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Sample records for stria terminalis paraventricular

  1. Activation of Hypocretin-1/Orexin-A Neurons Projecting to the Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis and Paraventricular Nucleus Is Critical for Reinstatement of Alcohol Seeking by Neuropeptide S.

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    Ubaldi, Massimo; Giordano, Antonio; Severi, Ilenia; Li, Hongwu; Kallupi, Marsida; de Guglielmo, Giordano; Ruggeri, Barbara; Stopponi, Serena; Ciccocioppo, Roberto; Cannella, Nazzareno

    2016-03-15

    Environmental conditioning is a major trigger for relapse in abstinent addicts. We showed that activation of the neuropeptide S (NPS) system exacerbates reinstatement vulnerability to cocaine and alcohol via stimulation of the hypocretin-1/orexin-A (Hcrt-1/Ox-A) system. Combining pharmacologic manipulations with immunohistochemistry techniques, we sought to determine how NPS and Hcrt-1/Ox-A systems interact to modulate reinstatement of alcohol seeking in rats. Intrahypothalamic injection of NPS facilitated discriminative cue-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking. This effect was blocked by the selective Hcrt-1/Ox-A antagonist SB334867 microinjected into the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) or into the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) but not into the ventral tegmental area or the locus coeruleus. Combining double labeling and confocal microscopy analyses, we found that NPS-containing axons are in close apposition to hypothalamic Hcrt-1/Ox-A positive neurons, a significant proportion of which express NPS receptors, suggesting a direct interaction between the two systems. Retrograde tracing experiments showed that intra-PVN or intra-BNST red fluorobead unilateral injection labeled bilaterally Hcrt-1/Ox-A somata, suggesting that NPS could recruit two distinct neuronal pathways. Confirming this assumption, intra-BNST or PVN Hcrt-1/Ox-A injection enhanced alcohol seeking similarly to hypothalamic NPS injection but to a lesser degree. Results suggest that the Hcrt-1/Ox-A neurocircuitry mediating the facilitation of cue-induced reinstatement by NPS involves structures critically involved in stress regulation such as the PVN and the BNST. These findings open to the tempting hypothesis of a role of the NPS system in modulating the interactions between stress and environmental conditioning factors in drug relapse. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Neuronal Correlates of Fear Conditioning in the Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haufler, Darrell; Nagy, Frank Z.; Pare, Denis

    2013-01-01

    Lesion and inactivation studies indicate that the central amygdala (CeA) participates in the expression of cued and contextual fear, whereas the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is only involved in the latter. The basis for this functional dissociation is unclear because CeA and BNST form similar connections with the amygdala and…

  3. CRF receptor type 2 neurons in the posterior bed nucleus of the stria terminalis critically contribute to stress recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henckens, M J A G; Printz, Y; Shamgar, U; Dine, J; Lebow, M; Drori, Y; Kuehne, C; Kolarz, A; Eder, M; Deussing, J M; Justice, N J; Yizhar, O; Chen, A

    2017-12-01

    The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is critical in mediating states of anxiety, and its dysfunction has been linked to stress-related mental disease. Although the anxiety-related role of distinct subregions of the anterior BNST was recently reported, little is known about the contribution of the posterior BNST (pBNST) to the behavioral and neuroendocrine responses to stress. Previously, we observed abnormal expression of corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 2 (CRFR2) to be associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-like symptoms. Here, we found that CRFR2-expressing neurons within the pBNST send dense inhibitory projections to other stress-related brain regions (for example, the locus coeruleus, medial amygdala and paraventricular nucleus), implicating a prominent role of these neurons in orchestrating the neuroendocrine, autonomic and behavioral response to stressful situations. Local CRFR2 activation by urocortin 3 depolarized the cells, increased the neuronal input resistance and increased firing of action potentials, indicating an enhanced excitability. Furthermore, we showed that CRFR2-expressing neurons within the pBNST are critically involved in the modulation of the behavioral and neuroendocrine response to stress. Optogenetic activation of CRFR2 neurons in the pBNST decreased anxiety, attenuated the neuroendocrine stress response, ameliorated stress-induced anxiety and impaired the fear memory for the stressful event. Moreover, activation following trauma exposure reduced the susceptibility for PTSD-like symptoms. Optogenetic inhibition of pBNST CRFR2 neurons yielded opposite effects. These data indicate the relevance of pBNST activity for adaptive stress recovery.

  4. Ventromedial prefrontal cortex damage alters resting blood flow to the bed nucleus of stria terminalis.

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    Motzkin, Julian C; Philippi, Carissa L; Oler, Jonathan A; Kalin, Ned H; Baskaya, Mustafa K; Koenigs, Michael

    2015-03-01

    The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) plays a key role in modulating emotional responses, yet the precise neural mechanisms underlying this function remain unclear. vmPFC interacts with a number of subcortical structures involved in affective processing, including the amygdala, hypothalamus, periaqueductal gray, ventral striatum, and bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BNST). While a previous study of non-human primates shows that vmPFC lesions reduce BNST activity and anxious behavior, no such causal evidence exists in humans. In this study, we used a novel application of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in neurosurgical patients with focal, bilateral vmPFC damage to determine whether vmPFC is indeed critical for modulating BNST function in humans. Relative to neurologically healthy subjects, who exhibited robust rest-state functional connectivity between vmPFC and BNST, the vmPFC lesion patients had significantly lower resting-state perfusion of the right BNST. No such perfusion differences were observed for the amygdala, striatum, hypothalamus, or periaqueductal gray. This study thus provides unique data on the relationship between vmPFC and BNST, suggesting that vmPFC serves to promote BNST activity in humans. This finding is relevant for neural circuitry models of mood and anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. MORPHINE PRODUCES CIRCUIT-SPECIFIC NEUROPLASTICITY IN THE BED NUCLEUS OF THE STRIA TERMINALIS

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    Dumont, É. C.; Rycroft, B. K.; Maiz, J.; Williams, J. T.

    2013-01-01

    The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) is a brain structure located at the interface of the cortex and the cerebrospinal trunk. The BST is a cluster of nuclei organized in a complex intrinsic network that receives inputs from cortical and subcortical sources, and that sends a widespread top-down projection. There is growing evidence that the BST is a key component in the neurobiological basis of substance abuse. In the present study, the regulation of excitatory inputs onto identified neurons in the BST was examined in rats treated chronically with morphine. Neurons projecting to the ventral tegmental area (VTA) were identified by retrograde transport of fluorescent microspheres and recorded in the whole-cell voltage clamp configuration in brain slices. Selective excitatory inputs to these neurons were electrically evoked with electrodes placed in the medial and lateral aspects of the dorsal BST. The chronic morphine treatment selectively increased AMPA-dependent excitatory postsynaptic currents in a subset of inputs activated by dorso-lateral stimulation in the BST. Inputs activated by medial stimulation were not affected by morphine. Likewise, the inputs to neurons that did not project to the VTA were not changed by morphine. Altogether, these results extend the understanding of neuronal circuits intrinsically sensitive to drugs of abuse within the BST. PMID:18343592

  6. Neurogenetic and morphogenetic heterogeneity in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis

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    Bayer, S.A.

    1987-01-01

    Neurogenesis and morphogenesis in the rat bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (strial bed nucleus) were examined with [ 3 H]thymidine autoradiography. For neurogenesis, the experimental animals were the offspring of pregnant females given an injection of [ 3 H]thymidine on 2 consecutive gestational days. Nine groups of embryos were exposed to [ 3 H]thymidine on E13-E14, E14-E15,... E21-E22, respectively. On P60, the percentage of labeled cells and the proportion of cells originating during 24-hour periods were quantified at six anteroposterior levels in the strial bed nucleus. On the basis of neurogenetic gradients, the strial bed nucleus was divided into anterior and posterior parts. The anterior strial bed nucleus shows a caudal (older) to rostral (younger) neurogenetic gradient. Cells in the vicinity of the anterior commissural decussation are generated mainly between E13 and E16, cells just posterior to the nucleus accumbens mainly between E15 and E17. Within each rostrocaudal level, neurons originate in combined dorsal to ventral and medial to lateral neurogenetic gradients so that the oldest cells are located ventromedially and the youngest cells dorsolaterally. The most caudal level has some small neurons adjacent to the internal capsule that originate between E17 and E20. In the posterior strial bed nucleus, neurons extend ventromedially into the posterior preoptic area. Cells are generated simultaneously along the rostrocaudal plane in a modified lateral (older) to medial (younger) neurogenetic gradient. Ventrolateral neurons originate mainly between E13 and E16, dorsolateral neurons mainly between E15 and E16, and medial neurons mainly between E15 and E17. The youngest neurons are clumped into a medial core area just ventral to the fornix

  7. Allopregnanolone in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis modulates contextual fear in rats

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    Naomi eNagaya

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Trauma- and stress-related disorders are among the most common types of mental illness affecting the U.S. population. For many of these disorders, there is a striking sex difference in lifetime prevalence; for instance, women are twice as likely as men to be affected by posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Gonadal steroids and their metabolites have been implicated in sex differences in fear and anxiety. One example, allopregnanolone (ALLO, is a neuroactive metabolite of progesterone that allosterically enhances GABAA receptor activity and has anxiolytic effects. Like other ovarian hormones, it not only occurs at different levels in males and females but also fluctuates over the female reproductive cycle. One brain structure that may be involved in neuroactive steroid regulation of fear and anxiety is the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST. To explore this question, we examined the consequences of augmenting or reducing ALLO activity in the BNST on the expression of Pavlovian fear conditioning in rats. In Experiment 1, intra-BNST infusions of ALLO in male rats suppressed freezing behavior (a fear response to the conditioned context, but did not influence freezing to a discrete tone conditioned stimulus (CS. In Experiment 2, intra-BNST infusion of either finasteride, an inhibitor of ALLO synthesis, or 17-phenyl-(3α,5α-androst-16-en-3-ol, an ALLO antagonist, in female rats enhanced contextual freezing; neither treatment affected freezing to the tone CS. These findings support a role for ALLO in modulating contextual fear via the BNST and suggest that sex differences in fear and anxiety could arise from differential steroid regulation of BNST function. The susceptibility of women to disorders such as PTSD may be linked to cyclic declines in neuroactive steroid activity within fear circuitry.

  8. Neurogenetic and morphogenetic heterogeneity in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis

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    Bayer, S.A.

    1987-11-01

    Neurogenesis and morphogenesis in the rat bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (strial bed nucleus) were examined with (/sup 3/H)thymidine autoradiography. For neurogenesis, the experimental animals were the offspring of pregnant females given an injection of (/sup 3/H)thymidine on 2 consecutive gestational days. Nine groups of embryos were exposed to (/sup 3/H)thymidine on E13-E14, E14-E15,... E21-E22, respectively. On P60, the percentage of labeled cells and the proportion of cells originating during 24-hour periods were quantified at six anteroposterior levels in the strial bed nucleus. On the basis of neurogenetic gradients, the strial bed nucleus was divided into anterior and posterior parts. The anterior strial bed nucleus shows a caudal (older) to rostral (younger) neurogenetic gradient. Cells in the vicinity of the anterior commissural decussation are generated mainly between E13 and E16, cells just posterior to the nucleus accumbens mainly between E15 and E17. Within each rostrocaudal level, neurons originate in combined dorsal to ventral and medial to lateral neurogenetic gradients so that the oldest cells are located ventromedially and the youngest cells dorsolaterally. The most caudal level has some small neurons adjacent to the internal capsule that originate between E17 and E20. In the posterior strial bed nucleus, neurons extend ventromedially into the posterior preoptic area. Cells are generated simultaneously along the rostrocaudal plane in a modified lateral (older) to medial (younger) neurogenetic gradient. Ventrolateral neurons originate mainly between E13 and E16, dorsolateral neurons mainly between E15 and E16, and medial neurons mainly between E15 and E17. The youngest neurons are clumped into a medial core area just ventral to the fornix.

  9. How Human Amygdala and Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis May Drive Distinct Defensive Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klumpers, Floris; Kroes, Marijn C W; Baas, Johanna M P; Fernández, Guillén

    2017-10-04

    The ability to adaptively regulate responses to the proximity of potential danger is critical to survival and imbalance in this system may contribute to psychopathology. The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is implicated in defensive responding during uncertain threat anticipation whereas the amygdala may drive responding upon more acute danger. This functional dissociation between the BNST and amygdala is however controversial, and human evidence scarce. Here we used data from two independent functional magnetic resonance imaging studies [ n = 108 males and n = 70 (45 females)] to probe how coordination between the BNST and amygdala may regulate responses during shock anticipation and actual shock confrontation. In a subset of participants from Sample 2 ( n = 48) we demonstrate that anticipation and confrontation evoke bradycardic and tachycardic responses, respectively. Further, we show that in each sample when going from shock anticipation to the moment of shock confrontation neural activity shifted from a region anatomically consistent with the BNST toward the amygdala. Comparisons of functional connectivity during threat processing showed overlapping yet also consistently divergent functional connectivity profiles for the BNST and amygdala. Finally, childhood maltreatment levels predicted amygdala, but not BNST, hyperactivity during shock anticipation. Our results support an evolutionary conserved, defensive distance-dependent dynamic balance between BNST and amygdala activity. Shifts in this balance may enable shifts in defensive reactions via the demonstrated differential functional connectivity. Our results indicate that early life stress may tip the neural balance toward acute threat responding and via that route predispose for affective disorder. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Previously proposed differential contributions of the BNST and amygdala to fear and anxiety have been recently debated. Despite the significance of understanding their

  10. Endogenous oxytocin is necessary for preferential Fos expression to male odors in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in female Syrian hamsters.

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    Martinez, Luis A; Levy, Marisa J; Petrulis, Aras

    2013-09-01

    Successful reproduction in mammals depends on proceptive or solicitational behaviors that enhance the probability of encountering potential mates. In female Syrian hamsters, one such behavior is vaginal scent marking. Recent evidence suggests that the neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) may be critical for regulating this behavior. Blockade of OT receptors in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) or the medial preoptic area (MPOA) decreases vaginal marking responses to male odors; lesion data suggest that BNST, rather than MPOA, mediates this effect. However, how OT interacts with sexual odor processing to drive preferential solicitation is not known. To address this issue, intact female Syrian hamsters were exposed to male or female odors and their brains processed for immunohistochemistry for Fos, a marker of recent neuronal activation, and OT. Additional females were injected intracerebroventricularly (ICV) with an oxytocin receptor antagonist (OTA) or vehicle, and then tested for vaginal marking and Fos responses to sexual odors. Colocalization of OT and Fos in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus was unchanged following exposure to male odors, but decreased following exposure to female odors. Following injections of OTA, Fos expression to male odors was decreased in BNST, but not in MPOA or the medial amygdala (MA). Fos expression in BNST may be functionally relevant for vaginal marking, given that there was a positive correlation between Fos expression and vaginal marking for BNST, but not MPOA or MA. Together, these data suggest that OT facilitation of neuronal activity in BNST underlies the facilitative effects of OT on solicitational responses to male odors. © 2013.

  11. Projections from Bed Nuclei of the Stria Terminalis, Magnocellular Nucleus: Implications for Cerebral Hemisphere Regulation of Micturition, Defecation, and Penile Erection

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    DONG, HONG-WEI; SWANSON, LARRY W.

    2006-01-01

    The basic structural organization of axonal projections from the small but distinct magnocellular and ventral nuclei (of the bed nuclei of the stria terminalis) were analyzed with the PHAL anterograde tract tracing method in adult male rats. The former's overall projection pattern is complex, with over 80 distinct terminal fields ipsilateral to injection sites. Innervated regions in the cerebral hemisphere and brainstem fall into 9 general functional categories: cerebral nuclei, behavior cont...

  12. Neuregulin 1-ErbB4 signaling in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis regulates anxiety-like behavior.

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    Geng, Fei; Zhang, Jie; Wu, Jian-Lin; Zou, Wen-Jun; Liang, Zhi-Ping; Bi, Lin-Lin; Liu, Ji-Hong; Kong, Ying; Huang, Chu-Qiang; Li, Xiao-Wen; Yang, Jian-Ming; Gao, Tian-Ming

    2016-08-04

    The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), a nucleus defined as part of the extended amygdala, is involved in the expression of anxiety disorders. However, the regulatory mechanisms of BNST inhibitory activity that is involved in anxiety are unknown. Here, we showed that blocking neuregulin 1 (NRG1)-ErbB4 signaling in the BNST of mice, by either neutralizing endogenous NRG1 with ecto-Erbb4 or antagonizing the ErbB4 receptor with its specific inhibitor, produced anxiogenic responses. Interestingly, application of exogenous NRG1 into the BNST induced no anxiolytic effects, suggesting saturating activity of endogenous NRG1. While infusion of the GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline into the BNST also led to anxiety-related behaviors, it did not worsen the anxiogenic effects produced by blocking NRG1-ErbB4 signaling, suggesting possible involvement of GABAergic neurotransmission. Further, in vitro electrophysiological recordings showed that BNST NRG1-ErbB4 signaling regulated the presynaptic GABA release. Together, these results suggest that NRG1-ErbB4 signaling in the BNST may play an important role in regulating anxiety-like behaviors. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Mechanisms of Neuroplasticity and Ethanol's Effects on Plasticity in the Striatum and Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis.

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    Lovinger, David M; Kash, Thomas L

    2015-01-01

    Long-lasting changes in synaptic function (i.e., synaptic plasticity) have long been thought to contribute to information storage in the nervous system. Although synaptic plasticity mainly has adaptive functions that allow the organism to function in complex environments, it is now clear that certain events or exposure to various substances can produce plasticity that has negative consequences for organisms. Exposure to drugs of abuse, in particular ethanol, is a life experience that can activate or alter synaptic plasticity, often resulting in increased drug seeking and taking and in many cases addiction.Two brain regions subject to alcohol's effects on synaptic plasticity are the striatum and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), both of which have key roles in alcohol's actions and control of intake. The specific effects depend on both the brain region analyzed (e.g., specific subregions of the striatum and BNST) and the duration of ethanol exposure (i.e., acute vs. chronic). Plastic changes in synaptic transmission in these two brain regions following prolonged ethanol exposure are thought to contribute to excessive alcohol drinking and relapse to drinking. Understanding the mechanisms underlying this plasticity may lead to new therapies for treatment of these and other aspects of alcohol use disorder.

  14. Molecular phenotyping of transient postnatal tyrosine hydroxylase neurons in the rat bed nucleus of the stria terminalis.

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    Carter, David A

    2017-07-01

    The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is a complex integrative centre in the forebrain, composed of multiple sub-nuclei, each with discrete populations of neurons. Progress in understanding BNST function, both in the adult and during postnatal maturation, is dependent upon a more complete characterization of neuronal phenotypes in the BNST. The aim of the current study was to define the molecular phenotype of one postnatal BNST neuronal population, in order to identify molecular factors that may underlie both (protein marker-related) immaturity, and secondly, the transience of this phenotype. This BNST population was originally identified by high, but transient expression of the EGR1 transcription factor (TF) in postnatal rat lateral intermediate BNST (BNSTLI). The current results confirm a high level of Egr1 activation in postnatal day 10 (PN10) male BNSTLI that is lost at PN40, and now demonstrate a similar pattern of transient activation in female brains. Apparent cellular immaturity in this population, as indicated by low levels of the adult neuronal marker NeuN/RBFOX3, was found to be uncorrelated with both key neuronal regulator protein expression (SOX2 and REST), and also RBFOX2 protein levels. The BNSTLI neurons have a partial catecholaminergic phenotype (tyrosine hydroxylase-positive/dopa decarboxylase-negative; TH+ve/DDC-ve) that is lost at PN40. In contrast, the co-expressed neuropeptide, somatostatin, is maintained, albeit at lower levels, at PN40. The transcriptional basis of the transient and partial catecholaminergic phenotype was investigated by analysing TFs known to maintain adult dopaminergic (TH+ve/DDC+ve) neuronal phenotypes. The BNSTLI neurons were shown to lack forkhead TFs including FOXA1, FOXA2 and FOXO1. In addition, the BNSTLI neurons had low, primarily cytoplasmic, expression of NR4A2/NURR1, an orphan nuclear receptor that is critical for adult maintenance of midbrain dopamine neurons. These results detail the molecular features

  15. Vasotocin neurons in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis preferentially process social information and exhibit properties that dichotomize courting and non-courting phenotypes.

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    Goodson, James L; Rinaldi, Jacob; Kelly, Aubrey M

    2009-01-01

    Neurons within the medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTm) that produce arginine vasotocin (VT; in non-mammals) or arginine vasopressin (VP; in mammals) have been intensively studied with respect to their anatomy and neuroendocrine regulation. However, almost no studies have examined how these neurons process stimuli in the animals' immediate environment. We recently showed that in five estrildid finch species, VT-immunoreactive (-ir) neurons in the BSTm increase their Fos expression selectively in response to positively-valenced social stimuli (i.e., stimuli that should elicit affiliation). Using male zebra finches, a highly gregarious estrildid, we now extend those findings to show that VT-Fos coexpression is induced by a positive social stimulus (a female), but not by a positive non-social stimulus (a water bath in bath-deprived birds), although the female and bath stimuli induced Fos equally within a nearby control region, the medial preoptic nucleus. In concurrent experiments, we also show that the properties of BSTm VT-ir neurons strongly differentiate males that diverge in social phenotype. Males who reliably fail to court females ("non-courters") have dramatically fewer VT-ir neurons in the BSTm than do reliable courters, and the VT-ir neurons of non-courters fail to exhibit Fos induction in response to a female stimulus.

  16. Projections from bed nuclei of the stria terminalis, magnocellular nucleus: implications for cerebral hemisphere regulation of micturition, defecation, and penile erection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hong-Wei; Swanson, Larry W

    2006-01-01

    The basic structural organization of axonal projections from the small but distinct magnocellular and ventral nuclei (of the bed nuclei of the stria terminalis) was analyzed with the Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin anterograde tract tracing method in adult male rats. The former's overall projection pattern is complex, with over 80 distinct terminal fields ipsilateral to injection sites. Innervated regions in the cerebral hemisphere and brainstem fall into nine general functional categories: cerebral nuclei, behavior control column, orofacial motor-related, humorosensory/thirst-related, brainstem autonomic control network, neuroendocrine, hypothalamic visceromotor pattern-generator network, thalamocortical feedback loops, and behavioral state control. The most novel findings indicate that the magnocellular nucleus projects to virtually all known major parts of the brain network that controls pelvic functions, including micturition, defecation, and penile erection, as well as to brain networks controlling nutrient and body water homeostasis. This and other evidence suggests that the magnocellular nucleus is part of a corticostriatopallidal differentiation modulating and coordinating pelvic functions with the maintenance of nutrient and body water homeostasis. Projections of the ventral nucleus are a subset of those generated by the magnocellular nucleus, with the obvious difference that the ventral nucleus does not project detectably to Barrington's nucleus, the subfornical organ, the median preoptic and parastrial nuclei, the neuroendocrine system, and midbrain orofacial motor-related regions.

  17. The anxiolytic-like effects of cannabidiol injected into the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis are mediated by 5-HT1A receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Felipe V; Resstel, Leonardo B M; Guimarães, Francisco S

    2011-02-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD) is a non-psychotomimetic compound from Cannabis sativa that induces anxiolytic-like effects in rodents and humans after systemic administration. Previous results from our group showed that CBD injection into the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) attenuates conditioned aversive responses. The aim of this study was to further investigate the role of this region on the anxiolytic effects of the CBD. Moreover, considering that CBD can activate 5-HT1A receptors, we also verified a possible involvement of these receptors in those effects. Male Wistar rats received injections of CBD (15, 30, or 60 nmol) into the BNST and were exposed to the elevated plus-maze (EPM) or to the Vogel conflict test (VCT), two widely used animal models of anxiety. CBD increased open arms exploration in the EPM as well as the number of punished licks in the VCT, suggesting an anxiolytic-like effect. The drug did not change the number of entries into the enclosed arms of the EPM nor interfered with water consumption or nociceptive threshold, discarding potential confounding factors in the two tests. Moreover, pretreatment with the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY100635 (0.37 nmol) blocked the effects of CBD in both models. These results give further support to the proposal that BNST is involved in the anxiolytic-like effects of CBD observed after systemic administration, probably by facilitating local 5-HT1A receptor-mediated neurotransmission.

  18. Involvement of the oxytocin system in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in the sex-specific regulation of social recognition

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    Dumais, Kelly M.; Alonso, Andrea G.; Immormino, Marisa A.; Bredewold, Remco; Veenema, Alexa H.

    2015-01-01

    Sex differences in the oxytocin (OT) system in the brain may explain why OT often regulates social behaviors in sex-specific ways. However, a link between sex differences in the OT system and sex-specific regulation of social behavior has not been tested. Here, we determined whether sex differences in the OT receptor (OTR) or in OT release in the posterior bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (pBNST) mediates sex-specific regulation of social recognition in rats. We recently showed that, compared to female rats, male rats have a three-fold higher OTR binding density in the pBNST, a sexually dimorphic area implicated in the regulation of social behaviors. We now demonstrate that OTR antagonist (5 ng/0.5 μl/side) administration into the pBNST impairs social recognition in both sexes, while OT (100 pg/0.5 μl/side) administration into the pBNST prolongs the duration of social recognition in males only. These effects seem specific to social recognition, as neither treatment altered total social investigation time in either sex. Moreover, baseline OT release in the pBNST, as measured with in vivo microdialysis, did not differ between the sexes. However, males showed higher OT release in the pBNST during social recognition compared to females. These findings suggest a sex-specific role of the OT system in the pBNST in the regulation of social recognition. PMID:26630388

  19. CRF1 and CRF2 receptors in the bed nucleus of stria terminalis differently modulate the baroreflex function in unanesthetized rats.

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    Oliveira, Leandro A; Almeida, Jeferson; Gomes-de-Souza, Lucas; Benini, Ricardo; Crestani, Carlos C

    2017-07-01

    The baroreflex is an important blood pressure regulating mechanism. The bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BNST) modulates the baroreflex function. However, the local BNST neurochemical mechanisms involved in control of baroreflex responses are not completely understood. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the involvement of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptors within the BNST in baroreflex control of heart rate in unanesthetized rats. For this, we evaluated effects of bilateral microinjection into the BNST of either the selective CRF 1 receptor antagonist CP376395 (5 nmol/100 nL) or the selective CRF 2 receptor antagonist antisauvagine-30 (5 nmol/100 nL) in bradycardiac response evoked by blood pressure increases caused by intravenous infusion of phenylephrine as well as tachycardiac response to blood pressure decrease caused by intravenous infusion of sodium nitroprusside. Bilateral microinjection of CP376395 into the BNST decreased the baroreflex bradycardiac response without affecting the reflex tachycardia. Conversely, BNST treatment with antisauvagine-30 decreased heart rate response during blood pressure drop without affecting the reflex bradycardia. Overall, these findings provide evidence of an involvement of CRF neurotransmission within the BNST in baroreflex activity. Nevertheless, data indicate that local CRF 1 and CRF 2 receptors differently modulate the baroreflex control of heart rate. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. PAC1 receptor antagonism in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) attenuates the endocrine and behavioral consequences of chronic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Carolyn W; Lezak, Kim R; Hartsock, Matthew J; Falls, William A; Braas, Karen M; Howard, Alan B; Hammack, Sayamwong E; May, Victor

    2014-09-01

    Chronic or repeated stressor exposure can induce a number of maladaptive behavioral and physiological consequences and among limbic structures, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) has been implicated in the integration and interpretation of stress responses. Previous work has demonstrated that chronic variate stress (CVS) exposure in rodents increases BNST pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP, Adcyap1) and PAC1 receptor (Adcyap1r1) transcript expression, and that acute BNST PACAP injections can stimulate anxiety-like behavior. Here we show that chronic stress increases PACAP expression selectively in the oval nucleus of the dorsolateral BNST in patterns distinct from those for corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH). Among receptor subtypes, BNST PACAP signaling through PAC1 receptors not only heightened anxiety responses as measured by different behavioral parameters but also induced anorexic-like behavior to mimic the consequences of stress. Conversely, chronic inhibition of BNST PACAP signaling by continuous infusion with the PAC1 receptor antagonist PACAP(6-38) during the week of CVS attenuated these stress-induced behavioral responses and changes in weight gain. BNST PACAP signaling stimulated the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and heightened corticosterone release; further, BNST PACAP(6-38) administration blocked corticosterone release in a sensitized stress model. In aggregate with recent associations of PACAP/PAC1 receptor dysregulation with altered stress responses including post-traumatic stress disorder, these data suggest that BNST PACAP/PAC1 receptor signaling mechanisms may coordinate the behavioral and endocrine consequences of stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Vasotocin mRNA expression is sensitive to testosterone and oestradiol in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in female Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aste, N; Sakamoto, E; Kagami, M; Saito, N

    2013-09-01

    Vasotocin-producing parvocellular neurones in the medial part of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTM) of many species of birds and mammals show sexual dimorphism and great plasticity in response to hormonal and environmental stimuli. In the BSTM of Japanese quail, vasotocin-immunoreactive neurones are visible and sensitive to testosterone exclusively in males. In males, gonadectomy decreases and testosterone restores vasotocin-immunoreactive cells and fibres by acting on vasotocin mRNA transcription. The insensitivity of female vasotocin-immunoreactive neurones to the activating effects of testosterone is the result of organisational effects of early exposure to oestradiol. Female quail also show vasotocin mRNA-expressing neurones in the BSTM, although it is not known whether the insensitivity of the vasotocinergic neurones to testosterone originates at the level of vasotocin gene transcription in this sex. Therefore, initially, the present study analysed the effects of acute treatment with testosterone on vasotocin mRNA expression in the BSTM of gonadectomised male and female quail using in situ hybridisation. Gonadectomy decreased (and a single injection of testosterone increased) the number of vasotocin mRNA-expressing neurones and intensity of the vasotocin mRNA hybridisation signal similarly in both sexes. Notably, testosterone increased vasotocin mRNA expression in ovariectomised females over that shown by intact quail. However, this treatment had no effect on vasotocin immunoreactivity. A second experiment analysed the effects of testosterone metabolites, oestradiol and 5α-dihydrotestosterone, on vasotocin mRNA expression in female quail. Oestradiol (but not 5α-dihydrotestosterone) fully mimicked the effects of testosterone on the number of vasotocin mRNA-expressing neurones and the intensity of the vasotocin mRNA hybridisation signal. Taken together, these results show, for the first time, that gonadal steroids strongly activate vasotocin m

  2. Oxytocin receptor neurotransmission in the dorsolateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis facilitates the acquisition of cued fear in the fear-potentiated startle paradigm in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moaddab, Mahsa; Dabrowska, Joanna

    2017-07-15

    Oxytocin (OT) is a hypothalamic neuropeptide that modulates fear and anxiety-like behaviors. Dorsolateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST dl ) plays a critical role in the regulation of fear and anxiety, and expresses high levels of OT receptor (OTR). However, the role of OTR neurotransmission within the BNST dl in mediating these behaviors is unknown. Here, we used adult male Sprague-Dawley rats to investigate the role of OTR neurotransmission in the BNST dl in the modulation of the acoustic startle response, as well as in the acquisition and consolidation of conditioned fear using fear potentiated startle (FPS) paradigm. Bilateral intra-BNST dl administration of OT (100 ng) did not affect the acquisition of conditioned fear response. However, intra-BNST dl administration of specific OTR antagonist (OTA), (d(CH 2 ) 5 1 , Tyr(Me) 2 , Thr 4 , Orn 8 , des-Gly-NH 2 9 )-vasotocin, (200 ng), prior to the fear conditioning session, impaired the acquisition of cued fear, without affecting a non-cued fear component of FPS. Neither OTA, nor OT affected baseline startle or shock reactivity during fear conditioning. Therefore, the observed impairment of cued fear after OTA infusion resulted from the specific effect on the formation of cued fear. In contrast to the acquisition, neither OTA nor OT affected the consolidation of FPS, when administered after the completion of fear conditioning session. Taken together, these results reveal the important role of OTR neurotransmission in the BNST dl in the formation of conditioned fear to a discrete cue. This study also highlights the role of the BNST dl in learning to discriminate between threatening and safe stimuli. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Involvement of the oxytocin system in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in the sex-specific regulation of social recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumais, Kelly M; Alonso, Andrea G; Immormino, Marisa A; Bredewold, Remco; Veenema, Alexa H

    2016-02-01

    Sex differences in the oxytocin (OT) system in the brain may explain why OT often regulates social behaviors in sex-specific ways. However, a link between sex differences in the OT system and sex-specific regulation of social behavior has not been tested. Here, we determined whether sex differences in the OT receptor (OTR) or in OT release in the posterior bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (pBNST) mediates sex-specific regulation of social recognition in rats. We recently showed that, compared to female rats, male rats have a three-fold higher OTR binding density in the pBNST, a sexually dimorphic area implicated in the regulation of social behaviors. We now demonstrate that OTR antagonist (5 ng/0.5 μl/side) administration into the pBNST impairs social recognition in both sexes, while OT (100 pg/0.5 μl/side) administration into the pBNST prolongs the duration of social recognition in males only. These effects seem specific to social recognition, as neither treatment altered total social investigation time in either sex. Moreover, baseline OT release in the pBNST, as measured with in vivo microdialysis, did not differ between the sexes. However, males showed higher OT release in the pBNST during social recognition compared to females. These findings suggest a sex-specific role of the OT system in the pBNST in the regulation of social recognition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Recovery of stress-impaired social behavior by an antagonist of the CRF binding protein, CRF6-33,in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis of male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Mailton; Stein, Dirson J; Albrechet-Souza, Lucas; Miczek, Klaus A; de Almeida, Rosa Maria M

    2018-01-09

    Social stress is recognized to promote the development of neuropsychiatric and mood disorders. Corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) is an important neuropeptide activated by social stress, and it contributes to neural and behavioral adaptations, as indicated by impaired social interactions and anhedonic effects. Few studies have focused on the role of the CRF binding protein (CRFBP), a component of the CRF system, and its activity in the bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BNST), a limbic structure connecting amygdala and hypothalamus. In this study, animals' preference for sweet solutions was examined as an index of stress-induced anhedonic responses in Wistar rats subjected to four brief intermittent episodes of social defeat. Next, social approach was assessed after local infusions of the CRFBP antagonist, CRF fragment 6-33 (CRF 6-33 ) into the BNST. The experience of brief episodes of social defeat impaired social approach behaviors in male rats. However, intra-BNST CRF 6-33 infusions restored social approach in stressed animals to the levels of non-stressed rats. CRF 6-33 acted selectively on social interaction and did not alter general exploration in nether stressed nor non-stressed rats. These findings suggest that BNST CRFBP is involved in the modulation of anxiety-like responses induced by social stress. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Antidepressants share the ability to increase catecholamine output in the bed nucleus of stria terminalis: a possible role in antidepressant therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadeddu, Roberto; Ibba, Marcello; Sadile, Adolfo; Carboni, Ezio

    2014-05-01

    Antidepressants include a relatively wide spectrum of drugs that increase the synaptic concentration of monoamines, mostly through neurotransmitter reuptake blockade. The bed nucleus of stria teminalis (BNST) is considered a relay station in mediating the activation of stress response but also in the acquisition and expression of emotions. BNST is richly innervated by monoamines and sends back projections to the nucleus of origin. We previously showed that the administration of selective blockers of norepinephrine transporter (NET) increases the extracellular concentration (output) of dopamine, suggesting that dopamine could be captured by NET in the BNST. The aim of this study, carried out by means of in vivo microdialysis, was to ascertain the acute effects that antidepressants with varying mechanisms of action have on dopamine and norepinephrine output in the BNST. We observed that all the antidepressants tested (5-20 mg/kg i.p.) increased the output of catecholamines, dose dependently. In particular, the maximum increases (as a percent of basal) for norepinephrine and dopamine respectively, were as follows: desipramine, 239 and 137; reboxetine, 185 and 128; imipramine, 512 and 359; citalopram, 95 and 122; fluoxetine, 122 and 68; bupropion, 255 and 164. These results suggest that catecholamine transmission in the BNST may be part of a common downstream pathway that is involved in the action mechanism of antidepressants. Consequently, it is hypothesized that a dysfunction of neuronal transmission in this brain area may have a role in the etiology of affective disorders.

  6. Role of bed nucleus of the stria terminalis corticotrophin-releasing factor receptors in frustration stress-induced binge-like palatable food consumption in female rats with a history of food restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micioni Di Bonaventura, Maria Vittoria; Ciccocioppo, Roberto; Romano, Adele; Bossert, Jennifer M; Rice, Kenner C; Ubaldi, Massimo; St Laurent, Robyn; Gaetani, Silvana; Massi, Maurizio; Shaham, Yavin; Cifani, Carlo

    2014-08-20

    We developed recently a binge-eating model in which female rats with a history of intermittent food restriction show binge-like palatable food consumption after 15 min exposure to the sight of the palatable food. This "frustration stress" manipulation also activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal stress axis. Here, we determined the role of the stress neurohormone corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) in stress-induced binge eating in our model. We also assessed the role of CRF receptors in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), a brain region implicated in stress responses and stress-induced drug seeking, in stress-induced binge eating. We used four groups that were first exposed or not exposed to repeated intermittent cycles of regular chow food restriction during which they were also given intermittent access to high-caloric palatable food. On the test day, we either exposed or did not expose the rats to the sight of the palatable food for 15 min (frustration stress) before assessing food consumption for 2 h. We found that systemic injections of the CRF1 receptor antagonist R121919 (2,5-dimethyl-3-(6-dimethyl-4-methylpyridin-3-yl)-7 dipropylamino pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine) (10-20 mg/kg) and BNST (25-50 ng/side) or ventricular (1000 ng) injections of the nonselective CRF receptor antagonist D-Phe-CRF(12-41) decreased frustration stress-induced binge eating in rats with a history of food restriction. Frustration stress also increased Fos (a neuronal activity marker) expression in ventral and dorsal BNST. Results demonstrate a critical role of CRF receptors in BNST in stress-induced binge eating in our rat model. CRF1 receptor antagonists may represent a novel pharmacological treatment for bingeing-related eating disorders. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3411316-09$15.00/0.

  7. Resting-state functional connectivity of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in post-traumatic stress disorder and its dissociative subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabellino, Daniela; Densmore, Maria; Harricharan, Sherain; Jean, Théberge; McKinnon, Margaret C; Lanius, Ruth A

    2018-03-01

    The bed nucleus of the stria terminals (BNST) is a subcortical structure involved in anticipatory and sustained reactivity to threat and is thus essential to the understanding of anxiety and stress responses. Although chronic stress and anxiety represent a hallmark of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), to date, few studies have examined the functional connectivity of the BNST in PTSD. Here, we used resting state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) to investigate the functional connectivity of the BNST in PTSD (n = 70), its dissociative subtype (PTSD + DS) (n = 41), and healthy controls (n = 50). In comparison to controls, PTSD showed increased functional connectivity of the BNST with regions of the reward system (ventral and dorsal striatum), possibly underlying stress-induced reward-seeking behaviors in PTSD. By contrast, comparing PTSD + DS to controls, we observed increased functional connectivity of the BNST with the claustrum, a brain region implicated in consciousness and a primary site of kappa-opioid receptors, which are critical to the dynorphin-mediated dysphoric stress response. Moreover, PTSD + DS showed increased functional connectivity of the BNST with brain regions involved in attention and salience detection (anterior insula and caudate nucleus) as compared to PTSD and controls. Finally, BNST functional connectivity positively correlated with default-mode network regions as a function of state identity dissociation, suggesting a role of BNST networks in the disruption of self-relevant processing characterizing the dissociative subtype. These findings represent an important first step in elucidating the role of the BNST in aberrant functional networks underlying PTSD and its dissociative subtype. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Lipopolysaccharide-induced neuronal activation in the paraventricular and dorsomedial hypothalamus depends on ambient temperature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel P Wanner

    Full Text Available Systemic inflammatory response syndrome is associated with either fever or hypothermia, but the mechanisms responsible for switching from one to the other are unknown. In experimental animals, systemic inflammation is often induced by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS. To identify the diencephalic and brainstem structures involved in the fever-hypothermia switch, we studied the expression of c-Fos protein, a marker of neuronal activation, in rats treated with the same high dose of LPS (0.5 mg/kg, intravenously either in a thermoneutral (30 °C or cool (24 °C environment. At 30 °C, LPS caused fever; at 24 °C, the same dose caused profound hypothermia. Both fever and hypothermia were associated with the induction of c-Fos in many brain areas, including several structures of the anterior preoptic, paraventricular, lateral, and dorsal hypothalamus, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the posterior pretectal nucleus, ventrolateral periaqueductal gray, lateral parabrachial nucleus, area postrema, and nucleus of the solitary tract. Every brain area studied showed a comparable response to LPS at the two different ambient temperatures used, with the exception of two areas: the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus (DMH, which we studied together with the adjacent dorsal hypothalamic area (DA, and the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVH. Both structures had much stronger c-Fos expression during LPS hypothermia than during fever. We propose that PVH and DMH/DA neurons are involved in a circuit, which - depending on the ambient temperature - determines whether the thermoregulatory response to bacterial LPS will be fever or hypothermia.

  9. Tissue oxygen tension in the stria vascularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagahara, K; Miyake, Y; Aoyama, T; Ogino, F

    1988-01-01

    Tissue oxygen tension in the stria vascularis was successfully measured in cats using the polarographic technique. A correlation study using the differential coefficient between oxygen tension in the stria vascularis and systemic blood pressure proved that vascular autoregulation is present in the mean systemic blood pressure range between 40 and 80 mmHg. The anatomical findings and the response patterns to different gas inhalations indicated that the type of vascular regulation present is more closely related to chemical control than to auto-regulation.

  10. Development of stria gravidarum in pregnant women and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu Kılıç

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Stria gravidarum is a cosmetically disfiguring condition that is commonly seen in pregnancy. Various parameters such as age of mother, genetical factors like family history, skin colour, various hormonal changes seen in pregnancy, weight gain and physical features of newborn are accused in the development. The studies reported primarily include primigravidas. In this study, the presence of stria gravidarum and associated risk factors are aimed to be investigated. Materials and methods: All attenders' gestastional week, prepregnancy and delivery weights, height, family history of stria, smoking habits and/or alcohol use during pregnancy, any use of cream and/or oil for preventing stria, delivery way, newborn's gender, height, weight and head circumference were recorded. In both primigravidas and multigravidas, factors that could be associated with stria gravidarum were investigated by Spearman'scorrelation analysis and risk factors in the development of stria gravidarum by logistic regression analysis. Results: Fifty of 128 pregnant women were primigravidas and 78 were multigravidas. In primigravidas, a correlation was detected between family history of stria, non-usage of cream and/or oil during pregnancy,head circumference of newborn and development of stria gravidarum while in multigravidas, a correlation is detected between prepregnancy weight, delivery weight, smoking during pregnancy, not using of any cream and/or oil during pregnancy, family history of stria, head circumference of newborn, weight of newborn and stria gravidarum development. Presence of family history of stria and not using of any cream and/or oil were found to be risk factors in development of stria gravidarum in all pregnant women by logistic regression analysis. Conclusion: Both genetical and physical factors are thought to play a role in development of stria gravidarum; however, further broad scale studies with larger samples including both

  11. Extrahypothalamic vasopressin and oxytocin in the human brain; presence of vasopressin cells in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fliers, E.; Guldenaar, S. E.; van de Wal, N.; Swaab, D. F.

    1986-01-01

    In the present study, the distribution of extrahypothalamic vasopressin (VP) and oxytocin (OXT) in the human brain was investigated by means of immunocytochemistry. In the septum verum, few VP fibers were found in the nucleus septalis lateralis and medialis (NSL and NSM), and in the bed nucleus of

  12. Revalidation of Ceresa terminalis walker and its placement in Stictocephala Stål (Hemiptera, Membracidae Revalidação de Ceresa terminalis walker e sua alocação em Stictocephala Stål (Hemiptera, Membracidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel S. de Andrade

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Ceresa terminalis Walker, 1851 is reinstated and transferred to Stictocephala Stål, 1869: Stictocephala terminalis (Walker, 1851 sp. rev., comb. nov.Ceresa terminalis Walker, 1851 é revalidada e transferida para Stictocephala Stål, 1869: Stictocephala terminalis (Walker, 1851 sp. rev., comb. nov.

  13. ESTEVE Terminali kiire arengu tagavad vanametall ja autod / Sirje Niitra

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Niitra, Sirje, 1948-

    2005-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti : Transport i logistika 25. mai lk. 7. Ülevaade Paldiski lõunasadamas tegutseva ESTEVE Terminali edukast tegevusest. Diagrammid: ESTEVE kasvab kiiresti. Vt. samas: Paldiski sadamal head arenguväljavaated. Kommenteerib Romet Kreek

  14. Socioterminologia da indÃstria madeireira

    OpenAIRE

    Alcides Fernandes de Lima

    2010-01-01

    O trabalho Socioterminologia da IndÃstria Madeireira tem como objetivo fundamental a construÃÃo de um dicionÃrio terminolÃgico (ou dicionÃrio especializado) da madeira. Os fundamentos teÃricos e metodolÃgicos da pesquisa e do trabalho terminogrÃfico, para a elaboraÃÃo do dicionÃrio, se embasam na Teoria Comunicativa da Terminologia (CABRÃ, 2002) e, principalmente, na Socioterminologia (GAUDIN, 1993a e 1993b). Para a elaboraÃÃo do dicionÃrio foi usado um corpus com mais de 4 milhÃes de palavra...

  15. Activity changes of the cat paraventricular hypothalamus during phasic respiratory events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Morten Pilgaard; Poe, G R; Rector, D M

    1997-01-01

    We monitored the spatiotemporal organization of cellular activity in the medial paraventricular hypothalamus during spontaneously-occurring periods of increased inspiratory effort followed by prolonged respiratory pauses (sigh/apnea) in the freely-behaving cat. Paraventricular hypothalamic activity...

  16. Activity changes of the cat paraventricular hypothalamus during stressor exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Morten Pilgaard; Rector, David M; Poe, Gina R

    2004-01-01

    Dorso-medial paraventricular hypothalamus (PVH) activity was assessed by light scattering procedures in freely behaving cats during auditory stressor exposure. Acoustic noise (> 95dB) raised plasma ACTH concentrations, somatic muscle tonus, respiratory frequency and cardiac rates; PVH activity...

  17. Hypothalamic paraventricular unit activity during labour in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, K.; Nolten, J. W.

    1978-01-01

    The spike activity of 191 antidromically identified paraventricular units was recorded during labour and the oestrous cycle of rats under urethane anaesthesia. Accelerated bursts of neuronal activity, as reported to occur during suckling, were not observed and changes in firing rate were not

  18. Activity changes of the cat paraventricular hypothalamus during stressor exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Morten Pilgaard; Rector, David M; Poe, Gina R

    2004-01-01

    Dorso-medial paraventricular hypothalamus (PVH) activity was assessed by light scattering procedures in freely behaving cats during auditory stressor exposure. Acoustic noise (> 95dB) raised plasma ACTH concentrations, somatic muscle tonus, respiratory frequency and cardiac rates; PVH activity...... and nadir. Isolated pixels appeared opposite in activity pattern to overall changes. We suggest that transient activity increases represent initial PVH neural stress responses, and that subsequent profound declines result from neural inhibitory feedback....

  19. Prolactin induces a hyperpolarizing current in rat paraventricular oxytocinergic neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirzen-Zelenskaya, Alexandra; Gonzalez-Iglesias, Arturo E.; de Monvel, Jacques Boutet; Bertram, Richard; Freeman, Marc E.; Gerber, Urs; Egli, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    Prolactin and oxytocin are important reproductive hormones implicated in several common adaptive functions during pregnancy, pseudopregnancy and lactation. Recently, extracellular recordings of supraoptic neurons have shown that prolactin may modulate electrical activity of oxytocinergic neurons. However, no study has been conducted to establish whether prolactin directly influences this activity in oxytocinergic paraventricular neurons. Here we addressed this question by studying the effects of prolactin on the electrical activity and voltage-current relationship of identified paraventricular neurons in rat brain slices. Whole-cell recordings were obtained and neurons were classified on the basis of their morphological and electrophysiological fingerprint (magnocellular or parvicellular) and neuropeptide phenotype (oxytocinergic or non-oxytocinergic). We report that prolactin elicited a hyperpolarizating current in 37% of the neurons in this nucleus, of which the majority (67%) were identified as putative magnocellular oxytocin neurons and the reminder (33%) were regarded as oxytocin-negative, parvicellular neuroendocrine neurons. Our results suggest that, in addition to the well-established negative feedback loop between prolactin-secreting lactotrophs and dopaminergic neurons in the arcuate nucleus, an inhibitory feedback loop also exists between lactotrophs and oxytocinergic paraventricular neurons. PMID:21851427

  20. Congenital Generalized Hypertrichosis Terminalis with Gingival Hyperplasia and a Coarse Face: a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazandjieva Jana

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Congenital generalized hypertrichosis, in its most common form, is idiopathic. In the absence of underlying endocrine or metabolic disorders, congenital generalized hypertrichosis is rare in humans, affecting as few as one in a billion individuals and may be an isolated condition of the skin, or a component feature of other disorders or syndromes. Congenital generalized hypertrichosis terminalis is an extremely rare condition, a distinct subset of disorders with congenital hypertrichosis, presenting with excessive hair as the primary clinical feature. Congenital generalized hypertrichosis terminalis is characterized by universal excessive growth of pigmented terminal hair and often accompanied with gingival hyperplasia and/or a coarse face. Gingival hyperplasia may be delayed even until puberty. Its pathogenesis may be caused by one of the following mechanisms: conversion of vellus to terminal hairs and/or prolonged anagenetic stage, and/or increase in the number of hair follicles. Since the Middle Ages, less than 60 individuals with congenital hypertrichosis terminalis have been described, and, according to the most recent estimates, less than 40 cases were documented adequately and definitively in the literature. Recent articles identified congenital generalized hypertrichosis terminalis as a genomic disorder.

  1. Phytochemical composition of the root extract of Ichthyothere terminalis from two geographical regiones in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Yineth Ortiz-Rojas

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical analysis of two extracts from Ichthyothere terminalis root which were collected in the localities of Cumaral (Meta and Abrego (Norte de Santander, Colombia is reported. Extracts were obtained with ethanol using distillation under reduced pressure and were characterized by qualitative assays and by gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometery (GC-MS. GC-MS analysis revealed differences in Ichthyothere terminalis compounds according to locality. Plants from Cumaral contain saponins, coumarins, and tannins, while those from Abrego contains tannins, alkaloids, coumarins and flavoniods. Plants from Abrego contain octadecadien-1-ol (53.5%, caryophyllene oxide (30.8%, hexadecanol (24.0%, trans-β-caryophyllene (13.6%, cycloisolongifolene (11.6%, germacrene D (6.0%, and 9-octadecen-1-ol (8.0%. Plants from Cumaral have citronellal (46.4%, p-cymene (6.4%, geraniol (5.0%, and citronellol (4.6%. Among the chemical compounds found, several have repellent properties, according to ethnobotanics reports from Amazonian Region. Further studies may determine the effectiveness as repellent of extracts from I. Terminalis root.

  2. Decreased number of oxytocin neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the human hypothalamus in AIDS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purba, J. S.; Hofman, M. A.; Portegies, P.; Troost, D.; Swaab, D. F.

    1993-01-01

    The number of immunocytochemically identified vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OXT) neurons was determined morphometrically in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus of 20 acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients and 10 controls. The AIDS group consisted of 14 homosexual males (age

  3. Stria vascularis and cochlear hair cell changes in syphilis: A human temporal bone study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hızlı, Ömer; Kaya, Serdar; Hızlı, Pelin; Paparella, Michael M; Cureoglu, Sebahattin

    2016-12-01

    To observe any changes in stria vascularis and cochlear hair cells in patients with syphilis. We examined 13 human temporal bone samples from 8 patients with syphilis (our syphilis group), as well as 12 histopathologically normal samples from 9 age-matched patients without syphilis (our control group). We compared, between the two groups, the mean area of the stria vascularis (measured with conventional light microscopy connected to a personal computer) and the mean percentage of cochlear hair cell loss (obtained from cytocochleograms). In our syphilis group, only 1 (7.7%) of the 13 samples had precipitate in the endolymphatic or perilymphatic spaces; 8 (61.5%) of the samples revealed the presence of endolymphatic hydrops (4 cochlear, 4 saccular). The mean area of the stria vascularis did not significantly differ, in any turn of the cochlea, between the 2 groups (P>0.1). However, we did find significant differences between the 2 groups in the mean percentage of outer hair cells in the apical turn (Psyphilis group, we observed either complete loss of the organ of Corti or a flattened organ of Corti without any cells in addition to the absence of both outer and inner hair cells. In this study, syphilis led either to complete loss of the organ of Corti or to significant loss of cochlear hair cells, in addition to cochleosaccular hydrops. But the area of the stria vascularis did not change. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Chemical anatomy of the human paraventricular thalamic nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uroz, Victoria; Prensa, Lucía; Giménez-Amaya, José Manuel

    2004-03-01

    The paraventricular thalamic nucleus (Pa) lies in the most medial aspect of the thalamus and is considered one of the midline thalamic nuclei. In the present study, we carried out histochemical and immunohistochemical procedures in the Pa of normal individuals to visualize the pattern of distribution of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), calbindin D-28k (CB), parvalbumin (PV), calretinin (CR), limbic system-associated membrane protein (LAMP), substance P (SP), and enkephalin (ENK). Other cytoarchitectural and myeloarchitectural techniques, such as Nissl and Gallyas, were also employed to delineate the boundaries of the Pa. The main findings of this study are: 1) AChE staining in the Pa was heterogeneously distributed along its anteroposterior and mediolateral axes; 2) the Pa harbored numerous CB- and CR-immunoreactive (ir) cells and neuropil, but this nucleus was largely devoid of PV; 3) the Pa was highly enriched in LAMP and this protein appeared uniformly distributed through its whole extent; and, 4) the SP and ENK immunoreactivities in the Pa revealed numerous highly varicose fibers scattered throughout this nucleus, but no stained cells. This morphological study demonstrates that the Pa is a heterogeneous chemical structure in humans. The functional significance of these results is discussed in the light of similar data gathered in several mammalian species. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Prominent crista terminalis mimicking a right atrial mixoma: cardiac magnetic resonance aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudio, C; Di Michele, S; Cera, M; Nguyen, B L; Pannarale, G; Alessandri, N

    2004-01-01

    A 68-year-old woman came to our observation with a clinical history of isolated systolic hypertension poorly controlled by the combination of ramipril 5 mg and hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg o.d. The ECG showed sinus rhythm with heart rate of 68 beats per minute and signs of left ventricular hypertrophy without strain. Further investigation included an echocardiogram that showed normal left and right cavities and normal cardiac valves. At the level of the posterior wall of the right atrial (RA) an apparent smooth, bean-like tumor, having a thin pedicle, was identified as a RA mixoma. Cardiac MRI was requested and showed in two sequential slices a muscular ridge, identified as a prominent crista terminalis. Some para-physiological structures sited in the RA may have the appearance of tumors, as crista terminalis, Eustachian valve extending into the RA chambers and Chiari network. The multiplain projections of MRI allow the cardiologist to identify the presence of intracardiac masses and to make a differential diagnosis between neoplasms and variant anatomic structures.

  6. Direct projection from the suprachiasmatic nucleus to hypophysiotrophic corticotropin-releasing factor immunoreactive cells in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus demonstrated...

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrang, N.; Larsen, P.J.; Mikkelsen, J.D.

    1995-01-01

    Suprachiasmatic nucleus, paraventricular nucleus, circadian rhythms, phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin, corticotropin-releasing factor, dual immunocytochemistry......Suprachiasmatic nucleus, paraventricular nucleus, circadian rhythms, phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin, corticotropin-releasing factor, dual immunocytochemistry...

  7. Sympathetic Response to Insulin is Mediated by Melanocortin 3/4 Receptors in the Hypothalamic Paraventricular Nucleus

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, Kathryn R.; Bardgett, James F.; Wolfgang, Lawrence; Stocker, Sean D.

    2011-01-01

    Hyperinsulinemia increases sympathetic nerve activity and contributes to cardiovascular dysfunction in obesity and diabetes. Neurons of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus regulate sympathetic nerve activity through mono- and poly-synaptic connections to preganglionic neurons in the spinal cord. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus neurons mediate the sympathetic response to insulin. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps were perform...

  8. Monoaminergic innervation of the rat organum vasculosum laminae terminalis as revealed by radioautography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosler, O.

    1987-01-01

    As revealed by radioautography after in vivo labelling with [ 3 H]monoamines, the organum vasculosum laminae terminalis (OVLT) is mostly supplied with serotonin (5-HT) fibres which terminate profusely throughout its thickness. Catecholamine, mostly dopamine (DA) afferents, are scarce and exhibit a mainly perivascular distribution. Some 25% of the 5-HT endings in the juxtaventricular zone are engaged in morphologically defined synaptic axo-dendritic contacts. In the juxtavascular zone, 5-HT and DA varicosities never show true synaptic junctional complexes but frequently establish synaptoid-like contacts with astrocytic and/or tanycytic processes. Occasionally, they can about onto the parenchymal basement membrane limiting the perivascular space. Monoamines might therefore be involved in the OVLT function through interactions with neural and non-neural elements. A morphological substratum also exists for a direct neurohormonal release of 5-HT and DA at the OVLT level. (author)

  9. Activity changes of the cat paraventricular hypothalamus during phasic respiratory events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Morten Pilgaard; Poe, G R; Rector, D M

    1997-01-01

    was assayed by video images of light captured with a stereotaxically-placed fibre optic probe. Respiratory activity was measured through electromyographic wire electrodes placed in the diaphragm. Sigh/apnea events appeared in all behavioural states, and especially during quiet sleep. Overall paraventricular...

  10. Paraventricular nucleus of the human hypothalamus in primary hypertension: Activation of corticotropin-releasing hormone neurons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goncharuk, Valeri D.; van Heerikhuize, Joop; Swaab, Dick F.; Buijs, Ruud M.

    2002-01-01

    By using quantitative immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization techniques, we studied corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)-producing neurons of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) in patients who suffered from primary hypertension and died due to acute cardiac failure. The control

  11. State-dependent cellular activity patterns of the cat paraventricular hypothalamus measured by reflectance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Morten Pilgaard; Rector, D M; Poe, G R

    1996-01-01

    Activity within the cat paraventricular hypothalamus (PVH) during sleep and waking states was measured by quantifying intrinsic tissue reflectivity. A fiber optic probe consisting of a 1.0 mm coherent image conduit, surrounded by plastic fibers which conducted 660 nm source light, was attached...

  12. "Cristal tachycardias": origin of right atrial tachycardias from the crista terminalis identified by intracardiac echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalman, J M; Olgin, J E; Karch, M R; Hamdan, M; Lee, R J; Lesh, M D

    1998-02-01

    We sought to use intracardiac echocardiography (ICE) to identify the anatomic origin of focal right atrial tachycardias and to define their relation with the crista terminalis (CT). Previous studies using ICE during mapping of atrial flutter and inappropriate sinus tachycardia have demonstrated an important relation between endocardial anatomy and electrophysiologic events. Recent studies have suggested that right atrial tachycardias may also have a characteristic anatomic distribution. Twenty-three consecutive patients with 27 right atrial tachycardias were included in the study. ICE was used to facilitate activation mapping in relation to endocardial structures. A 20-pole catheter was positioned along the CT under ICE guidance. ICE was also used to assist in guiding detailed mapping with the ablation catheter in the right atrium. Of 27 focal right atrial tachycardias, 18 (67%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 46% to 83%) were on the CT (2 high medial, 8 high lateral, 6 mid and 2 low). ICE identified the location of the tip of the ablation catheter in immediate relation to the CT in all 18 cases. The 20-pole mapping catheter together with echocardiographic visualization of the CT provided a guide to the site of tachycardia origin along this structure. Radiofrequency ablation was successful in 26 (96%) of 27 (95% CI 81% to 100%) right atrial tachycardias. This study demonstrates that approximately two thirds of focal right atrial tachycardias occurring in the absence of structural heart disease will arise along the CT. Recognition of this common distribution may potentially facilitate mapping and ablation of these tachycardias.

  13. EFFECT OF ANESTHETIZING THE REGION OF THE PARAVENTRICULAR HYPOTHALAMIC NUCLEI ON ENERGY-METABOLISM DURING EXERCISE IN THE RAT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDIJK, G; VISSING, J; STEFFENS, AB; GALBO, H

    The ventromedial and posterior hypothalamic nuclei are known to influence glucoregulation during exercise. The extensive projections of the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN) to the sympathetic nervous system suggest that the PVN also may be involved in glucoregulation during exercise. The

  14. Presbycusis: a human temporal bone study of individuals with flat audiometric patterns of hearing loss using a new method to quantify stria vascularis volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Erik G; Hinojosa, Raul

    2003-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of stria vascularis atrophy in individuals with presbycusis and flat audiometric patterns of hearing loss. Individuals with presbycusis have historically been categorized by the shape of their audiograms, and flat audiometric thresholds have been reported to be associated with atrophy of the stria vascularis. Stria vascularis volume was not measured in these studies. Retrospective case review. Archival human temporal bones from individuals with presbycusis were selected on the basis of strict audiometric criteria for flat audiometric thresholds. Six temporal bones that met these criteria were identified and compared with 10 temporal bones in individuals with normal hearing. A unique quantitative method was developed to measure the stria vascularis volume in these temporal bones. The hair cell and spiral ganglion cell populations also were quantitatively evaluated. Only one of the six individuals with presbycusis and flat audiometric thresholds had significant atrophy of the stria vascularis. This individual with stria vascularis atrophy also had reduced inner hair cell, outer hair cell, and ganglion cell populations. Three of the individuals with presbycusis had spiral ganglion cell loss, three individuals had inner hair cell loss, and all six individuals had outer hair cell loss. The results of this investigation suggest that individuals with presbycusis and flat audiometric patterns of hearing loss infrequently have stria vascularis atrophy. Outer hair cell loss alone or in combination with inner hair cell or ganglion cell loss may be the cause of flat audiometric thresholds in individuals with presbycusis.

  15. State-dependent cellular activity patterns of the cat paraventricular hypothalamus measured by reflectance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Morten Pilgaard; Rector, D M; Poe, G R

    1996-01-01

    Activity within the cat paraventricular hypothalamus (PVH) during sleep and waking states was measured by quantifying intrinsic tissue reflectivity. A fiber optic probe consisting of a 1.0 mm coherent image conduit, surrounded by plastic fibers which conducted 660 nm source light, was attached...... to a charge-coupled device camera, and positioned over the PVH in five cats. Electrodes for assessing state variables, including electroencephalographic activity, eye movement, and somatic muscle tone were also placed. After surgical recovery, reflected light intensity was measured continuously at 2.5 Hz...

  16. Reactive oxygen species in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus alter sympathetic activity during metabolic syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSIANE CAMPOS CRUZ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN contains heterogeneous populations of neurons involved in autonomic and neuroendocrine regulation. The PVN plays an important role in the sympathoexcitatory response to increasing circulating levels of angiotensin II (Ang-II, which activates AT1 receptors in the circumventricular organs (OCVs, mainly in the subfornical organ (SFO. Circulating Ang-II induces a de novo synthesis of Ang-II in SFO neurons projecting to pre-autonomic PVN neurons. Activation of AT1 receptors induces intracellular increases in reactive oxygen species (ROS, leading to increases in sympathetic nerve activity (SNA. Chronic sympathetic nerve activation promotes a series of metabolic disorders that characterizes the metabolic syndrome (MetS: dyslipidemia, hyperinsulinemia, glucose intolerance, hyperleptinemia and elevated plasma hormone levels, such as noradrenaline, glucocorticoids, leptin, insulin and Ang-II. This review will discuss the contribution of our laboratory and others regarding the sympathoexcitation caused by peripheral Ang-II-induced reactive oxygen species along the subfornical organ and paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. We hypothesize that this mechanism could be involved in metabolic disorders underlying MetS.

  17. The nervus terminalis in amphibians: anatomy, chemistry and relationship with the hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muske, L E; Moore, F L

    1988-01-01

    The nervus terminalis (TN), a component of the olfactory system, is found in most vertebrates. The TN of some fishes and mammals contains neurons immunoreactive (ir) to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (LHRH), and to several other neuropeptides and neurotransmitter systems, but there is little information on TN chemistry in other vertebrate taxa. Using immunocytochemical techniques, we found LHRH-ir neurons in amphibian TNs. In anurans, but not in a urodele, the TN was also found to contain Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-NH2 (FMRFamide) immunoreactivity. LHRH-ir neurons of the TN and those of the septal-hypothalamic system are morphologically homogeneous and form a distinct anatomical continuum in amphibians. Based upon topographical and cytological criteria, we hypothesize that LHRH-ir systems in vertebrates might derive embryonically from the TN.

  18. MR Imaging of Ventriculus Terminalis of The Conus Medullaris. A report of two operated patients and review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dullerud, Reidar; Server, A. [Ullevaal Univ. Hospital, Oslo (Norway). Div. of Radiology; Berg-Johnsen, J. [The National Hospital, Oslo (Norway). Dept. of Neurosurgery

    2003-07-01

    We report on 2 patients in whom a cystic dilation of the conus medullaris was incidentally found at MR imaging carried out in the work-up for sciatica. The cysts were well circumscribed and had signal intensity identical to the CSF on both T1- and T2-weighted images. There was no evidence of contrast enhancement. None of the patients had specific symptoms related to the spinal cord. At surgery, no evidence of malignancy was seen in any of the patients. A benign cystic dilation, also called dilated ventriculus terminalis, occasionally can be seen in the conus medullaris as an incidental finding at thoracolumbar MR imaging. Unless the expansion per se indicates cyst drainage, these patients may be monitored by clinical and MR follow-up, avoiding surgery in a substantial number of cases.

  19. A Switch in Keystone Seed-Dispersing Ant Genera between Two Elevations for a Myrmecochorous Plant, Acacia terminalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Fiona J; Auld, Tony D; Ramp, Daniel; Kingsford, Richard T

    2016-01-01

    The dispersal capacity of plant species that rely on animals to disperse their seeds (biotic dispersal) can alter with changes to the populations of their keystone dispersal vectors. Knowledge on how biotic dispersal systems vary across landscapes allows better understanding of factors driving plant persistence. Myrmecochory, seed dispersal by ants, is a common method of biotic dispersal for many plant species throughout the world. We tested if the seed dispersal system of Acacia terminalis (Fabaceae), a known myrmecochore, differed between two elevations in the Greater Blue Mountains World Heritage Area, in southeastern Australia. We compared ant assemblages, seed removal rates of ants and other vertebrates (bird and mammal) and the dominant seed-dispersing ant genera. At low elevations (c. 200 m a.s.l) seed removal was predominantly by ants, however, at high elevation sites (c. 700 m a.s.l) vertebrate seed dispersers or seed predators were present, removing over 60% of seeds from experimental depots when ants were excluded. We found a switch in the keystone seed-dispersing ant genera from Rhytidoponera at low elevations sites to Aphaenogaster at high elevation sites. This resulted in more seeds being removed faster at low elevation sites compared to high elevation sites, however long-term seed removal rates were equal between elevations. Differences in the keystone seed removalist, and the addition of an alternate dispersal vector or seed predator at high elevations, will result in different dispersal and establishment patterns for A. terminalis at different elevations. These differences in dispersal concur with other global studies that report myrmecochorous dispersal systems alter with elevation.

  20. A Switch in Keystone Seed-Dispersing Ant Genera between Two Elevations for a Myrmecochorous Plant, Acacia terminalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona J Thomson

    Full Text Available The dispersal capacity of plant species that rely on animals to disperse their seeds (biotic dispersal can alter with changes to the populations of their keystone dispersal vectors. Knowledge on how biotic dispersal systems vary across landscapes allows better understanding of factors driving plant persistence. Myrmecochory, seed dispersal by ants, is a common method of biotic dispersal for many plant species throughout the world. We tested if the seed dispersal system of Acacia terminalis (Fabaceae, a known myrmecochore, differed between two elevations in the Greater Blue Mountains World Heritage Area, in southeastern Australia. We compared ant assemblages, seed removal rates of ants and other vertebrates (bird and mammal and the dominant seed-dispersing ant genera. At low elevations (c. 200 m a.s.l seed removal was predominantly by ants, however, at high elevation sites (c. 700 m a.s.l vertebrate seed dispersers or seed predators were present, removing over 60% of seeds from experimental depots when ants were excluded. We found a switch in the keystone seed-dispersing ant genera from Rhytidoponera at low elevations sites to Aphaenogaster at high elevation sites. This resulted in more seeds being removed faster at low elevation sites compared to high elevation sites, however long-term seed removal rates were equal between elevations. Differences in the keystone seed removalist, and the addition of an alternate dispersal vector or seed predator at high elevations, will result in different dispersal and establishment patterns for A. terminalis at different elevations. These differences in dispersal concur with other global studies that report myrmecochorous dispersal systems alter with elevation.

  1. Phytophthora terminalis sp. nov. and Phytophthora occultans sp. nov., two invasive pathogens of ornamental plants in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man In 't Veld, Willem A; Rosendahl, Karin C H M; van Rijswick, Patricia C J; Meffert, Johan P; Westenberg, Marcel; van de Vossenberg, Bart T L H; Denton, Geoff; van Kuik, Fons A J

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade several Phytophthora strains were isolated from diseased Pachysandra terminalis plants suffering stem base and root rot, originating from the Netherlands and Belgium. All isolates were homothallic and had a felt-like colony pattern, produced semi-papillate sporangia, globose oogonia and had a maximum growth at ~ 27 C. Several additional Phytophthora strains were isolated from diseased Buxus sempervirens plants, originating from the Netherlands and Belgium, which had sustained stem base and root rot; similar strains also were isolated from Acer palmatum, Choisya ternata and Taxus in the United Kingdom. All isolates were homothallic and had a stellate colony pattern, produced larger semi-papillate sporangia and smaller globose oogonia than the isolates from Pa. terminalis and had a maximum growth temperature of ~ 30 C. Phylogenetic analyses of both species using the internal transcribed spacer region of the nuc rDNA (ITS), mt cytochrome oxidases subunit I gene (CoxI) and nuc translation elongation factor 1-α gene (TEF1α) revealed that all sequences of each species were identical at each locus and unique to that species, forming two distinct clusters in subclade 2a. Sequence analysis of partial β-tubulin genes showed that both taxa share an identical sequence that is identical to that of Ph. himalsilva, a species originating from Asia, suggesting a common Asian origin. Pathogenicity trials demonstrated disease symptoms on their respective hosts, and re-isolation and re-identification of the inoculated pathogens confirmed Koch's postulates. © 2015 by The Mycological Society of America.

  2. Vasopressin and oxytocin neurons of the human supraoptic and paraventricular nucleus: size changes in relation to age and sex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ishunina, T. A.; Swaab, D. F.

    1999-01-01

    The hypothalamic supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular (PVN) nuclei consist of arginine vasopressin (AVP)- and oxytocin (OT)-synthesizing neurons that send projections to the neurohypophysis, whereas the PVN also projects to other brain areas. A growing body of evidence in animals suggests the

  3. Time-dependent effects of neuropeptide Y infusion in the paraventricular hypothalamus on ingestive and associated behaviors in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, G; Strubbe, JH

    In this study the role of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) in the daily regulation of feeding, drinking, locomotor activity, and nestbox occupation was investigated. These behaviors were recorded during and after bilateral infusion of NPY into the PVN of

  4. Optogenetic identification of hypothalamic orexin neuron projections to paraventricular spinally projecting neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dergacheva, Olga; Yamanaka, Akihiro; Schwartz, Alan R; Polotsky, Vsevolod Y; Mendelowitz, David

    2017-04-01

    Orexin neurons, and activation of orexin receptors, are generally thought to be sympathoexcitatory; however, the functional connectivity between orexin neurons and a likely sympathetic target, the hypothalamic spinally projecting neurons (SPNs) in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) has not been established. To test the hypothesis that orexin neurons project directly to SPNs in the PVN, channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) was selectively expressed in orexin neurons to enable photoactivation of ChR2-expressing fibers while examining evoked postsynaptic currents in SPNs in rat hypothalamic slices. Selective photoactivation of orexin fibers elicited short-latency postsynaptic currents in all SPNs tested ( n = 34). These light-triggered responses were heterogeneous, with a majority being excitatory glutamatergic responses (59%) and a minority of inhibitory GABAergic (35%) and mixed glutamatergic and GABAergic currents (6%). Both glutamatergic and GABAergic responses were present in the presence of tetrodotoxin and 4-aminopyridine, suggesting a monosynaptic connection between orexin neurons and SPNs. In addition to generating postsynaptic responses, photostimulation facilitated action potential firing in SPNs (current clamp configuration). Glutamatergic, but not GABAergic, postsynaptic currents were diminished by application of the orexin receptor antagonist almorexant, indicating orexin release facilitates glutamatergic neurotransmission in this pathway. This work identifies a neuronal circuit by which orexin neurons likely exert sympathoexcitatory control of cardiovascular function. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This is the first study to establish, using innovative optogenetic approaches in a transgenic rat model, that there are robust heterogeneous projections from orexin neurons to paraventricular spinally projecting neurons, including excitatory glutamatergic and inhibitory GABAergic neurotransmission. Endogenous orexin release modulates glutamatergic, but not

  5. Epithelial cell stretching and luminal acidification lead to a retarded development of stria vascularis and deafness in mice lacking pendrin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyoung-Mi Kim

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Loss-of-function mutations of SLC26A4/pendrin are among the most prevalent causes of deafness. Deafness and vestibular dysfunction in the corresponding mouse model, Slc26a4(-/-, are associated with an enlargement and acidification of the membranous labyrinth. Here we relate the onset of expression of the HCO(3 (- transporter pendrin to the luminal pH and to enlargement-associated epithelial cell stretching. We determined expression with immunocytochemistry, cell stretching by digital morphometry and pH with double-barreled ion-selective electrodes. Pendrin was first expressed in the endolymphatic sac at embryonic day (E 11.5, in the cochlear hook-region at E13.5, in the utricle and saccule at E14.5, in ampullae at E16.5, and in the upper turn of the cochlea at E17.5. Epithelial cell stretching in Slc26a4(-/- mice began at E14.5. pH changes occurred first in the cochlea at E15.5 and in the endolymphatic sac at E17.5. At postnatal day 2, stria vascularis, outer sulcus and Reissner's membrane epithelial cells, and utricular and saccular transitional cells were stretched, whereas sensory cells in the cochlea, utricle and saccule did not differ between Slc26a4(+/- and Slc26a4(-/- mice. Structural development of stria vascularis, including vascularization, was retarded in Slc26a4(-/- mice. In conclusion, the data demonstrate that the enlargement and stretching of non-sensory epithelial cells precedes luminal acidification in the cochlea and the endolymphatic sac. Stretching and luminal acidification may alter cell-to-cell communication and lead to the observed retarded development of stria vascularis, which may be an important step on the path to deafness in Slc26a4(-/- mice, and possibly in humans, lacking functional pendrin expression.

  6. Expression of aquaporins and vasopressin type 2 receptor in the stria vascularis of the cochlea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishioka, R; Takeda, T; Kakigi, A; Okada, T; Takebayashi, S; Taguchi, D; Nishimura, M; Hyodo, M

    2010-02-01

    Recently, considerable evidence has been accumulated to support the novel view that water homeostasis in the inner ear is regulated via the vasopressin-aquaporin 2 (VP-AQP2) system in the same fashion as in the kidney. Indeed, multiple subtypes of AQPs including AQP-2 are reported to be expressed in the cochlea. However, the mechanism that underlies VP-AQP-2 mediated water homeostasis remains to be elucidated. In the present study, the localizations of AQP-1, -2, -3, -4, -5, -7, -8, -9, and vasopressin type 2 receptor (V2-R) in the stria vascularis (SV) were molecular biologically and immunohistochemically examined to evaluate the role of the AQP water channel system in water homeostasis of the SV. A RT-PCR study revealed that AQPs and V2-R mRNA are expressed in the cochlea. As for their immunohistochemical localization, the AQP-2 protein is expressed on the basal side of the basal cells of the SV, and proteins of AQP-3 and V2-R are expressed on the apical side of the basal cells. AQP-7 and -9 proteins are expressed on the apical side of marginal cells. AQP-4, -5, and -8 protein expressions could not be detected in the lateral wall of the cochlea. From the present results, water flux in the SV is thought to be regulated at the level of the basal cells by vasopressin. Furthermore, such a distribution of AQP-2, -3, and V2-R suggests that VP-AQP-2 mediated water transport might work actively in the basal cells from perilymph towards endolymph containing AQP-1, -7 and -9. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Phaseolus vulgaris Leuco-Agglutinin Tracing of Intrahypothalamic Connections of the Lateral, Ventromedial, Dorsomedial and Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nuclei in the Rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, G.J. ter; Luiten, P.G.M.

    Intrahypothalamic connections of the lateral (LHA), ventromedial (VMH), dorsomedial (DMH) and paraventricular (PVN) hypothalamic nuclei were studied with anterograde transport of iontophoretically injected Phaseolus vulgaris leuco-agglutinin and the immunocytochemical detection of labeled

  8. Neuroendocrine-autonomic integration in the paraventricular nucleus: novel roles for dendritically released neuropeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, J E

    2015-06-01

    Communication between pairs of neurones in the central nervous system typically involves classical 'hard-wired' synaptic transmission, characterised by high temporal and spatial precision. Over the last two decades, however, knowledge regarding the repertoire of communication modalities used in the brain has notably expanded to include less conventional forms, characterised by a diffuse and less temporally precise transfer of information. These forms are best suited to mediate communication among entire neuronal populations, now recognised to be a fundamental process in the brain for the generation of complex behaviours. In response to an osmotic stressor, the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) generates a multimodal homeostatic response that involves orchestrated neuroendocrine (i.e. systemic release of vasopressin) and autonomic (i.e. sympathetic outflow to the kidneys) components. The precise mechanisms that underlie interpopulation cross-talk between these two distinct neuronal populations, however, remain largely unknown. The present review summarises and discusses a series of recent studies that have identified the dendritic release of neuropeptides as a novel interpopulation signalling modality in the PVN. A current working model is described in which it is proposed that the activity-dependent dendritic release of vasopressin from neurosecretory neurones in the PVN acts in a diffusible manner to increase the activity of distant presympathetic neurones, resulting in an integrated sympathoexcitatory population response, particularly within the context of a hyperosmotic challenge. The cellular mechanism underlying this novel form of intercellular communication, as well as its physiological and pathophysiological implications, is discussed. © 2014 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  9. Inner capillary diameter of hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus of female rat increases during lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cortés-Sol Albertina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of the endothelial cell (EC in blood flow regulation within the central nervous system has been little studied. Here, we explored EC participation in morphological changes of the anterior hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN microvasculature of female rats at two reproductive stages with different metabolic demand (virginity and lactation. We measured the inner capillary diameter (ICD of 800 capillaries from either the magnocellular or parvocellular regions. The space occupied by neural (somas, dendrites and axons and glial, but excluding vascular elements of the neurovascular compartment was also measured in 100-μm2 sample fields of both PVN subdivisions. Results The PVN of both groups of animals showed ICDs that ranged from 3 to 10 microns. The virgin group presented mostly capillaries with small ICD, whereas the lactating females exhibited a significant increment in the percentage of capillaries with larger ICD. The space occupied by the neural and glial elements of the neurovascular compartment did not show changes with lactation. Conclusions Our findings suggest that during lactation the microvasculature of the PVN of female rats undergoes dynamic, transitory changes in blood flow as represented by an increment in the ICD through a self-cytoplasmic volume modification reflected by EC changes. A model of this process is proposed.

  10. An excitatory paraventricular nucleus to AgRP neuron circuit that drives hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krashes, Michael J; Shah, Bhavik P; Madara, Joseph C; Olson, David P; Strochlic, David E; Garfield, Alastair S; Vong, Linh; Pei, Hongjuan; Watabe-Uchida, Mitsuko; Uchida, Naoshige; Liberles, Stephen D; Lowell, Bradford B

    2014-03-13

    Hunger is a hard-wired motivational state essential for survival. Agouti-related peptide (AgRP)-expressing neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) at the base of the hypothalamus are crucial to the control of hunger. They are activated by caloric deficiency and, when naturally or artificially stimulated, they potently induce intense hunger and subsequent food intake. Consistent with their obligatory role in regulating appetite, genetic ablation or chemogenetic inhibition of AgRP neurons decreases feeding. Excitatory input to AgRP neurons is important in caloric-deficiency-induced activation, and is notable for its remarkable degree of caloric-state-dependent synaptic plasticity. Despite the important role of excitatory input, its source(s) has been unknown. Here, through the use of Cre-recombinase-enabled, cell-specific neuron mapping techniques in mice, we have discovered strong excitatory drive that, unexpectedly, emanates from the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, specifically from subsets of neurons expressing thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP, also known as ADCYAP1). Chemogenetic stimulation of these afferent neurons in sated mice markedly activates AgRP neurons and induces intense feeding. Conversely, acute inhibition in mice with caloric-deficiency-induced hunger decreases feeding. Discovery of these afferent neurons capable of triggering hunger advances understanding of how this intense motivational state is regulated.

  11. Neuropeptide Y acts in the paraventricular nucleus to suppress sympathetic nerve activity and its baroreflex regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassaglia, Priscila A; Shi, Zhigang; Li, Baoxin; Reis, Wagner L; Clute-Reinig, Nicholas M; Stern, Javier E; Brooks, Virginia L

    2014-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY), a brain neuromodulator that has been strongly implicated in the regulation of energy balance, also acts centrally to inhibit sympathetic nerve activity (SNA); however, the site and mechanism of action are unknown. In chloralose-anaesthetized female rats, nanoinjection of NPY into the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) dose-dependently suppressed lumbar SNA (LSNA) and its baroreflex regulation, and these effects were blocked by prior inhibition of NPY Y1 or Y5 receptors. Moreover, PVN injection of Y1 and Y5 receptor antagonists in otherwise untreated rats increased basal and baroreflex control of LSNA, indicating that endogenous NPY tonically inhibits PVN presympathetic neurons. The sympathoexcitation following blockade of PVN NPY inhibition was eliminated by prior PVN nanoinjection of the melanocortin 3/4 receptor inhibitor SHU9119. Moreover, presympathetic neurons, identified immunohistochemically using cholera toxin b neuronal tract tracing from the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), express NPY Y1 receptor immunoreactivity, and patch-clamp recordings revealed that both NPY and α–melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) inhibit and stimulate, respectively, PVN–RVLM neurons. Collectively, these data suggest that PVN NPY inputs converge with α-MSH to influence presympathetic neurons. Together these results identify endogenous NPY as a novel and potent inhibitory neuromodulator within the PVN that may contribute to changes in SNA that occur in states associated with altered energy balance, such as obesity and pregnancy. PMID:24535439

  12. Β-adrenoceptors in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus modulate the baroreflex in conscious rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Feng, Hao; Li, Ying-Shun; Qiu, De-Lai; Jin, Hua; Jin, Qing-Hua

    2013-09-13

    The role of β-adrenoceptors of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) in modulation of the baroreflex was investigated in conscious rats. The baroreflex was induced by intravenous injection of phenylephrine, and then the extracellular concentration of norepinephrine in the PVN region determined using microdialysis and high-performance liquid chromatography. Next, the role of the β-adrenoceptor in modulation of the baroreflex was investigated by perfusion of its antagonist or agonist into the PVN using microdialysis. Intravenous injection of phenylephrine increased the norepinephrine concentration in the PVN by 35.83 ± 5.71%. Propranolol (an antagonist of the β-adrenoceptor) significantly decreased the gain of reflex bradycardia, but did not affect the magnitude of blood-pressure increases in the baroreflex, resulting in reduced baroreflex sensitivity. Isoprenaline (an agonist of the β-adrenoceptor) significantly increased the gain of reflex bradycardia without affecting blood-pressure increases, leading to increased baroreflex sensitivity. Our results suggest that norepinephrine in the PVN facilitates the phenylephrine-induced baroreflex via β-adrenoceptors. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  13. Monoamine innervation of the organum vasculosum laminae terminalis (OVLT): a high resolution radioautographic study in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosler, O.; Descarries, L.

    1988-06-22

    The monoamine innervation of the organum vasculosum laminae terminalis (OVLT) was examined in the adult rat by light and electron microscope radioautography after intraventricular administration of tritiated serotonin (( 3H)5-HT) or dopamine (( 3H)DA). Radioautographic and biochemical controls after 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine or 6-hydroxydopamine lesioning established the respective serotonin (5-HT) and catecholamine (CA) identities of the axonal varicosities labeled under the conditions of the present experiments. For descriptive purposes, the OVLT was subdivided in three parts: two parenchymal zones, one juxtaventricular, the other juxtavascular, and the vascular core. Almost 10% of all axonal varicosities in the OVLT were found to be labeled with (3H)5-HT. This 5-HT innervation was most prominent in the rostrocaudal and ventrodorsal portions of the juxtaventricular zone and the dorsal aspect of the juxtavascular zone; there was none in the vascular core. (3H)DA-labeled varicosities were much less abundant and yet more numerous than earlier histofluorescent and immunohistochemical studies would have predicted. They predominated in the juxtavascular zone, where a majority presumably had a dopamine (DA) rather than a noradrenaline identity. Some were also found in the vascular core, where they most likely corresponded to peripheral autonomic noradrenaline endings. In the juxtaventricular zone of the OVLT, a significant proportion of the (3H)5-HT-labeled varicosity profiles could be observed to form axodendritic synapses, but in the juxtavascular zone no 5-HT or any (3H)DA-labeled ones were ever seen in synaptic junction. In the juxtavascular zone, the 5-HT and the presumed DA endings established close relationships with neurosecretory axons, and with astrocytic or tanycytic processes on which they occasionally formed synaptoid contacts.

  14. Neural correlates underlying naloxone-induced amelioration of sexual behavior deterioration due to an alarm pheromone

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    Tatsuya eKobayashi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sexual behavior is suppressed by various types of stressors. We previously demonstrated that an alarm pheromone released by stressed male Wistar rats is a stressor to other rats, increases the number of mounts needed for ejaculation, and decreases the hit rate (described as the number of intromissions/sum of the mounts and intromissions. This deterioration in sexual behavior was ameliorated by pretreatment with the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone. However, the neural mechanism underlying this remains to be elucidated. Here, we examined Fos expression in 31 brain regions of pheromone-exposed rats and naloxone-pretreated pheromone-exposed rats 60 min after 10 intromissions. As previously reported, the alarm pheromone increased the number of mounts and decreased the hit rate. In addition, Fos expression was increases in the anterior medial division, anterior lateral division and posterior division of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, parvocellular part of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, arcuate nucleus, dorsolateral and ventrolateral periaqueductal gray, and nucleus paragigantocellularis. Fos expression decreased in the magnocellular part of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. Pretreatment with naloxone blocked the pheromone-induced changes in Fos expression in the magnocellular part of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, ventrolateral periaqueductal gray, and nucleus paragigantocellularis. Based on these results, we hypothesize that the alarm pheromone deteriorated sexual behavior by activating the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray-nucleus paragigantocellularis cluster and suppressing the magnocellular part of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus via the opioidergic pathway.

  15. Intermedin in the paraventricular nucleus attenuates cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex in chronic heart failure rats.

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    Xian-Bing Gan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: Intermedin (IMD is a member of calcitonin/calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP family together with adrenomedullin (AM and amylin. It has a wide distribution in the central nervous system (CNS especially in hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN. Cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex (CSAR is enhanced in chronic heart failure (CHF rats. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of IMD in the PVN on CSAR and its related mechanisms in CHF rats. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Rats were subjected to left descending coronary artery ligation to induce CHF or sham-operation (Sham. Renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA, mean arterial pressure (MAP and heart rate (HR were recorded. CSAR was evaluated by the RSNA and MAP responses to epicardial application of capsaicin. Acute experiments were carried out 8 weeks after coronary ligation or sham surgery under anesthesia. IMD and angiotensin II (Ang II levels in the PVN were up-regulated in CHF rats. Bilateral PVN microinjection of IMD caused greater decreases in CSAR and the baseline RSNA and MAP in CHF rats than those in Sham rats. The decrease of CSAR caused by IMD was prevented by pretreatment with AM receptor antagonist AM22-52, but not CGRP receptor antagonist CGRP8-37. Ang II in the PVN significantly enhanced CSAR and superoxide anions level, which was inhibited by PVN pretreatment with IMD or tempol (a superoxide anions scavenger in Sham and CHF rats. CONCLUSION: IMD in the PVN inhibits CSAR via AM receptor, and attenuates the effects of Ang II on CSAR and superoxide anions level in CHF rats. PVN superoxide anions involve in the effect of IMD on attenuating Ang II-induced CSAR response.

  16. Superoxide anions in paraventricular nucleus modulate adipose afferent reflex and sympathetic activity in rats.

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    Lei Ding

    Full Text Available Adipose afferent reflex (AAR is a sympatho-excitatory reflex induced by chemical stimulation of white adipose tissue (WAT. Ionotropic glutamate receptors including NMDA receptors (NMDAR and non-NMDA receptors (non-NMDAR in paraventricular nucleus (PVN mediate the AAR. Enhanced AAR contributes to sympathetic activation and hypertension in obesity rats. This study was designed to investigate the role and mechanism of superoxide anions in PVN in modulating the AAR.Renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA and mean arterial pressure (MAP were recorded in anesthetized rats. AAR was evaluated by the RSNA and MAP responses to injections of capsaicin into four sites of right inguinal WAT (8.0 nmol in 8.0 µl for each site. Microinjection of polyethylene glycol-superoxide dismutase (PEG-SOD, the superoxide anion scavenger tempol or the NAD(PH oxidase inhibitor apocynin into the PVN decreased the baseline RSNA and MAP, and attenuated the AAR. Unilateral WAT injection of capsaicin increased superoxide anions in bilateral PVN, which was prevented by the WAT denervation. WAT injection of capsaicin increased superoxide anion level and NAD(PH oxidase activity in the PVN, which was abolished by the PVN pretreatment with the combined NMDAR antagonist AP5 and non-NMDAR antagonist CNQX. Microinjection of the NMDAR agonist NMDA or the non-NMDAR agonist AMPA increased superoxide anion level and NAD(PH oxidase activity in the PVN.NAD(PH oxidase-derived superoxide anions in the PVN contributes to the tonic modulation of AAR. Activation of ionotropic glutamate receptors in the PVN is involved in the AAR-induced production of superoxide anions in the PVN.

  17. Lesions of the posterior paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus attenuate fear expression

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    Yonghui eLi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus (PVT has generated interest because of its strong projections to areas of the brain associated with the regulation of emotional behaviors. The posterior aspect of the PVT (pPVT is notable for its projection to the central nucleus of the amygdala which is essential for the expression of a conditioned fear response. The present study was done to determine if the pPVT is involved in the expression of fear by examining the effect of post-conditioning lesions of the pPVT. Male rats were trained to bar press for food pellets on a variable ratio schedule. Fear conditioning was done using auditory tones (30 s that co-terminate with footschocks (0.65 mA, 1.0 s. Rats were anesthetized 24 hours later and small bilateral electrolytic lesions of the pPVT were made. Fear expression to the tone was assessed using suppression of bar-pressing and freezing after one week of recovery from the surgical procedure. Small bilateral lesions of the pPVT increased bar-pressing for food and decreased freezing during the presentation of the conditioned tone. Lesions of the pPVT had no effect on fear extinction, fear conditioning to a novel tone, or the motivation for food as assessed using a progressive ratio schedule. The results of the experiment support a role for the pPVT in fear expression. In contrast, the pPVT does not appear to be involved in fear learning or extinction nor does it appear to play a role in the motivation of rats to bar press for food.

  18. GABA in the paraventricular nucleus tonically suppresses baroreflex function: alterations during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Mollie C.; Cassaglia, Priscila A.

    2011-01-01

    It is well established that GABAergic inputs to the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) tonically suppress heart rate and the activity of several sympathetic nerves. However, whether GABA similarly inhibits PVN control of baroreflex function has not been previously investigated. To test this hypothesis, it was determined whether microinjection of the GABAA antagonist, bicuculline, into the PVN enhances the baroreflex in anesthetized female virgin rats. In addition, because GABAergic inhibition of PVN preautonomic neurons is decreased during pregnancy, it was also determined whether the effects of PVN bicuculline administration on baroreflex function were less in pregnant animals. In virgin rats, PVN microinjection of bicuculline increased (P baroreflex gain and maximum levels of heart rate (gain, from 1.6 ± 0.6 to 3.8 ± 1.3 bpm/mmHg; maximum, from 406 ± 18 to 475 ± 14 bpm) and of lumbar sympathetic nerve activity (gain from 2.6 ± 0.7 to 4.8 ± 1.6%/mmHg; maximum, 149 ± 32 to 273 ± 48%), indicating that PVN GABA normally suppresses baroreflex function. Pregnancy decreased heart rate baroreflex gain (pregnant, 0.9 ± 0.3 bpm/mmHg; virgin, 1.9 ± 0.2 bpm/mmHg; P baroreflex gain (pregnant, 0.6 ± 0.1 bpm/mmHg; virgin, 2.4 ± 0.9 bpm/mmHg) and maximum (pregnant, 33 ± 7 bpm; virgin, 75 ± 12 bpm; P baroreflex via tonic GABAergic inputs and that this inhibition is less during pregnancy. PMID:21368269

  19. Peripheral chemoreceptors mediate training-induced plasticity in paraventricular nucleus pre-autonomic oxytocinergic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Josiane C; Cavalleri, Marina T; Ceroni, Alexandre; Michelini, Lisete C

    2013-02-01

    We showed previously that sino-aortic denervation prevented training-induced plasticity in pre-autonomic oxytocinergic neurons and blocked the beneficial effects of training. In this study, we investigate the combined effect of training and removal of specific chemoreceptor afferents on both cardiovascular parameters and oxytocin (OT) gene and protein expression within the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Wistar rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) underwent carotid body denervation or sham surgery and were trained or kept sedentary for 3 months. After haemodynamic measurements at rest, rats were anaesthetized for brain perfusion. Fresh (perfused with PBS) and fixed brains (perfused with 4% paraformaldehyde) were processed for PVN OT mRNA (real-time PCR) and OT immunoreactivity within PVN subnuclei. In sham-operated rats, training improved treadmill performance and reduced resting heart rate (Wistar, -8%; SHRs, -10%), with a reduction in blood pressure only in SHRs (-8%). Training was accompanied by increased PVN OT mRNA expression (twofold increase in sham-operated SHRs) and peptide density in the posterior, ventromedial and dorsal cap PVN subnuclei (on average 70% increase in both strains), with significant correlations between OT content and training-induced resting bradycardia in sham-operated groups. Carotid body denervation did not interfere with the performance gain, abolished chemoreflex activation (without changing baroreflex control) and blocked training-induced cardiovascular adaptations and training-induced changes in PVN OT content in both strains. After carotid body denervation, there was no correlation between OT mRNA or OT immunoractivity and resting heart rate. The chronic absence of chemoreceptor inputs uncovers an unknown role of chemoreceptor signalling in driving the plasticity/activity of PVN oxytocinergic pre-autonomic neurons, thus mediating training-induced cardiovascular adaptive responses.

  20. Ghrelin is an orexigenic and metabolic signaling peptide in the arcuate and paraventricular nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Paul J; Mirza, Aaisha; Fuld, Rebecca; Park, Diana; Vasselli, Joseph R

    2005-08-01

    Ghrelin is a 28-amino acid acylated peptide and is the endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R). The GHS-R is expressed in hypothalamic nuclei, including the arcuate nucleus (Arc) where it is colocalized with neuropeptide Y (NPY) neurons. In the present study, we examined the effects of ghrelin on feeding and energy substrate utilization (respiratory quotient; RQ) following direct injections into either the arcuate or the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus. Ghrelin was administered at the beginning of the dark cycle at doses of 15-60 pmol to male and female rats. In feeding studies, food intake was measured 2 and 4 h postinjection. Separate groups of rats were injected with ghrelin, and the RQ (VCO(2)/VO(2)) was measured using an open circuit calorimeter over a 4-h period. Both Arc and PVN injections of ghrelin increased food intake in male and female rats. Ghrelin also increased RQ, reflecting a shift in energy substrate utilization in favor of carbohydrate oxidation. Because these effects are similar to those observed after PVN injection of NPY, we then assessed the impact of coinjecting ghrelin with NPY into the PVN. When rats were pretreated with very low doses of ghrelin (2.5-10 pmol), NPY's (50 pmol) effects on eating and RQ were potentiated. Overall, these data are in agreement with evidence suggesting that ghrelin functions as a gut-brain endocrine hormone implicated in the regulation of food intake and energy metabolism. Our findings are also consistent with a possible interactive role of hypothalamic ghrelin and NPY systems.

  1. Pomegranate extract decreases oxidative stress and alleviates mitochondrial impairment by activating AMPK-Nrf2 in hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus of spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenyan; Yan, Chunhong; Frost, Bess; Wang, Xin; Hou, Chen; Zeng, Mengqi; Gao, Hongli; Kang, Yuming; Liu, Jiankang

    2016-10-07

    High blood pressure, or "hypertension," is associated with high levels of oxidative stress in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. While pomegranate extract is a known antioxidant that is thought to have antihypertensive effects, the mechanism whereby pomegranate extract lowers blood pressure and the tissue that mediates its antihypertensive effects are currently unknown. We have used a spontaneously hypertensive rat model to investigate the antihypertensive properties of pomegranate extract. We found that chronic treatment of hypertensive rats with pomegranate extract significantly reduced blood pressure and cardiac hypertrophy. Furthermore, pomegranate extract reduced oxidative stress, increased the antioxidant defense system, and decreased inflammation in the paraventricular nucleus of hypertensive rats. We determined that pomegranate extract reduced mitochondrial superoxide anion levels and increased mitochondrial function in the paraventricular nucleus of hypertensive rats by promoting mitochondrial biogenesis and improving mitochondrial dynamics and clearance. We went on to identify the AMPK-nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway as a mechanism whereby pomegranate extract reduces oxidative stress in the paraventricular nucleus to relieve hypertension. Our findings demonstrate that pomegranate extract alleviates hypertension by reducing oxidative stress and improving mitochondrial function in the paraventricular nucleus, and reveal multiple novel targets for therapeutic treatment of hypertension.

  2. Topography of subnuclei of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus in rats and sensitivity of their neurons to insulin defficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goufman, E.I.

    1985-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to study the reaction of paraventricular nuclei (PVN) subnuclei to insulin deficiency and to elevation of the blood glucose level under conditions of experimental alloxan diabetes. Experiments were carried out on 15 control and 15 experimental mature male Wistar rats. The state of the carbohydrate metabolism of the diabetic and control animals was judged by the blood glucose and radioimmune insulin levels. The results of these investigations show that both magnocellular and parvocellular neurons of PVN react to alloxan diabetes, which supports the hypothesis that PVN of the hypothalamus participates in the control of carbohydrate metabolism

  3. M-octopamine injected into the paraventricular nucleus induces eating in rats: a comparison with noradrenaline-induced eating.

    OpenAIRE

    Fletcher, P. J.; Paterson, I. A.

    1989-01-01

    1. The effects on food intake in rats of injection of m- and p-octopamine into the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus were examined, and compared to the effects of noradrenaline (NA). 2. m-Octopamine injected into the PVN induced a dose-dependent increase in food intake, with the maximal effect occurring at a dose of 25 nmol. p-Octopamine did not elicit eating unless it was administered to animals pretreated with the monoamine oxidase inhibitor, pargyline. 3. The effects of pre...

  4. Branched oxytocinergic innervations from the paraventricular hypothalamic nuclei to superficial layers in the spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condés-Lara, Miguel; Martínez-Lorenzana, Guadalupe; Rojas-Piloni, Gerardo; Rodríguez-Jiménez, Javier

    2007-07-30

    The paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus is an interesting structure with diverse functions due to its different neuronal populations, neurotransmitters, and projections to other central nervous system structures. The PVN is a primary source of oxytocin (OT) in the central nervous system. In fact, a direct PVN projection to the spinal cord has been demonstrated by retrograde and anterograde tracers, and more than the 50% of this projection is oxytocinergic. This OT descending projection is proposed to be an endogenous system that controls the nociceptive information arriving at the spinal cord. However, we have no information about the specific organization of the OT descending innervations to the different spinal cord segments. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the projecting PVN neurons arrive at cervical regions and then continue to lumbar regions. That is, we sought to establish if the OT projecting cells have a topic or a diffuse projection in order to obtain histological data to support the endogenous OT diffuse mechanism of analgesia described elsewhere. With this purpose in mind we combined the OT immunohistochemistry technique with retrograde neuronal tracers in the spinal cord. We applied Diamidino Yellow (DY) for the superficial dorsal horn cervical segments and True Blue (TB) for the lumbar segments. Data were collected from eight rats with well-placed injections. We only used the animals in which the tracer deposits were confined to superficial layers I and II of the dorsal horn. A mainly ipsilateral projection was observed, but stained neurons were also observed in the contralateral PVN. A large fraction of the stained PVN cells was doubled labeled but some were single labeled. Combining the retrograde tracer techniques and the OT detection procedure, we observed triple-labeled neurons. The present results demonstrate that PVN neurons send collaterals at least to the superficial cervical and lumbar segments of the

  5. Intravenous CDP-choline activates neurons in supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei and induces hormone secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyigor, Ozhan; Coskun, Cenk; Cavun, Sinan; Savci, Vahide

    2012-02-10

    The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of intravenous (i.v.) cytidine-5'-diphosphate (CDP)-choline administration on the activation of oxytocin and vasopressin neurons in the supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular nuclei (PVN), using the immunohistochemical identification of c-Fos expression as a marker of neuronal activation and to correlate this with the plasma hormone levels. Rats were catheterized under sevofluorane anesthesia and experiments were conducted 24h later. Blood samples were withdrawn from arterial catheter at 2, 5, 10, 20, 40 and 60 min after CDP-choline (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g/kg; i.v.) or saline (1.0 ml/kg; i.v.) for the measurement of plasma oxytocin and vasopressin levels by radioimmunoassay. Animals were sacrificed 90 min after CDP-choline administration for dual immunohistochemistry which was performed on paraformaldehyde-fixed vibratome sections. Dual immunohistochemistry for c-Fos and oxytocin or vasopressin revealed that CDP-choline activates these neurons in a dose-dependent manner. Light microscopic analyses showed that, about 41%, 75% or 87% of the oxytocin neurons and about 18%, 46% or 82% of the vasopressin neurons in SON express c-Fos, thus activated, by the dosages of 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 g/kg CDP-choline, respectively. Increases in c-Fos expression were about 29%, 62% or 81% for the oxytocin neurons and about 38%, 70% or 78% for the vasopressin neurons in PVN with the dosages of 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 g/kg CDP-choline, respectively. When compared to the control groups (8% and 7% oxytocin or 2% and 5% vasopressin neuronal activation in SON or PVN, respectively), these increases were found to be statistically significant (p<0.05). In the PVN most of the magnocellular neurons were activated while less number of parvocellular neurons expressed c-Fos in response to CDP-choline challenge. In correlation with c-Fos data, CDP-choline increased plasma oxytocin and vasopressin levels both dose- and time-dependently. Results of the present

  6. Serotonin mediated changes in corticotropin releasing factor mRNA expression and feeding behavior isolated to the hypothalamic paraventricular nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisvert, Joanne P; Boschuetz, Tyler J; Resch, Jon M; Mueller, Christopher R; Choi, Sujean

    2011-07-12

    Fenfluramine reduces hunger and promotes body weight loss by increasing central serotonin (5-HT) signaling. More recently, neuropeptides have been linked to the regulation of feeding behavior, metabolism and body weight. To examine possible interactions between 5-HT and neuropeptides in appetite control, fenfluramine (200 nmol/0.5 μl/side) was administered directly into the hypothalamic paraventricular nuclei (PVN) of male rats. Bilateral fenfluramine produced significant hypophagia and increased expression of PVN corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) mRNA and neuropeptide Y (NPY) mRNA in the arcuate nucleus within the first hour after drug administration. Fenfluramine's effects on feeding behavior and mRNA expression were blocked by PVN injections of a 5-HT(1-2) receptor antagonist, metergoline (15 nmol/0.5 μl/side). These data suggest that 5-HT neurons targeting hypothalamic paraventricular CRF neurons may participate in an appetite control circuit for reducing food intake. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Differential effects of recombinant adeno-associated virus-mediated neuropeptide Y overexpression in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and lateral hypothalamus on feeding behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiesjema, Birgitte; Adan, Roger A. H.; Luijendijk, Mieneke C. M.; Kalsbeek, Andries; la Fleur, Susanne E.

    2007-01-01

    It is well known that neuropeptide Y (NPY) increases food intake. The hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and the lateral hypothalamus (LH) are both involved in the acute, hyperphagic effects of NPY. Although it is obvious that increased energy intake may lead to obesity, it is less

  8. Gender difference in age-related number of corticotropin-releasing hormone-expressing neurons in the human hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and the role of sex hormones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bao, A.-M.; Swaab, D.F.

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the total number of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)-stained neurons in the human hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) increases with age. To determine whether this age-related change depends on gender and whether circulating sex hormones play a role, we

  9. Deafness in Claudin 11-Null Mice Reveals the Critical Contribution of Basal Cell Tight Junctions to Stria Vascularis Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gow, Alexander; Davies, Caroline; Southwood, Cherie M.; Frolenkov, Gregory; Chrustowski, Mark; Ng, Lily; Yamauchi, Daisuke; Marcus, Daniel C.; Kachar, Bechara

    2015-01-01

    Generation of a strong electrical potential in the cochlea is uniquely mammalian and may reflect recent evolutionary advances in cellular voltage-dependent amplifiers. This endocochlear potential is hypothesized to dramatically improve hearing sensitivity, a concept that is difficult to explore experimentally, because manipulating cochlear function frequently causes rapid degenerative changes early in development. Here, we examine the deafness phenotype in adult Claudin 11-null mice, which lack the basal cell tight junctions that give rise to the intrastrial compartment and find little evidence of cochlear pathology. Potassium ion recycling is normal in these mutants, but endocochlear potentials were below 30 mV and hearing thresholds were elevated 50 dB sound pressure level across the frequency spectrum. Together, these data demonstrate the central importance of basal cell tight junctions in the stria vascularis and directly verify the two-cell hypothesis for generation of endocochlear potential. Furthermore, these data indicate that endocochlear potential is an essential component of the power source for the mammalian cochlear amplifier. PMID:15306639

  10. Inhibition of reactive oxygen species in hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus attenuates the renin–angiotensin system and proinflammatory cytokines in hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Qing; Qin, Da-Nian; Wang, Fu-Xin; Ren, Jun; Li, Hong-Bao; Zhang, Meng; Yang, Qing; Miao, Yu-Wang; Yu, Xiao-Jing; Qi, Jie; Zhu, Zhiming; Zhu, Guo-Qing; Kang, Yu-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Aims: To explore whether reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger (tempol) in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) attenuates renin–angiotensin system (RAS) and proinflammatory cytokines (PICs), and decreases the blood pressure and sympathetic activity in angiotensin II (ANG II)-induced hypertension. Methods and results: Male Sprague–Dawley rats were infused intravenously with ANG II (10 ng/kg per min) or normal saline (NS) for 4 weeks. These rats were treated with bilateral PVN infusion of oxygen free radical scavenger tempol (TEMP, 20 μg/h) or vehicle (artificial cerebrospinal fluid, aCSF) for 4 weeks. ANG II infusion resulted in increased mean arterial pressure (MAP) and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA). These ANG II-infused rats also had higher levels of gp91 phox (a subunit of NAD(P)H oxidase), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), and interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) in the PVN than the control animals. Treatment with PVN infusion of TEMP attenuated the overexpression of gp91 phox , ACE and IL-1β within the PVN, and decreased sympathetic activity and MAP in ANG II-infused rats. Conclusion: These findings suggest that ANG II infusion induces elevated PICs and oxidative stress in the PVN, which contribute to the sympathoexcitation in hypertension. Inhibition of reactive oxygen species in hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus attenuates the renin–angiotensin system, proinflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress in ANG II-induced hypertension. - Highlights: • The effect of chronic inhibiting PVN superoxide on hypertension was investigated. • ANG II infusion induced increased proinflammatory cytokines and superoxide in PVN. • ANG II infusion resulted in oxidative stress, sympathoexcitation and hypertension. • Chronic inhibiting PVN superoxide attenuates RAS and cytokines in hypertension

  11. Inhibition of reactive oxygen species in hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus attenuates the renin–angiotensin system and proinflammatory cytokines in hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Qing [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China); Qin, Da-Nian, E-mail: dnqin@stu.edu.cn [Department of Physiology, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041 (China); Wang, Fu-Xin [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Jiamusi University, Jiamusi 154002 (China); Ren, Jun [Center for Cardiovascular Research and Alternative Medicine, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Li, Hong-Bao; Zhang, Meng; Yang, Qing; Miao, Yu-Wang; Yu, Xiao-Jing; Qi, Jie [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China); Zhu, Zhiming [Department of Hypertension and Endocrinology, Center for Hypertension and Metabolic Diseases, Daping Hospital, The Third Military Medical University, Chongqing Institute of Hypertension, Chongqing 400042 (China); Zhu, Guo-Qing [Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease and Molecular Intervention, Department of Physiology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Kang, Yu-Ming, E-mail: ykang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China)

    2014-04-15

    Aims: To explore whether reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger (tempol) in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) attenuates renin–angiotensin system (RAS) and proinflammatory cytokines (PICs), and decreases the blood pressure and sympathetic activity in angiotensin II (ANG II)-induced hypertension. Methods and results: Male Sprague–Dawley rats were infused intravenously with ANG II (10 ng/kg per min) or normal saline (NS) for 4 weeks. These rats were treated with bilateral PVN infusion of oxygen free radical scavenger tempol (TEMP, 20 μg/h) or vehicle (artificial cerebrospinal fluid, aCSF) for 4 weeks. ANG II infusion resulted in increased mean arterial pressure (MAP) and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA). These ANG II-infused rats also had higher levels of gp91{sup phox} (a subunit of NAD(P)H oxidase), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), and interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) in the PVN than the control animals. Treatment with PVN infusion of TEMP attenuated the overexpression of gp91{sup phox}, ACE and IL-1β within the PVN, and decreased sympathetic activity and MAP in ANG II-infused rats. Conclusion: These findings suggest that ANG II infusion induces elevated PICs and oxidative stress in the PVN, which contribute to the sympathoexcitation in hypertension. Inhibition of reactive oxygen species in hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus attenuates the renin–angiotensin system, proinflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress in ANG II-induced hypertension. - Highlights: • The effect of chronic inhibiting PVN superoxide on hypertension was investigated. • ANG II infusion induced increased proinflammatory cytokines and superoxide in PVN. • ANG II infusion resulted in oxidative stress, sympathoexcitation and hypertension. • Chronic inhibiting PVN superoxide attenuates RAS and cytokines in hypertension.

  12. Central ghrelin increases food foraging/hoarding that is blocked by GHSR antagonism and attenuates hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus neuronal activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Michael A.; Bartness, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    The stomach-derived “hunger hormone” ghrelin increases in the circulation in direct response to time since the last meal, increasing preprandially and falling immediately following food consumption. We found previously that peripheral injection of ghrelin potently stimulates food foraging (FF), food hoarding (FH), and food intake (FI) in Siberian hamsters. It remains, however, largely unknown if central ghrelin stimulation is necessary/sufficient to increase these behaviors regardless of peripheral stimulation of the ghrelin receptor [growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR)]. We injected three doses (0.01, 0.1, and 1.0 μg) of ghrelin into the third ventricle (3V) of Siberian hamsters and measured changes in FF, FH, and FI. To test the effects of 3V ghrelin receptor blockade, we used the potent GHSR antagonist JMV2959 to block these behaviors in response to food deprivation or a peripheral ghrelin challenge. Finally, we examined neuronal activation in the arcuate nucleus and paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus in response to peripheral ghrelin administration and 3V GHSR antagonism. Third ventricular ghrelin injection significantly increased FI through 24 h and FH through day 4. Pretreatment with 3V JMV2959 successfully blocked peripheral ghrelin-induced increases in FF, FH, and FI at all time points and food deprivation-induced increases in FF, FH, and FI up to 4 h. c-Fos immunoreactivity was significantly reduced in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus, but not in the arcuate nucleus, following pretreatment with intraperitoneal JMV2959 and ghrelin. Collectively, these data suggest that central GHSR activation is both necessary and sufficient to increase appetitive and consummatory behaviors in Siberian hamsters. PMID:26561646

  13. La estria supranuclear de las células ciliadas en la rinitis alérgica Supranuclear stria of ciliated cells in allergic rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Zerdiew

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron 80 pacientes adultos alérgicos, que cursaron con los siguientes cuadros clínicos: 16 casos de rinitis intermitente y 64 de rinitis persistente. Se realizó el recuento porcentual de la estría supranuclear de las células ciliadas, respecto de los leucocitos presentes en los extendidos obtenidos por toma endonasal. Con los datos obtenidos se clasificaron los extendidos en 4 grupos; Grupo A (N=23: predominio leucocitario eosinófilo con eosinofilia nasal >10%, Grupo B (N=15: abundantes leucocitos neutrófilos y eosinofilia nasal >10%, Grupo C (N=29: con escasos leucocitos, Grupo D (N=13: con abundantes leucocitos de predominio neutrófilo sin eosinofilia. Se observó que el incremento porcentual de estría supranuclear se correlacionó con eosinofilia nasal >10% y con las muestras que presentaron escasos leucocitos. Sin embargo se evidenció una marcada disminución del porcentaje de estría supranuclear en la leucocitosis neutrófila de etiología bacteriana.Nasal secretions were studied in 80 allergic adults patients: 16 with intermittent rhinitis and 64 with persistent rhinitis. The percentage of supranuclear stria of ciliated cells with regard to leucocytes was studied by nasal scraping. Four groups of patients were classified according to nasal leucocytic predominance: patients with eosinophilic predominance with eosinophils > 10% in Group A (N=23, patients with abundant neutrophils and eosinophils >10% in Group B (N=15, patients with scant leucocytes in Group C (N=29, patients with neutrophilic predominance without eosinophils in Group D (N=13. An increase of supranuclear stria percentage was correlated to eosinophils > 10% and also correlated to scant leucocytes. Nevertheless, a significant decrease of supranuclear stria percentage was observed in neutrophilic leukocytosis of bacterial etiology.

  14. Characterization of Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone neurons in the Paraventricular Nucleus of the Hypothalamus of Crh-IRES-Cre Mutant Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Wamsteeker Cusulin, Jaclyn I.; F?zesi, Tam?s; Watts, Alan G.; Bains, Jaideep S.

    2013-01-01

    Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)-containing neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) initiate and control neuroendocrine responses to psychogenic and physical stress. Investigations into the physiology of CRH neurons, however, have been hampered by the lack of tools for adequately targeting or visualizing this cell population. Here we characterize CRH neurons in the PVN of mice that express tdTomato fluorophore, generated by crosses of recently developed Crh-IRES-...

  15. Cannabinoid-induced upregulation of serotonin 2A receptors in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and anxiety-like behaviors in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Franklin, Jade M.; Mathew, Matt; Carrasco, Gonzalo A.

    2013-01-01

    Recent behavioral reports suggest that repeated exposure to cannabis and synthetic cannabinoid agonists is linked with mental disorders associated with dysfunction of serotonin 2A (5-HT2A) receptor neurotransmission such as anxiety and depression. Here, we studied the effect of a nonselective cannabinoid agonist, CP55940, on the activity of 5-HT2A receptors in hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). We detected that repeated exposure to CP55940 enhanced the prolactin and corticosterone ne...

  16. Angiotensin II in the paraventricular nucleus stimulates sympathetic outflow to the cardiovascular system and make vasopressin release in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanmoradi, Mehrangiz; Nasimi, Ali

    2016-10-06

    The hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) plays essential roles in neuroendocrine and autonomic functions, including cardiovascular regulation. It was shown that microinjection of angiotensin II (AngII) into the PVN produced a pressor response. In this study, we explored the probable mechanisms of this pressor response. AngII was microinjected into the PVN and cardiovascular responses were recorded. Then, the responses were re-tested after systemic injection of a ganglionic blocker, Hexamethonium, or a vasopressin V1 receptor blocker. Hexamethonium pretreatment (i.v.) greatly and significantly attenuated the pressor response to AngII, with no significant effect on heart rate, indicating that the sympathetic system is involved in the cardiovascular effect of AngII in the PVN. Systemic pretreatment (i.v.) with V1 antagonist greatly and significantly attenuated the pressor response to AngII, with no significant effect on heart rate, indicating that vasopressin release is involved in the cardiovascular effect of AngII in the PVN. Overall, we found that AngII microinjected into the PVN produced a pressor response mediated by the sympathetic system and vasopressin release, indicating that other than circulating AngII, endogenous AngII of the PVN increases the vasopressin release from the PVN. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Ovarian hormone deprivation reduces oxytocin expression in Paraventricular Nucleus preautonomic neurons and correlates with baroreflex impairment in rats

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    Vitor Ulisses De Melo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of cardiovascular diseases including hypertension increases dramatically in women after menopause, however the mechanisms involved remain incompletely understood. Oxytocinergic (OTergic neurons are largely present within the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN. Several studies have shown that OTergic drive from PVN to brainstem increases baroreflex sensitivity and improves autonomic control of the circulation. Since preautonomic PVN neurons express different types of estrogen receptors, we hypothesize that ovarian hormone deprivation causes baroreflex impairment, autonomic imbalance and hypertension by negatively impacting OTergic drive and oxytocin levels in pre-autonomic neurons. Here, we assessed oxytocin gene and protein expression (qPCR and immunohistochemistry within PVN subnuclei in sham-operated and ovariectomized Wistar rats. Conscious hemodynamic recordings were used to assess resting blood pressure and heart rate and the autonomic modulation of heart and vessels was estimated by power spectral analysis. We observed that the ovarian hormone deprivation in ovariectomized rats decreased baroreflex sensitivity, increased sympathetic and reduced vagal outflows to the heart and augmented the resting blood pressure. Of note, ovariectomized rats had reduced PVN oxytocin mRNA and protein expression in all pre-autonomic PVN subnuclei. Furthermore, reduced PVN oxytocin protein levels were positively correlated with decreased baroreflex sensitivity and negatively correlated with increased LF/HF ratio. These findings suggest that reduced oxytocin expression in OTergic neurons of the PVN contributes to the baroreflex dysfunction and autonomic dysregulation observed with ovarian hormone deprivation.

  18. Leptin activates oxytocin neurons of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus in both control and diet-induced obese rodents.

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    Mario Perello

    Full Text Available The adipocyte-derived hormone leptin acts in the brain to reduce body weight and fat mass. Recent studies suggest that parvocellular oxytocin (OXT neurons of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN can mediate body weight reduction through inhibition of food intake and increased energy expenditure. However, the role of OXT neurons of the PVN as a primary target of leptin has not been investigated. Here, we studied the potential role of OXT neurons of the PVN in leptin-mediated effects on body weight regulation in fasted rats. We demonstrated that intracerebroventricular (ICV leptin activates STAT3 phosphorylation in OXT neurons of the PVN, showed that this occurs in a subpopulation of OXT neurons that innervate the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS, and provided further evidence suggesting a role of OXT to mediate leptin's actions on body weight. In addition, our results indicated that OXT neurons are responsive to ICV leptin and mediate leptin effects on body weight in diet induced obese (DIO rats, which are resistant to the anorectic effects of the hormone. Thus, we conclude that leptin targets a specific subpopulation of parvocellular OXT neurons of the PVN, and that this action may be important for leptin's ability to reduce body weight in both control and obese rats.

  19. Estrogen Increases c-Fos expression in the paraventricular nucleus along with its anorexic effect in developing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Jing Hua; Narita, Kazumi; Ichimaru, Toru; Murata, Takuya

    2011-06-01

    Estrogen inhibits food intake in cycling females in a variety of species. To determine how the development of the anorexic system by estrogen is regulated, rat pups at four developmental stages, postnatal day 11 (P11)-13, P20-22, P25-27 and P29-31, and adult ovariectomized (OVX) rats received a daily subcutaneous injection of 20 µg/kg of estradiol benzoate (EB) or vehicle for three days. Food intake, body weight gain and immunohistochemical c-Fos expression in the brain were measured after each injection. EB treatment decreased both food intake and body weight gain from P27 onwards and significantly increased c-Fos expression in the parvocellular division of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (pPVN), which is coincident with its anorexic effect in developing rats. The pattern of EB-induced c-Fos activation in other feeding-related nuclei did not coincide with its anorexic effect in developing pups. However, in adult OVX rats, EB treatment increased c-Fos expression in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), and, to a lesser degree, the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH). These results suggested that the pPVN is an essential site in the brain for controlling the anorexic effect of estrogen and that the feeding system of rat begins to respond to estrogen before the onset of puberty (P25-28).

  20. NMDA Receptor Plasticity in the Hypothalamic Paraventricular Nucleus Contributes to the Elevated Blood Pressure Produced by Angiotensin II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Michael J; Wang, Gang; Coleman, Christal G; Chan, June; Ogorodnik, Evgeny; Van Kempen, Tracey A; Milner, Teresa A; Butler, Scott D; Young, Colin N; Davisson, Robin L; Iadecola, Costantino; Pickel, Virginia M

    2015-07-01

    Hypertension induced by angiotensin II (Ang II) is associated with glutamate-dependent dysregulation of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Many forms of glutamate-dependent plasticity are mediated by NMDA receptor GluN1 subunit expression and the distribution of functional receptor to the plasma membrane of dendrites. Here, we use a combined ultrastructural and functional analysis to examine the relationship between PVN NMDA receptors and the blood pressure increase induced by chronic infusion of a low dose of Ang II. We report that the increase in blood pressure produced by a 2 week administration of a subpressor dose of Ang II results in an elevation in plasma membrane GluN1 in dendrites of PVN neurons in adult male mice. The functional implications of these observations are further demonstrated by the finding that GluN1 deletion in PVN neurons attenuated the Ang II-induced increases in blood pressure. These results indicate that NMDA receptor plasticity in PVN neurons significantly contributes to the elevated blood pressure mediated by Ang II. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/359558-10$15.00/0.

  1. Electroacupuncture Improved the Function of Myocardial Ischemia Involved in the Hippocampus-Paraventricular Nucleus-Sympathetic Nerve Pathway

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    Shuai Cui

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the hippocampus-paraventricular nucleus- (PVN- sympathetic nerve pathway in electroacupuncture (EA at the heart meridian for the treatment of myocardial ischemia by observing PVN neuronal discharge, sympathetic nerve discharge, and hemodynamics parameters. Sprague Dawley (SD rats were equally divided into four groups: Sham, Model, Model + EA, and Model + EA + Lesion. The model rat was established by ligating the left anterior descending branch of the coronary artery. Changes in the sympathetic nerve discharge and hemodynamic parameters were observed. The Model + EA exhibited a significantly lower discharge frequency of PVN neurons compared with the Model. The Model + EA + Lesion had a significantly higher discharge frequency compared with the Model + EA. The total discharge frequency of PVN neurons and interneurons were positively correlated with the sympathetic nerve discharge. The total discharge frequency of PVN neurons was positively correlated with heart rate (HR and negatively correlated with mean arterial pressure (MAP and rate pressure product (RPP. The discharge frequency of interneurons was positively correlated with HR and negatively correlated with MAP and RPP. The hippocampus-PVN-sympathetic nerve pathway is involved in electroacupuncture at the heart meridian and interneurons are the key neurons in PVNs.

  2. GABAergic mediation of stress-induced secretion of corticosterone and oxytocin, but not prolactin, by the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques de Souza, Leandro; Franci, Celso Rodrigues

    2008-11-07

    The hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) participates in mediating the response to stressful stimuli. Within the HPA, neurons in the medial parvocellular region of paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus integrate excitatory and inhibitory signals triggering secretion of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), the main secretagogue of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). Stressful situations alter CRH secretion as well as other hormones, including prolactin and oxytocin. Most inputs to the PVN are of local origin, half of which are GABAergic neurons, and both GABA-A and GABA-B receptors are present in the PVN. The objective of the present study was to investigate the role of GABA-A and GABA-B receptors in the PVN's control of stress-induced corticosterone, oxytocin and prolactin secretion. Rats were microinjected with saline or different doses (0.5, 5 and 50 pmol) of GABA-A (bicuculine) or GABA-B (phaclofen) antagonists in the PVN. Ten minutes later, they were subjected to a stressor (ether inhalation) and blood samples were collected 30 min before and 10, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min after the stressful stimulus to measure hormone levels by radioimmunoassay. Our results indicate that GABA acts in the PVN to inhibit stress-induced corticosterone secretion via both its receptor subtypes, especially GABA-B. In contrast, GABA in the PVN stimulates oxytocin secretion through GABA-B receptors and does not alter prolactin secretion.

  3. Adenosine Triphosphate-sensitive Micro-reentrant Atrial Tachycardia Originating from the Crista Terminalis in a Patient with Chronic Renal Failure due to Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura

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    Shinya Sugiura, MD

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A 57-year-old woman with chronic renal failure due to the thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura complained of palpitation. A 12-lead ECG showed supraventricular tachycardia with a cycle length of 375 ms. During the electrophysiological study, a tachycardia with a cycle length of 375 ms was reproducibly induced and terminated by atrial extrastimulation. The tachycardia exhibited an inverse relationship between the coupling interval of extrastimulus initiating the tachycardia, and the first postpacing return cycle, as well as an increasing pattern of resetting the tachycardia with an atrial extrastimulus. Ventricular burst pacing during tachycardia produced AV dissociation. Intravenous injections of a low dose (4 mg of adenosine triphosphate (ATP terminated the tachycardia without a preceding atrio-His bundle block. The tachycardia was diagnosed as an ATP-sensitive micro-reentrant atrial tachycardia. Real-time endocardial activation mapping using an electroanatomical mapping system revealed that the earliest activation site of the tachycardia was located at the midlateral portion of the crista terminalis. The tachycardia was abolished by focal ablation targeting the earliest activation site during tachycardia. This is the first reported case of an ATP-sensitive micro-reentrant atrial tachycardia associated with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura.

  4. Cardiovascular responses to chemical stimulation of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus in the rat: role of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus.

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    Tetsuya Kawabe

    Full Text Available The mechanism of cardiovascular responses to chemical stimulation of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARCN was studied in urethane-anesthetized adult male Wistar rats. At the baseline mean arterial pressure (BLMAP close to normal, ARCN stimulation elicited decreases in MAP and sympathetic nerve activity (SNA. The decreases in MAP elicited by ARCN stimulation were attenuated by either gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA, neuropeptide Y (NPY, or beta-endorphin receptor blockade in the ipsilateral hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN. Combined blockade of GABA-A, NPY1 and opioid receptors in the ipsilateral PVN converted the decreases in MAP and SNA to increases in these variables. Conversion of inhibitory effects on the MAP and SNA to excitatory effects following ARCN stimulation was also observed when the BLMAP was decreased to below normal levels by an infusion of sodium nitroprusside. The pressor and tachycardic responses to ARCN stimulation at below normal BLMAP were attenuated by blockade of melanocortin 3/4 (MC3/4 receptors in the ipsilateral PVN. Unilateral blockade of GABA-A receptors in the ARCN increased the BLMAP and heart rate (HR revealing tonic inhibition of the excitatory neurons in the ARCN. ARCN stimulation elicited tachycardia regardless of the level of BLMAP. ARCN neurons projecting to the PVN were immunoreactive for glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD67, NPY, and beta-endorphin. These results indicated that: 1 at normal BLMAP, decreases in MAP and SNA induced by ARCN stimulation were mediated via GABA-A, NPY1 and opioid receptors in the PVN, 2 lowering of BLMAP converted decreases in MAP following ARCN stimulation to increases in MAP, and 3 at below normal BLMAP, increases in MAP and HR induced by ARCN stimulation were mediated via MC3/4 receptors in the PVN. These results provide a base for future studies to explore the role of ARCN in cardiovascular diseases.

  5. Chronic infusion of lisinopril into hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus modulates cytokines and attenuates oxidative stress in rostral ventrolateral medulla in hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Hong-Bao; Qin, Da-Nian; Ma, Le; Miao, Yu-Wang; Zhang, Dong-Mei; Lu, Yan; Song, Xin-Ai; Zhu, Guo-Qing; Kang, Yu-Ming

    2014-01-01

    The hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) play a critical role in the generation and maintenance of sympathetic nerve activity. The renin–angiotensin system (RAS) in the brain is involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension. This study was designed to determine whether inhibition of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) in the PVN modulates cytokines and attenuates oxidative stress (ROS) in the RVLM, and decreases the blood pressure and sympathetic activity in renovascular hypertensive rats. Renovascular hypertension was induced in male Sprague–Dawley rats by the two-kidney one-clip (2K1C) method. Renovascular hypertensive rats received bilateral PVN infusion with ACE inhibitor lisinopril (LSP, 10 μg/h) or vehicle via osmotic minipump for 4 weeks. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), and plasma proinflammatory cytokines (PICs) were significantly increased in renovascular hypertensive rats. The renovascular hypertensive rats also had higher levels of ACE in the PVN, and lower level of interleukin-10 (IL-10) in the RVLM. In addition, the levels of PICs, the chemokine MCP-1, the subunit of NAD(P)H oxidase (gp91 phox ) and ROS in the RVLM were increased in hypertensive rats. PVN treatment with LSP attenuated those changes occurring in renovascular hypertensive rats. Our findings suggest that the beneficial effects of ACE inhibition in the PVN in renovascular hypertension are partly due to modulation cytokines and attenuation oxidative stress in the RVLM. - Highlights: • Chronic ACE inhibition in PVN on renovascular hypertension was investigated. • 2K1C resulted in sympathoexcitation, increased plasma PICs and hypertension. • 2K1C rats had higher levels of cytokines and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in RVLM. • Chronic inhibiting PVN ACE attenuates cytokines and ROS in RVLM in hypertension

  6. Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART signaling within the paraventricular thalamus modulates cocaine-seeking behaviour.

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    Morgan H James

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART has been demonstrated to play a role in regulating the rewarding and reinforcing effects of various drugs of abuse. A recent study demonstrated that i.c.v. administration of CART negatively modulates reinstatement of alcohol seeking, however, the site(s of action remains unclear. We investigated the paraventricular thalamus (PVT as a potential site of relapse-relevant CART signaling, as this region is known to receive dense innervation from CART-containing hypothalamic cells and to project to a number of regions known to be involved in mediating reinstatement, including the nucleus accumbens (NAC, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC and basolateral amygdala (BLA. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Male rats were trained to self-administer cocaine before being extinguished to a set criterion. One day following extinction, animals received intra-PVT infusions of saline, tetrodotoxin (TTX; 2.5 ng, CART (0.625 µg or 2.5 µg or no injection, followed by a cocaine prime (10 mg/kg, i.p.. Animals were then tested under extinction conditions for one hour. Treatment with either TTX or CART resulted in a significant attenuation of drug-seeking behaviour following cocaine-prime, with the 2.5 µg dose of CART having the greatest effect. This effect was specific to the PVT region, as misplaced injections of both TTX and CART resulted in responding that was identical to controls. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We show for the first time that CART signaling within the PVT acts to inhibit drug-primed reinstatement of cocaine seeking behaviour, presumably by negatively modulating PVT efferents that are important for drug seeking, including the NAC, mPFC and BLA. In this way, we identify a possible target for future pharmacological interventions designed to suppress drug seeking.

  7. Chronic intermittent hypoxia induces NMDA receptor-dependent plasticity and suppresses nitric oxide signaling in the mouse hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Christal G; Wang, Gang; Park, Laibaik; Anrather, Josef; Delagrammatikas, George J; Chan, June; Zhou, Joan; Iadecola, Costantino; Pickel, Virginia M

    2010-09-08

    Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) is a concomitant of sleep apnea that produces a slowly developing chemosensory-dependent blood pressure elevation ascribed in part to NMDA receptor-dependent plasticity and reduced nitric oxide (NO) signaling in the carotid body. The hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) is responsive to hypoxic stress and also contains neurons that express NMDA receptors and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). We tested the hypothesis that extended (35 d) CIH results in a decrease in the surface/synaptic availability of the essential NMDA NR1 subunit in nNOS-containing neurons and NMDA-induced NO production in the PVN of mice. As compared with controls, the 35 d CIH-exposed mice showed a significant increase in blood pressure and an increased density of NR1 immunogold particles located in the cytoplasm of nNOS-containing dendrites. Neither of these between-group differences was seen after 14 d, even though there was already a reduction in the NR1 plasmalemmal density at this time point. Patch-clamp recording of PVN neurons in slices showed a significant reduction in NMDA currents after either 14 or 35 d exposure to CIH compared with sham controls. In contrast, NO production, as measured by the NO-sensitive fluorescent dye 4-amino-5-methylamino-2',7'-difluorofluorescein, was suppressed only in the 35 d CIH group. We conclude that CIH produces a reduction in the surface/synaptic targeting of NR1 in nNOS neurons and decreases NMDA receptor-mediated currents in the PVN before the emergence of hypertension, the development of which may be enabled by suppression of NO signaling in this brain region.

  8. Bone marrow-derived microglia infiltrate into the paraventricular nucleus of chronic psychological stress-loaded mice.

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    Koji Ataka

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Microglia of the central nervous system act as sentinels and rapidly react to infection or inflammation. The pathophysiological role of bone marrow-derived microglia is of particular interest because they affect neurodegenerative disorders and neuropathic pain. The hypothesis of the current study is that chronic psychological stress (chronic PS induces the infiltration of bone marrow-derived microglia into hypothalamus by means of chemokine axes in brain and bone marrow. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Here we show that bone marrow-derived microglia specifically infiltrate the paraventricular nucleus (PVN of mice that received chronic PS. Bone marrow derived-microglia are CX3CR1(lowCCR2(+CXCR4(high, as distinct from CX3CR1(highCCR2(-CXCR4(low resident microglia, and express higher levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β but lower levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α. Chronic PS stimulates the expression of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1 in PVN neurons, reduces stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1 in the bone marrow and increases the frequency of CXCR4(+ monocytes in peripheral circulation. And then a chemokine (C-C motif receptor 2 (CCR2 or a β3-adrenoceptor blockade prevents infiltration of bone marrow-derived microglia in the PVN. CONCLUSION: Chronic PS induces the infiltration of bone marrow-derived microglia into PVN, and it is conceivable that the MCP-1/CCR2 axis in PVN and the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis in bone marrow are involved in this mechanism.

  9. Chronic infusion of lisinopril into hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus modulates cytokines and attenuates oxidative stress in rostral ventrolateral medulla in hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hong-Bao [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China); Qin, Da-Nian, E-mail: dnqin@stu.edu.cn [Department of Physiology, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041 (China); Ma, Le [Department of Public Health, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China); Miao, Yu-Wang [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China); Zhang, Dong-Mei [Department of Physiology, Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116044 (China); Lu, Yan [Department of Clinical Laboratory, Sanaitang Hospital, Lanzhou 730030 (China); Song, Xin-Ai [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China); Zhu, Guo-Qing [Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease and Molecular Intervention, Department of Physiology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Kang, Yu-Ming, E-mail: ykang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China)

    2014-09-01

    The hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) play a critical role in the generation and maintenance of sympathetic nerve activity. The renin–angiotensin system (RAS) in the brain is involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension. This study was designed to determine whether inhibition of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) in the PVN modulates cytokines and attenuates oxidative stress (ROS) in the RVLM, and decreases the blood pressure and sympathetic activity in renovascular hypertensive rats. Renovascular hypertension was induced in male Sprague–Dawley rats by the two-kidney one-clip (2K1C) method. Renovascular hypertensive rats received bilateral PVN infusion with ACE inhibitor lisinopril (LSP, 10 μg/h) or vehicle via osmotic minipump for 4 weeks. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), and plasma proinflammatory cytokines (PICs) were significantly increased in renovascular hypertensive rats. The renovascular hypertensive rats also had higher levels of ACE in the PVN, and lower level of interleukin-10 (IL-10) in the RVLM. In addition, the levels of PICs, the chemokine MCP-1, the subunit of NAD(P)H oxidase (gp91{sup phox}) and ROS in the RVLM were increased in hypertensive rats. PVN treatment with LSP attenuated those changes occurring in renovascular hypertensive rats. Our findings suggest that the beneficial effects of ACE inhibition in the PVN in renovascular hypertension are partly due to modulation cytokines and attenuation oxidative stress in the RVLM. - Highlights: • Chronic ACE inhibition in PVN on renovascular hypertension was investigated. • 2K1C resulted in sympathoexcitation, increased plasma PICs and hypertension. • 2K1C rats had higher levels of cytokines and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in RVLM. • Chronic inhibiting PVN ACE attenuates cytokines and ROS in RVLM in hypertension.

  10. Hypocretin/orexin signaling in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus is essential for the expression of nicotine withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza-Zabala, Ainhoa; Flores, África; Maldonado, Rafael; Berrendero, Fernando

    2012-02-01

    Hypocretin (orexin) signaling is involved in drug addiction. In this study, we investigated the role of these hypothalamic neuropeptides in nicotine withdrawal by using behavioral and neuroanatomical approaches. Nicotine withdrawal syndrome was precipitated by mecamylamine (2 mg/kg, subcutaneous) in C57BL/6J nicotine-dependent mice (25 mg/kg/day for 14 days) pretreated with the hypocretin receptor 1 (Hcrtr-1) antagonist SB334867 (5 and 10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal), the hypocretin receptor 2 antagonist TCSOX229 (5 and 10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal), and in preprohypocretin knockout mice. c-Fos expression was analyzed in several brain areas related to nicotine dependence by immunofluorescence techniques. Retrograde tracing with rhodamine-labeled fluorescent latex microspheres was used to determine whether the hypocretin neurons project directly to the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), and SB334867 was locally administered intra-PVN (10 nmol/side) to test the specific involvement of Hcrtr-1 in this brain area during nicotine withdrawal. Somatic signs of nicotine withdrawal were attenuated in mice pretreated with SB334867 and in preprohypocretin knockout mice. No changes were found in TCSOX229 pretreated animals. Nicotine withdrawal increased the percentage of hypocretin cells expressing c-Fos in the perifornical, dorsomedial, and lateral hypothalamus. In addition, the increased c-Fos expression in the PVN during withdrawal was dependent on hypocretin transmission through Hcrtr-1 activation. Hypocretin neurons directly innervate the PVN and the local infusion of SB334867 into the PVN decreased the expression of nicotine withdrawal. These data demonstrate that hypocretin signaling acting on Hcrtr-1 in the PVN plays a crucial role in the expression of nicotine withdrawal. Copyright © 2012 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Tert-butylhydroquinone attenuates oxidative stress and inflammation in hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus in high salt-induced hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Juan; Yu, Xiao-Jing; Liu, Kai-Li; Wang, Fang-Fang; Li, Hong-Bao; Shi, Xiao-Lian; Zhang, Yan; Huo, Chan-Juan; Li, Xiang; Gao, Hong-Li; Qi, Jie; Liu, Jin-Jun; Zhu, Guo-Qing; Chen, Wen-Sheng; Cui, Wei; Kang, Yu-Ming

    2017-11-05

    Excessive oxidative stress and inflammation in hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) are implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertension. It is reported that tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ), a nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2(Nrf2)-inducer, has a variety of pharmacological activities such as anti-oxidation and anti-inflammatory effect. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of tBHQ in high salt induced hypertension and to identify whether the beneficial effects were induced by inhibiting PVN oxidative stress and inflammation. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with high salt diet (HS, 8% NaCl) or normal salt diet (NS, 0.3% NaCl). These rats were administration of tBHQ (150mg/kg/d) by oral gavage for 16 weeks. Our results showed that high salt intake resulted in higher mean arterial pressure, cardiac hypertrophy as well as increased plasma level of norepinephrine and interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 compared with NS rats. It increased PVN level of reactive oxygen species, gp91 phox , IL-1β, IL-6, p-IKKβ and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activity, decreased PVN level of Nrf2 and Cu/Zn-SOD. Chronic administration of tBHQ significantly attenuated these changes in HS rats. These data suggest that the protective effects of tBHQ in salt induced hypertension are partly due to inhibiting oxidative stress and inflammation in PVN. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Aerobic training normalizes autonomic dysfunction, HMGB1 content, microglia activation and inflammation in hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus of SHR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Gustavo Santos; Nair, Anand R; Silva Soares, Pedro Paulo; Michelini, Lisete Compagno; Francis, Joseph

    2015-10-01

    Exercise training (ExT) is recommended to treat hypertension along with pharmaceutical antihypertensive therapies. Effects of ExT in hypothalamic content of high mobility box 1 (HMGB1) and microglial activation remain unknown. We examined whether ExT would decrease autonomic and cardiovascular abnormalities in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), and whether these effects were associated with decreased HMGB1 content, microglial activation, and inflammation in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats and SHR underwent moderate-intensity ExT for 2 wk. After ExT, cardiovascular (heart rate and arterial pressure) and autonomic parameters (arterial pressure and heart rate variability, peripheral sympathetic activity, cardiac vagal activity, and baroreflex function) were measured in conscious and freely-moving rats through chronic arterial and venous catheterization. Cerebrospinal fluid, plasma, and brain were collected for molecular and immunohistochemistry analyses of the PVN. In addition to reduced heart rate variability, decreased vagal cardiac activity and increased mean arterial pressure, heart rate, arterial pressure variability, cardiac, and vasomotor sympathetic activity, SHR had higher HMGB1 protein expression, IκB-α phosphorylation, TNF-α and IL-6 protein expression, and microglia activation in the PVN. These changes were accompanied by higher plasma and cerebrospinal fluid levels of HMGB1. The ExT + SHR group had decreased expression of HMGB1, CXCR4, SDF-1, and phosphorylation of p42/44 and IκB-α. ExT reduced microglial activation and proinflammatory cytokines content in the PVN, and improved autonomic control as well. Data suggest that training-induced downregulation of activated HMGB1/CXCR4/microglia/proinflammatory cytokines axis in the PVN of SHR is a prompt neural adaptation to counterbalance the deleterious effects of inflammation on autonomic control. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological

  13. Angiotensin type 1a receptors in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus protect against diet-induced obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kloet, Annette D.; Pati, Dipanwita; Wang, Lei; Hiller, Helmut; Sumners, Colin; Frazier, Charles J.; Seeley, Randy J.; Herman, James P.; Woods, Stephen C.; Krause, Eric G.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is associated with increased levels of angiotensin-II (Ang-II), which activates angiotensin type-1a receptors (AT1a) to influence cardiovascular function and energy homeostasis. To test the hypothesis that specific AT1a within the brain control these processes, we utilized the Cre/lox system to delete AT1a from the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) of mice. PVN AT1a deletion did not affect body mass or adiposity when mice were maintained on standard chow. However, maintenance on a high-fat diet revealed a gene by environment interaction whereby mice lacking AT1a in the PVN had increased food intake and decreased energy expenditure that augmented body mass and adiposity relative to controls. Despite this increased adiposity, PVN AT1a deletion reduced systolic blood pressure, suggesting that this receptor population mediates the positive correlation between adiposity and blood pressure. Gene expression studies revealed that PVN AT1a deletion decreased hypothalamic expression of corticotrophin-releasing hormone and oxytocin, neuropeptides known to control food intake and sympathetic nervous system activity. Whole cell patch clamp recordings confirmed that PVN AT1a deletion eliminates responsiveness of PVN parvocellular neurons to Ang-II, and suggest that Ang-II responsiveness is increased in obese wild-type mice. Central inflammation is associated with metabolic and cardiovascular disorders and PVN AT1a deletion reduced indices of hypothalamic inflammation. Collectively, these studies demonstrate that PVN AT1a regulate energy balance during environmental challenges that promote metabolic and cardiovascular pathologies. The implication is that the elevated Ang-II that accompanies obesity serves as a negative feedback signal that activates PVN neurons to alleviate weight gain. PMID:23486953

  14. Angiotensin Type-2 Receptors Influence the Activity of Vasopressin Neurons in the Paraventricular Nucleus of the Hypothalamus in Male Mice.

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    de Kloet, Annette D; Pitra, Soledad; Wang, Lei; Hiller, Helmut; Pioquinto, David J; Smith, Justin A; Sumners, Colin; Stern, Javier E; Krause, Eric G

    2016-08-01

    It is known that angiotensin-II acts at its type-1 receptor to stimulate vasopressin (AVP) secretion, which may contribute to angiotensin-II-induced hypertension. Less well known is the impact of angiotensin type-2 receptor (AT2R) activation on these processes. Studies conducted in a transgenic AT2R enhanced green fluorescent protein reporter mouse revealed that although AT2R are not themselves localized to AVP neurons within the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), they are localized to neurons that extend processes into the PVN. In the present set of studies, we set out to characterize the origin, phenotype, and function of nerve terminals within the PVN that arise from AT2R-enhanced green fluorescent protein-positive neurons and synapse onto AVP neurons. Initial experiments combined genetic and neuroanatomical techniques to determine that γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurons derived from the peri-PVN area containing AT2R make appositions onto AVP neurons within the PVN, thereby positioning AT2R to negatively regulate neuroendocrine secretion. Subsequent patch-clamp electrophysiological experiments revealed that selective activation of AT2R in the peri-PVN area using compound 21 facilitates inhibitory (ie, GABAergic) neurotransmission and leads to reduced activity of AVP neurons within the PVN. Final experiments determined the functional impact of AT2R activation by testing the effects of compound 21 on plasma AVP levels. Collectively, these experiments revealed that AT2R expressing neurons make GABAergic synapses onto AVP neurons that inhibit AVP neuronal activity and suppress baseline systemic AVP levels. These findings have direct implications in the targeting of AT2R for disorders of AVP secretion and also for the alleviation of high blood pressure.

  15. Regulation of motivation for food by neuromedin U in the paraventricular nucleus and the dorsal raphe nucleus.

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    McCue, D L; Kasper, J M; Hommel, J D

    2017-01-01

    Motivation for high-fat food is thought to contribute to excess caloric intake in obese individuals. A novel regulator of motivation for food may be neuromedin U (NMU), a highly-conserved neuropeptide that influences food intake. Although these effects of NMU have primarily been attributed to signaling in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), NMU has also been found in other brain regions involved in both feeding behavior and motivation. We investigate the effects of NMU on motivation for food and food intake, and identify the brain regions mediating these effects. The motivational state for a particular reinforcer (e.g., high-fat food) can be assessed using a progressive-ratio schedule of reinforcement under which an increasing number of lever presses are required to obtain subsequent reinforcers. Here, we have used a progressive-ratio operant responding paradigm in combination with an assessment of cumulative food intake to evaluate the effects of NMU administration in rats, and identify the brain regions mediating these effects. We found that peripheral administration of NMU decreases operant responding for high-fat food in rats. Evaluation of Fos-like immunoreactivity in response to peripheral NMU indicated the PVN and dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) as sites of action for NMU. NMU infusion into either region mimics the effects of peripheral NMU on food intake and operant responding for food. NMU-containing projections from the lateral hypothalamus (LH) to the PVN and DRN were identified as an endogenous source of NMU. These results identify the DRN as a site of action for NMU, demonstrate that the LH provides endogenous NMU to the PVN and DRN and implicate NMU signaling in the PVN and DRN as a novel regulator of motivation for high-fat foods.

  16. Differential co-localization with choline acetyltransferase in nervus terminalis suggests functional differences for GnRH isoforms in bonnethead sharks (Sphyrna tiburo).

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    Moeller, John F; Meredith, Michael

    2010-12-17

    The nervus terminalis (NT) is a vertebrate cranial nerve whose function in adults is unknown. In bonnethead sharks, the nerve is anatomically independent of the olfactory system, with two major cell populations within one or more ganglia along its exposed length. Most cells are immunoreactive for either gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) or RF-amide-like peptides. To define further the cell populations and connectivity, we used double-label immunocytochemistry with antisera to different isoforms of GnRH and to choline acetyltransferase (ChAT). The labeling patterns of two GnRH antisera revealed different populations of GnRH-immunoreactive (ir) cell profiles in the NT ganglion. One antiserum labeled a large group of cells and fibers, which likely contain mammalian GnRH (GnRH-I) as described in previous studies and which were ChAT immunoreactive. The other antiserum labeled large club-like structures, which were anuclear, and a sparse number of fibers, but with no clear labeling of cell bodies in the ganglion. These club structures were choline acetyltrasferase (ChAT)-negative, and preabsorption control tests suggest they may contain chicken-GnRH-II (GnRH-II) or dogfish GnRH. The second major NT ganglion cell-type was immunoreactive for RF-amides, which regulate GnRH release in other vertebrates, and may provide an intraganglionic influence on GnRH release. The immunocytochemical and anatomical differences between the two GnRH-immunoreactive profile types indicate possible functional differences for these isoforms in the NT. The club-like structures may be sites of GnRH release into the general circulation since these structures were observed near blood vessels and resembled structures seen in the median eminence of rats. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Combined effects of dietary fructooligosaccharide and Bacillus licheniformis on innate immunity, antioxidant capability and disease resistance of triangular bream (Megalobrama terminalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chun-Nuan; Li, Xiang-Fei; Xu, Wei-Na; Jiang, Guang-Zhen; Lu, Kang-Le; Wang, Li-Na; Liu, Wen-Bin

    2013-11-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of fructooligosaccharide (FOS) and Bacillus licheniformis (B. licheniformis) and their interaction on innate immunity, antioxidant capability and disease resistance of triangular bream Megalobrama terminalis (average initial weight 30.5 ± 0.5 g). Nine experimental diets were formulated to contain three FOS levels (0, 0.3% and 0.6%) and three B. licheniformis levels (0, 1 × 10(7), 5 × 10(7) CFU g(-1)) according to a 3 × 3 factorial design. At the end of the 8-week feeding trial, fish were challenged by Aeromonas hydrophila (A. hydrophila) and survival rate was recorded for the next 7 days. The results showed that leucocyte counts, alternative complement activity as well as total serum protein and globulin contents all increased significantly (P licheniformis levels increased from 0 to 1 × 10(7) CFU g(-1), while little difference (P > 0.05) was observed in these parameters in terms of dietary FOS levels. Both plasma alkaline phosphatase and phenoloxidase activities were significantly (P 0.05) by both FOS and B. licheniformis. Liver catalase, glutathione peroxidase as well as plasma SOD activities of fish fed 1 × 10(7) CFU g(-1)B. licheniformis were all significantly (P 0.05) by either FOS levels or B. licheniformis contents, whereas a significant (P licheniformis. The results of this study indicated that dietary FOS and B. licheniformis could significantly enhance the innate immunity and antioxidant capability of triangular bream, as well as improve its disease resistance. The best combination of these two prebiotics and/or probiotics was 0.3% FOS and 1 × 10(7) CFU g(-1)B. licheniformis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Sex Differences in Risk Preference and c-Fos Expression in Paraventricular Thalamic Nucleus of Rats During Gambling Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Hironori; Onodera, Mariko; Ohara, Shinya; Tsutsui, Ken-Ichiro; Iijima, Toshio

    2018-01-01

    Different biological requirements between males and females may cause sex differences in decision preference when choosing between taking a risk to get a higher gain or taking a lower but sure gain. Several studies have tested this assumption in rats, however the conclusion remains controversial because the previous real-world like gambling tasks contained a learning component to track a global payoff of probabilistic outcome in addition to risk preference. Therefore, we modified a simple gambling task allowing us to exclude such learning effect, and investigated the sex difference in risk preference of rats and its neural basis. The task required water deprived rats to choose between a risky option which provided four drops of water or no reward at a 50% random chance vs. a sure option which provided predictable amount x (x = 1, 2, 3, 4). The amount and the risk were explicitly instructed so that different choice conditions could be tested trial by trial without re-learning of reward contingency. Although both sexes correctly chose the sure option with the same level of accuracy when the sure option provided the best offer (x = 4), they exhibited different choice performances when two options had the same expected value (x = 2). Males and females both preferred to take risky choices than sure choices (risk seeking), but males were more risk seeking than females. Outcome-history analysis of their choice pattern revealed that females reduced their risk preference after losing risky choices, whereas males did not. Rather, as losses continued, reaction time for subsequent risky choices got shorter in males. Given that significant sex difference features mainly emerged after negative experiences, male and female rats may evaluate an unsuccessful outcome of their decision in different manners. Furthermore, c-Fos expression in the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus (PV) was higher in the gambling task than for the control task in males while c-fos levels did not

  19. Overactivity of Liver-Related Neurons in the Paraventricular Nucleus of the Hypothalamus: Electrophysiological Findings indb/dbMice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hong; Molinas, Adrien J R; Miyata, Kayoko; Qiao, Xin; Zsombok, Andrea

    2017-11-15

    Preautonomic neurons in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus play a large role in the regulation of hepatic functions via the autonomic nervous system. Activation of hepatic sympathetic nerves increases glucose and lipid metabolism and contributes to the elevated hepatic glucose production observed in the type 2 diabetic condition. This augmented sympathetic output could originate from altered activity of liver-related PVN neurons. Remarkably, despite the importance of the brain-liver pathway, the cellular properties of liver-related neurons are not known. In this study, we provide the first evidence of overall activity of liver-related PVN neurons. Liver-related PVN neurons were identified with a retrograde, trans-synaptic, viral tracer in male lean and db/db mice and whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were conducted. In db/db mice, the majority of liver-related PVN neurons fired spontaneously; whereas, in lean mice the majority of liver-related PVN neurons were silent, indicating that liver-related PVN neurons are more active in db/db mice. Persistent, tonic inhibition was identified in liver-related PVN neurons; although, the magnitude of tonic inhibitory control was not different between lean and db/db mice. In addition, our study revealed that the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1-dependent increase of excitatory neurotransmission was reduced in liver-related PVN neurons of db/db mice. These findings demonstrate plasticity of liver-related PVN neurons and a shift toward excitation in a diabetic mouse model. Our study suggests altered autonomic circuits at the level of the PVN, which can contribute to autonomic dysfunction and dysregulation of neural control of hepatic functions including glucose metabolism. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT A growing body of evidence suggests the importance of the autonomic control in the regulation of hepatic metabolism, which plays a major role in the development and progression of type 2 diabetes mellitus

  20. Transient receptor potential channel m4 and m5 in magnocellular cells in rat supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teruyama, R; Sakuraba, M; Kurotaki, H; Armstrong, W E

    2011-12-01

    The neurohypophysial hormones, vasopressin (VP) and oxytocin (OT), are synthesised by magnocellular cells in the supraoptic nucleus (SON) and the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus. The release of VP into the general circulation from the neurohypophysis increases during hyperosmolality, hypotension and hypovolaemia. VP neurones increase hormone release by increasing their firing rate as a result of adopting a phasic bursting. Depolarising after potentials (DAPs) following a series of action potentials are considered to be involved in the generation of the phasic bursts by summating to plateau potentials. We recently discovered a fast DAP (fDAP) in addition to the slower DAP characterised previously. Almost all VP neurones expressed the fDAP, whereas only 16% of OT neurones had this property, which implicates the involvement of fDAP in the generation of the firing patterns in VP neurones. Our findings obtained from electrophysiological experiments suggested that the ionic current underlying the fDAP is mediated by those of two closely-related Ca(2+) -activated cation channels: the melastatin-related subfamily of transient receptor potential channels, TRPM4 and TRPM5. In the present study, double/triple immunofluorescence microscopy and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction techniques were employed to evaluate whether TRPM4 and TRPM5 are specifically located in VP neurones. Using specific antibodies against these channels, TRPM5 immunoreactivity was found almost exclusively in VP neurones, but not in OT neurones in both the SON and PVN. The most prominent TRPM5 immunoreactivity was in the dendrites of VP neurones. By contrast, most TRPM4 immunoreactivity occurred in cell bodies of both VP and OT neurones. TRPM4 and TRPM5 mRNA were both found in a cDNA library derived from SON punches. These results indictate the possible involvement of TRPM5 in the generation of the fDAP, and these channels may play an important role in determining the

  1. Sex-Specific Effects of Stress on Oxytocin Neurons Correspond With Responses to Intranasal Oxytocin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinman, Michael Q; Duque-Wilckens, Natalia; Greenberg, Gian D; Hao, Rebecca; Campi, Katharine L; Laredo, Sarah A; Laman-Maharg, Abigail; Manning, Claire E; Doig, Ian E; Lopez, Eduardo M; Walch, Keenan; Bales, Karen L; Trainor, Brian C

    2016-09-01

    Oxytocin (OT) is considered to be a stress-buffering hormone, dampening the physiologic effects of stress. However, OT can also be anxiogenic. We examined acute and long-lasting effects of social defeat on OT neurons in male and female California mice. We used immunohistochemistry for OT and c-fos cells to examine OT neuron activity immediately after defeat (n = 6-9) and 2 weeks (n = 6-9) and 10 weeks (n = 4-5) later. We quantified Oxt messenger RNA with quantitative polymerase chain reaction (n = 5-9). Intranasal OT was administered to naïve and stressed mice tested in social interaction and resident-intruder tests (n = 8-14). Acute exposure to a third episode of defeat increased OT/c-fos colocalizations in the paraventricular nucleus of both sexes. In the medioventral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, defeat increased Oxt messenger RNA, total OT neurons, and OT/c-fos colocalizations in female mice but not male mice. Intranasal OT failed to reverse stress-induced social withdrawal in female mice and reduced social interaction behavior in female mice naïve to defeat. In contrast, intranasal OT increased social interaction in stressed male mice and reduced freezing in the resident-intruder test. Social defeat induces long-lasting increases in OT production and OT/c-fos cells in the medioventral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis of female mice but not male mice. Intranasal OT largely reversed the effects of stress on behavior in male mice, but effects were mixed in female mice. These results suggest that changes in OT-sensitive networks contribute to sex differences in behavioral responses to stress. Copyright © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A novel model for neuroendocrine toxicology: neurobehavioral effects of BPA exposure in a prosocial species, the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Alana W; Beach, Elsworth C; Stetzik, Lucas A; Perry, Amy; D'Addezio, Alyssa S; Cushing, Bruce S; Patisaul, Heather B

    2014-10-01

    Impacts on brain and behavior have been reported in laboratory rodents after developmental exposure to bisphenol A (BPA), raising concerns about possible human effects. Epidemiological data suggest links between prenatal BPA exposure and altered affective behaviors in children, but potential mechanisms are unclear. Disruption of mesolimbic oxytocin (OT)/vasopressin (AVP) pathways have been proposed, but supporting evidence is minimal. To address these data gaps, we employed a novel animal model for neuroendocrine toxicology: the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster), which are more prosocial than lab rats or mice. Male and female prairie vole pups were orally exposed to 5-μg/kg body weight (bw)/d, 50-μg/kg bw/d, or 50-mg/kg bw/d BPA or vehicle over postnatal days 8-14. Subjects were tested as juveniles in open field and novel social tests and for partner preference as adults. Brains were then collected and assessed for immunoreactive (ir) tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) (a dopamine marker) neurons in the principal bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (pBNST) and TH-ir, OT-ir, and AVP-ir neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN). Female open field activity indicated hyperactivity at the lowest dose and anxiety at the highest dose. Effects on social interactions were also observed, and partner preference formation was mildly inhibited at all dose levels. BPA masculinized principal bed nucleus of the stria terminalis TH-ir neuron numbers in females. Additionally, 50-mg/kg bw BPA-exposed females had more AVP-ir neurons in the anterior PVN and fewer OT-ir neurons in the posterior PVN. At the 2 lowest doses, BPA eliminated sex differences in PVN TH-ir neuron numbers and reversed this sex difference at the highest dose. Minimal behavioral effects were observed in BPA-exposed males. These data support the hypothesis that BPA alters affective behaviors, potentially via disruption of OT/AVP pathways.

  3. Insulin-regulated aminopeptidase immunoreactivity is abundantly present in human hypothalamus and posterior pituitary gland, with reduced expression in paraventricular and suprachiasmatic neurons in chronic schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Hans-Gert; Müller, Susan; Dobrowolny, Hendrik; Wolke, Carmen; Lendeckel, Uwe; Bukowska, Alicja; Keilhoff, Gerburg; Becker, Axel; Trübner, Kurt; Steiner, Johann; Bogerts, Bernhard

    2017-08-01

    The vasopressin- and oxytocin-degrading enzyme insulin-regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP) is expressed in various organs including the brain. However, knowledge about its presence in human hypothalamus is fragmentary. Functionally, for a number of reasons (genetic linkage, hydrolysis of oxytocin and vasopressin, its role as angiotensin IV receptor in learning and memory and others) IRAP might play a role in schizophrenia. We studied the regional and cellular localization of IRAP in normal human brain with special emphasis on the hypothalamus and determined numerical densities of IRAP-expressing cells in the paraventricular, supraoptic and suprachiasmatic nuclei in schizophrenia patients and controls. By using immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis, IRAP was immunolocalized in postmortem human brains. Cell countings were performed to estimate numbers and numerical densities of IRAP immunoreactive hypothalamic neurons in schizophrenia patients and control cases. Shape, size and regional distribution of IRAP-expressing cells, as well the lack of co-localization with the glia marker glutamine synthetase, show that IRAP is expressed in neurons. IRAP immunoreactive cells were observed in the hippocampal formation, cerebral cortex, thalamus, amygdala and, abundantly, hypothalamus. Double labeling experiments (IRAP and oxytocin/neurophysin 1, IRAP with vasopressin/neurophysin 2) revealed that IRAP is present in oxytocinergic and in vasopressinergic neurons. In schizophrenia patients, the numerical density of IRAP-expressing neurons in the paraventricular and the suprachiasmatic nuclei is significantly reduced, which might be associated with the reduction in neurophysin-containing neurons in these nuclei in schizophrenia. The pathophysiological role of lowered hypothalamic IRAP expression in schizophrenia remains to be established.

  4. Angiotensin-(1-7 in Paraventricular Nucleus Contributes to the Enhanced Cardiac Sympathetic Afferent Reflex and Sympathetic Activity in Chronic Heart Failure Rats

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    Xingsheng Ren

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex (CSAR enhancement contributes to exaggerated sympathetic activation in chronic heart failure (CHF. The current study aimed to investigate the roles of angiotensin (Ang-(1-7 in CSAR modulation and sympathetic activation and Ang-(1-7 signaling pathway in paraventricular nucleus of CHF rats. Methods: CHF was induced by coronary artery ligation. Responses of renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA and mean arterial pressure (MAP to epicardial application of capsaicin were used to evaluate CSAR in rats with anesthesia. Results: Ang-(1-7 increased RSNA, MAP, CSAR activity, cAMP level, NAD(PH oxidase activity and superoxide anion level more significantly in CHF than in sham-operated rats, while Mas receptor antagonist A-779 had the opposite effects. Moreover, Ang-(1-7 augmented effects of Ang II in CHF rats. The effects of Ang-(1-7 were blocked by A-779, adenylyl cyclase inhibitor SQ22536, protein kinase A inhibitor Rp-cAMP, superoxide anion scavenger tempol and NAD(PH oxidase inhibitor apocynin. Mas and AT1 receptor protein expressions, Ang-(1-7 and Ang II levels in CHF increased. Conclusions: These results indicate that Ang-(1-7 in paraventricular nucleus enhances CSAR and sympathetic output not only by exerting its own effects but also by augmenting the effects of Ang II through Mas receptor in CHF. Endogenous Ang-(1-7/Mas receptor activity contributes to CSAR enhancement and sympathetic activation in CHF, and NAD(PH oxidase-derived superoxide anions and the cAMP-PKA signaling pathway are involved in mediating the effects of Ang-(1-7 in CHF.

  5. Effect of Endogenous Arginine-Vasopressin Arising from the Paraventricular Nucleus on Learning and Memory Functions in Vascular Dementia Model Rats

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    Chun-Ying Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The hippocampus is a key structure for encoding and processing memory and for spatial orientation, which are among the cognitive functions most sensitive to cerebral ischemia, hypoxia, and vascular dementia (VD. Since hippocampal formation is one of the principle forebrain targets for arginine-vasopressin (AVP innervations arising in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN, we explored the contributions of AVP to VD pathogenesis. To this end, we randomly assigned pathogen-free, male Wistar rats to one of seven groups in a VD model and tested AVP treatment effects on spatial learning and memory using the Morris water maze. We also measured the superoxide dismutase (SOD activity and malondialdehyde (MDA concentration in brain samples and monitored the expression of AVP-positive neurons in the hippocampus by immunohistochemistry. The VD model with repeated cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury evoked impairment of cognitive function and reduced cerebral concentrations of the antioxidation markers. Lesioning the rat PVN showed a similar effect on learning and memory and reduced antioxidation markers in the brain tissue. However, AVP injection into the PVN improved cognitive performance in VD rats, while enhancing/rectifying the changes in antioxidation markers. We conclude that our VD model may decrease AVP secretion in the PVN and subsequently reduce antioxidant capacity in the hippocampus, leading to impaired cognitive function.

  6. Characterization of corticotropin-releasing hormone neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus of Crh-IRES-Cre mutant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamsteeker Cusulin, Jaclyn I; Füzesi, Tamás; Watts, Alan G; Bains, Jaideep S

    2013-01-01

    Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)-containing neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) initiate and control neuroendocrine responses to psychogenic and physical stress. Investigations into the physiology of CRH neurons, however, have been hampered by the lack of tools for adequately targeting or visualizing this cell population. Here we characterize CRH neurons in the PVN of mice that express tdTomato fluorophore, generated by crosses of recently developed Crh-IRES-Cre driver and Ai14 Cre-reporter mouse strains. tdTomato containing PVN neurons in Crh-IRES-Cre;Ai14 mice are readily visualized without secondary-detection methods. These neurons are predominantly neuroendocrine and abundantly express CRH protein, but not other PVN phenotypic neuropeptides. After an acute stress, a large majority of tdTomato cells express neuronal activation marker c-Fos. Finally, tdTomato PVN neurons exhibit homogenous intrinsic biophysical and synaptic properties, and can be optogenetically manipulated by viral Cre-driven expression of channelrhodopsin. These observations highlight basic cell-type characteristics of CRH neurons in a mutant mouse, providing validation for its future use in probing neurophysiology of endocrine stress responses.

  7. Characterization of corticotropin-releasing hormone neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus of Crh-IRES-Cre mutant mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaclyn I Wamsteeker Cusulin

    Full Text Available Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH-containing neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN initiate and control neuroendocrine responses to psychogenic and physical stress. Investigations into the physiology of CRH neurons, however, have been hampered by the lack of tools for adequately targeting or visualizing this cell population. Here we characterize CRH neurons in the PVN of mice that express tdTomato fluorophore, generated by crosses of recently developed Crh-IRES-Cre driver and Ai14 Cre-reporter mouse strains. tdTomato containing PVN neurons in Crh-IRES-Cre;Ai14 mice are readily visualized without secondary-detection methods. These neurons are predominantly neuroendocrine and abundantly express CRH protein, but not other PVN phenotypic neuropeptides. After an acute stress, a large majority of tdTomato cells express neuronal activation marker c-Fos. Finally, tdTomato PVN neurons exhibit homogenous intrinsic biophysical and synaptic properties, and can be optogenetically manipulated by viral Cre-driven expression of channelrhodopsin. These observations highlight basic cell-type characteristics of CRH neurons in a mutant mouse, providing validation for its future use in probing neurophysiology of endocrine stress responses.

  8. Neuromedin U receptor 2 knockdown in the paraventricular nucleus modifies behavioral responses to obesogenic high-fat food and leads to increased body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzon, C R; Johnson, S B; McCue, D L; Li, D; Green, T A; Hommel, J D

    2014-01-31

    Neuromedin U (NMU) is a highly conserved neuropeptide which regulates food intake and body weight. Transgenic mice lacking NMU are hyperphagic and obese, making NMU a novel target for understanding and treating obesity. Neuromedin U receptor 2 (NMUR2) is a high-affinity receptor for NMU found in discrete regions of the central nervous system, in particular the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), where it may be responsible for mediating the anorectic effects of NMU. We hypothesized that selective knock down of NMUR2 in the PVN of rats would increase their sensitivity to the reinforcing properties of food resulting in increased intake and preference for high-fat obesogenic food. To this end, we used viral-mediated RNAi to selectively knock down NMUR2 gene expression in the PVN. In rats fed a standard chow, NMUR2 knockdown produced no significant effect on food intake or body weight. However, when the same rats were fed a high-fat diet (45% fat), they consumed significantly more food, gained more body weight, and had increased feed efficiency relative to controls. Furthermore, NMUR2 knockdown rats demonstrated significantly greater binge-type food consumption of the high-fat diet and showed a greater preference for higher-fat food. These results demonstrate that NMUR2 signaling in the PVN regulates consumption and preference for high-fat foods without disrupting feeding behavior associated with non-obesogenic standard chow. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Hydrogen sulfide in paraventricular nucleus attenuates blood pressure by regulating oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines in high salt-induced hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yan-Feng; Zhang, Dong-Dong; Yu, Xiao-Jing; Gao, Hong-Li; Liu, Kai-Li; Qi, Jie; Li, Hong-Bao; Yi, Qiu-Yue; Chen, Wen-Sheng; Cui, Wei; Zhu, Guo-Qing; Kang, Yu-Ming

    2017-03-15

    Hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) is an important gaseous signaling molecule in neuro-modulation, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-hypertensive effects. The paraventricular nucleus (PVN) is a major integrative nucleus in regulating BP and SNA. The aim of this study is to explore whether endogenous or exogenous H 2 S changed by hydroxylamine hydrochloride (HA) or GYY4137 infused in the PVN affects RSNA and MAP by regulating oxidative stress or the balance between pro-inflammatory cytokines (PICs) and anti-inflammatory cytokines in high salt-induced hypertensive rats. Male Dahl rats were fed by high-salt or normal-salt diet. At the end of the 4th week, GYY4137, HA or vehicle was microinjected into bilateral PVN for 6 weeks. The levels of MAP, HR, plasma norepinephrine (NE), reactive oxygen species (ROS), NOX2, NOX4 and IL-1β were increased significantly in high salt-induced hypertensive rats. Higher levels of these parameters were detected in the group treated by HA, but lower levels in the GYY4137 group. The trends of H 2 S, CBS, IL-10 and Cu/Zn SOD were opposite to the parameters described above. These findings suggest that endogenous or exogenous H 2 S in the PVN attenuates sympathetic activity and hypertensive response, which are partly due to decrease of ROS and PICs within the PVN in high salt-induced hypertension. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Presentation of noise during acute restraint stress attenuates expression of immediate early genes and arginine vasopressin in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus but not corticosterone secretion in rats.

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    Sugimoto, Koji; Ohmomo, Hideki; Shutoh, Fumihiro; Nogami, Haruo; Hisano, Setsuji

    2015-07-01

    The present study investigated the effect of acoustic stimulation on the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in rats submitted to acute restraint stress, through semi-quantitative histochemical analysis of expression of immediate early gene products (c-Fos, JunB and phosphorylated c-Jun) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) hnRNA in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Simultaneous presentation of white or pink noise with restraint resulted in a significant attenuation of stress-induced c-Fos and JunB expression in the dorsal body of dorsal medial parvicellular subdivision (mpdd) of the PVN, as compared with restraint without noise. However, this presentation did not change phosphorylation of c-Jun and the plasma corticosterone level. Moreover, white noise presentation during restraint led to a reduction in the number of c-Fos- or JunB-expressing corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons and the number of neurons expressing AVP hnRNA in the mpdd. Dual-histochemical labeling revealed co-expression of c-Fos and JunB, as well as JunB and AVP hnRNA in mpdd neurons. These data suggest that acoustic stimuli have an attenuation effect on the restraint-induced activation of neuroendocrine CRH neurons, resulting in the reduction in AVP production as an adaptation of HPA axis to repeated stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  11. Cross talk between AT1 receptors and Toll-like receptor 4 in microglia contributes to angiotensin II-derived ROS production in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus.

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    Biancardi, Vinicia Campana; Stranahan, Alexis M; Krause, Eric G; de Kloet, Annette D; Stern, Javier E

    2016-02-01

    ANG II is thought to increase sympathetic outflow by increasing oxidative stress and promoting local inflammation in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus. However, the relative contributions of inflammation and oxidative stress to sympathetic drive remain poorly understood, and the underlying cellular and molecular targets have yet to be examined. ANG II has been shown to enhance Toll-like receptor (TLR)4-mediated signaling on microglia. Thus, in the present study, we aimed to determine whether ANG II-mediated activation of microglial TLR4 signaling is a key molecular target initiating local oxidative stress in the PVN. We found TLR4 and ANG II type 1 (AT1) receptor mRNA expression in hypothalamic microglia, providing molecular evidence for the potential interaction between these two receptors. In hypothalamic slices, ANG II induced microglial activation within the PVN (∼65% increase, P receptors and TLR4 in mediating ANG II-dependent microglial activation and oxidative stress within the PVN. More broadly, our results support a functional interaction between the central renin-angiotensin system and innate immunity in the regulation of neurohumoral outflows from the PVN. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Features of the inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei of hypothalamus in different models of arterial hypertension

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    Yu. M. Kolesnyk

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The regulation of the paraventricular (PVN and supraoptic (SON nuclei’s activity is carried out with a great amount of different neurotransmitters, in particular, with nitric oxide. In order to get clear understanding of the local NO effects in hypothalamus in normal condition and different models of hypertension it is necessary to study all isoforms of NOS in PVN and SON. Our purpose was to find out the features of the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS expression in magnocellular SON and PVN in SHR and endocrine-saline model of hypertension in rats. Materials and methods. For all rats the mean blood pressure (mBP was measured. In Wistar rats mBP was stable during the experiment. In SHR mBP was higher than normal. In animals of the 3rd group with ESM the first measurement (before the modelling demonstrated normal rates of mBP. Since the 7th day of modelling mBP started increase and became steadily increased from the 21st day. We obtained the frontal slices of hypothalamus and performed the assessment of iNOS expression using immunofluorescence assay. The results showed the presence of the constitutive expression of iNOS in the magnocellular neurons of hypothalamus in Wistar rats as well as in both groups of experimental hypertension. The level of iNOS expression in magnocellular nuclei was dependent both on type of hypertension and topography of magnocellular neurons in hypothalamus. In SHR there was high expression of iNOS in PVN and low one in SON, whereas in endocrine-saline model there was high expression in SON and there were no substantial changes of the iNOS expression in PVN. Conclusions. We believe the alteration of iNOS expression in magnocellular nuclei of hypothalamus could participate in development and/or adaptation to hypertension.

  13. L-type calcium channels and MAP kinase contribute to thyrotropin-releasing hormone-induced depolarization in thalamic paraventricular nucleus neurons.

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    Kolaj, Miloslav; Zhang, Li; Renaud, Leo P

    2016-06-01

    In rat paraventricular thalamic nucleus (PVT) neurons, activation of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) receptors enhances neuronal excitability via concurrent decrease in a G protein-coupled inwardly rectifying K (GIRK)-like conductance and opening of a cannabinoid receptor-sensitive transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC)-like conductance. Here, we investigated the calcium (Ca(2+)) contribution to the components of this TRH-induced response. TRH-induced membrane depolarization was reduced in the presence of intracellular BAPTA, also in media containing nominally zero [Ca(2+)]o, suggesting a critical role for both intracellular Ca(2+) release and Ca(2+) influx. TRH-induced inward current was unchanged by T-type Ca(2+) channel blockade, but was decreased by blockade of high-voltage-activated Ca(2+) channels (HVACCs). Both the pharmacologically isolated GIRK-like and the TRPC-like components of the TRH-induced response were decreased by nifedipine and increased by BayK8644, implying Ca(2+) influx via L-type Ca(2+) channels. Only the TRPC-like conductance was reduced by either thapsigargin or dantrolene, suggesting a role for ryanodine receptors and Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release in this component of the TRH-induced response. In pituitary and other cell lines, TRH stimulates MAPK. In PVT neurons, only the GIRK-like component of the TRH-induced current was selectively decreased in the presence of PD98059, a MAPK inhibitor. Collectively, the data imply that TRH-induced depolarization and inward current in PVT neurons involve both a dependency on extracellular Ca(2+) influx via opening of L-type Ca(2+) channels, a sensitivity of a TRPC-like component to intracellular Ca(2+) release via ryanodine channels, and a modulation by MAPK of a GIRK-like conductance component. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Mct8 and trh co-expression throughout the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus is modified by dehydration-induced anorexia in rats.

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    Alvarez-Salas, Elena; Mengod, Guadalupe; García-Luna, Cinthia; Soberanes-Chávez, Paulina; Matamoros-Trejo, Gilberto; de Gortari, Patricia

    2016-04-01

    Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) is a neuropeptide with endocrine and neuromodulatory effects. TRH from the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN) participates in the control of energy homeostasis; as a neuromodulator TRH has anorexigenic effects. Negative energy balance decreases PVN TRH expression and TSH concentration; in contrast, a particular model of anorexia (dehydration) induces in rats a paradoxical increase in TRH expression in hypophysiotropic cells from caudal PVN and high TSH serum levels, despite their apparent hypothalamic hyperthyroidism and low body weight. We compared here the mRNA co-expression pattern of one of the brain thyroid hormones' transporters, the monocarboxylate transporter-8 (MCT8) with that of TRH in PVN subdivisions of dehydration-induced anorexic (DIA) and control rats. Our aim was to identify whether a low MCT8 expression in anorexic rats could contribute to their high TRH mRNA content.We registered daily food intake and body weight of 7-day DIA and control rats and analyzed TRH and MCT8 mRNA co-expression throughout the PVN by double in situ hybridization assays. We found that DIA rats showed increased number of TRHergic cells in caudal PVN, as well as a decreased percentage of TRH-expressing neurons that co-expressed MCT8 mRNA signal. Results suggest that the reduced proportion of double TRH/MCT8 expressing cells may be limiting the entry of hypothalamic triiodothyronine to the greater number of TRH-expressing neurons from caudal PVN and be in part responsible for the high TRH expression in anorexia rats and for the lack of adaptation of their hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis to their low food intake.

  15. Alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone-induced anorexia in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) likely involves the ventromedial hypothalamus and paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus.

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    Lear, Taylor; Liu, Lingbin; O'Donnell, Madison; McConn, Betty R; Denbow, D Michael; Cline, Mark A; Gilbert, Elizabeth R

    2017-10-01

    Alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) reduces food intake in birds and mammals. The objective of this experiment was to determine effects of α-MSH on food and water intake, and hypothalamic c-Fos immunoreactivity and appetite-associated factor mRNA in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), a species that has not undergone the same artificial selection for growth-related traits as the chicken. At 7days post-hatch, 3-h-fasted quail were intracerebroventricularly (ICV) injected into the lateral ventricle with 0 (vehicle), 0.5, 5, or 50pmol of α-MSH and food and water intake were recorded at 30min intervals for 180min. In the second and third experiment, quail were injected with 50pmol α-MSH and hypothalami were collected at 1h to determine c-Fos immunoreactivity and mRNA abundance, respectively. At 30min, quail injected with 5 or 50pmol of α-MSH ate and drank less than vehicle-injected quail. Quail injected with 50pmol ate less for the entire duration of the experiment and drank less than vehicle-injected quail for 120min post-injection. Hypothalamic expression of agouti-related peptide and DOPA decarboxylase were greater in vehicle- than α-MSH-injected quail, whereas melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) mRNA was greater in α-MSH- than vehicle-injected birds. Alpha-MSH injection was associated with more c-Fos immunoreactive cells in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) and paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus. Results suggest that the anorexigenic effect of α-MSH is conserved among avians and that effects in quail are associated with the VMH and PVN and involve MC4R. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. GPR30 is necessary for estradiol-induced desensitization of 5-HT1A receptor signaling in the paraventricular nucleus of the rat hypothalamus.

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    McAllister, C E; Creech, R D; Kimball, P A; Muma, N A; Li, Q

    2012-08-01

    Estrogen therapy used in combination with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment improves SSRI efficacy for the treatment of mood disorders. Desensitization of serotonin 1A (5-HT(1A)) receptors, which takes one to two weeks to develop in animals, is necessary for SSRI therapeutic efficacy. Estradiol modifies 5-HT(1A) receptor signaling and induces a partial desensitization in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the rat within two days, but the mechanisms underlying this effect are currently unknown. The purpose of this study was to identify the estrogen receptor necessary for estradiol-induced 5-HT(1A) receptor desensitization. We previously showed that estrogen receptor β is not necessary for 5-HT(1A) receptor desensitization and that selective activation of estrogen receptor GPR30 mimics the effects of estradiol in rat PVN. Here, we used a recombinant adenovirus containing GPR30 siRNAs to decrease GPR30 expression in the PVN. Reduction of GPR30 prevented estradiol-induced desensitization of 5-HT(1A) receptor as measured by hormonal responses to the selective 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist, (+)8-OH-DPAT. To determine the possible mechanisms underlying these effects, we investigated protein and mRNA levels of 5-HT(1A) receptor signaling components including 5-HT(1A) receptor, Gαz, and RGSz1. We found that two days of estradiol increased protein and mRNA expression of RGSz1, and decreased 5-HT(1A) receptor protein but increased 5-HT(1A) mRNA; GPR30 knockdown prevented the estradiol-induced changes in 5-HT(1A) receptor protein in the PVN. Taken together, these data demonstrate that GPR30 is necessary for estradiol-induced changes in the 5-HT(1A) receptor signaling pathway and desensitization of 5-HT(1A) receptor signaling. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Estradiol-induced desensitization of 5-HT1A receptor signaling in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus is independent of estrogen receptor-beta.

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    Rossi, Dania V; Dai, Ying; Thomas, Peter; Carrasco, Gonzalo A; DonCarlos, Lydia L; Muma, Nancy A; Li, Qian

    2010-08-01

    Estradiol regulates serotonin 1A (5-HT(1A)) receptor signaling. Since desensitization of 5-HT(1A) receptors may be an underlying mechanism by which selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) mediate their therapeutic effects and combining estradiol with SSRIs enhances the efficacy of the SSRIs, it is important to determine which estrogen receptors are capable of desensitizating 5-HT(1A) receptor function. We previously demonstrated that selective activation of the estrogen receptor, GPR30, desensitizes 5-HT(1A) receptor signaling in rat hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). However, since estrogen receptor-beta (ERbeta), is highly expressed in the PVN, we investigated the role of ERbeta in estradiol-induced desensitization of 5-HT(1A) receptor signaling. We first showed that a selective ERbeta agonist, diarylpropionitrile (DPN) has a 100-fold lower binding affinity than estradiol for GPR30. Administration of DPN did not desensitize 5-HT(1A) receptor signaling in rat PVN as demonstrated by agonist-stimulated hormone release. Second, we used a recombinant adenovirus containing ERbeta siRNAs to decrease ERbeta expression in the PVN. Reductions in ERbeta did not alter the estradiol-induced desensitization of 5-HT(1A) receptor signaling in oxytocin cells. In contrast, in animals with reduced ERbeta, estradiol administration, instead of producing desensitization, augmented the ACTH response to a 5-HT(1A) agonist. Combined with the results from the DPN treatment experiments, desensitization of 5-HT(1A) receptor signaling does not appear to be mediated by ERbeta in oxytocin cells, but that ERbeta, together with GPR30, may play a complex role in central regulation of 5-HT(1A)-mediated ACTH release. Determining the mechanisms by which estrogens induce desensitization may aid in the development of better treatments for mood disorders. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Stress-induced suppression of neuropeptide Y-induced hunger in anorexic chicks involves corticotrophin-releasing factor signalling and the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J; Yi, J; Siegel, P B; Cline, M A; Gilbert, E R

    2017-12-01

    The Virginia lines of chickens have been selected for low (LWS) or high (HWS) juvenile body weight and have different severities of anorexia and obesity, respectively. The LWS that are exposed to stressors at hatch are refractory to neuropeptide Y (NPY)-induced food intake and the objective of the present study was to determine the underlying mechanisms. Chicks were exposed to a stressor (-20°C for 6 minutes and 22°C and delayed access to food for 24 hours) after hatching and the hypothalamic nuclei, including the lateral hypothalamus (LH), paraventricular nucleus (PVN), ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) and arcuate nucleus (ARC), were collected 5 days later. In LWS but not HWS, stress exposure up-regulated corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF), CRF receptor subtypes 1 and 2 (CRFR1 and CRFR2, respectively), melanocortin receptor 4 and urocortin 3 in the PVN, as well as CRFR2 mRNA in the VMH and ARC. In LWS, stress exposure was also associated with greater NPY and NPY receptor subtype 5 mRNA in the ARC and PVN, respectively, as well as decreased agouti-related peptide mRNA in the ARC. In HWS, stress exposure was associated with increased CRFR1 and decreased cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript in the ARC and PVN, respectively. Refractoriness of the food intake response to NPY in LWS may thus result from the over-riding anorexigenic tone in the PVN associated with CRF signalling. Indeed, the orexigenic effect of NPY was restored when LWS were injected with a CRF receptor antagonist, astressin, before stress exposure. The results of the present study provide insights into the molecular basis of eating disorders and suggest that CRF signalling in the PVN may exacerbate the anorexic phenotype in the presence of environmental stressors. © 2017 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  19. Automated pipeline to analyze non-contact infrared images of the paraventricular nucleus specific leptin receptor knock-out mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz Martinez, Myriam; Ghamari-Langroudi, Masoud; Gifford, Aliya; Cone, Roger; Welch, E. B.

    2015-03-01

    Evidence of leptin resistance is indicated by elevated leptin levels together with other hallmarks of obesity such as a defect in energy homeostasis.1 As obesity is an increasing epidemic in the US, the investigation of mechanisms by which leptin resistance has a pathophysiological impact on energy is an intensive field of research.2 However, the manner in which leptin resistance contributes to the dysregulation of energy, specifically thermoregulation,3 is not known. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the leptin receptor expressed in paraventricular nucleus (PVN) neurons plays a role in thermoregulation at different temperatures. Non-contact infrared (NCIR) thermometry was employed to measure surface body temperature (SBT) of nonanesthetized mice with a specific deletion of the leptin receptor in the PVN after exposure to room (25 °C) and cold (4 °C) temperature. Dorsal side infrared images of wild type (LepRwtwt/sim1-Cre), heterozygous (LepRfloxwt/sim1-Cre) and knock-out (LepRfloxflox/sim1-Cre) mice were collected. Images were input to an automated post-processing pipeline developed in MATLAB to calculate average and maximum SBTs. Linear regression was used to evaluate the relationship between sex, cold exposure and leptin genotype with SBT measurements. Findings indicate that average SBT has a negative relationship to the LepRfloxflox/sim1-Cre genotype, the female sex and cold exposure. However, max SBT is affected by the LepRfloxflox/sim1-Cre genotype and the female sex. In conclusion this data suggests that leptin within the PVN may have a neuroendocrine role in thermoregulation and that NCIR thermometry combined with an automated imaging-processing pipeline is a promising approach to determine SBT in non-anesthetized mice.

  20. Chronic infusion of epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate into the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus attenuates hypertension and sympathoexcitation by restoring neurotransmitters and cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Qiu-Yue; Li, Hong-Bao; Qi, Jie; Yu, Xiao-Jing; Huo, Chan-Juan; Li, Xiang; Bai, Juan; Gao, Hong-Li; Kou, Bo; Liu, Kai-Li; Zhang, Dong-Dong; Chen, Wen-Sheng; Cui, Wei; Zhu, Guo-Qing; Shi, Xiao-Lian; Kang, Yu-Ming

    2016-11-16

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the brain are involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension. Epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG), one of the active compounds in green tea, has anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and vascular protective properties. This study was designed to determine whether chronic infusion of EGCG into the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) attenuates ROS and sympathetic activity and delays the progression of hypertension by up-regulating anti-inflammatory cytokines, reducing pro-inflammatory cytokines (PICs) and decreasing nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activity, as well as restoring the neurotransmitters balance in the PVN of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Adult normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats and SHR received bilateral PVN infusion of EGCG (20μg/h) or vehicle via osmotic minipumps for 4 weeks. SHR showed higher mean arterial pressure, plasma proinflammatory cytokines and circulating norepinephrine (NE) levels compared with WKY rats. SHR also had higher PVN levels of the subunit of NAD(P)H oxidase (gp91 phox ), ROS, tyrosine hydroxylase, and PICs; increased NF-κB activity; and lower PVN levels of interleukin-10 (IL-10) and 67kDa isoform of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD67) than WKY rats. PVN infusion of EGCG attenuated all these changes in SHR. These findings suggest that SHR have an imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters, as well as an imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the PVN. Chronic inhibition of ROS in the PVN restores the balance of neurotransmitters and cytokines in the PVN, thereby attenuating hypertensive response and sympathetic activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Orexin-A/Hypocretin-1 Mediates Cocaine-Seeking Behavior in the Posterior Paraventricular Nucleus of the Thalamus via Orexin/Hypocretin Receptor-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzeu, Alessandra; Kerr, Tony M; Weiss, Friedbert; Martin-Fardon, Rémi

    2016-11-01

    Orexin/hypocretin (Orx/Hcrt) projections from the lateral hypothalamus to the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus (PVT) are implicated in drug addiction. Specifically, the posterior section of the PVT (pPVT) innervates brain structures that modulate motivated behavior. This study investigated the role of pPVT-Orx/Hcrt transmission in cocaine-seeking behavior. Because the effects of Orx/Hcrt are mediated by two Orx/Hcrt receptors (Hcrt-r1 and Hcrt-r2), we examined the extent to which Hcrt-r1 and Hcrt-r2 are involved in Orx/Hcrt-induced cocaine seeking. Male Wistar rats were made cocaine dependent by self-administering cocaine 6 hours/day (long access) for 21 days. After self-administration training, the rats underwent daily extinction training, during which cocaine was withheld. After extinction, the rats were injected into the pPVT with Orx-A/Hcrt-1 (0-2 µg) alone or, using a single dose of 0.5 µg, in combination with an Hcrt-r1 antagonist (SB334867; 0-15 µg) or an Hcrt-r2 antagonist (TCSOX229; 0-15 µg). Orx-A/Hcrt-1 alone reinstated (primed) cocaine seeking. Unexpectedly, coadministration of Orx-A/Hcrt-1 with SB334867 did not have any effects on Orx-A/Hcrt-1-induced reinstatement, whereas when coadministered with Orx-A/Hcrt-1, TCSOX229 prevented cocaine-seeking behavior. These results indicate that Hcrt-r2 in the pPVT mediates the reinstating effect of Orx-A/Hcrt-1 in animals with a history of cocaine dependence and further identify Hcrt-r2 as a possible molecular target that can guide future therapeutic approaches for the prevention of drug-seeking behavior. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  2. Central mechanism of the cardiovascular responses caused by L-proline microinjected into the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus in unanesthetized rats.

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    Lopes-Azevedo, Silvana; Busnardo, Cristiane; Corrêa, Fernando Morgan Aguiar

    2016-12-01

    Previously, we reported that microinjection of L-proline (L-Pro) into the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) caused vasopressin-mediated pressor responses in unanesthetized rats. In the present study, we report on the central mechanisms involved in the mediation of the cardiovascular effects caused by the microinjection of L-Pro into the PVN. Microinjection of increasing doses of L-Pro (3-100nmol/100nL) into the PVN caused dose-related pressor and bradycardic responses. No cardiovascular responses were observed after the microinjection of equimolar doses (33nmol/100nL) of its isomer D-Proline (D-Pro) or Mannitol. The PVN pretreatment with either a selective non-NMDA (NBQX) or selective NMDA (LY235959 or DL-AP7) glutamate receptor antagonists blocked the cardiovascular response to L-Pro (33nmol/100nL). The dose-effect curve for the pretreatment with increasing doses of LY235959 was located at the left in relation to the curves for NBQX and DL-AP7, showing that LY235959 is more potent than NBQX, which is more potent than DL-AP7 in inhibiting the cardiovascular response to L-Pro. The cardiovascular response to the microinjection of L-Pro into the PVN was not affected by local pretreatment with N ω -Propyl-l-arginine (N-Propyl), a selective inhibitor of the neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), suggesting that NO does not mediate the responses to L-Pro in the PVN. In conclusion, the results suggest that ionotropic receptors in the PVN, blocked by both NMDA and non-NMDA receptor antagonists, mediate the pressor response to L-Pro that results from activation of PVN vasopressinergic magnocellular neurons and vasopressin release into the systemic circulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Adrenal-dependent and -independent stress-induced Per1 mRNA in hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and prefrontal cortex of male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Lauren E; Christensen, Jenny; Woodruff, Elizabeth R; Morton, Sarah J; Hinds, Laura R; Spencer, Robert L

    2018-01-01

    Oscillating clock gene expression gives rise to a molecular clock that is present not only in the body's master circadian pacemaker, the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), but also in extra-SCN brain regions. These extra-SCN molecular clocks depend on the SCN for entrainment to a light:dark cycle. The SCN has limited neural efferents, so it may entrain extra-SCN molecular clocks through its well-established circadian control of glucocorticoid hormone secretion. Glucocorticoids can regulate the normal rhythmic expression of clock genes in some extra-SCN tissues. Untimely stress-induced glucocorticoid secretion may compromise extra-SCN molecular clock function. We examined whether acute restraint stress during the rat's inactive phase can rapidly (within 30 min) alter clock gene (Per1, Per2, Bmal1) and cFos mRNA (in situ hybridization) in the SCN, hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), and prefrontal cortex (PFC) of male and female rats (6 rats per treatment group). Restraint stress increased Per1 and cFos mRNA in the PVN and PFC of both sexes. Stress also increased cFos mRNA in the SCN of male rats, but not when subsequently tested during their active phase. We also examined in male rats whether endogenous glucocorticoids are necessary for stress-induced Per1 mRNA (6-7 rats per treatment group). Adrenalectomy attenuated stress-induced Per1 mRNA in the PVN and ventral orbital cortex, but not in the medial PFC. These data indicate that increased Per1 mRNA may be a means by which extra-SCN molecular clocks adapt to environmental stimuli (e.g. stress), and in the PFC this effect is largely independent of glucocorticoids.

  4. Gene expression profiling in the stress control brain region hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus reveals a novel gene network including Amyloid beta Precursor Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deussing Jan M

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pivotal role of stress in the precipitation of psychiatric diseases such as depression is generally accepted. This study aims at the identification of genes that are directly or indirectly responding to stress. Inbred mouse strains that had been evidenced to differ in their stress response as well as in their response to antidepressant treatment were chosen for RNA profiling after stress exposure. Gene expression and regulation was determined by microarray analyses and further evaluated by bioinformatics tools including pathway and cluster analyses. Results Forced swimming as acute stressor was applied to C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice and resulted in sets of regulated genes in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN, 4 h or 8 h after stress. Although the expression changes between the mouse strains were quite different, they unfolded in phases over time in both strains. Our search for connections between the regulated genes resulted in potential novel signalling pathways in stress. In particular, Guanine nucleotide binding protein, alpha inhibiting 2 (GNAi2 and Amyloid β (A4 precursor protein (APP were detected as stress-regulated genes, and together with other genes, seem to be integrated into stress-responsive pathways and gene networks in the PVN. Conclusions This search for stress-regulated genes in the PVN revealed its impact on interesting genes (GNAi2 and APP and a novel gene network. In particular the expression of APP in the PVN that is governing stress hormone balance, is of great interest. The reported neuroprotective role of this molecule in the CNS supports the idea that a short acute stress can elicit positive adaptational effects in the brain.

  5. Long-Term Over-Expression of Neuropeptide Y in Hypothalamic Paraventricular Nucleus Contributes to Adipose Tissue Insulin Resistance Partly via the Y5 Receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Long

    Full Text Available Intracerebroventricular injection and overexpression of Neuropeptide Y (NPY in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN has been shown to induce obesity and glucose metabolism disorder in rodents; however, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism contributing to glucose metabolic disturbance induced by NPY. Recombinant lentiviral NPY vectors were injected into the PVN of rats fed a high fat (HFD or low-fat diet. 8 weeks later, in vivo intravenous glucose tolerance tests and euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp revealed that insulin resistance of adipose tissue were induced by NPY overexpression with or without HFD. NPY increased food intake, but did not change blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c or lipid levels. However, NPY decreased the expression of pGSK3β, PI3K p85 and pAKTSer473 in adipose tissue of rats. In vitro, 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with NPY, NPY Y1 and Y5 receptor antagonists. Glucose consumption and 2-deoxy-D-[3H] glucose uptake were partly inhibited by NPY, while a decrease in PI3K-AKT pathway signaling and a decreased expression of pGSK3α and pGSK3β were observed. Nevertheless, a Y5 receptor antagonist (L-152,804 reversed the effects of NPY on glucose uptake and consumption. These data suggest that long-term over-expression of NPY in PVN contributes to the establishment of adipose tissue insulin resistance, at least partly via the Y5 Receptor.

  6. ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PARAVENTRICULAR THALAMIC (PVT NEURONS IN RESPONSE TO CHRONIC COCAINE EXPOSURE: EFFECTS OF COCAINE- AND AMPHETAMINE-REGULATED TRANSCRIPT (CART

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    Jiann Wei eYeoh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent work has established that the paraventricular thalamus (PVT is a central node in the brain reward-seeking pathway. This role is likely mediated in part through the dense projections to the PVT from hypothalamic peptide transmitter systems such as orexin, and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART, both of which play key roles in drug-seeking behaviour. Consistent with this proposition, we previously found that inactivation of the PVT or infusions of CART into the PVT suppressed drug-seeking behaviour in an animal model of contingent cocaine self-administration. Despite this work, very few studies have assessed the basic physiological properties of PVT neurons and how these parameters are altered by exposure to drugs such as cocaine. We set out to address these questions by employing an electrophysiological approach to record from anterior PVT (aPVT neurons from cocaine-treated and control animals. First, we determined the excitability of aPVT neurons by injecting a series of depolarizing current steps and characterizing the resulting action potential (AP discharge properties. Second, we investigated the effects of CART on excitatory synaptic inputs to aPVT neurons. We found that the majority of aPVT neurons exhibited tonic firing (TF, and initial bursting (IB consistent with previous studies. However, we also identified PVT neurons that exhibited delayed firing (DF, single spiking (SS and reluctant firing (RF. Interestingly, cocaine exposure shifted the proportion of aPVT neurons that exhibited TF. Further, application of CART suppressed excitatory synaptic drive to PVT. This finding is consistent with our previous behavioural data, which showed that CART signaling in the PVT negatively regulates drug-seeking behaviour. Together, these studies support previous anatomical evidence that the PVT can integrate reward-relevant information and provides a putative mechanism through which drugs of abuse can dysregulate this system in

  7. Defense of Elevated Body Weight Setpoint in Diet-Induced Obese Rats on Low Energy Diet Is Mediated by Loss of Melanocortin Sensitivity in the Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus

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    Luchtman, Dirk W.; Chee, Melissa J. S.; Doslikova, Barbora; Marks, Daniel L.; Baracos, Vickie E.; Colmers, William F.

    2015-01-01

    Some animals and humans fed a high-energy diet (HED) are diet-resistant (DR), remaining as lean as individuals who were naïve to HED. Other individuals become obese during HED exposure and subsequently defend the obese weight (Diet-Induced Obesity- Defenders, DIO-D) even when subsequently maintained on a low-energy diet. We hypothesized that the body weight setpoint of the DIO-D phenotype resides in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), where anorexigenic melanocortins, including melanotan II (MTII), increase presynaptic GABA release, and the orexigenic neuropeptide Y (NPY) inhibits it. After prolonged return to low-energy diet, GABA inputs to PVN neurons from DIO-D rats exhibited highly attenuated responses to MTII compared with those from DR and HED-naïve rats. In DIO-D rats, melanocortin-4 receptor expression was significantly reduced in dorsomedial hypothalamus, a major source of GABA input to PVN. Unlike melanocortin responses, NPY actions in PVN of DIO-D rats were unchanged, but were reduced in neurons of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus; in PVN of DR rats, NPY responses were paradoxically increased. MTII-sensitivity was restored in DIO-D rats by several weeks’ refeeding with HED. The loss of melanocortin sensitivity restricted to PVN of DIO-D animals, and its restoration upon prolonged refeeding with HED suggest that their melanocortin systems retain the ability to up- and downregulate around their elevated body weight setpoint in response to longer-term changes in dietary energy density. These properties are consistent with a mechanism of body weight setpoint. PMID:26444289

  8. Blood-borne interleukin-1β acts on the subfornical organ to upregulate the sympathoexcitatory milieu of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shun-Guang; Yu, Yang; Felder, Robert B

    2018-03-01

    We previously reported that microinjection of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) into the subfornical organ (SFO) elicits a pressor response accompanied by increases in inflammation and renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activity in the SFO and hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). The present study sought to determine whether blood-borne IL-1β induces similar neurochemical changes in the SFO and PVN and, if so, whether increased inflammation and RAS activity at the SFO level orchestrate the sympathoexcitatory response to circulating IL-1β. In urethane-anesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats, intravenous injection of IL-1β (500 ng) increased blood pressure, heart rate, renal sympathetic nerve activity, and mRNA for angiotensin-converting enzyme, angiotensin II type 1a receptor, cyclooxygenase-2, tumor necrosis factor-α, and IL-1β, as well as the tumor necrosis factor-α p55 receptor and the IL-1 receptor, in the SFO and PVN. Pretreatment with SFO microinjections of the angiotensin II type 1a receptor blocker losartan (1 µg), the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor captopril (1 µg), or the cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor NS-398 (2 µg) attenuated expression of these excitatory mediators in the SFO and downstream in the PVN and the IL-1β-induced pressor responses. An SFO lesion minimized the IL-1β-induced expression of inflammatory and RAS components as well as c-Fos, an indicator of neuronal excitation, in the PVN. These studies demonstrate that circulating IL-1β, which increases in cardiovascular disorders such as hypertension and heart failure, acts on the SFO to increase inflammation and RAS activity in the SFO and PVN and that intervening in these neurochemical processes in the SFO can significantly reduce the sympathetic response.

  9. Angiotensin type 1a receptors in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus control cardiovascular reactivity and anxiety-like behavior in male mice.

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    Wang, Lei; Hiller, Helmut; Smith, Justin A; de Kloet, Annette D; Krause, Eric G

    2016-09-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that deletion of angiotensin type 1a receptors (AT1a) from the paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus (PVN) attenuates anxiety-like behavior, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, and cardiovascular reactivity. We used the Cre/LoxP system to generate male mice with AT1a specifically deleted from the PVN. Deletion of the AT1a from the PVN reduced anxiety-like behavior as indicated by increased time spent in the open arms of the elevated plus maze. In contrast, PVN AT1a deletion had no effect on HPA axis activation subsequent to an acute restraint challenge but did reduce hypothalamic mRNA expression for corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH). To determine whether PVN AT1a deletion inhibits cardiovascular reactivity, we measured systolic blood pressure, heart rate, and heart rate variability (HRV) using telemetry and found that PVN AT1a deletion attenuated restraint-induced elevations in systolic blood pressure and elicited changes in HRV indicative of reduced sympathetic nervous activity. Consistent with the decreased HRV, PVN AT1a deletion also decreased adrenal weight, suggestive of decreased adrenal sympathetic outflow. Interestingly, the altered stress responsivity of mice with AT1a deleted from the PVN was associated with decreased hypothalamic microglia and proinflammatory cytokine expression. Collectively, these results suggest that deletion of AT1a from the PVN attenuates anxiety, CRH gene transcription, and cardiovascular reactivity and reduced brain inflammation may contribute to these effects. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Effect of acupuncture on adrenocortical hormone production in rabbits with a central lesion

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    Liao, Y.Y.; Seto, K.; Saitoh, H.; Kawakami, M.

    A study was made of adrenocortical hormone production under electroacupuncture stimulation of the Tsu-San-Li locus in rabbits with a lesion in the fornix, stria terminalis, ventromedial nucleus or arcuate nucleus. In rabbits with a lesion in the stria terminalis or ventromedial nucleus, electroacupuncture stimulation of Tsu-San-Li resulted in no increase in phase 1 but an increase in phase 2 of adrenocortical hormone production. In rabbits with a lesion in the fornix or arcuate nucleus electroacupuncture stimulation of Tsu-San-Li was followed by increased adrenocortical hormone production in the both phases. These results show that the stria terminalis and the ventromedial nucleus play a major role in the augmentation of adrenocortical hormone production by electroacupuncture stimulation of Tsu-San-Li.

  11. Behavioural and biochemical evidence for interactions between Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and nicotine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valjent, Emmanuel; Mitchell, Jennifer M; Besson, Marie-Jo; Caboche, Jocelyne; Maldonado, Rafael

    2002-01-01

    Behavioural and pharmacological effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and nicotine are well known. However, the possible interactions between these two drugs of abuse remain unclear in spite of the current association of cannabis and tobacco in humans. The present study was designed to analyse the consequences of nicotine administration on THC-induced acute behavioural and biochemical responses, tolerance and physical dependence. Nicotine strongly facilitated hypothermia, antinociception and hypolocomotion induced by the acute administration of THC. Furthermore, the co-administration of sub-threshold doses of THC and nicotine produced an anxiolytic-like response in the light–dark box and in the open-field test as well as a significant conditioned place preference. Animals co-treated with nicotine and THC displayed an attenuation in THC tolerance and an enhancement in the somatic expression of cannabinoid antagonist-precipitated THC withdrawal. THC and nicotine administration induced c-Fos expression in several brain structures. Co-administration of both compounds enhanced c-Fos expression in the shell of the nucleus accumbens, central and basolateral nucleus of the amygdala, dorso-lateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, cingular and piriform cortex, and paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. These results clearly demonstrate the existence of a functional interaction between THC and nicotine. The facilitation of THC-induced acute pharmacological and biochemical responses, tolerance and physical dependence by nicotine could play an important role in the development of addictive processes. PMID:11815392

  12. Physical interaction is not necessary for the induction of housing-type social buffering of conditioned hyperthermia in male rats.

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    Kiyokawa, Yasushi; Kodama, Yuka; Takeuchi, Yukari; Mori, Yuji

    2013-11-01

    In social animals, housing with conspecific animals after a stressful event attenuates the subsequent adverse outcomes due to the event, and this has been called housing-type social buffering. We have previously found that housing-type social buffering attenuates the enhancement of hyperthermia and Fos expression in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus that occurs in response to an aversive conditioned stimulus in male rats. Here, we analyzed the role of physical interactions during social housing in the induction of housing-type social buffering. When a fear-conditioned subject was alone after the conditioning and then exposed to the conditioned stimulus, it showed behavioral, autonomic, and neural stress responses. However, social housing, during which physical interactions were prevented by wire mesh, attenuated these autonomic and neural stress responses, as has been seen in previous studies. These results suggested that physical interaction was not necessary for the induction of housing-type social buffering. With this social cohabitation model, we then found that social cohabitation increased Fos expression in the posterior complex of the anterior olfactory nucleus of the fear-conditioned subject. Social cohabitation also increased Fos expression in 11 brain regions, including the prefrontal cortex, the nucleus accumbens, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and the medial, lateral, basal, and cortical amygdala. These results provide information about the neural mechanisms that induce housing-type social buffering. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Mapping the co-localization of the circadian proteins PER2 and BMAL1 with enkephalin and substance P throughout the rodent forebrain.

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    Ariana Frederick

    Full Text Available Despite rhythmic expression of clock genes being found throughout the central nervous system, very little is known about their function outside of the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Determining the pattern of clock gene expression across neuronal subpopulations is a key step in understanding their regulation and how they may influence the functions of various brain structures. Using immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy, we quantified the co-expression of the clock proteins BMAL1 and PER2 with two neuropeptides, Substance P (SubP and Enkephalin (Enk, expressed in distinct neuronal populations throughout the forebrain. Regions examined included the limbic forebrain (dorsal striatum, nucleus accumbens, amygdala, stria terminalis, thalamus medial habenula of the thalamus, paraventricular nucleus and arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus and the olfactory bulb. In most regions examined, BMAL1 was homogeneously expressed in nearly all neurons (~90%, and PER2 was expressed in a slightly lower proportion of cells. There was no specific correlation to SubP- or Enk- expressing subpopulations. The olfactory bulb was unique in that PER2 and BMAL1 were expressed in a much smaller percentage of cells, and Enk was rarely found in the same cells that expressed the clock proteins (SubP was undetectable. These results indicate that clock genes are not unique to specific cell types, and further studies will be required to determine the factors that contribute to the regulation of clock gene expression throughout the brain.

  14. The hypothalamic neuropeptide FF network is impaired in hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncharuk, Valeri D; Buijs, Ruud M; Jhamandas, Jack H; Swaab, Dick F

    2014-07-01

    The human hypothalamus contains the neuropeptide FF (NPFF) neurochemical network. Animal experiments demonstrated that NPFF is implicated in the central cardiovascular regulation. We therefore studied expression of this peptide in the hypothalamus of individuals who suffered from essential hypertension (n = 8) and died suddenly due to acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and compared to that of healthy individuals (controls) (n = 6) who died abruptly due to mechanical trauma of the chest. The frozen right part of the hypothalamus was cut coronally into serial sections of 20 μm thickness, and each tenth section was stained immunohistochemically using antibody against NPFF. The central section through each hypothalamic nucleus was characterized by the highest intensity of NPFF immunostaining and thus was chosen for quantitative densitometry. In hypertensive patients, the area occupied by NPFF immunostained neuronal elements in the central sections through the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCh), paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (Pa), bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST), perinuclear zone (PNZ) of the supraoptic nucleus (SON), dorso- (DMH), ventromedial (VMH) nuclei, and perifornical nucleus (PeF) was dramatically decreased compared to controls, ranging about six times less in the VMH to 15 times less in the central part of the BST (BSTC). The NPFF innervation of both nonstained neuronal profiles and microvasculature was extremely poor in hypertensive patients compared to control. The decreased NPFF expression in the hypothalamus of hypertensive patients might be a cause of impairment of its interaction with other neurochemical systems, and thereby might be involved in the pathogenesis of the disease.

  15. Differential visualization of dopamine and norepinephrine uptake sites in rat brain using [3H]mazindol autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javitch, J.A.; Strittmatter, S.M.; Snyder, S.H.

    1985-01-01

    Mazindol is a potent inhibitor of neuronal dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) uptake. DA and NE uptake sites in rat brain have been differentially visualized using [ 3 H]mazindol autoradiography. At appropriate concentrations, desipramine (DMI) selectively inhibits [ 3 H]mazindol binding to NE uptake sites without significantly affecting binding to DA uptake sites. The localization of DMI-insensitive specific [ 3 H] mazindol binding, reflecting DA uptake sites, is densest in the caudate-putamen, the nucleus accumbens, the olfactory tubercle, the subthalamic nucleus, the ventral tegmental area, the substantia nigra (SN) pars compacta, and the anterior olfactory nuclei. In contrast, the localization of DMI-sensitive specific [ 3 H]mazindol binding, representing NE uptake sites, is densest in the locus coeruleus, the nucleus of the solitary tract, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the paraventricular and periventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus, and the anteroventral thalamus. The distribution of DMI-insensitive specific [ 3 H]mazindol binding closely parallels that of dopaminergic terminal and somatodendritic regions, while the distribution of DMI-sensitive specific [ 3 H]mazindol binding correlates well with the regional localization of noradrenergic terminals and cell bodies. Injection of 6-hydroxydopamine, ibotenic acid, or colchicine into the SN decreases [ 3 H]mazindol binding to DA uptake sites in the ipsilateral caudate-putamen by 85%. In contrast, ibotenic acid lesions of the caudate-putamen do not reduce [ 3 H]mazindol binding to either the ipsilateral or contralateral caudate-putamen

  16. Personality is Tightly Coupled to Vasopressin-Oxytocin Neuron Activity in a Gregarious Finch

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    Aubrey M Kelly

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Nonapeptides of the vasopressin-oxytocin family modulate social processes differentially in relation to sex, species, behavioral phenotype, and human personality. However, the mechanistic bases for these differences are not well understood, in part because multidimensional personality structures remain to be described for common laboratory animals. Based upon principal components (PC analysis of extensive behavioral measures in social and nonsocial contexts, we now describe three complex dimensions of phenotype (personality for the zebra finch, a species that exhibits a human-like social organization that is based upon biparental nuclear families embedded within larger social groups. These dimensions can be characterized as Social competence/dominance, Gregariousness, and Anxiety. We further demonstrate that the phasic Fos response of nonapeptide neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis are significantly predicted by personality, sex, social context, and their interactions. Furthermore the behavioral PCs are each associated with a distinct suite of neural PCs that incorporate both peptide cell numbers and their phasic Fos responses, indicating that personality is reflected in complex patterns of neuromodulation arising from multiple peptide cell groups. These findings provide novel insights into the mechanisms underlying sex- and phenotype-specific modulation of behavior, and should be broadly relevant, given that vasopressin-oxytocin systems are strongly conserved across vertebrates.

  17. Sexually dimorphic effects of a prenatal immune challenge on social play and vasopressin expression in juvenile rats

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    Taylor Patrick V

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious diseases and inflammation during pregnancy increase the offspring’s risk for behavioral disorders. However, how immune stress affects neural circuitry during development is not well known. We tested whether a prenatal immune challenge interferes with the development of social play and with neural circuits implicated in social behavior. Methods Pregnant rats were given intraperitoneal injections of the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS – 100 μg /kg or saline on the 15th day of pregnancy. Offspring were tested for social play behaviors between postnatal days 26–40. Brains were harvested on postnatal day 45 and processed for arginine vasopressin (AVP mRNA in situ hybridization. Results In males, LPS treatment reduced the frequency of juvenile play behavior and reduced AVP mRNA expression in the medial amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. These effects were not found in females. LPS treatment did not change AVP mRNA expression in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, paraventricular nucleus, or supraoptic nucleus of either sex, nor did it affect the sex difference in the size of the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area. Conclusions Given AVP’s central role in regulating social behavior, the sexually dimorphic effects of prenatal LPS treatment on male AVP mRNA expression may contribute to the sexually dimorphic effect of LPS on male social play and may, therefore, increase understanding of factors that contribute to sex differences in social psychopathology.

  18. Chronic infusion of enalaprilat into hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus attenuates angiotensin II-induced hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy by restoring neurotransmitters and cytokines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Yu-Ming, E-mail: ykang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China); Zhang, Dong-Mei [Department of Physiology, Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116044 (China); Yu, Xiao-Jing; Yang, Qing; Qi, Jie; Su, Qing [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China); Suo, Yu-Ping [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Shanxi Provincial People' s Hospital, Taiyuan 030012 (China); Yue, Li-Ying [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China); Zhu, Guo-Qing [Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease and Molecular Intervention, Department of Physiology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Qin, Da-Nian, E-mail: dnqin@stu.edu.cn [Department of Physiology, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041 (China)

    2014-02-01

    The renin–angiotensin system (RAS) in the brain is involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension. We hypothesized that inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) attenuates angiotensin II (ANG II)-induced hypertension via restoring neurotransmitters and cytokines. Rats underwent subcutaneous infusions of ANG II or saline and bilateral PVN infusions of ACE inhibitor enalaprilat (ENL, 2.5 μg/h) or vehicle for 4 weeks. ANG II infusion resulted in higher mean arterial pressure and cardiac hypertrophy as indicated by increased whole heart weight/body weight ratio, whole heart weight/tibia length ratio, left ventricular weight/tibia length ratio, and mRNA expressions of cardiac atrial natriuretic peptide and beta-myosin heavy chain. These ANG II-infused rats had higher PVN levels of glutamate, norepinephrine, tyrosine hydroxylase, pro-inflammatory cytokines (PICs) and the chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and lower PVN levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid, interleukin (IL)-10 and the 67-kDa isoform of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD67), and higher plasma levels of PICs, norepinephrine and aldosterone, and lower plasma IL-10, and higher renal sympathetic nerve activity. However, PVN treatment with ENL attenuated these changes. PVN microinjection of ANG II induced increases in IL-1β and IL-6, and a decrease in IL-10 in the PVN, and pretreatment with angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1-R) antagonist losartan attenuated these changes. These findings suggest that ANG II infusion induces an imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters and an imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the PVN, and PVN inhibition of the RAS restores neurotransmitters and cytokines in the PVN, thereby attenuating ANG II-induced hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy. - Highlights: • Chronic ANG II infusion results in sympathetic hyperactivity and cardiac hypertrophy. • PVN inhibition of ACE

  19. Inhibition of TNF-α in hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus attenuates hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy by inhibiting neurohormonal excitation in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Xin-Ai; Jia, Lin-Lin [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China); Cui, Wei [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, First Affiliated Hospital of Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China); Zhang, Meng [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China); Chen, Wensheng [Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Yuan, Zu-Yi [Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, First Affiliated Hospital of Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China); Guo, Jing [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China); Li, Hui-Hua [Key Laboratory of Remodeling-related Cardiovascular Diseases, Department of Pathology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100069 (China); Zhu, Guo-Qing [Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease and Molecular Intervention, Department of Physiology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Liu, Hao, E-mail: haoliu75@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, First Affiliated Hospital of Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China); Kang, Yu-Ming, E-mail: ykang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China)

    2014-11-15

    We hypothesized that chronic inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) delays the progression of hypertension and attenuates cardiac hypertrophy by up-regulating anti-inflammatory cytokines, reducing pro-inflammatory cytokines (PICs), decreasing nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 and NAD(P)H oxidase activities, as well as restoring the neurotransmitters balance in the PVN of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Adult normotensive Wistar–Kyoto (WKY) and SHR rats received bilateral PVN infusion of a TNF-α blocker (pentoxifylline or etanercept) or vehicle for 4 weeks. SHR rats showed higher mean arterial pressure and cardiac hypertrophy compared with WKY rats, as indicated by increased whole heart weight/body weight ratio, whole heart weight/tibia length ratio, left ventricular weight/tibia length ratio, and cardiac atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and beta-myosin heavy chain (β-MHC) mRNA expressions. Compared with WKY rats, SHR rats had higher PVN levels of tyrosine hydroxylase, PICs, the chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), NF-κB p65 activity, mRNA expressions of NOX-2 and NOX-4, and lower PVN levels of IL-10 and 67-kDa isoform of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD67), and higher plasma norepinephrine. PVN infusion of pentoxifylline or etanercept attenuated all these changes in SHR rats. These findings suggest that SHR rats have an imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters, as well as an imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the PVN; and chronic inhibition of TNF-α in the PVN delays the progression of hypertension by restoring the balances of neurotransmitters and cytokines in the PVN, and attenuating PVN NF-κB p65 activity and oxidative stress, thereby attenuating hypertension-induced sympathetic hyperactivity and cardiac hypertrophy. - Highlights: • Spontaneously hypertensive rats exhibit neurohormonal excitation in the PVN. • PVN inhibition of

  20. Inhibition of NF-κB activity in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus attenuates hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy by modulating cytokines and attenuating oxidative stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Xiao-Jing [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Basic Medical Sciences, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi' an 710061 (China); Zhang, Dong-Mei [Department of Physiology, Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116044 (China); Jia, Lin-Lin; Qi, Jie; Song, Xin-Ai; Tan, Hong [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Basic Medical Sciences, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi' an 710061 (China); Cui, Wei [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, First Affiliated Hospital of Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi' an 710061 (China); Chen, Wensheng [Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Zhu, Guo-Qing [Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease and Molecular Intervention, Department of Physiology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Qin, Da-Nian, E-mail: dnqin@stu.edu.cn [Department of Physiology, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041 (China); Kang, Yu-Ming, E-mail: ykang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Basic Medical Sciences, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi' an 710061 (China)

    2015-05-01

    We hypothesized that chronic inhibition of NF-κB activity in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) delays the progression of hypertension and attenuates cardiac hypertrophy by up-regulating anti-inflammatory cytokines, reducing pro-inflammatory cytokines (PICs), attenuating nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 and NAD(P)H oxidase in the PVN of young spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Young normotensive Wistar–Kyoto (WKY) and SHR rats received bilateral PVN infusions with NF–κB inhibitor pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) or vehicle for 4 weeks. SHR rats had higher mean arterial pressure and cardiac hypertrophy as indicated by increased whole heart weight/body weight ratio, whole heart weight/tibia length ratio, left ventricular weight/tibia length ratio, cardiomyocyte diameters of the left cardiac ventricle, and mRNA expressions of cardiac atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and beta-myosin heavy chain (β-MHC). These SHR rats had higher PVN levels of proinflammatory cytokines (PICs), reactive oxygen species (ROS), the chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), NAD(P)H oxidase activity, mRNA expression of NOX-2 and NOX-4, and lower PVN IL-10, and higher plasma levels of PICs and NE, and lower plasma IL-10. PVN infusion of NF-κB inhibitor PDTC attenuated all these changes. These findings suggest that NF-κB activation in the PVN increases sympathoexcitation and hypertensive response, which are associated with the increases of PICs and oxidative stress in the PVN; PVN inhibition of NF-κB activity attenuates PICs and oxidative stress in the PVN, thereby attenuates hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy. - Highlights: • Spontaneously hypertensive rats exhibit neurohormonal excitation in the PVN. • PVN inhibition of NF-κB attenuates hypertension-induced cardiac hypertrophy. • PVN inhibition of NF-κB attenuates hypertension-induced neurohormonal excitation. • PVN inhibition of NF-κB attenuates hypertension-induced imbalance of cytokines

  1. Chronic infusion of enalaprilat into hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus attenuates angiotensin II-induced hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy by restoring neurotransmitters and cytokines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Yu-Ming; Zhang, Dong-Mei; Yu, Xiao-Jing; Yang, Qing; Qi, Jie; Su, Qing; Suo, Yu-Ping; Yue, Li-Ying; Zhu, Guo-Qing; Qin, Da-Nian

    2014-01-01

    The renin–angiotensin system (RAS) in the brain is involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension. We hypothesized that inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) attenuates angiotensin II (ANG II)-induced hypertension via restoring neurotransmitters and cytokines. Rats underwent subcutaneous infusions of ANG II or saline and bilateral PVN infusions of ACE inhibitor enalaprilat (ENL, 2.5 μg/h) or vehicle for 4 weeks. ANG II infusion resulted in higher mean arterial pressure and cardiac hypertrophy as indicated by increased whole heart weight/body weight ratio, whole heart weight/tibia length ratio, left ventricular weight/tibia length ratio, and mRNA expressions of cardiac atrial natriuretic peptide and beta-myosin heavy chain. These ANG II-infused rats had higher PVN levels of glutamate, norepinephrine, tyrosine hydroxylase, pro-inflammatory cytokines (PICs) and the chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and lower PVN levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid, interleukin (IL)-10 and the 67-kDa isoform of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD67), and higher plasma levels of PICs, norepinephrine and aldosterone, and lower plasma IL-10, and higher renal sympathetic nerve activity. However, PVN treatment with ENL attenuated these changes. PVN microinjection of ANG II induced increases in IL-1β and IL-6, and a decrease in IL-10 in the PVN, and pretreatment with angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1-R) antagonist losartan attenuated these changes. These findings suggest that ANG II infusion induces an imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters and an imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the PVN, and PVN inhibition of the RAS restores neurotransmitters and cytokines in the PVN, thereby attenuating ANG II-induced hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy. - Highlights: • Chronic ANG II infusion results in sympathetic hyperactivity and cardiac hypertrophy. • PVN inhibition of ACE

  2. Oxytocin-Oxytocin Receptor Systems Facilitate Social Defeat Posture in Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasanbuyan, Naranbat; Yoshida, Masahide; Takayanagi, Yuki; Inutsuka, Ayumu; Nishimori, Katsuhiko; Yamanaka, Akihiro; Onaka, Tatsushi

    2018-02-01

    Social stress has deteriorating effects on various psychiatric diseases. In animal models, exposure to socially dominant conspecifics (i.e., social defeat stress) evokes a species-specific defeat posture via unknown mechanisms. Oxytocin neurons have been shown to be activated by stressful stimuli and to have prosocial and anxiolytic actions. The roles of oxytocin during social defeat stress remain unclear. Expression of c-Fos, a marker of neuronal activation, in oxytocin neurons and in oxytocin receptor‒expressing neurons was investigated in mice. The projection of oxytocin neurons was examined with an anterograde viral tracer, which induces selective expression of membrane-targeted palmitoylated green fluorescent protein in oxytocin neurons. Defensive behaviors during double exposure to social defeat stress in oxytocin receptor‒deficient mice were analyzed. After social defeat stress, expression of c-Fos protein was increased in oxytocin neurons of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, supraoptic nucleus, and paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus. Expression of c-Fos protein was also increased in oxytocin receptor‒expressing neurons of brain regions, including the ventrolateral part of the ventromedial hypothalamus and ventrolateral periaqueductal gray. Projecting fibers from paraventricular hypothalamic oxytocin neurons were found in the ventrolateral part of the ventromedial hypothalamus and in the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray. Oxytocin receptor‒deficient mice showed reduced defeat posture during the second social defeat stress. These findings suggest that social defeat stress activates oxytocin-oxytocin receptor systems, and the findings are consistent with the view that activation of the oxytocin receptor in brain regions, including the ventrolateral part of the ventromedial hypothalamus and the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray, facilitates social defeat posture.

  3. The organizational effects of oxytocin on the central expression of estrogen receptor α and oxytocin in adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papademetriou Eros

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have demonstrated that neonatal manipulation of oxytocin (OT has effects on the expression of estrogen receptor α (ERα and the central production of oxytocin observed in juveniles (at weaning, 21 days of age. The goal of this study was to determine whether the effects of neonatal manipulation of OT last into adulthood, and if the effects differ from those observed during the early postnatal period. On the first day of life, prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster received one of three doses of OT (High, 3 μg; Med, 0.3 μg; Low, 0.03 μg, an OT antagonist, or isotonic saline. Another group was handled, but not injected. Then as adults, brains were collected, sectioned, and stained for ERα or OT using immunocytochemistry. Results In females, treatment with OT increased the expression of ERα immunoreactivity in the ventral lateral septum (0.03 μg and the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus and central amygdala (0.3 μg. In males, OT antagonist increased ERα expression in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. There was no apparent effect of OT on the number of cells producing OT in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. Conclusion The current results suggest that neonatal manipulation of OT has long-term organizational effects on the expression of ERα in both males and females. The lack of effect on OT neurons in the paraventricular nucleus suggests that some developmental effects of OT previously observed in weanlings do not persist into adulthood. Developmental effects of OT on ERα patterns were sexually dimorphic, dose-dependent, and site-specific.

  4. Zolpidem, a selective GABA(A) receptor alpha1 subunit agonist, induces comparable Fos expression in oxytocinergic neurons of the hypothalamic paraventricular and accessory but not supraoptic nuclei in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiss, Alexander; Søderman, Andreas; Bundzikova, Jana

    2006-01-01

    Functional activation of oxytocinergic (OXY) cells in the hypothalamic paraventricular (PVN), supraoptic (SON), and accessory (ACC) nuclei was investigated in response to acute treatment with Zolpidem (a GABA(A) receptor agonist with selectivity for alpha(1) subunits) utilizing dual Fos...... contemporaneousness within the cells of the principal and accessory magnocellular nuclei in response to Zolpidem treatment. The present study provides a comparative background that may help in the further understanding of a possible extend of Zolpidem effect on the brain...... significant activations were also seen in certain groups of accessory structures including the circular nucleus (13.99+/-3.43%), small clusters of accessory neurons (10.55+/-1.94%), and the lateral hypothalamic perivascular nucleus (9.42+/-2.74%). Between the naive and vehicle controls, the dual Fos...

  5. The neurobiological basis of fear: a concise review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-01-11

    5 Thus, activation of the LA results in disinhibition of the CeM, with a resultant fear response, as illustrated in Figure. 1. While the CeM is important for fear, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is implicated in anxiety, ...

  6. Sexual behavior reduces hypothalamic androgen receptor immunoreactivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez-Guasti, Alonso; Swaab, Dick; Rodríguez-Manzo, Gabriela

    2003-01-01

    Male sexual behavior is regulated by limbic areas like the medial preoptic nucleus (MPN), the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST), the nucleus accumbens (nAcc) and the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMN). Neurons in these brain areas are rich in androgen receptors (AR) and express

  7. No impact of deep brain stimulation on fear–potentiated startle in obsessive-compulsive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baas, Johanna M P; Klumpers, Floris; Mantione, Mariska H.; Figee, Martijn; Vulink, Nienke C.; Richard Schuurman, P.; Mazaheri, Ali; Denys, Damiaan

    2014-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the ventral internal capsule is effective in treating therapy refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Given the close proximity of the stimulation site to the stria terminalis (BNST), we hypothesized that the striking decrease in anxiety symptoms following DBS

  8. Coping with stress in rats and mice : Differential peptidergic modulation of the amygdala-lateral septum complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolhaas, J.M.; Everts, H.G J; de Ruiter, A.J.H.; de Boer, S.F.; Bohus, B.G J

    1998-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the parvicellular vasopressin (VP) system originating from the medial nucleus of the amygdala (MeA) and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST). The vasopressinergic fibers of these nuclei innervate a number of limbic brain areas including the septum-hippocampal complex.

  9. Fornix transection: Discrimination between neuropeptide effects on attention and memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wimersma Greidanus, T.B. van; Croiset, G.; Schuiling, G.A.

    1979-01-01

    Transection of the fornix and the stria terminalis completely blocks the inhibitory action of ACTH 4–10 on extinction of a conditioned avoidance response (CAR), whereas this effect of the vasopressin analogue des-glycinamide-lysine-vasopressin (DG-LVP) is not affected. These data indicate that the

  10. The paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus is recruited by both natural rewards and drugs of abuse: recent evidence of a pivotal role for orexin/hypocretin signaling in this thalamic nucleus in drug-seeking behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra eMatzeu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A major challenge for the successful treatment of drug addiction is the long-lasting susceptibility to relapse and multiple processes that have been implicated in the compulsion to resume drug intake during abstinence. Recently, the orexin/hypocretin (Orx/Hcrt system has been shown to play a role in drug-seeking behavior. The Orx/Hcrt system regulates a wide range of physiological processes, including feeding, energy metabolism, and arousal. It has also been shown to be recruited by drugs of abuse. Orx/Hcrt neurons are predominantly located in the lateral hypothalamus that projects to the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus (PVT, a region that has been identified as a way-station that processes information and then modulates the mesolimbic reward and extrahypothalamic stress systems. Although not thought to be part of the drug addiction circuitry, recent evidence indicates that the PVT is involved in the modulation of reward function in general and drug-directed behavior in particular. Evidence indicates a role for Orx/Hcrt transmission in the PVT in the modulation of reward function in general and drug-directed behavior in particular. One hypothesis is that following repeated drug exposure, the Orx/Hcrt system acquires a preferential role in mediating the effects of drugs vs. natural rewards. The present review discusses recent findings that suggest maladaptive recruitment of the PVT by drugs of abuse, specifically Orx/Hcrt-PVT neurotransmission.

  11. alpha-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone is contained in nerve terminals innervating thyrotropin-releasing hormone-synthesizing neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and prevents fasting-induced suppression of prothyrotropin-releasing hormone gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekete, C; Légrádi, G; Mihály, E; Huang, Q H; Tatro, J B; Rand, W M; Emerson, C H; Lechan, R M

    2000-02-15

    The hypothalamic arcuate nucleus has an essential role in mediating the homeostatic responses of the thyroid axis to fasting by altering the sensitivity of prothyrotropin-releasing hormone (pro-TRH) gene expression in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) to feedback regulation by thyroid hormone. Because agouti-related protein (AGRP), a leptin-regulated, arcuate nucleus-derived peptide with alpha-MSH antagonist activity, is contained in axon terminals that terminate on TRH neurons in the PVN, we raised the possibility that alpha-MSH may also participate in the mechanism by which leptin influences pro-TRH gene expression. By double-labeling immunocytochemistry, alpha-MSH-IR axon varicosities were juxtaposed to approximately 70% of pro-TRH neurons in the anterior and periventricular parvocellular subdivisions of the PVN and to 34% of pro-TRH neurons in the medial parvocellular subdivision, establishing synaptic contacts both on the cell soma and dendrites. All pro-TRH neurons receiving contacts by alpha-MSH-containing fibers also were innervated by axons containing AGRP. The intracerebroventricular infusion of 300 ng of alpha-MSH every 6 hr for 3 d prevented fasting-induced suppression of pro-TRH in the PVN but had no effect on AGRP mRNA in the arcuate nucleus. alpha-MSH also increased circulating levels of free thyroxine (T4) 2.5-fold over the levels in fasted controls, but free T4 did not reach the levels in fed controls. These data suggest that alpha-MSH has an important role in the activation of pro-TRH gene expression in hypophysiotropic neurons via either a mono- and/or multisynaptic pathway to the PVN, but factors in addition to alpha-MSH also contribute to the mechanism by which leptin administration restores thyroid hormone levels to normal in fasted animals.

  12. An acute injection of corticosterone increases thyrotrophin-releasing hormone expression in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus but interferes with the rapid hypothalamus pituitary thyroid axis response to cold in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotelo-Rivera, I; Jaimes-Hoy, L; Cote-Vélez, A; Espinoza-Ayala, C; Charli, J-L; Joseph-Bravo, P

    2014-12-01

    The activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis is rapidly adjusted by energy balance alterations. Glucocorticoids can interfere with this activity, although the timing of this interaction is unknown. In vitro studies indicate that, albeit incubation with either glucocorticoid receptor (GR) agonists or protein kinase A (PKA) activators enhances pro-thyrotrophin-releasing hormone (pro-TRH) transcription, co-incubation with both stimuli reduces this enhancement. In the present study, we used primary cultures of hypothalamic cells to test whether the order of these stimuli alters the cross-talk. We observed that a simultaneous or 1-h prior (but not later) activation of GR is necessary to inhibit the stimulatory effect of PKA activation on pro-TRH expression. We tested these in vitro results in the context of a physiological stimulus on the HPT axis in adult male rats. Cold exposure for 1 h enhanced pro-TRH mRNA expression in neurones of the hypophysiotrophic and rostral subdivisions of the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus, thyrotrophin (TSH) serum levels and deiodinase 2 (D2) activity in brown adipose tissue (BAT). An i.p. injection of corticosterone stimulated pro-TRH expression in the PVN of rats kept at ambient temperature, more pronouncedly in hypophysiotrophic neurones that no longer responded to cold exposure. In corticosterone-pretreated rats, the cold-induced increase in pro-TRH expression was detected only in the rostral PVN. Corticosterone blunted the increase in serum TSH levels and D2 activity in BAT produced by cold in vehicle-injected animals. Thus, increased serum corticosterone levels rapidly restrain cold stress-induced activation of TRH hypophysiotrophic neurones, which may contribute to changing energy expenditure. Interestingly, TRH neurones of the rostral PVN responded to both corticosterone and cold exposure with an amplified expression of pro-TRH mRNA, suggesting that these neurones integrate stress and temperature

  13. Increased STAT5 signaling in the ring dove brain in response to prolactin administration and spontaneous elevations in prolactin during the breeding cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buntin, John D.; Buntin, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Prolactin acts on target cells in the central nervous system (CNS) to stimulate behavioral changes associated with parental care in birds, but the signaling mechanisms that mediate these actions have not been characterized. In mammals, the Janus Kinase 2-Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 5 (JAK2-STAT5) signaling pathway mediates many of the actions of prolactin. To assess the importance of this pathway in prolactin-sensitive target cells in the avian brain, we measured changes in activated (phosphorylated) STAT5 (pSTAT5) in the forebrain of female ring doves sampled as plasma prolactin levels change during the breeding cycle and in prolactin-treated, non-breeding females. The anatomical distribution of cells exhibiting pSTAT5 immunoreactivity in dove brain closely paralleled the distribution of prolactin receptors in this species. The density of pSTAT5 immunoreactive (pSTAT5-ir) cells were highest in the preoptic area, the suprachiasmatic, paraventricular, ventromedial hypothalamic nuclei, the lateral and tuberal hypothalamic regions, the lateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and the lateral septum. Mean pSTAT5-ir cell densities in these eight brain areas were several fold higher in breeding females during late incubation/early post-hatching when plasma prolactin levels have been observed to peak than in non-breeding females or breeding females sampled at earlier stages when prolactin titers have been reported to be lower. Similar differences were observed between prolactin-treated and vehicle-treated females in all three of the forebrain regions that were compared. We conclude that JAK2-STAT5 signaling is strongly activated in response to prolactin stimulation in the ring dove brain and could potentially mediate some of the centrally-mediated behavioral effects of this hormone. PMID:24530808

  14. Tuning the brain for motherhood: prolactin-like central signalling in virgin, pregnant, and lactating female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salais-López, Hugo; Lanuza, Enrique; Agustín-Pavón, Carmen; Martínez-García, Fernando

    2017-03-01

    Prolactin is fundamental for the expression of maternal behaviour. In virgin female rats, prolactin administered upon steroid hormone priming accelerates the onset of maternal care. By contrast, the role of prolactin in mice maternal behaviour remains unclear. This study aims at characterizing central prolactin activity patterns in female mice and their variation through pregnancy and lactation. This was revealed by immunoreactivity of phosphorylated (active) signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (pSTAT5-ir), a key molecule in the signalling cascade of prolactin receptors. We also evaluated non-hypophyseal lactogenic activity during pregnancy by administering bromocriptine, which suppresses hypophyseal prolactin release. Late-pregnant and lactating females showed significantly increased pSTAT5-ir resulting in a widespread pattern of immunostaining with minor variations between pregnant and lactating animals, which comprises nuclei of the sociosexual and maternal brain, including telencephalic (septum, nucleus of the stria terminalis, and amygdala), hypothalamic (preoptic, paraventricular, supraoptic, and ventromedial), and midbrain (periaqueductal grey) regions. During late pregnancy, this pattern was not affected by the administration of bromocriptine, suggesting it to be elicited mostly by non-hypophyseal lactogenic agents, likely placental lactogens. Virgin females displayed, instead, a variable pattern of pSTAT5-ir restricted to a subset of the brain nuclei labelled in pregnant and lactating mice. A hormonal substitution experiment confirmed that estradiol and progesterone contribute to the variability found in virgin females. Our results reflect how the shaping of the maternal brain takes place prior to parturition and suggest that lactogenic agents are important candidates in the development of maternal behaviours already during pregnancy.

  15. Somatostatin receptor subtype 4 activation is involved in anxiety and depression-like behavior in mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheich, Bálint; Gaszner, Balázs; Kormos, Viktória; László, Kristóf; Ádori, Csaba; Borbély, Éva; Hajna, Zsófia; Tékus, Valéria; Bölcskei, Kata; Ábrahám, István; Pintér, Erika; Szolcsányi, János; Helyes, Zsuzsanna

    2016-02-01

    Somatostatin regulates stress-related behavior and its expression is altered in mood disorders. However, little is known about the underlying mechanisms, especially about the importance of its receptors (sst1-sst5) in anxiety and depression-like behavior. Here we analyzed the potential role of sst4 receptor in these processes, since sst4 is present in stress-related brain regions, but there are no data about its functional relevance. Genetic deletion of sst4 (Sstr4(-/-)) and its pharmacological activation with the newly developed selective non-peptide agonist J-2156 were used. Anxiety was examined in the elevated plus maze (EPM) and depression-like behavior in the forced swim (FST) and tail suspension tests (TST). Neuronal activation during the TST was monitored by Fos immunohistochemistry, receptor expression was identified by sst4(LacZ) immunostaining in several brain regions. Sstr4(-/-) mice showed increased anxiety in the EPM and enhanced depression-like behavior in the FST. J-2156 (100 μg/kg i.p.) exhibited anxiolytic effect in the EPM and decreased immobility in the TST. J-2156 alone did not influence Fos immunoreactivity in intact mice, but significantly increased the stress-induced Fos response in the dorsal raphe nucleus, central projecting Edinger-Westphal nucleus, periaqueductal gray matter, the magnocellular, but not the parvocellular part of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, lateral septum, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and the amygdala. Notably, sst4(LacZ) immunoreactivity occurred in the central and basolateral amygdala. Together, these studies reveal that sst4 mediates anxiolytic and antidepressant-like effects by enhancing the stress-responsiveness of several brain regions with special emphasis on the amygdala. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Chronic intermittent hypoxia sensitizes acute hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal stress reactivity and Fos induction in the rat locus coeruleus in response to subsequent immobilization stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, S; Mifflin, S W; Cunningham, J T; Morilak, D A

    2008-07-17

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with several pathophysiological conditions, including hypertension, obesity, insulin resistance, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) dysregulation, and other endocrine and metabolic disturbances comprising the "metabolic syndrome." Repeated episodes of hypoxia in OSA may represent a chronic intermittent stress, leading to HPA dysregulation. Alterations in HPA reactivity could then contribute to or exacerbate other pathophysiological processes. We showed previously that another metabolic stressor, chronic intermittent cold stress, enhanced noradrenergic facilitation of acute HPA stress reactivity. In this study, we investigated whether chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), a rat model for the arterial hypoxemia that accompanies OSA, similarly sensitizes the HPA response to novel acute stress. Rats were exposed to CIH (alternating cycles of normoxia [3 min at 21% O(2)] and hypoxia [3 min at 10% O(2)], repeated continuously for 8 h/day during the light portion of the cycle for 7 days). On the day after the final CIH exposure, there were no differences in baseline plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), but the peak ACTH response to 30 min acute immobilization stress was greater in CIH-stressed rats than in controls. Induction of Fos expression by acute immobilization stress was comparable following CIH in several HPA-modulatory brain regions, including the paraventricular nucleus, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and amygdala. Fos induction was attenuated in lateral hypothalamus, an HPA-inhibitory region. By contrast, acute Fos induction was enhanced in noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus following CIH exposure. Thus, similar to chronic cold stress, CIH sensitized acute HPA and noradrenergic stress reactivity. Plasticity in the acute stress response is important for long-term adaptation, but may also contribute to pathophysiological conditions associated with states of chronic or repeated stress, such as OSA

  17. cFOS and pCREB activation and maternal aggression in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammie, S C; Nelson, R J

    2001-04-20

    Lactating mice exhibit a dramatic increase in aggression, termed maternal aggression, only in association with the rearing and protection of their offspring. Previous work indicates that the neural mechanisms underlying maternal and male aggression are different in rodents. In this study, we sought to examine possible neural regions involved in the control of maternal aggression by combining behavioral testing with immunohistochemistry for both cFOS and pCREB, two indirect markers of neuronal activity. All lactating female mice were exposed to a male intruder for 20 min and those exhibiting maternal aggression were placed in one group and those that were non-aggressive were placed in a second group. Thus, the sensory stimuli were similar and the main difference between the two groups was the behavior. cFOS expression increased significantly in the claustrum, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, medial preoptic nucleus, paraventricular nucleus, medial amygdala, and cortical amygdala in association with maternal aggression. In contrast, the number of pCREB-positive cells significantly increased only in the ventrolateral portion of the caudal periaqueductal gray and in the lateral septum in aggressive lactating mice. Due to large variance in the counts of pCREB-positive cells, the data were log transformed prior to statistical analysis. Thus, the sites of cFOS and pCREB increases do not overlap, but provide complementary indirect information on neural regions active during maternal aggression. These results complement previous studies of nitric oxide release during maternal aggression to create a possible map of the functional neural circuitry underlying maternal aggression.

  18. Distribution of vasopressin in the brain of the eusocial naked mole-rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Greta J; De Vries, Geert J; Goldman, Sharry L; Goldman, Bruce D; Forger, Nancy G

    2007-02-20

    Naked mole-rats are eusocial rodents that live in large subterranean colonies in which one queen breeds with one to three males. All other animals are nonbreeding subordinates. The external features of male and female subordinates, including their genitalia, are remarkably monomorphic, as is their behavior. Because vasopressin (VP) is associated with social behaviors and sex differences in other species, its distribution in naked mole-rats was of interest. We used immunohistochemistry to examine VP in the brains of subordinate and breeding naked mole-rats of both sexes. As in other mammals, VP-immunoreactive (-ir) somata were found in the paraventricular (PVN) and supraoptic nuclei (SON) and VP-ir projections from these nuclei ran through the internal and external zone of the median eminence. However, naked mole-rats had very few VP-ir cells in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) and none in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN); the extensive network of fine-caliber VP-ir fibers usually seen in projection sites of the BST and SCN were also absent. Equally unexpected was the abundance of large-caliber VP-ir fibers in the dorsomedial septum. VP immunoreactivity was generally similar in all groups, with the exception of VP-ir cell number in the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH). Breeders had a population of labeled cells in the DMH that was absent, or nearly absent, in subordinates. Future studies on the function of VP in these areas are needed to determine how the atypical distribution of VP immunoreactivity relates to eusociality and the unusual physiology of naked mole-rats.

  19. Social status and sex effects on neural morphology in Damaraland mole-rats, Fukomys damarensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyan, Jeff J; Seney, Marianne L; Holley, Amanda; Bengston, Lynn; Goldman, Bruce D; Forger, Nancy G; Holmes, Melissa M

    2011-01-01

    We previously reported that in a eusocial rodent, the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber), traditional neural sex differences were absent; instead, neural dimorphisms were associated with breeding status. Here we examined the same neural regions previously studied in naked mole-rats in a second eusocial species, the Damaraland mole-rat (Fukomys damarensis). Damaraland mole-rats live in social groups with breeding restricted to a small number of animals. However, colony sizes are much smaller in Damaraland mole-rats than in naked mole-rats and there is consequently less reproductive skew. In this sense, Damaraland mole-rats may be considered intermediate in social organization between naked mole-rats and more traditional laboratory rodents. We report that, as in naked mole-rats, breeding Damaraland mole-rats have larger volumes of the principal nucleus of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus than do subordinates, with no effect of sex on these measures. Thus, these structures may play special roles in breeders of eusocial species. However, in contrast to what was seen in naked mole-rats, we also found sex differences in Damaraland mole-rats: volume of the medial amygdala and motoneuron number in Onuf's nucleus were both greater in males than in females, with no significant effect of breeding status. Thus, both sex and breeding status influence neural morphology in Damaraland mole-rats. These findings are in accord with the observed sex differences in body weight and genitalia in Damaraland but not naked mole-rats. We hypothesize that the increased sexual dimorphism in Damaraland mole-rats relative to naked mole-rats is related to reduced reproductive skew. 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Social status and sex independently influence androgen receptor expression in the eusocial naked mole-rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Melissa M; Goldman, Bruce D; Forger, Nancy G

    2008-08-01

    Naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber) are eusocial rodents that live in large subterranean colonies including a single breeding female and 1-3 breeding males; all other members of the colony, known as subordinates, are reproductively suppressed. We recently found that naked mole-rats lack many of the sex differences in the brain and spinal cord commonly found in other rodents. Instead, neural morphology is influenced by breeding status, such that breeders, regardless of sex, have more neurons than subordinates in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH), and larger overall volumes of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST), paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and medial amygdala (MeA). To begin to understand how breeding status influences brain morphology, we examined the distribution of androgen receptor (AR) immunoreactivity in gonadally intact breeders and subordinates of both sexes. All animals had AR+ nuclei in many of the same regions positive for AR in other mammals, including the VMH, BST, PVN, MeA, and the ventral portion of the premammillary nucleus (PMv). We also observed diffuse labeling throughout the preoptic area, demonstrating that distribution of the AR protein in presumptive reproductive brain nuclei is well-conserved, even in a species that exhibits remarkably little sexual dimorphism. In contrast to other rodents, however, naked mole-rats lacked AR+ nuclei in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and hippocampus. Males had more AR+ nuclei in the MeA, VMH, and PMv than did females. Surprisingly, breeders had significantly fewer AR+ nuclei than subordinates in all brain regions examined (VMH, BST, PVN, MeA, and PMv). Thus, social status is strongly correlated with AR immunoreactivity in this eusocial species.

  1. Neuropeptide Y attenuates anxiety- and depression-like effects of cholecystokinin-4 in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, S J; Borkar, C D; Nakhate, K T; Subhedar, N K; Kokare, D M

    2014-09-26

    We investigated the involvement of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the modulation of cholecystokinin-4 (CCK-4)-evoked anxiety and depression. Adult male mice were injected with vehicle, CCK-4, NPY, NPY Y1 receptor agonist [Leu(31), Pro(34)]-NPY or antagonist BIBP3226, via intracerebroventricular route, and subjected to social interaction or forced swim test (FST) for the evaluation of anxiety- and depression-like phenotypes, respectively. To assess the interactions between the two systems, if any, NPYergic agents were administered prior to CCK-4 and the animals were subjected to these behavioral tests. Treatment with CCK-4 or BIBP3226 dose-dependently reduced social interaction time, while NPY or [Leu(31), Pro(34)]-NPY produced opposite effect. CCK-4 treatment increased immobility time in FST. This effect was reversed by NPY and [Leu(31), Pro(34)]-NPY, although BIBP3226 per se did not alter the immobility time. In a combination study, the anxiogenic or depressive effects of CCK-4 were attenuated by NPY or [Leu(31), Pro(34)]-NPY and potentiated by BIBP3226. The brains of CCK-4 treated rats were processed for NPY immunohistochemistry. Following CCK-4 treatment, the nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh), ventral part of lateral division of the bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BSTLV), hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and locus coeruleus showed a reduction in NPY-immunoreactive fibers. Population of NPY-immunopositive cells was also decreased in the AcbSh, BSTLV, prefrontal cortex and hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC). However, NPY-immunoreaction in the fibers of the ARC and cells of the central nucleus of amygdala was unchanged. We conclude that, inhibition of NPY signaling in the brain by CCK-4 might be causal to anxiety- and depression-like behaviors. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Chronic Anabolic Androgenic Steroid Exposure Alters Corticotropin Releasing Factor Expression and Anxiety-Like Behaviors in the Female Mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costine, Beth A; Oberlander, Joseph G; Davis, Matthew C; Penatti, Carlos A A; Porter, Donna M; Leaton, Robert N; Henderson, Leslie P

    2010-01-01

    Summary In the past several decades, the therapeutic use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) has been overshadowed by illicit use of these drugs by elite athletes and a growing number of adolescents to enhance performance and body image. As with adults, AAS use by adolescents is associated with a range of behavioral effects, including increased anxiety and altered responses to stress. It has been suggested that adolescents, especially adolescent females, may be particularly susceptible to the effects of these steroids, but few experiments in animal models have been performed to test this assertion. Here we show that chronic exposure of adolescent female mice to a mixture of three commonly abused AAS (testosterone cypionate, nandrolone decanoate and methandrostenolone; 7.5 mg/kg/day for 5 days) significantly enhanced anxiety-like behavior as assessed by the acoustic startle response (ASR), but did not augment the fear-potentiated startle response (FPS) or alter sensorimotor gating as assessed by prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response (PPI). AAS treatment also significantly increased the levels of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) mRNA and somal-associated CRF immunoreactivity in the central amygdala (CeA), as well as neuropil-associated immunoreactivity in the dorsal aspect of the anterolateral division of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (dBnST). AAS treatment did not alter CRF receptor 1 or 2 mRNA in either the CeA or the dBnST; CRF immunoreactivity in the ventral BNST, the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) or the median eminence (ME); or peripheral levels of corticosterone. These results suggest that chronic AAS treatment of adolescent female mice may enhance generalized anxiety, but not sensorimotor gating or learned fear, via a mechanism that involves increased CRF-mediated signaling from CeA neurons projecting to the dBnST. PMID:20537804

  3. Olfactory systems and neural circuits that modulate predator odor fear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorey K. Takahashi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available When prey animals detect the odor of a predator a constellation of fear-related autonomic, endocrine, and behavioral responses rapidly occur to facilitate survival. How olfactory sensory systems process predator odor and channel that information to specific brain circuits is a fundamental issue that is not clearly understood. However, research in the last 15 years has begun to identify some of the essential features of the sensory detection systems and brain structures that underlie predator odor fear. For instance, the main (MOS and accessory olfactory systems (AOS detect predator odors and different types of predator odors are sensed by specific receptors located in either the MOS or AOS. However, complex predator chemosignals may be processed by both the MOS and AOS, which complicate our understanding of the specific neural circuits connected directly and indirectly from the MOS and AOS to activate the physiological and behavioral components of unconditioned and conditioned fear. Studies indicate that brain structures including the dorsal periaqueductal gray, paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, and the medial amygdala appear to be broadly involved in predator odor induced autonomic activity and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal stress hormone secretion. The medial amygdala also plays a key role in predator odor unconditioned fear behavior and retrieval of contextual fear memory associated with prior predator odor experiences. Other neural structures including the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and the ventral hippocampus appear prominently involve in predator odor fear behavior. The basolateral amygdala, medial hypothalamic nuclei, and medial prefrontal cortex are also activated by some but not all predator odors. Future research that characterizes how distinct predator odors are uniquely processed in olfactory systems and neural circuits will provide significant insights into the differences of how diverse predator odors activate

  4. Glucocorticoids regulation of FosB/ΔFosB expression induced by chronic opiate exposure in the brain stress system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel García-Pérez

    Full Text Available Chronic use of drugs of abuse profoundly alters stress-responsive system. Repeated exposure to morphine leads to accumulation of the transcription factor ΔFosB, particularly in brain areas associated with reward and stress. The persistent effects of ΔFosB on target genes may play an important role in the plasticity induced by drugs of abuse. Recent evidence suggests that stress-related hormones (e.g., glucocorticoids, GC may induce adaptations in the brain stress system that is likely to involve alteration in gene expression and transcription factors. This study examined the role of GC in regulation of FosB/ΔFosB in both hypothalamic and extrahypothalamic brain stress systems during morphine dependence. For that, expression of FosB/ΔFosB was measured in control (sham-operated and adrenalectomized (ADX rats that were made opiate dependent after ten days of morphine treatment. In sham-operated rats, FosB/ΔFosB was induced after chronic morphine administration in all the brain stress areas investigated: nucleus accumbens(shell (NAc, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST, central amygdala (CeA, hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN and nucleus of the solitary tract noradrenergic cell group (NTS-A(2. Adrenalectomy attenuated the increased production of FosB/ΔFosB observed after chronic morphine exposure in NAc, CeA, and NTS. Furthermore, ADX decreased expression of FosB/ΔFosB within CRH-positive neurons of the BNST, PVN and CeA. Similar results were obtained in NTS-A(2 TH-positive neurons and NAc pro-dynorphin-positive neurons. These data suggest that neuroadaptation (estimated as accumulation of FosB/ΔFosB to opiates in brain areas associated with stress is modulated by GC, supporting the evidence of a link between brain stress hormones and addiction.

  5. Olfactory systems and neural circuits that modulate predator odor fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Lorey K

    2014-01-01

    When prey animals detect the odor of a predator a constellation of fear-related autonomic, endocrine, and behavioral responses rapidly occur to facilitate survival. How olfactory sensory systems process predator odor and channel that information to specific brain circuits is a fundamental issue that is not clearly understood. However, research in the last 15 years has begun to identify some of the essential features of the sensory detection systems and brain structures that underlie predator odor fear. For instance, the main (MOS) and accessory olfactory systems (AOS) detect predator odors and different types of predator odors are sensed by specific receptors located in either the MOS or AOS. However, complex predator chemosignals may be processed by both the MOS and AOS, which complicate our understanding of the specific neural circuits connected directly and indirectly from the MOS and AOS to activate the physiological and behavioral components of unconditioned and conditioned fear. Studies indicate that brain structures including the dorsal periaqueductal gray (DPAG), paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus, and the medial amygdala (MeA) appear to be broadly involved in predator odor induced autonomic activity and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) stress hormone secretion. The MeA also plays a key role in predator odor unconditioned fear behavior and retrieval of contextual fear memory associated with prior predator odor experiences. Other neural structures including the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and the ventral hippocampus (VHC) appear prominently involved in predator odor fear behavior. The basolateral amygdala (BLA), medial hypothalamic nuclei, and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) are also activated by some but not all predator odors. Future research that characterizes how distinct predator odors are uniquely processed in olfactory systems and neural circuits will provide significant insights into the differences of how diverse predator

  6. Differential visualization of dopamine and norepinephrine uptake sites in rat brain using [3H]mazindol autoradiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javitch, J A; Strittmatter, S M; Snyder, S H

    1985-06-01

    Mazindol is a potent inhibitor of neuronal dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) uptake. DA and NE uptake sites in rat brain have been differentially visualized using [3H]mazindol autoradiography. At appropriate concentrations, desipramine (DMI) selectively inhibits [3H]mazindol binding to NE uptake sites without significantly affecting binding to DA uptake sites. The localization of DMI-insensitive specific [3H] mazindol binding, reflecting DA uptake sites, is densest in the caudate-putamen, the nucleus accumbens, the olfactory tubercle, the subthalamic nucleus, the ventral tegmental area, the substantia nigra (SN) pars compacta, and the anterior olfactory nuclei. In contrast, the localization of DMI-sensitive specific [3H]mazindol binding, representing NE uptake sites, is densest in the locus coeruleus, the nucleus of the solitary tract, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the paraventricular and periventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus, and the anteroventral thalamus. The distribution of DMI-insensitive specific [3H]mazindol binding closely parallels that of dopaminergic terminal and somatodendritic regions, while the distribution of DMI-sensitive specific [3H]mazindol binding correlates well with the regional localization of noradrenergic terminals and cell bodies. Injection of 6-hydroxydopamine, ibotenic acid, or colchicine into the SN decreases [3H]mazindol binding to DA uptake sites in the ipsilateral caudate-putamen by 85%. In contrast, ibotenic acid lesions of the caudate-putamen do not reduce [3H]mazindol binding to either the ipsilateral or contralateral caudate-putamen. Thus, the DA uptake sites in the caudate-putamen are located on the presynaptic terminals of dopaminergic axons originating from the SN.

  7. Differential visualization of dopamine and norepinephrine uptake sites in rat brain using (/sup 3/H)mazindol autoradiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javitch, J.A.; Strittmatter, S.M.; Snyder, S.H.

    1985-06-01

    Mazindol is a potent inhibitor of neuronal dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) uptake. DA and NE uptake sites in rat brain have been differentially visualized using (/sup 3/H)mazindol autoradiography. At appropriate concentrations, desipramine (DMI) selectively inhibits (/sup 3/H)mazindol binding to NE uptake sites without significantly affecting binding to DA uptake sites. The localization of DMI-insensitive specific (/sup 3/H) mazindol binding, reflecting DA uptake sites, is densest in the caudate-putamen, the nucleus accumbens, the olfactory tubercle, the subthalamic nucleus, the ventral tegmental area, the substantia nigra (SN) pars compacta, and the anterior olfactory nuclei. In contrast, the localization of DMI-sensitive specific (/sup 3/H)mazindol binding, representing NE uptake sites, is densest in the locus coeruleus, the nucleus of the solitary tract, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the paraventricular and periventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus, and the anteroventral thalamus. The distribution of DMI-insensitive specific (/sup 3/H)mazindol binding closely parallels that of dopaminergic terminal and somatodendritic regions, while the distribution of DMI-sensitive specific (/sup 3/H)mazindol binding correlates well with the regional localization of noradrenergic terminals and cell bodies. Injection of 6-hydroxydopamine, ibotenic acid, or colchicine into the SN decreases (/sup 3/H)mazindol binding to DA uptake sites in the ipsilateral caudate-putamen by 85%. In contrast, ibotenic acid lesions of the caudate-putamen do not reduce (/sup 3/H)mazindol binding to either the ipsilateral or contralateral caudate-putamen.

  8. Stress-induced changes in the expression of the clock protein PERIOD1 in the rat limbic forebrain and hypothalamus: role of stress type, time of day, and predictability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherin Al-Safadi

    Full Text Available Stressful events can disrupt circadian rhythms in mammals but mechanisms underlying this disruption remain largely unknown. One hypothesis is that stress alters circadian protein expression in the forebrain, leading to functional dysregulation of the brain circadian network and consequent disruption of circadian physiological and behavioral rhythms. Here we characterized the effects of several different stressors on the expression of the core clock protein, PER1 and the activity marker, FOS in select forebrain and hypothalamic nuclei in rats. We found that acute exposure to processive stressors, restraint and forced swim, elevated PER1 and FOS expression in the paraventricular and dorsomedial hypothalamic nuclei and piriform cortex but suppressed PER1 and FOS levels exclusively in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CEAl and oval nucleus of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNSTov. Conversely, systemic stressors, interleukin-1β and 2-Deoxy-D-glucose, increased PER1 and FOS levels in all regions studied, including the CEAl and BNSTov. PER1 levels in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN, the master pacemaker, were unaffected by any of the stress manipulations. The effect of stress on PER1 and FOS was modulated by time of day and, in the case of daily restraint, by predictability. These results demonstrate that the expression of PER1 in the forebrain is modulated by stress, consistent with the hypothesis that PER1 serves as a link between stress and the brain circadian network. Furthermore, the results show that the mechanisms that control PER1 and FOS expression in CEAl and BNSTov are uniquely sensitive to differences in the type of stressor. Finally, the finding that the effect of stress on PER1 parallels its effect on FOS supports the idea that Per1 functions as an immediate-early gene. Our observations point to a novel role for PER1 as a key player in the interface between stress and circadian rhythms.

  9. Alcohol consumption increases locomotion in an open field and induces Fos-immunoreactivity in reward and approach/withdrawal-related neurocircuitries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wscieklica, Tatiana; de Barros Viana, Milena; Le Sueur Maluf, Luciana; Pouza, Kathlein Cristiny Peres; Spadari, Regina Célia; Céspedes, Isabel Cristina

    2016-02-01

    Drug addiction is a chronically relapsing disorder characterized by compulsion to seek and take the drug, loss of control in limiting intake and, eventually, the emergence of a negative emotional state when access to the drug is prevented. Both dopamine and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)-mediated systems seem to play important roles in the modulation of alcohol abuse and dependence. The present study investigated the effects of alcohol consumption on anxiety and locomotor parameters and on the activation of dopamine and CRF-innervated brain regions. Male Wistar rats were given a choice of two bottles for 31 days, one containing water and the other a solution of saccharin + alcohol. Control animals only received water and a solution of 0.2% saccharin. On the 31st day, animals were tested in the elevated plus-maze and open field, and euthanized immediately after the behavioral tests. An independent group of animals was treated with ethanol and used to measure blood ethanol concentration. Results showed that alcohol intake did not alter behavioral measurements in the plus-maze, but increased the number of crossings in the open field, an index of locomotor activity. Additionally, alcohol intake increased Fos-immunoreactivity (Fos-ir) in the prefrontal cortex, in the shell region of the nucleus accumbens, in the medial and central amygdala, in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, in the septal region, and in the paraventricular and dorsomedial hypothalamus, structures that have been linked to reward and to approach/withdrawal behavior. These observations might be relevant to a better understanding of the behavioral and physiological alterations that follow alcohol consumption. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Estrogenic suppression of binge-like eating elicited by cyclic food restriction and frustrative-nonreward stress in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micioni Di Bonaventura, Maria Vittoria; Lutz, Thomas A; Romano, Adele; Pucci, Mariangela; Geary, Nori; Asarian, Lori; Cifani, Carlo

    2017-06-01

    Because binge eating and emotional eating vary through the menstrual cycle in human females, we investigated cyclic changes in binge-like eating in female rats and their control by estrogens. Binge-like eating was elicited by three cycles of 4 days of food restriction and 4 days of free feeding followed by a single frustrative nonreward-stress episode (15 min visual and olfactory exposure to a familiar palatable food) immediately before presentation of the palatable food. Intact rats showed binge-like eating during the diestrous and proestrous phases of the ovarian cycle, but not during the estrous (periovulatory) phase. Ovariectomized (OVX) rats not treated with estradiol (E2) displayed binge-like eating, whereas E2-treated OVX rats did not. The procedure did not increase signs of anxiety in an open-field test. OVX rats not treated with E2 that were subjected to food restriction and sacrificed immediately after frustrative nonreward had increased numbers of cells expressing phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus (PVN), and dorsal and ventral bed nuclei of the stria terminalis (BNST) compared with nonrestricted or E2-treated rats. These data suggest that this female rat model is appropriate for mechanistic studies of some aspects of menstrual-cycle effects on emotional and binge eating in human females, that anxiety is not a sufficient cause of binge-like eating, and that the PVN, CeA, and BNST may contribute to information processing underlying binge-like eating. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. ESCLARECIMENTO E INDÚSTRIA CULTURAL

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo, Raffaelle Andressa dos Santos; Utta, Bergson Pereira

    2010-01-01

    Foi na década de 40 que os renomados filósofos Theodor Adorno e Max Horkheimer reverberaram sobre a cultura, mais precisamente acerca da inclusão dos meios técnicos aos bens culturais, assumindo uma posição crítica sobre a relação entre industrialização e arte, acreditando que toda expressão cultural seria transformada em produto, numa indústria cultural. Na obra Dialética do Esclarecimento, eles defendem a tese de que mito e esclarecimento mantêm entre si uma relação dialética, com o mito já...

  12. Photoperiod reverses the effects of estrogens on male aggression via genomic and nongenomic pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Trainor, Brian C.; Lin, Shili; Finy*, M. Sima; Rowland, Michael R.; Nelson, Randy J.

    2007-01-01

    Despite recent discoveries of the specific contributions of genes to behavior, the molecular mechanisms mediating contributions of the environment are understudied. We demonstrate that the behavioral effects of estrogens on aggression are completely reversed by a discrete environmental signal, day length. Selective activation of either estrogen receptor α or β decreases aggression in long days and increases aggression in short days. In the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, one of several n...

  13. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory: Modulation and Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-01

    memory through influences invol- ving noradrenergic receptors in the amygdala. , .. . .... C-Qc- u , Y\\ o C r z A-, - r V r a ,, ~ Epinephrine Effects...epinephrine affects memory through influences involving the amygdala is supported by the finding that lesions of the stria terminalis (ST), a major...interpreted these findings as indicating that peripherally- administered naloxone influences memory by blocking opioid peptide recep- tors located within

  14. Biochemical evidence for glutamate as a transmitter in hippocampal efferents to the basal forebrain and hypothalamus in the rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walaas, I.; Fonnum, F.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of bilateral transection of the fornix bundle on the high affinity uptake of glutamate and on the amino acid content in several nuclei of rat forebrain and hypothalamus were studied in order to investigate the possible role of glutamate as a transmitter of these fibres. This lesion decreased the high affinity uptake of L-glutamate by 60 to 70% in the mammillary body and lateral septum, and by 40 to 50% in the anterior diagonal band nucleus, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the mediobasal hypothalamus and the nucleus accumbens. The content of endogenous glutamate in samples dissected from freeze-dried tissue also decreased significantly in these regions. Endogenous aspartate was slightly decreased in the anterior diagonal band nucleus and the mammillary body, but unchanged in the other regions. No significant changes were seen in the levels of serine, ..gamma..-aminobutyric acid, glutamine and taurine, except for an increase in glutamine and taurine in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. The high affinity uptake of ..gamma..-aminobutyric acid, tested in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the mediobasal hypothalamus and the mammillary body, was unchanged after the lesion. The results indicate that allocortical efferents innervating subcortial nuclei through the fornix might use glutamate as a transmitter. The study further supports the concept that glutamate plays an important role as transmitter of several different corticofugal fibre systems in mammalian brain.

  15. Patterns of Brain Activation and Meal Reduction Induced by Abdominal Surgery in Mice and Modulation by Rikkunshito.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixin Wang

    Full Text Available Abdominal surgery inhibits food intake and induces c-Fos expression in the hypothalamic and medullary nuclei in rats. Rikkunshito (RKT, a Kampo medicine improves anorexia. We assessed the alterations in meal microstructure and c-Fos expression in brain nuclei induced by abdominal surgery and the modulation by RKT in mice. RKT or vehicle was gavaged daily for 1 week. On day 8 mice had no access to food for 6-7 h and were treated twice with RKT or vehicle. Abdominal surgery (laparotomy-cecum palpation was performed 1-2 h before the dark phase. The food intake and meal structures were monitored using an automated monitoring system for mice. Brain sections were processed for c-Fos immunoreactivity (ir 2-h after abdominal surgery. Abdominal surgery significantly reduced bouts, meal frequency, size and duration, and time spent on meals, and increased inter-meal interval and satiety ratio resulting in 92-86% suppression of food intake at 2-24 h post-surgery compared with control group (no surgery. RKT significantly increased bouts, meal duration and the cumulative 12-h food intake by 11%. Abdominal surgery increased c-Fos in the prelimbic, cingulate and insular cortexes, and autonomic nuclei, such as the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, central amygdala, hypothalamic supraoptic (SON, paraventricular and arcuate nuclei, Edinger-Westphal nucleus (E-W, lateral periaqueduct gray (PAG, lateral parabrachial nucleus, locus coeruleus, ventrolateral medulla and nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS. RKT induced a small increase in c-Fos-ir neurons in the SON and E-W of control mice, and in mice with surgery there was an increase in the lateral PAG and a decrease in the NTS. These findings indicate that abdominal surgery inhibits food intake by increasing both satiation (meal duration and satiety (meal interval and activates brain circuits involved in pain, feeding behavior and stress that may underlie the alterations of meal pattern and food intake inhibition

  16. Cocaine accumulates in dopamine-rich regions of primate brain after i.v. administration: comparison with mazindol distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madras, B K; Kaufman, M J

    1994-11-01

    Pharmacological and neurochemical evidence suggest that brain dopamine systems, and the dopamine transporter in particular, contribute significantly to the behavioral effects and reinforcing properties of cocaine. The first objective of this study was to determine whether the brain distribution of cocaine supports these conclusions. A high resolution neuroanatomical map of cocaine disposition in brain after i.v. administration was developed. [3H]Cocaine ([3H](-)-cocaine) was administered to squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) at a trace dose (0.001 mg/kg) and at doses at or above the threshold for producing behavioral effects (0.1 mg/kg, 0.3 mg/kg). After 15 min, ex vivo autoradiography revealed the highest accumulation of [3H]cocaine in dopamine-rich brain regions, including the caudate nucleus, putamen, and nucleus accumbens/olfactory tubercle. The norepinephrine-rich locus coeruleus, the hippocampus, and amygdala also accumulated large quantities of [3H]cocaine. Moderately high levels were found in the stria terminalis, medial septum, substantia nigra, and other regions. Lowest levels were found in the cerebellum. A high and positive correlation was established for the brain distribution of [3H]cocaine administered at trace or at behaviorally relevant doses (r: 0.94; P mazindol, a potent norepinephrine and dopamine transport inhibitor with low abuse liability in humans. The disposition of intravenously administered [3H]mazindol in brain (0.001 mg/kg, 0.007 mg/kg) was surveyed by ex vivo autoradiography. In sharp contrast to [3H]cocaine distribution, the highest accumulation of [3H]mazindol was localized in the norepinephrine-rich pineal gland, discrete regions of the hypothalamus (paraventricular nucleus, supraoptic nucleus), and the locus coeruleus. Moderately high levels were detected in the caudate-putamen, nucleus accumbens, and other regions. The following conclusions were drawn: (1) Although dopamine-rich brain regions are principal targets of cocaine

  17. Connectivity between the superior colliculus and the amygdala in humans and macaque monkeys: virtual dissection with probabilistic DTI tractography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Kristin; Bultitude, Janet H.; Mullins, Paul; Ward, Robert; Mitchell, Anna S.; Bell, Andrew H.

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that some cortically blind patients can process the emotional valence of visual stimuli via a fast, subcortical pathway from the superior colliculus (SC) that reaches the amygdala via the pulvinar. We provide in vivo evidence for connectivity between the SC and the amygdala via the pulvinar in both humans and rhesus macaques. Probabilistic diffusion tensor imaging tractography revealed a streamlined path that passes dorsolaterally through the pulvinar before arcing rostrally to traverse above the temporal horn of the lateral ventricle and connect to the lateral amygdala. To obviate artifactual connectivity with crossing fibers of the stria terminalis, the stria was also dissected. The putative streamline between the SC and amygdala traverses above the temporal horn dorsal to the stria terminalis and is positioned medial to it in humans and lateral to it in monkeys. The topography of the streamline was examined in relation to lesion anatomy in five patients who had previously participated in behavioral experiments studying the processing of emotionally valenced visual stimuli. The pulvinar lesion interrupted the streamline in two patients who had exhibited contralesional processing deficits and spared the streamline in three patients who had no deficit. Although not definitive, this evidence supports the existence of a subcortical pathway linking the SC with the amygdala in primates. It also provides a necessary bridge between behavioral data obtained in future studies of neurological patients, and any forthcoming evidence from more invasive techniques, such as anatomical tracing studies and electrophysiological investigations only possible in nonhuman species. PMID:26224780

  18. MAPEAMENTO DE INDÚSTRIAS CRIATIVAS EM SERGIPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmara Menezes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A criatividade é um valor existente em qualquer sociedade. É um recurso inato do ser humano e provavelmente, o mais potente, porque a criatividade desafia e questiona as formas, estruturas e hierarquias. O termo indústrias criativas surgiu nos anos 90, para designar setores nos quais a criatividade é uma dimensão essencial do negócio. As Indústrias Criativas, portanto, são aquelas que têm sua origem na criatividade, habilidade e talento individuais, e possuem o potencial para a criação de riqueza e empregos através da geração e da exploração da propriedade intelectual, compreendem, entre outras, as atividades relacionadas ao cinema, ao teatro, à música e às artes plásticas. O presente artigo traça um painel de discussões sobre as indústrias criativas trazendo visões, definições sobre o tema e mapeamento das indústrias.

  19. REUSO DO EFLUENTE TRATADO NA INDÚSTRIA CURTIDORA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Heinz Luersen

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a possibilidade de reúso do efluente líquido tratado de uma indústria curtidora, foi realizada esta pesquisa. O procedimento experimental comparou a produção de couros confeccionados com água potável, extraída de poços artesianos, com couros produzidos a partir do efluente líquido final tratado. Para alcançar este objetivo, foram realizados testes físicos e químicos através de análises em laboratório (análises químicas e de resistências físicas e avaliações organolépticas executadas por profissionais do setor de couro (quanto a cor, firmeza de flor, enchimento e toque. A avaliação analítica e a das características organolépticas não indicam diferenças representativas quando comparadas aos padrões de referência da ABNT de couros produzidos, permitindo, assim, concluir que o reúso de efluente tratado não altera a aparência dos artigos de couro.

  20. Extending the amygdala in theories of threat processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Andrew S.; Oler, Jonathan A.; Tromp, Do P.M.; Fudge, Julie L.; Kalin, Ned H.

    2015-01-01

    The central extended amygdala is an evolutionarily conserved set of interconnected brain regions that play an important role in threat processing to promote survival. Two core components of the central extended amygdala, the central nucleus of the amygdala (Ce) and the lateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) are highly similar regions that serve complimentary roles by integrating fear- and anxiety-relevant information. Survival depends on the central extended amygdala's ability to rapidly integrate and respond to threats that vary in their immediacy, proximity, and characteristics. Future studies will benefit from understanding alterations in central extended amygdala function in relation to stress-related psychopathology. PMID:25851307

  1. Effects of pelvic, pudendal, or hypogastric nerve cuts on Fos induction in the rat brain following vaginocervical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaus, James G; Manitt, Colleen; Coopersmith, Carol B

    2006-12-30

    In the female rat, genitosensory input is conveyed to the central nervous system predominantly through the pelvic, pudendal, and hypogastric nerves. The present study examined the relative contribution of those three nerves in the expression of Fos immunoreactivity within brain regions previously shown to be activated by vaginocervical stimulation (VCS). Bilateral transection of those nerves, or sham neurectomy, was conducted in separate groups of ovariectomized, sexually-experienced females. After recovery, females were primed with estrogen and progesterone and given either 50 manual VCSs with a lubricated glass rod over the course of 1 h. VCS increased the number of neurons expressing Fos immunoreactivity in the medial preoptic area, lateral septum, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, ventromedial hypothalamus, and medial amygdala of sham neurectomized females. Transection of the pelvic nerve reduced Fos immunoreactivity in the medial preoptic area, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, ventromedial hypothalamus, and medial amygdala, whereas transection of the pudendal nerve had no effect. In contrast, transection of the hypogastric nerve increased Fos immunoreactivity in the medial preoptic area and lateral septum, whereas transaction of the pelvic nerve increased Fos immunoreactivity in the lateral septum, following VCS. All females given VCS, except those with pelvic neurectomy, displayed a characteristic immobility during each application. These data confirm that the pelvic nerve is largely responsible for the neural and behavioral effects of VCS, and support a separate function for the hypogastric nerve.

  2. Callous-unemotional traits drive reduced white-matter integrity in youths with conduct problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeden, A L; Cardinale, E M; Lozier, L M; VanMeter, J W; Marsh, A A

    2015-10-01

    Callous-unemotional (CU) traits represent a significant risk factor for severe and persistent conduct problems in children and adolescents. Extensive neuroimaging research links CU traits to structural and functional abnormalities in the amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. In addition, adults with psychopathy (a disorder for which CU traits are a developmental precursor) exhibit reduced integrity in uncinate fasciculus, a white-matter (WM) tract that connects prefrontal and temporal regions. However, research in adolescents has not yet yielded similarly consistent findings. We simultaneously modeled CU traits and externalizing behaviors as continuous traits, while controlling for age and IQ, in order to identify the unique relationship of each variable with WM microstructural integrity, assessed using diffusion tensor imaging. We used tract-based spatial statistics to evaluate fractional anisotropy, an index of WM integrity, in uncinate fasciculus and stria terminalis in 47 youths aged 10-17 years, of whom 26 exhibited conduct problems and varying levels of CU traits. Whereas both CU traits and externalizing behaviors were negatively correlated with WM integrity in bilateral uncinate fasciculus and stria terminalis/fornix, simultaneously modeling both variables revealed that these effects were driven by CU traits; the severity of externalizing behavior was not related to WM integrity after controlling for CU traits. These results indicate that WM abnormalities similar to those observed in adult populations with psychopathy may emerge in late childhood or early adolescence, and may be critical to understanding the social and affective deficits observed in this population.

  3. Tallinna Lennujaama vana terminali renoveerimine = Renovation of Tallinn Airport's old terminal / Epp Lankots

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lankots, Epp, 1976-

    2005-01-01

    Arhitektid: Andres Põime, Reet Põime, Tiiu Truus. Tallinna Lennujaama reisijateterminali projekteerisid 1939. a. arhitektid Roman Koolmar ja Artur Jürvetson, hoone valmis Paula Koido rekonstrueerimisprojekti järgi. Ill.: 2 värv. sisevaadet, välisvaade

  4. Muuga terminal 2 - panus Vene Raudteele. Konkurent tooks terminali teenuste odavnemise / Jaroslav Tavgen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tavgen, Jaroslav

    2011-01-01

    Muuga konteinerterminali operaatori konkursi kaotanud Muuga CT omanik AS Transiidikeskus ei ole Tallinna Sadama otsusega rahul ja leiab, et selle konkursi võitnud Rail Garant ei suuda kaubavedu suurendada

  5. TRANSFORMAÇÃO DA INDÚSTRIA CRIATIVA PELA INTERNET: O CASO DA INDÚSTRIA FONOGRÁFICA NO BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    silvia novaes zilber

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse trabalho foi descrever o modelo de negócio dos criadores e distribuidores de conteúdo da indústria fonográfica a partir do uso da Internet, entendida como inovação.. O método empregado foi o estudo de casos múltiplos, com quatro criadores de conteúdo (artistas e dois distribuidores de conteúdo (uma major- Sony- e uma indie.Os resultados mostraram transformações no produto (digital ao invés de suporte físico, distribuição- feita por lojas virtuais, ocorrendo a desintermediação, possibilitando artistas conectarem-se diretamente a seus clientes, e faturamento aumentado para artistas e distribuidores indie, que se beneficiaram da divulgação pela Internet, enquanto que distribuidoras major não perceberam esse aumento, talvez devido à pirataria.

  6. NPBWR1 and NPBWR2: implications in energy homeostasis, pain, and emotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi eSakurai

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Neuropeptide B/W receptor 1 (NPBWR1 and NPBWR2 had been known as orphan receptors GPR7 and 8, respectively. Endogenous peptide ligands of these receptors, neuropeptide B and neuropeptide W, were identified in 2002 and 2003 (1-3. These peptides have been implicated in regulation of feeding behavior, energy homeostasis, neuroendocrine function, and modulating inflammatory pain. In addition, strong and discrete expression of their receptors in the extended amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis suggests a potential role in regulating stress responses, emotion, anxiety and fear. Recent studies of NPB/NPW using both pharmacological and phenotypic analyses of genetically engineered mice as well as a human study support this hypothesis.

  7. Photoperiod reverses the effects of estrogens on male aggression via genomic and nongenomic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trainor, Brian C; Lin, Shili; Finy, M Sima; Rowland, Michael R; Nelson, Randy J

    2007-06-05

    Despite recent discoveries of the specific contributions of genes to behavior, the molecular mechanisms mediating contributions of the environment are understudied. We demonstrate that the behavioral effects of estrogens on aggression are completely reversed by a discrete environmental signal, day length. Selective activation of either estrogen receptor alpha or beta decreases aggression in long days and increases aggression in short days. In the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, one of several nuclei in a neural circuit that controls aggression, estrogen-dependent gene expression is increased in long days but not in short days, suggesting that estrogens decrease aggression by driving estrogen-dependent gene expression. Estradiol injections increased aggression within 15 min in short days but not in long days, suggesting that estrogens increase aggression in short days primarily via nongenomic pathways. These data demonstrate that the environment can dictate how hormones affect a complex behavior by altering the molecular pathways targeted by steroid receptors.

  8. Receptors for GRP/bombesin-like peptides in the rat forebrain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, S.S.; Moody, T.W.

    1985-01-01

    Binding sites in the rat forebrain were characterized using ( 125 I-Tyr4)bombesin as a receptor probe. Pharmacology experiments indicate that gastrin releasing peptide (GRP) and the GRP fragments GRP as well as Ac-GRP inhibited radiolabeled (Tyr4)bombesin binding with high affinity. Biochemistry experiments indicated that heat, N-ethyl maleimide or trypsin greatly reduced radiolabeled (Tyr4)bombesin binding. Also, autoradiographic studies indicated that highest grain densities were present in the stria terminalis, periventricular and suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus, dorsomedial and rhomboid thalamus, dentate gyrus, hippocampus and medial amygdaloid nucleus. The data suggest that CNS protein receptors, which are discretely distributed in the rat forebrain, may mediate the action of endogenous GRP/bombesin-like peptides

  9. Neudesin is involved in anxiety behavior: structural and neurochemical correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley eNovais

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Neudesin (also known as neuron derived neurotrophic factor, Nenf is a scarcely studied putative non-canonical neurotrophic factor. In order to understand its function in the brain, we performed an extensive behavioral characterization (motor, emotional and cognitive dimensions of neudesin-null mice. The absence of neudesin leads to an anxious-like behavior as assessed in the elevated plus maze, light/dark box and novelty suppressed feeding tests, but not in the acoustic startle test. This anxious phenotype is associated with reduced dopaminergic input and impoverished dendritic arborizations in the dentate gyrus granule neurons of the ventral hippocampus. Interestingly, shorter dendrites are also observed in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST of neudesin-null mice. These findings lead us to suggest that neudesin is a novel relevant player in the maintenance of the anxiety circuitry.

  10. IMPLICAÇÕES DO MAPEAMENTO DE FLUXO DE VALOR NA INDÚSTRIA

    OpenAIRE

    Pedroso, Larissa Batisti; Isoppo, Anelise; Bitencourt, Jaqueline; Pacheco, Diego Augusto de Jesus

    2016-01-01

    Este estudo tem por objetivo analisar o impacto ao se realizar o mapeamento do fluxo de valor atual e projetar o estado futuro em uma indústria de equipamentos de limpeza. O foco do estudo é a redução do lead time de produção utilizando práticas da manufatura enxuta. Para conduzir a pesquisa foram realizadas pesquisas em documentos da empresa para obtenção de dados históricos, revisão bibliográfica e a aplicação de estudo de caso. Os principais resultados da pesquisa demonstram que a aplicaçã...

  11. HIDROFOBICIDADE DE RIBOTIPOS DE BACILLUS CEREUS ISOLADOS DE INDÚSTRIA DE LATICÍNIOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliane Andrade ARAÚJO

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available

    A contaminação de superfícies por microrganismos deterioradores e patogênicos é causa de preocupação na indústria de alimentos. Desenvolvimento de biofilmes em ambientes de processamento de alimentos resulta na deterioração do produto e em possíveis riscos para a saúde pública, além de criar sérios problemas nas operações de processamento do fl uido. A adesão da bactéria à superfície é um dos primeiros passos para a formação do biofilme e propriedades físico-químicas da interface bacteriana infl uenciam o processo de adesão microbiana e, consequentemente, os procedimentos operacionais de higienização. A estrutura do biofilme e as características fisiológicas do microrganismo podem conferir resistência aos agentes antimicrobianos, como por exemplo, aos sanitizantes usados no procedimento de higienização. Dentre os fatores que infl uenciam o processo de adesão, as características de hidrofobicidade do microrganismo e da superfície apresentam grande importância nos mecanismos de adesão. As técnicas da medição do ângulo de contato e da coluna de interação hidrofóbica, para determinação da hidrofobicidade de superfícies de ribotipos de Bacillus cereus isolados de indústria de laticínios, foram avaliadas. Observou-se que as quatro superfícies dos ribotipos avaliados apresentaram a mesma classificação quanto à hidrofobicidade tanto pela medida do ângulo de contato com a água quanto pela determinação da energia livre de interação hidrofóbica (ΔGsas TOT. Três ribotipos foram considerados hidrofílicos e um hidrofóbico. Já a técnica da coluna de interação hidrofóbica não mostrou diferença (p>0,05 no percentual de células retidas na coluna, sugerindo que as superfícies dos ribotipos apresentam as mesmas características quanto à hidrofobicidade. Os resultados indicam que a técnica da medição do ângulo de contato é a mais indicada para avaliar a hidrofobicidade de superfícies celulares. A determinação da hidrofobicidade da superfície celular é relevante, uma vez que quando se conhece também a hidrofobicidade da superfície de processamento é possível predizer se a adesão bacteriana é termodinamicamente favorável, a fim de adotar métodos eficientes para reduzir a contaminação de B.cereus e conseqüente adesão e formação de biofilmes.

  12. ALINHAMENTO ESTRATÃGICO INFORMACIONAL NA INDÃSTRIA DE MEDICAMENTOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynaldo Cavalheiro Marcondes

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo identificar o nível de alinhamento das dimensões da informação entre dois elos da cadeia de suprimentos, a indústria de medicamentos e as farmácias e drogarias segundo a abordagem da gestão da cadeia de suprimentos. Para tanto, foi utilizada uma amostra de 85 empresas, sendo 51 delas varejistas de farmácias e drogarias e 34 fabricantes de medicamentos, localizadas na região metropolitana da cidade de São Paulo, SP. A pesquisa é de natureza exploratória descritiva, com aporte quantitativo, tendo os dados sidos coletados por meio de um questionário estruturado com questões fechadas. Os resultados evidenciaram que ocorre o alinhamento em padrões pouco significativos entre as dimensões da informação quando comparados os dados informacionais desses dois elos pesquisados. Como essa evidência contrasta com a literatura que defende que a gestão da cadeia de suprimentos deve apresentar elevado alinhamento estratégico das informações com seus parceiros, foram formuladas algumas hipóteses sobre essa constatação.

  13. REPRESENTAÇÕES DO TRABALHO: ESTUDO SOBRE CONFINAMENTO NA INDÚSTRIA PETROLÍFERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Medeiros Ribeiro Salles

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the influence of the confined work system on the organizational environment representations and social behaviors, inside and outside the workplace. Confinement may be referred to as a total experience in the workplace, imposing special work and life regimes over workers. The study, based on Bourdieu´s and on Moscovici’s Social Representations Theory, explored how confined workers construct meanings and representations of their work through free evocation and discourse analysis. Forty interviews were conducted in two large companies in the oil industry, with head offices in the cities of Rio de Janeiro and Duque de Caxias (RJ. The results presented confirmed the influence of confined work environments in the formation of beliefs and the consolidation of specific behaviors, based on defense mechanisms designed to maintain psychological stability of workers, essential to survival in such environments.

  14. XILITOL: UM ADOÇANTE ALTERNATIVO PARA A INDÚSTRIA DE ALIMENTOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVIO SILVéRIO DA SILVA

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available

    RESUMO: O xilitol é um açúcar-álcool de grande valor econômico e social, devido à sua ampla utilização em vários segmentos industriais. Esta revisão pretende mostrar algumas das aplicações mais significativas do xilitol nas indústrias de alimentos, odontológica e farmacêutica. PALAVRAS – CHAVE: Xilitol; adoçante.

  15. XILITOL: UM ADOÇANTE ALTERNATIVO PARA A INDÚSTRIA DE ALIMENTOS

    OpenAIRE

    Silvio Silvério da SILVA; Michele VITOLO; Ismael Maciel de MANCILHA; Inês Conceição ROBERTO; Maria das Graças Almeida FELIPE

    2009-01-01

    RESUMO: O xilitol é um açúcar-álcool de grande valor econômico e social, devido à sua ampla utilização em vários segmentos industriais. Esta revisão pretende mostrar algumas das aplicações mais significativas do xilitol nas indústrias de alimentos, odontológica e farmacêutica. PALAVRAS – CHAVE: Xilitol; adoçante.

  16. XILITOL: UM ADOÇANTE ALTERNATIVO PARA A INDÚSTRIA DE ALIMENTOS

    OpenAIRE

    SILVIO SILVéRIO DA SILVA; MICHELE VITOLO; ISMAEL MACIEL DE MANCILHA; INêS CONCEIçãO ROBERTO; MARIA DAS GRAçAS ALMEIDA FELIPE

    2009-01-01

    RESUMO: O xilitol é um açúcar-álcool de grande valor econômico e social, devido à sua ampla utilização em vários segmentos industriais. Esta revisão pretende mostrar algumas das aplicações mais significativas do xilitol nas indústrias de alimentos, odontológica e farmacêutica. PALAVRAS – CHAVE: Xilitol; adoçante.

  17. TRATAMENTOS ALTERNATIVOS DO EFLUENTE DE UMA INDÚSTRIA DE CELULOSE BRANQUEADA E PAPEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Edmundo Bochetti Foelkel

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho procurou avaliar a eficiência de tratamento floculante com sulfato de alumínio ou cloreto férrico para o efluente bruto neutralizado de uma indústria de celulose e papel. A filtração do efluente, removendo fibras, finos, macromoléculas e flocos naturais, permitiu expressivas reduções da cor aparente, cor real e DQO do mesmo. Enquanto o sulfato de alumínio mostrou excelentes resultados, o cloreto férrico não teve bom desempenho. Deve-se otimizar as concentrações, as formas de agitação e a decantação dos flocos. Para as amostras testadas, na primeira seqüência de testes, concentrações com cerca de 2500 ppm de sulfato de alumínio (com 14 moléculas de água de hidratação mostraram ótimos resultados para redução de cor aparente, cor real, DQO e cloretos. Conforme o previsto, na segunda seqüência de testes as concentrações de [Al2(SO43 . 14 H2O] diminuíram para todos os índices físico-químicos testados. A melhor concentração para pH, cor aparente e cor real foi de 1000 ppm filtrado, enquanto que para cloretos foi de 2000 ppm não filtrado, com o tempo de agitação de 1 minuto com alta velocidade e 15 minutos à baixa velocidade, com exceção da cor real que foi de 10 minutos à baixa velocidade. Como recomendação, sugere-se avaliar uma etapa seqüencial de filtração após clarifloculação/decantação. Com isso, o desempenho de um tratamento físico-químico de efluentes desse tipo será eficiente, apesar do custo envolvido na aquisição do insumo sulfato de alumínio.

  18. ALINHAMENTO ESTRATÉGICO INFORMACIONAL NA INDÚSTRIA DE MEDICAMENTOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Giro Moori

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo identificar o nível de alinhamento das dimensões da informação entre dois elos da cadeia de suprimentos, a indústria de medicamentos e as farmácias e drogarias segundo a abordagem da gestão da cadeia de suprimentos. Para tanto, foi utilizada uma amostra de 85 empresas, sendo 51 delas varejistas de farmácias e drogarias e 34 fabricantes de medicamentos, localizadas na região metropolitana da cidade de São Paulo, SP. A pesquisa é de natureza exploratória descritiva, com aporte quantitativo, tendo os dados sidos coletados por meio de um questionário estruturado com questões fechadas. Os resultados evidenciaram que ocorre o alinhamento em padrões pouco significativos entre as dimensões da informação quando comparados os dados informacionais desses dois elos pesquisados. Como essa evidência contrasta com a literatura que defende que a gestão da cadeia de suprimentos deve apresentar elevado alinhamento estratégico das informações com seus parceiros, foram formuladas algumas hipóteses sobre essa constatação.

  19. INOVAÇÃO NO USO DE RESÍDUO DA INDÚSTRIA SUCROALCOOLEIRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Batista Sarmento dos Santos Neto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O desenvolvimento sustentável associado à solução de problemas que prejudicam de alguma maneira a sociedade é um assunto que merece destaque e abordagem ampla em pesquisas acadêmicas. A utilização de materiais alternativos buscando soluções para os problemas ocasionados pelo ruído procura, ao mesmo tempo, oferecer conforto e comodidade para o meio urbano, além de ser uma alternativa para destinação final de resíduos sólidos produzidos por demais setores da economia. Desta forma, o presente estudo tem o objetivo de desenvolver enchimento alternativo para drywall utilizando fibra residual do setor sucroalcooleiro com a finalidade de buscar condicionamento acústico. Após produção do material pesquisado, foi realizado o ensaio para a determinação do desempenho acústico por meio da Perda de Transmissão Sonora (TL, onde foram comparados os valores obtidos de TL do painel de drywall com o enchimento pesquisado, com painéis drywall com enchimentos de lã de vidro e ar. Ao fim dos ensaios, pode-se concluir que o painel com enchimento pesquisado obteve resultados superiores aos comparados quando analisado em baixas frequências.

  20. TRABALHO, AGRONEGÓCIO E GESTÃO TERRITORIAL DO CAPITAL NA AGROINDÚSTRIA SUCROALCOOLEIRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Thomaz Jr.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available As novas formas de controle do processo de trabalho e de gestão territorial do capital sobre a ctrabalhadora é o que estamos nos dedicando. Questões como superexploração do trabalho, incrementoconcentração da propriedade da terra, articulada ou não com a centralização e concentração de capfortalecimento das relações de assalariamento por um lado, e de relações não assalariadas por outro - como nodos produtores camponeses, integrados, em bases familiares, com a explicitação das diferentes formaapropriação da renda da terra e do excedente, é o substrato em que o agronegócio está implementando seu prode expansão e ganhos com base em diferentes ações simultâneas. Assim, a efetivação dos investimentostecnologia associadas às formas de gestão e controle do processo de trabalho colocam ao mesmo tempo, ndesafios ao movimento sindical. Desde os controles microprocessados na planta fabril, passando pela intensificdo corte mecanizado da cana, à sofisticação dos mecanismos de gestão e controle do processo de produçãoforça de trabalho, incluindo-se a ampliação do processo de terceirização e da participação das cooperativas de mde-obra, bem como as reais possibilidades que se abrem para a constituição de cadeias produtivas (comobagaço e da sucroalcoolquímica, ultrapassam, os limites do ramo agroindustrial sucroalcooleiro e, aindrecrudescimento da concentração e centralização de capital. Temos que considerar também o novo ceninstitucional, que por um lado, remete ao culto à negociação, às reminiscências das câmaras setoriais, permanecos trabalhadores imersos na roda viva dos desígnios do capital.

  1. AS INDÚSTRIAS CULTURAIS E CRIATIVAS BASEADAS NOS CÍRCULOS CONCÊNTRICOS

    OpenAIRE

    Fabiane Barili; Juliano Varella de Carvalho; Marta Rosecler Bez

    2016-01-01

    Este artigo se propõe a demonstrar um panorama atualizado dos setores criativos do I Congresso de Indústrias Criativas, realizado na Universidade Feevale em 2015. Ele identifica como os trabalhos do congresso se relacionam com o modelo de Economia Criativa apresentado pela UNESCO, em sua edição de 2013. Este estudo apresenta uma fundamentação teórica sobre os conceitos de Indústria Criativa, Economia Criativa e Indústria Cultural, com o auxílio dos principais teóricos da área. Metodologicamen...

  2. AS INDÚSTRIAS CULTURAIS E CRIATIVAS BASEADAS NOS CÍRCULOS CONCÊNTRICOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane Barili

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo se propõe a demonstrar um panorama atualizado dos setores criativos do I Congresso de Indústrias Criativas, realizado na Universidade Feevale em 2015. Ele identifica como os trabalhos do congresso se relacionam com o modelo de Economia Criativa apresentado pela UNESCO, em sua edição de 2013. Este estudo apresenta uma fundamentação teórica sobre os conceitos de Indústria Criativa, Economia Criativa e Indústria Cultural, com o auxílio dos principais teóricos da área. Metodologicamente, este trabalho se realiza com a técnica da bibliometria, leitura e análise dos dados coletados. Sendo assim, este trabalho demonstra um panorama atualizado dos setores criativos, observando quais deles estão em maior crescimento a partir dos trabalhos analisados. O estudo revelou uma pulverização de estudos na área e que o setor da Indústria Criativa em maior evidência é aquele relacionado com áreas de publicidade, televisão e moda. Também se destacam a interdisciplinaridade e as mais diferentes áreas de formação dos profissionais que atuam na Indústria Criativa. Palavras-chave: Indústria Criativa. Economia Criativa. Economia Cultural.

  3. APOIO À DECISÃO DE COMPRA NA INDÚSTRIA DE CIMENTOS E DERIVADOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Felinto de Farias Aires

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available O setor da construção civil é um dos mais dinâmicos setores da economia brasileira, impactando toda a complexa cadeia de atividades ligadas à construção, como, por exemplo, a produção de cimento. Assim, todas as indústrias ligadas à produção desse material necessitam tomar decisões da melhor maneira de forma a competirem no acirrado mercado brasileiro de cimento - quarto maior produtor do mundo. Por conta disso, o objetivo deste estudo é desenvolver um modelo multicritério para apoiar a compra de uma linha de ensacamento e paletização de pós para uma indústria de cimentos e derivados. Para isso, este estudo de caso exploratório empregou o método ELECTRE II ao problema a partir de quatro critérios. O resultado é apresentado por meio de um ranking das alternativas estudadas e as implicações deste. Concluiu-se que os resultados apresentados foram satisfatórios devido à robustez e a implicação prática dos mesmos.

  4. Genoarchitecture of the extended amygdala in zebra finch, and expression of FoxP2 in cell corridors of different genetic profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicario, Alba; Mendoza, Ezequiel; Abellán, Antonio; Scharff, Constance; Medina, Loreta

    2017-01-01

    We used a battery of genes encoding transcription factors (Pax6, Islet1, Nkx2.1, Lhx6, Lhx5, Lhx9, FoxP2) and neuropeptides to study the extended amygdala in developing zebra finches. We identified different components of the central extended amygdala comparable to those found in mice and chickens, including the intercalated amygdalar cells, the central amygdala, and the lateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. Many cells likely originate in the dorsal striatal domain, ventral striatal domain, or the pallidal domain, as is the case in mice and chickens. Moreover, a cell subpopulation of the central extended amygdala appears to originate in the prethalamic eminence. As a general principle, these different cells with specific genetic profiles and embryonic origin form separate or partially intermingled cell corridors along the extended amygdala, which may be involved in different functional pathways. In addition, we identified the medial amygdala of the zebra finch. Like in the chickens and mice, it is located in the subpallium and is rich in cells of pallido-preoptic origin, containing minor subpopulations of immigrant cells from the ventral pallium, alar hypothalamus and prethalamic eminence. We also proposed that the medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis is composed of several parallel cell corridors with different genetic profile and embryonic origin: preoptic, pallidal, hypothalamic, and prethalamic. Several of these cell corridors with distinct origin express FoxP2, a transcription factor implicated in synaptic plasticity. Our results pave the way for studies using zebra finches to understand the neural basis of social behavior, in which the extended amygdala is involved.

  5. The suprachiasmatic nucleus-paraventricular nucleus interactions: a bridge to the neuroendocrine and autonomic nervous system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, R. M.; Hermes, M. H.; Kalsbeek, A.

    1998-01-01

    Vasopressin (VP) is one of the principal neurotransmitters of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). By means of anatomical, physiological and electrophysiological techniques we have demonstrated that VP containing pathways from the SCN serve to affect neuroendocrine and 'autonomic' neurons in the

  6. GABAergic projections from lateral hypothalamus to paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus promote feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesions of the lateral hypothalamus (LH) cause hypophagia. However, activation of glutamatergic neurons in LH inhibits feeding. These results suggest a potential importance for other LH neurons in stimulating feeding. Our current study in mice showed that disruption of GABA release from adult LH GAB...

  7. Neuroendocrine adaptation to stress in pigs, CRH and vasopressin in the paraventricular nucleus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karman, A.G.

    2003-01-01

    Differences in coping strategy present at birth as well as housing conditions may influence autonomic and endocrine stress responses.In rodents,corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and vasopressin (VP) signaling in the

  8. Vitamin D and the paraventricular nucleus: Relevance for type 2 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) affects over 400 million adults worldwide, often occurs on a background of insulin resistance in obesity, and is a leading risk factor for cardiovascular disease. While insulin resistance is known to be a contributing factor to the development of T2DM, the full mechanisms behi...

  9. Angiotensin II of paraventricular nucleus is exaggerated the renal ischemia-reperfusion injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behjat Seifi

    2014-05-01

    Conclusion: These data showed that the PVN is a responsive site for central Ang II-induced damage in renal IR injury. We suggested the central effects of Ang II in the PVN on renal IR injury are mediated by oxidative stress in the PVN, and the peripheral effects by a sympathetic pathway.

  10. The extended amygdala and salt appetite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, A. K.; de Olmos, J.; Pastuskovas, C. V.; Zardetto-Smith, A. M.; Vivas, L.

    1999-01-01

    Both chemo- and mechanosensitive receptors are involved in detecting changes in the signals that reflect the status of body fluids and of blood pressure. These receptors are located in the systemic circulatory system and in the sensory circumventricular organs of the brain. Under conditions of body fluid deficit or of marked changes in fluid distribution, multiple inputs derived from these humoral and neural receptors converge on key areas of the brain where the information is integrated. The result of this central processing is the mobilization of homeostatic behaviors (thirst and salt appetite), hormone release, autonomic changes, and cardiovascular adjustments. This review discusses the current understanding of the nature and role of the central and systemic receptors involved in the facilitation and inhibition of thirst and salt appetite and on particular components of the central neural network that receive and process input derived from fluid- and cardiovascular-related sensory systems. Special attention is paid to the structures of the lamina terminalis, the area postrema, the lateral parabrachial nucleus, and their association with the central nucleus of the amygdala and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in controlling the behaviors that participate in maintaining body fluid and cardiovascular homeostasis.

  11. Phytophtora terminalis sp. nov. and Phytophthora occultans sp. nov., two invasive pathogens of ornamental plants in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Man in 't Veld, W.A.; Rosendahl, K.C.H.M.; Rijswick, van P.C.J.; Meffert, J.P.; Westenberg, M.; Vossenberg, van de B.T.L.H.; Denton, G.; Kuik, van A.J.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives
    To evaluate, among the elderly, the association of self-rated health (SRH) with mortality, and to identify determinants of self-rating health as “at-least-good”.

    Study Design
    Individual data on SRH and important covariates were obtained for 424,791 European and Unites

  12. Maternal Gestational Hypertension-Induced Sensitization of Angiotensin II Hypertension Is Reversed by Renal Denervation or Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibition in Rat Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Baojian; Yin, Haifeng; Guo, Fang; Beltz, Terry G; Thunhorst, Robert L; Johnson, Alan Kim

    2017-04-01

    Numerous findings demonstrate that there is a strong association between maternal health during pregnancy and cardiovascular disease in adult offspring. The purpose of the present study was to test whether maternal gestational hypertension modulates brain renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and proinflammatory cytokines that sensitizes angiotensin II-elicited hypertensive response in adult offspring. In addition, the role of renal nerves and the RAAS in the sensitization process was investigated. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analyses of structures of the lamina terminalis and paraventricular nucleus indicated upregulation of mRNA expression of several RAAS components and proinflammatory cytokines in 10-week-old male offspring of hypertensive dams. Most of these increases were significantly inhibited by either renal denervation performed at 8 weeks of age or treatment with an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, captopril, in drinking water starting at weaning. When tested beginning at 10 weeks of age, a pressor dose of angiotensin II resulted in enhanced upregulation of mRNA expression of RAAS components and proinflammatory cytokines in the lamina terminalis and paraventricular nucleus and an augmented pressor response in male offspring of hypertensive dams. The augmented blood pressure change and most of the increases in gene expression in the offspring were abolished by either renal denervation or captopril. The results suggest that maternal hypertension during pregnancy enhances pressor responses to angiotensin II through overactivity of renal nerves and the RAAS in male offspring and that upregulation of the brain RAAS and proinflammatory cytokines in these offspring may contribute to maternal gestational hypertension-induced sensitization of the hypertensive response to angiotensin II. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. PRESENÇA DE DISLIPIDEMIA E USO DE ESTATINAS EM TRABALHADORES DA AGROINDÚSTRIA E PRODUTORES RURAIS: ESTUDO PRELIMINAR

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    Caroline Glier

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Alterações no perfil lipídico estão relacionados ao estilo de vida e comumente são tratadas com estatinas. Desta forma, esta pesquisa objetiva caracterizar trabalhadores da agroindústria e produtores rurais quanto à presença de dislipidemia e uso de estatinas, associado a variáveis demográficas. Estudo transversal e analítico, com 127 sujeitos da região do Conselho Regional de Desenvolvimento do Vale do Rio Pardo, avaliados em 2012-2013. O uso de estatinas bem como as variáveis demográficas (sexo, faixa etária, estado civil, classe econômico e escolaridade foram obtidas por questionários. A definição da presença ou ausência de dislipidemia foi definida pelos marcadores bioquímicos, obtidos através de coleta sanguínea, após 12 horas de jejum. Os dados foram analisados com medidas de frequência e percentual, além do teste Exato de Fisher (p < 0,05. Constatou-se que 61,4% dos sujeitos eram dislipidêmicos, dos quais 89,7% não usavam estatinas. Houveram diferenças demográficas quanto a faixa etária entre aqueles que usam ou não estatinas tanto na presença de dislipidemia (p = 0,006 quanto em sua ausência (p=0,022. Verificou-se o desconhecimento e falta de controle dos níveis do perfil lipídico por alguns indivíduos.

  14. AVALIAÇÃO DE DESEMPENHO EMPRESARIAL: ESTUDO DE CASO DE UMA AGROINDÚSTRIA NO RS

    OpenAIRE

    Cánepa, Daniela; Ludwig, Vanelli Salati

    2009-01-01

    This article seeks to discuss the relevance of the performance indicators in the process of business management, and to indicate the importance of the alignment of these indicators with the business strategy. In a competitive environment, companies face increasing difficulties in order to keep their market competitiveness. In this sense, the financial indicators turn out to be insufficient to assess the business performance, and the utilization of non-financial indicators gets more importance...

  15. INOVAÇÃO EM PRODUTO: ESTUDO LEXICAL NAS INDÚSTRIAS GAÚCHAS DE BENEFICIAMENTO DE ARROZ

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    Carlos Otávio Zamberlan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O arroz é considerado um importante produto na economia mundial, pois é consumido em vários países e continentes. Todavia, a maior parte dos países consumidores são também produtores e as empresas que o beneficiam enfrentam uma grande concorrência. Para ganhar em competitividade a inovação deve se fazer presente. Este artigo tem como objetivo analisar as inovações em produto por parte das empresas beneficiadoras do Rio Grande do Sul, maior produtor nacional. Para isso, utilizou-se de métodos qualitativos baseados em análise lexical e de conteúdo. Concluiu-se que ocorrem inovações tanto incrementais em produtos existentes, bem como no lançamento de novos produtos visando, também, o fortalecimento de marca, o aumento de opções para o cliente, entre outros motivos.

  16. GESTÃO DA QUALIDADE COMO ESTRATÉGIA PARA MELHORIAS NO RENDIMENTO OPERACIONAL DE INDÚSTRIAS QUEIJEIRAS

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    Luiz Célio Souza Rocha

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Quando se analisa o setor de lácteos brasileiro, constata-se que muitas empresas ainda estão distantes da implementação de estratégias que possibilitem o alcance de diferenciais competitivos. O presente trabalho buscou quantificar as perdas operacionais em uma fábrica de queijo localizada no Município de Rio Pomba/MG considerando o não uso de um programa de garantia da qualidade que refletisse na melhoria da matéria-prima. Como resultado, obteve-se que o rendimento foi significativamente afetado pelo tempo de armazenamento. Por fim, conclui-se que a implementação da gestão da qualidade na indústria queijeira analisada melhoraria seu desempenho operacional e econômico.

  17. CARACTERÍSTICA DOS SEGMENTOS SETORIAIS NO BRASIL: UMA BREVE ABORDAGEM SOBRE O SETOR DA AGROINDÚSTRIA

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    Diogo Del Fiori

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho se propõe a fazer uma análise das características setoriais do Brasil desde a segunda metade do século XIX até a data presente, com o objetivo de mostrar que embora tenham ocorrido intervenções do Estado para a realização do processo de industrialização ao longo da história brasileira, nota-se que elas foram de certa forma ineficiente, e acabaram influenciando a trajetória dos setores econômicos de tal forma que na data presente, o Brasil possui a predominância de exportação dos setores básicos, sendo uma verdadeira contradição para as metas que o Brasil almeja alcançar nas próximas décadas. Este trabalho sugere que o Brasil necessita rever suas políticas e escolher algum setor líder no mercado mundial e o setor da Agroindústria poderia ser o segmento econômico líder do país, conforme será abordado neste trabalho. Palavras-Chave: Indústrias, Estado, Setores Abstract: This work intends to make an analysis of industry characteristics in Brazil since the mid-nineteenth century to the present date in order to show that although there were state interventions to the achievement of industrialization throughout history Brazilian note that they were somewhat inefficient, and ultimately influencing the trajectory of economic sectors so that at the present time, Brazil has the predominance of the basic sectors of export, being a real contradiction to the goals that Brazil intends to reach the coming decades. This work suggests that Brazil needs to review its policies and choose a sector leader in the world market and agribusiness sector could be the key economic sector in Brazil, according to his approach in this work. Key Words: Industries, State, Sectors

  18. PROSPECÇÃO TECNOLÓGICA: PROCESSO DE LIOFILIZAÇÃO NA INDÚSTRIA DE ALIMENTOS

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira Junior, Antonio Martins de; Universidade Federal de Sergipe; Oliveira, Gardenia Rocha; Universidade Federal de Sergipe; Santos, Jéssica Teles Siqueira; Universidade Federal de Sergipe; Campos, Ananda Fontes Pinheiro; Universidade Federal de Sergipe; Nunes, Tatiana Pacheco; Universidade Federal de Sergipe; Russo, Suzana Leitão; Universidade Federal de Sergipe

    2013-01-01

    O processo de liofilização ou secagem pelo frio “freeze drying” ou “lyophilization”, apresenta uma série de vantagens quanto à manutenção das características originais dos produtos, pelo fato de não submetê-lo a elevadas temperaturas conforme outros processos de desidratação. Preservação do sabor e aroma, aumento da estabilidade através da diminuição da atividade de água, que minimiza a deterioração do alimento durante o armazenamento, são vantagens deste processo. A aplicação da liofilização...

  19. PROSPECÇÃO TECNOLÓGICA: PROCESSO DE LIOFILIZAÇÃO NA INDÚSTRIA DE ALIMENTOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Martins de Oliveira Junior

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O processo de liofilização ou secagem pelo frio “freeze drying” ou “lyophilization”, apresenta uma série de vantagens quanto à manutenção das características originais dos produtos, pelo fato de não submetê-lo a elevadas temperaturas conforme outros processos de desidratação. Preservação do sabor e aroma, aumento da estabilidade através da diminuição da atividade de água, que minimiza a deterioração do alimento durante o armazenamento, são vantagens deste processo. A aplicação da liofilização em produtos alimentícios ainda é cara, sendo empregada com maior frequência, na fabricação de produtos nobres que necessitam de reidratação rápida e completa. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as perspectivas e a evolução das competências tecnológicas traduzidas através dos depósitos de patentes referentes à aplicação da liofilização na indústria alimentícia, bem como mapear as pesquisas desenvolvidas. A prospecção foi realizada no Banco Europeu de Patente, no Banco de Dados do Instituto Nacional de Propriedade Intelectual do Brasil, no Banco da Organização Mundial de Propriedade Intelectual e no Banco Americano de Marcas e Patentes. A classificação internacional mais frequente nessa prospecção foi Subseção A23 e principalmente na Subclasse A23L. Com a palavra chave freeze-drying e CIP A23L a República da Coreia, apresentou-se como o maior depositante. Os dados permitem concluir que se trata de uma área promissora, com crescimento de patentes depositadas.

  20. ANÁLISE DO DESEMPENHO ORGANIZACIONAL NO AGRONEGÓCIO BRASILEIRO: APLICANDO À AGROINDÚSTRIA DE PAPEL E CELULOSE

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    MARCELO ALVARO DA SILVA MACEDO

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El Agronegocio es uno de los sectores más importantes de la economía brasileña y su segmento industrial tiene un papel significativo. Debido a esa relevancia, cuestiones técnicas y gerenciales merecen atención especial. Este artículo procura promover una discusión sobre el desempeño organizacional de empresas brasileñas de papel y celulosa, desde informaciones contables -financieras. Por medio de la aplicación del Análisis Envolvente de Datos (DEA, se busca identificar un índice de desempeño multicriterial para cada empresa y hacer un análisis de benchmarking para mostrar lo que las empresas ineficientes necesitan hacer para hacerse eficientes. Los resultados muestran que las mejores empresas son aquéllas que mejor com - binan sus inputs (índices del tipo cuanto menor mejor a los outputs que buscan (índices del tipo cuanto mayor mejor. Además, las peores empresas son aquéllas que necesitan cambios radicales en sus niveles de input y/o output para que alcancen el desempeño máximo.

  1. SUSCETIBILIDADE A ANTIMICROBIANOS DE STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS ISOLADOS DE MANIPULADORES DE INDÚSTRIA DE LATICÍNIOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williani Fabíola GRANDO

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi isolar Staphylococcus aureus de manipuladores de alimentos de um lacticínio e determinar sua suscetibilidade a diversos antimicrobianos. Para tal, coletaram-se amostras a partir das mãos e cavidade nasal de 29 manipuladores. Foram obtidos 58 cultivos suspeitos, os quais foram submetidos a testes bioquímicos e ao teste de suscetibilidade aos antimicrobianos ciprofloxacina, oxacilina, penicilina G, clindamicina, tetraciclina, eritromicina, nitrofurantoína, sulfazotrim, rifampicina e vancomicina através da técnica de difusão em disco. Foram isoladas 19 cepas de S. aureus, sendo 42,10% provenientes das mãos e 57,90% da cavidade nasal dos indivíduos avaliados. O maior índice de resistência foi encontrado para penicilina G (78,95%, seguido pela tetraciclina (26,31%, enquanto que o maior índice de sensibilidade foi observado para nitrofurantoína, sulfazotrim, rifampicina e vancomicina (100%, seguido da oxacilina (94,73% e ciprofloxacina (89,47%. De modo geral, as cepas apresentaram baixos níveis de resistência, entretanto, a presença de S. aureus nas mãos e cavidades nasais dos manipuladores desempenham papel importante na disseminação do micro-organismo.

  2. ESTILOS DE FUNCIONAMENTO E MECANISMOS DE APRENDIZAGEM EM UMA INDÚSTRIA CRIATIVA DE PUBLICIDADE E PROPAGANDA

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    Bruno Chaves Correia Lima

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available O estudo objetiva analisar a cultura organizacional quanto aos estilos de funcionamentoe aos mecanismos de aprendizagem em uma indústria de criação funcional. Trata-se deuma pesquisa quantitativa, descritiva, com uso de questionários estruturados. Utilizou-seestatísticas descritivas de médias, desvio-padrão e correlação mediante informações damaior empresa de publicidade e propaganda do Ceará. A cultura da organização é formadapela presença moderada e simultânea dos estilos empreendedor, afiliativo, burocrático eindividualista, predominando o primeiro. O único mecanismo de aprendizagem com nível altode ocorrência foi codificação e controle de conhecimento, evidenciando fraca correlação entreimportância atribuída e ocorrência desses mecanismos.

  3. BENEFÍCIOS DA IMPLANTAÇÃO DO SISTEMA DE GESTÃO AMBIENTAL NA INDÚSTRIA

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    Roberto Naime

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A preocupação com a preservação ambiental é relativamente recente na história das sociedades humanas, tendo nascido do grande desenvolvimento, com paralela produção de impactos ambientais decorrentes da aceleração do processo industrial. Este trabalho apresenta um estudo de caso de implantação de um sistema de Gestão Ambiental em uma empresa do setor automotivo. Sistematiza questões referentes à metodologia de implantação e em relação aos benefícios produzidos na produção em função do SGA. Aborda também as melhorias de qualidade de vida obtidas por funcionários e colaboradores. E finaliza qualificando os ganhos com a percepção da comunidade sobre a nova visão socioambiental que a empresa assume a partir da implantação de um Sistema de Gestão Ambiental. O trabalho objetiva estimular a reflexão de outras empresas e organizações sobre as vantagens globais da implantação de Sistemas de Gestão Ambiental. Palavras-chave: Gestão. Meio ambiente. Sistemas.

  4. A GUERRA DAS TUBAÍNAS: ESTRATÉGIAS COMPETITIVAS DAS INDÚSTRIAS DE REFRIGERANTES POPULARES

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    Luciel Henrique de Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tubaína is the generic name of a tutti-frutti flavored soft drink, produced by Brazilian industries, with many regional variations. These soft drinks are generally popular, very sweet, withlower price and local brand. This research aimed to describe the economic importance of the Brazilian soft drinks, from the point of view of small and medium manufacturers. What strategies used by theseindustries to face the big companies competition? How can these companies survive and grow in such a competitive market? The study had three objectives: (1 know and understand the popular soft drinkindustry, highlighting the participation of regional industries, (2 raise the popular soft drink industries of São Paulo State, highlighting the most relevant cases, (3 analyze prominent cases, relating them to theories of strategy envisaged. We found that the main strategy of small and mid-sized companies is to prioritize and focus their strength in regional markets where their factories are located. Producers invest in production vertical integration, modern equipment similar to those used by large enterprises, and innovation to reduce costs and gain a competitive advantage. Always they try to follow the trends set by big players hit the market. Combining the lower prices and a quality product to the local tradition of consuming these soft drinks, these companies can compete and annoy the major sector’s industries.

  5. A INDÚSTRIA CRIATIVA VERDE E ADAPTAÇÃO AMBIENTAL: O TURISMO CRIATIVO COMO MATERIALIZAÇÃO

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    André Rafael Weyermüller

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A inovação oriunda da criatividade e é o elemento chave para promover o adequado encaminhamento de diversas problemáticas da sociedade atual. A Indústria Criativa Verde é a fonte do desenvolvimento de produtos e serviços diferenciados, os quais conciliam aplicações no mercado com a necessidade de preservação ambiental. A legislação que se propõe a viabilizar ações inovadoras como na área do turismo, são representativas de uma proposta adaptativa que supera a sustentabilidade. Palavras-chave: Inovação. Adaptação. Direito. Turismo. Indústria Criativa.

  6. A INDÚSTRIA CRIATIVA VERDE E ADAPTAÇÃO AMBIENTAL: O TURISMO CRIATIVO COMO MATERIALIZAÇÃO

    OpenAIRE

    André Rafael Weyermüller; Pedro Ernesto Neubarth Jung; Maria Eduarda Lima da Rosa; Lucas Rodrigo Kehl

    2015-01-01

    A inovação oriunda da criatividade e é o elemento chave para promover o adequado encaminhamento de diversas problemáticas da sociedade atual. A Indústria Criativa Verde é a fonte do desenvolvimento de produtos e serviços diferenciados, os quais conciliam aplicações no mercado com a necessidade de preservação ambiental. A legislação que se propõe a viabilizar ações inovadoras como na área do turismo, são representativas de uma proposta adaptativa que supera a sustentabilidade. Palavras-cha...

  7. PRATICANTES DA ESTRATÉGIA E AS BASES PRAXEOLÓGICAS DA INDÚSTRIA DO MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Maciel, Cristiano Oliveira; Augusto, Paulo Otávio Mussi

    2015-01-01

    RESUMO No presente artigo, tentou-se ir além das explicações tradicionais sobre as modas gerenciais que configuram a indústria do management. Para tanto, foi adotada uma perspectiva praxeológica ao examinar as bases de sustentação dessa indústria. Os dados foram coletados durante um período de sete meses via observação, pesquisa documental e entrevistas em uma organização do emergente setor dos sites de vendas de cupons de desconto. A análise do processo de construção social dos praticantes d...

  8. ESTRATÉGIAS DE REDUÇÃO DA VARIABILIDADE DE PROCESSOS NA INDÚSTRIA CALÇADISTA

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    Taise Gross

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a case study of a Brazilian company, operating in the footwear sector, located in Parobé city, in the Valley of Paranhana, in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. The process analyzed showed high failure rates of manufactured batches and by quality analysis tools, the Statistical Process Control tools were applied to analyze the variability. The tools applied were the control charts, process capacity and capability analysis, histogram, Pareto chart and cause and effect analysis. The main results of the study were the reduction of the rejection indices of the process to zero and improvement in the capacity index from 0,424 to 1,52, demonstrating the reduction of the sources of variation of the production process and reaching the objectives The research. This research can be used by academics and professionals to improve the competitive performance of footwear companies.

  9. A TRAJETÓRIA DO SAMBA NO SÉCULO XX: DA MARGINALIDADE À INDÚSTRIA CULTURAL

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    Valdemar Valente Junior

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Uma visão panorâmica do samba a partir de sua inserção como produto cultural no Brasil do século XX. Sua configuração de gênero musical moderno e sua ascensão de manifestação periférica e marginal à condição de música definidora de um sentido de nacionalidade. A influência dos gêneros estrangeiros e o papel da indústria do rádio, do disco e mais tarde da televisão como multiplicadora de sua importância como música de consumo.

  10. PRÁTICAS DE GESTÃO DO CONHECIMENTO NAS INDÚSTRIAS PARANAENSES: UMA ABORDAGEM RELACIONADA À COMPETITIVIDADE

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    Alex Volnei Teixeira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The global picture of the twenty-first century presents the knowledge management as a strategy in the use of their practices to enhance intangible assets focusing better systematic processes and reach a higher performance of the organization. This article seeks to describe the importance of knowledge management practices Paraná industries. Data collection was done through a questionnaire, and as a result we sought to identify which practices are most important in this scenario knowledge management for the development of the organization to support the local industry.

  11. UM ESTUDO EXPLORATÓRIO SOBRE A INDÚSTRIA BRASILEIRA DE ANIMAÇÃO PARA A TV

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    Wilian Gatti Junior

    Full Text Available A economia criativa tem recebido pouca atenção da comunidade acadêmica, a despeito de sua importância econômica e cultural. Este artigo procura contribuir com a literatura sobre o tema com foco na indústria de animação, mais precisamente na produção de animações para a TV, pois recentemente o país produziu animações de sucesso na TV paga exibidas não só no Brasil, mas também em vários países. Este artigo procura analisar como as produtoras nacionais construíram vantagens competitivas que as possibilitaram obter êxito em suas produções em um mercado dominado por estúdios internacionais. Para atingir esse propósito foi conduzida uma pesquisa exploratório-descritiva analisando três produtoras (Flamma, TV PinGuim e 2DLab que exibem seu produto no canal Discovery Kids, voltado ao público préescolar. Foram entrevistados todos os sócios das produtoras (em um total de seis, dois de cada produtora, mais uma representante da indústria de animação para o cinema. Além das entrevistas, foram utilizados dados secundários, basicamente coletados na mídia (jornais, revistas e internet. O trabalho revelou a convergência de duas fontes de vantagens competitivas. A primeira ligada a fatores internos às produtoras estudadas (conhecimento técnico e visão do negócio e a segunda fonte ligada a fatores ambientais, criados pela cadeia produtiva dessa indústria (criação de novos canais de TV, interesse de parceiros internacionais e linhas de financiamento para a produção.

  12. IMPLEMENTAÇÃO DE PLANO DE LUBRIFICAÇÃO EM INDÚSTRIA FRIGORÍFICA DE BOVINOS

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    Alano De La Torre Silva

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado pelo meio de um estudo de caso em uma indústria frigorífica de bovinos. O plano de manutenção preventiva da empresa estudada possuía deficiências na parte de lubrificação dos equipamentos. Desta forma, este trabalho tem a finalidade de mostrar como é a implantação de um plano de lubrificação na empresa estudada. Foi implantado um plano de lubrificação destinado a cinco maquinas diferentes. Foram necessários três meses para a implantação do plano. Comparando-se o número de ordens de serviço de manutenções corretivas relacionadas à falta de lubrificação antes e três meses após a implantação do plano de lubrificação nas máquinas citadas, obteve-se um resultado satisfatório, pois houve uma redução de cerca de 50% das ordens de serviços para manutenção corretivas dos equipamentos,

  13. Betahistine exerts a dose-dependent effect on cochlear stria vascularis blood flow in guinea pigs in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fritz Ihler

    Full Text Available Betahistine is a histamine H(1-receptor agonist and H(3-receptor antagonist that is administered to treat Menière's disease. Despite widespread use, its pharmacological mode of action has not been entirely elucidated. This study investigated the effect of betahistine on guinea pigs at dosages corresponding to clinically used doses for cochlear microcirculation.Thirty healthy Dunkin-Hartley guinea pigs were randomly assigned to five groups to receive betahistine dihydrochloride in a dose of 1,000 mg/kg b. w. (milligram per kilogram body weight, 0.100 mg/kg b. w., 0.010 mg/kg b. w., 0.001 mg/kg b. w. in NaCl 0.9% or NaCl 0.9% alone as placebo. Cochlear blood flow and mean arterial pressure were continuously monitored by intravital fluorescence microscopy and invasive blood pressure measurements 3 minutes before and 15 minutes after administration of betahistine.When betahistine was administered in a dose of 1.000 mg/kg b. w. cochlear blood flow was increased to a peak value of 1.340 arbitrary units (SD: 0.246; range: 0.933-1.546 arb. units compared to baseline (p<0.05; Two Way Repeated Measures ANOVA/Bonferroni t-test. The lowest dosage of 0.001 mg/kg b. w. betahistine or NaCl 0.9% had the same effect as placebo. Nonlinear regression revealed that there was a sigmoid correlation between increase in blood flow and dosages.Betahistine has a dose-dependent effect on the increase of blood flow in cochlear capillaries. The effects of the dosage range of betahistine on cochlear microcirculation corresponded well to clinically used single dosages to treat Menière's disease. Our data suggest that the improved effects of higher doses of betahistine in the treatment of Menière's disease might be due to a corresponding increase of cochlear blood flow.

  14. FIXAÇÃO DE CO2 EM EFLUENTE SALINO DE INDÚSTRIA PETROQUÍMICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo F. Santos

    Full Text Available In various industrial processes, such as the process of obtaining potassium by solution mining or in the oil industry, fuels are burnt concurrently to the formation of saline effluents. The opportunity to sequester carbon through capturing the CO2 from the flue gas by carbonation of these effluents and reducing the potential of scaling of the water is evident. The use of saline industrial effluent from electrodialysis for carbon sequestration by mineralization of carbon dioxide is the focus of this work. The carbonation reaction of saline effluent of reverse electrodialysis, of low ionic strength and higher CO2 solubility, was simulated through OLI®. Precipitation tests were performed by bubbling 10-20 NL h-1 CO2 in a glass reactor containing the brine and pH adjusted to 8.9. The solid was characterized and the results from the simulation and the experiments were compared. The removal of calcium and strontium in the form of carbonates reach out up to 98% and 75%. The simulation results were in line with the experimental results for the calcium behavior, but not for strontium. The OLI® simulation was powerful to represent the calcium carbonate formation, however, comparisons between predicted Sr removal and testwork results presented differences and must be investigated.

  15. AVALIAÇÃO DA DISPERSÃO ATMOSFÉRICA DE COMPOSTOS ODORANTES EMITIDOS NA INDÚSTRIA PAPELEIRA

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    Waldir Nagel Schirmer

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available O caráter odorante de compostos reduzidos de enxofre (TRS, tipicamente emitidos na indústria papeleira, tem gerado grande interesse por parte dessas indústrias em predizer a qualidade do ar nas proximidades de suas fontes emissoras. Desse modo, o presente trabalho tem por objetivo avaliar o impacto na atmosfera resultante das emissões de TRS de uma fabricante de papel e celulose de grande porte, por meio da modelagem dos compostos gasosos emitidos a partir de duas fontes pontuais (tomadas como as maiores contribuidoras. Para tanto, foi utilizado o “software” AID (Avaliação Instantânea de Dispersão baseado no modelo de Gauss para determinação das concentrações (no ar resultantes dessas emissões. Nessa determinação, foram abordados os principais parâmetros meteorológicos (dos últimos 3 anos e cinéticos de emissão necessários à modelagem. A máxima concentração de TRS obtida após a modelagem foi de 3,84 ppb (somatório das duas fontes avaliadas, ficando bem abaixo dos limites de percepção odorífera (LPO recomendado por órgãos internacionais (o Brasil não possui leis específicas para esse caso. Como os limites de toxicidade quase sempre estão bem acima dos LPO, é seguro afirmar que, no caso avaliado, a concentração máxima estimada não apresenta riscos de toxicidade à população exposta, uma vez, pelo valor obtido, nem o odor pode ser percebido.

  16. FORMAÇÃO E ESTRUTURAÇÃO DO CAMPO ORGANIZACIONAL DA INDÚSTRIA PESQUEIRA EM CALLAO, PERU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuili Roberto Vela Ocaña

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo tem como finalidade, analisar a formação e a estruturação do campo organizacional da indústria pesqueira na região do Callao, Peru, apoiando-se nos pressupostos da teoria institucional. Utilizar o conceito de campo organizacional e aplicá-lo na indústria pesqueira permitirá determinar como estão se comportando as organizações que fazem parte do mesmo. Os resultados aqui apresentados, bem como a análise, foram elaborados a partir dos dados coletados em documentos assim, como em uma série de entrevistas semi-estruturadas com representantes das principais organizações que compõem o campo. O atual grau de estruturação do campo é moderado, por esta atividade centrar-se quase exclusivamente na produção de farinha de pescado e, descuidar os outros tipos de empresas existentes, mas também devido a fragilidade com a qual alguns indicadores se apresentaram no campo. A influência do setor privado é determinante dessa situação.

  17. Melatonin sees the light: blocking GABA-ergic transmission in the paraventricular nucleus induces daytime secretion of melatonin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalsbeek, A.; Garidou, M. L.; Palm, I. F.; van der Vliet, J.; Simonneaux, V.; Pévet, P.; Buijs, R. M.

    2000-01-01

    Despite a pronounced inhibitory effect of light on pineal melatonin synthesis, usually the daily melatonin rhythm is not a passive response to the surrounding world. In mammals, and almost every other vertebrate species studied so far, the melatonin rhythm is coupled to an endogenous pacemaker, i.e.

  18. Efferent connections from the lateral hypothalamic region and the lateral preoptic area to the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus of the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, P J; Hay-Schmidt, Anders; Mikkelsen, J D

    1994-01-01

    , iontophoretic injections of the anterograde tracer Phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin were delivered into distinct areas of the lateral hypothalamic region. Neurons of the intermediate hypothalamic area projected mainly to the PVN subnuclei, which contained parvicellular neuroendocrine cells. In contrast...

  19. An activation of parvocellular oxytocinergic neurons in the paraventricular nucleus in oxytocin-induced yawning and penile erection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kita, Ichiro; Yoshida, Yasushi; Nishino, Seiji

    2006-04-01

    Intracerebroventricular (ICV) or PVN local injections of oxytocin induce yawning and penile erection, for which a positive feedback mechanism for the PVN oxytocinergic activation is suggested, but this had not been directly substantiated in vivo. We have assessed the behavioral effects and activity of oxytocinergic neurons with double-staining for c-Fos and oxytocin in the PVN after ICV administration of oxytocin in adult male rats. ICV oxytocin injections (50 and 200 ng) dose-dependently induced yawning and penile erection and significantly increased the percentage of c-Fos positive oxytocin neurons in the medial, dorsal and lateral parvocellular subdivision of the PVN. However, increases in the magnocellular portion were not significant. We also found that lithium chloride (LiCl, 0.5 and l.0 mEq), a compound known to activate oxytocinergic neurons, also significantly increased the percentage of c-Fos positive oxytocin neurons in all PVN portions. However, LiCl did not induce yawning and penile erection, but counteracted the oxytocin-induced yawning and penile erection. These results suggest that if the activation of oxytocinergic neurons in the PVN is important for mediating oxytocin-induced yawning and penile erection, a selective activation of parvocellular oxytocinergic neurons in the PVN is likely to be involved.

  20. Circuit and synaptic mechanisms of repeated stress: Perspectives from differing contexts, duration, and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin G. Bath

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The current review is meant to synthesize research presented as part of a symposium at the 2016 Neurobiology of Stress workshop in Irvine California. The focus of the symposium was “Stress and the Synapse: New Concepts and Methods” and featured the work of several junior investigators. The presentations focused on the impact of various forms of stress (altered maternal care, binge alcohol drinking, chronic social defeat, and chronic unpredictable stress on synaptic function, neurodevelopment, and behavioral outcomes. One of the goals of the symposium was to highlight the mechanisms accounting for how the nervous system responds to stress and their impact on outcome measures with converging effects on the development of pathological behavior. Dr. Kevin Bath's presentation focused on the impact of disruptions in early maternal care and its impact on the timing of hippocampus maturation in mice, finding that this form of stress drove accelerated synaptic and behavioral maturation, and contributed to the later emergence of risk for cognitive and emotional disturbance. Dr. Scott Russo highlighted the impact of chronic social defeat stress in adolescent mice on the development and plasticity of reward circuity, with a focus on glutamatergic development in the nucleus accumbens and mesolimbic dopamine system, and the implications of these changes for disruptions in social and hedonic response, key processes disturbed in depressive pathology. Dr. Kristen Pleil described synaptic changes in the bed nuclei of the stria terminalis that underlie the behavioral consequences of allostatic load produced by repeated cycles of alcohol binge drinking and withdrawal. Dr. Eric Wohleb and Dr. Ron Duman provided new data associating decreased mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR signaling and neurobiological changes in the synapses in response to chronic unpredictable stress, and highlighted the potential for the novel antidepressant ketamine to rescue

  1. Circuits regulating pleasure and happiness: the evolution of the amygdalar-hippocampal-habenular connectivity in vertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton J.M. Loonen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Appetitive-searching (reward-seeking and distress-avoiding (misery-fleeing behavior are essential for all free moving animals to stay alive and to have offspring. Therefore, even the oldest ocean-dwelling animal creatures, living about 560 million years ago and human ancestors, must have been capable of generating these behaviors. The current article describes the evolution of the forebrain with special reference to the development of the misery-fleeing system. Although the earliest vertebrate ancestor already possessed a dorsal pallium, which corresponds to the human neocortex, the structure and function of the neocortex was acquired quite recently within the mammalian evolutionary line. Up to, and including, amphibians, the dorsal pallium can be considered to be an extension of the medial pallium, which later develops into the hippocampus. The ventral and lateral pallium largely go up into the corticoid part of the amygdala. The striatopallidum of these early vertebrates becomes extended amygdala, consisting of centromedial amygdala (striatum connected with the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (pallidum. This amygdaloid system gives output to hypothalamus and brainstem, but also a connection with the cerebral cortex exists, which in part was created after the development of the more recent cerebral neocortex. Apart from bidirectional connectivity with the hippocampal complex, this route can also be considered to be an output channel as the fornix connects the hippocampus with the medial septum, which is the most important input structure of the medial habenula. The medial habenula regulates the activity of midbrain structures adjusting the intensity of the misery-fleeing response. Within the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis the human homologue of the ancient lateral habenula-projecting globus pallidus may exist; this structure is important for the evaluation of efficacy of the reward-seeking response. The described organization offers a

  2. The Neuroendocrinology of Thirst and Salt Appetite: Visceral Sensory Signals and Mechanisms of Central Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Alan Kim; Thunhorst, Robert L.

    1997-01-01

    This review examines recent advances in the study of the behavioral responses to deficits of body water and body sodium that in humans are accompanied by the sensations of thirst and salt appetite. Thirst and salt appetite are satisfied by ingesting water and salty substances. These behavioral responses to losses of body fluids, together with reflex endocrine and neural responses, are critical for reestablishing homeostasis. Like their endocrine and neural counterparts, these behaviors are under the control of both excitatory and inhibitory influences arising from changes in osmolality, endocrine factors such as angiotensin and aldosterone, and neural signals from low and high pressure baroreceptors. The excitatory and inhibitory influences reaching the brain require the integrative capacity of a neural network which includes the structures of the lamina terminalis, the amygdala, the perifornical area, and the paraventricular nucleus in the forebrain, and the lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPBN), the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), and the area postrema in the hindbrain. These regions are discussed in terms of their roles in receiving afferent sensory input and in processing information related to hydromineral balance. Osmoreceptors controlling thirst are located in systemic Viscera and in central structures that lack the blood-brain barrier. Angiotensin and aldosterone act on and through structures of the lamina terminalis and the amygdala to stimulate thirst and sodium appetite under conditions of hypovolemia. The NTS and LPBN receive neural signals from baroreceptors and are responsible for inhibiting the ingestion of fluids under conditions of increased volume and pressure and for stimulating thirst under conditions of bypovolemia and hypotension. The interplay of multiple facilitory influences within the brain may take the form of interactions between descending angiotensinergic systems originating in the forebrain and ascending adrenergic systems emanating

  3. The Endocannabinoid System and Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisboa, S F; Gomes, F V; Terzian, A L B; Aguiar, D C; Moreira, F A; Resstel, L B M; Guimarães, F S

    2017-01-01

    The medical properties of Cannabis sativa is known for centuries. Since the discovery and characterization of the endogenous cannabinoid system, several studies have evaluated how cannabinoid compounds and, particularly, how the modulation of the endocannabinoid (eCB) system influences a wide range of functions, from metabolic to mental disorders. Cannabinoids and eCB system often exert opposite effects on several functions, such as anxiety. Although the mechanisms are not completely understood, evidence points to different factors influencing those effects. In this chapter, the recent advances in research about the relationship between eCB system and anxiety disorders in humans, as well as in animal models, will be discussed. The recent data addressing modulation of the eCBs in specific brain areas, such as the medial prefrontal cortex, amygdaloid complex, bed nucleus of stria terminalis, hippocampus, and dorsal periaqueductal gray, will be summarized. Finally, data from animal models addressing the mechanisms through which the eCB system modulates anxiety-related behavior dependent on stressful situations, such as the involvement of different receptors, distinct eCBs, modulation of neurotransmitters release, HPA axis and immune system activation, and plastic mechanisms, will also be discussed. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Subcortical BOLD responses during visual sexual stimulation vary as a function of implicit porn associations in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Charmaine; de Jong, Peter J; Georgiadis, Janniko R

    2014-02-01

    Lifetime experiences shape people's attitudes toward sexual stimuli. Visual sexual stimulation (VSS), for instance, may be perceived as pleasurable by some, but as disgusting or ambiguous by others. VSS depicting explicit penile-vaginal penetration (PEN) is relevant in this respect, because the act of penetration is a core sexual activity. In this study, 20 women without sexual complaints participated. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging and a single-target implicit association task to investigate how brain responses to PEN were modulated by the initial associations in memory (PEN-'hot' vs PEN-disgust) with such hardcore pornographic stimuli. Many brain areas responded to PEN in the same way they responded to disgust stimuli, and PEN-induced brain activity was prone to modulation by subjective disgust ratings toward PEN stimuli. The relative implicit PEN-disgust (relative to PEN-'hot') associations exclusively modulated PEN-induced brain responses: comparatively negative (PEN-disgust) implicit associations with pornography predicted the strongest PEN-related responses in the basal forebrain (including nucleus accumbens and bed nucleus of stria terminalis), midbrain and amygdala. Since these areas are often implicated in visual sexual processing, the present findings should be taken as a warning: apparently their involvement may also indicate a negative or ambivalent attitude toward sexual stimuli.

  5. Chronic social isolation enhances reproduction in the monogamous prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Adam N; Carter, C Sue; Cushing, Bruce S

    2016-06-01

    Chronic stressors are generally considered to disrupt reproduction and inhibit mating. Here we test the hypothesis that a chronic stressor, specifically social isolation, can facilitate adaptive changes that enhance/accelerate reproductive effort. In general, monogamous species display high levels of prosociality, delayed sexual maturation, and greater parental investment in fewer, higher quality offspring compared with closely related polygynous species. We predicted that chronic social isolation would promote behavioral and neurochemical patterns in prairie voles associated with polygyny. Male and female prairie voles were isolated for four weeks and changes in mating behavior, alloparental care, estrogen receptor (ER) α expression and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression in brain regions regulating sociosexual behavior were examined. In males, isolation accelerated copulation, increased ERα in the medial amygdala (MEApd) and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTpm), and reduced TH expression in the MEApd and BSTpm, but had no effect on alloparental behavior. In females, isolation resulted in more rapid estrus induction and reduced TH expression in the MEApd and BSTpm, but had no effect on estradiol sensitivity or ERα expression. The results support the hypothesis that ERα expression in the MEApd and BSTpm is a critical determinant of male copulatory behavior and/or mating system. The lack of change in alloparental behavior suggests that changes in prosocial behavior are selective and regulated by different mechanisms. The results also suggest that TH in the MEApd and BSTpm may play a critical role in determining mating behavior in both sexes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Imaging of aromatase distribution in rat and rhesus monkey brains with [{sup 11}C]vorozole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Kayo [Division of Pharmacology, Department of Neuroscience, Uppsala University, Uppsala SE-75124 (Sweden); Uppsala Imanet, Uppsala SE-75109 (Sweden)]. E-mail: kayo.takahashi@uppsala.imanet.se; Bergstroem, Mats [Uppsala Imanet, Uppsala SE-75109 (Sweden); Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala SE-75124 (Sweden); Fraendberg, Pernilla [Uppsala Imanet, Uppsala SE-75109 (Sweden); Vesstroem, Eva-Lotta [Uppsala Imanet, Uppsala SE-75109 (Sweden); Watanabe, Yasuyoshi [Department of Physiology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka 545-8585 (Japan); Langstroem, Bengt [Uppsala Imanet, Uppsala SE-75109 (Sweden)

    2006-07-15

    Aromatase is an enzyme that converts androgens to estrogens and may play a role in mood and mental status. The aim of this study was to demonstrate that brain aromatase distribution could be evaluated with a novel positron emission tomography (PET) tracer [{sup 11}C]vorozole. Vorozole is a nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor that reversibly binds to the heme domain of aromatase. In vitro experiments in rat brain, using frozen section autoradiography, illustrated specific binding in the medial amygdala (MA), the bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BST) and the preoptic area (POA) of male rat brain. Specific binding in female rat brain was found in the MA and the BST; however, the signals were lower than those of males. The K {sub d} of [{sup 11}C]vorozole binding to aromatase in MA was determined to be 0.60{+-}0.06 nM by Scatchard plot analysis using homogenates. An in vivo PET study in female rhesus monkey brain demonstrated the uptake of [{sup 11}C]vorozole in the amygdala, where the uptake was blocked by the presence of excess amounts of unlabeled vorozole. Thus, this tracer has a high affinity for brain aromatase and could have a potential for in vivo aromatase imaging. This technique might enable the investigation of human brain aromatase in healthy and diseased persons.

  7. Effects of estrous cycle and xenoestrogens expositions on mice nitric oxide producing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotti, Stefano; Martini, Mariangela; Viglietti-Panzica, Carla; Miceli, Desiree; Panzica, GianCarlo

    2010-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO)-containing neurons are widely distributed within the central nervous system, including regions involved in the control of reproduction and sexual behavior. Nitrergic neurons may co-localize with gonadal hormone receptors and gonadal hormones may influence neuronal NO synthase expression in adulthood as well as during development. In rodents, the female, in physiological conditions, is exposed to short-term changes of gonadal hormones levels (estrous cycle). Our studies, performed in mouse hypothalamic and limbic systems, reveal that the expression of neuronal NO synthase may vary according to the rapid variations of hormonal levels that take place during the estrous cycle. This is in accordance with the hypothesis that gonadal hormone activation of NO-cGMP pathway is important for mating behavior. NO-producing system appears particularly sensitive to alterations of endocrine balance during development, as demonstrated by our experiments utilizing perinatal exposure to bisphenol A, an endocrine disrupting chemical. In fact, significant effects were detected in adulthood in the medial preoptic nucleus and in the ventromedial subdivision of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. Therefore, alteration of the neuronal NO synthase expression may be one of the causes of the important behavioral alterations observed in bisphenol-exposed animals.

  8. Dynorphin Controls the Gain of an Amygdalar Anxiety Circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole A. Crowley

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Kappa opioid receptors (KORs are involved in a variety of aversive behavioral states, including anxiety. To date, a circuit-based mechanism for KOR-driven anxiety has not been described. Here, we show that activation of KORs inhibits glutamate release from basolateral amygdala (BLA inputs to the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST and occludes the anxiolytic phenotype seen with optogenetic activation of BLA-BNST projections. In addition, deletion of KORs from amygdala neurons results in an anxiolytic phenotype. Furthermore, we identify a frequency-dependent, optically evoked local dynorphin-induced heterosynaptic plasticity of glutamate inputs in the BNST. We also find that there is cell type specificity to the KOR modulation of the BLA-BNST input with greater KOR-mediated inhibition of BLA dynorphin-expressing neurons. Collectively, these results provide support for a model in which local dynorphin release can inhibit an anxiolytic pathway, providing a discrete therapeutic target for the treatment of anxiety disorders.

  9. Autoradiographic distribution of /sup 125/I-galanin binding sites in the rat central nervous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skofitsch, G.; Sills, M.A.; Jacobowitz, D.M.

    1986-11-01

    Galanin (GAL) binding sites in coronal sections of the rat brain were demonstrated using autoradiographic methods. Scatchard analysis of /sup 125/I-GAL binding to slide-mounted tissue sections revealed saturable binding to a single class of receptors with a Kd of approximately 0.2 nM. /sup 125/I-GAL binding sites were demonstrated throughout the rat central nervous system. Dense binding was observed in the following areas: prefrontal cortex, the anterior nuclei of the olfactory bulb, several nuclei of the amygdaloid complex, the dorsal septal area, dorsal bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the ventral pallidum, the internal medullary laminae of the thalamus, medial pretectal nucleus, nucleus of the medial optic tract, borderline area of the caudal spinal trigeminal nucleus adjacent to the spinal trigeminal tract, the substantia gelatinosa and the superficial layers of the dorsal spinal cord. Moderate binding was observed in the piriform, periamygdaloid, entorhinal, insular cortex and the subiculum, the nucleus accumbens, medial forebrain bundle, anterior hypothalamic, ventromedial, dorsal premamillary, lateral and periventricular thalamic nuclei, the subzona incerta, Forel's field H1 and H2, periventricular gray matter, medial and superficial gray strata of the superior colliculus, dorsal parts of the central gray, peripeduncular area, the interpeduncular nucleus, substantia nigra zona compacta, ventral tegmental area, the dorsal and ventral parabrachial and parvocellular reticular nuclei. The preponderance of GAL-binding in somatosensory as well as in limbic areas suggests a possible involvement of GAL in a variety of brain functions.

  10. No impact of deep brain stimulation on fear-potentiated startle in obsessive-compulsive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna M.P. Baas

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Deep brain stimulation (DBS of the ventral internal capsule is effective in treating therapy refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD. Given the close proximity of the stimulation site to the stria terminalis (BNST, we hypothesized that the striking decrease in anxiety symptoms following DBS could be the result of the modulation of contextual anxiety. However, the effect of DBS in this region on contextual anxiety is as of yet unknown. Thus, the current study investigated the effect of DBS on contextual anxiety in an experimental threat of shock paradigm. Eight patients with DBS treatment for severe OCD were tested in a double-blind crossover design with randomly assigned two-week periods of active and sham stimulation. DBS resulted in significant decrease of obsessive-compulsive symptoms, anxiety and depression. However, even though the threat manipulation resulted in a clear context potentiated startle effect, none of the parameters derived from the startle recordings was modulated by the DBS. This suggests that DBS in the ventral internal capsule is effective in treating anxiety symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder without modulating the startle circuitry. We hypothesize that the anxiety symptoms present in OCD are likely distinct from the pathological brain circuits in defensive states of other anxiety disorders.

  11. Statistical modeling implicates neuroanatomical circuit mediating stress relief by 'comfort' food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M; Christiansen, Anne M; Wang, Xia; Song, Seongho; Herman, James P

    2016-07-01

    A history of eating highly palatable foods reduces physiological and emotional responses to stress. For instance, we have previously shown that limited sucrose intake (4 ml of 30 % sucrose twice daily for 14 days) reduces hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis responses to stress. However, the neural mechanisms underlying stress relief by such 'comfort' foods are unclear, and could reveal an endogenous brain pathway for stress mitigation. As such, the present work assessed the expression of several proteins related to neuronal activation and/or plasticity in multiple stress- and reward-regulatory brain regions of rats after limited sucrose (vs. water control) intake. These data were then subjected to a series of statistical analyses, including Bayesian modeling, to identify the most likely neurocircuit mediating stress relief by sucrose. The analyses suggest that sucrose reduces HPA activation by dampening an excitatory basolateral amygdala-medial amygdala circuit, while also potentiating an inhibitory bed nucleus of the stria terminalis principle subdivision-mediated circuit, resulting in reduced HPA activation after stress. Collectively, the results support the hypothesis that sucrose limits stress responses via plastic changes to the structure and function of stress-regulatory neural circuits. The work also illustrates that advanced statistical methods are useful approaches to identify potentially novel and important underlying relationships in biological datasets.

  12. Conservatism and the neural circuitry of threat: economic conservatism predicts greater amygdala-BNST connectivity during periods of threat vs safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Walker S; Muftuler, L Tugan; Larson, Christine L

    2018-01-01

    Political conservatism is associated with an increased negativity bias, including increased attention and reactivity toward negative and threatening stimuli. Although the human amygdala has been implicated in the response to threatening stimuli, no studies to date have investigated whether conservatism is associated with altered amygdala function toward threat. Furthermore, although an influential theory posits that connectivity between the amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is important in initiating the response to sustained or uncertain threat, whether individual differences in conservatism modulate this connectivity is unknown. To test whether conservatism is associated with increased reactivity in neural threat circuitry, we measured participants' self-reported social and economic conservatism and asked them to complete high-resolution fMRI scans while under threat of an unpredictable shock and while safe. We found that economic conservatism predicted greater connectivity between the BNST and a cluster of voxels in the left amygdala during threat vs safety. These results suggest that increased amygdala-BNST connectivity during threat may be a key neural correlate of the enhanced negativity bias found in conservatism. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  13. c-fos Changes following an aggressive encounter in female California mice: a synthesis of behavior, hormone changes and neural activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, E S; Marler, C A

    2004-01-01

    Although there has been growing interest in the neuroanatomical and physiological mechanisms underlying aggressive behavior, little work has focused on possible mechanisms controlling natural plasticity in aggression. In the current study, we used naturally occurring changes in aggression level displayed by female Peromyscus californicus across the estrous cycle and parallel changes in c-fos expression to examine possible brain regions involved in mediating this plasticity. We found that c-fos expression was increased in females exposed to a conspecific female intruder compared with control females in numerous brain regions thought to be involved in the control of aggression. More importantly, we found that c-fos increased in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) and ventral lateral septum (LSv) only in the more aggressive, diestrous females, and not in the less aggressive, proestrous and estrous females. Conversely, c-fos increased in the medial amygdala (MeA) across all stages of estrus compared with controls, suggesting the MeA is not involved in mediating changes in individual levels of aggression. Moreover, we found correlations between several measures of aggression and c-fos expression in the BNST and LSv but not the MeA, again suggesting a role in mediating aggression plasticity for the former two but not the latter brain region. We further hypothesize that the BNST and the LSv may be involved more generally in mediating natural changes in aggression, such as increases often observed after individuals win aggressive interactions against conspecifics.

  14. Behavioral transition from attack to parenting in male mice: a crucial role of the vomeronasal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachikawa, Kashiko S; Yoshihara, Yoshihiro; Kuroda, Kumi O

    2013-03-20

    Sexually naive male mice show robust aggressive behavior toward pups. However, the proportion of male mice exhibiting pup-directed aggression declines after cohabitation with a pregnant female for 2 weeks after mating. Subsequently, on becoming fathers, they show parental behavior toward pups, similar to maternal behavior by mothers. To elucidate the neural mechanisms underlying this behavioral transition, we examined brain regions differentially activated in sexually naive males and fathers after exposure to pups, using c-Fos expression as a neuronal activation marker. We found that, after pup exposure, subsets of neurons along the vomeronasal neural pathway-including the vomeronasal sensory neurons, the accessory olfactory bulb, the posterior medial amygdala, the medioposterior division of the bed nucleus of stria terminalis, and the anterior hypothalamic area-were more strongly activated in sexually naive males than in fathers. Notably, c-Fos induction was not observed in the vomeronasal sensory neurons of fathers after pup exposure. Surgical ablation of the vomeronasal organ in sexually naive males resulted in the abrogation of pup-directed aggression and simultaneous induction of parental behavior. These results suggest that chemical cues evoking pup-directed aggression are received by the vomeronasal sensory neurons and activate the vomeronasal neural pathway in sexually naive male mice but not in fathers. Thus, the downregulation of pup pheromone-induced activation of the vomeronasal system might be important for the behavioral transition from attack to parenting in male mice.

  15. Brain structures and neurotransmitters regulating aggression in cats: implications for human aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, T R; Siegel, A

    2001-01-01

    1. Violence and aggression are major public health problems. 2. The authors have used techniques of electrical brain stimulation, anatomical-immunohistochemical techniques, and behavioral pharmacology to investigate the neural systems and circuits underlying aggressive behavior in the cat. 3. The medial hypothalamus and midbrain periaqueductal gray are the most important structures mediating defensive rage behavior, and the perifornical lateral hypothalamus clearly mediates predatory attack behavior. The hippocampus, amygdala, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, septal area, cingulate gyrus, and prefrontal cortex project to these structures directly or indirectly and thus can modulate the intensity of attack and rage. 4. Evidence suggests that several neurotransmitters facilitate defensive rage within the PAG and medial hypothalamus, including glutamate, Substance P, and cholecystokinin, and that opioid peptides suppress it; these effects usually depend on the subtype of receptor that is activated. 5. A key recent discovery was a GABAergic projection that may underlie the often-observed reciprocally inhibitory relationship between these two forms of aggression. 6. Recently, Substance P has come under scrutiny as a possible key neurotransmitter involved in defensive rage, and the mechanism by which it plays a role in aggression and rage is under investigation. 7. It is hoped that this line of research will provide a better understanding of the neural mechanisms and substrates regulating aggression and rage and thus establish a rational basis for treatment of disorders associated with these forms of aggression.

  16. Contributions of the Central Extended Amygdala to Fear and Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackman, Alexander J; Fox, Andrew S

    2016-08-03

    It is widely thought that phasic and sustained responses to threat reflect dissociable circuits centered on the central nucleus of the amygdala (Ce) and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST), the two major subdivisions of the central extended amygdala. Early versions of this hypothesis remain highly influential and have been incorporated into the National Institute of Mental Health Research Research Domain Criteria framework. However, new observations encourage a different perspective. Anatomical studies show that the Ce and BST form a tightly interconnected unit, where different kinds of threat-relevant information can be integrated and used to assemble states of fear and anxiety. Imaging studies in humans and monkeys show that the Ce and BST exhibit similar functional profiles. Both regions are sensitive to a range of aversive challenges, including uncertain or temporally remote threat; both covary with concurrent signs and symptoms of fear and anxiety; both show phasic responses to short-lived threat; and both show heightened activity during sustained exposure to diffusely threatening contexts. Mechanistic studies demonstrate that both regions can control the expression of fear and anxiety during sustained exposure to diffuse threat. These observations compel a reconsideration of the central extended amygdala's contributions to fear and anxiety and its role in neuropsychiatric disease. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/368050-14$15.00/0.

  17. Autoradiographic localization of (125I-Tyr4)bombesin-binding sites in rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarbin, M.A.; Kuhar, M.J.; O'Donohue, T.L.; Wolf, S.S.; Moody, T.W.

    1985-01-01

    The binding of ( 125 I-Tyr 4 )bombesin to rat brain slices was investigated. Radiolabeled (Tyr 4 )bombesin bound with high affinity (K/sub d/ . 4 nM) to a single class of sites (B/sub max/ . 130 fmol/mg of protein); the ratio of specific to nonspecific binding was 6/1. Also, pharmacology studies indicated that the C-terminal of bombesin was important for the high affinity binding activity. Autoradiographic studies indicated that the ( 125 I-Tyr4)bombesin-binding sites were discretely distributed in certain gray but not white matter regions of rat brain. Highest grain densities were present in the olfactory bulb and tubercle, nucleus accumbens, suprachiasmatic and periventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus, central medial thalamic nucleus, medial amygdaloid nucleus, hippocampus, dentate gyrus, subiculum, nucleus of the solitary tract, and substantia gelatinosa. Moderate grain densities were present in the parietal cortex, deep layers of the neocortex, rhinal cortex, caudate putamen, stria terminalis, locus ceruleus, parabrachial nucleus, and facial nucleus. Low grain densities were present in the globus pallidus, lateral thalamus, and midbrain. Negligible grain densities were present in the cerebellum, corpus callosum, and all regions treated with 1 microM unlabeled bombesin. The discrete regional distribution of binding suggests that endogenous bombesin-like peptides may function as important regulatory agents in certain brain loci

  18. Effects of perinatal daidzein exposure on subsequent behavior and central estrogen receptor α expression in the adult male mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chengjun; Tai, Fadao; Zeng, Shuangyan; Zhang, Xia

    2013-06-03

    Daidzein is one of the most important isoflavones present in soy and it is unique as it can be further metabolized to equol, a compound with greater estrogenic activity than other isoflavones. The potential role of daidzein in the prevention of some chronic diseases has drawn public attention and increased its consumption in human, including in pregnant women and adolescent. It is unclear whether perinatal exposure to daidzein through maternal diets affects subsequent behavior and central estrogen receptor α (ERα) expression in male adults. Following developmental exposure to daidzein through maternal diets during perinatal period, subsequent anxiety-like behavior, social behavior, spatial learning and memory of male mice at adulthood were assessed using a series of tests. The levels of central ER α expression were also examined using immunocytochemistry. Compared with the controls, adult male mice exposed to daidzein during the perinatal period showed significantly less exploration, higher levels of anxiety and aggression. They also displayed more social investigation for females and a tendency to improve spatial learning and memory. The mice with this early daidzein treatment demonstrated significantly higher levels of ERα expression in several brain regions such as the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, medial preoptic, arcuate hypothalamic nucleus and central amygdaloid mucleus, but decreased it in the lateral septum. Our results indicated that perinatal exposure to daidzein enhanced masculinization on male behaviors which is assocciated with alterations in ERα expression levels led by perinatal daidzein exposure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A sex difference in the hypothalamic uncinate nucleus: relationship to gender identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Falgueras, Alicia; Swaab, Dick F

    2008-12-01

    Transsexuality is an individual's unshakable conviction of belonging to the opposite sex, resulting in a request for sex-reassignment surgery. We have shown previously that the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTc) is female in size and neuron number in male-to-female transsexual people. In the present study we investigated the hypothalamic uncinate nucleus, which is composed of two subnuclei, namely interstitial nucleus of the anterior hypothalamus (INAH) 3 and 4. Post-mortem brain material was used from 42 subjects: 14 control males, 11 control females, 11 male-to-female transsexual people, 1 female-to-male transsexual subject and 5 non-transsexual subjects who were castrated because of prostate cancer. To identify and delineate the nuclei and determine their volume and shape we used three different stainings throughout the nuclei in every 15th section, i.e. thionin, neuropeptide Y and synaptophysin, using an image analysis system. The most pronounced differences were found in the INAH3 subnucleus. Its volume in thionin sections was 1.9 times larger in control males than in females (P 0.117) and females (volume P > 0.245 and number of neurons P > 0.341). There was no difference in INAH3 between pre-and post-menopausal women, either in the volume (P > 0.84) or in the number of neurons (P gender identity.

  20. Involvement of the amygdala in memory storage: Interaction with other brain systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGaugh, James L.; Cahill, Larry; Roozendaal, Benno

    1996-01-01

    There is extensive evidence that the amygdala is involved in affectively influenced memory. The central hypothesis guiding the research reviewed in this paper is that emotional arousal activates the amygdala and that such activation results in the modulation of memory storage occurring in other brain regions. Several lines of evidence support this view. First, the effects of stress-related hormones (epinephrine and glucocorticoids) are mediated by influences involving the amygdala. In rats, lesions of the amygdala and the stria terminalis block the effects of posttraining administration of epinephrine and glucocorticoids on memory. Furthermore, memory is enhanced by posttraining intra-amygdala infusions of drugs that activate β-adrenergic and glucocorticoid receptors. Additionally, infusion of β-adrenergic blockers into the amygdala blocks the memory-modulating effects of epinephrine and glucocorticoids, as well as those of drugs affecting opiate and GABAergic systems. Second, an intact amygdala is not required for expression of retention. Inactivation of the amygdala prior to retention testing (by posttraining lesions or drug infusions) does not block retention performance. Third, findings of studies using human subjects are consistent with those of animal experiments. β-Blockers and amygdala lesions attenuate the effects of emotional arousal on memory. Additionally, 3-week recall of emotional material is highly correlated with positron-emission tomography activation (cerebral glucose metabolism) of the right amygdala during encoding. These findings provide strong evidence supporting the hypothesis that the amygdala is involved in modulating long-term memory storage. PMID:8942964

  1. Striatum on the anxiety map: Small detours into adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lago, Tiffany; Davis, Andrew; Grillon, Christian; Ernst, Monique

    2017-01-01

    Adolescence is the most sensitive period for the development of pathological anxiety. Moreover, specific neural changes associated with the striatum might be related to adolescent vulnerability to anxiety. Up to now, the study of anxiety has primarily focused on the amygdala, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), hippocampus and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), while the striatum has typically not been considered as part of the anxiety system. This review proposes the addition of the striatum, a complex, multi-component structure, to the anxiety network by underscoring two lines of research. First, the co-occurrence of the adolescent striatal development with the peak vulnerability of adolescents to anxiety disorders might potentially reflect a causal relationship. Second, the recognition of the role of the striatum in fundamental behavioral processes that do affect anxiety supports the putative importance of the striatum in anxiety. These behavioral processes include (1) attention, (2) conditioning/prediction error, and (3) motivation. This review proposes a simplistic schematic representation of the anxiety circuitry that includes the striatum, and aims to promote further work in this direction, as the role of the striatum in shaping an anxiety phenotype during adolescence could have critical implications for understanding and preventing the peak onset of anxiety disorders during this period. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Adolescent plasticity. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Cocaine-associated odor cue re-exposure increases blood oxygenation level dependent signal in memory and reward regions of the maternal rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffrey, Martha K; Febo, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    Cue triggered relapse during the postpartum period can negatively impact maternal care. Given the high reward value of pups in maternal rats, we designed an fMRI experiment to test whether offspring presence reduces the neural response to a cocaine associated olfactory cue. Cocaine conditioned place preference was carried out before pregnancy in the presence of two distinct odors that were paired with cocaine or saline (+Cue and -Cue). The BOLD response to +Cue and -Cue was measured in dams on postpartum days 2-4. Odor cues were delivered to dams in the absence and then the presence of pups. Our data indicate that several limbic and cognitive regions of the maternal rat brain show a greater BOLD signal response to a +Cue versus -Cue. These include dorsal striatum, prelimbic cortex, parietal cortex, habenula, bed nucleus of stria terminalis, lateral septum and the mediodorsal and the anterior thalamic nucleus. Of the aforementioned brain regions, only the parietal cortex of cocaine treated dams showed a significant modulatory effect of pup presence. In this area of the cortex, cocaine exposed maternal rats showed a greater BOLD activation in response to the +Cue in the presence than in the absence of pups. Specific regions of the cocaine exposed maternal rat brain are strongly reactive to drug associated cues. The regions implicated in cue reactivity have been previously reported in clinical imaging work, and previous work supports their role in various motivational and cognitive functions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Sex differences in cells expressing green fluorescent protein under the control of the estrogen receptor-α promoter in the hypothalamus of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyi-Tha-Thu, Chaw; Okoshi, Kota; Ito, Hiroto; Matsuda, Ken-Ichi; Kawata, Mitsuhiro; Tsukahara, Shinji

    2015-12-01

    Estradiol that originates from testicular testosterone and binds to estrogen receptor-α (ERα) during developing period acts to organize the male-type brain in mice. Here, we examined transgenic mice expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of the ERα promoter, in which ERα-expressing cells in the brain can be visualized by GFP. Fluorescence microscopy revealed the existence of many GFP-expressing cells in the medial preoptic area, medial preoptic nucleus (MPN), bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), and striohypothalamic nucleus (StHy) of adult transgenic mice. Neuronal nuclear antigen, a neuron marker, but not glial fibrillary acidic protein, an astrocyte marker, was mostly expressed by GFP-expressing cells. Analysis of GFP expression area showed that adult females had higher GFP expression in a region including the ventral part of the BNST, StHy, and dorsal part of the MPN than in adult males. Such female-biased sex difference was also found in transgenic pups on postnatal day 5 and 8. The GFP expression area of adult females was decreased by postnatal treatment with testosterone or estradiol. These results indicate that GFP visualizes a sex difference of ERα-expressing neurons. The transgenic mice may be useful for the analysis of the sexual differentiation of the brain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  4. NPY Signaling Inhibits Extended Amygdala CRF Neurons to Suppress Binge Alcohol Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleil, Kristen E.; Rinker, Jennifer A.; Lowery-Gionta, Emily G.; Mazzone, Christopher M.; McCall, Nora M.; Kendra, Alexis M.; Olson, David P.; Lowell, Bradford B.; Grant, Kathleen A.; Thiele, Todd E.; Kash, Thomas L.

    2015-01-01

    Summary paragraph Binge alcohol drinking is a tremendous public health problem because it leads to the development of numerous pathologies including alcohol abuse, and anxiety1–4. It is thought to do so by hijacking brain systems that regulate stress and reward, including neuropeptide Y (NPY) and corticotropin–releasing factor (CRF). The central actions of NPY and CRF play opposing functional roles in the regulation of emotional and reward–seeking behaviors; therefore, dysfunctional interactions between these peptidergic systems could play a role in the development of these pathologies. Here, we used converging physiological, pharmacological, and chemogenetic approaches to identify a precise neural mechanism in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), a limbic brain region involved in pathological reward and anxiety behaviors, underlying the interactions between NPY and CRF in the regulation of binge alcohol drinking in both mice and monkeys. We found that NPY Y1 receptor (Y1R) activation in the BNST suppressed binge alcohol drinking by enhancing inhibitory synaptic transmission specifically in CRF neurons via a novel, Gi-mediated, PKA-dependent postsynaptic mechanism. Further, chronic alcohol drinking led to persistent alterations in Y1R function in the BNST of both mice and monkeys, highlighting the enduring, conserved nature of this effect across mammalian species. Together, these data provide both a cellular locus and signaling framework for the development of novel therapeutics for treatment of neuropsychiatric diseases, including alcohol use disorders. PMID:25751534

  5. Anatomical and electrophysiological characterization of presumed dopamine-containing neurons within the supramammillary region of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, P D; Mihailoff, G A; German, D C

    1988-03-01

    A combination of immunocytochemical, electrophysiological and pharmacological techniques were employed to study the properties of neurons within the supramammillary (SUM) complex of the rat. The SUM region contains a small, but dense, population of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive neurons. Following injection of the orthograde neuroanatomical tracer, Phaseolus Vulgaris leucoagglutinin, into the SUM region, heavy terminal labeling was observed in the lateral septal nucleus, diagonal band of Broca and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. The electrophysiological and pharmacological properties of antidromically-activated SUM neurons revealed evidence of two neuronal populations. Both groups of neurons exhibited long duration action potentials (greater than 2 msec) and slow conduction velocities (less than 0.5 m/sec). However, cells in one group were characterized by slow and erratic firing rates and insensitivity to dopamine (DA) autoreceptor agonists. Cells in the other group typically exhibited no spontaneous activity but could be induced to discharge by iontophoretic application of glutamate. These latter cells were sensitive to DA autoreceptor stimulation. Of the two populations of mammilloseptal SUM neurons, the silent population exhibited several properties similar to those of midbrain DA neurons.

  6. PACAP in the BNST produces anorexia and weight loss in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocho-Schellenberg, Margaret; Lezak, Kimberly R; Harris, Olivia M; Roelke, Erin; Gick, Niklas; Choi, Inyop; Edwards, Shaquille; Wasserman, Emily; Toufexis, Donna J; Braas, Karen M; May, Victor; Hammack, Sayamwong E

    2014-06-01

    Recent gene association studies have implicated pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) systems in several psychiatric disorders associated with stressor exposure, and we have argued that many of the behavioral consequences of repeated stressor exposure may depend on the expression of PACAP in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST). One behavioral consequence of the activation of stress systems can be anorexia and subsequent weight loss, and both the activation of central PACAP systems as well as neuronal activity in the BNST have also been associated with anorexic states in rodents. Hence, we investigated the regulation of food and water intake and weight loss following BNST PACAP infusion. BNST PACAP38 dose-dependently decreased body weight, as well as food and water intake in the first 24 h following infusion. Because different BNST subregions differentially regulate stress responding, we further examined the effects of PACAP38 in either the anterior or posterior BNST. Anterior BNST PACAP38 infusion did not alter weight gain, whereas posterior PACAP38 infusion resulted in weight loss. PACAP38 infused into the lateral ventricles did not alter weight, suggesting that the effects of BNST-infused PACAP were not mediated by leakage into the ventricular system. These data suggest that PACAP receptor activation in posterior BNST subregions can produce anorexia and weight loss, and corroborate growing data implicating central PACAP activation in mediating the consequences of stressor exposure.

  7. Estrous cycle influences the expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase in the hypothalamus and limbic system of female mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viglietti-Panzica Carla

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nitric oxide plays an important role in the regulation of male and female sexual behavior in rodents, and the expression of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS is influenced by testosterone in the male rat, and by estrogens in the female. We have here quantitatively investigated the distribution of nNOS immunoreactive (ir neurons in the limbic hypothalamic region of intact female mice sacrificed during different phases of estrous cycle. Results Changes were observed in the medial preoptic area (MPA (significantly higher number in estrus and in the arcuate nucleus (Arc (significantly higher number in proestrus. In the ventrolateral part of the ventromedial nucleus (VMHvl and in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST no significant changes have been observed. In addition, by comparing males and females, we observed a stable sex dimorphism (males have a higher number of nNOS-ir cells in comparison to almost all the different phases of the estrous cycle in the VMHvl and in the BST (when considering only the less intensely stained elements. In the MPA and in the Arc sex differences were detected only comparing some phases of the cycle. Conclusion These data demonstrate that, in mice, the expression of nNOS in some hypothalamic regions involved in the control of reproduction and characterized by a large number of estrogen receptors is under the control of gonadal hormones and may vary according to the rapid variations of hormonal levels that take place during the estrous cycle.

  8. Oxytocin Reduces Cocaine Seeking and Reverses Chronic Cocaine-Induced Changes in Glutamate Receptor Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Luyi; Sun, Wei-Lun; Young, Amy B.; Lee, Kunhee; McGinty, Jacqueline F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oxytocin, a neurohypophyseal neuropeptide, is a potential mediator and regulator of drug addiction. However, the cellular mechanisms of oxytocin in drug seeking remain unknown. Methods: In the present study, we used a self-administration/reinstatement model to study the effects of oxytocin on cocaine seeking and its potential interaction with glutamate function at the receptor level. Results: Systemic oxytocin dose-dependently reduced cocaine self-administration during various schedules of reinforcement, including fixed ratio 1, fixed ratio 5, and progressive ratio. Oxytocin also attenuated reinstatement to cocaine seeking induced by cocaine prime or conditioned cues. Western-blot analysis indicated that oxytocin increased phosphorylation of the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid-type glutamate receptor GluA1 subunit at the Ser 845 site with or without accompanying increases in phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, in several brain regions, including the prefrontal cortex, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, amygdala, and dorsal hippocampus. Immunoprecipitation of oxytocin receptor and GluA1 subunit receptors further demonstrated a physical interaction between these 2 receptors, although the interaction was not influenced by chronic cocaine or oxytocin treatment. Oxytocin also attenuated sucrose seeking in a GluA1- or extracellular-signal-regulated kinase-independent manner. Conclusions: These findings suggest that oxytocin mediates cocaine seeking through interacting with glutamate receptor systems via second messenger cascades in mesocorticolimbic regions. PMID:25539504

  9. Separate effects of sex hormones and sex chromosomes on brain structure and function revealed by high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging and spatial navigation assessment of the Four Core Genotype mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corre, Christina; Friedel, Miriam; Vousden, Dulcie A; Metcalf, Ariane; Spring, Shoshana; Qiu, Lily R; Lerch, Jason P; Palmert, Mark R

    2016-03-01

    Males and females exhibit several differences in brain structure and function. To examine the basis for these sex differences, we investigated the influences of sex hormones and sex chromosomes on brain structure and function in mice. We used the Four Core Genotype (4CG) mice, which can generate both male and female mice with XX or XY sex chromosome complement, allowing the decoupling of sex chromosomes from hormonal milieu. To examine whole brain structure, high-resolution ex vivo MRI was performed, and to assess differences in cognitive function, mice were trained on a radial arm maze. Voxel-wise and volumetric analyses of MRI data uncovered a striking independence of hormonal versus chromosomal influences in 30 sexually dimorphic brain regions. For example, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and the parieto-temporal lobe of the cerebral cortex displayed steroid-dependence while the cerebellar cortex, corpus callosum, and olfactory bulbs were influenced by sex chromosomes. Spatial learning and memory demonstrated strict hormone-dependency with no apparent influence of sex chromosomes. Understanding the influences of chromosomes and hormones on brain structure and function is important for understanding sex differences in brain structure and function, an endeavor that has eventual implications for understanding sex biases observed in the prevalence of psychiatric disorders.

  10. Vasotocin neurons and septal V1a-like receptors potently modulate songbird flocking and responses to novelty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Aubrey M; Kingsbury, Marcy A; Hoffbuhr, Kristin; Schrock, Sara E; Waxman, Brandon; Kabelik, David; Thompson, Richmond R; Goodson, James L

    2011-06-01

    Previous comparisons of territorial and gregarious finches (family Estrildidae) suggest the hypothesis that arginine vasotocin (VT) neurons in the medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTm) and V(1a)-like receptors in the lateral septum (LS) promote flocking behavior. Consistent with this hypothesis, we now show that intraseptal infusions of a V(1a) antagonist in male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) reduce gregariousness (preference for a group of 10 versus 2 conspecific males), but have no effect on the amount of time that subjects spend in close proximity to other birds ("contact time"). The antagonist also produces a profound increase in anxiety-like behavior, as exhibited by an increased latency to feed in a novelty-suppressed feeding test. Bilateral knockdown of VT production in the BSTm using LNA-modified antisense oligonucleotides likewise produces increases in anxiety-like behavior and a potent reduction in gregariousness, relative to subjects receiving scrambled oligonucleotides. The antisense oligonucleotides also produced a modest increase in contact time, irrespective of group size. Together, these combined experiments provide clear evidence that endogenous VT promotes preferences for larger flock sizes, and does so in a manner that is coupled to general anxiolysis. Given that homologous peptide circuitry of the BSTm-LS is found across all tetrapod vertebrate classes, these findings may be predictive for other highly gregarious species. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Cannabinoid CB1 receptors in distinct circuits of the extended amygdala determine fear responsiveness to unpredictable threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, M D; Daldrup, T; Remmers, F; Szkudlarek, H J; Lesting, J; Guggenhuber, S; Ruehle, S; Jüngling, K; Seidenbecher, T; Lutz, B; Pape, H C

    2017-10-01

    The brain circuits underlying behavioral fear have been extensively studied over the last decades. Although the vast majority of experimental studies assess fear as a transient state of apprehension in response to a discrete threat, such phasic states of fear can shift to a sustained anxious apprehension, particularly in face of diffuse cues with unpredictable environmental contingencies. Unpredictability, in turn, is considered an important variable contributing to anxiety disorders. The networks of the extended amygdala have been suggested keys to the control of phasic and sustained states of fear, although the underlying synaptic pathways and mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we show that the endocannabinoid system acting in synaptic circuits of the extended amygdala can explain the fear response profile during exposure to unpredictable threat. Using fear training with predictable or unpredictable cues in mice, combined with local and cell-type-specific deficiency and rescue of cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptors, we found that presynaptic CB1 receptors on distinct amygdala projections to bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) are both necessary and sufficient for the shift from phasic to sustained fear in response to an unpredictable threat. These results thereby identify the causal role of a defined protein in a distinct brain pathway for the temporal development of a sustained state of anxious apprehension during unpredictability of environmental influences, reminiscent of anxiety symptoms in humans.

  12. Blocking oxytocin receptors inhibits vaginal marking to male odors in female Syrian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Luis A; Albers, H Elliott; Petrulis, Aras

    2010-12-02

    In Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus), precopulatory behaviors such as vaginal scent marking are essential for attracting a suitable mate. Vaginal marking is dependent on forebrain areas implicated in the neural regulation of reproductive behaviors in rodents, including the medial preoptic/anterior hypothalamus (MPOA-AH). Within MPOA-AH, the neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) acts to facilitate copulation (lordosis), as well as ultrasonic vocalizations towards males. It is not known, however, if OT in this area also facilitates vaginal marking. In the present study, a specific oxytocin receptor antagonist (OTA) was injected into MPOA-AH of intact female Syrian hamsters to determine if oxytocin receptor-dependent signaling is critical for the normal expression of vaginal marking elicited by male, female, and clean odors. OTA injections significantly inhibited vaginal marking in response to male odors compared with vehicle injections. There was no effect of OTA on marking in response to either female or clean odors. When injected into the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), a nearby region to MPOA-AH, OTA was equally effective in decreasing marking. Finally, the effects of OTA appear to be specific to vaginal marking, as OTA injections in MPOA-AH or BNST did not alter general locomotor activity, flank marking, or social odor investigation. Considered together, these results suggest that OT in MPOA-AH and/or BNST normally facilitates male odor-induced vaginal marking, providing further evidence that OT generally supports prosocial interactions among conspecifics. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Neonatal oxytocin manipulations have long-lasting, sexually dimorphic effects on vasopressin receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bales, K L; Plotsky, P M; Young, L J; Lim, M M; Grotte, N; Ferrer, E; Carter, C S

    2007-01-05

    Developmental exposure to oxytocin (OT) or oxytocin antagonists (OTAs) has been shown to cause long-lasting and often sexually dimorphic effects on social behaviors in prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster). Because regulation of social behavior in monogamous mammals involves central receptors for OT, arginine vasopressin (AVP), and dopamine, we examined the hypothesis that the long-lasting, developmental effects of exposure to neonatal OT or OTA might reflect changes in the expression of receptors for these peptides. On postnatal day 1, prairie voles were injected intraperitoneally with either OT (1 mg/kg), an OTA (0.1 mg/kg), saline vehicle, or were handled only. At approximately 60 days of age, vasopressin V1a receptors, OT receptors (OTR) and dopamine D2 receptor binding were quantified using receptor autoradiography in brain tissue taken from males and females. Significant treatment effects on V1a binding were found in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), cingulate cortex (CgCtx), mediodorsal thalamus (MdThal), medial preoptic area of the hypothalamus (MPOA), and lateral septum (LS). The CgCtx, MPOA, ventral pallidum, and LS also showed significant sex by treatment interactions on V1a binding. No significant treatment or sex differences were observed for D2 receptor binding. No significant treatment difference was observed for OTR receptor binding, and only a marginal sex difference. Changes in the neuropeptide receptor expression, especially the V1a receptor, may help to explain sexually dimorphic changes in behavior that follow comparable neonatal manipulations.

  14. Behavioral Relevance of Species-Specific Vasotocin Anatomy in Gregarious Finches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aubrey M Kelly

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite substantial species differences in the vasotocin/vasopressin (VT/VP circuitry of the medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTm and lateral septum (LS; a primary projection target of BSTm VT/VP cells, functional consequences of this variation are poorly known. Previous experiments in the highly gregarious zebra finch (Estrildidae: Taeniopygia guttata demonstrate that BSTm VT neurons promote gregariousness in a male-specific manner and reduce anxiety in both sexes. However, in contrast to the zebra finch, the less gregarious Angolan blue waxbill (Estrildidae: Uraeginthus angolensis exhibits fewer VT-immunoreactive cells in the BSTm as well as differences in receptor distribution across the LS subnuclei, suggesting that knockdown of VT production in the BSTm would produce behavioral effects in Angolan blue waxbills that are distinct from zebra finches. Thus, we here quantified social contact, gregariousness (i.e. preference for the larger of two groups, and anxiety-like behavior following bilateral antisense knockdown of VT production in the BSTm of male and female Angolan blue waxbills. We find that BSTm VT neurons promote social contact, but not gregariousness (as in male zebra finches, and that antisense effects on social contact are significantly stronger in male waxbills than in females. Knockdown of BSTm VT production has no effect on anxiety-like behavior. These data provide novel evidence that species differences in the VT/VP circuitry arising in the BSTm are accompanied by species-specific effects on affiliation behaviors.

  15. Epigenetic control of vasopressin expression is maintained by steroid hormones in the adult male rat brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, Catherine J.; Coss, Dylan; Auger, Anthony P.; Forbes-Lorman, Robin M.

    2011-01-01

    Although some DNA methylation patterns are altered by steroid hormone exposure in the developing brain, less is known about how changes in steroid hormone levels influence DNA methylation patterns in the adult brain. Steroid hormones act in the adult brain to regulate gene expression. Specifically, the expression of the socially relevant peptide vasopressin (AVP) within the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) of adult brain is dependent upon testosterone exposure. Castration dramatically reduces and testosterone replacement restores AVP expression within the BST. As decreases in mRNA expression are associated with increases in DNA promoter methylation, we explored the hypothesis that AVP expression in the adult brain is maintained through sustained epigenetic modifications of the AVP gene promoter. We find that castration of adult male rats resulted in decreased AVP mRNA expression and increased methylation of specific CpG sites within the AVP promoter in the BST. Similarly, castration significantly increased estrogen receptor α (ERα) mRNA expression and decreased ERα promoter methylation within the BST. These changes were prevented by testosterone replacement. This suggests that the DNA promoter methylation status of some steroid responsive genes in the adult brain is actively maintained by the presence of circulating steroid hormones. The maintenance of methylated or demethylated states of some genes in the adult brain by the presence of steroid hormones may play a role in the homeostatic regulation of behaviorally relevant systems. PMID:21368111

  16. The avian subpallium: new insights into structural and functional subdivisions occupying the lateral subpallial wall and their embryological origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuenzel, Wayne J.; Medina, Loreta; Csillag, Andras; Perkel, David J.; Reiner, Anton

    2011-01-01

    The subpallial region of the avian telencephalon contains neural systems whose functions are critical to the survival of individual vertebrates and their species. The subpallial neural structures can be grouped into five major functional systems, namely the dorsal somatomotor basal ganglia; ventral viscerolimbic basal ganglia; subpallial extended amygdala including the central and medial extended amygdala and bed nuclei of the stria terminalis; basal telencephalic cholinergic and non-cholinergic corticopetal systems; and septum. The paper provides an overview of the major developmental, neuroanatomical and functional characteristics of the first four of these neural systems, all of which belong to the lateral telencephalic wall. The review particularly focuses on new findings that have emerged since the identity, extent and terminology for the regions was considered by the Avian Brain Nomenclature Forum. New terminology is introduced as appropriate based on the new findings. The paper also addresses regional similarities and differences between birds and mammals, and notes areas where gaps in knowledge occur for birds. PMID:22015350

  17. In vivo magnetic resonance imaging of the human limbic white matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susumu eMori

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The limbic system mediates memory, behavior, and emotional output in the human brain, and is implicated in the pathology of Alzheimer’s disease and a wide spectrum of related neurological disorders. In vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of structural components comprising the limbic system and their interconnections via white matter pathways in the human brain has helped define current understanding of the limbic model based on the classical circuit proposed by Papez. MRI techniques, including diffusion MR imaging, provide a non-invasive method to characterize white matter tracts of the limbic system, and investigate pathological changes that affect these pathways in clinical settings. This review focuses on delineation of the anatomy of major limbic tracts in the human brain, namely, the cingulum, the fornix and fimbria, and the stria terminalis, based on in vivo MRI contrasts. The detailed morphology and intricate trajectories of these pathways that can be identified using relaxometry-based and diffusion-weighted MRI provide an important anatomical reference for evaluation of clinical disorders commonly associated with limbic pathology.

  18. Influence of lesions in the limbic-hypothalamic system on adrenocortical responses to daily repeated exposures to immobilization stress in rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seto, K.; Saito, H.; Kaba, H.; Kawakami, M.

    1983-01-01

    The influences of daily repeated exposures of immobilization stress on the adrenocorticoid formation in adrenal slices of rabbits with lesions of various sites of the hypothalamus and limbic structures had been investigated. The experimental results obtained were as follows: (1) Lesions in periventricular arcuate nucleus (ARC) and ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) decreased the rates of adrenocortical responses to the 1st immobilization exposure (exposure on the 1st day), but did not alter the rates of adrenocortical responses to the 4th immobilization exposure (exposure on the 4th day). (2) Lesions in stria-terminalis (ST) and dorsal fornix (FX) did not alter the rates of adrenocortical responses to the 1st immobilization exposure, but increased the rates of adrenocortical responses to the 4th immobilization exposure. (3) The adrenocortical responses to immobilization stress were completely abolished by the seven times repetition of exposures in each sham-operated group and in the animals with lesions of ARC and VMH, but in the rabbits with lesions of ST and FX the adrenocortical responses to immobilization stress were not abolished by the seven times repetition of exposures. (4) These results suggested that such basal medial hypothalamus participated in the mechanisms of adrenocortical responses to the 1st exposure of immobilization stress, but did not participate in the disappearance process of adrenocortical responses to immobilization stress by the seven times repetition of exposures.

  19. Neurophysiology of magnocellular neuroendocrine cells: recent advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatton, G I; Li, Z H

    1998-01-01

    Magnocellular neuroendocrine cells of the hypothalamic paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei are responsible for most of the vasopressin and oxytocin in the peripheral blood as well as for central release of these peptides in selected brain areas. As the principal component of the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system, these neurons have been a subject of continual study for half a century. The wealth of solid information from decades of in vivo studies has provided a firm basis for in vitro, brain slice and explant investigations of neural mechanisms involved in the control and regulation of vasopressin and oxytocin neurons. In vitro methods have revealed the presence and permitted the study of monosynaptic projections to supraoptic neurons from the olfactory bulbs, the tuberomammillary nuclei of the posterior hypothalamus and from the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis. Such methods have also facilitated the elucidation of the various ionic currents controlling neurosecretory cell activity as well as the roles of calcium binding proteins and release of calcium from internal stores. This review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of the afferent inputs that impinge upon these two cell types, and the cellular and molecular mechanisms intrinsic to these neurons that determine their activity patterns and, in part, their responses to incoming stimuli.

  20. Autoradiographic localization of angiotensin II receptors in rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendelsohn, F.A.O.; Quirion, R.; Saavedra, J.M.; Aguilera, G.; Catt, K.J.

    1984-01-01

    The 125 I-labeled agonist analog [1-sarcosine]-angiotensin II ([Sar 1 ]AII) bound with high specificity and affinity (K/sub a/ = 2 x 10 9 M -1 ) to a single class of receptor sites in rat brain. This ligand was used to analyze the distribution of AII receptors in rat brain by in vitro autoradiography followed by computerized densitometry and color coding. A very high density of AII receptors was found in the subfornical organ, paraventricular and periventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus, nucleus of the tractus solitarius, and area postrema. A high concentration of receptors was found in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus, lateral olfactory tracts, nuclei of the accessory and lateral olfactory tracts, triangular septal nucleus, subthalamic nucleus, locus coeruleus, and inferior olivary nuclei. Moderate receptor concentrations were found in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis, median preoptic nucleus, medial habenular nucleus, lateral septum, ventroposterior thalamic nucleus, median eminence, medial geniculate nucleus, superior colliculus, subiculum, pre- and parasubiculum, and spinal trigeminal tract. Low concentrations of sites were seen in caudate-putamen, nucleus accumbens, amygdala, and gray matter of the spinal cord. These studies have demonstrated that AII receptors are distributed in a highly characteristic anatomical pattern in the brain. The high concentrations of AII receptors at numerous physiologically relevant sites are consistent with the emerging evidence for multiple roles of AII as a neuropeptide in the central nervous system. 75 references, 2 figures

  1. Centrally administered relaxin-3 induces Fos expression in the osmosensitive areas in rat brain and facilitates water intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsubo, Hiroki; Onaka, Tatsushi; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Katoh, Akiko; Ohbuchi, Toyoaki; Todoroki, Miwako; Kobayashi, Mizuki; Fujihara, Hiroaki; Yokoyama, Toru; Matsumoto, Tetsuro; Ueta, Yoichi

    2010-06-01

    The expression of the relaxin-3 gene, detected as a new member of the insulin superfamily using human genomic databases, is abundantly present in the brain and testis. Intracerebroventricularly (icv) administered relaxin-3 stimulates food intake. Icv administered relaxin (identical to relaxin-2 in humans) affects the secretion of vasopressin and drinking behavior. Relaxin-3 partly binds relaxin family peptide receptor 1, which is a specific receptor to relaxin. Thus, we hypothesized that relaxin-3 would have physiological effects in the body fluid balance. However, the effects of relaxin-3 in the body fluid balance remain unknown. In the present study, we revealed that icv administered relaxin-3 induced dense Fos-like immunoreactivity (Fos-LI) in the rat hypothalamus and circumventricular organs including the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis, the median preoptic nucleus, supraoptic nucleus (SON), the subfornical organ (SFO) and the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), that are related to the central regulation of body fluid balance. Icv administered relaxin-3 (54, 180 and 540 pmol/rat) also induced a significant increase in c-fos gene expression in a dose-dependent manner in the SON, SFO and PVN. Further, icv administered relaxin-3 (180 pmol/rat) significantly increased water intake, and the effect was as strong as that of relaxin-2 (180 pmol/rat). These results suggest that icv administered relaxin-3 activates osmosensitive areas in the brain and plays an important role in the regulation of body fluid balance. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Bilateral Renal Denervation Ameliorates Isoproterenol-Induced Heart Failure through Downregulation of the Brain Renin-Angiotensin System and Inflammation in Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Dong Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Heart failure (HF is characterized by cardiac dysfunction along with autonomic unbalance that is associated with increased renin-angiotensin system (RAS activity and elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines (PICs. Renal denervation (RD has been shown to improve cardiac function in HF, but the protective mechanisms remain unclear. The present study tested the hypothesis that RD ameliorates isoproterenol- (ISO- induced HF through regulation of brain RAS and PICs. Chronic ISO infusion resulted in remarked decrease in blood pressure (BP and increase in heart rate and cardiac dysfunction, which was accompanied by increased BP variability and decreased baroreflex sensitivity and HR variability. Most of these adverse effects of ISO on cardiac and autonomic function were reversed by RD. Furthermore, ISO upregulated mRNA and protein expressions of several components of the RAS and PICs in the lamina terminalis and hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, two forebrain nuclei involved in cardiovascular regulations. RD significantly inhibited the upregulation of these genes. Either intracerebroventricular AT1-R antagonist, irbesartan, or TNF-α inhibitor, etanercept, mimicked the beneficial actions of RD in the ISO-induced HF. The results suggest that the RD restores autonomic balance and ameliorates ISO-induced HF and that the downregulated RAS and PICs in the brain contribute to these beneficial effects of RD.

  3. Wolfram syndrome: a clinicopathologic correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilson, Justin B; Merchant, Saumil N; Adams, Joe C; Joseph, Jeffrey T

    2009-09-01

    Wolfram syndrome or DIDMOAD (diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy and deafness) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by diabetes mellitus and optic atrophy as well as diabetes insipidus and deafness in many cases. We report the post-mortem neuropathologic findings of a patient with Wolfram syndrome and correlate them with his clinical presentation. In the hypothalamus, neurons in the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei were markedly decreased and minimal neurohypophyseal tissue remained in the pituitary. The pontine base and inferior olivary nucleus showed gross shrinkage and neuron loss, while the cerebellum was relatively unaffected. The visual system had moderate to marked loss of retinal ganglion neurons, commensurate loss of myelinated axons in the optic nerve, chiasm and tract, and neuron loss in the lateral geniculate nucleus but preservation of the primary visual cortex. The patient's inner ear showed loss of the organ of Corti in the basal turn of the cochleae and mild focal atrophy of the stria vascularis. These findings correlated well with the patient's high-frequency hearing loss. The pathologic findings correlated closely with the patient's clinical symptoms and further support the concept of Wolfram syndrome as a neurodegenerative disorder. Our findings extend prior neuropathologic reports of Wolfram syndrome by providing contributions to our understanding of eye, inner ear and olivopontine pathology in this disease.

  4. AGROINDÚSTRIAS RURAIS FAMILIARES: Estratégias de mercado na região do COREDE Jacuí Centro/RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaiane Leal Agne

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: As Agroindústrias Rurais Familiares destacam-se pelo desenvolvimento de produtos diferenciados. Assim, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo descrever as características que estão diferenciando os produtos agroindustriais nos mercados de proximidade, na região do Corede Jacuí Centro. O estudo caracterizou-se como exploratório-descritivo, com a coleta de informações secundárias e primárias. Foram realizadas 41 entrevistas, com o auxílio de um formulário semiestruturado e diários de campo. Utilizou-se de metodologia qualitativa (análise de conteúdo e quantitativa (média aritmética simples para a análise dos dados. A diferenciação destaca-se como um conjunto de aspectos pertinentes para entender a consolidação de mercados para os produtos da agroindústria rural familiar. Para os agricultores, as características que diferenciam seus produtos nos mercados são: o natural, o jeito de fazer, o sabor, o trabalho do agricultor para produzir, o preço, a certificação SIM e a produção ecológica. Palavras-chave: Agroindústria. Agricultura Familiar. Produtos Diferenciados. Rio Grande do Sul

  5. ANÁLISE DO GERENCIAMENTO DOS RESÍDUOS DE TECIDOS GERADOS PELA INDÚSTRIA DE CONFECÇÕES DO AGRESTE DE PERNAMBUCO

    OpenAIRE

    Correia de Araujo, Wanderbeg; Elisa Fontana, Marcele

    2017-01-01

    O presente estudo tem como objetivo, analisar à forma de gerenciamento dos resíduos sólidos, com foco em restos de tecidos, das micro e pequenas empresas de confecções do Agreste de Pernambuco, bem como propor formas de prevenção de resíduos na fonte e melhorias em seu gerenciamento. Para isso, foram realizadas entrevistas e aplicação de questionário para identificar o perfil das empresas e as práticas de gerenciamento de seus resíduos de tecidos. Através desta pesquisa, constatou-se que a ma...

  6. MAPEAMENTO DO FLUXO DE VALOR E KAIZEN COMO INSTRUMENTOS DE REDUÇÃO DE PERDAS: UM CASO NA INDÚSTRIA DE MOTOSSERRAS

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Gilberto Scherer; Marcelo Alexandre Borges

    2007-01-01

    Tem se verificado que as operações industriais aplicam, cada vez mais, esforços e recursos no sentido de promover a melhoria contínua de seus processos e assim garantir uma sólida posição no mercado. Este artigo visa a identificar oportunidades de redução das perdas do processo de manufatura, através da utilização da ferramenta de mapeamento de fluxo de valor e a aplicação de Kaizen. Trata-se de um estudo de caso na indústria de motosserras, em que há um levantamento detalhado de dados de tod...

  7. CONHECIMENTO DOS TRABALHADORES DA INDÙSTRIA METAL-MECÂNICA SOBRE FATORES DE RISCO PARA DOENÇA ARTERIAL CORONARIANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Bohrer Oliva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: Objetivo: identificar o conhecimento dos trabalhadores da indústria metalmecânica em relação aos fatores de risco para doença arterial coronariana (DAC e às atitudes voltadas a sua prevenção. Métodos: estudo com delineamento transversal, realizado com um grupo de trabalhadores da indústria metal-mecânica do sul do Brasil. A amostra foi por conveniência. Os dados foram coletados por meio de um questionário e verificação de medidas antropométricas. Análise descritiva. Resultados: foram incluídos 100 trabalhadores, com idade média de 29,0+10,16 anos, 66% homens. A obesidade foi considerada como fator de risco para DAC por 94% dos trabalhadores, a hipertensão arterial por 88% e hipercolesterolemia por 80%. Em relação às atitudes para prevenção da DAC, 51% da amostra referiram praticar atividade física. Conclusão: a maioria dos entrevistados conhece os principais fatores de risco para DAC. Contudo, as atitudes voltadas à prevenção ainda são limitadas.

  8. ESTRATÉGIAS DE MARKETING NA INDÚSTRIA DE ALIMENTOS: O CASO DOS FRIGORÍFICOS NA REGIÃO DE PRESIDENTE PRUDENTE-SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Guilherme de Camargo Ferraz Machado

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse trabalho foi analisar as estratégias de marketing e comunicação dos frigoríficos na região de Presidente Prudente-SP, visando melhorar a competitividade do setor e de toda a cadeia produtiva, identificando as principais estratégias relacionadas ao composto mercadológico. A coleta de dados se deu por meio de entrevistas semi-estruturadas, aplicadas em dois frigoríficos da região de Presidente Prudente-SP. Observou-se que as estratégias do composto mercadológico das empresas do setor sofrem poucas variações, em função das características dos produtos e do público-alvo dessas empresas. Também foi verificado um distanciamento entre as empresas e o consumidor final, no que diz respeito às práticas de marketing e comunicação, podendo ser responsável por um desconhecimento, por parte das empresas, das necessidades e dos hábitos de consumo do consumidor final.

  9. QUESTÕES ESTRATÉGICAS DE PLANEJAMENTO, NEGOCIAÇÃO E MARKETING NA INDÚSTRIA TEXTIL: UM ESTUDO DE CASO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Cristine Silveira Meireles

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available

    Resumo

    O presente artigo aborda questões relacionadas a estratégias de planejamento, negociação e marketing utilizadas por uma empresa na área têxtil. A realização da pesquisa pautou-se em um estudo de caso, a partir de entrevistas semi-estruturadas e consultas a materiais institucionais. As abordagens teóricas utilizadas no corpo da pesquisa são aplicadas no estudo no intuito de embasar a compreensão do fenômeno estudado. A empresa trabalha com produto de qualidade, bons preços, tendo seu maior problema localizado no capital de giro. Na realização de uma análise organizacional mais detalhada, pesquisa direta com clientes e arrolamento de novas táticas de atuação, percebeu-se que houve por parte da empresa pesquisada uma ampliação à visão de mercado abrindo caminhos e potenciais possibilidades para uma nova atuação de mercado. Assim, o estudo revelou que a empresa deve implantar um conjunto de políticas empresariais de modo agressivo e interativo dentro de suas possibilidades e limitações tanto com os consumidores/clientes quanto no mercado em que atua. 

     

    Palavras-chave: Estratégia; Indústria Têxtil; Negociação.

     

    Abstract

    The present paper approach questions related to planning, negotiation and marketing strategies carried by a textile industry enterprise. The search was based in a study of case, by semi-structured interviews and institutional document analyses. The theoric base utilized in the search was applied in sense to embased the comprehension of studied phenomenon. The enterprise play with quality product, low prices, and the major problem was in turnover capital. In the realization of a detailed organizational analyses, costumers direct search and inventore of new tatics of atuation, was perceived the occurrence of a market sense improve, leading the enterprise to new market perspectives. By this way, the study show that the organization should implant a conjoint of enterprise policies by intense and interactive way considering yours possibilities and limitations about consumers/costumers as in your market.

     

    Keywords: Strategy; Textile Industry; Negotiation.

  10. INTEGRAÇÃO ENTRE ERP E PROGRAMAÇÃO MATEMÁTICA UM ESTUDO DE CASO NA INDÚSTRIA DE AUTOPEÇAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Beatriz Baptista Haddad

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta um estudo de caso para problemas de seqüenciamento de lotes numa indústria de autopeças. Nele é proposta a adição de um módulo de Capacitação a um software de ERP de forma que o Módulo de MRP deste passe a respeitar os limites de capacidade de recursos considerados críticos. Para isso, o problema de seqüenciamento de produção nos recursos críticos é modelado como problema de fluxos em redes com restrições adicionais. A grande vantagem do método está na "visão temporal" do sistema, que permite antecipações ou atrasos de lotes de fabricação - desde que exista capacidade disponível - sempre que houver sobrecarga. O método permite ainda a análise de diferentes objetivos. Ao final é apresentado um estudo de caso realizado com dados reais da empresa.

  11. TENDÊNCIAS BIOTECNOLÓGICAS DA INDÚSTRIA LÁCTEA A PARTIR DA PROSPECÇÃO DE PATENTES E ARTIGOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lília Calheiros de Oliveira Barretto

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A biotecnologia continua a oferecer muitas alternativas para elaboração de produtos exclusivos. A indústria de laticínios vem contribuindo para o desenvolvimento e aplicação de processos inovadores, com destaque para os alimentos funcionais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar as principais tendências sobre a biotecnologia aplicada no desenvolvimento de produtos lácteos a partir da análise de patentes, pela base Derwent, e de artigos científicos, pela base Scopus. Houve uma maior concentração de documentos de patentes entre os anos de 2003 e 2009. A Rússia foi o país líder em termos de patentes concedidas, com predominância de 73,4 % dos documentos analisados. Dentre as tecnologias, destacaram-se a produção de fermentados probióticos e a extração de oligossacarídeos do leite humano. Os países asiáticos e os europeus foram os maiores contribuidores no tocante desenvolvimento de pesquisas científicas sobre biotecnologia aplicada à indústria de laticínios, totalizando 91 % das publicações reportadas entre 2010 e 2016. Observou-se uma tendência de busca por suporte à propriedade intelectual superior às publicações científicas das biotecnologias associadas à indústria láctea.

  12. RESÍDUOS DA INDÚSTRIA COUREIRO-CALÇADISTA: PROPOSTA DE ANÁLISE DA CAPACIDADE TECNOLÓGICA DE CENTRAIS DO SETOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Viegas

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo está dividido em duas partes. Na primeira, atualiza informações sobre a geração de resíduos industriais por parte de empresas do setor coureiro-calçadista do Vale do Sinos, a partir de uma seleção crítica de informações com base em levantamento recente, realizado pela Fundação Estadual de Proteção Ambiental (Fepam/RS, e de entrevistas junto a administradores de centrais de gerenciamento de resíduos industriais da região. Ainda na primeira parte, constata a evolução quantitativa dessas centrais. Na segunda parte, o artigo propõe a realização de um estudo de avaliação da capacidade tecnológica dos consórcios que gerenciam os referidos resíduos, tendo como base pesquisa semelhante, com método já desenvolvido, amparada em teoria de Lall (1992. Palavras-chave: resíduos industriais; gestão de resíduos; consórcios de gestão de resíduos; capacidade tecnológica.

  13. A GEOPOLÍTICA E A INDÚSTRIA FARMACÊUTICA: INSERÇÃO DO BRASIL, CHINA E ÍNDIA.

    OpenAIRE

    Vaz, Elisangela Carvalho

    2016-01-01

    Esta dissertação discute a geopolítica internacional a partir da inserção da indústria farmacêutica no Brasil, Índia e China. O segmento farmacêutico consolidou-se internacionalmente a partir da Segunda Grande Guerra, com a comercialização da penicilina. Foi a partir de 1945 que houve a reconfiguração deste setor em nível internacional com a presença dos Estados Unidos, a partir de alianças estratégicas entre a indústria farmacêutica, as universidades e novos centros de pesquis...

  14. ALTERAÇÃO DE UM LAYOUT FUNCIONAL PARA LAYOUT CELULAR MOTIVADO PELOS FUNDAMENTOS DA MANUFATURA ENXUTA: ESTUDO DE CASO EM UMA INDÚSTRIA DE TRANSFORMADORES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Crisóstomo Gadelha

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho apresenta o estudo de uma alteração de layout, de funcional para celular, motivado pelos fundamentos da manufatura enxuta. Tendo como objetivo verificar os benefícios de se utilizar a manufatura celular com fluxo enxuto (contínuo, apresenta como metodologia um estudo de caso, pós-fato, em uma indústria de transformadores, onde a mudança foi realizada. Para fundamentar o estudo, apresenta revisão dos temas: Sistema de Manufatura Enxuta e layout industrial, para, em seguida, trazer os dados apresentados por esta indústria, ainda em um arranjo físico funcional, antes da alteração, e, em seguida, nas células de manufatura com um fluxo enxuto, após a alteração, e realizar uma comparação entre ambos. Os resultados obtidos desta comparação apresentam ganhos como aumento de produção, em 20%, e produtividade, em 56%, redução de lead time, em 67%, mão de obra direta, em 30%, tempo de processamento, em 20%, e área fabril, em 24%, dentre outros, evidenciando os benefícios que a utilização de um layout celular e Manufatura Enxuta proporcionam.

  15. ELEMENTOS MINERAIS EM MADEIRAS DE EUCALIPTOS E ACÁCIA NEGRA E SUA INFLUÊNCIA NA INDÚSTRIA DE CELULOSE KRAFT BRANQUEADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria C. M. Silva

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available No ramo de papel e celulose os efluentes são um dos principais problemas e o consumo de água é crítico. Os circuitos internos estão sendo fechados e as fontes de contaminação precisam ser conhecidas. Uma das fontes de contaminação destes efluentes são os minerais da madeira, matéria-prima neste tipo de indústria. Neste trabalho foi avaliada a quantidade de alumínio, cálcio, cobre, ferro, potássio, magnésio, manganês, sódio, níquel e silício em madeiras de cinco espécies florestais, plantadas na região de Guaíba, RS, compreendendo Acacia mearnsii, Eucalyptus dunnii, Eucalyptus globulus, Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna. As amostras de madeira foram tratadas com digestão ácida e com carbonização em mufla, solubilizando em ácido para serem analisadas por ICP (Inductively Coupled Plasm. Foi observado que a quantidade de elementos é considerável e os principais elementos encontrados foram K, Ca, Na, Al, Mn, e Si. As espécies Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus saligna mostraram melhor crescimento. Por outro lado, Eucalyptus globulus e Eucalyptus dunnii mostraram menor crescimento e maior teor de elementos. Pelo fato dessas espécies introduzirem maiores quantidades de elementos no processo de fabricação, devem conduzir a maiores problemas industriais. A Acacia mearnsii mostrou o menor nível para ferro, manganês e níquel, sendo uma boa opção para uso em branqueamento com oxigênio, ozônio e peróxido. O silício observado estava em baixa quantidade, o que leva a afirmar que há, na prática industrial, muita contaminação da madeira explorada com solo já que se encontram altos valores de sílica nos circuitos de licores. A entrada dos elementos minerais estudados em uma fábrica de celulose via madeira varia de 4 a 6 kg por tonelada de polpa não-branqueada produzida. Cuidados especiais devem ser tomados com as espécies com madeiras mais ricas em cinzas e elementos minerais e mais baixas eficiências nutricionais, como foi o caso de Eucalyptus dunnii e Eucalyptus globulus.

  16. MAPEAMENTO DO FLUXO DE VALOR E KAIZEN COMO INSTRUMENTOS DE REDUÇÃO DE PERDAS: UM CASO NA INDÚSTRIA DE MOTOSSERRAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Gilberto Scherer

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Tem se verificado que as operações industriais aplicam, cada vez mais, esforços e recursos no sentido de promover a melhoria contínua de seus processos e assim garantir uma sólida posição no mercado. Este artigo visa a identificar oportunidades de redução das perdas do processo de manufatura, através da utilização da ferramenta de mapeamento de fluxo de valor e a aplicação de Kaizen. Trata-se de um estudo de caso na indústria de motosserras, em que há um levantamento detalhado de dados de todo o processo produtivo através do mapeamento da cadeia de valor, desde o recebimento da matéria-prima até os clientes. A partir da análise desses dados, demonstra-se o aumento de produtividade e outros ganhos em termos de resposta rápida e flexibilidade. Palavras-Chave: Mapeamento do Fluxo de Valor. Kaizen. Produtividade.

  17. ALGODÃO COLORIDO COMO APOIO À SUSTENTABILIDADE DA INDÚSTRIA TÊXTIL BRASILEIRA / COLORED COTTON TO SUPPORT THE SUSTAINABILITY OF THE BRAZILIAN TEXTILE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. GARCIA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available O segmento de moda é compreendido por várias redes de empresas, que atuam em conjunto, de forma interdependente, visando o sucesso da cadeia produtiva. Utilizando grande capilaridade, essas redes são formadas por empresas que interagem com diversos ramos de negócios e de produção de vários produtos. São também várias as formas de distribuição utilizadas nesta rede. Esta pesquisa objetivou investigar a aplicação de conceitos de sustentabilidade na cadeia de produção e de distribuição de vestuário de moda. A pesquisa foi elaborada a partir de um estudo exploratório e um estudo de caso, totalizando cinco entrevistas. A compreensão do tema sustentabilidade nos diversos segmentos que compõem as redes de empresas de moda é apresentado e discutido, sendo proposto o algodão colorido para sustentabilidade do setor.

  18. ESPAÇO, INDÚSTRIA E TRABALHO: A INSERÇÃO DE SOBRAL NA DIVISÃO ESPACIAL DA PRODUÇÃO CALÇADISTA

    OpenAIRE

    Gadelha, Diego

    2012-01-01

    O município de Sobral, no Estado do Ceará, Brasil, foi selecionado na década de 1990 pela capital industrial nacional para cumprir uma função específica no circuito espacial da produção calçadista. Essa inserção, fruto da reestruturação produtiva e da redefinição da divisão espacial do trabalho por qual passou o setor, no final da década de 1980, incorporou novos municípios no circuito produtivo, em especial do nordeste brasileiro. As transformações decorrentes da apropriação de Sobral para d...

  19. CARACTERÍSTICAS E SELEÇÃO DE CURSOS TÉCNICOS VISANDO A EMPREGABILIDADE NA INDÚSTRIA PETROLÍFERA

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    Simara Netto Martins Cunha

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem a finalidade de avaliar a carreira profissional dos técnicos formados nas áreas de: eletromecânica, eletrônica, automação e eletrotécnica, que atuam em empresas do ramo petrolífero e, a partir deste levantamento, avaliar o curso técnico que oferece as melhores condições de empregabilidade na Região Norte do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. A coleta de dados foi realizada com aplicação de 86 questionários entre os profissionais técnicos que atuam em empresas petrolíferas sediadas em Macaé, RJ. O método AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process foi utilizado para seleção da melhor carreira com base nos seguintes critérios de seleção: salário, ascensão profissional, satisfação profissional, tempo para primeira contratação, duração do curso, estabilidade e periculosidade. Os técnicos formados em Eletrônica tem maior tempo de empresa, satisfação profissional, salário e conseguiram seu primeiro emprego mais rápido que os demais técnicos entrevistados. Situação oposta ocorre com os técnicos em Eletrotécnica, apesar de terem maior estabilidade no emprego. Todos os técnicos entrevistados se mostraram insatisfeitos com a ascensão profissional e aplicam parcialmente os conhecimentos adquiridos durante sua formação no ambiente de trabalho. O profissional formado em Eletromecânica julga que sua profissão apresenta periculosidade mediana, maior que os demais entrevistados. O método AHP apontou o curso de Eletromecânica como a melhor alternativa atual. Este trabalho pode auxiliar estudantes na seleção de suas carreiras, baseados na opinião de profissionais que atuam no setor petrolífero regional. O método AHP pode ser usado para tomada de decisões pessoais e oferecer uma resposta objetiva para uma decisão extremamente importante na vida dos jovens que buscam qualificação profissional para atuar na indústria do petróleo.

  20. USO DE RESÍDUOS DA AGROINDÚSTRIA DE BANANAS NA COMPOSIÇÃO DE SUBSTRATOS PARA PRODUÇÃO DE MUDAS DE PAU PEREIRA

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Mábele de Cássia; Costa, Samara Maria Lopes; Pasin, Liliana Auxiliadora Avelar

    2015-01-01

    O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar a utilização do resíduo orgânico da agroindústria processadora de bananas na composição de substratos em comparação com outros substratos para produção de mudas de Platycyamus regnellii Benth. O experimento foi realizado em casa de vegetação, avaliando-se seis substratos dispostos em blocos casualizados, constando de: solo, areia e compostagem da casca de banana (S1); solo, areia e compostagem de cascas de vegetais diversos sem adição de banana (S2); solo...

  1. ELEMENTOS PARA DISCUSSÃO DA CONFIGURAÇÃO DA AGROINDÚSTRIA CANAVIEIRA NO OESTE PAULISTA E DA RELAÇÃO CAPITAL X TRABALHO

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    José Roberto Nunes de Azevedo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Vimos por meio deste texto trazer alguns elementos fundamentais para o entendimentoda configuração da agroindústria canavieira, associado, pois, à ação metabólica do capital quealicerça a sua consubstanciação no território paulista, bem como, a trama que marca o conflitocapital x trabalho nesse setor produtivo.

  2. DESEMPENHO TÉRMICO DE BEZERREIROS COBERTOS COM TELHA DE FIBROCIMENTO E FORRO ECOLÓGICO DE SUBPRODUTOS AGROINDÚSTRIAS ASSOCIADO A MATERIAIS ISOLANTES

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    G. Barbirato

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho descreve um estudo sobre o potencial de utilização de um forro ecológico constituído de subprodutos da agroindústria (partículas de madeira de maravalha de Pinus sp. e bagaço de cana-de-açúcar - Saccharum officinarum L. associado a placas de poliestireno expandido (isopor® e de poliuretano à base de óleo de mamona (PU-mamona, quando aplicados em bezerreiros cobertos com telha de fibrocimento. Nesse estudo foi aferida a temperatura interna, umidade relativa e o índice de temperatura e umidade (ITU, no período do verão, durante 21 dias. Os resultados obtidos indicaram que o ITU e temperatura ambiente interna das instalações com forro ecológico associado a placas de isopor® e PU-mamona foram inferiores àquelas aferidas em bezerreiros sem forro. As imagens captadas por câmera termográfica indicam que os materiais empregados como forro amorteceram a transferência de calor e radiação para o interior dos bezerreiros, ocasionando menores temperaturas internas nesses ambientes.

  3. A INFLUÊNCIA DO SISTEMA DE GESTÃO AMBIENTAL NA IMAGEM ORGANIZACIONAL PERANTE OS STAKEHOLDERS: UMA INDÚSTRIA TÊXTIL DE MINAS GERAIS

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    Juliano Franco e Silva Amaral

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Uma característica da sociedade contemporânea é a crescente inquietação com a qualidade do ambiente natural. Grupos de pressão, cientistas, consumidores, políticos e empresas estão mais conscientes do meio ambiente e cada vez mais influentes. Na década de 1990, temas e conceitos importantes foram estudados: a teoria dos stakeholders, a ética nos negócios, a gestão ambiental, a cidadania empresarial, o desenvolvimento sustentável e a governança corporativa. Para Freeman apud Kreitlon (2003, os stakeholders podem ser definidos como qualquer grupo ou indivíduo capaz de afetar ou ser afetado pela organização. Em sentido estrito, são aqueles grupos vitais para o negócio da empresa. Segundo Moreira (2001, a organização que tem gestão ambiental é aquela que possui um departamento de meio ambiente responsável por atender às exigências dos órgãos ambientais e indicar equipamentos e dispositivos de controle ambiental apropriados à realidade do negócio e aos impactos ambientais. Por outro lado, o sistema de gestão ambiental adquire uma visão estratégica do meio ambiente. A organização deixa de agir apenas em função dos riscos e passa a perceber também as oportunidades de acordo com orientações de inserção da variável ambiental na gestão do negócio. Este artigo tem como objetivo descrever a influência da implantação do sistema de gestão ambiental na imagem de uma indústria têxtil de Minas Gerais frente aos stakeholders. A metodologia utilizada foi a revisão bibliográfica sobre sistema de gestão ambiental, a análise de documentos da Empresa Alfa e entrevistas não estruturadas com os responsáveis pela implantação da ISO 14001 e pela área de relação com investidores

  4. IMPLANTAÇÃO DA ISO 14001:2004: ESTUDO DE CASO DE UMA INDÚSTRIA DE PAPEL DA REGIÃO CENTRO-SUL DO PARANÁ

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    Katiane Crotti

    Full Text Available RESUMO Aliar as necessidades dos negócios às ambientais, trata-se de um desafio para as organizações. Os sistemas de gestão ambiental certificados pela NBR ISO 14001:2004 visam facilitar este processo, além de propiciar visibilidade positiva às organizações. No entanto, para adotar tal certificação, exige-se o atendimento de diversos requisitos e o desenvolvimento de estratégias de ecoinovação. Sob tal enfoque, esta pesquisa levantou os seguintes questionamentos: como a indústria de papel atendeu as exigências da NBR ISO 14001:2004? Quais estratégias de ecoinovação foram realizadas para a indústria conquistar a certificação? O objetivo geral buscou identificar e analisar as ações realizadas para a implantação da certificação ISO 14001:2004 em uma indústria de papel da região Centro-Sul do Paraná. Para isso utilizou-se do estudo de caso, no contexto da abordagem qualitativa, por meio de entrevistas, observação e pesquisa documental, e o tratamento destes se deu pela análise de conteúdo. Os principais resultados apontam que essa indústria atendeu aos requisitos de maneira satisfatória, demonstrando sua capacidade de adequar-se à norma. Observou-se também que as estratégias de ecoinovação desenvolvidas contribuíram para o alcance da certificação, o que exigiu da empresa adotar um processo de inovação capaz de subsidiar o atendimento de requisitos fundamentais de gestão ambiental.

  5. A INFLUÊNCIA DO SISTEMA DE GESTÃO AMBIENTAL NA IMAGEM ORGANIZACIONAL PERANTE OS STAKEHOLDERS: UMA INDÚSTRIA TÊXTIL DE MINAS GERAIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Franco e Silva Amaral

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Uma característica da sociedade contemporânea é a crescente inquietação com a qualidade do ambiente natural. Grupos de pressão, cientistas, consumidores, políticos e empresas estão mais conscientes do meio ambiente e cada vez mais influentes. Na década de 1990, temas e conceitos importantes foram estudados: a teoria dos stakeholders, a ética nos negócios, a gestão ambiental, a cidadania empresarial, o desenvolvimento sustentável e a governança corporativa. Para Freeman apud Kreitlon (2003, os stakeholders podem ser definidos como qualquer grupo ou indivíduo capaz de afetar ou ser afetado pela organização. Em sentido estrito, são aqueles grupos vitais para o negócio da empresa. Segundo Moreira (2001, a organização que tem gestão ambiental é aquela que possui um departamento de meio ambiente responsável por atender às exigências dos órgãos ambientais e indicar equipamentos e dispositivos de controle ambiental apropriados à realidade do negócio e aos impactos ambientais. Por outro lado, o sistema de gestão ambiental adquire uma visão estratégica do meio ambiente. A organização deixa de agir apenas em função dos riscos e passa a perceber também as oportunidades de acordo com orientações de inserção da variável ambiental na gestão do negócio. Este artigo tem como objetivo descrever a influência da implantação do sistema de gestão ambiental na imagem de uma indústria têxtil de Minas Gerais frente aos stakeholders. A metodologia utilizada foi a revisão bibliográfica sobre sistema de gestão ambiental, a análise de documentos da Empresa Alfa e entrevistas não estruturadas com os responsáveis pela implantação da ISO 14001 e pela área de relação com investidores.

  6. IMPACTOS AMBIENTAIS NA PRODUÇÃO DO ETANOL BRASILEIRO: UMA BREVE DISCUSSÃO DO CAMPO À INDÚSTRIA

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    Lilian Pugliese

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem como objetivo compilar e apresentar conjuntamente os principais impactos ambientais causados pela produção agrícola e industrial da produção de etanol, assim como apontar medidas de mitigação que têm sido apresentadas na literatura. O delineamento do estudo foi realizado pela análise qualitativa do material obtido em revisão bibliográfica. Durante a produção agrícola, os principais impactos ambientais encontrados foram a compactação dos solos por tratores e implementos agrícolas, a contaminação de corpos d’água e solos pelo uso intensivo de fertilizantes e agrotóxicos, aplicação não controlada de vinhaça, torta de filtro ou escórias de siderurgia e poluição do ar por queimadas da palha da cana-de-açúcar. Durante a produção industrial, os principais impactos ambientais apontados relacionam-se com a poluição de ar proveniente da queima do bagaço e palhada excedente para geração de energia elétrica e cinzas dessa queima, com o descarte inadequados da água de lavagem da cana e de equipamentos, das águas residuais de condensadores e multijatos e das águas residuais domésticas. As discussões apresentadas demonstram que a produção de etanol pode gerar impactos desconhecidos pela maior parte da população, tanto na produção agrícola, quanto na produção industrial, podendo ocasionar poluição atmosférica e dos recursos hídricos. Medidas de mitigação, como biodegradação da vinhaça e produção de gases para geração de energia, diminuição do consumo e reúso da água, também são apontadas.

  7. COMPORTAMENTO DE CIDADANIA ORGANIZACIONAL: AS VISÕES DE COLABORADORES E DE GESTORES DE UMA INDÚSTRIA DE ELETRODOMÉSTICOS

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    Vívian Flores Costa

    Full Text Available RESUMO Este estudo tem o objetivo central identificar os comportamentos de cidadania organizacional (CCO predominantes no contexto organizacional, a partir da visão de colaboradores e de gestores de uma indústria de eletrodomésticos. Para tanto, realizou-se uma pesquisa descritiva, de natureza quantitativa e qualitativa, concretizada por meio de um estudo de caso em uma empresa fabricante de eletrodomésticos. Inicialmente, na etapa quantitativa, participaram 302 colaboradores pertencentes a diversas posições hierárquicas da empresa pesquisada, os quais responderam um questionário elaborado a partir do modelo Escala de Civismo nas Organizações (ECO de Porto e Tamayo (2003. Em um segundo momento, na etapa qualitativa, participaram 10 gestores da empresa investigada, com os quais se efetivaram entrevistas semiestruturadas, sendo o protocolo elaborado à luz do modelo de Porto e Tamayo (2003. Os principais resultados encontrados expõem que, no que tange aos CCO, os comportamentos de Proteção ao sistema e de Cooperação com os colegas foram os indicados pelos colaboradores e gestores como os mais presentes no contexto organizacional investigado. Em contrapartida, na visão dos colaboradores, o autotreinamento e o comportamento de sugestão à gestão organizacional são os menos praticados no ambiente de trabalho. Contudo, a visão dos gestores apresentou algumas dissensões, visto que apontaram esses comportamentos como recorrentes nos membros da organização.

  8. O GERENCIAMENTO DO RELACIONAMENTO COM FORNECEDORES NA INTEGRAÇÃO DA CADEIA DE SUPRIMENTOS: UM ESTUDO DE CASO NA INDÚSTRIA ELETRO-MECÂNICA

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, Marly Mizue Kaibara de; Marins, Fernando Augusto Silva; Tramarico, Claudemir Leif

    2012-01-01

    O aumento da competição, a globalização e a necessidade de redução do ciclo de produção e níveis de estoques criou a necessidade de processos baseados em alianças eficazes na cadeia de suprimentos. Estas pressões têm levado os gestores a reverem suas empresas individualmente e analisar sua posição na cadeia de suprimentos. O Gerenciamento da Cadeia de Suprimentos representa uma importante evolução nas práticas de relacionamento entre clientes e fornecedores participantes de um mesmo canal de ...

  9. ESTUDO DA ADIÇÃO DA LIGNINA KRAFT NAS PROPRIEDADES MECÂNICAS DOS BRIQUETES DE RESÍDUOS DA INDÚSTRIA MOVELEIRA

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    Adriana de Fátima Gomes Gouvêa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve global effectiveness of energy production, a strategy is the model of bio-refineries in which all the components of biomass are totally used to produce a range of products with aggregated value. The kraft lignin is one of the products originated in the process of cellulose production that can be used in making densified products. The objective of this work was to evaluate the behavior of the addition of extracted kraft lignin of black kraft liquor in briquette manufactures with furniture industry waste, in the form of shavings and panel particles in different proportions. The briquettes were produced in laboratory briquetting, using the temperatures of 60, 75 and 90 o C. The pressing and cooling time was 5 minutes and pressure 68,9 x 10 5 N.m -2 (1000 PSI. The briquette quality was evaluated through determining the mechanical properties. The kraft lignin in adequate proportions and temperature showed advantages in the increase of resistance and the durability of the briquettes. The kraft lignin presented advantages such as agglutinative in briquette productions from wood waste at a pressing temperature of 90 o C with addition of 20% of kraft lignin, and at pressing temperatures of 60 and 75 o C at a proportion of addition of 40 and 60% of kraft lignin to wood waste, respectively.

  10. MODELO DE GERÊNCIA DE PROJETOS PARA LANÇAMENTO DE MEDICAMENTOS GENÉRICOS PELA INDÚSTRIA FARMACÊUTICA

    OpenAIRE

    Hajjar Júnior, Georges

    2010-01-01

    Este trabalho teve como objetivo construir um modelo de gerência de projetos para o lançamento de novos produtos na indústria farmacêutica de medicamentos genéricos. O foco da pesquisa voltou-se ao desenvolvimento de técnicas e ferramentas de trabalho que possibilitam um maior controle sobre o processo de desenvolvimento de um novo produto a ser lançado no mercado e sirvam como base para planejamento, implantação, controle e avaliação do processo como um todo, fornecendo uma vi...

  11. GRUPOS ESTRATÉGICOS NA INDÚSTRIA DE RESSEGUROS BRASILEIRA: UMA VISÃO DE SUA FORMAÇÃO INICIAL

    OpenAIRE

    Pinheiro, Selma Sotelo; Troccoli, Irene Raguenet

    2016-01-01

    Esta investigación cualitativa sobre el mercado de reseguros brasileño tuvo el objetivo de rescatar la manera como cinco reseguradoras locales en funcionamiento en Brasil se configuraran estratégicamente después de la apertura de este mercado. Por el método utilizado hubo la formación de dos grupos estratégicos (GE): un formado por las reseguradoras locales con actuación endógena, y otro formado por el Instituto de Resseguros do Brasil (IRB) conjuntamente con las reseguradoras locales de actu...

  12. UMA REVISÃO SISTEMÁTICA SOBRE GESTÃO DA QUALIDADE EM INDÚSTRIAS DE MÓVEIS SOB ENCOMENDA

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    Jean Pierre Ludwig

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo apresenta a revisão sistemática da literatura sobre ferramentas da qualidade enfatizando os modelos integrados entre FMEA (Failure Mode and Effect Analysis e MASP (Method of Analysis and Solving Problems. Como resultado, foram identificados 209 trabalhos. Destes, foram selecionados 40 considerados relevantes a pesquisa. O período usado para a pesquisa foi de 2005 a 2015. A partir da análise dos artigos publicados sobre a integração das duas ferramentas, foi possível concluir sobre a inexistência de um modelo integrado que contemple os requisitos particulares das empresas fabricantes de móveis sob encomenda. Dessa maneira, a presente pesquisa se torna relevante no contexto da gestão de operações industriais, pois permitiu a proposição de um conjunto de requisitos que devem ser considerados para a elaboração de um modelo integrado de gestão da qualidade que contemple FMEA e MASP para visando estruturar os processos de melhoria contínua e gestão da qualidade de empresas fabricantes de móveis sob encomenda.

  13. LAS BIOPELÍCULAS EN LA INDUSTRIA DE ALIMENTOS BIOFILMES NA INDÚSTRIA DE ALIMENTOS BIOFILMS IN THE FOOD INDUSTRY

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    DIANA PAOLA NAVIA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Algunos microorganismos útiles y bacterias patógenas como por ejemplo Pseudomonas, Vibrio, Escherichia, Salmonella, Listeria, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Mycobacteria, tienen la capacidad de adherirse y crecer en los alimentos y/o en las superficies que están en contacto con ellos formando biopelículas. Estas son significativamente importantes en el campo alimentario porgue causan serios problemas que dificultan y perjudican las operaciones y los procesos al generar pérdidas de energía, reducción del flujo (en tuberías y transferencia de calor, y taponamiento de poros de membranas, entre otros. Este documento considera los aspectos biológicos y fisicoquímicos relacionados con la formación y desarrollo de las biopelículas, lo cual, unido al desarrollo de metodologías de diagnóstico e identificación, permitirán desarrollar estrategias gue faciliten la prevención y control de la contaminación en la industria de alimentos para mantener los sistemas libres de biopelículas y favorecer la calidad y seguridad de los alimentos.Alguns microorganismos úteis e bactérias patogênicas, como Pseudomonas, Vibrio, Escherichia, Salmonella, Listeria, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Micobactéria, têm a capacidade de aderir e crescer em alimentos e/ou as superfícies em contato com eles. Neste contexto, os biofilmes são significativamente importantes na alimentação, porque podem causar problemas graves que impedem e dificultam as operações e processos para gerar perdas de energia, fluxo reduzido (tubos e transferência de calor, e entupimento de poros da membrana, entre outros. Este documento considera a aspectos biológicos e físico-químicas relacionadas à formação e desenvolvimento de biofilmes, que, juntamente com o desenvolvimento de métodos para o diagnóstico e identificação, ajudará a desenvolver estratégias de prevenção e controle da poluição na indústria de alimentos para manter os sistemas de biofilme livre e promover a qualidade e segurança alimentar.Some useful microorganisms and pathogenic bacteria such as Pseudomonas, Vibrio, Escherichia, Salmonella, Listeria, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Mycobacterium, have the ability to adhere and grow in food and/or surfaces in contact with them. In this context, the biofilms are significantly important in the food industry because they cause serious problems that impede and impair the operations and processes to generate energy losses, reduced flow (in pipes and heat transfer, and plugging of membrane pores, among others. This document considers the biological and physicochemical aspects related to training and development of biofilms, which, together with the development of methods for diagnosis and identification, will help develop strategies for prevention and control of pollution in the food industry to maintain biofilm-free systems and promote the quality and food safety

  14. IMPLANTAÇÃO DA LÓGICA TAMBOR-PULMÃO-CORDA EM UMA EMPRESA DA INDÚSTRIA MOVELEIRA

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    Juliane Luchese

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é analisar os impactos da implantação do TPC (Tambor-Pulmão-Corda, descrevendo as desvantagens observadas antes desta modificação, bem como os benefícios obtidos após as mudanças. O método de pesquisa foi o estudo de caso único, efetuado em uma empresa pertencente ao polo moveleiro de Bento Gonçalves localizado no Rio Grande do Sul. Entre os resultados obtidos com a pesquisa, evidenciaram-se os processos da empresa, o espaço físico, o transporte de peças entre setores e o sequenciamento da produção, prévios a aplicação da metodologia. Constatou-se que a implantação de um sistema TPC foi essencial para que a melhoria dos processos fosse alcançada.

  15. O IMPACTO DA ROTATIVIDADE E DO ABSENTEÍSMO DE PESSOAL SOBRE O CUSTO DO PRODUTO: UM ESTUDO EM UMA INDÚSTRIA GAÚCHA.

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    Mauricio Farias Cardoso

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo é analisar o impacto da rotatividade e absenteísmo de pessoal sobre o custo do produto em uma indústria gaúcha.  Para tanto, realizou-se um estudo de caso, que envolveu a participação de uma empresa multinacional, com unidade produtiva no estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Os dados foram coletados no período de 2011, por meio de entrevista semiestruturada com a responsável pelo setor de recursos humanos e também com supervisora de controladoria da empresa. Além das entrevistas foram analisados documentos contábeis e relatórios gerenciais de custos e de recursos humanos. O estudo limitou-se a analisar o produto de maior giro e o setor com maior índice de rotatividade e absenteísmo na empresa. Neste estudo foi possível demonstrar que a rotatividade e o absenteísmo apresentados pelo setor tiveram impacto relevante sobre o custo do produto analisado, diminuindo os resultados proporcionados pela venda deste produto nos períodos em que o custo apresentou maior elevação. 

  16. A EVOLUÇÃO DA ORGANIZAÇÃO E DA LOCALIZAÇÃO ESPACIAL DA AGROINDÚSTRIA DO LEITE NO RIO GRANDE DO SUL

    OpenAIRE

    Joel Fiegenbaum

    2013-01-01

    O presente estudo visaanalisar a organização e a localização da agroindústria de leite no estado do Rio Grande do Sul entre os anos de 1990 a 2010. Busca-se neste estudo avaliar a evolução da agroindústria do leite, nos aspectos de estrutura industrial, de volume de produção e de localização do processamento fabril e da captação in natura. As referências teóricas perpassam pela utilização do Commodity System Approach, o modelo de estruturaconduta- desempenho (ECD) dinâmico, as ...

  17. ENGENHARIA DO CONHECIMENTO APLICADA AO SERVIÇO DE ATENDIMENTO AO CLIENTE NA INDÚSTRIA DO SOFTWARE KNOWLEDGE ENGINEERING APPLIED TO COSTUMER SERVICE IN THE SOFTWARE INDUSTRY

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    Mauricio Uriona Maldonado

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A representação do conhecimento apoia as técnicas e ferramentas de gestão e deve possuir uma compreensão substancial do negócio em que está inserido. A identificação e análise do negócio onde estão embutidos os aspectos de conhecimento são fundamentais para o sucesso da gestão do conhecimento nas organizações. Este artigo descreve a construção da primeira fase de um sistema de conhecimento para o serviço de atendimento ao usuário de uma software-house no Brasil. A metodología empregada é a engenharia do conhecimento e mais específicamente os modelos da camada contextual do CommonKADS. Inicialmente é apresentada uma revisão sobre o framework metodológico CommonKADS, com foco nos modelos de organização, tarefa e agente. Em seguida são descritas as etapas de construção do sistema de conhecimento e apresentado o local de aplicação. Conclui com as implicações do sistema de conhecimento para a software-house analizada bem como as recomendações dos próximos passos de aplicação do CommonKADS.Knowledge representation supports management tools and techniques and must possess a substantial comprehension of the business in which is inserted. This paper describes the first phase construction of a knowledge system for a Brazilian software-house´s customer service. The method applied is knowledge engineering and specifically the context-layer models of CommonKADS. First, a literature review is presented regarding the CommonKADS Methodology, focusing in the Organization, Tasks and Agent Models. Next, the development phases for the knowledge system are described as well as the company where the study was made. It concludes with the business implications of the knowledge system for the software-house as well as the next steps of application for CommonKADS.

  18. ANÁLISE DA CONCENTRAÇÃO NA INDÚSTRIA CERVEJEIRA BRASILEIRA NO PERÍODO ENTRE 1989 E 2011

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    Guilherme Zim Zaniol

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo tem como objetivo analisar a evolução da concentração na indústria brasileira de produção de cerveja no período de 1989 a 2011, segregando-o entre dois períodos: antes e depois da fusão que originou a AmBev. O estudo procura mostrar os antecedentes à criação da AmBev, bem como o comportamento do setor depois da sua criação. A análise permitiu a conclusão de que houve aumento da concentração durante o período referido, como também houve significativo impacto do surgimento da AmBev no mercado.

  19. O PROCESSO DE INTRODUÇÃO DA MAQUINARIA NA INDÚSTRIA FABRIL E O TRABALHADOR [doi: 10.5329/RECADM.20020102006

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    Alexandre Shigunov Neto

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O objetivo deste texto é analisar as implicações que a introdução da maquinaria trouxe para os trabalhadores das fábricas, tomando como ponto de partida o período inicial da Revolução Industrial. Nossa hipótese de trabalho sugere que a maquinaria em si, como instrumento auxiliar do progresso, é benéfica para a sociedade e, até mesmo, para o trabalhador, no entanto, a aplicação dada pelo capitalista é que poderá ser prejudicial para os mesmos, em especial para o trabalhador e suas condições de trabalho.

  20. INDÚSTRIA CULTURAL E CIBERCULTURA – APROXIMAÇÕES E DISTANCIAMENTOS DE CONCEITOS E PRÁTICAS NA CONTEMPORANEIDADE

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    Marcus Alexandre de Pádua Cavalcanti

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Marcus Alexandre de Pádua Cavalcanti DOI: 10.12957/periferia.2013.15326O presente artigo propõe uma reflexão sobre as relações e os processos de comunicação promovidos pelas redes digitais e os meios de comunicação de massas, no sentido de perceber, na contemporaneidade, como ambos se integram e se complementam em suas práticas. No decorrer desta apresentação, serão abordados os conceitos de indústria cultural, cibercultura, hegemonia, contra-hegemonia e rizoma. Tais conceitos serão utilizados para analisar e apontar as dinâmicas e configurações das formas verticais/centralizadas e horizontais/descentralizadas de comunicação. As metáforas das ramificações arborescentes e rizomáticas serão utilizadas nesse contexto para visualizar e comunicar melhor o funcionamento desses dois sistemas. Discutem-se as características desses dois paradigmas, como eles convivem e se agenciam de maneira colaborativa e concomitante, potencializando e ampliando as práticas comunicacionais.

  1. ESTUDO DO COMPORTAMENTO DE BLENDAS DE POLIAMIDA 6/RESÍDUO DE BORRACHA DA INDÚSTRIA DE CALÇADOS

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    Carlos Bruno Barreto Luna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available O reaproveitamento de borrachas tem sido bastante explorado, por meio de misturas com polímeros virgens, para gerar compostos utilizados em diversas aplicações. O objetivo deste trabalho foi produzir blendas poliméricas a partir de uma matriz de poliamida 6 com resíduos de borracha reciclada (SBR-R. Foram realizados estudos sobre reologia, temperatura de deflexão térmica (HDT, análise térmica dinâmico-mecânica (DMTA e espectroscopia na região do infravermelho com transformada de Fourier (FTIR. As blendas de poliamida 6/resíduo de borracha reciclada foram preparadas em uma extrusora de rosca dupla corrotacional e os grânulos extrusados foram moldados por injeção. Os resultados obtidos com o estudo reológico mostraram que quanto maior a percentagem de SBR-R adicionado, maiores os valores de torque. As temperaturas de deflexão térmica das blendas reduziram pouco, quando comparadas à da poliamida 6. No ensaio de DMTA, as blendas binárias e ternárias tiveram deslocamento dos picos para, aproximadamente, -10°C e o deslocamento da relaxação α da PA6, para valores maiores. Os resultados do FTIR evidenciaram que as bandas características da PA6 não foram modificadas pela presença do SBR-R e nem pelo aumento da percentagem nas blendas binárias e pela presença de PE-g-MA nas blendas ternárias, mostrando que os seus grupamentos químicos não foram afetados.

  2. Colocalization of corticotropin-releasing hormone and oestrogen receptor-alpha in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus in mood disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bao, Ai-Min; Hestiantoro, Andon; van Someren, Eus J. W.; Swaab, Dick F.; Zhou, Jiang-Ning

    2005-01-01

    Oestrogens may modulate the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The present study was to investigate whether the activity of the HPA axis in mood disorders might be directly modulated by oestrogens via oestrogen receptors (ORs) in the corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)

  3. Vitamin D receptor in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus is necessary for beneficial effects of 1,25D[3] on peripheral glucose levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    While a wide range of data correlates low vitamin D levels with type 2 diabetes, few studies examine potential mechanisms by which vitamin D might impact key aspects of metabolism. The active form of 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D[3] (1,25D[3]; calcitriol) is hydroxylated in the liver and kidney from ...

  4. Vasopressin and oxytocin gene expression in the supraoptic and paraventricular nucleus of the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) during development of hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, H.H.M. van; Buuse, M. van den; Jong, Wybren de; Burbach, J.P.H.

    1988-01-01

    To study the regulation of hypothalamic vasopressin (VP) and oxytocin (OT) gene expression in relation to the development of hypertension, levels of VP mRNA and OT mRNA were determined in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Differences in VP and OT mRNA content of the supraoptic nucleus (SON) and

  5. Mürgilaeva maaletoojad / Sulev Vedler, Tarmo Vahter

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    Vedler, Sulev, 1970-

    2006-01-01

    Paldiskis kinni peetud mürgilaeva Probo Koalat rentiv Madalmaade naftakaubanduskompanii Trafigura Beheer on Alexela Terminali suurim aktsionär. Keskkonnakaitsjate surve, laeva kinnipidamise põhjused ja süüdistused. Lisa: Alexela terminali omanikud

  6. Pattern of distribution of serotonergic fibers to the amygdala and extended amygdala in the rat.

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    Linley, Stephanie B; Olucha-Bordonau, Francisco; Vertes, Robert P

    2017-01-01

    As is well recognized, serotonergic (5-HT) fibers distribute widely throughout the forebrain, including the amygdala. Although a few reports have examined the 5-HT innervation of select nuclei of the amygdala in the rat, no previous report has described overall 5-HT projections to the amygdala in the rat. Using immunostaining for the serotonin transporter, SERT, we describe the complete pattern of distribution of 5-HT fibers to the amygdala (proper) and to the extended amygdala in the rat. Based on its ontogenetic origins, the amygdala was subdivided into two major parts, pallial and subpallial components, with the pallial component further divided into superficial and deep nuclei (Olucha-Bordonau et al. 2015). SERT + fibers were shown to distributed moderately to densely to the deep and cortical pallial nuclei, but, by contrast, lightly to the subpallial nuclei. Specifically, 1) of the deep pallial nuclei, the lateral, basolateral, and basomedial nuclei contained a very dense concentration of 5-HT fibers; 2) of the cortical pallial nuclei, the anterior cortical and amygdala-cortical transition zone rostrally and the posteromedial and posterolateral nuclei caudally contained a moderate concentration of 5-HT fibers; and 3) of the subpallial nuclei, the anterior nuclei and the rostral part of the medial (Me) nuclei contained a moderate concentration of 5-HT fibers, whereas caudal regions of Me as well as the central nuclei and the intercalated nuclei contained a sparse/light concentration of 5-HT fibers. With regard to the extended amygdala (primarily the bed nucleus of stria terminalis; BST), on the whole, the BST contained moderate numbers of 5-HT fibers, spread fairly uniformly throughout BST. The findings are discussed with respect to a critical serotonergic influence on the amygdala, particularly on the basal complex, and on the extended amygdala in the control of states of fear and anxiety. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:116-139, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Structure and function of the amygdaloid NPY system: NPY Y2 receptors regulate excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission in the centromedial amygdala.

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    Wood, J; Verma, D; Lach, G; Bonaventure, P; Herzog, H; Sperk, G; Tasan, R O

    2016-09-01

    The amygdala is essential for generating emotional-affective behaviors. It consists of several nuclei with highly selective, elaborate functions. In particular, the central extended amygdala, consisting of the central amygdala (CEA) and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is an essential component actively controlling efferent connections to downstream effectors like hypothalamus and brain stem. Both, CEA and BNST contain high amounts of different neuropeptides that significantly contribute to synaptic transmission. Among these, neuropeptide Y (NPY) has emerged as an important anxiolytic and fear-reducing neuromodulator. Here, we characterized the expression, connectivity and electrophysiological function of NPY and Y2 receptors within the CEA. We identified several NPY-expressing neuronal populations, including somatostatin- and calretinin-expressing neurons. Furthermore, in the main intercalated nucleus, NPY is expressed primarily in dopamine D1 receptor-expressing neurons but also in interspersed somatostatin-expressing neurons. Interestingly, NPY neurons did not co-localize with the Y2 receptor. Retrograde tract tracing experiments revealed that NPY neurons reciprocally connect the CEA and BNST. Functionally, the Y2 receptor agonist PYY3-36, reduced both, inhibitory as well as excitatory synaptic transmission in the centromedial amygdala (CEm). However, we also provide evidence that lack of NPY or Y2 receptors results in increased GABA release specifically at inhibitory synapses in the CEm. Taken together, our findings suggest that NPY expressed by distinct populations of neurons can modulate afferent and efferent projections of the CEA via presynaptic Y2 receptors located at inhibitory and excitatory synapses.

  8. Clinical significance of circulating vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 to white matter disintegrity in Alzheimer's dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chi-Wei; Tsai, Meng-Han; Chen, Nai-Ching; Chen, Wei-Hsi; Lu, Yan-Ting; Lui, Chun-Chung; Chang, Ya-Ting; Chang, Wen-Neng; Chang, Alice Y W; Chang, Chiung-Chih

    2015-11-25

    Endothelial dysfunction leads to worse cognitive performance in Alzheimer's dementia (AD). While both cerebrovascular risk factors and endothelial dysfunction lead to activation of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and E-selectin, it is not known whether these biomarkers extend the diagnostic repertoire in reflecting intracerebral structural damage or cognitive performance. A total of 110 AD patients and 50 age-matched controls were enrolled. Plasma levels of VCAM-1, ICAM-1 and E-selectin were measured and correlated with the cognitive performance, white matter macro-structural changes, and major tract-specific fractional anisotropy quantification. The AD patients were further stratified by clinical dementia rating score (mild dementia, n=60; moderate-to-severe dementia, n=50). Compared with the controls, plasma levels of VCAM-1 (p< 0.001), ICAM-1 (p=0.028) and E-selectin (p=0.016) were significantly higher in the patients, but only VCAM-1 levels significantly reflected the severity of dementia (p< 0.001). In addition, only VCAM-1 levels showed an association with macro- and micro- white matter changes especially in the superior longitudinal fasciculus (p< 0.001), posterior thalamic radiation (p=0.002), stria terminalis (p=0.002) and corpus callosum (p=0.009), and were independent of, age and cortical volume. These tracts show significant association with MMSE, short term memory and visuospatial function. Meanwhile, while VCAM-1 level correlated significantly with short-term memory (p=0.026) and drawing (p=0.025) scores in the AD patients after adjusting for age and education, the significance disappeared after adjusting for global FA. Endothelial activation, especially VCAM-1, was of clinical significance in AD that reflects macro- and micro-structural changes and poor short term memory and visuospatial function.

  9. Increased CRF mRNA expression in the sexually dimorphic BNST of male but not female GAD67 mice and TMT predator odor stress effects upon spatial memory retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janitzky, K; Peine, A; Kröber, A; Yanagawa, Y; Schwegler, H; Roskoden, T

    2014-10-01

    The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is an important region for 2,5-dihydro-2,4,5-trimethylthiazoline (TMT) predator odor-induced stress responses in mice. It is sexually dimorphic and a region for corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)-enhanced stress responses. Dense GABAergic and CRF input from the amygdala to the BNST gives point to relevant interactions between CRF and GABA activity in these brain regions. Hence, to investigate sexual dimorphism of stress-induced neuronal changes, we studied effects of acute TMT exposure on CRF mRNA expression in stress-related brain regions in male and female GAD67 mice and their wild-type littermates. In GAD67 mice, heterozygous knock-in of GFP in GABAergic neurons caused a 50% decrease of GAD67 protein level in the brain [91,99]. Results show higher CRF mRNA levels in the BNST of male but not female GAD67 mice after TMT and control odor exposure. While CRF neurons in the BNST are predominantly GABAergic and CRF enhances GABAergic transmission in the BNST [20,51], the deficit in GABAergic transmission in GAD67 mice could induce a compensatory CRF increase. Sexual dimorphism of the BNST with greater density of GABA-ir neurons in females could explain the differences in CRF mRNA levels between male and female GAD67 mice. Effects of odor exposure were studied in a radial arm maze (RAM) task. Results show impaired retrieval of spatial memory after acute TMT exposure in both sexes and genotypes. However, only GAD67 mice show increased working memory errors after control odor exposure. Our work elicits GAD67 mice as a model to further study interactions of GABA and CRF in the BNST for a better understanding of how sex-specific characteristics of the brain may contribute to differences in anxiety- and stress-related psychological disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Distinct BOLD activation profiles following central and peripheral oxytocin administration in awake rats

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    Craig F Ferris

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of literature has suggested that intranasal oxytocin (OT or other systemic routes of administration can alter prosocial behavior, presumably by directly activating OT sensitive neural circuits in the brain. Yet there is no clear evidence that OT given peripherally can cross the blood-brain-barrier at levels sufficient to engage the OT receptor. To address this issue we examined changes in blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD signal intensity in response to peripheral OT injections (0.1, 0.5 or 2.5 mg/kg during functional magnetic resonance (fMRI in awake rats imaged at 7.0 tesla. These data were compared to OT (1ug/5 µl given directly to the brain via the lateral cerebroventricle. Using a 3D annotated MRI atlas of the rat brain segmented into 171 brain areas and computational analysis we reconstructed the distributed integrated neural circuits identified with BOLD fMRI following central and peripheral OT. Both routes of administration caused significant changes in BOLD signal within the first 10 min of administration. As expected, central OT activated a majority of brain areas known to express a high density of OT receptors e.g., lateral septum, subiculum, shell of the accumbens, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. This profile of activation was not matched by peripheral OT. The change in BOLD signal to peripheral OT did not show any discernible dose-response. Interestingly, peripheral OT affected all subdivisions of the olfactory bulb, in addition to the cerebellum and several brainstem areas relevant to the autonomic nervous system, including the solitary tract nucleus. The results from this imaging study do not support a direct central action of peripheral OT on the brain. Instead, the patterns of brain activity suggest that peripheral OT may interact at the level of the olfactory bulb and through sensory afferents from the autonomic nervous system to influence brain activity.

  11. Differential efferent projections of the anterior, posteroventral and posterodorsal subdivisions of the medial amygdala in mice

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    Cecília ePardo-Bellver

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The medial amygdaloid nucleus (Me is a key structure in the control of sociosexual behaviour in mice. It receives direct projections from the main and accessory olfactory bulbs, as well as an important hormonal input. To better understand its behavioural role, in this work we investigate the structures receiving information from the Me, by analysing the efferent projections from its anterior (MeA, posterodorsal (MePD and posteroventral (MePV subdivisions, using anterograde neuronal tracing with biotinylated and tetrametylrhodamine-conjugated dextranamines.The Me is strongly interconnected with the rest of the chemosensory amygdala, but shows only moderate projections to the central nucleus and light projections to the associative nuclei of the basolateral amygdaloid complex. In addition, the MeA originates a strong feedback projection to the deep mitral cell layer of the accessory olfactory bulb, whereas the MePV projects to its granule cell layer. The medial amygdaloid nucleus (especially the MeA has also moderate projections to different olfactory structures, including the piriform cortex. The densest outputs of the Me target the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST and the hypothalamus. The MeA and MePV project to key structures of the circuit involved in the defensive response against predators (medial posterointermediate BST, anterior hypothalamic area, dorsomedial aspect of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus, although less dense projections also innervate reproductive-related nuclei. In contrast, the MePD projects mainly to structures that control reproductive behaviours (medial posteromedial BST, medial preoptic nucleus, and ventrolateral aspect of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus, although less dense projections to defensive-related nuclei also exist. These results confirm and extend previous results in other rodents and suggest that the medial amygdala is anatomically and functionally compartmentalized.

  12. Characterization of Aromatase Expression in the Adult Male and Female Mouse Brain. I. Coexistence with Oestrogen Receptors α and β, and Androgen Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanić, Davor; Dubois, Sydney; Chua, Hui Kheng; Tonge, Bruce; Rinehart, Nicole; Horne, Malcolm K.; Boon, Wah Chin

    2014-01-01

    Aromatase catalyses the last step of oestrogen synthesis. There is growing evidence that local oestrogens influence many brain regions to modulate brain development and behaviour. We examined, by immunohistochemistry, the expression of aromatase in the adult male and female mouse brain, using mice in which enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) is transcribed following the physiological activation of the Cyp19A1 gene. EGFP-immunoreactive processes were distributed in many brain regions, including the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, olfactory tubercle, medial amygdaloid nucleus and medial preoptic area, with the densest distributions of EGFP-positive cell bodies in the bed nucleus and medial amygdala. Differences between male and female mice were apparent, with the density of EGFP-positive cell bodies and fibres being lower in some brain regions of female mice, including the bed nucleus and medial amygdala. EGFP-positive cell bodies in the bed nucleus, lateral septum, medial amygdala and hypothalamus co-expressed oestrogen receptor (ER) α and β, or the androgen receptor (AR), although single-labelled EGFP-positive cells were also identified. Additionally, single-labelled ERα−, ERβ- or AR-positive cell bodies often appeared to be surrounded by EGFP-immunoreactive nerve fibres/terminals. The widespread distribution of EGFP-positive cell bodies and fibres suggests that aromatase signalling is common in the mouse brain, and that locally synthesised brain oestrogens could mediate biological effects by activating pre- and post-synaptic oestrogen α and β receptors, and androgen receptors. The higher number of EGFP-positive cells in male mice may indicate that the autocrine and paracrine effects of oestrogens are more prominent in males than females. PMID:24646567

  13. Neuropeptide Y2 receptors in anteroventral BNST control remote fear memory depending on extinction training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Dilip; Tasan, Ramon; Sperk, Guenther; Pape, Hans-Christian

    2018-03-01

    The anterior bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BNST) is involved in reinstatement of extinguished fear, and neuropeptide Y2 receptors influence local synaptic signaling. Therefore, we hypothesized that Y2 receptors in anteroventral BNST (BNSTav) interfere with remote fear memory and that previous fear extinction is an important variable. C57BL/6NCrl mice were fear-conditioned, and a Y2 receptor-specific agonist (NPY 3-36 ) or antagonist (JNJ-5207787) was applied in BNSTav before fear retrieval at the following day. Remote fear memory was tested on day 16 in two groups of mice, which had (experiment 1) or had not (experiment 2) undergone extinction training after conditioning. In the group with extinction training, tests of remote fear memory revealed partial retrieval of extinction, which was prevented after blockade of Y2 receptors in BNSTav. No such effect was observed in the group with no extinction training, but stimulation of Y2 receptors in BNSTav mimicked the influence of extinction during tests of remote fear memory. Pharmacological manipulation of Y2 receptors in BNSTav before fear acquisition (experiment 3) had no effect on fear memory retrieval, extinction or remote fear memory. Furthermore, partial retrieval of extinction during tests of remote fear memory was associated with changes in number of c-Fos expressing neurons in BNSTav, which was prevented or mimicked upon Y2 blockade or stimulation in BNSTav. These results indicate that Y2 receptor manipulation in BNSTav interferes with fear memory and extinction retrieval at remote stages, likely through controlling neuronal activity in BNSTav during extinction training. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Knowledge synthesis with maps of neural connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo eTallis

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes software for neuroanatomical knowledge synthesis based on high-quality neural connectivity data. This software supports a mature neuroanatomical methodology developed since the early 1990s. Over this time, the Swanson laboratory at USC has generated an account of the neural connectivity of the sub-structures of the hypothalamus, amygdala, septum, hippocampus and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. This is based on neuroanatomical data maps drawn into a standard brain atlas by experts. In earlier work, we presented an application for visualizing and comparing anatomical macroconnections using the Swanson 3rd edition atlas as a framework for accurate registration. Here we describe major improvements to the NeuARt application based on the incorporation of a knowledge representation of experimental design. We also present improvements in the interface and features of the neuroanatomical data mapping components within a unified web-application. As a step towards developing an accurate sub-regional account of neural connectivity, we provide navigational access between the neuroanatomical data maps and a semantic representation of area-to-area connections that they support. We do so based on an approach called ’Knowledge Engineering from Experimental Design’ (KEfED model that is based on experimental variables. We have extended the underlying KEfED representation of tract-tracing experiments by incorporating the definition of a neuronanatomical data map as a measurement variable in the study design. This paper describes the software design of a web application that allows anatomical data sets to be described within a standard experimental context and thus incorporated with non-spatial data sets.

  15. Evaluating the relationship between white matter integrity, cognition, and varieties of video game learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Nicholas R; O'Connell, Margaret A; Nashiro, Kaoru; Smith, Evan T; Qin, Shuo; Basak, Chandramallika

    2017-01-01

    Many studies are currently researching the effects of video games, particularly in the domain of cognitive training. Great variability exists among video games however, and few studies have attempted to compare different types of video games. Little is known, for instance, about the cognitive processes or brain structures that underlie learning of different genres of video games. To examine the cognitive and neural underpinnings of two different types of game learning in order to evaluate their common and separate correlates, with the hopes of informing future intervention research. Participants (31 younger adults and 31 older adults) completed an extensive cognitive battery and played two different genres of video games, one action game and one strategy game, for 1.5 hours each. DTI scans were acquired for each participant, and regional fractional anisotropy (FA) values were extracted using the JHU atlas. Behavioral results indicated that better performance on tasks of working memory and perceptual discrimination was related to enhanced learning in both games, even after controlling for age, whereas better performance on a perceptual speed task was uniquely related with enhanced learning of the strategy game. DTI results indicated that white matter FA in the right fornix/stria terminalis was correlated with action game learning, whereas white matter FA in the left cingulum/hippocampus was correlated with strategy game learning, even after controlling for age. Although cognition, to a large extent, was a common predictor of both types of game learning, regional white matter FA could separately predict action and strategy game learning. Given the neural and cognitive correlates of strategy game learning, strategy games may provide a more beneficial training tool for adults suffering from memory-related disorders or declines in processing speed, particularly older adults.

  16. Association of schizophrenia onset age and white matter integrity with treatment effect of D-cycloserine: a randomized placebo-controlled double-blind crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takiguchi, Kazuo; Uezato, Akihito; Itasaka, Michio; Atsuta, Hidenori; Narushima, Kenji; Yamamoto, Naoki; Kurumaji, Akeo; Tomita, Makoto; Oshima, Kazunari; Shoda, Kosaku; Tamaru, Mai; Nakataki, Masahito; Okazaki, Mitsutoshi; Ishiwata, Sayuri; Ishiwata, Yasuyoshi; Yasuhara, Masato; Arima, Kunimasa; Ohmori, Tetsuro; Nishikawa, Toru

    2017-07-12

    It has been reported that drugs which promote the N-Methyl-D-aspartate-type glutamate receptor function by stimulating the glycine modulatory site in the receptor improve negative symptoms and cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia patients being treated with antipsychotic drugs. We performed a placebo-controlled double-blind crossover study involving 41 schizophrenia patients in which D-cycloserine 50 mg/day was added-on, and the influence of the onset age and association with white matter integrity on MR diffusion tensor imaging were investigated for the first time. The patients were evaluated using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS), Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS), and other scales. D-cycloserine did not improve positive or negative symptoms or cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia. The investigation in consideration of the onset age suggests that D-cycloserine may aggravate negative symptoms of early-onset schizophrenia. The better treatment effect of D-cycloserine on BACS was observed when the white matter integrity of the sagittal stratum/ cingulum/fornix stria terminalis/genu of corpus callosum/external capsule was higher, and the better treatment effect on PANSS general psychopathology (PANSS-G) was observed when the white matter integrity of the splenium of corpus callosum was higher. In contrast, the better treatment effect of D-cycloserine on PANSS-G and SANS-IV were observed when the white matter integrity of the posterior thalamic radiation (left) was lower. It was suggested that response to D-cycloserine is influenced by the onset age and white matter integrity. UMIN Clinical Trials Registry (number UMIN000000468 ). Registered 18 August 2006.

  17. The underestimated role of olfaction in avian reproduction ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balthazart, Jacques; Taziaux, Mélanie

    2009-01-01

    Until the second half of the 20th century, it was broadly accepted that most birds are microsmatic if not anosmic and unable to detect and use olfactory information. Exceptions were eventually conceded for species like procellariiforms, vultures or kiwis that detect their food at least in part based on olfactory signals. During the past 20–30 years, many publications have appeared indicating that this view is definitely erroneous. We briefly review here anatomical, electrophysiological and behavioral data demonstrating that birds in general possess a functional olfactory system and are able to use olfactory information in a variety of ethological contexts, including reproduction. Recent work also indicates that brain activation induced by sexual interactions with a female is significantly affected by olfactory deprivation in Japanese quail. Brain activation was measured via immunocytochemical detection of the protein product of the immediate early gene c-fos. Changes observed concerned two brain areas that play a key role in the control of male sexual behavior, the medial preoptic nucleus and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis therefore suggesting a potential role of olfaction in the control of reproduction. The widespread idea that birds are anosmic or microsmatic is thus not supported by the available experimental data and presumably originates in our anthropomorphic view that leads us to think that birds do not smell because they have a rigid beak and nostrils and do not obviously sniff. Experimental analysis of this phenomenon is thus warranted and should lead to a significant change in our understanding of avian biology. PMID:18804490

  18. Orexin 1 receptors are a novel target to modulate panic responses and the panic brain network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Philip L; Samuels, Brian C; Fitz, Stephanie D; Federici, Lauren M; Hammes, Nathan; Early, Maureen C; Truitt, William; Lowry, Christopher A; Shekhar, Anantha

    2012-12-05

    Although the hypothalamic orexin system is known to regulate appetitive behaviors and promote wakefulness and arousal (Sakurai, 2007 [56]), this system may also be important in adaptive and pathological anxiety/stress responses (Suzuki et al., 2005 [4]). In a recent study, we demonstrated that CSF orexin levels were significantly higher in patients experiencing panic attacks compared to non-panicking depressed subjects (Johnson et al., 2010 [9]). Furthermore, genetically silencing orexin synthesis or blocking orexin 1 receptors attenuated lactate-induced panic in an animal model of panic disorder. Therefore, in the present study, we tested if orexin (ORX) modulates panic responses and brain pathways activated by two different panicogenic drugs. We conducted a series of pharmacological, behavioral, physiological and immunohistochemical experiments to study the modulation by the orexinergic inputs of anxiety behaviors, autonomic responses, and activation of brain pathways elicited by systemic injections of anxiogenic/panicogenic drugs in rats. We show that systemic injections of two different anxiogenic/panicogenic drugs (FG-7142, an inverse agonist at the benzodiazepine site of the GABA(A) receptor, and caffeine, a nonselective competitive adenosine receptor antagonist) increased c-Fos induction in a specific subset of orexin neurons located in the dorsomedial/perifornical (DMH/PeF) but not the lateral hypothalamus. Pretreating rats with an orexin 1 receptor antagonist attenuated the FG-7142-induced anxiety-like behaviors, increased heart rate, and neuronal activation in key panic pathways, including subregions of the central nucleus of the amygdala, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, periaqueductal gray and in the rostroventrolateral medulla. Overall, the data here suggest that the ORX neurons in the DMH/PeF region are critical to eliciting coordinated panic responses and that ORX1 receptor antagonists constitute a potential novel treatment strategy for panic and

  19. SPIDER OR NO SPIDER? NEURAL CORRELATES OF SUSTAINED AND PHASIC FEAR IN SPIDER PHOBIA.

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    Münsterkötter, Anna Luisa; Notzon, Swantje; Redlich, Ronny; Grotegerd, Dominik; Dohm, Katharina; Arolt, Volker; Kugel, Harald; Zwanzger, Peter; Dannlowski, Udo

    2015-09-01

    Processes of phasic fear responses to threatening stimuli are thought to be distinct from sustained, anticipatory anxiety toward an unpredicted, potential threat. There is evidence for dissociable neural correlates of phasic fear and sustained anxiety. Whereas increased amygdala activity has been associated with phasic fear, sustained anxiety has been linked with activation of the bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BNST), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and the insula. So far, only a few studies have focused on the dissociation of neural processes related to both phasic and sustained fear in specific phobia. We suggested that first, conditions of phasic and sustained fear would involve different neural networks and, second, that overall neural activity would be enhanced in a sample of phobic compared to nonphobic participants. Pictures of spiders and neutral stimuli under conditions of either predicted (phasic) or unpredicted (sustained) fear were presented to 28 subjects with spider phobia and 28 nonphobic control subjects during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanning. Phobic patients revealed significantly higher amygdala activation than controls under conditions of phasic fear. Sustained fear processing was significantly related to activation in the insula and ACC, and phobic patients showed a stronger activation than controls of the BNST and the right ACC under conditions of sustained fear. Functional connectivity analysis revealed enhanced connectivity of the BNST and the amygdala in phobic subjects. Our findings support the idea of distinct neural correlates of phasic and sustained fear processes. Increased neural activity and functional connectivity in these networks might be crucial for the development and maintenance of anxiety disorders. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Estrogen Receptor Alpha Distribution and Expression in the Social Neural Network of Monogamous and Polygynous Peromyscus.

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    Bruce S Cushing

    Full Text Available In microtine and dwarf hamsters low levels of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST and medial amygdala (MeA play a critical role in the expression of social monogamy in males, which is characterized by high levels of affiliation and low levels of aggression. In contrast, monogamous Peromyscus males display high levels of aggression and affiliative behavior with high levels of testosterone and aromatase activity. Suggesting the hypothesis that in Peromyscus ERα expression will be positively correlated with high levels of male prosocial behavior and aggression. ERα expression was compared within the social neural network, including the posterior medial BST, MeA posterodorsal, medial preoptic area (MPOA, ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH, and arcuate nucleus in two monogamous species, P. californicus and P. polionotus, and two polygynous species, P. leucopus and P. maniculatus. The results supported the prediction, with male P. polionotus and P. californicus expressing higher levels of ERα in the BST than their polygynous counter parts, and ERα expression was sexually dimorphic in the polygynous species, with females expressing significantly more than males in the BST in both polygynous species and in the MeA in P. leucopus. Peromyscus ERα expression also differed from rats, mice and microtines as in neither the MPOA nor the VMH was ERα sexually dimorphic. The results supported the hypothesis that higher levels of ERα are associated with monogamy in Peromyscus and that differential expression of ERα occurs in the same regions of the brains regardless of whether high or low expression is associated with social monogamy. Also discussed are possible mechanisms regulating this differential relationship.

  1. Dopaminergic regulation of mate competition aggression and aromatase-Fos colocalization in vasotocin neurons.

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    Kabelik, David; Kelly, Aubrey M; Goodson, James L

    2010-01-01

    Recent experiments demonstrate that aggressive competition for potential mates involves different neural mechanisms than does territorial, resident-intruder aggression. However, despite the obvious importance of mate competition aggression, we know little about its regulation. Immediate early gene experiments show that in contrast to territorial aggression, mate competition in finches is accompanied by the activation of neural populations associated with affiliation and motivation, including vasotocin (VT) neurons in the medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTm) and midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons that project to the BSTm. Although VT is known to facilitate mate competition aggression, the role of DA has not previously been examined. We now show that in male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata), mate competition aggression is inhibited by the D(2) agonist quinpirole, though not the D(1) agonist SKF-38393 or the D(4) agonist PD168077. The D(3) agonist 7-OH-DPAT also inhibited aggression, but only following high dose treatment that may affect aggression via nonspecific binding to D(2) receptors. Central VT infusion failed to restore D(2) agonist-inhibited aggression in a subsequent experiment, demonstrating that D(2) does not suppress aggression by inhibiting VT release from BSTm neurons. In a final experiment, we detected D(2) agonist-induced increases in immunofluorescent colocalization of the product of the immediate early gene c-fos and the steroid-converting enzyme aromatase (ARO) within VT neurons of the BSTm. Thus, although VT and DA appear to influence mate competition aggression independently, BSTm VT neurons are clearly influenced by the activation of D(2) receptors, which may modify future behaviors.

  2. The Multifaceted Role of the Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex in Emotion, Decision Making, Social Cognition, and Psychopathology.

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    Hiser, Jaryd; Koenigs, Michael

    2018-04-15

    The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) has been implicated in a variety of social, cognitive, and affective functions that are commonly disrupted in mental illness. In this review, we summarize data from a diverse array of human and animal studies demonstrating that the vmPFC is a key node of cortical and subcortical networks that subserve at least three broad domains of psychological function linked to psychopathology. One track of research indicates that the vmPFC is critical for the representation of reward- and value-based decision making, through interactions with the ventral striatum and amygdala. A second track of research demonstrates that the vmPFC is critical for the generation and regulation of negative emotion, through its interactions with the amygdala, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, periaqueductal gray, hippocampus, and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex. A third track of research shows the importance of the vmPFC in multiple aspects of social cognition, such as facial emotion recognition, theory-of-mind ability, and processing self-relevant information, through its interactions with the posterior cingulate cortex, precuneus, dorsomedial PFC, and amygdala. We then present meta-analytic data revealing distinct subregions within the vmPFC that correspond to each of these three functions, as well as the associations between these subregions and specific psychiatric disorders (depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, addiction, social anxiety disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder). We conclude by describing several translational possibilities for clinical studies of vmPFC-based circuits, including neuropsychological assessment of transdiagnostic functions, anatomical targets for intervention, predictors of treatment response, markers of treatment efficacy, and subtyping within disorders. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Role of Oestrogen α Receptors in Sociosexual Behaviour in Female Rats Housed in a Seminatural Environment.

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    Snoeren, E M S; Antonio-Cabrera, E; Spiteri, T; Musatov, S; Ogawa, S; Pfaff, D W; Ågmo, A

    2015-11-01

    The present study investigated the role of oestrogen receptor (ER)α in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMN), the preoptic area (POA), the medial amygdala (MePD) and the bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BNST) in sociosexual behaviour in female rats. This was conducted in two sets of experiments, with the VMN and POA investigated in the first set, and the MePD and BNST in the second set. The VMN and POA received intense projections from the MePD and BNST. We used a short hairpin RNA encoded within an adeno-associated viral vector directed against the gene for ERα to reduce the number of ERα in the VMN or POA (first set of experiments) or in the BNST or MePD (second set of experiments) in female rats. The rats were housed in groups of four ovariectomised females and three males in a seminatural environment for 8 days. Compared with traditional test set-ups, the seminatural environment provides an arena in which the rats can express their full behavioural repertoire, which allowed us to investigate multiple aspects of social and sexual behaviour in groups of rats. Behavioural observation was performed after oestrogen and progesterone injections. A reduction of ERα expression in the VMN or POA diminished the display of paracopulatory behaviours and lordosis responses compared to controls, whereas the lordosis quotient remained unaffected. This suggests that ERα in the VMN and POA play an important role in intrinsic sexual motivation. The reduction in ERα did not affect the social behaviour of the females, although the males sniffed and pursued the females with reduced ERα less than the controls. This suggests that the ERα in the VMN and POA is involved in the regulation of sexual attractiveness of females. The ERα in the MePD and BNST, on the other hand, plays no role in sociosexual behaviour. © 2015 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  4. Sociality and the telencephalic distribution of corticotrophin-releasing factor, urocortin 3, and binding sites for CRF type 1 and type 2 receptors: A comparative study of eusocial naked mole-rats and solitary Cape mole-rats.

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    Coen, Clive W; Kalamatianos, Theodosis; Oosthuizen, Maria K; Poorun, Ravi; Faulkes, Christopher G; Bennett, Nigel C

    2015-11-01

    Various aspects of social behavior are influenced by the highly conserved corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) family of peptides and receptors in the mammalian telencephalon. This study has mapped and compared the telencephalic distribution of the CRF receptors, CRF1 and CRF2 , and two of their ligands, CRF and urocortin 3, respectively, in African mole-rat species with diametrically opposed social behavior. Naked mole-rats live in large eusocial colonies that are characterized by exceptional levels of social cohesion, tolerance, and cooperation in burrowing, foraging, defense, and alloparental care for the offspring of the single reproductive female. Cape mole-rats are solitary; they tolerate conspecifics only fleetingly during the breeding season. The telencephalic sites at which the level of CRF1 binding in naked mole-rats exceeds that in Cape mole-rats include the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus, hippocampal CA3 subfield, and dentate gyrus; in contrast, the level is greater in Cape mole-rats in the shell of the nucleus accumbens and medial habenular nucleus. For CRF2 binding, the sites with a greater level in naked mole-rats include the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus and dentate gyrus, but the septohippocampal nucleus, lateral septal nuclei, amygdalostriatal transition area, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and medial habenular nucleus display a greater level in Cape mole-rats. The results are discussed with reference to neuroanatomical and behavioral studies of various species, including monogamous and promiscuous voles. By analogy with findings in those species, we speculate that the abundance of CRF1 binding in the nucleus accumbens of Cape mole-rats reflects their lack of affiliative behavior. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Impaired white matter connections of the limbic system networks associated with impaired emotional memory in Alzheimer's disease

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    Xiaoshu Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Discrepancies persist regarding retainment of emotional enhancement of memory (EEM in mild cognitive impairment (MCI and early Alzheimer’s disease (AD patients. In addition, the neural mechanisms are still poorly understood, little is known about emotional memory related changes in white matter (WM.Objective: To observe whether EEM is absent in amnestic MCI (aMCI and AD patients, and to investigate if emotional memory is associated with WM connections and gray matters (GM of the limbic system networks. Methods: Twenty-one AD patients, 20 aMCI patients and 25 normal controls participated in emotional picture recognition tests and MRI scanning. Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS and voxel-based morphometry (VBM methods were used to determine white and gray matter changes of patients. Fourteen regions of interest (ROI of WM and 20 ROIs of GM were then selected for the correlation analyses with behavioral scores. Results: The EEM effect was lost in AD patients. Both white and gray matter of the limbic system networks were impaired in AD patients. Significant correlations or tendencies between the bilateral uncinate fasciculus, corpus callosum (genu and body, left cingulum bundle, left parahippocampal WM and the recognition sensitivity of emotional valence pictures, and significant correlations or tendencies between the splenium of corpus callosum, left cingulum bundle, left crus of fornix and stria terminalis and the recognition sensitivity of EEM were found. The volume of left amygdala, bilateral insula, medial frontal lobe, anterior and middle cingulum gyrus were positively correlated with the recognition sensitivity of emotional photos, and the right precuneus was positively correlated with the negative EEM effect. However, the affected brain areas of aMCI patients were more localized, and aMCI patients benefited only from positive stimuli. Conclusion: There are impairments of the limbic system networks of AD patients. Damaged WM

  6. Effects of VRK2 (rs2312147 on white matter connectivity in patients with schizophrenia.

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    Hoyoung Sohn

    Full Text Available Recent genome-wide association studies of schizophrenia reported a novel risk variant, rs2312147 at vaccinia-related kinase 2 gene (VRK2, in multiple Asian and European samples. However, its effect on the brain structure in schizophrenia is little known. We analyzed the brain structure of 36 schizophrenia patients and 18 healthy subjects with regard to rs2312147 genotype groups. Brain magnetic resonance scans for gray matter (GM and white matter (WM analysis, and genotype analysis for VRK2 rs2312147, were conducted. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and the Digit Symbol Test were assessed for schizophrenia patients. There was no significant difference in either GM volume or WM connectivity with regard to rs2312147 genotype in healthy subjects. In contrast, we found significant differences in the WM connectivity between rs2312147 CC and CT/TT genotype groups of schizophrenia patients. The related brain areas included the splenium of corpus callosum, the left occipital lobe WM, the internal capsule (left anterior limb and right retrolenticular part, the bilateral temporal lobe WM, the left fornix/stria terminalis, the left cingulate gyrus WM, and the left parietal lobe WM. Voxelwise correlation analysis revealed that the Digit Symbol Test scores (age corrected correlated with the fractional anisotropy in WM tracts that previously showed significant group differences between the CT/TT and CC genotypes in the rs2312147 CT/TT genotype group, while no significant correlation was found in the CC genotype group. Our data may provide evidence for the effect of VRK2 on WM connectivity in patients with schizophrenia.

  7. Acute and chronic effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatment on fear conditioning: implications for underlying fear circuits.

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    Burghardt, N S; Bauer, E P

    2013-09-05

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are widely used for the treatment of a spectrum of anxiety disorders, yet paradoxically they may increase symptoms of anxiety when treatment is first initiated. Despite extensive research over the past 30 years focused on SSRI treatment, the precise mechanisms by which SSRIs exert these opposing acute and chronic effects on anxiety remain unknown. By testing the behavioral effects of SSRI treatment on Pavlovian fear conditioning, a well characterized model of emotional learning, we have the opportunity to identify how SSRIs affect the functioning of specific brain regions, including the amygdala, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) and hippocampus. In this review, we first define different stages of learning involved in cued and context fear conditioning and describe the neural circuits underlying these processes. We examine the results of numerous rodent studies investigating how acute SSRI treatment modulates fear learning and relate these effects to the known functions of serotonin in specific brain regions. With these findings, we propose a model by which acute SSRI administration, by altering neural activity in the extended amygdala and hippocampus, enhances both acquisition and expression of cued fear conditioning, but impairs the expression of contextual fear conditioning. Finally, we review the literature examining the effects of chronic SSRI treatment on fear conditioning in rodents and describe how downregulation of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the amygdala and hippocampus may mediate the impairments in fear learning and memory that are reported. While long-term SSRI treatment effectively reduces symptoms of anxiety, their disruptive effects on fear learning should be kept in mind when combining chronic SSRI treatment and learning-based therapies, such as cognitive behavioral therapy. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Subdivisions of the turtle Pseudemys scripta subpallium based on the expression of regulatory genes and neuronal markers.

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    Moreno, Nerea; Morona, Ruth; López, Jesús M; González, Agustín

    2010-12-15

    The patterns of distribution of a set of conserved brain developmental regulatory transcription factors and neuronal markers were analyzed in the subpallium of the juvenile turtle, Pseudemys scripta. Immunohistochemical techniques were used with a combination of primary antibodies for the identification of the main boundaries and subdivisions in the basal telencephalon. In the basal ganglia, the combinatorial expression on Pax6, Nkx2.1, and GABA was a powerful tool for the identification of the nucleus accumbens, the dorsal portion of the striatum, and the pallidal regions. It was also possible to suggest migratory streams of neurons from the pallidum into the striatal regions. On the basis of GABA, Pax6, Tbr1, tyrosine hydroxylase, Darpp32, and Nkx2.1 combinatorial expression patterns, the boundaries of the septal subdivisions and their embryological origin were assessed. In particular, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis was identified. Within the amygdaloid complex, the striatal central amygdala was characterized by Pax6 expression, whereas Orthopedia gene expression highlighted, at least, a subdivision of the medial amygdala. A newly identified preoptic commissural area and the boundaries of the preoptic area were assessed, mainly by the localization of Nkx2.1 expression. Finally, additional data were obtained by combining immunohistochemistry and tracing techniques on the interneuronal nature of the cholinerginergic, nitrergic, and Nkx2.1-positive striatal cells. Taken together, all the results of the present study allowed recognizing main features in the organization of the subpallium in reptiles that, in most cases, are shared with other amniotes and amphibians. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Multiple mechanisms involved in the large-spectrum therapeutic potential of cannabidiol in psychiatric disorders

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    Campos, Alline Cristina; Moreira, Fabricio Araújo; Gomes, Felipe Villela; Del Bel, Elaine Aparecida; Guimarães, Francisco Silveira

    2012-01-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD) is a major phytocannabinoid present in the Cannabis sativa plant. It lacks the psychotomimetic and other psychotropic effects that the main plant compound Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) being able, on the contrary, to antagonize these effects. This property, together with its safety profile, was an initial stimulus for the investigation of CBD pharmacological properties. It is now clear that CBD has therapeutic potential over a wide range of non-psychiatric and psychiatric disorders such as anxiety, depression and psychosis. Although the pharmacological effects of CBD in different biological systems have been extensively investigated by in vitro studies, the mechanisms responsible for its therapeutic potential are still not clear. Here, we review recent in vivo studies indicating that these mechanisms are not unitary but rather depend on the behavioural response being measured. Acute anxiolytic and antidepressant-like effects seem to rely mainly on facilitation of 5-HT1A-mediated neurotransmission in key brain areas related to defensive responses, including the dorsal periaqueductal grey, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and medial prefrontal cortex. Other effects, such as anti-compulsive, increased extinction and impaired reconsolidation of aversive memories, and facilitation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis could depend on potentiation of anandamide-mediated neurotransmission. Finally, activation of TRPV1 channels may help us to explain the antipsychotic effect and the bell-shaped dose-response curves commonly observed with CBD. Considering its safety profile and wide range of therapeutic potential, however, further studies are needed to investigate the involvement of other possible mechanisms (e.g. inhibition of adenosine uptake, inverse agonism at CB2 receptor, CB1 receptor antagonism, GPR55 antagonism, PPARγ receptors agonism, intracellular (Ca2+) increase, etc.), on CBD behavioural effects. PMID:23108553

  10. Connections of the juxtaventromedial region of the lateral hypothalamic area in the male rat.

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    Joel D Hahn

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary conservation of the hypothalamus attests to its critical role in the control of fundamental behaviors. However, our knowledge of hypothalamic connections is incomplete, particularly for the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA. Here we present the results of neuronal pathway-tracing experiments to investigate connections of the LHA juxtaventromedial region, which is parceled into dorsal (LHAjvd and ventral (LHAjvv zones. Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin (PHAL, for outputs and cholera toxin B subunit (CTB, for inputs coinjections were targeted stereotaxically to the LHAjvd/v. RESULTS: LHAjvd/v connections overlapped highly but not uniformly. Major joint outputs included: Bed nuc. stria terminalis (BST, interfascicular nuc. (BSTif and BST anteromedial area, rostral lateral septal (LSr- and ventromedial hypothalamic (VMH nuc., and periaqueductal gray. Prominent joint LHAjvd/v input sources included: BSTif, BST principal nuc., LSr, VMH, anterior hypothalamic-, ventral premammillary-, and medial amygdalar nuc., and hippocampal formation (HPF field CA1. However, LHAjvd HPF retrograde labeling was markedly more abundant than from the LHAjvv; in the LSr this was reversed. Furthermore, robust LHAjvv (but not LHAjvd targets included posterior- and basomedial amygdalar nuc., whereas the midbrain reticular nuc. received a dense input from the LHAjvd alone. Our analyses indicate the existence of about 500 LHAjvd and LHAjvv connections with about 200 distinct regions of the cerebral cortex, cerebral nuclei, and cerebrospinal trunk. Several highly LHAjvd/v-connected regions have a prominent role in reproductive behavior. These findings contrast with those from our previous pathway-tracing studies of other LHA medial and perifornical tier regions, with different connectional behavioral relations. The emerging picture is of a highly differentiated LHA with extensive and far-reaching connections that point to a role as a central coordinator of behavioral

  11. Organizing effects of sex steroids on brain aromatase activity in quail.

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    Charlotte A Cornil

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Preoptic/hypothalamic aromatase activity (AA is sexually differentiated in birds and mammals but the mechanisms controlling this sex difference remain unclear. We determined here (1 brain sites where AA is sexually differentiated and (2 whether this sex difference results from organizing effects of estrogens during ontogeny or activating effects of testosterone in adulthood. In the first experiment we measured AA in brain regions micropunched in adult male and female Japanese quail utilizing the novel strategy of basing the microdissections on the distribution of aromatase-immunoreactive cells. The largest sex difference was found in the medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (mBST followed by the medial preoptic nucleus (POM and the tuberal hypothalamic region. A second experiment tested the effect of embryonic treatments known to sex-reverse male copulatory behavior (i.e., estradiol benzoate [EB] or the aromatase inhibitor, Vorozole on brain AA in gonadectomized adult males and females chronically treated as adults with testosterone. Embryonic EB demasculinized male copulatory behavior, while vorozole blocked demasculinization of behavior in females as previously demonstrated in birds. Interestingly, these treatments did not affect a measure of appetitive sexual behavior. In parallel, embryonic vorozole increased, while EB decreased AA in pooled POM and mBST, but the same effect was observed in both sexes. Together, these data indicate that the early action of estrogens demasculinizes AA. However, this organizational action of estrogens on AA does not explain the behavioral sex difference in copulatory behavior since AA is similar in testosterone-treated males and females that were or were not exposed to embryonic treatments with estrogens.

  12. Trait-like brain activity during adolescence predicts anxious temperament in primates.

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    Andrew S Fox

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Early theorists (Freud and Darwin speculated that extremely shy children, or those with anxious temperament, were likely to have anxiety problems as adults. More recent studies demonstrate that these children have heightened responses to potentially threatening situations reacting with intense defensive responses that are characterized by behavioral inhibition (BI (inhibited motor behavior and decreased vocalizations and physiological arousal. Confirming the earlier impressions, data now demonstrate that children with this disposition are at increased risk to develop anxiety, depression, and comorbid substance abuse. Additional key features of anxious temperament are that it appears at a young age, it is a stable characteristic of individuals, and even in non-threatening environments it is associated with increased psychic anxiety and somatic tension. To understand the neural underpinnings of anxious temperament, we performed imaging studies with 18-fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG high-resolution Positron Emission Tomography (PET in young rhesus monkeys. Rhesus monkeys were used because they provide a well validated model of anxious temperament for studies that cannot be performed in human children. Imaging the same animal in stressful and secure contexts, we examined the relation between regional metabolic brain activity and a trait-like measure of anxious temperament that encompasses measures of BI and pituitary-adrenal reactivity. Regardless of context, results demonstrated a trait-like pattern of brain activity (amygdala, bed nucleus of stria terminalis, hippocampus, and periaqueductal gray that is predictive of individual phenotypic differences. Importantly, individuals with extreme anxious temperament also displayed increased activity of this circuit when assessed in the security of their home environment. These findings suggest that increased activity of this circuit early in life mediates the childhood temperamental risk to develop anxiety and

  13. Why may allopregnanolone help alleviate loneliness?

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    Cacioppo, S; Cacioppo, J T

    2015-12-01

    Impaired biosynthesis of Allopregnanolone (ALLO), a brain endogenous neurosteroid, has been associated with numerous behavioral dysfunctions, which range from anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors to aggressive behavior and changes in responses to contextual fear conditioning in rodent models of emotional dysfunction. Recent animal research also demonstrates a critical role of ALLO in social isolation. Although there are likely aspects of perceived social isolation that are uniquely human, there is also continuity across species. Both human and animal research show that perceived social isolation (which can be defined behaviorally in animals and humans) has detrimental effects on physical health, such as increased hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) activity, decreased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression, and increased depressive behavior. The similarities between animal and human research suggest that perceived social isolation (loneliness) may also be associated with a reduction in the synthesis of ALLO, potentially by reducing BDNF regulation and increasing HPA activity through the hippocampus, amygdala, and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), especially during social threat processing. Accordingly, exogenous administration of ALLO (or ALLO precursor, such as pregnenolone), in humans may help alleviate loneliness. Congruent with our hypothesis, exogenous administration of ALLO (or ALLO precursors) in humans has been shown to improve various stress-related disorders that show similarities between animals and humans i.e., post-traumatic stress disorders, traumatic brain injuries. Because a growing body of evidence demonstrates the benefits of ALLO in socially isolated animals, we believe our ALLO hypothesis can be applied to loneliness in humans, as well. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Diffusion tensor imaging in male premutation carriers of the fragile X mental retardation gene.

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    Hashimoto, Ryu-ichiro; Srivastava, Siddharth; Tassone, Flora; Hagerman, Randi J; Rivera, Susan M

    2011-06-01

    Older male premutation carriers of the FMR1 gene are associated with the risk of developing a late-onset neurodegenerative disorder, fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome. Although previous postmortem and in vivo magnetic resonance imaging studies have indicated white matter pathology, the regional selectivity of abnormalities, as well as their relationship with molecular variables of the FMR1 gene, has not been investigated. In this study, we used diffusion tensor imaging to study male premutation carriers with and without fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome and healthy sex-matched controls. We performed a tract of interest analysis for fractional anisotropy and axial and radial diffusivities of major white matter tracts in the cerebellar-brain stem and limbic systems. Compared with healthy controls, patients with fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome showed significant reductions of fractional anisotropy in multiple white matter tracts, including the middle cerebellar peduncle, superior cerebellar peduncle, cerebral peduncle, and the fornix and stria terminalis. Significant reduction of fractional anisotropy in these tracts was confirmed by voxel-wise analysis using tract-based spatial statistics. Analysis of axial and radial diffusivities showed significant elevation of these measures in middle cerebellar peduncle, even among premutation carriers without fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome. Furthermore, regression analyses demonstrated a clear inverted U-shaped relationship between CGG-repeat size and axial and radial diffusivities in middle cerebellar peduncle. These results provide new evidence from diffusion tensor imaging for white matter abnormalities in the cerebellar-brain stem and limbic systems among individuals with the fragile X premutation and suggest the involvement of molecular mechanisms related to the FMR1 gene in their white matter pathology. Copyright © 2011 Movement Disorder Society.

  15. Characterization of aromatase expression in the adult male and female mouse brain. I. Coexistence with oestrogen receptors α and β, and androgen receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanić, Davor; Dubois, Sydney; Chua, Hui Kheng; Tonge, Bruce; Rinehart, Nicole; Horne, Malcolm K; Boon, Wah Chin

    2014-01-01

    Aromatase catalyses the last step of oestrogen synthesis. There is growing evidence that local oestrogens influence many brain regions to modulate brain development and behaviour. We examined, by immunohistochemistry, the expression of aromatase in the adult male and female mouse brain, using mice in which enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) is transcribed following the physiological activation of the Cyp19A1 gene. EGFP-immunoreactive processes were distributed in many brain regions, including the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, olfactory tubercle, medial amygdaloid nucleus and medial preoptic area, with the densest distributions of EGFP-positive cell bodies in the bed nucleus and medial amygdala. Differences between male and female mice were apparent, with the density of EGFP-positive cell bodies and fibres being lower in some brain regions of female mice, including the bed nucleus and medial amygdala. EGFP-positive cell bodies in the bed nucleus, lateral septum, medial amygdala and hypothalamus co-expressed oestrogen receptor (ER) α and β, or the androgen receptor (AR), although single-labelled EGFP-positive cells were also identified. Additionally, single-labelled ERα-, ERβ- or AR-positive cell bodies often appeared to be surrounded by EGFP-immunoreactive nerve fibres/terminals. The widespread distribution of EGFP-positive cell bodies and fibres suggests that aromatase signalling is common in the mouse brain, and that locally synthesised brain oestrogens could mediate biological effects by activating pre- and post-synaptic oestrogen α and β receptors, and androgen receptors. The higher number of EGFP-positive cells in male mice may indicate that the autocrine and paracrine effects of oestrogens are more prominent in males than females.

  16. Relationships between rapid changes in local aromatase activity and estradiol concentrations in male and female quail brain.

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    Dickens, M J; de Bournonville, C; Balthazart, J; Cornil, C A

    2014-02-01

    Estradiol-17β (E2) synthesized in the brain plays a critical role in the activation of sexual behavior in many vertebrate species. Because E2 concentrations depend on aromatization of testosterone, changes in aromatase enzymatic activity (AA) are often utilized as a proxy to describe E2 concentrations. Utilizing two types of stimuli (sexual interactions and acute restraint stress) that have been demonstrated to reliably alter AA within minutes in opposite directions (sexual interactions=decrease, stress=increase), we tested in Japanese quail whether rapid changes in AA are paralleled by changes in E2 concentrations in discrete brain areas. In males, E2 in the pooled medial preoptic nucleus/medial portion of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (POM/BST) positively correlated with AA following sexual interactions. However, following acute stress, E2 decreased significantly (approximately 2-fold) in the male POM/BST despite a significant increase in AA. In females, AA positively correlated with E2 in both the POM/BST and mediobasal hypothalamus supporting a role for local, as opposed to ovarian, production regulating brain E2 concentrations. In addition, correlations of individual E2 in POM/BST and measurements of female sexual behavior suggested a role for local E2 synthesis in female receptivity. These data demonstrate that local E2 in the male brain changes in response to stimuli on a time course suggestive of potential non-genomic effects on brain and behavior. Overall, this study highlights the complex mechanisms regulating local E2 concentrations including rapid stimulus-driven changes in production and stress-induced changes in catabolism. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Quantitative analysis of long-form aromatase mRNA in the male and female rat brain.

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    Tabatadze, Nino; Sato, Satoru M; Woolley, Catherine S

    2014-01-01

    In vitro studies show that estrogens acutely modulate synaptic function in both sexes. These acute effects may be mediated in vivo by estrogens synthesized within the brain, which could fluctuate more rapidly than circulating estrogens. For this to be the case, brain regions that respond acutely to estrogens should be capable of synthesizing them. To investigate this question, we used quantitative real-time PCR to measure expression of mRNA for the estrogen-synthesizing enzyme, aromatase, in different brain regions of male and female rats. Importantly, because brain aromatase exists in two forms, a long form with aromatase activity and a short form with unknown function, we targeted a sequence found exclusively in long-form aromatase. With this approach, we found highest expression of aromatase mRNA in the amygdala followed closely by the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) and preoptic area (POA); we found moderate levels of aromatase mRNA in the dorsal hippocampus and cingulate cortex; and aromatase mRNA was detectable in brainstem and cerebellum, but levels were very low. In the amygdala, gonadal/hormonal status regulated aromatase expression in both sexes; in the BNST and POA, castration of males down-regulated aromatase, whereas there was no effect of estradiol in ovariectomized females. In the dorsal hippocampus and cingulate cortex, there were no differences in aromatase levels between males and females or effects of gonadal/hormonal status. These findings demonstrate that long-form aromatase is expressed in brain regions that respond acutely to estrogens, such as the dorsal hippocampus, and that gonadal/hormonal regulation of aromatase differs among different brain regions.

  18. Epigenetics and sex differences in the brain: A genome-wide comparison of histone-3 lysine-4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) in male and female mice.

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    Shen, Erica Y; Ahern, Todd H; Cheung, Iris; Straubhaar, Juerg; Dincer, Aslihan; Houston, Isaac; de Vries, Geert J; Akbarian, Schahram; Forger, Nancy G

    2015-06-01

    Many neurological and psychiatric disorders exhibit gender disparities, and sex differences in the brain likely explain some of these effects. Recent work in rodents points to a role for epigenetics in the development or maintenance of neural sex differences, although genome-wide studies have so far been lacking. Here we review the existing literature on epigenetics and brain sexual differentiation and present preliminary analyses on the genome-wide distribution of histone-3 lysine-4 trimethylation in a sexually dimorphic brain region in male and female mice. H3K4me3 is a histone mark primarily organized as 'peaks' surrounding the transcription start site of active genes. We microdissected the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and preoptic area (BNST/POA) in adult male and female mice and used ChIP-Seq to compare the distribution of H3K4me3 throughout the genome. We found 248 genes and loci with a significant sex difference in H3K4me3. Of these, the majority (71%) had larger H3K4me3 peaks in females. Comparisons with existing databases indicate that genes and loci with increased H3K4me3 in females are associated with synaptic function and with expression atlases from related brain areas. Based on RT-PCR, only a minority of genes with a sex difference in H3K4me3 has detectable sex differences in expression at baseline conditions. Together with previous findings, our data suggest that there may be sex biases in the use of epigenetic marks. Such biases could underlie sex differences in vulnerabilities to drugs or diseases that disrupt specific epigenetic processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Binge Alcohol Drinking Elicits Persistent Negative Affect in Mice

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    Lee, Kaziya M.; Coehlo, Michal; McGregor, Hadley A.; Waltermire, Ryan S.; Szumlinski, Karen K.

    2015-01-01

    Cessation from chronic alcohol abuse often produces a dysphoric state that can persist into protracted withdrawal. This dysphoric state is theorized to function as a negative reinforcer that maintains excessive alcohol consumption and/or precipitates relapse in those struggling to abstain from alcohol. However, we know relatively little regarding the impact of cessation from binge drinking on behavioral measures of negative affect and related neurobiology. Male C57BL/6J mice were given access to unsweetened 20% alcohol for 6 weeks under modified Drinking-in-the-Dark procedures, followed by behavioral testing beginning either 1 or 21 days into withdrawal. Mice were administered a behavioral test battery consisting of: the elevated plus maze, light/dark box, novel object test, marble burying test, Porsolt forced swim test and sucrose preference test to assess anxiogenic and depressive signs. Egr1 immunostaining was used to quantify cellular activity within the central nucleus of the amygdala (CEA), basolateral amygdala (BLA), bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), and the nucleus accumbens (Acb) shell (AcbSh) and core (AcbC). Compared to water controls, alcohol-drinking mice exhibited higher indices of emotionality in the majority of behavioral assays. The hyper-emotionality exhibited by binge drinking mice was apparent at both withdrawal time-points and correlated with higher Egr1+ cell counts in the CEA and BNST, compared to controls. These data show that affective symptoms emerge very early after cessation of binge drinking and persist into protracted withdrawal. A history of binge drinking is capable of producing enduring neuroadaptations within brain circuits mediating emotional arousal. PMID:26048424

  20. Female mice deficient in alpha-fetoprotein show female-typical neural responses to conspecific-derived pheromones.

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    Olivier Brock

    Full Text Available The neural mechanisms controlling sexual behavior are sexually differentiated by the perinatal actions of sex steroid hormones. We recently observed using female mice deficient in alpha-fetoprotein (AFP-KO and which lack the protective actions of AFP against maternal estradiol, that exposure to prenatal estradiol completely defeminized the potential to show lordosis behavior in adulthood. Furthermore, AFP-KO females failed to show any male-directed mate preferences following treatment with estradiol and progesterone, indicating a reduced sexual motivation to seek out the male. In the present study, we asked whether neural responses to male- and female-derived odors are also affected in AFP-KO female mice. Therefore, we compared patterns of Fos, the protein product of the immediate early gene, c-fos, commonly used as a marker of neuronal activation, between wild-type (WT and AFP-KO female mice following exposure to male or estrous female urine. We also tested WT males to confirm the previously observed sex differences in neural responses to male urinary odors. Interestingly, AFP-KO females showed normal, female-like Fos responses, i.e. exposure to urinary odors from male but not estrous female mice induced equivalent levels of Fos protein in the accessory olfactory pathways (e.g. the medial part of the preoptic nucleus, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the amygdala, and the lateral part of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus as well as in the main olfactory pathways (e.g. the piriform cortex and the anterior cortical amygdaloid nucleus, as WT females. By contrast, WT males did not show any significant induction of Fos protein in these brain areas upon exposure to either male or estrous female urinary odors. These results thus suggest that prenatal estradiol is not involved in the sexual differentiation of neural Fos responses to male-derived odors.

  1. Effects of chronic alcohol consumption on neuronal function in the non-human primate BNST

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    Pleil, Kristen E.; Helms, Christa M.; Sobus, Jon R.; Daunais, James B.; Grant, Kathleen A.; Kash, Thomas L.

    2015-01-01

    Alterations in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function contribute to many of the adverse behavioral effects of chronic voluntary alcohol drinking, including alcohol dependence and mood disorders; limbic brain structures such as the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) may be key sites for these effects. Here, we measured circulating levels of several steroid hormones and performed whole-cell electrophysiological recordings from acutely-prepared BNST slices of male rhesus monkeys allowed to self-administer alcohol for 12 months or a control solution. Initial comparisons revealed that BNST neurons in alcohol-drinking monkeys had decreased membrane resistance, increased frequency of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) with no change in spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs). We then used a combined variable cluster analysis and linear mixed model statistical approach to determine whether specific factors including stress and sex hormones, age, and measures of alcohol consumption and intoxication are related to these BNST measures. Modeling results showed that specific measures of alcohol consumption and stress-related hormone levels predicted differences in membrane conductance in BNST neurons. Distinct groups of adrenal stress hormones were negatively associated with the frequency of sIPSCs and sEPSCs, and alcohol drinking measures and basal neuronal membrane properties were additional positive predictors of inhibitory, but not excitatory, PSCs. The amplitude of sEPSCs was highly positively correlated with age, independent of other variables. Together, these results suggest that chronic voluntary alcohol consumption strongly influences limbic function in non-human primates, potentially via interactions with or modulation by other physiological variables, including stress steroid hormones and age. PMID:26223349

  2. Sex differences in circuits activated by corticotropin releasing factor in rats.

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    Salvatore, Madeleine; Wiersielis, Kimberly R; Luz, Sandra; Waxler, David E; Bhatnagar, Seema; Bangasser, Debra A

    2018-01-01

    Women are more likely than men to suffer from psychiatric disorders characterized by corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) hypersecretion, suggesting sex differences in CRF sensitivity. In rodents, sex differences in the sensitivity of specific brain regions to CRF have been identified. However, regions do not work in isolation, but rather form circuits to coordinate distinct responses to stressful events. Here we examined whether CRF activates different circuits in male and female rats. Following central administration of CRF or artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF), neuronal activation in stress-related areas was assessed using cFOS. Functional connectivity was gauged by correlating the number of cFOS-positive cells between regions and then identifying differences within each sex in correlations for aCSF-treated and CRF-treated groups. This analysis revealed that CRF altered different circuits in males and females. As an example, CRF altered correlations involving the dorsal raphe in males and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in females, suggesting sex differences in stress-activated circuits controlling mood and anxiety. Next, plasma estradiol and progesterone levels were correlated with cFOS counts in females. Negative correlations between estradiol and neuronal activation in the regions within the extended amygdala were found in CRF-treated, but not aCSF-treated females. This result suggests that estrogens and CRF together modulate the fear and anxiety responses mediated by these regions. Collectively, these studies reveal sex differences in the way brain regions work together in response to CRF. These differences could drive different stress coping strategies in males and females, perhaps contributing to sex biases in psychopathology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The dynamics of stress: a longitudinal MRI study of rat brain structure and connectome.

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    Magalhães, R; Barrière, D A; Novais, A; Marques, F; Marques, P; Cerqueira, J; Sousa, J C; Cachia, A; Boumezbeur, F; Bottlaender, M; Jay, T M; Mériaux, S; Sousa, N

    2017-12-05

    Stress is a well-established trigger for a number of neuropsychiatric disorders, as it alters both structure and function of several brain regions and its networks. Herein, we conduct a longitudinal neuroimaging study to assess how a chronic unpredictable stress protocol impacts the structure of the rat brain and its functional connectome in both high and low responders to stress. Our results reveal the changes that stress triggers in the brain, with structural atrophy affecting key regions such as the prelimbic, cingulate, insular and retrosplenial, somatosensory, motor, auditory and perirhinal/entorhinal cortices, the hippocampus, the dorsomedial striatum, nucleus accumbens, the septum, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the thalamus and several brain stem nuclei. These structural changes are associated with increasing functional connectivity within a network composed by these regions. Moreover, using a clustering based on endocrine and behavioural outcomes, animals were classified as high and low responders to stress. We reveal that susceptible animals (high responders) develop local atrophy of the ventral tegmental area and an increase in functional connectivity between this area and the thalamus, further spreading to other areas that link the cognitive system with the fight-or-flight system. Through a longitudinal approach we were able to establish two distinct patterns, with functional changes occurring during the exposure to stress, but with an inflection point after the first week of stress when more prominent changes were seen. Finally, our study revealed differences in functional connectivity in a brainstem-limbic network that distinguishes resistant and susceptible responders before any exposure to stress, providing the first potential imaging-based predictive biomarkers of an individual's resilience/vulnerability to stressful conditions.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 5 December 2017; doi:10.1038/mp.2017.244.

  4. Distribution and densitometry mapping of L1-CAM Immunoreactivity in the adult mouse brain – light microscopic observation

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    Yamasaki Hironobu

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The importance of L1 expression in the matured brain is suggested by physiological and behavioral studies showing that L1 is related to hippocampal plasticity and fear conditioning. The distribution of L1 in mouse brain might provide a basis for understanding its role in the brain. Results We examined the overall distribution of L1 in the adult mouse brain by immunohistochemistry using two polyclonal antibodies against different epitopes for L1. Immunoreactive L1 was widely but unevenly distributed from the olfactory bulb to the upper cervical cord. The accumulation of immunoreactive L1 was greatest in a non-neuronal element of the major fibre bundles, i.e. the lateral olfactory tract, olfactory and temporal limb of the anterior commissure, corpus callosum, stria terminalis, globus pallidus, fornix, mammillothalamic tract, solitary tract, and spinal tract of the trigeminal nerve. High to highest levels of non-neuronal and neuronal L1 were found in the grey matter; i.e. the piriform and entorhinal cortices, hypothalamus, reticular part of the substantia nigra, periaqueductal grey, trigeminal spinal nucleus etc. High to moderate density of neuronal L1 was found in the olfactory bulb, layer V of the cerebral cortex, amygdala, pontine grey, superior colliculi, cerebellar cortex, solitary tract nucleus etc. Only low to lowest levels of neuronal L1 were found in the hippocampus, grey matter in the caudate-putamen, thalamus, cerebellar nuclei etc. Conclusion L1 is widely and unevenly distributed in the matured mouse brain, where immunoreactivity was present not only in neuronal elements; axons, synapses and cell soma, but also in non-neuronal elements.

  5. The role of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells in nonimage-forming responses to light

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    Warthen DM

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Daniel M Warthen,1,2 Ignacio Provencio11Department of Biology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA; 2Department of Pharmacology, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, VA, USAAbstract: Light exerts many effects on behavior and physiology. These effects can be characterized as either image-forming or nonimage-forming (NIF visual processes. Image-forming vision refers to the process of detecting objects and organisms in the environment and distinguishing their physical characteristics, such as size, shape, and direction of motion. NIF vision, in contrast, refers to effects of light that are independent of fine spatiotemporal vision. NIF effects are many and varied, ranging from modulation of basal physiology, such as heart rate and body temperature, to changes in higher functions, such as mood and cognitive performance. In mammals, many NIF effects of light are dependent upon the inner retinal photopigment melanopsin and the cells in which melanopsin is expressed, the intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs. The ipRGCs project broadly throughout the brain. Many of these projections terminate in areas known to mediate NIF effects, while others terminate in regions whose link to photoreception remains to be established. Additionally, the presence of ipRGC projections to areas of the brain with no known link to photoreception suggests the existence of additional ipRGC-mediated NIF effects. This review summarizes the known NIF effects of light and the role of melanopsin and ipRGCs in driving these effects, with an eye toward stimulating further investigation of the many and varied effects of light on physiology and behavior.Keywords: amygdala, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, melanopsin, opsin, optic nerve, retina

  6. Differential effects of cocaine on extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation in nuclei of the extended amygdala and prefrontal cortex of psychogenetically selected Roman high- and low-avoidance rats.

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    Giorgi, Osvaldo; Corda, Maria G; Sabariego, Marta; Giugliano, Valentina; Piludu, Maria A; Rosas, Michela; Acquas, Elio

    2015-05-01

    Roman high (RHA)- and low (RLA)-avoidance rats are selectively bred for rapid vs. poor acquisition of active avoidance, respectively, and differ markedly in emotional reactivity, coping style, and behavioral and neurochemical responses to morphine and psychostimulants. Accordingly, acute cocaine induces more robust increments in locomotion and dopamine output in the nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh) of RHA than of RLA rats. Cocaine induces short- and long-term neuronal plasticity via activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. This study compares the effects of acute cocaine on ERK phosphorylation (pERK) in limbic brain areas of Roman rats. In RHA but not RLA rats, cocaine (5 mg/kg) increased pERK in the infralimbic prefrontal cortex and AcbSh, two areas involved in its acute effects, but did not modify pERK in the prelimbic prefrontal cortex and Acb core, which mediate the chronic effects of cocaine. Moreover, cocaine failed to affect pERK immunolabeling in the bed nucleus of stria terminalis pars lateralis and central amygdala of either line but increased it in the basolateral amygdala of RLA rats. These results extend to pERK expression previous findings on the greater sensitivity to acute cocaine of RHA vs. RLA rats and confirm the notion that genetic factors influence the differential responses of the Roman lines to addictive drugs. Moreover, they support the view that the Roman lines are a useful tool to investigate the molecular underpinnings of individual vulnerability to drug addiction. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Caloric restriction increases the sensitivity to the hyperphagic effect of nociceptin/orphanin FQ limiting its ability to reduce binge eating in female rats.

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    Micioni Di Bonaventura, Maria Vittoria; Ubaldi, Massimo; Liberati, Sonia; Ciccocioppo, Roberto; Massi, Maurizio; Cifani, Carlo

    2013-07-01

    Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) is a functional antagonist of corticotrophin-releasing factor, the main mediator of the stress response. Stress represents a key determinant of binge eating (BE) for highly palatable food (HPF). In relation to the antistress properties of N/OFQ, we evaluated its effect on BE. After the observation that episodes of food restriction increase the sensitivity to its hyperphagic effects, the function of NOP receptor and N/OFQ was investigated after cycles of food restrictions. In BE experiments, four groups were used: rats fed normally and not stressed or stressed, rats exposed to cycles of restriction/refeeding and then stressed, or not stressed. In the other experiments, two groups were used: rats exposed or not to food restriction. Only restricted and stressed rats exhibited BE for HPF (containing chocolate cream). Intracerebroventricular injections of N/OFQ of 0.5 nmol/rat significantly reduced BE. N/OFQ 1 nmol/rat did not reduce BE but significantly increased HPF intake following food restrictions. Cycles of food restriction increased animals' sensitivity to the hyperphagic effect of N/OFQ for HPF. In situ hybridization studies following food restrictions showed decreased ppN/OFQ mRNA expression in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and increased expression of ppN/OFQ and NOP receptor mRNA in the ventral tegmental area and in the ventromedial hypothalamus, respectively. These findings indicate that N/OFQ slightly reduces BE at low doses, while higher doses increase HPF intake, due to increased sensitivity to its hyperphagic effect following a history of caloric restrictions.

  8. Increased potency and binding of mazindol to putative brain anorectic receptors in obesity-prone rats.

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    Levin, B E; Brown, K L; Vincent, G

    1994-12-30

    A class of sodium-sensitive, low affinity binding sites in the brain recognizes [3H]mazindol (MAZ). Competition for [3H]MAZ binding at these sites correlates with the anorectic potency of various phenethylamine drugs suggesting that these might be anorectic binding sites. Here [3H]MAZ binding, in the absence of sodium, was assessed by quantitative receptor autoradiography in rat brain. Binding was saturable, widespread and heterogenous with Kd = 3-229 microM and Bmax = 0.64-21.9 nmol/mg protein in various brain areas. By saturation studies, highest binding was in the somatosensory cortex, central amygdalar nucleus and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. Hypothalamic subnuclei had intermediate and the piriform cortex had low binding. Rats were identified as prone to develop (DIO-prone) or resist (DR-prone) diet-induced obesity by their low vs. high 24 h urine norepinephrine excretion, respectively. While similar in body weight and basal 30 min intake of 4% sucrose, DIO-prone rats had 28% greater inhibition of sucrose intake by 3 mg/kg MAZ, i.p. (86 +/- 5%) than DR-prone rats (67 +/- 6%; P = 0.05). DIO-prone rats also had 23-55% higher levels of 10 nM [3H]MAZ binding in various hypothalamic and amygdalar nuclei, the somatosensory, piriform and gustatory cortices and thalamus. Given their greater sensitivity the highest dose of MAZ used and their higher binding of MAZ to putative brain anorectic receptors, DIO-prone rats might have a deficiency of an endogenous satiety factor which could predispose them to develop obesity when challenged with high energy, high sucrose diets.

  9. Chemical anatomy of the human ventral striatum and adjacent basal forebrain structures.

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    Prensa, Lucía; Richard, Sandra; Parent, André

    2003-06-02

    Calbindin D-28k (CB), calretinin (CR), substance P (SP), limbic system-associated membrane protein (LAMP), choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) were used as chemical markers to investigate the organization of the ventral striatum (VST) and adjacent structures in healthy human individuals. No clear boundary could be established between the dorsal striatum and the VST, and the core/shell subdivisions of nucleus accumbens (Acb) could be distinguished only at the midrostrocaudal level of the VST. The CB-poor shell displayed intense immunostaining for SP and CR but only weak staining for LAMP. By contrast, the core was weakly stained for SP and CR and moderately stained for LAMP and CB. There was no difference between shell and core with regard to the cholinergic markers. The Acb harbored numerous ChAT- and CR-immunoreactive cell bodies, the latter being distributed according to a marked, mediolaterally increasing gradient. The size of the ChAT- and CR-immunoreactive perikarya in the Acb varied according to their location in the core and shell. The VST was surrounded by a chemically heterogeneous group of cell clusters referred to as interface islands. The CR-rich caudal portion of the VST merged with the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis dorsally and the diagonal band of Broca ventromedially, the latter two structures displaying complex immunostaining patterns. The claustrum was markedly enriched in LAMP and harbored different types of CR- and CB-immunopositive neurons. These results demonstrate that the neurochemical organization of the human VST is strikingly complex and exhibits a greater heterogeneity than the dorsal striatum. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) reveals brain circuitry involved in responding to an acute novel stress in rats with a history of repeated social stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangasser, Debra A; Lee, Catherine S; Cook, Philip A; Gee, James C; Bhatnagar, Seema; Valentino, Rita J

    2013-10-02

    Responses to acute stressors are determined in part by stress history. For example, a history of chronic stress results in facilitated responses to a novel stressor and this facilitation is considered to be adaptive. We previously demonstrated that repeated exposure of rats to the resident-intruder model of social stress results in the emergence of two subpopulations that are characterized by different coping responses to stress. The submissive subpopulation failed to show facilitation to a novel stressor and developed a passive strategy in the Porsolt forced swim test. Because a passive stress coping response has been implicated in the propensity to develop certain psychiatric disorders, understanding the unique circuitry engaged by exposure to a novel stressor in these subpopulations would advance our understanding of the etiology of stress-related pathology. An ex vivo functional imaging technique, manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI), was used to identify and distinguish brain regions that are differentially activated by an acute swim stress (15 min) in rats with a history of social stress compared to controls. Specifically, Mn(2+) was administered intracerebroventricularly prior to swim stress and brains were later imaged ex vivo to reveal activated structures. When compared to controls, all rats with a history of social stress showed greater activation in specific striatal, hippocampal, hypothalamic, and midbrain regions. The submissive subpopulation of rats was further distinguished by significantly greater activation in amygdala, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and septum, suggesting that these regions may form a circuit mediating responses to novel stress in individuals that adopt passive coping strategies. The finding that different circuits are engaged by a novel stressor in the two subpopulations of rats exposed to social stress implicates a role for these circuits in determining individual strategies for responding to stressors

  11. Overexpression of CRF in the BNST diminishes dysphoria but not anxiety-like behavior in nicotine withdrawing rats.

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    Qi, Xiaoli; Guzhva, Lidia; Yang, Zhihui; Febo, Marcelo; Shan, Zhiying; Wang, Kevin K W; Bruijnzeel, Adriaan W

    2016-09-01

    Smoking cessation leads to dysphoria and anxiety, which both increase the risk for relapse. This negative affective state is partly mediated by an increase in activity in brain stress systems. Recent studies indicate that prolonged viral vector-mediated overexpression of stress peptides diminishes stress sensitivity. Here we investigated whether the overexpression of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) diminishes nicotine withdrawal symptoms in rats. The effect of nicotine withdrawal on brain reward function was investigated with an intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) procedure. Anxiety-like behavior was investigated in the elevated plus maze test and a large open field. An adeno-associated virus (AAV) pseudotype 2/5 vector was used to overexpress CRF in the lateral BNST and nicotine dependence was induced using minipumps. Administration of the nicotinic receptor antagonist mecamylamine and cessation of nicotine administration led to a dysphoria-like state, which was prevented by the overexpression of CRF in the BNST. Nicotine withdrawal also increased anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze test and large open field test and slightly decreased locomotor activity in the open field. The overexpression of CRF in the BNST did not prevent the increase in anxiety-like behavior or decrease in locomotor activity. The overexpression of CRF increased CRF1 and CRF2 receptor gene expression and increased the CRF2/CRF1 receptor ratio. In conclusion, the overexpression of CRF in the BNST prevents the dysphoria-like state associated with nicotine withdrawal and increases the CRF2/CRF1 receptor ratio, which may diminish the negative effects of CRF on mood. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Differential brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in limbic brain regions following social defeat or territorial aggression.

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    Taylor, Stacie L; Stanek, Lisa M; Ressler, Kerry J; Huhman, Kim L

    2011-12-01

    Syrian hamsters readily form dominant-subordinate relationships under laboratory conditions. Winning or losing in agonistic encounters can have striking, long-term effects on social behavior, but the mechanisms underlying this experience-induced behavioral plasticity are unclear. The present study tested the hypothesis that changes in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) may at least in part mediate this plasticity. Male hamsters were paired for 15-min using a resident-intruder model, and individuals were identified as winners or losers on the basis of their behavior. BDNF was examined with in situ hybridization 2 hr after treatment during the consolidation period of emotional learning. Losing animals had significantly more BDNF mRNA in the basolateral (BLA) and medial (MeA) nuclei of the amygdala when compared with winning animals as well as novel cage and home cage controls. Interestingly, winning animals had significantly more BDNF mRNA in the dentate gyrus of the dorsal hippocampus than did losing animals, novel, and home cage controls. No conflict-related changes in BDNF mRNA were observed in several other regions including the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and central amygdala. Next, we demonstrated that K252a, a Trk receptor antagonist, significantly reduced the acquisition of conditioned defeat when administered within the BLA. These data support a model in which BDNF-mediated plasticity within the BLA supports learning of submission or subordinate social status in losing animals, whereas BDNF-mediated plasticity within the hippocampus may instantiate aspects of winning such as control of a territory in dominant animals. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Are behavioral effects of early experience mediated by oxytocin?

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    Karen Lisa Bales

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Early experiences can alter adaptive emotional responses necessary for social behavior as well as physiological reactivity in the face of challenge. In the highly social prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster, manipulations in early life or hormonal treatments specifically targeted at the neuropeptides oxytocin (OT and arginine vasopressin (AVP, have long-lasting, often sexually-dimorphic, consequences for social behavior. Here we examine the hypothesis that behavioral changes associated with differential early experience, in this case handling the family during the first week of life, may be mediated by changes in OT or AVP or their brain receptors. Four early treatment groups were used, differing only in the amount of manipulation received during the first week of life. MAN1 animals were handled once on post-natal day 1; MAN1 treatment produces a pattern of behavior usually considered typical of this species, against which other groups were compared. MAN 1-7 animals were handled once a day for post-natal days 1-7, MAN 7 animals were handled once on post-natal day 7, and MAN0 animals received no handling during the first week of life. When tested following weaning, males in groups that had received manipulation during the first few days of life (MAN1 and MAN1-7 displayed higher alloparenting than other groups. Neuroendocrine measures, including OT receptor binding and OT and AVP immunoreactivity, varied by early treatment. In brain areas including the nucleus accumbens, bed nucleus of stria terminalis and lateral septum, MAN0 females showed increased OT receptor binding. MAN1 animals also displayed higher numbers of immunoreactive OT cell bodies in the supraoptic nucleus. Taken together these findings support the broader hypothesis that experiences in the first few days of life, mediated in part by sexually-dimorphic changes in neuropeptides, especially in the receptor for OT, may have adaptive consequences for sociality and emotion regulation.

  14. Collating and Curating Neuroanatomical Nomenclatures: Principles and Use of the Brain Architecture Knowledge Management System (BAMS).

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    Bota, Mihail; Swanson, Larry W

    2010-01-01

    Terms used to describe nervous system parts and their interconnections are rife with synonyms, partial correspondences, and even homonyms, making effective scientific communication unnecessarily difficult. To address this problem a new Topological Relations schema for the Relations module of BAMS (Brain Architecture Knowledge Management System) was created. It includes a representation of the qualitative spatial relations between nervous system parts defined in different neuroanatomical nomenclatures or atlases and is general enough to record data and metadata from the literature, regardless of description level or species. Based on this foundation a Projections Translations inference engine was developed for the BAMS interface that automatically translates neuroanatomical projection (axonal inputs and outputs) reports across nomenclatures from translated information. To make BAMS more useful to the neuroscience community three things were done. First, we implemented a simple schema for validation of the translated neuroanatomical projections. Second, more than 1,000 topological relations between brain gray matter regions for the rat were inserted, along with associated details. Finally, a case study was performed to enter all historical or legacy published information about terminology related to one relatively complex gray matter region of the rat. The bed nuclei of the stria terminalis (BST) were chosen and 21 different nomenclatures from 1923 to present were collated, along with 284 terms for parts (gray matter differentiations), 360 qualitative topological relations between parts, and more than 7,000 details about spatial relations between parts, all of which was annotated with appropriate metadata. This information was used to construct a graphical "knowledge map" of relations used in the literature to describe subdivisions of the rat BST.

  15. Conditioned fear inhibits c-fos mRNA expression in the central extended amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Heidi E W; Kryskow, Elisa M; Nyhuis, Tara J; Herlihy, Lauren; Campeau, Serge

    2008-09-10

    We have shown previously that unconditioned stressors inhibit neurons of the lateral/capsular division of the central nucleus of the amygdala (CEAl/c) and oval division of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTov), which form part of the central extended amygdala. The current study investigated whether conditioned fear inhibits c-fos mRNA expression in these regions. Male rats were trained either to associate a visual stimulus (light) with footshock or were exposed to the light alone. After training, animals were replaced in the apparatus, and 2 h later injected remotely, via a catheter, with amphetamine (2 mg/kg i.p.), to induce c-fos mRNA and allow inhibition of expression to be measured. The rats were then presented with 15 visual stimuli over a 30 minute period. As expected, fear conditioned animals that were not injected with amphetamine, had extremely low levels of c-fos mRNA in the central extended amygdala. In contrast, animals that were trained with the light alone (no fear conditioning) and were injected with amphetamine had high levels of c-fos mRNA in the CEAl/c and BSTov. Animals that underwent fear conditioning, and were re-exposed to the conditioned stimulus after amphetamine injection had significantly reduced levels of c-fos mRNA in both the BSTov and CEAl/c, compared to the non-conditioned animals. These data suggest that conditioned fear can inhibit neurons of the central extended amygdala. Because these neurons are GABAergic, and project to the medial CEA (an amygdaloid output region), this may be a novel mechanism whereby conditioned fear potentiates amygdaloid output.

  16. [Exploring life-experience of the staff and volunteers assisting pediatric patients in end-of-life situations] [Article in Italian] • I vissuti dello staff e dei volontari che assistono pazienti pediatrici terminali

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    Rosapia Lauro Grotto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of guidelines for palliative care in the paediatric settings is judged to be still incomplete and characterized by many controversial issues; in order to explore the life-experience of individual health care professionals, we proposed a semi-structured questionnaire with open questions on end-of-life procedures to the staff members of the Paediatric Onco-hematology Ward of the University of Padua, of the Oncology Ward and in the Home Assistance Module of the Giannetta Gaslini Hospital, Genoa, both in Italy. This paper will focus on the responses provided to the third question: “In your opinion, can inducing the suspension of the state of consciousness be counted among end-of-life procedures? If so, how and when?”. Staff members were found to face challenging interactions at at least three levels: within the professional team, with respect to the parents and with respect to the adolescent patients. Among the most complex issues raised by the participants we found the moral distress sometimes experienced by nurses with respect to the decisions assumed by doctors, as stated by a nurse: “Everything is subjective in those 24 hours  (… and you are to do or not do certain things and it makes you feel distressed”. Second, it emerged that the relationship with the parents becomes very challenging when the two are not in agreement: “The father wants to give the morphine, but the mother secretly closes the drip”. Finally, the relationship of trust with the adolescent patients is under threat when they ‘want to know’ while parents seem to be unable to tolerate this degree of painful but essential self-consciousness in their ‘child’: “He locked me in the room and asked, ‘Am I dying?’, and I wanted to die at that point…”. Our study shows that health care professionals require not just guidelines but a tailor-made training and support which integrate much deeply the therapeutic as well as the moral and philosophical approaches to the issues raised by palliative care in paediatric settings.Articoli Selezionati del Congresso “Medicina Narrativa e Comunicazione nella Pratica Clinica” ·  Cagliari · 14 Aprile 2014 Guest Editors: Massimiliano Zonza, Vassilios Fanos, Gian Paolo Donzelli

  17. Dietary sodium deprivation evokes activation of brain regional neurons and down-regulation of angiotensin II type 1 receptor and angiotensin-convertion enzyme mRNA expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, B; Yang, X J; Chen, K; Yang, D J; Yan, J Q

    2009-12-15

    Previous studies have indicated that the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is implicated in the induction of sodium appetite in rats and that different dietary sodium intakes influence the mRNA expression of central and peripheral RAAS components. To determine whether dietary sodium deprivation activates regional brain neurons related to sodium appetite, and changes their gene expression of RAAS components of rats, the present study examined the c-Fos expression after chronic exposure to low sodium diet, and determined the relationship between plasma and brain angiotensin I (ANG I), angiotensin II (ANG II) and aldosterone (ALD) levels and the sodium ingestive behavior variations, as well as the effects of prolonged dietary sodium deprivation on ANG II type 1 (AT1) and ANG II type 2 (AT2) receptors and angiotensin-convertion enzyme (ACE) mRNA levels in the involved brain regions using the method of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results showed that the Fos immunoreactivity (Fos-ir) expression in forebrain areas such as subfornical organ (SFO), paraventricular hypothalamic nuclei (PVN), supraoptic nucleus (SON) and organum vasculosum laminae terminalis (OVLT) all increased significantly and that the levels of ANG I, ANG II and ALD also increased in plasma and forebrain in rats fed with low sodium diet. In contrast, AT1, ACE mRNA in PVN, SON and OVLT decreased significantly in dietary sodium depleted rats, while AT2 mRNA expression did not change in the examined areas. These results suggest that many brain areas are activated by increased levels of plasma and/or brain ANG II and ALD, which underlies the elevated preference for hypertonic salt solution after prolonged exposure to low sodium diet, and that the regional AT1 and ACE mRNA are down-regulated after dietary sodium deprivation, which may be mediated by increased ANG II in plasma and/or brain tissue.

  18. Modulation of the activity of vasopressinergic neurons by estrogen in rats refed with normal or sodium-free food after fasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucio-Oliveira, F; Traslaviña, G A A; Borges, B D B; Franci, C R

    2015-01-22

    Feeding increases plasma osmolality and ovarian steroids may influence the balance of fluids. Vasopressin (AVP) neurons in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and supraoptic nucleus (SON) express estrogen receptor type β (ERβ), but not estrogen receptor type α (ERα). The circumventricular organs express ERα and project efferent fibers to the PVN and SON. Our aim was to assess whether interactions exist between food state-related osmolality changes and the action of estrogen on AVP neuron activity and estrogen receptor expression. We assessed plasma osmolality and AVP levels; fos-coded protein (FOS)- and AVP-immunoreactivity (-IR) and FOS-IR and ERα-IR in the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) and organ vasculosum lamina terminalis (OVLT) in estrogen-primed and unprimed ovariectomized rats under the provision of ad libitum food, 48h of fasting, and subsequent refeeding with standard chow or sodium-free food. Refeeding with standard chow increased plasma osmolality and AVP as well as the co-expression of FOS-IR/AVP-IR in the PVN and SON. These responses were not altered by estrogen, with the exception of the decreases in FOS-IR/AVP-IR in the lateral PVN. During refeeding, estrogen modulates only a subpopulation of AVP neurons in the lateral PVN. FOS-ERα co-expression in the ventral median preoptic nucleus (vMnPO) was reduced by estrogen and increased after refeeding with standard chow following fasting. It appears that estrogen may indirectly modulate the activity of AVP neurons, which are involved in the mechanism affected by hyperosmolality-induced refeeding after fasting. This indirect action of estrogen can be at least in part via ERα in the vMnPO. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Leptin Mediate High Fat Diet Sensitization of Angiotensin II-elicited Hypertension by Upregulating the Brain Renin-Angiotensin System and Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Baojian; Yu, Yang; Zhang, Zhongming; Guo, Fang; Beltz, Terry G.; Thunhorst, Robert L.; Felder, Robert B.; Johnson, Alan Kim

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is characterized by increased circulating levels of the adipocyte-derived hormone leptin, which can increase sympathetic nerve activity and raise blood pressure. A previous study revealed that rats fed a high fat diet (HFD) have an enhanced hypertensive response to subsequent angiotensin (Ang) II administration that is mediated at least in part by increased activity of brain renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and proinflammatory cytokines (PICs). The present study tested whether leptin mediates this HFD-induced sensitization of Ang II-elicited hypertension by interacting with brain RAS and PICs mechanisms. Rats fed a HFD for 3 weeks had significant increases in white adipose tissue mass, plasma leptin levels and mRNA expression of leptin and its receptors in the lamina terminalis (LT) and hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Central infusion of a leptin receptor antagonist during HFD feeding abolished HFD sensitization of Ang II-elicited hypertension. Furthermore, central infusion of leptin mimicked the sensitizing action of HFD. Concomitant central infusions of the AT1-R antagonist irbesartan, the TNF-α synthesis inhibitor pentoxifylline, or the inhibitor of microglial activation minocycline prevented the sensitization produced by central infusion of leptin. RT-PCR analysis indicated that either HFD or leptin administration upregulated mRNA expression of several components of the RAS and PICs in the LT and PVN. The leptin antagonist and the inhibitors of AT1-R, TNF-α synthesis and microglial activation all reversed the expression of these genes. The results suggest that HFD-induced sensitization of Ang II-elicited hypertension is mediated by leptin through upregulation of central RAS and PICs. PMID:27021010

  20. Recombinant CART peptide induces c-Fos expression in central areas involved in control of feeding behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrang, Niels; Tang-Christensen, M.; Larsen, Philip J.

    1999-01-01

    Regulation of food intake, c-Fos induction, i.c.v. injection, paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus......Regulation of food intake, c-Fos induction, i.c.v. injection, paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus...

  1. CRIAÇÃO DE UMA FERRAMENTA PARA VERIFICAÇÃO DO CONCEITO DE ARRANJO PRODUTIVO LOCAL: APLICAÇÃO NO APL DA INDÚSTRIA DE CALÇADOS DO ESTADO DA PARAÍBA

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    Kathyana Vanessa Diniz Santos

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Existem nuances no conceito de arranjos produtivos locais (APL’s que nem sempre são percebidas e compreendidas quando da aplicação prática. Neste trabalho, foram apresentadas e analisadas as nuances existentes com o objetivo de verificar se a utilização do termo APL adotado pelo Sebrae em seus projetos é congruente com a literatura acadêmica. Como método tem-se um estudo de caso, visto que registrado no órgão existe um único projeto de APL ativo e em gestão (em maio de 2015 de acordo com o SIGEOR (Sistema de Informação da Gestão Estratégica Orientada para Resultados do próprio Sebrae/PB. O APL analisado foi o da Indústria de Calçados do Estado da Paraíba, com base nos elementos cruciais constituintes de um APL e concluiu-se que este arranjo não apresenta todos os elementos necessários para ser considerado um APL e assim, o Sebrae necessita rever o termo utilizado, não só para corrigir uma divergência conceitual em relação a literatura da academia, mas também para otimizar os processos existentes na própria organização.

  2. REPUTAÇÃO CORPORATIVA: MENSURAÇÃO E ANÁLISE DE MAPAS PERCEPTUAIS – UM ESTUDO EMPÍRICO NA INDÚSTRIA AUTOMOBILÍSTICA BRASILEIRA

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    Miguel Maurício Isoni

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo procura mostrar a pertinência de parâmetros e atributos de gestão reputacional percebidos pelos consumidores das marcas Fiat e Volks da indústria automobilística brasileira, através de quatro dimensões: (1 imagem, reputação e credibilidade; (2 relação com a comunidade; (3 ética e sustentabilidade; (4 decisão de compra ou recompra. Reputação corporativa tem sido tema mundialmente estudado e de grande importância para empresas e para a academia. Visando a mensurar a reputação corporativa, este estudo desenvolve uma escala de reputação baseada em Fombrun, Gardberg e Sever (2001 e King (2000. Com uma amostra de 316 respondentes de dois Estados brasileiros, buscando verificar a reputação da indústria automobilística, foi verificada a confiabilidade da escala, bem como traçados mapas perceptuais para análise dos resultados. Assim, este trabalho contribui para o desenvolvimento de uma escala brasileira de reputação corporativa e para a utilização de mapas perceptuais como instrumento gerencial e analítico.

  3. QUESTÕES ESTRATÉGICAS DE PLANEJAMENTO, NEGOCIAÇÃO E MARKETING NA INDÚSTRIA TEXTIL: UM ESTUDO DE CASO [doi: 10.5329/RECADM.20050402008

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    Michelle Cristine Silveira Meireles

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Resumo O presente artigo aborda questões relacionadas a estratégias de planejamento, negociação e marketing utilizadas por uma empresa na área têxtil. A realização da pesquisa pautou-se em um estudo de caso, a partir de entrevistas semi-estruturadas e consultas a materiais institucionais. As abordagens teóricas utilizadas no corpo da pesquisa são aplicadas no estudo no intuito de embasar a compreensão do fenômeno estudado. A empresa trabalha com produto de qualidade, bons preços, tendo seu maior problema localizado no capital de giro. Na realização de uma análise organizacional mais detalhada, pesquisa direta com clientes e arrolamento de novas táticas de atuação, percebeu-se que houve por parte da empresa pesquisada uma ampliação à visão de mercado abrindo caminhos e potenciais possibilidades para uma nova atuação de mercado. Assim, o estudo revelou que a empresa deve implantar um conjunto de políticas empresariais de modo agressivo e interativo dentro de suas possibilidades e limitações tanto com os consumidores/clientes quanto no mercado em que atua.    Palavras-chave: Estratégia; Indústria Têxtil; Negociação.   Abstract The present paper approach questions related to planning, negotiation and marketing strategies carried by a textile industry enterprise. The search was based in a study of case, by semi-structured interviews and institutional document analyses. The theoric base utilized in the search was applied in sense to embased the comprehension of studied phenomenon. The enterprise play with quality product, low prices, and the major problem was in turnover capital. In the realization of a detailed organizational analyses, costumers direct search and inventore of new tatics of atuation, was perceived the occurrence of a market sense improve, leading the enterprise to new market perspectives. By this way, the study show that the organization should implant a conjoint of enterprise policies by intense and interactive way considering yours possibilities and limitations about consumers/costumers as in your market.   Keywords: Strategy; Textile Industry; Negotiation.

  4. INFLUÊNCIA DA QUANTIDADE DE FIBRAS NA DUREZA E RESISTÊNCIA AO IMPACTO DE COMPÓSITOS HIPS/BAGAÇO DE CANA PARA APLICAÇÃO NA INDÚSTRIA DE PET SHOP

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    Glayce Cassaro Pereira

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos houve um grande avanço tecnológico no desenvolvimento de materiais compósitos reforçados com fibras naturais. Esse aumento do interesse das indústrias e grupos de pesquisa em desenvolver e utilizar materiais feitos a partir de matérias primas renováveis se deu principalmente pelo grande apelo mundial para a utilização de produtos naturais e pela preservação do meio ambiente. O presente trabalho visou a caracterização de compósitos reforçados com bagaço de cana em matriz de poliestireno de alto impacto (HIPS, tendo como objetivo uma possível substituição dos materiais utilizados atualmente na indústria de produtos para pet shop. Foram caracterizadas três famílias de compósitos, nas proporções de 10, 20 e 30% (m/m. Os resultados da dureza Shore A indicaram que a adição da fibra de bagaço ao HIPS não acarretou alterações nos valores da dureza nos compósitos quando comparados ao HIPS puro. E os resultados de resistência ao impacto foi possível constatar que a adição da fibra de bagaço ao HIPS acarretou uma diminuição na resistência ao impacto, quando comparados ao HIPS puro.

  5. MEDIÇÃO DO IMPACTO A MBIENTAL DO S PROCESSOS DE PRODU ÇÃO DE UMA INDÚSTRIA DE VESTUÁR IO DE MEDIO PORTE

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    Gabriela Teixeira

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The apparel industry and their production processes generate serious impacts on the environment. This paper proposes a methodology to measure environmental impacts in a garment industry midsize Recife / PE. There are guidelines which the Design for Sustainability and Systems and Tools for Environmental Management were relevant to the search. This allowed mapping production processes and to analyze and measure the impacts generated by the creation and production of designitems. The aim is thus to encourage designers to seek to minimize the degradation caused by the production of Fashion Design.

  6. INFLUÊNCIA DO TEOR DE FIBRAS NA RESISTÊNCIA AO IMPACTO DE COMPÓSITOS HIPS/FIBRAS DE COCO VERDE APLICADOS PARA POSSÍVEL APLICAÇÃO NA INDÚSTRIA AUTOMOBILÍSTICA

    OpenAIRE

    Gilmara Brandão Pereira; Glayce Cassaro Pereira; Márcio Alves de Lima; Sérgio Roberto Montoro

    2016-01-01

    Existe uma tendência mundial em buscar recursos naturais alternativos em substituição às fibras sintéticas. Diante deste cenário, as fibras naturais vegetais, como por exemplo, a fibra da casca do coco verde, é uma excelente alternativa por possuírem boas propriedades mecânicas e térmicas. Essas fibras, além de seu baixo custo, são biodegradáveis e de fonte renovável. No presente trabalho foram caracterizados compósitos poliméricos de HIPS reforçados com fibras naturais provenientes da casca ...

  7. INFLUÊNCIA DO TEOR DE FIBRAS NA RESISTÊNCIA AO IMPACTO DE COMPÓSITOS HIPS/FIBRAS DE COCO VERDE APLICADOS PARA POSSÍVEL APLICAÇÃO NA INDÚSTRIA AUTOMOBILÍSTICA

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    Gilmara Brandão Pereira

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Existe uma tendência mundial em buscar recursos naturais alternativos em substituição às fibras sintéticas. Diante deste cenário, as fibras naturais vegetais, como por exemplo, a fibra da casca do coco verde, é uma excelente alternativa por possuírem boas propriedades mecânicas e térmicas. Essas fibras, além de seu baixo custo, são biodegradáveis e de fonte renovável. No presente trabalho foram caracterizados compósitos poliméricos de HIPS reforçados com fibras naturais provenientes da casca do coco verde. Foram caracterizadas três famílias de compósitos, nas proporções de 10, 20 e 30% (m/m. Foi possível constatar que a adição da fibra de coco ao HIPS acarretou uma diminuição na resistência ao impacto, quando comparados ao HIPS puro. Dessa forma, com a adição de fibras de coco verde no HIPS obteve-se um material com até 30% menos polímero e com propriedades mecânicas viáveis para determinadas aplicações do HIPS.

  8. AVALIAÇÃO MICROBIOLÓGICA DE ÁGUA MINERAL NATURAL E DE TAMPAS PLÁSTICAS UTILIZADAS EM UMA INDÚSTRIA DA GRANDE PORTO ALEGRE/RS

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    Ana Carolina RITTER

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Embora a presença de bactérias seja esperada em águas minerais naturais, contaminações elevadas podem ocorrer e comprometer sua qualidade e segurança. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a qualidade microbiológica de amostras de água mineral natural e de tampas plásticas utilizadas em uma indústria localizada na grande Porto Alegre/RS. Foram analisadas 152 amostras de água do poço e 15 amostras de água envasada em garrafões de 20 litros, utilizando-se as técnicas de membrana fi ltrante e “pour plate”. Os microrganismos pesquisados foram aqueles preconizados pela RDC 275/2005, da ANVISA, além da contagem total de microrganismos heterotrófi cos. O número de microrganismos heterotrófi cos também foi analisado em 22 tampas plásticas de garrafões de 20 litros. Os resultados demonstraram que em nenhuma amostra foi detectada a presença de coliformes totais, coliformes fecais/ Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa e Clostridium perfringens. Todas as amostras analisadas continham microrganismos viáveis, sendo que as contagens de microrganismos heterotrófi cos variaram de 1,0x10¹UFC/mL a 7,0x103UFC/mL. As tampas plásticas apresentaram contagens que variaram de 6,0x10¹UFC/ mL a 1,2x10²UFC/mL e essa contaminação representou aproximadamente 0,003 a 0,006% das contagens totais obtidas nos garrafões analisados. Os resultados indicaram que a água mineral natural estava dentro dos padrões exigidos pela legislação brasileira, além de demonstrar que a avaliação microbiológica foi importante como ferramenta para a melhoria dos processos empregados pela indústria em questão.

  9. AVALIAÇÃO DA SATISFAÇÃO DO USUÁRIO DOS SISTEMAS ERP COMO INSTRUMENTO PARA GESTÃO: UMA ABORDAGEM MULTIVARIADA DE DADOS EM UMA INDÚSTRIA FARMACÊUTICA

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    Jose Dutra Oliveira Neto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O investimento para implementação de um sistema ERP é muito alto e a satisfação do usuário pode ser usada como um substituto para o sucesso da implementação do ERP. A satisfação do usuário é uma das formas de mensuração mais comuns encontradas na literatura para medir o sucesso do ERP. Um instrumento (escala de 5 pontos tipo Likert para mensurar a satisfação do usuário foi desenvolvido com 33 itens e 12 dimensões. Uma amostra de 81 respondentes, coletada por meio de um levantamento, em uma empresa farmacêutica no Brasil foi utilizada nesta pesquisa. Usando análise multivariada, os resultados desta pesquisa indicam a importância da satisfação do usuário, em todas as áreas da pesquisa, para o sucesso do ERP. Sugere ainda que a satisfação do usuário, quando desmembrada em 12 dimensões, pode ser base para um diagnóstica eficaz para implementação de um ERP. Os respondentes identificaram que em algumas áreas, como a Fiscal, não estão satisfeitos com ao menos uma dimensão relativos ao sistema ERP. Este resultado pode ajudar os gestores a realizarem ajustes localizados no ERP e/ou treinamentos específicos em algumas áreas, aumentando as chances de sucesso do sistema ERP.

  10. LA EMOCIONALIDAD EN LAS ESTRATEGIAS DE MERCADEO: CASO INDUSTRIA FUNERARIA // EMOTIONALITY IN MARKETING STRATEGIES: CASE STUDY FUNERAL INDUSTRY // A EMOTIVIDADE NAS ESTRATÉGIAS DE MARKETING: CASO INDÚSTRIA FUNERÁRIA

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    Duvan Emilio Ramírez Ospina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available En este escrito se analiza el manejo de la emocionalidad en las estrategias de mercadeo en empresas del sector funerario, destacando el carácter contextual y ambiental del marketing dentro de la cultura como base permeable de la sociedad, sus hábitos, costumbres y rituales. Se partió de un estudio cualitativo usando entrevistas en profundidad y observación; se hizo un acercamiento teórico al marketing emocional y se muestran las relaciones encontradas entre este y las estrategias de mercadeo que están siendo usadas por las empresas funerarias.  Identificando el manejo de la emocionalidad implementado en el sector funerario por medio de “talleres de duelo”; eventos post-mortem de carácter masivo, donde los dolientes asisten a charlas programadas cada tres meses. Este tipo de eventos  por su periodicidad, asisten un número elevado de personas, dificultando que la experiencia sea individual, detallada y que facilite un contacto directo entre el cliente y la empresa.

  11. REUSO DO PÓ DE SILÍCIO ORIUNDO DA PRODUÇÃO DE SEMICONDUTORES NA INDÚSTRIA DA CONSTRUÇÃO CIVIL / REUSE OF SILICON POWDER ARISING OUT OF PRODUCTION OF SEMICONDUCTORS IN THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

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    Antonio S BREJÃO

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available esfera da ecologia industrial. A proposta deste trabalho é analisar as características deste resíduo, objetivando o fechamento do ciclo de produção. O pó de silício obtido através do processo do corte das lâminas de silício foi caracterizado por ensaios físicos e por microscopia ótica. Após a separação, o resíduo foi adicionado ao cimento comum formando corpos de prova e com isso, avaliou-se o possível ganho na resistência à compressão comparada ao cimento comum, comprovando a viabilidade técnica da utilização deste tipo de resíduo na fabricação de produtos de cimento.

  12. O JEITO É INOVAR: UM ESTUDO DE CASO EM UMA INDÚSTRIA METALMECÂNICA SOBRE A CONTRIBUIÇÃO DA GERAÇAO Y NO PROCESSO INOVATIVO

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    Juliane Ruffatto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A inovação tem ganhado ênfase no cenário empresarial nos últimos anos, haja vista a sobrevivência no mercado. As empresas têm investido cada vez mais nessa área e na capacitação de pessoal para o desenvolvimento de novos produtos. Desse modo, este artigo trata-se de um estudo de caso realizado em uma indústria metal mecânica da região norte do Rio Grande do Sul que inovou o seu portfólio de produtos nos últimos anos. Essa inovação foi bastante motivada pelas ideias criativas e audaciosas de seus colaboradores, que, majoritariamente, são jovens, alguns deles em cargos de gestão. Assim, o objetivo é identificar as características da gestão da geração Y que contribuem para a inovação de produto, bem como a sua importância para a performance organizacional. Para cumprir com o objetivo proposto, utilizou-se o método qualitativo. Os dados foram coletados a partir de entrevistas, do tipo semiestruturada, com questões abertas, voltadas à identificação das características da Geração Y e como elas contribuem para a inovação na empresa em estudo. As entrevistas foram realizadas no mês de junho de 2015 e analisadas pela técnica de análise de conteúdo. Os resultados evidenciam que o perfil da empresa é bastante inovador e que é unânime a importância dada para o investimento em tecnologia e o desenvolvimento de novos produtos. As características mais importantes dos jovens da geração Y que contribuem para a inovação de produto na empresa é a criatividade, o espírito inventivo, a ambição e o dinamismo.

  13. A CAPACITAÇÃO E O DESENVOLVIMENTO DAS COMPETÊNCIAS NECESSÁRIAS À FORMAÇÃO DE UM FUNDIDOR DE BARBOTINA EM UMA INDÚSTRIA DO SEGMENTO DE CERÂMICA TRIAXIAL

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    Leandro Kappes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Tendo em vista que, com a globalização, as tecnologias de produção tornaram-se acessíveis à grande maioria das empresas, estas, para permanecerem no mercado e apresentar um diferencial competitivo, tiveram que investir fortemente no "talento humano", ou seja, na capacitação e desenvolvimento de seus funcionários. Neste sentido, o presente trabalho tem como objetivo relatar o processo de capacitação de um Fundidor de Barbotina, tendo como base o desenvolvimento das competências essenciais para desempenho desta função. Trata-se de um estudo de caso desenvolvido com uma metodologia qualitativa, no qual se pesquisou uma indústria de cerâmica triaxial. Através da análise dos resultados, demonstra-se a eficácia do processo de capacitação, bem como a colaboração deste nos resultados da empresa, evidenciados pelo aumento de produtividade e qualidade. É possível verificar, ainda, que, na empresa em estudo, há um alinhamento entre a teoria e a prática sobre o assunto, tendo em vista que o projeto Centro de Formação promoveu mudanças significativas no comportamento das pessoas. Palavras-chave: Conhecimento. Habilidade. Atitude. Competência. Capacitação.

  14. TENDÊNCIAS DA GESTÃO PARTICIPATIVA PARA REDUÇÃO DE FALHAS NO NÍVEL OPERACIONAL DE SISTEMAS PRODUTIVOS EM INDÚSTRIAS METALÚRGICAS

    OpenAIRE

    Priscila Cembranel

    2013-01-01

    Este trabalho busca conhecer as tendências da gestão participativa para redução de falhas no nível operacional nos sistemas produtivos em indústrias metalúrgicas. Para identificar as tendências da gestão participativa nas indústrias metalúrgicas objetivou-se levantar as estratégias de gestão participativa de acordo com gestores de produção, relacionar as práticas adotadas frente à redução de falhas inerentes aos processos produtivos e analisar os desafios em estratégias de gest...

  15. IMPLANTAÇÃO DE UM LABORATÓRIO DE ANÁLISE DA QUALIDADE DA ÁGUA E EFLUENTES DE UMA INDÚSTRIA FARMACÊUTICA

    OpenAIRE

    Franco, Letícia; Bilotta, Patrícia

    2014-01-01

    A água para fabricação de fármacos demanda qualidade rigorosa, por isso requer sucessivas etapas de purificação para atender as determinações da legislação brasileira. Da mesma forma, o efluente gerado no processo produtivo também exige tratamento antes do seu descarte em corpos d'água. O monitoramento da qualidade da água e do efluente industrial é realizado por meio de análises laboratoriais, em muitos casos, por laboratórios terceirizadas a um custo elevado. O objetivo deste artigo é ident...

  16. USO DE EQUIPAMENTOS DE PROTEÇÃO INDIVIDUAL: UMA COMPARAÇÃO DOS PROGRAMAS DE FOMENTO DAS INDÚSTRIAS DE DEFENSIVOS AGRÍCOLAS / USE OF PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT: A COMPARISON OF AGROCHEMICALS INDUSTRIES PROMOTION PROGRAMS

    OpenAIRE

    Luciano Daniel de Souza BARBOSA; João Guilherme de Camargo Ferraz MACHADO

    2010-01-01

    O objetivo da pesquisa foi analisar as ações realizadas pelas empresas de defensivos, visando fomentar o uso de EPI por parte dos agricultores. Buscou-se descrever e analisar os programas de três empresas fabricantes de defensivos agrícolas para fomentar o uso dos equipamentos de proteção individual (EPI), e compará-los. As empresas, multinacionais de defensivos agrícolas, foram selecionadas com base no faturamento. Os resultados foram obtidos a partir de material disponibilizado nos sites da...

  17. ANÁLISE CRÍTICA DOS CUSTOS DE IMPLEMENTAÇÃO DE SISTEMA DE GESTÃO DE ESTOQUES EM INDÚSTRIAS METALÚRGICAS DE PEQUENO E MÉDIO PORTE

    OpenAIRE

    Alexsandra Matos Romio

    2012-01-01

    Com a necessidade de conhecer os estoques de forma cada vez mais precisa, a fim de planejar as vendas e a produção com o dinamismo que o mercado exige, mais empresas têm buscado ferramentas de controle de estoque, como sistemas informatizados, almejando resultados com alta precisão e confiabilidade. A incerteza de resultados positivos, nesse tipo de investimento, especialmente para metalúrgicas de pequeno porte, é uma incógnita, já que os recursos de pessoal e financeiro são ...

  18. ANÁLISE DOS INDICADORES ESTRUTURAIS DA INDÚSTRIA DE MÁQUINAS E IMPLEMENTOS AGRÍCOLAS NO RIO GRANDE DO SUL E EM SÃO PAULO NO PERÍODO 1996-2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilise Dorneles Spat

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse artigo é descrever o comportamento da indústria de máquinas e implementos agrícolas (IMA no Brasil e nos principais pólos produtores, sendo eles Rio Grande do Sul (RS e São Paulo (SP, após a liberalização econômica e a estabilização monetária a partir de meados da década de 1990. A metodologia empregada foi a análise dos indicadores técnicos e econômicos da indústria, como: MCO (margem de custo de operação, MCM (margem de custo de matéria-prima, MCT (margem de custo do trabalho, MCP (margem de custo da produção, PT (produtividade do trabalho, MOE (margem operacional do excedente, LP (lucro da produção e mark-up. As fontes bibliográficas empregadas foram publicações especializadas da indústria, dados da FEE (Fundação de Economia e Estatística, da PIA (Pesquisa Industrial Anual do IBGE (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística, entre outros. Utilizou-se a classificação 29.3 do CNAE (Código Nacional de Atividade Econômica, correspondente à IMA. Como conclusões, observou-se que a indústria em questão passou por fortes oscilações e por mudanças no período analisado, além da sua elevada integração e competitividade, especialmente com os mercados dos Estados Unidos e da Europa.

  19. IMPLANTAÇÃO DA ANÁLISE DE PERIGOS E PONTOS CRÍTICOS DE CONTROLE (APPCC, GARANTIA DA QUALIDADE E SEGURANÇA NA INDÚSTRIA DE ALIMENTOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano BARRETO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho procurou avaliar a eficácia da aplicação da Análise de Perigos e Pontos Críticos de Controle (APPCC como ferramenta de qualidade na prevenção de contaminação por mofos e leveduras, em um processo produtivo em escala industrial de doce de leite. Essa ferramenta que a princípio foi desenvolvida pelo setor privado, atualmente faz parte da legislação de diversos países. Para isso foram avaliados dados da produção de uma fábrica de laticínio de Bom Jesus do Itabapoana, Noroeste do estado Rio de Janeiro, que processa em média cinquenta mil litros de leite por dia. Realizou-se uma pesquisa bibliográfica a respeito do APPCC e de sua implantação como ferramenta de qualidade que garantiu o suporte teórico. O estudo mostra a eficácia dessa ferramenta de qualidade na prevenção de contaminação por mofos e leveduras, para isso, foi realizada uma análise qualitativa e quantitativa nos registros de acompanhamento microbiológico do laticínio.

  20. PRODUÇÃO E AVALIAÇÃO DE BRIQUETES DE FINOS DE CARVÃO VEGETAL COMPACTADOS COM RESÍDUO CELULÓSICO PROVENIENTE DA INDÚSTRIA DE PAPEL E CELULOSE1

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    Mariana Provedel Martins

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar briquetes produzidos a partir de finos de carvão vegetal compactados com resíduo celulósico gerado na decantação dos efluentes da indústria de papel e celulose. Foram realizados os seguintes tratamentos: briquetes produzidos com fino de carvão vegetal e resíduo celulósico nas proporções de 25% (T1, 30% (T2, 35% (T3, 40% (T4 e 45% (T5 e briquetes produzidos com finos de carvão vegetal com 10% de amido e resíduo celulósico nas proporções de 0% (T6, 5% (T7, 10% (T8, 15% (T9, 20% (T10 e 25% (T11. A caracterização dos briquetes foi realizada por meio de ensaios de análise química imediata, determinação do poder calorífico superior, densidade aparente e avaliação da resistência mecânica após a secagem dos briquetes em estufa ou ao ar livre. Observou-se que os briquetes com resíduo celulósico e amido em sua composição apresentaram maior densidade e resistência mecânica à compressão, concluindo-se, assim, que a presença do amido favoreceu a compactação e estabilidade dos briquetes. Observou-se, também, que o processo de secagem em estufa prejudicou a qualidade dos briquetes, de modo que a secagem ao ar livre forneceu briquetes mais resistentes e estáveis.

  1. LA EMOCIONALIDAD EN LAS ESTRATEGIAS DE MERCADEO: CASO INDUSTRIA FUNERARIA // EMOTIONALITY IN MARKETING STRATEGIES: CASE STUDY FUNERAL INDUSTRY // A EMOTIVIDADE NAS ESTRATÉGIAS DE MARKETING: CASO INDÚSTRIA FUNERÁRIA

    OpenAIRE

    Duvan Emilio Ramírez Ospina; Lina María Toro Gonzales; Carolina Duarte Pareja

    2016-01-01

    En este escrito se analiza el manejo de la emocionalidad en las estrategias de mercadeo en empresas del sector funerario, destacando el carácter contextual y ambiental del marketing dentro de la cultura como base permeable de la sociedad, sus hábitos, costumbres y rituales. Se partió de un estudio cualitativo usando entrevistas en profundidad y observación; se hizo un acercamiento teórico al marketing emocional y se muestran las relaciones encontradas entre este y las estrategias de mercadeo ...

  2. BENEFÍCIOS AMBIENTAIS E ECONOMICOS PROVENIENTES DA IMPLEMENTAÇÃO DA PRODUÇÃO MAIS LIMPA EM UMA INDÚSTRIA DE MÓVEIS DE MUNICIPIO DE NATAL-RN

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    Pedro Paulo Silva Leite

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo geral analisar os benefícios ambientais e econômicos obtidos através da implementação da Produção mais Limpa (P+L em uma indústria de móveis localizada em Natal-RN. Trata-se de um estudo de caso que contou com uma revisão bibliográfica sobre o setor e a P+L e uma pesquisa de campo que contemplou as seguintes etapas: diagnóstico ambiental e operacional da empresa (estudo de arranjo físico, levantamento de métodos, fluxograma especifico do processo produtivo, levantamento de aspectos e impactos; levantamento de desperdícios; estudo de oportunidades de melhorias; implementação e monitoramento. Os resultados do diagnostico mostram desperdícios representativos de insumos (MDF, cola, lixa, etc, além da desorganização do espaço físico da empresa, insalubridade do galpão de produção. Assim, foram implementadas algumas medidas de otimização do uso de MDF, cola, lixa, além da implementação de um sistema de coleta de serragem e sistematização da produção, além do reaproveitamento de aparas de MDF para fabricação de chapas recicladas. Nesse contexto, as oportunidades de melhoria ambiental contemplaram os níveis 1 (redução na fonte e nível 2 (reciclagem interna acarretando na otimização do uso de recursos e a diminuição da poluição gerada, trazendo um alavancar uma receita anual para empresa aproximadamente em R$ 3.600 a partir de um investimento de R$ 4311, tendo um período de retorno não superior à 2 anos em cada estudo. Por fim, verifica-se que com a implementação das atividades vislumbradas é possível alcançar uma economia significativa nos gastos da empresa além dos benefícios operacionais como melhoria do ambiente de trabalho e mudanças benéficas no quesito meio ambiente através da diminuição do consumo de matéria prima e da geração de resíduos.

  3. INTER-RELAÇÃO DA FERRAMENTA APQP E DO GUIA PMBOK PARA EFICIÊNCIA NAS ETAPAS DE IMPLEMENTAÇÃO DE NOVOS PROJETOS NA INDÚSTRIA AUTOMOTIVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Cristhiano Franco

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available O desenvolvimento de novos projetos na industria automotiva apresenta-se como um projeto de grande porte, regido por metodologias, guias e ferramentas estruturadas que visam garantir a eficácia do projeto. Esta pesquisa foi desenvolvida com o intuito de contribuir para um maior entendimento entre a ferramenta APQP, de grande aplicação na industria automotiva, e o guia PMBOK, considerado referência no gerenciamento de projetos. Neste âmbito, este estudo realiza uma análise comparativa entre suas principais características, identificando suas semelhanças e divergências. Dentre os diversos resultados do estudo, é possível identificar que o guia PMBOK é mais completo que a ferramenta APQP utilizada no setor automobilístico, uma vez que traz de forma mais detalhada as etapas e as técnicas que são indicadas nas atividades, segundo as boas práticas dos PMPs (Project Management Professional.

  4. GESTÃO DE PROJETOS NO DESENVOLVIMENTO DE PRODUTOS DA INDÚSTRIA AERONÁUTICA: UMA ANÁLISE DA IMPORTÂNCIA E EFICIÊNCIA DOS PROCESSOS DA ENGENHARIA DE MANUFATURA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maique Antônio Rodrigues

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa possui como principal foco a gestão de projetos associada ao desenvolvimento de novos produtos da indústria aeronáutica, destacando-se em especial a importância e eficiência dos processos de manufatura. A análise realizada tomou por base um questionário com os 47 processos disseminados pelo PMBOK, uma coleção de processos e conhecimentos aceitos como melhores práticas na área de gerenciamento de projetos. 20 profissionais com larga experiência no setor aeronáutico responderam à pesquisa e os dados foram tratados estatisticamente por meio das técnicas de Escalonamento Multidimensional e Análise Fatorial Exploratória para um único fator. Os resultados evidenciaram que os dez processos de maior importância estão associados às seguintes temáticas: 1º Desenvolver a equipe do projeto, 2º Controlar a qualidade, 3º Determinar o orçamento, 4º Conduzir as aquisições, 5º Controlar os riscos, 6º Identificar os riscos, 7º Planejar o gerenciamento de custos, 8º Gerenciar a equipe do projeto, 9º Planejar o gerenciamento das aquisições e 10º Planejar o gerenciamento de riscos. Apesar de bons resultados globais para os níveis de eficiência para os processos anteriores, observam-se ainda possibilidades de melhoria para a empresa estudada.

  5. LISTERIA SPP., COLIFORMES TOTAIS E FECAIS E E.COLI NO LEITE CRU E PASTEURIZADO DE UMA INDÚSTRIA DE LATICÍNIOS, NO ESTADO DA PARAÍBA (BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CATÃO Raïssa Mayer Ramalho

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigou-se a qualidade microbiológica do leite in natura e na linha de produção (leite recém-pasteurizado e leite ensacado, de uma usina de beneficiamento em Campina Grande-PB. Foi pesquisada a presença de Listeria spp. e sua diversidade de espécies, os níveis de coliformes totais (CT, coliformes fecais (CF e Escherichia coli. Analisou-se um total de 75 amostras de leite, sendo 45 de leite cru, 15 de leite recém-pasteurizado e 15 de leite ensacado. Os resultados foram reunidos em dois grupos segundo o período de monitoramento: antes e após mudanças no processo de higienização da usina. Foi evidenciada elevada contaminação nas amostras de leite cru nas duas épocas. Na primeira (março-abril/1998, todas as amostras de leite beneficiado estiveram fora dos padrões da legislação vigente para CT e CF; na segunda (maio-agosto/1998, houve acentuada redução dos níveis destas bactérias indicadoras, porém as melhorias na higienização não foram suficientes para solucionar este problema, visto que 11,1% das amostras recém-pasteurizadas estavam fora dos padrões para CT e 33,3% para CF. Das amostras ensacadas, 22,2% estavam fora dos padrões para CT e 44,4% para CF. Comparando-se os resultados de CT, CF, e E.coli nas amostras de leite recém-pasteurizado e não ensacado com as amostras de leite ensacado, foi verificado que as amostras após serem pasteurizadas e ensacadas apresentaram valores de CT e CF levemente mais elevados, sugerindo contaminação durante o processo de ensacamento ou falhas na armazenagem. Observou-se que 33 (73,3% das amostras de leite cru e 9 (30% das de leite pasteurizado estavam contaminadas com Listeria spp., sendo identificadas L. monocytogenes em 17 (51,5% amostras de leite cru e em 9 (100% de leite beneficiado (4 recém-pasteurizadas e 5 ensacadas. Em relação à diversidade de espécies, nas amostras de leite cru foram encontradas: L. monocytogenes (66,6%, L. innocua (25,3%, L. ivanovii (3,9%, L. welshimeri (2,5% e L. grayi (1,5%. Nas amostras de leite pasteurizado isolaram-se: L. monocyogenes e L. innocua. O conjunto dos resultados evidenciou deficiências higiênico-sanitárias no leite in natura e ao longo do processo de produção, resultando em porcentagens elevadas de amostras que ultrapassaram os valores padrões de CT e CF além de apresentarem-se contaminadas por Listeria spp., com predominância de L. monocytogenes, sugerindo a existência de uma relação direta entre os altos índices de coliformes e a presença de Listeria spp.

  6. Gazprom tõrjub võimalikku konkurenti / Vahur Koorits

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koorits, Vahur, 1981-

    2009-01-01

    Eesti põhjarannikule kavandatud veeldatud maagaasi ehk LNG terminali ees seisab rida takistusi, suurimaks probleemiks on Gazprom. Vt. samas: Veeldatud maagaasi terminal annaks sõltumatuse Gazpromist

  7. Перемещение частных пространств = Transporting private spaces / Тоомас Паавер ; интервьюировал Владимир Фролов

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Паавер, Тоомас, 1976-

    2012-01-01

    Tallinna linna tasuta ühistranspordist, transpordisüsteemi puudustest ja arengusuundadest. PAIK Arhitektide (Toomas Paaver, Jaak-Adam Looveer, Lauri Saar) Kristiine terminali projektist, jalgrattateedest

  8. The effects of stimulation of substantia innominata and sensory receiving areas of the forebrain upon the activity of neurons within the amygdala of the anesthetized cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Femano, P A; Edinger, H M; Siegel, A

    1983-06-13

    The present study investigated the response characteristics of individual neurons in the amygdala following stimulation of the substantia innominata (SI), and compared these responses with those elicited by stimulation of insular and temporal polar cortices and the lateral olfactory tract (LOT). Recordings were made from single units within the medial, central, basal, and lateral amygdaloid nuclei of anesthetized, male cats. Stimulating electrodes were located in the SI, LOT, and sylvian cortex (SG). Unit responses were classified as either excitation or inhibition. Excitatory responses were further divided into fixed latency excitation (FLE) and variable latency excitation (VLE) based on the variability of the onset latency of the response. The majority of responses to SI stimulation were of the FLE type, implying a direct orthodromic, monosynaptic activation of amygdaloid units. Proportionally more FLE responses were recorded laterally, especially in the magnocellular basal nucleus, compared to VLE responses which were more common in the medial and central nuclei. SI stimulation consistently affected the activity of many more units than did SG or LOT stimulation. The onset latencies of the population of cells exhibiting excitatory responses elicited by SI stimulation were distributed bimodally, and this may reflect a dual projection pathway of amygdaloid afferents from this basal forebrain region. This correlates with anatomical descriptions indicating that SI projections to amygdala pass via the ventral amygdalofugal pathway as well as in the stria terminalis. Excitatory onset latencies of responses to SI stimulation were the shortest in the lateral and magnocellular basal nuclei and the longest in the parvocellular basal nucleus. Amygdaloid units exhibited convergent input from the stimulus sites. A clear topographical distribution of units was not demonstrated. The data suggests that units receiving a convergent input were rarely driven monosynaptically by

  9. Core and paracores; some new chemoarchitectural entities in the mammalian neuraxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuys, R; Veening, J G; van Domburg, P

    nucleus and the catecholaminergic cell groups A1, A2, A5, A7 and C1 and C2. It harbours a large bundle of loosely arranged, thin fibres, which forms a direct caudal continuation of the hypothalamic medial forebrain bundle. This lateral paracore bundle contains numerous catecholaminergic and peptidergic fibres. Three typical core centres, viz. the nucleus centralis amygdalae, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and the lateral hypothalamic area contribute substantially to this bundle. The lateral paracore contains, just like the core region, a large number of functionally defined centres related to integrated somatomotor and visceromotor responses. It is postulated that non-synaptic interneuron

  10. Two Neural Measures Differ between Urban and Rural Song Sparrows after Conspecific Song Playback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendra B. Sewall

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization is a critical form of environmental change that can affect the physiology and behavior of wild animals and, notably, birds. One behavioral difference between birds living in urban and rural habitats is that urban males show elevated boldness or territorial aggression in response to simulated social challenge. This pattern has been described in several populations of song sparrow, Melospiza melodia. Such behavioral differences must be underpinned by differences in the brain, yet little work has explored how urbanization and neural function may be interrelated. We explored the relationship between urbanization and neural activation within a network of brain regions, collectively called the social behavior network, which contributes to the regulation of territorial aggression. Specifically, we captured free-living, territorial male song sparrows by playing them conspecific songs for 6–11 min, and then collected their brains. We estimated recent neural activation, as indicated by the immediate early gene FOS, and measured levels of a neuropeptide, arginine vasotocin (AVT, which is involved in the regulation of social behavior. Based on previous studies we expected urban males, which are generally more territorially aggressive, to have lower FOS expression in a node of the social behavior network implicated in regulating territoriality, the lateral septum (LS. Additionally, we expected urban males to have lower AVT expression in a brain region involved in the regulation of sociality, the medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTm. We found that, compared to rural males, urban male song sparrows did have lower FOS expression in the LS. This pattern suggests that lower neural activation in the LS could contribute to behavioral adjustments to urbanization in male song sparrows. Additionally, counter to our predictions, urban male song sparrows had higher AVT-like immunoreactivity in the BSTm. Future work building upon these findings

  11. Early life stress elicits visceral hyperalgesia and functional reorganization of pain circuits in adult rats

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    D.P. Holschneider

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Early life stress (ELS is a risk factor for developing functional gastrointestinal disorders, and has been proposed to be related to a central amplification of sensory input and resultant visceral hyperalgesia. We sought to characterize ELS-related changes in functional brain responses during acute noxious visceral stimulation. Neonatal rats (males/females were exposed to limited bedding (ELS or standard bedding (controls on postnatal days 2–9. Age 10–11 weeks, animals were implanted with venous cannulas and transmitters for abdominal electromyography (EMG. Cerebral blood flow (rCBF was mapped during colorectal distension (CRD using [14C]-iodoantipyrine autoradiography, and analyzed in three-dimensionally reconstructed brains by statistical parametric mapping and functional connectivity. EMG responses to CRD were increased after ELS, with no evidence of a sex difference. ELS rats compared to controls showed a greater significant positive correlation of EMG with amygdalar rCBF. Factorial analysis revealed a significant main effect of ‘ELS’ on functional activation of nodes within the pain pathway (somatosensory, insular, cingulate and prefrontal cortices, locus coeruleus/lateral parabrachial n. [LC/LPB], periaqueductal gray, sensory thalamus, as well as in the amygdala, hippocampus and hypothalamus. In addition, ELS resulted in an increase in the number of significant functional connections (i.e. degree centrality between regions within the pain circuit, including the amygdala, LC/LPB, insula, anterior ventral cingulate, posterior cingulate (retrosplenium, and stria terminalis, with decreases noted in the sensory thalamus and the hippocampus. Sex differences in rCBF were less broadly expressed, with significant differences noted at the level of the cortex, amygdala, dorsal hippocampus, raphe, sensory thalamus, and caudate-putamen. ELS showed a sexually dimorphic effect (‘Sex x ELS’ interaction at the LC/LPB complex, globus pallidus

  12. White matter correlates of anxiety sensitivity in panic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Kyoung; Kim, Borah; Kiu Choi, Tai; Lee, Sang-Hyuk

    2017-01-01

    Anxiety sensitivity (AS) refers to a fear of anxiety-related sensations and is a dispositional variable especially elevated in patients with panic disorder (PD). Although several functional imaging studies of AS in patients with PD have suggested the presence of altered neural activity in paralimbic areas such as the insula, no study has investigated white matter (WM) alterations in patients with PD in relation to AS. The objective of this study was to investigate the WM correlates of AS in patients with PD. One-hundred and twelve right-handed patients with PD and 48 healthy control (HC) subjects were enrolled in this study. The Anxiety Sensitivity Inventory-Revised (ASI-R), the Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS), the Albany Panic and Phobia Questionnaire (APPQ), the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were administered. Tract-based spatial statistics were used for diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging analysis. Among the patients with PD, the ASI-R total scores were significantly correlated with the fractional anisotropy values of the WM regions near the insula, the splenium of the corpus callosum, the tapetum, the fornix/stria terminalis, the posterior limb of the internal capsule, the retrolenticular part of the internal capsule, the posterior thalamic radiation, the sagittal striatum, and the posterior corona radiata located in temporo-parieto-limbic regions and are involved in interoceptive processing (p<0.01; threshold-free cluster enhancement [TFCE]-corrected). These WM regions were also significantly correlated with the APPQ interoceptive avoidance subscale and BDI scores in patients with PD (p<0.01, TFCE-corrected). Correlation analysis among the HC subjects revealed no significant findings. There has been no comparative study on the structural neural correlates of AS in PD. The current study suggests that the WM correlates of AS in patients with PD may be associated with the insula and the adjacent temporo

  13. Deep brain stimulation for severe treatment-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder: An open-label case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrand, Sarah; Evans, Andrew H; Mangelsdorf, Simone; Loi, Samantha M; Mocellin, Ramon; Borham, Adam; Bevilacqua, JoAnne; Blair-West, Scott; Walterfang, Mark A; Bittar, Richard G; Velakoulis, Dennis

    2017-09-01

    Deep brain stimulation can be of benefit in carefully selected patients with severe intractable obsessive-compulsive disorder. The aim of this paper is to describe the outcomes of the first seven deep brain stimulation procedures for obsessive-compulsive disorder undertaken at the Neuropsychiatry Unit, Royal Melbourne Hospital. The primary objective was to assess the response to deep brain stimulation treatment utilising the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale as a measure of symptom severity. Secondary objectives include assessment of depression and anxiety, as well as socio-occupational functioning. Patients with severe obsessive-compulsive disorder were referred by their treating psychiatrist for assessment of their suitability for deep brain stimulation. Following successful application to the Psychosurgery Review Board, patients proceeded to have deep brain stimulation electrodes implanted in either bilateral nucleus accumbens or bed nucleus of stria terminalis. Clinical assessment and symptom rating scales were undertaken pre- and post-operatively at 6- to 8-week intervals. Rating scales used included the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale, Obsessive Compulsive Inventory, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale and Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale. Seven patients referred from four states across Australia underwent deep brain stimulation surgery and were followed for a mean of 31 months (range, 8-54 months). The sample included four females and three males, with a mean age of 46 years (range, 37-59 years) and mean duration of obsessive-compulsive disorder of 25 years (range, 15-38 years) at the time of surgery. The time from first assessment to surgery was on average 18 months. All patients showed improvement on symptom severity rating scales. Three patients showed a full response, defined as greater than 35% improvement in Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale score, with the remaining showing responses between 7% and 20%. Deep

  14. Sex-Dependent Effects of Prenatal Stress on Social Memory in Rats: A Role for Differential Expression of Central Vasopressin-1a Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundwald, N J; Benítez, D P; Brunton, P J

    2016-04-01

    Prenatal stress (PNS) affects a number of traits in the offspring, including stress axis regulation, emotionality and cognition; however, much less is known about the effects of PNS on social memory and the underlying central mechanisms. In the present study, we investigated social preference, social memory under basal and stress conditions and olfactory memory for social and nonsocial odours in the adult offspring of dams exposed to social stress during late pregnancy. Given the key roles that the central oxytocin and vasopressin systems play in facilitating social memory, we further investigated the effects of PNS on the central expression of mRNA for oxytocin (Oxtr) and vasopressin-1a (Avpr1a) receptors. PNS did not affect social preference in either sex; however, social memory was impaired under basal conditions in PNS females but not PNS males. Accordingly, Avpr1a mRNA expression in the lateral septum and bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BNST) was unaltered in males but was significantly lower in PNS females compared to controls. No differences in Oxtr mRNA expression were detected between control and PNS offspring in either sex in any of the brain regions examined. Social memory deficits in PNS females persisted when social odours were used; however, this does not appear to be a result of impaired olfaction because memory for nonsocial odours was similar in control and PNS females. Under acute stress conditions, deficits in social memory were observed in both male and female control offspring; however, PNS males were unaffected. Moreover, acute stress facilitated social memory in PNS females and this was associated with an up-regulation of Avpr1a mRNA in the lateral septum and BNST. Our data support a role for altered signalling via central Avpr1a in PNS-induced sex-dependent changes in social memory and may have implications for understanding the aetiology of neurodevelopmental disorders characterised by social behaviour deficits in humans. © 2015 The

  15. Comparative distribution of relaxin-3 inputs and calcium-binding protein-positive neurons in rat amygdala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio N Santos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The neural circuits involved in mediating complex behaviors are being rapidly elucidated using various newly developed and powerful anatomical and molecular techniques, providing insights into the neural basis for anxiety disorders, depression, addiction, and dysfunctional social behaviors. Many of these behaviors and associated physiological processes involve the activation of the amygdala in conjunction with cortical and hippocampal circuits. Ascending subcortical projections provide modulatory inputs to the extended amygdala and its related nodes (or ‘hubs’ within these key circuits. One such input arises from the nucleus incertus (NI in the tegmentum, which sends amino acid- and peptide-containing projections throughout the forebrain. Notably, a distinct population of GABAergic NI neurons expresses the highly-conserved neuropeptide, relaxin-3, and relaxin-3 signaling has been implicated in the modulation of reward/motivation and anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors in rodents via actions within the extended amygdala. Thus, a detailed description of the relaxin-3 innervation of the extended amygdala would provide an anatomical framework for an improved understanding of NI and relaxin-3 modulation of these and other specific amygdala-related functions. Therefore, in this study, we examined the distribution of NI projections and relaxin-3-positive elements (axons/fibers/terminals within the amygdala, relative to the distribution of neurons expressing the calcium-binding proteins, parvalbumin, calretinin and/or calbindin. Anterograde tracer injections into the NI revealed a topographic distribution of NI efferents within the amygdala that was near identical to the distribution of relaxin-3-immunoreactive fibers. Highest densities of anterogradely-labeled elements and relaxin-3-immunoreactive fibers were observed in the medial nucleus of the amygdala, medial divisions of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST and in the endopiriform

  16. Increasing brain angiotensin converting enzyme 2 activity decreases anxiety-like behavior in male mice by activating central Mas receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; de Kloet, Annette D; Pati, Dipanwita; Hiller, Helmut; Smith, Justin A; Pioquinto, David J; Ludin, Jacob A; Oh, S Paul; Katovich, Michael J; Frazier, Charles J; Raizada, Mohan K; Krause, Eric G

    2016-06-01

    Over-activation of the brain renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been implicated in the etiology of anxiety disorders. Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) inhibits RAS activity by converting angiotensin-II, the effector peptide of RAS, to angiotensin-(1-7), which activates the Mas receptor (MasR). Whether increasing brain ACE2 activity reduces anxiety by stimulating central MasR is unknown. To test the hypothesis that increasing brain ACE2 activity reduces anxiety-like behavior via central MasR stimulation, we generated male mice overexpressing ACE2 (ACE2 KI mice) and wild type littermate controls (WT). ACE2 KI mice explored the open arms of the elevated plus maze (EPM) significantly more than WT, suggesting increasing ACE2 activity is anxiolytic. Central delivery of diminazene aceturate, an ACE2 activator, to C57BL/6 mice also reduced anxiety-like behavior in the EPM, but centrally administering ACE2 KI mice A-779, a MasR antagonist, abolished their anxiolytic phenotype, suggesting that ACE2 reduces anxiety-like behavior by activating central MasR. To identify the brain circuits mediating these effects, we measured Fos, a marker of neuronal activation, subsequent to EPM exposure and found that ACE2 KI mice had decreased Fos in the bed nucleus of stria terminalis but had increased Fos in the basolateral amygdala (BLA). Within the BLA, we determined that ∼62% of GABAergic neurons contained MasR mRNA and expression of MasR mRNA was upregulated by ACE2 overexpression, suggesting that ACE2 may influence GABA neurotransmission within the BLA via MasR activation. Indeed, ACE2 overexpression was associated with increased frequency of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (indicative of presynaptic release of GABA) onto BLA pyramidal neurons and central infusion of A-779 eliminated this effect. Collectively, these results suggest that ACE2 may reduce anxiety-like behavior by activating central MasR that facilitate GABA release onto pyramidal neurons within the

  17. Untitled

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Name of the pathogens Name of the hosts other susceptible viability plants. Months. P. bauhiniae . . ... Bauhinia purpurea * * 11. Callistemon indica . . . 12. Dracaena terminalis 14%. P. carica-papayae ... Carica papaya # 4. 10. Bauhinia purpurea 114 . Eriobotrya japonica 15. P. dracaenae . . . Dracaena terminalis * - - - 11.

  18. LNG terminal võib tulla ka igasse Balti riiki. Arutlused esialgu jätkuvad / Sirje Rank

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rank, Sirje, 1966-

    2011-01-01

    Balti peaministrid pole üksmeelel, kas ja kuhu rajada veeldatud gaasi terminal. Lepiti kokku, et kõik kolm riiki teevad vedelgaasi terminali tasuvusuuringu. Leedu kavatseb rajada oma riigi vajadusteks LNG ujuvterminali, kuid see ei välista osalemist suurema terminali projektis

  19. As bases neuroanatômicas do comportamento: histórico e contribuições recentes Neuroanatomical basis of behavior: history and recent contributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Carvalhal Ribas

    2007-03-01

    conjunto com o núcleo basal de Meynert e com o sistema septo-banda diagonal, constituem as principais estruturas e sistemas que possuem conexões com as áreas corticais límbicas e que, em conjunto com estas, atuam sobre o hipotálamo e o tronco encefálico que, por sua vez, geram os componentes autonômicos, endócrinos e somatomotores das experiências emocionais e que regulam as atividades básicas de beber, comer e pertinentes ao comportamento sexual.Considering the most recent contributions, the limbic cortical areas, originally known as the greater limbic lobe, besides the cingulated and the parahippocampal gyri also includes the insula and the posterior orbital cortex. In contrast to the nonlimbic cortical areas that project to the basal ganglia (particularly over the dorsal aspects of the striatum, constituted by the caudate nucleus and by the putamen, the limbic cortical areas are characterized by projecting to the hypothalamus and also to the ventral striatum (particularly to the nucleus accumbens. Once all the striatum projects to the globus pallidus which projects to the thalamus and then to the cortex, generating cortical-subcortical reentrant circuits, while the dorsal striatum and pallidum related cortico-subcortical loops are involved with motor activities, the ventral cortical-striatal-pallidal system is particularly related with behavior functions. The extended amygdala (central medial amygdala, stria terminalis or dorsal component, ventral component, and bed nucleus of stria terminalis receives inputs primarily from the limbic cortical areas, is particularly modulated by the prefrontal cortex, and receives also direct connections from the thalamus that enables the amygdala to generate nonspecific and quick responses through its projections to the hypothalamus and to the brainstem. The ventral striatal-pallidal and the extended amygdala are then two basal forebrain macro-anatomical systems, that together with the basal nucleus of Meynert and with the

  20. Ärimehed lennukitüüri taga / Küllike Rooväli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rooväli, Küllike, 1969-

    2006-01-01

    Copterline Eesti terminali juht Tõnis Lepp ja Eesti Esimese Aeronautikaklubi juht Johan Pender lendamisest, lennuõpetusest. Lisad: Eralenduri õpe Eestis; Erapiloodi kursus. Vt. samas: Kooliõpetajast saab vaheajal lendur [intervjuu Eesti Era- ja Harrastuspilootide Liidu esimehe Hendrik Aguriga

  1. Balti riigid asutavad Rail Balticu raudteefirma / Raimo Poom

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poom, Raimo

    2011-01-01

    Baltimaade peaministrite kohtumisel Tallinnas jõuti üksmeelele Euroopa rööpalaiusega Rail Balticu ehitamises. Projekti elluviimiseks luuakse ühisettevõte. Veeldatud maagaasi terminali asukohas üksmeel puudub

  2. Dombrovskis: toetus Rail Balticule sõltub Siim Kallasest / Valdis Dombrovskis ; intervjueerinud Andres Reimer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Dombrovskis, Valdis, 1971-

    2011-01-01

    Intervjuu Läti peaministriga Swedbankiga seotud sularahapaanikast, LNG terminali asukohast, Läti ettepanekust peatada Baltimaade eletrkisüsteemide Euroopaga sünkroniseerimise projekt, Poola väljumisest kavandatavast Visaginase tuumajaama projektist, Rail Balticust

  3. Kak zhit v Jevropeiskom Sojuze? : AO DBT = What will the life in the European Union be like? : AO DBT / Vladimir Volohhonski

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Volohhonski, Vladimir, 1948-2013

    2003-01-01

    DBT (Dry Bulk Terminal) AS-i juhatuse esimees räägib kuivainete terminali tegevusest tollivabas tsoonis, võrdleb Baltimaade ja Venemaa sadamate olukorda ning prognoosib Euroopa Liiduga liitumise mõju Eesti transiitkaubandusele

  4. Kelle süül ikkagi nurjus Baskimaa rahuprotsess? / Anna-Maria Penu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Penu, Anna-Maria, 1978-

    2007-01-01

    Madridi lennujaama terminalis plahvatas pomm, riigi siseministri sõnul lõpetas see rahuprotsessi. Autori hinnangul eksis peaminister Jose Luis Rodriguez Zapatero, uskudes, et Baskimaa probleem on küpseks dialoogiks valmis. Lisa: Rahuvahendaja tekitas segadust

  5. Dlja kompanii "Bega" ne nuzhen shljus v Jevrosojuz! = BEGA does not need any sluice to the EU / Aloizas Kuzmarskis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuzmarskis, Aloizas

    2004-01-01

    Leedu stividorettevõtte "Bega" juht Aloizas Kuzmarskis ettevõtte asutamisest, terminali ehitamisest koostöös Klaipeda meresadamaga, kaupade lastimise mahtudest, kvaliteedisertifikaatide omandamisest ja Euroopa Liiduga liitumise mõjudest sadamateenustele

  6. Novõi sobstvennik planirujet rasshirjat sillamjaeskii neftjanoi terminal / Heiti Hääl ; interv. Aleksei Starkov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hääl, Heiti, 1963-

    2007-01-01

    Ettevõtte Alexela Logistics ja Sillamäe ja Paldiski tütarfirmade juhatuse esimees räägib naftaterminali Sillamäe Oil Terminali omandamisest, naftavedudest ja Venemaa-Eesti naftatransiidi tulevikust

  7. LNG terminal location still a tossup

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Lätti rajatava LNG terminali asukoht pole veel teada. 16. märtsil kohtus Poola president Bronislaw Komorowki Läti riigipea Valdis Zatlersiga ja kiitis selle projekti heaks. Venemaast energiasõltumatuse olulisusest

  8. Tonnõ uglja - a põli net / Andrei Babin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Babin, Andrei

    2006-01-01

    Muuga sadamas opereeriv AS Coal Terminal Operator planeerib investeerida 15,5 miljonit krooni keskkonnameetmetesse, et lõpetada ümbruskonna saastamine söetolmuga. Terminali tegevusest. Lisa: Muuga sadama söeterminal

  9. Grain operator miffed at port administration

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Ventspils Grain Terminal saatis president Vaira Vike-Freibergale ja mitmetele ministritele kirja sõnumiga, et Ventspilsi Vabasadama (Ventspils Free Port) administratsiooni tegevus takistab terminali äritegevust

  10. Signal k objedineniju / Aleksei Zhigulin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Zhigulin, Aleksei

    2006-01-01

    Muuga sadamas asuvate naftatransiidi firmade baasil luuakse spetsialiseeritud terminalikompleks. Selle rahvusvahelise projekti, milles osaleb vene kontsern Severstaltrans, strateegiliseks eesmärgiks on arendada terminaliäri Baltimaades. Diagrammid

  11. Eesti Loto uuendab kesksüsteemi / Merike Ojasson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ojasson, Merike

    2001-01-01

    Riigiettevõte Eesti Loto investeerib kümneid miljoneid kroone uude terminalisüsteemi lootuses, et kaasaegne tehnoloogia kasutuselevõtuga kasvab firma kasum lähema nelja aasta jooksul ligi viis korda

  12. Putin võttis esimesena ette nafta / Sirje Rank

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rank, Sirje, 1966-

    2008-01-01

    Venemaa peaminister Vladimir Putin külastas Primorski ja Ust-Luuga sadamaid, kus avas uue naftasaaduste terminali ning teatas Balti torujuhtmesüsteemi laiendamisest. Vt. samas: Soodne otsus Putini sõbrale

  13. Introduction: Addiction and Brain Reward and Anti-Reward Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Eliot L.

    2013-01-01

    bio-psycho-social” model of etiology holds very well for addiction. Addiction appears to correlate with a hypo-dopaminergic dysfunctional state within the reward circuitry of the brain. Neuroimaging studies in humans add credence to this hypothesis. Credible evidence also implicates serotonergic, opioid, endocannabinoid, GABAergic, and glutamatergic mechanisms in addiction. Critically, drug addiction progresses from occasional recreational use to impulsive use to habitual compulsive use. This correlates with a progression from reward-driven to habit-driven drug-seeking behavior. This behavioral progression correlates with a neuroanatomical progression from ventral striatal (nucleus accumbens) to dorsal striatal control over drug-seeking behavior. The three classical sets of craving and relapse triggers are a) re-exposure to addictive drugs, b) stress, and c) re-exposure to environmental cues (“people, places, things”) previously associated with drug-taking behavior. Drug-triggered relapse involves the nucleus accumbens and the neurotransmitter dopamine. Stress-triggered relapse involves a) the central nucleus of the amygdala, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and the neurotransmitter CRF; and b) the lateral tegmental noradrenergic nuclei of the brain stem and the neurotransmitter norepinephrine. Cue-triggered relapse involves the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala, the hippocampus, and the neurotransmitter glutamate. Knowledge of the neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, neurochemistry, and neuropharmacology of addictive drug action in the brain is currently producing a variety of strategies for pharmacotherapeutic treatment of drug addiction, some of which appear promising. PMID:21508625

  14. DIAGNÓSTICO DO USO DA INTELIGÊNCIA COMPETITIVA EMPREENDEDORA EM PEQUENAS EMPRESAS DA INDÚSTRIA DE CONFECÇÕES DA CIDADE DE VILA VELHA – ES/DIAGNOSIS OF THE USE OF COMPETITIVE INTELLIGENCE ENTREPRENEURIAL IN SMALL BUSINESS THE CLOTHING INDUSTRY OF THE CITY OF VILA VELHA – ES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Soncini Pelissari

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available As organizações cujas estruturas, processos e tecnologias não estão alinhados com os negócios terão dificuldades em sobreviver. A fim de se manterem, estrategistas de gestão têm se apoiado em práticas como a Inteligência Competitiva (IC – que tem como base a informação e a velocidade de seu uso para melhor alinhar o negócio às estratégias, facilitando o processo de tomada de decisão. Posto isso, objetivou-se, com esta pesquisa, analisar a prática da inteligência competitiva de pequenas empresas do Município de Vila Velha/ES e a importância da aplicabilidade da Inteligência Competitiva Empreendedora – assumindo-se que a IC contribui para o alinhamento das informações ambientais às estratégias das organizações. Para a coleta de dados, utilizou-se o levantamento (survey, em que foi aplicado um questionário com perguntas fechadas a uma amostra não probabilística intencional, aplicado diretamente pelo próprio pesquisador, por e-mail e fax. Os resultados apontaram que, apesar de os administradores pesquisadosdemonstrarem interesse em estruturar suas informações com o objetivo de tomar decisões mais rápidas e assertivas, eles não desenvolvem um processo global de Inteligência Competitiva Empreendedora, vistonão gerenciarem de modo sistemático as informações do mercado.The organizations, whose structures, processes and technologies are not aligned with the businesses, they will have difficulties in surviving. In order to maintain, management strategists have reliedon practices such as Competitive Intelligence (CI - which is based on the information and the speed of its use to better align business strategies, facilitating the process of decision making. That said, the aim with this research, analyzing the practice of competitive intelligence for small businesses in the City of Vila Velha/ES, and the importance of applicability of Competitive Intelligence Entrepreneurship - assuming that, the IC contributes to the alignment of environmental information the strategies of organizations. For data collection, we used the survey (survey, which was applied a questionnaire with closed questions to a non-probabilistic intentional sample applied directly by the researcher by e-mail and fax. The surveyresults indicated that, although the administrators surveyed show interest in structuring your informationwith the objective to make quick decisions and assertive, they do not develop a global process ofCompetitive Intelligence Entrepreneurship, since no systematic way to manage market information.

  15. AvaliaÃÃo do uso de polÃmero EVA, resÃduo da indÃstria de calÃados (EVAR) e aditivos no desempenho reolÃgico de ligante asfÃltico de petrÃleo

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Ellen Valentim de Alencar

    2009-01-01

    O desenvolvimento de novas metodologias no campo da engenharia rodoviÃria tem sido uma preocupaÃÃo, visando à melhoria da qualidade das vias pavimentadas, tornando-as mais seguras e resistentes. Algumas inovaÃÃes introduzidas nesta Ãrea tem sido praticadas com a aplicaÃÃo de ligantes asfÃlticos (LAs) modificados, que tem demonstrado melhorar o desempenho destes, contribuindo para a reduÃÃo da formaÃÃo das trilhas de roda e das trincas tÃrmicas. Neste estudo, o ligante asfÃltico (LA) brasileir...

  16. CHEMICAL AND FERMENTATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF ELEPHANT GRASS ENSILED WITH INCREAS-ING LEVELS OF DENIDRATED CASHEW FRUIT BY-PRODUCT CARACTERÍSTICAS QUÍMICAS E FERMENTATIVAS DO CAPIM-ELEFANTE ENSILADO COM NÍVEIS CRESCENTES DE SUBPRODUTO DA AGROINDÚSTRIA DO CAJU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warley Efrem Campos

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Nutritive value of silages of Elephant grass (Pen-nisetum   purpureum, Schum. mixed with 0; 3.5%; 7.0%; 10.5% and 14.0 %  of dehydrated by product from juice industry of cashew fruit (Anacardium occidentale, L (DBC was determined. A randomized design was used with four replicates. Silages were opened after 65 days and samples taken for analysis of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, hemicellulose HCEL, cellulose (CEL, lig-nin (LIG, crude energy (CE, ash, neutral detergent inso-luble nitrogen (NDIN and acid detergent insoluble nitro-gen (ADIN. Were also analyzed, pH, ammonia nitrogen and organic acids (lactic, acetic, butyric and propionic. Regarding fermentative parameters, there was an expected decrease in pH and the increasing levels of DBC did not affect the concentrations of N-NH3/NT and organic acids. It is concluded that dehydrated cashew by product can be ensiled along with Elephant grass without altering its fer-mentative characteristics. On the other side, the increased cell walls and ADIN contents of the silage may affect its nutritional value.

    Key-words: Cashew byproducts, nutritive value, tropical grass.

    O trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de se avaliar o valor nutritivo das silagens de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum. com adição de 0%; 3,5%; 7%; 10,% e 14% do subproduto do pseudofruto do caju (Anacardium occidentale, L. desidratado (subproduto da agroindústria do suco de caju. Utilizou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Após 65 dias, os silos foram abertos e coletadas amostras para determinação dos teores de matéria seca (MS, proteína bruta (PB, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, hemicelulose (HCEL, celulose (CEL, lignina (LIG, energia bruta (EB, cinzas, nitrogênio insolúvel em detergente neutro (NIDN e nitrogênio insolúvel em detergente ácido (NIDA. Para avaliar as características fermentativas das silagens, determinaram-se os valores de pH e os teores de nitrogênio amoniacal (% do nitrogênio total e dos ácidos lático, acético, butírico e propiônico. A adição do subproduto do pseudofruto do caju desidratado (SPCD acarretou o aumento dos teores de MS, PB, FDA, LIG, NIDN e NIDA. Para os parâmetros fermentativos, observou-se redução dos valores de pH, porém não se registrou influência dos níveis de adição do SPCD sobre os teores de N-NH3/NT e ácidos orgânicos. Conclui-se que o subproduto do pseudofruto do caju desidratado pode ser ensilado com o capim-elefante, sem comprometer as características fermentativas das silagens de capim-elefante. Porém, o aumento nos componentes da parede celular e d