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Sample records for striata chaffinches fringilla

  1. Habitat suitability-density relationship in an endangered woodland species: the case of the Blue Chaffinch (Fringilla polatzeki).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrascal, Luis M; Moreno, Ángel C; Delgado, Alejandro; Suárez, Víctor; Trujillo, Domingo

    2017-01-01

    Understanding constraints to the distribution of threatened species may help to ascertain whether there are other suitable sectors for reducing the risks associated with species that are recorded in only one protected locality, and to inform about the suitability of other areas for reintroduction or translocation programs. We studied the Gran Canaria blue chaffinch ( Fringilla polatzeki ), a habitat specialist endemic of the Canary Islands restricted to the pine forest of Inagua, the only area where the species has been naturally present as a regular breeder in the last 25 years. A suitability distribution model using occurrences with demographic relevance (i.e., nest locations of successful breeding attempts analysed using boosted classification trees) was built considering orographic, climatic and habitat structure predictors. By means of a standardized survey program we monitored the yearly abundance of the species in 100 sectors since the declaration of Inagua as a Strict Nature Reserve in 1994. The variables with the highest relative importance in blue chaffinch habitat preferences were pine height, tree cover, altitude, and rainfall during the driest trimester (July-September). The observed local abundance of the blue chaffinch in Inagua (survey data) was significantly correlated with habitat suitability derived from modelling the location of successful nesting attempts (using linear and quantile regressions). The outcomes of the habitat suitability model were used to quantify the suitability of other natural, historic, pine forests of Gran Canaria. Tamadaba is the forest with most suitable woodland patches for the species. We estimated a population size of 195-430 blue chaffinches in Inagua since 2011 (95% CI), the smallest population size of a woodland passerine in the Western Palearctic. Habitat suitability obtained from modelling the location of successful breeding attempts is a good surrogate of the observed local abundance during the reproductive season

  2. Habitat suitability—density relationship in an endangered woodland species: the case of the Blue Chaffinch (Fringilla polatzeki

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    Luis M. Carrascal

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Understanding constraints to the distribution of threatened species may help to ascertain whether there are other suitable sectors for reducing the risks associated with species that are recorded in only one protected locality, and to inform about the suitability of other areas for reintroduction or translocation programs. Methods We studied the Gran Canaria blue chaffinch (Fringilla polatzeki, a habitat specialist endemic of the Canary Islands restricted to the pine forest of Inagua, the only area where the species has been naturally present as a regular breeder in the last 25 years. A suitability distribution model using occurrences with demographic relevance (i.e., nest locations of successful breeding attempts analysed using boosted classification trees was built considering orographic, climatic and habitat structure predictors. By means of a standardized survey program we monitored the yearly abundance of the species in 100 sectors since the declaration of Inagua as a Strict Nature Reserve in 1994. Results The variables with the highest relative importance in blue chaffinch habitat preferences were pine height, tree cover, altitude, and rainfall during the driest trimester (July–September. The observed local abundance of the blue chaffinch in Inagua (survey data was significantly correlated with habitat suitability derived from modelling the location of successful nesting attempts (using linear and quantile regressions. The outcomes of the habitat suitability model were used to quantify the suitability of other natural, historic, pine forests of Gran Canaria. Tamadaba is the forest with most suitable woodland patches for the species. We estimated a population size of 195–430 blue chaffinches in Inagua since 2011 (95% CI, the smallest population size of a woodland passerine in the Western Palearctic. Discussion Habitat suitability obtained from modelling the location of successful breeding attempts is a good surrogate of the

  3. Habitat suitability—density relationship in an endangered woodland species: the case of the Blue Chaffinch (Fringilla polatzeki)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Ángel C.; Delgado, Alejandro; Suárez, Víctor; Trujillo, Domingo

    2017-01-01

    Background Understanding constraints to the distribution of threatened species may help to ascertain whether there are other suitable sectors for reducing the risks associated with species that are recorded in only one protected locality, and to inform about the suitability of other areas for reintroduction or translocation programs. Methods We studied the Gran Canaria blue chaffinch (Fringilla polatzeki), a habitat specialist endemic of the Canary Islands restricted to the pine forest of Inagua, the only area where the species has been naturally present as a regular breeder in the last 25 years. A suitability distribution model using occurrences with demographic relevance (i.e., nest locations of successful breeding attempts analysed using boosted classification trees) was built considering orographic, climatic and habitat structure predictors. By means of a standardized survey program we monitored the yearly abundance of the species in 100 sectors since the declaration of Inagua as a Strict Nature Reserve in 1994. Results The variables with the highest relative importance in blue chaffinch habitat preferences were pine height, tree cover, altitude, and rainfall during the driest trimester (July–September). The observed local abundance of the blue chaffinch in Inagua (survey data) was significantly correlated with habitat suitability derived from modelling the location of successful nesting attempts (using linear and quantile regressions). The outcomes of the habitat suitability model were used to quantify the suitability of other natural, historic, pine forests of Gran Canaria. Tamadaba is the forest with most suitable woodland patches for the species. We estimated a population size of 195–430 blue chaffinches in Inagua since 2011 (95% CI), the smallest population size of a woodland passerine in the Western Palearctic. Discussion Habitat suitability obtained from modelling the location of successful breeding attempts is a good surrogate of the observed local

  4. Long-term variability in terms of arrival and departure of whitethroat (Sylvia communis and chaffinch (Fringilla coelebs in the South-East of the lake Ladoga

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    Ufimtseva Anna

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the annual cycle of birds several changing physiological states are marked out, and their duration is controlled by endogenous and environmental factors. The change in the annual cycle parameters influences the seasonal differences in the migratory behavior of species as a whole. The results of the analysis of arrival and departure terms of two bird species – long-distance migrant whitethroat (Sylvia communis and short-distance migrant chaffinch (Fringilla coelebs – are presented in this article. The research was based on the materials of the long-term monitoring of migration terms at the Ladoga ornithological station. The results of this research correlate to the studies of birds in the Western Europe. Annual variability of the first and last registration dates of the whitethroat is less pronounced than the dates of short-distance migrant – chaffinch. The both species have a trend to come earlier to the breeding area and to fly away later from this territory. At the same time the displacement of migration dates is significant and more long-lasting for chaffinch. In general, whitethroats stay in the South-East of the lake Ladoga on an average 8 days more, chaffinches – 31 days more (by the results of 40 years observation.

  5. Interspecific reciprocity explains mobbing behaviour of the breeding chaffinches, Fringilla coelebs.

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    Krams, Indrikis; Krama, Tatjana

    2002-01-01

    When prey animals discover a predator close by, they mob it while uttering characteristic sounds that attract other prey individuals to the vicinity. Mobbing causes a predator to vacate its immediate foraging area, which gives an opportunity for prey individuals to continue their interrupted daily activity. Besides the increased benefits, mobbing behaviour also has its costs owing to injuries or death. The initiator of mobbing may be at increased risk of predation by attracting the predator's attention, especially if not joined by other neighbouring prey individuals. Communities of breeding birds have always been considered as temporal aggregations. Since an altruist could not prevent cheaters from exploiting its altruism in an anonymous community, this excluded any possibility of explaining mobbing behaviour in terms of reciprocal altruism. However, sedentary birds may have become acquainted since the previous non-breeding season. Migrant birds, forming anonymous communities at the beginning of the breeding season, may also develop closer social ties during the course of the breeding season. We tested whether a male chaffinch, a migrant bird, would initiate active harassment of a predator both at the beginning of the breeding season and a week later when it has become a member of a non-anonymous multi-species aggregation of sedentary birds. We expected that male chaffinches would be less likely to initiate a mob at the beginning of the breeding season when part of an anonymous multi-species aggregation of migratory birds. However, their mobbing activity should increase as the breeding season advances. Our results support these predictions. Cooperation among individuals belonging to different species in driving the predator away may be explained as interspecific reciprocity based on interspecific recognition and temporal stability of the breeding communities. PMID:12495502

  6. Complete mitochondrial genomes from four subspecies of common chaffinch (Fringilla coelebs): new inferences about mitochondrial rate heterogeneity, neutral theory, and phylogenetic relationships within the order Passeriformes.

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    Marshall, H Dawn; Baker, Allan J; Grant, Allison R

    2013-03-15

    We describe whole mitochondrial genome sequences from four subspecies of the common chaffinch (Fringilla coelebs), and compare them to 31 publicly available mitochondrial genome sequences from other Passeriformes. Rates and patterns of mitochondrial gene evolution are analyzed at different taxonomic levels within this avian order, and evidence is adduced for and against the nearly neutral theory of molecular evolution and the role of positive selection in shaping genetic variation of this small but critical genome. We find evidence of mitochondrial rate heterogeneity in birds as in other vertebrates, likely due to differences in mutational pressure across the genome. Unlike in gadine fish and some of the human mitochondrial work we do not observe strong support for the nearly neutral theory of molecular evolution; instead evidence from molecular clocks, distribution of dN/dS ratios at different levels of the taxonomic hierarchy and in different lineages, McDonald-Kreitman tests within Fringillidae, and site-specific tests of selection within Passeriformes, all point to a role for positive selection, especially for the complex I NADH dehydrogenase genes. The protein-coding mitogenome phylogeny of the order Passeriformes is broadly consistent with previously-reported molecular findings, but provides support for a sister relationship between the superfamilies Muscicapoidea and Passeroidea on a short basal internode of the Passerida where relationships have been difficult to resolve. An unexpected placement of the Paridae (represented by Hume's groundpecker) within the Muscicapoidea was observed. Consistent with other molecular studies the mtDNA phylogeny reveals paraphyly within the Muscicapoidea and a sister relationship of Fringilla with Carduelis rather than Emberiza. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. [Peculiarities of the internal anatomy in the mite family Syringophilidae by the example of Syringophilopsis fringilla--a parasite of chaffinch].

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    Filimonova, S A

    2008-01-01

    Internal anatomy of the female Syringophilopsis fringilla (Fritsch, 1958) was investigated by light microscope using electron microscope to control the results for some body regions. The digestive tract is open. The anterior midgut includes the stomach and two pairs of caeca. The posterior midgut is represented by a long tubular excretory organ being connected to the stomach via a small opening. The opening is provided by a muscular sphincter. The short hind gut ends in the anal opening at the terminal side of the body. The unpaired tubular gland occupies medial region of the body between the brain and the mouth parts. Paired coxal glands lack typical sacculi. Each of them, in addition to long filtering tubules, contains two glandular regions producing different secretory products. The cuticul-lined excretory duct of each coxal gland opens into the podocephalic canal, running from the base of leg coxae I to the front side of the rostrum The female reproductive system of S. fringilla is composed of the unpaired ovary, large oviduct, and cuticular vaginal cavity with extensively folded walls. Vagina leads to the separate opening, situated in the deep body invagination ventrally to the anus. The oviduct consists of highly folded proximal portion and enlarged distal one. The distal portion of the oviduct is characterized by the glandular epithelial lining producing special secretory product into the lumen of the organ. All females examined contain numerous long spermia inside the large receptaculum seminis. The latter runs into the oviduct at the junction of its two parts. Large granulocytes were observed in the body cavity of the mites. Neither nephrocytes nor typical fat body cells were found.

  8. Striking resilience of an island endemic bird to a severe perturbation: the case of the Gran Canaria blue chaffinch

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno, Á. C.; Carrascal, Luis M.; Delgado, A.; Suárez, V.; Seoane, J.

    2018-01-01

    [ES] Striking resilience of an island–endemic bird to a severe perturbation: the case of the Gran Canaria blue chaffinch. Evidence regarding population trends of endangered species in special protection areas and their recovery ability from catastrophic disturbances is scarce. We assessed the population trend of the Gran Canaria blue chaffinch (Fringilla polatzeki), a habitat specialist endemic to the pine forest of Inagua in the Canary Islands, following a devastating wildfire in July 2007. ...

  9. Striking resilience of an island endemic bird to a severe perturbation: the case of the Gran Canaria blue chaffinch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno, Á. C.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence regarding population trends of endangered species in special protection areas and their recovery ability from catastrophic disturbances is scarce. We assessed the population trend of the Gran Canaria blue chaffinch (Fringilla polatzeki, a habitat specialist endemic to the pine forest of Inagua in the Canary Islands, following a devastating wildfire in July 2007. Using a standardized census program that accounts for detectability, we have monitored the population trend of the species since Inagua was declared a Strict Nature Reserve in 1994. The breeding population density of the blue chaffinch remained stable in Inagua from the beginning of the monitoring program in 1994 until the year before the wildfire. However, in spring 2008, the population density decreased by half with respect to density in the preceding years. Since 2008, the population has gradually increased, reaching its highest recorded density in 2016 (15.8 birds/km2.This represents an average annual increase of 23.7 %, indicating impressive resilience to catastrophic events. The creation of Inagua as a strict nature reserve did not therefore increase the global population or protect the blue chaffinch against a demographic crisis but probably prevented a deepening of the demographic crisis or further declines. Except for the two years immediately after the severe wildfire of 2007, the population density of the blue chaffinch in Inagua has remained relatively stable at around 9–16 birds/km2, the lowest recorded abundance for a small woodland passerine in the Western Palearctic.

  10. Outcomes of brood parasite-host interactions mediated by egg matching: common cuckoos Cuculus canorus versus Fringilla finches.

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    Johan Reinert Vikan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Antagonistic species often interact via matching of phenotypes, and interactions between brood parasitic common cuckoos (Cuculus canorus and their hosts constitute classic examples. The outcome of a parasitic event is often determined by the match between host and cuckoo eggs, giving rise to potentially strong associations between fitness and egg phenotype. Yet, empirical efforts aiming to document and understand the resulting evolutionary outcomes are in short supply.We used avian color space models to analyze patterns of egg color variation within and between the cuckoo and two closely related hosts, the nomadic brambling (Fringilla montifringilla and the site fidelic chaffinch (F. coelebs. We found that there is pronounced opportunity for disruptive selection on brambling egg coloration. The corresponding cuckoo host race has evolved egg colors that maximize fitness in both sympatric and allopatric brambling populations. By contrast, the chaffinch has a more bimodal egg color distribution consistent with the evolutionary direction predicted for the brambling. Whereas the brambling and its cuckoo host race show little geographical variation in their egg color distributions, the chaffinch's distribution becomes increasingly dissimilar to the brambling's distribution towards the core area of the brambling cuckoo host race.High rates of brambling gene flow is likely to cool down coevolutionary hot spots by cancelling out the selection imposed by a patchily distributed cuckoo host race, thereby promoting a matching equilibrium. By contrast, the site fidelic chaffinch is more likely to respond to selection from adapting cuckoos, resulting in a markedly more bimodal egg color distribution. The geographic variation in the chaffinch's egg color distribution could reflect a historical gradient in parasitism pressure. Finally, marked cuckoo egg polymorphisms are unlikely to evolve in these systems unless the hosts evolve even more exquisite egg

  11. Co-infection with papillomavirus and Knemidokoptes jamaicensis (Acari: Knemidokoptidae) in a chaffinch (Fringilla coelebs) and a case of beak papillomatosis in another chaffinch

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Literák, I.; Šmíd, B.; Dusbábek, František; Halouzka, R.; Novotný, L.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 6 (2005), s. 276-280 ISSN 0375-8427 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : papillomavirus * knemidokoptosis * diseases of birds Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 0.621, year: 2005

  12. Structural conservation and variation in the mitochondrial control region of fringilline finches (Fringilla spp.) and the greenfinch (Carduelis chloris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, H D; Baker, A J

    1997-02-01

    We sequenced the entire control region and portions of flanking genes (tRNA(Phe), tRNA(Glu), and ND6) in the common chaffinch (Fringilla coelebs), blue chaffinch (F. teydea), brambling (F. montifringilla), and greenfinch (Carduelis chloris). In these finches the control region is similar in length (1,223-1,237 bp) and has the same flanking gene order as in other birds, and contains a putative TAS element and the highly conserved CSB-1 and F, D, and C boxes recognizable in most vertebrates. Cloverleaf-like structures associated with the TAS element at the 5' end and CSB-1 at the 3' end of the control region may be involved with the stop and start of D-loop synthesis, respectively. The pattern of nucleotide and substitution bias is similar to that in other vertebrates, and consequently the finch control region can be subdivided into a central, conserved G-rich domain (domain II) flanked by hypervariable 5'-C-rich (domain I) and 3'-AT-rich (domain III) segments. In pairwise comparisons among finch species, the central domain has unusually low transition/transversion ratios, which suggests that increased G + T content is a functional constraint, possibly for DNA primase efficiency. In finches the relative rates of evolution vary among domains according to a ratio of 4.2 (domain III) to 2.2 (domain I) to 1 (domain II), and extensively among sites within domains I and II. Domain I and III sequences are extremely useful in recovering intraspecific phylogeographic splits between populations in Africa and Europe, Madeira, and a basal lineage in Nefza, Tunisia. Domain II sequences are highly conserved, and are therefore only useful in conjunction with sequences from domains I and III in phylogenetic studies of closely related species.

  13. Avian papillomaviruses: the parrot Psittacus erithacus papillomavirus (PePV genome has a unique organization of the early protein region and is phylogenetically related to the chaffinch papillomavirus

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    Jenson A Bennett

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An avian papillomavirus genome has been cloned from a cutaneous exophytic papilloma from an African grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus. The nucleotide sequence, genome organization, and phylogenetic position of the Psittacus erithacus papillomavirus (PePV were determined. This PePV sequence represents the first complete avian papillomavirus genome defined. Results The PePV genome (7304 basepairs differs from other papillomaviruses, in that it has a unique organization of the early protein region lacking classical E6 and E7 open reading frames. Phylogenetic comparison of the PePV sequence with partial E1 and L1 sequences of the chaffinch (Fringilla coelebs papillomavirus (FPV reveals that these two avian papillomaviruses form a monophyletic cluster with a common branch that originates near the unresolved center of the papillomavirus evolutionary tree. Conclusions The PePV genome has a unique layout of the early protein region which represents a novel prototypic genomic organization for avian papillomaviruses. The close relationship between PePV and FPV, and between their Psittaciformes and Passeriformes hosts, supports the hypothesis that papillomaviruses have co-evolved and speciated together with their host species throughout evolution.

  14. Osteopathia striata with cranial sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gay, B.B. [Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Elsas, L.J. [Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA (United States). Dept. of Pediatrics; Wyly, J.B. [Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Pasquali, M. [Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA (United States). Dept. of Pediatrics

    1994-03-01

    Osteopathia striata with cranial sclerosis (OS-CS) is a specific bone dysplasia manifested by hypertelorism, flat nasal bridge, frontal bossing, large head, hypoplastic maxilla, palate anomalies, chronic otitis media, hearing deficits, nasal obstruction, and neurological changes of deafness, facial palsy, ophthalmoplegia, and mental retardation. We will review the clinical and radiologic findings in a new patient from birth to 20 years; this is believed to be the thirty-fifth patient reported. OS-CS is 2.5 times more common in females and occurs as an autosomal dominant condition or a sporadic dominant mutation with patients presenting for evaluation from the newborn period to the fifth decade. Skeletal abnormalities are distinctive including sclerosis of the skull base and calvarium, linear striated densities in the long bones and pelvis, and poor development of the mastoid and sinus air cells. Radionuclide bone scans with SPECT indicated in our patient increased bone turnover which was supported by biochemical findings of increased pyridinoline excretion. The major complications are due to constriction of essential foramina at the skull base. The condition is not life-threatening but can produce disability. (orig.)

  15. Isolation of microsatellite markers for Bletilla striata and cross ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bletilla is a temperate, terrestrial genus of orchids containing 6 species. For the species whose whole genome is unknown, we used magnetic bead hybridization method to develop microsatellite Simple Repeat Polymorphoresis (SSR) for Bletilla striata and 9 primer sets were characterized in two wild populations of B.

  16. [Rapid propagation of Bletilla striata by synthetic seeds technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei-Ping; Tian, Sha-Sha; Lu, Guang-Yao; Lv, Di; Wang, Yang-Ni; Jiang, Fu-Sheng; Ding, Zhi-Shan

    2012-11-01

    To establish a new manufacturing method for Bletilla striata synthetic seeds, and provided a new way for rapid propagation of B. striata, the correlated influential factors were studied. The synthetic seeds were manufactured by taking seeds of B. striata as materials which were beforehand germinated in 1/2 MS medium for 10 days, and the influential factors such as artificial endosperm components, episperm substances, storage conditions and germination groundmass impact on the germination rate and seedling rate of the synthetic seeds were evaluated. Compound 4.0% sodium alginate + 0.2 mol x L(-1) CaCl2 + 0.4 mg x L(-1) penicillin + 0.3% carbendazim powder + 0.2% sodium benzoate served as the best episperm substances while MS + 1.0 mg x L(-1) NAA + 2.0 mg x L(-1) KT as the best endosperm components, in which, high germination rate and seedling rate were obtained. The synthetic seeds storing in the 4 degrees C for a long time was able to have still high vitality. The B. striata synthetic seeds manufacturing system was established successfully, while efforts should be taken to improve the sowing technique of the synthetic seeds in non-sterile conditions.

  17. Osteopathia striata with cranial sclerosis and hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüerssen, K; Ptok, M

    2006-02-01

    Osteopathia striata is a manifestation of several bone dysplasias. In association with cranial sclerosis, it represents a separate entity that is not limited to the bones, but may also affect other structures, leading to an abnormal face, cleft palate, deafness, heart defects and vertebral anomalies. Neurological findings range from normal development to marked retardation with hydrocephalus, cranial nerve deficiencies and deafness. So far, only a few patients have been described in the literature, demonstrating autosomal dominant inheritance. Here, we report a spontaneous mutation of inheritance. The parents and three sisters of the affected child are healthy. In 78.6% of the reported cases with osteopathia striata and hearing loss, a conductive hearing loss was described. Surgical attempts to mobilize the middle-ear bones were unsuccessful because of swelling and augmented growth of the bones in the middle ears. Here the mobilization of the eardrum was not attempted because the middle ear cavities were epidermized. This is the second case in the literature in which a myringotomy was not done because the middle ear was completely epidermized. As a possible alternative, children with osteopathia striata and cranial sclerosis with hearing loss should be fitted with hearing aids because surgery of the middle ear probably will be difficult or perhaps not possible.

  18. Haematological and ion regulatory effects of nitrite in the air-breathing snakehead fish Channa striata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lefevre, Sjannie; Jensen, Frank Bo; Huong, Do T.T.

    2012-01-01

    The tolerance and effects of nitrite on ion balance and haematology were investigated in the striped snakehead, Channa striata Bloch 1793, which is an air-breathing fish with reduced gills of importance for aquaculture in South East Asia. C. striata was nitrite tolerant with a 96 h LC50 of 4.7 m...

  19. Osteopathia striata: A characteristic X-ray finding in focal dermal hypoplasia (Goltz-Gorlin syndrome)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthels, W.; Boepple, D.; Petzel, H.

    1982-01-01

    Two cases of the very rare Goltz-Gorlin syndrome are presented. The relationship of osteopathia striata and focal dermal hypoplasia is discussed, and it is concluded that the osteopathia striata represents the characteristic picture of this ectopic mesodermal abnormality. (orig.)

  20. Striking resilience of an island endemic bird to a severe perturbation: the case of the Gran Canaria blue chaffinch

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno, A. C.; Carrascal, L. M.; Delgado, A.; Suárez, V.; Seoane, J.

    2018-01-01

    Marcada resiliencia de una especie de ave insular endémica después de una perturbación intensa: el caso del pinzón azul de Gran Canaria Son pocos los datos disponibles sobre la tendencia demográfica de las especies en peligro de extinción en zonas de protección especial y su capacidad de recuperarse de perturbaciones catastróficas. Se estudia la tendencia demográfica del pinzón azul de Gran Canaria (Fringilla polatzeki), un especialista de hábitat endémico de las Islas Canarias, restrin...

  1. Biocompatibility of Bletilla striata Microspheres as a Novel Embolic Agent

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    ShiHua Luo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We have prepared Chinese traditional herb Bletilla striata into microspheres as a novel embolic agent for decades. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biocompatibility of Bletilla striata microspheres (BSMs. After a thermal test of BSMs in vitro, the cell biocompatibility of BSMs was investigated in mouse fibroblasts and human umbilical vein endothelial cells using the methyl tetrazolium (MTT assay. In addition, blood biocompatibility was evaluated. In vivo intramuscular implantation and renal artery embolization in rabbits with BSMs were used to examine the inflammatory response. The experimental rabbits did not develop any fever symptoms after injection of BSMs, and BSMs exhibited no cytotoxicity in cultured mouse fibroblasts and human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Additionally, BSMs exhibited high compatibility with red blood cells and no hemolysis activity. Intramuscular implantation with BSMs resulted in a gradually lessened mild inflammatory reaction that disappeared after eight weeks. The occlusion of small renal vessels was associated with a mild perivascular inflammatory reaction without significant renal and liver function damage. In conclusion, we believe that BSMs exhibit high biocompatibility and are a promising embolic agent.

  2. [Asepsis sowing and tissue culture of Bletilla striata].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Songjun; Huang, Xiangli; Chen, Zhilin; Chen, Jiantong; Duan, Jun

    2004-09-01

    The asepsis sowing and tissue culture of Bletilla striata were studied. The results indicated that the embyro culture had highest sprouting percent and plantlets percent when their embryos were mature. The optimal medium for the embryo culture was 1/2 MS. Adding 10% coconut juice can promote embyros sprouting and plantlets formation, 1% active carbon can improve plantlets growing. The best medium for the top of plantlet on culture and multiplication was 1/2 MS + 6-BA 0.5 mg/L + NAA 0.2 mg/L. The best medium of rooting was 1/2 MS + NAA 0.5 mg/L, and 10% banana juice can improve rooting of plantlets.

  3. The anti-Staphylococcus aureus activity of the phenanthrene fraction from fibrous roots of Bletilla striata

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Jing-Jing; Dai, Bin-Ling; Chen, Ni-Pi; Jin, Li-Xia; Jiang, Fu-Sheng; Ding, Zhi-Shan; Qian, Chao-Dong

    2016-01-01

    Background Bletillae Rhizoma, the tuber of Bletilla striata, has been used in Chinese traditional medicine to treat infectious diseases. Chemical studies indicated that phenanthrene was one of the most important components of the herb, with a broad spectrum of antibiotic activity against Gram-positive bacteria. The objective of this study was to further characterize the antibacterial activity of the phenanthrene fraction from the fibrous root of the pseudobulb of B. striata. Methods The phena...

  4. The occurrence of Glyceria striata (Lam. Hitchc. in Europe and the new localities of the species in Poland

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    Bartosz Piwowarski

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Glyceria striata (Lam. Hitchc. is a North American species that has been recorded in most, semi-natural habitats in Europe, e.g. in meadows, bog springs, margins of water bodies. It is circumscribed within two taxa of lower rank: G. striata subsp. striata and G. striata subsp. stricta. Only G. striata subsp. stricta has been reported from Europe. This paper gives a list of the European locali- ties of the species (48 and describes two newly discovered localities in Poland (the Wyżyna Małopolska upland and the Western Carpathian Mts.. The distribution of G. striata in Europe is mapped and potential migration routes of the species are discussed.

  5. Rates and patterns of mitochondrial DNA sequence evolution in fringilline finches (fringilla spp.) and the greenfinch (Carduelis chloris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, H D; Baker, A J

    1998-06-01

    Rates and patterns of evolution in partial sequences of five mitochondrial genes (cytochrome b, ATPase 6, NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5, tRNA(Glu), and the control region) were compared among taxa in the passerine bird genera Fringilla and Carduelis. Rates of divergence do not vary significantly among genes, even in comparisons with the control region. Rate variation among lineages is significant only for the control region and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5, and patterns of variation are consistent with the expectations of neutral theory. Base composition is biased in all genes but is stationary among lineages, and there is evidence for directional mutation pressure only in the control region. Despite these similarities, patterns of substitution differ among genes, consistent with alternative regimes of selective constraint. Rates of nonsynonymous substitution are higher in NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 than in other protein-coding genes, and transitions exist in elevated proportions relative to transversions. Transitions appear to accumulate linearly with time in tRNA(Glu), and despite exhibiting the highest overall rate of divergence among species, there are no transversional changes in this gene. Finally, for resolving phylogenetic relationships among Fringilla taxa, the combined protein-coding data are broadly similar to those of the control region in terms of phylogenetic informativeness and statistical support.

  6. Variabilität des Reviergesangs des Buchfinken (Fringilla coelebs) zur Raum-Zeit-Beschreibung von Metapopulationen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolte, Björn

    2003-10-01

    werden, wohingegen die interindividuelle Variation in zwei Fällen signifikant war. In einem Fall bestand ein Trend und in einem weiteren Fall war die Variationsunterschiede nicht signifikant. - Der Verlauf der Brutsaison lässt sich an der jährlichen Gesangsaktivität nachvollziehen. Chaffinch song was recorded in Potsdam in two major populations of chaffinches over a period of three years. Each male was identified unambiguously because of their individual song type repertoires. These are usually easy to distinguish from sonagrams as the variation is discontinuous. A further point for individual recognition is the fixed territorial behaviour of adult males. The described method is employed to examine whole populations and to observe changes with space and time in the song of a population. The major findings of the study are: - The total amount of basic song types in each population is constant over years. - The quantity of each basic song type is different and varies from year to year and from population to population. - Song copying is extremely accurate on at least 96% of occasions. - Song-type sharing is high within populations. Discussed mechanisms for song neighbourhoods are: expectation of life, semi-migratory behaviour, learning skills, establishment of song types, female choice and male vs male interaction. Furthermore a model of cultural evolution of chaffinch song was programmed to determine the role of factors like error rate, rate of emigration and running time. The changes are gradual in space and time. Hence the dialect borders are smooth. Despite this fact established song types mark the population. As every second juvenile bird settles in the population of his birth inbreeding is avoided and the dialect structure is retained. - Analysing the repertoires of neighbouring males (“next door neighbours”) in isolated avenues to examine mutual influences suggests that these have the same amount of song types in common than would be expected by chance

  7. The Striated Parachute Spider Poecilotheria striata Pocock, 1895 (Araneae: Theraphosidae: a note on taxonomy, distribution and conservation status

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    M. Siliwal

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The known distribution range of Poecilotheria striata Pocock, 1895 in India is from Mysuru in the north to Thiruvananthapuram in the south. During the recent surveys in northern Karnataka, P. striata was recorded from six locations in Dandeli and nearby areas in the Uttara Kannada District. With the new records from Uttara Kannada, the distribution range of this species extends to the northern part of the Western Ghats by ca. 400km from Mysuru. Additional records on distribution of P. striata are also provided from various surveys carried out in the last 10 years. Based on these new records, the IUCN Red List status of P. striata is recommended to be reassessed as Near Threatened. Additional information on the morphology and natural history of P. striata is provided in the paper.

  8. Screening of antibacterial effect of the Scrophularia Striata against E. coli in vitro

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    Sharafati-chaleshtori Reza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study was aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the ethanol and aqueous extracts of Scrophularia striata plant on E. coli O157:H7 in vitro. Methods: In this experimental study the ethanol and aqueous extract of the plant was prepared and their antibacterial effects were determined using sink diffusion and broth macrodilution methods against the bacterium E. coli O157:H7. Results: The ethanol extract of Scrophularia striata plant had inhibitory effect on the E. coli O157:H7 in two methods of sink diffusion and macrodilution, but the aqueous extract of this plant had not antibacterial effect. The MIC and MBC amounts were obtained 90mg/ml and 100 mg/ml, respectively. Conclusion: Based on the present results that the ethanol extract of the Scrophularia Striata plant showed inhibitory effect on bacterium, more researches are recommended to evaluate its in vivo effects and to identify active compounds.

  9. Chemical characterization of the oil of Sterculia striata St. Hil. et Naud nuts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaves, Mariana H.; Barbosa, Andrea S.; Moita Neto, Jose M.; Aued-Pimentel, Sabria; Lago, Joao Henrique G.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes total lipid content, unsaponifiable fraction and the acid, refractive, saponification and iodine indices of the oil of Sterculia striata nuts. The fatty acids, the sterols and the triterpene alcohols were determined. The percentage of cyclopropenoid fatty acids (CPFA), determined by NMR 1 H (15,5%), makes the nuts of this species unsuitable for human consumption. (author)

  10. Sterculia striata seed kernel oil: Characterization and thermal stability

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    Oliveira Cavalheiro, José Marcelino

    2008-06-01

    Sterculia striata. Se determinaron la composición química, las propiedades químico-físicas, composición en ácidos grasos, así como la estabilidad térmica de la harina (polvo de almendra. La composición química de la harina contiene cerca de 25,8% de lípidos, los parámetros químico-físicos, tales como: índice de acidez, yodo, peróxido y saponificación fueron 0,82% (ácido oleico, 69,2 (g yodo/100 g de aceite, 4,20 m.eq./kg de aceite y 136,1 (mg KOH/g de aceite, respectivamente. Con relación a la composición en ácidos grasos, el aceite contiene 36,2; 43,7 y 10,9% de ácidos grasos saturados, monoinsaturados y polyinsaturados, respectivamente. El ácido palmítico (31,9%, oleico (41,7 y linoleico (10,73%, fueron los principales ácidos grasos saturados, monoinsaturados y polyinsaturados, respectivamente. Los ácidos grasos ciclopropenoides, esto es, ácidos estercúlico y malválico fueron identificados y cuantificados en la proporción de 5,3 y 2,3%, respectivamente. Con respecto a la estabilidad térmica del aceite, el análisis termogravimétrico (TGA demostró que el aceite es estable hasta la temperatura de 284 °C, a partir de este valor el aceite comenzó a perder masa. El análisis termogravimétrico diferencial (DTGA indicó la existencia de tres etapas de degradación con el aumento de la temperatura del aceite. Estas etapas significan la degradación de los aceites saturados, monoinsaturados y polyinsaturados. El análisis mediante calorimetría diferencial de barriido (DSC detectó dos zonas de transición de energía exotérmica, una debida a la reacción de oxidación y la otra a la descomposición de los ácidos grasos. La primera transición exotérmica del aceite comenzó a la temperatura (Ti de 287,79 °C con una variación de entalpía de 11,69 J/g y, la segunda con la temperatura inicial (Ti de 384,87 °C, una temperatura de pico (Tp 415,71 °C y una temperatura final (Tf de 448,9 °C con una variación de entalpía de 200,83 J/g.

  11. Associations of forest type, parasitism and body condition of two European passerines, Fringilla coelebs and Sylvia atricapilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüdtke, Bruntje; Moser, Isabelle; Santiago-Alarcon, Diego; Fischer, Markus; Kalko, Elisabeth K V; Schaefer, H Martin; Suarez-Rubio, Marcela; Tschapka, Marco; Renner, Swen C

    2013-01-01

    Human-induced forest modification can alter parasite-host interactions and might change the persistence of host populations. We captured individuals of two widespread European passerines (Fringilla coelebs and Sylvia atricapilla) in southwestern Germany to disentangle the associations of forest types and parasitism by haemosporidian parasites on the body condition of birds. We compared parasite prevalence and parasite intensity, fluctuating asymmetries, leukocyte numbers, and the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (H/L-ratio) among individuals from beech, mixed-deciduous and spruce forest stands. Based on the biology of bird species, we expected to find fewer infected individuals in beech or mixed-deciduous than in spruce forest stands. We found the highest parasite prevalence and intensity in beech forests for F. coelebs. Although, we found the highest prevalence in spruce forests for S. atricapilla, the highest intensity was detected in beech forests, partially supporting our hypothesis. Other body condition or health status metrics, such as the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (H/L-ratio), revealed only slight differences between bird populations inhabiting the three different forest types, with the highest values in spruce for F. coelebs and in mixed-deciduous forests for S. atricapilla. A comparison of parasitized versus non-parasitized individuals suggests that parasite infection increased the immune response of a bird, which was detectable as high H/L-ratio. Higher infections with blood parasites for S. atricapilla in spruce forest indicate that this forest type might be a less suitable habitat than beech and mixed-deciduous forests, whereas beech forests seem to be a suboptimal habitat regarding parasitism for F. coelebs.

  12. Associations of forest type, parasitism and body condition of two European passerines, Fringilla coelebs and Sylvia atricapilla.

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    Bruntje Lüdtke

    Full Text Available Human-induced forest modification can alter parasite-host interactions and might change the persistence of host populations. We captured individuals of two widespread European passerines (Fringilla coelebs and Sylvia atricapilla in southwestern Germany to disentangle the associations of forest types and parasitism by haemosporidian parasites on the body condition of birds. We compared parasite prevalence and parasite intensity, fluctuating asymmetries, leukocyte numbers, and the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (H/L-ratio among individuals from beech, mixed-deciduous and spruce forest stands. Based on the biology of bird species, we expected to find fewer infected individuals in beech or mixed-deciduous than in spruce forest stands. We found the highest parasite prevalence and intensity in beech forests for F. coelebs. Although, we found the highest prevalence in spruce forests for S. atricapilla, the highest intensity was detected in beech forests, partially supporting our hypothesis. Other body condition or health status metrics, such as the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (H/L-ratio, revealed only slight differences between bird populations inhabiting the three different forest types, with the highest values in spruce for F. coelebs and in mixed-deciduous forests for S. atricapilla. A comparison of parasitized versus non-parasitized individuals suggests that parasite infection increased the immune response of a bird, which was detectable as high H/L-ratio. Higher infections with blood parasites for S. atricapilla in spruce forest indicate that this forest type might be a less suitable habitat than beech and mixed-deciduous forests, whereas beech forests seem to be a suboptimal habitat regarding parasitism for F. coelebs.

  13. Associations of Forest Type, Parasitism and Body Condition of Two European Passerines, Fringilla coelebs and Sylvia atricapilla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüdtke, Bruntje; Moser, Isabelle; Santiago-Alarcon, Diego; Fischer, Markus; Kalko, Elisabeth KV.; Schaefer, H. Martin; Suarez-Rubio, Marcela; Tschapka, Marco; Renner, Swen C.

    2013-01-01

    Human-induced forest modification can alter parasite-host interactions and might change the persistence of host populations. We captured individuals of two widespread European passerines (Fringilla coelebs and Sylvia atricapilla) in southwestern Germany to disentangle the associations of forest types and parasitism by haemosporidian parasites on the body condition of birds. We compared parasite prevalence and parasite intensity, fluctuating asymmetries, leukocyte numbers, and the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (H/L-ratio) among individuals from beech, mixed-deciduous and spruce forest stands. Based on the biology of bird species, we expected to find fewer infected individuals in beech or mixed-deciduous than in spruce forest stands. We found the highest parasite prevalence and intensity in beech forests for F. coelebs. Although, we found the highest prevalence in spruce forests for S. atricapilla, the highest intensity was detected in beech forests, partially supporting our hypothesis. Other body condition or health status metrics, such as the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (H/L-ratio), revealed only slight differences between bird populations inhabiting the three different forest types, with the highest values in spruce for F. coelebs and in mixed-deciduous forests for S. atricapilla. A comparison of parasitized versus non-parasitized individuals suggests that parasite infection increased the immune response of a bird, which was detectable as high H/L-ratio. Higher infections with blood parasites for S. atricapilla in spruce forest indicate that this forest type might be a less suitable habitat than beech and mixed-deciduous forests, whereas beech forests seem to be a suboptimal habitat regarding parasitism for F. coelebs. PMID:24339923

  14. Monoclonal antibodies to snakehead, Channa striata immunoglobulins: detection and quantification of immunoglobulin-positive cells in blood and lymphoid organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Neeraj; Chaudhary, Dharmendra K; Rathore, Gaurav; Singh, Akhilesh; Lakra, W S

    2011-02-01

    Snakehead Channa striata is an important freshwater food fish in many Southeast Asian countries. Three monoclonal antibodies (C9, C10 and D10) were developed against purified serum immunoglobulins of Channa striata (Cs-Ig) and characterized. C9 and D10 MAbs were specific to heavy chain, while C10 MAb detected only unreduced Cs-Ig in western blotting. In competitive ELISA, C9 and C10 MAbs were specific to C. striata Ig and showed no cross reactivity with serum Ig of other fish species i.e. Channa punctatus, Channa marulius, Clarias batrachus and Labeo rohita. D10 MAb showed reactivity to serum Ig of C. striata and C. marulius. In FACS analysis of gated lymphocytes, the percentage of Ig+ cells detected by C9 MAb was 18.2%, 27.7% and 10.3% in blood, spleen and kidney, respectively (n=3, body weight 500-600 g). However, only a few cells (0.5%) were found to be Ig+ in thymus (n=5). C9 MAb was also successfully employed to demonstrate Ig+ cells in blood smears and formalin fixed sections of spleen and kidney. These findings suggest that the spleen plays an important role in humoral immunity as compared to head kidney. Further, these MAbs can be useful immunological tool in monitoring health status of cultured C. striata. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Characterisation of Asian Snakehead Murrel Channa striata (Channidae in Malaysia: An Insight into Molecular Data and Morphological Approach

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    Li Min Song

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Conservation is imperative for the Asian snakeheads Channa striata, as the species has been overfished due to its high market demand. Using maternal markers (mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (COI, we discovered that evolutionary forces that drove population divergence did not show any match between the genetic and morphological divergence pattern. However, there is evidence of incomplete divergence patterns between the Borneo population and the populations from Peninsular Malaysia. This supports the claim of historical coalescence of C. striata during Pleistocene glaciations. Ecological heterogeneity caused high phenotypic variance and was not correlated with genetic variance among the populations. Spatial conservation assessments are required to manage different stock units. Results on DNA barcoding show no evidence of cryptic species in C. striata in Malaysia. The newly obtained sequences add to the database of freshwater fish DNA barcodes and in future will provide information relevant to identification of species.

  16. Characterisation of Asian Snakehead Murrel Channa striata (Channidae) in Malaysia: An Insight into Molecular Data and Morphological Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Li Min; Munian, Kaviarasu; Abd Rashid, Zulkafli; Bhassu, Subha

    2013-01-01

    Conservation is imperative for the Asian snakeheads Channa striata, as the species has been overfished due to its high market demand. Using maternal markers (mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (COI)), we discovered that evolutionary forces that drove population divergence did not show any match between the genetic and morphological divergence pattern. However, there is evidence of incomplete divergence patterns between the Borneo population and the populations from Peninsular Malaysia. This supports the claim of historical coalescence of C. striata during Pleistocene glaciations. Ecological heterogeneity caused high phenotypic variance and was not correlated with genetic variance among the populations. Spatial conservation assessments are required to manage different stock units. Results on DNA barcoding show no evidence of cryptic species in C. striata in Malaysia. The newly obtained sequences add to the database of freshwater fish DNA barcodes and in future will provide information relevant to identification of species. PMID:24396312

  17. In vivo wound healing and in vitro antioxidant activities of Bletilla striata phenolic extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yi; Zeng, Rui; Hu, Lingli; Maffucci, Katherine G; Ren, Xiaodong; Qu, Yan

    2017-09-01

    Bletilla striata has attracted extensive research interest due to the potential uses for its extracts to treat skin burns and inflammatory disorders in a clinical setting. My current research focuses on Bletilla striata polysaccharides (BSP), and often ignores the residues that remain after polysaccharide extraction. It also remains unclear whether the residues have medical value related its traditional clinic function. During this work, we firstly identified the contents of the post-extraction residue by UPLC-Q-Exactive Orbitrap-MS and evaluated its in vivo wound healing and in vitro antioxidant activity. The wound healing activity of the ointment containing residue was assessed for 15days the scald model was used in mice, followed by histopathology and histomorphological analysis. The in vitro antioxidant effect of Bletilla residue was researched using DPPH, ABTS, Hydroxyl radical scavenging, superoxideanion radical scavenging, and reducing power assays. AUPLC-Q-Exactive Orbitrap-MS analysis identified 6 phenolic compounds: protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, caffeic acid, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, 3-Hydroxycinnamic acid, and ferulic acid. Animals treated with "mixed ointment" experienced inflammatory infiltration, which was lower than that of other groups. Both "BSPG ointment" and "Bletilla phenolic ointment" demonstrated superior tissue repair compared to the control. This study was the first to confirm that the residual liquid after polysaccharide extraction has excellent antioxidant and wound healing activities. In addition to Bletilla striata polysaccharides, the residual liquid can improve skin regeneration after burns and reduce inflammatory marker levels. These results have implications that the residual liquid has potential wound healing medicinal value. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Severe cervical kyphosis in osteopathia striata with cranial sclerosis: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondoh, T.; Moriuchi, Hiroyuki; Yoshinaga, Muneyoshi; Takayanagi, Toshimitsu; Matsumoto, Tadashi; Uetani, Masataka; Kubota, Takeo; Nishimura, Gen

    2001-01-01

    We report a 29-month-old girl with osteopathia striata with cranial sclerosis (OS-CS), who showed several unusual manifestations, including short stature, muscular hypotonia, short lingual frenulum, an accessory ear and a granuloma at the oral edge. The most unusual distressing finding was severe cervical kyphosis with a dysplastic cervical spine. MRI revealed impingement of the upper spinal cord. To clarify the mode of inheritance of this disease in this patient, we performed a methylation-specific PCR analysis. It eventually showed random inactivation of X-chromosomes, suggesting an autosomal dominant trait. (orig.)

  19. Characteristics of chitinase isolated from different part of snakehead fish (Channa striata) digestive tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baehaki, A.; Lestari, S. D.; Wahidman, Y.; Gofar, N.

    2018-01-01

    Naturally, snakehead fish (Channa striata) is a prodigious carnivore feeding mainly on live animals, including small shrimp. Based on its feeding habits, the digestrive tracts of snakehead is considered as auspicious source of various enzumes including chitinase. The purpose of this study was to partially characterize chitinase enzyme isolated from digestive tract of snakehead fish. Two parts of digestive tract, stomach and intestine were used as enzymes’ source. The results showed that chitinase activity from the stomach was higher than chitinase activity from the intestine. The pH and temperature optimum of chitinase activity from digestive tract (the stomach and the intestine) were 6.0 and 70 °C, respectively.

  20. Komunitas serangga pada tanaman orok-Orok (Crotalaria striata di berbagai habitat

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    Hasmiandy Hamid

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available To study insect community at orok-orok plantation (Crotalaria striata from different habitat, we observed insects that interacted with Crotalaria plantation. There were four habitat type that used in this research, habitat open area and others were agroforestry habitat. We counted about nine ordo from insect that interacted with Crotalaria plant. More than 70% member of ordo, include to Hymenoptera, specially Formicidae. Not all function member of the ordo that known, but some of them are pollinator, parasitoid, predator and herbivore.

  1. The anti-Staphylococcus aureus activity of the phenanthrene fraction from fibrous roots of Bletilla striata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jing-Jing; Dai, Bin-Ling; Chen, Ni-Pi; Jin, Li-Xia; Jiang, Fu-Sheng; Ding, Zhi-Shan; Qian, Chao-Dong

    2016-11-29

    Bletillae Rhizoma, the tuber of Bletilla striata, has been used in Chinese traditional medicine to treat infectious diseases. Chemical studies indicated that phenanthrene was one of the most important components of the herb, with a broad spectrum of antibiotic activity against Gram-positive bacteria. The objective of this study was to further characterize the antibacterial activity of the phenanthrene fraction from the fibrous root of the pseudobulb of B. striata. The phenanthrene fraction (EF60) from the ethanol extract of fibrous roots of Bletilla striata pseudobulbs was isolated using polyamide column chromatography. The antibacterial activity of the fraction was evaluated in vitro using a 96-well microtiter plate and microbroth dilution method. The cytotoxicity of EF60 against mammalian cells was tested by hemolysis and MTT assays. EF60 was obtained using alcohol extraction and polyamide column chromatography, with a yield of 14.9 g per 1 kg of the fibrous roots of B. striata. In vitro tests indicated that EF60 was active against all tested strains of Staphylococcus aureus, including clinical isolates and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of EF60 against these pathogens ranged from 8 to 64 μg/mL. Minimum bactericidal concentration tests demonstrated that EF60 was bactericidal against S. aureus 3304 and ATCC 29213 and was bacteriostatic against S. aureus 3211, ATCC 25923, and ATCC 43300. Consistently, the time-kill assay indicated that EF60 could completely kill S. aureus ATCC 29213 at 2× the MIC within 3 h but could kill less than two logarithmic units of ATCC 43300, even at 4× the MIC within 24 h. The postantibiotic effects (PAE) of EF60 (4× MIC) against strains 29213 and 43300 were 2.0 and 0.38 h, respectively. Further studies indicated that EF60 (160 μg/mL) showed no cytotoxicity against human erythrocytes, and was minimally toxic to Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells with an IC 50 of 75

  2. Tsv-N1: A Novel DNA Algal Virus that Infects Tetraselmis striata

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    António Pagarete

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Numbering in excess of 10 million per milliliter of water, it is now undisputed that aquatic viruses are one of the major factors shaping the ecology and evolution of Earth’s microbial world. Nonetheless, environmental viral diversity and roles remain poorly understood. Here we report the first thorough characterization of a virus (designated TsV that infects the coastal marine microalga Tetraselmis striata. Unlike previously known microalgae-infecting viruses, TsV is a small (60 nm DNA virus, with a 31 kb genome. From a range of eight different strains belonging to the Chlamydomonadaceae family, TsV was only able to infect T. striata. Gene expression dynamics revealed an up-regulation of viral transcripts already 1 h post-infection (p.i.. First clear signs of infection were observed 24 h p.i., with the appearance of viral factories inside the nucleus. TsV assembly was exclusively nuclear. TsV-N1 genome revealed very different from previously known algae viruses (Phycodnaviridae. Putative function and/or homology could be resolved for only 9 of the 33 ORFs encoded. Among those was a surprising DNA polymerase type Delta (only found in Eukaryotes, and two genes with closest homology to genes from human parasites of the urogenital tract. These results support the idea that the diversity of microalgae viruses goes far beyond the Phycodnaviridae family and leave the door open for future studies on implications of microalgae viruses for human health.

  3. Olfactory response of Anastrepha striata (Diptera: Tephritidae) to guava and sweet orange volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Santiz, Edvin; Rojas, Julio C; Cruz-López, Leopoldo; Hernández, Emilio; Malo, Edi A

    2016-10-01

    The behavioral responses of virgin and mated female Anastrepha striata Schiner (Diptera: Tephritidae) to guava (Psidium guajava L.) or sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L.) were evaluated separately using multilure traps in two-choice tests in field cages. The results showed that flies were more attracted to guava and sweet orange volatiles than to control (unbaited trap). The physiological state (virgin or mated) of females did not affect their attraction to the fruit volatiles. Combined analysis of gas chromatography coupled with electroantennography (GC-EAD) of volatile extracts of both fruits showed that 1 and 6 compounds from orange and guava, respectively elicited repeatable antennal responses from mated females. The EAD active compounds in guava volatile extracts were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) as ethyl butyrate, (Z)-3-hexenol, hexanol, ethyl hexanoate, hexyl acetate, and ethyl octanoate. Linalool was identified as the only antennal active compound in sweet orange extracts. In field cage tests, there were no significant differences between the number of mated flies captured by the traps baited with guava extracts and the number caught by traps baited with the 6-component blend that was formulated according to the relative proportions in the guava extracts. Similar results occurred when synthetic linalool was evaluated against orange extracts. From a practical point of view, the compounds identified in this study could be used for monitoring A. striata populations. © 2015 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  4. Inner Leaf Gel of Aloe striata Induces Adhesion-Reducing Morphological Hyphal Aberrations

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    Gloria Wada

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Fungi, particularly molds that are cosmopolitan in soils, are frequent etiologic agents of opportunistic mycoses. Members of the Fusarium solani and Fusarium oxysporum species complexes are the most commonly implicated etiologic agents of opportunistic fusarial infections in mammals, while Paecilomyces variotii is one of the most frequently encountered Paecilomyces species in human infections. Prevention and treatment of these mycoses are problematic because available antimycotics are limited and often have toxic side effects. Popular folk medicines, such as the inner leaf gel from Aloe spp., offer potential sources for novel antimycotic compounds. To screen for antifungal properties of Aloe striata, we treated conidia of three strains each of F. solani, F. oxysporum, and P. variotii with homogenized and filtered inner leaf gel. Exposure to gel homogenates caused minimal inhibition of conidial germination in tested strains. However, it significantly increased the frequency of hyphal aberrations characterized by increased hyphal diameters that resulted in intervals of non-parallel cell walls. Non-parallel cell walls ostensibly reduce total hyphal surface area available for adhesion. We found a significant decrease in the ability of aberrated P. variotii hyphae to remain adhered to microscope slides after repeated washing with reverse osmosis water. Our results suggest that treatment with A. striata contributes to a decrease in the adhesion frequency of tested P. variotii strains.

  5. Process optimization and modeling for the cultivation of Nannochloropsis sp. and Tetraselmis striata via response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamoglu, Esra; Demirel, Zeliha; Conk Dalay, Meltem

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the optimal physical process conditions for the cultivation of locally isolated strains of Nannochloropsis sp. and Tetraselmis striata to achieve maximum growth rate. It was essential to evaluate biomass production at different agitation rates, light intensities, and temperature levels. Central composite design and response surface methodology were applied to design the experiments and optimize the cultivation process for Nannochloropsis sp. and T. striata. The specific growth rate of 0.250 d(-1) was obtained for Nannochloropsis sp. cells under the light intensity of 54 μmol photons · m(-2) · s(-1) , at the agitation rate of 151 rpm in 24.5°C. The optimal physical process conditions for T. striata were obtained under the light intensity of 56 μmol photons · m(-2) · s(-1) in 25.5°C at the agitation rate of 151 rpm in 25.5°C, resulting in a specific growth rate of 0.226 d(-1) . The predicted values were justified by the verification tests. Good agreement between the predicted values and the experimental values confirmed the validity of the models for the cultivation of microalgal strains. In this article, the noteworthy result was that temperature was a dominant factor in obtaining high chl-a content for Nannochloropsis sp., whereas the growth of T. striata strongly depended on light exposure. © 2015 Phycological Society of America.

  6. Genetic diversity and population structure of Anastrepha striata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in three natural regions of southwestern Colombia using mitochondrial sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo-Franco, Jenny Johana; Velasco-Cuervo, Sandra Marcela; Aguirre-Ramirez, Elkin; González Obando, Ranulfo; Carrejo, Nancy Soraya; Toro-Perea, Nelson

    2017-02-01

    Anastrepha striata is widely distributed across the Americas and is a pest of economically important crops, especially crops of the Myrtaceae family. Insect population structures can be influenced by the presence of physical barriers or characteristics associated with habitat differences. This study evaluated the effect of the Western Andes on the population structure of A. striata. Individuals were collected from Psidium guajava fruits from three natural regions of southwestern Colombia (Pacific Coast, mountainous region and the inter-Andean valley of the Cauca River). Based on a 1318 bp concatenated of the genes Cytochrome Oxidase subunit I (COI) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 (ND6), 14 haplotypes with few changes among them (between 1 and 3) were found. There was only one dominant haplotype in all three regions. No genetic structure associated with the three eco-geographical regions of the study was found. Moreover, the Western Andes are not an effective barrier for the genetic isolation of the populations from the Pacific Coast compared with the inter-Andean valley populations. This genetic homogeneity could be partially due to anthropogenic intervention, which acts as a dispersal agent of infested fruits. Another hypothesis to explain the lack of structure would be the relatively recent arrival of A. striata to the region, as indicated by an analysis of the demographic history, which reveals a process of population expansion. This study represents the first attempt to understand the population genetics of A. striata in Colombia and could contribute to the integral management of this pest.

  7. Histo-morphology of the alimentary canal in two freshwater snakehead fish Channa punctata and Channa striata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mita Borman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The histo-morphological study of the alimentary canal of two carnivore freshwater snakehead fish Channa punctata and C. striata was carried out from October 2013 to July 2014. It revealed that three major parts like oesophagus, stomach and intestine composed of short thick-walled body. The oesophagus begins with buccopharynx. Structure and arrangement of both villiform and canine teeth on jaws in C. striata are more extendable and stronger than C. punctata and thereby made the former one more successful predator. The availability and arrangement pattern of mucous pits and taste bud pores in oesophagus are also prominent in C. striata. The TS of stomach of both the species has broad GM devoid of goblet mucous cells, but surface layer CC and basal layer GG open through gastric pits. The length of intestine (16.0 cm and intestinal pyloric caeca (5.5 cm in C. striata are larger than C. punctata (7.0 cm and 1.5 cm, respectively. However, the TS of intestinal Sr. 0.05 mm; MM. 0.8 mm; Mu 0.5 mm suggest in favour of carnivore habit of both the species.

  8. Pre-germinative treatments to overcome dormancy of Sterculia striata A. St. Hil. & Naldin seedsTratamentos pré-germinativos para superação da dormência de sementes de Sterculia striata A. St. Hil. Naldin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riselane de Lucena Alcântara Bruno

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Sterculia striata A. St. Hil. & Naudin. is a native species that is used in reforestation and urban forestry. Displays hard seeds, consisting of problem for the nursery, since their hard seed coats and waterproof hinder and delay germination. This study aimed to determine the effect of pre-germinative treatments in the process of germination of Sterculia striata. The seeds were subjected to six treatments: control – intact seeds (T1, mechanical scarification with sandpaper. 80 opposite the micropylar (T2 with sulfuric acid concentrated by 15, 45 and 60 minutes (T3, T4 and T5 respectively scarification and then immersion in water for 24 hours (T6. The characteristics evaluated were: seedling emergence, emergency first count, speed of emergence, as well as length and dry mass of shoot and root of seedlings. The scarification with sandpaper number 80 on the opposite side of micropylar favors the percentage of seedlings in the first count, and recommended rapid and uniform emergence of seeds of Sterculia striata.Sterculia striata A. St. Hil. & Naudin. é uma espécie nativa que é utilizada em reflorestamentos e na arborização urbana. Apresenta sementes duras, consistindo em problema para os viveiristas, uma vez que seus tegumentos duros e impermeáveis à água dificultam e retardam a germinação. O presente estudo teve como finalidade determinar o efeito de tratamentos pré-germinativos no processo de germinação de sementes de Sterculia striata. As sementes foram submetidas a seis tratamentos: testemunha – sementes intactas (T1, escarificação com lixa n. 80 no lado oposto à micrópila (T2, escarificação com ácido sulfúrico concentrado por 15, 45 e 60 minutos (T3, T4, e T5, respectivamente e escarificação com lixa seguida de imersão em água por 24 horas (T6. As características avaliadas foram: emergência de plântulas, primeira contagem de emergência, índice de velocidade de emergência, bem como comprimento e massa seca da

  9. Division of Labor in Pachycondyla striata Fr. Smith, 1858 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Ponerinae

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    Adolfo da Silva-Melo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Four colonies of the ant Pachycondyla striata were used to analyze the specie behavioral repertoire. Forty-six behavioral acts were recorded in laboratory. Here, we present the record the division of labor between the castes and the temporal polyethism of monomorphic workers. The queens carried out many of the behavioral traits recorded in this work however; they performed them less frequently compared to the worker. The workers activity involved chasing and feeding on fresh insects and usingthem to nourish larvae besides laying eggs in the C-posture, an activity also performed by queens, which is similar to that of wasps of the subfamily Stenogastrinae. The young workers were involved in activities of brood care, sexuate care, and nest maintenance, and the older workers were involved in defense, exploration, and foraging.

  10. Chitosan/Sterculia striata polysaccharides nanocomplex as a potential chloroquine drug release device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Guilherme A; Moura Neto, Erico; Sombra, Venícios G; Richter, Ana R; Abreu, Clara M W S; Feitosa, Judith P A; Paula, Haroldo C B; Goycoolea, Francisco M; de Paula, Regina C M

    2016-07-01

    Nanoparticles are produced by means of polyelectrolyte complexation (PEC) of oppositely charged polycationic chitosan (CH) with polyanionic polysaccharide extracted from Sterculia striata exudates (rhamnogalacturonoglycan (RG)-type polysaccharide). The nanoparticles formed with low-molar-mass CH are larger than those formed with high-molar-mass CH. This behavior is in contrast with that previously observed for other systems and may be attributed to different mechanisms related to the association of CH with RG of higher persistence length chain than that of CH. Nanoparticles harnessed with a charge ratio (n(+)/n(-)) of RG nanoparticles are associated with chloroquine (CQ) with an efficiency of 28% and release it for up to ∼60% within ∼10h, whereas in the latter, only ∼40% of the CQ was released after 24h. The main factor that influenced drug release rate is the nanoparticle charge ratio. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Haematological and ion regulatory effects of nitrite in the air-breathing snakehead fish Channa striata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lefevre, Sjannie; Jensen, Frank B.; Huong, Do T.T.

    2012-01-01

    % of total Hb. Haematocrit and total Hb were unaffected by nitrite. Although the effects of nitrite exposure seemed minor in terms of plasma nitrite and metHb increases, ion balance was strongly affected. In the high exposure group, total osmolality decreased from 320 mOsm to 260 mOsm, and plasma sodium from...... 150 mM to 120 mM, while plasma chloride fell from 105 mM to 60 mM and plasma bicarbonate rose from 12 mM in controls to 20 mM in exposed fish. The extreme changes in ion balance in C. striata are different from the response reported in other fish, and further studies are needed to investigate...

  12. Gastroprotective activity of Sterculia striata A. St. Hil. & Naudin (Malvaceae) in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Joubert A; Oliveira, Irisdalva S; Silva, Francilene V; Costa, Danielly A; Chaves, Mariana H; Oliveira, Francisco A; Nunes, Paulo H M; Oliveira, Rita C M

    2012-01-01

    The Sterculia striata ethanolic extract (Ss-EtOH) inhibited gastric lesions induced by ethanol, HCl/ethanol, and ischemia/reperfusion, but not those induced by indomethacin, and did not alter the gastric secretion. Ss-EtOH restored the catalase activity and content of nonprotein sulfhydryl groups in the stomach of mice treated with ethanol. The gastroprotection induced by Ss-EtOH in the ethanol-induced gastric lesion model was abolished by N(G)-nitroL-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) pretreatment, suggesting the involvement of nitric oxide and antioxidant compounds, but not prostaglandins, in this activity. Lupeol obtained from Ss-EtOH promoted gastroprotection as well as the extract at the same dose, and it must therefore contribute to the observed effects.

  13. Population genetic analysis and bioclimatic modeling in Agave striata in the Chihuahuan Desert indicate higher genetic variation and lower differentiation in drier and more variable environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trejo, Laura; Alvarado-Cárdenas, Leonardo O; Scheinvar, Enrique; Eguiarte, Luis E

    2016-06-01

    Is there an association between bioclimatic variables and genetic variation within species? This question can be approached by a detailed analysis of population genetics parameters along environmental gradients in recently originated species (so genetic drift does not further obscure the patterns). The genus Agave, with more than 200 recent species encompassing a diversity of morphologies and distributional patterns, is an adequate system for such analyses. We studied Agave striata, a widely distributed species from the Chihuahuan Desert, with a distinctive iteroparous reproductive ecology and two recognized subspecies with clear morphological differences. We used population genetic analyses along with bioclimatic studies to understand the effect of environment on the genetic variation and differentiation of this species. We analyzed six populations of the subspecies A. striata subsp. striata, with a southern distribution, and six populations of A. striata subsp. falcata, with a northern distribution, using 48 ISSR loci and a total of 541 individuals (averaging 45 individuals per population). We assessed correlations between population genetics parameters (the levels of genetic variation and differentiation) and the bioclimatic variables of each population. We modeled each subspecies distribution and used linear correlations and multifactorial analysis of variance. Genetic variation (measured as expected heterozygosity) increased at higher latitudes. Higher levels of genetic variation in populations were associated with a higher variation in environmental temperature and lower precipitation. Stronger population differentiation was associated with wetter and more variable precipitation in the southern distribution of the species. The two subspecies have genetic differences, which coincide with their climatic differences and potential distributions. Differences in genetic variation among populations and the genetic differentiation between A. striata subsp. striata

  14. Constituintes químicos, fenóis totais e atividade antioxidante de Sterculia striata St. Hil. et Naudin Chemical constituents, total phenolics and antioxidant activity of Sterculia striata St. Hil. et Naudin

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    Danielly Albuquerque Costa

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A investigação fitoquímica das cascas do caule de Sterculia striata St. Hil. et Naudin, através de métodos cromatográficos, conduziu ao isolamento dos esteróides sitosterol, estigmasterol e sitosterol-3-O-β-D-glicopiranosídeo, além de quatro triterpenóides pentacíclicos, o lupeol, 3-β-O-acil lupeol, lupenona e ácido betulínico. As estruturas desses compostos foram identificadas por análise dos espectros de RMN ¹H e 13C e comparações com dados da literatura. Para determinação do teor de fenóis totais do extrato etanólico de S. striata utilizou-se o reativo Folin Ciocalteu, enquanto na avaliação da atividade antioxidante empregou-se o radical livre DPPH. Este é o primeiro trabalho descrevendo o estudo químico com as cascas do caule desta espécie.The phytochemical investigation of the stem bark of Sterculia striata St. Hil. et Naudin by chromatographic methods led to the isolation of sitosterol, stigmasterol and sitosterol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, besides pentacyclic triterpenoids, lupeol, 3-β-O-acyl-lupeol, lupenone and betulinic acid. The structures of these compounds were identified by ¹H and 13C NMR spectral data analysis and comparison with literature data. For determining of the phenolic content of the etanolic extract of Sterculia striata we used the Folin Ciocalteu reagent, and for the evaluation of antioxidant activity, we utilized the DPPH free radical. This is the first work reporting the chemical study with the stem bark of this species.

  15. Cyclic variations of gonad development of an air-breathing fish, Channa striata in the lentic and lotic environments

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    Nasim Al Mahmud

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The study was conducted to know the cyclic changes in gonadal maturation and to investigate the developmental stages of oocytes and testicular germ cells of an air-breathing fish, Channa striata. Fish were sampled monthly from lentic and lotic environments of three geographical locations of Bangladesh from December to November and the histological analysis of their gonad was done to evaluate the objectives. The highest mean GSI was 5.95 ± 0.20 for female in July and 0.14 ± 0.01 for male also in July showing that the gonadal development reached its peak during this month. The highest mean oocyte diameter was 1257.50 ± 24.17 μm observed in July implying that the oocyte reached maturity in this month. Histological study of ovary revealed the evidence of early yolk granule stage and late yolk granule stage from April to July. In case of male four stages of spermatogenesis were distinguished and spermatozoa were highly abundant in June and July. So the monthly pooled values of GSI and the analysis of gonadal histology indicated that the peak breeding season of C. striata occurred in July in the lentic and lotic environments. Samples collected from lentic and lotic habitats are suggestive of no difference in the development of the gonad. The results of the present study will be useful for selective breeding programme, conservation and sustainable fishery management of C. striata in its natural habitat.

  16. Rhizobium taibaishanense sp. nov., isolated from a root nodule of Kummerowia striata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Li Juan; Shen, Yao Yao; Zhan, Jun Peng; Xu, Wei; Cui, Guang Ling; Wei, Ge Hong

    2012-02-01

    During a study of the diversity and phylogeny of rhizobia in the root nodules of Kummerowia striata grown in north-western China, four strains were classified in the genus Rhizobium on the basis of their 16S rRNA gene sequences. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of three of these strains were identical and that of the other strain, which was the only one isolated in Yangling, differed from the others by just 1 bp. The16S rRNA gene sequences of the four strains showed a mean similarity of 99.3 % with the most closely related, recognized species, Rhizobium vitis. The corresponding recA and glnA gene sequences showed similarities with established species of Rhizobium of less than 86.5 % and less than 89.6 %, respectively. These low similarities indicated that the four strains represented a novel species of the genus Rhizobium. The strains were also found to be distinguishable from the closest related, established species (R. vitis) by rep-PCR DNA fingerprinting, analysis of cellular fatty acid profiles and from the results of a series of phenotypic tests. The level of DNA-DNA relatedness between the representative strain CCNWSX 0483(T) and Rhizobium vitis IAM 14140(T) was only 40.13 %. Therefore, a novel species, Rhizobium taibaishanense sp. nov., is proposed, with strain CCNWSX 0483(T) ( = ACCC 14971(T) = HAMBI 3214(T)) as the type strain. In nodulation and pathogenicity tests, none of the four strains of Rhizobium taibaishanense sp. nov. was able to induce any nodule or tumour formation on plants. As no amplicons were detected when DNA from the strains was run in PCR with primers for the detection of nodA, nifH and virC gene sequences, the strains probably do not carry sym or vir genes.

  17. Ecologia comportamental da formiga Pachycondyla striata Fr. Smith (Formicidae: Ponerinae) em uma floresta do sudeste do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Flavia Natercia da Silva Medeiros

    1997-01-01

    Resumo: Este estudo investigou a ecologia comportamental da formiga neotropical Echycondy/a striata, abordando os seguintes aspectos: estrutura dos ninhos, demografia das colônias, padrão de atividade, dieta, estratégias alimentares, comportamento de caça e interações agonísticas intra e interespecíficas. A área de estudo foi a Reserva Municipal de Santa Genebra, localizada em Campinas, São Paulo, cuja vegetação é classificada como floresta semidecídua estaciona!. Foram marcadas 50 colônias ...

  18. Brain cholinesterase response in the snakehead fish (Channa striata) after field exposure to diazinon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Cong, Nguyen; Phuong, Nguyen Thanh; Bayley, Mark

    2008-01-01

    The snakehead Channa striata is an economically important air-breathing fish species in the Mekong delta of Vietnam. Rice paddies, which are disturbed by the frequent application of agro-chemicals, are among the preferred habitats for this species during the rainy season. Diazinon is one of most....... In addition, incubation of brain homogenates with 2-PAM caused reactivation of the cholinesterase diazinon complex to within 80% of the control level. These experiments also showed that chemical ageing of the diazinon cholinesterase binding occurred, which may explain the long-term effects of this pesticide...

  19. Rangewide analysis of fungal associations in the fully mycoheterotrophic Corallorhiza striata complex (Orchidaceae) reveals extreme specificity on ectomycorrhizal Tomentella (Thelephoraceae) across North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig F. Barrett; John V. Freudenstein; D. Lee Taylor; Urmas. Koljalg

    2010-01-01

    Fully mycoheterotrophic plants offer a fascinating system for studying phylogenetic associations and dynamics of symbiotic specificity between hosts and parasites. These plants frequently parasitize mutualistic mycorrhizal symbioses between fungi and trees. Corallorhiza striata is a fully mycoheterotrophic, North American orchid distributed from...

  20. Further clinical delineation and increased morbidity in males with osteopathia striata with cranial sclerosis: an X-linked disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, J E; McDonald-McGinn, D M; Schneider, A; Markowitz, R I; Zackai, E H

    1997-05-16

    Osteopathia striata with cranial sclerosis (OS-CS) is a bone dysplasia characterized by hypertelorism, macrocephaly, frontal bossing, broad nasal bridge, palate anomalies, hearing deficits, and mental retardation. The radiographic findings include cranial sclerosis, linear striations in the long bones and iliac wings, small poorly aerated sinuses, scoliosis, and increased bone density. The sensory deficits are disabling, but the condition generally is not life threatening. We describe 4 brothers with the characteristics of OS-CS, 3 of whom have died from more serious complications of the disorder. The mother of these children, and her only daughter, have the mildest phenotype with the typical linear striations in the long bones and macrocephaly. OS-CS is thought to be autosomal dominant with complete penetrance and variable expressivity. Our observations could be consistent with X-linkage, since there is milder expression in the female relatives. In addition, we recognize absent fibulae, malrotation, and omphalocele as new manifestations as well as congenital heart disease.

  1. Ovulation time and ovulated eggs count of sneakehead Channa striata induced by prostaglandin 2α with different doses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frits Jamlaay

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Snakehead fish Channa striata is one of freshwater commodity which has high economic value. Nowadays, snakehead fish stock mostly comes from wild capture. Artificial spawning with hormonal induction is usually used to improve broodstock efficiency, as well as the quality and quantity of fish seed production. Purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of prostaglandin 2α (PGF2α hormone on ovulation time and count of ovulated eggs. This experiment used 30–40 cm broodstock with 600–900 g body weight. Fishes were acclimated for one week in a container and then injected with different doses of PGF2α, namely: control without PGF2α (P1, 0.5 mL/kg (P2; 0.7mL/kg (P3; and 0.9 mL/kg (P4. Each treatment consisted of three fishes as replication. Ovulation time was observed until 72 hours post injection. The results showed that PGF2α injected broodstoks ovulated faster (9.17–12.24 hours post injection than control P1 (22.67 hours, while among PGF2α injected fishes were the same. Furthermore, count of ovulated eggs from PGF2α induced broodstocks were higher than control P1, and the highest (2,860 eggs was obtained in treatment 0.9 mL/kg. Thus, PGF2α at dose of 0.9 mL/kg can be used to induce eggs ovulation of snakehead fish and to increase count of ovulated eggs. Keywords: PGF2α, ovulation time, ovulated eggs count, Channa striata  ABSTRAK Ikan gabus Channa striata merupakan salah satu komoditas air tawar yang mempunyai nilai ekonomi tinggi. Saat ini, pemenuhan kebutuhan hanya bergantung pada hasil penangkapan di alam. Cara pemijahan buatan dengan induksi hormon biasanya digunakan untuk efisiensi penggunaan induk serta peningkatan kualitas dan kuantitas benih ikan yang dihasilkan. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menguji efektivitas hormon prostaglandin 2α (PGF2α terhadap waktu ovulasi dan jumlah telur ikan gabus yang diovulasikan. Penelitian ini menggunakan induk ikan gabus berukuran 30–40 cm dengan bobot

  2. Paraquat, but not maneb, induces synucleinopathy and tauopathy in striata of mice through inhibition of proteasomal and autophagic pathways.

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    Jonathan Wills

    Full Text Available SNCA and MAPT genes and environmental factors are important risk factors of Parkinson's disease [PD], the second-most common neurodegenerative disease. The agrichemicals maneb and paraquat selectively target dopaminergic neurons, leading to parkinsonism, through ill-defined mechanisms. In the current studies we have analyzed the ability of maneb and paraquat, separately and together, to induce synucleinopathy and tauopathy in wild type mice. Maneb was ineffective in increasing α-synuclein [α-Syn] or p-Tau levels. By contrast, paraquat treatment of mice resulted in robust accumulation of α-Syn and hyperphosphorylation of Tau in striata, through activation of p-GSK-3β, a major Tau kinase. Co-treatment with maneb did not enhance the effects of paraquat. Increased hyperacetylation of α-tubulin was observed in paraquat-treated mice, suggesting cytoskeleton remodeling. Paraquat, but not maneb, inhibited soluble proteasomal activity on a peptide substrate but this was not associated with a decreased expression of 26S proteasome subunits. Both paraquat and maneb treatments increased levels of the autophagy inhibitor, mammalian target of rapamycin, mTOR, suggesting impaired axonal autophagy, despite increases in certain autophagic proteins, such as beclin 1 and Agt12. Autophagic flux was also impaired, as ratios of LC3 II to LC3 I were reduced in treated animals. Increased mTOR was also observed in postmortem human PD striata, where there was a reduction in the LC3 II to LC3 I ratio. Heat shock proteins were either increased or unchanged upon paraquat-treatment suggesting that chaperone-mediated autophagy is not hampered by the agrichemicals. These studies provide novel insight into the mechanisms of action of these agrichemicals, which indicate that paraquat is much more toxic than maneb, via its inhibitory effects on proteasomes and autophagy, which lead to accumulation of α-Syn and p-Tau.

  3. Paraquat, but Not Maneb, Induces Synucleinopathy and Tauopathy in Striata of Mice through Inhibition of Proteasomal and Autophagic Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Jonathan; Credle, Joel; Oaks, Adam W.; Duka, Valeriy; Lee, Jae-Hoon; Jones, Jessica; Sidhu, Anita

    2012-01-01

    SNCA and MAPT genes and environmental factors are important risk factors of Parkinson's disease [PD], the second-most common neurodegenerative disease. The agrichemicals maneb and paraquat selectively target dopaminergic neurons, leading to parkinsonism, through ill-defined mechanisms. In the current studies we have analyzed the ability of maneb and paraquat, separately and together, to induce synucleinopathy and tauopathy in wild type mice. Maneb was ineffective in increasing α-synuclein [α-Syn] or p-Tau levels. By contrast, paraquat treatment of mice resulted in robust accumulation of α-Syn and hyperphosphorylation of Tau in striata, through activation of p-GSK-3β, a major Tau kinase. Co-treatment with maneb did not enhance the effects of paraquat. Increased hyperacetylation of α-tubulin was observed in paraquat-treated mice, suggesting cytoskeleton remodeling. Paraquat, but not maneb, inhibited soluble proteasomal activity on a peptide substrate but this was not associated with a decreased expression of 26S proteasome subunits. Both paraquat and maneb treatments increased levels of the autophagy inhibitor, mammalian target of rapamycin, mTOR, suggesting impaired axonal autophagy, despite increases in certain autophagic proteins, such as beclin 1 and Agt12. Autophagic flux was also impaired, as ratios of LC3 II to LC3 I were reduced in treated animals. Increased mTOR was also observed in postmortem human PD striata, where there was a reduction in the LC3 II to LC3 I ratio. Heat shock proteins were either increased or unchanged upon paraquat-treatment suggesting that chaperone-mediated autophagy is not hampered by the agrichemicals. These studies provide novel insight into the mechanisms of action of these agrichemicals, which indicate that paraquat is much more toxic than maneb, via its inhibitory effects on proteasomes and autophagy, which lead to accumulation of α-Syn and p-Tau. PMID:22292029

  4. KOMBINASI INJEKSI sGNRH-a + ad , PADA KETINGGIAN AIR YANG BERBEDA UNTUK PEMIJAHAN SNAKEHEAD , Channa Striata DI WADAH BUDIDAYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Untung Bijaksana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk melihat efektivitas sGnRH-a+ad dan ketinggian air yang berbeda pada pemijahan ikan snakehead, Channa striata dalam tangki concreat. Penelitian ini dilakukan di Laboratorium Basah Program Studi Budidaya Perairan Fakultas Perikanan Universitas Lambung Mangkurat . Ada dua faktor utama sebagai perlakuan yaitu: Faktor A = dosis sGnRH -a + ad dengan tiga tingkat ( A1 = 0,2 ml / kg , A2 = 0,4 ml / kg , A3 = 0,6 ml / kg dan faktor B = tinggi air dengan tiga tingkat ( B1 = 15 cm; B2 = 20 cm; B3 = 25 cm   diulang 4 kali untuk mendapatkan 36 unit percobaan. Pengamatan dilakukan pada parameter : berat badan, berat gonad, berat hati , estradiol - 17β , diameter telur, IGS, IHS, fekunditas, pemupukan dan derajat penetasan. Terdapat Hubungan yagn sangat erat atara parameter pengamatan IGS dan IHS.  Perlakuan yang diberikan waktu laten diperoleh kisaran  antara 12 jam sampai 25 jam, fekunditas antara 5047-5072 butir, derajat fertilisasi antara 60-60,3 persen dan 76,6 derajat fertilisasi antara 83,9 persen.  Perkembangan setelah menetas mencapai panjang tubuh 3,5 mm dan 45,5 mm pada hari 20 . This study aims to look at the effectiveness of injection of sGnRH-a + ad and height of water on fish spawning snakehead, Channa striata in the concreat tank. The research was conducted at the Wet Laboratory Aguaculture Departement Faculty of Fisheries University of Lambung Mangkurat. There are two main factors as treatment namely: Factor A = dose of sGnRH-a + ad with three levels (A1 = 0.2 ml / kg; A2 = 0.4 ml / kg; A3 = 0.6 ml / kg and factor B = height of water with three levels (B1 = 15 cm; B2 = 20 cm; B3 = 25 cm made repeated 4 times to obtain 36 units of the experiment. Observations made on the parameters: body weight, gonad weight, liver weight, estradiol-17β, egg diameter, IGS, IHS, fecundity, fertilization and hatching degrees. The strongest relationship obtained from the treatment of observational parameter is IGS and IHS. Of

  5. Fish condensate as effective replacer of fish meal protein in diet for striped snakehead, Channa striata (Bloch).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattanakul, Wattana; Wattanakul, Uraiwan; Thongprajukaew, Karun; Muenpo, Chutchawan

    2017-02-01

    The optimal protein replacement of fish meal (FM) by fish condensate (FC) was investigated in striped snakehead, Channa striata (Bloch) (1.78 ± 0.02 g initial weight). The FM-based diet (0FC) was replaced by substituting protein from FC for 100 (100FC), 200 (200FC), 300 (300FC), 400 (400FC), 500 (500FC) or 600 (600FC) g kg -1 of the FM, and a commercial diet (CD) for carnivorous fish was included for comparison. The experiment was conducted indoors under completely randomized design (8 treatments × 3 replications × 60 fish per pond) over a 6-month trial. There were no significant differences in water quality during the experiment. The fish fed with 500FC had superior growth performance and feed utilization. This dietary treatment gave similar levels to all observed specific activities of digestive enzymes as did baseline 0FC. Survival, carcass composition, hematological parameters and liver histopathology were not negatively impacted by this protein replacement level. Economic analysis also supports the use of this by-product as a potent protein replacer in striped snakehead diet. Findings from the current study indicate that a 500 g kg -1 protein replacement of FM by FC is near optimal for striped snakehead, and similar use of it in the aquafeed of other species appears worth further studies.

  6. The influence of snakehead (Channa striata) fish extract to increase hyperglycemic mice fertility based on spermatogenic cell composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayati, Dewi; Abdulgani, Nurlita; Ashuri, Nova Maulidina; Sa'adah, Noor Nailis; Lukitasari, Maharani

    2017-06-01

    Reproductive dysfunction is recognized as a consequence of diabetes mellitus. Previous study revealed that snakehead (Channa striata) fish extract can repairing the pancreas histological structure which by that decreasing the blood glucose levels. Further research was conducted to determine the influence of snakehead fish extract (SHFE) to increasing the fertility of hyperglycemic mice based on spermatogenic cell composition. Twenty five adult mice (Mus musculus) were induced intraperitoneally to be hyperglycemic using alloxan monohydrate single dose of 190 mg/kg body weight. Hyperglycemic mice treated orally for 14 days using SHFE which grouped into five treatment dosages. Testicular histology were prepared using the paraffin methods and stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin. According to ANOVA and Tukey's test, it was found that spermatogenic cells population as well as its composition in the testis of mice that treated with SHFE are significantly higher than hyperglichemic mice. The highest dose of SHFE (0.15 ml/day), showed highest spermatogenic cell. All hyperglichemic mice that treated with SHFE exhibited the ratio composition of spermatogonia: spermatocytes: spermatids as same as with control (healthy mice) i.e. 1:1:3 respectively.

  7. Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of Sterculia striata A. St.-Hil. & Naudin (Malvaceae) in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Francilene V; Oliveira, Irisdalva S; Figueiredo, Kayo A; Júnior, Francisco B Melo; Costa, Danielly A; Chaves, Mariana H; Amaral, Maurício P M; Almeida, Fernanda R C; Oliveira, Francisco A; Oliveira, Rita C M

    2014-06-01

    The present work reports the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of the ethanol extract obtained from the stem bark of Sterculia striata A. St.-Hil. & Naudin (Ss-EtOH) in the experimental models of edema induced by carrageenan, dextran, or histamin and nociception induced by chemical stimuli, such as acetic acid, formalin, capsaicin, or glutamate. The Ss-EtOH (50 mg/kg) promoted a marked inhibition on the hind paw edema induced by carrageenan or dextran (30% and 73%, respectively). Besides, Ss-EtOH (25 mg/kg) exhibited a slight activity (30%) on the hind paw edema induced by histamin. The Ss-EtOH (12.5 and 25 mg/kg) showed the antinociceptive activity on chemical stimuli induced by acetic acid (65.59% and 38.37%, respectively), formalin, in the initial (35.08% and 31.5%, respectively) and late phases (44.09% and 83.57%, respectively), capsaicin (43.77% and 51.31%, respectively), or glutamate (36.6% and 52.12%, respectively). Regarding the possible mechanism involved in the antinociceptive effect, Ss-EtOH (12.5 mg/kg) showed a decrease in the antinociceptive effect (65.8%) in the acetic acid model after pretreatment with naloxone. Thus, opioid mechanisms might be underlying this response.

  8. Uropygial gland volatiles may code for olfactory information about sex, individual, and species in Bengalese finches Lonchura striata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Xu ZHANG et al.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Over-shadowed by eye-catching vocal and visual signals, chemical communication has long been overlooked in birds. This study aimed at exploring whether volatile composition of the uropygial gland secretion (UGS of birds was associated with the information about sex, individual and species. By using dichloromethane extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS, we analyzed the UGS volatiles of domesticated Bengalese finches (Lonchura striata, Estrildiea which is also known as white-rumped munias. We characterized 16 volatile molecules from the UGS, including eight n-alkanols, five diesters, an ester, an aldehyde and a fatty acid, and quantified them in terms of GC peak area percentages (relative abundances. Among these compounds, hexadecanol and octadecanol were major components in both sexes. The former was richer in males than females and the latter richer in females than males, suggesting that they might be male and female pheromone candidates, respectively. The high inter-individual variations, in relative abundance, of the UGS volatiles implied that they might carry information about individuality. The similarity between GC profiles of the UGS and wing feather from same individuals indicates that the birds might preen the secretion to their feathers to transmit chemical cues. Additionally, by comparing with three sympatric passerine species,i.e., zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata, yellow-bowed buntings Emberiza chrysophrys and rooks Corvus frugilegus, we found that the composition of C13-C18 alkanols in the UGS might contain information about species. Our study also show that quantitative differences (degree of same UGS volatiles might be the key for the Bengalese finch to code for information about sex and individuality whereas both the kind and degree of UGS constituents could be utilized to code for information about species [Current Zoology 55 (5:–2009].

  9. Neuroprotective Effect of Total and Sequential Extract of Scrophularia striata Boiss. in Rat Cerebellar Granule Neurons Following Glutamate- Induced Neurotoxicity: An In-vitro Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salavati, Parvin; Ramezani, Mina; Monsef-Esfahani, Hamid R; Hajiagha, Reza; Parsa, Maliheh; Tavajohi, Shoreh; Ostad, Seyed Nasser

    2013-01-01

    Neuroprotective effect of the extract from aerial parts of Scrophularia striata Boiss (Scrophulariaceae) was investigated against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity on cultured rat pups Cerebellar Granule Neurons (CGNs). CGNs from 8 days old Sprague-Dawley rat were prepared and cultured. The experiments were performed after 8 days in culture. The plant was collected from the northeastern part (Ruin region) of Iran and air-dried at room temperature. The total extract was prepared with maceration of prepared powder in ethanol 80% for three times. Sequential extracts were obtained using dried and powdered aerial parts with increasingly polar solvents: petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol 80% solution. Cultured cells were exposed to 125 μM of glutamate for 12 h following a 24 h of incubation with test fractions at concentration of 10 mcg/mL. Morphological assay was performed using invert light microscope after fixation and staining with haematoxylin. Neuronal viability was measured using MTT assay. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS software. One way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed by Tukey post-hoc test. Values were considered statistically significant when p-value ≤ 0.05. Results of this study showed a significant neuroprotective activity of high polarity methanolic fraction of aerial parts of Scrophularia striata against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in a dosedependent manner. Treatment with 10 mcg/mL of the fractions showed the best result. PMID:24250613

  10. Adenosine A(2A receptors measured with [C]TMSX PET in the striata of Parkinson's disease patients.

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    Masahiro Mishina

    Full Text Available Adenosine A(2A receptors (A2ARs are thought to interact negatively with the dopamine D(2 receptor (D2R, so selective A2AR antagonists have attracted attention as novel treatments for Parkinson's disease (PD. However, no information about the receptor in living patients with PD is available. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between A2ARs and the dopaminergic system in the striata of drug-naïve PD patients and PD patients with dyskinesia, and alteration of these receptors after antiparkinsonian therapy. We measured binding ability of striatal A2ARs using positron emission tomography (PET with [7-methyl-(11C]-(E-8-(3,4,5-trimethoxystyryl-1,3,7-trimethylxanthine ([(11C]TMSX in nine drug-naïve patients with PD, seven PD patients with mild dyskinesia and six elderly control subjects using PET. The patients and eight normal control subjects were also examined for binding ability of dopamine transporters and D2Rs. Seven of the drug-naïve patients underwent a second series of PET scans following therapy. We found that the distribution volume ratio of A2ARs in the putamen were larger in the dyskinesic patients than in the control subjects (p<0.05, Tukey-Kramer post hoc test. In the drug-naïve patients, the binding ability of the A2ARs in the putamen, but not in the head of caudate nucleus, was significantly lower on the more affected side than on the less affected side (p<0.05, paired t-test. In addition, the A2ARs were significantly increased after antiparkinsonian therapy in the bilateral putamen of the drug-naïve patients (p<0.05, paired t-test but not in the bilateral head of caudate nucleus. Our study demonstrated that the A2ARs in the putamen were increased in the PD patients with dyskinesia, and also suggest that the A2ARs in the putamen compensate for the asymmetrical decrease of dopamine in drug-naïve PD patients and that antiparkinsonian therapy increases the A2ARs in the putamen. The A2ARs may play an

  11. Anastrepha ludens and Anastrepha serpentina (Diptera: Tephritidae) do not infest Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae), but Anastrepha obliqua occasionally shares this resource with Anastrepha striata in nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birke, Andrea; Aluja, Martin

    2011-08-01

    This study examined whether economically important fruit fly species Anastrepha ludens (Loew), Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann), and Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) may opportunistically exploit guavas, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae), growing near preferred natural hosts. We collected 3,459 kg of guavas and 895 kg of other known host species [sour orange, Citrus aurantium L.; grapefruit, Citrus paradisi Macfadyen; mango, Mangifera indica L.; white sapote, Casimiroa edulis La Llave and Lex.; sapote, Pouteria sapota (Jacq.); sapodilla, Manilkara zapota L.; and wild plum, Spondias purpurea L. and Spondias mombin L.] along an altitudinal gradient over a 4-yr period (2006-2009). Plants were growing in sympatry in 23 localities where the guavas are usually infested in the state of Veracruz, M6xico. The guava samples yielded 20,341 Anastrepha spp. pupae in total (overall mean, 5.88 pupae per kg of fruit). Confirming previous reports, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) and Anastrepha striata (Schiner) were found heavily infesting guavas in Veracruz. Importantly, although we did not find evidence that A. ludens and A. serpentina are able to attack this valuable commodity, we document for the first time in the agriculturally important state of Veracruz that P. guajava is an alternative natural host plant of A. obliqua. We recovered two fruit in the mango-growing locality of la Vibora, Tlalixcoyan, that harbored larvae of A. striata and A. obliqua. This finding has important practical implications for management of A. obliqua. Over the entire altitudinal gradient, when individual fruit infestation was examined, a dynamic pattern of species dominance was unveiled with guavas growing below 800 m above sea level mainly attacked by A. striata and a progressive replacement with increasing altitude by A. fraterculus. Interestingly, most individual fruit examined (97%) harbored a single species of fruit fly, a finding that may be taken as evidence of

  12. Daphne striata Tratt. and D. mezereum L.: a study of anti-proliferative activity towards human cancer cells and antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tundis, Rosa; Loizzo, Monica R; Bonesi, Marco; Peruzzi, Lorenzo; Efferth, Thomas

    2018-02-12

    In this study, we investigated for the first time the anti-proliferative and antioxidant properties of D. mezereum and D. striata. The aerial parts were extracted by maceration with n-hexane, dichloromethane, and methanol. MPLC, GC, and GC-MS were used for the phytochemical study. The anti-proliferative activity was tested against MCF-7, A549, LNCaP, ACHN, and C32 cancer human cells. The antioxidant activity was measured by employing β-carotene bleaching, ABTS, DPPH, and FRAP tests. The Relative Antioxidant Capacity Index (RACI) was applied from the perspective of statistics. D. mezereum dichloromethane extract showed a remarkable anti-proliferative with an IC 50 of 6.08 μg/mL against LNCaP cells. Experimental data indicate that Daphne species have interesting anti-proliferative and antioxidant properties that deserve more investigations to develop novel antineoplastic drugs.

  13. Detection of the European epidemic strain of Trichomonas gallinae in finches, but not other non-columbiformes, in the absence of macroscopic disease

    OpenAIRE

    Zu Ermgassen, E.; Durrant, C.; John, S.; Gardiner, R.; Alrefaei, A. F.; Cunningham, A. A.; Lawson, B.

    2016-01-01

    Finch trichomonosis is an emerging infectious disease affecting European passerines caused by a clonal strain of Trichomonas gallinae. Migrating chaffinches (Fringilla coelebs) were proposed as the likely vector of parasite spread from Great Britain to Fennoscandia. To test for such parasite carriage, we screened samples of oesophagus/crop from 275 Apodiform, Passeriform and Piciform birds (40 species) which had no macroscopic evidence of trichomonosis (i.e. necrotic ingluvitis). These birds ...

  14. Identification and expression of GnRH2 and GnRH3 in the black sea bass (Centropristis striata), a hermaphroditic teleost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Scott J; Decatur, Wayne A; Breton, Timothy S; Marquis, Timothy J; Hayes, Mary K; Berlinsky, David L; Sower, Stacia A

    2015-04-01

    We cloned two cDNAs for two gonadotropin-releasing hormones, GnRH2 (chicken GnRH-II) and GnRH3 (salmon GnRH), respectively, from the black sea bass (Centropristis striata). Black sea bass are protogynous hermaphroditic teleosts that change from females to males between 2 and 5 years of age. Similar to other GnRH precursors, the precursors of black sea bass GnRH2 and GnRH23 consisted of a signal peptide, decapeptide, a downstream processing site, and a GnRH-associated peptide. Our analyses failed to identify GnRH1. GnRH3 precursor transcript was more widely distributed in a variety of tissues compared with GnRH2. Further examination of GnRH expression and gonadal histology was done in black sea bass from three different size groups: small (11.4-44.1 g), medium (179.4-352.2 g) and large (393.8-607.3 g). Interestingly, GnRH3 expression occurred only in the pituitaries of males in the small and medium groups compared with expression of GnRH2. Future functional studies of the sea bass GnRHs will be valuable in elucidating the potential underlying neuroendocrine mechanisms of black sea bass reproduction and may ultimately contribute to management advances in this commercially important fish.

  15. Modulation of the innate immune responses in the striped snakehead murrel, Channa striata upon experimental infection with live and heat killed Aeromonas hydrophila

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    S. Kalaivani Priyadarshini

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It is well-known that the innate immune mechanisms in fish serve as the first line of defence against wide variety of pathogens. In most of the situations, innate responses get induced and enhanced after the pathogen invasion. It would be interesting to look into the inducibility of various innate immune mechanisms and the level of enhancement after infection with the pathogen. Hence, in the present investigation, modulation of the innate immune responses in the striped snakehead murrel, Channa striata on experimental challenge with either live virulent or heat killed Aeromonas hydrophila at a dose of 1× 107 CFU mL-1 were measured. Most of the non-specific (both humoral and cellular immune responses tested were substantially induced or enhanced in both the experimental groups in comparison with the unchallenged control group. Significant increase in the lysozyme, total peroxidase, antiprotease and respiratory burst activities were observed after the pathogen challenge. Thus, most of the innate non-specific immune responses are inducible though they are constitutive of fish immune system exhibiting a basal level of activity even in the absence of pathogen challenge.

  16. Metabolic alterations produced by 3-nitropropionic acid in rat striata and cultured astrocytes: quantitative in vitro 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and biochemical characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, C.; Wan, Y.L.; Goh, C.C.; Tsai, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    Quantitative high resolution in vitro 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was employed to study the metabolic effects of 3-nitropropionic acid associated with aging from perchloric acid extracts of rat striata. Systemic injection of 3-nitropropionic acid in rats at a dose of 10 mg/kg/day for seven consecutive days significantly impaired energy metabolism in rats one, four and eight months of age, as evidenced by a marked elevation of succinate and lactate levels. However, a significant decrease in N-acetyl-l-aspartate level, a neuronal marker, was observed in four- and eight-month-old rats but not in one-month-old rats. This would indicate that rats at four to eight months are more susceptible to 3-nitropropionic acid than those at one month. A significant decrease in GABA level was observed in four-month-old 3-nitropropionic acid-treated rats, which is consistent with the literature that GABAergic neurons are particularly vulnerable to 3-nitropropionic acid treatment. In addition, glutamine and glutamate levels were markedly decreased at four and eight months in 3-nitropropionic acid-treated rats. Since glutamine is synthesized predominantly in glia, the observation above suggests that 3-nitropropionic acid intoxication may involve perturbation of energy metabolism, glial injury and consequent neuronal damage. Astrocytes which are essential in the metabolism of glutamate and glutamine were used to further assess 3-nitropropionic acid-induced toxicity. Glial proliferation, mitochondrial metabolism and glutamine synthetase activity were all reduced by 3-nitropropionic acid treatment with a concomitant increase, in a dose-dependent manner, of lactate levels, suggesting that 3-nitropropionic acid is also detrimental to astrocytes in vivo and thus may affect metabolic interaction between neurons and glia.These results not only imply that 3-nitropropionic acid blocks energy metabolism prior to exerting neurotoxic damage but also demonstrate that the degree of

  17. Composição química e antinutrientes presentes nas amêndoas cruas e torradas de chicha (Sterculia striata A. St. Hill & Naudin Chemical composition and antinutrients of raw and roasted chicha almonds (Sterculia striata A. St. Hill & Naudin

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    Aline Gomes de Moura e Silva

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar os componentes químicos e antinutrientes antes e após torrefação da amêndoa de chichá da espécie Sterculia striata A. St. Hill & Naudin, oriunda de Corrente, Piauí. MÉTODOS: Foram realizadas análises: centesimal, perfil de ácidos graxos, antinutrientes (taninos, inibidor de tripsina, inibidor de amilase, lectina, fitatos, compostos fenólicos e atividade de peroxidase e polifenoloxidase. RESULTADOS: Os resultados da análise centesimal da amêndoa crua e torrada foram: lipídeos de 25,1% e 26,2%, carboidratos de 44,4% e 45,6%, proteína de 20,8% e 22,1%, cinzas de 3,7% e 4,0%, fibra alimentar total de 12,3% e 10,4%, respectivamente. Nas amêndoas cruas e torradas não foram encontradas lectinas, taninos, inibidores de tripsina e alfa-amilase. Verificou-se a ausência de peroxidase e polifenoloxidase e conteúdo de compostos fenólicos de 107,7mg/100g e 108,9mg/100g para amêndoas cruas e torradas, respectivamente. CONCLUSÃO: A torrefação realizada a 205°C por 11 minutos diminuiu o teor de fitatos de 10,6mg/g para 5,5mg/g. Por fim, as amêndoas de chichá, cruas e torradas, apresentam alto teor de proteínas, fibras, ácidos graxos monoinsaturados e saturados.OBJECTIVE: This study analyzed the chemical components and antinutrients present in raw and roasted chichá almonds from the species Sterculia striata A. St. Hill & Naudin harvested in Corrente, Piauí. METHODS: The following were determined: percent composition, fatty acid profile, antinutrients (tannins, trypsin inhibitor, amylase inhibitor, lectin, phytates, phenolic compounds and peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase activities. RESULTS: The percentage composition of the raw and lipid almonds were respectively: 25.1% and 26.2% fats, 44.4% and 45.6% carbohydrates, 20.8% and 22.1% protein, 3.7% and 4.0% ashes, and 12.3% and 10.4% total fiber. Neither raw nor roasted almonds contained lectins, tannins, trypsin inhibitors, alpha-amylase, peroxidase and

  18. Asymmetries in commitment in an avian communication network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randler, Christoph; Vollmer, Christian

    2013-02-01

    Mobbing of predators occurs within a conspecific and heterospecific context but has not been quantified within the framework of a communication network and analysed with respect to heterospecific reciprocity. Here, we used playbacks of mobbing calls to show that mobbing is unequally distributed within a community of deciduous forest birds. Five species (great tit Parus major, blue tit Cyanistes caeruleus, marsh tit Poecile palustris, nuthatch Sitta europaea and chaffinch Fringilla coelebs) responded to each other's playbacks of mobbing calls. Commitment to mob was measured by minimum distance, response latency and uttering of calls. Commitment was higher when conspecific calls were broadcast. Yet, responses to heterospecific calls were significantly different between the five species. Chaffinches had the lowest commitment, and blue tits tended to have the highest. The communication network is asymmetric. Some species invest more than they receive from other species. As mobbing might incur costs, these are unequally distributed across the community.

  19. Asymmetries in commitment in an avian communication network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randler, Christoph; Vollmer, Christian

    2013-02-01

    Mobbing of predators occurs within a conspecific and heterospecific context but has not been quantified within the framework of a communication network and analysed with respect to heterospecific reciprocity. Here, we used playbacks of mobbing calls to show that mobbing is unequally distributed within a community of deciduous forest birds. Five species (great tit Parus major, blue tit Cyanistes caeruleus, marsh tit Poecile palustris, nuthatch Sitta europaea and chaffinch Fringilla coelebs) responded to each other's playbacks of mobbing calls. Commitment to mob was measured by minimum distance, response latency and uttering of calls. Commitment was higher when conspecific calls were broadcast. Yet, responses to heterospecific calls were significantly different between the five species. Chaffinches had the lowest commitment, and blue tits tended to have the highest. The communication network is asymmetric. Some species invest more than they receive from other species. As mobbing might incur costs, these are unequally distributed across the community.

  20. Identification and characterization of a papillomavirus from birds (Fringillidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterhaus, A D; Ellens, D J; Horzinek, M C

    1977-01-01

    From skin papillomas of the chaffinch (Fringilla coelebs), a virus has been purified and studied by physicochemical techniques and electron microscopy. The virions measure 52 nm in diameter and are composed of 72 morphological units arranged in a skew T = 7d surface lattice. A sedimentation coefficient of about 300S and a buoyant density of 1.34 g/ml in CsCl were determined for the particle. Its protein composition resembles that of human papillomavirus, and the circular double-stranded genome measures 2.6 micronm. This is the first demonstration of a member of the Papovaviridae family that affects a nonmammalian host.

  1. Comparison of learning ability and memory retention in altricial (Bengalese finch, Lonchura striata var. domestica) and precocial (blue-breasted quail, Coturnix chinensis) birds using a color discrimination task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Aki; Suzuki, Kaoru

    2014-02-01

    The present study sought to assess the potential application of avian models with different developmental modes to studies on cognition and neuroscience. Six altricial Bengalese finches (Lonchura striata var. domestica), and eight precocial blue-breasted quails (Coturnix chinensis) were presented with color discrimination tasks to compare their respective faculties for learning and memory retention within the context of the two developmental modes. Tasks consisted of presenting birds with discriminative cues in the form of colored feeder lids, and birds were considered to have learned a task when 80% of their attempts at selecting the correctly colored lid in two consecutive blocks of 10 trials were successful. All of the finches successfully performed the required experimental tasks, whereas only half of the quails were able to execute the same tasks. In the learning test, finches required significantly fewer trials than quails to learn the task (finches: 13.5 ± 9.14 trials, quails: 45.8 ± 4.35 trials, P memory retention tests, which were conducted 45 days after the learning test, finches retained the ability to discriminate between colors correctly (95.0 ± 4.47%), whereas quails did not retain any memory of the experimental procedure and so could not be tested. These results suggested that altricial and precocial birds both possess the faculty for learning and retaining discrimination-type tasks, but that altricial birds perform better than precocial birds in both faculties. The present findings imply that developmental mode is an important consideration for assessing the suitability of bird species for particular experiments. © 2013 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  2. A clonal strain of Trichomonas gallinae is the aetiologic agent of an emerging avian epidemic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Becki; Cunningham, Andrew A; Chantrey, Julian; Hughes, Laura A; John, Shinto K; Bunbury, Nancy; Bell, Diana J; Tyler, Kevin M

    2011-10-01

    Trichomonas gallinae is a protozoan parasite that is well characterised as a cause of trichomonosis in columbid and raptor species world-wide. The parasite emerged as a novel infection of British passerines in 2005, leading to epidemic mortality associated with significant declines of breeding populations of greenfinches (Carduelis chloris) and chaffinches (Fringilla coelebs). We characterised the extent of T. gallinae genotypic heterogeneity within the affected wild British avifauna by analysing individual isolates from 17 of the species affected. To do so, we employed improved platform-based multilocus typing tools as well as the hydrogenosomal Fe-hydrogenase gene as a single marker locus for fine-typing. We found no evidence of heterogeneity amongst the parasites infecting British passerines, indicating that a clonal strain of T. gallinae is the causative agent of this emerging infectious disease. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Detection of the European epidemic strain of Trichomonas gallinae in finches, but not other non-columbiformes, in the absence of macroscopic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zu Ermgassen, Erasmus K H J; Durrant, Chris; John, Shinto; Gardiner, Roxanne; Alrefaei, Abdulwahed F; Cunningham, Andrew A; Lawson, Becki

    2016-09-01

    Finch trichomonosis is an emerging infectious disease affecting European passerines caused by a clonal strain of Trichomonas gallinae. Migrating chaffinches (Fringilla coelebs) were proposed as the likely vector of parasite spread from Great Britain to Fennoscandia. To test for such parasite carriage, we screened samples of oesophagus/crop from 275 Apodiform, Passeriform and Piciform birds (40 species) which had no macroscopic evidence of trichomonosis (i.e. necrotic ingluvitis). These birds were found dead following the emergence of trichomonosis in Great Britain, 2009-2012, and were examined post-mortem. Polymerase chain reactions were used to detect (ITS1/5·8S rRNA/ITS2 region and single subunit rRNA gene) and to subtype (Fe-hydrogenase gene) T. gallinae. Trichomonas gallinae was detected in six finches [three chaffinches, two greenfinches (Chloris chloris) and a bullfinch (Pyrrhula pyrrhula)]. Sequence data had 100% identity to the European finch epidemic A1 strain for each species. While these results are consistent with finches being vectors of T. gallinae, alternative explanations include the presence of incubating or resolved T. gallinae infections. The inclusion of histopathological examination would help elucidate the significance of T. gallinae infection in the absence of macroscopic lesions.

  4. The emergence and spread of finch trichomonosis in the British Isles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Becki; Robinson, Robert A; Colvile, Katie M; Peck, Kirsi M; Chantrey, Julian; Pennycott, Tom W; Simpson, Victor R; Toms, Mike P; Cunningham, Andrew A

    2012-10-19

    Finch trichomonosis, caused by the protozoal parasite Trichomonas gallinae, was first recognized as an emerging infectious disease of British passerines in 2005. The first year of seasonal epidemic mortality occurred in 2006 with significant declines of greenfinch Carduelis chloris and chaffinch Fringilla coelebs populations. Here, we demonstrate that large-scale mortality, principally of greenfinch, continued in subsequent years, 2007-2009, with a shifting geographical distribution across the British Isles over time. Consequent to the emergence of finch trichomonosis, the breeding greenfinch population in Great Britain has declined from ca 4.3 million to ca 2.8 million birds and the maximum mean number of greenfinches (a proxy for flock size) visiting gardens has declined by 50 per cent. The annual rate of decline of the breeding greenfinch population within England has exceeded 7 per cent since the initial epidemic. Although initially chaffinch populations were regionally diminished by the disease, this has not continued. Retrospective analyses of disease surveillance data showed a rapid, widespread emergence of finch trichomonosis across Great Britain in 2005 and we hypothesize that the disease emerged by T. gallinae jumping from columbiforms to passeriforms. Further investigation is required to determine the continuing impact of finch trichomonosis and to develop our understanding of how protozoal diseases jump host species.

  5. Evidence of spread of the emerging infectious disease, finch trichomonosis, by migrating birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Becki; Robinson, Robert A; Neimanis, Aleksija; Handeland, Kjell; Isomursu, Marja; Agren, Erik O; Hamnes, Inger S; Tyler, Kevin M; Chantrey, Julian; Hughes, Laura A; Pennycott, Tom W; Simpson, Vic R; John, Shinto K; Peck, Kirsi M; Toms, Mike P; Bennett, Malcolm; Kirkwood, James K; Cunningham, Andrew A

    2011-06-01

    Finch trichomonosis emerged in Great Britain in 2005 and led to epidemic mortality and a significant population decline of greenfinches, Carduelis chloris and chaffinches, Fringilla coelebs, in the central and western counties of England and Wales in the autumn of 2006. In this article, we show continued epidemic spread of the disease with a pronounced shift in geographical distribution towards eastern England in 2007. This was followed by international spread to southern Fennoscandia where cases were confirmed at multiple sites in the summer of 2008. Sequence data of the ITS1/5.8S/ITS2 ribosomal region and part of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene showed no variation between the British and Fennoscandian parasite strains of Trichomonas gallinae. Epidemiological and historical ring return data support bird migration as a plausible mechanism for the observed pattern of disease spread, and suggest the chaffinch as the most likely primary vector. This finding is novel since, although intuitive, confirmed disease spread by migratory birds is very rare and, when it has been recognised, this has generally been for diseases caused by viral pathogens. We believe this to be the first documented case of the spread of a protozoal emerging infectious disease by migrating birds.

  6. Emerging infectious disease leads to rapid population declines of common British birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A Robinson

    Full Text Available Emerging infectious diseases are increasingly cited as threats to wildlife, livestock and humans alike. They can threaten geographically isolated or critically endangered wildlife populations; however, relatively few studies have clearly demonstrated the extent to which emerging diseases can impact populations of common wildlife species. Here, we report the impact of an emerging protozoal disease on British populations of greenfinch Carduelis chloris and chaffinch Fringilla coelebs, two of the most common birds in Britain. Morphological and molecular analyses showed this to be due to Trichomonas gallinae. Trichomonosis emerged as a novel fatal disease of finches in Britain in 2005 and rapidly became epidemic within greenfinch, and to a lesser extent chaffinch, populations in 2006. By 2007, breeding populations of greenfinches and chaffinches in the geographic region of highest disease incidence had decreased by 35% and 21% respectively, representing mortality in excess of half a million birds. In contrast, declines were less pronounced or absent in these species in regions where the disease was found in intermediate or low incidence. Also, populations of dunnock Prunella modularis, which similarly feeds in gardens, but in which T. gallinae was rarely recorded, did not decline. This is the first trichomonosis epidemic reported in the scientific literature to negatively impact populations of free-ranging non-columbiform species, and such levels of mortality and decline due to an emerging infectious disease are unprecedented in British wild bird populations. This disease emergence event demonstrates the potential for a protozoan parasite to jump avian host taxonomic groups with dramatic effect over a short time period.

  7. Emerging Infectious Disease Leads to Rapid Population Declines of Common British Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toms, Mike P.; Peck, Kirsi M.; Kirkwood, James K.; Chantrey, Julian; Clatworthy, Innes R.; Evans, Andy D.; Hughes, Laura A.; Hutchinson, Oliver C.; John, Shinto K.; Pennycott, Tom W.; Perkins, Matthew W.; Rowley, Peter S.; Simpson, Vic R.; Tyler, Kevin M.; Cunningham, Andrew A.

    2010-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases are increasingly cited as threats to wildlife, livestock and humans alike. They can threaten geographically isolated or critically endangered wildlife populations; however, relatively few studies have clearly demonstrated the extent to which emerging diseases can impact populations of common wildlife species. Here, we report the impact of an emerging protozoal disease on British populations of greenfinch Carduelis chloris and chaffinch Fringilla coelebs, two of the most common birds in Britain. Morphological and molecular analyses showed this to be due to Trichomonas gallinae. Trichomonosis emerged as a novel fatal disease of finches in Britain in 2005 and rapidly became epidemic within greenfinch, and to a lesser extent chaffinch, populations in 2006. By 2007, breeding populations of greenfinches and chaffinches in the geographic region of highest disease incidence had decreased by 35% and 21% respectively, representing mortality in excess of half a million birds. In contrast, declines were less pronounced or absent in these species in regions where the disease was found in intermediate or low incidence. Also, populations of dunnock Prunella modularis, which similarly feeds in gardens, but in which T. gallinae was rarely recorded, did not decline. This is the first trichomonosis epidemic reported in the scientific literature to negatively impact populations of free-ranging non-columbiform species, and such levels of mortality and decline due to an emerging infectious disease are unprecedented in British wild bird populations. This disease emergence event demonstrates the potential for a protozoan parasite to jump avian host taxonomic groups with dramatic effect over a short time period. PMID:20805869

  8. Prevalence of pentastomids in Mabuya striata (Scincidae) from Dar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    References. BROWN, A.C. & JARMAN, N. 1978. Coastal marine habitats. In: Biogeography and ecology of Southern Africa. (ed.) Werger, M.J.A.. Junk, The Hague. DAHL, E. 1952. Some aspects of the ecology and zonation of the fauna on sandy beaches. Oikos 4: 1-27. DAY, J.H. 1969. A guide to marine life on South African ...

  9. Body size changes in passerine birds introduced to New Zealand from the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Blackburn

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available One feature of global geographic variation in avian body sizes is that they are larger on isolated islands than on continental regions. Therefore, this study aims to assess whether there have been changes in body size following successful establishment for seven passerine bird species (blackbird Turdus merula, song thrush T. philomelos, house sparrow Passer domesticus, chaffinch Fringilla coelebs, greenfinch Chloris chloris, goldfinch Carduelis carduelis, yellowhammer Emberiza citrinella introduced from the continental islands of the UK to the more isolated oceanic landmass of New Zealand in the middle of the nineteenth century. Measures of tarsus length were taken from individuals from contemporary UK and New Zealand populations of these species, and from historical specimens collected around the time that individuals were translocated from the UK to New Zealand. Analysis of Variance was used to test for size differences between contemporary UK and New Zealand populations, and between historical UK and contemporary UK and New Zealand populations. Historical UK populations have longer tarsi, on average, than 12 (7 UK and 5 New Zealand of the 14 contemporary populations. Significant decreases in tarsus length relative to the historical populations have occurred in the UK for blackbird, chaffinch and greenfinch, and in the New Zealand blackbird population. Contemporary New Zealand house sparrows have significantly longer tarsi, on average, than both historical and contemporary UK populations. Exposure to novel environments may be expected to lead to changes in the morphology and other traits of exotic species, but changes have also occurred in the native range. In fact, contrary to expectations, the most common differences we found were between contemporary and historical UK populations. Consideration of contemporary populations alone would underestimate the true scale of morphological change in these species over time, which may be due to

  10. Disentangling ancient interactions: a new extinct passerine provides insights on character displacement among extinct and extant island finches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Rando

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary studies of insular biotas are based mainly on extant taxa, although such biotas represent artificial subsets of original faunas because of human-caused extinctions of indigenous species augmented by introduced exotic taxa. This makes it difficult to obtain a full understanding of the history of ecological interactions between extant sympatric species. Morphological bill variation of Fringilla coelebs and F. teydea (common and blue chaffinches has been previously studied in the North Atlantic Macaronesian archipelagos. Character displacement between both species has been argued to explain bill sizes in sympatry. However, this explanation is incomplete, as similar patterns of bill size have been recorded in F. coelebs populations from islands with and without F. teydea.The discovery of a new extinct species in Tenerife (Canary Islands, here named Carduelis aurelioi n. sp. (slender-billed greenfinch, provides the opportunity to study ancient ecological interactions among Macaronesian finches. To help understand the evolutionary histories of forest granivores in space and time, we have performed a multidisciplinary study combining: (1 morphological analyses and radiocarbon dating (11,460±60 yr BP of the new taxon and, (2 molecular divergence among the extant finch species and populations in order to infer colonization times (1.99 and 1.09 My for F. teydea and F. coelebs respectively.C. aurelioi, F. coelebs and F. teydea co-habited in Tenerife for at least one million years. The unique anatomical trends of the new species, namely chaffinch-like beak and modified hind and forelimbs, reveal that there was a process of divergence of resource competition traits among the three sympatric finches. The results of our study, combined with the presence of more extinct greenfinches in other Macaronesian islands with significant variation in their beak sizes, suggests that the character displacement has influenced patterns of divergence in bill

  11. Disentangling ancient interactions: a new extinct passerine provides insights on character displacement among extinct and extant island finches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rando, Juan Carlos; Alcover, Josep Antoni; Illera, Juan Carlos

    2010-09-23

    Evolutionary studies of insular biotas are based mainly on extant taxa, although such biotas represent artificial subsets of original faunas because of human-caused extinctions of indigenous species augmented by introduced exotic taxa. This makes it difficult to obtain a full understanding of the history of ecological interactions between extant sympatric species. Morphological bill variation of Fringilla coelebs and F. teydea (common and blue chaffinches) has been previously studied in the North Atlantic Macaronesian archipelagos. Character displacement between both species has been argued to explain bill sizes in sympatry. However, this explanation is incomplete, as similar patterns of bill size have been recorded in F. coelebs populations from islands with and without F. teydea. The discovery of a new extinct species in Tenerife (Canary Islands), here named Carduelis aurelioi n. sp. (slender-billed greenfinch), provides the opportunity to study ancient ecological interactions among Macaronesian finches. To help understand the evolutionary histories of forest granivores in space and time, we have performed a multidisciplinary study combining: (1) morphological analyses and radiocarbon dating (11,460±60 yr BP) of the new taxon and, (2) molecular divergence among the extant finch species and populations in order to infer colonization times (1.99 and 1.09 My for F. teydea and F. coelebs respectively). C. aurelioi, F. coelebs and F. teydea co-habited in Tenerife for at least one million years. The unique anatomical trends of the new species, namely chaffinch-like beak and modified hind and forelimbs, reveal that there was a process of divergence of resource competition traits among the three sympatric finches. The results of our study, combined with the presence of more extinct greenfinches in other Macaronesian islands with significant variation in their beak sizes, suggests that the character displacement has influenced patterns of divergence in bill size and

  12. Gnezdilke Parka Škocjanske jame (Kras, JZ Slovenija/ The breeding birds of Škocjan Caves Park (Kras, SW Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figelj Jernej

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study done in 2011 and 2012 was to identify the number of breeding bird species, to provide population estimates as well as to evaluate the conservational importance of Škocjan Caves Park for birds. Common bird species were surveyed using the territory mapping method. Rare species and nocturnally active species were surveyed using species-specific methods: observation, the playback method and the line transect method. 81 species were registered, 49 of which bred within the boundaries of the Park. The most abundant breeding species were Blackcap Sylvia atricapilla (260-320 breeding pairs, Robin Erithacus rubecula (250-310 breeding pairs, Blackbird Turdus merula (230-280 breeding pairs, Chaffinch Fringilla coelebs (230-280 breeding pairs and Marsh Tit Poecile palustris (200-240 breeding pairs. Qualifying species for the Special Protected Area (SPA Kras (SI5000023 also bred within the Park: Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus, Nightjar Caprimulgus europaeus, Scops Owl Otus scops and Woodlark Lululla arborea. Eagle Owl Bubo bubo was also registered, but breeding attempts during the study period were unsuccessful due to the negative influence of several factors. One of the largest colonies of Alpine Swifts Apus melba, a rare and localized species in Slovenia, is also of conservation concern.

  13. Multi-locus sequence typing confirms the clonality of Trichomonas gallinae isolates circulating in European finches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganas, Petra; Jaskulska, Barbara; Lawson, Becki; Zadravec, Marko; Hess, Michael; Bilic, Ivana

    2014-04-01

    In recent years, Trichomonas gallinae emerged as the causative agent of an infectious disease of passerine birds in Europe leading to epidemic mortality of especially greenfinches Chloris chloris and chaffinches Fringilla coelebs. After the appearance of finch trichomonosis in the UK and Fennoscandia, the disease spread to Central Europe. Finch trichomonosis first reached Austria and Slovenia in 2012. In the present study the genetic heterogeneity of T. gallinae isolates from incidents in Austria and Slovenia were investigated and compared with British isolates. For this purpose comparative sequence analyses of the four genomic loci ITS1-5.8S-ITS2, 18S rRNA, rpb1 and Fe-hydrogenase were performed. The results corroborate that one clonal T. gallinae strain caused the emerging infectious disease within passerine birds and that the disease is continuing to spread in Europe. The same clonal strain was also found in a columbid bird from Austria. Additionally, the present study demonstrates clearly the importance of multi-locus sequence typing for discrimination of circulating T. gallinae strains.

  14. Isolation of different serovars of Salmonella enterica from wild birds in Great Britain between 1995 and 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennycott, T W; Park, A; Mather, H A

    2006-06-17

    Postmortem examinations were carried out on the carcases of 779 wild birds. Salmonellosis was a common cause of death in greenfinches (Carduelis chloris), house sparrows (Passer domesticus) and chaffinches (Fringilla coelebs), and was also responsible for the deaths of other birds such as goldfinches (Carduelis carduelis), feral pigeons and different species of gulls. Most cases of salmonellosis in finches occurred between January and March, whereas salmonellosis in house sparrows tended to occur between October and March. Salmonella Typhimurium DT40 and DT56 (variant) predominated in finches and sparrows, DT41 and DT195 were the most common strains isolated from gulls, and DT2 and DT99 were recovered from feral pigeons. These "wild bird" strains of Salmonella made up less than 0.5 per cent of the isolates of Salmonella recovered from cattle, sheep, pigs, chickens or turkeys in Great Britain over the same period, but they made up nearly 3 per cent of the isolates from more extensively reared avian livestock such as gamebirds, ducks and geese.

  15. The role of a water bug, Sigara striata, in freshwater food webs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klečka, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 1 (2014), e389 ISSN 2167-8359 Grant - others:Student Grant Agency of the Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of South Bohemia(CZ) SGA 2008 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : predation * predator-prey interactions * food webs Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.112, year: 2014 https://peerj.com/articles/389.pdf

  16. Ecology of the wood-boring bivalve Martesia striata (Pholadidae) in Indian waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Yennawar, P.L.; Thakur, N.L.; Anil, A.C.; Venkat, K.; Wagh, A.B.

    , destruction pattern of wood in the environment and reporductive biology indicate that although recruitment is halted during the monsoon, adults survive and become reproductively mature in the following post-monsoon, leading to increased recruitment during pre...

  17. Growth and Survival Rate of the Snakehead (Channa striata Larvae Fed with Different Natural Feeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Mahardika

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Snakehead is a kind of fresh water fish that still taken from the nature, which is the yield of it fishing are unreliable. Therefore, the aquaculture technique is needed. Critical phase of snakehead aquaculture is choosing suitable feed for larvae. Based on this problem, information about first feed suitable for larvae is very important.The aim of the research is to know about growth and survival rate of snakehead larvae with different feed. The research was done in 21 days at the Center for Research and Development of Freshwater Aquaculture Bogor. Larvae with first weight 0.4±0.07 mg and length 4.56±0.53 mm were used. Fish were feed three times daily in ad satiation. Experimental design used was completely randomized design four treatment with three replications, namely A (egg yolk chicken, B (Moina sp,, C (Artemia sp. and D (silk worm. Parameters measured were the absolute length growth, the growth of absolute weight, specific growth rate, survival rate and feed efficiency. Water quality parameters were temperature, pH, DO and conductivity. The result showed that the used of silk worm as first feed for larvae indicated the best performences. The growth of the absolute length of 13.34±1.30 mm, absolute weight of 54.52±2.93mg, specific growth rate 23.85±0.21%, survival rate 97.67±2.36% and feed efficiency 82.69±7.79%. Keywords : feed, growth, larvae, silk worm, snakehead, survival rate.

  18. Singing from North to South: Latitudinal variation in timing of dawn singing under natural and artificial light conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Arnaud; Kempenaers, Bart

    2017-10-01

    Animals breeding at northern latitudes experience drastic changes in daily light conditions during the breeding season with decreasing periods of darkness, whereas those living at lower latitudes are exposed to naturally dark nights throughout the year. Nowadays, many animals are also exposed to artificial night lighting (often referred to as light pollution). Animals strongly rely on variation in light levels to time their daily and seasonal behaviour. Previous work on passerine birds showed that artificial night lighting leads to earlier onset of dawn song. However, these studies were carried out at intermediate latitudes with more limited seasonal changes in daylength, and we still lack an understanding of the impact of artificial night lighting in relation to variation in natural light conditions. We investigated the influence of natural and artificial light conditions on the timing of dawn singing in five common songbird species in each of three regions in Europe that differed in natural variation in daylength (northern Finland, 65°N; southern Germany, 48°N; southern Spain, 37°N). In each region, we selected five peri-urban forest sites with and five without street lighting, and we recorded dawn singing at the beginning of the local breeding season. Our results show that the earliest natural singers, that is, European robins (Erithacus rubecula) and common blackbirds (Turdus merula), started dawn singing earlier along with the natural increase in night brightness in Finland, with no additional effects of artificial night lighting. In contrast, the later singers, such as, great tits (Parus major), blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) and chaffinches (Fringilla coelebs), showed similar onsets of dawn song relative to sunrise across the season and similar effects of artificial night lighting at all latitudes. Artificial night lighting affected great tits, blue tits and chaffinches even in northern Finland where nights became very bright. Proximate factors such as

  19. The seroprevalence of avipoxvirus and its association with avian malaria (Plasmodium spp.) infection in introduced passerine birds in the southern regions of the North Island of New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, H J; Banda, M; Alley, M R; Howe, L; Gartrell, B D

    2013-03-01

    Blood samples were collected from 65 free-ranging birds from six species in the southern North Island of New Zealand. Sera from the birds were tested for the presence of avipoxvirus (APV) antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and blood cells from 55 birds were also tested for Plasmodium spp. by PCR. Forty-five birds (69.2%) tested seropositive to APV. Song thrushes (Turdus philomelos) presented the highest seroprevalence at 100% (4/4), followed by Eurasian blackbirds (Turdus merula) (96.86%, 31/32), chaffinches (Fringilla coelebs) (54.55%, 6/11), starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) (25%, 3/12), greenfinches (Carduelis chloris) (25%, 1/4), and European goldfinches (Carduelis carduelis) (0%, 0/2). Plasmodium spp. DNA was detected in 15/55 birds (27.3%), including 11 Eurasian blackbirds, one song thrush, and three starlings. Eight Eurasian blackbird isolates (73%) grouped within the subgenus Novyella. Two Eurasian blackbird isolates and the song thrush isolate clustered within a different group with previously reported lineages LINN1 and AFTRU5. In addition, all three starling isolates clustered within the well-characterized lineage Plasmodium (Huffia) elongatum GRW06. All Plasmodium-positive Eurasian blackbirds and the song thrush were seropositive to APV, whereas only 67% of Plasmodium-positive starlings showed evidence of previous exposure to APV. A significant relationship between birds seropositive to APV and birds infected by Plasmodium spp. was observed (chi2 = 5.69, df = 1, P = 0.0086). To the authors' knowledge this is the first report describing the seroprevalence of APV and its association with Plasmodium spp. infection in introduced bird species in New Zealand.

  20. DISTRIBUSI NITROGEN DAN FOSFOR PADA BUDIDAYA IKAN GABUS (Channa striata DENGAN APLIKASI ECENG GONDOK (Eichhornia crassipes DAN PROBIOTIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adang Saputra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Permasalahan yang dihadapi pembudidaya ikan dengan sistem intensif adalah meningkatnya limbah yang terakumulasi pada air dan sedimen. Limbah budidaya ikan pada umumnya berupa padatan dan nutrien terlarut pada air terutama nitrogen dan fosfor. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengkaji distribusi nitrogen total dan fosfor total pada budidaya ikan gabus secara intensif yang diberi eceng gondok Eichhornia crassipes dan probiotik (Pseudomonas aeruginosa dan Achromobacter insuavis. Penelitian dirancang menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap dengan perlakuan pemberian kombinasi eceng gondok dan probiotik (A, pemberian eceng gondok (B, dan pemberian probiotik (C, masing-masing perlakuan diulang tiga kali. Benih ikan gabus yang digunakan berukuran panjang 14,74 ± 0,01 cm dan bobot 25,53 ± 0,09 g dengan padat tebar 175 ekor/kolam (50 ekor/m3. Selama 90 hari masa pemeliharaan, ikan gabus diberi pakan berupa pelet dengan kandungan protein sekitar 30%. Jumlah pemberian pakan 5% dari biomassa dengan frekuensi pemberian empat kali dalam sehari (pagi, siang, sore, dan malam. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan nitrogen dan fosfor pada budidaya ikan gabus terdistribusi pada eceng gondok, sedimen, air, dan ikan. Eceng gondok menyerap nitrogen dan fosfor paling tinggi (P<0,05 dibandingkan air, ikan, dan sedimen. Laju pertumbuhan spesifik bobot (4,37 ± 0,01%/hari dan biomassa (1,88 ± 0,01 g ikan gabus tertinggi dicapai pada pemberian kombinasi eceng gondok dan probiotik. Hasil ini dapat dijadikan landasan untuk pengelolaan limbah nitrogen dan fosfor pada budidaya ikan gabus secara intensif. One of the problems in intensive aquaculture system is the the accumulation of waste in the water and sediment. Aquaculture wastes are discharged into the water in form of solids and dissolved nutrients which mostly consisted of nitrogen and phosphorus. The purpose of this study was to study the dynamics of total nitrogen and phosphorus in an intensive aquaculture media supplied with water hyacinth and probiotics (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Achromobacter insuavis. The study was designed using a completely randomized design with treatment combinations of water hyacinth with probiotic (A, water hyacinth (B, and probiotic (C. Each treatment consisted of three replications. The seeds of snakehead used had body length of 14.74 ± 0.01 cm and weight 25.53 ± 0.09 g, stocked in ponds with stocking density of 175 individuals/pond (50 individuals/m3. During 90 days of rearing, the fish were fed with pellet with protein content of 30%. The amount of feeding was 5% of the biomass with feeding frequency of four times a day (morning, afternoon, evening, and night. The results showed that the produced nitrogen and phosphorus in the snakehead cultivation were distributed to water hyacinth, sediment, water, and fish. Water hyacinth absorbed most of the nitrogen and phosphorus compared to water, fish, and sediment. Higher specific growth rate (4.37 ± 0.01%/day and biomass (1.88 ± 0.01 g of snakehead were achieved in combination of water hyacinth and probiotic treatment. These results can be used as a basis for the management of nitrogen and phosphorus wastes in an intensive fish farming.

  1. Osteopathia striata congenita with cranial sclerosis and intellectual disability due to contiguous gene deletions involving the WTX locus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holman, Sk; Morgan, T; Baujat, G

    2013-01-01

    sclerosis, with a high prevalence of cleft palate and hearing loss. Intellectual disability or neurodevelopmental delay is not observed in females with point mutations in WTX leading to OSCS. One female has been described with a deletion spanning multiple neighbouring genes suggesting that deletion of some...

  2. INTERVENSI FOLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE (FSH DALAM PROSES REMATURASI INDUK IKAN GABUS HARUAN Channa Striata Blkr DIDALAM WADAH BUDIDAYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhmad Ridha Fani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Snakehead and other fish species in waters of the swamp doing spawning at the beginning or in the middle of the rainy season. Gonadal maturation process so as to return time is limited. Aquaculture development is highly dependent on the availability of seeds that meet the timeliness, quality and quantity. The seeds can be produced continuously if supported by the availability of mature broodstock with good quality eggs. Some research about the role of hormones and or the use of stimulants to the success in support of gonad development and spawning, such as; Siam Jambal fish, Pangasius hypophthalmus (Ernawati 1999, Catfish, Clarias batrachus (Zairin et al. 2001, and catfish, Hemibagrus nemurus (Supriyadi 2005. By because they were with potential memamfaatkan folicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH that serves as the control at the start of the reproductive cycle up to ovulation and spermiasi in fish. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the injection folicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH in the parent rematurisasi catfish. Results from the start 17007-52327 item, 0,63-1,07mm egg diameter, IGS range of 4, 13 to 8.50%, and ranged from 0.86 2.4% IHS. Based on the results of the study injection folicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH capable mepersingkat rematurasi processing time.

  3. Late Silurian fish microfossils from Klinta and Rinnebäcks Bro (Scania, south Sweden), with remarks on the morphology of Nostolepis striata trunk scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vergoossen, J.M.J.

    2002-01-01

    The microvertebrate faunas from ten small pieces of rock from the Öved Sandstone Formation at Klinta (1-10) yielded osteostracan, heterostracan, thelodont, and acanthodian remains, dated here as Whitcliffian. The most important age indicators are the heterostracan Archegonaspis and the thelodont

  4. Full replacement of menhaden fish meal protein by low-gossypol cottonseed flour protein in the diet of juvenile black sea bass Centropristis striata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eight iso-nitrogeneous (46% crude protein) and iso-lipidic (14% crude lipid) diets were formulated and prepared to replace menhaden fish meal (FM) protein (59.5% CP) by low-gossypol glandless meal (GCSM) protein (50.4% CP), solvent-extracted cottonseed meal (SCSM) protein (53.8% protein) and high go...

  5. UJI ORGANOLEPTIK FORMULASI BISKUIT FUNGSIONAL BERBASIS TEPUNG IKAN GABUS (Ophiocephalus striatus (The Organoleptic Functional Biscuit Formulation Based on Snakehead Fish (Ophiocephalus striata Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Kartika Sari

    2014-07-01

    15% TI sebesar 73,33% dan rasa tertinggi pada 10% TI sebesar 58,33%. Penerimaan panelis menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan tepung ikan gabus berpengaruh nyata (p0,05 terhadap aroma, rasa, warna dan keseluruhan biskuit. Berdasarkan pertimbangan penerimaan panelis maka terpilih formula biskuit dengan substitusi 15% tepung ikan gabus. Kata kunci: Biskuit fungsional, subtitusi, fortifikasi

  6. Mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and apoptosis revealed by proteomic and transcriptomic analyses of the striata in two mouse models of Parkinson’s disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chin, Mark H.; Qian, Weijun; Wang, Haixing; Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Bloom, Joshua S.; Sforza, Daniel M.; Lacan, Goran; Liu, Dahai; Khan, Arshad H.; Cantor, Rita M.; Bigelow, Diana J.; Melega, William P.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Smith, Desmond J.

    2008-02-10

    The molecular mechanisms underlying the changes in the nigrostriatal pathway in Parkinson disease (PD) are not completely understood. Here we use mass spectrometry and microarrays to study the proteomic and transcriptomic changes in the striatum of two mouse models of PD, induced by the distinct neurotoxins 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and methamphetamine (METH). Proteomic analyses resulted in the identification and relative quantification of 912 proteins with two or more unique peptides and 85 proteins with significant abundance changes following neurotoxin treatment. Similarly, microarray analyses revealed 181 genes with significant changes in mRNA following neurotoxin treatment. The combined protein and gene list provides a clearer picture of the potential mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration observed in PD. Functional analysis of this combined list revealed a number of significant categories, including mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress response and apoptosis. Additionally, codon usage and miRNAs may play an important role in translational control in the striatum. These results constitute one of the largest datasets integrating protein and transcript changes for these neurotoxin models with many similar endpoint phenotypes but distinct mechanisms.

  7. Formulation of Emergency Food in Biscuit-Form Made From Proso Millet Flour (Panicum miliaceum) and Snakehead Fish (Channa striata) -Tempeh Flour Koya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anandito, R. B. K.; Kurniawan, S. R.; Nurhartadi, E.; Siswanti

    2018-02-01

    Indonesia is a natural disaster-prone country. Food availability appears as the post-disaster main problem. Emergency food is an effort to overcome it. An ideal emergency food is expected to have a complete nutritional composition. Fulfilling macronutrient needs, proso millet flour and snakehead fish-tempeh flour koya were being used in this research. The objective of this research was to determine the formulation of emergency food in biscuit form made from proso millet flour and snakehead fish-tempeh flour koya based on its sensory, chemical and physical properties. This research was using a completely randomized design with one factor affecting. The variations of proso millet flour and snakehead fish-tempeh flour koya composition were 100:0 ; 80:20 ; 60:40 ; and 40:60. All treatments were carried out sensory evaluation using hedonic test, proximate analysis, calories analysis using bomb calorimetry methods. and physical analysis using texture profile analyzer. The compensatory model was used to determine the best formula based on all parameters. The result indicated that the best biscuit formula had compositions of proso millet flour 80% and snakehead fish-tempeh flour koya 20%. It had a brownish color, not-strong-fishy aroma, a strong-enough bitter aftertaste and crunchy texture. Chemical analysis showed that its moisture, ash, protein, fat, carbohydrate and total calories content were 1,146%; 4,827%; 12,536%; 26,325%; 56,312% and 5,033 kcal/gram, respectively. The physical analysis shows that its hardness and fracturability values were 8,037 N and 2,403 N, respectively.

  8. ANALISIS USAHA PENGOLAHAN KERUPUK IKAN GABUS (Channa Striata Bloch PESERTA PROGRAM PEMBERDAYAAN KONSULTAN KEUANGAN MITRA BANK (KKMB DI KALIMANTAN SELATAN (STUDI PEMBERDAYAAN KKMB DI KOTA BANJARMASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Aini

    2016-06-01

                Results of the research showed that the technology performance of the snakehead crackers processing business had grown well in Banjarmasin City after participating in KKMB empowerment program, characterised by the increasing quantity and quality of production. Incomes of the snakehead crackers processors in Banjarmasin City after participating in program had increased, showed by the incomes increasing an average of 189.79% from before participating in program. Income of the snakehead crackers processors in Banjarmasin City was significantly affected by the processed fish volume, the amount of the loan capital and business scale, which the regression coefficient of the each variable was positive and valid on test level of 99%. The average difference between the supply and demand of 4,65 tons/year indicated that the snakehead crackers marketing in Banjarmasin City still had a large market opportunity to keep organised. The marketing channels of the snakehead crackers processed by program participants in Banjarmasin City were consist of three pattern of the marketing channels, i.e. producers to consumers directly, producers through the collectors the retailers, and producers through the retailers before distributed to consumers.

  9. Inhibition of Pro-inflammatory Cytokines by Ethyl Acetate Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    striata Boiss (Scrophulariaceae). Several species of this genus have been used since ancient times as folk remedies for ailments such as scrophulas, scabies, eczema, psoriasis, tumors, etc. We have previously demonstrated the inhibitory effect of S. striata extract on nitric oxide production in vitro and ex vivo model [5].

  10. Salida de campo a la Cuesta de la Maruquesa y Mucientes (Valladolid) el 22 de febrero de 1953

    OpenAIRE

    Valverde Gómez, José Antonio, 1926-2003

    2008-01-01

    Salidas de campo simultáneas del autor a la Cuesta de la Maruquesa, en Valladolid capital, y de un colaborador anónimo a Mucientes (Valladolid), el 22 de febrero de 1953, de la que se anotaron observaciones sobre las siguientes aves: Alauda arvensis (Alondra común), Anthus pratensis (Bisbita común), Carduelis chloris (Verderón común, llamado Chloris chloris por el autor), Fringilla coelebs (Pinzón vulgar), Fringilla montifringilla (Pinzón real), Phylloscopus collybita (Mosquitero común) y Ser...

  11. Spatial distribution of breeding Pied Flycatchers Ficedula hypoleuca in respect to their natal sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokolov, L.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Study of philopatry and dispersal of pied flycatchers Ficedula hypoleuca was launched on the Courish Spit (SE Baltic in 1981. Since then, ca. 9,000 nestlings were ringed at different sites in the Russian part of the Courish Spit. A total of 557 individuals ringed as pulli were recaptured in subsequent seasons in the study area. Both males and females are more often recaptured in the plots where they were ringed than in other plots. These results were interpreted in the framework of the hypothesis forwarded by Löhrl (1959 and supported by Berndt & Winkel (1979. These authors suggested that cavity nesters (pied flycatchers and collared flycatchers F. albicollis imprint their future local breeding area during the period of postfledging exploration. Birds that survive until the next spring, return to these imprinted areas to breed. A similar study done by Sokolov et al. (1984 on the Courish Spit in an open nesting species, the chaffinch Fringilla coelebs, confirmed this finding. We assumed that juvenile pied flycatchers disperse for varying distances during their postfledging movements and imprint a local area, some 1–5 kilometres in diameter. This area is the goal of their migration next spring. It is suggested that in spring, yearlings are non–randomly distributed in respect to the area they have imprinted as juveniles. Recently, Vysotsky (2000, 2001 re–analysed the same data on philopatry of pied flycatchers on the Courish Spit and forwarded an alternative hypothesis. He suggests that juveniles, both males and females, do not imprint any local area during the postfledging period, but are distributed randomly across the area of several dozens of kilometres in spring. Vysotsky was able to show that distribution of distances of natal dispersal did not differ from the random pattern the study plot which was an 8.5 km long line of nest boxes along the Courish Spit. The aim of this study was to test these two alternative hypotheses. To do so, we

  12. Inhibition of Pro-inflammatory Cytokines by Ethyl Acetate Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    inflammatory production by macrophages. Methods: Mouse peritoneal macrophages were cultured in solvent either alone or with 2 ìg/ml lipopolysaccaride (LPS) with/without different doses of ethyl acetate extract of S. striata. Production of ...

  13. Destruction of timber panels by wood boring organisms in Mandovi estuary of Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wagh, A.B.; Anil, A.C.

    Destruction on mango wood (Mangifera indica Linn.) panels in the Mandovi Estuary of Goa, India at 5 different depths was studied for different seasons. The causative organisms were found to be Lyrodus pedicellatus Quatrefages and Martesia striata L...

  14. Ocean acidification impacts on black sea bass and scup embryos, responses of finfish in laboratory experiments

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Black sea bass (Centropristis striata) and scup (Stenotomus chrysops) compose important recreational and commercial fisheries along the United States Atlantic coast....

  15. The effects of prey size on diet differentiation of seven passerine species at two spring stopover sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchetti, C.M.; Locatelli, D.P.; Van Noordwijk, A.J.; Baldaccini, N.E.

    1998-01-01

    Prey size was evaluated for seven passerine trans-Saharan migrant species at two spring stopover sites in Sardinia, Italy. The species considered were Pied Flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca, Spotted Flycatcher Muscicapa striata, Redstart Phoenicurus phoenicurus, Garden Warbler Sylvia borin, Whitethroat

  16. Synthesis and biological evaluation of the binding of dopamine D2/D3 receptor agonist, (R,S)-5-hydroxy-2-(N-propyl-N-5'-{sup 18}F-fluoropentyl)aminotetralin ({sup 18}F-5-OH-FPPAT) in rodents and nonhuman primates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi Bingzhi; Narayanan, Tanjore K.; Christian, Bradley T.; Chattopadhyay, Sankha; Mukherjee, Jogeshwar E-mail: mukherjj@uci.edu

    2004-04-01

    We have synthesized a new fluorinated dopamine D2 receptor agonist, (R,S)-2-(N-propyl-N-5'-fluoropentyl)amino-5-hydroxytetralin (5-OH-FPPAT). The radiosynthesis of the fluorine-18 analog, {sup 18}F-5-OH-FPPAT was achieved in decay corrected yields of 10 to 15% in specific activities of approx. 1.5 to 2 Ci/{mu}mol. In vitro binding and autoradiographic studies of this new radiotracer have been investigated. Using rat striatal homogenate binding assay, 5-OH-FPPAT exhibited an affinity of IC{sub 50} = 6.95 nM. The octanol-buffer partition coefficient, Log P was found to be 1.60. In vitro autoradiographs in rat brain slices with {sup 18}F-5-OH-FPPAT revealed selective binding to the dopaminergic regions in the striata that was displaceable by sulpiride. This selective binding to the striata was also removed in the presence of the GTP analog, 5'-guanylylimidodiphosphate, indicative of predominant binding of {sup 18}F-5-OH-FPPAT to the high-affinity state of the D2 receptor. In vivo regional distribution of {sup 18}F-5-OH-FPPAT in rat brains revealed selective localization in the striata with striata/cortex ratio of 1.5 and striata/cerebellum ratio of 1.8 to 2.0. The binding of {sup 18}F-5-OH-FPPAT in the striata was reduced upon pretreatment with the antagonist, risperidone and the agonist, PPHT. A PET study in rhesus monkeys showed selective localization of {sup 18}F-5-OH-FPPAT in the striata and the ratio between striata and cerebellum approached approximately 2 at 40 min post-injection. Keywords: {sup 18}F-5-OH-FPPAT; Dopamine D-2 Receptor Agonist; In vitro Autoradiography; PET.

  17. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi facilitate the invasion of Solidago canadensis L. in southeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ruyi; Zhou, Gang; Zan, Shuting; Guo, Fuyu; Su, Nannan; Li, Jing

    2014-11-01

    The significance of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in the process of plant invasion is still poorly understood. We hypothesize that invasive plants would change local AMF community structure in a way that would benefit themselves but confer less advantages to native plants, thus influencing the extent of plant interactions. An AMF spore community composed of five morphospecies of Glomus with equal density (initial AMF spore community, I-AMF) was constructed to test this hypothesis. The results showed that the invasive species, Solidago canadensis, significantly increased the relative abundance of G. geosperum and G. etunicatum (altered AMF spore community, A-AMF) compared to G. mosseae, which was a dominant morphospecies in the monoculture of native Kummerowia striata. The shift in AMF spore community composition driven by S. canadensis generated functional variation between I-AMF and A-AMF communities. For example, I-AMF increased biomass and nutrient uptake of K. striata in both monocultures and mixtures of K. striata and S. canadensis compared to A-AMF. In contrast, A-AMF significantly enhanced root nitrogen (N) acquisition of S. canadensis grown in mixture. Moreover, mycorrhizal-mediated 15N uptake provided direct evidence that I-AMF and A-AMF differed in their affinities with native and invading species. The non-significant effect of A-AMF on K. striata did not result from allelopathy as root exudates of S. canadensis exhibited positive effects on seed germination and biomass of K. striata under naturally occurring concentrations. When considered together, we found that A-AMF facilitated the invasion of S. canadensis through decreasing competitiveness of the native plant K. striata. The results supported our hypothesis and can be used to improve our understanding of an ecosystem-based perspective towards exotic plant invasion.

  18. A novel closed system bubble column photobioreactor for detailed characterisation of micro and macroalgal growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdt, Susan Løvstad; Christensen, L.; Iversen, J. J.L.

    Growth of the marine microalgae Tetraselmis striata Butcher and macroalgae Chondrus crispus Stackhouse was investigated in batch cultures in a closed system bubble column photobioreactor. A laboratory cultivation system was constructed that allowed on-line monitoring of temperature, pH and dissol......Growth of the marine microalgae Tetraselmis striata Butcher and macroalgae Chondrus crispus Stackhouse was investigated in batch cultures in a closed system bubble column photobioreactor. A laboratory cultivation system was constructed that allowed on-line monitoring of temperature, p...

  19. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sekaran, Kalaivani Priyadarshini. Vol 7, No 2 (2017) - Articles Modulation of the innate immune responses in the striped snakehead murrel, Channa striata upon experimental infection with live and heat killed Aeromonas hydrophila. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2218-6050. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  20. 76 FR 18419 - Movement of Hass Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... commented that Hass avocados attached to trees are not hosts for the guava fruit fly (A. striata), or the... respect to Mediterranean fruit fly and South American fruit fly; we did, however, acknowledge that guava... proposed restrictions related to the movement of Hass avocados from areas where the guava fruit fly is...

  1. 76 FR 13986 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... Assessment Workshops for South Atlantic black sea bass (Centropristis striata) and golden tilefish (Lopholatilus chamaeleonticeps). SUMMARY: The SEDAR assessments of the South Atlantic stock of black sea bass..., South Atlantic, and Caribbean Fishery Management Councils, in conjunction with NOAA Fisheries and the...

  2. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2014-04-28

    Apr 28, 2014 ... extensive laceration due to the orofacial dystonia. The diagnosis and the management of ChAc remain yet tricky. Medical treatment including botulinum toxin an injections and atypical neuroleptic drugs may improve the movement disorder [2]. Deep brain stimulation of the striata has been tried with variable.

  3. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parasuraman, Aiya Subramani. Vol 7, No 2 (2017) - Articles Modulation of the innate immune responses in the striped snakehead murrel, Channa striata upon experimental infection with live and heat killed Aeromonas hydrophila. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2218-6050. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  4. Pathology of worm infestation in ovine and its treatment with two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this research was to obtain the effects of plant extraction of Fumariaceae on the control of experimental multiple nematodes infection as an antihelminthic and Scrophularia striata plant extraction as an anti-inflammatory of gastro intestinal tract (GIT) in lambs, and their effects on body weight gain. 24 lambs, 9 to 13 ...

  5. Preferencias de hábitat, densidad y diversidad de las comunidades de aves en Tenerife (Islas Canarias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrascal, L. M.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Species–specific habitat preferences, density and species richness of bird communities in Teneriffe (Canary Islands Bird distribution and abundance are described and analyzed in Teneriffe (Canary Islands. Inter–habitat differences in density, diversity and species richness are shown in table 1. Figure 2 shows the main determinants of bird species richness in Teneriffe, and tables 2 and 3 and figure 3 show the species–specific patterns of spatial variation abundance (more detailed for Anthus berthelotii, Fringilla coelebs canariensis, Fringilla teydea, Parus caeruleus teneriffae, Phylloscopus canariensis, Regulus teneriffae, Serinus canarius and Turdus merula cabrerae. Deeply transformed environments due to human impact (urban habitats, agricultural mosaics, banana plantations have high bird densities and species richness, even higher than those measured in native, unmodified habitats such as laurel forests or mature pinewoods. Urban environments in Teneriffe are very permeable to native bird fauna, as they have been occupied by many widespread endemic species/subspecies. Many of the endemic, well defined species or subspecies of island birds have high population densities within native, untransformed habitats. Density compensation and niche expansion is not a common phenomenon in the avifauna of Teneriffe. Nevertheless, all species/subspecies broadening the inter–habitat or altitudinal distribution are endemic of the Canary Islands.

  6. Mechanisms of Copper Ion Mediated Huntington's Disease Progression

    OpenAIRE

    Fox, Jonathan H.; Kama, Jibrin A.; Lieberman, Gregory; Chopra, Raman; Dorsey, Kate; Chopra, Vanita; Volitakis, Irene; Cherny, Robert A.; Bush, Ashley I.; Hersch, Steven

    2007-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is caused by a dominant polyglutamine expansion within the N-terminus of huntingtin protein and results in oxidative stress, energetic insufficiency and striatal degeneration. Copper and iron are increased in the striata of HD patients, but the role of these metals in HD pathogenesis is unknown. We found, using inductively-coupled-plasma mass spectroscopy, that elevations of copper and iron found in human HD brain are reiterated in the brains of affected HD transgeni...

  7. Positive feedback between mycorrhizal fungi and plants influences plant invasion success and resistance to invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Yang, Ruyi; Tang, Jianjun; Yang, Haishui; Hu, Shuijin; Chen, Xin

    2010-08-24

    Negative or positive feedback between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and host plants can contribute to plant species interactions, but how this feedback affects plant invasion or resistance to invasion is not well known. Here we tested how alterations in AMF community induced by an invasive plant species generate feedback to the invasive plant itself and affect subsequent interactions between the invasive species and its native neighbors. We first examined the effects of the invasive forb Solidago canadensis L. on AMF communities comprising five different AMF species. We then examined the effects of the altered AMF community on mutualisms formed with the native legume forb species Kummerowia striata (Thunb.) Schindl. and on the interaction between the invasive and native plants. The host preferences of the five AMF were also assessed to test whether the AMF form preferred mutualistic relations with the invasive and/or the native species. We found that S. canadensis altered AMF spore composition by increasing one AMF species (Glomus geosporum) while reducing Glomus mosseae, which is the dominant species in the field. The host preference test showed that S. canadensis had promoted the abundance of AMF species (G. geosporum) that most promoted its own growth. As a consequence, the altered AMF community enhanced the competitiveness of invasive S. canadensis at the expense of K. striata. Our results demonstrate that the invasive S. canadensis alters soil AMF community composition because of fungal-host preference. This change in the composition of the AMF community generates positive feedback to the invasive S. canadensis itself and decreases AM associations with native K. striata, thereby making the native K. striata less dominant.

  8. Positive feedback between mycorrhizal fungi and plants influences plant invasion success and resistance to invasion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Zhang

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Negative or positive feedback between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF and host plants can contribute to plant species interactions, but how this feedback affects plant invasion or resistance to invasion is not well known. Here we tested how alterations in AMF community induced by an invasive plant species generate feedback to the invasive plant itself and affect subsequent interactions between the invasive species and its native neighbors. We first examined the effects of the invasive forb Solidago canadensis L. on AMF communities comprising five different AMF species. We then examined the effects of the altered AMF community on mutualisms formed with the native legume forb species Kummerowia striata (Thunb. Schindl. and on the interaction between the invasive and native plants. The host preferences of the five AMF were also assessed to test whether the AMF form preferred mutualistic relations with the invasive and/or the native species. We found that S. canadensis altered AMF spore composition by increasing one AMF species (Glomus geosporum while reducing Glomus mosseae, which is the dominant species in the field. The host preference test showed that S. canadensis had promoted the abundance of AMF species (G. geosporum that most promoted its own growth. As a consequence, the altered AMF community enhanced the competitiveness of invasive S. canadensis at the expense of K. striata. Our results demonstrate that the invasive S. canadensis alters soil AMF community composition because of fungal-host preference. This change in the composition of the AMF community generates positive feedback to the invasive S. canadensis itself and decreases AM associations with native K. striata, thereby making the native K. striata less dominant.

  9. Safety of Striatal Infusion of siRNA in a Transgenic Huntington's Disease Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Emily; Chase, Kathryn; McGowan, Sarah; Mondo, Erica; Pfister, Edith; Mick, Eric; Friedline, Randall H; Kim, Jason K; Sapp, Ellen; DiFiglia, Marian; Aronin, Neil

    2015-01-01

    The immune system In Huntington's disease (HD) is activated and may overreact to some therapies. RNA interference using siRNA lowers mutant huntingtin (mHTT) protein but could increase immune responses. To examine the innate immune response following siRNA infusion into the striatum of wild-type (WT) and HD transgenic (YAC128) mice. siRNAs (2'-O-methyl phosphorothioated) were infused unilaterally into striatum of four month-old WT and YAC128 mice for 28 days. Microglia number and morphology (resting (normal), activated, dystrophic), cytokine levels, and DARPP32-positive neurons were measured in striatum immediately or 14 days post-infusion. Controls included contralateral untreated striatum, and PBS and sham treated striata. The striata of untreated YAC128 mice had significantly fewer resting microglia and more dystrophic microglia than WT mice, but no difference from WT in the proportion of activated microglia or total number of microglia. siRNA infusion increased the total number of microglia in YAC128 mice compared to PBS treated and untreated striata and increased the proportion of activated microglia in WT and YAC128 mice compared to untreated striata and sham treated groups. Cytokine levels were low and siRNA infusion resulted in only modest changes in those levels. siRNA infusion did not change the number of DARPP32-positive neurons. Findings suggest that siRNA infusion may be a safe method for lowering mHTT levels in the striatum in young animals, since treatment does not produce a robust cytokine response or cause neurotoxicity. The potential long-term effects of a sustained increase in total and activated microglia after siRNA infusion in HD mice need to be explored.

  10. Severe craniofacial sclerosis with multiple anomalies in a boy and his mother

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currarino, G.; Friedman, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    A boy is described with severe hyperostosis of the cranium and facial bones, and many other abnormalities including macrocephaly, abnormal facies, cleft palate, conductive hearing loss, speech defect, dental and digital anomalies, delayed skeletal development, short fibulas, short stature of postnatal onset, cervical kyphosis, and progressive lumbar lordosis. His mother exhibited craniofacial sclerosis, similar dental defects, and mild osteopathia striata without other abnormalities. This family may represent a previously undescribed inherited syndrome with cranial sclerosis. (orig.)

  11. Notas de plumaje correspondientes a aves capturadas en Valladolid entre el 25 y el 27 de septiembre de 1952

    OpenAIRE

    Valverde Gómez, José Antonio, 1926-2003

    2008-01-01

    Notas sobre el plumaje de las siguientes aves, capturadas con liga y cepos entre el 25 y el 27 de septiembre de 1952 en Valladolid (probablemente, capital o cercanías):Carduelis carduelis (Jilguero), Ficedula hypoleuca (Papamoscas cerrojillo, llamado Muscicapa hypoleuca por el autor), Muscicapa striata (Papamoscas gris), Passer montanus (Gorrión molinero), Serinus serinus (Verdecillo), Sylvia borin (Curruca mosquitera) y Sylvia communis (Curruca zarcera). Notes about the plumage of the fol...

  12. Phasic Dopaminergic Signaling and the Presymptomatic Phase of Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-07-01

    H.A., Nanry,K.P., Hudson,P.M., Hong,J.S., Stachowiak ,M.K., Increased dopamine release from striata of rats after unilateral nigrostriatal bundle damage... Stachowiak et al., 1987;Snyder et al., 1990), dopamine synthesis (Zigmond et al., 1984;Altar et al., 1987;Wolf et al., 1989) and dopamine metabolites...that in transgenic mice. Although indirect indices suggest an up-regulation of dopamine release at severe denervation ( Stachowiak et al., 1987;Zhang et

  13. Contribution to the development of an absolute quantification method in Single Photon Emission Tomography of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinis-De-Almeida, Pedro-Miguel

    1999-01-01

    Recent technical advances in SPECT have focused on the use of transmission imaging and on the development of new iterative algorithms for attenuation correction. These new tools can be coupled to approaches which compensate for scattering and spatial resolution, in order to quantify the radioactive concentration values in vivo. The main objective of this work was to investigate a quantification method of radioactivity uptake in small cerebral structures using SPECT. This method was based on the correction of attenuation using transmission data. Compton events were estimated and subtracted by positioning a lower energy window. Spatial resolution effects have been corrected using Fourier deconvolution. The radiation dose received by patients during transmission scans was evaluated using anthropomorphic phantoms and suitable dosimeters. A preliminary evaluation of the quantification method was carried out using an anthropomorphic head phantom. In a second phase, in vivo acquisitions were performed in baboon. The values of the percent injected doses per millilitre of tissue in baboon striata were compared under similar experimental conditions using SPECT and PET radiotracers specific for the D2 dopamine receptors. Experiments carried with anthropomorphic phantoms have indicated that the clinical use of transmission scans in SPECT is not limited by radiation doses. Measurements have demonstrated that attenuation dramatically affects quantification in brain SPECT. This effect can be corrected using a map of linear attenuation coefficients obtained through transmission scans and an iterative reconstruction algorithm. After correcting for attenuation, scatter and spatial resolution effects, the accuracy of activity concentration values measurement in the 'striata' of phantom is greatly improved. Results obtained in vivo show that the percent injected doses per millilitre of tissue can be measured with errors similar to those found in PET. This work demonstrates

  14. Dopaminergic stimulation enhances confidence and accuracy in seeing rapidly presented words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lou, Hans Olav Christensen; Skewes, Joshua; Thomsen, Kristine Rømer

    2011-01-01

    Liberal acceptance, overconfidence, and increased activity of the neurotransmitter dopamine have been proposed to account for abnormal sensory experiences, for instance, hallucinations in schizophrenia. In normal subjects, increased sensory experience in Yoga Nidra meditation is linked to striata...... performance in a forced-choice word recognition task. These results demonstrate neurotransmitter regulation of subjective conscious experience of perception and provide evidence for a crucial role of dopamine....... confidence of perception has never been recorded experimentally before. In a controlled study of 24 normal, healthy female university students with the dopamine agonist pergolide given orally, we show that dopaminergic activation increases confidence in seeing rapidly presented words. It also improves...

  15. Dose-dependent striatal changes in dopaminergic terminals and alpha-synuclein reactivity in a porcine model of progressive Parkinson’s disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Slot; Glud, Andreas Nørgaard; Møller, Arne

    2011-01-01

    ) or acute MPTP intoxication for 11 days (24 mg MPTP/day, n=2) and 9 weeks of recovery. Four pigs served as normal controls. Animals were euthanized with intracardial pentobarbital injections, transcardially perfused with 5 L 4% paraformaldehyde and the brains removed. The striatae and brain stems including...... in the number of fibers and terminals in the 18 mg group. Some sense of direction of fibers was preserved in these groups, but this was completely lost in the 24 mg animals, which additionally presented with smaller, fewer terminals. In the locus coeruleus, the 18 mg animals showed decreased TH fiber staining...

  16. Diseño agronómico y estructural de un prototipo de invernadero de bambú

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    El uso del bambú en sustitución del acero en la construcción de invernaderos puede aportar ventajas tales como reducir el alto costo de los materiales y el impacto sobre el medio ambiente. Para el presente estudio, se plantearon tres etapas para cada uno de los siguientes objetivos: 1. Determinar las principales propiedades mecánicas y físicas de cuatro variedades de bambú: Bambusa vulgaris var. striata, Bambusa vulgaris "verde", Bambusa oldhamii y Gigantochloa verticillata col...

  17. Further new species of the genus Dolichoctis Schmidt-Göbel from New Guinea and surrounding islands (Insecta, Coleoptera, Carabidae, Lebiinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baehr, M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of the carabid genus Dolichoctis Schmidt-Göbel from New Guinea and New Ireland are described: D. glabripennis of the striata-group (sensu Baehr, 1999 of the nominate subgenus, from New Guinea, and D. novaeirlandiae of the subgenus Spinidolichoctis Baehr, from the island of New Ireland. In New Guinea, D. glabripennis replaces D. microdera Andrewes of the Greater Sunda Islands and Moluccas that apparently does not occur in New Guinea. D. novaeirlandiae is the first record of a Dolichoctis from this island and it is outstanding due to its very short, only dentate elytra apex.

  18. Simulating effects of brain atrophy in longitudinal PET imaging with an anthropomorphic brain phantom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonasson, L S; Axelsson, J; Riklund, K

    2017-01-01

    cameras and reconstruction algorithms. Here, a 3D-printed anthropomorphic brain phantom with attachable striata in three sizes was designed to enable controlled volumetric changes. Using a method to eliminate the non-radioactive plastic wall, and manipulating BP levels by adding different number of events......, as the amplitude of the PVE on the BP differs depending on where in the striatum the change occurred. Therefore, to correctly interpret age-related longitudinal changes in the BP, we must account for volumetric changes also within a structure, rather than across the whole volume. The present 3D-printing technology...

  19. Three new species of Macrelmis Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Elmidae: Elminae) from Southeastern Brazil with new definition of species groups to the genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Passos, Maria Inês Silva; De Miranda, Gustavo Silva; Nessimian, Jorge Luiz

    2015-12-16

    Three new species of Macrelmis Motschulsky, 1859 are described and illustrated based on adult males from Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais and São Paulo states (southeastern Brazil). A new species groups definition is proposed for the genus, with a redefinition of the former six (aristeae sp. group, celsa sp. group, isus sp. group, granigera sp. group, milleri sp. group and striata sp. group) and designation of four new groups (alea new sp. group, amazonica new sp. group, grandis new sp. group and jureceki new sp. group). The male genitalia of M. clypeata is illustrated for the first time and distributional maps for all species of the genus are provided.

  20. A study on some enzymes in rice field fish as biomarkers for pesticide exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juzu Hayati Arshad; Mazlina Muhammad; Salmijah Surif; Abdul Manan Mat Jais

    2002-01-01

    A study was carried out on three enzymes in rice field fish which can be used as possible biomarkers for pesticide exposure. The results obtained showed that the activity of the enzyme EROD (ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase) increased between 1.5-2.2 fold in snakehead or haruan (Channa striata) sampled from the pesticide polluted areas, particularly the recycled areas and only a slight increase in EROD activity in climbing perch or puyu (Anabas testudineus). Increase in the activity of carboxylesterase was also noted. The percentage inhibition of acety1cholinesterase ranges from 18.4%-57.4% and 2.5%-34.2% for Channa striata and Anabas testudineus, respectively. Generally, a higher percentage of acety1cholinesterase inhibition was noted for those fish sampled from the recycled areas. The noted changes in the activity of these enzymes suggest exposure of rice field fish to foreign compounds, possibly pesticides, which are known to induce EROD activity and inhibit acety1cholinesterase activity. Therefore it may be possible to use these enzymes as biomarkers for pesticide exposure. (Author)

  1. Species of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) captured in a guava orchard (Psidium guajava L., Myrtaceae) in Boa Vista, Roraima, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsaro Júnior, A L; Deus, E G; Ronchi-Teles, B; Adaime, R; Silva Júnior, R J

    2013-11-01

    The guava fruit (Psidium guajava) is among the most strongly affected by fruit flies in Brazil. In the Brazilian Amazon, 11 species of Anastrepha have been reported in guava orchards to date. This work aimed to identify the species of Anastrepha present in a guava orchard in the municipality of Boa Vista, determine the species infesting the fruits, and identify any parasitoids present. Two McPhail traps with food bait were installed and weekly collections were made between January and December 2008. Fruits were also collected systematically during this period, with a view to determining the association between host plant and tephritid species. Nine species of Anastrepha were identified, in addition to one specimen belonging to a probable new species. Anastrepha striata Schiner, Anastrepha sororcula Zucchi, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart), and Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) were the dominant species in the orchard, accounting for 84.8% of all captured individuals. All females collected directly from fruits were A. striata. Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti) was the only parasitoid species obtained. In this work, Anastrepha ethalea (Walker) is reported for the first time in the state of Roraima.

  2. SCLEROTIC OSTEODYSPLASIAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Petrushin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sclerotic osteodysplasias represent a group of relatively rare diseases; a common feature of them is the diffuse or local bone sclerosis. The reasons for their development are congenital abnormalities of endochondral and intramembranous bone formation either the hereditary nature or arising from spontaneous mutations. The main diagnostic problems arise when the differential diagnostic sclerotic dysplasias from various symptomatic osteopathies entailing bone sclerosis is needed. The aim of this research is the information about the group of rare congenital disorders characterized by diffuse and local osteosclerosis, and analysis of the literature on the diagnosis and differential diagnosis from other diseases and states, accompanied by compaction of bone tissue. A search of publications in English and Russian in electronic databases PUBMED, PUBMED CENTRAL, GOOGLE SHOLAR and eLIBRARY is performed. Keyword: sclerotic osteodisplasias, hyperostosis, osteopetrosis, osteopoikilosis, pyknodisostosis, melorheostosis, osteopathia striata, progressive diaphiseal dysplasia, diaphiseal sclerosis, enostosis and their Russian analogs for the period from 1953 to 2015. This clinical and radiological signs of osteopetrosis, osteopathia striata. osteopoikilosis, enostosis, piknodisostosis, progressive diaphyseal dysplasia, generalized hyperostosis cortical generalisata, melorheostosis and other forms of sclerotic osteodysplasias are presented. The main attention is paid to clinical and radiological diagnosis and differential diagnosis from osteoblastic metastases, primary benign and malignant bone tumors, chronic osteomyelitis and other diseases accompanied by local or diffuse osteosclerosis.

  3. Trichomonas gallinae in Mauritian columbids: implications for an endangered endemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunbury, N; Jones, C G; Greenwood, A G; Bell, D J

    2007-07-01

    Although well known as a widespread parasitic disease of columbids and birds of prey, there have been few studies of trichomonosis in populations of wild birds. In Mauritius, trichomonosis has been highlighted as a major threat to an endangered endemic, the Pink Pigeon (Neosoenas [Columba] mayeri). In this study, we examined the role that populations of other columbids in Mauritius might be playing as infectious reservoirs of the causal flagellate protozoan, Trichomonas gallinae. We screened 296 wild individuals of three columbid species (Madagascan Turtle Dove [Streptopelia picturata], Spotted Dove [Streptopelia chinensis], and Zebra Dove [Geopelia striata]) between September 2002 and April 2004. Prevalence varied significantly among species (ranging from 19% in S. chinensis to 59% in G. striata) and between S. picturata sampled from upland and coastal sites; S. picturata from upland sites (>500 m) were significantly less likely to be infected with T. gallinae than those from lowland sites (gallinae at sites where Pink Pigeons were also present compared to those sampled at sites without Pink Pigeons. We show that T. gallinae infection prevalence is higher at sites and times of warmer temperatures and lower rainfall.

  4. Co-Infestation and Spatial Distribution of Bactrocera carambolae and Anastrepha spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Common Guava in the Eastern Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deus, E. G.; Godoy, W. A. C.; Sousa, M. S. M.; Lopes, G. N.; Jesus-Barros, C. R.; Silva, J. G.; Adaime, R.

    2016-01-01

    Field infestation and spatial distribution of introduced Bactrocera carambolae Drew and Hancock and native species of Anastrepha in common guavas [Psidium guajava (L.)] were investigated in the eastern Amazon. Fruit sampling was carried out in the municipalities of Calçoene and Oiapoque in the state of Amapá, Brazil. The frequency distribution of larvae in fruit was fitted to the negative binomial distribution. Anastrepha striata was more abundant in both sampled areas in comparison to Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) and B. carambolae. The frequency distribution analysis of adults revealed an aggregated pattern for B. carambolae as well as for A. fraterculus and Anastrepha striata Schiner, described by the negative binomial distribution. Although the populations of Anastrepha spp. may have suffered some impact due to the presence of B. carambolae, the results are still not robust enough to indicate effective reduction in the abundance of Anastrepha spp. caused by B. carambolae in a general sense. The high degree of aggregation observed for both species suggests interspecific co-occurrence with the simultaneous presence of both species in the analysed fruit. Moreover, a significant fraction of uninfested guavas also indicated absence of competitive displacement. PMID:27638949

  5. Biodiversity and ecology of Hirudinea (Annelida) from the Natural Reserve of Isla Martín García, Río de la Plata, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    César; Martín, S M; Gullo, B S; Liberto, R

    2009-11-01

    The Island of Martin Garcia lies at the confluence of the Uruguay and Paraná Rivers (upper Río de la Plata). This island is an outcrop of the crystalline basement. Due to basalt exploitation the island exhibits several ponds covered by carpets of free-floating macrophytes. Seven major environmental variables were measured: water and air temperature, percentage of oxygen saturation, dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids and pH. Eleven leech species were found, Helobdella striata, H. diploides, H. adiastola and H. hyalina were new records. UPGMA clustering of species based on their occurrence in different ecological conditions revealed three main species groups. Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) explained 97.2% of the correlation between species and environmental variables. H. triserialis shows the widest range of tolerance, H. hyalina shows positive relationships to conductivity; H. diploides shows a high correlation with dissolved oxygen, H. striata, H. lineata, and S. similis are negatively correlated with water temperature, and H. simplex is positively correlated with pH. Relationships between the species richness (S) and the sampling sites were negatively correlated with water temperature and positively correlated with dissolved oxygen. Leech biodiversity from the water bodies of Martín García Island, shows a great diversity of species and a wide plasticity regarding the characteristics of the environmental factors considered.

  6. Decontamination of Clostridium perfringens and Salmonella spp. in Thai Fermented Fish (Pla-ra) by Gamma Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakhongsil, P.; Phianphak, W.; Malakrong, A.; Komolamisra, C.

    2014-01-01

    Gamma radiation can be applied as a decontamination method to eliminate microorganisms in fermented food. In this study, samples of Thai fermented fish were evaluated for microbiological and hygienic qualities and then exposed to gamma irradiation. Prior to irradiation, Salmonella spp. and Clostridium perfringens were detected and the results were found contaminated in five samples from twenty-six of Thai fermented fish samples ; Nile tilapia fish (Oreochromisniloticus), bighead carp fish (Aristichthys nobilis) and common snakehead fish (Channa striata) using VIDAS Salmonella Easy SLM assay and standard conventional assay for C. perfringens. For detecting of living parasites helminths, fifteen samples were assayed for liver fluke (Opisthorchis viverrini) and Gnathostoma spinigerum, but neither was found. When exposed to gamma irradiation, results showed that the minimum dose of 2.70 kGy could sufficiently eliminate Salmonella spp. from fermented Nile tilapia fish (Oreochromis nioloticus), whereas a higher dose of 6.16 kGy was required to reduce C. perfringens from130 CFU/g and 10 CFU/g to less than 10 CFU/g in fermented Nile tilapia fish and common snakehead fish (Channa striata) fish.

  7. Co-Infestation and Spatial Distribution of Bactrocera carambolae and Anastrepha spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Common Guava in the Eastern Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deus, E G; Godoy, W A C; Sousa, M S M; Lopes, G N; Jesus-Barros, C R; Silva, J G; Adaime, R

    2016-01-01

    Field infestation and spatial distribution of introduced Bactrocera carambolae Drew and Hancock and native species of Anastrepha in common guavas [Psidium guajava (L.)] were investigated in the eastern Amazon. Fruit sampling was carried out in the municipalities of Calçoene and Oiapoque in the state of Amapá, Brazil. The frequency distribution of larvae in fruit was fitted to the negative binomial distribution. Anastrepha striata was more abundant in both sampled areas in comparison to Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) and B. carambolae The frequency distribution analysis of adults revealed an aggregated pattern for B. carambolae as well as for A. fraterculus and Anastrepha striata Schiner, described by the negative binomial distribution. Although the populations of Anastrepha spp. may have suffered some impact due to the presence of B. carambolae, the results are still not robust enough to indicate effective reduction in the abundance of Anastrepha spp. caused by B. carambolae in a general sense. The high degree of aggregation observed for both species suggests interspecific co-occurrence with the simultaneous presence of both species in the analysed fruit. Moreover, a significant fraction of uninfested guavas also indicated absence of competitive displacement. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  8. Salmonellosis in garden birds in Scotland, 1995 to 2008: geographic region, Salmonella enterica phage type and bird species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennycott, T W; Mather, H A; Bennett, G; Foster, G

    2010-04-03

    Salmonellosis was diagnosed in garden birds from 198 incidents in Scotland between September 1995 and August 2008. Salmonellosis was essentially a disease of finches in the north of Scotland, but in the south of Scotland it was also a problem in house sparrows. Almost all of the incidents were caused by Salmonella Typhimurium phage types 40 or 56/variant, but regional variation in phage types was observed. In the north of Scotland, one phage type (DT 40) predominated, but in the south of Scotland two phage types were commonly isolated (DTs 40 and 56/variant, with the latter the more common of the two phage types). This regional difference was statistically significant for salmonellosis in greenfinches, chaffinches and 'other garden birds', but not for house sparrows. Different temporal patterns for different species of bird and different phage types were also observed within regions. These findings suggest that the epidemiology of salmonellosis in garden birds varies depending on the phage type of Salmonella and the species of garden bird, with additional regional differences depending on the wild bird populations and the phage types of Salmonella in circulation. An awareness of these differences will help when formulating guidelines aimed at reducing the impact of salmonellosis in garden birds.

  9. Cobertura do solo e estoque de nutrientes de duas leguminosas perenes, considerando espaçamentos e densidades de plantio Soil cover and nutrient accumulation of two perennial legumes as functions of spacing and planting densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Perin

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available O estabelecimento de leguminosas herbáceas perenes nos sistemas de produção constitui ainda um desafio, principalmente por apresentarem crescimento inicial lento. Para viabilizar sua implantação, este trabalho objetivou determinar as taxas de cobertura do solo, produção de matéria seca, teores e acumulação de N, P e K das leguminosas herbáceas perenes galáxia (Galactia striata e cudzu tropical (Pueraria phaseoloides, considerando espaçamentos e densidades de plantio. O experimento, instalado em dezembro/98 na Embrapa Agrobiologia, Seropédica (RJ, constou do delineamento em blocos ao acaso, em arranjo fatorial 2 x 2 x 4, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos constaram das espécies galáxia e cudzu tropical, plantadas em dois espaçamentos entre sulcos de plantio (25 e 50 cm e quatro densidades de plantas (5, 10, 15 e 20 plantas m-1. A densidade adequada para a rápida cobertura do solo para cudzu tropical e galáxia foi de 10 plantas m-1, no espaçamento de 25 cm entre os sulcos de plantio. A maior produção de matéria seca e acumulação de N, P e K na parte aérea das plantas foram evidenciadas apenas no primeiro corte, sendo os maiores valores obtidos no espaçamento de 25 cm e na densidade de 10 plantas m-1. O espaçamento de 25 cm com 10 plantas m-1 foi a combinação mais adequada para a plena formação da cobertura viva do solo com cudzu tropical e galáxia.The establishment of herbaceous perennial leguminous in production systems is still a challenge, mainly because of the slow initial growth. Evaluations of the soil cover ratio, dry matter production, contents and accumulations of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium of the herbaceous perennial Galactia striata and Pueraria phaseoloides, sown in different densities and row spacing, aimed at making their establishments feasible. The experiment was conducted in December/98 at Embrapa Agrobiologia, Seropédica (RJ, in a completely randomized block design, as a factorial

  10. Feather mites (Acari, Astigmata from Azorean passerines (Aves, Passeriformes: lower species richness compared to European mainland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten passerine species were examined on three islands of the Azores (North Atlantic during 2013 and 2014 in order to identify their feather mite assemblages. We recorded 19 feather mite species belonging to four families of the superfamily Analgoidea (Analgidae, Proctophyllodidae, Psoroptoididae and Trouessartiidae. A high prevalence of feather mite species was recorded on the majority of the examined host species. Only three passerine species (Sylvia atricapilla, Regulus regulus and Serinus canaria presented the same full complex of mite species as commonly occurs in the plumage of their closest relatives in continental Europe. Passer domesticus presented the same limited fauna of feather mites living in the plumage as do its co-specifics in continental Europe. Carduelis carduelis bears the same feather mite species as do most of its continental populations in Europe, but it lacks one mite species occurring on this host in Egypt. Turdus merula, Pyrrhula murina and Fringilla coelebs are missing several mite species common to their continental relatives. This diminution could be explained by the founder effect, whereby a limited number of colonizing individuals did not transport the full set of feather mite species, or by the extinction of some mite species after initially having reached the Azores. The only individual of Motacilla cinerea sampled in this study presented a new host record for the mite species Trouessartia jedliczkai.

  11. Opportunistic nectar-feeding birds are effective pollinators of bird-flowers from Canary Islands: experimental evidence from Isoplexis canariensis (Scrophulariaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, María C; Valido, Alfredo

    2008-11-01

    Insular floras, characterized by simple pollination networks, sometimes include novel mutualistic agents such as nonspecialist nectarivores. In this study we confirmed the effective pollination of Isoplexis canariensis by opportunistic nectar-feeding birds in Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain. This plant is among the ornithophilous species of the Canarian flora that lack past and present specialist nectarivorous birds. Experimental hand pollinations revealed self-compatibility, but cross-pollinated flowers produced a greater percentage of viable seeds than self-pollinated ones. Flowers were visited by five species of birds (Phylloscopus canariensis, Parus caeruleus, Sylvia melanocephala, Serinus canarius, and Fringilla coelebs) and by the endemic lizard (Gallotia galloti, Lacertidae). Insect pollination was absent, and the few insect visitors acted as nectar thieves or secondary nectar robbers. Birds represented 93.1% of total visits, with the Canarian Chiffchaff, Ph. canariensis, being the most frequent visitor. Flowers visited by birds set more, larger, and heavier fruit than flowers from which birds were excluded. Bird visitation also enhanced seed viability. These results demonstrate the active role of these opportunistic birds as effective pollinators of this Canarian bird-flower species. Further, the results reveal the need to consider the effect of these birds on the evolution of ornithophilous floral traits in absence of specialist nectarivores.

  12. Feather mites (Acari, Astigmata) from Azorean passerines (Aves, Passeriformes): lower species richness compared to European mainland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Pedro; Mironov, Sergey; Sychra, Oldrich; Resendes, Roberto; Literak, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Ten passerine species were examined on three islands of the Azores (North Atlantic) during 2013 and 2014 in order to identify their feather mite assemblages. We recorded 19 feather mite species belonging to four families of the superfamily Analgoidea (Analgidae, Proctophyllodidae, Psoroptoididae and Trouessartiidae). A high prevalence of feather mite species was recorded on the majority of the examined host species. Only three passerine species (Sylvia atricapilla, Regulus regulus and Serinus canaria) presented the same full complex of mite species as commonly occurs in the plumage of their closest relatives in continental Europe. Passer domesticus presented the same limited fauna of feather mites living in the plumage as do its co-specifics in continental Europe. Carduelis carduelis bears the same feather mite species as do most of its continental populations in Europe, but it lacks one mite species occurring on this host in Egypt. Turdus merula, Pyrrhula murina and Fringilla coelebs are missing several mite species common to their continental relatives. This diminution could be explained by the founder effect, whereby a limited number of colonizing individuals did not transport the full set of feather mite species, or by the extinction of some mite species after initially having reached the Azores. The only individual of Motacilla cinerea sampled in this study presented a new host record for the mite species Trouessartia jedliczkai. © P. Rodrigues et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2015.

  13. The phylogenetic relationships and generic limits of finches (Fringillidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuccon, Dario; Prŷs-Jones, Robert; Rasmussen, Pamela C; Ericson, Per G P

    2012-02-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among the true finches (Fringillidae) have been confounded by the recurrence of similar plumage patterns and use of similar feeding niches. Using a dense taxon sampling and a combination of nuclear and mitochondrial sequences we reconstructed a well resolved and strongly supported phylogenetic hypothesis for this family. We identified three well supported, subfamily level clades: the Holoarctic genus Fringilla (subfamly Fringillinae), the Neotropical Euphonia and Chlorophonia (subfamily Euphoniinae), and the more widespread subfamily Carduelinae for the remaining taxa. Although usually separated in a different family-group taxon (Drepanidinae), the Hawaiian honeycreepers are deeply nested within the Carduelinae and sister to a group of Asian Carpodacus. Other new relationships recovered by this analysis include the placement of the extinct Chaunoproctus ferreorostris as sister to some Asian Carpodacus, a clade combining greenfinches (Carduelis chloris and allies), Rhodospiza and Rhynchostruthus, and a well-supported clade with the aberrant Callacanthis and Pyrrhoplectes together with Carpodacus rubescens. Although part of the large Carduelis-Serinus complex, the poorly known Serinus estherae forms a distinct lineage without close relatives. The traditionally delimited genera Carduelis, Serinus, Carpodacus, Pinicola and Euphonia are polyphyletic or paraphyletic. Based on our results we propose a revised generic classification of finches and describe a new monotypic genus for Carpodacus rubescens. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Birds as reservoirs for Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. in Western Europe: circulation of B. turdi and other genospecies in bird-tick cycles in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norte, A C; Ramos, J A; Gern, L; Núncio, M S; Lopes de Carvalho, I

    2013-02-01

    Birds are important in the ecology of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) because they are important hosts for vector tick immature stages and are known reservoirs for some Borrelia genospecies. The aim of our study was to assess the role of common passerine bird species as reservoirs for B. burgdorferi s.l. in Western Europe. We surveyed birds in enzootic areas in Portugal, where no information is available for birds as reservoirs for this aetiologic agent and where B. lusitaniae, for which few reservoirs have been identified, is the dominant genospecies. Twenty-three birds (2.9%), including Turdus merula, T. philomelos, Parus major and Fringilla coelebs harboured infected ticks, but only Turdus sp. harboured infected tick larvae. In one study area, although B. lusitaniae was dominant in questing Ixodes ricinus, no ticks feeding on birds were infected with this genospecies, and B. valaisiana was the dominant genospecies in I. ricinus larvae feeding on birds. In the other area ticks collected from birds were mainly I. frontalis which were infected with B. turdi. Two skin biopsies (4.2%) from two T. merula were positive, one for B. valaisiana and the other for B. turdi. This is the first report for B. turdi in Western Europe. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Detection of Babesia Sp. EU1 and members of spotted fever group rickettsiae in ticks collected from migratory birds at Curonian Spit, North-Western Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movila, Alexandru; Reye, Anna L; Dubinina, Helen V; Tolstenkov, Oleg O; Toderas, Ion; Hübschen, Judith M; Muller, Claude P; Alekseev, Andrey N

    2011-01-01

    To reveal the prevalence of spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae and Babesia sp. in Ixodes ricinus (L.) ticks from migratory birds, 236 specimens represented 8 species of Passeriformes and were collected at Curonian Spit in Kaliningrad enclave of North-Western Russia. The ticks (total 126) being detached from four bird species, Turdus philomelos, Fringilla coelebs, Parus major, and Sturnus vulgaris, were investigated by PCR using the primers Rp CS.877p/Rp CS.1258n for the detection of Rickettsia and BJ1/BN2 for Babesia spp. Babesia spp. were detected in 2 of 126 (1.6%) ticks. The partial sequence of 18S rDNA had 100% similarity to human pathogenic Babesia sp. EU1. The SFG rickettsiae were detected in 19 of 126 (15.1%) ticks collected from the above-mentioned bird species. BLAST analysis of SFG rickettsia gltA assigned sequences to human pathogenic Rickettsia helvetica (10.3%), Rickettsia monacensis (3.9%), and Rickettsia japonica (0.8%) with 98%-100% sequence similarity. The SFG rickettsiae and Babesia sp. EU1 in ticks collected from the passerines in Russia were detected for the first time. The survey indicates that migratory birds may become a reservoir for Babesia spp. and SFG rickettsiae. Future investigations need to characterize the role of birds in the epidemiology of these human pathogens in the region.

  16. Tauopathic changes in the striatum of A53T α-synuclein mutant mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Wills

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Tauopathic pathways lead to degenerative changes in Alzheimer's disease and there is evidence that they are also involved in the neurodegenerative pathology of Parkinson's disease [PD]. We have examined tauopathic changes in striatum of the α-synuclein (α-Syn A53T mutant mouse. Elevated levels of α-Syn were observed in striatum of the adult A53T α-Syn mice. This was accompanied by increases in hyperphosphorylated Tau [p-Tau], phosphorylated at Ser202, Ser262 and Ser396/404, which are the same toxic sites also seen in Alzheimer's disease. There was an increase in active p-GSK-3β, hyperphosphorylated at Tyr216, a major and primary kinase known to phosphorylate Tau at multiple sites. The sites of hyperphosphorylation of Tau in the A53T mutant mice were similar to those seen in post-mortem striata from PD patients, attesting to their pathophysiological relevance. Increases in p-Tau were not due to alterations on protein phosphatases in either A53T mice or in human PD, suggesting lack of involvement of these proteins in tauopathy. Extraction of striata with Triton X-100 showed large increases in oligomeric forms of α-Syn suggesting that α-Syn had formed aggregates the mutant mice. In addition, increased levels of p-GSK-3β and pSer396/404 were also found associated with aggregated α-Syn. Differential solubilization to measure protein binding to cytoskeletal proteins demonstrated that p-Tau in the A53T mutant mouse were unbound to cytoskeletal proteins, consistent with dissociation of p-Tau from the microtubules upon hyperphosphorylation. Interestingly, α-Syn remained tightly bound to the cytoskeleton, while p-GSK-3β was seen in the cytoskeleton-free fractions. Immunohistochemical studies showed that α-Syn, pSer396/404 Tau and p-GSK-3β co-localized with one another and was aggregated and accumulated into large inclusion bodies, leading to cell death of Substantia nigral neurons. Together, these data demonstrate an elevated state of

  17. An ethnobotanical study in Midyat (Turkey), a city on the silk road where cultures meet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akgul, Ali; Akgul, Ayfer; Senol, Serdar G; Yildirim, Hasan; Secmen, Ozcan; Dogan, Yunus

    2018-02-07

    Studies of ethnobotanical usages in south-eastern Turkey are rare. To widen this field of knowledge, we conducted an ethnobotanical study in Midyat (Mardin Province), Turkey. The field study was completed during three years (2007-2010). Our aim was to document the ethnobotanical uses of local plants and to make an ethnobotanical inventory of uncommon plants using qualitative interviews. During field studies, 368 voucher specimens were collected in the investigated area. Ninety-two traditionally used plant species were reported from Midyat and surrounding vicinities in Turkey. Among the 92 taxa (129 usages), 35% were used for medical purposes, 22% for food, 13% for animal fodder, 7% as ornamental plants and dyes, 6% as brooms, 4% for latex and as fragrance, 4% for herbal tea, molasses and wine preparation, 3% for agricultural purposes, and 6% for other purposes. Comparative assessment showed that Teucrium polium (0.51), Matricaria aurea (0.26), Alcea setosa (0.21), and Malva neglecta (0.21) have the highest recorded UVs , and the following taxa had UVs between 0.10-0.20: Anthemis cotula (0.12), Allium cepa (0.13), Alcea striata subsp. striata (0.14), Crupina crupinastrum (0.12), Papaver rhoeas (0.13), Salvia multicaulis (0.14), Thymbra spicata (0.11), and Vicia pannonica subsp. striata (0.15). We reported the ethnobotanical usages of 21 taxa for the first time, in addition to indicating usages previously recorded in the literature. We also recorded four endemic plant usages in the area: Alkanna trichophila var. mardinensis, Centaurea kurdica, Centaurea stapfiana, and Sideritis libanotica subsp. linearis. They have variable leaf and flower morphology that are used traditionally. They are present as well-developed populations and thus their conservation status is not compromised. Additionally, Thymbra sintenisii is a recorded species that is classified as a rare and extensively used species in the region. These results contribute to the fundamental knowledge of

  18. Nest destruction elicits indiscriminate con- versus heterospecific brood parasitism in a captive bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Rachael C; Feeney, William E; Hauber, Mark E

    2014-12-01

    Following nest destruction, the laying of physiologically committed eggs (eggs that are ovulated, yolked, and making their way through the oviduct) in the nests of other birds is considered a viable pathway for the evolution of obligate interspecific brood parasitism. While intraspecific brood parasitism in response to nest predation has been experimentally demonstrated, this pathway has yet to be evaluated in an interspecific context. We studied patterns of egg laying following experimental nest destruction in captive zebra finches, Taeniopygia guttata, a frequent intraspecific brood parasite. We found that zebra finches laid physiologically committed eggs indiscriminately between nests containing conspecific eggs and nests containing heterospecific eggs (of Bengalese finches, Lonchura striata vars. domestica), despite the con- and heterospecific eggs differing in both size and coloration. This is the first experimental evidence that nest destruction may provide a pathway for the evolution of interspecific brood parasitism in birds.

  19. Progressive obtundation in a young woman with bilateral corpus striatum infarction: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zangana Hero M

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bilateral ischemic infarction involving the corpus striatum is a rare event which usually results from global cerebral hypoxia, intoxications, and drug abuse. Case presentation We report a 28 year old Caucasian woman who presented with progressive obtundation and later development of severe expressive dysphasia and Parkinsonism after sustaining ischemic stroke of both corpora striata. Hemorrhagic transformation developed on day four of admission. Conclusion This is a rare case of bilateral basal ganglia infarction with hemorrhagic transformation in a young patient. Our patient's work up did not reveal any cause behind this stroke; however, advanced investigations (such as genetic testing and conventional angiography were not done. The damage resulted in motor dysphasia and Parkinsonism. Neither dystonia nor other involuntary movements developed, and cognitive function was not assessed because of the language disorder.

  20. Fungos micorrízicos arbusculares em rizosferas de três espécies de fitobiontes instaladas em área de mata ciliar revegetada Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in rhizospheres of three phytobionts established in a revegetated riparian area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosilaine Carrenho

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o comportamento das espécies de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMA estabelecidas em áreas revegetadas de mata ciliar, foram coletadas amostras de solo rizosférico de Croton urucurana Baill., Inga striata Willd. e Genipa americana L. Estas plantas são indígenas em matas ciliares, sendo a primeira considerada pioneira, a segunda, secundária inicial e a terceira, espécie clímax. Vinte e duas espécies de FMA foram identificadas. O maior número de espécies foi observado em rizosferas de C. urucurana e I. striata (15 espécies, enquanto o maior número de esporos foi observado em rizosferas de G. americana (511 esporos/100g solo. Glomus apresentou o maior número de espécies (10, seguindo-se de Acaulospora (6, Scutellospora (4, Gigaspora e Entrophospora (cada com uma espécie. Quanto à freqüência das espécies, G. macrocarpum Tul. & Tul. ocorreu em maior número de amostras em Croton; G. claroideum Schenck & Smith, G. etunicatum Becker & Gerd., G. macrocarpum e G. occultum Walker predominaram em Genipa, e E. kentinensis Wu & Liu, G. etunicatum e G. macrocarpum, em Inga. Concluiu-se que o número de esporos de FMA tende a aumentar com o estádio sucessional, enquanto os índices diversidade, riqueza e equabilidade de espécies de Glomales tendem a diminuir nas comunidades estabelecidas nas rizosferas da espécie clímax.To evaluate the specific composition of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF established in recomposed areas of gallery forest, samples of rhizospheric soil were collected from Croton urucurana Baill., Inga striata Willd. and Genipa americana L. These plants are indigenous in gallery forests, being the first considered as pioneer, the second as early secondary and G. americana as climax, according to the successional stages. Twenty-two species of AMF were identified. The highest richness was observed in rhizospheres of C. urucurana and I. striata (15 species, while the highest number of spores

  1. Brain energy metabolism and dopaminergic function in Huntington's disease measured in vivo using positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leenders, K.L.; Frackowiak, R.S.; Quinn, N.; Marsden, C.D.

    1986-01-01

    A 48-year-old man with typical Huntington's disease was investigated with computed tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography. Regional cerebral blood flow, oxygen extraction, oxygen and glucose utilization, L-Dopa uptake, and dopamine (D2) receptor binding were measured using several positron-labelled tracers. CT showed slight atrophy of the head of caudate but no cortical atrophy, although distinct frontal lobe dysfunction was present on psychometric testing. Oxygen and glucose metabolism and cerebral blood flow were decreased in the striata and to a lesser extent in frontal cortex. Cerebral blood flow was in the low normal range throughout the remainder of the brain. A normal metabolic ratio was found in all regions, since the changes in glucose utilization paralleled those in oxygen consumption. The capacity of the striatum to store dopamine as assessed by L-[ 18 F]-fluorodopa uptake was normal, but dopamine (D2) receptor binding was decreased when compared to normal subjects

  2. The Relationships between Morphological Characteristics and Foraging Behavior in Four Selected Species of Shorebirds and Water Birds Utilizing Tropical Mudflats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norazlimi, Nor Atiqah; Ramli, Rosli

    2015-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the relationship between the physical morphology of shorebirds and water birds (i.e., Lesser adjutant (Leptoptilos javanicus), Common redshank (Tringa totanus), Whimbrel (Numenius phaeopus), and Little heron (Butorides striata)) and their foraging behavior in the mudflats area of Selangor, Peninsular Malaysia, from August 2013 to July 2014 by using direct observation techniques (using binoculars and a video recorder). The actively foraging bird species were watched, and their foraging activities were recorded for at least 30 seconds for up to a maximum of five minutes. A Spearman Rank Correlation highlighted a significant relationship between bill size and foraging time (R = 0.443, p birds (mm) and species (H = 15.96, p = 0.0012). Three foraging techniques were recorded: pause-travel, visual-feeding, and tactile-hunting. Thus, morphological characteristics of bird do influence their foraging behavior and strategies used when foraging.

  3. Is sexually transmitted fungal infection evidence for size-related mating success in Neotropical guava fruit flies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingemar Hedström

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of wing length on mate preference was examined in natural populations of the Neotropical guava fruit fly, Anastrepha striata Schiner, at two locations in Costa Rica. Based on evidence that the fungi are transmitted during mating, site-specific infection by Laboulbeniales fungi on the body surface was used to assess mating history. Males and females that carried fungi on the legs and/or on the ventral part of the thorax (males, and on both sides of the notum and/or the dorsal base of the abdomen (females, had significantly longer wings than males and females without fungi. This suggests that individuals of both sexes with longer wings (i.e. larger individuals enjoy higher mating success. Fungus infection is more frequent in the wet than in the seasonally dry forest, possibly because hosts are available year-round in the wet forest.

  4. A novel closed system bubble column photobioreactor for detailed characterisation of micro- and macroalgal growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdt, Susan Løvstad; Christensen, L.; Iversen, J. J. L.

    2014-01-01

    tension and was used for characterization of photoautotrophic growth. Carbon dioxide addition regulated pH and was used to optimise irradiance. Oxygen was removed from the system by addition of hydrogen over a palladium catalyst to quantify oxygen production. In addition, the bubble column photobioreactor...... dioxide addition and optical density, which shows that carbon dioxide addition may be used as an indirect measurement of microalgal biomass (x). The slope of the rectilinear fit of ln (dx/dt) as a function of the time (t) then revealed the SGR. These determinations revealed detailed information about...... changes in growth with up to three different SGRs in the different batch cultures of both micro- and macroalgae. The maximum SGRs found by online determination were 0.13 h-1 for T. striata and 0.12 day-1 for C. crispus. We have developed and described a system and presented some data handling tools...

  5. Characterization of Fetal Antigen 1/Delta-Like 1 Homologue Expressing Cells in the Rat Nigrostriatal System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liechti, Rémy; Ducray, Angélique D; Jensen, Pia

    2015-01-01

    adult rats. FA1/dlk1-ir cells were predominantly distributed in the substantia nigra (SN) pars compacta (SNc) and in the ventral tegmental area. Interestingly, the expression of FA1/dlk1 significantly increased in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-ir cells during early postnatal development. Co...... suggested as a potential supplementary marker of dopaminergic neurons. The present study aimed at investigating the distribution of FA1/dlk1-immunoreactive (-ir) cells in the early postnatal and adult midbrain as well as in the nigrostriatal system of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned hemiparkinsonian......-localization and tracing studies demonstrated that FA1/dlk1-ir cells in the SNc were nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons, and unilateral 6-OHDA lesions resulted in loss of both FA1/dlk1-ir and TH-ir cells in the SNc. Surprisingly, increased numbers of FA1/dlk1-ir cells (by 70%) were detected in dopamine-depleted striata...

  6. Three new species of Pergalumna (Acari: Oribatida: Galumnidae) from the tropical rainforest of Veracruz, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios-Vargas, José G; Villagomez, Fernando

    2017-03-09

    Three new species of oribatid mites of the genus Pergalumna from a tropical rain forest in Veracruz, Mexico are described. Pergalumna hypergranulosa sp. nov. differs from Pergalumna granulatus Balogh & Mahunka, 1967 by unilaterally barbulated bothridial setae, elongated notogastric porose areas, and also a more profuse granulation of the cerotegument. Pergalumna obsidiana sp. nov. differs from P. granulatus by the unilateral barbulation of bothridial setae and the presence of protuberances on the genital plates; from Pergalumna paralongisetosa Ermilov & Kalúz, 2012 by a diverging cerotegumental granulation on the notogaster. Pergalumna dactylaris sp. nov. differs from Pergalumna striata (Pérez-Íñigo & Baggio, 1980) by its bigger size and the presence of three notogastric porose areas instead of four and from Pergalumna decorata Balogh & Mahunka, 1977, also by the bigger size, a different position of setae lm and la and smaller but not minute interlamellar setae. These are the first Mexican species descriptions of this genus.

  7. Papilionoidea e Hesperioidea (Lepidoptera do Parque Estadual do Morro do Diabo, Teodoro Sampaio, São Paulo, Brasil Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea (Lepidoptera of the Parque Estadual do Morro do Diabo, Teodoro Sampaio, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf H. H Mielke

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available 426 butterfly species were sampled on six field-trips to Morro do Diabo and are listed with their dates of capture and where they are recorded. A variety of collecting methods was used, including standard insect nets and traps. Adult butterflies were attracted to many substances, including, wet sand, bird droppings, excrement and decaying fruits and animais. The results were compared with anothers richest butterfly communities. The following taxonomic changes are included: Pyrrhopyge aziza subnubilus Hayward, 1935 nom. rev., stat. nov., comb. rcv.; Telemiades meris meris (Plötz, 1886 sp. rev.; Quadrus u-lucida mimus (Mabille & Boullet, 1917 nom. rev., stat. nov., Peba verames (Schaus, 1902 sp. rev., comb.n.; Peba striata Mielke, 1968, syn. nov. of Peba verames. Zonia zonia diabo ssp.n. is described.

  8. Plantas de cobertura de solo como hospedeiras alternativas de Colletotrichum guaranicola Cover crops as intermediate hosts to Colletotrichum guaranicola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.J. Mileo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available As plantas de cobertura de solo usadas para suprimir o crescimento de plantas daninhas podem hospedar fungos fitopatogênicos. Para testar essa hipótese, elaborou-se este trabalho com o objetivo de avaliar o comportamento de nove espécies de plantas como possíveis hospedeiras do fungo Colletotrichum guaranicola. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação sob delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Cada vaso com três plantas da mesma espécie representou uma unidade experimental. As espécies que constituíram os tratamentos foram: Arachis pintoi, Calopogonium mucunoides, Chamaecrista rotundifolia, Crotalaria striata, Desmodium ovalifolium, Flemingia congesta, Mucuna aterrima, Pueraria phaseoloides e Tephrosia candida. Quarenta dias após a semeadura, as plantas foram inoculadas com suspensão de esporos de C. guaranicola na concentração de 10(5 conídios mL¹, enquanto as plantas testemunhas receberam somente água. As plantas foram mantidas em câmara úmida por 48 horas. Diariamente, foram feitas observações por 15 dias após a inoculação, para visualizar sintomas da doença. As espécies que não apresentaram sintomas de C. guaranicola foram Arachis pintoi, Chamaecrista rotundifolia, Desmodium ovalifolium, Flemingia congesta e Tephrosia candida, e as que manifestaram sintomas após a inoculação foram Calopogonium mucunoides, Crotalaria striata, Mucuna aterrima e Pueraria phaseoloides, que podem ser fontes de inóculo do patógeno da antracnose para o guaranazeiro.Cover crops used to suppress weed growth can be intermediate hosts to phytopathogenic fungi. To test this hypothesis, nine species of cover crops were evaluated as hosts to Colletotrichum guaranicola. The experiment was arranged in a randomized design, with four replicates, and conducted under greenhouse conditions. Each vase with three plants of one species constituted one plot. The species treated were: Arachis pintoi, Calopogonium

  9. Ocorrência de moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritidae em mangueiras (Mangifera indica L. em Boa Vista, Roraima = The occurrence of fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae in mango (Mangifera indica L. in Boa Vista, Roraima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Bezerra Lima

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Um estudo foi conduzido no período de junho de 2007 a janeiro de 2008, em pomares comerciais de manga das variedades: Tommy Atkins, Haden e Palmer sendo 3 ha de cada cultivar, localizado na região do Bom Intento no Município de Boa Vista. Os espécimes de moscas-das-frutas foram coletados, por meio de armadilhas, confeccionadas com garrafas pet, que foram penduradas na copa das árvores a 1,60 m de altura. Como atrativo alimentar foi utilizado 200 mL de suco de maracujá a 30%. Foram utilizadas nove armadilhas, sendo uma armadilha por hectare. Semanalmente as armadilhas eram examinadas, ocasião em que se substituía o atrativo e os insetos capturados retirados e colocados em frascos de vidro devidamente etiquetados e transportados ao Laboratório de Entomologia do Centro de Ciências Agrárias da Universidade Federal de Roraima. As identificações dos espécimes foram feitas no Instituto Nacional de Pesquisa da Amazônia - INPA. No período de oito meses foram coletados 24 espécimes adultos do gênero Anastrepha (nove fêmeas e 15 machos. Quatro espécies foram identificadas: A. serpentina, A. striata, A. obliqua e A. turpinae. A maior frequência foi A. serpentina (44,44%, seguida de A. striata e A. obliqua ambas com 22,22% e A. turpinae com 11,11%. Os meses de maior ocorrência de Anastrepha spp. foram junho, julho e agosto. Este é o primeiro registro da espécie Anastrepha turpinae Stone, 1942, em Roraima. The study was done during th period of June 2007 to January of 2008, in commercial mango orchards having: 3 ha of cv. Tommy Atkins, 3 ha of cv. Haden. and 3 ha of cv. Palmer, located at Bom Intento in the municipal district of Boa Vista - RR. The specimens of fruit flies were collected, by trapping, made with transparent bottles pet, which were hung in the cup of the trees at 1.60 m of height. 200 mL of passion fruit juice (30% was used as an attractant feed; 9 traps were used, being one trap for hectare. Weekly The traps were

  10. Benthic foraminifera for heavy metal pollution monitoring: A case study from Burullus Lagoon of Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orabi, O H; El-Badry, A A; Badr-ElDin, A M

    2017-08-15

    Sources of heavy metals pollution in the Burullus Lagoon include phosphate fertilizers, sewage and oil spills from fishing boats. The benthic species identified in this lagoon are Adelosina carinata striata (Wiesner), Quinqueloculina bosciana (d'Orbigny), Quinqueloculina seminulum (Linnaeus), Ammonia tepida (Cushman), Elphidium excavatum (Terquem). A. tepida is the most dominant species in the lagoon. It constitutes more than 97% of the total benthic foraminiferal assemblages reflecting tolerance to the very low salinity in the Burullus Lagoon. The intensity of deformation was severe exhibiting a peculiar change in the coiling direction in A. tepida with increase in cadmium concentration. A. tepida exhibited a great morphological variability and the recorded morphological abnormalities show high spire giving the spiroconvex test, additional chamber, aberrant chamber shape and size, twisted tests with elongated axes of rotation and complex deformities, whereas E. excavatum showed additional calcite secretion (tumors). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The metabolic response of pteropods to acidification reflects natural CO2-exposure in oxygen minimum zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. F. Wishner

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Shelled pteropods (Thecosomata are a group of holoplanktonic mollusks that are believed to be especially sensitive to ocean acidification because their aragonitic shells are highly soluble. Despite this concern, there is very little known about the physiological response of these animals to conditions of elevated carbon dioxide. This study examines the oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion of five pteropod species, collected from tropical regions of the Pacific Ocean, to elevated levels of carbon dioxide (0.10%, 1000 ppm. Our results show that pteropods that naturally migrate into oxygen minimum zones, such as Hyalocylis striata, Clio pyramidata, Cavolinia longirostris and Creseis virgula, were not affected by carbon dioxide at the levels and duration tested. Diacria quadridentata, which does not migrate, responds to high carbon dioxide conditions with reduced oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion. This indicates that the natural chemical environment of individual species may influence their resilience to ocean acidification.

  12. Martsolf syndrome in Japanese siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehara, Hiroaki; Utsunomiya, Yasushi; Ieshima, Atsushi; Maegaki, Yoshihiro; Nishimura, Gen; Takeshita, Kenzo; Ohno, Kousaku

    2007-05-01

    We describe a Japanese brother and sister with Martsolf syndrome. They had short stature, severe mental retardation, cataract, hypogonadism, craniofacial dysmorphism, and bone and joint symptoms including scoliosis, lax finger joints, and talipes valgus. Previously undescribed findings included proximal femoral epiphyseal dysplasia reminiscent of Legg-Calve-Perthes disease in both patients, and Klippel-Feil malformation and osteopathia striata in one patient. Brain MRI showed mild frontal and temporal lobe atrophy, and mild ventricular enlargement. Severe GH deficiency was demonstrated after insulin tolerance and glucagon/propranolol tolerance tests. No responses to serum LH and FSH after a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) test suggested secondary hypogonadism, that is, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, due to hypothalamus-pituitary axis insufficiency in both patients.

  13. Comparative analysis of mineralocorticoid receptor expression among vocal learners (Bengalese finch and budgerigar) and non-vocal learners (quail and ring dove) has implications for the evolution of avian vocal learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Eiji; Suzuki, Kenta; Kobayashi, Tetsuya; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2011-12-01

    Mineralocorticoid receptor is the receptor for corticosteroids such as corticosterone or aldosterone. Previously, we found that mineralocorticoid receptor was highly expressed in song nuclei of a songbird, Bengalese finch (Lonchura striata var. domestica). Here, to examine the relationship between mineralocorticoid receptor expression and avian vocal learning, we analyzed mineralocorticoid receptor expression in the developing brain of another vocal learner, budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) and non-vocal learners, quail (Coturnix japonica) and ring dove (Streptopelia capicola). Mineralocorticoid receptor showed vocal control area-related expressions in budgerigars as Bengalese finches, whereas no such mineralocorticoid receptor expressions were seen in the telencephalon of non-vocal learners. Thus, these results suggest the possibility that mineralocorticoid receptor plays a role in vocal development of parrots as songbirds and that the acquisition of mineralocorticoid receptor expression is involved in the evolution of avian vocal learning. © 2011 The Authors. Development, Growth & Differentiation © 2011 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  14. Evaluation of 99Tcm-trodat-1 SPECT/CT imaging in the diagnosis of parkinson's disease in early stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaohua; Tai Jian; Zhang Fuhai; Xiao Qian; Jia Qiang; Dong Feng

    2004-01-01

    Parkinson's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a selective loss of dopamine in the striatum with age. At present, the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease is mainly remained in clinical standard. According to the clinical symptoms and the response to DOPA treatment, it is not difficult to diagnose typical PD. But it is difficult to diagnose early stage PD, which lacks the typical clinical symptoms and signs. A 99Tcm -labeled tropane derivative that binds to dopamine transporter with high selectivity is [2- [ [2- [ [ [3- (4-chlorophenyl)- 8-methyl- 8-azabicyclo [3,2,1 ] oct-2-yl]methyl] (2-mercaptoethyl)amino] eth yl]amino]ethanethiolato(3-)-N2,N2',S2,S2'] oxo-[1R-(exo-exo)] (TRODAT-1). Objective: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the clinical application of 99Tcm-TRODAT-1 SPECT/CT imaging in the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD) in early stage. Methods: Twenty-four patients with early-stage idiopathic Parkinson's disease were recruited. For all patients, the severity was assessed by the Hoehnand Yahrscale. Twenty-four early stage PD patients (15 Hoehn Yahr stage I and 9 Hoehn Yahr stage II), eight advanced PD patients and ten healthy volunteers (five men, five women) were studied by 99Tcm-TRODAT-1 SPECT/CT imaging. 99Tcm-TRODAT-1 was prepared from a lyophilized kit. Brain SPECT imaging was performed 2 hours after injection, using GE Discovery VH equipped with FanBeam collimators. Data were obtained using energy window of 20% centered on 140 KEV for 99Tcm. The brain SPECT data were acquired after Hawkeye CT acquisition. Regions of interest were delineated over the striata and the cerebella, and the ratios of striatum-to-cerebellum (ST/CB) were calculated. Specific uptake in the striatum and its subregions, including the putamen and caudate nucleus, was calculated and compared with that of the other side as well as that of healthy volunteers. Results: Dopamine transporter (DAT) imaging of the 10 healthy volunteers showed

  15. The gastropod-symbiotic sea anemone genus Isosicyonis Carlgren, 1927 (Actiniaria: Actiniidae: a new species from the Weddell Sea (Antarctica that clarifies the taxonomic position of the genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estefanía Rodríguez

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A second species of the sea anemone genus Isosicyonis is described and illustrated from 16 specimens collected in the Weddell Sea (Antarctica on the Polarstern cruises ANT XVII/3, ANT XXI/2 and ANT XXIII/8. Isosicyonis striata n. sp. is easily distinguishable externally from the other species of the genus Isosicyonis alba by its pattern: white longitudinal stripes on the column, oral disc, and tentacles. It is also distinguished by internal features including the retractor muscles, parietobasilar muscles, marginal sphincter muscles, number of mesenteries, and cnidae. The genus Isosycionis is currently only known from the Southern Ocean. Both species of Isosicyonis live in association with a gastropod, with a single sea anemone occupying almost the whole shell of its gastropod host. The description of this new species, and our re-examination of Isosicyonis alba, resolves the controversial higher taxonomic position of the genus, confirming its placement within the Endomyaria.

  16. Review of existing species of fruit flies in Ecuador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tigrero, Juan

    1998-01-01

    This study was carried out since 1990 to 1997. The goal was to figure out different species of fruit fly that inhabit in Ecuador. For the identification we put special emphasis in the female genitalia. We recommend to do more research into this subject, because of the few studies done in our country and the importance of fruit cultivation. We mention 32 genus in the family Tephritidae in Ecuador, including the introduced genus Ceratitis. Into Toxotrypaninae are pointing out the presence of one specie of the Toxotrypana genus and 31 species of the Anastrepha genus, detailing brilly the 27 species most common. General notions about taxonomic bases are mentioned in order to identify species of the Anastrepha Schiner, pointing out certain fenotipic characteristics that prove variability among the ecuadorian's population, mainly A. fraterculus, A. distincta, A. obliqua, A. striata, and others. (The author)

  17. Black walnut growth increased when interplanted with nitrogen fixing shrubs and trees. [Elaeagnus umbellata, Alnus glutinosa, and Robina pseudocacia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, P.M.; Williams, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    Black walnuts (1 year old) were planted at 11 x 11 foot spacing at a site in S. Indiana, in 1967. Two years later they were interplanted with autumn olive (Elaeagnus umbellata), European alder (Alnus glutinosa) or black locust (Robina pseudocacia), or broadcast- sown with Lespedeza striata. Weeds were controlled with amazine in all except the lespedeza plots, and in 1973 the locust trees were killed because they were overtopping the walnuts. No consistent pattern of improved growth was observed until 1975. From 1975 until the end of the study in 1978, height and diameter of walnuts grown with autumn olive were significantly greater than in other treatments, although European alder and black locust also increased growth. The lespedeza failed to establish even after resowing. Walnuts in control plants were not as straight and required more pruning than those grown with nurse trees.

  18. Imaging opiate receptors with positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frost, J.J.; Dannals, R.F.; Ravert, H.T.

    1984-01-01

    Opiate receptors exist in the mammalian brain and are thought to meditate the diverse pharmacological actions of the opiates, such as analgesia, euphoria, and sedation. The 4-carbomethoxyl derivatives of fentanyl, such as lofentanil and R31833 (4-carbomethoxyfentanyl) bind to the opiate receptor with high affinity. C-11 R31833 was synthesized by reacting C-11 methyl iodide with the appropriate carboxylate. Male ICR mice were injected intravenously with C-11 R31833 (5μg/kg), killed 30 minutes later, and the brains rapidly dissected. The thalami, striata, and cerebral cortex are rich in opiate receptors, but the cerebellum contains a very low concentration of opiate receptors. The thalamus/cerebellum and striatum/cerebellum activity ratios, calculated per mg of wet tissue, were 4.1 and 5.2 respectively. Coinjection of 5mg/kg naloxone reduced the ratios to 1.1, which indicates that the preferential localization of C-11 R31833 in the thalami and striata is due to binding to opiate is due to binding to opiate receptors. A 22 kg anesthetized male baboon was imaged using the NeuroECAT after injection of 18.9 mCi of C-11 R13833 (0.50 μg/kg, specific activity 616 Ci/mmole at time of injection). From 15-70 minutes after injection preferential accumulation of activity could be seen in the thalami, caudate nuclei, and cerebral cortex and, conversely, low activity was demonstrated in the cerebellum. At one hour postinjection the maximum measured caudate/cerebellum activity ratio per pixel was 2.9. For the NeuroECAT the recovery coefficient for the baboon caudate is ca. 0.2-0.3, and therefore the actual caudate/cerebellum ratio is ca. 10-15

  19. Imaging opiate receptors with positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frost, J.J.; Dannals, R.F.; Ravert, H.T.; Wilson, A.A.; Wong, D.F.; Links, J.M.; Burns, H.D.; Kuhar, M.J.; Snyder, S.H.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Opiate receptors exist in the mammalian brain and are thought to meditate the diverse pharmacological actions of the opiates, such as analgesia, euphoria, and sedation. The 4-carbomethoxyl derivatives of fentanyl, such as lofentanil and R31833 (4-carbomethoxyfentanyl) bind to the opiate receptor with high affinity. C-11 R31833 was synthesized by reacting C-11 methyl iodide with the appropriate carboxylate. Male ICR mice were injected intravenously with C-11 R31833 (5..mu..g/kg), killed 30 minutes later, and the brains rapidly dissected. The thalami, striata, and cerebral cortex are rich in opiate receptors, but the cerebellum contains a very low concentration of opiate receptors. The thalamus/cerebellum and striatum/cerebellum activity ratios, calculated per mg of wet tissue, were 4.1 and 5.2 respectively. Coinjection of 5mg/kg naloxone reduced the ratios to 1.1, which indicates that the preferential localization of C-11 R31833 in the thalami and striata is due to binding to opiate is due to binding to opiate receptors. A 22 kg anesthetized male baboon was imaged using the NeuroECAT after injection of 18.9 mCi of C-11 R13833 (0.50 ..mu..g/kg, specific activity 616 Ci/mmole at time of injection). From 15-70 minutes after injection preferential accumulation of activity could be seen in the thalami, caudate nuclei, and cerebral cortex and, conversely, low activity was demonstrated in the cerebellum. At one hour postinjection the maximum measured caudate/cerebellum activity ratio per pixel was 2.9. For the NeuroECAT the recovery coefficient for the baboon caudate is ca. 0.2-0.3, and therefore the actual caudate/cerebellum ratio is ca. 10-15.

  20. Semiquantitative slab view display for visual evaluation of 123I-FP-CIT SPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchert, Ralph; Hutton, Chloe; Lange, Catharina; Hoppe, Peter; Makowski, Marcus; Bamousa, Thamer; Platsch, Günther; Brenner, Winfried; Declerck, Jerome

    2016-05-01

    Dopamine transporter single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with I-FP-CIT is used widely in the diagnosis of clinically uncertain parkinsonian syndromes. In terms of the evaluation of FP-CIT SPECT, some practice guidelines state that visual interpretation alone is generally sufficient in clinical patient care, whereas other guidelines consider semiquantitative analysis of striatal dopamine transporter availability mandatory. This discrepancy might be because of a relative lack of widely available display tools for FP-CIT SPECT. In this study, we evaluate a semiquantitative slab view display optimized for visual evaluation of FP-CIT SPECT that might resolve the discrepancy. The reconstructed FP-CIT SPECT image was stereotactically normalized and scaled voxel by voxel to the mean uptake in the entire brain without striata. From the resulting distribution volume ratio image, a 12-mm-thick transversal slice (slab) through the striata was displayed with a standard colour table with predefined fixed thresholds on the distribution volume ratio. Visual scoring of the semiquantitative slab view was performed twice by four independent readers in 235 unselected patients. The specific binding ratio in the caudate and putamen was computed by fully automated semiquantitative analysis with predefined standard regions of interest in template space. Intrarater and inter-rater agreement of binary visual categorization as 'normal' or 'reduced' was excellent (mean Cohen's κ=0.88 and 0.83, respectively). The area under the receiver-operator characteristic curve of the specific putamen-binding ratio for differentiation between visually normal and visually reduced (majority read) was 0.96. Visual interpretation of FP-CIT SPECT on the basis of the semiquantitative slab view display provides excellent stability within and between readers as well as very high agreement with semiquantitative analysis. This suggests that the slab view display enables reliable visual

  1. An Invasive Plant Promotes Its Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbioses and Competitiveness through Its Secondary Metabolites: Indirect Evidence from Activated Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yongge; Tang, Jianjun; Leng, Dong; Hu, Shuijin; Yong, Jean W. H.; Chen, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Secondary metabolites released by invasive plants can increase their competitive ability by affecting native plants, herbivores, and pathogens at the invaded land. Whether these secondary metabolites affect the invasive plant itself, directly or indirectly through microorganisms, however, has not been well documented. Here we tested whether activated carbon (AC), a well-known absorbent for secondary metabolites, affect arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbioses and competitive ability in an invasive plant. We conducted three experiments (experiments 1–3) with the invasive forb Solidago canadensis and the native Kummerowia striata. Experiment 1 determined whether AC altered soil properties, levels of the main secondary metabolites in the soil, plant growth, and AMF communities associated with S. canadensis and K. striata. Experiment 2 determined whether AC affected colonization of S. canadensis by five AMF, which were added to sterilized soil. Experiment 3 determined the competitive ability of S. canadensis in the presence and absence of AMF and AC. In experiment 1, AC greatly decreased the concentrations of the main secondary metabolites in soil, and the changes in concentrations were closely related with the changes of AMF in S. canadensis roots. In experiment 2, AC inhibited the AMF Glomus versiforme and G. geosporum but promoted G. mosseae and G. diaphanum in the soil and also in S. canadensis roots. In experiment 3, AC reduced S. canadensis competitive ability in the presence but not in the absence of AMF. Our results provided indirect evidence that the secondary metabolites (which can be absorbed by AC) of the invasive plant S. canadensis may promote S. canadensis competitiveness by enhancing its own AMF symbionts. PMID:24817325

  2. Eficiência de substâncias atrativas na captura de moscas-das-frutas (diptera: tephritidae em goiabeiras no município de Itapecuru-Mirim (MA Efficacy of attractants for fruits flies (diptera: tephritidae captures in guava crops in Itapecuru-Mirim (MA, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimunda Nonata Santos Lemos

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido em pomar comercial de goiaba (Psidium guajava L. cultivar 'Pêra Vermelha', localizado no município de Itapecuru-Mirim (MA, na Comunidade Magnificat, visando a adotar um sistema de manejo integrado de moscas-das-frutas através do monitoramento com armadilhas do tipo frasco caça-moscas (modelo garrafa plástica e atraentes de alimentação. O delineamento estatístico adotado foi o de blocos inteiramente casualizados, com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições, sendo: suco de laranja (50%, acerola (30%, goiaba (30%, maracujá (30% e solução de açúcar cristal a 10 %. Verificou-se que o suco de maracujá (30% e a solução de açúcar cristal (10% foram mais atrativos para os adultos de Anastrepha distincta Greene, A. sororcula Zucchi, A. striata Schiner, A. obliqua Macquart e A. serpentina Wiedemann.This research was carried out in a commercial guava orchard cv. 'Pera Vermelha' in the Magnificat Community, located at Itapecuru-Mirim (MA County, aiming to adopt an integrated management system for fruit flies, by trapping different food attractants. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized block design with four replications. The attractants tested were: Sweet orange juice (50%, acerola juice (30%, guava juice (30%, passion fruit juice (30% and sugar solution (10%. The results showed that passion fruit juice (30% and sugar solution (10% were more attractive for adults fruit flies of Anastrepha distincta Greene, A. sororcula Zucchi, A. striata Schiner, A. obliqua Macquart and A. serpentina Wiedemann.

  3. Identification of the sites of tau hyperphosphorylation and activation of tau kinases in synucleinopathies and Alzheimer's diseases.

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    Valeriy Duka

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Most neurodegenerative diseases contain hyperphosphorylated Tau [p-Tau]. We examined for the first time epitopes at which Tau is hyperphosphorylated in Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies and Alzheimer's disease, and also select Tau kinases. METHODS: Postmortem frontal cortex from Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, Alzheimer's disease and striata from Parkinson's disease, were analyzed by immunoblots using commercially available antibodies against 20 different phospho-epitopes of Tau. Major Tau kinases were also screened. Results in diseased tissues were compared to nondiseased controls. RESULTS: In Alzheimer's disease, Tau was hyperphosphorylated at all the 20 epitopes of p-Tau. In dementia with Lewy bodies, p-Tau formation occurred at 6 sites sharing 30% overlap with Alzheimer's disease, while in Parkinson's frontal cortex, an area which does not degenerate, Tau hyperphosphorylation was seen at just 3 epitopes, indicating 15% overlap with Alzheimer's disease. In Parkinson's disease striatum, an area which undergoes considerable neurodegeneration, Tau was hyperphosphorylated at 10 epitopes, sharing 50% overlap with Alzheimer's disease. Between frontal cortex of Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies, there were only two p-Tau epitopes in common. In striata of Parkinson's disease, there were 3 clusters of Tau hyperphosphorylated at 3 contiguous sites, while two such clusters were detected in dementia with Lewy bodies; such clusters disrupt axonal transport of mitochondria, cause microtubule remodeling and result in cell death. p-GSK-3β, a major Tau kinase, was activated in all brain regions examined, except in dementia with Lewy bodies. Activation of other Tau kinases was seen in all brain regions, with no clear pattern of activation. INTERPRETATION: Our studies suggest that the three neurodegenerative diseases each have a signature-specific profile of p-Tau formation which may be useful in

  4. Antibacterial activity of crude extracts of some South African medicinal plants against multidrug resistant etiological agents of diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisi-Johnson, Mary A; Obi, Chikwelu L; Samuel, Babatunde B; Eloff, Jacobus N; Okoh, Anthony I

    2017-06-19

    This study evaluated the antibacterial activity of some plants used in folklore medicine to treat diarrhoea in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. The acetone extracts of Acacia mearnsii De Wild., Aloe arborescens Mill., A. striata Haw., Cyathula uncinulata (Schrad.) Schinz, Eucomis autumnalis (Mill.) Chitt., E. comosa (Houtt.) Wehrh., Hermbstaedtia odorata (Burch. ex Moq.) T.Cooke, Hydnora africana Thunb, Hypoxis latifolia Wight, Pelargonium sidoides DC, Psidium guajava L and Schizocarphus nervosus (Burch.) van der Merwe were screened against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, multi-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Isangi, S. typhi, S. enterica serovar Typhimurium, Shigella flexneri type 1b and Sh. sonnei phase II. A qualitative phytochemical screening of the plants extracts was by thin layer chromatography. Plants extracts were screened for antibacterial activity using serial dilution microplate technique and bioautography. The TLC fingerprint indicated the presence of terpenoids and flavonoids in the herbs. Most of the tested organisms were sensitive to the crude acetone extracts with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 0.018-2.5 mg/mℓ. Extracts of A. striata, C. uncinulata, E. autumnalis and P. guajava were more active against enteropathogens. S. aureus and Sh. flexneri were the most sensitive isolates to the crude extracts but of significance is the antibacterial activity of A. arborescens and P. guajava against a confirmed extended spectrum betalactamase positive S. enterica serovar Typhimurium. The presence of bioactive compounds and the antibacterial activity of some of the selected herbs against multidrug resistant enteric agents corroborate assertions by traditional healers on their efficacies.

  5. An invasive plant promotes its arbuscular mycorrhizal symbioses and competitiveness through its secondary metabolites: indirect evidence from activated carbon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongge Yuan

    Full Text Available Secondary metabolites released by invasive plants can increase their competitive ability by affecting native plants, herbivores, and pathogens at the invaded land. Whether these secondary metabolites affect the invasive plant itself, directly or indirectly through microorganisms, however, has not been well documented. Here we tested whether activated carbon (AC, a well-known absorbent for secondary metabolites, affect arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM symbioses and competitive ability in an invasive plant. We conducted three experiments (experiments 1-3 with the invasive forb Solidago canadensis and the native Kummerowia striata. Experiment 1 determined whether AC altered soil properties, levels of the main secondary metabolites in the soil, plant growth, and AMF communities associated with S. canadensis and K. striata. Experiment 2 determined whether AC affected colonization of S. canadensis by five AMF, which were added to sterilized soil. Experiment 3 determined the competitive ability of S. canadensis in the presence and absence of AMF and AC. In experiment 1, AC greatly decreased the concentrations of the main secondary metabolites in soil, and the changes in concentrations were closely related with the changes of AMF in S. canadensis roots. In experiment 2, AC inhibited the AMF Glomus versiforme and G. geosporum but promoted G. mosseae and G. diaphanum in the soil and also in S. canadensis roots. In experiment 3, AC reduced S. canadensis competitive ability in the presence but not in the absence of AMF. Our results provided indirect evidence that the secondary metabolites (which can be absorbed by AC of the invasive plant S. canadensis may promote S. canadensis competitiveness by enhancing its own AMF symbionts.

  6. An invasive plant promotes its arbuscular mycorrhizal symbioses and competitiveness through its secondary metabolites: indirect evidence from activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yongge; Tang, Jianjun; Leng, Dong; Hu, Shuijin; Yong, Jean W H; Chen, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Secondary metabolites released by invasive plants can increase their competitive ability by affecting native plants, herbivores, and pathogens at the invaded land. Whether these secondary metabolites affect the invasive plant itself, directly or indirectly through microorganisms, however, has not been well documented. Here we tested whether activated carbon (AC), a well-known absorbent for secondary metabolites, affect arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbioses and competitive ability in an invasive plant. We conducted three experiments (experiments 1-3) with the invasive forb Solidago canadensis and the native Kummerowia striata. Experiment 1 determined whether AC altered soil properties, levels of the main secondary metabolites in the soil, plant growth, and AMF communities associated with S. canadensis and K. striata. Experiment 2 determined whether AC affected colonization of S. canadensis by five AMF, which were added to sterilized soil. Experiment 3 determined the competitive ability of S. canadensis in the presence and absence of AMF and AC. In experiment 1, AC greatly decreased the concentrations of the main secondary metabolites in soil, and the changes in concentrations were closely related with the changes of AMF in S. canadensis roots. In experiment 2, AC inhibited the AMF Glomus versiforme and G. geosporum but promoted G. mosseae and G. diaphanum in the soil and also in S. canadensis roots. In experiment 3, AC reduced S. canadensis competitive ability in the presence but not in the absence of AMF. Our results provided indirect evidence that the secondary metabolites (which can be absorbed by AC) of the invasive plant S. canadensis may promote S. canadensis competitiveness by enhancing its own AMF symbionts.

  7. EFEITO DO FOGO SOBRE A RIQUEZA DE FORMIGAS (HYMENOPTERA: FORMICIDAE ASSOCIADAS À Pinus elliottii ENGELM. NO SUL DO BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jardel Boscardin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed at assessing the effect of fire over an ant fauna associated to Pinus elliottii Engelm. The study was developed in the city of Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, in an experimental area next to the Campus of Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM, in a 28-year-old plantation of an hectare of Pinus elliottii, spacing 2m x 2m, on which a fire happened in the end of November, 2008. One month later, an ant fauna sampling was initiated, being concluded in November, 2009. The method of interception of wandering insects has been used through soil traps without attraction, distributed in the center of the population, being prepared 10 traps in simple linear transection, in intervals of 10 meters that remained buried for 48 hours. After such period, the biological material was packed in plastic pots, transported to the laboratory for a triage, where the ants were separated into morphospecies and proceeded to identification.From the surveys, 25 ant species were found, distributed in eleven genera, eight tribes and four subfamilies. From these, the ones who presented the biggest occurrence frequencies in their respective subfamilies were Pseudomyrmex termitarius (46,7%, Acromyrmex crassispinus, and Pachycondyla striata (both with 35,8%, and Camponotus blandus (25,0%. Fire is an agent of environmental disturbance many times significant, causing positive and negative effects over the edaphic fauna. Its action might have caused a negative indirect effect over Crematogaster victima and positive over Pseudomyrmex termitarius, Acromyrmex crassispinus, Pachycondyla striata and Camponotus blandus present in the understory of Pinus elliottii, after the fire.

  8. Microstructure and surface properties of lignocellulosic-based activated carbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Garcia, P., E-mail: pegonzal@quim.ucm.es [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Complutense, E-28040, Madrid (Spain); Centeno, T.A. [Instituto Nacional del Carbon-CSIC, Apartado 73, E-33080 Oviedo (Spain); Urones-Garrote, E. [Centro Nacional de Microscopia Electronica, Universidad Complutense, E-28040, Madrid (Spain); Avila-Brande, D.; Otero-Diaz, L.C. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Complutense, E-28040, Madrid (Spain)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Activated carbons were produced by KOH activation at 700 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The observed nanostructure consists of highly disordered graphene-like layers with sp{sup 2} bond content Almost-Equal-To 95%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Textural parameters show high surface area ( Almost-Equal-To 1000 m{sup 2}/g) and pore width of 1.3-1.8 nm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Specific capacitance reaches values as high as 161 F/g. - Abstract: Low cost activated carbons have been produced via chemical activation, by using KOH at 700 Degree-Sign C, from the bamboo species Guadua Angustifolia and Bambusa Vulgaris Striata and the residues from shells of the fruits of Castanea Sativa and Juglans Regia as carbon precursors. The scanning electron microscopy micrographs show the conservation of the precursor shape in the case of the Guadua Angustifolia and Bambusa Vulgaris Striata activated carbons. Transmission electron microscopy analyses reveal that these materials consist of carbon platelet-like particles with variable length and thickness, formed by highly disordered graphene-like layers with sp{sup 2} content Almost-Equal-To 95% and average mass density of 1.65 g/cm{sup 3} (25% below standard graphite). Textural parameters indicate a high porosity development with surface areas ranging from 850 to 1100 m{sup 2}/g and average pore width centered in the supermicropores range (1.3-1.8 nm). The electrochemical performance of the activated carbons shows specific capacitance values at low current density (1 mA/cm{sup 2}) as high as 161 F/g in the Juglans Regia activated carbon, as a result of its textural parameters and the presence of pseudocapacitance derived from surface oxygenated acidic groups (mainly quinones and ethers) identified in this activated carbon.

  9. Iktiofauna Sungai Sangkir Kabupaten Rokan Hulu Provinsi Riau (Ichthyofauna of Sangkir River, Rokan Hulu District Riau Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunuk Dian Pranata

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in Sangkir river branch of Rokan Kiri river Sangkir village, Rokan Hulu district, Riau Province from May of July 2016. The aim of this study was to inventory the fish species in Sangkir river branch of Rokan Kiri River with direct observation (survey. Five sampling locations were determined purposely based on the environmental condition that could be represented by the river condition. A total of 288 individuals of fish belonging to 3 orders, 7 families, 13 genera and 16 species were recorded in this study, namely Barbodes balleroides, Barbodes gonionotus, Barbichthys leavis, Channa striata, Cyclocheilichthys apogon, Labiobarbus fasciatus, Mystus nigriceps, Ompok eugeneiatus, Osteochilus hasseltii, Osteochilus mycrocephalus, Pangio semicincta, Pristolepis grooti, Thynnichthys polylepis, Trichogaster leerii, Trichogaster trichopterus and Trichopsis vittata. Cyprinidae was the most abundance fish in this study. Penelitian ini telah dilaksanakan di sungai Sangkir, anak sungai Rokan Kiri, desa Sangkir, Kabupaten Rokan Hulu, Provinsi Riau pada bulan Mei sampai Juli 2016. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui jenis-jenis ikan di sungai Sangkir anak Sungai Rokan Kiri dengan metode pengamatan langsung (survei dengan penetapan stasiun pengambilan sampel secara purposive sampling. Penetapan stasiun berdasarkan kondisi lingkungan yang terdiri dari 5 stasiun penelitian. Hasil penelitian  didapatkan sebanyak 288 individu ikan yang terdiri dari 3 ordo, 7 famili 13 genus dan 16 spesies. Spesies yang didapatkan yaitu Barbodes balleroides, Barbodes gonionotus, Barbichthys leavis, Channa striata, Cyclocheilichthys apogon, Labiobarbus fasciatus, Mystus nigriceps, Ompok eugeneiatus, Osteochilus hasseltii, Osteochilus mycrocephalus, Pangio semicincta, Pristolepis grooti, Thynnichthys polylepis Trichogaster leerii, Trichogaster trichopterus dan Trichopsis vittata. Cyprinidae merupakan kelompok ikan yang paling banyak dalam penelitian ini.

  10. Preliminary survey on some detoxication and toxication enzymes in fishes from the MUDA area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmijah Surif; Heng Phaik Heok; Jelin Nioi; Juzu Hayati Arshad

    2002-01-01

    Xenobiotic metabolising enzymes, specifically the mixed function oxidase (mfo), UDP-glucuronyl transferase (UDP-GT) and glutathione S?transferase (GST) in fishes have been used in this study as indicators of pesticide pollution in the ricefields. Activities of these enzymes were assayed in four fish species namely snakehead or haruan (Channa striata), climbing perch or puyu (Anabas testudineus), snakeskin gouramy or sepat siam (Trichogasterpectoralis) and walking catfish or keli (Clarias spp.) taken from six different locations within the Muda Irrigation Scheme on two different occasions. These areas are namely ACRBD4, Alor Gunung, Tanah Merah, Block 14, Sungai Sala in Kedah and Kampung Jelempok in Arau, Perlis. The last site, which practises biological and nonchemical pest control methods was taken as the control plot. Results from this study show no significant difference between the GST levels in Channa striata and Anabas testudineus taken from areas where pesticides are routinely used and that of the control area, suggesting that the level of pollution is not significant enough to cause elevated GST levels in these fishes. It was also interesting to note that there were species related differences in the levels of this enzyme in fishes from the same sites. The UDP-GT activities were higher in fishes exposed to pesticides compared to control fish. Esterase however appeared to be repressed in fishes from areas in which pesticides are freely used. Due to inconsistent number of catches at the two sampling times, these initial observations need to be treated with caution until substantiated with more samples and replicates in the future. (Author)

  11. Link between D sub 1 and D sub 2 dopamine receptors is reduced in schizophrenia and Huntington diseased brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeman, P.; Niznik, H.B.; Guan, H.C.; Booth, G.; Ulpian, C. (Univ. of Toronto (Canada))

    1989-12-01

    Dopamine receptor types D{sub 1} and D{sub 2} can oppose enhance each other's actions for electrical, biochemical, and psychomotor effects. The authors report a D{sub 1}-D{sub 2} interaction in homogenized tissue as revealed by ligand binding. D{sub 2} agonists lowered the binding of ({sup 3}H)raclopride to D{sub 2} receptors in striatal and anterior pituitary tissues. Pretreating the tissue with the D{sub 1}-selective antagonist SCH 23390 prevented the agonist-induced decrease in ({sup 3}H)raclopride binding to D{sub 2} sites in the striatum but not in the anterior pituitary, which has no D{sub 1} receptors. Conversely, a dopamine-induced reduction in the binding of ({sup 3}H)SCH 23390 to D{sub 1} receptors could be prevented by the D{sub 2}-selective antagonist eticlopride. Receptor photolabeling experiments confirmed both these D{sub 1}-D{sub 2} interactions. The blocking effect by SCH 23390 was similar to that produced by a nonhydrolyzable guanine nucleotide analogue, and SCH 23390 reduced the number of agonist-labeled D{sub 2} receptors in the high-affinity state. Thus, the D{sub 1}-D{sub 2} link may be mediated by guanine nucleotide-binding protein components. The link may underlie D{sub 1}-D{sub 2} interactions influencing behavior, since the link was missing in over half the postmortem striata from patients with schizophrenia and Huntington disease (both diseases that show some hyperdopamine signs) but was present in human control, Alzheimer, and Parkinson striata.

  12. A novel papillomavirus in Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) faeces sampled at the Cape Crozier colony, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varsani, Arvind; Kraberger, Simona; Jennings, Scott; Porzig, Elizabeth L; Julian, Laurel; Massaro, Melanie; Pollard, Annie; Ballard, Grant; Ainley, David G

    2014-06-01

    Papillomaviruses are epitheliotropic viruses that have circular dsDNA genomes encapsidated in non-enveloped virions. They have been found to infect a variety of mammals, reptiles and birds, but so far they have not been found in amphibians. Using a next-generation sequencing de novo assembly contig-informed recovery, we cloned and Sanger sequenced the complete genome of a novel papillomavirus from the faecal matter of Adélie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae) nesting on Ross Island, Antarctica. The genome had all the usual features of a papillomavirus and an E9 ORF encoding a protein of unknown function that is found in all avian papillomaviruses to date. This novel papillomavirus genome shared ~60 % pairwise identity with the genomes of the other three known avian papillomaviruses: Fringilla coelebs papillomavirus 1 (FcPV1), Francolinus leucoscepus papillomavirus 1 (FlPV1) and Psittacus erithacus papillomavirus 1. Pairwise identity analysis and phylogenetic analysis of the major capsid protein gene clearly indicated that it represents a novel species, which we named Pygoscelis adeliae papillomavirus 1 (PaCV1). No evidence of recombination was detected in the genome of PaCV1, but we did detect a recombinant region (119 nt) in the E6 gene of FlPV1 with the recombinant region being derived from ancestral FcPV1-like sequences. Previously only paramyxoviruses, orthomyxoviruses and avian pox viruses have been genetically identified in penguins; however, the majority of penguin viral identifications have been based on serology or histology. This is the first report, to our knowledge, of a papillomavirus associated with a penguin species. © 2014 The Authors.

  13. Hemosporidian blood parasites in seabirds—a comparative genetic study of species from Antarctic to tropical habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quillfeldt, Petra; Martínez, Javier; Hennicke, Janos; Ludynia, Katrin; Gladbach, Anja; Masello, Juan F.; Riou, Samuel; Merino, Santiago

    2010-09-01

    Whereas some bird species are heavily affected by blood parasites in the wild, others reportedly are not. Seabirds, in particular, are often free from blood parasites, even in the presence of potential vectors. By means of polymerase chain reaction, we amplified a DNA fragment from the cytochrome b gene to detect parasites of the genera Plasmodium, Leucocytozoon, and Haemoproteus in 14 seabird species, ranging from Antarctica to the tropical Indian Ocean. We did not detect parasites in 11 of these species, including one Antarctic, four subantarctic, two temperate, and four tropical species. On the other hand, two subantarctic species, thin-billed prions Pachyptila belcheri and dolphin gulls Larus scoresbii, were found infected. One of 28 thin-billed prions had a Plasmodium infection whose DNA sequence was identical to lineage P22 of Plasmodium relictum, and one of 20 dolphin gulls was infected with a Haemoproteus lineage which appears phylogenetically clustered with parasites species isolated from passeriform birds such as Haemoproteus lanii, Haemoproteus magnus, Haemoproteus fringillae, Haemoproteus sylvae, Haemoproteus payevskyi, and Haemoproteus belopolskyi. In addition, we found a high parasite prevalence in a single tropical species, the Christmas Island frigatebird Fregata andrewsi, where 56% of sampled adults were infected with Haemoproteus. The latter formed a monophyletic group that includes a Haemoproteus line from Eastern Asian black-tailed gulls Larus crassirostris. Our results are in agreement with those showing that (a) seabirds are poor in hemosporidians and (b) latitude could be a determining factor to predict the presence of hemosporidians in birds. However, further studies should explore the relative importance of extrinsic and intrinsic factors on parasite prevalence, in particular using phylogenetically controlled comparative analyses, systematic sampling and screening of vectors, and within-species comparisons.

  14. Molecular phylogeny of Carduelinae (Aves, Passeriformes, Fringillidae) proves polyphyletic origin of the genera Serinus and Carduelis and suggests redefined generic limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguembock, Billy; Fjeldså, Jon; Couloux, Arnaud; Pasquet, Eric

    2009-05-01

    Relationships of the 133 species of the subfamily Carduelinae (Fringillidae) are poorly resolved. For a more robust phylogenetic resolution, we sequenced two mitochondrial protein-coding genes (ATPase 6 and ND3), two nuclear introns (myoglobin intron 2 and transforming growth factor-beta2 intron 5) and one nuclear protein-coding gene (c-mos) from 50 cardueline taxa representing especially the large genera Serinus and Carduelis. A total of 2934bp obtained was subjected to maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference. Three of the five loci, as well as the combined dataset recovered the monophyly of the basal placement of Fringilla in the monophyletic Fringillidae, and the monophyly of the Carduelinae. While relationships within this group are moderately resolved by some individual gene trees (myoglobin and c-mos loci), high nodal support is provided in other individual gene trees and the combined tree. Among the well resolved terminal cardueline groups, Linurgus, Loxia and Pyrrhula are found to be monophyletic while genera Carpodacus, Carduelis and Serinus appear para- or polyphyletic. Within Serinus and Carduelis, the obtained phylogenetic structure corresponds well with the subdivisions suggested by H.E. Wolters, based on traditional methods. Thus, we support his generic subdivision (Ochrospiza, Dendrospiza and Crithagra for Serinus, and Chloris, Spinus, Sporagra, Pseudomitris, Acanthis and Linaria for Carduelis). Otherwise, we notice several cases of significant genetic divergence within traditional species suggesting incipient speciation in Linurgus olivaceus, Loxia curvirostra, Serinus mozambicus and Serinus burtoni. Some of these cases need a further phylogeographical study with a denser geographical sampling but for the case the most noteworthy, that of Serinus burtoni, we suggest a taxonomic change in this study.

  15. Carbidopa-based modulation of the functional effect of the AAV2-hAADC gene therapy in 6-OHDA lesioned rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Ciesielska

    Full Text Available Progressively blunted response to L-DOPA in Parkinson's disease (PD is a critical factor that complicates long-term pharmacotherapy in view of the central importance of this drug in management of the PD-related motor disturbance. This phenomenon is likely due to progressive loss of one of the key enzymes involved in the biosynthetic pathway for dopamine in the basal ganglia: aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC. We have developed a gene therapy based on an adeno-associated virus encoding human AADC (AAV2-hAADC infused into the Parkinsonian striatum. Although no adverse clinical effects of the AAV2-hAADC gene therapy have been observed so far, the ability to more precisely regulate transgene expression or transgene product activity could be an important long-term safety feature. The present study was designed to define pharmacological regulation of the functional activity of AAV2-hAADC transgene product by manipulating L-DOPA and carbidopa (AADC inhibitor administration in hemi-parkinsonian rats. Thirty days after unilateral striatal infusion of AAV2-hAADC, animals displayed circling behavior and acceleration of dopamine metabolism in the lesioned striatum after administration of a low dose of L-DOPA (5 mg/kg co-administered with 1.25 mg/kg of carbidopa. This phenomenon was not observed in control AAV2-GFP-treated rats. Withdrawal of carbidopa from a daily L-DOPA regimen decreased the peripheral L-DOPA pool, resulting in almost total loss of L-DOPA-induced behavioral response in AAV2-hAADC rats and a significant decline in striatal dopamine turnover. The serum L-DOPA level correlated with the magnitude of circling behavior in AAV2-hAADC rats. Additionally, AADC activity in homogenates of lesioned striata transduced by AAV2-AADC was 10-fold higher when compared with AAV2-GFP-treated control striata, confirming functional transduction. Our data suggests that the pharmacological regulation of circulating L-DOPA might be effective in the

  16. Fluorinated benzamide neuroleptics--III. Development of (S)-N-[(1-allyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl]-5-(3-[{sup 18}F]fluoropropyl)-2,3- dimethoxybenzamide as an improved dopamine D-2 receptor tracer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, Jogeshwar; Yang Zhiying; Das, Malay K.; Brown, Terry

    1995-04-01

    We have prepared five new analogs (n-propyl, iso-propyl, allyl, n-butyl, and iso-butyl) of the dopamine D-2 receptor antagonist, FPMB which result from modifications of the ethyl group at the pyrrolidine nitrogen in FPMB. As expected, all new derivatives showed higher apparent lipophilicity (log k{sub w}), with iso-butyl being the most lipophilic (log k{sub w} = 2.52), followed by the allyl derivative (log k{sub w} = 2.43). The allyl group showed the largest increase in affinity (from 0.26 nM for the ethyl substituent to 0.03 nM for the allyl substituent, almost 10-fold), followed by the n-propyl substituent which showed approximately five-fold better affinity than did the ethyl substituent. Radiosynthesis of S-N-[(1-allyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl]-5-(3-[{sup 18}F]fluoropropyl)-2,3-dimethoxybenzamide ([{sup 18}F]fallypride) was carried out by nucleophilic substitution reaction of (S)-N-[(1-allyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl]-5-(3-tosyloxypropyl)-2,3- dimethoxybenzamide with no carrier added {sup 18}F{sup -}. [{sup 18}F]Fallypride was obtained in approximately 20-40% yields (EOS/EOB, decay corrected) in specific activities of 900-1700 Ci/mmol after reverse phase HPLC purification in 60 min from EOB. High striatal uptake (upto 2.5% injected dose/g) of [{sup 18}F]fallypride in rats was observed with striatal/cerebellar ratios of 17, 42, 63 and 122 at 30, 60, 90 and 120 min post-injection, respectively. PET experiments with [{sup 18}F]fallypride in a cebus monkey showed a brain uptake of 0.10% injected dose/cc. In rhesus monkeys [{sup 18}F]fallypride showed rapid specific uptake in the striata (0.04-0.06% injected dose/cc) with striata/cerebellum ratios of approx. 3.0 at 14 min, 5.0 at 35 min and 8 at 70 min post-injection. Specifically bound [{sup 18}F]fallypride was displaced with haloperidol (1 mg/kg) with a half-life of 18 min in the rhesus monkey.

  17. [18F]FP-(+)-DTBZ PET study in a lactacystin-treated rat model of Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Chi-Chang; Huang, Siao-Lan; Chen, Zi-An; Lin, Kun-Ju; Hsiao, Ing-Tsung; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Kung, Mei-Ping; Wey, Shiaw-Pyng; Hsu, Ching-Han

    2017-08-01

    Lactacystin has been used to establish rodent models of Parkinson disease (PD), with cerebral α-synuclein inclusions. This study evaluated the uptake of [ 18 F]9-fluoropropyl-(+)-dihydrotetrabenazine ([ 18 F]FP-(+)-DTBZ), a vesicular monoamine transporter type 2 (VMAT2)-targeting radiotracer, through positron emission tomography (PET) in lactacystin-treated rat brains. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly treated with a single intracranial dose of lactacystin (2 or 5 μg) or saline (served as the sham control) into the left medial forebrain bundle. A 30-min static [ 18 F]FP-(+)-DTBZ brain PET scan was performed following an intravenous [ 18 F]FP-(+)-DTBZ dose (approximately 22 MBq) in each animal at 2 and 3 weeks after lactacystin treatment. Upon completing the last PET scans, the animals were killed, and their brains were dissected for ex vivo autoradiography (ARG) and immunohistochemical (IHC) staining of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) as well as VMAT2. Both the 2- and 5-μg lactacystin-treated groups exhibited significantly decreased specific [ 18 F]FP-(+)-DTBZ uptake in the ipsilateral striata (I-ST) at 2 weeks (1.51 and 1.16, respectively) and 3 weeks (1.36 and 1.00, respectively) after lactacystin treatment, compared with the uptake in the corresponding contralateral striata (C-ST) (3.48 and 3.08 for the 2- and 5-μg lactacystin-treated groups, respectively, at 2 weeks; 3.36 and 3.11 for the 2- and 5-μg lactacystin-treated groups, respectively, at 3 weeks) and the sham controls (3.34-3.53). Lactacystin-induced decline in I-ST [ 18 F]FP-(+)-DTBZ uptake was also demonstrated through ex vivo ARG, and the corresponding dopaminergic neuron damage was confirmed by the results of TH- and VMAT2-IHC studies. In this PD model, lactacystin-induced dopaminergic terminal damage in the ipsilateral striatum could be clearly visualized through in vivo [ 18 F]FP-(+)-DTBZ PET imaging. This may serve as a useful approach for evaluating the effectiveness of new

  18. Evaluation of PMSG (Oodev® application on hepatosomatic and gonadosomatic index of snakehead fish

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    Rizal Akbar Hutagalung

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Snakehead fish (Channa striata is a freshwater fish commodities that have high economic value, while their needs depend on natural catching. In general, hormonal induction commonly used for the efficiency of female parent utilization and enhancement quality and quantity of fish fry. One of the hormones that can be used is pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG and antidopamine with trademark Oodev®. These hormones contain many elements follicle stimulating hormone (FSH which can trigger the early stages of gonad maturity. The purpose of this research was to determine the effectiveness of hormone PMSG on gonadosomatic index (GSI and hepatosomatic index (HSI. The size of female fish was 30−40 cm, weighing of 500−700 g, adapted in the aquarium and then induced with different doses of PMSG, namely: treatment A dose: 0.75 mL/kg; B: 1.0 mL/kg; C: 1.25 mL/kg; D: 1.5 mL/kg and be repeated three times. Fishes were then reared up to 72 hours to determine the development of GSI and HSI. The results showed that the best treatment was at dose of 1.25 mL/kg with GSI and HSI values of 1.37% and 3.35%, respectively. Keywords: PMSG, GSI, HSI, snakehead fish  ABSTRAK Ikan gabus (Channa striata merupakan salah satu komoditas air tawar yang mempunyai nilai ekonomi tinggi. Saat ini pemenuhan kebutuhan hanya bergantung pada hasil penangkapan dari alam. Pada umumnya cara pemijahan buatan dengan induksi hormon dilakukan untuk efisiensi penggunaan induk serta peningkatan kualitas dan kuantitas benih ikan. Salah satu hormon yang dapat digunakan adalah pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG dan antidopamin dengan merk dagang Oodev®. Hormon-hormon tersebut banyak mengandung unsur follicle stimulating hormon (FSH yang dapat memicu kematangan gonad tahap awal. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menguji efektivitas hormon PMSG terhadap nilai indeks gonadosomatik (IGS dan indeks hepatosomatik (IHS. Induk ikan gabus yang digunakan berukuran 30−40 cm

  19. Evaluation of the biological nitrogen fixation (N2) contribution in several forage legumes and the transfer of N to associated grasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas, M.S.V.

    1991-12-01

    The objective of experiment 1 was to compare two different techniques for labelling the soil mineral nitrogen with 15 N, for studies to quantify the contribution of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) to forage legumes using the 15 N isotope dilution technique. The two techniques for labelling the soil were: incorporation a 15 N labelled organic compost (slow release treatment), and split applications of 15 N labelled ammonium sulphate. The evaluation of the techniques was through the quantification of BNF in the Itaguai Hybrid of Centrosema using two non-Na- fixing control plants (P. maximum K K-16 and Sorghum bicolor). The objective of experiment 2 was to quantify the contribution of BNF to forage legumes and the transfer of fixed nitrogen to associated grasses in mixed swards again using the 15 N isotope dilution technique. This study was conducted on a red podzolic soil (Typic Hapludult), with 7 forage legumes and 3 grasses in monoculture, and 3 mixed swards of Brachiaria brizantha with the Centrosema hybrid, Galactia striata and Desmodium ovalifolium, respectively, with varying ratios of grass to legume (4:1 to 1:4). In order to quantify the BNF contributions to the legumes and the transfer of fixed N to the B. brizantha, the plots were amended 8 times with doses of 0.01 g 15 N m -2 of 15 N labelled ammonium sulphate (12.5 atom % 15 N) each 14 days, giving a total of 0.08 g 15 N m -2 of 15 N during the 97 days of the experiment. In monoculture the different forage legumes obtained the equivalent of between 43 and 100 kg N ha -1 from BNF. Stylosanthes guianensis showed the greatest contributions from BNF at 100 Kg N ha -1 . In mixed swards with Brachiaria brizantha the proportion of N derived from BNF in the three legumes studied (Centrosema hybrid, G. striata and D. ovalifolium) was significantly greater than when they were grown in monoculture. (author). 197 refs, 9 figs, 19 tabs

  20. Study of Euglenophyta in the Jacuí Delta State Park, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. 1. Euglena Ehr., Lepocinclis Perty Estudo de Euglenophyta no Parque Estadual Delta do Jacuí, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, 1. Euglena Ehr., Lepocinclis Perty

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    Sandra Maria Alves-da-Silva

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the result of the study of pigmented Euglenaceae performed within the area of the Jacuí Delta State Park, located between parallels 29º56' and 30º03'S and meridians 51º12'and 51º18'W, with qualitative samplings at 25 stations, distributed over 8 islands, 8 "sacos" (i.e. small bays, 4 river mouths, 2 stream mouths and 3 channels in December/1993 and January/1994, and from February/1998 to December/1999. One hundred and fifty taxa of the Euglenophyceae were identified in the area. Currently 23 specific and infraspecific taxa of genus Euglena and 12 taxa of Lepocinclis are presented. E. acus Ehr. var. acus, and L. salina Fritsch var. salina were the taxa best represented in the region since they occured in over 40% of the samples studied. E. bonettoi (Tell & Zaloc. Couté & Thérez., L. playfairiana Defl. var. striata Conf. and L. caudata (Cunha Conr. were recorded exclusively for South America; sixteen taxa identified have a cosmopolitan distribution. Ranges of some abiotic variables of the environments in which each taxon occurred in the study area are mentioned.Este trabalho é o resultado do estudo de Euglenaceae pigmentadas realizado na área do Parque Estadual Delta do Jacuí, localizado entre paralelos 29º56' e 30º03'S e os meridianos 51º12'e 51º18'W, com amostragens qualitativas em 25 estações de coletas distribuídas em 8 ilhas, 8 sacos, 6 desembocaduras de rios e 3 canais, em dezembro/1993 e janeiro/1994 e de fevereiro/1998 a dezembro/1999. Foram identificados na área cerca de 150 táxons de Euglenophyceae. São apresentados, neste trabalho, 23 táxons específicos e infra-específicos do gênero Euglena e 12 táxons de Lepocinclis. E. acus Ehr. var. acus e L. salina Fritsch var. salina foram os táxons melhor representados na área por ocorrerem em mais de 40% dos biótopos estudados. E. bonettoi (Tell & Zaloc. Couté & Thérez., L. playfairiana Defl. var. striata Conf. e L. caudata (Cunha Conr. foram

  1. EFEITO DO FOGO SOBRE A RIQUEZA DE FORMIGAS (HYMENOPTERA: FORMICIDAE ASSOCIADAS À Pinus elliottii ENGELM. NO SUL DO BRASIL

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    Jardel Boscardin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o efeito do fogo sobre a fauna de formigas associada à Pinus elliottii Engelm. O estudo foi desenvolvido no município de Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, numa área experimental junto ao Campus da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM, em um plantio de um hectare de Pinus elliottii com 28 anos de idade, com espaçamento de 2 m x 2 m, no qual ocorreu um incêndio no final de novembro de 2008. Um mês após, iniciou-se uma amostragem da fauna de formigas, concluída em novembro de 2009. Utilizou-se o método de interceptação de insetos perambulantes através do uso de armadilhas de solo sem atrativo, distribuídas no centro do povoamento, sendo dispostas 10 armadilhas em transecto linear simples, a intervalos de 10 metros e que permaneceram enterradas por 48 horas. Ao final deste período, o material biológico foi acondicionado em potes plásticos, encaminhado ao laboratório para triagem, onde as formigas foram separadas em morfoespécies e prosseguiram para identificação. A partir dos levantamentos foram encontradas 25 espécies de formigas distribuídas em onze gêneros, oito tribos e quatro subfamílias. Destas, as que apresentaram maiores frequências de ocorrência em suas respectivas subfamílias foram Pseudomyrmex termitarius (46,7%, Acromyrmex crassispinus e Pachycondyla striata (ambas com 35,8%, e Camponotus blandus (25,0%. O fogo é um agente de distúrbio ambiental por vezes significativo, causando efeitos positivos e negativos sobre a fauna edáfica. Sua ação pode ter gerado efeito indireto negativo sobre Crematogaster victima e positivo sobre Pseudomyrmex termitarius, Acromyrmex crassispinus, Pachycondyla striata e Camponotus blandus presentes no sub-bosque de Pinus elliottii, pós-incêndio. 

  2. Evaluation of the biological nitrogen fixation (N{sub 2}) contribution in several forage legumes and the transfer of N to associated grasses; Avaliacao da contribuicao da fixacao biologica de N{sub 2} em varias leguminosas forrageiras e transferencia de N para uma graminea consorciada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas, M.S.V.

    1991-12-01

    The objective of experiment 1 was to compare two different techniques for labelling the soil mineral nitrogen with {sup 15} N, for studies to quantify the contribution of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) to forage legumes using the {sup 15} N isotope dilution technique. The two techniques for labelling the soil were: incorporation a {sup 15} N labelled organic compost (slow release treatment), and split applications of {sup 15} N labelled ammonium sulphate. The evaluation of the techniques was through the quantification of BNF in the Itaguai Hybrid of Centrosema using two non-Na- fixing control plants (P. maximum K K-16 and Sorghum bicolor). The objective of experiment 2 was to quantify the contribution of BNF to forage legumes and the transfer of fixed nitrogen to associated grasses in mixed swards again using the {sup 15} N isotope dilution technique. This study was conducted on a red podzolic soil (Typic Hapludult), with 7 forage legumes and 3 grasses in monoculture, and 3 mixed swards of Brachiaria brizantha with the Centrosema hybrid, Galactia striata and Desmodium ovalifolium, respectively, with varying ratios of grass to legume (4:1 to 1:4). In order to quantify the BNF contributions to the legumes and the transfer of fixed N to the B. brizantha, the plots were amended 8 times with doses of 0.01 g {sup 15} N m{sup -2} of {sup 15} N labelled ammonium sulphate (12.5 atom % {sup 15} N) each 14 days, giving a total of 0.08 g {sup 15} N m{sup -2} of {sup 15} N during the 97 days of the experiment. In monoculture the different forage legumes obtained the equivalent of between 43 and 100 kg N ha{sup -1} from BNF. Stylosanthes guianensis showed the greatest contributions from BNF at 100 Kg N ha{sup -1}. In mixed swards with Brachiaria brizantha the proportion of N derived from BNF in the three legumes studied (Centrosema hybrid, G. striata and D. ovalifolium) was significantly greater than when they were grown in monoculture. (author). 197 refs, 9 figs, 19 tabs.

  3. Evaluation of d-amphetamine effects on the binding of dopamine D-2 receptor radioligand, 18F-fallypride in nonhuman primates using positron emission tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, J; Yang, Z Y; Lew, R; Brown, T; Kronmal, S; Cooper, M D; Seiden, L S

    1997-09-01

    We have investigated the ability of dopamine to compete with the binding of the high affinity dopamine D2 receptor positron emission tomography (PET) radioligand, 18F-fallypride. In vitro dissociation of 18F-fallypride with dopamine in rat striatal homogenates exhibited a dissociation rate, k(off), of 1.76 x 10(-2) min(-1) while the association rate constant, k(on), was found to be 5.30 x 10(8) M(-1) min(-1). This resulted in a dissociation constant, K(D) of 33 pM for 18F-fallypride. For in vivo studies, we investigated the effects of reserpine and d-amphetamine treatment on 18F-fallypride in an attempt to study competition of endogenous dopamine with the radioligand at the receptor sites in rats and monkeys. PET experiments with 18F-fallypride in two male rhesus monkeys were carried out in a PETT VI scanner. In control experiments, rapid specific uptake of 18F-fallypride in the striata was observed (0.05-0.06% injected dose (ID)/g) while nonspecifically bound tracer cleared from other parts of the brain. Striata/cerebellum ratios for 18F-fallypride were approximately 8 at 80 min postinjection, respectively. The monkeys received various doses (0.25 to 1.50 mg/kg) of d-amphetamine (AMPH) pre- and postinjection of the radioligand. There was a decrease of specifically bound 18F-fallypride as well as evidence of an enhanced clearance of specifically bound 18F-fallypride after administering AMPH in the two monkeys. The dissociation rates, k(off), of 18F-fallypride without AMPH was doses of AMPH (0.25 mg/kg) had a reduced effect on the binding of 18F-fallypride. No effect was seen until about 30 minutes after the injection of AMPH. Studies with various doses indicated that 18F-fallypride has a maximum response at doses of 0.75-1.50 mg/kg, with an approximately 16%/hour reduction in binding. These results indicate that AMPH stimulated release of endogenous dopamine reduces the specific binding of 18F-fallypride.

  4. DEZ ANOS DE PESQUISAS SOBRE MOSCAS-DAS-FRUTAS (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE NO ESTADO DO AMAPÁ: AVANÇOS OBTIDOS E DESAFIOS FUTUROS.

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    Ezequiel da Glória de Deus

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available As moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritidae estão entre as principais pragas da agricultura mundial, sendo motivo de preocupação especialmente para países tropicais em desenvolvimento, os quais têm na fruticultura um importante componente de sua balança comercial. Esta revisão tem por objetivo compilar informações geradas nos últimos 10 anos sobre moscas-das-frutasno estado do Amapá, com ênfase em distribuição, hospedeiros e parasitoides. Além disso, visa indicar as prioridades de pesquisa para os próximos anos.No estado do Amapá, os estudos com moscas-das-frutas e seus inimigos naturais apresentaram, nos últimos anos, significativo crescimento. Atualmente, além Bactrocera carambolae, estão assinaladas para o Estado 34 espécies de Anastrepha. Anastrepha distincta, Anastrepha coronilli, Anastrepha fraterculus e Anastrepha striata são as espécies mais amplamente distribuídas. Estão assinaladas para o estado 37 espécies vegetais hospedeiras (pertencentes a 19 famílias botânicas de moscas-das-frutas. Anastrepha striata é espécie mais polífaga, estando associada a 25 hospedeiros. Nove espécies de parasitoides específicos de moscas-das-frutas estão registrados, sendo Doryctobracon areolatuso mais abundante. Apesar do significativo avanço, novos estudos sobre biologia, genética, ecologia, distribuição e dispersão populacional, bem como fatores reguladores dos níveis populacionais são necessários, com vista a desenvolver estratégias de controle menos onerosas com efeitos não nocivos ao ambiente. Palavras-chave: Anastrepha, Bactrocera carambolae, parasitoides, Amazônia. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18561/2179-5746/biotaamazonia.v3n3p157-168

  5. Adenosine and sleep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanik, G.M. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Behavioral and biochemical approaches have been used to determine the relative contribution of endogenous adenosine and adenosine receptors to the sleep-wake cycle in the rat. Adenosine concentrations in specific areas of the rat brain were not affected by 24 hours of total sleep deprivation, or by 24 or 48 hours of REM sleep deprivation. In order to assess the effect of REM sleep deprivation on adenosine A/sub 1/ receptors, /sup 3/H-L-PIA binding was measured. The Bmax values for /sup 3/H-L-PIA binding to membrane preparations of the cortices and corpus striata from 48 hour REM sleep-deprived animals were increased 14.8% and 23%, respectively. These increases were not maintained following the cessation of sleep deprivation and recovered within 2 hours. The results of a 96 hour REM deprivation experiment were similar to those of the 48 hour REM sleep deprivation experiment. However, these increases were not evident in similar structures taken from stress control animals, and conclusively demonstrated that the changes in /sup 3/H-L-PIA binding resulted from REM sleep deprivation and not from stress.

  6. Eco-restoration of a high-sulphur coal mine overburden dumping site in northeast India: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowarah, J.; Boruah, H.P.D.; Gogoi, J.; Pathak, N.; Saikia, N.; Handique, A.K. [CSIR, Jorhat (India). North East Institute of Science & Technology

    2009-10-15

    Eco-restoration of mine overburden (OB) or abandoned mine sites is a major environmental concern. In the present investigation, an integrated approach was used to rejuvenate a high-sulphur mine OB dumping site in the Tirap Collieries, Assam, India, which is situated in the Indo-Burma mega-biodiversity hotspot. A mine OB is devoid of true soil character with poor macro and micronutrient content and contains elevated concentrations of trace and heavy metals. Planting of herbs, shrubs, cover crops and tree species at close proximity leads to primary and secondary sere state succession within a period of 3 to 5 years. A variety of plant species were screened for potential use in restoration: herbs, including Sccharum spontaneum, Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt (citronella), and Cymbopogon flexuosus (lemon grass) cover plants, including Mimosa strigillosa, M. striata, and M. pigra; shrubs, including Sesbania rostrata (dhaincha) and Cassia streata (cassia); and tree species, including Gmelina arborea (gomari) and Dalbergia sissoo (sissoo). Amendment with unmined soil and bio-organic matter was required for primary establishment of some plant species. Management of these plant species at the site will ensure long term sustainable eco-restoration of the coal mine-degraded land.

  7. Stilbenes with anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activity from the rhizomes of Bletilla ochracea Schltr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin-Yu; Kuang, Meng-Ting; Yang, Liu; Kong, Qing-Hua; Hou, Bo; Liu, Zhen-Hua; Chi, Xiao-Qian; Yuan, Ming-Yan; Hu, Jiang-Miao; Zhou, Jun

    2018-02-05

    Four new dihydrophenanthrenofuran, bleochranols A-D (1-4), along with 21 known compounds including phenanthrenes (5-14) and bibenzyls (15-25) were isolated and elucidated from the rhizomes of Bletilla ochracea. Combination of 1D/2D NMR techniques and the Electronic Circular Dichroism (ECD) spectroscopy based on the empirical helicity rules, chemical structure of those isolates were determined. All the compounds were evaluated for cytotoxicity against HL-60, SMMC-7721, A-549, MCF-7 and SW480 human cancer cell lines by MTS assay and anti-inflammatory activity by nitric oxide (NO) production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Among the 25 tested compounds, bleochranol A (1) showed remarkable cytotoxic activity against HL-60, A-549, and MCF-7 with IC 50 values of 0.24 ± 0.03, 3.51 ± 0.09 and 3.30 ± 0.99 μM respectively. The anti-inflammatory assay showed that compound 12 exhibited most potential activity against NO production in RAW 264.7 macrophages with IC 50 2.86 ± 0.17 μM. The results indicated that the main chemical constituents of B. ochracea were phenanthrene and bibenzyl and similar to that of B. striata. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Species selective resistance of cardiac muscle voltage gated sodium channels: characterization of brevetoxin and ciguatoxin binding sites in rats and fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechraoui, Marie-Yasmine Bottein; Wacksman, Jeremy J; Ramsdell, John S

    2006-11-01

    Brevetoxins (PbTxs) and ciguatoxins (CTXs) are two suites of dinoflagellate derived marine polyether neurotoxins that target the voltage gated sodium channel (VGSC). PbTxs are commonly responsible for massive fish kills and unusual mortalities in marine mammals. CTXs, more often noted for human intoxication, are suspected causes of fish and marine mammal intoxication, although this has never been reported in the field. VGSCs, present in the membrane of all excitable cells including those found in skeletal muscle, nervous and heart tissues, are found as isoforms with differential expression within species and tissues. To investigate the tissue and species susceptibility to these biotoxins, we determined the relative affinity of PbTx-2 and -3 and P-CTX-1 to native VGSCs in the brain, heart, and skeletal muscle of rat and the marine teleost fish Centropristis striata by competitive binding in the presence of [(3)H]PbTx-3. No differences between rat and fish were observed in the binding of PbTxs and CTX to either brain or skeletal muscle. However, [(3)H]PbTx-3 showed substantial lower affinity to rat heart tissue while in the fish it bound with the same affinity to heart than to brain or skeletal muscle. These new insights into PbTxs and CTXs binding in fish and mammalian excitable tissues indicate a species related resistance of heart VGSC in the rat; yet, with comparable sensitivity between the species for brain and skeletal muscle.

  9. New insights into plant glycoside hydrolase family 32 in Agave species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel eAvila-de Dios

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to optimize the use of agaves for commercial applications, an understanding of fructan metabolism in these species at the molecular and genetic level is essential. Based on transcriptome data, this report describes the identification and molecular characterization of cDNAs and deduced amino acid sequences for genes encoding fructosyltransferases, invertases and fructan exohydrolases (enzymes belonging to plant glycoside hydrolase family 32 from four different agave species (A. tequilana, A. deserti, A. victoriae-reginae and A. striata. Conserved amino acid sequences and a hypervariable domain allowed classification of distinct isoforms for each enzyme type. Notably however neither 1-FFT nor 6-SFT encoding cDNAs were identified. In silico analysis revealed that distinct isoforms for certain enzymes found in a single species, showed different levels and tissue specific patterns of expression whereas in other cases expression patterns were conserved both within the species and between different species. Relatively high levels of in silico expression for specific isoforms of both invertases and fructosyltransferases were observed in floral tissues in comparison to vegetative tissues such as leaves and stems and this pattern was confirmed by Quantitative Real Time PCR using RNA obtained from floral and leaf tissue of A. tequilana. Thin layer chromatography confirmed the presence of fructans with degree of polymerization (DP greater than DP three in both immature buds and fully opened flowers also obtained from A. tequilana.

  10. New insights into plant glycoside hydrolase family 32 in Agave species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila de Dios, Emmanuel; Gomez Vargas, Alan D.; Damián Santos, Maura L.; Simpson, June

    2015-01-01

    In order to optimize the use of agaves for commercial applications, an understanding of fructan metabolism in these species at the molecular and genetic level is essential. Based on transcriptome data, this report describes the identification and molecular characterization of cDNAs and deduced amino acid sequences for genes encoding fructosyltransferases, invertases and fructan exohydrolases (FEH) (enzymes belonging to plant glycoside hydrolase family 32) from four different agave species (A. tequilana, A. deserti, A. victoriae-reginae, and A. striata). Conserved amino acid sequences and a hypervariable domain allowed classification of distinct isoforms for each enzyme type. Notably however neither 1-FFT nor 6-SFT encoding cDNAs were identified. In silico analysis revealed that distinct isoforms for certain enzymes found in a single species, showed different levels and tissue specific patterns of expression whereas in other cases expression patterns were conserved both within the species and between different species. Relatively high levels of in silico expression for specific isoforms of both invertases and fructosyltransferases were observed in floral tissues in comparison to vegetative tissues such as leaves and stems and this pattern was confirmed by Quantitative Real Time PCR using RNA obtained from floral and leaf tissue of A. tequilana. Thin layer chromatography confirmed the presence of fructans with degree of polymerization (DP) greater than DP three in both immature buds and fully opened flowers also obtained from A. tequilana. PMID:26300895

  11. Value of diffusion-weighted MR imaging in the diagnosis of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Quangang; Wu Weiping; Huang Dehui; Zhang Jiatang; Lang Senyang; Pu Chuanqiang

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess the diagnosis value of diffusion- weighted imaging (DWI) in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). Methods: 8 cases of sporadic CJD who underwent MRI were reported. 4 cases were definite, 3 cases were probable and 1 case was possible. The sensitivity of DWI and conventional MRI were compared. Results: T 1 WI and T 2 WI revealed no abnormal signals except nonspecific diffuse brain atrophy in 4 cases, whereas DWI detected hyperintense abnormalities in all cases. 2 cases showed linear lesions only in the cerebral cortex, and 6 cases showed lesions in both the cerebral cortex and the striatum. The lesions were symmetric in 5 cases, but were asymmetric in the other 3 cases. Although fluid- attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) imaging also showed cortical hyperintensity in 1 case, the high signal changes were more evident and extensive on DWI. Conclusions: The hyperintense changes in the cerebral cortices and/or striata on DWI are considered characteristic of CJD. DWI is more sensitive than conventional MRI in depicting lesions of CJD and may be an essential tool for the early diagnosis of this disease. (authors)

  12. Proximate composition of several fish from Jatigede Reservoir in Sumedang district, West Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herawati, T.; Yustiati, A.; Nurhayati, A.; Mustikawati, R.

    2018-04-01

    The aim of research is to determine the nutritional contents of fishes in the Jatigede Reservoir, the research uses survey method from November 2016 to October 2017. Sample collecting is done in the Wado district and Jatigede district. Samples are identified by its species and the nutritional contents are determined. The analyzed parameter includes water content, ash content, crude fiber content, protein content, fat content and carbohydrate content. Research shows that the nutritional contents of 13 species of fish vary. The water contents ranges between 67.50 % to 77.75 %, the highest percentage found in Chana striata. Ash contents ranges between 1.25 % to 4.87 %, the highest percentage found in Rasbora argyrotaenia, Crude fiber percentage cannot be found. Protein ranges between 14.43% to 21.93 %, the highest percentage found in Chanos chanos, Fat ranges 0.72 % to 6.86 %, the highest percentage found in Hampala macrolepidota. Carbohydrate ranges between 0.12 % to 2.64 %, the highest percentage found in Osteochillus vittatus.

  13. Holocene lake salinity changes in the Wimmera, southeastern Australia, provide evidence for millennial-scale climate variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Justine; Radke, Lynda C.; Olley, Jon; Juggins, Steve; De Deckker, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Palaeosalinity records for groundwater-influenced lakes in the southwest Murray Basin were constructed from an ostracod-based, weighted-averaging transfer function, supplemented with evidence from Campylodiscus clypeus (diatom), charophyte oogonia, Coxiella striata (gastropod), Elphidium sp. (foraminifera), Daphniopsis sp. ephippia (Cladocera), and brine shrimp (Parartemia zietziana) faecal pellets, the δ18O of ostracods, and > 130 μm quartz sand counts. The chronology is based on optically stimulated luminescence and calibrated radiocarbon ages. Relatively wet conditions are marked by lower salinities between 9600 yr and 5700 yr ago, but mutually exclusive high- and low-salinity ostracod communities suggest substantial variability in effective precipitation in the early Holocene. A drier climate was firmly in place by 4500 yr and is marked at the groundwater-dominated NW Jacka Lake by an increase in aeolian quartz and, at Jacka Lake, by a switch from surface-water to groundwater dominance. Short-lived, low-salinity events at 8800, 7200, 5900, 4800, 2400, 1300 and 400 yr are similar in timing and number to those recorded on Australia's southern continental shelf, and globally, and provide evidence for the existence of the ~ 1500-yr cycle in mainland southern Australia. We surmise that these are cool events associated with periodic equatorward shifts in the westerly wind circulation.

  14. Ant communities (Hymenoptera: Formicidae in an urban ecosystem near the Atlantic Rainforest

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    CM. Kamura

    Full Text Available The relationships between an urban ecosystem located near the Atlantic Rainforest in southeastern Brazil and ant communities were studied with the objective of quantifying the ant richness and abundance in the household environment and its surroundings. Eighty residences were sampled, where 58 species and 28 genera pertaining to 7 sub-families were found to be present. Inside the residences, the species richness was found to be lower (26, although the abundance was greater (10,670, with the wash area and kitchen being the locales that contributed with the greatest number of hits. The opposite was true in the areas outside the residences, where 54 species and 3,747 ants were observed. Inside houses, the species known as Tramp ants were found, in the following order of importance: Solenopsis -saevissima, Tapinoma melanocephalum, Linepithema humile, Paratrechina fulva, Wasmannia -auropunctata, P. -longicornis, Pheidole megacephala, Monomorium pharaonis and M. floricola. Externally, mainly in the yards and gardens, species such as Octostruma rugifera, Heteroponera dolo, Hypoponera sp.1 and sp.6, Gnamptogenys sp. 4, G. striatula, Odontomachus meinerti, Pachycondyla constricta and P. striata were found. In general, a greater number of species and lower abundance of individuals were observed in the neighborhoods nearer the mountains than in those closer to the urban center.

  15. Dopamine denervation does not alter in vivo 3H-spiperone binding in rat striatum: implications for external imaging of dopamine receptors in Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, J.P. Jr.; Wooten, G.F.

    1986-01-01

    Striatal particulate preparations, both from rats with lesion-induced striatal dopamine (DA) loss and from some striatal dopamine (DA) loss and from some patients with Parkinson's disease, exhibit increased 3 H-neuroleptic binding, which is interpreted to be the mechanism of denervation-induced behavioral supersensitivity to dopaminergic compounds. After intravenous 3 H-spiperone ( 3 H-SP) administration to rats with unilateral nigral lesions, we found no differences in accumulation of total or particulate-bound 3 H-SP in dopamine-denervated compared with intact striata. 3 H-SP in vivo binds to less than 10% of striatal sites labeled by 3 H-SP incubated with striatal particulate preparations in vitro. Quantitative autoradiography of 3 H-SP binding to striatal sections in vitro also failed to reveal any effects of dopamine denervation. 3 H-SP bound to striatal sites in vivo dissociates more slowly than that bound to striatal particulate preparations labeled in vitro. Striatal binding properties of 3 H-SP administered in vivo are quite different from the same kinetic binding parameters estimated in vitro using crude membrane preparations of striatum. In addition, striatal binding of in vivo-administered 3H-SP is not affected by prior lesion of the substantia nigra, which results in profound ipsilateral striatal dopamine depletion. Thus, behavioral supersensitivity to dopaminergic compounds may not be associated with altered striatal binding properties for dopamine receptor ligands in vivo

  16. SUMO-2 and PIAS1 Modulate Insoluble Mutant Huntingtin Protein Accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Gire O’Rourke

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A key feature in Huntington disease (HD is the accumulation of mutant Huntingtin (HTT protein, which may be regulated by posttranslational modifications. Here, we define the primary sites of SUMO modification in the amino-terminal domain of HTT, show modification downstream of this domain, and demonstrate that HTT is modified by the stress-inducible SUMO-2. A systematic study of E3 SUMO ligases demonstrates that PIAS1 is an E3 SUMO ligase for both HTT SUMO-1 and SUMO-2 modification and that reduction of dPIAS in a mutant HTT Drosophila model is protective. SUMO-2 modification regulates accumulation of insoluble HTT in HeLa cells in a manner that mimics proteasome inhibition and can be modulated by overexpression and acute knockdown of PIAS1. Finally, the accumulation of SUMO-2-modified proteins in the insoluble fraction of HD postmortem striata implicates SUMO-2 modification in the age-related pathogenic accumulation of mutant HTT and other cellular proteins that occurs during HD progression.

  17. Spring Bird Migration Phenology in Eilat, Israel

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    Reuven Yosef

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the mean date of first captures and median arrival dates of spring migration for 34 species of birds at Eilat, Israel, revealed that the earlier a species migrates through Eilat, the greater is the inter-annual variation in the total time of its passage. Birds arrive during spring migration in Eilat in four structured and independent waves. The annual fluctuation in the initial arrival dates (initial capture dates and median dates (median date of all captures, not including recaptures, did not depend on the length of the migratory route. This implies that migrants crossing the Sahara desert depart from their winter quarters on different Julian days in different years. We suggest that negative correlations between the median date of the spring migration of early and late migrants depends upon the easterly (Hamsin wind period. Moreover, we believe that the phenology of all birds during spring migration in Eilat is possibly also determined by external factors such as weather conditions on the African continent or global climatic processes in the Northern hemisphere. Orphean Warblers (Sylvia hortensis show a strong positive correlation (rs=-0.502 of initial capture date with calendar years, whereas other species such as Barred Warbler (S. nisoria; rs = -0.391 and Spotted Flycatcher (Muscicapa striata; rs = -0.398 display an insignificant trend. The Dead Sea Sparrow (Passer moabiticus and Red-Backed Shrike (Lanius collurio are positively correlated regarding initial arrival date and medians of spring migration.

  18. Physical modification of palm kernel meal improved available carbohydrate, physicochemical properties and in vitro digestibility in economic freshwater fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongprajukaew, Karun; Yawang, Pinya; Dudae, Lateepah; Bilanglod, Husna; Dumrongrittamatt, Terdtoon; Tantikitti, Chutima; Kovitvadhi, Uthaiwan

    2013-12-01

    Unavailable carbohydrates are an important limiting factor for utilization of palm kernel meal (PKM) as aquafeed ingredients. The aim of this study was to improve available carbohydrate from PKM. Different physical modifications including water soaking, microwave irradiation, gamma irradiation and electron beam, were investigated in relation to chemical composition, physicochemical properties and in vitro carbohydrate digestibility using digestive enzymes from economic freshwater fish. Modified methods had significant (P carbohydrates. Improvements in physicochemical properties of PKM, such as water solubility, microstructure, relative crystallinity and lignocellulosic spectra, were mainly achieved by soaking and microwave irradiation. Carbohydrate digestibility varied among the physical modifications tested (P carbohydrate digestion specifically in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), whereas either soaking or microwave irradiation was effective for striped snakehead (Channa striata). For walking catfish (Clarias batrachus), carbohydrate digestibility was similar among raw, soaked and microwave-irradiated PKM. These findings suggest that soaking and microwave irradiation could be practical methods for altering appropriate physicochemical properties of PKM as well as increasing carbohydrate digestibility in select economic freshwater fish. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Osteopoikilosis: A radiological and pathological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagier, R.; Mbakop, A.; Bigler, A.

    1984-01-01

    Anatomico-pathological and radiological studies of osteopoikilosis were performed in two cases, one involving a femoral head, excised after a fracture of a femoral neck, in an elderly man and the other following biopsy of an iliac crest in a young woman. In both patients widespread radiological evidence of the disorder was present as an incidental finding. The radiological appearance of rounded and linear densities corresponded to old and inactive remodelling of spongy trabeculae in epiphyseal and metaphyseal locations. The distribution and appearance of these osteopoikilotic densities suggested them to have been related intimately to mechanical strain on spongy bone trabeculae. The diffuse nature of the lesions, their hereditary character, and their possible association with abnormalities of the skin suggest the existence of a particular terrain in which general metabolic conditions of connective tissue may interact with mechanical stresses in bone. Careful analysis of the findings in osteopoikilosis is desirable in order to provide data concerning the physiopathology of the skeleton and to permit more definitive interpretation of localised areas of bone condensation, including those observed not only in solitary bone islands and such conditions as osteopathia striata, but also those associated with infections and tumours. (orig.)

  20. The putative cocaine receptor in striatum is a glycoprotein with thiol function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, C.J.; Young, M.M.; Wang, J.B.; Mahran, L.; Eldefrawi, M.E.

    1990-01-01

    Dopamine transporters of bovine and rat striata are identified by their specific [ 3 H] cocaine binding and cocaine-sensitive [ 3 H] dopamine ([ 3 H]DA) uptake. Both binding and uptake functions of bovine striatal transporters were potentiated by lectins. Concanavalin A (Con A) increased the velocity but did not change the affinity of the transporter for DA. On the other hand, ConA increased its affinity for cocaine without changing the number of binding sites. The data suggest that the DA transporter is a glycoprotein. Inorganic and organic mercury reagents inhibited both [ 3 H] cocaine binding, though they were all more potent inhibitors of the former. N-ethylmaleimide inhibited [ 3 H]DA uptake totally but [ 3 H]cocaine binding only partially. Also, N-pyrenemaleimide had different effects on uptake and binding, inhibiting uptake and potentiating binding. [ 3 H]DA uptake was not affected by mercaptoethanol up to 100 mM whereas [ 3 H]cocaine binding was inhibited by concentration above 10 mM. On the other hand, both uptake and binding were fairly sensitive to dimercaprol ( 10 mM). Loss of activity after treatment with the dithio reagents may be a result of reduction of a disulfide bond, which may affect the transporter conformation

  1. The Trophic Status of the Lubuk Lampam Floodplain in South Sumatera, Indonesia

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    Dade Jubaedah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Lubuk Lampam floodplain’s ecosystem is naturally affected by the fluctuation of the water surface. This ecosystem also receives anthropogenic substances such as nutrients and other chemicals, especially from the oil palm plantation and its industrial processing activities. The main objective of this research was to determine the trophic status of the floodplain using the trophic level index (TLI and Carlson’s trophic state index (TSI. The water quality and the fish samples were collected and analyzed from 7 stations representing various types of floodplain habitat. The results showed that the trophic status of Lubuk Lampam was hypereutrophic (very nutrient-rich. This was also supported by the high increase of the body weight (“b” value more than 3 and the high gonadosomatic index (GSI of the studied fishes, i.e. Osteochilus vittatus 2.53-6.81% (male and 3.00-15.86% (female; Helostoma temminckii 0.28-3.33% (male and 1.30-10.43% (female; and Channa striata 0.33-0.59% (male and 0.21-2.73% (female.

  2. Adenosine and sleep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanik, G.M. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Behavioral and biochemical approaches have been used to determine the relative contribution of endogenous adenosine and adenosine receptors to the sleep-wake cycle in the rat. Adenosine concentrations in specific areas of the rat brain were not affected by 24 hours of total sleep deprivation, or by 24 or 48 hours of REM sleep deprivation. In order to assess the effect of REM sleep deprivation on adenosine A 1 receptors, 3 H-L-PIA binding was measured. The Bmax values for 3 H-L-PIA binding to membrane preparations of the cortices and corpus striata from 48 hour REM sleep-deprived animals were increased 14.8% and 23%, respectively. These increases were not maintained following the cessation of sleep deprivation and recovered within 2 hours. The results of a 96 hour REM deprivation experiment were similar to those of the 48 hour REM sleep deprivation experiment. However, these increases were not evident in similar structures taken from stress control animals, and conclusively demonstrated that the changes in 3 H-L-PIA binding resulted from REM sleep deprivation and not from stress

  3. The Mexican Fruit Fly Eradication Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes F, Jesus; Santiago M, Guillermo; Hernandez M, Porfirio

    2000-01-01

    The goal of the Mexican Fruit Fly Eradication Programme is to control, suppress or eradicate from Mexico four species of fruit flies of economic and quarantine importance (Anastrepha ludens Loew, A. obliqua Macquart, A. serpentina Wied. and A. striata Schiner). These pests cause damage amounting to US$710 million per year. In addition to this cost, there are other expenses from pest control actions and the loss of international markets, because fruit importing countries have established stringent quarantine measures to restrict the entry of these pests. For purposes of the programme's implementation, Mexico was divided into three working zones, defined by agro-ecological characteristics, the number of fruit fly species present and the size of fruit growing regions. In addition, a cost:benefit analysis was carried out which indicated that the rate of return, in a 12-year time frame, might be as much as 33:1 in Northern Mexico, and 17:1 in the rest of the country, for an area over 100,000 hectares. Eradication technology involves: 1) surveys of pest populations by trapping and host fruit harvesting to monitor the presence and density of fruit flies, 2) reduction of pest populations applying cultural practices and using selective bait sprays, 3) mass release of sterile flies and augmentative release of parasitoids to eliminate populations and, 4) enforcement of quarantine measures to protect fruit fly free areas

  4. Pollen morphology of the Polish species of the genus Sorbus L.

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    Leszek Bednorz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the study on pollen morphology of five Polish species of the genus Sorbus L. (S. aria (L. Crantz, S. aucuparia L. Emend. Hedl., S. chamaemespilus (L. Crantz, S. intermedia (Ehrh. Pers. and S. torminalis (L. Crantz. Observations were carried out with light and scanning microscopes. Investigated pollen grains were small or medium size, most often subprolate or prolate spheroidal in outline. Exine of medium thickness, consisted of two layers. Mainly 3-zonocolporate or sometimes 4-zonocolporate (S. chamaemespilus and S. torminalis grains were noted. Usually striatae type of sculpture was observed, except the grains of S. intermedia, which were characterized by intermediate type of sculpture, with the features both striate and regulate ornamentation. Pollen morphology of the investigated Sorbus species corresponds with their systematic classification. It is relatively easy to separate pollen grains of the following subgenera: Sorbus, Chamaemespilus and Torminaria. Only subgenus Aria includes grains of different morphology and therefore it is impossible to determine the diagnostic features of this subgenus. Pollen morphology does not confirm a close relationship between S. aria and S. intermedia. It is possible to distinguished pollen grains of all the analysed native species. However, there are no important differences in pollen morphology between the subspecies of Sorbus aucuparia. The key for Polish Sorbus species, based on pollen grain characters is given too.

  5. Additions to the knowledge of the land snails of Sabah (Malaysia, Borneo), including 48 new species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Jaap J.; Liew, Thor-Seng; Schilthuizen, Menno

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We present reviews of the Sabah (Malaysia, on the island of Borneo) species of the following problematical genera of land snails (Mollusca, Gastropoda): Acmella and Anaglyphula (Caenogastropoda: Assimineidae); Ditropopsis (Caenogastropoda: Cyclophoridae); Microcystina (Pulmonata: Ariophantidae); Philalanka and Thysanota (Pulmonata: Endodontidae); Kaliella, Rahula, (Pulmonata: Euconulidae); Trochomorpha and Geotrochus (Pulmonata: Trochomorphidae). Next to this, we describe new species in previously revised genera, such as Diplommatina (Diplommatinidae); Georissa (Hydrocenidae); as well as some new species of genera not revised previously, such as Japonia (Cyclophoridae); Durgella and Dyakia (Ariophantidae); Amphidromus, and Trachia (Camaenidae); Paralaoma (Punctidae); Curvella (Subulinidae). All descriptions are based on the morphology of the shells. We distinguish the following 48 new species: Acmella cyrtoglyphe, Acmella umbilicata, Acmella ovoidea, Acmella nana, Acmella subcancellata, Acmella striata, and Anaglyphula sauroderma (Assimineidae); Ditropopsis davisoni, Ditropopsis trachychilus, Ditropopsis constricta, Ditropopsis tyloacron, Ditropopsis cincta, and Japonia anceps (Cyclophoridae); Diplommatina bidentata and Diplommatina tylocheilos (Diplommatinidae); Georissa leucococca and Georissa nephrostoma (Hydrocenidae); Durgella densestriata, Dyakia chlorosoma, Microcystina microrhynchus, Microcystina callifera, Microcystina striatula, Microcystina planiuscula, and Microcystina physotrochus (Ariophantidae); Amphidromus psephos and Trachia serpentinitica (Camaenidae); Philalanka tambunanensis, Philalanka obscura, Philalanka anomphala, Philalanka rugulosa, and Philalanka malimgunung (Endodontidae); Kaliella eurytrochus, Kaliella sublaxa, Kaliella phacomorpha, Kaliella punctata, Kaliella microsoma, Rahula delopleura, (Euconulidae); Paralaoma angusta (Punctidae); Curvella hadrotes (Subulinidae); Trochomorpha trachus, Trochomorpha haptoderma, Trochomorpha

  6. Studies On Marine Wood-Borers Of Kali Estuary, Karwar, Karnataka, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanagoudra, S. N.; Neelakanton, K. B.

    2008-05-01

    The damage caused to underwater timber construction in Marine environment by Molluscan and Crustaceans borers is well known and is of great economic significance to all maritime countries having an expanding shipping and fishing industry. Biodeterioration of marine structure, fishing crafts and living in mangrove vegetation is quite severe along the Karwar coast. The destruction is caused by atleast 14 species and 1 variety of borers belonging to the moluscan and crustacean families of the Teredinidae, Pholadidae and Sphaeromatidae. The following species have been so far recorded: Dicyathifer manni, Lyrodus pedicellaatus, L.Massa, Bankia rochi, B. campanellata, Mausitora hedleyi,Martesia striata, M.NMairi,Sphaeroma terebrans, S.annandalei, S. annandalei travancorensis. These borers, particularly, the molluscs have prodigenous fecundity producing enormous number of young ones in one brood. They have unlimited appetite attacking any type woodly materials exposed in the sea. They attack in heavy intensity and, because of their fast rate of growth, destroy timber with in a short time of few months. All this together with their other highly specialized. Adaptations make marine wood borers man's number one enemy in the sea. Along Karwar costs borer damage to timber structure is heavy throughout the year, highest in September to November and lowest in June and July. Ecological and biological aspects of the borers are also discussed. Ref: L.N.Shantakumaran, Sawant S.G., Nair N.B., Anil Angre, Nagabhushanan R. STUDIES ON MARINE WOOD-BORERS OF KALI ESTUARY, KARWAR, KARNATAKA, INDIA

  7. Caracterização sedimentológica da planície intertidal da parte sul do saco do Limoeiro (Ilha do Mel - Paraná - Brasil: I. implicações ecológicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erminda da Conceição Guerreiro Couto

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Sediment cores 40 cm depth were taken in triplicate at nine points along an unvegetable intertidal flat, to assess the ecological implications of sedimentological characteristics. Each core was sectioned in 5 cm depht layers. In these sub-samples temperature, pH, water, organic matter and carbonate content were determined. Granulometric analysis, porosity, qualitative and quantitative identification of sediment components were also carried. The sediments presented low water (15.6 - 37.2 %, organic matter (0.7 - 5.0 % and carbonates (0.3 - 1.0 % contents, prevailing fine to very fine sand at surface. Statistical analysis showed a strong horizontal homogeneity regarding sedimentological and physiochemical parameters. Organic matter exhibit a general trend of increase with depth, while carbonate content follow an inverse behavior, refleting the higher contribution of bioclastic calcareous. Textural features and qualitative sediment analysis suggest that the biological mechanism of shell crushing is predominant over physical ones in the grinding till sand size. Amongst the involved organisms there is a sponge Clione celata, the mollusks Nassarius vibex and Thais haemastoma floridana (Gastropoda, Martesia striata (Bivalvia, and the spionid polychaete Polydora socialis and P. websteri.

  8. Capture of Anastrepha species (Diptera: Tephritidae) with multilure traps and biolure attractants in Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, A.J.; Salinas, E.J.; Rendon, P.

    2007-01-01

    Two trapping systems were compared in a study in Guatemala during the wet season, May through Dec 2001. Trap/lure combinations consisting of green or yellow-based plastic McPhail-like traps baited with a synthetic 2-component lure (putrescine and ammonium acetate) and 300 mL of propylene glycol antifreeze as a preservative were compared to the traditional glass McPhail baited with torula yeast/borax and 300 mL of water. Both systems captured several key Anastrepha species including Anastrepha ludens Loew, A. obliqua, Macquart, A. serpentina Weidemann, A. striata Schiner, A. distincta Greene, A. fraterculus Weidemann as well as Ceratitis capitata Weidemann. Additionally, 13 other Anastrepha spp. were captured with the synthetic lure. The plastic traps captured more key flies than the McPhail trap except for A. distincta where there were no significant differences between the yellow-based plastic trap and the McPhail trap and no significant differences between any trap and lure for trapping A. fraterculus. The synthetic lure lasted 10 weeks. The sex ratio was female-biased for almost all captured key species in both systems. Moreover, there were significant numbers of captured nontarget insects in all traps; however, the captured flies in those traps with the synthetic lure were not adversely affected by these insects. Propylene glycol-based antifreeze was a superior preservative when compared to borax/water. (author) [es

  9. Trichomonad infection in endemic and introduced columbids in the Seychelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunbury, N

    2011-07-01

    Island endemic avifaunas face many threats, including the now well-documented impacts of pathogens. The impacts of pathogens on the endemic Seychelles avifauna, however, have been little studied. The protozoan parasite Trichomonas gallinae has been shown to reduce survival and reproductive success of the endemic Pink Pigeon Columba mayeri on the nearby island of Mauritius. I investigated trichomonad infection prevalence and pathogenicity in endemic Seychelles Blue Pigeons, Alectroenas pulcherrima, and two introduced species of columbid, the Madagascar Turtle-dove, Streptopelia picturata, and the Barred Ground Dove, Geopelia striata, on the Seychelles island of Mahé during September-October 2007. I asked whether: 1) trichomonad infections occur in these species; 2) prevalence varies among species; and 3) birds show any signs of pathogenicity consistent with tricho-monosis. I use the results to assess the potential threat of this pathogen to A. pulcherrima. All three species were infected with trichomonads, and the overall prevalence was 27.5%. Alectroenas pulcherrima had higher prevalence (47.1%) than the two introduced species combined (24.3%). No infected individuals showed any signs of disease. These findings suggest that trichomonad parasites should be considered as a potential disease threat to the A. pulcherrima population.

  10. The enzymatic activities of brain catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and methionine sulphoxide reductase are correlated in a COMT Val/Met allele-dependent fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskovitz, Jackob; Walss-Bass, Consuelo; Cruz, Dianne A; Thompson, Peter M; Hairston, Jenaqua; Bortolato, Marco

    2015-12-01

    The enzyme catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) plays a primary role in the metabolism of catecholamine neurotransmitters and is implicated in the modulation of cognitive and emotional responses. The best characterized single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the COMT gene consists of a valine (Val)-to-methionine (Met) substitution at codon 108/158. The Met-containing variant confers a marked reduction in COMT catalytic activity. We recently showed that the activity of recombinant COMT is positively regulated by the enzyme Met sulphoxide reductase (MSR), which counters the oxidation of Met residues of proteins. The current study was designed to assess whether brain COMT activity may be correlated to MSR in an allele-dependent fashion. COMT and MSR activities were measured from post-mortem samples of prefrontal cortices, striata and cerebella of 32 subjects by using catechol and dabsyl-Met sulphoxide as substrates, respectively. Allelic discrimination of COMT Val(108/185) Met SNP was performed using the Taqman 5'nuclease assay. Our studies revealed that, in homozygous carriers of Met, but not Val alleles, the activity of COMT and MSR was significantly correlated throughout all tested brain regions. These results suggest that the reduced enzymatic activity of Met-containing COMT may be secondary to Met sulphoxidation and point to MSR as a key molecular determinant for the modulation of COMT activity. © 2015 British Neuropathological Society.

  11. Helminth community structure in two species of arctic-breeding waterfowl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.L. Amundson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is occurring rapidly at high latitudes, and subsequent changes in parasite communities may have implications for hosts including wildlife and humans. Waterfowl, in particular, harbor numerous parasites and may facilitate parasite movement across broad geographic areas due to migratory movements. However, little is known about helminth community structure of waterfowl at northern latitudes. We investigated the helminth communities of two avian herbivores that breed at high latitudes, Pacific black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans, and greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons, to examine effects of species, geographic area, age, and sex on helminth species richness, aggregation, prevalence, and intensity. We collected 83 and 58 black brant and white-fronted geese, respectively, from Arctic and Subarctic Alaska July–August 2014. We identified 10 known helminth species (Amidostomum anseris, Amidostomum spatulatum, Drepanidotaenia lanceolata, Epomidiostomum crami, Heterakis dispar, Notocotylus attenuatus, Tetrameres striata, Trichostrongylus tenuis, Tschertkovilepis setigera, and Wardoides nyrocae and 1 previously undescribed trematode. All geese sampled were infected with at least one helminth species. All helminth species identified were present in both age classes and species, providing evidence of transmission at high latitudes and suggesting broad host susceptibility. Also, all but one helminth species were present at both sites, suggesting conditions are suitable for transmission across a large latitudinal/environmental gradient. Our study provides important baseline information on avian parasites that can be used to evaluate the effects of a changing climate on host-parasite distributions.

  12. Species Diversity and Bird Feed in Residential Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadinoto; Suhesti, Eni

    2017-12-01

    Bird is one component of the ecosystem which has an important role in supporting the occurrence of an organism's life cycle. Therefore, the presence of birds in an area is important, because it can affect the existence and distribution of plant species. The purpose of this study is to calculate the diversity of bird species and identify the source of bird feed in the compound. This study was conducted by field surveys in the residential complex. In addition to the birds as a research object vegetation as habitat / foraging birds were also observed. Data were analyzed by using the bird diversity index, richenes index, bundance index, dominance analysis, analysis of bird distribution and analysis of the level of meeting types, while vegetation will be analyzed based on the type and part of what is eaten by birds. In Pandau Jaya housing complex, found as many as 12 species of birds which consists of seven families. Bird species often present is Cucak Kutilang (Pycnonotus aurigaster) of 20 individuals, Bondol Peking (Lonchura punctulata) 14 individuals and Perkutut Jawa (Geopelia striata) 10 individuals. Bird species diversity (H ‘) in Pandau Jaya housing complex is still relatively moderate with a value of 2.27, while the Evenness Index (E) of 0.91 and Richenes Index (R) of 2.45. Types of vegetation as a food source, among others: mango, guava, cherry, jackfruit, ketapang, coconut, areca, palm, banana, papaya, flowers and grasses.

  13. Signal design and perception in Hypocnemis antbirds: evidence for convergent evolution via social selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Joseph A; Seddon, Nathalie

    2009-12-01

    Natural selection is known to produce convergent phenotypes through mimicry or ecological adaptation. It has also been proposed that social selection--i.e., selection exerted by social competition--may drive convergent evolution in signals mediating interspecific communication, yet this idea remains controversial. Here, we use color spectrophotometry, acoustic analyses, and playback experiments to assess the hypothesis of adaptive signal convergence in two competing nonsister taxa, Hypocnemis peruviana and H. subflava (Aves: Thamnophilidae). We show that the structure of territorial songs in males overlaps in sympatry, with some evidence of convergent character displacement. Conversely, nonterritorial vocal and visual signals in males are strikingly diagnostic, in line with 6.8% divergence in mtDNA sequences. The same pattern of variation applies to females. Finally, we show that songs in both sexes elicit strong territorial responses within and between species, whereas songs of a third, allopatric and more closely related species (H. striata) are structurally divergent and elicit weaker responses. Taken together, our results provide compelling evidence that social selection can act across species boundaries to drive convergent or parallel evolution in taxa competing for space and resources.

  14. Radiographic patterns of pulmonary tuberculosis - a hospital based study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazir, M.

    1999-01-01

    The study was carried out in Military Hospital Rawalpindi on 230 adult patients of Tuberculosis (TB) of age 16-82 years. All the patients with radiological evidence of TB are included. Radiograph of patients were selected and then the patients examined in their respective wards. Ultrasound used for detection of plural effusion and sputum sample taken. Follow up carried out for one year. Cough and fever found to be commonest symptom followed by weight loss and haemptosis. Age incidence showed two peaks one in younger(21-40 years) and other in older people (51-60 years). Male to female ratio was 2.4:1 and most of the patients were from low socio-economic striata. On chest radiography 61.7% had bilateral disease. 38.2% had unilateral with right side involved in 22.6% and left 15.6%. Adult primary TB has 40% incidence of hilar lymphadenopathy, incidence of cavitation 8.26% and air fluid level in 21%. Advance TB was seen in 30% and minimal TB in 10.86%. Clinical picture of Pulmonary TB has not been drastically changed in recent years but the chest radiographic appearance quite different in our setup. (author)

  15. Seed germination of Agave species as influenced by substrate water potential

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    Hugo M Ramírez-Tobías

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plants of Agave spp. perform Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM and are highly drought-tolerant, but little is known concerning seed germination under low water availability. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of substrate water potential (ΨW on seed germination and contrast hydrotime parameters of seven valuable and commercially-important Agave species from different geographical distributions and climatic regions of Mexico. Our hypothesis was that seed germination of Agave species is not affected by low water availability independently of seed biomass and the climate of their distribution area. RESULTS: Seed germination (at 25°C and in the dark between 85 and 100% for all species occurred within 80 - 180 h at -0.03 MPa and 250 - 430 h at -1.0 MPa. Seed germination at -1.5 MPa declined to less than 50% (p < 0.05 for A. asperrima and A. cupreata but did not change significantly for A. americana var. marginata, A. lechuguilla and A. striata, although they showed the lowest mean base water potential (-2.01 to -2.64 MPa. Seed germination of 40% Agave species, from arid and semi-arid climates in this study, was not affected by the lower ΨW. CONCLUSION: Germination of seeds of Agave species is moderately affected by low water availability, is partially dependent of their ecological distribution, and is independent of seed mass.

  16. Accumulation of some metals by legumes and their extractability from acid mine spoils. [USA - Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, R.W.; Ibeabuchi, I.O.; Sistani, K.R.; Shuford, J.W. (Alabama A M University, Normal, AL (USA). Dept. of Plant and Soil Science)

    A greenhouse study was conducted to investigate the growth (dry matter yield) of selected legume cover crops; phytoaccumulation of metals such as Zn, Mn, Pb, Cu, Ni, and Al; the extractability of heavy metals from three different Alabama acid mine spoils. The spoils were amended based on soil test recommended levels of N, P, K, Ca and Mg prior to plant growth. Metals were extracted by three extractants (Mehlich 1, DTPA, and 0.1 M HCl) and values correlated with their accumulation by the selected legumes. Among the cover crops, kobe lespedeza {ital Lespedeza striata} (Thung.) Hook and Arn, sericea lespedeza {ital Lespedeza cuneata} (Dum.) G. Don, and red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) did not survive the stressful conditions of the spoils. However, cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) followed by Bragg' soybean {ital Glycine max} (L.) Merr. generally produced the highest dry matter yield while accumulating the largest quantity of metals, except Al, from spoils. The extractability of most metals from the spoils was generally in the order of: 0.1 MHCl {gt} DTPA. Mehlich 1 did not extract Pb and 0.1 M HCl did not extract Ni, whereas DTPA extracted all the metals in a small amount relative to HCl and Mehlich 1. All the extractants were quite effective in removing plant-available Zn from the spoils. In general, the extractants' ability to predict plant-available metals depended on the crop species, spoil type, and extractant used. 28 refs., 4 tabs.

  17. Comparative visual ecophysiology of mid-Atlantic temperate reef fishes

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    Andrij Z. Horodysky

    2013-11-01

    The absolute light sensitivities, temporal properties, and spectral sensitivities of the visual systems of three mid-Atlantic temperate reef fishes (Atlantic spadefish [Ephippidae: Chaetodipterus faber], tautog [Labridae: Tautoga onitis], and black sea bass [Serranidae: Centropristis striata] were studied via electroretinography (ERG. Pelagic Atlantic spadefish exhibited higher temporal resolution but a narrower dynamic range than the two more demersal foragers. The higher luminous sensitivities of tautog and black sea bass were similar to other benthic and demersal coastal mid-Atlantic fishes. Flicker fusion frequency experiments revealed significant interspecific differences at maximum intensities that correlated with lifestyle and habitat. Spectral responses of the three species spanned 400–610 nm, with high likelihood of cone dichromacy providing the basis for color and contrast discrimination. Significant day-night differences in spectral responses were evident in spadefish and black sea bass but not tautog, a labrid with characteristic structure-associated nocturnal torpor. Atlantic spadefish responded to a wider range of wavelengths than did deeper-dwelling tautog or black sea bass. Collectively, these results suggest that temperate reef-associated fishes are well-adapted to their gradient of brighter to dimmer photoclimates, representative of their unique ecologies and life histories. Continuing anthropogenic degradation of water quality in coastal environments, at a pace faster than the evolution of visual systems, may however impede visual foraging and reproductive signaling in temperate reef fishes.

  18. Additions to the knowledge of the land snails of Sabah (Malaysia, Borneo), including 48 new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Jaap J; Liew, Thor-Seng; Schilthuizen, Menno

    2015-01-01

    We present reviews of the Sabah (Malaysia, on the island of Borneo) species of the following problematical genera of land snails (Mollusca, Gastropoda): Acmella and Anaglyphula (Caenogastropoda: Assimineidae); Ditropopsis (Caenogastropoda: Cyclophoridae); Microcystina (Pulmonata: Ariophantidae); Philalanka and Thysanota (Pulmonata: Endodontidae); Kaliella, Rahula, (Pulmonata: Euconulidae); Trochomorpha and Geotrochus (Pulmonata: Trochomorphidae). Next to this, we describe new species in previously revised genera, such as Diplommatina (Diplommatinidae); Georissa (Hydrocenidae); as well as some new species of genera not revised previously, such as Japonia (Cyclophoridae); Durgella and Dyakia (Ariophantidae); Amphidromus, and Trachia (Camaenidae); Paralaoma (Punctidae); Curvella (Subulinidae). All descriptions are based on the morphology of the shells. We distinguish the following 48 new species: Acmella cyrtoglyphe, Acmella umbilicata, Acmella ovoidea, Acmella nana, Acmella subcancellata, Acmella striata, and Anaglyphula sauroderma (Assimineidae); Ditropopsis davisoni, Ditropopsis trachychilus, Ditropopsis constricta, Ditropopsis tyloacron, Ditropopsis cincta, and Japonia anceps (Cyclophoridae); Diplommatina bidentata and Diplommatina tylocheilos (Diplommatinidae); Georissa leucococca and Georissa nephrostoma (Hydrocenidae); Durgella densestriata, Dyakia chlorosoma, Microcystina microrhynchus, Microcystina callifera, Microcystina striatula, Microcystina planiuscula, and Microcystina physotrochus (Ariophantidae); Amphidromus psephos and Trachia serpentinitica (Camaenidae); Philalanka tambunanensis, Philalanka obscura, Philalanka anomphala, Philalanka rugulosa, and Philalanka malimgunung (Endodontidae); Kaliella eurytrochus, Kaliella sublaxa, Kaliella phacomorpha, Kaliella punctata, Kaliella microsoma, Rahula delopleura, (Euconulidae); Paralaoma angusta (Punctidae); Curvella hadrotes (Subulinidae); Trochomorpha trachus, Trochomorpha haptoderma, Trochomorpha

  19. Tangential Biopsy Thickness versus Lesion Depth in Longitudinal Melanonychia: A Pilot Study

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    Nilton Di Chiacchio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Longitudinal melanonychia can be caused by melanocyte activation (hypermelanosis or proliferation (lentigo, nevus or melanoma. Histopathologic examination is mandatory for suspicious cases of melanomas. Tangential biopsy of the matrix is an elegant technique avoiding nail plate dystrophy, but it was unknown whether the depth of the sample obtained by this method is adequate for histopathologic diagnosis. Twenty-two patients with longitudinal melanonychia striata were submitted to tangential matrix biopsies described by Haneke. The tissue was stained with hematoxylin-eosin and the specimens were measured at 3 distinct points according to the total thickness: largest (A, intermediate (B and narrowest (C then divided into 4 groups according to the histopathologic diagnosis (G1: hypermelanosis; G2: lentigos; G3: nevus; G4: melanoma. The lesions were measured using the same method. The mean specimen/lesion thickness measure values for each group was: G1: 0,59/0,10 mm, G2: 0,67/0,08 mm, G3: 0,52/0,05 mm, G4: 0,58/0,10 mm. The general average thickness for all the specimens/lesions was 0,59/0,08 mm. We concluded that the tangential excision, for longitudinal melanonychia, provides an adequate material for histopathological diagnosis.

  20. Anatomic and Molecular Development of Corticostriatal Projection Neurons in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohur, U. Shivraj; Padmanabhan, Hari K.; Kotchetkov, Ivan S.; Menezes, Joao R.L.; Macklis, Jeffrey D.

    2014-01-01

    Corticostriatal projection neurons (CStrPN) project from the neocortex to ipsilateral and contralateral striata to control and coordinate motor programs and movement. They are clinically important as the predominant cortical population that degenerates in Huntington's disease and corticobasal ganglionic degeneration, and their injury contributes to multiple forms of cerebral palsy. Together with their well-studied functions in motor control, these clinical connections make them a functionally, behaviorally, and clinically important population of neocortical neurons. Little is known about their development. “Intratelencephalic” CStrPN (CStrPNi), projecting to the contralateral striatum, with their axons fully within the telencephalon (intratelencephalic), are a major population of CStrPN. CStrPNi are of particular interest developmentally because they share hodological and axon guidance characteristics of both callosal projection neurons (CPN) and corticofugal projection neurons (CFuPN); CStrPNi send axons contralaterally before descending into the contralateral striatum. The relationship of CStrPNi development to that of broader CPN and CFuPN populations remains unclear; evidence suggests that CStrPNi might be evolutionary “hybrids” between CFuPN and deep layer CPN—in a sense “chimeric” with both callosal and corticofugal features. Here, we investigated the development of CStrPNi in mice—their birth, maturation, projections, and expression of molecular developmental controls over projection neuron subtype identity. PMID:23118198

  1. Piracetam and vinpocetine ameliorate rotenone-induced Parkinsonism in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitone, Sawsan A.; Abo-Elmatty, Dina M.; Elshazly, Shimaa M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the neuroprotective effect of the nootropic drugs, piracetam (PIR) and vinpocetine (VIN), in rotenone-induced Parkinsonism in rats. Materials and Methods: Sixty male rats were divided into 6 groups of 10 rats each. The groups were administered vehicle, control (rotenone, 1.5 mg/kg/48 h/6 doses, s.c.), PIR (100 and 200 mg/kg/day, p.o.) and VIN (3 and 6 mg/kg/day, p.o.). The motor performance of the rats was evaluated by the open field and pole test. Striatal dopamine level, malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were assayed. Histopathological study of the substantia nigra was also done. Results: Results showed that rotenone-treated rats exhibited bradykinesia and motor impairment in the open-field test. In addition, GSH level was decreased whereas MDA and TNF-α increased in striata of rotenone-treated rats as compared to vehicle-treated rats. Marked degeneration of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) neurons and depletion of striatal dopamine was also observed in the rotenone-treated rats. Treatment with PIR or VIN significantly reversed the locomotor deficits and increased striatal dopamine level. Treatment with VIN significantly (P nootropic agents may be considered as possible candidates in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. PMID:23248410

  2. Neuroprotective Properties of the Standardized Extract from Camellia sinensis (Green Tea and Its Main Bioactive Components, Epicatechin and Epigallocatechin Gallate, in the 6-OHDA Model of Parkinson’s Disease

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    Natália Bitu Pinto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Camellia sinensis (green tea is largely consumed, mainly in Asia. It possesses several biological effects such as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The objectives were to investigate the neuroprotective actions of the standardized extract (CS, epicatechin (EC and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG, on a model of Parkinson’s disease. Male Wistar rats were divided into SO (sham-operated controls, untreated 6-OHDA-lesioned and 6-OHDA-lesioned treated for 2 weeks with CS (25, 50, or 100 mg/kg, EC (10 mg/kg, or EGCG (10 mg/kg groups. One hour after the last administration, animals were submitted to behavioral tests and euthanized and their striata and hippocampi were dissected for neurochemical (DA, DOPAC, and HVA and antioxidant activity determinations, as well as immunohistochemistry evaluations (TH, COX-2, and iNOS. The results showed that CS and catechins reverted behavioral changes, indicating neuroprotection manifested as decreased rotational behavior, increased locomotor activity, antidepressive effects, and improvement of cognitive dysfunction, as compared to the untreated 6-OHDA-lesioned group. Besides, CS, EP, and EGCG reversed the striatal oxidative stress and immunohistochemistry alterations. These results show that the neuroprotective effects of CS and its catechins are probably and in great part due to its powerful antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, pointing out their potential for the prevention and treatment of PD.

  3. Melorheostosis: a review of 23 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freyschmidt, J.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review clinical and radiological signs of melorheostosis in a large series of cases. Family history, patient history, clinical data and radiological features of 23 consecutive cases of melorheostosis were investigated. Criteria for establishing the diagnosis ''melorheostosis'' were defined. Sixteen patients (mean age 34 years, equal ratio between genders) had chronic pain in the affected limb(s) and/or subcutaneous fibrosis and/or various skin lesions. Number of involved bones: one bone (n = 10); two bones (n = 4); three or more bones (n = 9). Anatomic distribution: upper extremity (n = 5); lower extremity (n = 16); upper and lower extremity (n = 1); sacrum (n = 1). Radiologic pattern: osteoma-like (n = 7); classic candle wax appearance (n = 5); myositis ossificans-like (n = 1); osteopathia striata-like (n = 6); mixed pattern (n = 4). Patterns different from the appearance formerly judged to be ''classic'' prevail. The standard concept of disease manifestation has to be adjusted. Pathogenesis remains unclear. The classic theory claims the presence of an early embryonic infection of a sensory nerve inducing changes in the respective sclerotome, but we propose the concept of mosaicism as a better explanation for the sporadic occurrence, the asymmetric ''segmental'' pattern with variable extent of involvement and equal gender ratio of the disease. (orig.)

  4. Neuroprotective Properties of a Standardized Extract from Myracrodruon urundeuva Fr. All. (Aroeira-Do-Sertão, as Evaluated by a Parkinson’s Disease Model in Rats

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    Iana Calou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Myracrodruon urundeuva Fr. All. (Anacardiaceae is a Brazilian medicinal species, which is common to the Northeastern Brazilian semiarid region, whose stem-bark is widely used in folk medicine. It is an endangered species, presenting as main bioactive components tannins and chalcones. In this work, we studied the neuroprotective effects of a standardized extract from cultivated M. urundeuva (SEMU, in a model of Parkinson’s disease. Thus, a unilateral injection of 6-OHDA was done into the rat right stratum. The animals were submitted to stereotaxic surgery, then treated with SEMU (5, 10, 20, or 40 mg/kg, p.o. for 2 weeks, subjected to behavioral tests, and euthanized for striata dissections and neurochemical, histological, and immunohistochemical analyses. We showed, for the first time, that SEMU reverted behavioral alterations seen in the 6-OHDA-lesioned group and partially blocked the decrease in DA and DOPAC contents. The numbers of viable neurons and TH immunopositive cells were increased by SEMU. In addition, the SEMU-treated 6-OHDA groups showed lower numbers of GFAP and OX-42 immunopositive cells. The neuroprotective action of SEMU is possibly related to the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of M. urundeuva, pointing out to its potential use in the prevention or treatment of neurodegenerative conditions, such as Parkinson’s disease.

  5. Ultrastructural and molecular characterization of diversity among small araphid diatoms all lacking rimoportulae. I. Five new genera, eight new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun L; Ashworth, Matt P; Witkowski, Andrzej; Lobban, Christopher S; Zgłobicka, Izabela; Kurzydłowski, Krzysztof J; Qin, Song

    2016-12-01

    Pennate diatoms are important contributors to primary production in freshwater and marine habitats. But the extent of their diversity, ecology, and evolution is still largely unknown. This is particularly evident among the clades of pennate diatoms without raphe slits, whose diversity is likely underestimated due to their small size and features that can be difficult to discern under light microscopy. In this study, we described five new araphid genera with eight new species based on morphological observations (light and electron microscopy) and molecular data (nuclear-encoded small subunit ribosomal RNA and chloroplast-encoded rbcL and psbC): Serratifera varisterna, Hendeyella rhombica, H. dimeregrammopsis, H. lineata, Psammotaenia lanceolata, Castoridens striata, C. hyalina, and Cratericulifera shandongensis. We also transferred Dimeregramma dubium to Hendeyella dubia. Phylogenetic analysis of the molecular data revealed that all the newly established taxa fell into a monophyletic group, with Fragilariforma virescens located at the base. The group was composed by two subclades: one comprising Castoridens, Cratericulifera, and Plagiostriata, and the larger including also the rest of the new genera plus some of the smallest known diatoms, such as Nanofrustulum, Opephora, Pseudostaurosira, Staurosirella, and Staurosira with a high level of support. This study enhances the general knowledge on the phylogeny and biodiversity of a group of small araphid diatoms that have been generally poorly described both by electron microscopy and DNA sequence data. © 2016 Phycological Society of America.

  6. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Mediation of Plant-Plant Interactions in a Marshland Plant Community

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    Qian Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Obligate aerobic AMF taxa have high species richness under waterlogged conditions, but their ecological role remains unclear. Here we focused on AM fungal mediation of plant interactions in a marshland plant community. Five cooccurring plant species were chosen for a neighbor removal experiment in which benomyl was used to suppress AMF colonization. A Phragmites australis removal experiment was also performed to study its role in promoting AMF colonization by increasing rhizosphere oxygen concentration. Mycorrhizal fungal effects on plant interactions were different for dominant and subdominant plant species. AMF colonization has driven positive neighbor effects for three subdominant plant species including Kummerowia striata, Leonurus artemisia, and Ixeris polycephala. In contrast, AMF colonization enhanced the negative effects of neighbors on the dominant Conyza canadensis and had no significant impact on the neighbor interaction to the dominant Polygonum pubescens. AM colonization was positively related to oxygen concentration. P. australis increased oxygen concentration, enhanced AMF colonization, and was thus indirectly capable of influencing plant interactions. Aerobic AM fungi appear to be ecologically relevant in this wetland ecosystem. They drive positive neighbor interactions for subdominant plant species, effectively increasing plant diversity. We suggest, therefore, that AM fungi may be ecologically important even under waterlogged conditions.

  7. Focal dermal hypoplasia (Goltz's syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gündüz, K; Günalp, I; Erden, I

    1997-09-01

    A 17-year-old female with Goltz's syndrome was examined because of visual acuity loss in her right eye. Ocular examination revealed microcornea, iris, choroid and optic disc coloboma in the right eye. There were several erthematous and hyperpigmented areas on the body. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the orbits and brain demonstrated right optic nerve hypoplasia and diffuse cortical and cerebellar atrophy. Skeletal manifestations were short stature, scoliosis, syndactyly, clinodactyly, and osteopathia striata. Dental defects included hypodontia, developmental defects, and malocclusion. There were multiple papillomatous lesions on the lids and perioral skin and the nose was asymmetric. Her mental development was apparently normal. She had left bifid ureter and renal pelvis, scant hair on the pubic and genital region, and poor breast development. Histopathologic examination of the biopsy taken from a characteristic skin lesion revealed attenuated epidermis, hypoplastic dermis, and subcutaneous fat close to epidermis. Immunofluorescence staining was negative for IgG, IgM, IgA, C3, C4, fibrin, and albumin. Ultrastructural examination showed that no viral particles were present. Prometaphase chromosome analysis revealed a normal 46, XX female karyotype. Cortical and cerebellar atrophy can occur in a patient with Goltz's syndrome.

  8. Plant coexistence can enhance phytoextraction of cadmium by tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) in contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ling; Li, Yuefang; Tang, Jianjun; Hu, Liangliang; Chen, Xin

    2011-01-01

    A mesocosm experiment was conducted to investigate whether plant coexistence affects cadmium (Cd) uptake by plant in contaminated soil. Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. var. K326) and Japanese clover (Kummerowia striata (Thunb.) Schindl.) were used. Cadmium was applied as 3CdSO4 x 8H2O in solution at three levels (0, 1, and 3 mg/kg soil) to simulate an unpolluted soil and soils that were slightly and moderately polluted with Cd. Tobacco (crop), Japanese clover (non-crop), and their combination were grown under each Cd treatment. Compared to monoculture and under all Cd treatments, co-planting with Japanese clover did not affect tobacco biomass but significantly increased Cd concentration in all tobacco tissues and enhanced Cd accumulation in tobacco shoots and roots. Compared to monoculture, co-planting reduced soil pH and increased Cd bioavailability. For tobacco, co-planting with Japanese clover increased the Cd bioconcentration factor (BCF) in Cd contaminated soil. Japanese clover also accumulated substantial quantities of Cd in shoots and roots. Thus, total Cd uptake by the plants was much greater with co-planting than with monoculture. The results suggested that phytoextraction can be effectively increased through tobacco co-planting with Japanese clover in mildly Cd-contaminated soil.

  9. Impaired heat shock response in cells expressing full-length polyglutamine-expanded huntingtin.

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    Sidhartha M Chafekar

    Full Text Available The molecular mechanisms by which polyglutamine (polyQ-expanded huntingtin (Htt causes neurodegeneration in Huntington's disease (HD remain unclear. The malfunction of cellular proteostasis has been suggested as central in HD pathogenesis and also as a target of therapeutic interventions for the treatment of HD. We present results that offer a previously unexplored perspective regarding impaired proteostasis in HD. We find that, under non-stress conditions, the proteostatic capacity of cells expressing full length polyQ-expanded Htt is adequate. Yet, under stress conditions, the presence of polyQ-expanded Htt impairs the heat shock response, a key component of cellular proteostasis. This impaired heat shock response results in a reduced capacity to withstand the damage caused by cellular stress. We demonstrate that in cells expressing polyQ-expanded Htt the levels of heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1 are reduced, and, as a consequence, these cells have an impaired a heat shock response. Also, we found reduced HSF1 and HSP70 levels in the striata of HD knock-in mice when compared to wild-type mice. Our results suggests that full length, non-aggregated polyQ-expanded Htt blocks the effective induction of the heat shock response under stress conditions and may thus trigger the accumulation of cellular damage during the course of HD pathogenesis.

  10. Idebenone and resveratrol extend lifespan and improve motor function of HtrA2 knockout mice.

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    Ellen Gerhardt

    Full Text Available Heterozygous loss-of-function mutation of the human gene for the mitochondrial protease HtrA2 has been associated with increased risk to develop mitochondrial dysfunction, a process known to contribute to neurodegenerative disorders such as Huntington's disease (HD and Parkinson's disease (PD. Knockout of HtrA2 in mice also leads to mitochondrial dysfunction and to phenotypes that resemble those found in neurodegenerative disorders and, ultimately, lead to death of animals around postnatal day 30. Here, we show that Idebenone, a synthetic antioxidant of the coenzyme Q family, and Resveratrol, a bioactive compound extracted from grapes, are both able to ameliorate this phenotype. Feeding HtrA2 knockout mice with either compound extends lifespan and delays worsening of the motor phenotype. Experiments conducted in cell culture and on brain tissue of mice revealed that each compound has a different mechanism of action. While Idebenone acts by downregulating the integrated stress response, Resveratrol acts by attenuating apoptosis at the level of Bax. These activities can account for the delay in neuronal degeneration in the striata of these mice and illustrate the potential of these compounds as effective therapeutic approaches against neurodegenerative disorders such as HD or PD.

  11. Evaluation of aerial microbial pollutants in Al-Haram Al-Nabawi during pilgrimage of 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kholoud M. Alananbeh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah is the second holiest site in Islam. The possibility of new emerging microbes is valid due to the increased number of pilgrims. The objectives of the current study were to estimate the numbers of fungi and bacteria inside and outside Al-Haram Al-Nabawi and to find whether new bacterial and fungal species have emerged compared to previous studies. Air samples were collected twice a day from 12 spots and four directions during the pilgrim year of 2013 for four consecutive weeks by using the sedimentation method. Thirty five genera and fifty eight species were identified. The most recovered bacterial genera were Staphylococcus, Micrococcus, Bacillus, and Dermacoccus with 32.47%, 18.18%, 12.85%, and 11.23%, respectively. Fifty nine isolates of fungi were molecularly identified. Aspergillus species had the highest percentage (78%. The other fungal genera identified (Alternaria triticina, Emericella nidulans, Emericella striata, Mucor circinelloides, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium minioluteum, Rhizopus arrhizus, Rhizopus oryzae, and Syncephalastrum racemosum had less than 5% frequency. In places such as Al-Haram Al-Nabawi, a large and crowded public (millions exist especially during pilgrimages and Ramadan, thus, exposure to microorganisms is high. On the other hand, microorganism infectivity depends on many factors including their virulence, landing site, and person’s immunity. For those reasons, many aspects should be considered to avoid aerosol contaminants.

  12. Callovian-Oxfordian bivalves from central Saudi Arabia: Systematic paleontology and paleobiogeography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakhera, Mohamed; El-Hedeny, Magdy; El-Sabbagh, Ahmed; Al Farraj, Saleh

    2017-06-01

    Two hundred and seventy-eight specimens of fossil bivalves were collected from the Tuwaiq Mountain Limestone (Callovian) and the Hanifa Formation (Oxfordian), Central Saudi Arabia. Of all the outcrops studied, the Khashm al Qaddiyah contains the richest assemblage of the bivalves (49%), as regards variety and frequency; followed by Dirab (27%), Jabal al Abakkayn (13%) and Maáshabah (11%). Twenty bivalve species have been identified and systematically described. They belong to fourteen genera, twelve families and nine orders. Among these species, six Callovian species; Grammatodon (Cosmetodon) elongatum (J. Sowerby, 1824), Limea (Pseudolimea) duplicata (Sowerby, 1827), Liostrea multiformis (Koch and Dunker, 1837), Actinostreon marshi (Sowerby, 1814), Eopecten velatus (Goldfuss, 1833) and Ceratomya striata (Sowerby, 1815) and four Callovian-Oxfordian taxa; Musculus (M.) somaliensis (Cox, 1935), Actinostreon erucum (Defrance, 1821), Pholadomya (Ph.) deltoidea Sowerby, 1827 and Ph. (Ph.) socialis Morris and Lycett, 1854 were reported for the first time from the Jurassic deposits of Saudi Arabia. Paleobiogeographically, the studied bivalve assemblage has a dominantly Tethyan character and shows close relationships with Europe, East Africa, India and Iran. In addition, there are considerable links with the Middle East, North Africa and China. No endemic species were recorded from the studied sections.

  13. Clinical report on and CT findings in two siblings with bilateral striatal necrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maya, Kiyomi; Imai, Terukuni; Hashimoto, Shuji; Yamasaki, Masahiro (Kitano Hospital, Osaka (Japan)); Kajiura, Ichiro

    1983-12-01

    Two siblings, a 13-year-old girl and a 9-year-old boy, presented a similar progressive extrapyramidal disorder. The onsets were at the age of 4 years and at that of 2 1/2 years respectively, and a certain febrile illness had preceded it for two or three months in both cases. The major clinical features were progressive gait disturbance, dysarthria, and dystonia; they were associated with secondary skeletal deformities in the sister and with abnormal ocular movements in the brother. The CT findings, essentially similar in both cases, were characterized by symmetrical hypodensity lesions and an atrophy of the corpora striata, namely, the putamen and the caudate nucleus. Based on the clinical features and the CT findings, and on a comparison with the previous clinico-pathological reports in the literature, the present cases were diagnosed as bilateral striatal necrosis. The disorder termed ''bilateral striatal necrosis'' has not been widely known; this report stresses the great usefulness of CT examination in the clinical diagnosis of this rare disorder.

  14. [The ultrastructure of psoriatic nail changes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, T C

    1982-10-07

    The various and subsequent psoriatic nail changes can only be understood on the basis of parakeratotic changes. If parakeratosis is localized in the nail matrix specific changes in the nail will result depending on localization and spreading in the matrix. Punctate indentations (pits) may develop; if there is a ribbon-like, square-dimensioned localization we see streaks and ridges (psoriasis unguis striata). If parakeratotic cells invade the whole of the matrix the so-called psoriasis unguis crateriformis will develop. Well-known to the dermatologist is the irregular salmon-colored patch--a type of psoriasis involving the nail-bed. This salmon-colored patch may finally cause onycholysis semilunaris as the nail plate is not fixed to the nail-bed any longer. There may be onycholysis, too, if the cuticle is involved in the course of the psoriatic change. A long-standing psoriasis of the nails is characterized by para- or hyperkeratotic masses ("Krümelnagel").

  15. Polygonaceae da cadeia do espinhaço, Brasil

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    Melo Efigênia de

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available O estudo da família Polygonaceae é parte do projeto "Estudos de flora e fauna na Cadeia do Espinhaço, Bahia, Brasil". Neste trabalho a área de estudo foi ampliada, abrangendo também as espécies da Cadeia do Espinhaço do Estado de Minas Gerais. A família está representada na área por cinco gêneros, com os respectivos números de espécies: Coccoloba (14: C. acrostichoides, C. alagoensis, C. alnifolia, C. brasiliensis, C. cereifera, C. fastigiata, C. lucidula, C. ochreolata, C. pipericarpa, C. salicifolia, C. scandens, C. schwackeana, C. striata e C. warmingii, Polygonum (6: P. acuminatum, P. ferrugineum, P. hispidum, P. hydropiperoides, P. meisnerianum e P. punctatum, Rumex (1: R. crispus, Ruprechtia (1: R. apetala e Triplaris (1: T. gardneriana. São apresentadas chaves para os gêneros e espécies, bem como descrições, ilustrações, comentários sobre a distribuição geográfica, fenologia e variabilidade para todos os táxons.

  16. Comparing relative abundance, lengths, and habitat of temperate reef fishes using simultaneous underwater visual census, video, and trap sampling

    KAUST Repository

    Bacheler, NM

    2017-04-28

    Unbiased counts of individuals or species are often impossible given the prevalence of cryptic or mobile species. We used 77 simultaneous multi-gear deployments to make inferences about relative abundance, diversity, length composition, and habitat of the reef fish community along the southeastern US Atlantic coast. In total, 117 taxa were observed by underwater visual census (UVC), stationary video, and chevron fish traps, with more taxa being observed by UVC (100) than video (82) or traps (20). Frequency of occurrence of focal species was similar among all sampling approaches for tomtate Haemulon aurolineatum and black sea bass Centropristis striata, higher for UVC and video compared to traps for red snapper Lutjanus campechanus, vermilion snapper Rhomboplites aurorubens, and gray triggerfish Balistes capriscus, and higher for UVC compared to video or traps for gray snapper L. griseus and lionfish Pterois spp. For 6 of 7 focal species, correlations of relative abundance among gears were strongest between UVC and video, but there was substantial variability among species. The number of recorded species between UVC and video was correlated (ρ = 0.59), but relationships between traps and the other 2 methods were weaker. Lengths of fish visually estimated by UVC were similar to lengths of fish caught in traps, as were habitat characterizations from UVC and video. No gear provided a complete census for any species in our study, suggesting that analytical methods accounting for imperfect detection are necessary to make unbiased inferences about fish abundance.

  17. The Relationships between Morphological Characteristics and Foraging Behavior in Four Selected Species of Shorebirds and Water Birds Utilizing Tropical Mudflats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Atiqah Norazlimi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to investigate the relationship between the physical morphology of shorebirds and water birds (i.e., Lesser adjutant (Leptoptilos javanicus, Common redshank (Tringa totanus, Whimbrel (Numenius phaeopus, and Little heron (Butorides striata and their foraging behavior in the mudflats area of Selangor, Peninsular Malaysia, from August 2013 to July 2014 by using direct observation techniques (using binoculars and a video recorder. The actively foraging bird species were watched, and their foraging activities were recorded for at least 30 seconds for up to a maximum of five minutes. A Spearman Rank Correlation highlighted a significant relationship between bill size and foraging time (R=0.443, p<0.05, bill size and prey size (R=-0.052, p<0.05, bill size and probing depth (R=0.42, p=0.003, and leg length and water/mud depth (R=0.706, p<0.005. A Kruskal-Wallis Analysis showed a significant difference between average estimates of real probing depth of the birds (mm and species (H=15.96, p=0.0012. Three foraging techniques were recorded: pause-travel, visual-feeding, and tactile-hunting. Thus, morphological characteristics of bird do influence their foraging behavior and strategies used when foraging.

  18. Inhibiting AP-1 activity alters cocaine induced gene expression and potentiates sensitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paletzki, Ronald F.; Myakishev, Max V.; Polesskaya, Oksana; Orosz, Andras; Hyman, Steven E.; Vinson, Charles

    2008-01-01

    We have expressed A-FOS, an inhibitor of AP-1 DNA binding, in adult mouse striatal neurons. We observe normal behavior including locomotion and exploratory activities. Following a single injection of cocaine, locomotion increased similarly in both the A-FOS expressing and littermate controls. However, following repeated injections of cocaine, the A-FOS expressing mice showed increased locomotion relative to littermate controls, an increase that persisted following a week of withdrawal and subsequent cocaine administration. These results indicate that AP-1 suppresses this behavioral responses to cocaine. We analyzed mRNA from the striatum before and 4 and 24 hours after a single cocaine injection in both A-FOS and control striata using Affymetrix microarrays (430 2.0 Array) to identify genes mis-regulated by A-FOS that may mediate the increased locomotor sensitization to cocaine. A-FOS expression did not change gene expression in the basal state or 4 hours following cocaine treatment relative to controls. However, 24 hours after an acute cocaine treatment, 84 genes were identified that were differentially expressed between the A-FOS and control mice. 56 gene are down regulated while 28 genes are up regulated including previously identified candidates for addiction including BDNF and Per1. Using a random sample of identified genes, quantitative PCR was used to verify the microarray studies. The chromosomal location of these 84 genes was compared to human genome scans of addiction to identify potential genes in humans that are involved in addiction. PMID:18355967

  19. RELATIVE AND ABSOLUTE DENSITY ESTIMATES OF LAND PLANARIANS (PLATYHELMINTHES, TRICLADIDA IN URBAN RAINFOREST PATCHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FERNANDO CARBAYO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Land planarians (Platyhelminthes are likely important components of the soil cryptofauna, although relevant aspects of their ecology such as their density remain largely unstudied. We investigated absolute and relative densities of flatworms in three patches of secondary Brazilian Atlantic rainforest in an urban environment. Two methods of sampling were carried out, one consisting of 90 hours of active search in delimited plots covering 6,000 m² over a year, and the other consisting of leaf litter extraction from a 60 m² soil area, totaling 480-600 l leaf litter. We found 288 specimens of 16 species belonging to the genera Geobia, Geoplana, Issoca, Luteostriata, Obama, Paraba, Pasipha, Rhynchodemus, Xerapoa, and the exotic species Bipalium kewense and Dolichoplana striata. Specimens up to 10 mm long were mostly sampled only with the leaf litter extraction method. Absolute densities, calculated from data obtained with leaf litter extraction, ranged between 1.25 and 2.10 individuals m-2. These values are 30 to 161 times higher than relative densities, calculated from data obtained by active search. Since most common sampling method used in land planarian studies on species composition and faunal inventories is active search for a few hours in a locality, our results suggest that small species might be overlooked. It remains to be tested whether similar densities of this cryptofauna are also found in primary forests.

  20. Eco-restoration of a high-sulphur coal mine overburden dumping site in northeast India: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowarah, J.; Deka Boruah, H. P.; Gogoi, J.; Pathak, N.; Saikia, N.; Handique, A. K.

    2009-10-01

    Eco-restoration of mine overburden (OB) or abandoned mine sites is a major environmental concern. In the present investigation, an integrated approach was used to rejuvenate a high-sulphur mine OB dumping site in the Tirap Collieries, Assam, India, which is situated in the Indo-Burma mega-biodiversity hotspot. A mine OB is devoid of true soil character with poor macro and micronutrient content and contains elevated concentrations of trace and heavy metals. Planting of herbs, shrubs, cover crops and tree species at close proximity leads to primary and secondary sere state succession within a period of 3 to 5 years. A variety of plant species were screened for potential use in restoration: herbs, including Sccharum spontaneum, Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt (citronella), and Cymbopogon flexuosus (lemon grass) cover plants, including Mimosa strigillosa, M. striata, and M. pigra; shrubs, including Sesbania rostrata (dhaincha) and Cassia streata (cassia); and tree species, including Gmelina arborea (gomari) and Dalbergia sissoo (sissoo). Amendment with unmined soil and bio-organic matter was required for primary establishment of some plant species. Management of these plant species at the site will ensure long term sustainable eco-restoration of the coal mine-degraded land.

  1. Distinction of neurochemistry between the cores and their shells of auditory nuclei in tetrapod species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, ShaoJu; Li, Jia; Zhang, XinWen; Zuo, MingXue

    2007-01-01

    The distribution of Met-enkephalin (ENK), substance P (SP) and serotonin (5-HT) differs between the core and shell regions of the mesencephalic and diencephalic auditory nuclei of the turtle [Belekhova et al., 2002]. These neurochemical distinctions are also found in other tetrapods (mammals, birds and amphibians). The distribution of ENK, SP and 5-HT was examined in the core and shell regions of both mesencephalic and diencephalic auditory nuclei, and in the telencephalic auditory areas of Bengalese finches (Lonchura striata) and mice (Mus musculus), as well as in corresponding auditory areas in toads (Bufo bufo). ENK, SP and 5-HT immunoreactive fibers and perikarya were largely absent from the core regions of both mesencephalic and diencephalic auditory nuclei, in comparison with the shell regions of mice and Bengalese finches. In the toad, however, this pattern was observed in the mesencephalic auditory nucleus, but not in the diencephalic auditory areas. ENK and SP immunoreactive perikarya were detected in the telencephalic auditory area of mice, whereas no ENK, SP or 5-HT immunolabeling was observed in the telencephalic auditory area (Field L) of Bengalese finches. These findings are discussed in terms of the evolution of the core-and-shell organization of auditory nuclei of tetrapods. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. How disturbances and management practices affect bird communities in a Carpathian river ecosystem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacko, Jozef; Topercer, Ján; Súľovský, Marek

    2018-04-01

    We studied how interactions between disturbances, succession, human alterations and other habitat and landscape attributes affect bird community patterns in a lower reach of a large West Carpathian river Váh with complex disturbance and alteration histories. Breeding-bird communities, their habitats (54 variables) and surrounding landscapes (11 metrics) were sampled using standardized point counts with limited distances at 40 riparian sites divided among two transects along a 12.9 km river stretch. The most frequent and abundant birds were generalists typically associated with forest edge habitats, such as Parus major, Sylvia atricapilla, Fringilla coelebs, Oriolus oriolus, Phylloscopus collybita, Sturnus vulgaris, Turdus merula and Luscinia megarhynchos. Abundances show significant increase at the lower transect responding apparently to greater size and heterogeneity of riparian habitats and more abundant food supply linked to more diverse and intense human influences in a suburban zone. Both indirect (NMDS) and direct ordination (CCA) revealed remarkably large number of evenly important factors underlying riparian bird-habitat interactions. It suggests considerable environmental heterogeneity and complexity of these interactions as a likely outcome of long and complex disturbance and alteration histories of the area. Yet structure and relative importance of first two gradients (longitudinal and lateral linkages) remains simple and stable, complying well with predictions of river continuum concept and stream ecosystem theory. Of the nine statistically significant variables most strongly correlated with first two CCA axes, percentages of Helianthus tuberosus, footpaths, fields, Calystegia sepium and steep banks uphold our hypotheses predicting significant effects of invasive species, visitor disturbances, agricultural land use and unaltered river banks/bed on bird community composition and structure. A small but significant contribution of patch size standard

  3. Composite biostratigraphy and microfacies analysis of the Upper Jurassic - Lower Cretaceous carbonate platform to slope successions in Sivrihisar (Eskişehir) region (NW Turkey, Pontides): Remarks on the palaeogeographic evolution of the Western Sakarya Zo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atasoy, Serdar G.; Altıner, Demir; Okay, Aral I.

    2017-04-01

    Two stratigraphical sections were measured along the Upper Jurassic - Lower Cretaceous carbonate successions exposed in a tectonic klippe of the Sakarya Zone (Pontides), north of Sivrihisar. According to the biozonation and microfacies types, two coeval but dissimiliar rock successions, separated by a thrust fault, have been detected. These successions belong to different depositional belts of the Edremit-Bursa-Bilecik Carbonate Platform (EBBCP), western Sakarya Zone. The lower succession displays a slope to basin facies and consists of the Kimmeridgian - Berriasian Yosunlukbayırı Formation and the overlying Valanginian Soǧukçam Limestone. Within these deposits the following biozones were defined: Globuligerina oxfordiana - Mohlerina basiliensis Zone (Kimmeridgian), Saccocoma Zone (Lower Tithonian), Protopeneroplis ultragranulata Zone (Upper Tithonian), Crassicollaria (massutiana subzone) Zone (uppermost Tithonian), Calpionella (alpina, Remaniella, elliptica subzones) Zone (Lower Berriasian), Calpionellopsis (simplex, oblonga subzones) Zone (Upper Berriasian) and Calpionellites (darderi subzone) Zone (Lower Valanginian). This succession is overthrusted from north to south by another distinct succession characterized by the shallow marine carbonate facies of the Kimmeridgian Günören Formation. Within this unit Labyrinthina mirabilis - Protopeneroplis striata (Kimmeridgian) Zone is recognized. A facies model is proposed for the Sivrihisar transect of the EBBCP for Kimmeridgian - Valanginian interval, based on the distribution of microfacies types. The toe-of-slope facies are characterized by peloidal-bioclastic packstone, mudstone-wackestone and calpionellid/ radiolarian wackestone-packstone comprising pelagic taxa (calpionellids, radiolaria, Globochaete sp., Pithonella sp., Saccocoma sp., calcareous dinocysts, aptychi, very rare planktonic foraminifera and nannoconids) and rare fossil groups transported from the carbonate platform (benthic foraminifera

  4. Comparative leaf anatomy in argentine Galactia species Anatomía comparada de hoja en especies argentinas de Galactia

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    G. M. Tourn

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of anatomical characters of the leaves of argentine species of Genera Galactia was carried out in order to evaluate their potential value in Taxonomy. In Argentine 14 species and some varieties from Sections Odonia and Collaearia can be found. Section Odonia: G. benthamiana Mich., G. dubia DC., G. fiebrigiana Burkart var. correntina Burkart, G. glaucophylla Harms, G. gracillima Benth., G. latisiliqua Desv., G. longifolia (Jacq. Benth., G. marginalis Benth., G. striata (Jacq. Urban, G. martioides Burkart, G. neesi D. C. var. australis Malme, G. pretiosa Burkart var. pretiosa, G. texana (Scheele A. Gray and G. boavista (Vell. Burkart from Section Collaearia. The characterization of sections is mainly based on reproductive characters, vegetative ones (exomorphological aspects are scarcely considered. The present paper provides a description of anatomical characters of leaves in argentine species of Galactia. Some of them, may have diagnostic value in taxonomic treatment. Special emphasis is placed on the systematic significance of the midvein structure. The aim of the present study, covering 10 species (named in bold, is a to add more data of leaf anatomy characters, thus b to evaluate the systematic relevance and/ or ecological significance.Se realizó un estudio comparativo de la anatomía foliar de especies argentinas del género Galactia (Fabaceae, a fin de evaluar su potencial en taxonomía. En la Argentina se reconocen 14 especies (con algunas variedades, 13 de la sección Odonia -G. benthamiana Mich., G. fiebrigiana Burkart var. correntina Burkart , G. gracillima Benth., G. latisiliqua Desv., G. marginalis Benth., G. striata (Jacq. Urban y G. texana (Scheele A. Gray, G. dubia DC., G. glaucophylla Harms, G. longifolia (Jacq. Benth., G. martioides Burkart, G. neesi DC. var. australis Malme, G. pretiosa Burkart var. Pretiosa- y G. boavista (Vell. Burkart de la sección Collaearia (Burkart, 1971. Los estudios se realizaron en

  5. Structure of the community of nesting birds in a ravine oak wood in the valley of the Oskol river

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Atemasov

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was carried out in a forest on the southern borders of the Central-Russian Upland, on the Prioskolsky plateau, in the Srednedonskoy subprovince of the Pontic steppe province. The aim of this work is to identify the peculiarities of structure and ways of formation of the breeding population of ravine oak forests on the border of two geographic zones. The objectives of the work were to describe quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the population of the nesting birds of ravine oak forests, as well as provide an analysis of the faunogenesic structure of the nesting bird population. To obtain data on the species composition and density of nesting birds we used the line transect method by D. Hayne – Y. Ravkin. The surveys were carried out in 2011–2015 three times per season (April to June. The indicators of the breeding density of each bird species and the totals for each year were calculated. The Polydominant Simpson index was used to characterize species diversity. To evaluate the uniformity we used the calibrated version of G ‘Alatalo index F’. The calculations were performed using the program PAST. In total we observed 34 species of birds over the 5 years of research. The dynamics of the total density of breeding birds in the period researched (2011–2015 showed a maximum in 2013 (1,711 pairs/km2; the average index for the 5 years was 1,288 ± 133 pairs/km2, which is similar to the characteristics of the populations of birds forests of the steppe zone (Donetsk Ridge, Azov Upland. The dominant and subdominant species comprised 32.2–54.7% of the population, indicating a balanced community, in spite of the insular nature of the forest. The absolute dominant in all years was the Chaffinch (an average of 21.2% of the population; subdominant species were the Robin (11.2%, Great Tit (10.5% and the Collared Flycatcher (10.3%. Over a third of the total number of birds are the hollow-nesting birds (37.1%; species

  6. Stimulated serotonin release from hyperinnervated terminals subsequent to neonatal dopamine depletion regulates striatal tachykinin, but not enkephalin gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basura, G J; Walker, P D

    2000-09-30

    Dopamine (DA) depletion in neonatal rodents results in depressed tachykinin and elevated enkephalin gene expression in the adult striatum (STR). Concurrently, serotonin (5-HT) fibers sprout to hyperinnervate the DA-depleted anterior striatum (A-STR). The present study was designed to determine if increased 5-HT release from sprouted terminals influences dysregulated preprotachykinin (PPT) and preproenkephalin (PPE) mRNA expression in the DA-depleted STR. Three-day-old Sprague-Dawley rat pups received bilateral intracerebroventricular injections of vehicle or the DA neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA, 100 microg). Two months later, rats received a single intraperitoneal injection of vehicle or the acute 5-HT releasing agent p-chloroamphetamine (PCA; 10 mg/kg). Rats were killed 4 h later and striata processed for monoamine content by HPLC-ED and mRNA expression by in situ hybridization within specific subregions of the A-STR and posterior striatum (P-STR). 6-OHDA treatment severely (>98%) reduced striatal DA levels, while 5-HT content in the A-STR was significantly elevated (doubled), indicative of 5-HT hyperinnervation. Following 6-OHDA, PPT mRNA levels were depressed 60-66% across three subregions of the A-STR and 52-59% across two subregions of the P-STR, while PPE mRNA expression was elevated in both the A-STR (50-62%) and P-STR (55-82%). PCA normalized PPT mRNA levels in all regions of the DA-depleted A-STR and P-STR, yet did not alter PPE levels in either dorsal central or medial regions from 6-OHDA alone, but reduced PPE to control levels in the dorsal lateral A-STR. These data indicate that increased 5-HT neurotransmission, following neonatal 6-OHDA treatment, primarily influences PPT-containing neurons of the direct striatal output pathway.

  7. Increased L-DOPA-derived dopamine following selective MAO-A or-B inhibition in rat striatum depleted of dopaminergic and serotonergic innervation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sader-Mazbar, O; Loboda, Y; Rabey, M J; Finberg, J P M

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Selective MAO type B (MAO-B) inhibitors are effective in potentiation of the clinical effect of L-DOPA in Parkinson's disease, but dopamine (DA) is deaminated mainly by MAO type A (MAO-A) in rat brain. We sought to clarify the roles of MAO-A and MAO-B in deamination of DA formed from exogenous L-DOPA in rat striatum depleted of dopaminergic, or both dopaminergic and serotonergic innervations. We also studied the effect of organic cation transporter-3 (OCT-3) inhibition by decinium-22 on extracellular DA levels following L-DOPA. Experimental Approach Striatal dopaminergic and/or serotonergic neuronal innervations were lesioned by 6-hydroxydopamine or 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine respectively. Microdialysate DA levels after systemic L-DOPA were measured after inhibition of MAO-A or MAO-B by clorgyline or rasagiline respectively. MAO subtype localization in the striatum was determined by immunofluorescence. Key Results Rasagiline increased DA extracellular levels following L-DOPA to a greater extent in double-than in single-lesioned rats (2.8-and 1.8-fold increase, respectively, relative to saline treatment); however, clorgyline elevated DA levels in both models over 10-fold. MAO-A was strongly expressed in medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in intact and lesioned striata, while MAO-B was localized in glia and to a small extent in MSNs. Inhibition of OCT-3 increased DA levels in the double-more than the single-lesion animals. Conclusions and Implications In striatum devoid of dopaminergic and serotonergic inputs, most deamination of L-DOPA-derived DA is mediated by MAO-A in MSN and a smaller amount by MAO-B in both MSN and glia. OCT-3 plays a significant role in uptake of DA from extracellular space. Inhibitors of OCT-3 are potential future targets for anti-Parkinsonian treatments. PMID:23992249

  8. Mutagenic effect of gamma-rays on improvement of yield attributing traits of greengram (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, T.R.; Baisakh, B.

    2014-01-01

    Seed samples of two morphologically distinct varieties (Sujata and OBGG-52) of greengram were treated with three doses of Gamma-rays (200 Gy, 400 Gy and 600 Gy). Mutagenic treatments in general showed reduction in mean values of germination, survival and plant growth traits in comparison to control in M 1 generation and the magnitude of reduction was directly related to the dose of the mutagens. The spectrum of chlorophyll mutations includes albina, xantha, chlorina, striata and viridis in both the varieties. The varied morphological mutations observed in leaf of both the genotypes were tricotyledonary, quadrifoliate, pentafoliate and lobed leaf. Early flowering, late flowering, tall plant, trailing type, profused poded, bold poded and sterile plant were also observed as an effect of mutagen in both the genotypes. The M 2 populations showed wider range of variations than the parent varieties. Magnitude of changes varied with mutagen dose and the varieties. Higher the dose of treatment, greater the shift in the mean and variance of different yield parameters. Genetic advance estimates showed that selection in M 2 populations would be effective in improving the yield/plant. Following selection among M 2 plants and M 3 progenies on the basis of higher yield, high yielding mutant cultures in both varieties were isolated in M 4 and evaluated in M 5 generation. Gamma-ray dose of 200 Gy was most effective for improving the yield traits in both the genotypes as it brought out improvement in pods/plant, pod length and 100-seed wt. where as 400 Gy improved 100- seed wt. in only Sujata and 600 Gy improved pod length and seeds/pod only. Isolation of high yielding lines from the gamma-rays treated population of greengram proved that different doses of gamma rays induced improvement of different yield attributing characters in greengram. (author)

  9. Nicotinic α4β2 receptor imaging agents. Part III. Synthesis and biological evaluation of 3-(2-(S)-azetidinylmethoxy)-5-(3′-18F-fluoropropyl)pyridine (18F-nifzetidine)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichika, Rama; Easwaramoorthy, Balu; Christian, Bradley T.; Shi, Bingzhi; Narayanan, Tanjore K.; Collins, Daphne; Mukherjee, Jogeshwar

    2011-01-01

    Thalamic and extrathalamic nicotinic α4β2 receptors found in the brain have been implicated in Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, substance abuse and other disorders. We report here the development of 3-(2-(S)-azetidinylmethoxy)-5-(3′-fluoropropyl)pyridine (nifzetidine) as a new putative high-affinity antagonist for nicotinic α4β2 receptors. Nifzetidine in rat brain homogenate assays containing α4β2 sites labeled with 3 H-cytisine exhibited a binding affinity: Ki=0.67 nM. The fluorine-18 analog, 3-(2-(S)-azetidinylmethoxy)-5-(3′- 18 F-fluoropropyl)pyridine ( 18 F-nifzetidine), was synthesized in 20%–40% yield, and apparent specific activity was estimated to be above 2 Ci/μmol. Rat brain slices indicated selective binding of 18 F-nifzetidine to thalamus, subiculum, striata, cortex and other regions consistent with α4β2 receptor distribution. This selective binding was displaced >85% by 150 μM nicotine. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging studies of 18 F-nifzetidine in anesthetized rhesus monkey showed slow uptake in the various brain regions. Retention of 18 F-nifzetidine was maximal in the thalamus and lateral geniculate followed by regions of the temporal and frontal cortex. Cerebellum showed the least uptake. Thalamus to cerebellum ratio was about 2.3 at 180 min postinjection and continued to rise. 18 F-Nifzetidine shows promise as a new PET imaging agent for α4β2 nAChR. However, the slow kinetics suggests a need for >3-h PET scans for quantitative studies of the α4β2 nAChRs.

  10. The basal ganglia matching tools package for striatal uptake semi-quantification: description and validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvini, Piero; Rodriguez, Guido; Nobili, Flavio; Inguglia, Fabrizio; Mignone, Alessandro; Guerra, Ugo P.

    2007-01-01

    To design a novel algorithm (BasGan) for automatic segmentation of striatal 123 I-FP-CIT SPECT. The BasGan algorithm is based on a high-definition, three-dimensional (3D) striatal template, derived from Talairach's atlas. A blurred template, obtained by convolving the former with a 3D Gaussian kernel (FWHM = 10 mm), approximates striatal activity distribution. The algorithm performs translations and scale transformation on the bicommissural aligned image to set the striatal templates with standard size in an appropriate initial position. An optimization protocol automatically performs fine adjustments in the positioning of blurred templates to best match the radioactive counts, and locates an occipital ROI for background evaluation. Partial volume effect correction is included in the process of uptake computation of caudate, putamen and background. Experimental validation was carried out by means of six acquisitions of an anthropomorphic striatal phantom. The BasGan software was applied to a first set of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) versus patients affected by essential tremor. A highly significant correlation was achieved between true binding potential and measured 123 I activity from the phantom. 123 I-FP-CIT uptake was significantly lower in all basal ganglia in the PD group versus controls with both BasGan and a conventional ROI method used for comparison, but particularly with the former. Correlations with the motor UPDRS score were far more significant with the BasGan. The novel BasGan algorithm automatically performs the 3D segmentation of striata. Because co-registered MRI is not needed, it can be used by all nuclear medicine departments, since it is freely available on the Web. (orig.)

  11. Global scaling for semi-quantitative analysis in FP-CIT SPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupitz, D; Apostolova, I; Lange, C; Ulrich, G; Amthauer, H; Brenner, W; Buchert, R

    2014-01-01

    Semi-quantitative characterization of dopamine transporter availability from single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with 123I-ioflupane (FP-CIT) is based on uptake ratios relative to a reference region. The aim of this study was to evaluate the whole brain as reference region for semi-quantitative analysis of FP-CIT SPECT. The rationale was that this might reduce statistical noise associated with the estimation of non-displaceable FP-CIT uptake. 150 FP-CIT SPECTs were categorized as neurodegenerative or non-neurodegenerative by an expert. Semi-quantitative analysis of specific binding ratios (SBR) was performed with a custom-made tool based on the Statistical Parametric Mapping software package using predefined regions of interest (ROIs) in the anatomical space of the Montreal Neurological Institute. The following reference regions were compared: predefined ROIs for frontal and occipital lobe and whole brain (without striata, thalamus and brainstem). Tracer uptake in the reference region was characterized by the mean, median or 75th percentile of its voxel intensities. The area (AUC) under the receiver operating characteristic curve was used as performance measure. The highest AUC of 0.973 was achieved by the SBR of the putamen with the 75th percentile in the whole brain as reference. The lowest AUC for the putamen SBR of 0.937 was obtained with the mean in the frontal lobe as reference. We recommend the 75th percentile in the whole brain as reference for semi-quantitative analysis in FP-CIT SPECT. This combination provided the best agreement of the semi-quantitative analysis with visual evaluation of the SPECT images by an expert and, therefore, is appropriate to support less experienced physicians.

  12. Mechanisms of copper ion mediated Huntington's disease progression.

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    Jonathan H Fox

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Huntington's disease (HD is caused by a dominant polyglutamine expansion within the N-terminus of huntingtin protein and results in oxidative stress, energetic insufficiency and striatal degeneration. Copper and iron are increased in the striata of HD patients, but the role of these metals in HD pathogenesis is unknown. We found, using inductively-coupled-plasma mass spectroscopy, that elevations of copper and iron found in human HD brain are reiterated in the brains of affected HD transgenic mice. Increased brain copper correlated with decreased levels of the copper export protein, amyloid precursor protein. We hypothesized that increased amounts of copper bound to low affinity sites could contribute to pro-oxidant activities and neurodegeneration. We focused on two proteins: huntingtin, because of its centrality to HD, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, because of its documented sensitivity to copper, necessity for normoxic brain energy metabolism and evidence for altered lactate metabolism in HD brain. The first 171 amino acids of wild-type huntingtin, and its glutamine expanded mutant form, interacted with copper, but not iron. N171 reduced Cu(2+in vitro in a 1:1 copper:protein stoichiometry indicating that this fragment is very redox active. Further, copper promoted and metal chelation inhibited aggregation of cell-free huntingtin. We found decreased LDH activity, but not protein, and increased lactate levels in HD transgenic mouse brain. The LDH inhibitor oxamate resulted in neurodegeneration when delivered intra-striatially to healthy mice, indicating that LDH inhibition is relevant to neurodegeneration in HD. Our findings support a role of pro-oxidant copper-protein interactions in HD progression and offer a novel target for pharmacotherapeutics.

  13. Neuropeptide Y mitigates neuropathology and motor deficits in mouse models of Machado-Joseph disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte-Neves, Joana; Gonçalves, Nélio; Cunha-Santos, Janete; Simões, Ana Teresa; den Dunnen, Wilfred F A; Hirai, Hirokazu; Kügler, Sebastian; Cavadas, Cláudia; Pereira de Almeida, Luís

    2015-10-01

    Machado-Joseph disease (MJD) is a fatal, dominantly inherited neurodegenerative disorder associated with an expanded polyglutamine tract within the ataxin-3 protein, and characterized by progressive impairment of motor coordination, associated with neurodegeneration of specific brain regions, including cerebellum and striatum. The currently available therapies do not allow modification of disease progression. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) has been shown to exert potent neuroprotective effects by multiple pathways associated with the MJD mechanisms of disease. Thus, we evaluated NPY levels in MJD and investigated whether raising NPY by gene transfer would alleviate neuropathological and behavioural deficits in cerebellar and striatal mouse models of the disease. For that, a cerebellar transgenic and a striatal lentiviral-based models of MJD were used. NPY overexpression in the affected brain regions in these two mouse models was obtained by stereotaxic injection of adeno-associated viral vectors encoding NPY. Up to 8 weeks after viral injection, balance and motor coordination behaviour and neuropathology were analysed. We observed that NPY levels were decreased in two MJD patients' cerebella and in striata and cerebella of disease mouse models. Furthermore, overexpression of NPY alleviated the motor coordination impairments and attenuated the related neuropathological parameters, preserving cerebellar volume and granular layer thickness, reducing striatal lesion and decreasing mutant ataxin-3 aggregation. Additionally, NPY mediated increase of brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels and decreased neuroinflammation markers. Our data suggest that NPY is a potential therapeutic strategy for MJD. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. NEW HETTANGIAN AMMONITE FAUNAS AND A TRIASSIC - JURASSIC BOUNDARY SUCCESSION, FERNIE FORMATION, WILLISTON LAKE, BRITISH COLUMBIA

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    RUSSELL HALL

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available A relatively new shoreline section on Peace Reach, Williston Lake, north-eastern British Columbia, provides continuous exposure through a Triassic-Jurassic boundary succession, with apparent stratigraphic continuity from the Pardonet Formation (Upper Norian into the overlying Fernie Formation (Hettangian and younger. These rocks are part of autochthonous North America, deposited along the western margin of the Jurassic craton. The section at Black Bear Ridge consists of 22 m of flaggy-bedded, brown-weathering siltstones and several thick, resistant siltstones, and contains calcareous concretions which have yielded most of the three-dimensional ammonites. While it is clear these ammonites represent parts of the lower, middle and upper Hettangian, the sequence of faunas differs somewhat from those reported from the Queen Charlotte Islands and Nevada. This is the first record of an extensive sequence of Hettangian strata and ammonite faunas in the Fernie Formation. Lower Hettangian faunas include poorly preserved, laterally flattened Psiloceras (P. majus, P. plicatum, P. cf. rectocostatum, P. cf. planocostatum, occurring throughout the lower part of the section from 3.0 to 8.3 m. At 9.5 m Waehneroceras appears, representing the middle Hettangian, followed by Sunrisites sunrisense at 10.8 m, and the first Schlotheimia at 13.3 m. A single large specimen of Alsatites liasicus is associated with these faunas. Beds above 13.3 m yield several species of Schlotheimia (S. angulata, S. angulata densicostata, S. cf. oxygonia, Kammerkarites frigga and Laqueoceras sp., indicating the lower parts of the upper Hettangian. Uppermost Hettangian faunas occur at the top of the exposed section in beds from 21.0 to 21.7 m, and include Badouxia (B. canadensis, B. striata, B. oregonensis and Pseudaetomoceras doetzkirchneri.

  15. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and phosphate fertilization on initial growth of six arboreal species of cerrado

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    Kenia Alves Pereira Lacerda

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the benefit of inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, Glomus clarum, for the initial growth of some native arboreal species of the Cerrado biome, namely gabiroba (Campomanesia cambessedeana, baru (Dipterix alata, jatobá (Hymenaea courbaril, ingá (Inga laurina, caroba (Jacaranda cuspidifolia and chichá (Sterculia striata, in unsterilized soil with low (0.02 mg L‑1 and high (0.2 mg L‑1 concentrations of P in the soil solution. Experiments were conducted in a greenhouse, using 1.5 kg vases, for up to 120 days. The experimental design for each arboreal species was completely randomized, with ten replicates in a 2x2 factorial design (inoculated and noninoculated seedlings, and two levels of phosphorus (P in the soil solution. Arboreal plants of the Cerrado biome showed increased mycorrhizal colonization from inoculation with Glomus clarum, except chichá, as this species showed a high indigenous colonization, not differing from the colonization promoted by inoculated fungi. Inoculation promoted increased growth in baru, gabiroba, ingá, caroba and chichá, increasing shoot dry matter (MSPA and root dry matter (MSR. In caroba, this effect was synergistic with application of P to the soil. Baru and jatobá showed increased dry matter with application of P to the soil only. The mycotrophy (mycorrhizal dependence of species and their response to inoculation and to phosphorus are discussed. In order to produce quality seedlings of caroba, gabiroba, chichá and ingá, combining inoculation with Glomus clarum and phosphate fertilization of the soil is recommended, while for jatobá and baru only the application of P to the soil is recommended.

  16. Phylogenies of symbiotic genes of Bradyrhizobium symbionts of legumes of economic and environmental importance in Brazil support the definition of the new symbiovars pachyrhizi and sojae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delamuta, Jakeline Renata Marçon; Menna, Pâmela; Ribeiro, Renan Augusto; Hungria, Mariangela

    2017-07-01

    Bradyrhizobium comprises most tropical symbiotic nitrogen-fixing strains, but the correlation between symbiotic and core genes with host specificity is still unclear. In this study, the phylogenies of the nodY/K and nifH genes of 45 Bradyrhizobium strains isolated from legumes of economic and environmental importance in Brazil (Arachis hypogaea, Acacia auriculiformis, Glycine max, Lespedeza striata, Lupinus albus, Stylosanthes sp. and Vigna unguiculata) were compared to 16S rRNA gene phylogeny and genetic diversity by rep-PCR. In the 16S rRNA tree, strains were distributed into two superclades-B. japonicum and B. elkanii-with several strains being very similar within each clade. The rep-PCR analysis also revealed high intra-species diversity. Clustering of strains in the nodY/K and nifH trees was identical: 39 strains isolated from soybean grouped with Bradyrhizobium type species symbionts of soybean, whereas five others occupied isolated positions. Only one strain isolated from Stylosanthes sp. showed similar nodY/K and nifH sequences to soybean strains, and it also nodulated soybean. Twenty-one representative strains of the 16S rRNA phylogram were selected and taxonomically classified using a concatenated glnII-recA phylogeny; nodC sequences were also compared and revealed the same clusters as observed in the nodY/K and nifH phylograms. The analyses of symbiotic genes indicated that a large group of strains from the B. elkanii superclade comprised the novel symbiovar sojae, whereas for another group, including B. pachyrhizi, the symbiovar pachyrhizi could be proposed. Other potential new symbiovars were also detected. The co-evolution hypotheses is discussed and it is suggested that nodY/K analysis would be useful for investigating the symbiotic diversity of the genus Bradyrhizobium. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Attenuation and scatter correction in I-123 FP-CIT SPECT do not affect the clinical diagnosis of dopaminergic system neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akahoshi, Miho; Abe, Koichiro; Uchiyama, Yumiko; Momose, Mitsuru; Fukushima, Kenji; Kitagawa, Kazuo; Sakai, Shuji

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of different reconstruction factors in N-ω-fluoropropyl-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-I-123 iodophenyl)nortropane (I-123 FP-CIT) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images for the diagnosis of dopaminergic system neurodegeneration (DSND).Seventy-three patients (38 females, 35 males) suspected of DSND were included in this study. The patients were divided into 3 groups on the basis of their final clinical diagnoses; patients with Parkinson disease (group 1, n = 36), patients with other DSND (group 2, n = 19), patients without DSND (group 3, n = 18). FP-CIT accumulation in the striata was evaluated visually and semiquantitatively. SPECT images were classified visually as normal or abnormal based on the previous report. For semiquantitative analysis, we used DaTView software (Aze Corporation), and specific binding ratios (SBR) and asymmetry indices (AI) were calculated. Visual and semiquantitative evaluations for different reconstruction factors were compared among the 3 groups.In the visual evaluation, there were no differences among DSND diagnostic capabilities of attenuation and scatter correction by computed tomography attenuation correction scatter correction, computed tomography attenuation correction, Chang attenuation correction, and non-attenuation and -scatter correction. In the semiquantitative evaluation, receiver operating characteristic analysis of SBR and AI for clinical DSND diagnostic ability (group 1+2 vs 3) showed no significant difference among the reconstruction factors by multiple comparisons.Although the values of SBR and AI were changed and image quality could be improved when attenuation correction and/or scatter correction were applied, the clinical impact of these reconstruction factors for the diagnosis of DSND was negligible.

  18. Pteridófitas da região noroeste do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil: Dennstaedtiaceae Pteridophytes of the North-western region of the State of São Paulo, Brazil: Dennstaedtiaceae

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    Claudia R Siqueira

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho faz parte de uma série de estudos sobre pteridófitas da região noroeste do Estado de São Paulo. Os representantes da família Dennstaedtiaceae são encontrados principalmente nas margens das matas ciliares e em barrancos úmidos e sombreados, com exceção de Pteridium que geralmente ocorre em lugares abertos e ensolarados. Ocorrem na região os gêneros Dennstaedtia com duas espécies (D. cicutaria (Sw. Moore e D. globulifera (Poir. Hieroni, Lindsaea com três espécies (L. lancea (L. Bedd., L. quadratigularis Raddi e L. striata (Sw. Dryand. e Pteridium com uma espécie e variedade (P aquilinum (L. Kuhn var. arachnoideum (Kaulf. Brade. Descrições, ilustrações, chaves de identificação, bem como distribuição geográfica e habitats de cada espécie são apresentados.This work is part of a series of studies on pteridophytes of the North-western region of the State of São Paulo. The representatives of the family Dennstaedtiaceae are found mainly at the margins of the ciliary forests as well as in humid and shaded ravines, except for Pteridium which, generally occurs in open and sunny places. The genera Dennstaedtia with two species (D. cicutaria (Sw. Moore and D. globulifera (Poir. Hieroni, Lindsaea with three species (L. lancea (L. Bedd., L. quadrangular is Raddi and L. stricta (Sw. Dryand., and Pteridium with a species and variety (P aquilinum (L. Kuhn var. arachnoideum (Kaulf. Brade, have been found in this region. Descriptions, illustrations, identification keys, geographical distribution, and habitats of each species are presented.

  19. Conservative surgical management of subungual (matrix derived) melanoma: report of seven cases and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sureda, N; Phan, A; Poulalhon, N; Balme, B; Dalle, S; Thomas, L

    2011-10-01

    Subungual melanoma (SUM) is a rare entity, comprising approximately 0·7-3·5% of all melanoma subtypes. SUM histopathologically belongs to the acral lentiginous pathological subtype of malignant melanoma. Its diagnosis is helped by dermoscopy but pathological examination of doubtful cases is required. Classical management of SUM is based on radical surgery, namely distal phalanx amputation. Conservative treatment with nonamputative wide excision of the nail unit followed by a skin graft has been insufficiently reported in the medical literature even though it is performed in many centres. To report a series of patients with in situ or minimally invasive SUM treated by conservative surgery, to investigate the postoperative evolution and to evaluate the outcome with a review of the literature. We performed a retrospective extraction study from our melanoma register of all patients with in situ and minimally invasive SUM treated with conservative surgery in the University Hospital Department of Dermatology, Lyon, France from 2004 to 2009. The patient demographics, disease presentation, delay to diagnosis, histopathology and postoperative evolution were reviewed. Seven cases of SUM treated as such were identified in our melanoma database. All cases had a clinical presentation of melanonychia striata. The mean delay to diagnosis was 2years. Surgical excision of the entire nail unit with a 5-10mm safety margin without bone resection followed by full-thickness skin graft taken from the arm was performed in all cases. No recurrence was observed with a mean follow-up of 45months. Functional results were found satisfactory by all patients and their referring physicians. Sixty-two other cases have been found in the literature and are also discussed. Conservative surgical management in patients with in situ or minimally invasive SUM is a procedure with good cosmetic and functional outcome and, in our cases as well as in the literature, the prognosis is not changed. © 2011

  20. Simulating effects of brain atrophy in longitudinal PET imaging with an anthropomorphic brain phantom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonasson, L. S.; Axelsson, J.; Riklund, K.; Boraxbekk, C. J.

    2017-07-01

    In longitudinal positron emission tomography (PET), the presence of volumetric changes over time can lead to an overestimation or underestimation of the true changes in the quantified PET signal due to the partial volume effect (PVE) introduced by the limited spatial resolution of existing PET cameras and reconstruction algorithms. Here, a 3D-printed anthropomorphic brain phantom with attachable striata in three sizes was designed to enable controlled volumetric changes. Using a method to eliminate the non-radioactive plastic wall, and manipulating BP levels by adding different number of events from list-mode acquisitions, we investigated the artificial volume dependence of BP due to PVE, and potential bias arising from varying BP. Comparing multiple reconstruction algorithms we found that a high-resolution ordered-subsets maximization algorithm with spatially variant point-spread function resolution modeling provided the most accurate data. For striatum, the BP changed by 0.08% for every 1% volume change, but for smaller volumes such as the posterior caudate the artificial change in BP was as high as 0.7% per 1% volume change. A simple gross correction for striatal volume is unsatisfactory, as the amplitude of the PVE on the BP differs depending on where in the striatum the change occurred. Therefore, to correctly interpret age-related longitudinal changes in the BP, we must account for volumetric changes also within a structure, rather than across the whole volume. The present 3D-printing technology, combined with the wall removal method, can be implemented to gain knowledge about the predictable bias introduced by the PVE differences in uptake regions of varying shape.

  1. Potensi Ikan Air Tawar Budidaya sebagai Bahan Baku Produk Nutraseutikal Berbasis Serum Albumin Ikan

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    Rini Susilowati

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Nutraseutikal berbasis Fish Serum Albumin (FSA adalah produk komersial yang berasal dari sumber perairan. Namun, oleh karena produk ini secara umum diproduksi dari ikan gabus (Channa striata di alam, pasokan bahan baku dapat menjadi masalah pada produksi yang berkesinambungan. Penelitian ini telah dilakukan dengan menganalisis kandungan FSA dari 17 ikan air tawar budidaya, untuk mendapatkan bahan baku alternatif bagi produk nutraseutikal berbasis FSA. 3–10 individu ikan air tawar (150–500 g dari jenis ordo Perciformes, Anguilliformes, Cypriniformes, Osteoglossiformes, dan Siluriformes telah diambil secara acak dari lokasi budidaya ikan di Bogor dan Cianjur (Jawa Barat. Ekstraksi protein larut air dilakukan menggunakan Ultra Turax homogeniser dengan pelarut akuabides. Analisis FSA telah dilakukan menggunakan High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. Hasil dari penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kadar FSA dari 17 ekstrak air dari ikan berada pada rentang 42,51 to 215,57 mg/g, dengan kadar FSAikan gabus pembanding adalah 107,28 ± 3,2 mg/g. Konsentrasi FSA tertinggi ditemukan sebesar 215,57 ± 52,84 mg/g dari ekstrak air ikan gurame (Osphronemus gouramy. Analisis lebih lanjut terhadap komposisi asam amino menggunakan Gas Chromatography – Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID menemukan bahwa ekstrak air ikan gabus memiliki konsentrasi asam amino esensial dan non-esensial yang lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan ikan gurame. Hal ini menunjukkan banyaknya protein lain selain FSA pada ekstrak air ikan gabus dibandingkan ikan gurame. Berdasarkan hasil ini, ekstrak air ikan gurame memiliki konsentrasi FSA yang lebih besar dan relatif lebih murni dibandingkan ekstrak air ikan gabus, sehingga merupakan alternatif yang prospektif sebagai bahan baku untuk produk nutraseutikal berbasis FSA.

  2. Nicotinic α4β2 receptor imaging agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichika, Rama; Easwaramoorthy, Balasubramaniam; Collins, Daphne; Christian, Bradley T.; Shi, Bingzhi; Narayanan, Tanjore K.; Potkin, Steven G.; Mukherjee, Jogeshwar

    2006-01-01

    The α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) has been implicated in various neurodegenerative diseases. Optimal positron emission tomography (PET) imaging agents are therefore highly desired for this receptor. We report here the development and initial evaluation of 2-fluoro-3-[2-((S)-3-pyrrolinyl)methoxy]pyridine (nifene). In vitro binding affinity of nifene in rat brain homogenate using 3 H-cytisine exhibited a K i =0.50 nM for the α4β2 sites. The radiosynthesis of 2- 18 F-fluoro-3-[2-((S)-3-pyrrolinyl)methoxy]pyridine ( 18 F-nifene) was accomplished in 2.5 h with an overall radiochemical yield of 40-50%, decay corrected. The specific activity was estimated to be approx. 37-185 GBq/μmol. In vitro autoradiography in rat brain slices indicated selective binding of 18 F-nifene to anteroventral thalamic (AVT) nucleus, thalamus, subiculum, striata, cortex and other regions consistent with α4β2 receptor distribution. Rat cerebellum showed some binding, whereas regions in the hippocampus had the lowest binding. The highest ratio of >13 between AVT and cerebellum was measured for 18 F-nifene in rat brain slices. The specific binding was reduced (>95%) by 300 μM nicotine in these brain regions. Positron emission tomography imaging study of 18 F-nifene (130 MBq) in anesthetized rhesus monkey was carried out using an ECAT EXACT HR+ scanner. PET study showed selective maximal uptake in the regions of the anterior medial thalamus, ventro-lateral thalamus, lateral geniculate, cingulate gyrus, temporal cortex including the subiculum. The cerebellum in the monkeys showed lower binding than the other regions. Thalamus-to-cerebellum ratio peaked at 30-35 min postinjection to a value of 2.2 and subsequently reduced. The faster binding profile of 18 F-nifene indicates promise as a PET imaging agent and thus needs further evaluation

  3. Adaptive gene regulation in the Striatum of RGS9-deficient mice.

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    Kathy Busse

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: RGS9-deficient mice show drug-induced dyskinesia but normal locomotor activity under unchallenged conditions. RESULTS: Genes related to Ca2+ signaling and their functions were regulated in RGS9-deficient mice. CONCLUSION: Changes in Ca2+ signaling that compensate for RGS9 loss-of-function can explain the normal locomotor activity in RGS9-deficient mice under unchallenged conditions. SIGNIFICANCE: Identified signaling components may represent novel targets in antidyskinetic therapy. The long splice variant of the regulator of G-protein signaling 9 (RGS9-2 is enriched in striatal medium spiny neurons and dampens dopamine D2 receptor signaling. Lack of RGS9-2 can promote while its overexpression prevents drug-induced dyskinesia. Other animal models of drug-induced dyskinesia rather pointed towards overactivity of dopamine receptor-mediated signaling. To evaluate changes in signaling pathways mRNA expression levels were determined and compared in wild-type and RGS9-deficient mice. Unexpectedly, expression levels of dopamine receptors were unchanged in RGS9-deficient mice, while several genes related to Ca2+ signaling and long-term depression were differentially expressed when compared to wild type animals. Detailed investigations at the protein level revealed hyperphosphorylation of DARPP32 at Thr34 and of ERK1/2 in striata of RGS9-deficient mice. Whole cell patch clamp recordings showed that spontaneous synaptic events are increased (frequency and size in RGS9-deficient mice while long-term depression is reduced in acute brain slices. These changes are compatible with a Ca2+-induced potentiation of dopamine receptor signaling which may contribute to the drug-induced dyskinesia in RGS9-deficient mice.

  4. MPTP-Parkinsonism is accompanied by persistent expression of a delta-FosB-like protein in dopaminergic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Otaño, I; Mandelzys, A; Morgan, J I

    1998-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by the relatively selective and progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. During the early stages of PD, there are marked compensatory changes in the dopaminergic system, although little is known of how these responses are orchestrated. Since the induction of cellular immediate-early genes (cIEG) has been linked to adaptive responses in the nervous system, we examined their expression in the N-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) murine model of PD. MPTP elicited an induction of c-fos, fosB, Delta-fosB and c-jun mRNAs in the striatum that persisted for 24 h. There was a parallel increase in AP-1-like DNA binding activity for up to 7 days post-treatment. At 7 days, AP-1 complexes were specifically supershifted with antisera to FosB and JunD. Immunoblotting of MPTP-treated striata with a FosB-specific antiserum revealed elevated levels of approximately 35 and approximately 46 kDa cross-reactive proteins. Only the 35 kDa protein was increased at 7 days. Thus, the persistent AP-1 complex seen in the MPTP-treated striatum is composed of JunD and a 35 kDa FosB-related protein, possibly Delta-FosB. In situ hybridization revealed elevated expression of fosB and Delta-fosB in the MPTP-treated brain. Expression of both transcripts was highest in ventral striatum, nucleus accumbens and other terminal fields of the mesolimbic system, such as the olfactory tubercle and Islands of Calleja. Thus, the increased fosB expression accompanying MPTP treatment was predominantly associated with dopaminergic pathways. Since FosB was expressed in both vulnerable and spared neuronal populations, we suggest that Delta-FosB-JunD heterodimers play a role in the adaptive response to MPTP neurotoxicity.

  5. The islands are different: human perceptions of game species in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohr, Cheryl A; Lepczyk, Christopher A; Johnson, Edwin D

    2014-10-01

    Hawaii's game animals are all non-native species, which provokes human-wildlife conflict among stakeholders. The management of human-wildlife conflict in Hawaii is further complicated by the discrete nature of island communities. Our goal was to understand the desires and perceived values or impacts of game held by residents of Hawaii regarding six game species [pigs (Sus scrofa), goats (Capra hircus), mouflon (Ovis musimon), axis deer (Axis axis), turkeys (Melagris gallopavo), and doves (Geopelia striata)]. We measured the desired abundance of game on the six main Hawaiian Islands using the potential for conflict index and identified explanatory variables for those desires via recursive partitioning. In 2011 we surveyed 5,407 residents (2,360 random residents and 3,047 pre-identified stakeholders). Overall 54.5 and 27.6 % of the emailed and mailed surveys were returned (n = 1,510). A non-respondent survey revealed that respondents and non-respondents had similar interest in wildlife, and a similar education level. The desired abundance of game differed significantly among stakeholders, species, and islands. The desired abundance scores were higher for axis deer, mouflon, and turkeys compared to pigs, goats or doves. Enjoyment at seeing game and the cultural value of game were widespread explanatory variables for desired abundance. Models for Lanai emphasized the economic value of game, whereas models for Maui identified the potential for game to contaminate soil and water. Models for Oahu and Kauai revealed concern for human health and safety. Given our findings we recommend managers design separate management plans for each island taking into consideration the values of residents.

  6. Cellular immune responses and phagocytic activity of fishes exposed to pollution of volcano mud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risjani, Yenny; Yunianta; Couteau, Jerome; Minier, Christophe

    2014-05-01

    Since May 29, 2006, a mud volcano in the Brantas Delta of the Sidoarjo district has emitted mud that has inundated nearby villages. Pollution in this area has been implicated in detrimental effects on fish health. In fishes, leukocyte and phagocytic cells play a vital role in body defenses. We report for the first time the effect of "LUSI" volcano mud on the immune systems of fish in the Brantas Delta. The aim of this study was to find biomarkers to allow the evaluation of the effects of volcanic mud and anthropogenic pollution on fish health in the Brantas Delta. The study took places at the Brantas Delta, which was polluted by volcano mud, and at reference sites in Karangkates and Pasuruan. Leukocyte numbers were determined using a Neubauer hemocytometer and a light microscope. Differential leukocyte counts were determined using blood smears stained with May Grunwald-Giemsa, providing neutrophil, lymphocyte and monocyte counts. Macrophages were taken from fish kidney, and their phagocytic activity was measured. In vitro analyses revealed that leukocyte and differential leukocyte counts (DLC) were higher in Channa striata and Chanos chanos caught from the polluted area. Macrophage numbers were higher in Oreochromis mossambicus than in the other species, indicating that this species is more sensitive to pollution. In areas close to volcanic mud eruption, all specimens had lower phagocytic activity. Our results show that immune cells were changed and phagocytic activity was reduced in the polluted area indicating cytotoxicity and alteration of the innate immune system in fishes exposed to LUSI volcano mud and anthropogenic pollution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Resting-state frontostriatal functional connectivity in Parkinson's disease-related apathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggio, Hugo Cesar; Segura, Bàrbara; Garrido-Millan, Jose Luis; Marti, Maria-José; Compta, Yaroslau; Valldeoriola, Francesc; Tolosa, Eduardo; Junque, Carme

    2015-04-15

    One of the most common neuropsychiatric symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD) is apathy, affecting between 23% and 70% of patients and thought to be related to frontostriatal dopamine deficits. In the current study, we assessed functional resting-state frontostriatal connectivity and structural changes associated with the presence of apathy in a large sample of PD subjects and healthy controls, while controlling for the presence of comorbid depression and cognitive decline. Thirty-one healthy controls (HC) and 62 age-, sex-, and education-matched PD patients underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Apathy symptoms were evaluated with the Apathy Scale (AS). The 11 Beck Depression Inventory-II items that measure dysphoric mood symptoms as well as relevant neuropsychological scores were used as nuisance factors in connectivity analyses. Voxel-wise analyses of functional connectivity between frontal lobes (limbic, executive, rostral motor, and caudal motor regions), striata (limbic, executive, sensorimotor regions), and thalami were performed. Subcortical volumetry/shape analysis and fronto-subcortical voxel-based morphometry were performed to assess associated structural changes. Twenty-five PD patients were classified as apathetic (AS > 13). Apathetic PD patients showed functional connectivity reductions compared with HC and with non-apathetic patients, mainly in left-sided circuits, and predominantly involving limbic striatal and frontal territories. Similarly, severity of apathy negatively correlated with connectivity in these circuits. No significant effects were found in structural analyses. Our results indicate that the presence of apathy in PD is associated with functional connectivity reductions in frontostriatal circuits, predominating in the left hemisphere and mainly involving its limbic components. © 2015 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  8. Motor skills training promotes motor functional recovery and induces synaptogenesis in the motor cortex and striatum after intracerebral hemorrhage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamakoshi, Keigo; Ishida, Akimasa; Takamatsu, Yasuyuki; Hamakawa, Michiru; Nakashima, Hiroki; Shimada, Haruka; Ishida, Kazuto

    2014-03-01

    We investigated the effects of motor skills training on several types of motor function and synaptic plasticity following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in rats. Male Wistar rats were injected with collagenase into the left striatum to induce ICH, and they were randomly assigned to the ICH or sham groups. Each group was divided into the motor skills training (acrobatic training) and control (no exercise) groups. The acrobatic group performed acrobatic training from 4 to 28 days after surgery. Motor functions were assessed by motor deficit score, the horizontal ladder test and the wide or narrow beam walking test at several time points after ICH. The number of ΔFosB-positive cells was counted using immunohistochemistry to examine neuronal activation, and the PSD95 protein levels were analyzed by Western blotting to examine synaptic plasticity in the bilateral sensorimotor cortices and striata at 14 and 29 days after ICH. Motor skills training following ICH significantly improved gross motor function in the early phase after ICH and skilled motor coordinated function in the late phase. The number of ΔFosB-positive cells in the contralateral sensorimotor cortex in the acrobatic group significantly increased compared to the control group. PSD95 protein expression in the motor cortex significantly increased in the late phase, and in the striatum, the protein level significantly increased in the early phase by motor skills training after ICH compared to no training after ICH. We demonstrated that motor skills training improved motor function after ICH in rats and enhanced the neural activity and synaptic plasticity in the striatum and sensorimotor cortex. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Metabolomics of Neurotransmitters and Related Metabolites in Post-Mortem Tissue from the Dorsal and Ventral Striatum of Alcoholic Human Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashem, Mohammed Abul; Ahmed, Selina; Sultana, Nilufa; Ahmed, Eakhlas U; Pickford, Russell; Rae, Caroline; Šerý, Omar; McGregor, Iain S; Balcar, Vladimir J

    2016-02-01

    We report on changes in neurotransmitter metabolome and protein expression in the striatum of humans exposed to heavy long-term consumption of alcohol. Extracts from post mortem striatal tissue (dorsal striatum; DS comprising caudate nucleus; CN and putamen; P and ventral striatum; VS constituted by nucleus accumbens; NAc) were analysed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Proteomics was studied in CN by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by mass-spectrometry. Proteomics identified 25 unique molecules expressed differently by the alcohol-affected tissue. Two were dopamine-related proteins and one a GABA-synthesizing enzyme GAD65. Two proteins that are related to apoptosis and/or neuronal loss (BiD and amyloid-β A4 precursor protein-binding family B member 3) were increased. There were no differences in the levels of dopamine (DA), 3,4-dihydrophenylacetic acid (DOPAC), serotonin (5HT), homovanillic acid (HVA), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (HIAA), histamine, L-glutamate (Glu), γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), tyrosine (Tyr) and tryptophan (Tryp) between the DS (CN and P) and VS (NAc) in control brains. Choline (Ch) and acetylcholine (Ach) were higher and norepinephrine (NE) lower, in the VS. Alcoholic striata had lower levels of neurotransmitters except for Glu (30 % higher in the alcoholic ventral striatum). Ratios of DOPAC/DA and HIAA/5HT were higher in alcoholic striatum indicating an increase in the DA and 5HT turnover. Glutathione was significantly reduced in all three regions of alcohol-affected striatum. We conclude that neurotransmitter systems in both the DS (CN and P) and the VS (NAc) were significantly influenced by long-term heavy alcohol intake associated with alcoholism.

  10. Variations in Host Preference among and within Populations of Heterodera trifolii and Related Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S; Riggs, R D

    1999-12-01

    Seven populations of Heterodera trifolii from Arkansas, Kentucky, Pennsylvania, and Australia plus 3 or 4 single-cyst isolates (SCI) from each population were tested for reproduction on seven species of plants to compare the host preferences among and within populations. Common lespedeza, Kummerowia striata cv. Kobe, was a good host for all populations and isolates. Therefore, a plant was considered to be a host if the number of females produced on it was 10% or more of the number on Kobe. All seven populations reproduced on Trifolium repens and T. pratense. None reproduced on Beta vulgaris or Glycine max. One single-cyst isolate from the Australian population produced a few females on T. pratense. The Australian population maintained on carnation, Dianthus caryophyllus, produced females on carnation but not on curly dock, Rumex crispus. However, its subpopulation maintained on T. repens produced females on R. crispus but not on carnation. Four of the other six populations produced females on R. crispus, and four produced females on carnation. Differences in host range were observed among seven of the mother populations and their SCI, and among isolates within each population. Five host range patterns were found in populations and SCI of H. trifolii. Significant quantitative differences occurred among populations in the numbers of females on most hosts, between isolates and their original populations, and among isolates from the same population. SCI selected from white clover produced fewer females on a series of test hosts and had host ranges the same as or narrower than those of the original populations. However, SCI selected from Kobe lespedeza had more females on some hosts and had host ranges the same as or wider than those of the original populations. The host ranges of all populations and SCI of H. trifolii were different from those of populations and SCI of race 3 of H. glycines and H. lespedezae.

  11. Neuromolecular Imaging Shows Temporal Synchrony Patterns between Serotonin and Movement within Neuronal Motor Circuits in the Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia A. Broderick

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present discourse links the electrical and chemical properties of the brain with neurotransmitters and movement behaviors to further elucidate strategies to diagnose and treat brain disease. Neuromolecular imaging (NMI, based on electrochemical principles, is used to detect serotonin in nerve terminals (dorsal and ventral striata and somatodendrites (ventral tegmentum of reward/motor mesocorticolimbic and nigrostriatal brain circuits. Neuronal release of serotonin is detected at the same time and in the same animal, freely moving and unrestrained, while open-field behaviors are monitored via infrared photobeams. The purpose is to emphasize the unique ability of NMI and the BRODERICK PROBE® biosensors to empirically image a pattern of temporal synchrony, previously reported, for example, in Aplysia using central pattern generators (CPGs, serotonin and cerebral peptide-2. Temporal synchrony is reviewed within the context of the literature on central pattern generators, neurotransmitters and movement disorders. Specifically, temporal synchrony data are derived from studies on psychostimulant behavior with and without cocaine while at the same time and continuously, serotonin release in motor neurons within basal ganglia, is detected. The results show that temporal synchrony between the neurotransmitter, serotonin and natural movement occurs when the brain is NOT injured via, e.g., trauma, addictive drugs or psychiatric illness. In striking contrast, in the case of serotonin and cocaine-induced psychostimulant behavior, a different form of synchrony and also asynchrony can occur. Thus, the known dysfunctional movement behavior produced by cocaine may well be related to the loss of temporal synchrony, the loss of the ability to match serotonin in brain with motor activity. The empirical study of temporal synchrony patterns in humans and animals may be more relevant to the dynamics of motor circuits and movement behaviors than are studies of

  12. Ocorrência e recrutamento larval de Teredinidae (Mollusca, Bivalvia na região do Sistema Costeiro Cananéia-Iguape, São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela T. de Moraes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A ocorrência e o recrutamento larval de Teredinidae na região do Sistema Costeiro Cananéia-Iguape foram acompanhados por doze meses utilizando-se coletores laminados de pinho, instalados em três estações dentro do bosque de mangue (mediolitoral e em uma estação, localizada no infralitoral. No manguezal, a colonização por larvas de teredinídeos ocorreu após quatro meses de permanência dos coletores na estação mais frequentemente inundada pela maré e somente após oito meses nas duas estações com menor frequência de inundação. No infralitoral, após quatro meses, os coletores já estavam consideravelmente danificados. Ao longo do experimento, houve um decréscimo no número de teredinídeos, especialmente no infralitoral, ocasionado possivelmente pela competição por alimento e espaço entre teredinídeos e foladídeos. Foram encontrados 2.658 indivíduos, sendo 704 de Teredinidae e 1.954 de Pholadidae. Entre os teredinídeos, Bankia fimbriatula foi a espécie mais abundante tanto no infralitoral quanto no manguezal, seguida de Bankia gouldi e Lyrodus floridanus que ocorreram somente no infralitoral, e Nausitora fusticula encontrada somente no manguezal. Martesia striata, único foladídeo, ocorreu somente no infralitoral.

  13. Anastrepha egg deposition induces volatiles in fruits that attract the parasitoid Fopius arisanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, J; Rojas, J C; Montoya, P; Liedo, P; Castillo, A

    2013-06-01

    Fopius arisanus is a solitary egg-pupal endoparasitoid that attacks several species of tephritid fruit flies, particularly Bactrocera spp. This species, indigenous from the Indo-Australian region, was introduced into Mexico for biological control purposes. From the standpoint of the 'new associations' concept this parasitoid has been evaluated against fruit flies in the Anastrepha complex. We investigated the specificity of F. arisanus responses to fruits infested with two species of Anastrepha. We examined whether fruit volatiles attractive to this parasitoid are induced as a result of fruit fly oviposition. We also investigated whether F. arisanus females are able to discriminate between the oviposition-induced volatiles from host eggs parasitised by conspecifics and volatiles from unparasitised eggs. All experiments were performed in a wind tunnel. Results showed that mango fruits infested with A. ludens eggs (2-3 days after egg deposition) were significantly more attractive to naïve F. arisanus females compared with non-infested fruits or fruits infested with larvae. In addition, guava fruits harbouring A. striata eggs were significantly more attractive to the parasitoid than non-infested fruits or fruits infested with larvae. Thus, the parasitoid was attracted to fruits with eggs, but fruit and fly species did not influence the parasitoid attraction. We also found that F. arisanus females were more attracted to fruits exposed to fertile A. ludens females (i.e. fruits with eggs inside) compared with fruits exposed to sterile females (i.e. fruits with no eggs inside) or fruits with mechanical damage. Parasitoid females were not attracted to A. ludens eggs. The results suggest that the presence of eggs induces volatiles that attract parasitoids. Finally, we found that F. arisanus was able to discriminate between fruits with unparasitised eggs vs. eggs parasitised by conspecifics, indicating that host discrimination could be mediated by olfactory cues.

  14. Dietary Tyrosine Protects Striatal Dopamine Receptors from the Adverse Effects of REM Sleep Deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdi, A; Brock, J W; Payne, S; Ross, K D; Bond, S P; Prasad, C

    1998-01-01

    L-Tyrosine is a non-essential amino acid that is produced as an intermediary metabolite in the conversion of phenylalanine to 3,4-dihyroxyphenylalanine (DOPA), and is a precursor of the neurotransmitter dopamine. In previous studies, tyrosine pretreatment was shown to protect against the neurochemical and behavioral deficits of acute stress caused by tail shock or cold exposure in rodents. The present study addressed the hypothesis that tyrosine administration may be an effective counter-measure to dopamine-mediated behaviors induced by rapid eye-movement sleep deprivation (RSD). In order to test the hypothesis, Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 9 treatment groups: RSD-treated rats on normal-protein diet (20% casein: 1% tyrosine, 1% valine); tank control (TC) rats on a normal diet; cage control (CC) rats on normal diet; RSD-treated rats on 4% tyrosine diet; TC rats on 4% tyrosine diet; CC rats on 4% tyrosine diet; RSD-treated rats on 4% valine diet; TC rats on 4% valine diet; CC rats on 4% valine diet. In the RSD group receiving tyrosine, there was no apparent change in Bmax for binding of the dopamine D2 receptor ligand [(3)H]YM-09151-2 in the striata as compared to the respective TC and CC groups; whereas RSD-treated rats maintained on the normal diet and valine supplementation demonstrated expected increases in Bmax for ligand binding. The TC group on the tyrosine diet showed attenuated catalepsy compared to the corresponding CC group, while the RSD group consuming tyrosine showed a catalepsy that was significantly increased, and similar to that of cage control animais on a control diet. These data suggest that the tyrosine-supplemented diet significantly attenuated RSD-induced changes in striatal dopamine D2 receptors, and the effect appeared sufficient to influence RSD-induced behaviors.

  15. Acetyl-L-carnitine and α-lipoic acid affect rotenone-induced damage in nigral dopaminergic neurons of rat brain, implication for Parkinson's disease therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitone, Sawsan A; Abo-Elmatty, Dina M; Shaalan, Aly A

    2012-01-01

    Although the mechanisms of neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease are not fully understood, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and environmental toxins may be involved. The current research was directed to investigate the protective role of two bioenergetic antioxidants, acetyl-L-carnitine and α-lipoic acid, in rotenone-parkinsonian rats. Ninety six male rats were divided into five groups. Group I is the vehicle-injected group, group II is the disease control group and was injected with six doses of rotenone (1.5 mg/kg/48 h, s.c.). Groups III, IV and V received rotenone in addition to acetyl-L-carnitine (100 mg/kg/day, p.o.), α-lipoic acid (50 mg/kg/day, p.o.) or their combination, respectively. Results showed that rotenone-treated rats exhibited bradykinesia and motor impairment in the open-field and square bridge tests. In addition, ATP level was decreased whereas lipid peroxides and protein carbonyls increased in the striata of rotenone-treated rats as compared to vehicle-treated rats. Treatment with acetyl-L-carnitine or α-lipoic acid improved the motor performance and reduced the level of lipid peroxides in rat brains as compared to rotenone group. Further, ATP production was enhanced along with acetyl-L-carnitine treatments (p≤0.05). Taken together, our study reinforces the view that acetyl-L-carnitine and α-lipoic acid are promising candidates for neuroprotection in Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Experimental infection of Aphanomyces invadans and susceptibility in seven species of tropical fish

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    Seyedeh F. Afzali

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS causes by aquatic oomycete fungus, Aphanomyces invadans is a dangerous fish disease of a wide range of fresh and brackish water, wild and farmed fish throughout the world. The objective of the present study was to determine the susceptibility of a number of tropical fish species to the EUS and compare the severity of infection between experimental groups. Materials and Methods: Snakehead, Channa striata (Bloch, 1793; snakeskin gourami, Trichopodus pectoralis (Regan, 1910; koi carp, Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus, 1758; broadhead catfish, Clarias macrocephalus (Günther, 1864; goldfish, Carassius auratus (Linnaeus, 1758; climbing perch, Anabas testudineus (Bloch, 1792; and Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 were challenged by intramuscular injection using zoospores of Aphanomyces invadans (NJM9701. The infected fish skins and muscles were examined for EUS histopathological characteristics, and the results on the severity of lesions and mortality were analyzed using SPSS program. Results: All zoospore-injected fish were shown to be susceptible to the EUS infection except Nile tilapia. Although, the general histopathological pattern was similar in the zoospore-injected group, but there were some variation in granulomatous reaction, that is the presence or absence of giant cells, and time of mortality were detected. The result of statistical analysis showed that there was a significant difference between species, (c2=145.11 and p<0.01. Conclusion: Gourami, koi carp, and catfish were demonstrated to be highly susceptible while goldfish and climbing perch were found to be moderately susceptible to the EUS infection. These findings suggested that the cellular response of fish to mycotic infection and granulomatous reaction varied in different fish species, which could not be an indicator of susceptibility or resistant to the EUS itself, although it was shown that the granulation rate and the level of

  17. Clinical results of neurotransmission SPECT in extra-pyramidal diseases; Resultats cliniques de la TEMP de la neurotransmission en pathologie extra-pyramidale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baulieu, J.L.; Prunier, C.; Tranquart, F.; Guilloteau, D. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Bretonneau, Service de Medecine Nucleaire in vitro, INSERM U316, 37 - Tours (France)

    1999-12-01

    We present some methodological aspects and clinical applications of dopamine D2 receptor and transporter SPECT using new radiotracers radiolabeled with iodine 123. The gamma camera quality control and standardisation has to be adapted to the small volume and deep location of striata, where receptors and transporters are present. Phantom containing hollow spheres of different diameters which can be filled with different amounts of {sup 99m}Tc or {sup 123}I. The semi quantitation of receptor and transporter molecular concentration is based on an equilibrium binding model. According to this model, the binding potential (Bmax. Ka) is equal to the ratio between specific binding in the striatum and circulating activity in a reference region of interest in the occipital cortex. By comparing ECD and ILIS SPECT, it has been shown that striatal ILIS binding does not depend on the local perfusion. The clinical applications mainly concern the extra-pyramidal pathology: ILIS and IBZM SPECT are able to differentiate pre- and post-synaptic lesions. In Parkinson disease the nigrostriatal pathway is damaged and D2 receptors are normal or increased, as shown by normal or elevated IBZM or ILIS uptake. In other extra pyramidal degenerative diseases as progressive supra nuclear palsy or multiple system atrophy striatal D2 receptors are damaged as shown by decreased IBZM or ILIS uptake. In our experience, 88 per cent of patients are correctly classified by ILIS SPECT and 86 per cent with IBZM SPECT. Dopamine transporter SPECT with {beta}CIT and PE2I provides an evaluation of the presynaptic neuronal density in the striatum. One can expect an help for the early diagnosis and the evaluation of Parkinson disease. Another potential application of dopaminergic neurotransmission SPECT is the evaluation of neuronal loss after hypoxo-ischemia. We conclude that dopaminergic neurotransmission SPECT using specific ligands should become a useful diagnosis tool to study a large number of brain

  18. Automated Analysis of 123I-beta-CIT SPECT Images with Statistical Probabilistic Anatomical Mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eo, Jae Seon; Lee, Hoyoung; Lee, Jae Sung; Kim, Yu Kyung; Jeon, Bumseok; Lee, Dong Soo

    2014-01-01

    Population-based statistical probabilistic anatomical maps have been used to generate probabilistic volumes of interest for analyzing perfusion and metabolic brain imaging. We investigated the feasibility of automated analysis for dopamine transporter images using this technique and evaluated striatal binding potentials in Parkinson's disease and Wilson's disease. We analyzed 2β-Carbomethoxy-3β-(4- 123 I-iodophenyl)tropane ( 123 I-beta-CIT) SPECT images acquired from 26 people with Parkinson's disease (M:F=11:15,mean age=49±12 years), 9 people with Wilson's disease (M: F=6:3, mean age=26±11 years) and 17 normal controls (M:F=5:12, mean age=39±16 years). A SPECT template was created using striatal statistical probabilistic map images. All images were spatially normalized onto the template, and probability-weighted regional counts in striatal structures were estimated. The binding potential was calculated using the ratio of specific and nonspecific binding activities at equilibrium. Voxel-based comparisons between groups were also performed using statistical parametric mapping. Qualitative assessment showed that spatial normalizations of the SPECT images were successful for all images. The striatal binding potentials of participants with Parkinson's disease and Wilson's disease were significantly lower than those of normal controls. Statistical parametric mapping analysis found statistically significant differences only in striatal regions in both disease groups compared to controls. We successfully evaluated the regional 123 I-beta-CIT distribution using the SPECT template and probabilistic map data automatically. This procedure allows an objective and quantitative comparison of the binding potential, which in this case showed a significantly decreased binding potential in the striata of patients with Parkinson's disease or Wilson's disease

  19. Are olfactory cues involved in nest recognition in two social species of estrildid finches?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Tobias Krause

    Full Text Available Reliably recognizing their own nest provides parents with a necessary skill to invest time and resources efficiently in raising their offspring and thereby maximising their own reproductive success. Studies investigating nest recognition in adult birds have focused mainly on visual cues of the nest or the nest site and acoustic cues of the nestlings. To determine whether adult songbirds also use olfaction for nest recognition, we investigated the use of olfactory nest cues for two estrildid finch species, zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata and Bengalese finches (Lonchura striata var. domestica during the nestling and fledgling phase of their offspring. We found similar behavioural responses to nest odours in both songbird species. Females preferred the odour of their own nest over a control and avoided the foreign conspecific nest scent over a control during the nestling phase of their offspring, but when given the own odour and the foreign conspecific odour simultaneously we did not find a preference for the own nest odour. Males of both species did not show any preferences at all. The behavioural reaction to any nest odour decreased after fledging of the offspring. Our results show that only females show a behavioural response to olfactory nest cues, indicating that the use of olfactory cues for nest recognition seems to be sex-specific and dependent on the developmental stage of the offspring. Although estrildid finches are known to use visual and acoustic cues for nest recognition, the similar behavioural pattern of both species indicates that at least females gain additional information by olfactory nest cues during the nestling phase of their offspring. Thus olfactory cues might be important in general, even in situations in which visual and acoustic cues are known to be sufficient.

  20. Fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritidae and their parasitoids on cultivated and wild hosts in the Cerrado-Pantanal ecotone in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Ledesma Taira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritidae and their parasitoids on cultivated and wild hosts in the Cerrado-Pantanal ecotone in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Information on frugivorous flies in cultivated or wild host plants and their parasitoids in the Cerrado-Pantanal ecotone in Aquidauana, Mato Grosso do Sul is presented and discussed. Fruit fly samples were collected weekly in specific fruit trees, and McPhail® traps were installed in the same trees for a period of two years. The fruit flies infested ripe and unripe fruits of Averrhoa carambola L., Schoepfia sp., Psidium guajava L. and Pouteria torta (Mart. Radlk and mature fruits of Anacardium occidentale L. and Inga laurina (Sw. Willd. Nineteen fruit fly species were obtained with the combination of sampling methods (collecting fruits and trapping, nine of them obtained with both methods, five found only in fruits and five only in traps. This is the first record of Anastrepha striata Schiner in a species of Sapotaceae, as well as for A. castanea Norrbom and A. daciformes Bezzi in Schoepfia sp. (Olacaceae, and for A. distincta Greene in fruits of P. guajava in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul. Fruit collections simultaneously associated with capture of fruit flies by McPhail traps in the same host plants are essential to understand the diversity of fruit flies and their relationship with hosts and parasitoids. Species of Braconidae and Pteromalidae were recovered, where Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti was the most abundant parasitoid in larvae of tephritids infesting both cultivated and wild host fruits.

  1. Piracetam and vinpocetine ameliorate rotenone-induced Parkinsonism in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitone, Sawsan A; Abo-Elmatty, Dina M; Elshazly, Shimaa M

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the neuroprotective effect of the nootropic drugs, piracetam (PIR) and vinpocetine (VIN), in rotenone-induced Parkinsonism in rats. Sixty male rats were divided into 6 groups of 10 rats each. The groups were administered vehicle, control (rotenone, 1.5 mg/kg/48 h/6 doses, s.c.), PIR (100 and 200 mg/kg/day, p.o.) and VIN (3 and 6 mg/kg/day, p.o.). The motor performance of the rats was evaluated by the open field and pole test. Striatal dopamine level, malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were assayed. Histopathological study of the substantia nigra was also done. Results showed that rotenone-treated rats exhibited bradykinesia and motor impairment in the open-field test. In addition, GSH level was decreased whereas MDA and TNF-α increased in striata of rotenone-treated rats as compared to vehicle-treated rats. Marked degeneration of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) neurons and depletion of striatal dopamine was also observed in the rotenone-treated rats. Treatment with PIR or VIN significantly reversed the locomotor deficits and increased striatal dopamine level. Treatment with VIN significantly (P<0.05) reduced the striatal level of MDA and GSH in comparison to rotenone group whereas TNF-α production was found to be significantly decreased in PIR group (P<0.05). VIN and PIR exhibit neuroprotective activity in rotenone-induced Parkinsonism. Hence, these nootropic agents may be considered as possible candidates in the treatment of Parkinson's disease.

  2. Landscape capability models as a tool to predict fine-scale forest bird occupancy and abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loman, Zachary G.; DeLuca, William; Harrison, Daniel J.; Loftin, Cynthia S.; Rolek, Brian W.; Wood, Petra

    2018-01-01

    ContextSpecies-specific models of landscape capability (LC) can inform landscape conservation design. Landscape capability is “the ability of the landscape to provide the environment […] and the local resources […] needed for survival and reproduction […] in sufficient quantity, quality and accessibility to meet the life history requirements of individuals and local populations.” Landscape capability incorporates species’ life histories, ecologies, and distributions to model habitat for current and future landscapes and climates as a proactive strategy for conservation planning.ObjectivesWe tested the ability of a set of LC models to explain variation in point occupancy and abundance for seven bird species representative of spruce-fir, mixed conifer-hardwood, and riparian and wooded wetland macrohabitats.MethodsWe compiled point count data sets used for biological inventory, species monitoring, and field studies across the northeastern United States to create an independent validation data set. Our validation explicitly accounted for underestimation in validation data using joint distance and time removal sampling.ResultsBlackpoll warbler (Setophaga striata), wood thrush (Hylocichla mustelina), and Louisiana (Parkesia motacilla) and northern waterthrush (P. noveboracensis) models were validated as predicting variation in abundance, although this varied from not biologically meaningful (1%) to strongly meaningful (59%). We verified all seven species models [including ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapilla), blackburnian (Setophaga fusca) and cerulean warbler (Setophaga cerulea)], as all were positively related to occupancy data.ConclusionsLC models represent a useful tool for conservation planning owing to their predictive ability over a regional extent. As improved remote-sensed data become available, LC layers are updated, which will improve predictions.

  3. Hibernation-like state induced by an opioid peptide protects against experimental stroke

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    Su Tsung-Ping

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Delta opioid peptide [D-ala2,D-leU5]enkephalin (DADLE induces hibernation in summer ground squirrels, and enhances preservation and survival of isolated or transplanted lungs and hearts. In the present study, we investigated the protective effect of DADLE in the central nervous system. Results Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were pretreated with DADLE (4 mg/kg every 2 h × 4 injections, i.p. or saline prior to unilateral occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA. Daily behavioral tests revealed that ischemic animals treated with DADLE did not show any significant behavioral dysfunctions compared with saline-treated ischemic animals. Opioid antagonists only transiently inhibited the protective effect of DADLE, indicating the participation of non-opioid mechanisms in DADLE neuroprotection. Histological examination using triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC revealed that brains from ischemic animals treated with DADLE, either alone or with adjuvant opioid blockers, exhibited almost completely intact striata. In contrast, brains from ischemic animals that received saline showed significant infarction in the lateral striatum. Analyses of apoptotic cell death revealed a significant increase in the p-53 mRNA expression in the striatum of ischemic animals that received saline, while those that received DADLE exhibited near normal striatal p-53 expression. This protective effect was accompanied by significant increments in protein levels of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor in the striatum of DADLE-treated ischemic animals. Conclusion These results indicate that DADLE protected against necrotic and apoptotic cell death processes associated with ischemia-reperfusion injury. The present study demonstrates that delta opioids are crucially involved in stroke, suggesting that the opioid system is important in the study of brain injury and protection.

  4. Neuronal nicotinic receptor agonists ameliorate spontaneous motor asymmetries and motor discoordination in a unilateral mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucinski, Aaron; Wersinger, Scott; Stachowiak, Ewa K; Corso, Thomas D; Parry, Matthew J; Zhang, Jenny; Jordan, Kristen; Letchworth, Sharon; Bencherif, Merouane; Stachowiak, Michal K

    2013-10-01

    The degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) system underlies the motor deficits in Parkinson's disease (PD). In recent years, epidemiological reports that smokers have lower incidences of PD have brought attention to the nicotinic acetylcholine system as a potential target for novel therapeutics. Nicotine, an agonist of neuronal nicotinic receptors (NNRs), modulates functions relevant to PD via stimulation of dopaminergic transmission in the nigrostriatal pathway, particularly via activation of α6β2* and α4β2* NNRs. Recently, reduced support of DA neurons by neurotrophic growth factors has been described in PD. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) is critical for the development and protection of adult DA neurons. In FGF-2 knockout mice and the related th-fgfr1(tk-) mouse model there is heightened sensitivity to DA neuronal oxidative neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). In the present study, FGF-deficient transgenic mice th-fgfr1(tk-) were used to analyze the effects of novel full (TC-8831) and partial (TC-8581) agonists of β2-containing nicotinic receptors on impaired motor behavior following unilateral 6-OHDA lesions. The lesions generated spontaneous (drug-naïve) turning asymmetries that correlated exponentially with the depletion of DA biomarkers in the lesioned striata. These mice also exhibited a reduced capacity to remain on the accelerating rotarod. Oral administration of TC-8831, an NNR agonist with high specificity for β2 subunits and a full agonist at producing DA release from striatal synaptosomes, attenuated unidirectional turning and improved motor coordination. In contrast, partial β2 NNR agonist TC-8581 had no effect on behaviors in this model. This study demonstrates the potential of NNR targeting-compounds to facilitate motor function in PD. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Timing and locations of reef fish spawning off the southeastern United States.

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    Nicholas A Farmer

    Full Text Available Managed reef fish in the Atlantic Ocean of the southeastern United States (SEUS support a multi-billion dollar industry. There is a broad interest in locating and protecting spawning fish from harvest, to enhance productivity and reduce the potential for overfishing. We assessed spatiotemporal cues for spawning for six species from four reef fish families, using data on individual spawning condition collected by over three decades of regional fishery-independent reef fish surveys, combined with a series of predictors derived from bathymetric features. We quantified the size of spawning areas used by reef fish across many years and identified several multispecies spawning locations. We quantitatively identified cues for peak spawning and generated predictive maps for Gray Triggerfish (Balistes capriscus, White Grunt (Haemulon plumierii, Red Snapper (Lutjanus campechanus, Vermilion Snapper (Rhomboplites aurorubens, Black Sea Bass (Centropristis striata, and Scamp (Mycteroperca phenax. For example, Red Snapper peak spawning was predicted in 24.7-29.0°C water prior to the new moon at locations with high curvature in the 24-30 m depth range off northeast Florida during June and July. External validation using scientific and fishery-dependent data collections strongly supported the predictive utility of our models. We identified locations where reconfiguration or expansion of existing marine protected areas would protect spawning reef fish. We recommend increased sampling off southern Florida (south of 27° N, during winter months, and in high-relief, high current habitats to improve our understanding of timing and location of reef fish spawning off the southeastern United States.

  6. Gönen Çayı (Balıkesir, Çanakkale-Türkiye'nda yaşayan sucul Coleoptera ve sucul ve yarısucul Heteroptera faunası üzerine bir çalışma.

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    Esat Tarık Topkara

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Gönen Çayı’nın sucul Coleoptera ve sucul-yarısucul Heteroptera faunasını belirlemek amacıyla gerçekleştirilen bu çalışmada, Gönen çayı ve kollarına 2010-2012 yılları arasında 8 arazi çalışması düzenlenmiştir. Bu arazi çalışmalarında 15 istasyonda örnekleme çalışması yürütülmüştür. Sucul böcek örnekleri 500 µm göz açıklığındaki el kepçesi ile toplanmıştır. Laboratuvarda yapılan incelemeler sonucunda Coleoptera ordosuna ait Gyrinidae familyasından 3 takson, Noteridae familyasından 1 tür, Dytiscidae familyasından 11 tür 1 alttür, Hydrophilidae familyasından 13 tür 1 alttür, Spercheidae familyasından 1 tür, Hydraenidae familyasından 4 tür tespit edilmiştir. Heteroptera ordosuna ait Gerridae familyasından 1 tür, Corixidae familyasından 3 tür 3 alttür, Notonectidae familyasından 2 tür tespit edilmiştir. Bu taksonlardan Gyrinus caspius, Gyrinus distinctus, Gyrinus substriatus, Agabus bipustulatus, Agabus guttatus, Hydaticus leander, Hydroporus pubescens, Laccophilus hyalinus, Laccophilus poecilus, Platambus lunulatus, Ranthus suturalis, Scarodytes halensis halensis, Boreonectes griseostriatus, Anacaena rufipes, Berosus byzantinus, Helochares lividus, Notonecta viridis, Notonecta maculata, Sigara striata, Sigara nigrolineata nigrolineata, Sigara lateralis Gönen Çayı’nın Balıkesir ili sınırları içerisindeki istasyonlardan; Laccophilus minutus, Spercheus emarginatus, Sigara limitata limitata Gönen Çayı’nın Çanakkale ili sınırları içerisindeki istasyonlardan; Enochrus bicolor, Micronecta scholtzi, Micronecta anatolica anatolica, Gerris thorasicus Çanakkale ve Balıkesir il sınırları içerisindeki istasyonlarından ilk kez tespit edilmiştir

  7. Electrophysiological study, biodistribution in mice, and preliminary PET evaluation in a rhesus monkey of 1-amino-3-[18F]fluoromethyl-5-methyl-adamantane (18F-MEM): a potential radioligand for mapping the NMDA-receptor complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samnick, S; Ametamey, S; Leenders, K L; Vontobel, P; Quack, G; Parsons, C G; Neu, H; Schubiger, P A

    1998-05-01

    The effect of the fluorinated memantine derivative and NMDA receptor antagonist, 1-amino-3-fluoromethyl-5-methyl-adamantane (19F-MEM), at the NMDA receptor ion channel was studied by patch clamp recording. The results showed that 19F-MEM is a moderate NMDA receptor channel blocker. A procedure for the routine preparation of the 18F-labelled analog 18F-MEM has been developed using a two-step reaction sequence. This involves the no-carrier-added nucleophilic radiofluorination of 1-[N-(tert-butyloxy)carbamoyl]-3-(toluenesulfonyloxy)methyl- 5-methyl-adamantane and the subsequent cleavage of the BOC-protecting group using aqueous HCI. The 18F-MEM was obtained in 22 +/- 7% radiochemical yield (decay-corrected to EOB) in a total synthesis time including HPLC purification of 90 min. A biodistribution study after i.v. injection of 18F-MEM in mice showed a fast clearance of radioactivity from blood and relatively high initial uptake in the kidney and in the lung, which gradually decreased with time. The brain uptake was high (up to 3.6% ID/g, 60 min postinjection) with increasing brain-blood ratios: 2.40, 5.10, 6.33, and 9.27 at 5, 30, 60, and 120 min, respectively. The regional accumulation of the radioactivity in the mouse brain was consistent with the known distribution of the PCP recognition site. Preliminary PET evaluation of the radiotracer in a rhesus monkey demonstrated good uptake and prolonged retention in the brain, with a plateau from 35 min onwards p.i. in the NMDA receptor-rich regions (frontal cortex, striata, and temporal cortex). Delineation of the hippocampus, a region known to contain a high density of NMDA receptors, was not possible owing to the resolution of the PET tomograph. The regional brain uptake of 18F-MEM was changed by memantine and by a pharmacological dose of (+)-MK-801, indicating competition for the same binding sites. In a preliminary experiment, haloperidol, a dopamine D2 and sigma receptor antagonist, decreased the binding of 18F

  8. Region-specific tauopathy and synucleinopathy in brain of the alpha-synuclein overexpressing mouse model of Parkinson's disease

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    Masliah Eliezer

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background α-synuclein [α-Syn]-mediated activation of GSK-3β leading to increases in hyperphosphorylated Tau has been shown by us to occur in striata of Parkinson's diseased [PD] patients and in animal models of PD. In Alzheimer's disease, tauopathy exists in several brain regions; however, the pattern of distribution of tauopathy in other brain regions of PD or in animal models of PD is not known. The current studies were undertaken to analyze the distribution of tauopathy in different brain regions in a widely used mouse model of PD, the α-Syn overexpressing mouse. Results High levels of α-Syn levels were seen in the brain stem, with a much smaller increase in the frontal cortex; neither cerebellum nor hippocampus showed any overexpression of α-Syn. Elevated levels of p-Tau, hyperphosphorylated at Ser202, Ser262 and Ser396/404, were seen in brain stem, with lower levels seen in hippocampus. In both frontal cortex and cerebellum, increases were seen only in p-Ser396/404 Tau, but not in p-Ser202 and p-Ser262. p-GSK-3β levels were not elevated in any of the brain regions, although total GSK-3β was elevated in brain stem. p-p38MAPK levels were unchanged in all brain regions examined, while p-ERK levels were elevated in brain stem, hippocampus and cerebellum, but not the frontal cortex. p-JNK levels were increased in brain stem and cerebellum but not in the frontal cortex or hippocampus. Elevated levels of free tubulin, indicating microtubule destabilization, were seen only in the brain stem. Conclusion Our combined data suggest that in this animal model of PD, tauopathy, along with microtubule destabilization, exists primarily in the brain stem and striatum, which are also the two major brain regions known to express high levels of α-Syn and undergo the highest levels of degeneration in human PD. Thus, tauopathy in PD may have a very restricted pattern of distribution.

  9. Diffusion and clearance of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles infused into the rat striatum studied by MRI and histochemical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, F H; Yoshitake, T; Kehr, J [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Kim, D K [Department of Materials Science, Royal Institute of Technology, 100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Johansson, S M; Muhammed, M [Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Bjelke, B, E-mail: Jan.Kehr@ki.se [Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2011-01-07

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate, by MRI and histochemical techniques, the diffusion and clearance abilities of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) coated with dextran (Dextran-SPION) and gold (Au-SPION) following their local infusions into the rat brain. In separate groups of anesthetized rats, the Dextran-SPION and Au-SPION were infused at concentrations of 0.01, 0.1, 1 and 5 {mu}g Fe/0.5 {mu}l and at the flow rate of 0.5 {mu}l min{sup -1} into the left and right striata, respectively. Repetitive T2-weighted spin-echo MRI scans were performed at time intervals of 1, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 h, and one, two and eight weeks after inoculation. Following infusion of Dextran-SPION (0.1 {mu}g and 1 {mu}g Fe), the maximal distribution volume was observed at about 12-24 h after inoculation and two weeks later the Fe signals were undetectable for the lower dose. On the other hand, Au-SPION remained tightly localized in the closest vicinity of the infusion site as revealed by unchanged MRI signal intensities and strong histochemical staining of Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} ions in the corresponding brain slices. Immunohistochemical staining of astrocytic and microglial reactions revealed that there were no marked differences in GFAP, VIM or OX-42 labeling observed between the nanoparticle types, however the astrocytic reaction was more pronounced in rats receiving nanoparticles compared to the control (aCSF-infused) rats. In conclusion, the present data demonstrate that the viral-sized Dextran-SPION were able to diffuse freely through the interstitial space of the brain being progressively cleared out from the infusion site within two weeks. Thus, Dextran-SPION could be beneficially used in MRI-guided diagnostic applications such as in experimental oncology or as labels and carriers for targeted drug delivery, whereas Au-SPION could be used for labeling and tracking the transplanted stem cells in experimental MRI.

  10. Systemic administration of valproic acid and zonisamide promotes the survival and differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cell–derived dopaminergic neurons

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    Tatsuya eYoshikawa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Cell replacement therapy using embryonic stem cells (ESCs and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs is a promising strategy for the treatment of neurologic diseases such as Parkinson’s disease (PD. However, a limiting factor for effective cell transplantation is the low survival rate of grafted cells, especially neurons. In this study, we modified the host environment and investigated whether the simultaneous administration of soluble factors can improve the survival and differentiation of murine iPSC-derived dopaminergic (DA neurons in host brains. With the goal of applying this technology in clinical settings in the near future, we selected drugs that were already approved for clinical use. The drugs included two commonly used anticonvulsants, valproic acid (VPA and zonisamide (ZNS, and estradiol (E2, also known as biologically active estrogen. Following neural induction of murine iPSCs, we collected neural progenitor cells by sorting PSA-NCAM+ cells, then treated the PSA-NCAM+ cells with drugs for four days. An immunofluorescence study revealed that 0.01 mM and 0.1 mM of VPA and 10 nM of E2 increased the percentage of tyrosine hydroxylase+ (TH: a DA neuron marker cells in vitro. Furthermore, 0.1 mM of VPA increased the percentage of TH+ cells that simultaneously express the midbrain markers FOXA2 and NURR1. Next, in order to determine the effects of the drugs in vivo, the iPSC-derived NPCs were transplanted into the striata of intact SD rats. The animals received intraperitoneal injections of one of the drugs for four weeks, then were subjected to an immunofluorescence study. VPA administration (150 mg/kg/daily increased the number of NeuN+ postmitotic neurons and TH+ DA neurons in the grafts. Furthermore, VPA (150 mg/kg/daily and ZNS (30 mg/kg/daily increased the number of TH+FOXA2+ midbrain DA neurons. These results suggest that the systemic administration of VPA and ZNS may improve the efficiency of cell replacement therapy using i

  11. Evaluation of I/Ca ratios in benthic foraminifera from the Peruvian oxygen minimum zone as proxy for redox conditions in the ambient water masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glock, N.; Liebetrau, V.; Eisenhauer, A.

    2014-12-01

    Tropical oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) are most important areas of oxygen depletion in today´s oceans and nutrient cycling in these regions has a large socio-economic impact because they account for about 17% of the global commercial fish catches(1). Possibly increasing magnitude and area of oxygen depletion in these regions, might endanger rich pelagic fish habitats in the future threatening the global marine food supply. By the use of a quantitative redox proxy in OMZs, reconstruction of the temporal variation in OMZ extension eventually providing information about past and future changes in oxygenation and the anthropogenic role in the recent trend of expanding OMZs(2). Recent work has shown that iodine/calcium (I/Ca) ratios in marine carbonates are a promising proxy for ambient oxygen concentration(3). Our study explores the correlation of I/Ca ratios in four benthic foraminiferal species (three calcitic, one aragonitic) from the Peruvian OMZ to bottom water oxygen concentrations ([O2]BW) and evaluates foraminiferal I/Ca ratios as a possible redox proxy for the ambient water masses. Our results show that all species have a positive trend in the I/Ca ratios as a function of [O2]BW. Only for the aragonitic species Hoeglundina elegans this trend is not significant. The highest significance has been found for Uvigerina striata (I/Ca = 0.032(±0.004).[O2]BW + 0.29(±0.03), R² = 0.61, F = 75, P solutions, (ii) a species dependency of the I/Ca-[O2]BW relationship which is either related to a strong vital effect or toa species dependency on the calcification depth within sediment, and (iii) the inter-test variability of I/Ca between different specimens from the same species and habitat. (1): FAO FishStat: Fisheries and aquaculture software. In: FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department[online]. Rome. Updated 28 Nov. 2013. (2): Stramma et al.: Expanding Oxygen-Minimum Zones in the Tropical Oceans, Science, 320, 655-658, 2008. (3): Lu et al.: Iodine to calcium ratios in

  12. Ophiolitic detritus in Kimmeridgian resedimented limestones and its provenance from an eroded obducted ophiolitic nappe stack south of the Northern Calcareous Alps (Austria

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    Gawlick Hans-Jürgen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The causes for the Middle to Late Jurassic tectonic processes in the Northern Calcareous Alps are still controversially discussed. There are several contrasting models for these processes, formerly designated “Jurassic gravitational tectonics”. Whereas in the Dinarides or the Western Carpathians Jurassic ophiolite obduction and a Jurassic mountain building process with nappe thrusting is widely accepted, equivalent processes are still questioned for the Eastern Alps. For the Northern Calcareous Alps, an Early Cretaceous nappe thrusting process is widely favoured instead of a Jurassic one, obviously all other Jurassic features are nearly identical in the Northern Calcareous Alps, the Western Carpathians and the Dinarides. In contrast, the Jurassic basin evolutionary processes, as best documented in the Northern Calcareous Alps, were in recent times adopted to explain the Jurassic tectonic processes in the Carpathians and Dinarides. Whereas in the Western Carpathians Neotethys oceanic material is incorporated in the mélanges and in the Dinarides huge ophiolite nappes are preserved above the Jurassic basin fills and mélanges, Jurassic ophiolites or ophiolitic remains are not clearly documented in the Northern Calcareous Alps. Here we present chrome spinel analyses of ophiolitic detritic material from Kimmeridgian allodapic limestones in the central Northern Calcareous Alps. The Kimmeridgian age is proven by the occurrence of the benthic foraminifera Protopeneroplis striata and Labyrinthina mirabilis, the dasycladalean algae Salpingoporella pygmea, and the alga incertae sedis Pseudolithocodium carpathicum. From the geochemical composition the analysed spinels are pleonastes and show a dominance of Al-chromites (Fe3+–Cr3+–Al3+ diagram. In the Mg/(Mg+ Fe2+ vs. Cr/(Cr+ Al diagram they can be classified as type II ophiolites and in the TiO2 vs. Al2O3 diagram they plot into the SSZ peridotite field. All together this points to a harzburgite

  13. Methamphetamine alters microglial immune function through P2X7R signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Nicole C; Sriram, Uma; Gofman, Larisa; Cenna, Jonathan M; Ramirez, Servio H; Potula, Raghava

    2016-04-26

    Purinoceptors have emerged as mediators of chronic inflammation and neurodegenerative processes. The ionotropic purinoceptor P2X7 (P2X7R) is known to modulate proinflammatory signaling and integrate neuronal-glial circuits. Evidence of P2X7R involvement in neurodegeneration, chronic pain, and chronic inflammation suggests that purinergic signaling plays a major role in microglial activation during neuroinflammation. In this study, we investigated the effects of methamphetamine (METH) on microglial P2X7R. ESdMs were used to evaluate changes in METH-induced P2X7R gene expression via Taqman PCR and protein expression via western blot analysis. Migration and phagocytosis assays were used to evaluate functional changes in ESdMs in response to METH treatment. METH-induced proinflammatory cytokine production following siRNA silencing of P2X7R in ESdMs measured P2X7R-dependent functional changes. In vivo expression of P2X7R and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) was visualized in an escalating METH dose mouse model via immunohistochemical analysis. Stimulation of ESdMs with METH for 48 h significantly increased P2X7R mRNA (*p P2X7R protein in cellular fractionations revealed increases in membrane P2X7R (*p P2X7R-dependent through the use of A 438079, a P2X7R-competitive antagonist, which reversed the METH effects (****p P2X7R antagonist reduced METH-induced phagocytosis (****p P2X7R decreased TNF-α (*p P2X7R and decreased TH expression in the striata of escalating dose METH animal model compared to controls. This study sheds new light on the functional role of P2X7R in the regulation of microglial effector functions during substance abuse. Our findings suggest that P2X7R plays an important role in METH-induced microglial activation responses. P2X7R antagonists may thus constitute a novel target of therapeutic utility in neuroinflammatory conditions by regulating pathologically activated glial cells in stimulant abuse.

  14. Mycobacterial infection in Northern snakehead (Channa argus) from the Potomac River catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Densmore, Christine L.; Iwanowicz, L.R.; Henderson, A.P.; Iwanowicz, D.D.; Odenkirk, J.S.

    2016-01-01

    The Northern snakehead, Channa argus (Cantor), is a non-native predatory fish that has become established regionally in some temperate freshwater habitats within the United States. Over the past decade, Northern snakehead populations have developed within aquatic ecosystems throughout the eastern USA, including the Potomac River system within Virginia, Maryland and Washington, D.C. Since this species was initially observed in this region in 2002, the population has expanded considerably (Odenkirk & Owens 2007). In the Chesapeake Bay watershed, populations of Northern snakehead exist in the lower Potomac River and Rappahannock Rivers on the Western shore of the Bay, and these fish have also been found in middle or upper reaches of river systems on the Eastern shore of the Bay, including the Nanticoke and Wicomico Rivers among others. Over the past several years, many aspects of Northern snakehead life history in the Potomac River have been described, including range and dispersal patterns, microhabitat selection and diet (Lapointe, Thorson & Angermeier 2010; Saylor, Lapointe & Angermeier 2012; Lapointe, Odenkirk & Angermeier 2013). However, comparatively little is known about their health status including susceptibility to parasitism and disease and their capacity to serve as reservoirs of disease for native wildlife. Although considered hardy by fisheries biologists, snakehead fish have demonstrated susceptibility to a number of described piscine diseases within their native range and habitat in Asia. Reported pathogens of significance in snakehead species in Asia include snakehead rhabdovirus (Lio-Po et al. 2000), aeromonad bacteria (Zheng, Cao & Yang 2012), Nocardia (Wang et al. 2007) andMycobacterium spp. (Chinabut, Limsuwan & Chantatchakool 1990; ). Mycobacterial isolates recovered from another snakehead species (Channa striata) in the previous studies have included M. marinum and M. fortuitum, as identified through molecular

  15. Caracterização físico-química e atividade antioxidante (in vitro de frutos do cerrado Piauiense

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    Marina Souza Rocha

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Informações a respeito das características químicas e do valor nutritivo dos frutos do cerrado são ferramentas básicas para a avaliação do consumo e para a formulação de novos produtos. No entanto, poucos dados estão disponíveis na literatura especializada com relação à composição química destes frutos e sua aplicação tecnológica, ressaltando a necessidade de pesquisas científicas sobre o assunto. Realizou-se o presente estudo com o objetivo de caracterizar físico-quimicamente e determinar a atividade antioxidante in vitro, pelo método DPPH, da cagaita (Eugenia dysenterica, cajuzinho-do-cerrado (Anacardium humile, chichá (Sterculia striata Naud., jatobá-do-cerrado (Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart. e macaúba (Acrocomia aculeata Mart.. Os frutos foram colhidos na EMBRAPA - MEIO NORTE - PI, e na Cidade de Corrente-PI. Analisaram-se as características físicas (peso, comprimento e diâmetro, químicas (umidade, cinzas, lipídeos, proteínas, carboidratos, Valor Energético Total (VET, conteúdo de compostos fenólicos totais, flavonoides, antocianinas, β-caroteno, licopeno, vitamina C e atividade antioxidante pelo método DPPH. As amostras foram analisadas em dois lotes, e cada análise, em triplicata. Para a análise dos dados, foi elaborado um banco de dados, utilizando-se do programa estatístico EPI INFO, versão 6.04b, e o programa EXCEL. Os resultados obtidos para os compostos bioativos estudados demonstraram que todos os frutos apresentaram quantidade elevada de vitamina C (mg/100g, destacando-se o cajuzinho-do-cerrado (500. Os frutos que apresentaram maior capacidade antioxidante, expressos em capacidade de reduzir em 50% a atividade do radical livre DPPH (EC50mg/L, foram cagaita (Eugenia dysenterica Dc. e cajuzinho-do-cerrado (Anacardium humile. Concluiu-se, portanto, que os frutos pesquisados apresentaram bom valor nutritivo, um elevado conteúdo de compostos bioativos e demonstraram atividade antioxidante.

  16. Recovery of dopamine neuronal transporter but lack of change of its mRNA in substantia nigra after inactivation by a new irreversible inhibitor characterized in vitro and ex vivo in the rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do Régo, Jean-Claude; Syringas, Maria; Leblond, Bertrand; Costentin, Jean; Bonnet, Jean-Jacques

    1999-01-01

    In vitro, the ability of DEEP-NCS {1-[2-(diphenylmethoxy)ethyl]-4-[2-(4-isothiocyanatophenyl)ethyl]-piperazine} to inhibit [3H]-dopamine uptake by rat striatal synaptosomes was concentration-dependent and inversely related to the protein concentration. This inhibition was irreversible and resulted from changes in Vmax and KM. DEEP-NCS was less potent on noradrenaline, serotonin and choline transport. One day after intrastriatal injections of DEEP-NCS (100 and 1000 pmol) in 20% dimethylsulphoxide, moderate decreases in the ex vivo dopamine uptake were observed in synaptosomes obtained from striatum injected with DEEP-NCS or solvent, and the contralateral uninjected striatum. In similar conditions, 300 pmol DEEP-NCS in 45% 2 hydroxypropyl-γ-cyclodextrin–0.5% dimethylsulphoxide solution sub-totally reduced ex vivo dopamine uptake and mazindol binding, and moderately decreased choline and serotonin transport. These reductions were specific to DEEP-NCS-injected striata. A clomipramine pretreatment (16 mg kg−1 i.p. 1 h before) was performed in following experiments, since it reduced the DEEP-NCS-elicited decrease in serotonin uptake without affecting other indices. One day after intrastriatal injection, DEEP-NCS elicited similar dose-dependent decreases in ex vivo dopamine uptake and mazindol binding (ID50=6.9-8 ng striatum−1). Changes in KM and Vmax for ex vivo dopamine transport produced by DEEP-NCS disappeared according to similar time-courses. The t½ for transporter recovery was 6.1 days. This value should correspond to its actual turnover rate in vivo, since no change in transporter mRNA level was observed in substantia nigra ipsilateral to 300 pmol DEEP-NCS-injected striatum. The results indicate that DEEP-NCS behaves as a potent, quite selective, irreversible inhibitor of the DAT, in vitro and in vivo. Its use in vivo suggests that the physiological half-life of the rat striatal DAT is close to 6 days. PMID:10498834

  17. A functional MRI study of the brain in stroke patients with upper-limb paralysis treated with constraint-induced movement therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Bo; Ma Lin; Weng Changshui; Zheng Zhixin; Sun Tong

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate and compare the activation patterns of stroke patients with upper-limb paralysis using functional MRI before and after treatment with constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) so as to explore the mechanism of CIMT. Methods: Six patients in chronic stage of brain infarction who have functional disturbance in right upper-limb and 9 normal controls were entered into the study. All of the patients were asked to perform the thumb-to-index finger tapping task and underwent functional MRI before and two weeks after CIMT. The controls underwent fMRI of same protocol once. The patients' upper-limb function scores before and after CIMT were analyzed with SPSS 11.5 by paired t test. The fMRI data were analyzed with analysis of functional neurolmages (AFNI) software. The percentage of blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal change for the normal control was analyzed by one-sample t test to indentify the activated brain regions. The percentage change of BOLD signal for the patients before and after CIMT was compared to control's data by independent-samples t test. The percentage change of BOLD signal for the patients before and after CIMT was analyzed by paired-samples t test. The significant difference level was set P<0.05. Results: The fMRI showed the patients' activated brain regions before CIMT were similar to that of the controls', while the activation level was lower. There were wide areas activated to compensate the impaired function especially for the fight upper-limb. Before CIMT, the patients' score for fight upper-limb on the action research arm test was 27±4. After CIMT, the patients' score was 40±3, and the difference was significant (t=14.626, P<0.05), which indicated the improved function. These subjects also displayed cortical reorganization after CIMT on fMRI. The areas responsible for the right hand movement showed increased activation and the activation level at bilateral corpora striata thalami, and cerebella increased

  18. MRI study on reversible and irreversible electroporation induced blood brain barrier disruption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hjouj

    Full Text Available Electroporation, is known to induce cell membrane permeabilization in the reversible (RE mode and cell death in the irreversible (IRE mode. Using an experimental system designed to produce a continuum of IRE followed by RE around a single electrode we used MRI to study the effects of electroporation on the brain. Fifty-four rats were injected with Gd-DOTA and treated with a G25 electrode implanted 5.5 mm deep into the striata. MRI was acquired immediately after treatment, 10 min, 20 min, 30 min, and up to three weeks following the treatment using: T1W, T2W, Gradient echo (GE, serial SPGR (DCE-MRI with flip angles ranging over 5-25°, and diffusion-weighted MRI (DWMRI. Blood brain barrier (BBB disruption was depicted as clear enhancement on T1W images. The average signal intensity in the regions of T1-enhancement, representing BBB disruption, increased from 1887±83 (arbitrary units immediately post treatment to 2246±94 20 min post treatment, then reached a plateau towards the 30 min scan where it reached 2289±87. DWMRI at 30 min showed no significant effects. Early treatment effects and late irreversible damage were clearly depicted on T2W. The enhancing volume on T2W has increased by an average of 2.27±0.27 in the first 24-48 hours post treatment, suggesting an inflammatory tissue response. The permanent tissue damage, depicted as an enhancing region on T2W, 3 weeks post treatment, decreased to an average of 50±10% of the T2W enhancing volumes on the day of the treatment which was 33±5% of the BBB disruption volume. Permanent tissue damage was significantly smaller than the volume of BBB disruption, suggesting, that BBB disruption is associated with RE while tissue damage with IRE. These results demonstrate the feasibility of applying reversible and irreversible electroporation for transient BBB disruption or permanent damage, respectively, and applying MRI for planning/monitoring disruption volume/shape by optimizing electrode positions

  19. Exposure to low-dose rotenone precipitates synaptic plasticity alterations in PINK1 heterozygous knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martella, G; Madeo, G; Maltese, M; Vanni, V; Puglisi, F; Ferraro, E; Schirinzi, T; Valente, E M; Bonanni, L; Shen, J; Mandolesi, G; Mercuri, N B; Bonsi, P; Pisani, A

    2016-07-01

    Heterozygous mutations in the PINK1 gene are considered a susceptibility factor to develop early-onset Parkinson's disease (PD), as supported by dopamine hypometabolism in asymptomatic mutation carriers and subtle alterations of dopamine-dependent striatal synaptic plasticity in heterozygous PINK1 knockout (PINK1(+/-)) mice. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether exposure to low-dose rotenone of heterozygous PINK1(+/-) mice, compared to their wild-type PINK1(+/+) littermates, could impact on dopamine-dependent striatal synaptic plasticity, in the absence of apparent structural alterations. Mice were exposed to a range of concentrations of rotenone (0.01-1mg/kg). Chronic treatment with concentrations of rotenone up to 0.8mg/kg did not cause manifest neuronal loss or changes in ATP levels both in the striatum or substantia nigra of PINK1(+/-) and PINK1(+/+) mice. Moreover, rotenone (up to 0.8mg/kg) treatment did not induce mislocalization of the mitochondrial membrane protein Tom20 and release of cytochrome c in PINK1(+/-) striata. Accordingly, basic electrophysiological properties of nigral dopaminergic and striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) were normal. Despite the lack of gross alterations in neuronal viability in chronically-treated PINK1(+/-), a complete loss of both long-term depression (LTD) and long-term potentiation (LTP) was recorded in MSNs from PINK1(+/-) mice treated with a low rotenone (0.1mg/kg) concentration. Even lower concentrations (0.01mg/kg) blocked LTP induction in heterozygous PINK1(+/-) MSNs compared to PINK1(+/+) mice. Of interest, chronic pretreatment with the antioxidants alpha-tocopherol and Trolox, a water-soluble analog of vitamin E and powerful antioxidant, rescued synaptic plasticity impairment, confirming that, at the doses we utilized, rotenone did not induce irreversible alterations. In this model, chronic exposure to low-doses of rotenone was not sufficient to alter mitochondrial integrity and ATP production, but

  20. Vegetation of Lacassine National Wildlife Refuge, Louisiana-Recent plant communities with comparison to a three-decade-old survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Rebecca J.; Michot, Thomas C.; Allain, Larry

    2011-01-01

    Shifts in plant community composition and structure can affect the quality of habitat for wildlife species. Lacassine National Wildlife Refuge in southwestern Louisiana was established in 1937 with a primary goal of providing habitat for wintering waterfowl species. A large freshwater impoundment constructed on the refuge to improve waterfowl habitat value was completed in 1943. About 10 years after construction was completed, staff at the refuge became concerned that emergent vegetation cover was increasing in the impoundment over time while open water areas, which are critical as foraging and resting areas for waterfowl, were decreasing. To document vegetation change over time, we collected information on plant community species composition for comparison to similar data collected in 1973. A total of 84 sampling plots was established in 2006 within the impoundment to coincide as closely as possible to plots sampled in the earlier study. Plant species composition and cover were recorded at each plot in the summers of 2006 and 2007. Change between sampling events separated by more than three decades was determined by comparing the frequency of occurrence of 20 species identified in 1973 to their frequency in 2006 and 2007. Interannual variation was determined by comparing plot data between 2006 and 2007. In plots dominated by emergent vegetation, it was found that Bacopa caroliniana, Eleocharis equisetoides, Leersia hexandra, Panicum hemitomon, and Sagittaria lancifolia were significantly less frequent in 2006 and 2007 than in 1973. The frequency of Brasenia schreberi, Cabomba caroliniana, Nitella gracilis, and Nymphoides aquatica was significantly lower in 2006 and 2007 than in 1973 in plots dominated by floating-leaved plants, submersed plants, or open water. In 2007, Hydrocotyle sp. and Sacciolepis striata were more frequent than in 1973 in emergent vegetation plots, and Utricularia sp. was more frequent in submersed or open-water plots. We documented

  1. Novel insecticide strategies such as phototoxic dyes in adult fruit fly control and suppression programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, Daniel S.; Mangan, Robert L.

    2000-01-01

    The problems of public acceptance, ecological impact, and integration with pest management programmes associated with use of broad spectrum insecticides in bait sprays for fruit flies are being addressed in our laboratory by our development of more precisely targeted bait systems which use insecticides which are less toxic to non-target organisms. Historically, bait and insecticide sprays to control fruit flies have been used since the beginning of the 20th century. Initially, inorganic insecticides were recommended. After the Second World War, chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides replaced inorganic ones only to be replaced by the organic ones that are used at present. Back and Pemberton (1918) stated that baits used for fruit fly control were first recommended by Mally in South Africa for the control of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), in 1908-1909 and by Berlese in Italy for the control of the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin). The methods were improved by Lounsboury in South Africa in 1912 for the control of C. capitata and by Newman during 1913-1914 in Australia for the control of the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt). In 1910, Marsh used low-volume insecticide applications against the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), in Hawaii. Thereafter, other investigators adopted the low-volume approach to kill fruit flies. Whenever baits were used, they added carbohydrates and fermenting substances such as sugars, molasses, syrups, or fruit juices. In the 1930s, McPhail (1937), while working with attractants, found that sugar-yeast solutions attracted flies, and, in 1939 found that protein lures were attractive to Anastrepha species, especially to the guava fruit fly, A. striata Schiner (Baker et al. 1944). It was not until 1952, however, when Steiner demonstrated the use of hydrolysed proteins and partially hydrolysed yeast in combination with organophosphate insecticides to control fruit flies, that

  2. Gneisses (Serizzi and Beole) of the Verbano-Cusio-Ossola district (Piedmont, Northern Italy): possible candidates for the designation of "Global Heritage Stone province"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonella Dino, Giovanna; Borghi, Alessandro; Cavallo, Alessandro; Primavori, Piero

    2016-04-01

    The Verbano-Cusio-Ossola quarrying district (Piedmont, northern Italy) produces many different ornamental stones (granites, gneisses, marbles): two really important categories are represented by Serizzo and Beola gneisses. Several varieties of Serizzo and Beola crop out in the upper and middle Ossola Valley: Serizzo derives from the Antigorio, Monte Leone and Monte Rosa Penninic Units, whereas Beola from the Monte Leone, Orselina-Moncucco-Isorno and Monte Rosa Penninic Units, as well from the Fobello-Rimella schists (Austroalpine). The Serizzo, represented by a group of foliated granitoid orthogneisses (Serizzo Antigorio, Serizzo Formazza, Serizzo Sempione and Serizzo Monte Rosa varieties), is probably the most important and extensively exploited ornamental stones from the VCO province (about 70% of the VCO stone production). The quarries are mostly concentrated in the Antigorio and Formazza valleys, where the Antigorio nappe has a sub-horizontal attitude and reaches its greatest thickness (up to 1000 m). This stone was largely used to produce columns since the end of XV century (e.g. the old Ospedale Maggiore in Milano, now University of Milano) and later on it was replaced with granites. It was also used in the building structure of the Duomo di Milano, for the plinth and the piers. Nowadays, thanks to its good wear resistance and low cost, it is mainly used in polished slabs for paving: a recent application is the Frankfurt airport floor. Beola is the name of a group of heterogeneous orthogneisses with mylonitic foliation and strong mineralogical lineation (Beola Grigia, Bianca, Ghiandonata, Striata varieties), easy to split into thin slabs with hammer and chisel, occurring in the middle Ossola Valley, between Vogogna and Montecrestese. The quarries of Beola are probably the oldest of the Ossola Valley, although the precise period in which the stone started to be exported is unknown. The Beola trade probably started at the end of the XIII century, with the

  3. Aspectos clínico-patológicos da intoxicação experimental pelas sementes de Crotalaria mucronata (Fabaceae em bovinos Experimental poisoning by Crotalaria mucronata (Fabaceae seeds in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo R. Boghossian

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Sementes moídas de Crotalaria mucronata Desv. (=Crotalaria striata DC., Crotalaria pallida Ait., Crotalaria saltiana, com nomes populares de "xique-xique" ou "guizo-de-cascavel", foram administradas por via oral a 9 bovinos. As doses diárias de 1g/kg, 2g/kg, 3g/kg cada uma a um bovino, e 5g/kg em dois de três bovinos, dadas durante 61 a 63 dias, não causaram intoxicação. A dose de 5g/kg em um bovino, 7,5g/kg em dois bovinos e 10g/kg em um bovino, dadas durante 47-61 dias, causaram sintomas entre 47 e 80 dias após o início da administração e a morte entre 3 horas e 5 dias após o início dos sintomas. Os principais sintomas foram pulso venoso positivo da veia jugular, respiração abdominal, taquicardia, inapetência, fezes ressequidas, edema sub-mandibular e fraqueza. Os achados de necropsia foram palidez pulmonar, hidropericárdio, hidrotórax, hidroperitôneo, edema de mesentério, aumento da consistência hepática, alterações de cor do fígado, dilatação de ventrículo cardíaco direito e edema da parede ruminal. As principais alterações histológicas concentraram-se nos pulmões, sob forma de espessamento das paredes alveolares e da parede das arteríolas com diminuição da luz e fibrose periarteriolar; havia também lesões hepáticas e cardíacas de menor importância. Pode-se concluir que as principais lesões causadas pela ingestão das sementes de C. mucronata durante períodos prolongados, devem-se à dificuldade de passagem do sangue pelos vasos pulmonares em função da hipertensão arterial decorrente de fibrose e espessamento arteriolar determinada pela ação pneumotóxica da planta.Experiments were performed to define the clinical and pathological picture of prolonged administration of the seeds of Crotalaria mucronata Desv. to cattle, in order to obtain additional information about this toxicosis. The ground seeds were administered orally to 9 bovines. Doses of 1g/kg/day, 2g/kg/day, 3g/kg/day each in one bovine

  4. Multimodal imaging analysis of single-photon emission computed tomography and magnetic resonance tomography for improving diagnosis of Parkinson's disease; Multimodale SPECT- und MRT-Bilddatenanalyse zur Verbesserung der Diagnostik des idiopathischen Parkinson-Syndroms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barthel, H.; Georgi, P. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Mueller, U.; Waechter, T.; Murai, T. [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Neuropsychologische Forschung, Leipzig (Germany); Slomka, P. [Universitaet West-Ontario, London (Canada). Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin; Dannenberg, C.; Kahn, T. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Diagnostische Radiologie

    2000-10-01

    impact of [{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT SPECT for diagnosing PD is affected by the method used to analyze the SPECT images. The described multimodal approach, which is based on coregistration of SPECT and morphological imaging data, leads to improved determination of the degree of this dopaminergic disorder. (orig.) [German] Die dem idiopathischen Parkinson-Syndrom (IPS) zugrunde liegende Degeneration nigrostriataler dopaminerger Neurone kann mit [{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT und der Single-Photonen-Emissions-Computer-Tomographie (SPECT) erfasst werden. Dabei ist die Qualitaet der bei der Auswertung der SPECT-Studien angewandten Regions-of-Interest-(ROI-)Technik durch die begrenzte anatomische Information in den Szintigrammen limitiert. Die vorliegende Studie wurde durchgefuehrt, um zu testen, ob die Diagnostik des IPS durch eine Koregistrierung der funktionell orientierten SPECT-Bilddaten mit morphologisch orientierten Bilddaten der MRT/CT verbessert werden kann. Dazu wurden im Rahmen einer neurokognitiven Studie 27 Patienten (8 m, 19 w; Alter: 55{+-}13 Jahre) mit IPS (Hoehn-und-Yahr-Stadium 2,1{+-}0,8 [MW{+-}SD]) mittels hochaufloesender [{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT-SPECT (185-200 MBq, Ceraspect-Kamera) untersucht. Die Spect-Analyse erfolgte durch 2 verschiedene ROI-Techniken: 1. Unimodale Technik - ROIs direkt in den SPECT-Studien definiert; 2. multimodale Technik - ROIs in individuellen MRT/CT-Studien definiert und nach interaktiver Koregistrierung von SPECT- und MRT/CT-Studien auf die SPECT-Studien transformiert. Es wurden [{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT-Anreicherungsquotienten (Referenz=Zerebellum) fuer die Caudatuskoepfe (CA), Putamina (PU) und fuer die gesamten Corpora striata gewonnen und mit klinischen Parametern verglichen. Im Vergleich zur unimodalen ROI-Technik waren im Falle der multimodalen Technik die Differenzen zwischen den kontra- und ipsilateralen (in Relation zur klinisch dominierenden Halbseite) [{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT-Anreicherungsquotienten signifikant groesser (z.B. fuer PU

  5. First report of the land planarian Diversibipalium multilineatum (Makino & Shirasawa, 1983) (Platyhelminthes, Tricladida, Continenticola) in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, Giuseppe; Menchetti, Mattia; Sluys, Ronald; Solà, Eduard; Riutort, Marta; Tricarico, Elena; Justine, Jean-Lou; Cavigioli, Luca; Mori, Emiliano

    2016-01-26

    Introduction of alien species may significantly affect soil ecosystems, through predation or disruption of components of native ecosystems (Winsor et al. 2004; Álvarez-Presas et al. 2014; Justine et al. 2014). Land planarians have been reported as alien species in soils throughout the world and, among those, some species are considered to be successful invaders, e.g. Platydemus manokwari de Beauchamp, 1963, Arthurdendyus triangulatus (Dendy, 1894), Bipalium adventitium Hyman, 1943, Bipalium kewense Moseley, 1878 and Dolichoplana striata Moseley, 1877 (Winsor et al. 2004; Álvarez-Presas et al. 2014; Justine et al. 2014, 2015). Soil moisture status seems to be an important element for their successful invasion (Fraser & Boag 1998). In Europe at least 18 species of alien land planarians have been recorded since now and some of them are considered as invasive ones, e.g. P. manokwari (cf. Justine et al. 2014). Although the alien land planarian B. kewense has been reported to occur in many greenhouses in Italy (Bello et al. 1995), no data are available on its establishment and/or impact on natural environments. On 28th September 2014, 20 specimens (~1 individual/m2) of the land planarian Diversibipalium multilineatum (Makino & Shirasawa, 1983) (Fig. 1), native to Japan, were collected under pots, branches and plastic materials in a private garden located in the center of Bologna (Emilia Romagna, Central Italy), near the urban park Giardini Margherita (44°29' N, 11°21' E; WGS84). Thirty plant species (both indigenous and alien), mainly cultivated as bonsai (e.g. Lagerstroemia indica L., Juniperus procumbens (Siebold ex Endl.) Miquel), were present in this shady, wet garden (25 m2). Between March 2014 and June 2015, 70 more specimens of D. multilineatum were collected at the same site, mainly at dusk and dawn after rain. Reproduction by fission and regeneration processes were observed in several of those specimens, which were kept for some time in captivity. A specimen