, Amy K

    2017-07-01

    Cardiac arrest survival rates have improved with modern resuscitation techniques, but many survivors experience impairments associated with hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HIBI). Currently, little is understood about chronic changes in striatal dopamine (DA) systems after HIBI. Given the common empiric clinical use of DA enhancing agents in neurorehabilitation, investigation evaluating dopaminergic alterations after cardiac arrest (CA) is necessary to optimize rehabilitation approaches. We hypothesized that striatal DA neurotransmission would be altered chronically after ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrest (VF-CA). Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry was used with median forebrain bundle (MFB) maximal electrical stimulations (60Hz, 10s) in rats to characterize presynaptic components of DA neurotransmission in the dorsal striatum (D-Str) and nucleus accumbens 14 days after a 5-min VF-CA when compared to Sham or Naïve. VF-CA increased D-Str-evoked overflow [DA], total [DA] released, and initial DA release rate versus controls, despite also increasing maximal velocity of DA reuptake (V max ). Methylphenidate (10 mg/kg), a DA transporter inhibitor, was administered to VF-CA and Shams after establishing a baseline, pre-drug 60 Hz, 5 s stimulation response. Methylphenidate increased initial evoked overflow [DA] more-so in VF-CA versus Sham and reduced D-Str V max in VF-CA but not Shams; these findings are consistent with upregulated striatal DA transporter in VF-CA versus Sham. Our work demonstrates that 5-min VF-CA increases electrically stimulated DA release with concomitant upregulation of DA reuptake 2 weeks after brief VF-CA insult. Future work should elucidate how CA insult duration, time after insult, and insult type influence striatal DA neurotransmission and related cognitive and motor functions. © 2017 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  20. Opposite Effects of Stimulant and Antipsychotic Drugs on Striatal Fast-Spiking Interneurons

    OpenAIRE

    Wiltschko, Alexander B; Pettibone, Jeffrey R; Berke, Joshua D

    2010-01-01

    Psychomotor stimulants and typical antipsychotic drugs have powerful but opposite effects on mood and behavior, largely through alterations in striatal dopamine signaling. Exactly how these drug actions lead to behavioral change is not well understood, as previous electrophysiological studies have found highly heterogeneous changes in striatal neuron firing. In this study, we examined whether part of this heterogeneity reflects the mixture of distinct cell types present in the striatum, by di...

  1. Dopamine agonist activity of EMD 23,448

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, G E; Pettibone, D J [Merck Sharp and Dohme Research Laboratories, West Point, Pennsylvania (USA). Dept. of Pharmacology

    1985-01-01

    EMD 23,448 was examined in tests of dopaminergic function and was found to be an atypical dopamine (DA) agonist. EMD 23,448 was a weak or inactive DA agonist when examined in tests of normal postsynaptic DA receptor function: production of stereotypy in the rat (ED/sub 50/ greater than sign 5.0 mg/kg.i.p.); production of emesis in beagles (minimum effective dose = 81..mu..g/kg i.v.); and, enhanced locomotor activity of the mouse (no excitation in doses <=50 mg/i.p.). Moreover, EMD 23,448 was relatively weak in competing for (/sup 3/H)-apomorphine binding to rat striatal membranes (Ki, 205 nM). On the other hand, this indolyl-3-butylamine did activate supersensitive postsynaptic DA receptors. Specifically, it elicited contralateral turning in rats with a unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesion of the substantia nigra (ED/sub 50/ value = 0.9 mg/kg) and did elicit stereotypy in rats given chronic daily haloperidol treatments. EMD 23,448 also exerted pharmacological effects in tests designed to measure activation of dopamine autoreceptors. It inhibited the ..gamma..-butyrolactone-induced increase in striatal dopa levels (ED/sub 50/ = 1 mg/kg i.p.) and produced a dose-related fall in the locomotor activity of the mouse. The results are discussed and contrasted with data derived for apomorphine and the putatively selective autoreceptor agonist (+-)-3-PPP.

  2. Dopamine agonist activity of EMD 23,448

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, G.E.; Pettibone, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    EMD 23,448 was examined in tests of dopaminergic function and was found to be an atypical dopamine (DA) agonist. EMD 23,448 was a weak or inactive DA agonist when examined in tests of normal postsynaptic DA receptor function: production of stereotypy in the rat (ED 50 greater than sign 5.0 mg/kg.i.p.); production of emesis in beagles (minimum effective dose = 81μg/kg i.v.); and, enhanced locomotor activity of the mouse (no excitation in doses 3 H]-apomorphine binding to rat striatal membranes (Ki, 205 nM). On the other hand, this indolyl-3-butylamine did activate supersensitive postsynaptic DA receptors. Specifically, it elicited contralateral turning in rats with a unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesion of the substantia nigra (ED 50 value = 0.9 mg/kg) and did elicit stereotypy in rats given chronic daily haloperidol treatments. EMD 23,448 also exerted pharmacological effects in tests designed to measure activation of dopamine autoreceptors. It inhibited the γ-butyrolactone-induced increase in striatal dopa levels (ED 50 = 1 mg/kg i.p.) and produced a dose-related fall in the locomotor activity of the mouse. The results are discussed and contrasted with data derived for apomorphine and the putatively selective autoreceptor agonist (+-)-3-PPP. (Author)

  3. Donor dopamine treatment in brain dead rats is associated with an improvement in renal function early after transplantation and a reduction in renal inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeger, Simone; Reisenbuechler, Anke; Gottmann, Uwe; Doyon, Fabian; Braun, Claude; Kaya, Ziya; Seelen, Marc A.; van Son, Willem J.; Waldherr, Ruediger; Schnuelle, Peter; Yard, Benito A.

    Brain death (BD) is associated with tissue inflammation. As dopamine treatment of BD donor rats reduces renal monocyte infiltration, we tested if this treatment affects renal function and inflammation in recipients. BD was induced in F344 rats and was maintained for 6 h in all experiments. Dopamine

  4. Multigenerational effects of adolescent morphine exposure on dopamine D2 receptor function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, John J; Johnson, Nicole L; Carini, Lindsay M; Byrnes, Elizabeth M

    2013-05-01

    The use and misuse of prescription opiates in adolescent populations, and in particular, adolescent female populations, has increased dramatically in the past two decades. Given the significant role that opioids play in neuroendocrine function, exposure to opiates during this critical developmental period could have significant consequences for the female, as well as her offspring. In the current set of studies, we utilized the female rat to model the transgenerational impact of adolescent opiate exposure. We examined locomotor sensitization in response to the dopamine D2/D3 receptor agonist quinpirole in the adult male progeny (F1 and F2 generations) of females exposed to morphine during adolescence. All females were drug-free for at least 3 weeks prior to conception, eliminating the possibility of direct fetal exposure to morphine. Both F1 and F2 progeny of morphine-exposed females demonstrated attenuated locomotor sensitization following repeated quinpirole administration. These behavioral effects were coupled with increased quinpirole-induced corticosterone secretion and upregulated kappa opioid receptor and dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) gene expression within the nucleus accumbens. These results suggest significant modifications in response to repeated D2R activation in the progeny of females exposed to opiates during adolescence. Given the significant role that the D2R plays in psychopathology, adolescent opiate exposure could shift the vulnerability of future offspring to psychological disorders, including addiction. Moreover, that effects are also observed in the F2 generation suggests that adolescent opiate exposure can trigger transgenerational epigenetic modifications impacting systems critical for motivated behavior.

  5. Dopamine modulates risk-taking as a function of baseline sensation-seeking trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, Agnes; Manohar, Sanjay; Rogers, Robert D; Husain, Masud

    2013-08-07

    Trait sensation-seeking, defined as a need for varied, complex, and intense sensations, represents a relatively underexplored hedonic drive in human behavioral neuroscience research. It is related to increased risk for a range of behaviors including substance use, gambling, and risky sexual practice. Individual differences in self-reported sensation-seeking have been linked to brain dopamine function, particularly at D2-like receptors, but so far no causal evidence exists for a role of dopamine in sensation-seeking behavior in humans. Here, we investigated the effects of the selective D2/D3 agonist cabergoline on performance of a probabilistic risky choice task in healthy humans using a sensitive within-subject, placebo-controlled design. Cabergoline significantly influenced the way participants combined different explicit signals regarding probability and loss when choosing between response options associated with uncertain outcomes. Importantly, these effects were strongly dependent on baseline sensation-seeking score. Overall, cabergoline increased sensitivity of choice to information about probability of winning; while decreasing discrimination according to magnitude of potential losses associated with different options. The largest effects of the drug were observed in participants with lower sensation-seeking scores. These findings provide evidence that risk-taking behavior in humans can be directly manipulated by a dopaminergic drug, but that the effectiveness of such a manipulation depends on baseline differences in sensation-seeking trait. This emphasizes the importance of considering individual differences when investigating manipulation of risky decision-making, and may have relevance for the development of pharmacotherapies for disorders involving excessive risk-taking in humans, such as pathological gambling.

  6. Individual differences in impulsive action and dopamine transporter function in rat orbitofrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, J R; Darna, M; Beckmann, J S; Dwoskin, L P; Bardo, M T

    2016-01-28

    Impulsivity, which can be subdivided into impulsive action and impulsive choice, is implicated as a factor underlying drug abuse vulnerability. Although previous research has shown that dopamine (DA) systems in prefrontal cortex are involved in impulsivity and substance abuse, it is not known if inherent variation in DA transporter (DAT) function contributes to impulsivity. The current study determined if individual differences in either impulsive action or impulsive choice are related to DAT function in orbitofrontal (OFC) and/or medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Rats were first tested both for impulsive action in a cued go/no-go task and for impulsive choice in a delay-discounting task. Following behavioral evaluation, in vitro [(3)H]DA uptake assays were performed in OFC and mPFC isolated from individual rats. Vmax in OFC, but not mPFC, was correlated with performance in the cued go/no-go task, with decreased OFC DAT function being associated with high impulsive action. In contrast, Vmax in OFC and mPFC was not correlated with performance in the delay-discounting task. The current results demonstrate that impulsive behavior in cued go/no-go performance is associated with decreased DAT function in OFC, suggesting that hyperdopaminergic tone in this prefrontal subregion mediates, at least in part, increased impulsive action. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Elaboration de plateformes biomimétiques à base de dopamine pour la fonctionnalisation du titane Elaboration of biomimetic dopamine platforms for the functionalization of titanium surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laure William

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available L'étude concerne la fonctionnalisation de surfaces à base de titane à partir d'une ancre chimique biomimétique modifiable chimiquement, la dopamine, dans le but de concevoir des biomatériaux utilisables en tant que dispositifs implantables. Deux approches différentes de greffage par la stratégie «graft to» sont proposées. La première consiste en la synthèse et l'immobilisation sur les surfaces de titane de polymères parfaitement définis et stimulables fonctionnalisés par un motif catéchol en extrémité de chaîne. La seconde propose de modifier préalablement la surface par une ancre chimique spécifique intégrant un motif catéchol d'une part et un motif furane ou maléimide d'autre part permettant d'engager sur demande une réaction réversible de cycloaddition de type Diels Alder (DA avec une large gamme de molécules ou polymères fonctionnalisés par l'entité complémentaire. The aim of this study concerns the functionalization of titanium surfaces by using versatile dopamine based on biomimetic anchors. This general concept was exploited to design new biomaterials which might be used as medical implants. In this context, two different grafting strategies based onto the “grafting to” approach were developed. The first one consisted on the synthesis and the immobilization of well-defined catechol end-functionalized polymers onto titanium surfaces. The second strategy was based on the functionalization of titanium surfaces by using dopamine derivates containing, on the one hand, a catechol unit for surface attachment and, on the other hand, a furan or a maleimide moiety able to react, on demand, through reversible Diels Alder (DA reaction.

  8. Donor Preconditioning After the Onset of Brain Death With Dopamine Derivate n-Octanoyl Dopamine Improves Early Posttransplant Graft Function in the Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S; Korkmaz-Icöz, S; Radovits, T; Ruppert, M; Spindler, R; Loganathan, S; Hegedűs, P; Brlecic, P; Theisinger, B; Theisinger, S; Höger, S; Brune, M; Lasitschka, F; Karck, M; Yard, B; Szabó, G

    2017-07-01

    Heart transplantation is the therapy of choice for end-stage heart failure. However, hemodynamic instability, which has been demonstrated in brain-dead donors (BDD), could also affect the posttransplant graft function. We tested the hypothesis that treatment of the BDD with the dopamine derivate n-octanoyl-dopamine (NOD) improves donor cardiac and graft function after transplantation. Donor rats were given a continuous intravenous infusion of either NOD (0.882 mg/kg/h, BDD+NOD, n = 6) or a physiological saline vehicle (BDD, n = 9) for 5 h after the induction of brain death by inflation of a subdural balloon catheter. Controls were sham-operated (n = 9). In BDD, decreased left-ventricular contractility (ejection fraction; maximum rate of rise of left-ventricular pressure; preload recruitable stroke work), relaxation (maximum rate of fall of left-ventricular pressure; Tau), and increased end-diastolic stiffness were significantly improved after the NOD treatment. Following the transplantation, the NOD-treatment of BDD improved impaired systolic function and ventricular relaxation. Additionally, after transplantation increased interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor TNF-α, NF-kappaB-p65, and nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB-p105 gene expression, and increased caspase-3, TNF-α and NF-kappaB protein expression could be significantly downregulated by the NOD treatment compared to BDD. BDD postconditioning with NOD through downregulation of the pro-apoptotic factor caspase-3, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and NF-kappaB may protect the heart against the myocardial injuries associated with brain death and ischemia/reperfusion. © 2017 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  9. Dopamine Transporters in Striatum Correlate with Deactivation in the Default Mode Network during Visuospatial Attention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomasi, D.; Fowler, J.; Tomasi, D.; Volkow, N.D.; Wang, R.L.; Telang, F.; Wang, Chang L.; Ernst, T.; Fowler, J.S.

    2009-01-01

    Dopamine and dopamine transporters (DAT, which regulate extracellular dopamine in the brain) are implicated in the modulation of attention but their specific roles are not well understood. Here we hypothesized that dopamine modulates attention by facilitation of brain deactivation in the default mode network (DMN). Thus, higher striatal DAT levels, which would result in an enhanced clearance of dopamine and hence weaker dopamine signals, would be associated to lower deactivation in the DMN during an attention task. For this purpose we assessed the relationship between DAT in striatum (measured with positron emission tomography and [ 11 C]cocaine used as DAT radiotracer) and brain activation and deactivation during a parametric visual attention task (measured with blood oxygenation level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging) in healthy controls. We show that DAT availability in caudate and putamen had a negative correlation with deactivation in ventral parietal regions of the DMN (precuneus, BA 7) and a positive correlation with deactivation in a small region in the ventral anterior cingulate gyrus (BA 24/32). With increasing attentional load, DAT in caudate showed a negative correlation with load-related deactivation increases in precuneus. These findings provide evidence that dopamine transporters modulate neural activity in the DMN and anterior cingulate gyrus during visuospatial attention. Our findings suggest that dopamine modulates attention in part by regulating neuronal activity in posterior parietal cortex including precuneus (region involved in alertness) and cingulate gyrus (region deactivated in proportion to emotional interference). These findings suggest that the beneficial effects of stimulant medications (increase dopamine by blocking DAT) in inattention reflect in part their ability to facilitate the deactivation of the DMN.

  10. A neurobehavioral examination of individuals with high-functioning autism and Asperger's disorder using a fronto-striatal model of dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinehart, Nicole J; Bradshaw, John L; Tonge, Bruce J; Brereton, Avril V; Bellgrove, Mark A

    2002-06-01

    The repetitive, stereotyped, and obsessive behaviors that characterize autism may in part be attributable to disruption of the region of the fronto-striatal system, which mediates executive abilities. Neuropsychological testing has shown that children with autism exhibit set-shifting deficiencies on tests such as the Wisconsin Card Sorting task but show normal inhibitory ability on variants of the Stroop color-word test. According to Minshew and Goldstein's multiple primary deficit theory, the complexity of the executive functioning task is important in determining the performance of individuals with autism. This study employed a visual-spatial task (with a Stroop-type component) to examine the integrity of executive functioning, in particular inhibition, in autism (n = 12) and Asperger's disorder (n = 12) under increasing levels of cognitive complexity. Whereas the Asperger's disorder group performed similarly to age- and IQ-matched control participants, even at the higher levels of cognitive complexity, the high-functioning autism group displayed inhibitory deficits specifically associated with increasing cognitive load.

  11. Imbalanced decision hierarchy in addicts emerging from drug-hijacked dopamine spiraling circuit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Keramati

    Full Text Available Despite explicitly wanting to quit, long-term addicts find themselves powerless to resist drugs, despite knowing that drug-taking may be a harmful course of action. Such inconsistency between the explicit knowledge of negative consequences and the compulsive behavioral patterns represents a cognitive/behavioral conflict that is a central characteristic of addiction. Neurobiologically, differential cue-induced activity in distinct striatal subregions, as well as the dopamine connectivity spiraling from ventral striatal regions to the dorsal regions, play critical roles in compulsive drug seeking. However, the functional mechanism that integrates these neuropharmacological observations with the above-mentioned cognitive/behavioral conflict is unknown. Here we provide a formal computational explanation for the drug-induced cognitive inconsistency that is apparent in the addicts' "self-described mistake". We show that addictive drugs gradually produce a motivational bias toward drug-seeking at low-level habitual decision processes, despite the low abstract cognitive valuation of this behavior. This pathology emerges within the hierarchical reinforcement learning framework when chronic exposure to the drug pharmacologically produces pathologicaly persistent phasic dopamine signals. Thereby the drug hijacks the dopaminergic spirals that cascade the reinforcement signals down the ventro-dorsal cortico-striatal hierarchy. Neurobiologically, our theory accounts for rapid development of drug cue-elicited dopamine efflux in the ventral striatum and a delayed response in the dorsal striatum. Our theory also shows how this response pattern depends critically on the dopamine spiraling circuitry. Behaviorally, our framework explains gradual insensitivity of drug-seeking to drug-associated punishments, the blocking phenomenon for drug outcomes, and the persistent preference for drugs over natural rewards by addicts. The model suggests testable predictions and

  12. Simultaneous 99mTC and 123I Dual-Isotope Brain Striatal Phantom Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography: Validation of 99mTC-Trodat-1 and 123I-IBZM Simultaneous Dopamine System Brain Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Pan-Fu Kao; Shiaw-Pyng Wey; An-Shoei Yang

    2009-01-01

    [2[[2-[[[3-(4-chlorophenyl)-8-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3,2,1]-oct-2-yl]-methyl](2-mercaptoethyl)amino]ethyl]amino]ethanethiolato(3-)-N2,N2′,S2,S2]oxo-[1R-exo-exo)])-[99mTc]-technetium (99mTc-TRODAT-1) and 123I-iodobenzamide (123I-IBZM) are radiotracers for brain dopamine preand postsynaptic neuron imaging. The purpose of this study was to evaluate imaging parameters and crossed energy interference using simultaneous single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) 99mTc and 123I data acquisition...

  13. Preparation and characterization of silver nanoparticles immobilized on multi-walled carbon nanotubes by poly(dopamine) functionalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Yi; Lu Yonglai; Zhang Liqun; Liu Li; Dai Yajie; Wang Wencai

    2012-01-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) functionalized with poly(dopamine) (PDA) were found to cause the immobilization of silver nanoparticles on the surface. The PDA functional layer not only improved the dispersion of MWNTs in aqueous solution, but also was used as a platform for subsequent silver nanoparticle immobilization. The surface morphology of the functionalized MWNTs was observed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that PDA layers with controlled thickness on the nanometer scale were formed on MWNT surfaces by in situ spontaneous oxidative polymerization of dopamine, and that high-density of homogeneously dispersed spherical silver nanoparticles with sizes of 3–4 nm were immobilized on their outer surface. The space between spherical silver nanoparticles is less than 10 nm. Both X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction results showed that the Ag nanoparticles on the surface of hybrids exist in the zero valent state.

  14. Hypercholesterolemia causes psychomotor abnormalities in mice and alterations in cortico-striatal biogenic amine neurotransmitters: Relevance to Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Rajib; Choudhury, Amarendranath; Chandra Boruah, Dulal; Devi, Rajlakshmi; Bhattacharya, Pallab; Choudhury, Manabendra Dutta; Borah, Anupom

    2017-09-01

    The symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) include motor behavioral abnormalities, which appear as a result of the extensive loss of the striatal biogenic amine, dopamine. Various endogenous molecules, including cholesterol, have been put forward as putative contributors in the pathogenesis of PD. Earlier reports have provided a strong link between the elevated level of plasma cholesterol (hypercholesterolemia) and onset of PD. However, the role of hypercholesterolemia on brain functions in terms of neurotransmitter metabolism and associated behavioral manifestations remain elusive. We tested in Swiss albino mice whether hypercholesterolemia induced by high-cholesterol diet would affect dopamine and serotonin metabolism in discrete brain regions that would precipitate in psychomotor behavioral manifestations. High-cholesterol diet for 12 weeks caused a significant increase in blood total cholesterol level, which validated the model as hypercholesterolemic. Tests for akinesia, catalepsy, swimming ability and gait pattern (increased stride length) have revealed that hypercholesterolemic mice develop motor behavioral abnormalities, which are similar to the behavioral phenotypes of PD. Moreover, hypercholesterolemia caused depressive-like behavior in mice, as indicated by the increased immobility time in the forced swim test. We found a significant depletion of dopamine in striatum and serotonin in cortex of hypercholesterolemic mice. The significant decrease in tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity in striatum supports the observed depleted level dopamine in striatum, which is relevant to the pathophysiology of PD. In conclusion, hypercholesterolemia-induced depleted levels of cortical and striatal biogenic amines reported hereby are similar to the PD pathology, which might be associated with the observed psychomotor behavioral abnormalities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Elucidating the impact of neurofibromatosis-1 germline mutations on neurofibromin function and dopamine-based learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasaki, Corina; Woo, Albert S; Messiaen, Ludwine M; Gutmann, David H

    2015-06-15

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a common autosomal dominant neurologic condition characterized by significant clinical heterogeneity, ranging from malignant cancers to cognitive deficits. Recent studies have begun to reveal rare genotype-phenotype correlations, suggesting that the specific germline NF1 gene mutation may be one factor underlying disease heterogeneity. The purpose of this study was to define the impact of the germline NF1 gene mutation on brain neurofibromin function relevant to learning. Herein, we employ human NF1-patient primary skin fibroblasts, induced pluripotent stem cells and derivative neural progenitor cells (NPCs) to demonstrate that NF1 germline mutations have dramatic effects on neurofibromin expression. Moreover, while all NF1-patient NPCs exhibit increased RAS activation and reduced cyclic AMP generation, there was a neurofibromin dose-dependent reduction in dopamine (DA) levels. Additionally, we leveraged two complementary Nf1 genetically-engineered mouse strains in which hippocampal-based learning and memory is DA-dependent to establish that neuronal DA levels and signaling as well as mouse spatial learning are controlled in an Nf1 gene dose-dependent manner. Collectively, this is the first demonstration that different germline NF1 gene mutations differentially dictate neurofibromin function in the brain. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Spontaneous eye blink rate as predictor of dopamine-related cognitive function-A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongkees, Bryant J; Colzato, Lorenza S

    2016-12-01

    An extensive body of research suggests the spontaneous eye blink rate (EBR) is a non-invasive indirect marker of central dopamine (DA) function, with higher EBR predicting higher DA function. In the present review we provide a comprehensive overview of this literature. We broadly divide the available research in studies that aim to disentangle the dopaminergic underpinnings of EBR, investigate its utility in diagnosis of DA-related disorders and responsivity to drug treatment, and, lastly, investigate EBR as predictor of individual differences in DA-related cognitive performance. We conclude (i) EBR can reflect both DA receptor subtype D1 and D2 activity, although baseline EBR might be most strongly related to the latter, (ii) EBR can predict hypo- and hyperdopaminergic activity as well as normalization of this activity following treatment, and (iii) EBR can reliably predict individual differences in performance on many cognitive tasks, in particular those related to reward-driven behavior and cognitive flexibility. In sum, this review establishes EBR as a useful predictor of DA in a wide variety of contexts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Au nanoparticles on tryptophan-functionalized graphene for sensitive detection of dopamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lian, Qianwen; Luo, Ai; An, Zhenzhen; Li, Zhuang; Guo, Yongyang; Zhang, Dongxia; Xue, Zhonghua; Zhou, Xibin; Lu, Xiaoquan

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A novel AuNPs/Trp-GR composite was fabricated by directly electrochemical deposition. • The composite exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity towards DA. • The proposed method was applied to real samples. - Abstract: A novel and uniform gold nanoparticles/tryptophan-functionalized graphene nanocomposite (AuNPs/Trp-GR) has been successfully fabricated by directly electrochemical depositing gold onto the surface of tryptophan-functionalized graphene (Trp-GR). The nanostructure of AuNPs/Trp-GR was characterized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). It was demonstrated that Au nanoparticles were well dispersed on the surface of Trp-GR which might attribute to the more binding sites provided by Trp-GR for the formation of Au nanoparticles. The electrocatalytic activity of the AuNPs/Trp-GR towards the dopamine (DA) was systematically investigated using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). Under optimum conditions, a wide and valuable linear range (0.5–411 μM), a low detection limit (0.056 μM, S/N = 3), good repeatability and stability were obtained for the determination of DA. Furthermore, the modified electrode was successfully applied to real samples analysis

  18. Au nanoparticles on tryptophan-functionalized graphene for sensitive detection of dopamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lian, Qianwen; Luo, Ai; An, Zhenzhen; Li, Zhuang; Guo, Yongyang; Zhang, Dongxia [Key Laboratory of Bioelectrochemistry & Environmental Analysis of Gansu Province, College of Geography and Environment Science, Northwest Normal University, 730070, Lanzhou (China); Xue, Zhonghua [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Northwest Normal University, 730070, Lanzhou (China); Zhou, Xibin, E-mail: zhouxb@nwnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Bioelectrochemistry & Environmental Analysis of Gansu Province, College of Geography and Environment Science, Northwest Normal University, 730070, Lanzhou (China); Lu, Xiaoquan, E-mail: Luxq@nwnu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Northwest Normal University, 730070, Lanzhou (China)

    2015-09-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A novel AuNPs/Trp-GR composite was fabricated by directly electrochemical deposition. • The composite exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity towards DA. • The proposed method was applied to real samples. - Abstract: A novel and uniform gold nanoparticles/tryptophan-functionalized graphene nanocomposite (AuNPs/Trp-GR) has been successfully fabricated by directly electrochemical depositing gold onto the surface of tryptophan-functionalized graphene (Trp-GR). The nanostructure of AuNPs/Trp-GR was characterized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). It was demonstrated that Au nanoparticles were well dispersed on the surface of Trp-GR which might attribute to the more binding sites provided by Trp-GR for the formation of Au nanoparticles. The electrocatalytic activity of the AuNPs/Trp-GR towards the dopamine (DA) was systematically investigated using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). Under optimum conditions, a wide and valuable linear range (0.5–411 μM), a low detection limit (0.056 μM, S/N = 3), good repeatability and stability were obtained for the determination of DA. Furthermore, the modified electrode was successfully applied to real samples analysis.

  19. Dopamine transporter density by [99mTc]-TRODAT-1 SPECT and neurocognitive performance - a preliminary pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih, Ming C; Amaro, Edson Jr; Souza, Sayuri de E

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Cognitive deficits are associated with functional impairment as well as with poor quality of life in Parkinson's disease (PD). The main brain alteration in PD is a progressive loss of nigrostriatal dopamine neurons. Both animal and human studies have demonstrated that basal ganglia dopamine system is important for cognitive and motor functioning. Dopamine transporter (DAT) PET and SPECT radiotracers have been successfully used to estimate, in vivo, dopamine neuronal loss in humans. Objectives: The present study is aimed to examine the relationship between cognitive impairment and striatal dopamine neuronal loss, as estimated by [ 99m Tc]-TRODAT-1 SPECT in PD patients. Methods: Fifteen PD patients were scanned with [ 99m Tc]-TRODAT-1 SPECT (Dual-Head-SPECT Hwakeye, GE). SPECT images were reconstructed with FBP and Butterworth filter 0,40c/px order 10. Regions of interest (ROIs) were striatum (STR) and occipital lobe (BKG nonspecific binding) and were delineated in 3-mm transaxials slices analyzed according to this formula BP=([STR-BKG]/BKG), where BP is the striatal DAT binding potential. Neurocognitive tests, including the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Ravens Progressive Matrices, Digit Span and Tavis 3, were applied to all subjects by trained neuropsychologists. Results: Striatal DAT binding potential (BP) was negatively correlated with the RAVLT tests 4 (R= 0.57, p≤0.05) and 5 (R=0.57, p≤0.05), which evaluate verbal learning. Striatal DAT BP was also negatively correlated with the WCST learning item (R=0.54, p≤0.05) and the Tavis 3 items, action error (R=0.52, p≤0.05) and number of correct responses (R=0.47, p≤0.05). Conclusions: Although preliminary, the present findings suggest that striatal DAT loss is associated with a poorer performance on verbal learning and cognitive flexibility tasks. These results are in line with a previous study that examined healthy volunteers and found a relationship between

  20. Effects of Smoking Cessation on Presynaptic Dopamine Function of Addicted Male Smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rademacher, Lena; Prinz, Susanne; Winz, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is evidence of abnormal cerebral dopamine transmission in nicotine-dependent smokers, but it is unclear whether dopaminergic abnormalities are due to acute nicotine abuse or whether they persist with abstinence. We addressed this question by conducting longitudinal positron...... then underwent cessation treatment, and successful abstainers were re-examined by FDOPA-PET after 3 months of abstinence (n = 15). Uptake of FDOPA was analyzed using a steady-state model yielding estimates of the dopamine synthesis capacity (K); the turnover of tracer dopamine formed in living brain (kloss......); and the tracer distribution volume (Vd), which is an index of dopamine storage capacity. RESULTS: Compared with nonsmokers, K was 15% to 20% lower in the caudate nuclei of consuming smokers. Intraindividual comparisons of consumption and long-term abstinence revealed significant increases in K in the right...

  1. Functionally distinct dopamine signals in nucleus accumbens core and shell in the freely moving rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer, Jakob K.; Vander Weele, Caitlin M.; Lovic, Vedran

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic signaling of mesolimbic dopamine (DA) neurons has been implicated in reward learning, drug abuse, and motivation. However, this system is complex because firing patterns of these neurons are heterogeneous; subpopulations receive distinct synaptic inputs, and project to anatomically...

  2. Effects of milrinone and epinephrine or dopamine on biventricular function and hemodynamics in right heart failure after pulmonary regurgitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyldebrandt, Janus Adler; Agger, Peter; Sivén, Eleonora; Wemmelund, Kristian Borup; Heiberg, Johan; Frederiksen, Christian Alcaraz; Ravn, Hanne Berg

    2015-09-01

    Right ventricular failure (RVF) secondary to pulmonary regurgitation (PR) impairs right ventricular (RV) function and interrupts the interventricular relationship. There are few recommendations for the medical management of severe RVF after prolonged PR. PR was induced in 16 Danish landrace pigs by plication of the pulmonary valve leaflets. Twenty-three pigs served as controls. At reexamination the effect of milrinone, epinephrine, and dopamine was evaluated using biventricular conductance and pulmonary catheters. Seventy-nine days after PR was induced, RV end-diastolic volume index (EDVI) had increased by 33% (P = 0.006) and there was a severe decrease in the load-independent measurement of contractility (PRSW) (-58%; P = 0.003). Lower cardiac index (CI) (-28%; P Milrinone improved RV-PRSW and CI and maintained systemic pressure while reducing central venous pressure (CVP). Epinephrine and dopamine further improved biventricular PRSW and CI equally in a dose-dependent manner. Systemic and pulmonary pressures were higher in the dopamine-treated animals compared with epinephrine-treated animals. None of the treatments improved stroke volume index (SVI) despite increases in contractility. Strong correlation was detected between SVI and LV-EDVI, but not SVI and biventricular contractility. In RVF due to PR, milrinone significantly improved CI, SvO2, and CVP and increased contractility in the RV. Epinephrine and dopamine had equal inotropic effect, but a greater vasopressor effect was observed for dopamine. SV was unchanged due to inability of both treatments to increase LV-EDVI. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Regulation of GABA and benzodiazepine receptors following neurotoxin-induced striatal and medial forebrain bundle lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, H.S.I.

    1985-01-01

    GABA, a major inhibitory transmitter, is used by many projection neurons of the striatum. To investigate the role of GABA in striatal function, the GABA receptor complex was studied after lesions of the striatum or the nigrostriatal neurons. Quantitative receptor autoradiography using thaw-mounted tissue slices was developed for the study of GABA and benzodiazepine (BDZ) receptors. With the technique established, binding to GABA and BDZ receptors after unilateral striatal kainate lesions was examined. Subsequently, changes in GABA and BDZ receptors were studied following the destruction of dopaminergic nigrostriatal cells by unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesion of the medial forebrain bundle. In summary, quantitative receptor autoradiography allowed the detection of GABA and BDZ receptor changes in multiple small areas in each lesioned brain. This technique made it feasible to carry out kinetic saturation, and competition studies using less than 1 mg of tissue. The data suggest that dopamine is functionally inhibitory on striatopallidal neurons but is functionally excitatory on striatoentopeduncular and striatonigral cells which in turn inhibit the thalamus. This quantitative autoradiographic technique can be generalized to study other transmitter receptors and can be combined with 2-deoxyglucose uptake studies

  4. Renal rescue of dopamine D2 receptor function reverses renal injury and high blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konkalmatt, Prasad R.; Asico, Laureano D.; Zhang, Yanrong; Yang, Yu; Drachenberg, Cinthia; Zheng, Xiaoxu; Han, Fei; Jose, Pedro A.; Armando, Ines

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) deficiency increases renal inflammation and blood pressure in mice. We show here that long-term renal-selective silencing of Drd2 using siRNA increases renal expression of proinflammatory and profibrotic factors and blood pressure in mice. To determine the effects of renal-selective rescue of Drd2 expression in mice, the renal expression of DRD2 was first silenced using siRNA and 14 days later rescued by retrograde renal infusion of adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector with DRD2. Renal Drd2 siRNA treatment decreased the renal expression of DRD2 protein by 55%, and DRD2 AAV treatment increased the renal expression of DRD2 protein by 7.5- to 10-fold. Renal-selective DRD2 rescue reduced the expression of proinflammatory factors and kidney injury, preserved renal function, and normalized systolic and diastolic blood pressure. These results demonstrate that the deleterious effects of renal-selective Drd2 silencing on renal function and blood pressure were rescued by renal-selective overexpression of DRD2. Moreover, the deleterious effects of 45-minute bilateral ischemia/reperfusion on renal function and blood pressure in mice were ameliorated by a renal-selective increase in DRD2 expression by the retrograde ureteral infusion of DRD2 AAV immediately after the induction of ischemia/reperfusion injury. Thus, 14 days after ischemia/reperfusion injury, the renal expression of profibrotic factors, serum creatinine, and blood pressure were lower in mice infused with DRD2 AAV than in those infused with control AAV. These results indicate an important role of renal DRD2 in limiting renal injury and preserving normal renal function and blood pressure. PMID:27358912

  5. Insulin, Central Dopamine D2 Receptors, and Monetary Reward Discounting in Obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A Eisenstein

    Full Text Available Animal research finds that insulin regulates dopamine signaling and reward behavior, but similar research in humans is lacking. We investigated whether individual differences in body mass index, percent body fat, pancreatic β-cell function, and dopamine D2 receptor binding were related to reward discounting in obese and non-obese adult men and women. Obese (n = 27; body mass index>30 and non-obese (n = 20; body mass index<30 adults were assessed for percent body fat with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and for β-cell function using disposition index. Choice of larger, but delayed or less certain, monetary rewards relative to immediate, certain smaller monetary rewards was measured using delayed and probabilistic reward discounting tasks. Positron emission tomography using a non-displaceable D2-specific radioligand, [11C](N-methylbenperidol quantified striatal D2 receptor binding. Groups differed in body mass index, percent body fat, and disposition index, but not in striatal D2 receptor specific binding or reward discounting. Higher percent body fat in non-obese women related to preference for a smaller, certain reward over a larger, less likely one (greater probabilistic discounting. Lower β-cell function in the total sample and lower insulin sensitivity in obese related to stronger preference for an immediate and smaller monetary reward over delayed receipt of a larger one (greater delay discounting. In obese adults, higher striatal D2 receptor binding related to greater delay discounting. Interestingly, striatal D2 receptor binding was not significantly related to body mass index, percent body fat, or β-cell function in either group. Our findings indicate that individual differences in percent body fat, β-cell function, and striatal D2 receptor binding may each contribute to altered reward discounting behavior in non-obese and obese individuals. These results raise interesting questions about whether and how striatal D2 receptor binding

  6. alpha7 and non-alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors modulate dopamine release in vitro and in vivo in the rat prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, Phil D; Srinivasan, Jayaraman; Kew, James N C; Dawson, Lee A; Gotti, Cecilia; Moretti, Milena; Shoaib, Mohammed; Wonnacott, Susan

    2009-02-01

    Nicotine enhances attentional and working memory aspects of executive function in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) where dopamine plays a major role. Here, we have determined the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subtypes that can modulate dopamine release in rat PFC using subtype-selective drugs. Nicotine and 5-Iodo-A-85380 (beta2* selective) elicited [(3)H]dopamine release from both PFC and striatal prisms in vitro and dopamine overflow from medial PFC in vivo. Blockade by dihydro-beta-erythroidine supports the participation of beta2* nAChRs. However, insensitivity of nicotine-evoked [(3)H]dopamine release to alpha-conotoxin-MII in PFC prisms suggests no involvement of alpha6beta2* nAChRs, in contrast to the striatum, and this distinction is supported by immunoprecipitation of nAChR subunits from these tissues. The alpha7 nAChR-selective agonists choline and Compound A also promoted dopamine release from PFC in vitro and in vivo, and their effects were enhanced by the alpha7 nAChR-selective allosteric potentiator PNU-120596 and blocked by specific antagonists. DNQX and MK801 inhibited [(3)H]dopamine release evoked by choline and PNU-120596, suggesting crosstalk between alpha7 nAChRs, glutamate and dopamine in the PFC. In vivo, systemic (but not local) administration of PNU-120596, in the absence of agonist, facilitated dopamine overflow in the medial PFC, consistent with the activation of extracortical alpha7 nAChRs by endogenous acetylcholine or choline. These data establish that both beta2* and alpha7 nAChRs can modulate dopamine release in the PFC in vitro and in vivo. Through their distinct actions on dopamine release, these nAChR subtypes could contribute to executive function, making them specific therapeutic targets for conditions such as schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

  7. Dopamine-independent locomotor actions of amphetamines in a novel acute mouse model of Parkinson disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Brain dopamine is critically involved in movement control, and its deficiency is the primary cause of motor symptoms in Parkinson disease. Here we report development of an animal model of acute severe dopamine deficiency by using mice lacking the dopamine transporter. In the absence of transporter-mediated recycling mechanisms, dopamine levels become entirely dependent on de novo synthesis. Acute pharmacological inhibition of dopamine synthesis in these mice induces transient elimination of striatal dopamine accompanied by the development of a striking behavioral phenotype manifested as severe akinesia, rigidity, tremor, and ptosis. This phenotype can be reversed by administration of the dopamine precursor, L-DOPA, or by nonselective dopamine agonists. Surprisingly, several amphetamine derivatives were also effective in reversing these behavioral abnormalities in a dopamine-independent manner. Identification of dopamine transporter- and dopamine-independent locomotor actions of amphetamines suggests a novel paradigm in the search for prospective anti-Parkinsonian drugs.

  8. A new framework for cortico-striatal plasticity: behavioural theory meets in vitro data at the reinforcement-action interface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin N Gurney

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Operant learning requires that reinforcement signals interact with action representations at a suitable neural interface. Much evidence suggests that this occurs when phasic dopamine, acting as a reinforcement prediction error, gates plasticity at cortico-striatal synapses, and thereby changes the future likelihood of selecting the action(s coded by striatal neurons. But this hypothesis faces serious challenges. First, cortico-striatal plasticity is inexplicably complex, depending on spike timing, dopamine level, and dopamine receptor type. Second, there is a credit assignment problem-action selection signals occur long before the consequent dopamine reinforcement signal. Third, the two types of striatal output neuron have apparently opposite effects on action selection. Whether these factors rule out the interface hypothesis and how they interact to produce reinforcement learning is unknown. We present a computational framework that addresses these challenges. We first predict the expected activity changes over an operant task for both types of action-coding striatal neuron, and show they co-operate to promote action selection in learning and compete to promote action suppression in extinction. Separately, we derive a complete model of dopamine and spike-timing dependent cortico-striatal plasticity from in vitro data. We then show this model produces the predicted activity changes necessary for learning and extinction in an operant task, a remarkable convergence of a bottom-up data-driven plasticity model with the top-down behavioural requirements of learning theory. Moreover, we show the complex dependencies of cortico-striatal plasticity are not only sufficient but necessary for learning and extinction. Validating the model, we show it can account for behavioural data describing extinction, renewal, and reacquisition, and replicate in vitro experimental data on cortico-striatal plasticity. By bridging the levels between the single synapse and

  9. Functionalized Ergot-alkaloids as potential dopamine D3 receptor agonists for treatment of schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Bojidarka; Spiteller, Michael

    2012-12-01

    The relationship between the molecular structure and physical properties of functionalized naturally occurred Ergot-alkaloids as potential dopamine D3 receptor agonists is presented. The molecular modeling of the ergoline-skeleton is based on the comprehensive theoretical study of the binding affinity of the isolated chemicals towards the active sites of the D3 sub-type receptor (D3R) loops. The studied proton accepting ability under physiological conditions allows classifying four types of monocationics, characterizing with the different binding modes to D3R involving selected amino acid residues to the active sites. These results marked the pharmaceutical potential and clinical usage of the reported compounds as antipsychotic drugs for Schizophrenia treatment, since they allowed evaluating the highlights of the different hypothesizes of the biochemical causes the illness. The applied complex approach for theoretical and experimental elucidation, including quantum chemistry method, electrospray ionization (ESI) and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometric (MS) methods, nuclear magnetic resonance and vibrational IR and Raman spectroscopy on the isolated fifteen novel derivatives (1)-(15) and their different protonated forms (1a)-(15a) evidenced a strong dependence of molecular conformation, physical properties and binding affinity. Thus, the semi-synthetic functionalization of the naturally occurred products (NPs), provided significant possibilities to further molecular drugs-design and development of novel derivatives with wanted biological function, using the established profile of selected classes/families of NPs. The work described chiefly the non-linear (NL) approach for the interpretation of the mass chromatograms on the performed hybrid high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) tandem MS/MS and MS/MS/MS experiments, discussing the merits and great diversity of instrumentation flexibility, thus achieving fundamental

  10. COBRA: A prospective multimodal imaging study of dopamine, brain structure and function, and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevalainen, N; Riklund, K; Andersson, M; Axelsson, J; Ögren, M; Lövdén, M; Lindenberger, U; Bäckman, L; Nyberg, L

    2015-07-01

    Cognitive decline is a characteristic feature of normal human aging. Previous work has demonstrated marked interindividual variability in onset and rate of decline. Such variability has been linked to factors such as maintenance of functional and structural brain integrity, genetics, and lifestyle. Still, few, if any, studies have combined a longitudinal design with repeated multimodal imaging and a comprehensive assessment of cognition as well as genetic and lifestyle factors. The present paper introduces the Cognition, Brain, and Aging (COBRA) study, in which cognitive performance and brain structure and function are measured in a cohort of 181 older adults aged 64 to 68 years at baseline. Participants will be followed longitudinally over a 10-year period, resulting in a total of three equally spaced measurement occasions. The measurement protocol at each occasion comprises a comprehensive set of behavioral and imaging measures. Cognitive performance is evaluated via computerized testing of working memory, episodic memory, perceptual speed, motor speed, implicit sequence learning, and vocabulary. Brain imaging is performed using positron emission tomography with [(11)C]-raclopride to assess dopamine D2/D3 receptor availability. Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is used for assessment of white and gray-matter integrity and cerebrovascular perfusion, and functional MRI maps brain activation during rest and active task conditions. Lifestyle descriptives are collected, and blood samples are obtained and stored for future evaluation. Here, we present selected results from the baseline assessment along with a discussion of sample characteristics and methodological considerations that determined the design of the study. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Memory & Aging. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Pyrethroid insecticides evoke neurotransmitter release from rabbit striatal slices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eells, J.T.; Dubocovich, M.L.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of the synthetic pyrethroid insecticide fenvalerate ([R,S]-alpha-cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl[R,S]-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-3- methylbutyrate) on neurotransmitter release in rabbit brain slices were investigated. Fenvalerate evoked a calcium-dependent release of [ 3 H]dopamine and [ 3 H]acetylcholine from rabbit striatal slices that was concentration-dependent and specific for the toxic stereoisomer of the insecticide. The release of [ 3 H]dopamine and [ 3 H]acetylcholine by fenvalerate was modulated by D2 dopamine receptor activation and antagonized completely by the sodium channel blocker, tetrodotoxin. These findings are consistent with an action of fenvalerate on the voltage-dependent sodium channels of the presynaptic membrane resulting in membrane depolarization, and the release of dopamine and acetylcholine by a calcium-dependent exocytotic process. In contrast to results obtained in striatal slices, fenvalerate did not elicit the release of [ 3 H]norepinephrine or [ 3 H]acetylcholine from rabbit hippocampal slices indicative of regional differences in sensitivity to type II pyrethroid actions

  12. Cognitive function is related to fronto-striatal serotonin transporter levels--a brain PET study in young healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Karine; Erritzøe, David Frederik; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2011-01-01

    Pharmacological manipulation of serotonergic neurotransmission in healthy volunteers impacts on cognitive test performance. Specifically, markers of serotonin function are associated with attention and executive functioning, long-term memory, and general cognitive ability. The serotonin transporter...

  13. Syntaxin 1A interaction with the dopamine transporter promotes amphetamine-induced dopamine efflux

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binda, Francesca; Dipace, Concetta; Bowton, Erica

    2008-01-01

    of the dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT) as the site of direct interaction with SYN1A. Amphetamine (AMPH) increases the association of SYN1A with human DAT (hDAT) in a heterologous expression system (hDAT cells) and with native DAT in murine striatal synaptosomes. Immunoprecipitation of DAT from the biotinylated...

  14. COMT Val(158) met genotype and striatal D(2/3) receptor binding in adults with 22q11 deletion syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Boot, Erik

    2011-09-01

    Although catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) activity evidently affects dopamine function in prefrontal cortex, the contribution is assumed less significant in striatum. We studied whether a functional polymorphism in the COMT gene (Val(158) Met) influences striatal D(2\\/3) R binding ratios (D(2\\/3) R BP(ND) ) in 15 adults with 22q11 deletion syndrome and hemizygous for this gene, using single photon emission computed tomography and the selective D(2\\/3) radioligand [(123) I]IBZM. Met hemizygotes had significantly lower mean D(2\\/3) R BPND than Val hemizygotes. These preliminary data suggest that low COMT activity may affect dopamine levels in striatum in humans and this may have implications for understanding the contribution of COMT activity to psychiatric disorders.

  15. Epothilone D prevents binge methamphetamine-mediated loss of striatal dopaminergic markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killinger, Bryan A; Moszczynska, Anna

    2016-02-01

    Exposure to binge methamphetamine (METH) can result in a permanent or transient loss of dopaminergic (DAergic) markers such as dopamine (DA), dopamine transporter, and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the striatum. We hypothesized that the METH-induced loss of striatal DAergic markers was, in part, due to a destabilization of microtubules (MTs) in the nigrostriatal DA pathway that ultimately impedes anterograde axonal transport of these markers. To test this hypothesis, adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with binge METH or saline in the presence or absence of epothilone D (EpoD), a MT-stabilizing compound, and assessed 3 days after the treatments for the levels of several DAergic markers as well as for the levels of tubulins and their post-translational modifications (PMTs). Binge METH induced a loss of stable long-lived MTs within the striatum but not within the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). Treatment with a low dose of EpoD increased the levels of markers of stable MTs and prevented METH-mediated deficits in several DAergic markers in the striatum. In contrast, administration of a high dose of EpoD appeared to destabilize MTs and potentiated the METH-induced deficits in several DAergic markers. The low-dose EpoD also prevented the METH-induced increase in striatal DA turnover and increased behavioral stereotypy during METH treatment. Together, these results demonstrate that MT dynamics plays a role in the development of METH-induced losses of several DAergic markers in the striatum and may mediate METH-induced degeneration of terminals in the nigrostriatal DA pathway. Our study also demonstrates that MT-stabilizing drugs such as EpoD have a potential to serve as useful therapeutic agents to restore function of DAergic nerve terminals following METH exposure when administered at low doses. Administration of binge methamphetamine (METH) negatively impacts neurotransmission in the nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) system. The effects of METH include

  16. Altered resting-state functional connectivity of the frontal-striatal reward system in social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Joshua; Reynolds, Gretchen; Saygin, Zeynep M; Hofmann, Stefan G; Pollack, Mark; Gabrieli, John D E; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan

    2015-01-01

    We investigated differences in the intrinsic functional brain organization (functional connectivity) of the human reward system between healthy control participants and patients with social anxiety disorder. Functional connectivity was measured in the resting-state via functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). 53 patients with social anxiety disorder and 33 healthy control participants underwent a 6-minute resting-state fMRI scan. Functional connectivity of the reward system was analyzed by calculating whole-brain temporal correlations with a bilateral nucleus accumbens seed and a ventromedial prefrontal cortex seed. Patients with social anxiety disorder, relative to the control group, had (1) decreased functional connectivity between the nucleus accumbens seed and other regions associated with reward, including ventromedial prefrontal cortex; (2) decreased functional connectivity between the ventromedial prefrontal cortex seed and lateral prefrontal regions, including the anterior and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices; and (3) increased functional connectivity between both the nucleus accumbens seed and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex seed with more posterior brain regions, including anterior cingulate cortex. Social anxiety disorder appears to be associated with widespread differences in the functional connectivity of the reward system, including markedly decreased functional connectivity between reward regions and between reward regions and lateral prefrontal cortices, and markedly increased functional connectivity between reward regions and posterior brain regions.

  17. Cocaine addiction is associated with abnormal prefrontal function, increased striatal connectivity and sensitivity to monetary incentives, and decreased connectivity outside the human reward circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaquero, Lucía; Cámara, Estela; Sampedro, Frederic; Pérez de Los Cobos, José; Batlle, Francesca; Fabregas, Josep Maria; Sales, Joan Artur; Cervantes, Mercè; Ferrer, Xavier; Lazcano, Gerardo; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni; Riba, Jordi

    2017-05-01

    Cocaine addiction has been associated with increased sensitivity of the human reward circuit to drug-related stimuli. However, the capacity of non-drug incentives to engage this network is poorly understood. Here, we characterized the functional sensitivity to monetary incentives and the structural integrity of the human reward circuit in abstinent cocaine-dependent (CD) patients and their matched controls. We assessed the BOLD response to monetary gains and losses in 30 CD patients and 30 healthy controls performing a lottery task in a magnetic resonance imaging scanner. We measured brain gray matter volume (GMV) using voxel-based morphometry and white matter microstructure using voxel-based fractional anisotropy (FA). Functional data showed that, after monetary incentives, CD patients exhibited higher activation in the ventral striatum than controls. Furthermore, we observed an inverted BOLD response pattern in the prefrontal cortex, with activity being highest after unexpected high gains and lowest after losses. Patients showed increased GMV in the caudate and the orbitofrontal cortex, increased white matter FA in the orbito-striatal pathway but decreased FA in antero-posterior association bundles. Abnormal activation in the prefrontal cortex correlated with GMV and FA increases in the orbitofrontal cortex. While functional abnormalities in the ventral striatum were inversely correlated with abstinence duration, structural alterations were not. In conclusion, results suggest abnormal incentive processing in CD patients with high salience for rewards and punishments in subcortical structures but diminished prefrontal control after adverse outcomes. They further suggest that hypertrophy and hyper-connectivity within the reward circuit, to the expense of connectivity outside this network, characterize cocaine addiction. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  18. Tunable fabrication of hierarchical hybrids via the incorporation of poly(dopamine) functional interlayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Ting; Zhao, Xin; Zhang, Junxian; Dong, Jie; Zhang, Qinghua, E-mail: qhzhang@dhu.edu.cn

    2016-04-30

    Highlights: • PS/PDA with well-defined core/shell structures was prepared in aqueous solution. • Au NPs were coated on PS/PDA by in-situ reduction and self-assembly approach. • PS/PDA/Au had homogeneous and dense Au coatings with different shape. • Hierarchical spheres exhibited a well-defined core/shell structure maintaining the spherical morphology. - Abstract: Two kinds of ternary hybrids were prepared by anchoring different shapes and loadings of Au nanoparticles (NPs) on poly(dopamine) (PDA) functionalized polystyrene (PS) microspheres with two different strategies, i.e., in situ reduction and self-assembly approach. PDA coatings were firstly introduced to functionalize the hydrophobic PS surface with sufficient amino and hydroxyl groups, which enhanced the interaction between Au NPs and the polymer spheres. Thus, Au NPs could be easily immobilized onto the surface of the PDA/PS microspheres, and the hierarchical composite microspheres exhibited a well-defined core/shell structure without sacrificing the spherical PS morphology. PS/PDA/Au-R and PS/PDA/Au-A microspheres fabricated by in situ reduction and self-assembly approach showed different distinct Au nano-shell morphology with the corresponding optical, catalytic and electrochemical properties. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electronic microscopy verified these hierarchical structures with the ultrathin PDA film incorporating between the inner PS core and the outer Au NPs shell. X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed the presence of PDA and Au layer on the surface of the composite particles. These green and facile methods with mild experimental conditions can extend to fabricate other polymer or inorganic substrates coated by various noble metals.

  19. Dissociable roles of dopamine and serotonin transporter function in a rat model of negative urgency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Justin R; Darna, Mahesh; Gipson, Cassandra D; Dwoskin, Linda P; Bardo, Michael T

    2015-09-15

    Negative urgency is a facet of impulsivity that reflects mood-based rash action and is associated with various maladaptive behaviors in humans. However, the underlying neural mechanisms of negative urgency are not fully understood. Several brain regions within the mesocorticolimbic pathway, as well as the neurotransmitters dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT), have been implicated in impulsivity. Extracellular DA and 5-HT concentrations are regulated by DA transporters (DAT) and 5-HT transporters (SERT); thus, these transporters may be important molecular mechanisms underlying individual differences in negative urgency. The current study employed a reward omission task to model negative urgency in rats. During reward trials, a cue light signaled the non-contingent delivery of one sucrose pellet; immediately following the non-contingent reward, rats responded on a lever to earn sucrose pellets (operant phase). Omission trials were similar to reward trials, except that non-contingent sucrose was omitted following the cue light prior to the operant phase. As expected, contingent responding was higher following omission of expected reward than following delivery of expected reward, thus reflecting negative urgency. Upon completion of behavioral training, Vmax and Km were obtained from kinetic analysis of [(3)H]DA and [(3)H]5-HT uptake using synaptosomes prepared from nucleus accumbens (NAc), dorsal striatum (Str), medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) isolated from individual rats. Vmax for DAT in NAc and for SERT in OFC were positively correlated with negative urgency scores. The current findings suggest that mood-based impulsivity (negative urgency) is associated with enhanced DAT function in NAc and SERT function in OFC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Dopamine agonists and risk: impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voon, Valerie; Gao, Jennifer; Brezing, Christina; Symmonds, Mkael; Ekanayake, Vindhya; Fernandez, Hubert; Dolan, Raymond J; Hallett, Mark

    2011-05-01

    Impulse control disorders are common in Parkinson's disease, occurring in 13.6% of patients. Using a pharmacological manipulation and a novel risk taking task while performing functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated the relationship between dopamine agonists and risk taking in patients with Parkinson's disease with and without impulse control disorders. During functional magnetic resonance imaging, subjects chose between two choices of equal expected value: a 'Sure' choice and a 'Gamble' choice of moderate risk. To commence each trial, in the 'Gain' condition, individuals started at $0 and in the 'Loss' condition individuals started at -$50 below the 'Sure' amount. The difference between the maximum and minimum outcomes from each gamble (i.e. range) was used as an index of risk ('Gamble Risk'). Sixteen healthy volunteers were behaviourally tested. Fourteen impulse control disorder (problem gambling or compulsive shopping) and 14 matched Parkinson's disease controls were tested ON and OFF dopamine agonists. Patients with impulse control disorder made more risky choices in the 'Gain' relative to the 'Loss' condition along with decreased orbitofrontal cortex and anterior cingulate activity, with the opposite observed in Parkinson's disease controls. In patients with impulse control disorder, dopamine agonists were associated with enhanced sensitivity to risk along with decreased ventral striatal activity again with the opposite in Parkinson's disease controls. Patients with impulse control disorder appear to have a bias towards risky choices independent of the effect of loss aversion. Dopamine agonists enhance sensitivity to risk in patients with impulse control disorder possibly by impairing risk evaluation in the striatum. Our results provide a potential explanation of why dopamine agonists may lead to an unconscious bias towards risk in susceptible individuals.

  1. Haloperidol Selectively Remodels Striatal Indirect Pathway Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebel, Luke E; Graves, Steven M; Chan, C Savio; Surmeier, D James

    2017-01-01

    Typical antipsychotic drugs are widely thought to alleviate the positive symptoms of schizophrenia by antagonizing dopamine D2 receptors expressed by striatal spiny projection neurons (SPNs). What is less clear is why antipsychotics have a therapeutic latency of weeks. Using a combination of physiological and anatomical approaches in ex vivo brain slices from transgenic mice, it was found that 2 weeks of haloperidol treatment induced both intrinsic and synaptic adaptations specifically within indirect pathway SPNs (iSPNs). Perphenazine treatment had similar effects. Some of these adaptations were homeostatic, including a drop in intrinsic excitability and pruning of excitatory corticostriatal glutamatergic synapses. However, haloperidol treatment also led to strengthening of a subset of excitatory corticostriatal synapses. This slow remodeling of corticostriatal iSPN circuitry is likely to play a role in mediating the delayed therapeutic action of neuroleptics. PMID:27577602

  2. Abnormal striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission during rest and task production in spasmodic dysphonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonyan, Kristina; Berman, Brian D; Herscovitch, Peter; Hallett, Mark

    2013-09-11

    Spasmodic dysphonia is a primary focal dystonia characterized by involuntary spasms in the laryngeal muscles during speech production. The pathophysiology of spasmodic dysphonia is thought to involve structural and functional abnormalities in the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical circuitry; however, neurochemical correlates underpinning these abnormalities as well as their relations to spasmodic dysphonia symptoms remain unknown. We used positron emission tomography with the radioligand [(11)C]raclopride (RAC) to study striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission at the resting state and during production of symptomatic sentences and asymptomatic finger tapping in spasmodic dysphonia patients. We found that patients, compared to healthy controls, had bilaterally decreased RAC binding potential (BP) to striatal dopamine D2/D3 receptors on average by 29.2%, which was associated with decreased RAC displacement (RAC ΔBP) in the left striatum during symptomatic speaking (group average difference 10.2%), but increased RAC ΔBP in the bilateral striatum during asymptomatic tapping (group average difference 10.1%). Patients with more severe voice symptoms and subclinically longer reaction time to initiate the tapping sequence had greater RAC ΔBP measures, while longer duration of spasmodic dysphonia was associated with a decrease in task-induced RAC ΔBP. Decreased dopaminergic transmission during symptomatic speech production may represent a disorder-specific pathophysiological trait involved in symptom generation, whereas increased dopaminergic function during unaffected task performance may be explained by a compensatory adaptation of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system possibly due to decreased striatal D2/D3 receptor availability. These changes can be linked to the clinical and subclinical features of spasmodic dysphonia and may represent the neurochemical basis of basal ganglia alterations in this disorder.

  3. A simple algorithm for subregional striatal uptake analysis with partial volume correction in dopaminergic PET imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lue Kunhan; Lin Hsinhon; Chuang Kehshih; Kao Chihhao, K.; Hsieh Hungjen; Liu Shuhsin

    2014-01-01

    In positron emission tomography (PET) of the dopaminergic system, quantitative measurements of nigrostriatal dopamine function are useful for differential diagnosis. A subregional analysis of striatal uptake enables the diagnostic performance to be more powerful. However, the partial volume effect (PVE) induces an underestimation of the true radioactivity concentration in small structures. This work proposes a simple algorithm for subregional analysis of striatal uptake with partial volume correction (PVC) in dopaminergic PET imaging. The PVC algorithm analyzes the separate striatal subregions and takes into account the PVE based on the recovery coefficient (RC). The RC is defined as the ratio of the PVE-uncorrected to PVE-corrected radioactivity concentration, and is derived from a combination of the traditional volume of interest (VOI) analysis and the large VOI technique. The clinical studies, comprising 11 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and 6 healthy subjects, were used to assess the impact of PVC on the quantitative measurements. Simulations on a numerical phantom that mimicked realistic healthy and neurodegenerative situations were used to evaluate the performance of the proposed PVC algorithm. In both the clinical and the simulation studies, the striatal-to-occipital ratio (SOR) values for the entire striatum and its subregions were calculated with and without PVC. In the clinical studies, the SOR values in each structure (caudate, anterior putamen, posterior putamen, putamen, and striatum) were significantly higher by using PVC in contrast to those without. Among the PD patients, the SOR values in each structure and quantitative disease severity ratings were shown to be significantly related only when PVC was used. For the simulation studies, the average absolute percentage error of the SOR estimates before and after PVC were 22.74% and 1.54% in the healthy situation, respectively; those in the neurodegenerative situation were 20.69% and 2

  4. Endogenous versus exogenous lithium clearance for evaluation of dopamine-induced changes in renal tubular function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Niels Vidiendal; Fogh-Andersen, N; Strandgaard, S

    1996-01-01

    1. The present randomized, double-blind cross-over study compared endogenous and exogenous lithium clearance (CLi) for estimation of the effect of dopamine on tubular sodium reabsorption. Twelve normal, salt-repleted male subjects were investigated on three different occasions with either placebo...... or 450 mg or 600 mg of lithium given in random order at 22.00 hours. After an overnight fast, renal clearance studies were performed during a 1 h baseline period and subsequently during the second hour of an infusion of 3 micrograms min-1 kg-1 of dopamine. 2. Baseline values of endogenous CLi.......3-31.0)% (P lithium increased the baseline sodium clearance (CNa), but glomerular filtration rate and urine flow rate remained unchanged. 3. Dopamine increased CNa to similar values on the three study days. CLi increased to 40.9 (35.5-46.5) ml/min (endogenous lithium, P

  5. Sex Differences in Medium Spiny Neuron Excitability and Glutamatergic Synaptic Input: Heterogeneity Across Striatal Regions and Evidence for Estradiol-Dependent Sexual Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyan Cao

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Steroid sex hormones and biological sex influence how the brain regulates motivated behavior, reward, and sensorimotor function in both normal and pathological contexts. Investigations into the underlying neural mechanisms have targeted the striatal brain regions, including the caudate–putamen, nucleus accumbens core (AcbC, and shell. These brain regions are of particular interest to neuroendocrinologists given that they express membrane-associated but not nuclear estrogen receptors, and also the well-established role of the sex steroid hormone 17β-estradiol (estradiol in modulating striatal dopamine systems. Indeed, output neurons of the striatum, the medium spiny neurons (MSNs, exhibit estradiol sensitivity and sex differences in electrophysiological properties. Here, we review sex differences in rat MSN glutamatergic synaptic input and intrinsic excitability across striatal regions, including evidence for estradiol-mediated sexual differentiation in the nucleus AcbC. In prepubertal animals, female MSNs in the caudate–putamen exhibit a greater intrinsic excitability relative to male MSNs, but no sex differences are detected in excitatory synaptic input. Alternatively, female MSNs in the nucleus AcbC exhibit increased excitatory synaptic input relative to male MSNs, but no sex differences in intrinsic excitability were detected. Increased excitatory synaptic input onto female MSNs in the nucleus AcbC is abolished after masculinizing estradiol or testosterone exposure during the neonatal critical period. No sex differences are detected in MSNs in prepubertal nucleus accumbens shell. Thus, despite possessing the same neuron type, striatal regions exhibit heterogeneity in sex differences in MSN electrophysiological properties, which likely contribute to the sex differences observed in striatal function.

  6. PINK1 heterozygous mutations induce subtle alterations in dopamine-dependent synaptic plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeo, G.; Schirinzi, T.; Martella, G.; Latagliata, E.C.; Puglisi, F.; Shen, J.; Valente, E.M.; Federici, M.; Mercuri, N.B.; Puglisi-Allegra, S.; Bonsi, P.; Pisani, A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in the PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) gene are causative of autosomal recessive, early onset PD. Single heterozygous mutations have been repeatedly detected in a subset of patients as well as in non-affected subjects, and their significance has long been debated. Several neurophysiological studies from non-manifesting PINK1 heterozygotes have shown the existence of neural plasticity abnormalities, indicating the presence of specific endophenotypic traits in the heterozygous state. Methods In the present study, we performed a functional analysis of corticostriatal synaptic plasticity in heterozygous PINK1 knock-out (PINK1+/−) mice by a multidisciplinary approach. Results We found that, despite a normal motor behavior, repetitive activation of cortical inputs to striatal neurons failed to induce long-term potentiation (LTP), whereas long-term depression (LTD) was normal. Although nigral dopaminergic neurons exhibited normal morphological and electrophysiological properties with normal responses to dopamine receptor activation, we measured a significantly lower dopamine release in the striatum of PINK1+/−, compared to control mice, suggesting that a decrease in stimulus-evoked dopamine overflow acts as a major determinant for the LTP deficit. Accordingly, pharmacological agents capable of increasing the availability of dopamine in the synaptic cleft restored a normal LTP in heterozygous mice. Moreover, MAO-B inhibitors rescued a physiological LTP and a normal dopamine release. Conclusions Our results provide novel evidence for striatal plasticity abnormalities even in the heterozygous disease state. These alterations might be considered an endophenotype to this monogenic form of PD, and a valid tool to characterize early disease stage and design possible disease-modifying therapies. PMID:24167038

  7. Effects of aging and dopamine genotypes on the emergence of explicit memory during sequence learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuck, Nicolas W; Frensch, Peter A; Schjeide, Brit-Maren M; Schröder, Julia; Bertram, Lars; Li, Shu-Chen

    2013-11-01

    The striatum and medial temporal lobe play important roles in implicit and explicit memory, respectively. Furthermore, recent studies have linked striatal dopamine modulation to both implicit as well as explicit sequence learning and suggested a potential role of the striatum in the emergence of explicit memory during sequence learning. With respect to aging, previous findings indicated that implicit memory is less impaired than explicit memory in older adults and that genetic effects on cognition are magnified by aging. To understand the links between these findings, we investigated effects of aging and genotypes relevant for striatal dopamine on the implicit and explicit components of sequence learning. Reaction time (RT) and error data from 80 younger (20-30 years) and 70 older adults (60-71 years) during a serial reaction time task showed that age differences in learning-related reduction of RTs emerged gradually over the course of learning. Verbal recall and measures derived from the process-dissociation procedure revealed that younger adults acquired more explicit memory about the sequence than older adults, potentially causing age differences in RT gains in later stages of learning. Of specific interest, polymorphisms of the dopamine- and cAMP-regulated neuronal phosphoprotein (DARPP-32, rs907094) and dopamine transporter (DAT, VNTR) genes showed interactive effects on overall RTs and verbal recall of the sequence in older but not in younger adults. Together our findings show that variations in genotypes relevant for dopamine functions are associated more with aging-related impairments in the explicit than the implicit component of sequence learning, providing support for theories emphasizing the role of dopaminergic modulation in cognitive aging and the magnification of genetic effects in human aging. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The dopamine theory of addiction: 40 years of highs and lows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutt, David J; Lingford-Hughes, Anne; Erritzoe, David; Stokes, Paul R A

    2015-05-01

    For several decades, addiction has come to be viewed as a disorder of the dopamine neurotransmitter system; however, this view has not led to new treatments. In this Opinion article, we review the origins of the dopamine theory of addiction and discuss the ability of addictive drugs to elicit the release of dopamine in the human striatum. There is robust evidence that stimulants increase striatal dopamine levels and some evidence that alcohol may have such an effect, but little evidence, if any, that cannabis and opiates increase dopamine levels. Moreover, there is good evidence that striatal dopamine receptor availability and dopamine release are diminished in individuals with stimulant or alcohol dependence but not in individuals with opiate, nicotine or cannabis dependence. These observations have implications for understanding reward and treatment responses in various addictions.

  9. Controllable Synthesis of Functional Hollow Carbon Nanostructures with Dopamine As Precursor for Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Wang, Jing; Li, Jiansheng; Luo, Rui; Shen, Jinyou; Sun, Xiuyun; Han, Weiqing; Wang, Lianjun

    2015-08-26

    N-doped hollow carbon spheres (N-HCSs) are promising candidates as electrode material for supercapacitor application. In this work, we report a facile one-step synthesis of discrete and highly dispersible N-HCSs with dopamine (DA) as a carbon precursor and TEOS as a structure-assistant agent in a mixture containing water, ethanol, and ammonia. The architectures of resultant N-HCSs, including yolk-shell hollow carbon spheres (YS-HCSs), single-shell hollow carbon spheres (SS-HCSs), and double-shells hollow carbon spheres (DS-HCSs), can be efficiently controlled through the adjustment of the amount of ammonia. To explain the relation and formation mechanism of these hollow carbon structures, the samples during the different synthetic steps, including polymer/silica spheres, carbon/silica spheres and silica spheres by combustion in air, were characterized by TEM. Electrochemical measurements performed on YS-HCSs, SS-HCSs, and DS-HCSs showed high capacitance with 215, 280, and 381 F g(-1), respectively. Moreover, all the nitrogen-doped hollow carbon nanospheres showed a good cycling stability 97.0% capacitive retention after 3000 cycles. Notably, the highest capacitance of DS-HCSs up to 381 F g(-1) is higher than the capacitance reported so far for many carbon-based materials, which may be attributed to the high surface area, hollow structure, nitrogen functionalization, and double-shell architecture. These kinds of N-doped hollow-structured carbon spheres may show promising prospects as advanced energy storage materials and catalyst supports.

  10. Simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid, dopamine and uric acid based on tryptophan functionalized graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lian, Qianwen; He, Zhifang; He, Qian; Luo, Ai; Yan, Kaiwang; Zhang, Dongxia; Lu, Xiaoquan; Zhou, Xibin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Trp-GR was synthesized by utilizing a facile ultrasonic method. • The material as prepared had well dispersivity in water and better conductivity than pure GR. • Trp-GR/GCE showed excellent potential for the determination of AA, DA and UA. • The proposed method was applied for the analysis of AA, DA and UA in real samples. - Abstract: A new type of tryptophan-functionalized graphene nanocomposite (Trp-GR) was synthesized by utilizing a facile ultrasonic method via π–π conjugate action between graphene (GR) and tryptophan (Trp) molecule. The material as prepared had well dispersivity in water and better conductivity than pure GR. The surface morphology of Trp-GR was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy. The electrochemical behaviors of ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA), and uric acid (UA) were investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) on the surface of Trp-GR. The separation of the oxidation peak potentials for AA–DA, DA–UA and UA–AA was about 182 mV, 125 mV and 307 mV, which allowed simultaneously determining AA, DA, and UA. Differential pulse voltammetery (DPV) was used for the determination of AA, DA, and UA in their mixture. Under optimum conditions, the linear response ranges for the determination of AA, DA, and UA were 0.2–12.9 mM, 0.5–110 μM, and 10–1000 μM, with the detection limits (S/N = 3) of 10.09 μM, 0.29 μM and 1.24 μM, respectively. Furthermore, the modified electrode was investigated for real sample analysis

  11. Simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid, dopamine and uric acid based on tryptophan functionalized graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lian, Qianwen; He, Zhifang; He, Qian; Luo, Ai; Yan, Kaiwang; Zhang, Dongxia [Key Laboratory of Bioelectrochemistry and Environmental Analysis of Gansu Province, College of Geography and Environment Science, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou, 730070 (China); Lu, Xiaoquan, E-mail: Luxq@nwnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Bioelectrochemistry and Environmental Analysis of Gansu Province, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou, 730070 (China); Zhou, Xibin, E-mail: zhouxb@nwnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Bioelectrochemistry and Environmental Analysis of Gansu Province, College of Geography and Environment Science, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou, 730070 (China)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Trp-GR was synthesized by utilizing a facile ultrasonic method. • The material as prepared had well dispersivity in water and better conductivity than pure GR. • Trp-GR/GCE showed excellent potential for the determination of AA, DA and UA. • The proposed method was applied for the analysis of AA, DA and UA in real samples. - Abstract: A new type of tryptophan-functionalized graphene nanocomposite (Trp-GR) was synthesized by utilizing a facile ultrasonic method via π–π conjugate action between graphene (GR) and tryptophan (Trp) molecule. The material as prepared had well dispersivity in water and better conductivity than pure GR. The surface morphology of Trp-GR was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy. The electrochemical behaviors of ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA), and uric acid (UA) were investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) on the surface of Trp-GR. The separation of the oxidation peak potentials for AA–DA, DA–UA and UA–AA was about 182 mV, 125 mV and 307 mV, which allowed simultaneously determining AA, DA, and UA. Differential pulse voltammetery (DPV) was used for the determination of AA, DA, and UA in their mixture. Under optimum conditions, the linear response ranges for the determination of AA, DA, and UA were 0.2–12.9 mM, 0.5–110 μM, and 10–1000 μM, with the detection limits (S/N = 3) of 10.09 μM, 0.29 μM and 1.24 μM, respectively. Furthermore, the modified electrode was investigated for real sample analysis.

  12. Synthesis and binding to striatal membranes of non carrier added I-123 labeled 4'-iodococaine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metwally, S.A.M.; Gatley, S.J.; Wolf, A.P.; Yu, D.-W.

    1992-01-01

    An 123 I labeled cocaine analog, 4'-[ 123 I]iodococaine, has been prepared by oxidative destannylation of the tributyltin analog and shown to interact with cocaine binding sites in rat brain striatal membranes. It may thus be a suitable SPECT radiotracer for studies of the dopamine reuptake site in neurodegenerative diseases. (Author)

  13. Synthesis of palladium@gold nanoalloys/nitrogen and sulphur-functionalized multiple graphene aerogel for electrochemical detection of dopamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ruiyi; Yang, Tingting [School of Chemical and Material Engineering, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); Li, Zaijun, E-mail: zaijunli@jiangnan.edu.cn [School of Chemical and Material Engineering, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); Key Laboratory of Food Colloids and Biotechnology, Ministry of Education, Wuxi 214122 (China); Gu, Zhiguo; Wang, Guangli; Liu, Junkang [School of Chemical and Material Engineering, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China)

    2017-02-15

    Integration of noble metal nanomaterials on graphene nanosheets potentially paves one way to improve their electronic, chemical and electrochemical properties. The study reported synthesis of palladium@gold nanoalloys/nitrogen and sulphur-functionalized multiple graphene aerogel composite (Pd@Au/N,S-MGA). The as-prepared composite offers a well-defined three-dimensional architecture with rich of mesopores. The Pd@Au nanoalloys were dispersed on the graphene framework networks and their active sites were fully exposed. The unique structure achieves to ultra high electron/ion conductivity, electrocatalytic activity and structural stability. The sensor based on the Pd@Au/N,S-MGA creates ultrasensitive electrochemical response towards dopamine due to significantly electrochemical synergy between Pd, Au and N,S-MGA. Its differential pulse voltammetric signal linearly increases with the increase of dopamine concentration in the range from 1.0 × 10{sup −9} M to 4.0 × 10{sup −5} M with the detection limit of 3.6 × 10{sup −10} M (S/N = 3). The analytical method provides the advantage of sensitivity, reproducibility, rapidity and long-term stability. It has been successfully applied in the detection of trace dopamine in biological samples. The study also opens a window on the electronic properties of graphene aerogel and metal nanomaterials as well their nanohybrids to meet needs of further applications as nanoelectronics in diagnosis, bioanalysis and catalysis. - Graphical abstract: We reported a new palladium@gold nanoalloys/nitrogen and sulphur-functionalized multiple graphene aerogel. The sensor based on the nanohybrid exhibits ultrahigh sensitivity, reproducibility and stability to electrochemical detection of dopamine. - Highlights: • We reported Pd@A/nitrogen and sulphur-functionalized multiple graphene aerogel. • The nanohybrid offers unique three-dimensional architecture with rich of mesopores. • The architecture achieve to ultrahigh

  14. Synthesis of palladium@gold nanoalloys/nitrogen and sulphur-functionalized multiple graphene aerogel for electrochemical detection of dopamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ruiyi; Yang, Tingting; Li, Zaijun; Gu, Zhiguo; Wang, Guangli; Liu, Junkang

    2017-01-01

    Integration of noble metal nanomaterials on graphene nanosheets potentially paves one way to improve their electronic, chemical and electrochemical properties. The study reported synthesis of palladium@gold nanoalloys/nitrogen and sulphur-functionalized multiple graphene aerogel composite (Pd@Au/N,S-MGA). The as-prepared composite offers a well-defined three-dimensional architecture with rich of mesopores. The Pd@Au nanoalloys were dispersed on the graphene framework networks and their active sites were fully exposed. The unique structure achieves to ultra high electron/ion conductivity, electrocatalytic activity and structural stability. The sensor based on the Pd@Au/N,S-MGA creates ultrasensitive electrochemical response towards dopamine due to significantly electrochemical synergy between Pd, Au and N,S-MGA. Its differential pulse voltammetric signal linearly increases with the increase of dopamine concentration in the range from 1.0 × 10"−"9 M to 4.0 × 10"−"5 M with the detection limit of 3.6 × 10"−"1"0 M (S/N = 3). The analytical method provides the advantage of sensitivity, reproducibility, rapidity and long-term stability. It has been successfully applied in the detection of trace dopamine in biological samples. The study also opens a window on the electronic properties of graphene aerogel and metal nanomaterials as well their nanohybrids to meet needs of further applications as nanoelectronics in diagnosis, bioanalysis and catalysis. - Graphical abstract: We reported a new palladium@gold nanoalloys/nitrogen and sulphur-functionalized multiple graphene aerogel. The sensor based on the nanohybrid exhibits ultrahigh sensitivity, reproducibility and stability to electrochemical detection of dopamine. - Highlights: • We reported Pd@A/nitrogen and sulphur-functionalized multiple graphene aerogel. • The nanohybrid offers unique three-dimensional architecture with rich of mesopores. • The architecture achieve to ultrahigh electron

  15. Subcellular Location of PKA Controls Striatal Plasticity: Stochastic Simulations in Spiny Dendrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Rodrigo F.; Kim, MyungSook; Blackwell, Kim T.

    2012-01-01

    Dopamine release in the striatum has been implicated in various forms of reward dependent learning. Dopamine leads to production of cAMP and activation of protein kinase A (PKA), which are involved in striatal synaptic plasticity and learning. PKA and its protein targets are not diffusely located throughout the neuron, but are confined to various subcellular compartments by anchoring molecules such as A-Kinase Anchoring Proteins (AKAPs). Experiments have shown that blocking the interaction of PKA with AKAPs disrupts its subcellular location and prevents LTP in the hippocampus and striatum; however, these experiments have not revealed whether the critical function of anchoring is to locate PKA near the cAMP that activates it or near its targets, such as AMPA receptors located in the post-synaptic density. We have developed a large scale stochastic reaction-diffusion model of signaling pathways in a medium spiny projection neuron dendrite with spines, based on published biochemical measurements, to investigate this question and to evaluate whether dopamine signaling exhibits spatial specificity post-synaptically. The model was stimulated with dopamine pulses mimicking those recorded in response to reward. Simulations show that PKA colocalization with adenylate cyclase, either in the spine head or in the dendrite, leads to greater phosphorylation of DARPP-32 Thr34 and AMPA receptor GluA1 Ser845 than when PKA is anchored away from adenylate cyclase. Simulations further demonstrate that though cAMP exhibits a strong spatial gradient, diffusible DARPP-32 facilitates the spread of PKA activity, suggesting that additional inactivation mechanisms are required to produce spatial specificity of PKA activity. PMID:22346744

  16. Fast oscillations in cortical-striatal networks switch frequency following rewarding events and stimulant drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berke, J D

    2009-09-01

    Oscillations may organize communication between components of large-scale brain networks. Although gamma-band oscillations have been repeatedly observed in cortical-basal ganglia circuits, their functional roles are not yet clear. Here I show that, in behaving rats, distinct frequencies of ventral striatal local field potential oscillations show coherence with different cortical inputs. The approximately 50 Hz gamma oscillations that normally predominate in awake ventral striatum are coherent with piriform cortex, whereas approximately 80-100 Hz high-gamma oscillations are coherent with frontal cortex. Within striatum, entrainment to gamma rhythms is selective to fast-spiking interneurons, with distinct fast-spiking interneuron populations entrained to different gamma frequencies. Administration of the psychomotor stimulant amphetamine or the dopamine agonist apomorphine causes a prolonged decrease in approximately 50 Hz power and increase in approximately 80-100 Hz power. The same frequency switch is observed for shorter epochs spontaneously in awake, undrugged animals and is consistently provoked for reward receipt. Individual striatal neurons can participate in these brief high-gamma bursts with, or without, substantial changes in firing rate. Switching between discrete oscillatory states may allow different modes of information processing during decision-making and reinforcement-based learning, and may also be an important systems-level process by which stimulant drugs affect cognition and behavior.

  17. Reduced striatal volumes in Parkinson’s disease: a magnetic resonance imaging study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitcher Toni L

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The presence and extent of structural changes in the brain as a consequence of Parkinson’s disease (PD is still poorly understood. Methods High-resolution 3-tesla T1-weighted structural magnetic resonance images in sixty-five PD and 27 age-matched healthy control participants were examined. Putamen, caudate, and intracranial volumes were manually traced in the axial plane of 3D reconstructed images. Striatal nuclei volumes were normalized to intracranial volume for statistical comparison. Disease status was assessed using the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale and Hoehn and Yahr scale. Cognitive status was assessed using global status tests and detailed neuropsychological testing. Results Both caudate and putamen volumes were smaller in PD brains compared to controls after adjusting for age and gender. Caudate volumes were reduced by 11% (p = 0.001 and putamen volumes by 8.1% (p = 0.025. PD striatal volumes were not found to be significantly correlated with cognitive or motor decline. Conclusion Small, but significant reductions in the volume of both the caudate and putamen occur in PD brains. These reductions are independent of the effects of age and gender, however the relation of these reductions to the functional loss of dopamine, which is characteristic of PD, remains unclear.

  18. Visual functions in phenylketonuria-evaluating the dopamine and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids depletion hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramer, Gwendolyn; Förl, Birgit; Springer, Christina; Weimer, Petra; Haege, Gisela; Mackensen, Friederike; Müller, Edith; Völcker, Hans Eberhard; Hoffmann, Georg Friedrich; Lindner, Martin; Krastel, Hermann; Burgard, Peter

    2013-01-01

    In phenylketonuria presymptomatic treatment following newborn screening prevents severe mental and physical impairment. The reasons for subtle impairments of cerebral functions despite early treatment remain unclear. We assessed a broad spectrum of visual functions in early-treated patients with phenylketonuria and evaluated two hypotheses-the dopamine and the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) depletion hypotheses. Contrast sensitivity, colour vision, electroretinography, frequency doubling technology campimetry (FDT), and their relation with blood phenylalanine and docosahexaenoic acid levels were assessed in 36 patients with phenylketonuria and 18 age-matched healthy controls. Contrast sensitivity was significantly lower and total error scores in colour vision significantly higher in patients than controls. Electroretinography results differed significantly between patients and controls. We found a trend for the effect of phenylalanine-levels on contrast sensitivity and a significant effect on colour vision/FDT results. Docosahexaenoic acid levels in erythrocytes were not associated with visual functions. This is the first evaluation of visual functions in phenylketonuria using a comprehensive ophthalmological test battery. We found no evidence supporting the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids depletion hypothesis. However, the effect of phenylalanine-levels on visual functions suggests that imbalance between phenylalanine and tyrosine may affect retinal dopamine levels in phenylketonuria. This is supported by the similar patterns of visual functions in patients with phenylketonuria observed in our study and patients with Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Role of Dopamine in Anticipatory Pursuit Eye Movements: Insights from Genetic Polymorphisms in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billino, Jutta; Hennig, Jürgen; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2016-01-01

    There is a long history of eye movement research in patients with psychiatric diseases for which dysfunctions of neurotransmission are considered to be the major pathologic mechanism. However, neuromodulation of oculomotor control is still hardly understood. We aimed to investigate in particular the impact of dopamine on smooth pursuit eye movements. Systematic variability in dopaminergic transmission due to genetic polymorphisms in healthy subjects offers a noninvasive opportunity to determine functional associations. We measured smooth pursuit in 110 healthy subjects genotyped for two well-documented polymorphisms, the COMT Val 158 Met polymorphism and the SLC6A3 3'-UTR-VNTR polymorphism. Pursuit paradigms were chosen to particularly assess the ability of the pursuit system to initiate tracking when target motion onset is blanked, reflecting the impact of extraretinal signals. In contrast, when following a fully visible target sensory, retinal signals are available. Our results highlight the crucial functional role of dopamine for anticipatory, but not for sensory-driven, pursuit processes. We found the COMT Val 158 Met polymorphism specifically associated with anticipatory pursuit parameters, emphasizing the dominant impact of prefrontal dopamine activity on complex oculomotor control. In contrast, modulation of striatal dopamine activity by the SLC6A3 3'-UTR-VNTR polymorphism had no significant functional effect. Though often neglected so far, individual differences in healthy subjects provide a promising approach to uncovering functional mechanisms and can be used as a bridge to understanding deficits in patients.

  20. Brain serotonin and dopamine transporter bindings in adults with high-functioning autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Sekine, Yoshimoto; Ouchi, Yasuomi; Tsujii, Masatsugu; Yoshikawa, Etsuji; Futatsubashi, Masami; Tsuchiya, Kenji J; Sugihara, Genichi; Iwata, Yasuhide; Suzuki, Katsuaki; Matsuzaki, Hideo; Suda, Shiro; Sugiyama, Toshiro; Takei, Nori; Mori, Norio

    2010-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is characterized by repetitive and/or obsessive interests and behavior and by deficits in sociability and communication. Although its neurobiological underpinnings are postulated to lie in abnormalities of the serotoninergic and dopaminergic systems, the details remain unknown. To determine the occurrence of changes in the binding of serotonin and dopamine transporters, which are highly selective markers for their respective neuronal systems. Using positron emission tomography, we measured the binding of brain serotonin and dopamine transporters in each individual with the radioligands carbon 11 ((11)C)-labeled trans-1,2,3,5,6,10-beta-hexahydro-6-[4-(methylthio)phenyl]pyrrolo-[2,1-a]isoquinoline ([(11)C](+)McN-5652) and 2beta-carbomethoxy-3-beta-(4-fluorophenyl)tropane ([(11)C]WIN-35,428), respectively. Statistical parametric mapping was used for between-subject analysis and within-subject correlation analysis with respect to clinical variables. Participants recruited from the community. Twenty men (age range, 18-26 years; mean [SD] IQ, 99.3 [18.1]) with autism and 20 age- and IQ-matched control subjects. Serotonin transporter binding was significantly lower throughout the brain in autistic individuals compared with controls (P dopamine transporter binding was significantly higher in the orbitofrontal cortex of the autistic group (P dopamine transporter binding was significantly inversely correlated with serotonin transporter binding (r = -0.61; P = .004). The brains of autistic individuals have abnormalities in both serotonin transporter and dopamine transporter binding. The present findings indicate that the gross abnormalities in these neurotransmitter systems may underpin the neurophysiologic mechanism of autism. Our sample was not characteristic or representative of a typical sample of adults with autism in the community.

  1. Behavioral sensitivity of temporally modulated striatal neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George ePortugal

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent investigations into the neural mechanisms that underlie temporal perception have revealed that the striatum is an important contributor to interval timing processes, and electrophysiological recording studies have shown that the firing rates of striatal neurons are modulated by the time in a trial at which an operant response is made. However, it remains unclear whether striatal firing rate modulations are related to the passage of time alone (i.e., whether temporal information is represented in an abstract manner independent of other attributes of biological importance, or whether this temporal information is embedded within striatal activity related to co-occurring contextual information, such as motor behaviors. This study evaluated these two hypotheses by recording from striatal neurons while rats performed a temporal production task. Rats were trained to respond at different nosepoke apertures for food reward under two simultaneously active reinforcement schedules: a variable-interval (VI-15 sec schedule and a fixed-interval (FI-15 sec schedule of reinforcement. Responding during a trial occurred in a sequential manner composing 3 phases; VI responding, FI responding, VI responding. The vast majority of task-sensitive striatal neurons (95% varied their firing rates associated with equivalent behaviors (e.g., periods in which their snout was held within the nosepoke across these behavioral phases, and 96% of cells varied their firing rates for the same behavior within a phase, thereby demonstrating their sensitivity to time. However, in a direct test of the abstract timing hypothesis, 91% of temporally modulated hold cells were further modulated by the overt motor behaviors associated with transitioning between nosepokes. As such, these data are inconsistent with the striatum representing time in an abstract’ manner, but support the hypothesis that temporal information is embedded within contextual and motor functions of the

  2. Brain Dopamine Transporter Binding and Glucose Metabolism in Progressive Supranuclear Palsy-Like Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eero Rissanen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Here, we present a patient with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD who developed initial symptoms mimicking progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP. Before the development of typical CJD symptoms, functional imaging supported a diagnosis of PSP when [123I]-FP-CIT-SPECT showed a defect in striatal dopamine transporter binding, while [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose PET showed cortical hypometabolism suggestive of Lewy body dementia. However, the postmortem neuropathological examination was indicative of CJD only, without tau protein or Lewy body findings. This case demonstrates that CJD should be taken into account in rapidly progressing atypical cases of parkinsonism, even when functional imaging supports a diagnosis of a movement disorder.

  3. Cocaine modulates allosteric D2-σ1 receptor-receptor interactions on dopamine and glutamate nerve terminals from rat striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beggiato, Sarah; Borelli, Andrea Celeste; Borroto-Escuela, Dasiel; Corbucci, Ilaria; Tomasini, Maria Cristina; Marti, Matteo; Antonelli, Tiziana; Tanganelli, Sergio; Fuxe, Kjell; Ferraro, Luca

    2017-12-01

    The effects of nanomolar cocaine concentrations, possibly not blocking the dopamine transporter activity, on striatal D 2 -σ 1 heteroreceptor complexes and their inhibitory signaling over Gi/o, have been tested in rat striatal synaptosomes and HEK293T cells. Furthermore, the possible role of σ 1 receptors (σ 1 Rs) in the cocaine-provoked amplification of D 2 receptor (D 2 R)-induced reduction of K + -evoked [ 3 H]-DA and glutamate release from rat striatal synaptosomes, has also been investigated. The dopamine D 2 -likeR agonist quinpirole (10nM-1μM), concentration-dependently reduced K + -evoked [ 3 H]-DA and glutamate release from rat striatal synaptosomes. The σ 1 R antagonist BD1063 (100nM), amplified the effects of quinpirole (10 and 100nM) on K + -evoked [ 3 H]-DA, but not glutamate, release. Nanomolar cocaine concentrations significantly enhanced the quinpirole (100nM)-induced decrease of K + -evoked [ 3 H]-DA and glutamate release from rat striatal synaptosomes. In the presence of BD1063 (10nM), cocaine failed to amplify the quinpirole (100nM)-induced effects. In cotransfected σ 1 R and D 2L R HEK293T cells, quinpirole had a reduced potency to inhibit the CREB signal versus D 2L R singly transfected cells. In the presence of cocaine (100nM), the potency of quinpirole to inhibit the CREB signal was restored. In D 2L singly transfected cells cocaine (100nM and 10μM) exerted no modulatory effects on the inhibitory potency of quinpirole to bring down the CREB signal. These results led us to hypothesize the existence of functional D 2 -σ 1 R complexes on the rat striatal DA and glutamate nerve terminals and functional D 2 -σ 1 R-DA transporter complexes on the striatal DA terminals. Nanomolar cocaine concentrations appear to alter the allosteric receptor-receptor interactions in such complexes leading to enhancement of Gi/o mediated D 2 R signaling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Alterations in Striatal Circuits Underlying Addiction-Like Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Jin; Lee, Joo Han; Yun, Kyunghwa; Kim, Joung-Hun

    2017-06-30

    Drug addiction is a severe psychiatric disorder characterized by the compulsive pursuit of drugs of abuse despite potential adverse consequences. Although several decades of studies have revealed that psychostimulant use can result in extensive alterations of neural circuits and physiology, no effective therapeutic strategies or medicines for drug addiction currently exist. Changes in neuronal connectivity and regulation occurring after repeated drug exposure contribute to addiction-like behaviors in animal models. Among the involved brain areas, including those of the reward system, the striatum is the major area of convergence for glutamate, GABA, and dopamine transmission, and this brain region potentially determines stereotyped behaviors. Although the physiological consequences of striatal neurons after drug exposure have been relatively well documented, it remains to be clarified how changes in striatal connectivity underlie and modulate the expression of addiction-like behaviors. Understanding how striatal circuits contribute to addiction-like behaviors may lead to the development of strategies that successfully attenuate drug-induced behavioral changes. In this review, we summarize the results of recent studies that have examined striatal circuitry and pathway-specific alterations leading to addiction-like behaviors to provide an updated framework for future investigations.

  5. Age differences in striatal delay sensitivity during intertemporal choice in healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory R Samanez-Larkin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Intertemporal choices are a ubiquitous class of decisions that involve selecting between outcomes available at different times in the future. We investigated the neural systems supporting intertemporal decisions in healthy younger and older adults. Using functional neuroimaging, we find that aging is associated with a shift in the brain areas that respond to delayed rewards. Although we replicate findings that brain regions associated with the mesolimbic dopamine system respond preferentially to immediate rewards, we find a separate region in the ventral striatum with very modest time dependence in older adults. Activation in this striatal region was relatively insensitive to delay in older but not younger adults. Since the dopamine system is believed to support associative learning about future rewards over time, our observed transfer of function may be due to greater experience with delayed rewards as people age. Identifying differences in the neural systems underlying these decisions may contribute to a more comprehensive model of age-related change in intertemporal choice.

  6. Dynamic interaction between fetal adversity and a genetic score reflecting dopamine function on developmental outcomes at 36 months.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrianne R Bischoff

    Full Text Available Fetal adversity, evidenced by poor fetal growth for instance, is associated with increased risk for several diseases later in life. Classical cut-offs to characterize small (SGA and large for gestational age (LGA newborns are used to define long term vulnerability. We aimed at exploring the possible dynamism of different birth weight cut-offs in defining vulnerability in developmental outcomes (through the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, using the example of a gene vs. fetal adversity interaction considering gene choices based on functional relevance to the studied outcome.36-month-old children from an established prospective birth cohort (Maternal Adversity, Vulnerability, and Neurodevelopment were classified according to birth weight ratio (BWR (SGA ≤0.85, LGA >1.15, exploring a wide range of other cut-offs and genotyped for polymorphisms associated with dopamine signaling (TaqIA-A1 allele, DRD2-141C Ins/Ins, DRD4 7-repeat, DAT1-10- repeat, Met/Met-COMT, composing a score based on the described function, in which hypofunctional variants received lower scores.There were 251 children (123 girls and 128 boys. Using the classic cut-offs (0.85 and 1.15, there were no statistically significant interactions between the neonatal groups and the dopamine genetic score. However, when changing the cut-offs, it is possible to see ranges of BWR that could be associated with vulnerability to poorer development according to the variation in the dopamine function.The classic birth weight cut-offs to define SGA and LGA newborns should be seen with caution, as depending on the outcome in question, the protocols for long-term follow up could be either too inclusive-therefore most costly, or unable to screen true vulnerabilities-and therefore ineffective to establish early interventions and primary prevention.

  7. Low dopamine transporter occupancy by methylphenidate as a possible reason for reduced treatment effectiveness in ADHD patients with cocaine dependence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crunelle, Cleo L.; van den Brink, Wim; Veltman, Dick J.; van Emmerik-van Oortmerssen, Katelijne; Dom, Geert; Schoevers, Robert A.; Booij, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH) occupies brain striatal dopamine transporters (DATs) and is an effective treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, patients with ADHD and comorbid cocaine dependence do not benefit significantly from treatment with MPH. To better understand the

  8. Family conflict is associated with longitudinal changes in insular-striatal functional connectivity during adolescent risk taking under maternal influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guassi Moreira, João F; Telzer, Eva H

    2017-12-11

    Maternal presence has marked effects on adolescent neurocognition during risk taking, influencing teenagers to make safer decisions. However, it is currently unknown whether maternal buffering changes over the course of adolescence itself, and whether its effects are robust to individual differences in family relationship quality. In the current longitudinal study, 23 adolescents completed a risk-taking task under maternal presence during an fMRI scan before and after the transition to high school. Behavioral results reveal that adolescent risk taking increased under maternal presence across a one-year period. At the neural level, we found that adolescents reporting higher family conflict showed longitudinal increases in functional coupling between the anterior insula (AI) and ventral striatum (VS) when making safe decisions in the presence of their mother, which was associated with increased real-world risk taking. These findings show that individual differences in family relationship quality undermine effective development of AI-VS connectivity resulting in increased risk taking. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Where attention falls: Increased risk of falls from the converging impact of cortical cholinergic and midbrain dopamine loss on striatal function

    OpenAIRE

    Sarter, Martin; Albin, Roger L.; Kucinski, Aaron; Lustig, Cindy

    2014-01-01

    Falls are a major source of hospitalization, long-term institutionalization, and death in older adults and patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). Limited attentional resources are a major risk factor for falls. In this review, we specify cognitive–behavioral mechanisms that produce falls and map these mechanisms onto a model of multi-system degeneration. Results from PET studies in PD fallers and findings from a recently developed animal model support the hypothesis that falls result from in...

  10. Divergent effects of norepinephrine, dopamine and substance P on the activation, differentiation and effector functions of human cytotoxic T lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niggemann Bernd

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neurotransmitters are important regulators of the immune system, with very distinct and varying effects on different leukocyte subsets. So far little is known about the impact of signals mediated by neurotransmitters on the function of CD8+ T lymphocytes. Therefore, we investigated the influence of norepinephrine, dopamine and substance P on the key tasks of CD8+ T lymphocytes: activation, migration, extravasation and cytotoxicity. Results The activation of naïve CD8+ T lymphocytes by CD3/CD28 cross-linking was inhibited by norepinephrine and dopamine, which was caused by a downregulation of interleukin (IL-2 expression via Erk1/2 and NF-κB inhibition. Furthermore, all of the investigated neurotransmitters increased the spontaneous migratory activity of naïve CD8+ T lymphocytes with dopamine being the strongest inducer. In contrast, activated CD8+ T lymphocytes showed a reduced migratory activity in the presence of norepinephrine and substance P. With regard to extravasation we found norepinephrine to induce adhesion of activated CD8+ T cells: norepinephrine increased the interleukin-8 release from endothelium, which in turn had effect on the activated CXCR1+ CD8+ T cells. At last, release of cytotoxic granules from activated cells in response to CD3 cross-linking was not influenced by any of the investigated neurotransmitters, as we have analyzed by measuring the β-hexosamidase release. Conclusion Neurotransmitters are specific modulators of CD8+ T lymphocytes not by inducing any new functions, but by fine-tuning their key tasks. The effect can be either stimulatory or suppressive depending on the activation status of the cells.

  11. Single photon emission tomography (SPET) imaging of dopamine D2 receptors in the course of dopamine replacement therapy in patients with nocturnal myoclonus syndrome (NMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staedt, J.; Stoppe, G.; Riemann, H.; Hajak, G.; Ruether, E.; Koegler, A.; Emrich, D.

    1995-01-01

    Single photon emission tomography (SPET) permits the in vivo measurements of regional cerebral radioactivity in the human brain following the administration of compounds labeled with photon-emitting isotopes. According to our SPET findings of a reduced binding of [ 123 I]labeled (S)-2-hydroxy-3-iodo-6-methoxy-([1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl]methyl) benzamide (IBZM) (a highly selective CNS D 2 dopamine receptor ligand) to D 2 dopamine receptors in striatal structures in untreated patients with nocturnal myoclonus syndrome (NMS) it seemed to be of interest to investigate whether there are changes in D 2 receptor binding under dopamine replacement therapy or not. We studied the uptake and distribution of [ 123 I]IBZM before and in the course of dopamine replacement therapy in four patients with severe insomnia caused by nocturnal myoclonus syndrome (NMS). We found an increase of the IBZM binding to D 2 receptors in the course of treatment, which was associated with an improvement of sleep quality. Reasons for this are discussed. The [ 123 I]IBZM SPET technique in conclusion offers an interesting tool for in vivo investigations of functional changes in the dopaminergic neurotransmitter system in longitudinal studies. (author)

  12. HIV infection results in ventral-striatal reward system hypo-activation during cue processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plessis, Stéfan du; Vink, Matthijs; Joska, John A; Koutsilieri, Eleni; Bagadia, Asif; Stein, Dan J; Emsley, Robin

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Functional MRI has thus far demonstrated that HIV has an impact on frontal-striatal systems involved in executive functioning. The potential impact of HIV on frontal-striatal systems involved in reward processing has yet to be examined by functional MRI. This study therefore aims to

  13. Fronto-striatal atrophy in behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia & Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxime eBertoux

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD has only recently been associated with significant striatal atrophy, whereas the striatum appears to be relatively preserved in Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Considering the critical role the striatum has in cognition and behaviour, striatal degeneration, together with frontal atrophy, could be responsible of some characteristic symptoms in bvFTD and emerges therefore as promising novel diagnostic biomarker to distinguish bvFTD and AD. Previous studies have, however, only taken either cortical or striatal atrophy into account when comparing the two diseases. In this study, we establish for the first time a profile of fronto-striatal atrophy in 23 bvFTD and 29 AD patients at presentation, based on the structural connectivity of striatal and cortical regions. Patients are compared to 50 healthy controls by using a novel probabilistic connectivity atlas, which defines striatal regions by their cortical white matter connectivity, allowing us to explore the degeneration of the frontal and striatal regions that are functionally linked. Comparisons with controls revealed that bvFTD showed substantial fronto-striatal atrophy affecting the ventral as well as anterior and posterior dorso-lateral prefrontal cortices and the related striatal subregions. By contrast, AD showed few fronto-striatal atrophy, despite having significant posterior dorso-lateral prefrontal degeneration. Direct comparison between bvFTD and AD revealed significantly more atrophy in the ventral striatal-ventromedial prefrontal cortex regions in bvFTD. Consequently, deficits in ventral fronto-striatal regions emerge as promising novel and efficient diagnosis biomarker for bvFTD. Future investigations into the contributions of these fronto-striatal loops on bvFTD symptomology are needed to develop simple diagnostic and disease tracking algorithms.

  14. Running wheel exercise enhances recovery from nigrostriatal dopamine injury without inducing neuroprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, S J; Gross, N B; Fricks, A N; Casiano, B D; Nguyen, T B; Marshall, J F

    2007-02-09

    Forced use of the forelimb contralateral to a unilateral injection of the dopaminergic neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine can promote recovery of motor function in that limb and can significantly decrease damage to dopamine terminals. The present study was conducted to determine (1) whether a form of voluntary exercise, wheel running, would improve motor performance in rats with such lesions, and (2) whether any beneficial effects of wheel running are attributable to ameliorating the dopaminergic damage. In experiment 1, rats were allowed to run in exercise wheels or kept in home cages for 2 1/2 weeks, then given stereotaxic infusions of 6-hydroxydopamine into the left striatum. The rats were replaced into their original environments (wheels or home cages) for four additional weeks, and asymmetries in forelimb use were quantified at 3, 10, 17, and 24 days postoperatively. After killing, dopaminergic damage was assessed by both quantifying 3 beta-(4-iodophenyl)tropan-2 beta-carboxylic acid methyl ester ([(125)I]RTI-55) binding to striatal dopamine transporters and counting tyrosine hydroxylase-positive cells in the substantia nigra. Exercised 6-hydroxydopamine-infused rats showed improved motor outcomes relative to sedentary lesioned controls, effects that were most apparent at postoperative days 17 and 24. Despite this behavioral improvement, 6-hydroxydopamine-induced loss of striatal dopamine transporters and tyrosine hydroxylase-positive nigral cells in exercised and sedentary groups did not differ. Since prior studies suggested that forced limb use improves motor performance by sparing nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons from 6-hydroxydopamine damage, experiment 2 used a combined regimen of forced plus voluntary wheel running. Again, we found that the motor performance of exercised rats improved more rapidly than that of sedentary controls, but that there were no differences between these groups in the damage produced by 6-hydroxydopamine. It appears that voluntary

  15. Functional responses of pre- and postsynaptic dopamine D2 receptors in rat brain striatum

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Guofen

    2014-01-01

    El sistema dopaminèrgic has estat molt estudiat en els darrers anys, principalment degut a la seva implicació en diverses patologies com la malaltia de Parkinson, la esquizofrènia o la síndrome de Tourette, així com també en l'abús de drogues. S'han descrit cinc subtipus de receptors per la dopamina (DA), tots els quals pertanyen a la família de receptors acoblats a proteïnes G (GPCRs). D'aquests cinc subtipus, els receptors D2 son la diana principal dels antipsicòtics (antagonistes) i també ...

  16. Genetic reduction of mitochondrial complex I function does not lead to loss of dopamine neurons in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyung-Wook; Choi, Won-Seok; Sorscher, Noah; Park, Hyung Joon; Tronche, François; Palmiter, Richard D; Xia, Zhengui

    2015-09-01

    Inhibition of mitochondrial complex I activity is hypothesized to be one of the major mechanisms responsible for dopaminergic neuron death in Parkinson's disease. However, loss of complex I activity by systemic deletion of the Ndufs4 gene, one of the subunits comprising complex I, does not cause dopaminergic neuron death in culture. Here, we generated mice with conditional Ndufs4 knockout in dopaminergic neurons (Ndufs4 conditional knockout mice [cKO]) to examine the effect of complex I inhibition on dopaminergic neuron function and survival during aging and on 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) treatment in vivo. Ndufs4 cKO mice did not show enhanced dopaminergic neuron loss in the substantia nigra pars compacta or dopamine-dependent motor deficits over the 24-month life span. These mice were just as susceptible to MPTP as control mice. However, compared with control mice, Ndufs4 cKO mice exhibited an age-dependent reduction of dopamine in the striatum and increased α-synuclein phosphorylation in dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta. We also used an inducible Ndufs4 knockout mouse strain (Ndufs4 inducible knockout) in which Ndufs4 is conditionally deleted in all cells in adult to examine the effect of adult onset, complex I inhibition on MPTP sensitivity of dopaminergic neurons. The Ndufs4 inducible knockout mice exhibited similar sensitivity to MPTP as control littermates. These data suggest that mitochondrial complex I inhibition in dopaminergic neurons does contribute to dopamine loss and the development of α-synuclein pathology. However, it is not sufficient to cause cell-autonomous dopaminergic neuron death during the normal life span of mice. Furthermore, mitochondrial complex I inhibition does not underlie MPTP toxicity in vivo in either cell autonomous or nonautonomous manner. These results provide strong evidence that inhibition of mitochondrial complex I activity is not sufficient to cause dopaminergic neuron

  17. Individual differences in the motivation to communicate relate to levels of midbrain and striatal catecholamine markers in male European starlings

    OpenAIRE

    Heimovics, Sarah A; Salvante, Katrina G; Sockman, Keith W; Riters, Lauren V

    2011-01-01

    Individuals display dramatic differences in social communication even within similar social contexts. Across vertebrates dopaminergic projections from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and midbrain central gray (GCt) strongly influence motivated, reward-directed behaviors. Norepinephrine is also rich in these areas and may alter dopamine neuronal activity. The present study was designed to provide insight into the roles of dopamine and norepinephrine in VTA and GCt and their efferent striatal ...

  18. A Population of Indirect Pathway Striatal Projection Neurons Is Selectively Entrained to Parkinsonian Beta Oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharott, Andrew; Vinciati, Federica; Nakamura, Kouichi C; Magill, Peter J

    2017-10-11

    Classical schemes of basal ganglia organization posit that parkinsonian movement difficulties presenting after striatal dopamine depletion stem from the disproportionate firing rates of spiny projection neurons (SPNs) therein. There remains, however, a pressing need to elucidate striatal SPN firing in the context of the synchronized network oscillations that are abnormally exaggerated in cortical-basal ganglia circuits in parkinsonism. To address this, we recorded unit activities in the dorsal striatum of dopamine-intact and dopamine-depleted rats during two brain states, respectively defined by cortical slow-wave activity (SWA) and activation. Dopamine depletion escalated striatal net output but had contrasting effects on "direct pathway" SPNs (dSPNs) and "indirect pathway" SPNs (iSPNs); their firing rates became imbalanced, and they disparately engaged in network oscillations. Disturbed striatal activity dynamics relating to the slow (∼1 Hz) oscillations prevalent during SWA partly generalized to the exaggerated beta-frequency (15-30 Hz) oscillations arising during cortical activation. In both cases, SPNs exhibited higher incidences of phase-locked firing to ongoing cortical oscillations, and SPN ensembles showed higher levels of rhythmic correlated firing, after dopamine depletion. Importantly, in dopamine-depleted striatum, a widespread population of iSPNs, which often displayed excessive firing rates and aberrant phase-locked firing to cortical beta oscillations, preferentially and excessively synchronized their firing at beta frequencies. Conversely, dSPNs were neither hyperactive nor synchronized to a large extent during cortical activation. These data collectively demonstrate a cell type-selective entrainment of SPN firing to parkinsonian beta oscillations. We conclude that a population of overactive, excessively synchronized iSPNs could orchestrate these pathological rhythms in basal ganglia circuits. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Chronic depletion of dopamine

  19. Dopamine Does Not Appear to Affect Mental Rotation in Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory P. Crucian

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available ObjectivePatients with Parkinson’s disease (PD often have deficits with mental rotation (MR. The neuropathological factors underlying these deficits, however, remain to be elucidated. One hypothesis suggests that dopamine depletion in nigro-striatal systems adversely influences MR. Another hypothesis suggests that deterioration of cortical (fronto-temporo-parietal basal ganglia networks that mediate this function are responsible for this deficit. The goal of this study was to test the dopamine hypothesis by determining if dopamine abstinence negatively influences MR performance. MethodsThirty three non-demented right-handed individuals with PD were assess for their ability to perform a pencil and paper MR test while “on” and “off” dopaminergic medications. Dopamine abstinence followed the typical overnight withdrawal procedures. ResultsNo differences in mental rotation abilities were found between “on” and “off” dopaminergic medications. ConclusionsThese results suggest that other neuropathological factors, such as cortical-basal ganglia neurodegeneration, or dysfunction of other neurotransmitters systems, might account for these cognitive deficits and future research will have to test these alternative hypotheses.

  20. Association between a promoter dopamine D2 receptor gene variant and the personality trait detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jönsson, Erik G; Cichon, Sven; Gustavsson, J Petter; Grünhage, Frank; Forslund, Kaj; Mattila-Evenden, Marja; Rylander, Gunnar; Asberg, Marie; Farde, Lars; Propping, Peter; Nöthen, Markus M

    2003-04-01

    Personality traits have shown considerable heritable components. Striatal dopamine D(2) receptor density, as determined by positron-emission tomography, has been associated with detached personality, as assessed by the Karolinska Scales of Personality. A putative functional promoter polymorphism in the dopamine D(2) receptor gene (DRD2), -141C ins/del, has been associated with dopamine D(2) receptor density. In this study healthy subjects (n = 235) who filled in at least one of several personality questionnaires (Karolinska Scales of Personality, Swedish Universities Scales of Personality, Health-relevant Five-factor Personality Inventory, and Temperament and Character Inventory) were analyzed with regard to the DRD2 -141C ins/del variant. There was an association (p =.001) between the DRD2 -141C ins/del variant and Karolinska Scales of Personality Detachment scale, indicating higher scores in subjects with the -141C del variant. There were also associations between the DRD2 -141C ins/del variant and a number of Karolinska Scales of Personality and Swedish Universities Scales of Personality Neuroticism-related scales, but of these only Swedish Universities Scales of Personality Lack of Assertiveness scale (p =.001) survived correction for multiple testing. These results add further support for the involvement of dopamine D(2) receptor in certain personality traits. The results should be treated with caution until replicated.

  1. Functional mapping of thalamic nuclei and their integration into cortico-striatal-thalamo-cortical loops via ultra-high resolution imaging- From animal anatomy to in vivo imaging in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coraline D. Metzger

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The thalamus, a crucial node in the well-described cortico-striatal-thalamo-cortical circuits, has been the focus of functional and structural imaging studies investigating human emotion, cognition and memory. Invasive work in animals and post-mortem investigations have revealed the rich cytoarchitectonics and functional specificity of the thalamus. Given current restrictions in the spatial resolution of non-invasive imaging modalities, there is, however, a translational gap between functional and structural information on these circuits in humans and animals as well as between histological and cellular evidence and their relationship to psychological functioning.With the advance of higher field strengths for MR approaches, better spatial resolution is now available promising to overcome this conceptual problem.We here review these two levels, which exist for both neuroscientific and clinical investigations, and then focus on current attempts to overcome conceptual boundaries of these observations with the help of high-resolution imaging.

  2. Dopamine in high-risk populations: A comparison of subjects with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome and subjects at ultra high-risk for psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vingerhoets, Claudia; Bloemen, Oswald J N; Boot, Erik; Bakker, Geor; de Koning, Mariken B; da Silva Alves, Fabiana; Booij, Jan; van Amelsvoort, Thérèse A M J

    2018-02-28

    Striatal dopamine (DA) dysfunction has been consistently reported in psychotic disorders. Differences and similarities in the pathogenesis between populations at clinical and genetic risk for developing psychosis are yet to be established. Here we explored markers of dopamine (DA) function in subjects meeting clinically ultra-high risk criteria for psychosis (UHR) and in subjects with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), a genetic condition associated with significant risk for developing psychotic disorders. Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) with 123 I-labelled iodobenzamide ([ 123 I]IBZM) was used to measure striatal DA D 2/3 receptor binding potential (D 2 R BP ND ). Also, peripheral DAergic markers were assessed in serum and urine (plasma prolactin (pPRL), plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) and urine DA(uDA)). No significant difference in striatal D 2 R BP ND was found between UHR and 22q11DS subjects. Compared to UHR subjects, pPRL and pHVA were lower and uDA levels were higher in the 22q11DS subjects. However, after correcting for age and gender, only pPRL as significantly lower in the 22q11DS patients. These results may suggest that there are differences in DAergic markers between subjects with UHR and with 22q11DS that may reflect differences in the pathways to psychosis. However, bigger samples are needed to replicate these findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Successful function of autologous iPSC-derived dopamine neurons following transplantation in a non-human primate model of Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallett, Penelope J; Deleidi, Michela; Astradsson, Arnar

    2015-01-01

    that unilateral engraftment of CM-iPSCs could provide a gradual onset of functional motor improvement contralateral to the side of dopamine neuron transplantation, and increased motor activity, without a need for immunosuppression. Postmortem analyses demonstrated robust survival of midbrain-like dopaminergic......Autologous transplantation of patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived neurons is a potential clinical approach for treatment of neurological disease. Preclinical demonstration of long-term efficacy, feasibility, and safety of iPSC-derived dopamine neurons in non-human primate...... models will be an important step in clinical development of cell therapy. Here, we analyzed cynomolgus monkey (CM) iPSC-derived midbrain dopamine neurons for up to 2 years following autologous transplantation in a Parkinson's disease (PD) model. In one animal, with the most successful protocol, we found...

  4. Preparation of alanine and tyrosine functionalized graphene oxide nanoflakes and their modified carbon paste electrodes for the determination of dopamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Mohan; Swamy, B.E. Kumara; Asif, M.H. Mohammed; Viswanath, C.C.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The prepared graphene oxide was functionalized by alanine and tyrosine. • The prepared materials were used for sensor for dopamine. • The functionalized graphene oxide modified carbon paste electrodes shows good sensitivity, stability and repeatability. - Abstract: Herein, established the synthesis of graphene oxide (GO) by Hummers Method with addition of KMnO_4 followed by thermal heating at 80 °C. The obtained GO was further functionalized by alanine and tyrosine. The prepared GO, alanine functionalized GO nanoflakes (AGONF) and tyrosine functionalized GO nanoflakes (TGONF) were characterized by spectroscopic technique using energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), quantitatively by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and structural studies along with interlayer distance verified through X-ray diffraction technique. Afterwards, the prepared AGONF and TGONF were used as the modifier for the carbon paste electrode (CPE). The electrochemical behavior of the AGONF and TGONF modified carbon paste electrodes (MCPEs) towards dopamine (DA) in phosphate buffer solution (PBS) were examined by cyclic voltammetric (CV) technique and the obtained consequences showed good electrocatalytic activity of MCPEs by increasing the redox peak current with a lower potential difference compared to the bare CPE (BCPE). The AGONF and TGONF MCPEs were further used for the optimization studies. From the pH studies, it was found that the equal number of proton and electron transfer reaction involved in both the modified electrodes. The scan rate studies demonstrate the adsorption controlled electrode process at AGONF MCPE and diffusion controlled at TGONF MCPE. The oxidation peak current increased linearly with two concentration interval of DA at a range of 2–7 μM and 10–30 μM in presence of PBS (pH 7.4) at MCPEs and the limit of detection (LOD) were found to be 0.84 μM and 0.96 μM for first interval DA concentration range (2–7 μM) at AGONF and TGONF MCPE. The

  5. Preparation of alanine and tyrosine functionalized graphene oxide nanoflakes and their modified carbon paste electrodes for the determination of dopamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Mohan [Department of P.G. Studies and Research in Industrial Chemistry, Kuvempu University, Shankaraghatta, 577 451, Shimoga, Karnataka (India); Swamy, B.E. Kumara, E-mail: kumaraswamy21@yahoo.com [Department of P.G. Studies and Research in Industrial Chemistry, Kuvempu University, Shankaraghatta, 577 451, Shimoga, Karnataka (India); Asif, M.H. Mohammed [Nanoscience and Technology, Kuvempu University, Shankaraghatta, 577451, Shimoga, Karnataka (India); Viswanath, C.C. [Department of P.G. Studies and Research in Industrial Chemistry, Kuvempu University, Shankaraghatta, 577 451, Shimoga, Karnataka (India)

    2017-03-31

    Highlights: • The prepared graphene oxide was functionalized by alanine and tyrosine. • The prepared materials were used for sensor for dopamine. • The functionalized graphene oxide modified carbon paste electrodes shows good sensitivity, stability and repeatability. - Abstract: Herein, established the synthesis of graphene oxide (GO) by Hummers Method with addition of KMnO{sub 4} followed by thermal heating at 80 °C. The obtained GO was further functionalized by alanine and tyrosine. The prepared GO, alanine functionalized GO nanoflakes (AGONF) and tyrosine functionalized GO nanoflakes (TGONF) were characterized by spectroscopic technique using energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), quantitatively by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and structural studies along with interlayer distance verified through X-ray diffraction technique. Afterwards, the prepared AGONF and TGONF were used as the modifier for the carbon paste electrode (CPE). The electrochemical behavior of the AGONF and TGONF modified carbon paste electrodes (MCPEs) towards dopamine (DA) in phosphate buffer solution (PBS) were examined by cyclic voltammetric (CV) technique and the obtained consequences showed good electrocatalytic activity of MCPEs by increasing the redox peak current with a lower potential difference compared to the bare CPE (BCPE). The AGONF and TGONF MCPEs were further used for the optimization studies. From the pH studies, it was found that the equal number of proton and electron transfer reaction involved in both the modified electrodes. The scan rate studies demonstrate the adsorption controlled electrode process at AGONF MCPE and diffusion controlled at TGONF MCPE. The oxidation peak current increased linearly with two concentration interval of DA at a range of 2–7 μM and 10–30 μM in presence of PBS (pH 7.4) at MCPEs and the limit of detection (LOD) were found to be 0.84 μM and 0.96 μM for first interval DA concentration range (2–7 μM) at AGONF and TGONF MCPE

  6. Striatal Activation Predicts Differential Therapeutic Responses to Methylphenidate and Atomoxetine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Kurt P; Bédard, Anne-Claude V; Fan, Jin; Hildebrandt, Thomas B; Stein, Mark A; Ivanov, Iliyan; Halperin, Jeffrey M; Newcorn, Jeffrey H

    2017-07-01

    Methylphenidate has prominent effects in the dopamine-rich striatum that are absent for the selective norepinephrine transporter inhibitor atomoxetine. This study tested whether baseline striatal activation would predict differential response to the two medications in youth with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A total of 36 youth with ADHD performed a