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Sample records for stria terminalis induces

  1. Ethanol-induced anxiolysis and neuronal activation in the amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis.

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    Sharko, Amanda C; Kaigler, Kris F; Fadel, Jim R; Wilson, Marlene A

    2016-02-01

    High rates of comorbidity for anxiety and alcohol-use disorders suggest a causal relationship between these conditions. Previous work demonstrates basal anxiety levels in outbred Long-Evans rats correlate with differences in voluntary ethanol consumption and that amygdalar Neuropeptide Y (NPY) systems may play a role in this relationship. The present work explores the possibility that differences in sensitivity to ethanol's anxiolytic effects contribute to differential ethanol self-administration in these animals and examines the potential role of central and peripheral NPY in mediating this relationship. Animals were first exposed to the elevated plus maze (EPM) to assess individual differences in anxiety-like behaviors and levels of circulating NPY and corticosterone (CORT). Rats were then tested for anxiety-like behavior in the light-dark box (LD box) following acute ethanol treatment (1 g/kg; intraperitoneally [i.p.]), and neuronal activation in the amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) was assessed using Fos immunohistochemistry. EPM exposure increased plasma CORT levels without altering plasma NPY levels. Acute ethanol treatment significantly increased light-dark transitions and latency to re-enter the light arena, but no differences were seen between high- and low-anxiety groups and no correlations were found between anxiety-like behaviors in the EPM and LD box. Acute ethanol treatment significantly increased Fos immunoreactivity in the BNST and the central amygdala. Although NPY neurons were not significantly activated following ethanol exposure, in saline-treated animals lower levels of anxiety-like behavior in the LD box (more time in the light arena and more transitions) were correlated with higher NPY-positive cell density in the central amygdala. Our results suggest that activation of the CeA and BNST are involved in the behavioral expression of ethanol-induced anxiolysis, and that differences in basal anxiety state may be correlated

  2. Acute reversible inactivation of the bed nucleus of stria terminalis induces antidepressant-like effect in the rat forced swimming test

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    Joca Sâmia RL

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BNST is a limbic forebrain structure involved in hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis regulation and stress adaptation. Inappropriate adaptation to stress is thought to compromise the organism's coping mechanisms, which have been implicated in the neurobiology of depression. However, the studies aimed at investigating BNST involvement in depression pathophysiology have yielded contradictory results. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of temporary acute inactivation of synaptic transmission in the BNST by local microinjection of cobalt chloride (CoCl2 in rats subjected to the forced swimming test (FST. Methods Rats implanted with cannulae aimed at the BNST were submitted to 15 min of forced swimming (pretest. Twenty-four hours later immobility time was registered in a new 5 min forced swimming session (test. Independent groups of rats received bilateral microinjections of CoCl2 (1 mM/100 nL before or immediately after pretest or before the test session. Additional groups received the same treatment and were submitted to the open field test to control for unspecific effects on locomotor behavior. Results CoCl2 injection into the BNST before either the pretest or test sessions reduced immobility in the FST, suggesting an antidepressant-like effect. No significant effect of CoCl2 was observed when it was injected into the BNST immediately after pretest. In addition, no effect of BNST inactivation was observed in the open field test. Conclusion These results suggest that acute reversible inactivation of synaptic transmission in the BNST facilitates adaptation to stress and induces antidepressant-like effects.

  3. Inactivation of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis suppresses the innate fear responses of rats induced by the odor of cat urine.

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    Xu, H-Y; Liu, Y-J; Xu, M-Y; Zhang, Y-H; Zhang, J-X; Wu, Y-J

    2012-09-27

    In this study, we investigated whether two brain regions, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) and the basolateral amygdala (BLA), affected male rats' (Rattus norvigicus) ability to innately discriminate between a predator odor (cat urine) and female rat urine. Muscimol, a GABAa receptor agonist, was bilaterally microinjected into either the BNST or BLA of rats through implanted stainless-steel guide cannulas to temporarily inactivate these brain nuclei. The behavioral responses of the treated rats to female rat urine and cat urine were then tested in an experimental arena. Compared to a saline infusion control, the injection of muscimol into the BNST strongly reversed the innate aversion of rats to cat urine but the injection of muscimol into the BLA had no effect. Furthermore, intra-BNST infusion of muscimol caused rats to be equally attracted to urine from cats and female rats but intra-BLA infusion did not stop rats manifesting fear on exposure to cat urine and exploratory behavior on exposure to female rat urine. We conclude that the BNST plays a more crucial role in modulating innate fear responses in rats than the BLA. Copyright © 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Neuronal Correlates of Fear Conditioning in the Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis

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    Haufler, Darrell; Nagy, Frank Z.; Pare, Denis

    2013-01-01

    Lesion and inactivation studies indicate that the central amygdala (CeA) participates in the expression of cued and contextual fear, whereas the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is only involved in the latter. The basis for this functional dissociation is unclear because CeA and BNST form similar connections with the amygdala and…

  5. Role of bed nucleus of the stria terminalis corticotrophin-releasing factor receptors in frustration stress-induced binge-like palatable food consumption in female rats with a history of food restriction.

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    Micioni Di Bonaventura, Maria Vittoria; Ciccocioppo, Roberto; Romano, Adele; Bossert, Jennifer M; Rice, Kenner C; Ubaldi, Massimo; St Laurent, Robyn; Gaetani, Silvana; Massi, Maurizio; Shaham, Yavin; Cifani, Carlo

    2014-08-20

    We developed recently a binge-eating model in which female rats with a history of intermittent food restriction show binge-like palatable food consumption after 15 min exposure to the sight of the palatable food. This "frustration stress" manipulation also activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal stress axis. Here, we determined the role of the stress neurohormone corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) in stress-induced binge eating in our model. We also assessed the role of CRF receptors in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), a brain region implicated in stress responses and stress-induced drug seeking, in stress-induced binge eating. We used four groups that were first exposed or not exposed to repeated intermittent cycles of regular chow food restriction during which they were also given intermittent access to high-caloric palatable food. On the test day, we either exposed or did not expose the rats to the sight of the palatable food for 15 min (frustration stress) before assessing food consumption for 2 h. We found that systemic injections of the CRF1 receptor antagonist R121919 (2,5-dimethyl-3-(6-dimethyl-4-methylpyridin-3-yl)-7 dipropylamino pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine) (10-20 mg/kg) and BNST (25-50 ng/side) or ventricular (1000 ng) injections of the nonselective CRF receptor antagonist D-Phe-CRF(12-41) decreased frustration stress-induced binge eating in rats with a history of food restriction. Frustration stress also increased Fos (a neuronal activity marker) expression in ventral and dorsal BNST. Results demonstrate a critical role of CRF receptors in BNST in stress-induced binge eating in our rat model. CRF1 receptor antagonists may represent a novel pharmacological treatment for bingeing-related eating disorders. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3411316-09$15.00/0.

  6. Striatal-enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase-STEPs toward understanding chronic stress-induced activation of corticotrophin releasing factor neurons in the rat bed nucleus of the stria terminalis.

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    Dabrowska, Joanna; Hazra, Rimi; Guo, Ji-Dong; Li, Chenchen; Dewitt, Sarah; Xu, Jian; Lombroso, Paul J; Rainnie, Donald G

    2013-12-01

    Striatal-enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase (STEP) is a brain-specific protein tyrosine phosphatase that opposes the development of synaptic strengthening and the consolidation of fear memories. In contrast, stress facilitates fear memory formation, potentially by activating corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF) neurons in the anterolateral cell group of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNSTALG). Here, using dual-immunofluorescence, single-cell reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology, we examined the expression and role of STEP in regulating synaptic plasticity in rat BNSTALG neurons and its modulation by stress. Striatal-enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase was selectively expressed in CRF neurons in the oval nucleus of the BNSTALG. Following repeated restraint stress (RRS), animals displayed a significant increase in anxiety-like behavior, which was associated with a downregulation of STEP messenger RNA and protein expression in the BNSTALG, as well as selectively enhancing the magnitude of long-term potentiation (LTP) induced in Type III, putative CRF neurons. To determine if the changes in STEP expression following RRS were mechanistically related to LTP facilitation, we examined the effects of intracellular application of STEP on the induction of LTP. STEP completely blocked the RRS-induced facilitation of LTP in BNSTALG neurons. Hence, STEP acts to buffer CRF neurons against excessive activation, while downregulation of STEP after chronic stress may result in pathologic activation of CRF neurons in the BNSTALG and contribute to prolonged states of anxiety. Thus, targeted manipulations of STEP activity might represent a novel treatment strategy for stress-induced anxiety disorders. © 2013 Society of Biological Psychiatry.

  7. Differential Histone Acetylation in Sub-Regions of Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis Underlies Fear Consolidation and Extinction

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    Ranjan, Vandana; Singh, Sanjay; Siddiqui, Sarfraj Ahmad; Tripathi, Sukanya; Khan, Mohd Yahiya; Prakash, Anand

    2017-01-01

    Objective The hallmark of anxiety disorders is excessive fear. Previous studies have suggested that selective neural projections from Basal nucleus of stria terminalis (BNST) to amygdala and vice-versa precisely control the fear learning process. However the exact mechanism how the BNST controls fear consolidation and its extinction is largely unknown. In the present study we observed the changes in the BNST sub-regions following fear conditioning and its extinction. Methods The change in the...

  8. Ventromedial prefrontal cortex damage alters resting blood flow to the bed nucleus of stria terminalis.

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    Motzkin, Julian C; Philippi, Carissa L; Oler, Jonathan A; Kalin, Ned H; Baskaya, Mustafa K; Koenigs, Michael

    2015-03-01

    The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) plays a key role in modulating emotional responses, yet the precise neural mechanisms underlying this function remain unclear. vmPFC interacts with a number of subcortical structures involved in affective processing, including the amygdala, hypothalamus, periaqueductal gray, ventral striatum, and bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BNST). While a previous study of non-human primates shows that vmPFC lesions reduce BNST activity and anxious behavior, no such causal evidence exists in humans. In this study, we used a novel application of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in neurosurgical patients with focal, bilateral vmPFC damage to determine whether vmPFC is indeed critical for modulating BNST function in humans. Relative to neurologically healthy subjects, who exhibited robust rest-state functional connectivity between vmPFC and BNST, the vmPFC lesion patients had significantly lower resting-state perfusion of the right BNST. No such perfusion differences were observed for the amygdala, striatum, hypothalamus, or periaqueductal gray. This study thus provides unique data on the relationship between vmPFC and BNST, suggesting that vmPFC serves to promote BNST activity in humans. This finding is relevant for neural circuitry models of mood and anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. MORPHINE PRODUCES CIRCUIT-SPECIFIC NEUROPLASTICITY IN THE BED NUCLEUS OF THE STRIA TERMINALIS

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    Dumont, É. C.; Rycroft, B. K.; Maiz, J.; Williams, J. T.

    2013-01-01

    The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) is a brain structure located at the interface of the cortex and the cerebrospinal trunk. The BST is a cluster of nuclei organized in a complex intrinsic network that receives inputs from cortical and subcortical sources, and that sends a widespread top-down projection. There is growing evidence that the BST is a key component in the neurobiological basis of substance abuse. In the present study, the regulation of excitatory inputs onto identified neurons in the BST was examined in rats treated chronically with morphine. Neurons projecting to the ventral tegmental area (VTA) were identified by retrograde transport of fluorescent microspheres and recorded in the whole-cell voltage clamp configuration in brain slices. Selective excitatory inputs to these neurons were electrically evoked with electrodes placed in the medial and lateral aspects of the dorsal BST. The chronic morphine treatment selectively increased AMPA-dependent excitatory postsynaptic currents in a subset of inputs activated by dorso-lateral stimulation in the BST. Inputs activated by medial stimulation were not affected by morphine. Likewise, the inputs to neurons that did not project to the VTA were not changed by morphine. Altogether, these results extend the understanding of neuronal circuits intrinsically sensitive to drugs of abuse within the BST. PMID:18343592

  10. The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis is critical for anxiety-related behavior evoked by CO2 and acidosis.

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    Taugher, Rebecca J; Lu, Yuan; Wang, Yimo; Kreple, Collin J; Ghobbeh, Ali; Fan, Rong; Sowers, Levi P; Wemmie, John A

    2014-07-30

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) inhalation lowers brain pH and induces anxiety, fear, and panic responses in humans. In mice, CO2 produces freezing and avoidance behavior that has been suggested to depend on the amygdala. However, a recent study in humans with bilateral amygdala lesions revealed that CO2 can trigger fear and panic even in the absence of amygdalae, suggesting the importance of extra-amygdalar brain structures. Because the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) contributes to fear- and anxiety-related behaviors and expresses acid-sensing ion channel-1A (ASIC1A), we hypothesized that the BNST plays an important role in CO2-evoked fear-related behaviors in mice. We found that BNST lesions decreased both CO2-evoked freezing and CO2-conditioned place avoidance. In addition, we found that CO2 inhalation caused BNST acidosis and that acidosis was sufficient to depolarize BNST neurons and induce freezing behavior; both responses depended on ASIC1A. Finally, disrupting Asic1a specifically in the BNST reduced CO2-evoked freezing, whereas virus-vector-mediated expression of ASIC1A in the BNST of Asic1a(-/-) and Asic1a(+/+) mice increased CO2-evoked freezing. Together, these findings identify the BNST as an extra-amygdalar fear circuit structure important in CO2-evoked fear-related behavior. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3410247-09$15.00/0.

  11. Allopregnanolone in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis modulates contextual fear in rats

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    Naomi eNagaya

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Trauma- and stress-related disorders are among the most common types of mental illness affecting the U.S. population. For many of these disorders, there is a striking sex difference in lifetime prevalence; for instance, women are twice as likely as men to be affected by posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Gonadal steroids and their metabolites have been implicated in sex differences in fear and anxiety. One example, allopregnanolone (ALLO, is a neuroactive metabolite of progesterone that allosterically enhances GABAA receptor activity and has anxiolytic effects. Like other ovarian hormones, it not only occurs at different levels in males and females but also fluctuates over the female reproductive cycle. One brain structure that may be involved in neuroactive steroid regulation of fear and anxiety is the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST. To explore this question, we examined the consequences of augmenting or reducing ALLO activity in the BNST on the expression of Pavlovian fear conditioning in rats. In Experiment 1, intra-BNST infusions of ALLO in male rats suppressed freezing behavior (a fear response to the conditioned context, but did not influence freezing to a discrete tone conditioned stimulus (CS. In Experiment 2, intra-BNST infusion of either finasteride, an inhibitor of ALLO synthesis, or 17-phenyl-(3α,5α-androst-16-en-3-ol, an ALLO antagonist, in female rats enhanced contextual freezing; neither treatment affected freezing to the tone CS. These findings support a role for ALLO in modulating contextual fear via the BNST and suggest that sex differences in fear and anxiety could arise from differential steroid regulation of BNST function. The susceptibility of women to disorders such as PTSD may be linked to cyclic declines in neuroactive steroid activity within fear circuitry.

  12. How Human Amygdala and Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis May Drive Distinct Defensive Responses.

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    Klumpers, Floris; Kroes, Marijn C W; Baas, Johanna M P; Fernández, Guillén

    2017-10-04

    The ability to adaptively regulate responses to the proximity of potential danger is critical to survival and imbalance in this system may contribute to psychopathology. The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is implicated in defensive responding during uncertain threat anticipation whereas the amygdala may drive responding upon more acute danger. This functional dissociation between the BNST and amygdala is however controversial, and human evidence scarce. Here we used data from two independent functional magnetic resonance imaging studies [ n = 108 males and n = 70 (45 females)] to probe how coordination between the BNST and amygdala may regulate responses during shock anticipation and actual shock confrontation. In a subset of participants from Sample 2 ( n = 48) we demonstrate that anticipation and confrontation evoke bradycardic and tachycardic responses, respectively. Further, we show that in each sample when going from shock anticipation to the moment of shock confrontation neural activity shifted from a region anatomically consistent with the BNST toward the amygdala. Comparisons of functional connectivity during threat processing showed overlapping yet also consistently divergent functional connectivity profiles for the BNST and amygdala. Finally, childhood maltreatment levels predicted amygdala, but not BNST, hyperactivity during shock anticipation. Our results support an evolutionary conserved, defensive distance-dependent dynamic balance between BNST and amygdala activity. Shifts in this balance may enable shifts in defensive reactions via the demonstrated differential functional connectivity. Our results indicate that early life stress may tip the neural balance toward acute threat responding and via that route predispose for affective disorder. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Previously proposed differential contributions of the BNST and amygdala to fear and anxiety have been recently debated. Despite the significance of understanding their

  13. CRF receptor type 2 neurons in the posterior bed nucleus of the stria terminalis critically contribute to stress recovery.

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    Henckens, M J A G; Printz, Y; Shamgar, U; Dine, J; Lebow, M; Drori, Y; Kuehne, C; Kolarz, A; Eder, M; Deussing, J M; Justice, N J; Yizhar, O; Chen, A

    2017-12-01

    The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is critical in mediating states of anxiety, and its dysfunction has been linked to stress-related mental disease. Although the anxiety-related role of distinct subregions of the anterior BNST was recently reported, little is known about the contribution of the posterior BNST (pBNST) to the behavioral and neuroendocrine responses to stress. Previously, we observed abnormal expression of corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 2 (CRFR2) to be associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-like symptoms. Here, we found that CRFR2-expressing neurons within the pBNST send dense inhibitory projections to other stress-related brain regions (for example, the locus coeruleus, medial amygdala and paraventricular nucleus), implicating a prominent role of these neurons in orchestrating the neuroendocrine, autonomic and behavioral response to stressful situations. Local CRFR2 activation by urocortin 3 depolarized the cells, increased the neuronal input resistance and increased firing of action potentials, indicating an enhanced excitability. Furthermore, we showed that CRFR2-expressing neurons within the pBNST are critically involved in the modulation of the behavioral and neuroendocrine response to stress. Optogenetic activation of CRFR2 neurons in the pBNST decreased anxiety, attenuated the neuroendocrine stress response, ameliorated stress-induced anxiety and impaired the fear memory for the stressful event. Moreover, activation following trauma exposure reduced the susceptibility for PTSD-like symptoms. Optogenetic inhibition of pBNST CRFR2 neurons yielded opposite effects. These data indicate the relevance of pBNST activity for adaptive stress recovery.

  14. alpha2A-adrenergic receptors heterosynaptically regulate glutamatergic transmission in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis.

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    Shields, A D; Wang, Q; Winder, D G

    2009-09-29

    Stress is a major driving force in reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior. The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) has been identified as a key brain region in this behavior, and receives a dense input of the stress-neurotransmitter norepinephrine through the ventral noradrenergic bundle. Activation of alpha(2)-adrenergic receptors (alpha(2)-ARs) in the BNST blocks stress-induced reinstatement of drug-seeking, indicating a potentially important role for these receptors. Currently, it is unclear how alpha(2)-AR agonists elicit this behavioral action, or through which alpha(2)-AR subtype. Activation of alpha(2)-ARs decreases glutamatergic transmission in the BNST, an effect which is nearly absent in the alpha(2A)-AR knockout mouse. Here, we take advantage of a knock-in mouse in which a hemagglutinin-tagged alpha(2A)-AR was inserted into the endogenous locus, along with the alpha(2A)-AR selective agonist guanfacine, to further study the role of the alpha(2A)-AR subtype in modulation of neurotransmission in the BNST. Using immunohistochemistry, we find that alpha(2A)-ARs are highly expressed in the BNST, and that this expression is more similar in distribution to the vesicular glutamate transporters than to either norepinephrine transporter or tyrosine hydroxylase positive terminals. Using whole cell patch-clamp recordings, we show that guanfacine causes a depression of evoked excitatory and, to a more limited extent, inhibitory fast synaptic transmission. In total, these data support a prominent heterosynaptic role for alpha(2A)-ARs in modulating fast synaptic transmission in the BNST.

  15. Role of κ-Opioid Receptors in the Bed Nucleus of Stria Terminalis in Reinstatement of Alcohol Seeking.

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    Lê, A D; Funk, Douglas; Coen, Kathleen; Tamadon, Sahar; Shaham, Yavin

    2017-06-07

    κ-Opioid receptors (KORs) and their endogenous ligand dynorphin are involved in stress-induced alcohol seeking but the mechanisms involved are largely unknown. We previously showed that systemic injections of the KOR agonist U50,488, which induce stress-like aversive states, reinstate alcohol seeking after extinction of the alcohol-reinforced responding. Here, we used the neuronal activity marker Fos and site-specific injections of the KOR antagonist nor-BNI and U50,488 to study brain mechanisms of U50,488-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking. We trained male Long-Evans rats to self-administer alcohol (12% w/v) for 23-30 days. After extinction of the alcohol-reinforced responding, we tested the effect of U50,488 (0, 1.25, 2.5, and 5 mg/kg) on reinstatement of alcohol seeking. Next, we correlated regional Fos expression with reinstatement induced by the most effective U50,488 dose (5 mg/kg). Based on the correlational Fos results, we determined the effect of bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) injections of nor-BNI (4 μg/side) on U50,488-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking, and reinstatement induced by injections of U50,488 (0, 0.3, 1, and 3 μg/side) into the BNST. U50,488-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking was associated with increased Fos expression in multiple brain areas, including the BNST, where it was significantly correlated with lever pressing. U50,488-induced reinstatement was blocked by BNST nor-BNI injections, and BNST U50,488 injections partially mimicked the drug's systemic effect on reinstatement. Our data indicate that the BNST is a critical site for U50,488-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking and suggest that KOR/dynorphin mechanisms in this brain area play a key role in stress-induced alcohol seeking.Neuropsychopharmacology advance online publication, 12 July 2017; doi:10.1038/npp.2017.120.

  16. Projections from Bed Nuclei of the Stria Terminalis, Magnocellular Nucleus: Implications for Cerebral Hemisphere Regulation of Micturition, Defecation, and Penile Erection

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    DONG, HONG-WEI; SWANSON, LARRY W.

    2006-01-01

    The basic structural organization of axonal projections from the small but distinct magnocellular and ventral nuclei (of the bed nuclei of the stria terminalis) were analyzed with the PHAL anterograde tract tracing method in adult male rats. The former's overall projection pattern is complex, with over 80 distinct terminal fields ipsilateral to injection sites. Innervated regions in the cerebral hemisphere and brainstem fall into 9 general functional categories: cerebral nuclei, behavior cont...

  17. Deep brain stimulation of the nucleus accumbens and bed nucleus of stria terminalis for obsessive-compulsive disorder: a case series.

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    Islam, Lucrezia; Franzini, Angelo; Messina, Giuseppe; Scarone, Silvio; Gambini, Orsola

    2015-04-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a psychiatric condition defined by the presence of obsessions, compulsions, or both. It has a lifetime prevalence of 2%-3% and causes significant impairment in social and work functioning, as well as a reduced quality of life. Treatment includes pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy, but a significant number of patients fail to respond to treatment. Deep brain stimulation has shown to be a safe and effective procedure for severe, chronic, treatment-resistant OCD, and several surgical targets have been proposed for treatment, including the nucleus accumbens, the anterior limb of the internal capsule, the subthalamic nucleus, the globus pallidus, and the bed nucleus of stria terminalis. To report the first Italian case series of patients who underwent DBS of 2 distinct targets for OCD: nulceus accumbens and bed nulceus of stria terminalis. Four patients underwent DBS of the nulceus accumbens, and 4 patients underwent DBS of the bed nucleus of stria terminalis. Six patients showed a significant improvement in OCD symptoms. DBS of these 2 structures is a safe and effective procedure for the treatment of severe, refractory OCD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Field Potential Oscillations in the Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis Correlate with Compulsion in a Rat Model of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.

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    Wu, Hemmings; Tambuyzer, Tim; Nica, Ioana; Deprez, Marjolijn; van Kuyck, Kris; Aerts, Jean-Marie; Van Huffel, Sabine; Nuttin, Bart

    2016-09-28

    The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is implicated in anxiety and reward processing, both of which are associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Specific neuronal groups in the BNST related to anxiety and reward have been identified, but quantitative data about the information carried by local field potential (LFP) signals in this area during obsession/compulsion are lacking. Here we investigate the BNST LFP in the schedule-induced polydipsia, an animal model of OCD. We implanted electrodes bilaterally in the BNST and random control brain regions in 32 male Wistar rats, and recorded corresponding LFP during compulsive and noncompulsive behavior. We first applied high-frequency (100 Hz) electrical stimulation through the implanted electrodes and analyzed its effects on compulsive behavior. We then performed time-frequency analysis of LFPs and statistically compared the normalized power of δ (1-4 Hz), θ (4-8 Hz), α (8-12 Hz), β (12-30 Hz), and lower γ (30-45 Hz) bands between different groups. Our data showed that the normalized δ, β, and γ powers in the right BNST were specifically correlated with compulsive behaviors. δ and γ oscillations increased and decreased during the initiation phase of compulsion, respectively, whereas β increased after compulsion stopped. Moreover, the effect of BNST electrical stimulation, in terms of suppression of compulsion, was significantly correlated with the percentage change of these bands during compulsion. Our research reveals potential biomarkers and underlying neurophysiological mechanisms of compulsion and warrants further assessment of the use of LFP for closed-loop neuromodulation in OCD. Although specific neuronal groups in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) related to anxiety and reward circuitries have been identified, psychopathological information carried by local field potentials in the BNST has not yet been described. We discovered that normalized powers of the right BNST

  19. Mechanisms of Neuroplasticity and Ethanol's Effects on Plasticity in the Striatum and Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis.

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    Lovinger, David M; Kash, Thomas L

    2015-01-01

    Long-lasting changes in synaptic function (i.e., synaptic plasticity) have long been thought to contribute to information storage in the nervous system. Although synaptic plasticity mainly has adaptive functions that allow the organism to function in complex environments, it is now clear that certain events or exposure to various substances can produce plasticity that has negative consequences for organisms. Exposure to drugs of abuse, in particular ethanol, is a life experience that can activate or alter synaptic plasticity, often resulting in increased drug seeking and taking and in many cases addiction.Two brain regions subject to alcohol's effects on synaptic plasticity are the striatum and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), both of which have key roles in alcohol's actions and control of intake. The specific effects depend on both the brain region analyzed (e.g., specific subregions of the striatum and BNST) and the duration of ethanol exposure (i.e., acute vs. chronic). Plastic changes in synaptic transmission in these two brain regions following prolonged ethanol exposure are thought to contribute to excessive alcohol drinking and relapse to drinking. Understanding the mechanisms underlying this plasticity may lead to new therapies for treatment of these and other aspects of alcohol use disorder.

  20. Activity alterations in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and amygdala during threat anticipation in generalized anxiety disorder.

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    Buff, Christine; Brinkmann, Leonie; Bruchmann, Maximilian; Becker, Michael P I; Tupak, Sara; Herrmann, Martin J; Straube, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    Sustained anticipatory anxiety is central to Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD). During anticipatory anxiety, phasic threat responding appears to be mediated by the amygdala, while sustained threat responding seems related to the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST). Although sustained anticipatory anxiety in GAD patients was proposed to be associated with BNST activity alterations, firm evidence is lacking. We aimed to explore temporal characteristics of BNST and amygdala activity during threat anticipation in GAD patients. Nineteen GAD patients and nineteen healthy controls (HC) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a temporally unpredictable threat anticipation paradigm. We defined phasic and a systematic variation of sustained response models for blood oxygen level-dependent responses during threat anticipation, to disentangle temporally dissociable involvement of the BNST and the amygdala. GAD patients relative to HC responded with increased phasic amygdala activity to onset of threat anticipation and with elevated sustained BNST activity that was delayed relative to the onset of threat anticipation. Both the amygdala and the BNST displayed altered responses during threat anticipation in GAD patients, albeit with different time courses. The results for the BNST activation hint towards its role in sustained threat responding, and contribute to a deeper understanding of pathological sustained anticipatory anxiety in GAD. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  1. Intrinsic functional connectivity of the central nucleus of the amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis.

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    Gorka, Adam X; Torrisi, Salvatore; Shackman, Alexander J; Grillon, Christian; Ernst, Monique

    2017-04-06

    The central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), two nuclei within the central extended amygdala, function as critical relays within the distributed neural networks that coordinate sensory, emotional, and cognitive responses to threat. These structures have overlapping anatomical projections to downstream targets that initiate defensive responses. Despite these commonalities, researchers have also proposed a functional dissociation between the CeA and BNST, with the CeA promoting responses to discrete stimuli and the BNST promoting responses to diffuse threat. Intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) provides a means to investigate the functional architecture of the brain, unbiased by task demands. Using ultra-high field neuroimaging (7-Tesla fMRI), which provides increased spatial resolution, this study compared the iFC networks of the CeA and BNST in 27 healthy individuals. Both structures were coupled with areas of the medial prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, thalamus, and periaqueductal gray matter. Compared to the BNST, the bilateral CeA was more strongly coupled with the insula and regions that support sensory processing, including thalamus and fusiform gyrus. In contrast, the bilateral BNST was more strongly coupled with regions involved in cognitive and motivational processes, including the dorsal paracingulate gyrus, posterior cingulate cortex, and striatum. Collectively, these findings suggest that responses to sensory stimulation are preferentially coordinated by the CeA and cognitive and motivational responses are preferentially coordinated by the BNST. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. The anxiolytic-like effects of cannabidiol injected into the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis are mediated by 5-HT1A receptors.

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    Gomes, Felipe V; Resstel, Leonardo B M; Guimarães, Francisco S

    2011-02-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD) is a non-psychotomimetic compound from Cannabis sativa that induces anxiolytic-like effects in rodents and humans after systemic administration. Previous results from our group showed that CBD injection into the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) attenuates conditioned aversive responses. The aim of this study was to further investigate the role of this region on the anxiolytic effects of the CBD. Moreover, considering that CBD can activate 5-HT1A receptors, we also verified a possible involvement of these receptors in those effects. Male Wistar rats received injections of CBD (15, 30, or 60 nmol) into the BNST and were exposed to the elevated plus-maze (EPM) or to the Vogel conflict test (VCT), two widely used animal models of anxiety. CBD increased open arms exploration in the EPM as well as the number of punished licks in the VCT, suggesting an anxiolytic-like effect. The drug did not change the number of entries into the enclosed arms of the EPM nor interfered with water consumption or nociceptive threshold, discarding potential confounding factors in the two tests. Moreover, pretreatment with the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY100635 (0.37 nmol) blocked the effects of CBD in both models. These results give further support to the proposal that BNST is involved in the anxiolytic-like effects of CBD observed after systemic administration, probably by facilitating local 5-HT1A receptor-mediated neurotransmission.

  3. Localization and function of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor in the anterolateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis.

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    Nagore Puente

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST is involved in behaviors related to natural reward, drug addiction and stress. In spite of the emerging role of the endogenous cannabinoid (eCB system in these behaviors, little is known about the anatomy and function of this system in the anterolateral BNST (alBNST. The aim of this study was to provide a detailed morphological characterization of the localization of the cannabinoid 1 (CB1 receptor a necessary step toward a better understanding of the physiological roles of the eCB system in this region of the brain. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have combined anatomical approaches at the confocal and electron microscopy level to ex-vivo electrophysiological techniques. Here, we report that CB1 is localized on presynaptic membranes of about 55% of immunopositive synaptic terminals for the vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (vGluT1, which contain abundant spherical, clear synaptic vesicles and make asymmetrical synapses with alBNST neurons. About 64% of vGluT1 immunonegative synaptic terminals show CB1 immunolabeling. Furthermore, 30% and 35% of presynaptic boutons localize CB1 in alBNST of conditional mutant mice lacking CB1 mainly from GABAergic neurons (GABA-CB1-KO mice and mainly from cortical glutamatergic neurons (Glu-CB1-KO mice, respectively. Extracellular field recordings and whole cell patch clamp in the alBNST rat brain slice preparation revealed that activation of CB1 strongly inhibits excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study supports the anterolateral BNST as a potential neuronal substrate of the effects of cannabinoids on stress-related behaviors.

  4. Localization and function of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor in the anterolateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis.

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    Puente, Nagore; Elezgarai, Izaskun; Lafourcade, Mathieu; Reguero, Leire; Marsicano, Giovanni; Georges, François; Manzoni, Olivier J; Grandes, Pedro

    2010-01-25

    The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is involved in behaviors related to natural reward, drug addiction and stress. In spite of the emerging role of the endogenous cannabinoid (eCB) system in these behaviors, little is known about the anatomy and function of this system in the anterolateral BNST (alBNST). The aim of this study was to provide a detailed morphological characterization of the localization of the cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptor a necessary step toward a better understanding of the physiological roles of the eCB system in this region of the brain. We have combined anatomical approaches at the confocal and electron microscopy level to ex-vivo electrophysiological techniques. Here, we report that CB1 is localized on presynaptic membranes of about 55% of immunopositive synaptic terminals for the vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (vGluT1), which contain abundant spherical, clear synaptic vesicles and make asymmetrical synapses with alBNST neurons. About 64% of vGluT1 immunonegative synaptic terminals show CB1 immunolabeling. Furthermore, 30% and 35% of presynaptic boutons localize CB1 in alBNST of conditional mutant mice lacking CB1 mainly from GABAergic neurons (GABA-CB1-KO mice) and mainly from cortical glutamatergic neurons (Glu-CB1-KO mice), respectively. Extracellular field recordings and whole cell patch clamp in the alBNST rat brain slice preparation revealed that activation of CB1 strongly inhibits excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission. This study supports the anterolateral BNST as a potential neuronal substrate of the effects of cannabinoids on stress-related behaviors.

  5. Involvement of endocannabinoid neurotransmission in the bed nucleus of stria terminalis in cardiovascular responses to acute restraint stress in rats

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    Gomes‐de‐Souza, Lucas; Oliveira, Leandro A; Benini, Ricardo; Rodella, Patrícia; Costa‐Ferreira, Willian

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Endocannabinoid signalling has been reported as an important neurochemical mechanism involved in responses to stress. Previous studies provided evidence of endocannabinoid release in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) during aversive stimuli. Nevertheless, a possible involvement of this neurochemical mechanism in stress responses has never been evaluated. Therefore, in the present study we investigated the involvement of BNST endocannabinoid neurotransmission, acting via local CB1 receptors, in the cardiovascular responses to acute restraint stress in rats. Experimental Approach The selective CB1 receptor antagonist AM251 (1, 30 and 100 pmol 100 nL−1) and/or the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) enzyme inhibitor URB597 (30 pmol 100 nL−1) or the monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) enzyme inhibitor JZL184 (30 pmol 100 nL−1) was microinjected into the BNST before the acute restraint stress. Key Results Microinjection of AM251 into the BNST enhanced the tachycardia caused by restraint stress, without affecting the increase in arterial pressure and the sympathetic‐mediated cutaneous vasoconstrictor response. Conversely, the increased endogenous levels of AEA in the BNST evoked by local treatment with the FAAH enzyme inhibitor URB597 decreased restraint‐evoked tachycardia. Inhibition of the hydrolysis of 2‐arachidonoylglycerol (2‐AG) in the BNST by local microinjection of the MAGL enzyme inhibitor JZL184 also decreased the HR response. These effects of URB597 and JZL184 were abolished by BNST pretreatment with AM251. Conclusions and Implications These findings indicate an involvement of BNST endocannabinoid neurotransmission, acting via CB1 receptors, in cardiovascular adjustments during emotional stress, which may be mediated by the local release of either AEA or 2‐AG. PMID:27441413

  6. Role of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in cardiovascular changes following chronic treatment with cocaine and testosterone: a role beyond drug seeking in addiction?

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    Cruz, F C; Alves, F H F; Leão, R M; Planeta, C S; Crestani, C C

    2013-12-03

    Neural plasticity has been observed in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) following exposure to both cocaine and androgenic-anabolic steroids. Here we investigated the involvement of the BNST on changes in cardiovascular function and baroreflex activity following either single or combined administration of cocaine and testosterone for 10 consecutive days in rats. Single administration of testosterone increased values of arterial pressure, evoked rest bradycardia and reduced baroreflex-mediated bradycardia. These effects of testosterone were not affected by BNST inactivation caused by local bilateral microinjections of the nonselective synaptic blocker CoCl2. The single administration of cocaine as well as the combined treatment with testosterone and cocaine increased both bradycardiac and tachycardiac responses of the baroreflex. Cocaine-evoked baroreflex changes were totally reversed after BNST inactivation. However, BNST inhibition in animals subjected to combined treatment with cocaine and testosterone reversed only the increase in reflex tachycardia, whereas facilitation of reflex bradycardia was not affected by local BNST treatment with CoCl2. In conclusion, the present study provides the first direct evidence that the BNST play a role in cardiovascular changes associated with drug abuse. Our findings suggest that alterations in cardiovascular function following subchronic exposure to cocaine are mediated by neural plasticity in the BNST. The single treatment with cocaine and the combined administration of testosterone and cocaine had similar effects on baroreflex activity, however the association with testosterone inhibited cocaine-induced changes in the BNST control of reflex bradycardia. Testosterone-induced cardiovascular changes seem to be independent of the BNST. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Corticotropin Releasing Factor in the Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis in Socially Defeated and Non-stressed Mice with a History of Chronic Alcohol Intake

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    Lucas Albrechet-Souza

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Stress exposure has been identified as one risk factor for alcohol abuse that may facilitate the transition from social or regulated use to the development of alcohol dependence. Preclinical studies have shown that dysregulation of the corticotropin releasing factor (CRF neurotransmission has been implicated in stress-related psychopathologies such as depression and anxiety, and may affect alcohol consumption. The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST contains CRF-producing neurons which seem to be sensitive to stress. In this study, adult male C57BL/6 mice previously defeated in resident-intruder confrontations were evaluated in the elevated plus-maze and tail suspension test. Mice were also tested for sweet solution intake before and after social stress. After having had continuous access to ethanol (20% weight/volume for 4 weeks, control and stressed mice had CRF type 1 (CRFR1 or type 2 (CRFR2 receptor antagonists infused into the BNST and then had access to ethanol for 24 h. In separate cohorts of control and stressed mice, we assessed mRNA levels of BNST CRF, CRFR1 and CRFR2. Stressed mice increased their intake of sweet solution after ten sessions of social defeat and showed reduced activity in the open arms of the elevated plus-maze. When tested for ethanol consumption, stressed mice persistently drank significantly more than controls during the 4 weeks of access. Also, social stress induced higher BNST CRF mRNA levels. The selective blockade of BNST CRFR1 with CP376,395 effectively reduced alcohol drinking in non-stressed mice, whereas the selective CRFR2 antagonist astressin2B produced a dose-dependent increase in ethanol consumption in both non-stressed controls and stressed mice. The 10-day episodic defeat stress used here elicited anxiety- but not depressive-like behaviors, and promoted an increase in ethanol drinking. CRF-CRFR1 signaling in the BNST seems to underlie ethanol intake in non-stressed mice, whereas CRFR2 modulates

  8. Projections from bed nuclei of the stria terminalis, magnocellular nucleus: implications for cerebral hemisphere regulation of micturition, defecation, and penile erection.

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    Dong, Hong-Wei; Swanson, Larry W

    2006-01-01

    The basic structural organization of axonal projections from the small but distinct magnocellular and ventral nuclei (of the bed nuclei of the stria terminalis) was analyzed with the Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin anterograde tract tracing method in adult male rats. The former's overall projection pattern is complex, with over 80 distinct terminal fields ipsilateral to injection sites. Innervated regions in the cerebral hemisphere and brainstem fall into nine general functional categories: cerebral nuclei, behavior control column, orofacial motor-related, humorosensory/thirst-related, brainstem autonomic control network, neuroendocrine, hypothalamic visceromotor pattern-generator network, thalamocortical feedback loops, and behavioral state control. The most novel findings indicate that the magnocellular nucleus projects to virtually all known major parts of the brain network that controls pelvic functions, including micturition, defecation, and penile erection, as well as to brain networks controlling nutrient and body water homeostasis. This and other evidence suggests that the magnocellular nucleus is part of a corticostriatopallidal differentiation modulating and coordinating pelvic functions with the maintenance of nutrient and body water homeostasis. Projections of the ventral nucleus are a subset of those generated by the magnocellular nucleus, with the obvious difference that the ventral nucleus does not project detectably to Barrington's nucleus, the subfornical organ, the median preoptic and parastrial nuclei, the neuroendocrine system, and midbrain orofacial motor-related regions.

  9. Aging-Associated Changes to Intrinsic Neuronal Excitability in the Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis Is Cell Type-Dependent

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    Hannah E. Smithers

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Intrinsic neuronal excitability has been reported to change during normal aging. The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST, a limbic forebrain structure, is involved in fear, stress and anxiety; behavioral features that exhibit age-dependent properties. To examine the effect of aging on intrinsic neuronal properties in BNST we compared patch clamp recordings from cohorts of female mice at two ages, 3–4 months (Young and 29–30 months (Aged focusing on 2 types of BNST neurons. Aged Type I neurons exhibited a hyperpolarized resting membrane potential (RMP of circa -80 mV compared to circa -70 mV in the Young. A key finding in this study is a hyper-excitability of Type II neurons with age reflected in an increase in firing frequency in response to depolarizing current injections; activation of Type II neurons is believed to dampen anxiety like responses. Such age-related changes in intrinsic neurophysiological function are likely to modulate how the limbic system, acting via BNST, shapes function in the HPA-axis.

  10. Involvement of the oxytocin system in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in the sex-specific regulation of social recognition

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    Dumais, Kelly M.; Alonso, Andrea G.; Immormino, Marisa A.; Bredewold, Remco; Veenema, Alexa H.

    2015-01-01

    Sex differences in the oxytocin (OT) system in the brain may explain why OT often regulates social behaviors in sex-specific ways. However, a link between sex differences in the OT system and sex-specific regulation of social behavior has not been tested. Here, we determined whether sex differences in the OT receptor (OTR) or in OT release in the posterior bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (pBNST) mediates sex-specific regulation of social recognition in rats. We recently showed that, compared to female rats, male rats have a three-fold higher OTR binding density in the pBNST, a sexually dimorphic area implicated in the regulation of social behaviors. We now demonstrate that OTR antagonist (5 ng/0.5 μl/side) administration into the pBNST impairs social recognition in both sexes, while OT (100 pg/0.5 μl/side) administration into the pBNST prolongs the duration of social recognition in males only. These effects seem specific to social recognition, as neither treatment altered total social investigation time in either sex. Moreover, baseline OT release in the pBNST, as measured with in vivo microdialysis, did not differ between the sexes. However, males showed higher OT release in the pBNST during social recognition compared to females. These findings suggest a sex-specific role of the OT system in the pBNST in the regulation of social recognition. PMID:26630388

  11. A comparative analysis of the physiological properties of neurons in the anterolateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in the Mus musculus, Rattus norvegicus, and Macaca mulatta.

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    Daniel, Sarah E; Guo, Jidong; Rainnie, Donald G

    2017-06-15

    The anterolateral group of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNSTALG ) is a critical modulator of a variety of rodent and primate behaviors spanning anxiety behavior and drug addiction. Three distinct neuronal cell types have been previously defined in the rat BNSTALG based on differences in the voltage-response to hyperpolarizing and depolarizing current injection. Differences in genetic expression profile between these three cell types suggest electrophysiological cell type may be an indicator for functional differences in the circuit of the rat BNSTALG . Although the behavioral role of the BNST is conserved across species, it is unknown if the same electrophysiological cell types exist in the BNSTALG of the mouse and nonhuman primate. Here, we used whole-cell patch clamp electrophysiology and neuronal reconstructions of biocytin-filled neurons to compare and contrast the electrophysiological and morphological properties of neurons in the BNSTALG from the mouse, rat, and rhesus macaque. We provide evidence that the BNSTALG of all three species contains neurons that match the three defined cell types found in the rat; however, there are intriguing differences in the relative frequency of these cell types as well as electrophysiological and morphological properties of the BNSTALG neurons across species. This study suggests that the overall landscape of the BNSTALG in the primate and mouse may be similar to that of the rat in some aspects but perhaps significantly different in others. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Moxd1 Is a Marker for Sexual Dimorphism in the Medial Preoptic Area, Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis and Medial Amygdala.

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    Tsuneoka, Yousuke; Tsukahara, Shinji; Yoshida, Sachine; Takase, Kenkichi; Oda, Satoko; Kuroda, Masaru; Funato, Hiromasa

    2017-01-01

    The brain shows various sex differences in its structures. Various mammalian species exhibit sex differences in the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (SDN-POA) and parts of the extended amygdala such as the principal nucleus of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNSTpr) and posterodorsal part of the medial amygdala (MePD). The SDN-POA and BNSTpr are male-biased sexually dimorphic nuclei, and characterized by the expression of calbindin D-28K (calbindin 1). However, calbindin-immunoreactive cells are not restricted to the SDN-POA, but widely distributed outside of the SDN-POA. To find genes that are more specific to sexually dimorphic nuclei, we selected candidate genes by searching the Allen brain atlas and examined the detailed expressions of the candidate genes using in situ hybridization. We found that the strong expression of monooxygenase DBH-like 1 (Moxd1) was restricted to the SDN-POA, BNSTpr and MePD. The numbers of Moxd1-positive cells in the SDN-POA, BNSTpr and MePD in male mice were larger than those in female mice. Most of the Moxd1-positive cells in the SDN-POA and BNSTpr expressed calbindin. Neonatal castration of male mice reduced the number of Moxd1-positive cells in the SDN-POA, whereas gonadectomy in adulthood did not change the expression of the Moxd1 gene in the SDN-POA in both sexes. These results suggest that the Moxd1 gene is a suitable marker for sexual dimorphic nuclei in the POA, BNST and amygdala, which enables us to manipulate sexually dimorphic neurons to examine their roles in sex-biased physiology and behaviors.

  13. Regional Difference in Sex Steroid Action on Formation of Morphological Sex Differences in the Anteroventral Periventricular Nucleus and Principal Nucleus of the Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis

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    Kanaya, Moeko; Tsuda, Mumeko C.; Sagoshi, Shoko; Nagata, Kazuyo; Morimoto, Chihiro; Tha Thu, Chaw Kyi; Toda, Katsumi; Kato, Shigeaki; Ogawa, Sonoko; Tsukahara, Shinji

    2014-01-01

    Sex steroid action is critical to form sexually dimorphic nuclei, although it is not fully understood. We previously reported that masculinization of the principal nucleus of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNSTp), which is larger and has more neurons in males than in females, involves aromatized testosterone that acts via estrogen receptor-α (ERα), but not estrogen receptor-β (ERβ). Here, we examined sex steroid action on the formation of the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) that is larger and has more neurons in females. Morphometrical analysis of transgenic mice lacking aromatase, ERα, or ERβ genes revealed that the volume and neuron number of the male AVPV were significantly increased by deletion of aromatase and ERα genes, but not the ERβ gene. We further examined the AVPV and BNSTp of androgen receptor knockout (ARKO) mice. The volume and neuron number of the male BNSTp were smaller in ARKO mice than those in wild-type mice, while no significant effect of ARKO was found on the AVPV and female BNSTp. We also examined aromatase, ERα, and AR mRNA levels in the AVPV and BNSTp of wild-type and ARKO mice on embryonic day (ED) 18 and postnatal day (PD) 4. AR mRNA in the BNSTp and AVPV of wild-type mice was not expressed on ED18 and emerged on PD4. In the AVPV, the aromatase mRNA level was higher on ED18, although the ERα mRNA level was higher on PD4 without any effect of AR gene deletion. Aromatase and ERα mRNA levels in the male BNSTp were significantly increased on PD4 by AR gene deletion. These results suggest that estradiol signaling via ERα during the perinatal period and testosterone signaling via AR during the postnatal period are required for masculinization of the BNSTp, whereas the former is sufficient to defeminize the AVPV. PMID:25398007

  14. Targeting bed nucleus of the stria terminalis for severe obsessive-compulsive disorder: more unexpected lead placement in obsessive-compulsive disorder than in surgery for movement disorders.

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    Nuttin, Bart; Gielen, Frans; van Kuyck, Kris; Wu, Hemmings; Luyten, Laura; Welkenhuysen, Marleen; Brionne, Thomas C; Gabriëls, Loes

    2013-01-01

    In preparation for a multicenter study, a protocol was written on how to perform surgical targeting of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, based on the lead implantation experience in patients with treatment-refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) at the Universitaire Ziekenhuizen Leuven (UZ Leuven). When analyzing the postoperative images, we were struck by the fact that the difference between the postoperative position of the leads and the planned position seemed larger than expected. The precision of targeting in four patients with severe OCD who received bilateral model 3391 leads (Medtronic) was compared with the precision of targeting in the last seven patients who underwent surgery at UZ Leuven for movement disorders (four with Parkinson disease and three with essential tremor; all received bilateral leads). Because the leads implanted in six of the seven patients with movement disorders were model 3387 leads (Medtronic), targeting precision was also analyzed in four patients with OCD in whom model 3387 leads were implanted in the same target as the other patients with OCD. In the patients with OCD, every implanted lead deviated at least 1.3 mm from its intended position in at least one of three directions (lateral, anteroposterior, and depth), whereas in the patients with movement disorders, the maximal deviation of any of all implanted leads was 1.3 mm. The deviations in lead placement were comparable in patients with OCD who received a model 3387 implant and patients who received a model 3391 implant. In the patients with OCD, all leads were implanted more posteriorly than planned. The cause of the posterior deviation could not be determined with certainty. The most likely cause was an increased mechanical resistance of the brain tissue along the trajectory when following the targeting protocol compared with the trajectories classically used for subthalamic nucleus or ventral intermediate nucleus of the thalamus stimulation. Copyright © 2013

  15. Oxytocin receptor neurotransmission in the dorsolateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis facilitates the acquisition of cued fear in the fear-potentiated startle paradigm in rats.

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    Moaddab, Mahsa; Dabrowska, Joanna

    2017-07-15

    Oxytocin (OT) is a hypothalamic neuropeptide that modulates fear and anxiety-like behaviors. Dorsolateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST dl ) plays a critical role in the regulation of fear and anxiety, and expresses high levels of OT receptor (OTR). However, the role of OTR neurotransmission within the BNST dl in mediating these behaviors is unknown. Here, we used adult male Sprague-Dawley rats to investigate the role of OTR neurotransmission in the BNST dl in the modulation of the acoustic startle response, as well as in the acquisition and consolidation of conditioned fear using fear potentiated startle (FPS) paradigm. Bilateral intra-BNST dl administration of OT (100 ng) did not affect the acquisition of conditioned fear response. However, intra-BNST dl administration of specific OTR antagonist (OTA), (d(CH 2 ) 5 1 , Tyr(Me) 2 , Thr 4 , Orn 8 , des-Gly-NH 2 9 )-vasotocin, (200 ng), prior to the fear conditioning session, impaired the acquisition of cued fear, without affecting a non-cued fear component of FPS. Neither OTA, nor OT affected baseline startle or shock reactivity during fear conditioning. Therefore, the observed impairment of cued fear after OTA infusion resulted from the specific effect on the formation of cued fear. In contrast to the acquisition, neither OTA nor OT affected the consolidation of FPS, when administered after the completion of fear conditioning session. Taken together, these results reveal the important role of OTR neurotransmission in the BNST dl in the formation of conditioned fear to a discrete cue. This study also highlights the role of the BNST dl in learning to discriminate between threatening and safe stimuli. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Gonadal Hormone-Dependent Sexual Differentiation of a Female-Biased Sexually Dimorphic Cell Group in the Principal Nucleus of the Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis in Mice.

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    Morishita, Masahiro; Maejima, Sho; Tsukahara, Shinji

    2017-10-01

    We recently reported a female-biased sexually dimorphic area in the mouse brain in the boundary region between the preoptic area and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST). We reexamined this area and found that it is a ventral part of the principal nucleus of the BNST (BNSTp). The BNSTp is a male-biased sexually dimorphic nucleus, but the ventral part of the BNSTp (BNSTpv) exhibits female-biased sex differences in volume and neuron number. The volume and neuron number of the BNSTpv were increased in males by neonatal orchiectomy and decreased in females by treatment with testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, or estradiol within 5 days after birth. Sex differences in the volume and neuron number of the BNSTpv emerged before puberty. These sex differences became prominent in adulthood with increasing volume in females and loss of neurons in males during the pubertal/adolescent period. Prepubertal orchiectomy did not affect the BNSTpv, although prepubertal ovariectomy reduced the volume increase and induced loss of neurons in the female BNSTpv. In contrast, the volume and neuron number of male-biased sexually dimorphic nuclei that are composed of mainly calbindin neurons and are located in the preoptic area and BNST were decreased by prepubertal orchiectomy but not affected by prepubertal ovariectomy. Testicular testosterone during the postnatal period may defeminize the BNSTpv via binding directly to the androgen receptor and indirectly to the estrogen receptor after aromatization, although defeminization may proceed independently of testicular hormones in the pubertal/adolescent period. Ovarian hormones may act to feminize the BNSTpv during the pubertal/adolescent period. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  17. Resting-state functional connectivity of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in post-traumatic stress disorder and its dissociative subtype.

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    Rabellino, Daniela; Densmore, Maria; Harricharan, Sherain; Jean, Théberge; McKinnon, Margaret C; Lanius, Ruth A

    2018-03-01

    The bed nucleus of the stria terminals (BNST) is a subcortical structure involved in anticipatory and sustained reactivity to threat and is thus essential to the understanding of anxiety and stress responses. Although chronic stress and anxiety represent a hallmark of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), to date, few studies have examined the functional connectivity of the BNST in PTSD. Here, we used resting state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) to investigate the functional connectivity of the BNST in PTSD (n = 70), its dissociative subtype (PTSD + DS) (n = 41), and healthy controls (n = 50). In comparison to controls, PTSD showed increased functional connectivity of the BNST with regions of the reward system (ventral and dorsal striatum), possibly underlying stress-induced reward-seeking behaviors in PTSD. By contrast, comparing PTSD + DS to controls, we observed increased functional connectivity of the BNST with the claustrum, a brain region implicated in consciousness and a primary site of kappa-opioid receptors, which are critical to the dynorphin-mediated dysphoric stress response. Moreover, PTSD + DS showed increased functional connectivity of the BNST with brain regions involved in attention and salience detection (anterior insula and caudate nucleus) as compared to PTSD and controls. Finally, BNST functional connectivity positively correlated with default-mode network regions as a function of state identity dissociation, suggesting a role of BNST networks in the disruption of self-relevant processing characterizing the dissociative subtype. These findings represent an important first step in elucidating the role of the BNST in aberrant functional networks underlying PTSD and its dissociative subtype. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Role of TRH/UCN3 neurons of the perifornical area/bed nucleus of stria terminalis region in the regulation of the anorexigenic POMC neurons of the arcuate nucleus in male mice and rats.

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    Péterfi, Zoltán; Farkas, Erzsébet; Nagyunyomi-Sényi, Kata; Kádár, Andrea; Ottó, Szenci; Horváth, András; Füzesi, Tamás; Lechan, Ronald M; Fekete, Csaba

    2017-11-09

    Two anorexigenic peptides, thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) and urocortin 3 (UCN3), are co-expressed in a continuous neuronal group that extends from the perifornical area to the bed nucleus of stria terminalis, raising the possibility that this cell group may be involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis. In this study, therefore, we tested the hypothesis that the TRH/UCN3 neurons regulate food intake by influencing feeding-related neuropeptide Y (NPY) and/or proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ARC). Triple-labeled immunofluorescent preparations demonstrated that only very few NPY neurons (4.3 ± 1.3%) were contacted by double-labeled TRH/UCN3 axons in the ARC. In contrast, more than half of the POMC neurons (52.4 ± 8.5%) were contacted by double-labeled axons. Immuno-electron microscopy demonstrated that the UCN3 axons established asymmetric synapses with POMC neurons, indicating the excitatory nature of these synaptic specializations. Patch clamp electrophysiology revealed that TRH and UCN3 have antagonistic effects on the POMC neurons. While UCN3 depolarizes and increases the firing rate of POMC neurons, TRH prevents these effects of UCN3. These data demonstrate that TRH/UCN3 neurons in the perifornical/BNST region establish abundant synaptic associations with the POMC neurons in the ARC and suggest a potentially important role for these neurons in the regulation of food intake through an antagonistic interaction between TRH and UCN3 on the electrophysiological properties of POMC neurons.

  19. Targeting Corticotropin-Releasing Factor Projections from the Oval Nucleus of the Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis Using Cell-Type Specific Neuronal Tracing Studies in Mouse and Rat Brain.

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    Dabrowska, J; Martinon, D; Moaddab, M; Rainnie, D G

    2016-12-01

    The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is known to play a critical role in mediating the behavioural and autonomic responses to stressors. The oval nucleus of the BNST (BNSTov) contains cell bodies that synthesise the stress hormone corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF). Although afferent fibres originating from the BNSTov have been shown to innervate several key structures of the neuroendocrine and central autonomic system, the question remains as to whether some of these fibres are CRF-positive. To directly address this question, we injected a 'floxed' anterograde tracer (rAAV5/EF1a-DIO-mCherry) into the BNSTov of CRFp3.0CreGFP transgenic mice, which express a green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of the CRF promoter. Serial sections were then analysed for the presence of double-labelled fibres in potential projection sites. To determine whether CRF neurons in the rat BNSTov send comparable projections, we infused rat BNSTov with an adeno-associated viral vector (AAV) in which the human synapsin promoter drives enhanced GFP expression. We then used CRF immunoreactivity to examine double-labelled fluorescent fibres and axon terminals in projection sites from brain sections of the AAV-infused rats. We have observed several terminal fields in the mouse and rat brain with double-labelled fibres in the Dorsal raphe nucleus (DRD), the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and, to a lesser extent, in the ventral tegmental area. We found double-labelled terminal boutons in the nucleus accumbens shell, prelimbic cortex and posterior basolateral nucleus of the amygdala. The most intense double-labelling was found in midbrain, including substantia nigra pars compacta, red nucleus, periaqueductal grey and pontine nuclei, as well as DRD. The results of the present study indicate that CRF neurons are the output neurons of the BNSTov and they send projections not only to the centres of neuroendocrine and autonomic regulation, but also regions modulating

  20. Development of stria gravidarum in pregnant women and associated factors

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    Arzu Kılıç

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Stria gravidarum is a cosmetically disfiguring condition that is commonly seen in pregnancy. Various parameters such as age of mother, genetical factors like family history, skin colour, various hormonal changes seen in pregnancy, weight gain and physical features of newborn are accused in the development. The studies reported primarily include primigravidas. In this study, the presence of stria gravidarum and associated risk factors are aimed to be investigated. Materials and methods: All attenders' gestastional week, prepregnancy and delivery weights, height, family history of stria, smoking habits and/or alcohol use during pregnancy, any use of cream and/or oil for preventing stria, delivery way, newborn's gender, height, weight and head circumference were recorded. In both primigravidas and multigravidas, factors that could be associated with stria gravidarum were investigated by Spearman'scorrelation analysis and risk factors in the development of stria gravidarum by logistic regression analysis. Results: Fifty of 128 pregnant women were primigravidas and 78 were multigravidas. In primigravidas, a correlation was detected between family history of stria, non-usage of cream and/or oil during pregnancy,head circumference of newborn and development of stria gravidarum while in multigravidas, a correlation is detected between prepregnancy weight, delivery weight, smoking during pregnancy, not using of any cream and/or oil during pregnancy, family history of stria, head circumference of newborn, weight of newborn and stria gravidarum development. Presence of family history of stria and not using of any cream and/or oil were found to be risk factors in development of stria gravidarum in all pregnant women by logistic regression analysis. Conclusion: Both genetical and physical factors are thought to play a role in development of stria gravidarum; however, further broad scale studies with larger samples including both

  1. Prominent crista terminalis mimicking a right atrial mass: case report

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    Lange Peter

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The crista terminalis is a normal anatomical structure within the right atrium that is not normally visualised in the standard views obtained while performing a transthoracic echocardiogram. In this case report, transthoracic echocardiography suggested the presence of a right atrial mass in a patient with end stage renal disease. However, subsequent transesophageal echocardiography revealed that the right atrial mass was actually a thick muscular bridge in the right atrium consistent with a prominent crista terminalis. An understanding of the anatomy and the echocardiographic appearance of a prominent crista terminalis will minimize the misdiagnosis of this structure avoiding unnecessary expensive additional tests.

  2. Alexela loodab LNG terminali rajamise õiguse endale saada / Andrus Karnau ; kommenteerinud Taavi Veskimägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karnau, Andrus

    2011-01-01

    Alexela Grupp loodab saada Balti riikide ja Soome ühise veeldatud maagaasi ehk LNG terminali operaatoriks. Naabrite tihe konkurents gaasi pärast - neli riiki on esitanud viis Balti LNG terminali projekti. Kaart

  3. Terminamines K–S, Antimetastatic Pregnane Alkaloids from the Whole Herb of Pachysandra terminalis

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    Xiang-Yu Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nine new pregnane alkaloids (1–9, together with eight known alkaloids (10–17, were isolated from the whole herb of Pachysandra terminalis. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses. In addition, the isolates were examined for their ability to inhibit the migration of MDA-MB-231 cells induced by the chemokine epidermal growth factor (EGF. Alkaloids 1, 5, 7, 9, 12, and 17 presented significant anti-metastasis activities compared with the positive reagent, LY294002.

  4. Revalidation of Ceresa terminalis walker and its placement in Stictocephala Stål (Hemiptera, Membracidae Revalidação de Ceresa terminalis walker e sua alocação em Stictocephala Stål (Hemiptera, Membracidae

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    Gabriel S. de Andrade

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Ceresa terminalis Walker, 1851 is reinstated and transferred to Stictocephala Stål, 1869: Stictocephala terminalis (Walker, 1851 sp. rev., comb. nov.Ceresa terminalis Walker, 1851 é revalidada e transferida para Stictocephala Stål, 1869: Stictocephala terminalis (Walker, 1851 sp. rev., comb. nov.

  5. ESTEVE Terminali kiire arengu tagavad vanametall ja autod / Sirje Niitra

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Niitra, Sirje, 1948-

    2005-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti : Transport i logistika 25. mai lk. 7. Ülevaade Paldiski lõunasadamas tegutseva ESTEVE Terminali edukast tegevusest. Diagrammid: ESTEVE kasvab kiiresti. Vt. samas: Paldiski sadamal head arenguväljavaated. Kommenteerib Romet Kreek

  6. The α4β2 nicotine acetylcholine receptor agonist ispronicline induces c-Fos expression in selective regions of the rat forebrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Julie; Hansen, Henrik H; Kiss, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    was found only within its medial part. In addition, an increased number of c-Fos-immunoreactive cells were observed in the central nucleus of the amygdala, and the dorsolateral part of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. The restricted distribution of c-Fos to these areas, all of which are directly...

  7. Anxiety- and depressive-like responses and c-fos activity in preproenkephalin knockout mice: oversensitivity hypothesis of enkephalin deficit-induced posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Jen-Chuang; Chen, Tsung-Chieh; Shyu, Bai-Chuang; Hsiao, Sigmund; Huang, Andrew Chih Wei

    2010-04-21

    The present study used the preproenkephalin knockout (ppENK) mice to test whether the endogenous enkephalins deficit could facilitate the anxiety- and depressive-like symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). On Day 1, sixteen wildtype (WT) and sixteen ppENK male mice were given a 3 mA or no footshock treatment for 10 seconds in the footshock apparatus, respectively. On Days 2, 7, and 13, all mice were given situational reminders for 1 min per trial, and the freezing response was assessed. On Day 14, all mice were tested in the open field test, elevated plus maze, light/dark avoidance test, and forced swim test. Two hours after the last test, brain tissues were stained to examine c-fos expression in specific brain areas. The present results showed that the conditioned freezing response was significant for different genotypes (ppENK vs WT). The conditioned freezing effect of the ppENK mice was stronger than those of the WT mice. On Day 14, the ppENK mice showed more anxiety- and depressive-like responses than WT mice. The magnitude of Fos immunolabeling was also significantly greater in the primary motor cortex, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis-lateral division, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis-supracapsular division, paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus-lateral magnocellular part, central nucleus of the amygdala, and basolateral nucleus of the amygdala in ppENK mice compared with WT mice. In summary, animals with an endogenous deficit in enkephalins might be more sensitive to PTSD-like aversive stimuli and elicit stronger anxiety and depressive PTSD symptoms, suggesting an oversensitivity hypothesis of enkephalin deficit-induced PTSD.

  8. Cystic dilation of the ventriculus terminalis in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciappetta, Pasqualino; D'urso, Pietro Ivo; Luzzi, Sabino; Ingravallo, Giuseppe; Cimmino, Antonia; Resta, Leonardo

    2008-01-01

    The ventriculus terminalis (VT) is a small ependyma-lined cavity within the conus medullaris that is in direct continuity with the central canal of the anterior portion of the spinal cord. Normally, such a cavity is identifiable only histologically in children and adults and can be visualized using common neuroradiological techniques only after dilation. Currently, the mechanisms of isolated dilation are not documented. The present work describes 2 cases of VT in elderly patients. Data from a histological and ultrastructural study of a case of VT dilation are reported, and the results are compared with those obtained from the VT of 5 fetuses to explain the nosological aspects of nontumoral VT lesions. Our data suggest that the site, age, and histological characteristics of the lesion allow us to define VT dilation as a nosological entity distinct from other cystic dilations of the conus medullaris.

  9. Free radical stress-mediated loss of Kcnj10 protein expression in stria vascularis contributes to deafness in Pendred syndrome mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ruchira; Wangemann, Philine

    2008-01-01

    Pendred syndrome is due to loss-of-function mutations of Slc26a4, which codes for the HCO(3)(-) transporter pendrin. Loss of pendrin causes deafness via a loss of the K(+) channel Kcnj10 in stria vascularis and consequent loss of the endocochlear potential. Pendrin and Kcnj10 are expressed in different cell types. Here, we report that free radical stress provides a link between the loss of Kcnj10 and the loss of pendrin. Studies were performed using native and cultured stria vascularis from Slc26a4(+/-) and Slc26a4(-/-) mice as well as Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-K1 cells. Kcnj10, oxidized proteins, and proteins involved in iron metabolism were quantified by Western blotting. Nitrated proteins were quantified by ELISA. Total iron was measured by ferrozine spectrophotometry and gene expression was quantified by qRT-PCR. At postnatal day 10 (P10), stria vascularis from Slc26a4(+/-) and Slc26a4(-/-) mice expressed similar amounts of Kcnj10. Slc26a4(-/-) mice lost Kcnj10 expression during the next 5 days of development. In contrast, stria vascularis, obtained from P10 Slc26a4(-/-) mice and kept in culture for 5 days, maintained Kcnj10 expression. Stria vascularis from Slc26a4(-/-) mice was found to suffer from free radical stress evident by elevated amounts of oxidized and nitrated proteins and other changes in protein and gene expression. Free radical stress induced by 3-morpholinosydnonimine-N-ethylcarbamide was found to be sufficient to reduce Kcnj10 expression in CHO-K1 cells. These data demonstrate that free radical stress provides a link between loss of pendrin and loss of Kcnj10 in Slc26a4(-/-) mice and possibly in human patients suffering from Pendred syndrome.

  10. The smell of danger: a behavioral and neural analysis of predator odor-induced fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Lorey K; Nakashima, Brandy R; Hong, Hyechong; Watanabe, Kendra

    2005-01-01

    The odors of predators used in animal models provide, in addition to electric footshock, an important means to investigate the neurobiology of fear. Studies indicate that cat odor and trimethylthiazoline (TMT), a synthetic compound isolated from fox feces, are often presented to rodents to induce fear-related responses including freezing, avoidance, stress hormone and, in some tests, risk assessment behavior. Furthermore, we report that different amounts of cat odor impregnated on small-, medium-, or large-sized cloths impact the display of fear-related behavior when presented to rats. That is, rats exposed to a large cat odor containing cloth exhibit an increase in fear behavior, particularly freezing, which remains at high levels in habituation tests administered over a period of 7 days. The large cloth also induces a long-lasting increase in avoidance behavior during repeated habituation and extinction tests. A review of the brain regions involved in predator odor-induced fear behavior indicates a modulatory role of the medial amygdala, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and dorsal premammillary nucleus. In addition, the basolateral amygdala is involved in fear behavior induced by cat odor but not TMT, and the central amygdala does not appear to play a major behavioral role in predator odor-induced fear. Future research involving the use of predator odor is likely to rapidly expand knowledge on the neurobiology of fear, which has implications for understanding fear-related psychopathology.

  11. LNG terminali ehitavad üksteise võidu noor neiu, riik ja ärihaid / Andres Reimer ; kommenteerinud Jüri Mõis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Reimer, Andres

    2011-01-01

    Kinnisvaraspetsialist Ulrica Steen asutas koos Aat Kuumaga ettevõtte OÜ Sillgas, et alustada kahe aasta pärast Sillamäele LNG terminali ehitamist. Eesti Gaas ei pea Sillamäed kuigi suure väljavaatega asukohaks. Tallinna Sadam peab LNG terminali parimaks asukohaks Muuga sadama idaosa. Skeem: Kes tahavad ehitada LNG terminali

  12. Dopaminergic activation of estrogen receptors induces fos expression within restricted regions of the neonatal female rat brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin M Olesen

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Steroid receptor activation in the developing brain influences a variety of cellular processes that endure into adulthood, altering both behavior and physiology. Recent data suggests that dopamine can regulate expression of progestin receptors within restricted regions of the developing rat brain by activating estrogen receptors in a ligand-independent manner. It is unclear whether changes in neuronal activity induced by dopaminergic activation of estrogen receptors are also region specific. To investigate this question, we examined where the dopamine D1-like receptor agonist, SKF 38393, altered Fos expression via estrogen receptor activation. We report that dopamine D1-like receptor agonist treatment increased Fos protein expression within many regions of the developing female rat brain. More importantly, prior treatment with an estrogen receptor antagonist partially reduced D1-like receptor agonist-induced Fos expression only within the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and the central amygdala. These data suggest that dopaminergic activation of estrogen receptors alters neuronal activity within restricted regions of the developing rat brain. This implies that ligand-independent activation of estrogen receptors by dopamine might organize a unique set of behaviors during brain development in contrast to the more wide spread ligand activation of estrogen receptors by estrogen.

  13. Dopaminergic Activation of Estrogen Receptors Induces Fos Expression within Restricted Regions of the Neonatal Female Rat Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olesen, Kristin M.; Auger, Anthony P.

    2008-01-01

    Steroid receptor activation in the developing brain influences a variety of cellular processes that endure into adulthood, altering both behavior and physiology. Recent data suggests that dopamine can regulate expression of progestin receptors within restricted regions of the developing rat brain by activating estrogen receptors in a ligand-independent manner. It is unclear whether changes in neuronal activity induced by dopaminergic activation of estrogen receptors are also region specific. To investigate this question, we examined where the dopamine D1-like receptor agonist, SKF 38393, altered Fos expression via estrogen receptor activation. We report that dopamine D1-like receptor agonist treatment increased Fos protein expression within many regions of the developing female rat brain. More importantly, prior treatment with an estrogen receptor antagonist partially reduced D1-like receptor agonist-induced Fos expression only within the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and the central amygdala. These data suggest that dopaminergic activation of estrogen receptors alters neuronal activity within restricted regions of the developing rat brain. This implies that ligand-independent activation of estrogen receptors by dopamine might organize a unique set of behaviors during brain development in contrast to the more wide spread ligand activation of estrogen receptors by estrogen. PMID:18478050

  14. Patterns of violent aggression-induced brain c-fos expression in male mice selected for aggressiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, J; Tóth, M; Halasz, J; De Boer, S F

    2006-06-15

    Mice selected for aggressiveness (long and short attack latency mice; LALs and SALs, respectively) constitute a useful tool in studying the neural background of aggressive behavior, especially so as the SAL strain shows violent forms of aggressiveness that appear abnormal in many respects. By using c-Fos staining as a marker of neuronal activation, we show here that agonistic encounters result in different activation patterns in LAL and SAL mice. In LALs, agonistic encounters activated the lateral septum, bed nucleus of stria terminalis, medial amygdala, paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, anterior hypothalamic nucleus and tuber cinereum area (both being analogous with the rat hypothalamic attack area), dorsolateral periaqueductal gray, and locus coeruleus. This pattern is similar with that seen in the territorial aggression of male mice, rats and hamsters, and non-lactating female mice. SALs showed strong fight-induced activations in the central amygdala and lateral/ventrolateral periaqueductal gray. In this strain, no activation was seen in the lateral septum and the dorsolateral periaqueductal gray. This pattern is similar with that seen in other models of violent aggression, e.g., in attacks induced by hypothalamic stimulation in rats, quiet biting in cats, lactating female mice, and hypoarousal-driven abnormal aggression in rats. We suggest here that the excessive activation of the central amygdala and lateral/ventrolateral periaqueductal gray--accompanied by a smaller activation of the septum and dorsolateral periaqueductal gray--underlay the expression of violent attacks under various circumstances.

  15. Congenital Generalized Hypertrichosis Terminalis with Gingival Hyperplasia and a Coarse Face: a Case Report

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    Kazandjieva Jana

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Congenital generalized hypertrichosis, in its most common form, is idiopathic. In the absence of underlying endocrine or metabolic disorders, congenital generalized hypertrichosis is rare in humans, affecting as few as one in a billion individuals and may be an isolated condition of the skin, or a component feature of other disorders or syndromes. Congenital generalized hypertrichosis terminalis is an extremely rare condition, a distinct subset of disorders with congenital hypertrichosis, presenting with excessive hair as the primary clinical feature. Congenital generalized hypertrichosis terminalis is characterized by universal excessive growth of pigmented terminal hair and often accompanied with gingival hyperplasia and/or a coarse face. Gingival hyperplasia may be delayed even until puberty. Its pathogenesis may be caused by one of the following mechanisms: conversion of vellus to terminal hairs and/or prolonged anagenetic stage, and/or increase in the number of hair follicles. Since the Middle Ages, less than 60 individuals with congenital hypertrichosis terminalis have been described, and, according to the most recent estimates, less than 40 cases were documented adequately and definitively in the literature. Recent articles identified congenital generalized hypertrichosis terminalis as a genomic disorder.

  16. Neural correlates underlying naloxone-induced amelioration of sexual behavior deterioration due to an alarm pheromone

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    Tatsuya eKobayashi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sexual behavior is suppressed by various types of stressors. We previously demonstrated that an alarm pheromone released by stressed male Wistar rats is a stressor to other rats, increases the number of mounts needed for ejaculation, and decreases the hit rate (described as the number of intromissions/sum of the mounts and intromissions. This deterioration in sexual behavior was ameliorated by pretreatment with the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone. However, the neural mechanism underlying this remains to be elucidated. Here, we examined Fos expression in 31 brain regions of pheromone-exposed rats and naloxone-pretreated pheromone-exposed rats 60 min after 10 intromissions. As previously reported, the alarm pheromone increased the number of mounts and decreased the hit rate. In addition, Fos expression was increases in the anterior medial division, anterior lateral division and posterior division of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, parvocellular part of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, arcuate nucleus, dorsolateral and ventrolateral periaqueductal gray, and nucleus paragigantocellularis. Fos expression decreased in the magnocellular part of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. Pretreatment with naloxone blocked the pheromone-induced changes in Fos expression in the magnocellular part of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, ventrolateral periaqueductal gray, and nucleus paragigantocellularis. Based on these results, we hypothesize that the alarm pheromone deteriorated sexual behavior by activating the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray-nucleus paragigantocellularis cluster and suppressing the magnocellular part of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus via the opioidergic pathway.

  17. Stress-Induced Reinstatement of Drug Seeking: 20 Years of Progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantsch, John R; Baker, David A; Funk, Douglas; Lê, Anh D; Shaham, Yavin

    2016-01-01

    In human addicts, drug relapse and craving are often provoked by stress. Since 1995, this clinical scenario has been studied using a rat model of stress-induced reinstatement of drug seeking. Here, we first discuss the generality of stress-induced reinstatement to different drugs of abuse, different stressors, and different behavioral procedures. We also discuss neuropharmacological mechanisms, and brain areas and circuits controlling stress-induced reinstatement of drug seeking. We conclude by discussing results from translational human laboratory studies and clinical trials that were inspired by results from rat studies on stress-induced reinstatement. Our main conclusions are (1) The phenomenon of stress-induced reinstatement, first shown with an intermittent footshock stressor in rats trained to self-administer heroin, generalizes to other abused drugs, including cocaine, methamphetamine, nicotine, and alcohol, and is also observed in the conditioned place preference model in rats and mice. This phenomenon, however, is stressor specific and not all stressors induce reinstatement of drug seeking. (2) Neuropharmacological studies indicate the involvement of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), noradrenaline, dopamine, glutamate, kappa/dynorphin, and several other peptide and neurotransmitter systems in stress-induced reinstatement. Neuropharmacology and circuitry studies indicate the involvement of CRF and noradrenaline transmission in bed nucleus of stria terminalis and central amygdala, and dopamine, CRF, kappa/dynorphin, and glutamate transmission in other components of the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system (ventral tegmental area, medial prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, and nucleus accumbens). (3) Translational human laboratory studies and a recent clinical trial study show the efficacy of alpha-2 adrenoceptor agonists in decreasing stress-induced drug craving and stress-induced initial heroin lapse.

  18. Adolescent nicotine induces persisting changes in development of neural connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert F; McDonald, Craig G; Bergstrom, Hadley C; Ehlinger, Daniel G; Brielmaier, Jennifer M

    2015-08-01

    Adolescent nicotine induces persisting changes in development of neural connectivity. A large number of brain changes occur during adolescence as the CNS matures. These changes suggest that the adolescent brain may still be susceptible to developmental alterations by substances which impact its growth. Here we review recent studies on adolescent nicotine which show that the adolescent brain is differentially sensitive to nicotine-induced alterations in dendritic elaboration, in several brain areas associated with processing reinforcement and emotion, specifically including nucleus accumbens, medial prefrontal cortex, basolateral amygdala, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and dentate gyrus. Both sensitivity to nicotine, and specific areas responding to nicotine, differ between adolescent and adult rats, and dendritic changes in response to adolescent nicotine persist into adulthood. Areas sensitive to, and not sensitive to, structural remodeling induced by adolescent nicotine suggest that the remodeling generally corresponds to the extended amygdala. Evidence suggests that dendritic remodeling is accompanied by persisting changes in synaptic connectivity. Modeling, electrophysiological, neurochemical, and behavioral data are consistent with the implication of our anatomical studies showing that adolescent nicotine induces persisting changes in neural connectivity. Emerging data thus suggest that early adolescence is a period when nicotine consumption, presumably mediated by nicotine-elicited changes in patterns of synaptic activity, can sculpt late brain development, with consequent effects on synaptic interconnection patterns and behavior regulation. Adolescent nicotine may induce a more addiction-prone phenotype, and the structures altered by nicotine also subserve some emotional and cognitive functions, which may also be altered. We suggest that dendritic elaboration and associated changes are mediated by activity-dependent synaptogenesis, acting in part

  19. Cystic dilation of a ventriculus terminalis. Case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeinali, Masoud; Safari, Hosein; Rasras, Saleh; Bahrami, Reza; Arjipour, Mahdi; Ostadrahimi, Nima

    2017-06-15

    The ventriculus terminalis (VT) is a small ependyma-lined cavity within the conus medullaris that is in direct continuity with the central canal of the spinal cord. Cystic dilatation of the ventriculus terminalis on its own is an extremely rare pathological event in adults whose pathogenesis is uncertain. VT has been described in children as a normal developmental phenomenon. These lesions are often diagnosed incidentally during imaging and are in most cases asymptomatic, especially in children. Symptomatic dilatation of VT in adults is a rare condition with 61cases being reported to date. Symptomatic dilatation of VT in children has not been reported till now. We present a 5 year-old-boy with a sphincteric and walking disorder. The patient was assessed by clinical, electrophysiological and urodynamic investigations as well as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the lumbar-sacral segment with and without gadolinium enhancement. Lumbar-sacral MRI demonstrated the presence of a cystic lesion containing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which did not enhance after gadolinium, compatible with the diagnosis of the ventriculus terminalis dilation.The patient underwent laminectomy and the cyst wall was fenestrated with a midline myelotomy. In 6-month of follow-up, urinary problems and gait disturbance improved.

  20. Stria vascularis and cochlear hair cell changes in syphilis: A human temporal bone study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hızlı, Ömer; Kaya, Serdar; Hızlı, Pelin; Paparella, Michael M; Cureoglu, Sebahattin

    2016-12-01

    To observe any changes in stria vascularis and cochlear hair cells in patients with syphilis. We examined 13 human temporal bone samples from 8 patients with syphilis (our syphilis group), as well as 12 histopathologically normal samples from 9 age-matched patients without syphilis (our control group). We compared, between the two groups, the mean area of the stria vascularis (measured with conventional light microscopy connected to a personal computer) and the mean percentage of cochlear hair cell loss (obtained from cytocochleograms). In our syphilis group, only 1 (7.7%) of the 13 samples had precipitate in the endolymphatic or perilymphatic spaces; 8 (61.5%) of the samples revealed the presence of endolymphatic hydrops (4 cochlear, 4 saccular). The mean area of the stria vascularis did not significantly differ, in any turn of the cochlea, between the 2 groups (P>0.1). However, we did find significant differences between the 2 groups in the mean percentage of outer hair cells in the apical turn (Psyphilis group, we observed either complete loss of the organ of Corti or a flattened organ of Corti without any cells in addition to the absence of both outer and inner hair cells. In this study, syphilis led either to complete loss of the organ of Corti or to significant loss of cochlear hair cells, in addition to cochleosaccular hydrops. But the area of the stria vascularis did not change. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Prominent crista terminalis mimicking a right atrial mixoma: cardiac magnetic resonance aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudio, C; Di Michele, S; Cera, M; Nguyen, B L; Pannarale, G; Alessandri, N

    2004-01-01

    A 68-year-old woman came to our observation with a clinical history of isolated systolic hypertension poorly controlled by the combination of ramipril 5 mg and hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg o.d. The ECG showed sinus rhythm with heart rate of 68 beats per minute and signs of left ventricular hypertrophy without strain. Further investigation included an echocardiogram that showed normal left and right cavities and normal cardiac valves. At the level of the posterior wall of the right atrial (RA) an apparent smooth, bean-like tumor, having a thin pedicle, was identified as a RA mixoma. Cardiac MRI was requested and showed in two sequential slices a muscular ridge, identified as a prominent crista terminalis. Some para-physiological structures sited in the RA may have the appearance of tumors, as crista terminalis, Eustachian valve extending into the RA chambers and Chiari network. The multiplain projections of MRI allow the cardiologist to identify the presence of intracardiac masses and to make a differential diagnosis between neoplasms and variant anatomic structures.

  2. Glucocorticoids regulation of FosB/ΔFosB expression induced by chronic opiate exposure in the brain stress system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel García-Pérez

    Full Text Available Chronic use of drugs of abuse profoundly alters stress-responsive system. Repeated exposure to morphine leads to accumulation of the transcription factor ΔFosB, particularly in brain areas associated with reward and stress. The persistent effects of ΔFosB on target genes may play an important role in the plasticity induced by drugs of abuse. Recent evidence suggests that stress-related hormones (e.g., glucocorticoids, GC may induce adaptations in the brain stress system that is likely to involve alteration in gene expression and transcription factors. This study examined the role of GC in regulation of FosB/ΔFosB in both hypothalamic and extrahypothalamic brain stress systems during morphine dependence. For that, expression of FosB/ΔFosB was measured in control (sham-operated and adrenalectomized (ADX rats that were made opiate dependent after ten days of morphine treatment. In sham-operated rats, FosB/ΔFosB was induced after chronic morphine administration in all the brain stress areas investigated: nucleus accumbens(shell (NAc, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST, central amygdala (CeA, hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN and nucleus of the solitary tract noradrenergic cell group (NTS-A(2. Adrenalectomy attenuated the increased production of FosB/ΔFosB observed after chronic morphine exposure in NAc, CeA, and NTS. Furthermore, ADX decreased expression of FosB/ΔFosB within CRH-positive neurons of the BNST, PVN and CeA. Similar results were obtained in NTS-A(2 TH-positive neurons and NAc pro-dynorphin-positive neurons. These data suggest that neuroadaptation (estimated as accumulation of FosB/ΔFosB to opiates in brain areas associated with stress is modulated by GC, supporting the evidence of a link between brain stress hormones and addiction.

  3. Addictive and non-addictive drugs induce distinct and specific patterns of ERK activation in mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valjent, Emmanuel; Pagès, Christiane; Hervé, Denis; Girault, Jean-Antoine; Caboche, Jocelyne

    2004-04-01

    A major goal of research on addiction is to identify the molecular mechanisms of long-lasting behavioural alterations induced by drugs of abuse. Cocaine and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) activate extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in the striatum and blockade of the ERK pathway prevents establishment of conditioned place preference to these drugs. However, it is not known whether activation of ERK in the striatum is specific for these two drugs and/or this brain region. We studied the appearance of phospho-ERK immunoreactive neurons in CD-1 mouse brain following acute administration of drugs commonly abused by humans, cocaine, morphine, nicotine and THC, or of other psychoactive compounds including caffeine, scopolamine, antidepressants and antipsychotics. Each drug generated a distinct regional pattern of ERK activation. All drugs of abuse increased ERK phosphorylation in nucleus accumbens, lateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, central amygdala and deep layers of prefrontal cortex, through a dopamine D1 receptor-dependent mechanism. Although some non-addictive drugs moderately activated ERK in a few of these areas, they never induced this combined pattern of strong activation. Antidepressants and caffeine activated ERK in hippocampus and cerebral cortex. Typical antipsychotics mildly activated ERK in dorsal striatum and superficial prefrontal cortex, whereas clozapine had no effect in the striatum, but more widespread effects in cortex and amygdala. Our results outline a subset of structures in which ERK activation might specifically contribute to the long-term effects of drugs of abuse, and suggest mapping ERK activation in brain as a way to identify potential sites of action of psychoactive drugs.

  4. Striatal-enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase - STEPs toward understanding chronic stress-induced activation of CRF neurons in the rat BNST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabrowska, Joanna; Hazra, Rimi; Guo, Ji-Dong; Li, ChenChen; DeWitt, Sarah; Xu, Jian; Lombroso, Paul J.; Rainnie, Donald G.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND STEP is a brain-specific protein tyrosine phosphatase that opposes the development of synaptic strengthening and the consolidation of fear memories. In contrast, stress facilitates fear memory formation, potentially by activating corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF) neurons in the anterolateral cell group of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNSTALG). METHODS Here, using dual-immunofluorescence, single-cell RT-PCR, quantitative RT-PCR, Western blot, and whole cell patch-clamp electrophysiology, we examined the expression and role of STEP in regulating synaptic plasticity in rat BNSTALG neurons, and its modulation by stress. RESULTS STEP was selectively expressed in CRF neurons in the oval nucleus of the BNSTALG. Following repeated restraint stress (RRS), animals displayed a significant increase in anxiety-like behavior, which was associated with a down-regulation of STEP mRNA and protein expression in the BNSTALG as well as selectively enhanced magnitude of long-term potentiation (LTP) induced in Type III, putative CRF neurons. To determine if the changes in STEP expression following RRS were mechanistically related to the facilitation of synaptic strengthening, we examined the effects of intracellular application of STEP on the induction of LTP. STEP completely blocked the RRS-induced facilitation of LTP in BNSTALG neurons. CONCLUSIONS Hence, STEP acts to buffer CRF neurons against excessive activation, while down-regulation of STEP after chronic stress may result in pathological activation of CRF neurons in the BNSTALG and contribute to prolonged states of anxiety. Thus, targeted manipulations of STEP activity might represent a novel treatment strategy for stress-induced anxiety disorders. PMID:24012328

  5. Slc26a4-insufficiency causes fluctuating hearing loss and stria vascularis dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Taku; Li, Xiangming; Kurima, Kiyoto; Choi, Byung Yoon; Wangemann, Philine; Griffith, Andrew J

    2014-06-01

    SLC26A4 mutations can cause a distinctive hearing loss phenotype with sudden drops and fluctuation in patients. Existing Slc26a4 mutant mouse lines have a profound loss of hearing and vestibular function, with severe inner ear malformations that do not model this human phenotype. In this study, we generated Slc26a4-insufficient mice by manipulation of doxycycline administration to a transgenic mouse line in which all Slc26a4 expression was under the control of doxycycline. Doxycycline was administered from conception to embryonic day 17.5, and then it was discontinued. Auditory brainstem response thresholds showed significant fluctuation of hearing loss from 1 through 3months of age. The endocochlear potential, which is required for inner ear sensory cell function, correlated with auditory brainstem response thresholds. We observed degeneration of stria vascularis intermediate cells, the cells that generate the endocochlear potential, but no other abnormalities within the cochlea. We conclude that fluctuations of hearing result from fluctuations of the endocochlear potential and stria vascularis dysfunction in Slc26a4-insufficient mouse ears. This model can now be used to test potential interventions to reduce or prevent sudden hearing loss or fluctuation in human patients. Our strategy to generate a hypomorphic mouse model utilizing the tet-on system will be applicable to other diseases in which a hypomorphic allele is needed to model the human phenotype. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Presbycusis: a human temporal bone study of individuals with flat audiometric patterns of hearing loss using a new method to quantify stria vascularis volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Erik G; Hinojosa, Raul

    2003-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of stria vascularis atrophy in individuals with presbycusis and flat audiometric patterns of hearing loss. Individuals with presbycusis have historically been categorized by the shape of their audiograms, and flat audiometric thresholds have been reported to be associated with atrophy of the stria vascularis. Stria vascularis volume was not measured in these studies. Retrospective case review. Archival human temporal bones from individuals with presbycusis were selected on the basis of strict audiometric criteria for flat audiometric thresholds. Six temporal bones that met these criteria were identified and compared with 10 temporal bones in individuals with normal hearing. A unique quantitative method was developed to measure the stria vascularis volume in these temporal bones. The hair cell and spiral ganglion cell populations also were quantitatively evaluated. Only one of the six individuals with presbycusis and flat audiometric thresholds had significant atrophy of the stria vascularis. This individual with stria vascularis atrophy also had reduced inner hair cell, outer hair cell, and ganglion cell populations. Three of the individuals with presbycusis had spiral ganglion cell loss, three individuals had inner hair cell loss, and all six individuals had outer hair cell loss. The results of this investigation suggest that individuals with presbycusis and flat audiometric patterns of hearing loss infrequently have stria vascularis atrophy. Outer hair cell loss alone or in combination with inner hair cell or ganglion cell loss may be the cause of flat audiometric thresholds in individuals with presbycusis.

  7. "Cristal tachycardias": origin of right atrial tachycardias from the crista terminalis identified by intracardiac echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalman, J M; Olgin, J E; Karch, M R; Hamdan, M; Lee, R J; Lesh, M D

    1998-02-01

    We sought to use intracardiac echocardiography (ICE) to identify the anatomic origin of focal right atrial tachycardias and to define their relation with the crista terminalis (CT). Previous studies using ICE during mapping of atrial flutter and inappropriate sinus tachycardia have demonstrated an important relation between endocardial anatomy and electrophysiologic events. Recent studies have suggested that right atrial tachycardias may also have a characteristic anatomic distribution. Twenty-three consecutive patients with 27 right atrial tachycardias were included in the study. ICE was used to facilitate activation mapping in relation to endocardial structures. A 20-pole catheter was positioned along the CT under ICE guidance. ICE was also used to assist in guiding detailed mapping with the ablation catheter in the right atrium. Of 27 focal right atrial tachycardias, 18 (67%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 46% to 83%) were on the CT (2 high medial, 8 high lateral, 6 mid and 2 low). ICE identified the location of the tip of the ablation catheter in immediate relation to the CT in all 18 cases. The 20-pole mapping catheter together with echocardiographic visualization of the CT provided a guide to the site of tachycardia origin along this structure. Radiofrequency ablation was successful in 26 (96%) of 27 (95% CI 81% to 100%) right atrial tachycardias. This study demonstrates that approximately two thirds of focal right atrial tachycardias occurring in the absence of structural heart disease will arise along the CT. Recognition of this common distribution may potentially facilitate mapping and ablation of these tachycardias.

  8. Adenosine Triphosphate-sensitive Micro-reentrant Atrial Tachycardia Originating from the Crista Terminalis in a Patient with Chronic Renal Failure due to Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura

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    Shinya Sugiura, MD

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A 57-year-old woman with chronic renal failure due to the thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura complained of palpitation. A 12-lead ECG showed supraventricular tachycardia with a cycle length of 375 ms. During the electrophysiological study, a tachycardia with a cycle length of 375 ms was reproducibly induced and terminated by atrial extrastimulation. The tachycardia exhibited an inverse relationship between the coupling interval of extrastimulus initiating the tachycardia, and the first postpacing return cycle, as well as an increasing pattern of resetting the tachycardia with an atrial extrastimulus. Ventricular burst pacing during tachycardia produced AV dissociation. Intravenous injections of a low dose (4 mg of adenosine triphosphate (ATP terminated the tachycardia without a preceding atrio-His bundle block. The tachycardia was diagnosed as an ATP-sensitive micro-reentrant atrial tachycardia. Real-time endocardial activation mapping using an electroanatomical mapping system revealed that the earliest activation site of the tachycardia was located at the midlateral portion of the crista terminalis. The tachycardia was abolished by focal ablation targeting the earliest activation site during tachycardia. This is the first reported case of an ATP-sensitive micro-reentrant atrial tachycardia associated with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura.

  9. The clinical anatomy of the crista terminalis, pectinate muscles and the teniae sagittalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukas, Marios; Tubbs, R Shane; Tongson, Jonathan M; Polepalli, Shrikaant; Curry, Brian; Jordan, Robert; Wagner, Teresa

    2008-01-01

    The crista terminalis (CT) is an important anatomic landmark due its close association with the sinoatrial node artery and the origin of the pectinate muscles (PM). However, the gross anatomy of the PM in relation to the CT has not been well described. The aim of our study has been to investigate the location and the morphology of PM in relation to the CT. We examined 300 adult formalin-fixed human hearts. All PM originated from the CT and extended along the wall of the appendage toward the vestibule of the tricuspid valve. It was observed that the PM varied significantly with respect to arrangement and course of its fibers. We were able to classify the course of the PM, including the most prominent PM called the tenia sagittalis (TS), into 6 different patterns with 3 different TS types. In Type A (15%), the TS was absent. Type B (65%) demonstrated a single TS and Type C (20%) was characterized by the presence of multiple TS. Furthermore, the course of the PM was classified into 6 patterns: Type I (40%), the PM was oriented perpendicular to the CT with uniform spacing and lack of crossover (trabeculation); Type II (20%), non-uniform PM was organized in a haphazard, trabecular fashion with numerous crossovers; Type III (15%), the PM had uniform spacing with no trabeculation with fibers oriented parallel to the CT; Type IV (10%), had arborizing PM originating from a common muscular trunk (solitary trunk); Type V (10%), fibers were oriented both perpendicular and parallel to the CT, similar in architecture to Type III, but with more than one common muscular trunk; Type VI (5%), prominent muscular column with velamentous PM with potential implications in cardiac catheterization procedures. The exact morphology of PM and TS may be clinically important in right atrial catheterization procedures, as well as in the development of arrhythmias but further investigations are now necessary to prove this theory.

  10. The dual role of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 in modulating parthanatos and autophagy under oxidative stress in rat cochlear marginal cells of the stria vascularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hong-Yan; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Yuan-Yuan; Xie, Zhen; Zhao, Xue-Yan; Sun, Yu; Kong, Wei-Jia

    2018-04-01

    Oxidative stress is reported to regulate several apoptotic and necrotic cell death pathways in auditory tissues. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) can be activated under oxidative stress, which is the hallmark of parthanatos. Autophagy, which serves either a pro-survival or pro-death function, can also be stimulated by oxidative stress, but the role of autophagy and its relationship with parthanatos underlying this activation in the inner ear remains unknown. In this study, we established an oxidative stress model in vitro by glucose oxidase/glucose (GO/G), which could continuously generate low concentrations of H 2 O 2 to mimic continuous exposure to H 2 O 2 in physiological conditions, for investigation of oxidative stress-induced cell death mechanisms and the regulatory role of PARP-1 in this process. We observed that GO/G induced stria marginal cells (MCs) death via upregulation of PARP-1 expression, accumulation of polyADP-ribose (PAR) polymers, decline of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and nuclear translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), which all are biochemical features of parthanatos. PARP-1 knockdown rescued GO/G-induced MCs death, as well as abrogated downstream molecular events of PARP-1 activation. In addition, we demonstrated that GO/G stimulated autophagy and PARP-1 knockdown suppressed GO/G-induced autophagy in MCs. Interestingly, autophagy suppression by 3-Methyladenine (3-MA) accelerated GO/G-induced parthanatos, indicating a pro-survival function of autophagy in GO/G-induced MCs death. Taken together, these data suggested that PARP-1 played dual roles by modulating parthanatos and autophagy in oxidative stress-induced MCs death, which may be considered as a promising therapeutic target for ameliorating oxidative stress-related hearing disorders. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. MR Imaging of Ventriculus Terminalis of The Conus Medullaris. A report of two operated patients and review of the literature

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    Dullerud, Reidar; Server, A. [Ullevaal Univ. Hospital, Oslo (Norway). Div. of Radiology; Berg-Johnsen, J. [The National Hospital, Oslo (Norway). Dept. of Neurosurgery

    2003-07-01

    We report on 2 patients in whom a cystic dilation of the conus medullaris was incidentally found at MR imaging carried out in the work-up for sciatica. The cysts were well circumscribed and had signal intensity identical to the CSF on both T1- and T2-weighted images. There was no evidence of contrast enhancement. None of the patients had specific symptoms related to the spinal cord. At surgery, no evidence of malignancy was seen in any of the patients. A benign cystic dilation, also called dilated ventriculus terminalis, occasionally can be seen in the conus medullaris as an incidental finding at thoracolumbar MR imaging. Unless the expansion per se indicates cyst drainage, these patients may be monitored by clinical and MR follow-up, avoiding surgery in a substantial number of cases.

  12. Epithelial cell stretching and luminal acidification lead to a retarded development of stria vascularis and deafness in mice lacking pendrin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyoung-Mi Kim

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Loss-of-function mutations of SLC26A4/pendrin are among the most prevalent causes of deafness. Deafness and vestibular dysfunction in the corresponding mouse model, Slc26a4(-/-, are associated with an enlargement and acidification of the membranous labyrinth. Here we relate the onset of expression of the HCO(3 (- transporter pendrin to the luminal pH and to enlargement-associated epithelial cell stretching. We determined expression with immunocytochemistry, cell stretching by digital morphometry and pH with double-barreled ion-selective electrodes. Pendrin was first expressed in the endolymphatic sac at embryonic day (E 11.5, in the cochlear hook-region at E13.5, in the utricle and saccule at E14.5, in ampullae at E16.5, and in the upper turn of the cochlea at E17.5. Epithelial cell stretching in Slc26a4(-/- mice began at E14.5. pH changes occurred first in the cochlea at E15.5 and in the endolymphatic sac at E17.5. At postnatal day 2, stria vascularis, outer sulcus and Reissner's membrane epithelial cells, and utricular and saccular transitional cells were stretched, whereas sensory cells in the cochlea, utricle and saccule did not differ between Slc26a4(+/- and Slc26a4(-/- mice. Structural development of stria vascularis, including vascularization, was retarded in Slc26a4(-/- mice. In conclusion, the data demonstrate that the enlargement and stretching of non-sensory epithelial cells precedes luminal acidification in the cochlea and the endolymphatic sac. Stretching and luminal acidification may alter cell-to-cell communication and lead to the observed retarded development of stria vascularis, which may be an important step on the path to deafness in Slc26a4(-/- mice, and possibly in humans, lacking functional pendrin expression.

  13. Expression of aquaporins and vasopressin type 2 receptor in the stria vascularis of the cochlea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishioka, R; Takeda, T; Kakigi, A; Okada, T; Takebayashi, S; Taguchi, D; Nishimura, M; Hyodo, M

    2010-02-01

    Recently, considerable evidence has been accumulated to support the novel view that water homeostasis in the inner ear is regulated via the vasopressin-aquaporin 2 (VP-AQP2) system in the same fashion as in the kidney. Indeed, multiple subtypes of AQPs including AQP-2 are reported to be expressed in the cochlea. However, the mechanism that underlies VP-AQP-2 mediated water homeostasis remains to be elucidated. In the present study, the localizations of AQP-1, -2, -3, -4, -5, -7, -8, -9, and vasopressin type 2 receptor (V2-R) in the stria vascularis (SV) were molecular biologically and immunohistochemically examined to evaluate the role of the AQP water channel system in water homeostasis of the SV. A RT-PCR study revealed that AQPs and V2-R mRNA are expressed in the cochlea. As for their immunohistochemical localization, the AQP-2 protein is expressed on the basal side of the basal cells of the SV, and proteins of AQP-3 and V2-R are expressed on the apical side of the basal cells. AQP-7 and -9 proteins are expressed on the apical side of marginal cells. AQP-4, -5, and -8 protein expressions could not be detected in the lateral wall of the cochlea. From the present results, water flux in the SV is thought to be regulated at the level of the basal cells by vasopressin. Furthermore, such a distribution of AQP-2, -3, and V2-R suggests that VP-AQP-2 mediated water transport might work actively in the basal cells from perilymph towards endolymph containing AQP-1, -7 and -9. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Estudo do absente?smo por doen?a entre trabalhadores de uma ind?stria do Estado do Amazonas

    OpenAIRE

    Palheta, Cl?udio Aluisio Farias

    2016-01-01

    Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo analisar os epis?dios de absente?smo causados por doen?as em geral e tamb?m ?s decorrentes ou agravadas por exposi??es laborais em trabalhadores de uma ind?stria de transforma??o no Amazonas de produ??o de fitas para impress?o por transfer?ncia t?rmica conhecida como Thermal Transfer Ribbon (TTR). O absente?smo ? um evento relacionado ? aus?ncia do trabalhador das suas atividades laborais, que gera impactos negativos para a produtividade e a luc...

  15. Patterns of Brain Activation and Meal Reduction Induced by Abdominal Surgery in Mice and Modulation by Rikkunshito.

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    Lixin Wang

    Full Text Available Abdominal surgery inhibits food intake and induces c-Fos expression in the hypothalamic and medullary nuclei in rats. Rikkunshito (RKT, a Kampo medicine improves anorexia. We assessed the alterations in meal microstructure and c-Fos expression in brain nuclei induced by abdominal surgery and the modulation by RKT in mice. RKT or vehicle was gavaged daily for 1 week. On day 8 mice had no access to food for 6-7 h and were treated twice with RKT or vehicle. Abdominal surgery (laparotomy-cecum palpation was performed 1-2 h before the dark phase. The food intake and meal structures were monitored using an automated monitoring system for mice. Brain sections were processed for c-Fos immunoreactivity (ir 2-h after abdominal surgery. Abdominal surgery significantly reduced bouts, meal frequency, size and duration, and time spent on meals, and increased inter-meal interval and satiety ratio resulting in 92-86% suppression of food intake at 2-24 h post-surgery compared with control group (no surgery. RKT significantly increased bouts, meal duration and the cumulative 12-h food intake by 11%. Abdominal surgery increased c-Fos in the prelimbic, cingulate and insular cortexes, and autonomic nuclei, such as the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, central amygdala, hypothalamic supraoptic (SON, paraventricular and arcuate nuclei, Edinger-Westphal nucleus (E-W, lateral periaqueduct gray (PAG, lateral parabrachial nucleus, locus coeruleus, ventrolateral medulla and nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS. RKT induced a small increase in c-Fos-ir neurons in the SON and E-W of control mice, and in mice with surgery there was an increase in the lateral PAG and a decrease in the NTS. These findings indicate that abdominal surgery inhibits food intake by increasing both satiation (meal duration and satiety (meal interval and activates brain circuits involved in pain, feeding behavior and stress that may underlie the alterations of meal pattern and food intake inhibition

  16. Studies on South-east Asian fireflies: Abscondita, a new genus with details of life history, flashing patterns and behaviour of Abs. chinensis (L.) and Abs. terminalis (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Lampyridae: Luciolinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantyne, Lesley; Fu, Xinhua; Lambkin, Christine; Jeng, Ming-Luen; Faust, Lynn; Wijekoon, M C D; Li, Daiqin; Zhu, Tengfui

    2013-01-01

    Abscondita, a new genus of fireflies from South-east Asia, is described from males and females of Abs. anceyi (Olivier 1883), Abs. cerata (Olivier 1911), Abs. chinensis (L. 1767), Abs. perplexa (Walker 1858), Abs. promelaena (Walker 1858) and Abs. terminalis (Olivier 1883), all transferred from Luciola Laporte. Both L. dubia Olivier 1903 and L. dejeani Gemminger 1870 are synonymised with Luciola perplexa (Walker), and L. aegrota Olivier 1891 and L. melaspis Bourgeois 1909 with L. promelaena Walker. Females are characterised by their bursa plates. Larvae are associated and described for Abs. anceyi (Olivier), Abs. chinensis (L.) and Abs. terminalis (Olivier). Taxonomic issues regarding the identification of species with very similar colouration of pale dorsum and black tipped elytra are addressed and in some cases resolved. A neotype for Luciola chinensis (L.) is erected and Luciola praeusta (Kiesenwetter 1874) is synonymised with L. chinensis (L.). Descriptions of life histories, biology and flashing patterns of populations of Abs. chinensis and Abs. terminalis from central China are included. A bs. terminalis is the first Asian firefly known to possess multiple flash trains where males are documented to display with repeating flash trains.

  17. La estria supranuclear de las células ciliadas en la rinitis alérgica Supranuclear stria of ciliated cells in allergic rhinitis

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    Ana Zerdiew

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron 80 pacientes adultos alérgicos, que cursaron con los siguientes cuadros clínicos: 16 casos de rinitis intermitente y 64 de rinitis persistente. Se realizó el recuento porcentual de la estría supranuclear de las células ciliadas, respecto de los leucocitos presentes en los extendidos obtenidos por toma endonasal. Con los datos obtenidos se clasificaron los extendidos en 4 grupos; Grupo A (N=23: predominio leucocitario eosinófilo con eosinofilia nasal >10%, Grupo B (N=15: abundantes leucocitos neutrófilos y eosinofilia nasal >10%, Grupo C (N=29: con escasos leucocitos, Grupo D (N=13: con abundantes leucocitos de predominio neutrófilo sin eosinofilia. Se observó que el incremento porcentual de estría supranuclear se correlacionó con eosinofilia nasal >10% y con las muestras que presentaron escasos leucocitos. Sin embargo se evidenció una marcada disminución del porcentaje de estría supranuclear en la leucocitosis neutrófila de etiología bacteriana.Nasal secretions were studied in 80 allergic adults patients: 16 with intermittent rhinitis and 64 with persistent rhinitis. The percentage of supranuclear stria of ciliated cells with regard to leucocytes was studied by nasal scraping. Four groups of patients were classified according to nasal leucocytic predominance: patients with eosinophilic predominance with eosinophils > 10% in Group A (N=23, patients with abundant neutrophils and eosinophils >10% in Group B (N=15, patients with scant leucocytes in Group C (N=29, patients with neutrophilic predominance without eosinophils in Group D (N=13. An increase of supranuclear stria percentage was correlated to eosinophils > 10% and also correlated to scant leucocytes. Nevertheless, a significant decrease of supranuclear stria percentage was observed in neutrophilic leukocytosis of bacterial etiology.

  18. Progressive irreversible hearing loss is caused by stria vascularis degeneration in an Slc26a4-insufficient mouse model of large vestibular aqueduct syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, T; Nishio, A; Wangemann, P; Griffith, A J

    2015-12-03

    Hearing loss of patients with enlargement of the vestibular aqueduct (EVA) can fluctuate or progress, with overall downward progression. The most common detectable cause of EVA is mutations of SLC26A4. We previously described a transgenic Slc26a4-insufficient mouse model of EVA in which Slc26a4 expression is controlled by doxycycline administration. Mice that received doxycycline from conception until embryonic day 17.5 (DE17.5; doxycycline discontinued at embryonic day 17.5) had fluctuating hearing loss between 1 and 6 months of age with an overall downward progression after 6 months of age. In this study, we characterized the cochlear functional and structural changes underlying irreversible hearing loss in DE17.5 mice at 12 months of age. The endocochlear potential was decreased and inversely correlated with auditory brainstem response thresholds. The stria vascularis was thickened and edematous in ears with less severe hearing loss, and thinned and atrophic in ears with more severe hearing loss. There were pathologic changes in marginal cell morphology and gene expression that were not observed at 3 months. We conclude that strial dysfunction and degeneration are the primary causes of irreversible progressive hearing loss in our Slc26a4-insufficient mouse model of EVA. This model of primary strial atrophy may be used to explore the mechanisms of progressive hearing loss due to strial dysfunction. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Regulatory interactions of stress and reward on rat forebrain opioidergic and GABAergic circuitry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, A.M.; Herman, J.P.; Ulrich-Lai, Y.M.

    2011-01-01

    Palatable food intake reduces stress responses, suggesting that individuals may consume such “comfort” food as self-medication for stress relief. The mechanism by which palatable foods provide stress relief is not known, but likely lies at the intersection of forebrain reward and stress regulatory circuits. Forebrain opioidergic and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic signaling is critical for both reward and stress regulation suggesting that these systems are prime candidates for mediating stress relief by palatable foods. Thus, the current study aimed to determine 1) how palatable “comfort” food alters stress induced changes in the mRNA expression of inhibitory neurotransmitters in reward and stress neurocircuitry, and 2) identify candidate brain regions that may underlie comfort food-mediated stress reduction. We used a model of palatable “snacking” in combination with a model of chronic variable stress followed by in situ hybridization to determine forebrain levels of pro-opioid and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) mRNA. The data identify regions within the extended amygdala, striatum, and hypothalamus as potential regions for mediating hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA)-buffering following palatable snacking. Specifically, palatable snacking alone decreased enkephalin mRNA expression in the anterior bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and the nucleus accumbens, as well as decreasing GAD65 mRNA in the posterior bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. Chronic stress alone increased enkephalin mRNA in the hypothalamus, nucleus accumbens, amygdala, and hippocampus; increased dynorphin mRNA in the nucleus accumbens; increased GAD65 mRNA in the anterior hypothalamus and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis; and decreased GAD65 mRNA in the dorsal hypothalamus. Importantly, palatable food intake prevented stress-induced gene expression changes in subregions of the hypothalamus, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and nucleus accumbens. Overall, these

  20. Effect of acupuncture on adrenocortical hormone production in rabbits with a central lesion

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    Liao, Y.Y.; Seto, K.; Saitoh, H.; Kawakami, M.

    A study was made of adrenocortical hormone production under electroacupuncture stimulation of the Tsu-San-Li locus in rabbits with a lesion in the fornix, stria terminalis, ventromedial nucleus or arcuate nucleus. In rabbits with a lesion in the stria terminalis or ventromedial nucleus, electroacupuncture stimulation of Tsu-San-Li resulted in no increase in phase 1 but an increase in phase 2 of adrenocortical hormone production. In rabbits with a lesion in the fornix or arcuate nucleus electroacupuncture stimulation of Tsu-San-Li was followed by increased adrenocortical hormone production in the both phases. These results show that the stria terminalis and the ventromedial nucleus play a major role in the augmentation of adrenocortical hormone production by electroacupuncture stimulation of Tsu-San-Li.

  1. Alcohol consumption increases locomotion in an open field and induces Fos-immunoreactivity in reward and approach/withdrawal-related neurocircuitries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wscieklica, Tatiana; de Barros Viana, Milena; Le Sueur Maluf, Luciana; Pouza, Kathlein Cristiny Peres; Spadari, Regina Célia; Céspedes, Isabel Cristina

    2016-02-01

    Drug addiction is a chronically relapsing disorder characterized by compulsion to seek and take the drug, loss of control in limiting intake and, eventually, the emergence of a negative emotional state when access to the drug is prevented. Both dopamine and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)-mediated systems seem to play important roles in the modulation of alcohol abuse and dependence. The present study investigated the effects of alcohol consumption on anxiety and locomotor parameters and on the activation of dopamine and CRF-innervated brain regions. Male Wistar rats were given a choice of two bottles for 31 days, one containing water and the other a solution of saccharin + alcohol. Control animals only received water and a solution of 0.2% saccharin. On the 31st day, animals were tested in the elevated plus-maze and open field, and euthanized immediately after the behavioral tests. An independent group of animals was treated with ethanol and used to measure blood ethanol concentration. Results showed that alcohol intake did not alter behavioral measurements in the plus-maze, but increased the number of crossings in the open field, an index of locomotor activity. Additionally, alcohol intake increased Fos-immunoreactivity (Fos-ir) in the prefrontal cortex, in the shell region of the nucleus accumbens, in the medial and central amygdala, in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, in the septal region, and in the paraventricular and dorsomedial hypothalamus, structures that have been linked to reward and to approach/withdrawal behavior. These observations might be relevant to a better understanding of the behavioral and physiological alterations that follow alcohol consumption. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. No impact of deep brain stimulation on fear-potentiated startle in obsessive-compulsive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baas, Johanna M P; Klumpers, Floris; Mantione, Mariska H; Figee, Martijn; Vulink, Nienke C; Schuurman, P Richard; Mazaheri, Ali; Denys, D.

    2014-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the ventral internal capsule is effective in treating therapy refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Given the close proximity of the stimulation site to the stria terminalis (BNST), we hypothesized that the striking decrease in anxiety symptoms following DBS

  3. Fornix transection: Discrimination between neuropeptide effects on attention and memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wimersma Greidanus, T.B. van; Croiset, G.; Schuiling, G.A.

    1979-01-01

    Transection of the fornix and the stria terminalis completely blocks the inhibitory action of ACTH 4–10 on extinction of a conditioned avoidance response (CAR), whereas this effect of the vasopressin analogue des-glycinamide-lysine-vasopressin (DG-LVP) is not affected. These data indicate that the

  4. No impact of deep brain stimulation on fear–potentiated startle in obsessive-compulsive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baas, Johanna M P; Klumpers, Floris; Mantione, Mariska H.; Figee, Martijn; Vulink, Nienke C.; Richard Schuurman, P.; Mazaheri, Ali; Denys, Damiaan

    2014-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the ventral internal capsule is effective in treating therapy refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Given the close proximity of the stimulation site to the stria terminalis (BNST), we hypothesized that the striking decrease in anxiety symptoms following DBS

  5. Sex-Specific Effects of Stress on Oxytocin Neurons Correspond With Responses to Intranasal Oxytocin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinman, Michael Q; Duque-Wilckens, Natalia; Greenberg, Gian D; Hao, Rebecca; Campi, Katharine L; Laredo, Sarah A; Laman-Maharg, Abigail; Manning, Claire E; Doig, Ian E; Lopez, Eduardo M; Walch, Keenan; Bales, Karen L; Trainor, Brian C

    2016-09-01

    Oxytocin (OT) is considered to be a stress-buffering hormone, dampening the physiologic effects of stress. However, OT can also be anxiogenic. We examined acute and long-lasting effects of social defeat on OT neurons in male and female California mice. We used immunohistochemistry for OT and c-fos cells to examine OT neuron activity immediately after defeat (n = 6-9) and 2 weeks (n = 6-9) and 10 weeks (n = 4-5) later. We quantified Oxt messenger RNA with quantitative polymerase chain reaction (n = 5-9). Intranasal OT was administered to naïve and stressed mice tested in social interaction and resident-intruder tests (n = 8-14). Acute exposure to a third episode of defeat increased OT/c-fos colocalizations in the paraventricular nucleus of both sexes. In the medioventral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, defeat increased Oxt messenger RNA, total OT neurons, and OT/c-fos colocalizations in female mice but not male mice. Intranasal OT failed to reverse stress-induced social withdrawal in female mice and reduced social interaction behavior in female mice naïve to defeat. In contrast, intranasal OT increased social interaction in stressed male mice and reduced freezing in the resident-intruder test. Social defeat induces long-lasting increases in OT production and OT/c-fos cells in the medioventral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis of female mice but not male mice. Intranasal OT largely reversed the effects of stress on behavior in male mice, but effects were mixed in female mice. These results suggest that changes in OT-sensitive networks contribute to sex differences in behavioral responses to stress. Copyright © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. [Exploring life-experience of the staff and volunteers assisting pediatric patients in end-of-life situations] [Article in Italian] • I vissuti dello staff e dei volontari che assistono pazienti pediatrici terminali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosapia Lauro Grotto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of guidelines for palliative care in the paediatric settings is judged to be still incomplete and characterized by many controversial issues; in order to explore the life-experience of individual health care professionals, we proposed a semi-structured questionnaire with open questions on end-of-life procedures to the staff members of the Paediatric Onco-hematology Ward of the University of Padua, of the Oncology Ward and in the Home Assistance Module of the Giannetta Gaslini Hospital, Genoa, both in Italy. This paper will focus on the responses provided to the third question: “In your opinion, can inducing the suspension of the state of consciousness be counted among end-of-life procedures? If so, how and when?”. Staff members were found to face challenging interactions at at least three levels: within the professional team, with respect to the parents and with respect to the adolescent patients. Among the most complex issues raised by the participants we found the moral distress sometimes experienced by nurses with respect to the decisions assumed by doctors, as stated by a nurse: “Everything is subjective in those 24 hours  (… and you are to do or not do certain things and it makes you feel distressed”. Second, it emerged that the relationship with the parents becomes very challenging when the two are not in agreement: “The father wants to give the morphine, but the mother secretly closes the drip”. Finally, the relationship of trust with the adolescent patients is under threat when they ‘want to know’ while parents seem to be unable to tolerate this degree of painful but essential self-consciousness in their ‘child’: “He locked me in the room and asked, ‘Am I dying?’, and I wanted to die at that point…”. Our study shows that health care professionals require not just guidelines but a tailor-made training and support which integrate much deeply the therapeutic as well as the moral and

  7. Estrogen Receptor Alpha Distribution and Expression in the Social Neural Network of Monogamous and Polygynous Peromyscus

    OpenAIRE

    Cushing, Bruce S.

    2016-01-01

    In microtine and dwarf hamsters low levels of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) and medial amygdala (MeA) play a critical role in the expression of social monogamy in males, which is characterized by high levels of affiliation and low levels of aggression. In contrast, monogamous Peromyscus males display high levels of aggression and affiliative behavior with high levels of testosterone and aromatase activity. Suggesting the hypothesis that in Pero...

  8. Maternal Gestational Hypertension-Induced Sensitization of Angiotensin II Hypertension Is Reversed by Renal Denervation or Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibition in Rat Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Baojian; Yin, Haifeng; Guo, Fang; Beltz, Terry G; Thunhorst, Robert L; Johnson, Alan Kim

    2017-04-01

    Numerous findings demonstrate that there is a strong association between maternal health during pregnancy and cardiovascular disease in adult offspring. The purpose of the present study was to test whether maternal gestational hypertension modulates brain renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and proinflammatory cytokines that sensitizes angiotensin II-elicited hypertensive response in adult offspring. In addition, the role of renal nerves and the RAAS in the sensitization process was investigated. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analyses of structures of the lamina terminalis and paraventricular nucleus indicated upregulation of mRNA expression of several RAAS components and proinflammatory cytokines in 10-week-old male offspring of hypertensive dams. Most of these increases were significantly inhibited by either renal denervation performed at 8 weeks of age or treatment with an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, captopril, in drinking water starting at weaning. When tested beginning at 10 weeks of age, a pressor dose of angiotensin II resulted in enhanced upregulation of mRNA expression of RAAS components and proinflammatory cytokines in the lamina terminalis and paraventricular nucleus and an augmented pressor response in male offspring of hypertensive dams. The augmented blood pressure change and most of the increases in gene expression in the offspring were abolished by either renal denervation or captopril. The results suggest that maternal hypertension during pregnancy enhances pressor responses to angiotensin II through overactivity of renal nerves and the RAAS in male offspring and that upregulation of the brain RAAS and proinflammatory cytokines in these offspring may contribute to maternal gestational hypertension-induced sensitization of the hypertensive response to angiotensin II. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Effects of ozone (O3) therapy on cisplatin-induced ototoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koçak, Hasan Emre; Taşkın, Ümit; Aydın, Salih; Oktay, Mehmet Faruk; Altınay, Serdar; Çelik, Duygu Sultan; Yücebaş, Kadir; Altaş, Bengül

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of rectal ozone and intratympanic ozone therapy on cisplatin-induced ototoxicity in rats. Eighteen female Wistar albino rats were included in our study. External auditory canal and tympanic membrane examinations were normal in all rats. The rats were randomly divided into three groups. Initially, all the rats were tested with distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE), and emissions were measured normally. All rats were injected with 5-mg/kg/day cisplatin for 3 days intraperitoneally. Ototoxicy had developed in all rats, as confirmed with DPOAE after 1 week. Rectal and intratympanic ozone therapy group was Group 1. No treatment was administered for the rats in Group 2 as the control group. The rats in Group 3 were treated with rectal ozone. All the rats were tested with DPOAE under general anesthesia, and all were sacrificed for pathological examination 1 week after ozone administration. Their cochleas were removed. The outer hair cell damage and stria vascularis damage were examined. In the statistical analysis conducted, a statistically significant difference between Group 1 and Group 2 was observed in all frequencies according to the DPOAE test. In addition, between Group 2 and Group 3, a statistically significant difference was observed in the DPOAE test. However, a statistically significant difference was not observed between Group 1 and Group 3 according to the DPOAE test. According to histopathological scoring, the outer hair cell damage score was statistically significantly high in Group 2 compared with Group 1. In addition, the outer hair cell damage score was also statistically significantly high in Group 2 compared with Group 3. Outer hair cell damage scores were low in Group 1 and Group 3, but there was no statistically significant difference between these groups. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of stria vascularis damage score examinations

  10. Nicotine Modulates Multiple Regions in the Limbic Stress Network Regulating Activation of Hypophysiotrophic Neurons in Hypothalamic Paraventricular Nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guoliang; Sharp, Burt M.

    2012-01-01

    Nicotine intake affects CNS responses to stressors. We reported that nicotine self-administration (SA) augmented the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) stress response, in part due to altered neurotransmission and neuropeptide expression within hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Limbic-PVN interactions involving medial prefrontal cortex, amygdala, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) greatly impact the HPA stress response. Therefore, we investigated the effects of nicotine SA on stress-induced neuronal activation in limbic-PVN network, using c-Fos protein immunohistochemistry and retrograde tracing. Nicotine decreased stress-induced c-Fos in prelimbic cortex (PrL), anteroventral BST (avBST), and peri-PVN; but increased c-Fos induction in medial amygdala (MeA), locus coeruleus, and PVN. Fluoro-gold (FG) was injected into avBST or PVN, since GABAergic neurons in avBST projecting to PVN corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) neurons relay information from both PrL glutamatergic and MeA GABAergic neurons. The stress-induced c-Fos expression in retrograde-labeled FG+ neurons was decreased in PrL by nicotine, but increased in MeA, and also reduced in avBST. Therefore, within limbic-PVN network, nicotine SA exerts selective regional effects on neuronal activation by stress. These findings expand the mechanistic framework by demonstrating altered limbic-BST-PVN interactions underlying the disinhibition of PVN CRF neurons, an essential component of the amplified HPA response to stress by nicotine. PMID:22578217

  11. The protective role of tetramethylpyrazine against cisplatin-induced ototoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayram, Ali; Kaya, Altan; Akay, Ebru; Hıra, İbrahim; Özcan, İbrahim

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) on cisplatin-induced ototoxicity in rats. Forty healthy, female, 24-week-old, Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 40) were randomly assigned to four groups as follows: group one (n = 10) received intraperitoneal (i.p.) physiological saline at daily doses of 3 mg/kg for seven days; group two (n = 10) received a single dose of i.p. 15 mg/kg cisplatin; group three (n = 10) received i.p. 140 mg/kg TMP daily for seven days plus a single dose of i.p. 15 mg/kg cisplatin on the fourth day; group four (n = 10) received i.p. 140 mg/kg TMP daily for seven days. Auditory brainstem response (ABR) and distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) measurements were obtained from the animals (40 rats, 80 ears) under general anesthesia before and after drug administration. The temporal bulla of animals were bilaterally removed for immunohistopathological examination. In group two, DPOAE and ABR values were significantly deteriorated after drug administration, whereas there was no statistically significant difference between the pre- and posttreatment DPOAE and ABR values for all frequencies for groups one, three and four. The mean scores for external ciliated cells (ECCs), stria vascularis (SV) and spiral ganglion (SG) injuries in hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, and also caspase-3 immunoreactivity were significantly higher in group two than in the other groups. In the present study, the protective effect of TMP on cisplatin ototoxicity was demonstrated through studies of electrophysiology and immunohistopathology. Co-administration of TMP may have potential protective effects against cisplatin-induced ototoxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Analysis of behavioral constraints and the neuroanatomy of fear to the predator odor trimethylthiazoline: a model for animal phobias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Jeffrey B; Pagani, Jerome H; Rolla, Katherine L G; Davis, Cameron

    2008-09-01

    Specific phobias, including animal phobias, are the most common anxiety disorders, and have a strong innate and genetic component. Research on the neurobiology and environmental constraints of innate fear of predators in rodents may be useful in elucidating mechanisms of animal phobias in humans. The present article reviews research on innate fear in rats to trimethylthiazoline (TMT), an odor originally isolated from fox feces. TMT induces unconditioned freezing and other defensive responses that are regulated by the dose of TMT and the shape of the testing environment. Contextual conditioning induced by TMT occurs, but is constrained by the environment. Lesion studies indicate the amygdala circuitry subserving fear conditioning is not necessary for unconditioned fear to TMT. Additionally, a medial hypothalamic defensive circuit also appears not necessary for unconditioned freezing to TMT, whereas circuits that include the medial nucleus of the amygdala and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis are essential. The importance of these findings of innate predator odor fear in rodents to animal phobias in humans is discussed.

  13. Subcortical BOLD responses during visual sexual stimulation vary as a function of implicit porn associations in women

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Peter J.; Georgiadis, Janniko R.

    2014-01-01

    Lifetime experiences shape people’s attitudes toward sexual stimuli. Visual sexual stimulation (VSS), for instance, may be perceived as pleasurable by some, but as disgusting or ambiguous by others. VSS depicting explicit penile–vaginal penetration (PEN) is relevant in this respect, because the act of penetration is a core sexual activity. In this study, 20 women without sexual complaints participated. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging and a single-target implicit association task to investigate how brain responses to PEN were modulated by the initial associations in memory (PEN-‘hot’ vs PEN-disgust) with such hardcore pornographic stimuli. Many brain areas responded to PEN in the same way they responded to disgust stimuli, and PEN-induced brain activity was prone to modulation by subjective disgust ratings toward PEN stimuli. The relative implicit PEN-disgust (relative to PEN-‘hot’) associations exclusively modulated PEN-induced brain responses: comparatively negative (PEN-disgust) implicit associations with pornography predicted the strongest PEN-related responses in the basal forebrain (including nucleus accumbens and bed nucleus of stria terminalis), midbrain and amygdala. Since these areas are often implicated in visual sexual processing, the present findings should be taken as a warning: apparently their involvement may also indicate a negative or ambivalent attitude toward sexual stimuli. PMID:23051899

  14. Functional MRI of the brain during orgasm in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komisaruk, Barry R; Whipple, Beverly

    2005-01-01

    Women diagnosed with complete spinal cord injury (SCI) at T10 or higher report sensations generated by vaginal-cervical mechanical self-stimulation (CSS). In this paper we review brain responses to sexual arousal and orgasm in such women, and further hypothesize that the afferent pathway for this unexpected perception is provided by the Vagus nerves, which bypass the spinal cord. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we ascertained that the region of the medulla oblongata to which the Vagus nerves project (the Nucleus of the Solitary Tract or NTS) is activated by CSS. We also used an objective measure, CSS-induced analgesia response to experimentally induced finger pain, to ascertain the functionality of this pathway. During CSS, several women experienced orgasms. Brain regions activated during orgasm included the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, amygdala, accumbens-bed nucleus of the stria terminalis-preoptic area, hippocampus, basal ganglia (especially putamen), cerebellum, and anterior cingulate, insular, parietal and frontal cortices, and lower brainstem (central gray, mesencephalic reticular formation, and NTS). We conclude that the Vagus nerves provide a spinal cord-bypass pathway for vaginal-cervical sensibility and that activation of this pathway can produce analgesia and orgasm.

  15. Subcortical BOLD responses during visual sexual stimulation vary as a function of implicit porn associations in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Charmaine; de Jong, Peter J; Georgiadis, Janniko R

    2014-02-01

    Lifetime experiences shape people's attitudes toward sexual stimuli. Visual sexual stimulation (VSS), for instance, may be perceived as pleasurable by some, but as disgusting or ambiguous by others. VSS depicting explicit penile-vaginal penetration (PEN) is relevant in this respect, because the act of penetration is a core sexual activity. In this study, 20 women without sexual complaints participated. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging and a single-target implicit association task to investigate how brain responses to PEN were modulated by the initial associations in memory (PEN-'hot' vs PEN-disgust) with such hardcore pornographic stimuli. Many brain areas responded to PEN in the same way they responded to disgust stimuli, and PEN-induced brain activity was prone to modulation by subjective disgust ratings toward PEN stimuli. The relative implicit PEN-disgust (relative to PEN-'hot') associations exclusively modulated PEN-induced brain responses: comparatively negative (PEN-disgust) implicit associations with pornography predicted the strongest PEN-related responses in the basal forebrain (including nucleus accumbens and bed nucleus of stria terminalis), midbrain and amygdala. Since these areas are often implicated in visual sexual processing, the present findings should be taken as a warning: apparently their involvement may also indicate a negative or ambivalent attitude toward sexual stimuli.

  16. Induced Abortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Induced Abortion Home For Patients Search FAQs Induced Abortion Page ... Induced Abortion FAQ043, May 2015 PDF Format Induced Abortion Special Procedures What is an induced abortion? What ...

  17. Macrophage recruitment, but not interleukin 1 beta activation, enhances noise-induced hearing damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizushima, Yu; Fujimoto, Chisato; Kashio, Akinori; Kondo, Kenji; Yamasoba, Tatsuya

    2017-11-18

    It has been suggested that macrophages or inflammatory monocytes participate in the pathology of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), but it is unclear how extensively these cells contribute to the development of temporary and/or permanent NIHL. To address this question, we used clodronate liposomes to deplete macrophages and monocytes. After clodronate liposome injection, mice were exposed to 4-kHz octave band noise at 121 dB for 4 h. Compared to vehicle-injected controls, clodronate-treated mice exhibited significantly reduced permanent threshold shifts at 4 and 8 kHz and significantly smaller outer hair cell losses in the lower-apical cochlear turn. Following noise exposure, the stria vascularis had significantly more cells expressing the macrophage-specific protein F4/80, and this effect was significantly suppressed by clodronate treatment. These F4/80-positive cells expressed interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β), which noise exposure activated. However, IL-1β deficient mice did not exhibit significant resistance to intense noise when compared to wild-type mice. These findings suggest that macrophages that enter the cochlea after noise exposure are involved in NIHL, whereas IL-1β inhibition does not reverse this cochlear damage. Therefore, macrophages may be a promising therapeutic target in human sensorineural hearing losses such as NIHL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Quantitative autoradiography of /sup 3/H-nomifensine binding sites in rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scatton, B.; Dubois, A.; Dubocovich, M.L.; Zahniser, N.R.; Fage, D.

    1985-03-04

    The distribution of /sup 3/H-nomifensine binding sites in the rat brain has been studied by quantitative autoradiography. The binding of /sup 3/H-nomifensine to caudate putamen sections was saturable, specific, of a highly affinity (Kd = 56 nM) and sodium-dependent. The dopamine uptake inhibitors benztropine, nomifensine, cocaine, bupropion and amfonelic acid were the most potent competitors of /sup 3/H-nomifensine binding to striatal sections. The highest levels of (benztropine-displaceable) /sup 3/H-nomifensine binding sites were found in the caudate-putamen, the olfactory tubercle and the nucleus accumbens. 6-Hydroxy-dopamine-induced lesion of the ascending dopaminergic bundle resulted in a marked decrease in the /sup 3/H-ligand binding in these areas. Moderately high concentrations of the /sup 3/H-ligand were observed in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the anteroventral thalamic nucleus, the cingulate cortex, the lateral septum, the hippocampus, the amygdala, the zona incerta and some hypothalamic nuclei. There were low levels of binding sites in the habenula, the dorsolateral geniculate body, the substantia nigra, the ventral tegmental area and the periaqueductal gray matter. These autoradiographic data are consistent with the hypothesis that /sup 3/H-nomifensine binds primarily to the presynaptic uptake site for dopamine but also labels the norepinephrine uptake site. 33 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  19. Deep brain stimulation affects conditioned and unconditioned anxiety in different brain areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, A; Klanker, M; van Oorschot, N; Post, R; Hamelink, R; Feenstra, M G P; Denys, D

    2013-07-30

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) has proven to be an effective treatment for therapy refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder. Clinical observations show that anxiety symptoms decrease rapidly following DBS. As in clinical studies different regions are targeted, it is of principal interest to understand which brain area is responsible for the anxiolytic effect and whether high-frequency stimulation of different areas differentially affect unconditioned (innate) and conditioned (learned) anxiety. In this study, we examined the effect of stimulation in five brain areas in rats (NAc core and shell, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), internal capsule (IC) and the ventral medial caudate nucleus (CAU)). The elevated plus maze was used to test the effect of stimulation on unconditioned anxiety, the Vogel conflict test for conditioned anxiety, and an activity test for general locomotor behaviour. We found different anxiolytic effects of stimulation in the five target areas. Stimulation of the CAU decreased both conditioned and unconditioned anxiety, while stimulation of the IC uniquely reduced conditioned anxiety. Remarkably, neither the accumbens nor the BNST stimulation affected conditioned or unconditioned anxiety. Locomotor activity increased with NAc core stimulation but decreased with the BNST. These findings suggest that (1) DBS may have a differential effect on unconditioned and conditioned anxiety depending on the stimulation area, and that (2) stimulation of the IC exclusively reduces conditioned anxiety. This suggests that the anxiolytic effects of DBS seen in OCD patients may not be induced by stimulation of the NAc, but rather by the IC.

  20. CART neuropeptide modulates the extended amygdalar CeA-vBNST circuit to gate expression of innate fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rale, Abhishek; Shendye, Ninad; Bodas, Devika S; Subhedar, Nishikant; Ghose, Aurnab

    2017-11-01

    Innate fear is critical for the survival of animals and is under tight homeostatic control. Deregulation of innate fear processing is thought to underlie pathological phenotypes including, phobias and panic disorders. Although central processing of conditioned fear has been extensively studied, the circuitry and regulatory mechanisms subserving innate fear remain relatively poorly defined. In this study, we identify cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) neuropeptide signaling in the central amygdala (CeA) - ventral bed nucleus of stria terminalis (vBNST) axis as a key modulator of innate fear expression. 2,4,5-trimethyl-3-thiazoline (TMT), a component of fox faeces, induces a freezing response whose intensity is regulated by the extent of CART-signaling in the CeA neurons. Abrogation of CART activity in the CeA attenuates the freezing response and reduces activation of vBNST neurons. Conversely, ectopically elevated CART signaling in the CeA potentiates the fear response concomitant with enhanced vBNST activation. We show that local levels of CART signaling modulate the activation of CeA neurons by NMDA receptor-mediated glutamatergic inputs, in turn, regulating activity in the vBNST. This study identifies the extended amygdalar CeA-vBNST circuit as a CART modulated axis encoding innate fear. CART signaling regulates the glutamatergic excitatory drive in the CeA-vBNST circuit, in turn, gating the expression of the freezing response to TMT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Physical interaction is not necessary for the induction of housing-type social buffering of conditioned hyperthermia in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyokawa, Yasushi; Kodama, Yuka; Takeuchi, Yukari; Mori, Yuji

    2013-11-01

    In social animals, housing with conspecific animals after a stressful event attenuates the subsequent adverse outcomes due to the event, and this has been called housing-type social buffering. We have previously found that housing-type social buffering attenuates the enhancement of hyperthermia and Fos expression in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus that occurs in response to an aversive conditioned stimulus in male rats. Here, we analyzed the role of physical interactions during social housing in the induction of housing-type social buffering. When a fear-conditioned subject was alone after the conditioning and then exposed to the conditioned stimulus, it showed behavioral, autonomic, and neural stress responses. However, social housing, during which physical interactions were prevented by wire mesh, attenuated these autonomic and neural stress responses, as has been seen in previous studies. These results suggested that physical interaction was not necessary for the induction of housing-type social buffering. With this social cohabitation model, we then found that social cohabitation increased Fos expression in the posterior complex of the anterior olfactory nucleus of the fear-conditioned subject. Social cohabitation also increased Fos expression in 11 brain regions, including the prefrontal cortex, the nucleus accumbens, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and the medial, lateral, basal, and cortical amygdala. These results provide information about the neural mechanisms that induce housing-type social buffering. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Fibroblast growth factor 2 alters the oxytocin receptor in a developmental model of anxiety-like behavior in male rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvin, Yoav; Turner, Cortney A; Rios, Mariel B; Maras, Pamela M; Chaudhury, Sraboni; Baker, Miriam R; Blandino, Peter; Watson, Stanley J; Akil, Huda; McEwen, Bruce

    2016-11-01

    We aimed to determine the short-term effects of early-life stress in the form of maternal separation (MS) on anxiety-like behavior in male rat pups. In order to assess anxiety, we measured 40kHz separation-induced ultrasonic vocalizations (USV) on postnatal day (PND) 11. We further aimed to evaluate the potential involvement of two neurochemical systems known to regulate social and anxiety-like behaviors throughout life: oxytocin (OT) and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2). For these purposes, we tested the effects of neonatal administration (on PND1) of an acute dose of FGF2 on USV and its potential interaction with MS. In addition, we validated the anxiolytic effects of OT and measured oxytocin receptor (OTR) gene expression, binding and epigenetic regulation via histone acetylation. Our results show that MS potentiated USV while acute administration of OT and FGF2 attenuated them. Further, we found that both FGF2 and MS increased OTR gene expression and the association of acH3K14 with the OTR promoter in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST). Comparable changes, though not as pronounced, were also found for the central amygdala (CeA). Our findings suggest that FGF2 may exert its anxiolytic effects in male MS rats by a compensatory increase in the acetylation of the OTR promoter to overcome reduced OT levels in the BNST. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Dynorphin Controls the Gain of an Amygdalar Anxiety Circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole A. Crowley

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Kappa opioid receptors (KORs are involved in a variety of aversive behavioral states, including anxiety. To date, a circuit-based mechanism for KOR-driven anxiety has not been described. Here, we show that activation of KORs inhibits glutamate release from basolateral amygdala (BLA inputs to the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST and occludes the anxiolytic phenotype seen with optogenetic activation of BLA-BNST projections. In addition, deletion of KORs from amygdala neurons results in an anxiolytic phenotype. Furthermore, we identify a frequency-dependent, optically evoked local dynorphin-induced heterosynaptic plasticity of glutamate inputs in the BNST. We also find that there is cell type specificity to the KOR modulation of the BLA-BNST input with greater KOR-mediated inhibition of BLA dynorphin-expressing neurons. Collectively, these results provide support for a model in which local dynorphin release can inhibit an anxiolytic pathway, providing a discrete therapeutic target for the treatment of anxiety disorders.

  4. MAPEAMENTO DE INDÚSTRIAS CRIATIVAS EM SERGIPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmara Menezes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A criatividade é um valor existente em qualquer sociedade. É um recurso inato do ser humano e provavelmente, o mais potente, porque a criatividade desafia e questiona as formas, estruturas e hierarquias. O termo indústrias criativas surgiu nos anos 90, para designar setores nos quais a criatividade é uma dimensão essencial do negócio. As Indústrias Criativas, portanto, são aquelas que têm sua origem na criatividade, habilidade e talento individuais, e possuem o potencial para a criação de riqueza e empregos através da geração e da exploração da propriedade intelectual, compreendem, entre outras, as atividades relacionadas ao cinema, ao teatro, à música e às artes plásticas. O presente artigo traça um painel de discussões sobre as indústrias criativas trazendo visões, definições sobre o tema e mapeamento das indústrias.

  5. REUSO DO EFLUENTE TRATADO NA INDÚSTRIA CURTIDORA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Heinz Luersen

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a possibilidade de reúso do efluente líquido tratado de uma indústria curtidora, foi realizada esta pesquisa. O procedimento experimental comparou a produção de couros confeccionados com água potável, extraída de poços artesianos, com couros produzidos a partir do efluente líquido final tratado. Para alcançar este objetivo, foram realizados testes físicos e químicos através de análises em laboratório (análises químicas e de resistências físicas e avaliações organolépticas executadas por profissionais do setor de couro (quanto a cor, firmeza de flor, enchimento e toque. A avaliação analítica e a das características organolépticas não indicam diferenças representativas quando comparadas aos padrões de referência da ABNT de couros produzidos, permitindo, assim, concluir que o reúso de efluente tratado não altera a aparência dos artigos de couro.

  6. Connectivity between the superior colliculus and the amygdala in humans and macaque monkeys: virtual dissection with probabilistic DTI tractography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Kristin; Bultitude, Janet H.; Mullins, Paul; Ward, Robert; Mitchell, Anna S.; Bell, Andrew H.

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that some cortically blind patients can process the emotional valence of visual stimuli via a fast, subcortical pathway from the superior colliculus (SC) that reaches the amygdala via the pulvinar. We provide in vivo evidence for connectivity between the SC and the amygdala via the pulvinar in both humans and rhesus macaques. Probabilistic diffusion tensor imaging tractography revealed a streamlined path that passes dorsolaterally through the pulvinar before arcing rostrally to traverse above the temporal horn of the lateral ventricle and connect to the lateral amygdala. To obviate artifactual connectivity with crossing fibers of the stria terminalis, the stria was also dissected. The putative streamline between the SC and amygdala traverses above the temporal horn dorsal to the stria terminalis and is positioned medial to it in humans and lateral to it in monkeys. The topography of the streamline was examined in relation to lesion anatomy in five patients who had previously participated in behavioral experiments studying the processing of emotionally valenced visual stimuli. The pulvinar lesion interrupted the streamline in two patients who had exhibited contralesional processing deficits and spared the streamline in three patients who had no deficit. Although not definitive, this evidence supports the existence of a subcortical pathway linking the SC with the amygdala in primates. It also provides a necessary bridge between behavioral data obtained in future studies of neurological patients, and any forthcoming evidence from more invasive techniques, such as anatomical tracing studies and electrophysiological investigations only possible in nonhuman species. PMID:26224780

  7. Distribution of oxytocin and vasopressin neurons in the diencephalon of the Japanese horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum. An immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumamoto, K; Ebara, S; Matsuura, T; Kawata, M

    1992-01-01

    The distribution of oxytocin (OXT) and vasopressin (VP) neurons in the diencephalon of the hibernating Japanese horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, was immunohistochemically investigated by the avidin-biotin complex method. Magnocellular OXT and VP neurons were localized mainly in the paraventricular nucleus and the supraoptic nucleus. In addition to these main nuclei, both kinds of magnocellular neurons were also found in the periventricular nucleus, perifornical area and lateral hypothalamic area. Extensively distributed parvocellular neurons containing only VP were observed in the rostral and middle portions of the suprachiasmatic nucleus. The size of OXT and VP magnocellular neurons was almost equal in the paraventricular and ventromedial supraoptic nuclei, whereas VP neurons were significantly larger than OXT neurons in the dorsolateral supraoptic nucleus. The OXT and VP cells in the ventral supraoptic nucleus showed a distinctive elliptical shape. Both OXT and VP fibers were distributed in the lateral habenular nucleus, stria medullaris thalami, lateral preoptic area, stria terminalis, and medial and supracapsular part of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. Moreover, OXT fibers were found in the substantia nigra, and VP fibers were noted in the nucleus reunions and the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus.

  8. Distinct mechanisms underlie the regulation of body fluid balance by neurokinin B and angiotensin II in the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asami, Rie; Ono, Kentaro; Nakanishi, Osamu; Inenaga, Kiyotoshi

    2011-04-06

    Although central injections of either neurokinin B (NKB) or angiotensin II (ANGII) induce a pressor response, they show different involvements in fluid intake behaviors. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the mechanisms by which these two peptides regulate body fluid balance in rats. We demonstrate that intracerebroventricular injections of NKB (1nmol) and ANGII (0.1nmol) both induce pressor responses. However, only ANGII induced significant water intake and increased sodium preference. Co-injection of NKB suppressed the ANGII-induced sodium preference but did not affect the ANGII-induced water intake. Immunohistochemistry for c-Fos, a marker of neuronal activation, revealed that both NKB and ANGII increased neuronal activation in the circumventricular organs and the hypothalamic paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei. In contrast, only ANGII significantly increased c-Fos immunoreactivity in the paraventricular thalamic nucleus, the central amygdala (CeA) and the ventrolateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTvl). Co-injection of NKB suppressed the ANGII-induced c-Fos expression in the CeA and BSTvl. These results suggest that centrally injected NKB and ANGII lead to common cardiovascular responses by neuronal pathways through the circumventricular organs and hypothalamus but that they regulate fluid intake behaviors through different pathways. It is likely that the opposing effects of these two peptides on sodium preference can be explained by their differential actions in the CeA and BSTvl, both of which are inhibited by NKB and activated by ANGII. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Extending the amygdala in theories of threat processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Andrew S.; Oler, Jonathan A.; Tromp, Do P.M.; Fudge, Julie L.; Kalin, Ned H.

    2015-01-01

    The central extended amygdala is an evolutionarily conserved set of interconnected brain regions that play an important role in threat processing to promote survival. Two core components of the central extended amygdala, the central nucleus of the amygdala (Ce) and the lateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) are highly similar regions that serve complimentary roles by integrating fear- and anxiety-relevant information. Survival depends on the central extended amygdala's ability to rapidly integrate and respond to threats that vary in their immediacy, proximity, and characteristics. Future studies will benefit from understanding alterations in central extended amygdala function in relation to stress-related psychopathology. PMID:25851307

  10. Evolución del cerebro emocional: Análisis comparado de las vías amígdalo-estriatales.

    OpenAIRE

    Novejarque Gadea, Mª Desamparados

    2008-01-01

    RESUMEN La cresta dorsal ventricular posterior (PDVR) y áreas vecinas del telencéfalo de reptiles han sido propuestas como homólogas de la amígdala de mamíferos, ya que, al igual que esta, reciben proyecciones unimodales y multimodales desde regiones del palio, del tálamo y del rombenecéfalo y proyectan al hipotálamo, a través de la stria terminalis, y al tronco cerebral. En mamíferos, la amígdala también presenta proyecciones masivas a todo el estriado, pero los datos de estas proyeccione...

  11. Manipulating an internal pulse generator until twiddler's syndrome in a patient treated with deep brain stimulation for obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzini, Andrea; Ranieri, Rebecca; Gambini, Orsola; Messina, Giuseppe

    2018-02-01

    Twiddler's syndrome consists of rotation or manipulation of an implantable pulse generator (IPG) in its subcutaneous pocket by a patient, thus causing hardware malfunction. This syndrome is being reported more frequently in patients treated with deep brain stimulation (DBS). We report the case of a woman who had received bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BNST) electrodes for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and developed twiddler's syndrome a few months after surgery, causing hardware malfunction due to obsessive manipulation of the IPG. The patient did not have compulsions related to touching objects at admission, thus making it difficult to foresee and prevent TS.

  12. Involvement of nitric oxide generation in noise-induced temporary threshold shift in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuh-Shyang; Tseng, Fen-Yu; Liu, Tien-Chen; Lin-Shiau, Shoei Yn; Hsu, Chuan-Jen

    2005-05-01

    The present study explored the role of endogenous nitric oxide (NO) in the temporary threshold shift caused by acoustic trauma. Guinea pigs were exposed to broadband white noise at a level of 105+/-2dB sound pressure level (SPL) for 10min, causing a temporary threshold shift (TTS). The guinea pigs were divided into six groups (N-1 to N-6) according to survival days after noise exposure (0, 1, 2, 3, 7, 28days). Auditory brainstem responses (ABR) were recorded before noise exposure, immediately after noise exposure and before sacrifice. Immediately after animals were sacrificed, the stria vascularis and the spiral ligament of the lateral wall of each individual cochlea were harvest as a unit and prepared for assay of NO. There was a significant correlation (Pconcentration and final ABR threshold in the noise exposure groups. But the return of ABR threshold to pre-noise-exposed level is early than that of NO concentration. An average 16.2dB threshold shift was found immediately after noise exposure. The threshold returned to the pre-noise-exposed level on the second post-exposure day. Comparing to unexposed control animals, the NO concentration increased nearly threefold immediately following noise exposure and decreased to twofold when the hearing threshold had returned to the pre-noise-exposed level. On the seventh post-exposure day the NO concentration was not different from that in unexposed control animals. Those findings indicate that endogenous NO is generated in the noise-induced temporal threshold shift and its concentration is correlated with the hearing loss.

  13. A Simple Model for Inducing Optimal Increase of SDF-1 with Aminoglycoside Ototoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Mi Ju

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. As a homing factor of stem cell, stromal derived factor-1 (SDF-1 is important for the regenerative research in ototoxicity. Mice models with aminoglycoside ototoxicity have been widely used to study the regeneration capacity of MSCs in repair of cochlear injury. We developed a mouse model with maximal increase in SDF-1 levels in the inner ear, according to the “one-shot” doses of kanamycin and furosemide. Methods. C57BL/6 mice had kanamycin (420, 550, and 600 mg/kg dissolved in PBS, followed by an intraperitoneal injection of furosemide (130 mg/kg. The injuries of inner ear were measured with hearing thresholds, histology, and outer hair cell counts at 0, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 14 days before the sacrifice. The levels of SDF-1 in the inner ear were tested by real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Results. There were a significant reduction in hearing thresholds and a maximal increase of SDF-1 levels in the furosemide 130 mg/kg + kanamycin 550 mg/kg group, but severe hearing deterioration over time was observed in the furosemide 130 mg/kg + kanamycin 600 mg/kg group and four mice were dead. SDF-1 was detected mostly in the stria vascularis and organ of Corti showing the highest increase in expression. Conclusion. We observed optimal induction of the stem cell homing factor in the newly generated aminoglycoside-induced ototoxicity mouse model using a “one-shot” protocol. This study regarding high SDF-1 levels in our mouse model of ototoxicity would play a major role in the development of therapeutic agents using MSC homing.

  14. Increasing adult hippocampal neurogenesis in mice after exposure to unpredictable chronic mild stress may counteract some of the effects of stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culig, Luka; Surget, Alexandre; Bourdey, Marlene; Khemissi, Wahid; Le Guisquet, Anne-Marie; Vogel, Elise; Sahay, Amar; Hen, René; Belzung, Catherine

    2017-11-01

    Major depression is hypothesized to be associated with dysregulations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and impairments in adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Adult-born hippocampal neurons are required for several effects of antidepressants and increasing the rate of adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) before exposure to chronic corticosterone is sufficient to protect against its harmful effects on behavior. However, it is an open question if increasing AHN after the onset of chronic stress exposure would be able to rescue behavioral deficits and which mechanisms might be involved in recovery. We investigated this question by using a 10-week unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) model on a transgenic mouse line (iBax mice), in which the pro-apoptotic gene Bax can be inducibly ablated in neural stem cells following Tamoxifen injection, therefore enhancing the survival of newborn neurons in the adult brain. We did not observe any effect of our treatment in non-stress conditions, but we did find that increasing AHN after 2 weeks of UCMS is sufficient to counteract the effects of UCMS on certain behaviors (splash test and changes in coat state) and endocrine levels and thus to display some antidepressant-like effects. We observed that increasing AHN lowered the elevated basal corticosterone levels in mice exposed to UCMS. This was accompanied by a tamoxifen-induced reversal of the lack of stress-induced decrease in neuronal activation in the anteromedial division of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTMA) after intrahippocampal dexamethasone infusion, pointing to a possible mechanism through which adult-born neurons might have exerted their effects. Our results contribute to the neurogenesis hypothesis of depression by suggesting that increasing AHN may be beneficial not just before, but also after exposure to stress by counteracting several of its effects, in part through regulating the HPA axis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  15. Stressor and glucocorticoid-dependent induction of the immediate early gene kruppel-like factor 9: implications for neural development and plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonett, Ronald M; Hu, Fang; Bagamasbad, Pia; Denver, Robert J

    2009-04-01

    Krüppel-like factor 9 (KLF9) is a thyroid hormone-induced, immediate early gene implicated in neural development in vertebrates. We analyzed stressor and glucocorticoid (GC)-dependent regulation of KLF9 expression in the brain of the frog Xenopus laevis, and investigated a possible role for KLF9 in neuronal differentiation. Exposure to shaking/confinement stressor increased plasma corticosterone (CORT) concentration, and KLF9 immunoreactivity in several brain regions, which included the medial amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, anterior preoptic area (homologous to the mammalian paraventricular nucleus), and optic tectum (homologous to the mammalian superior colliculus). The stressor-induced KLF9 mRNA expression in the brain was blocked by pretreatment with the GC receptor antagonist RU486, or mimicked by injection of CORT. Treatment with CORT also caused a rapid and dose-dependent increase in KLF9 mRNA in X. laevis XTC-2 cells that was resistant to inhibition of protein synthesis. The action of CORT on KLF9 expression in XTC-2 cells was blocked by RU486, but not by the mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist spironolactone. To test for functional consequences of up-regulation of KLF9, we introduced a KLF9 expression plasmid into living tadpole brain by electroporation-mediated gene transfer. Forced expression of KLF9 in tadpole brain caused an increase in Golgi-stained cells, reflective of neuronal differentiation/maturation. Our results support that KLF9 is a direct, GC receptor target gene that is induced by stress, and functions as an intermediary in the actions of GCs on brain gene expression and neuronal structure.

  16. Stressor and Glucocorticoid-Dependent Induction of the Immediate Early Gene Krüppel-Like Factor 9: Implications for Neural Development and Plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonett, Ronald M.; Hu, Fang; Bagamasbad, Pia; Denver, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Krüppel-like factor 9 (KLF9) is a thyroid hormone-induced, immediate early gene implicated in neural development in vertebrates. We analyzed stressor and glucocorticoid (GC)-dependent regulation of KLF9 expression in the brain of the frog Xenopus laevis, and investigated a possible role for KLF9 in neuronal differentiation. Exposure to shaking/confinement stressor increased plasma corticosterone (CORT) concentration, and KLF9 immunoreactivity in several brain regions, which included the medial amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, anterior preoptic area (homologous to the mammalian paraventricular nucleus), and optic tectum (homologous to the mammalian superior colliculus). The stressor-induced KLF9 mRNA expression in the brain was blocked by pretreatment with the GC receptor antagonist RU486, or mimicked by injection of CORT. Treatment with CORT also caused a rapid and dose-dependent increase in KLF9 mRNA in X. laevis XTC-2 cells that was resistant to inhibition of protein synthesis. The action of CORT on KLF9 expression in XTC-2 cells was blocked by RU486, but not by the mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist spironolactone. To test for functional consequences of up-regulation of KLF9, we introduced a KLF9 expression plasmid into living tadpole brain by electroporation-mediated gene transfer. Forced expression of KLF9 in tadpole brain caused an increase in Golgi-stained cells, reflective of neuronal differentiation/maturation. Our results support that KLF9 is a direct, GC receptor target gene that is induced by stress, and functions as an intermediary in the actions of GCs on brain gene expression and neuronal structure. PMID:19036875

  17. Stress differentially regulates brain expression of corticotropin-releasing factor in binge-like eating prone and resistant female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvez, Juliane; de Ávila, Camila; Guèvremont, Geneviève; Timofeeva, Elena

    2016-12-01

    The expression of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), a neuropeptide that regulates endocrine and behavioral responses to stress, was assessed in the brain in rats prone or resistant to stress-induced binge-like eating of sucrose. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to unpredictable intermittent 1-h access to sucrose in non-stressful conditions or after exposure to three foot shock stress sessions. Experimental sessions were performed at metestrus, diestrus, and proestrus. The rats were assigned to the binge-like eating prone (BEP) or the binge-like eating resistant (BER) phenotypes according to the rats' persistently high or low sucrose intake following three stress sessions. The BEP rats displayed elevated consumption of sucrose in non-stressful conditions and an additional significant increase in sucrose intake in response to stress. Conversely, the BER rats showed lower sucrose intake in non-stressful conditions, and stress did not increase sucrose intake in this phenotype. The brain expression of CRF mRNA and plasma corticosterone levels were assessed 30 min after the last stress session at the diestrous phase of the estrous cycle. Stress triggered a significant increase in plasma corticosterone levels and strongly increased CRF mRNA expression in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus in the BER but not in the BEP rats. However, the BEP but not the BER rats demonstrated a significant increase in CRF mRNA expression in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) after stress. Hyporeactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the higher CRF expression in the BNST in BEP rats may contribute to stress-induced binge-like sucrose eating in the BEP phenotype. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Acetaldehyde, a major constituent of tobacco smoke, enhances behavioral, endocrine, and neuronal responses to nicotine in adolescent and adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Junran; Belluzzi, James D; Loughlin, Sandra E; Keyler, Daniel E; Pentel, Paul R; Leslie, Frances M

    2007-09-01

    We have previously shown that acetaldehyde, a constituent of tobacco smoke, increases nicotine self-administration in adolescent, but not adult, rats. The aim of this study was to determine whether acetaldehyde influences other behavioral, endocrine, or neuronal responses to nicotine at either age. Juvenile (postnatal day (P) 27) and adult (P90) male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with saline, acetaldehyde (16 microg/kg/injection x 2, i.v.), nicotine (30 microg/kg/injection x 2, i.v.) or a combination of acetaldehyde and nicotine. Locomotion and center time were evaluated for 30 min in a novel open field, before measurement of plasma corticosterone levels and brain c-fos mRNA. Nicotine increased locomotor activity in juveniles but decreased it in adults; in contrast, center time was increased at both ages. Acetaldehyde potentiated nicotine's locomotor effects, but not center time. Nicotine induced c-fos expression in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), nucleus accumbens, and the superior colliculus (SC) at both ages, whereas it activated the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and consequent corticosterone secretion only in adults. Acetaldehyde potentiated nicotine-induced c-fos in CeA and SC, and activation of PVN c-fos expression/plasma corticosterone release; however, this drug interaction was only observed in behaviorally tested animals, not those that were minimally stressed. Thus, acetaldehyde may modulate the interaction of nicotine and stress. Although pharmacokinetic studies showed that acetaldehyde did not change nicotine levels in either brain or serum, nicotine penetration into the brain was slower in juveniles as compared to adults.

  19. Neuropeptide Y Y1 receptors in the central nucleus of amygdala mediate the anxiolytic-like effect of allopregnanolone in mice: Behavioral and immunocytochemical evidences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deo, Gajanan S; Dandekar, Manoj P; Upadhya, Manoj A; Kokare, Dadasaheb M; Subhedar, Nishikant K

    2010-03-08

    Since allopregnanolone (ALLO) elicits anxiolytic-like action and increases neuropeptide Y Y1 (NPY Y1) receptors gene expression in the amygdala, we were interested in studying the involvement of NPY Y1 receptors in the anxiolytic-like actions of ALLO. The anxiety-like behavior was evaluated in mice using Vogel's conflict test (VCT), in which number of shocks were measured. ALLO and NPYergic agents, alone or in combinations, were administered bilaterally into the central nucleus of amygdala (CeA). The intra-CeA administration of ALLO, NPY or NPY Y1/Y5 receptors agonist [Leu(31), Pro(34)]-NPY resulted in dose-dependent increase in the number of shocks in VCT, indicating anxiolytic-like effect. However, opposite effect was observed following administration of selective NPY Y1 receptors antagonist BIBP3226. While prior administration with NPY or [Leu(31), Pro(34)]-NPY, at the subeffective dose, potentiated the ALLO-induced anxiolytic-like effect, the same was antagonized by BIBP3226. Further, the effect of acute ALLO (30 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) on the endogenous NPY system in the CeA, ventral part of lateral division of bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTLV), nucleus accumbens core (AcbC) and arcuate nucleus (ARC) was studied with immunocytochemistry. Acute ALLO treatment significantly decreased the population of NPY-immunoreactive cells in the CeA and also in the ARC. While NPY-immunoreactive fibers were slightly increased in the AcbC and BSTLV, the cells in AcbC and fibers in ARC did not respond. We suggest that NPY may mediate ALLO induced anxiolytic-like behavior in the neuroanatomical framework of the CeA, possibly via NPY Y1 receptors. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Orexin 1 receptors are a novel target to modulate panic responses and the panic brain network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Philip L; Samuels, Brian C; Fitz, Stephanie D; Federici, Lauren M; Hammes, Nathan; Early, Maureen C; Truitt, William; Lowry, Christopher A; Shekhar, Anantha

    2012-12-05

    Although the hypothalamic orexin system is known to regulate appetitive behaviors and promote wakefulness and arousal (Sakurai, 2007 [56]), this system may also be important in adaptive and pathological anxiety/stress responses (Suzuki et al., 2005 [4]). In a recent study, we demonstrated that CSF orexin levels were significantly higher in patients experiencing panic attacks compared to non-panicking depressed subjects (Johnson et al., 2010 [9]). Furthermore, genetically silencing orexin synthesis or blocking orexin 1 receptors attenuated lactate-induced panic in an animal model of panic disorder. Therefore, in the present study, we tested if orexin (ORX) modulates panic responses and brain pathways activated by two different panicogenic drugs. We conducted a series of pharmacological, behavioral, physiological and immunohistochemical experiments to study the modulation by the orexinergic inputs of anxiety behaviors, autonomic responses, and activation of brain pathways elicited by systemic injections of anxiogenic/panicogenic drugs in rats. We show that systemic injections of two different anxiogenic/panicogenic drugs (FG-7142, an inverse agonist at the benzodiazepine site of the GABA(A) receptor, and caffeine, a nonselective competitive adenosine receptor antagonist) increased c-Fos induction in a specific subset of orexin neurons located in the dorsomedial/perifornical (DMH/PeF) but not the lateral hypothalamus. Pretreating rats with an orexin 1 receptor antagonist attenuated the FG-7142-induced anxiety-like behaviors, increased heart rate, and neuronal activation in key panic pathways, including subregions of the central nucleus of the amygdala, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, periaqueductal gray and in the rostroventrolateral medulla. Overall, the data here suggest that the ORX neurons in the DMH/PeF region are critical to eliciting coordinated panic responses and that ORX1 receptor antagonists constitute a potential novel treatment strategy for panic and

  1. Phasic and sustained fear in humans elicits distinct patterns of brain activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Ruben P; Chen, Gang; Bodurka, Jerzy; Kaplan, Raphael; Grillon, Christian

    2011-03-01

    Aversive events are typically more debilitating when they occur unpredictably than predictably. Studies in humans and animals indicate that predictable and unpredictable aversive events can induce phasic and sustained fear, respectively. Research in rodents suggests that anatomically related but distinct neural circuits may mediate phasic and sustained fear. We explored this issue in humans by examining threat predictability in three virtual reality contexts, one in which electric shocks were predictably signaled by a cue, a second in which shocks occurred unpredictably but never paired with a cue, and a third in which no shocks were delivered. Evidence of threat-induced phasic and sustained fear was presented using fear ratings and skin conductance. Utilizing recent advances in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we were able to conduct whole-brain fMRI at relatively high spatial resolution and still have enough sensitivity to detect transient and sustained signal changes in the basal forebrain. We found that both predictable and unpredictable threat evoked transient activity in the dorsal amygdala, but that only unpredictable threat produced sustained activity in a forebrain region corresponding to the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis complex. Consistent with animal models hypothesizing a role for the cortex in generating sustained fear, sustained signal increases to unpredictable threat were also found in anterior insula and a frontoparietal cortical network associated with hypervigilance. In addition, unpredictable threat led to transient activity in the ventral amygdala-hippocampal area and pregenual anterior cingulate cortex, as well as transient activation and subsequent deactivation of subgenual anterior cingulate cortex, limbic structures that have been implicated in the regulation of emotional behavior and stress responses. In line with basic findings in rodents, these results provide evidence that phasic and sustained fear in humans may

  2. Inducing labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000625.htm Inducing labor To use the sharing features on this page, ... urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...

  3. Distribution of vasotocin- and vasoactive intestinal peptide-like immunoreactivity in the brain of blue tit (Cyanistes coeruleus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagnese, Catherine M.; Székely, Tamás; Csillag, András; Zachar, Gergely

    2015-01-01

    Blue tits (Cyanistes coeruleus) are songbirds, used as model animals in numerous studies covering a wide field of research. Nevertheless, the distribution of neuropeptides in the brain of this avian species remains largely unknown. Here we present some of the first results on distribution of Vasotocine (AVT) and Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in the brain of males and females of this songbird species, using immunohistochemistry mapping. The bulk of AVT-like cells are found in the hypothalamic supraoptic, paraventricular and suprachiasmatic nuclei, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and along the lateral forebrain bundle. Most AVT-like fibers course toward the median eminence, some reaching the arcopallium, and lateral septum. Further terminal fields occur in the dorsal thalamus, ventral tegmental area and pretectal area. Most VIP-like cells are in the lateral septal organ and arcuate nucleus. VIP-like fibers are distributed extensively in the hypothalamus, preoptic area, lateral septum, diagonal band of Broca. They are also found in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, amygdaloid nucleus of taenia, robust nucleus of the arcopallium, caudo-ventral hyperpallium, nucleus accumbens and the brainstem. Taken together, these results suggest that both AVT and VIP immunoreactive structures show similar distribution to other avian species, emphasizing evolutionary conservatism in the history of vertebrates. The current study may enable future investigation into the localization of AVT and VIP, in relation to behavioral and ecological traits in the brain of tit species. PMID:26236200

  4. Distribution of Vasotocin- and Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide-like Immunoreactivity in the Brain of Blue Tit (Cyanistes coeruleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Monique Montagnese

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Blue tits (Cyanistes coeruleus are songbirds, used as model animals in numerous studies covering a wide field of research. Nevertheless, the distribution of neuropeptides in the brain of this avian species remains largely unknown. Here we present some of the first results on distribution of Vasotocine (AVT and Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP in the brain of males and females of this songbird species, using immunohistochemistry mapping.The bulk of AVT-like cells are found in the hypothalamic supraoptic, paraventricular and suprachiasmatic nuclei, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and along the lateral forebrain bundle. Most AVT-like fibers course toward the median eminence, some reaching the arcopallium, and lateral septum. Further terminal fields occur in the dorsal thalamus, ventral tegmental area and pretectal area. Most VIP-like cells are in the lateral septal organ and arcuate nucleus. VIP-like fibers are distributed extensively in the hypothalamus, preoptic area, lateral septum, diagonal band of Broca. They are also found in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, amygdaloid nucleus of taenia, robust nucleus of the arcopallium, caudo-ventral hyperpallium, nucleus accumbens and the brainstem. Taken together, these results suggest that both AVT and VIP immunoreactive structures show similar distribution to other avian species, emphasizing evolutionary conservatism in the history of vertebrates. The current study may enable future investigation into the localization of AVT and VIP, in relation to behavioral and ecological traits in the brain of tit species.

  5. Enhanced sensitivity to attenuation of conditioned reinstatement by the mGluR 2/3 agonist LY379268 and increased functional activity of mGluR 2/3 in rats with a history of ethanol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kufahl, Peter R; Martin-Fardon, Rémi; Weiss, Friedbert

    2011-12-01

    Recent findings implicate group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR(2/3)) in the reinforcing and dependence-inducing actions of ethanol and identify these receptors as treatment targets for alcoholism. Here, we investigated the effects of mGLuR(2/3) activation on conditioned reinstatement in rats with different ethanol-dependence histories and examined dependence-associated changes in the functional activity of mGluR(2/3). Following ethanol self-administration training and conditioning procedures, rats were made ethanol dependent, using ethanol vapor inhalation, under three conditions: a single intoxication and withdrawal episode (SW), repeated cycles of intoxication and withdrawal (RW), or no intoxication (CTRL). At 1 week after removal from ethanol vapor, self-administration resumed until stable baseline performance was reached, followed by extinction of operant responding and reinstatement tests. Post-withdrawal self-administration was increased in the RW group, but all groups showed conditioned reinstatement. The mGluR(2/3) agonist LY379268 dose -dependently reduced reinstatement in all groups, but was more effective at low doses in the SW and RW groups. The highest dose of LY379268 tested reduced spontaneous locomotor activity and operant responding maintained by a non-drug reinforcer, without differences among groups. The heightened sensitivity to the effects of LY379268 in rats with an ethanol-dependence history was therefore specific to behavior motivated by ethanol-related stimuli. Both the SW and RW groups showed elevated [(35)S]GTPγS binding in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) and bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BNST), relative to the CTRL group. The findings implicate changes in mGluR(2/3) functional activity as a factor in ethanol dependence and support treatment target potential of mGlu(2/3) receptors for craving and relapse prevention.

  6. Enhanced Sensitivity to Attenuation of Conditioned Reinstatement by the mGluR2/3 Agonist LY379268 and Increased Functional Activity of mGluR2/3 in Rats with a History of Ethanol Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kufahl, Peter R; Martin-Fardon, Rémi; Weiss, Friedbert

    2011-01-01

    Recent findings implicate group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR2/3) in the reinforcing and dependence-inducing actions of ethanol and identify these receptors as treatment targets for alcoholism. Here, we investigated the effects of mGLuR2/3 activation on conditioned reinstatement in rats with different ethanol-dependence histories and examined dependence-associated changes in the functional activity of mGluR2/3. Following ethanol self-administration training and conditioning procedures, rats were made ethanol dependent, using ethanol vapor inhalation, under three conditions: a single intoxication and withdrawal episode (SW), repeated cycles of intoxication and withdrawal (RW), or no intoxication (CTRL). At 1 week after removal from ethanol vapor, self-administration resumed until stable baseline performance was reached, followed by extinction of operant responding and reinstatement tests. Post-withdrawal self-administration was increased in the RW group, but all groups showed conditioned reinstatement. The mGluR2/3 agonist LY379268 dose -dependently reduced reinstatement in all groups, but was more effective at low doses in the SW and RW groups. The highest dose of LY379268 tested reduced spontaneous locomotor activity and operant responding maintained by a non-drug reinforcer, without differences among groups. The heightened sensitivity to the effects of LY379268 in rats with an ethanol-dependence history was therefore specific to behavior motivated by ethanol-related stimuli. Both the SW and RW groups showed elevated [35S]GTPγS binding in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) and bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BNST), relative to the CTRL group. The findings implicate changes in mGluR2/3 functional activity as a factor in ethanol dependence and support treatment target potential of mGlu2/3 receptors for craving and relapse prevention. PMID:21881571

  7. The long-term effects of stress and kappa opioid receptor activation on conditioned place aversion in male and female California mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laman-Maharg, Abigail R; Copeland, Tiffany; Sanchez, Evelyn Ordoñes; Campi, Katharine L; Trainor, Brian C

    2017-08-14

    Psychosocial stress leads to the activation of kappa opioid receptors (KORs), which induce dysphoria and facilitate depression-like behaviors. However, less is known about the long-term effects of stress and KORs in females. We examined the long-term effects of social defeat stress on the aversive properties of KOR activation in male and female California mice (Peromyscus californicus) using a conditioned place aversion paradigm. Female California mice naïve to social defeat, formed a place aversion following treatment with 2.5mg/kg of the KOR agonist U50,488, but females exposed to defeat did not form a place aversion to this dose. This supports the finding by others that social defeat weakens the aversive properties of KOR agonists. In contrast, both control and stressed males formed an aversion to 10mg/kg of U50,488. We also examined EGR1 immunoreactivity, an indirect marker of neuronal activity, in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and found that stress and treatment with 10mg/kg of U50,488 increased EGR1 immunoreactivity in the NAc core in females but reduced activation in males. The effects of stress and U50,488 on EGR1 were specific to the NAc, as we found no differences in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. In summary, our data indicate important sex differences in the long-term effects of stress and indicate the need for further study of the molecular mechanisms mediating the behavioral effects of KOR in both males and females. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Female mice deficient in alpha-fetoprotein show female-typical neural responses to conspecific-derived pheromones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Brock

    Full Text Available The neural mechanisms controlling sexual behavior are sexually differentiated by the perinatal actions of sex steroid hormones. We recently observed using female mice deficient in alpha-fetoprotein (AFP-KO and which lack the protective actions of AFP against maternal estradiol, that exposure to prenatal estradiol completely defeminized the potential to show lordosis behavior in adulthood. Furthermore, AFP-KO females failed to show any male-directed mate preferences following treatment with estradiol and progesterone, indicating a reduced sexual motivation to seek out the male. In the present study, we asked whether neural responses to male- and female-derived odors are also affected in AFP-KO female mice. Therefore, we compared patterns of Fos, the protein product of the immediate early gene, c-fos, commonly used as a marker of neuronal activation, between wild-type (WT and AFP-KO female mice following exposure to male or estrous female urine. We also tested WT males to confirm the previously observed sex differences in neural responses to male urinary odors. Interestingly, AFP-KO females showed normal, female-like Fos responses, i.e. exposure to urinary odors from male but not estrous female mice induced equivalent levels of Fos protein in the accessory olfactory pathways (e.g. the medial part of the preoptic nucleus, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the amygdala, and the lateral part of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus as well as in the main olfactory pathways (e.g. the piriform cortex and the anterior cortical amygdaloid nucleus, as WT females. By contrast, WT males did not show any significant induction of Fos protein in these brain areas upon exposure to either male or estrous female urinary odors. These results thus suggest that prenatal estradiol is not involved in the sexual differentiation of neural Fos responses to male-derived odors.

  9. α2A-Adrenergic Receptors Heterosynaptically Regulate Glutamatergic Transmission in the BNST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Angela D.; Wang, Qin; Winder, Danny G.

    2009-01-01

    Stress is a major driving force in reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior. The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) has been identified as a key brain region in this behavior, and receives a dense input of the stress-neurotransmitter norepinephrine through the ventral noradrenergic bundle. Activation of α2-adrenergic receptors (α2-ARs) in the BNST blocks stress-induced reinstatement of drug-seeking, indicating a potentially important role for these receptors. Currently, it is unclear how α2-AR agonists elicit this behavioral action, or through which α2-AR subtype. Activation of α2-ARs decreases glutamatergic transmission in the BNST, an effect which is nearly absent in the α2A-AR knockout mouse. Here, we take advantage of a knockin mouse in which a hemagglutinin-tagged α2A-AR was inserted into the endogenous locus, along with the α2A-AR selective agonist guanfacine, to further study the role of the α2A-AR subtype in modulation of neurotransmission in the BNST. Using immunohistochemistry, we find that α2A-ARs are highly expressed in the BNST, and that this expression is more similar in distribution to the vesicular glutamate transporters than to either norepinephrine transporter or tyrosine hydroxylase positive terminals. Using whole cell patch-clamp recordings, we show that guanfacine causes a depression of evoked excitatory and, to a more limited extent, inhibitory fast synaptic transmission. In total, these data support a prominent heterosynaptic role for α2A-ARs in modulating fast synaptic transmission in the BNST. PMID:19527774

  10. Expression of Fos during sham sucrose intake in rats with central gustatory lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungarndee, Suriyaphun S; Lundy, Robert F; Norgren, Ralph

    2008-09-01

    For humans and rodents, ingesting sucrose is rewarding. This experiment tested the prediction that the neural activity produced by sapid sucrose reaches reward systems via projections from the pons through the limbic system. Gastric cannulas drained ingested fluid before absorption. For 10 days, the rats alternated an hour of this sham ingestion between sucrose and water. On the final test day, half of them sham drank water and the other half 0.6 M sucrose. Thirty minutes later, the rats were killed and their brains immunohistochemically stained for Fos. The groups consisted of controls and rats with excitotoxic lesions in the gustatory thalamus (TTA), the medial (gustatory) parabrachial nucleus (PBN), or the lateral (visceral afferent) parabrachial nucleus. In controls, compared with water, sham ingesting sucrose produced significantly more Fos-positive neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract, PBN, TTA, and gustatory cortex (GC). In the ventral forebrain, sucrose sham licking increased Fos in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, central nucleus of amygdala, and the shell of nucleus accumbens. Thalamic lesions blocked the sucrose effect in GC but not in the ventral forebrain. After lateral PBN lesions, the Fos distributions produced by distilled H(2)O or sucrose intake did not differ from controls. Bilateral medial PBN damage, however, eliminated the sucrose-induced Fos increase not only in the TTA and GC but also in the ventral forebrain. Thus ventral forebrain areas associated with affective responses appear to be activated directly by PBN gustatory neurons rather than via the thalamocortical taste system.

  11. The underestimated role of olfaction in avian reproduction ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balthazart, Jacques; Taziaux, Mélanie

    2009-01-01

    Until the second half of the 20th century, it was broadly accepted that most birds are microsmatic if not anosmic and unable to detect and use olfactory information. Exceptions were eventually conceded for species like procellariiforms, vultures or kiwis that detect their food at least in part based on olfactory signals. During the past 20–30 years, many publications have appeared indicating that this view is definitely erroneous. We briefly review here anatomical, electrophysiological and behavioral data demonstrating that birds in general possess a functional olfactory system and are able to use olfactory information in a variety of ethological contexts, including reproduction. Recent work also indicates that brain activation induced by sexual interactions with a female is significantly affected by olfactory deprivation in Japanese quail. Brain activation was measured via immunocytochemical detection of the protein product of the immediate early gene c-fos. Changes observed concerned two brain areas that play a key role in the control of male sexual behavior, the medial preoptic nucleus and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis therefore suggesting a potential role of olfaction in the control of reproduction. The widespread idea that birds are anosmic or microsmatic is thus not supported by the available experimental data and presumably originates in our anthropomorphic view that leads us to think that birds do not smell because they have a rigid beak and nostrils and do not obviously sniff. Experimental analysis of this phenomenon is thus warranted and should lead to a significant change in our understanding of avian biology. PMID:18804490

  12. From here to paternity: neural correlates of the onset of paternal behavior in California mice (Peromyscus californicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Trynke R; Chauke, Miyetani; Harris, Breanna N; Saltzman, Wendy

    2009-08-01

    In a minority of mammalian species, including humans, fathers play a significant role in infant care. Compared to maternal behavior, the neural and hormonal bases of paternal care are poorly understood. We analyzed behavioral, neuronal and neuropeptide responses towards unfamiliar pups in biparental California mice, comparing males housed with another male ("virgin males") or with a female before ("paired males") or after ("new fathers") the birth of their first litter. New fathers approached pups more rapidly and spent more time engaging in paternal behavior than virgin males. In each cage housing two virgin males, one was spontaneously paternal and one was not. New fathers and paired males spent more time sniffing and touching a wire mesh ball containing a newborn pup than virgin males. Only new fathers showed significantly increased Fos-like immunoreactivity in the medial preoptic nucleus (MPO) following exposure to a pup-containing ball, as compared to an empty ball. Moreover, Fos-LIR in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (STMV and STMPM) and caudal dorsal raphe nucleus (DRC) was increased in new fathers, independent of test condition. No differences were found among the groups in Fos-LIR in oxytocinergic or vasopressinergic neurons. These results suggest that sexual and paternal experiences facilitate paternal behavior, but other cues play a role as well. Paternal experience increases Fos-LIR induced by distal pup cues in the MPO, but not in oxytocin and vasopressin neurons. Fatherhood also appears to alter neurotransmission in the BNST and DRC, regions implicated in emotionality and stress-responsiveness.

  13. Evidence for involvement of a limbic paraventricular hypothalamic inhibitory network in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis adaptations to repeated stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radley, Jason J; Sawchenko, Paul E

    2015-12-15

    Emotional stressors activate a stereotyped set of limbic forebrain cell groups implicated in constraining stress-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation by inhibiting hypophysiotropic neurons in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVH). We previously identified a circumscribed, anterior part of the bed nuclei of the stria terminalis (aBST) that houses stress-sensitive, PVH-projecting, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic neurons as representing a site of convergence of stress-inhibitory influences originating from medial prefrontal and hippocampal cortices. Here we investigate whether exaggerated HPA axis responses associated with chronic variable stress (CVS; daily exposure to different stressors at unpredictable times over 14 days, followed by restraint stress on day 15) and diminished HPA output seen following repeated (14 days) restraint-stress exposure are associated with differential engagement of the limbic modulatory network. Relative to acutely restrained rats, animals subjected to CVS showed the expected increase (sensitization) in HPA responses and diminished levels of activation (Fos) of GABAergic neurons and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) mRNA expression in the aBST. By contrast, repeated restraint stress produced habituation in HPA responses, maintained levels of activation of GABAergic neurons, and increased GAD expression in the aBST. aBST-projecting neurons in limbic sites implicated in HPA axis inhibition tended to show diminished activational responses in both repeated-stress paradigms, with the exception of the paraventricular thalamic nucleus, in which responsiveness was maintained in repeatedly restrained animals. The results are consistent with the view that differential engagement of HPA inhibitory mechanisms in the aBST may contribute to alterations in HPA axis responses to emotional stress in sensitization and habituation paradigms. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Contrasting regional Fos expression in adolescent and young adult rats following acute administration of the antidepressant paroxetine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanges, Emily A; Ramos, Linnet; Dampney, Bruno; Suraev, Anastasia S; Li, Kong M; McGregor, Iain S; Hunt, Glenn E

    2016-03-01

    Adolescents and adults may respond differently to antidepressants, with poorer efficacy and greater probability of adverse effects in adolescents. The mechanisms underlying this differential response are largely unknown, but likely relate to an interaction between the neural effects of antidepressants and brain development. We used Fos immunohistochemistry to examine regional differences in adolescent (postnatal day (PND) 28) and young adult (PND 56) male, Wistar rats given a single injection of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor paroxetine (10mg/kg). Paroxetine induced widespread Fos expression in both adolescent and young adult rats. Commonly affected areas include the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (dorsolateral), medial preoptic area, paraventricular hypothalamic and thalamic nuclei and central nucleus of the amygdala. Fos expression was generally lower in adolescents with significantly greater Fos expression observed in young adults in the prelimbic cortex, supraoptic nucleus, basolateral amygdala, lateral parabrachial and Kölliker-Fuse nuclei. However, a small subset of regions showed greater adolescent Fos expression including the nucleus accumbens shell, lateral habenula and dorsal raphe. Paroxetine increased plasma corticosterone concentrations in young adults, but not adolescents. Plasma paroxetine levels were not significantly different between the age groups. These results indicate a different c-Fos signature of acute paroxetine in adolescent rats, with greater activation in key mesolimbic and serotonergic regions, but a more subdued cortical, brainstem and hypothalamic response. This suggests that the atypical response of adolescents to paroxetine may be related to a blunted neuroendocrine response, combined with insufficient top-down regulation of limbic regions involved in reward and impulsivity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Dopamine release from serotonergic nerve fibers is reduced in L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia

    OpenAIRE

    Nevalainen, Nina; af Bjerkén, Sara; Lundblad, Martin; Gerhardt, Greg A.; Strömberg, Ingrid

    2011-01-01

    L-DOPA (3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-L-alanine) is the most commonly used treatment for symptomatic control in patients with Parkinson’s disease. Unfortunately, most patients develop severe side effects, such as dyskinesia, upon chronic L-DOPA treatment. The patophysiology of dyskinesia is unclear, however, involvement of serotonergic nerve fibers in converting L-DOPA to dopamine has been suggested. Therefore, potassium-evoked dopamine release was studied after local application of L-DOPA in the stria...

  16. A single dose of dexamethasone encapsulated in polyethylene glycol-coated polylactic acid nanoparticles attenuates cisplatin-induced hearing loss following round window membrane administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Changling; Wang, Xueling; Zheng, Zhaozhu; Chen, Dongye; Wang, Xiaoqin; Shi, Fuxin; Yu, Dehong; Wu, Hao

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the sustained drug release properties and hearing protection effect of polyethylene glycol-coated polylactic acid (PEG-PLA) stealth nanoparticles loaded with dexamethasone (DEX). DEX was fabricated into PEG-PLA nanoparticles using an emulsion and evaporation technique, as previously reported. The DEX-loaded PEG-PLA nanoparticles (DEX-NPs) had a hydrodynamic diameter of 130±4.78 nm, and a zeta potential of −26.13±3.28 mV. The in vitro release of DEX from DEX-NPs lasted 24 days in phosphate buffered saline (pH 7.4), 5 days in artificial perilymph (pH 7.4), and 1 day in rat plasma. Coumarin 6-labeled NPs placed onto the round window membrane (RWM) of guinea pigs penetrated RWM quickly and accumulated to the organs of Corti, stria vascularis, and spiral ganglion cells after 1 hour of administration. The DEX-NPs locally applied onto the RWM of guinea pigs by a single-dose administration continuously released DEX in 48 hours, which was significantly longer than the free DEX that was cleared out within 12 hours after administration at the same dose. Further functional studies showed that locally administrated single-dose DEX-NPs effectively preserved outer hair cells in guinea pigs after cisplatin insult and thus significantly attenuated hearing loss at 4 kHz and 8 kHz frequencies when compared to the control of free DEX formulation. Histological analyses indicated that the administration of DEX-NPs did not induce local inflammatory responses. Therefore, prolonged delivery of DEX by PEG-PLA nanoparticles through local RWM diffusion (administration) significantly protected the hair cells and auditory function in guinea pigs from cisplatin toxicity, as determined at both histological and functional levels, suggesting the potential therapeutic benefits in clinical applications. PMID:25999718

  17. Tallinna Lennujaama vana terminali renoveerimine = Renovation of Tallinn Airport's old terminal / Epp Lankots

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lankots, Epp, 1976-

    2005-01-01

    Arhitektid: Andres Põime, Reet Põime, Tiiu Truus. Tallinna Lennujaama reisijateterminali projekteerisid 1939. a. arhitektid Roman Koolmar ja Artur Jürvetson, hoone valmis Paula Koido rekonstrueerimisprojekti järgi. Ill.: 2 värv. sisevaadet, välisvaade

  18. Protective role of intratympanic nigella sativa oil against gentamicin induced hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edizer, Deniz Tuna; Yigit, Ozgur; Cinar, Zehra; Gul, Mehmet; Kara, Eyyup; Yigitcan, Birgul; Hayır, Duygu; Atas, Ahmet

    2017-06-01

    Aminoglycosides, used to combat with life-threatening infections, have a substantial risk of hearing loss. Nigella sativa is an annual herbaceous plant and used for treatment of many diseases for ages. We aimed to investigate the protective role of intratympanic nigella sativa oil against gentamicin induced hearing loss in an animal model. Twenty eight guinea pigs were randomly divided into four groups: i-control, ii- Intratympanic nigella sativa oil (IT-NSO), iii- Intraperitoneal gentamicin (IP-G) and iv- Intraperitoneal gentamicin and intratympanic nigella sativa oil (IP-G + IT-NSO). Preoperative and postoperative hearing thresholds were determined with auditory brainstem response with click and 8 kHz tone-burst stimuli. Histological analysis of the cochlea specimens were performed under light microscope. Semiquantitative grading of the histological findings was carried out and compared between the groups. Highest posttreatment hearing thresholds were detected in IP-G group. Posttreatment mean hearing threshold of the IP-G group with click stimulus was significantly higher than the IP-G + IT-NSO group (p = 0.004). whereas the difference was not significant with 8 kHz tone-burst stimulus (p = 0.137). Both IP-G and IP-G + IT-NSO groups had significantly higher hearing thresholds compared to control and IT-NSO groups (p > 0.05). Histological examination of the control and IT-NSO groups demonstrated normal appearance of cochlear nerve, stria vascularis and organ of Corti. IP-G group showed the most severe histological alterations including hydropic and vacuolar degenerations, hair cell damage and deformation of the basilar mambrane. Histological evidence of damage was significantly reduced in IP-G + IT-NSO group compared to IP-G group. Addition of intratympanic NSO to systemic gentamicin was demonstrated to have beneficial effects in hearing thresholds which was supported by histological findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions & Treatments ▸ Conditions Dictionary ▸ Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction Share | Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction (EIB) « Back to A to Z Listing Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction, (EIB), often known as exercise-induced ...

  20. [Induced abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, S

    1987-09-01

    It is recommended that adopt an Abortion Law in place of its Eugenic Protection Law. At present 560,000 cases of abortion are performed yearly in Japan in spite of the fact that 90% of married couples are practicing birth control. That means that each year 1 out of 50 women at childbearing age (between 15-44 years of age) has an abortion. Induced abortion is illegal in Japan in accordance with Article 29 of the Criminal Law which came into effect in 1881. However, based on the Eugenic Protection Law put into effect in 1948, induced abortions performed by Eugenic Protection Law designated doctors are legal. Since the 1975 Declaration of International Year of Women Projects in 38% of the countries around the world, legalized abortion is available during the 1st trimester. In such countries as England, Sweden, and East Germany a woman's right to abortion is protected by an Abortion Law. Japan should follow their steps. Abortion, however, does leave emotional as well as physical scars on women. More expanded sex education which deals with teenage pregnancy, male/female relationships leading to unwanted pregnancy, morality of sex, contraception, etc., is needed.

  1. A PRÁTICA EDUCATIVA DA ATIVIDADE MOTORA NA INDÚSTRIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima Fernandes Vara Sípoli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo levantou, em uma indústria do ramo de eletro-eletrônicos da Região Metropolitana de Curitiba, questões sobre o significado da prática motora, buscando sua contribuiçãopara a formação global do trabalhador. Objetivou analisar como está acontecendo a prática da atividade física laboral e se os trabalhadores compreendem o significadoda ginástica laboral como prática educativa. A atividade física na indústria tem a finalidade de garantir as ações necessárias para a promoção da saúde dos trabalhadorese uma real valorização do corpo e do movimento. Ao orientar atividades motoras para o trabalhador, deve ser dada a oportunidade de vivenciar autênticas experiências corporais, que ele crie sua própria concepção de movimento, como parte da construção do conhecimento na perspectiva da práxis. A compreensão da dimensão educativa do conhecimento motor pode possibilitar ao aluno-trabalhador uma real vivênciado sentido de responsabilidade do sujeito na construção da realidade. O instrumento utilizado para a coleta foi uma entrevista semi-estruturada. A partir da análise dos resultados, conclui-se que, embora todos os entrevistados trabalhem no chão de fábrica e sofram um grande desgaste físico, nem todos têm acesso à ginástica laboral, alguns têm acesso, mas não fazem. Deve-se aprofundar na busca da realidade a ser enfrentada: o respeito pelas características individuais de cada trabalhador, suas capacidades e limitações. A ginástica laboral deve ser a produção própria e criativa do conhecimento. Sem esse enfoque, será informativa, quando deveria ser formativa.

  2. APLICAÇÃO DO OZÔNIO NA INDÚSTRIA DE ALIMENTOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Vasconcellos CHIATTONE

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Realizou-se um levantamento de dados disponíveis sobre o ozônio, enfocando suas propriedades físico-químicas, métodos de síntese e medição, estabilidade em meio aquoso, poder germicida, efeitos sobre a saúde humana e vantagens de sua aplicação na indústria alimentícia, em que se destaca na higienização e sanitização de produtos e equipamentos, bem como no tratamento de efluentes. O ozônio é uma molécula fortemente oxidante e reativa, conhecido e utilizado há décadas como coadjuvante na desinfecção da água em países da União Européia. Além disso, uma gama de aplicabilidades tem surgido para o ozônio, sobretudo devido aos novos conhecimentos quanto às suas características e propriedades. Por ser bactericida, investigações de sua atuação sobre uma grande variedade de microrganismos, na forma de células vegetativas ou esporos, em ambientes industriais e também nos alimentos, têm despertado atenção especial de pesquisadores de todo o mundo. A importância em estudar o ozônio na indústria alimentícia baseia-se no aspecto de tratar-se de uma molécula que se decompõe facilmente sem deixar resíduos, podendo ser aplicado em alimentos, sem risco de toxidez para os consumidores.

  3. REPRESENTAÇÕES DO TRABALHO: ESTUDO SOBRE CONFINAMENTO NA INDÚSTRIA PETROLÍFERA

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    Denise Medeiros Ribeiro Salles

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the influence of the confined work system on the organizational environment representations and social behaviors, inside and outside the workplace. Confinement may be referred to as a total experience in the workplace, imposing special work and life regimes over workers. The study, based on Bourdieu´s and on Moscovici’s Social Representations Theory, explored how confined workers construct meanings and representations of their work through free evocation and discourse analysis. Forty interviews were conducted in two large companies in the oil industry, with head offices in the cities of Rio de Janeiro and Duque de Caxias (RJ. The results presented confirmed the influence of confined work environments in the formation of beliefs and the consolidation of specific behaviors, based on defense mechanisms designed to maintain psychological stability of workers, essential to survival in such environments.

  4. TECNOLOGIA DA INFORMAÇÃO E PRODUTIVIDADE NA INDÚSTRIA BRASILEIRA

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    Jano Moreira de Souza

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article seeks to quantify the impact of information technology solutions on workers' productivity in the Brazilian processing industry. This study was based on a sample of 26,776 companies. This data was obtained from the Annual Industrial Study (PIA and Industrial Survey of Technological Innovation (PINTEC, both of which were conducted by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE; the Annual Report on Social Information (RAIS published by the Ministry of Labor (MTE; data from the Secretariat of Foreign Trade (SECEX from the Ministry of Development, Industry and Foreign Trade (MDIC; and the Foreign Capital Census published by the Central Bank of Brazil. The database was compiled and organized by the Institute of Applied Economic Research (IPEA. The estimated econometric cross-sectional model is for the year of 2003. The results indicate that the adoption of IT solutions positively affect personnel productivity.

  5. XILITOL: UM ADOÇANTE ALTERNATIVO PARA A INDÚSTRIA DE ALIMENTOS

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    Silvio Silvério da SILVA

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available

    RESUMO: O xilitol é um açúcar-álcool de grande valor econômico e social, devido à sua ampla utilização em vários segmentos industriais. Esta revisão pretende mostrar algumas das aplicações mais significativas do xilitol nas indústrias de alimentos, odontológica e farmacêutica. PALAVRAS – CHAVE: Xilitol; adoçante.

  6. TRABALHO, AGRONEGÓCIO E GESTÃO TERRITORIAL DO CAPITAL NA AGROINDÚSTRIA SUCROALCOOLEIRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Thomaz Jr.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available As novas formas de controle do processo de trabalho e de gestão territorial do capital sobre a ctrabalhadora é o que estamos nos dedicando. Questões como superexploração do trabalho, incrementoconcentração da propriedade da terra, articulada ou não com a centralização e concentração de capfortalecimento das relações de assalariamento por um lado, e de relações não assalariadas por outro - como nodos produtores camponeses, integrados, em bases familiares, com a explicitação das diferentes formaapropriação da renda da terra e do excedente, é o substrato em que o agronegócio está implementando seu prode expansão e ganhos com base em diferentes ações simultâneas. Assim, a efetivação dos investimentostecnologia associadas às formas de gestão e controle do processo de trabalho colocam ao mesmo tempo, ndesafios ao movimento sindical. Desde os controles microprocessados na planta fabril, passando pela intensificdo corte mecanizado da cana, à sofisticação dos mecanismos de gestão e controle do processo de produçãoforça de trabalho, incluindo-se a ampliação do processo de terceirização e da participação das cooperativas de mde-obra, bem como as reais possibilidades que se abrem para a constituição de cadeias produtivas (comobagaço e da sucroalcoolquímica, ultrapassam, os limites do ramo agroindustrial sucroalcooleiro e, aindrecrudescimento da concentração e centralização de capital. Temos que considerar também o novo ceninstitucional, que por um lado, remete ao culto à negociação, às reminiscências das câmaras setoriais, permanecos trabalhadores imersos na roda viva dos desígnios do capital.

  7. PROSPECÇÃO TECNOLÓGICA: MORINDA CITRIFOLIA E INDÚSTRIA FARMACÊUTICA

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    Mairim Russo Serafini

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available As plantas medicinais têm sido utilizadas desde a antiguidade para o tratamento de diversas doenças. Morinda citrifolia L. (“Noni” é uma planta vastamente empregada pelos povos polinésios há mais de 2000 anos, devido a sua ampla variedade de efeitos terapêuticos, incluindo relatos para dor de cabeça, febre, artrite, gengivite, distúrbios respiratórios, infecções, tuberculose e diabetes, utilizada geralmente em fitoterápicos e cosméticos. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo fazer um mapeamento das pesquisas já desenvolvidas, analisando as potencialidades e a evolução das competências tecnológicas traduzidas através dos depósitos de patentes no que se refere à Morinda citrifolia. A prospecção foi realizada no Banco Europeu de Patentes, no Banco da Organização Mundial de Propriedade Intelectual, no Banco Americano de Marcas e Patentes e no Banco de dados do Instituto Nacional de Propriedade Industrial do Brasil. A classificação internacional mais abundante nessa prospecção foi a Subseção A61 e principalmente na Subclasse A61K, seguido de A61Q e A61P. Dentre os maiores depositantes estão Estados Unidos e Japão.  Os dados demonstram uma área promissora, com crescimento relevante de patentes depositadas

  8. TRATAMENTOS ALTERNATIVOS DO EFLUENTE DE UMA INDÚSTRIA DE CELULOSE BRANQUEADA E PAPEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Edmundo Bochetti Foelkel

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho procurou avaliar a eficiência de tratamento floculante com sulfato de alumínio ou cloreto férrico para o efluente bruto neutralizado de uma indústria de celulose e papel. A filtração do efluente, removendo fibras, finos, macromoléculas e flocos naturais, permitiu expressivas reduções da cor aparente, cor real e DQO do mesmo. Enquanto o sulfato de alumínio mostrou excelentes resultados, o cloreto férrico não teve bom desempenho. Deve-se otimizar as concentrações, as formas de agitação e a decantação dos flocos. Para as amostras testadas, na primeira seqüência de testes, concentrações com cerca de 2500 ppm de sulfato de alumínio (com 14 moléculas de água de hidratação mostraram ótimos resultados para redução de cor aparente, cor real, DQO e cloretos. Conforme o previsto, na segunda seqüência de testes as concentrações de [Al2(SO43 . 14 H2O] diminuíram para todos os índices físico-químicos testados. A melhor concentração para pH, cor aparente e cor real foi de 1000 ppm filtrado, enquanto que para cloretos foi de 2000 ppm não filtrado, com o tempo de agitação de 1 minuto com alta velocidade e 15 minutos à baixa velocidade, com exceção da cor real que foi de 10 minutos à baixa velocidade. Como recomendação, sugere-se avaliar uma etapa seqüencial de filtração após clarifloculação/decantação. Com isso, o desempenho de um tratamento físico-químico de efluentes desse tipo será eficiente, apesar do custo envolvido na aquisição do insumo sulfato de alumínio.

  9. EFEITO GOVERNO E CERTIFICAÇÃO NA INDÚSTRIA BRASILEIRA DE SOFTWARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Ramos May

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho analisa o papel do Estado brasileiro como agente influenciador das estratégias de qualidade das empresas produtoras de software no Brasil. A partir dos dados coletados entre os anos de 1995-2009, conduziu-se um estudo longitudinal quantitativo e descritivo. Foram estudadas 2.229 empresas de software. Sob a perspectiva dos fundamentos da Teoria da Agência e da Teoria dos Custos de Transação, observa-se a conscientização da necessidade de certificação no cenário internacional. A mudança significativa no perfil das empresas pôde ser observada pela adoção de modelos de certificação para o setor, em especial o MPS.BR, especificamente desenvolvidos por agências governamentais em parceria com universidades e entidades privadas. A capacitação tecnológica das empresas foi obtida por meio de subsídios e apoio governamental, como incentivo à busca da competitividade nacional e internacional.

  10. AS INDÚSTRIAS CULTURAIS E CRIATIVAS BASEADAS NOS CÍRCULOS CONCÊNTRICOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane Barili

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo se propõe a demonstrar um panorama atualizado dos setores criativos do I Congresso de Indústrias Criativas, realizado na Universidade Feevale em 2015. Ele identifica como os trabalhos do congresso se relacionam com o modelo de Economia Criativa apresentado pela UNESCO, em sua edição de 2013. Este estudo apresenta uma fundamentação teórica sobre os conceitos de Indústria Criativa, Economia Criativa e Indústria Cultural, com o auxílio dos principais teóricos da área. Metodologicamente, este trabalho se realiza com a técnica da bibliometria, leitura e análise dos dados coletados. Sendo assim, este trabalho demonstra um panorama atualizado dos setores criativos, observando quais deles estão em maior crescimento a partir dos trabalhos analisados. O estudo revelou uma pulverização de estudos na área e que o setor da Indústria Criativa em maior evidência é aquele relacionado com áreas de publicidade, televisão e moda. Também se destacam a interdisciplinaridade e as mais diferentes áreas de formação dos profissionais que atuam na Indústria Criativa. Palavras-chave: Indústria Criativa. Economia Criativa. Economia Cultural.

  11. HIDROFOBICIDADE DE RIBOTIPOS DE BACILLUS CEREUS ISOLADOS DE INDÚSTRIA DE LATICÍNIOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliane Andrade ARAÚJO

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available

    A contaminação de superfícies por microrganismos deterioradores e patogênicos é causa de preocupação na indústria de alimentos. Desenvolvimento de biofilmes em ambientes de processamento de alimentos resulta na deterioração do produto e em possíveis riscos para a saúde pública, além de criar sérios problemas nas operações de processamento do fl uido. A adesão da bactéria à superfície é um dos primeiros passos para a formação do biofilme e propriedades físico-químicas da interface bacteriana infl uenciam o processo de adesão microbiana e, consequentemente, os procedimentos operacionais de higienização. A estrutura do biofilme e as características fisiológicas do microrganismo podem conferir resistência aos agentes antimicrobianos, como por exemplo, aos sanitizantes usados no procedimento de higienização. Dentre os fatores que infl uenciam o processo de adesão, as características de hidrofobicidade do microrganismo e da superfície apresentam grande importância nos mecanismos de adesão. As técnicas da medição do ângulo de contato e da coluna de interação hidrofóbica, para determinação da hidrofobicidade de superfícies de ribotipos de Bacillus cereus isolados de indústria de laticínios, foram avaliadas. Observou-se que as quatro superfícies dos ribotipos avaliados apresentaram a mesma classificação quanto à hidrofobicidade tanto pela medida do ângulo de contato com a água quanto pela determinação da energia livre de interação hidrofóbica (ΔGsas TOT. Três ribotipos foram considerados hidrofílicos e um hidrofóbico. Já a técnica da coluna de interação hidrofóbica não mostrou diferença (p>0,05 no percentual de células retidas na coluna, sugerindo que as superfícies dos ribotipos apresentam as mesmas características quanto à hidrofobicidade. Os resultados indicam que a técnica da medição do ângulo de contato é a mais indicada para avaliar a hidrofobicidade de superfícies celulares. A determinação da hidrofobicidade da superfície celular é relevante, uma vez que quando se conhece também a hidrofobicidade da superfície de processamento é possível predizer se a adesão bacteriana é termodinamicamente favorável, a fim de adotar métodos eficientes para reduzir a contaminação de B.cereus e conseqüente adesão e formação de biofilmes.

  12. INTERLIGANDO A CADEIA PRODUTIVA NA INDÚSTRIA DE BENEFICIAMENTO DO ARROZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Otávio Zamberlan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Every organization makes predictions in their processes, any estimated to assist in making decisions about what Rice is an important product for the world economy as it is consumed in a significant way in several countries around the world. Primary production has been receiving constant innovation which is reflected in increased quality and productivity. Therice beneficiation industry is to act in order to innovate in production processes and the relationship with your supplier. However, little is said of the actions taken to bring the bonds to the amount of agribusiness in the chain of rice. This work aims to analyze ofrelationship exists with other elements of the rice production chain by agents agribusinessprocessors. Through a qualitative methodology, based on content analysis, we concluded that there are joint activities, especially involving industry associations, but little is donein relation to distributors

  13. Role of testosterone in mediating prenatal ethanol effects on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Ni; Hellemans, Kim G C; Ellis, Linda; Viau, Victor; Weinberg, Joanne

    2009-10-01

    nucleus and the principal nucleus of posterior bed nucleus of the stria terminalis were lower in E and PF compared to C males under intact conditions. Together, these data support our previous work suggesting altered sensitivity to testosterone in E males. Furthermore, differential effects of testosterone on the complex balance between central CRH and central AVP pathways may play a role in the HPA alterations observed. That some findings were similar in E and PF males suggest that nutritional effects of diet may have played a role in mediating at least some of the changes seen in E animals.

  14. Thrombocytopenia - drug induced

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drug-induced thrombocytopenia; Immune thrombocytopenia - drug ... Drug-induced thrombocytopenia occurs when certain medicines destroy platelets or interfere with the body's ability to make enough of them. There ...

  15. Neudesin is involved in anxiety behavior: structural and neurochemical correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley eNovais

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Neudesin (also known as neuron derived neurotrophic factor, Nenf is a scarcely studied putative non-canonical neurotrophic factor. In order to understand its function in the brain, we performed an extensive behavioral characterization (motor, emotional and cognitive dimensions of neudesin-null mice. The absence of neudesin leads to an anxious-like behavior as assessed in the elevated plus maze, light/dark box and novelty suppressed feeding tests, but not in the acoustic startle test. This anxious phenotype is associated with reduced dopaminergic input and impoverished dendritic arborizations in the dentate gyrus granule neurons of the ventral hippocampus. Interestingly, shorter dendrites are also observed in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST of neudesin-null mice. These findings lead us to suggest that neudesin is a novel relevant player in the maintenance of the anxiety circuitry.

  16. NPBWR1 and NPBWR2: implications in energy homeostasis, pain, and emotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi eSakurai

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Neuropeptide B/W receptor 1 (NPBWR1 and NPBWR2 had been known as orphan receptors GPR7 and 8, respectively. Endogenous peptide ligands of these receptors, neuropeptide B and neuropeptide W, were identified in 2002 and 2003 (1-3. These peptides have been implicated in regulation of feeding behavior, energy homeostasis, neuroendocrine function, and modulating inflammatory pain. In addition, strong and discrete expression of their receptors in the extended amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis suggests a potential role in regulating stress responses, emotion, anxiety and fear. Recent studies of NPB/NPW using both pharmacological and phenotypic analyses of genetically engineered mice as well as a human study support this hypothesis.

  17. Disruption of ion-trafficking system in the cochlear spiral ligament prior to permanent hearing loss induced by exposure to intense noise: possible involvement of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal as a mediator of oxidative stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taro Yamaguchi

    Full Text Available Noise-induced hearing loss is at least in part due to disruption of endocochlear potential, which is maintained by various K(+ transport apparatuses including Na(+, K(+-ATPase and gap junction-mediated intercellular communication in the lateral wall structures. In this study, we examined the changes in the ion-trafficking-related proteins in the spiral ligament fibrocytes (SLFs following in vivo acoustic overstimulation or in vitro exposure of cultured SLFs to 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, which is a mediator of oxidative stress. Connexin (Cx26 and Cx30 were ubiquitously expressed throughout the spiral ligament, whereas Na(+, K(+-ATPase α1 was predominantly detected in the stria vascularis and spiral prominence (type 2 SLFs. One-hour exposure of mice to 8 kHz octave band noise at a 110 dB sound pressure level produced an immediate and prolonged decrease in the Cx26 expression level and in Na+, K(+-ATPase activity, as well as a delayed decrease in Cx30 expression in the SLFs. The noise-induced hearing loss and decrease in the Cx26 protein level and Na(+, K(+-ATPase activity were abolished by a systemic treatment with a free radical-scavenging agent, 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine 1-oxyl, or with a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, N(ω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride. In vitro exposure of SLFs in primary culture to 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal produced a decrease in the protein levels of Cx26 and Na(+, K(+-ATPase α1, as well as Na(+, K(+-ATPase activity, and also resulted in dysfunction of the intercellular communication between the SLFs. Taken together, our data suggest that disruption of the ion-trafficking system in the cochlear SLFs is caused by the decrease in Cxs level and Na(+, K(+-ATPase activity, and at least in part involved in permanent hearing loss induced by intense noise. Oxidative stress-mediated products might contribute to the decrease in Cxs content and Na(+, K(+-ATPase activity in the cochlear lateral wall structures.

  18. Extrachromosomal inducible expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltman, Douwe M; Van Haastert, Peter J M

    2013-01-01

    Inducible expression systems are very convenient for proteins that induce strong side effects such as retardation of growth or development and are essential for the expression of toxic proteins. In this chapter we describe the doxycycline-inducible expression system, optimized for the controlled

  19. Cavitation-resistant inducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Charlton; Subbaraman, Maria R.

    1989-01-01

    An improvement in an inducer for a pump wherein the inducer includes a hub, a plurality of radially extending substantially helical blades and a wall member extending about and encompassing an outer periphery of the blades. The improvement comprises forming adjacent pairs of blades and the hub to provide a substantially rectangular cross-sectional flow area which cross-sectional flow area decreases from the inlet end of the inducer to a discharge end of the inducer, resulting in increased inducer efficiency improved suction performance, reduced susceptibility to cavitation, reduced susceptibility to hub separation and reduced fabrication costs.

  20. Genoarchitecture of the extended amygdala in zebra finch, and expression of FoxP2 in cell corridors of different genetic profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicario, Alba; Mendoza, Ezequiel; Abellán, Antonio; Scharff, Constance; Medina, Loreta

    2017-01-01

    We used a battery of genes encoding transcription factors (Pax6, Islet1, Nkx2.1, Lhx6, Lhx5, Lhx9, FoxP2) and neuropeptides to study the extended amygdala in developing zebra finches. We identified different components of the central extended amygdala comparable to those found in mice and chickens, including the intercalated amygdalar cells, the central amygdala, and the lateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. Many cells likely originate in the dorsal striatal domain, ventral striatal domain, or the pallidal domain, as is the case in mice and chickens. Moreover, a cell subpopulation of the central extended amygdala appears to originate in the prethalamic eminence. As a general principle, these different cells with specific genetic profiles and embryonic origin form separate or partially intermingled cell corridors along the extended amygdala, which may be involved in different functional pathways. In addition, we identified the medial amygdala of the zebra finch. Like in the chickens and mice, it is located in the subpallium and is rich in cells of pallido-preoptic origin, containing minor subpopulations of immigrant cells from the ventral pallium, alar hypothalamus and prethalamic eminence. We also proposed that the medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis is composed of several parallel cell corridors with different genetic profile and embryonic origin: preoptic, pallidal, hypothalamic, and prethalamic. Several of these cell corridors with distinct origin express FoxP2, a transcription factor implicated in synaptic plasticity. Our results pave the way for studies using zebra finches to understand the neural basis of social behavior, in which the extended amygdala is involved.

  1. The extended amygdala and salt appetite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, A. K.; de Olmos, J.; Pastuskovas, C. V.; Zardetto-Smith, A. M.; Vivas, L.

    1999-01-01

    Both chemo- and mechanosensitive receptors are involved in detecting changes in the signals that reflect the status of body fluids and of blood pressure. These receptors are located in the systemic circulatory system and in the sensory circumventricular organs of the brain. Under conditions of body fluid deficit or of marked changes in fluid distribution, multiple inputs derived from these humoral and neural receptors converge on key areas of the brain where the information is integrated. The result of this central processing is the mobilization of homeostatic behaviors (thirst and salt appetite), hormone release, autonomic changes, and cardiovascular adjustments. This review discusses the current understanding of the nature and role of the central and systemic receptors involved in the facilitation and inhibition of thirst and salt appetite and on particular components of the central neural network that receive and process input derived from fluid- and cardiovascular-related sensory systems. Special attention is paid to the structures of the lamina terminalis, the area postrema, the lateral parabrachial nucleus, and their association with the central nucleus of the amygdala and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in controlling the behaviors that participate in maintaining body fluid and cardiovascular homeostasis.

  2. Nr4a1-eGFP is a marker of striosome-matrix architecture, development and activity in the extended striatum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret I Davis

    Full Text Available Transgenic mice expressing eGFP under population specific promoters are widely used in neuroscience to identify specific subsets of neurons in situ and as sensors of neuronal activity in vivo. Mice expressing eGFP from a bacterial artificial chromosome under the Nr4a1 promoter have high expression within the basal ganglia, particularly within the striosome compartments and striatal-like regions of the extended amygdala (bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, striatal fundus, central amygdaloid nucleus and intercalated cells. Grossly, eGFP expression is inverse to the matrix marker calbindin 28K and overlaps with mu-opioid receptor immunoreactivity in the striatum. This pattern of expression is similar to Drd1, but not Drd2, dopamine receptor driven eGFP expression in structures targeted by medium spiny neuron afferents. Striosomal expression is strong developmentally where Nr4a1-eGFP expression overlaps with Drd1, TrkB, tyrosine hydroxylase and phospho-ERK, but not phospho-CREB, immunoreactivity in "dopamine islands". Exposure of adolescent mice to methylphenidate resulted in an increase in eGFP in both compartments in the dorsolateral striatum but eGFP expression remained brighter in the striosomes. To address the role of activity in Nr4a1-eGFP expression, primary striatal cultures were prepared from neonatal mice and treated with forskolin, BDNF, SKF-83822 or high extracellular potassium and eGFP was measured fluorometrically in lysates. eGFP was induced in both neurons and contaminating glia in response to forskolin but SKF-83822, brain derived neurotrophic factor and depolarization increased eGFP in neuronal-like cells selectively. High levels of eGFP were primarily associated with Drd1+ neurons in vitro detected by immunofluorescence; however ∼15% of the brightly expressing cells contained punctate met-enkephalin immunoreactivity. The Nr4a1-GFP mouse strain will be a useful model for examining the connectivity, physiology, activity and

  3. Induced radioactivity at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    A description of some of the problems and some of the advantages associated with the phenomenon of induced radioactivity at accelerator centres such as CERN. The author has worked in this field for several years and has recently written a book 'Induced Radioactivity' published by North-Holland.

  4. Drug induced aseptic meningitis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. EZECHUKWU

    2013-09-29

    Sep 29, 2013 ... Drug induced aseptic meningitis can mimic an infectious process as well as meningitis secondary to systemic disorders for which treatment of these drugs were used. 6,9,10. Drug-induced aseptic meningitis may develop in a pa- tient who initially was able to tolerate the causative drug. The patients in our ...

  5. Diet induced thermogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westerterp KR

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective Daily energy expenditure consists of three components: basal metabolic rate, diet-induced thermogenesis and the energy cost of physical activity. Here, data on diet-induced thermogenesis are reviewed in relation to measuring conditions and characteristics of the diet. Methods Measuring conditions include nutritional status of the subject, physical activity and duration of the observation. Diet characteristics are energy content and macronutrient composition. Results Most studies measure diet-induced thermogenesis as the increase in energy expenditure above basal metabolic rate. Generally, the hierarchy in macronutrient oxidation in the postprandial state is reflected similarly in diet-induced thermogenesis, with the sequence alcohol, protein, carbohydrate, and fat. A mixed diet consumed at energy balance results in a diet induced energy expenditure of 5 to 15 % of daily energy expenditure. Values are higher at a relatively high protein and alcohol consumption and lower at a high fat consumption. Protein induced thermogenesis has an important effect on satiety. In conclusion, the main determinants of diet-induced thermogenesis are the energy content and the protein- and alcohol fraction of the diet. Protein plays a key role in body weight regulation through satiety related to diet-induced thermogenesis.

  6. Bleomycin-induced pneumonitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Sleijfer (Stefan)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThe cytotoxic agent bleomycin is feared for its induction of sometimes fatal pulmonary toxicity, also known as bleomycin-induced pneumonitis (BIP). The central event in the development of BIP is endothelial damage of the lung vasculature due to bleomycin-induced

  7. Diet induced thermogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerterp, K.R.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Daily energy expenditure consists of three components: basal metabolic rate, diet-induced thermogenesis and the energy cost of physical activity. Here, data on diet-induced thermogenesis are reviewed in relation to measuring conditions and characteristics of the diet. METHODS: Measuring

  8. Induced affine inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azri, Hemza; Demir, Durmuş

    2018-02-01

    Induced gravity, metrical gravity in which gravitational constant arises from vacuum expectation value of a heavy scalar, is known to suffer from Jordan frame vs Einstein frame ambiguity, especially in inflationary dynamics. Induced gravity in affine geometry, as we show here, leads to an emergent metric and gravity scale, with no Einstein-Jordan ambiguity. While gravity is induced by the vacuum expectation value of the scalar field, nonzero vacuum energy facilitates generation of the metric. Our analysis shows that induced gravity results in a relatively large tensor-to-scalar ratio in both metrical and affine gravity setups. However, the fact remains that the induced affine gravity provides an ambiguity-free framework.

  9. Phytophtora terminalis sp. nov. and Phytophthora occultans sp. nov., two invasive pathogens of ornamental plants in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Man in 't Veld, W.A.; Rosendahl, K.C.H.M.; Rijswick, van P.C.J.; Meffert, J.P.; Westenberg, M.; Vossenberg, van de B.T.L.H.; Denton, G.; Kuik, van A.J.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives
    To evaluate, among the elderly, the association of self-rated health (SRH) with mortality, and to identify determinants of self-rating health as “at-least-good”.

    Study Design
    Individual data on SRH and important covariates were obtained for 424,791 European and Unites

  10. Amniotomy to induce labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busowski, J D; Parsons, M T

    1995-06-01

    Amniotomy to induce labor is used frequently. The potential risks compared with potential benefits of artificial rupture of membranes have caused the popularity of amniotomy to vary in the last two centuries. Although there are little data available from prospective randomized studies regarding the effectiveness of amniotomy alone to induce labor, several series have showed success in its use. In addition, no well-accepted, prospectively randomized study is available comparing the effectiveness of amniotomy to oxytocin for induction of labor. The most effective combination of amniotomy with uterotonic agents to induce labor is still a fertile area for investigation.

  11. Injection-induced earthquakes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ellsworth, William L

    2013-01-01

    ...s. It has long been understood that earthquakes can be induced by impoundment of reservoirs, surface and underground mining, withdrawal of fluids and gas from the subsurface, and injection of fluids...

  12. Beam induced RF heating

    CERN Document Server

    Salvant, B; Arduini, G; Assmann, R; Baglin, V; Barnes, M J; Bartmann, W; Baudrenghien, P; Berrig, O; Bracco, C; Bravin, E; Bregliozzi, G; Bruce, R; Bertarelli, A; Carra, F; Cattenoz, G; Caspers, F; Claudet, S; Day, H; Garlasche, M; Gentini, L; Goddard, B; Grudiev, A; Henrist, B; Jones, R; Kononenko, O; Lanza, G; Lari, L; Mastoridis, T; Mertens, V; Métral, E; Mounet, N; Muller, J E; Nosych, A A; Nougaret, J L; Persichelli, S; Piguiet, A M; Redaelli, S; Roncarolo, F; Rumolo, G; Salvachua, B; Sapinski, M; Schmidt, R; Shaposhnikova, E; Tavian, L; Timmins, M; Uythoven, J; Vidal, A; Wenninger, J; Wollmann, D; Zerlauth, M

    2012-01-01

    After the 2011 run, actions were put in place during the 2011/2012 winter stop to limit beam induced radio frequency (RF) heating of LHC components. However, some components could not be changed during this short stop and continued to represent a limitation throughout 2012. In addition, the stored beam intensity increased in 2012 and the temperature of certain components became critical. In this contribution, the beam induced heating limitations for 2012 and the expected beam induced heating limitations for the restart after the Long Shutdown 1 (LS1) will be compiled. The expected consequences of running with 25 ns or 50 ns bunch spacing will be detailed, as well as the consequences of running with shorter bunch length. Finally, actions on hardware or beam parameters to monitor and mitigate the impact of beam induced heating to LHC operation after LS1 will be discussed.

  13. Exercise-induced asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000036.htm Exercise-induced asthma To use the sharing features on this page, ... such as running, basketball, or soccer. Use Your Asthma Medicine Before you Exercise Take your short-acting, ...

  14. Exercise-Induced Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood Institute. http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health-pro/resources/lung/naci/discover/action-plans.htm. Accessed Sept. 12, 2014. Mickleborough TD, et al. Exercise-induced asthma: Nutritional management. Current ...

  15. Cold-induced metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Marken Lichtenbelt, W.D.; Daanen, A.M.

    2003-01-01

    Cold-induced metabolism. van Marken Lichtenbelt WD, Daanen HA. Department of Human Biology, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands. PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cold response can be insulative (drop in peripheral temperature) or metabolic (increase in energy expenditure). Nonshivering

  16. Cold-induced metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D.; Daanen, Hein A M

    Purpose of review: Cold response can be insulative (drop in peripheral temperature) or metabolic (increase in energy expenditure). Nonshivering thermogenesis by sympathetic, norepinephrine-induced mitochondrial heat production in brown adipose tissue is a well known component of this metabolic

  17. Vitiligo, drug induced (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this person's face have resulted from drug-induced vitiligo. Loss of melanin, the primary skin pigment, occasionally ... is the case with this individual. The typical vitiligo lesion is flat and depigmented, but maintains the ...

  18. Cold-induced metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lichtenbelt, W. van Marken; Daanen, H.A.M.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose of review Cold response can be insulative (drop in peripheral temperature) or metabolic (increase in energy expenditure). Nonshivering thermogenesis by sympathetic, norepinephrine-induced mitochondrial heat production in brown adipose tissue is a well known component of this metabolic

  19. Terahertz Induced Electromigration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strikwerda, Andrew; Zalkovskij, Maksim; Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    We report the first observation of THz-field-induced electromigration in subwavelength metallic gap structures after exposure to intense single-cycle, sub-picosecond electric field transients of amplitude up to 400 kV/cm....

  20. Terahertz Induced Electromigration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strikwerda, Andrew; Zalkovskij, Maksim; Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof

    We report the first observation of THz-field-induced electromigration in subwavelength metallic gap structures after exposure to intense single-cycle, sub-picosecond electric field transients of amplitude up to 400 kV/cm....

  1. Terahertz field induced electromigration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strikwerda, Andrew; Zalkovskij, Maksim; Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof

    We report the first observation of THz-field-induced electromigration in sub-wavelength metallic gap structures after exposure to intense single-cycle, sub-picosecond electric field transients of amplitude up to 400 kV/cm....

  2. Trauma-induced coagulopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katrancha, Elizabeth D; Gonzalez, Luis S

    2014-08-01

    Coagulopathy is the inability of blood to coagulate normally; in trauma patients, it is a multifactorial and complex process. Seriously injured trauma patients experience coagulopathies during the acute injury phase. Risk factors for trauma-induced coagulopathy include hypothermia, metabolic acidosis, hypoperfusion, hemodilution, and fluid replacement. In addition to the coagulopathy induced by trauma, many patients may also be taking medications that interfere with hemostasis. Therefore, medication-induced coagulopathy also is a concern. Traditional laboratory-based methods of assessing coagulation are being supported or even replaced by point-of-care tests. The evidence-based management of trauma-induced coagulopathy should address hypothermia, fluid resuscitation, blood components administration, and, if needed, medications to reverse identified coagulation disorders. ©2014 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  3. Contrast-induced nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo A. García Hernández

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Contrast-induced nephropathy is an important complication associated with the use of contrast media. Favoring factors for the development of contrast-induced nephronpathy have been widely described, being diabetes mellitus and previous renal disease the greatest risk. The pathophysiology is a complex process where the medullary hypoxia represents the trigger element. Previous hydration and the use of low osmolality contrast are the most recommended measures to prevent its development.

  4. Diet induced thermogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Westerterp KR

    2004-01-01

    Objective Daily energy expenditure consists of three components: basal metabolic rate, diet-induced thermogenesis and the energy cost of physical activity. Here, data on diet-induced thermogenesis are reviewed in relation to measuring conditions and characteristics of the diet. Methods Measuring conditions include nutritional status of the subject, physical activity and duration of the observation. Diet characteristics are energy content and macronutrient composition. Resu...

  5. [Exercise-induced anaphylaxis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylon, K; Hompes, S; Worm, M

    2013-02-01

    Exercise-induced anaphylaxis is a mast cell dependent reaction, which is induced by allergen exposure in combination with physical activity. Typically, the reaction occurs within 2 hours after allergen exposure followed by physical activity. Not only food allergens but all kinds of allergens including drugs can induce this form of anaphylaxis. The clinical symptoms of exercise-induced anaphylaxis are the same as in any other type of anaphylaxis. Thus not only the skin and mucosa but also other organ systems like the lungs, cardiovascular system and gastrointestinal tract can be affected. The diagnostic work up should cover a detailed clinical history including the assessment of symptoms and possible trigger factors including suspected allergens. Besides classical allergy diagnostics like skin prick tests and specific IgE determination, tryptase should be measured for the differential diagnosis to exclude mast cell dependent diseases. The diagnosis of exercise-induced anaphylaxis is made by the means of a double-blind placebo-controlled provocation test. Both, a sufficient amount of allergen and of physical activity must be achieved for a valid test. After the diagnosis is made, patients should be extensively counseled and provided with an emergency kit including an epinephrine auto injector.

  6. Induced plant resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gašić Katarina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants have evolved different strategies to protect themselves against pathogen infections. These strategies are classified as either passive or active, depending on whether they are constitutive barriers or triggered upon pathogen attack. Induced plant resistance is a type of active resistance and is defined as a state of enhanced defensive capacity developed by a plant when appropriately stimulated by biological agents or environmental stress. Different types of induced resistance have been defined based on differences in signaling pathways and spectra of effectiveness. First type is Systemic Acquired Resistance (SAR which occurs in plants following activation of defense mechanisms triggered by contact with a plant pathogenic or feeding agent. SAR requires accumulation of signal molecule salicylic acid and is associated with the induction of pathogenesis-related (PR proteins. In contrast, second type - Induced Systemic Resistance (ISR is induced by selected strains of non-pathogenic plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPR and regulated by jasmonic acid and ethylene. Both SAR and ISR require the function of the regulatory protein NPR1. In addition to biological agents, some chemical compounds can induce resistance of plants as well. Great progress has been made in recent years in understanding the physiological and biochemical basis of SAR and ISR, which led to their commercial use in plant protection.

  7. [Amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogazzi, Fausto; Tomisti, Luca; Di Bello, Vitantonio; Martino, Enio

    2017-03-01

    Amiodarone-induced thyroid dysfunction occurs in about 15-20% of patients under amiodarone therapy. Amiodarone-induced hypothyroidism (AIH) can develop in patients with an apparently normal thyroid gland or in those with an underlying chronic autoimmune thyroiditis. On a clinical ground, AIH is not challenging and can be easily treated with L-thyroxine therapy. Amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis (AIT) can occur in patients with (AIT 1) or without (AIT 2) an underlying thyroid disease. AIT 1 is a true iodine-induced hyperthyroidism occurring in patients with an underlying thyroid autonomy while AIT 2 is a drug-induced destructive thyroiditis. According to the different pathogenetic mechanism, AIT 2 is treated with glucocorticoids while AIT 1 usually responds to thionamides. Thyroidectomy should be considered when AIT represents an imminent risk for cardiac conditions, when patients require a prompt resolution of thyrotoxicosis or when they do not respond to the medical therapy. An effective collaboration between cardiologists and endocrinologists is crucial in each part of the management of AIT patients, including the evaluation of cardiological conditions with regard to thyroid hormone excess and whether, or not, it is necessary to continue amiodarone therapy.

  8. Stress-induced cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Torrey A; Lee, Vivien H; Bleck, Thomas P

    2015-03-01

    Reversible stress-induced cardiac dysfunction is frequently seen as a complication of a multitude of acute stress states, in particular neurologic injuries. This dysfunction may be difficult to distinguish between that caused by myocardial ischemia and may impact both the treatment strategies and prognosis of the underlying condition. Critical care practitioners should have an understanding of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical characteristics, precipitating conditions, differential diagnosis, and proposed treatments for stress-induced cardiomyopathy. MEDLINE database search conducted from inception to August 2014, including the search terms "tako-tsubo," "stress-induced cardiomyopathy," "neurogenic cardiomyopathy," "neurogenic stress cardiomyopathy," and "transient left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome". In addition, references from pertinent articles were used for a secondary search. After review of peer-reviewed original scientific articles, guidelines, and reviews resulting from the literature search described above, we made final selections for included references and data based on relevance and author consensus. Stress-induced cardiomyopathy occurs most commonly in postmenopausal women. It can be precipitated by emotional stress, neurologic injury, and numerous other stress states. Patients may present with symptoms indistinguishable from acute coronary syndrome or with electrocardiogram changes and wall motion abnormalities on echocardiogram following neurologic injury. Nearly all patients will have an elevated cardiac troponin. The underlying etiology is likely related to release of catecholamines, both locally in the myocardium and in the circulation. Differential diagnosis includes myocardial infarction, myocarditis, neurogenic pulmonary edema, and nonischemic cardiomyopathy. Although the natural course of stress-induced cardiomyopathy is resolution, treatment strategies include sympathetic blockade and supportive care. Stress-induced

  9. Food-induced anaphylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianferoni, Antonella; Muraro, Antonella

    2012-02-01

    Food-induced anaphylaxis (FIA) is a serious allergic reaction that may cause death rapidly in otherwise healthy individuals. There is no universal agreement on its definition or criteria for diagnosis. Hospital admissions for FIA have more than doubled in the last decade. Food is one of the most common causes of anaphylaxis, with most surveys indicating that food-induced reactions account for 30% to 50% of cases. The most commonly implicated foods are peanut, tree nuts, milk, eggs, sesame seeds, fish, and shellfish. The only life-saving treatment for anaphylaxis is allergen avoidance, and epinephrine injection if an anaphylactic event occurs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Airbag induced corneal ectasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mearza, Ali A; Koufaki, Fedra N; Aslanides, Ioannis M

    2008-02-01

    To report a case of airbag induced corneal ectasia. Case report. A patient 3 years post-LASIK developed bilateral corneal ectasia worse in the right eye following airbag deployment in a road traffic accident. At last follow up, best corrected vision was 20/40 with -4.00/-4.00 x 25 in the right eye and 20/25 with -1.25/-0.50 x 135 in the left eye. This is a rare presentation of trauma induced ectasia in a patient post-LASIK. It is possible that reduction in biomechanical integrity of the cornea from prior refractive surgery contributed to this presentation.

  11. Rosuvastatin-induced pemphigoid.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murad, Aizuri A

    2012-01-01

    Statins are widely prescribed medications and very well tolerated. Rosuvastatin is another member of this drug used to treat dyslipidaemia. It is a competitive inhibitor of the enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase. Immunobullous disease is usually idiopathic but can be drug-induced. Both idiopathic and iatrogenic forms share common clinical and immunohistological features. The authors report a case of pemphigoid induced by rosuvastatin, a commonly prescribed medication. To our knowledge, there is limited report on rosuvastatin associated with pemphigoid in the literature.

  12. Induced Norm Control Toolbox

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beran, Eric Bengt

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the basic nature of the InducedNorm Control Toolbox (INCT). The toolbox is a set of Matlab-filesusing LMITOOL and the Semidefinite Programming package(SP). Thetoolbox is public domain. The INCT provides a series of analysisand synthesis tools for continuous time-invariant lin......This paper describes the basic nature of the InducedNorm Control Toolbox (INCT). The toolbox is a set of Matlab-filesusing LMITOOL and the Semidefinite Programming package(SP). Thetoolbox is public domain. The INCT provides a series of analysisand synthesis tools for continuous time...

  13. Tumor-induced osteomalacia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan de Beur, Suzanne M

    2005-09-14

    Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is a rare paraneoplastic form of renal phosphate wasting that results in severe hypophosphatemia, a defect in vitamin D metabolism, and osteomalacia. This debilitating disorder is illustrated by the clinical presentation of a 55-year-old woman with progressive fatigue, weakness, and muscle and bone pain with fractures. After a protracted clinical course and extensive laboratory evaluation, tumor-induced osteomalacia was identified as the basis of her clinical presentation. In this article, the distinctive clinical characteristics of this syndrome, the advances in diagnosis of TIO, and new insights into the pathophysiology of this disorder are discussed.

  14. Pyrazinamide induced thrombocytopenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Surya; Verma, Sanjay Kumar; Gupta, Vaibhav; Anand, Sunish C.; Prasad, Rajendra

    2010-01-01

    Thrombocytopenia is an uncommon but potentially life-threatening complication of certain antitubercular drugs and is characterized by rapid destruction of platelets whenever offending drug is taken by a susceptible person. We report a case of pyrazinamide-induced thrombocytopenia in a patient receiving anti tubercular drugs. PMID:20711377

  15. Calotropis procera -induced keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandey Nidhi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Calotropis procera produces copious amounts of latex, which has been shown to possess several pharmacological properities. Its local application produces intense inflammatory response. In the 10 cases of Calotropis procera -induced keratitis reported here, the clinical picture showed corneal edema with striate keratopathy without any evidence of intraocular inflammation. The inflammation was reversed by the local application of steroid drops.

  16. Bowthruster-induced damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schokking, L.A.; Janssen, P.C.; Verhagen, H.J.

    2003-01-01

    The stability of stones in propeller-induced jet wash is still difficult to predict. Especially the trend of bowthrusters increasing in size and power in sea going ships (especially ferries) over the last years may be a reason for concern when dealing with the protection of slopes and beds. But also

  17. Inducible laryngeal obstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halvorsen, Thomas; Walsted, Emil Schwarz; Bucca, Caterina

    2017-01-01

    Inducible laryngeal obstruction (ILO) describes an inappropriate, transient, reversible narrowing of the larynx in response to external triggers. ILO is an important cause of a variety of respiratory symptoms and can mimic asthma. Current understanding of ILO has been hampered by imprecise nomenc...

  18. Calotropis procera -induced keratitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Nidhi; Chandrakar, A K; Garg, M L; Patel, Santosh Singh

    2009-01-01

    Calotropis procera produces copious amounts of latex, which has been shown to possess several pharmacological properities. Its local application produces intense inflammatory response. In the 10 cases of Calotropis procera -induced keratitis reported here, the clinical picture showed corneal edema with striate keratopathy without any evidence of intraocular inflammation. The inflammation was reversed by the local application of steroid drops.

  19. Sirolimus-induced lymphoedema

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kidney transplant for end-stage renal disease secondary to type 1 diabetes mellitus. Before the transplant, he had ... lymphatic obstruction, the patient was diagnosed with sirolimus- induced lymphoedema. Initially the ... improvement in the lymphoedema with physiotherapy and cone compression bandaging. Discussion.

  20. Mild induced hypothermia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Maria Egede; Jensen, Jens Ulrik Stæhr; Bestle, Morten H

    2015-01-01

    trial; The Cooling And Surviving Septic shock (CASS) study. Patients suffering severe sepsis/septic shock are allocated to either mild induced hypothermia (cooling to 32-34°C for 24hours) or control (uncontrolled temperature). TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01455116. Thrombelastography (TEG) is performed three...

  1. XTC-induced hepatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oranje, W.A.; van Pol, V.; van der Wurff, A.A.; Zeijen, R.N.; Stockbrügger, R.W.; Arends, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    XTC-induced hepatitis. Oranje WA, von Pol P, vd Wurff A, Zeijen RN, Stockbrugger RW, Arends JW. Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital, Maastricht, Netherlands. An increasing number of severe complications associated with the use of XTC is being reported. After 11 earlier case reports

  2. Induced Angular Momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, G. W.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses, classically and quantum mechanically, the angular momentum induced in the bound motion of an electron by an external magnetic field. Calculates the current density and its magnetic moment, and then uses two methods to solve the first-order perturbation theory equation for the required eigenfunction. (Author/GA)

  3. Hyperthermia-induced apoptosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, E.H.A.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes a number of studies that investigated several aspects of heat-induced apoptosis in human lymphoid malignancies. Cells harbour both pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins and the balance between these proteins determines whether a cell is susceptible to undergo apoptosis. In this

  4. Drug-induced uveitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    A number of medications have been associated with uveitis. This review highlights both well-established and recently reported systemic, topical, intraocular, and vaccine-associated causes of drug-induced uveitis, and assigns a quantitative score to each medication based upon criteria originally described by Naranjo and associates. PMID:23522744

  5. Exercise-Induced Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... January 2014 More on this topic for: Parents Kids Teens Can Kids and Teens With Asthma Play Sports? Asthma Center When to Go to the ER if Your Child Has Asthma Kids and Exercise Asthma Triggers Word! Exercise-Induced Asthma ...

  6. Geomagnetism and Induced Voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Razzaq, W.; Biller, R. D.

    2010-01-01

    Introductory physics laboratories have seen an influx of "conceptual integrated science" over time in their classrooms with elements of other sciences such as chemistry, biology, Earth science, and astronomy. We describe a laboratory to introduce this development, as it attracts attention to the voltage induced in the human brain as it…

  7. Understanding induced seismicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsworth, Derek; Spiers, Christopher J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304829323; Niemeijer, Andre R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/370832132

    2016-01-01

    Fluid injection–induced seismicity has become increasingly widespread in oil- and gas-producing areas of the United States (1–3) and western Canada. It has shelved deep geothermal energy projects in Switzerland and the United States (4), and its effects are especially acute in Oklahoma, where

  8. Advertising-Induced Embarrassment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puntoni, S.; Hooge, de I.E.; Verbeke, W.J.M.I.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Consumer embarrassment is a concern for many advertisers. Yet little is known about ad-induced embarrassment. The authors investigate when and why consumers experience embarrassment as a result of exposure to socially sensitive advertisements. The theory distinguishes between viewing

  9. Plume-induced subduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerya, T.; Stern, R. J.; Baes, M.; Sobolev, S. V.; Whattam, S. A.

    2016-12-01

    Dominant present-day subduction initiation mechanisms require acting plate forces and/or pre-existing zones of lithospheric weakness, which are themselves consequences of plate tectonics. In contrast, recently discovered plume-induced subduction initiation could have started the first subduction zone without pre-existing plate tectonics. Here, we investigate this new mechanism with high-resolution 3D numerical thermomechanical modeling experiments. We show that typical plume-induced subduction dynamics is subdivided into five different stages: (1) oceanic plateau formation by arrival of a mantle plume head; (2) formation of an incipient trench and a descending nearly-circular slab at the plateau margins; (3) tearing of the circular slab; (4) formation of several self-sustained retreating subduction zones and (5) cooling and spreading of the new lithosphere formed between the retreating subduction zones. At the final stage of plume-induced subduction initiation, a mosaic of independently moving, growing and cooling small oceanic plates heading toward individual retreating subduction zones forms. The plates are separated by spreading centers, triple junctions and transform faults and thus the newly formed multi-slab subduction system operates as an embryonic plate tectonic cell. We demonstrate that three key physical factors combine to trigger self-sustained plume-induced subduction: (1) old negatively buoyant oceanic lithosphere; (2) intense weakening of the lithosphere by plume-derived magmas; and (3) lubrication of the forming subduction interface by hydrated oceanic crust. We furthermore discuss that plume-induced subduction, which is rare at present day conditions, may have been common in the Precambrian time and likely started global plate tectonics on Earth.

  10. Uterine contraction induced by Tanzanian plants used to induce abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolajsen, Tine; Nielsen, Frank; Rasch, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    Women in Tanzania use plants to induce abortion. It is not known whether the plants have an effect.......Women in Tanzania use plants to induce abortion. It is not known whether the plants have an effect....

  11. Hypoxia-Inducible Hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyung Min; Gerecht, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    Oxygen is vital for the existence of all multicellular organisms, acting as a signaling molecule regulating cellular activities. Specifically, hypoxia, which occurs when the partial pressure of oxygen falls below 5%, plays a pivotal role during development, regeneration, and cancer. Here we report a novel hypoxia-inducible (HI) hydrogel composed of gelatin and ferulic acid that can form hydrogel networks via oxygen consumption in a laccase-mediated reaction. Oxygen levels and gradients within the hydrogels can be accurately controlled and precisely predicted. We demonstrate that HI hydrogels guide vascular morphogenesis in vitro via hypoxia-inducible factors activation of matrix metalloproteinases and promote rapid neovascularization from the host tissue during subcutaneous wound healing. The HI hydrogel is a new class of biomaterials that may prove useful in many applications, ranging from fundamental studies of developmental, regenerative and disease processes through the engineering of healthy and diseased tissue models towards the treatment of hypoxia-regulated disorders. PMID:24909742

  12. Drug-induced thrombocytopenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen-Bjergaard, U; Andersen, M; Hansen, P B

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse the clinical picture and the course of thrombocytopenia induced by non-cytotoxic drugs, and to evaluate a possible therapeutic effect of corticosteroids. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 309 well-documented cases of drug-induced thrombocytopenia was performed. Data sources...... were reports from the files of the Danish Committee on Adverse Drug Reactions and discharge summaries. RESULTS: The median length of exposure to the offending drug, before development of thrombocytopenia, was 21 days. The median nadir platelet count was 11 x 10(9).l-1, and 74% of the patients had...... treatment was corticosteroids, which were administered in 53% of the cases. No difference in recovery between corticosteroid-treated and untreated patients was observed. No other clinical parameter affected the recovery rate. The mortality rate due to haemorrhage was 3.6%. CONCLUSION: Thrombocytopenia...

  13. Topiramate Induced Excessive Sialorrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersel Dag

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available It is well-known that drugs such as clozapine and lithium can cause sialorrhea. On the other hand, topiramate has not been reported to induce sialorrhea. We report a case of a patient aged 26 who was given antiepileptic and antipsychotic drugs due to severe mental retardation and intractable epilepsy and developed excessive sialorrhea complaint after the addition of topiramate for the control of seizures. His complaints continued for 1,5 years and ended after giving up topiramate. We presented this case since it was a rare sialorrhea case induced by topiramate. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of sialorrhea development which causes serious hygiene and social problems when they want to give topiramate to the patients using multiple drugs.

  14. Time Domain Induced Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiandaca, Gianluca; Auken, Esben; Christiansen, Anders Vest

    2012-01-01

    Time-domain-induced polarization has significantly broadened its field of reference during the last decade, from mineral exploration to environmental geophysics, e.g., for clay and peat identification and landfill characterization. Though, insufficient modeling tools have hitherto limited the use......%. Furthermore, the presence of low-pass filters in time-domain-induced polarization instruments affects the early times of the acquired decays (typically up to 100 ms) and has to be modeled in the forward response to avoid significant loss of resolution. The developed forward code has been implemented in a 1D...... polarization response when compared to traditional integral chargeability inversion. The quality of the inversion results has been assessed by a complete uncertainty analysis of the model parameters; furthermore, borehole information confirm the outcomes of the field interpretations. With this new accurate...

  15. Cocaine-Induced Vasculitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Berman

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of cocaine continues to grow worldwide. One of the possible side-effects of cocaine is vasculitis. Two distinct vasculitic syndromes have been described due to cocaine. One is cocaine-induced midline destructive lesion, secondary to a direct vasoconstrictor effect of cocaine, inducing ischemic necrosis of the septal cartilage and perforation of the nasal septum, mimicking findings of granulomatosis with polyangiitis in the upper airways. The other is ANCA-associated vasculitis, attributed to the levamisole component that contaminates about 70% of the cocaine. This type of vasculitis may be myeloperoxidase (MPO and proteinase 3 (PR3 positive, and its main manifestations are typical cutaneous findings, arthralgia, otolaryngologic involvement, and agranulocytosis. A high degree of suspicion and awareness is needed in order properly to diagnose and treat these patients.

  16. Induced Charge Capacitive Deionization

    CERN Document Server

    Rubin, S; Biesheuvel, P M; Bercovici, M

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the phenomenon of induced-charge capacitive deionization (ICCDI) that occurs around a porous and conducting particle immersed in an electrolyte, under the action of an external electrostatic field. The external electric field induces an electric dipole in the porous particle, leading to capacitive charging of its volume by both cations and anions at opposite poles. This regime is characterized both by a large RC charging time and a small electrochemical charge relaxation time, which leads to rapid and significant deionization of ionic species from a volume which is on the scale of the particle. We show by theory and experiment that the transient response around a cylindrical particle results in spatially non-uniform charging and non-steady growth of depletion regions which emerge around the particle's poles. Potentially, ICCDI can be useful in applications where fast concentration changes of ionic species are required over large volumes.

  17. Chemotherapeutic drug induced pneumonitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, M.; Brugger, E.

    1981-09-01

    A series of chemotherapeutic drugs is known to induce interstitial lung disease of letal outcome. Diffuse fibrosing interstitial pneumonias are more frequently observed due to Busulfan, Bleomycin, BCNU or Methotrexat therapy. As well literature as our own investigations demonstrate low sensitivity of X-ray controlls in diagnosing beginning changes. Lung function tests including diffusion capacity analysis are more practicable to recognize early phases of disease. Nevertheless, clinical practice shows patients being moust sensitive in decovering beginning decreases of lung function. Exercise induced dyspnea, raw cough and often fever, dyspnea at rest and finally pulmonary insufficiency will be the climax of symptoms. All patients treated with Busulfan, Bleomycin, BCNU and probably Methotrexat should regulary be controlled by lung function analysis.

  18. Contrast induced nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stacul, Fulvio; van der Molen, Aart J; Reimer, Peter

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: The Contrast Media Safety Committee (CMSC) of the European Society of Urogenital Radiology (ESUR) has updated its 1999 guidelines on contrast medium-induced nephropathy (CIN). AREAS COVERED: Topics reviewed include the definition of CIN, the choice of contrast medium, the prophylactic...... measures used to reduce the incidence of CIN, and the management of patients receiving metformin. Key Points • Definition, risk factors and prevention of contrast medium induced nephropathy are reviewed. • CIN risk is lower with intravenous than intra-arterial iodinated contrast medium. • eGFR of 45 ml....../min/1.73 m (2) is CIN risk threshold for intravenous contrast medium. • Hydration with either saline or sodium bicarbonate reduces CIN incidence. • Patients with eGFR ≥ 60 ml/min/1.73 m (2) receiving contrast medium can continue metformin normally....

  19. Contrast induced nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stacul, Fulvio; van der Molen, Aart J; Reimer, Peter

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: The Contrast Media Safety Committee (CMSC) of the European Society of Urogenital Radiology (ESUR) has updated its 1999 guidelines on contrast medium-induced nephropathy (CIN). AREAS COVERED: Topics reviewed include the definition of CIN, the choice of contrast medium, the prophylactic...... measures used to reduce the incidence of CIN, and the management of patients receiving metformin. Key Points • Definition, risk factors and prevention of contrast medium induced nephropathy are reviewed. • CIN risk is lower with intravenous than intra-arterial iodinated contrast medium. • eGFR of 45 ml....../min/1.73 m (2) is CIN risk threshold for intravenous contrast medium. • Hydration with either saline or sodium bicarbonate reduces CIN incidence. • Patients with eGFR = 60 ml/min/1.73 m (2) receiving contrast medium can continue metformin normally....

  20. Cyclophosphamide-Induced Cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhesi, Sumandeep; Chu, Michael P.; Blevins, Gregg; Paterson, Ian; Larratt, Loree; Oudit, Gavin Y.

    2013-01-01

    Cyclophosphamide is increasingly used to treat various types of cancers and autoimmune conditions. Higher doses of this drug may produce significant cardiac toxicity, including fatal hemorrhagic myocarditis. In this review, we present a case of cyclophosphamide-induced cardiomyopathy requiring mechanical circulatory support. We also describe the pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, and risk factors for this important clinical entity and propose early detection and management strategies. PMID:26425570

  1. Cyclophosphamide-Induced Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumandeep Dhesi MD

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclophosphamide is increasingly used to treat various types of cancers and autoimmune conditions. Higher doses of this drug may produce significant cardiac toxicity, including fatal hemorrhagic myocarditis. In this review, we present a case of cyclophosphamide-induced cardiomyopathy requiring mechanical circulatory support. We also describe the pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, and risk factors for this important clinical entity and propose early detection and management strategies.

  2. OXYTOCIN INDUCED NEONATAL HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita S.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Hyperbilirubinemia is one of the most common causes of health problems, observed in 60% of term and 80% of preterm infants in the first week of life . Hyperbilirubinemia leads to neurotoxicity in severe condition. Some studies suggests that liberal use of oxytocin for inducing labour is one of the factor which lead to neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of oxytocin and neonatal bilirubin levels with spontaneous vaginal delivery . MATERIALS AND METHOD S : 100 full term parturients were selected for this study. The subjects were divided into two groups. 50 healthy babies of women who had oxytocin induced labour and 50 healthy babies of women with normal vaginal delivery following spontaneous onset of labour formed the control group. Neon atal serum bilirubin was measured on day 1, 3 and 5 after delivery. Bilirubin was measured by spectrophotometry. Data was analysed in ms excel sheet using spss 19.0v. Statistical analysis was done by using unpaired‘t’ test. RESULTS: There was significant i ncrease in bilirubin level in oxytocin induced group compared to control group on day 1 and 3. There was insignificant increase in bilirubin level in oxytocin induced group on day 5. However the level of serum bilirubin is within normal limits as bilirubin level normally rises on till 4 th day and decreases thereafter. CONCLUSION: Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia may be due to oxytocin administration by continues IV infusion which results in erythrocyte swell and rupture. Increase in bilirubin level in oxytocin i nduced group is within physiological limits

  3. Polarization induced doped transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Huili; Jena, Debdeep; Nomoto, Kazuki; Song, Bo; Zhu, Mingda; Hu, Zongyang

    2016-06-07

    A nitride-based field effect transistor (FET) comprises a compositionally graded and polarization induced doped p-layer underlying at least one gate contact and a compositionally graded and doped n-channel underlying a source contact. The n-channel is converted from the p-layer to the n-channel by ion implantation, a buffer underlies the doped p-layer and the n-channel, and a drain underlies the buffer.

  4. Inducement Prizes and Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Brunt, Liam; Lerner, Josh; Nicholas, Tom

    2008-01-01

    We examine prizes as an inducement for innovation using a novel dataset of awards for inventiveness offered by the Royal Agricultural Society of England from 1839 to 1939. At annual shows the RASE held competitive trials and awarded medals and monetary prizes (exceeding one million pounds in current prices) to spur technological development. We find large effects of the prizes on contest entries, especially for the Society’s gold medal. Matching award and patent data, we also detect large eff...

  5. Alcohol-Induced Blackout

    OpenAIRE

    Dai Jin Kim; Sungwon Roh; Hamin Lee

    2009-01-01

    For a long time, alcohol was thought to exert a general depressant effect on the central nervous system (CNS). However, currently the consensus is that specific regions of the brain are selectively vulnerable to the acute effects of alcohol. An alcohol-induced blackout is the classic example; the subject is temporarily unable to form new long-term memories while relatively maintaining other skills such as talking or even driving. A recent study showed that alcohol can cause retrograde memory ...

  6. Nivolumab induced myxedema crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Uqba; Rizvi, Humaira; Sano, Dahlia; Chiu, Jane; Hadid, Tarik

    2017-01-01

    Background Nivolumab is an anti-programmed cell death (anti-PD-1) monoclonal antibody that is approved by Food and Drug Administration for treatment of metastatic non-small cell lung cancer, metastatic melanoma, relapsed Hodgkin lymphoma and advanced renal cell cancer. We report a rare case of myxedema crisis induced by nivolumab in a patient with metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of lung. Case presentation Fifty three-year old woman with metastatic squamous cell carcinoma currently on treat...

  7. Amitriptyline induced cervical dystonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivanand B Hiremath

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs, such as amitriptyline, have many side effects. But extrapyramidal tract symptom is an uncommon side effect of these drugs. Here, we report a case of a 28-year-old male who is suffering from amitriptyline induced cervical dystonia. Though rare, this side effect is an uncomfortable condition and may influence drug compliance. So clinicians should be aware of this side effect while treating a patient with amitriptyline.

  8. [Ceftriaxone-induced cholelithiasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccherini, M; Borlini, G; Branchi, M; Barbonetti, C; Moretti, P; Bonora, G

    1998-01-01

    The formation of biliary sludge and cholelithiasis after ceftriaxone administration is not uncommon. Prompt resolution of sludge has been demonstrated with discontinuation of the drug. Despite this, cholecystectomy has been performed in symptomatic patients. Ceftriaxone is popular drug in pediatrics, but the complication is not widely appreciated in the gastroenterology and surgical literature. For this adverse effect and for cost ceftriaxone should be used with more caution. We describe two cases of children with ceftriaxone induced cholelithiasis.

  9. Glucocorticoid-induced hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Julie E; Geller, David S

    2012-07-01

    Glucocorticoid-induced hypertension is a common clinical problem that is poorly understood, thus rendering treatment strategies sub-optimal. This form of hypertension has been commonly thought to be mediated by excess sodium and water reabsorption by the renal mineralocorticoid receptor. However, experimental and clinical data in both humans and animal models suggest important roles for the glucocorticoid receptor as well, in both the pathogenesis and maintenance of this hypertension. The glucocorticoid receptor is widely expressed in a number of organ systems relevant to blood pressure regulation, including the kidney, the brain and the vasculature. In vitro studies in isolated kidney tissues as well as in vascular smooth muscle and vascular endothelial cells have attempted to elucidate the molecular physiology of glucocorticoid-induced hypertension, but have generally been limited by the inability to study signaling pathways in an intact organism. More recently, the power of mouse genetics has been employed to examine the tissue-specific contributions of vascular and extra-vascular tissues to this form of hypertension. Here we review recent developments in our understanding of the pathogenesis of glucocorticoid-induced hypertension.

  10. [Postoperative induced astigmatism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicula, C; Nicula, D

    2000-01-01

    Is to evaluate the astigmatism induced by cataract surgery, ethiological factors and ways of prophilaxies and treatment. We followed a number of 211 eyes operated for cataract by planned extracapsular extraction with intraocular lens implantation, in Ophthalmological Clinic from Cluj-Napoca. All the pacients had limbal incision and the suture was performed with 9.0 suture, after the operation the treatment consisted in local drops with steroids. REZULTS: The astigmatism induced by the surgery was direct in 53.08% of cases and indirect in 46.92%. The position of the axes was 0-900 in 72.51% and oblique in 27.48%. The optical correction of astigmatism was with combined spherocylinder glases in 57.34% and only with cilinder in 42.65% of cases. 1. The induced astigmatism by cataract surgery is in relation with the incision, suture and IOL. 2. Correction of astigmatism is possible with optical correction, repearing the suture or with refractive surgery. 3. The prevention of astigmatism over 1.5 D is by using Troutmann keratometer and to evidence the congenital astigmatism.

  11. Olanzapine-induced rhabdomyolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosebraugh, C J; Flockhart, D A; Yasuda, S U; Woosley, R L

    2001-09-01

    To report a possible case of olanzapine-induced rhabdomyolysis with concomitant lithium-induced pseudo-infarction electrocardiogram changes. A 13-year-old white boy was admitted to the hospital with profound weakness and electrocardiogram (EGG) changes suggestive of myocardial damage after starting olanzapine and lithium. An adverse medication effect was not considered at the time of the patient's admission. The time course of onset of weakness was coincident with administration of olanzapine. ECG abnormalities are a known manifestation of lithium therapy This is a case description of olanzapine-induced rhabdomyolysis. Although other antipsychotic agents have been reported to cause rhabdomyolysis, an adverse drug reaction was not initially part of this patient's differential diagnosis. The patient had begun reporting rnyalgias six days after starting olanzapine. Fourteen days later, these symptoms forced him to bed rest; lithium was added for behavior misinterpreted as disobedience and oppositional disorder. Only when medications were considered as cause of the weakness and EGG changes, was the true nature of the patient's illness discovered. Olanzapine, like other neuroleptic agents, can cause rhabdomyolysis. Lithium can cause multiple EGG changes that can be misinterpreted as myocardial damage. Medication effects and adverse effects must always be considered in any disease complex.

  12. Induced QCD I: theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, Bastian B. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Goethe-University of Frankfurt,60438 Frankfurt (Germany); Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Regensburg,93040 Regensburg (Germany); Lohmayer, Robert; Wettig, Tilo [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Regensburg,93040 Regensburg (Germany)

    2016-11-14

    We explore an alternative discretization of continuum SU(N{sub c}) Yang-Mills theory on a Euclidean spacetime lattice, originally introduced by Budzcies and Zirnbauer. In this discretization the self-interactions of the gauge field are induced by a path integral over N{sub b} auxiliary boson fields, which are coupled linearly to the gauge field. The main progress compared to earlier approaches is that N{sub b} can be as small as N{sub c}. In the present paper we (i) extend the proof that the continuum limit of the new discretization reproduces Yang-Mills theory in two dimensions from gauge group U(N{sub c}) to SU(N{sub c}), (ii) derive refined bounds on N{sub b} for non-integer values, and (iii) perform a perturbative calculation to match the bare parameter of the induced gauge theory to the standard lattice coupling. In follow-up papers we will present numerical evidence in support of the conjecture that the induced gauge theory reproduces Yang-Mills theory also in three and four dimensions, and explore the possibility to integrate out the gauge fields to arrive at a dual formulation of lattice QCD.

  13. Drug-induced liver injuries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-06-02

    Jun 2, 2011 ... Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a term increasingly being used by most clinicians and is synonymous with drug-induced hepatotoxicity. A succinct definition of a DILI is 'a liver injury induced by a drug or herbal medicine resulting in liver test abnormalities or liver dysfunction with a reasonable exclusion of ...

  14. SUSCETIBILIDADE A ANTIMICROBIANOS DE STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS ISOLADOS DE MANIPULADORES DE INDÚSTRIA DE LATICÍNIOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williani Fabíola GRANDO

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi isolar Staphylococcus aureus de manipuladores de alimentos de um lacticínio e determinar sua suscetibilidade a diversos antimicrobianos. Para tal, coletaram-se amostras a partir das mãos e cavidade nasal de 29 manipuladores. Foram obtidos 58 cultivos suspeitos, os quais foram submetidos a testes bioquímicos e ao teste de suscetibilidade aos antimicrobianos ciprofloxacina, oxacilina, penicilina G, clindamicina, tetraciclina, eritromicina, nitrofurantoína, sulfazotrim, rifampicina e vancomicina através da técnica de difusão em disco. Foram isoladas 19 cepas de S. aureus, sendo 42,10% provenientes das mãos e 57,90% da cavidade nasal dos indivíduos avaliados. O maior índice de resistência foi encontrado para penicilina G (78,95%, seguido pela tetraciclina (26,31%, enquanto que o maior índice de sensibilidade foi observado para nitrofurantoína, sulfazotrim, rifampicina e vancomicina (100%, seguido da oxacilina (94,73% e ciprofloxacina (89,47%. De modo geral, as cepas apresentaram baixos níveis de resistência, entretanto, a presença de S. aureus nas mãos e cavidades nasais dos manipuladores desempenham papel importante na disseminação do micro-organismo.

  15. FORMAÇÃO E ESTRUTURAÇÃO DO CAMPO ORGANIZACIONAL DA INDÚSTRIA PESQUEIRA EM CALLAO, PERU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuili Roberto Vela Ocaña

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo tem como finalidade, analisar a formação e a estruturação do campo organizacional da indústria pesqueira na região do Callao, Peru, apoiando-se nos pressupostos da teoria institucional. Utilizar o conceito de campo organizacional e aplicá-lo na indústria pesqueira permitirá determinar como estão se comportando as organizações que fazem parte do mesmo. Os resultados aqui apresentados, bem como a análise, foram elaborados a partir dos dados coletados em documentos assim, como em uma série de entrevistas semi-estruturadas com representantes das principais organizações que compõem o campo. O atual grau de estruturação do campo é moderado, por esta atividade centrar-se quase exclusivamente na produção de farinha de pescado e, descuidar os outros tipos de empresas existentes, mas também devido a fragilidade com a qual alguns indicadores se apresentaram no campo. A influência do setor privado é determinante dessa situação.

  16. AVALIAÇÃO DA DISPERSÃO ATMOSFÉRICA DE COMPOSTOS ODORANTES EMITIDOS NA INDÚSTRIA PAPELEIRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldir Nagel Schirmer

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available O caráter odorante de compostos reduzidos de enxofre (TRS, tipicamente emitidos na indústria papeleira, tem gerado grande interesse por parte dessas indústrias em predizer a qualidade do ar nas proximidades de suas fontes emissoras. Desse modo, o presente trabalho tem por objetivo avaliar o impacto na atmosfera resultante das emissões de TRS de uma fabricante de papel e celulose de grande porte, por meio da modelagem dos compostos gasosos emitidos a partir de duas fontes pontuais (tomadas como as maiores contribuidoras. Para tanto, foi utilizado o “software” AID (Avaliação Instantânea de Dispersão baseado no modelo de Gauss para determinação das concentrações (no ar resultantes dessas emissões. Nessa determinação, foram abordados os principais parâmetros meteorológicos (dos últimos 3 anos e cinéticos de emissão necessários à modelagem. A máxima concentração de TRS obtida após a modelagem foi de 3,84 ppb (somatório das duas fontes avaliadas, ficando bem abaixo dos limites de percepção odorífera (LPO recomendado por órgãos internacionais (o Brasil não possui leis específicas para esse caso. Como os limites de toxicidade quase sempre estão bem acima dos LPO, é seguro afirmar que, no caso avaliado, a concentração máxima estimada não apresenta riscos de toxicidade à população exposta, uma vez, pelo valor obtido, nem o odor pode ser percebido.

  17. ESTILOS DE FUNCIONAMENTO E MECANISMOS DE APRENDIZAGEM EM UMA INDÚSTRIA CRIATIVA DE PUBLICIDADE E PROPAGANDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Chaves Correia Lima

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available O estudo objetiva analisar a cultura organizacional quanto aos estilos de funcionamentoe aos mecanismos de aprendizagem em uma indústria de criação funcional. Trata-se deuma pesquisa quantitativa, descritiva, com uso de questionários estruturados. Utilizou-seestatísticas descritivas de médias, desvio-padrão e correlação mediante informações damaior empresa de publicidade e propaganda do Ceará. A cultura da organização é formadapela presença moderada e simultânea dos estilos empreendedor, afiliativo, burocrático eindividualista, predominando o primeiro. O único mecanismo de aprendizagem com nível altode ocorrência foi codificação e controle de conhecimento, evidenciando fraca correlação entreimportância atribuída e ocorrência desses mecanismos.

  18. CARACTERÍSTICA DOS SEGMENTOS SETORIAIS NO BRASIL: UMA BREVE ABORDAGEM SOBRE O SETOR DA AGROINDÚSTRIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Del Fiori

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho se propõe a fazer uma análise das características setoriais do Brasil desde a segunda metade do século XIX até a data presente, com o objetivo de mostrar que embora tenham ocorrido intervenções do Estado para a realização do processo de industrialização ao longo da história brasileira, nota-se que elas foram de certa forma ineficiente, e acabaram influenciando a trajetória dos setores econômicos de tal forma que na data presente, o Brasil possui a predominância de exportação dos setores básicos, sendo uma verdadeira contradição para as metas que o Brasil almeja alcançar nas próximas décadas. Este trabalho sugere que o Brasil necessita rever suas políticas e escolher algum setor líder no mercado mundial e o setor da Agroindústria poderia ser o segmento econômico líder do país, conforme será abordado neste trabalho. Palavras-Chave: Indústrias, Estado, Setores Abstract: This work intends to make an analysis of industry characteristics in Brazil since the mid-nineteenth century to the present date in order to show that although there were state interventions to the achievement of industrialization throughout history Brazilian note that they were somewhat inefficient, and ultimately influencing the trajectory of economic sectors so that at the present time, Brazil has the predominance of the basic sectors of export, being a real contradiction to the goals that Brazil intends to reach the coming decades. This work suggests that Brazil needs to review its policies and choose a sector leader in the world market and agribusiness sector could be the key economic sector in Brazil, according to his approach in this work. Key Words: Industries, State, Sectors

  19. ESTRATÉGIAS DE REDUÇÃO DA VARIABILIDADE DE PROCESSOS NA INDÚSTRIA CALÇADISTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taise Gross

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a case study of a Brazilian company, operating in the footwear sector, located in Parobé city, in the Valley of Paranhana, in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. The process analyzed showed high failure rates of manufactured batches and by quality analysis tools, the Statistical Process Control tools were applied to analyze the variability. The tools applied were the control charts, process capacity and capability analysis, histogram, Pareto chart and cause and effect analysis. The main results of the study were the reduction of the rejection indices of the process to zero and improvement in the capacity index from 0,424 to 1,52, demonstrating the reduction of the sources of variation of the production process and reaching the objectives The research. This research can be used by academics and professionals to improve the competitive performance of footwear companies.

  20. AS DINÂMICAS DA RELAÇÃO ENTRE COMÉRCIO E INDÚSTRIA EM FRANCA (SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judite de Azevedo do Carmo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetiva-se, neste texto, a apresentação das dinâmicas da relação estabelecida entre comércio e indústria, na contemporaneidade, destacando as questões teóricas inerentes ao tema e o exemplo empírico do Arranjo Produtivo Local de Franca (SP especializado na produção de calçados masculinos. Para tanto recorreu-se à pesquisa bibliográfica para embasamento da reflexão teórica, e tomou-se como base para a análise empírica, os dados e informações levantados por Carmo (2012 em órgãos institucionais, como o Instituto de Estudos e Marketing Industrial (IEMI, o Sindicato das Indústrias de Calçados de Franca (Sindifranca, bem como por intermédio de entrevistas e questionários aplicados aos proprietários de estabelecimentos comercias e de indústrias locais. Os dados obtidos junto ao IEMI serviram para a análise quantitativa, em nível de APL, enquanto aqueles obtidos por meio de questionários, aplicados a 12 indústrias locais, foram a base da análise qualitativa, em nível de indústria. A análise aí proposta permitiu o entendimento de que as transformações ocorridas no processo produtivo, nas décadas finais do século XX, condicionaram o estreitamento das relações entre a indústria e o comércio, sendo que ambas as atividades são realizadas em dependência mútua e que no APL, em destaque, há pouca relação entre as indústrias e o comércio local, havendo um monopólio das primeiras sobre a comercialização de seus produtos.

  1. AVALIAÇÃO DE DESEMPENHO EMPRESARIAL: ESTUDO DE CASO DE UMA AGROINDÚSTRIA NO RS

    OpenAIRE

    Cánepa, Daniela; Ludwig, Vanelli Salati

    2009-01-01

    This article seeks to discuss the relevance of the performance indicators in the process of business management, and to indicate the importance of the alignment of these indicators with the business strategy. In a competitive environment, companies face increasing difficulties in order to keep their market competitiveness. In this sense, the financial indicators turn out to be insufficient to assess the business performance, and the utilization of non-financial indicators gets more importance...

  2. BENEFÍCIOS DA IMPLANTAÇÃO DO SISTEMA DE GESTÃO AMBIENTAL NA INDÚSTRIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Naime

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A preocupação com a preservação ambiental é relativamente recente na história das sociedades humanas, tendo nascido do grande desenvolvimento, com paralela produção de impactos ambientais decorrentes da aceleração do processo industrial. Este trabalho apresenta um estudo de caso de implantação de um sistema de Gestão Ambiental em uma empresa do setor automotivo. Sistematiza questões referentes à metodologia de implantação e em relação aos benefícios produzidos na produção em função do SGA. Aborda também as melhorias de qualidade de vida obtidas por funcionários e colaboradores. E finaliza qualificando os ganhos com a percepção da comunidade sobre a nova visão socioambiental que a empresa assume a partir da implantação de um Sistema de Gestão Ambiental. O trabalho objetiva estimular a reflexão de outras empresas e organizações sobre as vantagens globais da implantação de Sistemas de Gestão Ambiental. Palavras-chave: Gestão. Meio ambiente. Sistemas.

  3. BIOPROSPECÇÃO DE NOVOS GENES PARA A INDÚSTRIA USANDO METAGENOMA E BIOINFORMÁTICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Machado Cardoso

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing demand for new enzymes that enable cost reduction and effi ciency improvement in industrial processes without harming the environment. Using classical methods of microbiology and biochemistry we can obtain less than 1% of the information contained in an environment. This is because the vast majority of microorganisms are not cultivable. Thanks to the advancement of metagenome and bioinformatics techniques, new possibilities for the industry are revealed. Here, the bioprospecting of the invasive snail microbiota for use in the biofuel industry is discussed.

  4. CONDIÇÕES DE SAÚDE DA MULHER TRABALHADORA NA INDÚSTRIA DO VESTUÁRIO

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    Hellen Pollyanna Mantelo Cecilio

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue investigar aspectos de las condiciones de vida y la salud de las trabajadoras de la industria textil. Estudio exploratorio, descriptivo, realizado en el noroeste de Paraná, Brasil, en cuatro municipios seleccionados por conveniencia. Los datos fueron recogidos en octubre y noviembre de 2011, en el lugar de trabajo, a través de cuestionario auto administrado. La muestra consistió de 177 mujeres, con edades comprendidas entre 18 y 60 años, 83,9% de las mujeres tienen más de ocho años de estudios y renta familiar promedio de R$ 1,662.34. En cuanto al estilo de vida, 44,2% realizaban actividad física; 80,2% no usaban alcohol y 6,7% eran fumadoras. El estilo de vida junto con las malas condiciones de trabajo pueden favorecer la aparición de enfermedades, y las políticas de salud de los trabajadores debe vislumbrar acciones para promover la salud y mejores condiciones de trabajo.

  5. ANÁLISE DO DESEMPENHO ORGANIZACIONAL NO AGRONEGÓCIO BRASILEIRO: APLICANDO À AGROINDÚSTRIA DE PAPEL E CELULOSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCELO ALVARO DA SILVA MACEDO

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El Agronegocio es uno de los sectores más importantes de la economía brasileña y su segmento industrial tiene un papel significativo. Debido a esa relevancia, cuestiones técnicas y gerenciales merecen atención especial. Este artículo procura promover una discusión sobre el desempeño organizacional de empresas brasileñas de papel y celulosa, desde informaciones contables -financieras. Por medio de la aplicación del Análisis Envolvente de Datos (DEA, se busca identificar un índice de desempeño multicriterial para cada empresa y hacer un análisis de benchmarking para mostrar lo que las empresas ineficientes necesitan hacer para hacerse eficientes. Los resultados muestran que las mejores empresas son aquéllas que mejor com - binan sus inputs (índices del tipo cuanto menor mejor a los outputs que buscan (índices del tipo cuanto mayor mejor. Además, las peores empresas son aquéllas que necesitan cambios radicales en sus niveles de input y/o output para que alcancen el desempeño máximo.

  6. PROSPECÇÃO TECNOLÓGICA: PROCESSO DE LIOFILIZAÇÃO NA INDÚSTRIA DE ALIMENTOS

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    Antonio Martins de Oliveira Junior

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O processo de liofilização ou secagem pelo frio “freeze drying” ou “lyophilization”, apresenta uma série de vantagens quanto à manutenção das características originais dos produtos, pelo fato de não submetê-lo a elevadas temperaturas conforme outros processos de desidratação. Preservação do sabor e aroma, aumento da estabilidade através da diminuição da atividade de água, que minimiza a deterioração do alimento durante o armazenamento, são vantagens deste processo. A aplicação da liofilização em produtos alimentícios ainda é cara, sendo empregada com maior frequência, na fabricação de produtos nobres que necessitam de reidratação rápida e completa. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as perspectivas e a evolução das competências tecnológicas traduzidas através dos depósitos de patentes referentes à aplicação da liofilização na indústria alimentícia, bem como mapear as pesquisas desenvolvidas. A prospecção foi realizada no Banco Europeu de Patente, no Banco de Dados do Instituto Nacional de Propriedade Intelectual do Brasil, no Banco da Organização Mundial de Propriedade Intelectual e no Banco Americano de Marcas e Patentes. A classificação internacional mais frequente nessa prospecção foi Subseção A23 e principalmente na Subclasse A23L. Com a palavra chave freeze-drying e CIP A23L a República da Coreia, apresentou-se como o maior depositante. Os dados permitem concluir que se trata de uma área promissora, com crescimento de patentes depositadas.

  7. INOVAÇÃO EM PRODUTO: ESTUDO LEXICAL NAS INDÚSTRIAS GAÚCHAS DE BENEFICIAMENTO DE ARROZ

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    Carlos Otávio Zamberlan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O arroz é considerado um importante produto na economia mundial, pois é consumido em vários países e continentes. Todavia, a maior parte dos países consumidores são também produtores e as empresas que o beneficiam enfrentam uma grande concorrência. Para ganhar em competitividade a inovação deve se fazer presente. Este artigo tem como objetivo analisar as inovações em produto por parte das empresas beneficiadoras do Rio Grande do Sul, maior produtor nacional. Para isso, utilizou-se de métodos qualitativos baseados em análise lexical e de conteúdo. Concluiu-se que ocorrem inovações tanto incrementais em produtos existentes, bem como no lançamento de novos produtos visando, também, o fortalecimento de marca, o aumento de opções para o cliente, entre outros motivos.

  8. PRATICANTES DA ESTRATÉGIA E AS BASES PRAXEOLÓGICAS DA INDÚSTRIA DO MANAGEMENT

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    Cristiano Oliveira Maciel

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper goes beyond traditional explanations about the managerial fads that shape the management industry. Therefore, a praxeological perspective was adopted to examine the bases underlying this industry. Data were collected during a seven-month period through observation, documental research and interviews that were conducted within an organization in the emerging sector of online discount coupon selling. We analyzed the social construction process of strategy practitioners in different hierarchical domains and found that the ordinary dynamics within organizations – which are at the base of the management industry – occur through the articulation of central and peripheral strategy, discourse, and social trajectory praxes, and through the stratification of three organizational role categories.

  9. GESTÃO DA QUALIDADE COMO ESTRATÉGIA PARA MELHORIAS NO RENDIMENTO OPERACIONAL DE INDÚSTRIAS QUEIJEIRAS

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    Luiz Célio Souza Rocha

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Quando se analisa o setor de lácteos brasileiro, constata-se que muitas empresas ainda estão distantes da implementação de estratégias que possibilitem o alcance de diferenciais competitivos. O presente trabalho buscou quantificar as perdas operacionais em uma fábrica de queijo localizada no Município de Rio Pomba/MG considerando o não uso de um programa de garantia da qualidade que refletisse na melhoria da matéria-prima. Como resultado, obteve-se que o rendimento foi significativamente afetado pelo tempo de armazenamento. Por fim, conclui-se que a implementação da gestão da qualidade na indústria queijeira analisada melhoraria seu desempenho operacional e econômico.

  10. A TRAJETÓRIA DO SAMBA NO SÉCULO XX: DA MARGINALIDADE À INDÚSTRIA CULTURAL

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    Valdemar Valente Junior

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Uma visão panorâmica do samba a partir de sua inserção como produto cultural no Brasil do século XX. Sua configuração de gênero musical moderno e sua ascensão de manifestação periférica e marginal à condição de música definidora de um sentido de nacionalidade. A influência dos gêneros estrangeiros e o papel da indústria do rádio, do disco e mais tarde da televisão como multiplicadora de sua importância como música de consumo.

  11. A GUERRA DAS TUBAÍNAS: ESTRATÉGIAS COMPETITIVAS DAS INDÚSTRIAS DE REFRIGERANTES POPULARES

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    Luciel Henrique de Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tubaína is the generic name of a tutti-frutti flavored soft drink, produced by Brazilian industries, with many regional variations. These soft drinks are generally popular, very sweet, withlower price and local brand. This research aimed to describe the economic importance of the Brazilian soft drinks, from the point of view of small and medium manufacturers. What strategies used by theseindustries to face the big companies competition? How can these companies survive and grow in such a competitive market? The study had three objectives: (1 know and understand the popular soft drinkindustry, highlighting the participation of regional industries, (2 raise the popular soft drink industries of São Paulo State, highlighting the most relevant cases, (3 analyze prominent cases, relating them to theories of strategy envisaged. We found that the main strategy of small and mid-sized companies is to prioritize and focus their strength in regional markets where their factories are located. Producers invest in production vertical integration, modern equipment similar to those used by large enterprises, and innovation to reduce costs and gain a competitive advantage. Always they try to follow the trends set by big players hit the market. Combining the lower prices and a quality product to the local tradition of consuming these soft drinks, these companies can compete and annoy the major sector’s industries.

  12. UM ESTUDO EXPLORATÓRIO SOBRE A INDÚSTRIA BRASILEIRA DE ANIMAÇÃO PARA A TV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilian Gatti Junior

    Full Text Available A economia criativa tem recebido pouca atenção da comunidade acadêmica, a despeito de sua importância econômica e cultural. Este artigo procura contribuir com a literatura sobre o tema com foco na indústria de animação, mais precisamente na produção de animações para a TV, pois recentemente o país produziu animações de sucesso na TV paga exibidas não só no Brasil, mas também em vários países. Este artigo procura analisar como as produtoras nacionais construíram vantagens competitivas que as possibilitaram obter êxito em suas produções em um mercado dominado por estúdios internacionais. Para atingir esse propósito foi conduzida uma pesquisa exploratório-descritiva analisando três produtoras (Flamma, TV PinGuim e 2DLab que exibem seu produto no canal Discovery Kids, voltado ao público préescolar. Foram entrevistados todos os sócios das produtoras (em um total de seis, dois de cada produtora, mais uma representante da indústria de animação para o cinema. Além das entrevistas, foram utilizados dados secundários, basicamente coletados na mídia (jornais, revistas e internet. O trabalho revelou a convergência de duas fontes de vantagens competitivas. A primeira ligada a fatores internos às produtoras estudadas (conhecimento técnico e visão do negócio e a segunda fonte ligada a fatores ambientais, criados pela cadeia produtiva dessa indústria (criação de novos canais de TV, interesse de parceiros internacionais e linhas de financiamento para a produção.

  13. FIXAÇÃO DE CO2 EM EFLUENTE SALINO DE INDÚSTRIA PETROQUÍMICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo F. Santos

    Full Text Available In various industrial processes, such as the process of obtaining potassium by solution mining or in the oil industry, fuels are burnt concurrently to the formation of saline effluents. The opportunity to sequester carbon through capturing the CO2 from the flue gas by carbonation of these effluents and reducing the potential of scaling of the water is evident. The use of saline industrial effluent from electrodialysis for carbon sequestration by mineralization of carbon dioxide is the focus of this work. The carbonation reaction of saline effluent of reverse electrodialysis, of low ionic strength and higher CO2 solubility, was simulated through OLI®. Precipitation tests were performed by bubbling 10-20 NL h-1 CO2 in a glass reactor containing the brine and pH adjusted to 8.9. The solid was characterized and the results from the simulation and the experiments were compared. The removal of calcium and strontium in the form of carbonates reach out up to 98% and 75%. The simulation results were in line with the experimental results for the calcium behavior, but not for strontium. The OLI® simulation was powerful to represent the calcium carbonate formation, however, comparisons between predicted Sr removal and testwork results presented differences and must be investigated.

  14. PRESENÇA DE DISLIPIDEMIA E USO DE ESTATINAS EM TRABALHADORES DA AGROINDÚSTRIA E PRODUTORES RURAIS: ESTUDO PRELIMINAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Glier

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Alterações no perfil lipídico estão relacionados ao estilo de vida e comumente são tratadas com estatinas. Desta forma, esta pesquisa objetiva caracterizar trabalhadores da agroindústria e produtores rurais quanto à presença de dislipidemia e uso de estatinas, associado a variáveis demográficas. Estudo transversal e analítico, com 127 sujeitos da região do Conselho Regional de Desenvolvimento do Vale do Rio Pardo, avaliados em 2012-2013. O uso de estatinas bem como as variáveis demográficas (sexo, faixa etária, estado civil, classe econômico e escolaridade foram obtidas por questionários. A definição da presença ou ausência de dislipidemia foi definida pelos marcadores bioquímicos, obtidos através de coleta sanguínea, após 12 horas de jejum. Os dados foram analisados com medidas de frequência e percentual, além do teste Exato de Fisher (p < 0,05. Constatou-se que 61,4% dos sujeitos eram dislipidêmicos, dos quais 89,7% não usavam estatinas. Houveram diferenças demográficas quanto a faixa etária entre aqueles que usam ou não estatinas tanto na presença de dislipidemia (p = 0,006 quanto em sua ausência (p=0,022. Verificou-se o desconhecimento e falta de controle dos níveis do perfil lipídico por alguns indivíduos.

  15. Radiation Induced Genomic Instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, William F.

    2011-03-01

    Radiation induced genomic instability can be observed in the progeny of irradiated cells multiple generations after irradiation of parental cells. The phenotype is well established both in vivo (Morgan 2003) and in vitro (Morgan 2003), and may be critical in radiation carcinogenesis (Little 2000, Huang et al. 2003). Instability can be induced by both the deposition of energy in irradiated cells as well as by signals transmitted by irradiated (targeted) cells to non-irradiated (non-targeted) cells (Kadhim et al. 1992, Lorimore et al. 1998). Thus both targeted and non-targeted cells can pass on the legacy of radiation to their progeny. However the radiation induced events and cellular processes that respond to both targeted and non-targeted radiation effects that lead to the unstable phenotype remain elusive. The cell system we have used to study radiation induced genomic instability utilizes human hamster GM10115 cells. These cells have a single copy of human chromosome 4 in a background of hamster chromosomes. Instability is evaluated in the clonal progeny of irradiated cells and a clone is considered unstable if it contains three or more metaphase sub-populations involving unique rearrangements of the human chromosome (Marder and Morgan 1993). Many of these unstable clones have been maintained in culture for many years and have been extensively characterized. As initially described by Clutton et al., (Clutton et al. 1996) many of our unstable clones exhibit persistently elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (Limoli et al. 2003), which appear to be due dysfunctional mitochondria (Kim et al. 2006, Kim et al. 2006). Interestingly, but perhaps not surprisingly, our unstable clones do not demonstrate a “mutator phenotype” (Limoli et al. 1997), but they do continue to rearrange their genomes for many years. The limiting factor with this system is the target – the human chromosome. While some clones demonstrate amplification of this chromosome and thus lend

  16. Trauma Induced Coagulopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Genét, Gustav Folmer; Johansson, Per; Meyer, Martin Abild Stengaard

    2013-01-01

    It remains debated whether traumatic brain injury (TBI) induces a different coagulopathy compared to non-TBI. This study investigated traditional coagulation tests, biomarkers of coagulopathy and endothelial damage in trauma patients with and without TBI. Blood from 80 adult trauma patients were...... sampled (median of 68 min (IQR 48-88) post-injury) upon admission to our trauma centre. Plasma/serum were retrospectively analysed for biomarkers reflecting sympathoadrenal activation (adrenaline, noradrenaline), coagulation activation/inhibition and fibrinolysis (protein C, activated protein C, tissue...

  17. Catatonia induced by disulfiram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HK Goswami

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Catatonia is a clinical syndrome with varieties of psychomotor abnormalities of retardation and excitement. It can occur both in psychiatric and medical conditions. The aetiology of catatonia has not been fully described. Many researchers suggest that catatonia can occur due to deficiency of cortical gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA which is an inhibitory neurotransmitter. Disulfiram is an agent that is being used in the treatment of alcohol dependence by its aversive effect. It has been seen that disulfiram is one of the causes of catatonia. This paper aimed to report a case of catatonia induced by disulfiram with no past history of any psychiatric or medical illness.

  18. High pressure induced superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaya, K.; Shimizu, K

    2003-10-15

    We have developed complex extreme condition of very low temperature down to 30 mK and ultra high pressure exceeding 200 GPa by assembling compact diamond anvil cell (DAC) on a powerful {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He dilution refrigerator. We have also developed measuring techniques of electrical resistance, magnetization and optical measurement for the sample confined in the sample space of the DAC. Using the newly developed apparatus and techniques, we have searched for superconductivity in various materials under pressure. In this paper, we will shortly review our newly developed experimental apparatus and techniques and discuss a few examples of pressure induced superconductivity which were observed recently.

  19. Cannabis induced asystole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brancheau, Daniel; Blanco, Jessica; Gholkar, Gunjan; Patel, Brijesh; Machado, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis or marijuana is the most used recreational, and until recently illegal, drug in the United States. Although cannabis has medicinal use, its consumption has been linked to motor vehicle accidents in dose dependent fashion. Marijuana and other cannabinoids produce a multitude of effects on the human body that may result in these motor vehicle accidents. Some of the effects that marijuana has been known to cause include altered sensorium, diminished reflexes, and increased vagal tone. We present a case of cannabis induced asystole from hypervagotonia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Cephalexin Induced Cholestatic Jaundice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhinav Agrawal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cephalexin is a very commonly prescribed orally administered antibiotic which has many potential side effects. Amongst these cholestatic jaundice has been infrequently reported as an adverse reaction. We present a case of a 57-year-old male who exhibited features of cholestatic jaundice including elevated liver function tests (LFTs after taking cephalexin and showed improvement on removal of the offending agent. During this time he was symptomatically treated with cholestyramine. Complete resolution of LFTs was seen in four weeks. Cephalexin induced cholestasis is rare and hence requires a high degree of clinical suspicion for prompt diagnosis and treatment.

  1. Pancreatitis Induced by Cocaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Pablo Chapela

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatitis is one of the commonest diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, characterized by epigastric pain of moderate to severe intensity, which radiates to the back, elevation of pancreatic lipase and amylase enzymes, and changes in pancreatic parenchyma in imaging methods. The most common etiologies vary, generally the most frequent being biliary lithiasis and alcohol, followed by hypertriglyceridemia. Among the less frequent causes is drug-induced pancreatitis. We report a case of acute pancreatitis caused by cocaine, rarely described in literature.

  2. Xerostomia induced by radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alimi D

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available David Alimi Department of Anesthesiology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USAWe read with great interest the excellent review on xerostomia induced by radiotherapy, by Pinna et al.1 The authors should be congratulated for a very detailed review of the physiopathology, clinical symptoms, and therapeutic management of an extremely difficult condition. Although we agree that the use of anticholinergic medication represents treatment, it requires the patient to have residual salivary gland function. Unfortunately, it is well established that in most cases radiotherapy destroys most of the salivary gland and associated salivary secretions.     

  3. Man-Induced Vibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jeppe; Hansen, Lars Pilegaard

    1994-01-01

    concerned with spectator-induced vertical vibrations on grandstands. The idea is to use impulse response analysis and base the load description on the load impulse. If the method is feasable, it could be used in connection with the formulation of requirements in building codes. During the last two decades...... work has been done on the measurement of the exact load functions and related reponse analysis. A recent work using a spectral description has been performed by Per-Erik Erikson and includes a good literature survey. Bachmann and Ammann give a good overview of vibrations caused by human activity. Other...

  4. [Trauma-induced coagulopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanke, A A; Rahe-Meyer, N

    2014-02-01

    The main cause of death in the patient group less than 45 years is trauma. Beside severe traumatic brain injury, bleeding remains a leading cause of death in this group. For a causal therapy, it is necessary to understand the pathophysiology of trauma-induced coagulopathy (TIC). Beside the well-known lethal triad of trauma (hypothermia, acidosis, and coagulopathy), dilution and hypoperfusion with activation of the protein C pathway play a crucial role. TIC is a complex independent syndrome which may be present without initial hypercoagulopathy. A rapid and differentiated diagnosis and goal-directed therapy is crucial for causal therapy.

  5. Antioxidant-Induced Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Cleva; Kross, Robert D.

    2012-01-01

    Antioxidants are among the most popular health-protecting products, sold worldwide without prescription. Indeed, there are many reports showing the benefits of antioxidants but only a few questioning the possible harmful effects of these “drugs”. The normal balance between antioxidants and free radicals in the body is offset when either of these forces prevails. The available evidence on the harmful effects of antioxidants is analyzed in this review. In summary, a hypothesis is presented that “antioxidant-induced stress” results when antioxidants overwhelm the body’s free radicals. PMID:22408440

  6. Sulphasalazine Induced Hypersensitivity Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Şanlı

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DIHS is one of the most dangerous drug reactions. Mortality and morbidity is increased by consequent systemic organ involvement. Maculopapular eruptions are the most common lesions accompanying DIHS, however, the morphology of skin lesions may vary. The most common cause of DIHS is the use of aromatic anticonvulsant drugs. However, one must not forget that other drugs may also cause DIHS. Early recognition of the condition is the most important step in the treatment. Herein, we present a case of DIHS triggered by sulphasalazine and associated with pustular eruption and maculopapular eruption.

  7. Antioxidant-Induced Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D. Kross

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants are among the most popular health-protecting products, sold worldwide without prescription. Indeed, there are many reports showing the benefits of antioxidants but only a few questioning the possible harmful effects of these “drugs”. The normal balance between antioxidants and free radicals in the body is offset when either of these forces prevails. The available evidence on the harmful effects of antioxidants is analyzed in this review. In summary, a hypothesis is presented that “antioxidant-induced stress” results when antioxidants overwhelm the body’s free radicals.

  8. Method for inducing hypothermia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Lance B [Chicago, IL; Hoek, Terry Vanden [Chicago, IL; Kasza, Kenneth E [Palos Park, IL

    2008-09-09

    Systems for phase-change particulate slurry cooling equipment and methods to induce hypothermia in a patient through internal and external cooling are provided. Subcutaneous, intravascular, intraperitoneal, gastrointestinal, and lung methods of cooling are carried out using saline ice slurries or other phase-change slurries compatible with human tissue. Perfluorocarbon slurries or other slurry types compatible with human tissue are used for pulmonary cooling. And traditional external cooling methods are improved by utilizing phase-change slurry materials in cooling caps and torso blankets.

  9. Method for inducing hypothermia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Lance B.; Hoek, Terry Vanden; Kasza, Kenneth E.

    2005-11-08

    Systems for phase-change particulate slurry cooling equipment and methods to induce hypothermia in a patient through internal and external cooling are provided. Subcutaneous, intravascular, intraperitoneal, gastrointestinal, and lung methods of cooling are carried out using saline ice slurries or other phase-change slurries compatible with human tissue. Perfluorocarbon slurries or other slurry types compatible with human tissue are used for pulmonary cooling. And traditional external cooling methods are improved by utilizing phase-change slurry materials in cooling caps and torso blankets.

  10. Method for inducing hypothermia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Lance B. (Chicago, IL); Hoek, Terry Vanden (Chicago, IL); Kasza, Kenneth E. (Palos Park, IL)

    2003-04-15

    Systems for phase-change particulate slurry cooling equipment and methods to induce hypothermia in a patient through internal and external cooling are provided. Subcutaneous, intravascular, intraperitoneal, gastrointestinal, and lung methods of cooling are carried out using saline ice slurries or other phase-change slurries compatible with human tissue. Perfluorocarbon slurries or other slurry types compatible with human tissue are used for pulmonary cooling. And traditional external cooling methods are improved by utilizing phase-change slurry materials in cooling caps and torso blankets.

  11. Brimonidine Induced Anterior Uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltz, Jacqueline; Zamir, Ehud

    2016-01-01

    To present the largest series reported so far of brimonidine induced granulomatous anterior uveitis. Retrospective chart review of patients with chronic glaucoma on treatment with brimonidine presenting with anterior uveitis. 19 eyes of 12 patients with chronic glaucoma developed anterior uveitis with granulomatous keratic precipitates after being treated with brimonidine for periods of 7 days to 5 years (mean 19.7 months, +18.6 months). One patient had a gap of 1 year between onset in one eye and onset in the other. Ten eyes (52.6%) had concurrent granulomatous conjunctivitis; 16 eyes were pseudophakic. Stopping brimonidine led to complete, rapid resolution of uveitis in all patients, in most cases (11 eyes, 58%) without topical corticosteroids. No recurrences have occurred after withdrawal of brimonidine, over a follow-up period of 12-52 months (mean 27.9 months, +13.8 months). Ophthalmologists should be aware of this easily reversible uveitis syndrome that is induced by a common glaucoma medication. Familiarity with this entity is essential in making the correct diagnosis and avoiding unnecessary investigations and interventions.

  12. Colchicine-induced rhabdomyolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boomershine, Kellie H

    2002-05-01

    To report a case of rhabdomyolysis occurring during treatment with colchicine. A 44-year-old African American man was admitted to the hospital due to persistent diarrhea, vomiting, and diffuse weakness. Past medical history was significant for renal failure requiring peritoneal dialysis, gout, and a new skin lesion. Approximately 2 months prior to admission, he had been started on colchicine and allopurinol. Creatine kinase concentration on admission was >14 000 U/L. Liver function tests were elevated 5 times the upper limit of normal. Colchicine was discontinued on admission. Creatine kinase concentrations decreased significantly, and strength and ambulation improved throughout hospitalization. Colchicine was thought to be the causative factor for rhabdomyolysis in conjunction with chronic renal failure and elevated liver function tests. After discontinuation of colchicine, creatinine kinase concentrations declined and the patient's ability to walk improved. Limited case reports of colchicine-induced rhabdomyolysis have been published. Chronic renal failure in conjunction with elevated liver function tests appear to increase the possibility of colchicine-induced toxicity, specifically, rhabdomyolysis.

  13. Vacuum induced photoresist outgassing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, Justin; Mbanaso, Chimaobi; Denbeaux, Gregory

    2008-03-01

    In order to continue the trend toward smaller feature sizes in lithography, new methods of lithography will be needed. A likely method for printing features 32 nm and smaller is extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography. EUV allows for features to be printed that are smaller than the current methods can achieve. However, outgassing of the photoresist is a concern for EUV lithography. The outgassed components can lead to contamination of the optics, degrading the reflectivity and hence lowering throughput of the exposure tools. Outgassing due to EUV exposure has been investigated by many groups. However, there were no complete investigations available of vacuum induced outgassing. In this paper, several methods were employed to investigate the outgassing due to vacuum. It was found that the vacuum induced outgassing outgassed a similar number of molecules as the outgassing due to EUV exposure. Furthermore, almost all of the outgassing was completed after about two minutes in vacuum. To mitigate the potential concern of outgassing due to vacuum causing contamination of optics, this work shows that photoresist coated silicon wafers only require about two minutes of pumping prior to insertion near the optics within EUV lithography tools.

  14. Nivolumab induced myxedema crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Uqba; Rizvi, Humaira; Sano, Dahlia; Chiu, Jane; Hadid, Tarik

    2017-01-01

    Nivolumab is an anti-programmed cell death (anti-PD-1) monoclonal antibody that is approved by Food and Drug Administration for treatment of metastatic non-small cell lung cancer, metastatic melanoma, relapsed Hodgkin lymphoma and advanced renal cell cancer. We report a rare case of myxedema crisis induced by nivolumab in a patient with metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of lung. Fifty three-year old woman with metastatic squamous cell carcinoma currently on treatment with nivolumab presented with diffuse facial and tongue swelling, slurred speech, depressed mentation, fatigue and weakness. Initial evaluation revealed severe hypothyroidism with thyroid stimulating hormone of 237 micro Unit/mL (Normal Reference range: 0.27-4.20 micro unit/mL) and undetectable free T4. Patient was diagnosed with nivolumab induced myxedema crisis. She was treated successfully with levothyroxine with complete resolution of her symptoms. Nivolumab was safely restarted once the symptoms of myxedema resolved. Nivolumab can cause immune-mediated endocrinopathies including thyroiditis, hypophysitis, adrenal insufficiency and type 1 diabetes mellitus. High index of suspicion and periodic measurement of thyroid function tests are recommended in patients receiving nivolumab therapy. Our case also suggests that once the myxedema crisis is treated and symptoms are resolved, nivolumab can be safely re-challenged.

  15. Oxalate induces breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellaro, Andrés M; Tonda, Alfredo; Cejas, Hugo H; Ferreyra, Héctor; Caputto, Beatriz L; Pucci, Oscar A; Gil, German A

    2015-10-22

    Microcalcifications can be the early and only presenting sign of breast cancer. One shared characteristic of breast cancer is the appearance of mammographic mammary microcalcifications that can routinely be used to detect breast cancer in its initial stages, which is of key importance due to the possibility that early detection allows the application of more conservative therapies for a better patient outcome. The mechanism by which mammary microcalcifications are formed is still largely unknown but breast cancers presenting microcalcifications are more often associated with a poorer prognosis. We combined Capillary Electrochromatography, histology, and gene expression (qRT-PCR) to analyze patient-matched normal breast tissue vs. breast tumor. Potential carcinogenicity of oxalate was tested by its inoculation into mice. All data were subjected to statistical analysis. To study the biological significance of oxalates within the breast tumor microenvironment, we measured oxalate concentration in both human breast tumor tissues and adjoining non-pathological breast tissues. We found that all tested breast tumor tissues contain a higher concentration of oxalates than their counterpart non-pathological breast tissue. Moreover, it was established that oxalate induces proliferation of breast cells and stimulates the expression of a pro-tumorigenic gene c-fos. Furthermore, oxalate generates highly malignant and undifferentiated tumors when it was injected into the mammary fatpad in female mice, but not when injected into their back, indicating that oxalate does not induce cancer formation in all types of tissues. Moreover, neither human kidney-epithelial cells nor mouse fibroblast cells proliferate when are treated with oxalate. We found that the chronic exposure of breast epithelial cells to oxalate promotes the transformation of breast cells from normal to tumor cells, inducing the expression of a proto-oncogen as c-fos and proliferation in breast cancer cells

  16. Drug-Induced Hematologic Syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Mintzer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Drugs can induce almost the entire spectrum of hematologic disorders, affecting white cells, red cells, platelets, and the coagulation system. This paper aims to emphasize the broad range of drug-induced hematological syndromes and to highlight some of the newer drugs and syndromes. Methods. Medline literature on drug-induced hematologic syndromes was reviewed. Most reports and reviews focus on individual drugs or cytopenias. Results. Drug-induced syndromes include hemolytic anemias, methemoglobinemia, red cell aplasia, sideroblastic anemia, megaloblastic anemia, polycythemia, aplastic anemia, leukocytosis, neutropenia, eosinophilia, immune thrombocytopenia, microangiopathic syndromes, hypercoagulability, hypoprothrombinemia, circulating anticoagulants, myelodysplasia, and acute leukemia. Some of the classic drugs known to cause hematologic abnormalities have been replaced by newer drugs, including biologics, accompanied by their own syndromes and unintended side effects. Conclusions. Drugs can induce toxicities spanning many hematologic syndromes, mediated by a variety of mechanisms. Physicians need to be alert to the potential for iatrogenic drug-induced hematologic complications.

  17. Paliperidone palmitate-induced sialorrhoea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cengiz Cengisiz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Extrapyramidal, metabolic, and cardiac side effects were reported for atypical antipsychotics; although a few resources show paliperidone-induced sialorrhea, there are no resources that show paliperidone palmitate-induced sialorrhea. In this paper, we present the paliperidone palmitate-induced sialorrhea side effects of a patient who applied on our clinic [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(0.100: 8-13

  18. Polyanionic Cyclodextrin Induced Supramolecular Nanoparticle

    OpenAIRE

    He-Lue Sun; Ying-Ming Zhang; Yong Chen; Yu Liu

    2016-01-01

    Ionizable cyclodextrins have attracted increasing attention in host?guest chemistry and pharmaceutical industry, mainly due to the introduction of favorable electrostatic interactions. The ionizable cyclodextrins could not only enhance its own solubility but also induce oppositely charged guests to form more stable complex. However, the aggregation induced by charged cyclodextrins has rarely been reported. In this work, guided by the concept of molecular-induced aggregation, a series of carbo...

  19. Cytokinin activity induced by thidiazuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J C; Katterman, F R

    1986-06-01

    The diphenylurea derivative thidiazuron induces a variety of cytokinin responses. Levels above 5 x 10(-9) molar and 4 x 10(-7) molar stimulate maximum soybean callus growth and radish cotyledon expansion, respectively. A wider range of dose response related effects follows thidiazuron induced tobacco plant regeneration. Analysis of soybean callus extracts strongly suggests that thidiazuron treatment creates an accumulation and/or synthesis of purine cytokinins, able to induce the growth, expansion and regeneration, mentioned above.

  20. [Steroid-induced myopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrot, Serge; Le Jeunne, Claire

    2012-04-01

    Steroid muscle-related involvement is a frequent but often underestimated adverse effect of steroid treatment. Clinical presentation may differentiate two features: the less frequent, represented by acute myopathy, essentially observed in resuscitation, in patients treated with high dosages, and the more frequent feature, insidious, painless, chronic myopathy, characterized by a progressive proximal deficit. Diagnosis is mostly based on the clinic, muscle biopsy should remain exceptional, performed to detect other myopathies, since there are no specific anatomopathological findings. Muscle enzymes are rarely increased, electrophysiological analyses demonstrate unspecific and variable abnormalities. Pathophysiology of steroid-induced myopathy is multifactorial, related to protein metabolism modifications (change of both metabolism and catabolism), cellular transcription, growth factors (IGF-1, myostatine). Treatment is unspecific, mostly based on the prevention that should firstly consider steroid dosage reduction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Radiation induced microbial pesticide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Yup; Lee, Young Keun; Kim, Jae Sung; Kim, Jin Kyu; Lee, Sang Jae

    2000-01-01

    To control plant pathogenic fungi, 4 strains of bacteria (K1, K3, K4, YS1) were isolated from mushroom compost and hot spring. K4, K1, K3, YS1 strain showed wide antifungal spectrum and high antifungal activities against 13 kinds of fungi. Mutants of K1 and YS1 strains were induced by gamma-ray radiation and showed promising antifungal activities. These wild type and mutants showed resistant against more than 27 kinds of commercial pesticides among 30 kinds of commercial pesticides test particularly, YS1-1006 mutant strain showed resistant against hydrogen oxide. And mutants had increased antifungal activity against Botryoshaeria dothidea. These results suggested that radiation could be an useful method for the induction of functional mutants. (author)

  2. Aripiprazole-induced priapism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satya K Trivedi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Priapism is a urologic emergency representing a true disorder of penile erection that persists beyond or is unrelated to sexual interest or stimulation. A variety of psychotropic drugs are known to produce priapism, albeit rarely, through their antagonistic action on alpha-1 adrenergic receptors. We report such a case of priapism induced by a single oral dose of 10 mg aripiprazole, a drug with the least affinity to adrenergic receptors among all atypical antipsychotics. Polymorphism of alpha-2A adrenergic receptor gene in schizophrenia patients is known to be associated with sialorrhea while on clozapine treatment. Probably, similar polymorphism of alpha-1 adrenergic receptor gene could contribute to its altered sensitivity and resultant priapism. In future, pharmacogenomics-based approach may help in personalizing the treatment and effectively prevent the emergence of such side effects.

  3. Virus-induced chalazion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, A M; Chan, C-C; Crawford, M A; Tabbarah, Z A; Shen, D; Haddad, W F; Salti, I; Ghazi, N G

    2006-02-01

    To investigate a viral etiology in certain chalazia. A prospective study over 7.5 years of all newly presenting chalazia associated with diffuse follicular conjunctivitis but without any other aetiological factors. Patients were investigated for ocular or systemic infections by history, physical exam, slit-lamp exam, and/or histology of conjunctival biopsy (including transmission electron microscopy). A total of 27 patients developed follicular conjunctivitis without meibomian gland dysfunction, blepharitis, or sexually transmitted diseases. Evidence for a viral aetiology included: recent systemic viral illness (15/27), recent contact with subjects with chalazia or follicular conjunctivitis (5/27), preauricular lymphadenopathy (4/27), viral corneal disease (4/27), or viral particles by ultrastructure (4/4). Chalazia may be associated with viral conjunctivitis. Intralesional corticosteroids should be considered with great caution for viral-induced chalazia.

  4. Migraine induced by hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arngrim, Nanna; Schytz, Henrik Winther; Britze, Josefine

    2016-01-01

    Migraine with aura is prevalent in high-altitude populations suggesting an association between migraine aura and hypoxia. We investigated whether experimental hypoxia triggers migraine and aura attacks in patients suffering from migraine with aura. We also investigated the metabolic and vascular...... response to hypoxia. In a randomized double-blind crossover study design, 15 migraine with aura patients were exposed to 180 min of normobaric hypoxia (capillary oxygen saturation 70-75%) or sham on two separate days and 14 healthy controls were exposed to hypoxia. Glutamate and lactate concentrations...... in the visual cortex were measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The circumference of cranial arteries was measured by 3 T high-resolution magnetic resonance angiography. Hypoxia induced migraine-like attacks in eight patients compared to one patient after sham (P = 0.039), aura in three...

  5. Radiation induced oral mucositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P S Satheesh Kumar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients receiving radiotherapy or chemotherapy will receive some degree of oral mucositis The incidence of oral mucositis was especially high in patients: (i With primary tumors in the oral cavity, oropharynx, or nasopharynx; (ii who also received concomitant chemotherapy; (iii who received a total dose over 5,000 cGy; and (iv who were treated with altered fractionation radiation schedules. Radiation-induced oral mucositis affects the quality of life of the patients and the family concerned. The present day management of oral mucositis is mostly palliative and or supportive care. The newer guidelines are suggesting Palifermin, which is the first active mucositis drug as well as Amifostine, for radiation protection and cryotherapy. The current management should focus more on palliative measures, such as pain management, nutritional support, and maintenance, of good oral hygiene

  6. Irinotecan-Induced Dysarthria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressel, Albertine J.; van der Mijn, Johannes C.; Aalders, IJke J.; Rinkel, Rico N.P.M.; van der Vliet, Hans J.

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal carcinomas are among the most common tumor types and are generally treated with palliative chemotherapy in case of metastatic disease. Here, we describe the case of a 46-year-old patient with metastatic rectal carcinoma who received second-line therapy with irinotecan and developed isolated transient dysarthria (with normal MR imaging of the brain) following each administration of irinotecan. Neurological and logopedical evaluation revealed that the dysarthria predominantly resulted from a reduced capacity in fine-tuning of motor functions of the tip of the tongue and a minimal reduction in the power of speech at labiodental contact. As hypoglossal nerve activity has been reported to be especially susceptible to cholinergic stimulation and irinotecan can cause cholinergic side effects by binding to and inactivating acetylcholinesterase, we suspect this mechanism to be responsible for irinotecan-induced dysarthria. PMID:22379477

  7. [Complications of induced abortions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duprez, D; Fortuna, P

    1989-02-01

    All physicians should be aware of the possible complications of induced abortions if only because the procedure is so commonplace. Some 250,000 induced abortions occur annually in France, amounting to 24.4 abortions per 100 live births. The rates of different complications of induced abortions before 12 weeks are .5-5/1000 for uterine perforation, .5-3.4% for hemorrhage with or without placental retention, 1% for endometritis, .3% for salpingitis .5% for continuing pregnancy, and .006 to .3/10,000 for death. A well done curettage is preferable to a poorly performed aspiration procedure. If an aspiration is done, the practitioner should bear in mind that retention of 50-200 cc of blood clots may occur if dilatation is insufficient. Symptoms appear 1-5 days after the abortion and end with expulsion of the clots or aspiration. Curettage is useless, as the clots do not represent a true retention. Uterine contractions during the aspiration can occasionally prompt a premature decision that evacuation is complete. Retention is difficult to diagnose immediately after aspiration but can be sonographically confirmed after the 8th day. Aspiration should be done after the 6th week and before the 12th week. Aspiration before the 6th week is often painful and is associated with higher rates of partial retention and of complete failure. Endouterine aspiration, regardless of technical proficiency, establishes a pathway between the vagina and the uterine cavity, which exposes the latter to the risk of trauma, endometrial lesions, and perforation. Induced abortion promotes infection by 2 mechanisms. Latent infections that were not detected in the medical history or physical examination can emerge and cause endometritis, which should be treated by ice, rest, and antibiotics. Or contamination of the passage by an infected cervical mucus can lead to salpingitis, abscess, and pelviperitonitis, or even general peritonitis. More often, these conditions develop from inadequately treated

  8. Amantadine-induced coma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macchio, G J; Ito, V; Sahgal, V

    1993-10-01

    Amantadine has found use primarily as an antiviral agent and in the symptomatic treatment of parkinsonism. However, the use of amantadine for the subjective alleviation of fatigue in multiple sclerosis and in the treatment of agitated aggressive behavior in the traumatic brain injured patient has also been described. Side effects of amantadine are primarily related to the central nervous system and include hallucinations, confusion, and nightmares. Toxic manifestations include acute psychosis, coma, cardiovascular toxicity, and death. Amantadine toxicity is a particular problem in patients with renal insufficiency because 90% of an oral dose is excreted unchanged in the urine. We present a case of amantadine-induced coma in a patient with multiple sclerosis and end-stage renal disease. Moreover, this degree of amantadine toxicity was profoundly apparent at a drug level usually not associated with such a severe presentation.

  9. [Cannabis-induced disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyka, M; Preuss, U; Hoch, E

    2017-03-01

    Use and misuse of cannabis and marihuana are frequent. About 5% of the adult population are current users but only 1.2% are dependent. The medical use of cannabis is controversial but there is some evidence for improvement of chronic pain and spasticity. The somatic toxicity of cannabis is well proven but limited and psychiatric disorders induced by cannabis are of more relevance, e.g. cognitive disorders, amotivational syndrome, psychoses and delusional disorders as well as physical and psychological dependence. The withdrawal symptoms are usually mild and do not require pharmacological interventions. To date there is no established pharmacotherapy for relapse prevention. Psychosocial interventions include psychoeducation, behavioral therapy and motivational enhancement. The CANDIS protocol is the best established German intervention among abstinence-oriented therapies.

  10. Radiation induced pesticidal microbes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Yup; Lee, Y. K.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, J. K.; Lee, S. J.; Lim, D. S

    2001-01-01

    To isolate pesticidal microbes against plant pathogenic fungi, 4 strains of bacteria(K1. K3, K4, YS1) were isolated from mushroom compost and hot spring. K4, K1, K3, YS1 strain showed wide antifungal spectrum and high antifungal activities against 12 kinds of fungi. Specific proteins and the specific transcribed genes were found from the YS1 and its radiation-induced mutants. And knock-out mutants of antifungal activity were derived by transposon mutagenesis. From these knock-out mutants, the antifungal activity related genes and its modification by gamma-ray radiation are going to be studied. These results suggested that radiation could be an useful tool for the induction of functional mutants.

  11. Pemetrexed induced pneumonitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binod Dhakal

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Pemetrexed is an antifolate chemotherapy agent that is active in malignant mesothelioma and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Pneumonitis is a rare side effect of Pemetrexed. We report the case of 72-year-old female with metastatic poorly differentiated lung adenocarcinoma. She was placed on maintenance pemetrexed and developed gradual progressive dyspnea after first cycle of maintenance of pemextrexed. The computed tomography (CT of the chest showed ground glass opacity in both lung fields. Transbronchial lung biopsy showed uniform interstitial widening by a cellular chronic infiltrate with areas of type II pneumocyte and exudation of pale eosinophilic edema fluid; features consistent with acute lung injury. Patient improved both clinically and radiological after stopping pemetrexed and starting prednisone. Although pemetrexed induced lung injury is relatively rare, with the increasing use of pemetrexed in first-line treatment and in maintenance therapy of non-small cell lung cancer, awareness of this potential adverse effects is important.

  12. Alcohol-Induced Blackout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Jin Kim

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available For a long time, alcohol was thought to exert a general depressant effect on the central nervous system (CNS. However, currently the consensus is that specific regions of the brain are selectively vulnerable to the acute effects of alcohol. An alcohol-induced blackout is the classic example; the subject is temporarily unable to form new long-term memories while relatively maintaining other skills such as talking or even driving. A recent study showed that alcohol can cause retrograde memory impairment, that is, blackouts due to retrieval impairments as well as those due to deficits in encoding. Alcoholic blackouts may be complete (en bloc or partial (fragmentary depending on severity of memory impairment. In fragmentary blackouts, cueing often aids recall. Memory impairment during acute intoxication involves dysfunction of episodic memory, a type of memory encoded with spatial and social context. Recent studies have shown that there are multiple memory systems supported by discrete brain regions, and the acute effects of alcohol on learning and memory may result from alteration of the hippocampus and related structures on a cellular level. A rapid increase in blood alcohol concentration (BAC is most consistently associated with the likelihood of a blackout. However, not all subjects experience blackouts, implying that genetic factors play a role in determining CNS vulnerability to the effects of alcohol. This factor may predispose an individual to alcoholism, as altered memory function during intoxication may affect an individual‟s alcohol expectancy; one may perceive positive aspects of intoxication while unintentionally ignoring the negative aspects. Extensive research on memory and learning as well as findings related to the acute effects of alcohol on the brain may elucidate the mechanisms and impact associated with the alcohol- induced blackout.

  13. Radio-induced brain lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorgan Mircea Radu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Radiotherapy, an important tool in multimodal oncologic treatment, can cause radio-induced brain lesion development after a long period of time following irradiation.

  14. Tachycardia-induced Cardiomyopathy (Tachycardiomyopathy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The term tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy or tachycardiomyopathy refers to impairment in left ventricular function secondary to chronic tachycardia, which is partially or completely reversible once the tachyarrhythmia is controlled. Tachycardia- induced cardiomyopathy has been shown to occur both in experimental ...

  15. Tachycardia-induced Cardiomyopathy (Tachycardiomyopathy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The diagnosis of tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy is usually made following observation of marked improvement in systolic function after normalization of heart rate. Clinicians should be aware that patients with unexplained systolic dysfunction may have tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy, and that controlling the ...

  16. Congruence properties of induced representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayer, Dieter; Momeni, Arash; Venkov, Alexei

    In this paper we study representations of the projective modular group induced from the Hecke congruence group of level 4 with Selberg's character. We show that the well known congruence properties of Selberg's character are equivalent to the congruence properties of the induced representations...

  17. Geomagnetically Induced Currents: Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Denny M.; Ngwira, Chigomezyo M.

    2017-10-01

    The geospace, or the space environment near Earth, is constantly subjected to changes in the solar wind flow generated at the Sun. The study of this environment variability is called Space Weather. Examples of effects resulting from this variability are the occurrence of powerful solar disturbances, such as coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The impact of CMEs on the Earth's magnetosphere very often greatly perturbs the geomagnetic field causing the occurrence of geomagnetic storms. Such extremely variable geomagnetic fields trigger geomagnetic effects measurable not only in the geospace but also in the ionosphere, upper atmosphere, and on and in the ground. For example, during extreme cases, rapidly changing geomagnetic fields generate intense geomagnetically induced currents (GICs). Intense GICs can cause dramatic effects on man-made technological systems, such as damage to high-voltage power transmission transformers leading to interruption of power supply, and/or corrosion of oil and gas pipelines. These space weather effects can in turn lead to severe economic losses. In this paper, we supply the reader with theoretical concepts related to GICs as well as their general consequences. As an example, we discuss the GIC effects on a North American power grid located in mid-latitude regions during the 13-14 March 1989 extreme geomagnetic storm. That was the most extreme storm that occurred in the space era age.

  18. Temozolomide-Induced Myelodysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethan A. Natelson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A patient who had received temozolomide (TMZ as a single agent in treatment of malignant glioma developed therapy-induced myelodysplasia (T-MDS. TMZ is an orally active imidazotetrazine which methylates guanine residues in DNA, ultimately causing single and double-strand DNA breaks leading to apoptotic cell death. TMZ does not chemically cross-link DNA and is considered a nonclassical alkylating agent, similar in structure and activity to dacarbazine. Observations on this patient, and on similarly treated others, suggest that the cumulative dose threshold (CDT for TMZ that predisposes to T-MDS and which may potentially lead to acute myeloid leukemia (T-AML is around 18000 to 20000 mg/sq m. Although the incidence of T-MDS and the predisposing CDT of TMZ may differ from that of other potentially leukemogenic compounds currently and formerly used as chemotherapeutic agents, all alkylating agents, including TMZ, should be considered potentially leukemogenic when administered long term.

  19. Contrast-induced nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marenzi, Giancarlo; Cabiati, Angelo; Milazzo, Valentina; Rubino, Mara

    2012-10-01

    Radiological procedures utilizing intravascular iodinated contrast media are being widely applied for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes and represent one of the main causes of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) and hospital-acquired renal failure. Although the risk of CIN is low (0.6-2.3 %) in the general population, it may be very high (up to 50 %) in selected subsets, especially in patients with major risk factors such as advanced chronic kidney disease and diabetes mellitus, and in those undergoing emergency percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI). Due to the lack of any effective treatment, prevention of this iatrogenic disease, which is associated with significant in-hospital and long-term morbidity and mortality and increased costs, is the key strategy. However, prevention of CIN continues to elude clinicians and is a main concern during PCI, as patients undergoing these procedures often have multiple comorbidities. The purpose of this study is to examine the pathophysiology, risk factors and clinical course of CIN, as well as the most recent studies dealing with its prevention and potential therapeutic interventions, especially during PCI.

  20. Donepezil-induced mania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Jonathan G

    2014-03-01

    To report a case of mania associated with the titration of donepezil in an elderly patient. A 400-bed academic acute care psychiatric facility. A 70-year-old male with a history of paranoid schizophrenia, alcohol dependence, and mild cognitive impairment was admitted after concerns that he was responding to internal stimuli and exhibited increased disorganization. The patient was initiated on quetiapine, titrated to 500 mg at bedtime, to address disorganization, hallucinations, and poor sleep. After improvement of psychotic symptoms and assessment of cognitive function, donepezil 5 mg daily was initiated and titrated to 10 mg daily after two weeks. Days following the increase of donepezil to 10 mg daily, the patient exhibited symptoms of mania and became hyperverbal with elevated mood and agitation. A decreased need for sleep with an increase in cleaning activities throughout the day was noted. Donepezil was suspected to have induced the new symptoms and was discontinued. Following discontinuation, the manic symptoms completely resolved over a two-week period. The titration of donepezil was associated with the onset of mania. Previous trials involving off-label donepezil use in patients with bipolar disorder, but not schizophrenia, have reported the development of manic symptoms. Although rare, there is mounting evidence that donepezil is associated with the emergence of mania. Clinicians should be aware of this potential side effect in all patients treated with donepezil.

  1. Ceftazidime-induced thrombocytopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo-Chiva, E; Díaz-Rangel, M; Monsalve-Naharro, J Á; Cuesta-Montero, P; Catalá-Ripoll, J V; García-Martínez, E M

    2017-12-01

    Ceftazidime is an antibiotic belonging to the group of third generation cephalosporins, frequently used in clinical practice for its broad antibacterial spectrum. A case report is presented on a 78-year-old man who entered the intensive care unit due to respiratory failure secondary to nosocomial pneumonia in the postoperative period of a laparoscopic hepatic bisegmentectomy for a hepatocarcinoma. It required invasive mechanical ventilation and was treated with ceftazidime, developing a progressive decrease in platelet count after the onset of this drug and after re-exposure to it, not coinciding with the introduction of other drugs. The adverse reaction was reported to the Spanish pharmacosurveillance system and according to the Naranjo algorithm the causal relationship was probable. Since no case of ceftazidime-induced thrombocytopenia was found in the literature, we consider knowledge of it relevant as an adverse effect to be taken into account given its potential severity, especially when it cannot be explained by other causes. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Carbimazole-induced agranulocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Anisha; Joseph, Siby; Sidharthan, Neeraj; Murali, Dhanya

    2015-01-01

    A 47 year old lady with hyperthyroidism for past 1½ years was initially on Carbimazole 20 mg orally then changed to 30 mg (during Hysterectomy) but was taking 10 mg for last 1 year. She had intermittent fever with severe B/L bifrontal headache since 3 weeks. Routine investigations showed anaemia, neutropenia, leucopenia and CRP elevation. Peripheral smear showed normocytic normochromic anaemia with Rouleaux formation, leucopenia with 2% atypical cells and mild thrombocytosis. Widal test, RA factor (Rheumatoid factor) test, Ig M (Immunoglobulin M) dengue, Ig M Lepto, TORCH infections (Toxoplasmosis, Other (Syphilis, varicella-zoster, parvovirus B19), Cytomegalovirus and Herpes infections), ANA (Antinuclear antibody) screen cANCA (Cytoplasmic antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies) and pANCA (Perinuclear Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibodies) tests were negative. Bone marrow aspiration showed normo to hypercellular marrow with 15% atypical cells and plasma cells. Multiple myeloma workup was done. Carbimazole was withheld. Drug induced agranulocytosis occurs with in 1-2 months of taking the antithyroid medication but onset delayed by 1½ year. De-challenge resulted normalization of blood parameters.

  3. Methaemoglobinemia Induced by MDMA?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. L. W. Verhaert

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Case. A 45-year-old man with a blank medical history presented at the emergency room with dizziness and cyanosis. Physical examination showed cyanosis with a peripheral saturation (SpO2 of 85%, he did not respond to supplemental oxygen. Arterial blood gas analysis showed a striking chocolate brown colour. Based on these data, we determined the arterial methaemoglobin concentration. This was 32%. We gave 100% oxygen and observed the patient in a medium care unit. The next day, patient could be discharged in good condition. Further inquiry about exhibitions and extensive history revealed that the patient used MDMA (3,4- methylenedioxymethamphetamine, the active ingredient of ecstasy. Conclusion. Acquired methaemoglobinemia is a condition that occurs infrequently, but is potentially life threatening. Different nutrients, medications, and chemicals can induce methaemoglobinemia by oxidation of haemoglobin. The clinical presentation of a patient with methaemoglobinemia is due to the impossibility of O2 binding and transport, resulting in tissue hypoxia. Important is to think about methaemoglobin in a patient who presents with cyanosis, a peripheral saturation of 85% that fails to respond properly to the administration of O2. Because methaemoglobin can be reduced physiologically, it is usually sufficient to remove the causative agent, to give O2, and to observe the patient.

  4. Doxycycline induced Esophagitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Karakus Yilmaz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Esophagitis is a hazardous condition such as acid reflux of esophageal mucosa, infection, systemic diseases, radiation, drugs and trauma. Drug- induced esophagial injury (DIEI is a disease with the use of variety of drugs that caused serious damage and ulcer in the mucosa of the esophagus. The most commonly implicated drugs are non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, chloride and especially antibiotics. Thirty-six year-old female patient presented to the emergency department with odynophagia during swallowing and complaining of retrosternal pain. One week before 100 mg doxycycline (2x1 PO for therapeutic abortion were prescribed. It was learned that in the third day of the initiation of medication, the patient\\'s symptoms began and stopped using drug by the fourth day due to advers effect of drugs, but her symptoms didn’t regressed although she didn’t use them. Endoscopy appointment was taken, proton pump inhibitor and antiacid treatment was given, than patient was discharged from the emergency department. In the endoscopy, 20 mm segment esophageal ulcer was seen approximately in the 30.th cm of the esophagius. DIEI is a relatively common, although under-recognized, so this case was presented for remainding DIEI to emergency medicine personals and reweiving its diagnosis, treatment and follow-up.

  5. Epigenetic Reprogramming Induced Pluripotency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Meiliana

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The ability to reprogram mature cells to an embryonic-like state by nuclear transfer or by inducing the expression of key transcription factors has provided us with critical opportunities to linearly map the epigenetic parameters that are essential for attaining pluripotency. CONTENT: Epigenetic reprogramming describes a switch in gene expression of one kind of cell to that of another unrelated cell type. Early studies in frog cloning provided some of the first experimental evidence for reprogramming. Subsequent procedures included mammalian somatic cell nuclear transfer, cell fusion, induction of pluripotency by ectopic gene expression, and direct reprogramming. Through these methods it becomes possible to derive one kind of specialized cell (such as a brain cell from another, more accessible tissue, such as skin in the same individual. This has potential applications for cell replacement without the immunosuppression treatments commonly required when cells are transferred between genetically different individuals. SUMMARY: Reprogramming with transcription factors offers tremendous promise for the future development of patient-specific pluripotent cells and for studies of human disease. The identification of optimized protocols for the differentiation of iPS cells and ES cells into multiple functional cell types in vitro and their proper engraftment in vivo will be challenged in the coming years. Given that the first small molecule approaches aimed at activating pluripotency genes have already been devised and that murine iPS cells have recently been derived by using non-integrative transient expression strategies of the reprogramming factors, we expect that human iPS cells without permanent genetic alterations will soon be generated. KEYWORDS: epigenetics, reprogramming, pluripotency, stem cells, iPS cells, chromatin, DNA methylation.

  6. Trauma-Induced Coagulopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Jeffrey W; Pittet, Jean-Francois; Pierce, Bert

    2014-09-01

    Trauma is the leading cause of death among people under the age of 44. Hemorrhage is a major contributor to deaths related to trauma in the first 48 h. Accordingly, the management of these patients is a time-sensitive and critical affair that anesthesiologists responsible for surgical resuscitation will face. Coagulopathy associated with trauma exists in one-third of all severely injured patients upon presentation to the hospital. Trauma patients presenting with coagulopathy have significantly higher mortality. This trauma-induced coagulopathy (TIC) must be managed adroitly in the resuscitation of these patients. Recent advancements in our understanding of TIC have led to new protocols and therapy guidelines. Anesthesiologists must be aware of these to effectively manage this form of shock. TIC driven by a combination of endogenous biological processes, as well as iatrogenic causes, can ultimately lead to the lethal triad of hypothermia, acidemia, and coagulopathy. Providers should understand how to promptly diagnose TIC and be aware of the early indicators of massive transfusion. The use of common laboratory studies and patient vital signs serve as our current guide, but the importance of each is still under debate. Thromboelastography is a tool used often in the diagnosis of TIC and can be used to guide blood product transfusion. Certain pharmaceutical strategies and non-transfusion strategies also exist, which aid in the management of hemorrhagic shock. Damage control surgery, rewarming, tranexamic acid, and 1:1:1 transfusion protocols are promising methods used to treat the critically wounded. Though protocols have been developed, controversies still exist on the optimal resuscitation strategy.

  7. Circuit and synaptic mechanisms of repeated stress: Perspectives from differing contexts, duration, and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin G. Bath

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The current review is meant to synthesize research presented as part of a symposium at the 2016 Neurobiology of Stress workshop in Irvine California. The focus of the symposium was “Stress and the Synapse: New Concepts and Methods” and featured the work of several junior investigators. The presentations focused on the impact of various forms of stress (altered maternal care, binge alcohol drinking, chronic social defeat, and chronic unpredictable stress on synaptic function, neurodevelopment, and behavioral outcomes. One of the goals of the symposium was to highlight the mechanisms accounting for how the nervous system responds to stress and their impact on outcome measures with converging effects on the development of pathological behavior. Dr. Kevin Bath's presentation focused on the impact of disruptions in early maternal care and its impact on the timing of hippocampus maturation in mice, finding that this form of stress drove accelerated synaptic and behavioral maturation, and contributed to the later emergence of risk for cognitive and emotional disturbance. Dr. Scott Russo highlighted the impact of chronic social defeat stress in adolescent mice on the development and plasticity of reward circuity, with a focus on glutamatergic development in the nucleus accumbens and mesolimbic dopamine system, and the implications of these changes for disruptions in social and hedonic response, key processes disturbed in depressive pathology. Dr. Kristen Pleil described synaptic changes in the bed nuclei of the stria terminalis that underlie the behavioral consequences of allostatic load produced by repeated cycles of alcohol binge drinking and withdrawal. Dr. Eric Wohleb and Dr. Ron Duman provided new data associating decreased mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR signaling and neurobiological changes in the synapses in response to chronic unpredictable stress, and highlighted the potential for the novel antidepressant ketamine to rescue

  8. Is It All in the Family? The Effects of Early Social Structure on Neural-Behavioral Systems of Prairie Voles (Microtus ochrogaster)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Gian D.; van Westerhuyzen, Julie A.; Bales, Karen L.; Trainor, Brian C.

    2012-01-01

    The transition to parenthood is generally associated with a reduction in anxiety or anxiety-like behavior across a wide range of species. In some species, juveniles provide supplementary parental care for younger siblings, a behavior known as alloparenting. Although the fitness consequences of alloparenting behavior have been a focus of evolutionary research, less is known about how alloparenting behavior impacts affective states. In the socially monogamous prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster), most juveniles exhibit alloparenting behavior, making the species an ideal model for examining the effects of alloparenting on future behavioral outcomes. We randomly assigned juvenile voles to alloparenting (AL) or no alloparenting (NoAL) groups and behaviorally phenotyped them for anxiety-like and social behaviors using the elevated plus maze (EPM), open field test (OFT), startle box, social interaction test, juvenile affiliation test, and partner preference test. AL voles displayed more anxiety-like and less exploratory behavior than NoAL voles, spending significantly less time in the open arms of the EPM and center of an open field. We dissected the CA1 region of the hippocampus and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) from brains of behaviorally phenotyped voles and nontested siblings as well. Decreased BDNF expression in CA1 has generally been associated with increased anxiety-like behavior in other rodents, while an anxiogenic role for BDNF in BNST is less established. Western blot analyses showed that alloparenting experience increased expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BNST) but decreased BDNF expression in the CA1 region of hippocampus (CA1) of nontested voles. There were similar differences in BNST BDNF of behaviorally phenotyped voles, and BDNF levels within this region were negatively correlated with exploratory behavior (i.e. time in center of OFT). Our results suggest that BDNF signaling in

  9. Traffic forecasts ignoring induced demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næss, Petter; Nicolaisen, Morten Skou; Strand, Arvid

    2012-01-01

    Although the phenomenon of induced traffic has been theorized for more than 60 years and is now widely accepted among transport researchers, the traffic-generating effects of road capacity expansion are still often neglected in transport modelling. Such omission can lead to serious bias...... performance of a proposed road project in Copenhagen with and without short-term induced traffic included in the transport model. The available transport model was not able to include long-term induced traffic resulting from changes in land use and in the level of service of public transport. Even though...... ways of dealing with congestion and environmental problems in urban areas....

  10. Drug-Induced Metabolic Acidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Amy Quynh Trang; Xu, Li Hao Richie; Moe, Orson W.

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis could emerge from diseases disrupting acid-base equilibrium or from drugs that induce similar derangements. Occurrences are usually accompanied by comorbid conditions of drug-induced metabolic acidosis, and clinical outcomes may range from mild to fatal. It is imperative that clinicians not only are fully aware of the list of drugs that may lead to metabolic acidosis but also understand the underlying pathogenic mechanisms. In this review, we categorized drug-induced metabolic acidosis in terms of pathophysiological mechanisms, as well as individual drugs’ characteristics. PMID:26918138

  11. Tumor-induced osteomalacia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Florenzano

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome clinically characterized by bone pain, fractures and muscle weakness. It is caused by tumoral overproduction of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23 that acts primarily at the proximal renal tubule, decreasing phosphate reabsorption and 1α-hydroxylation of 25 hydroxyvitamin D, thus producing hypophosphatemia and osteomalacia. Lesions are typically small, benign mesenchymal tumors that may be found in bone or soft tissue, anywhere in the body. In up to 60% of these tumors, a fibronectin-1(FN1 and fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 (FGFR1 fusion gene has been identified that may serve as a tumoral driver. The diagnosis is established by the finding of acquired chronic hypophosphatemia due to isolated renal phosphate wasting with concomitant elevated or inappropriately normal blood levels of FGF23 and decreased or inappropriately normal 1,25-OH2-Vitamin D (1,25(OH2D. Locating the tumor is critical, as complete removal is curative. For this purpose, a step-wise approach is recommended, starting with a thorough medical history and physical examination, followed by functional imaging. Suspicious lesions should be confirmed by anatomical imaging, and if needed, selective venous sampling with measurement of FGF23. If the tumor is not localized, or surgical resection is not possible, medical therapy with phosphate and active vitamin D is usually successful in healing the osteomalacia and reducing symptoms. However, compliance is often poor due to the frequent dosing regimen and side effects. Furthermore, careful monitoring is needed to avoid complications such us secondary/tertiary hyperparathyroidism, hypercalciuria, and nephrocalcinosis. Novel therapeutical approaches are being developed for TIO patients, such as image-guided tumor ablation and medical treatment with the anti-FGF23 monoclonal antibody KRN23 or anti FGFR medications. The case of a patient with TIO is presented to

  12. Tachycardia-induced Cardiomyopathy (Tachycardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan A. Mohamed

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The term tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy or tachycardiomyopathy refers to impairment in left ventricular function secondary to chronic tachycardia, which is partially or completely reversible once the tachyarrhythmia is controlled. Tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy has been shown to occur both in experimental models and in patients with incessant tachyarrhythmia.Data from several studies and from case reports have shown that rate control by means of cardioversion, negative chronotropic agents, and surgical or catheter-based atrioventricular node ablation, resulted in significant improvement of systolic function.The diagnosis of tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy is usually made following observation of marked improvement in systolic function after normalization of heart rate. Clinicians should be aware that patients with unexplained systolic dysfunction may have tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy, and that controlling the arrhythmia may result in improvement of systolic function.

  13. Noise-Induced Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hearing Loss Homepage Facts Noise-Induced Hearing Loss Genetics of Hearing Loss Screening & Diagnosis Types of Hearing Loss About Sound Treatment & Intervention Services Learning Language Bacterial Meningitis Studies Data & Statistics EHDI Annual Data 2015 ...

  14. Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... use it again if I begin to have exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. True False True: Many people are concerned about the standard prescription: "2 puffs of albuterol before exercise and every ...

  15. Eigenvalue Conditions for Induced Subgraphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harant Jochen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Necessary conditions for an undirected graph G to contain a graph H as induced subgraph involving the smallest ordinary or the largest normalized Laplacian eigenvalue of G are presented.

  16. Plasmon-induced artificial photosynthesis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ueno, Kosei; Oshikiri, Tomoya; Shi, Xu; Zhong, Yuqing; Misawa, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    We have successfully developed a plasmon-induced artificial photosynthesis system that uses a gold nanoparticle-loaded oxide semiconductor electrode to produce useful chemical energy as hydrogen and ammonia...

  17. Pregnancy Induced Porphyria Cutanea Tarda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanker B

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Prophyria cutanea tarda induced by pregnancy in a 20 year old primi is described along with clinical, biochemical and histological features. All the lesions expect hypertrichosis resolved following childbirth.

  18. [Medical induced abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettahar, K; Pinton, A; Boisramé, T; Cavillon, V; Wylomanski, S; Nisand, I; Hassoun, D

    2016-12-01

    Updated clinical recommendations for medical induced abortion procedure. A systematic review of French and English literature, reviewing the evidence relating to the provision of medical induced abortion was carried out on PubMed, Cochrane Library and international scientific societies recommendations. The effectiveness of medical abortion is higher than 95% when the protocols are adjusted to gestational age (EL1). Misoprostol alone is less effective than a combination of mifepristone and misoprostol (EL1). Gemeprost is less effective than misoprostol (EL2). The dose of 200mg of mifepristone should be preferred to 600mg (NP1, Rank A). Mifepristone can be taken at home (professional agreement). The optimum interval between mifepristone and misoprostol intake should be 24 to 48 hours (EL1, grade A). Before 7 weeks LMP, the dose of 400μg misoprostol should be given orally (EL1, grade A) eventually repeated after 3hours if no bleeding occurs. For optimal effectiveness between 7 and 14 LMP, the interval between mifepristone and misoprostol should not be shortened to less than 8hours (grade 1). An interval of 24 to 48hours will not affect the effectiveness of the method provided misoprostol dosage is 800μg (EL1). Vaginal, sublingual or buccal routes of administration are more effective and better tolerated than the oral route, which should be abandoned (EL1). An amount of 800μg sublingual or buccal misoprostol route has the same effectiveness than the vaginal route but more gastrointestinal side effects (EL1, grade A). Between 7 and 9 LMP, it does not seem necessary to repeat misoprostol dose whereas it should be repeated beyond 9 SA (grade B). Between 9 and 14 LMP, the dose of 400μg misoprostol given either vaginally, buccally or sublingually should be repeated every 3hours if needed (with a maximum of 5 doses) (EL2, grade B). There is no strong evidence supporting routine antibiotic prophylaxis for medical abortion (professional agreement). Rare contraindications

  19. Bullous Pemphigoid Induced by Vildagliptin

    OpenAIRE

    Bengür Taşkıran Bahattin; Erdoğan Canan Solak; Şişman Güven; Barış Cansu

    2016-01-01

    Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is an uncommon chronic, autoimmune, and subepidermal disease. Tense blisters occur on normal or erythematous skin. It can be induced by medications. There is a number of reports on BP induced by dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors (vildagliptin, sitagliptin, saxagliptin). DPP-4 (CD26), present as a cell surface molecule on immune cells, also plays an important costimulatory role in immune activation. BP more commonly affects elderly men. We present a case of BP i...

  20. Steroid induced huge mediastinal lipomatosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jang Min; Chung, Suk Tae; Kang, Eun Young; Suh, Won Hyuck [Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-04-15

    Mediastinal lipomatosis induced by steroid is an unusual byproduct of such therapy and has been reported after prolonged and large doses of steroid therapy. The radiologic findings of mediastinal lipomatosis in simple chest film are nonspecific, but with the advent of CT scan, differentiation the fatty lesion from other mediastinal decreases can be made easily. Recently we expended steroid induced huge mediastinal lipomatosis and report the case with review including radiologic findings.

  1. Amylin induces hypoglycemia in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Guerreiro, Luiz H.; Daniel DA Silva; Mauro Sola-Penna; Mizurini, Daniella M.; Lima,Luís M.T.R.

    2013-01-01

    Amylin is a 37-aminoacid pancreatic protein that exerts control over several metabolic events such as glycemia and lacticemia. Amylin has long been shown to induce increases in arterial plasma glucose. We decided to investigate whether amylin plays additional roles in the glucose metabolism. We evaluated glucose homeostasis using whole blood from the tail tip of fasting, conscious, unrestrained normal and streptozotocyn-induced diabetic mice following subcutaneous administration of mouse amyl...

  2. Holographic Two-Photon Induced Photopolymerization

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Holographic two-photon-induced photopolymerization (HTPIP) offers distinct advantages over conventional one-photon-induced photopolymerization and current techniques...

  3. Ketoprofen-induced photoallergic dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany Yvonne Loh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug-induced photosensitivity reactions are significant adverse effects. Ketoprofen is one of the most common drugs that can cause skin rash in sun-exposed areas. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, such as ketoprofen, are often used for a variety of symptoms, including pain and fever. An understanding of the presentation and clinical course of ketoprofen-induced photosensitivity is necessary to correctly diagnose and manage this condition. Ketoprofen-induced photosensitivity reactions usually present as photoallergic dermatitis, which is a cell-mediated immune process. The benzophenone moiety in ketoprofen plays a major role in ketoprofen′s ability to act as a photosensitizer. Several agents, such as fenofibrate and octocrylene have been found to be associated with aggravation of ketoprofen-induced photoallergic dermatitis or cross-photosensitization, and these reactions result from structural similarities with ketoprofen. Treatment of ketoprofen-induced photoallergic dermatitis includes discontinuation of ketoprofen, topical or systemic corticosteroids and avoidance of sun exposure and agents known to exacerbate dermatitis. In conclusion, photoallergic dermatitis is a significant adverse effect of ketoprofen. Some agents known to worsen dermatitis may be found in sun protection products (notably, octocrylene in sunscreen. Educating the patient to avoid these products is critical to treatment. Since NSAIDs, such as ketoprofen, are used commonly for a variety of illnesses, drug-induced photoallergic dermatitis should be high on the differential in individuals using these medications who present with acute onset of a rash in sun-exposed areas.

  4. Polyanionic Cyclodextrin Induced Supramolecular Nanoparticle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, He-Lue; Zhang, Ying-Ming; Chen, Yong; Liu, Yu

    2016-12-23

    Ionizable cyclodextrins have attracted increasing attention in host-guest chemistry and pharmaceutical industry, mainly due to the introduction of favorable electrostatic interactions. The ionizable cyclodextrins could not only enhance its own solubility but also induce oppositely charged guests to form more stable complex. However, the aggregation induced by charged cyclodextrins has rarely been reported. In this work, guided by the concept of molecular-induced aggregation, a series of carboxyl modified cyclodextrins were synthesized via "click" and hydrolysis reaction. Then, UV-vis spectrum was used to investigate the aggregating behaviors induced by these cyclodextrins towards the cationic guest molecules. The results showed that only the hepta-carboxyl-β-cyclodextrin could induce the guest molecules to self-assemble into supramolecular spherical nanoparticles. Meanwhile, it could form stable inclusion complex with amantadine, a drug for anti-Parkinson and antiviral. The assembly behaviors were investigated by dynamic light scattering, scanning electron microscope, atomic force microscope, transmission electron microscope and NMR spectroscopy. The supramolecular nanoparticles induced by hepta-carboxyl-β-CD and its inclusion with amantadine could be used to encapsulate the model drug and achieve its controlled releasing behaviors.

  5. Mitochondrial Swelling Induced by Glutathione

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehninger, Albert L.; Schneider, Marion

    1959-01-01

    Reduced glutathione, in concentrations approximating those occurring in intact rat liver, causes swelling of rat liver mitochondria in vitro which is different in kinetics and extent from that yielded by L-thyroxine. The effect is also given by cysteine, which is more active, and reduced coenzyme A, but not by L-ascorbate, cystine, or oxidized glutathione. The optimum pH is 6.5, whereas thyroxine-induced swelling is optimal at pH 7.5. The GSH-induced swelling is not inhibited by DNP or dicumarol, nor by high concentrations of sucrose, serum albumin, or polyvinylpyrrolidone, in contrast to thyroxine-induced swelling. ATP inhibits the GSH swelling, but ADP and AMP are ineffective. Mn-+ is a very potent inhibitor, but Mg++ is ineffective. Ethylenediaminetetraacetate is also an effective inhibitor of GSH-induced swelling. The respiratory inhibitors amytal and antimycin A do not inhibit the swelling action of GSH, but cyanide does; these findings are consistent with the view that the oxidation-reduction state of the respiratory chain between cytochrome c and oxygen is a determinant of GSH-induced swelling. Reversal of GSH-induced swelling by osmotic means or by ATP in KCl media could not be observed. Large losses of nucleotides and protein occur during the swelling by GSH, suggesting that the action is irreversible. The characteristically drastic swelling action of GSH could be prevented if L-thyroxine was also present in the medium. PMID:13630941

  6. Static behaviour of induced seismicity

    CERN Document Server

    Mignan, Arnaud

    2015-01-01

    The standard paradigm to describe seismicity induced by fluid injection is to apply nonlinear diffusion dynamics in a poroelastic medium. I show that the spatiotemporal behaviour and rate evolution of induced seismicity can, instead, be expressed by geometric operations on a static stress field produced by volume change at depth. I obtain laws similar in form to the ones derived from poroelasticity while requiring a lower description length. Although fluid flow is known to occur in the ground, it is not pertinent to the behaviour of induced seismicity. The proposed model is equivalent to the static stress model for tectonic foreshocks generated by the Non- Critical Precursory Accelerating Seismicity Theory. This study hence verifies the explanatory power of this theory outside of its original scope.

  7. [Hallucinogen-induced psychological disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermle, L; Kovar, K-A; Hewer, W; Ruchsow, M

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the current research on hallucinogen induced psychiatric disorders. In addition to LSD and psilocybin hallucinogens of biologic origin are increasingly used by adolescents and young adults. Relevant literature and related articles were identified by means of a computerized MEDLINE search including the years 1997 - 2007. As keywords "hallucinogen induced psychosis", "hallucinogen induced flashback", "hallucinogen persisting perception disorder (HPPD)" were used. Finally, 64 journal articles and books out of 103 were included in the review. Acute psychotic syndromes in adolescents are rarely due to intoxications with hallucinogenic drugs. However, clinical relevance of flashback phenomena as post-hallucinogenic psychiatric disorder has to be disputed. Because of the high popularity of biogenic hallucinogens and LSD knowledge of intoxications and resulting psychiatric disorders as well as medical complications and therapeutical approaches are clinically important. Especially intoxications with drugs of herbal origin like tropanalcaloids play an important role in emergency situations.

  8. Hydroxyurea-Induced Replication Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenza Lahkim Bennani-Belhaj

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bloom's syndrome (BS displays one of the strongest known correlations between chromosomal instability and a high risk of cancer at an early age. BS cells combine a reduced average fork velocity with constitutive endogenous replication stress. However, the response of BS cells to replication stress induced by hydroxyurea (HU, which strongly slows the progression of replication forks, remains unclear due to publication of conflicting results. Using two different cellular models of BS, we showed that BLM deficiency is not associated with sensitivity to HU, in terms of clonogenic survival, DSB generation, and SCE induction. We suggest that surviving BLM-deficient cells are selected on the basis of their ability to deal with an endogenous replication stress induced by replication fork slowing, resulting in insensitivity to HU-induced replication stress.

  9. Metal-induced crystallization fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zumin; Mittemeijer, Eric J

    2014-01-01

    Introduction to Metal-Induced CrystallizationAtomic Mechanisms and Interface Thermodynamics of Metal-Induced Crystallization of Amorphous Semiconductors at Low TemperaturesThermodynamics and Kinetics of Layer Exchange upon Low-Temperature Annealing Amorphous Si/Polycrystalline Al Layered StructuresMetal-Induced Crystallization by Homogeneous Insertion of Metallic Species in Amorphous SemiconductorsAluminum-Induced Crystallization: Applications in Photovoltaic TechnologiesApplications of Metal-Induced Crystallization for Advanced Flat-Panel DisplaysLaser-Assisted Meta

  10. Uterine contraction induced by Ghanaian plants used to induce abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Birgitte HV; Soelberg, Jens; Kristiansen, Uffe

    2016-01-01

    Ethnomedicinal observations from the time of the Atlantic slave trade show women in Ghana historically used plants as emmenagogues (menstruation stimulants) and to induce abortion. This study investigates the effect of four of these plants on uterine contraction. The historically used plants were...

  11. Drug-induced hair loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Hair loss can have major psychological consequences. It can be due to a wide variety of causes, including hormonal disorders, dietary factors, infections, inflammation, trauma, emotional factors, and cancer. Drugs can also induce hair loss, by interacting with the hair growth cycle. Drug-induced hair loss may be immediate or delayed, sudden or gradual, and diffuse or localised. It is usually reversible after drug discontinuation. The drugs most often implicated in hair loss are anticancer agents, interferon, azole antifungals, lithium, immunosuppressants, and many other drugs belonging to a variety of pharmacological classes.

  12. [Amiodarone-induced pulmonary toxicity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisel, A; Berg, M; Stopp, M; Ukena, D; Schieffer, H

    1997-12-01

    Amiodarone is highly effective in suppressing ventricular and supraventricular tachyarrhythmias. The most serious adverse reaction is pulmonary toxicity. The mechanisms involved in amiodarone-induced pulmonary injury are incompletely understood. Several forms of pulmonary disease occur including interstitial pneumonitis, fibrosis or organizing pneumonia. The incidence is generally lower with lower maintenance doses (amiodarone. The diagnosis of amiodarone-induced pulmonary toxicity is one of exclusion. Treatment consists primarily of stopping amiodarone application. Corticosteroid therapy can be life-saving for severe cases and for patients in whom withdrawl of amiodarone is not possible.

  13. Food-Induced Red Eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgin, Susan G

    2017-07-01

    This article addresses the etiology of red eyes and a novel case of food-induced red eye. An 82-year-old white male patient reported 50 years of episodes of severe unilateral bulbar injection in either eye following ingestion of certain foods. Thinned scleras in this particular patient made the injection in his eyes more observable. Photodocumentation of this reaction after he ingested these foods is shown. It is hypothesized that this is a new explanation for an intermittent, unilateral, self-limited red eye-a food-induced red eye.

  14. Drug-induced Brugada syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshino Minoura

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Brugada syndrome (BrS is an inherited cardiac disorder that is associated with an electrocardiogram pattern of ST segment elevation on right precordial leads and a high incidence of sudden death. Diagnosis requires documentation of a coved-type ST segment that occurs spontaneously or in the presence of a class IA or IC antiarrhythmic agent. A wide variety of other drugs, including antianginals, antidepressants, antipsychotics, and antihistamines, have been reported to unmask or induce the electrocardiographic and arrhythmic manifestations of BrS. This review focuses on drug-induced BrS phenotypes, prevalence, and underlying mechanisms.

  15. Amiodarone-induced myxoedema coma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Syed; Ayoub, Walaa; Hassan, Mona; Wisgerhof, Max

    2014-04-12

    A 62-year-old man was found to have bradycardia, hypothermia and respiratory failure 3 weeks after initiation of amiodarone therapy for atrial fibrillation. Thyroid-stimulating hormone was found to be 168 μIU/mL (nl. 0.3-5 μIU/mL) and free thyroxine (FT4) was amiodarone-induced myxoedema coma in the literature report patient death despite supportive therapy and thyroid hormone replacement. This case represents the most thoroughly investigated case of amiodarone-induced myxoedema coma with a history significant for subclinical thyroid disease.

  16. [Imatinib-induced pulmonary toxicity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Esper, Raúd; Morales-Victorino, Neisser

    2009-01-01

    Antineoplasic agent-induced pulmonary toxicity is an important cause of respiratory failure. These novel antineoplastic agents include imatinib mesylate, a protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor that is encoded by the Bcr-Abl gen created by the Philadelphia chromosome abnormality in chronic myeloid leukemia. Pulmonary toxicity of imatinib is directly related to the dose used. The more severe pulmonary manifestations include pleural effusion by water retention and interstitial pneumonitis. We report the first case published in Mexico ofimatinib-induced pulmonary toxicity and its management in the intensive care unit of the Medica Sur Clinic Foundation.

  17. Induced radioactivity in LDEF components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, B. A.; Fishman, G. J.; Parnell, T. A.; Laird, C. E.

    1992-01-01

    A systematic study of the induced radioactivity of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) is being carried out in order to gather information about the low earth orbit radiation environment and its effects on materials. The large mass of the LDEF spacecraft, its stabilized configuration, and long mission duration have presented an opportunity to determine space radiation-induced radioactivities with a precision not possible before. Data presented include preliminary activities for steel and aluminum structural samples, and activation subexperiment foils. Effects seen in the data show a clear indication of the trapped proton anisotropy in the South Atlantic Anomaly and suggest contributions from different sources of external radiation fluxes.

  18. Airbag-induced corneal flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liyanage, Sidath E; Mearza, Ali A

    2009-02-01

    To describe a case of airbag-induced corneal flap in a previously normal cornea. Case report. A 27-year-old woman presented with complete loss of vision in her left eye following a road traffic accident which involved airbag deployment. There was no previous ocular history. Examination revealed a large corneal flap of 6mm in diameter, extending to the depth of anterior stroma. This was accompanied by a traumatic optic neuropathy. One month follow-up revealed complete reattachment of the corneal flap. This is the first reported case of a corneal flap induced by airbag deployment in a cornea with previously normal architecture.

  19. Trainability of cold induced vasodilation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, H.A.M.; Raymann, R.J.E.M.; Stoop, M.

    2007-01-01

    Peripheral cold injuries are often reported in mountaineers. Not only low ambient temperatures, but also the hypobaric circumstances are known to be major environmental risk factors. When the fingers are exposed to extreme cold for several minutes, cold induced vasodilation (CIVD) occurs, that is

  20. Drug-induced renal injury

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    induced renal toxicity into four major renal syndromes: • acute renal failure. • chronic renal failure. • glomerulonephritis. • tubulopathies. These major renal syndromes are discussed in further detail below (see summary in Table I). Acute renal failure. Drugs can cause acute renal failure by causing pre-renal, intrinsic or.

  1. Calotropis procera-induced keratitis

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey, Nidhi; Chandrakar, A K; M.L. Garg; Patel, Santosh Singh

    2009-01-01

    Calotropis procera produces copious amounts of latex, which has been shown to possess several pharmacological properities. Its local application produces intense inflammatory response. In the 10 cases of Calotropis procera-induced keratitis reported here, the clinical picture showed corneal edema with striate keratopathy without any evidence of intraocular inflammation. The inflammation was reversed by the local application of steroid drops.

  2. Conflict-Induced Perceptual Filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Mike; Luna-Rodriguez, Aquiles; Jacobsen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    In a variety of conflict paradigms, target and distractor stimuli are defined in terms of perceptual features. Interference evoked by distractor stimuli tends to be reduced when the ratio of congruent to incongruent trials is decreased, suggesting conflict-induced perceptual filtering (i.e., adjusting the processing weights assigned to stimuli…

  3. Plasma generation induced by triboelectrification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Singh, Shailendra Vikram; Michelsen, Poul

    2009-01-01

    A gas discharge plasma can be induced by triboelectrification around a sliding contact. The detailed physical mechanism of triboelectrification is unknown, but an empirical classification scheme can be referred to in practice. It is reported that intense ultra-violet emission from a plasma...

  4. Adolescents and Exercise Induced Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Pamela; Bickanse, Shanna; Bogenreif, Mike; VanSickle, Kyle

    2008-01-01

    This article defines asthma and exercise induced asthma, and provides information on the triggers, signs, and symptoms of an attack. It also gives treatments for these conditions, along with prevention guidelines on how to handle an attack in the classroom or on the practice field. (Contains 2 tables and 1 figure.)

  5. Solvent Induced Conformational Kinetics (SICK)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkman, Leffert; Kommandeur, Jan

    1970-01-01

    Specific conformations of molecules may be induced by the solvent when a large free volume is associated with the oonformational change. The conformational energy barrier is then a property of the solvent, rather than of the molecule. Such effects are reported for several substituted

  6. Transdermal hyoscine induced unilateral mydriasis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hannon, Breffni

    2012-03-20

    The authors present a case of unilateral mydriasis in a teenager prescribed transdermal hyoscine hydrobromide (scopolamine) for chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting. The authors discuss the ocular side-effects associated with this particular drug and delivery system and the potential use of transdermal hyoscine as an antiemetic agent in this group.

  7. Food-Induced Acute Pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manohar, Murli; Verma, Alok K; Upparahalli Venkateshaiah, Sathisha; Goyal, Hemant; Mishra, Anil

    2017-12-01

    Food allergy, a commonly increasing problem worldwide, defined as an adverse immune response to food. A variety of immune-related effector cells such as mast cells, eosinophils, neutrophils, and T cells are involved in food-related allergic responses categorized as IgE mediated, non-IgE mediated, and mixed (IgE and non-IgE) depending upon underlying immunological mechanisms. The dietary antigens mainly target the gastrointestinal tract including pancreas that gets inflamed due to food allergy and leads acute pancreatitis. Reports indicate several food proteins induce pancreatitis; however, detailed underlying mechanism of food-induced pancreatitis is unexplored. The aim of the review is to understand and update the current scenario of food-induced pancreatitis. A comprehensive literature search of relevant research articles has been performed through PubMed, and articles were chosen based on their relevance to food allergen-mediated pancreatitis. Several cases in the literature indicate that acute pancreatitis has been provoked after the consumption of mustard, milk, egg, banana, fish, and kiwi fruits. Food-induced pancreatitis is an ignored and unexplored area of research. The review highlights the significance of food in the development of pancreatitis and draws the attention of physicians and scientists to consider food allergies as a possible cause for initiation of pancreatitis pathogenesis.

  8. SPS Ion Induced Desorption Experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    This experiment will give a study about the induced desorption from heavy ion (Indium ion run from week 45 in SPS T4-H8 area) impacting LHC type graphite collimator. 4 different samples are located in the 4 chambers 90° one to each other: pure graphite, graphite with copper coating, graphite with NEG coating, 316LN stainless steal (reference).

  9. Photobiomodulation on alcohol induced dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zheng-Ping; Liu, Timon C.; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Yan-Fang

    2007-05-01

    Alcohol, which is ubiquitous today, is a major health concern. Its use was already relatively high among the youngest respondents, peaked among young adults, and declined in older age groups. Alcohol is causally related to more than 60 different medical conditions. Overall, 4% of the global burden of disease is attributable to alcohol, which accounts for about as much death and disability globally as tobacco and hypertension. Alcohol also promotes the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and/or interferes with the body's normal defense mechanisms against these compounds through numerous processes, particularly in the liver. Photobiomodulation (PBM) is a cell-specific effect of low intensity monochromatic light or low intensity laser irradiation (LIL) on biological systems. The cellular effects of both alcohol and LIL are ligand-independent so that PBM might rehabilitate alcohol induced dysfunction. The PBM on alcohol induced human neutrophil dysfunction and rat chronic atrophic gastritis, the laser acupuncture on alcohol addiction, and intravascular PBM on alcoholic coma of patients and rats have been observed. The endonasal PBM (EPBM) mediated by Yangming channel, autonomic nervous systems and blood cells is suggested to treat alcohol induced dysfunction in terms of EPBM phenomena, the mechanism of alcohol induced dysfunction and our biological information model of PBM. In our opinion, the therapeutic effects of PBM might also be achieved on alcoholic myopathy.

  10. Modeling Flow-Induced Crystallization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozemond, Peter C.; van Drongelen, Martin; Peters, Gerrit W.M.; Auriemma, Finizia; Alfonso, Giovanni Carlo; de Rosa, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    A numerical model is presented that describes all aspects of flow-induced crystallization of isotactic polypropylene at high shear rates and elevated pressures. It incorporates nonlinear viscoelasticity, including viscosity change as a result of formation of oriented fibrillar crystals (shish),

  11. Amiodarone-induced thyroid dysfunction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hypothyroidism where patients hail from iodine-replete or excess areas. The mechanism of amiodarone-induced hypothyroidism may be mediated by excess iodide. The large amount of iodide released by metabolism of amiodarone inhibits thyroid hormone biosynthesis (the Wolff-Chaikoff. Divisions of Endocrinology and ...

  12. Pregestational Obesity-Induced Embryopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Román, Gipsis; Fernández-Romero, Tammy; Perera-Calderín, Alfredo J; Rodríguez-Sosa, Víctor M; Arranz, Celeste; Hernández, Sonia Clapés

    2016-09-01

    Several epidemiologic studies in humans have shown a relationship between pregestational obesity and congenital malformations in offsprings. However, there are no experimental evidence in animal models of obesity and pregnancy that reproduce the teratogenesis induced by this pathological condition. To evaluate the effect of monosodium glutamate-induced obesity on embryonic development. Female rats received subcutaneously (4 mg/g body weight) monosodium glutamate (MSG) solution or saline solution 0.9% (vehicle control) at days 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 of life. At 90 days of age, all animals were mated, and on day 11 of pregnancy, the animals were killed. Biochemical variables (glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and insulin) were determined in plasma of dams and embryo homogenates (DNA and protein content, advanced oxidation protein products). Embryos were evaluated for malformations, crown-rump length, and somite number. Obese rats presented higher triglyceride levels as compared to nonobese rats. Increased proportion of malformed embryos, decreased crown-rump length, somite number, DNA, and protein content were observed in offspring of obese rats. The model of obesity induced with MSG reproduces the maternal obesity-induced teratogenesis. The hypertriglyceridemia observed in MSG obese pregnant rats could be related to increased birth defect. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Exorcising ghosts in induced gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narain, Gaurav [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics China (KITPC), Institute of Theoretical Physics, Beijing (China)

    2017-10-15

    Unitarity of the scale-invariant coupled theory of higher-derivative gravity and matter is investigated. A scalar field coupled with a Dirac fermion is taken as the matter sector. Following the idea of induced gravity the Einstein-Hilbert term is generated via dynamical symmetry breaking of scale invariance. The renormalisation group flows are computed and one-loop RG improved effective potential of scalar is calculated. The scalar field develops a new minimum via the Coleman-Weinberg procedure inducing the Newton constant and masses in the matter sector. The spin-2 problematic ghost and the spin-0 mode of the metric fluctuation get a mass in the broken phase of the theory. The energy dependence of the vacuum expectation value in the RG improved scenario implies a running for the induced parameters. This sets up platform to ask whether it is possible to evade the spin-2 ghost by keeping its mass always above the running energy scale? In broken phase this question is satisfactorily answered for a large domain of coupling parameter space where the ghost is evaded. The spin-0 mode can be made physically realisable or not depending upon the choice of the initial parameters. The induced Newton constant is seen to vanish in the ultraviolet case. By properly choosing parameters it is possible to make the matter fields physically unrealisable. (orig.)

  14. Nonfreezing Cold-Induced Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    sensitive population. Alternatively, the rise may be caused by a type I statistical error (poor specifi city of the tests used to diagnose NFCI or...Pernio is believed to be caused by prolonged cold-induced vasoconstriction with subsequent hypoxemia and vessel wall infl ammation. 41,55

  15. induced hepatic injury in rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toxicological evaluation of Thymelaea hirsuta and protective effect against CCl 4 -induced hepatic injury in rats. ... There were no significant differences in red blood cells count (p<0.05), in Hemoglobin and Hematocrit serum levels but a significant increase in white blood cells count (p<0.001) and in platelets (p< 0.05) for all ...

  16. (UVB)-induced DNA damage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-17

    Aug 17, 2011 ... effects of extract from P. ordoratissimus flowers on ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced DNA damage have not yet been reported. ... POE significantly decreased tail DNA (TD%), tail length (TL) and micronucleus frequencies (MNFs) .... UVB radiation used in this experiment was EUV at three levels, namely, 5.70 ...

  17. Hydralazine-induced constrictive pericarditis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franssen, CFC; ElGamal, MIH; Gans, ROB; Hoorntje, SJ

    A 59-year-old man was diagnosed as having constrictive pericarditis 17 months after a typical hydralazine-induced autoimmune syndrome, This late complication of hydralazine has been reported only once. Ten years later the patient was found to have anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies directed

  18. Late onset startle induced tics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijssen, MAJ; Brown, P; Morris, HR; Lees, A

    1999-01-01

    Three cases of late onset Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome are presented. The motor ties were mainly induced by an unexpected startling stimulus, but the startle reflex was not exaggerated. The ties developed after physical trauma or a period of undue emotional stress. Reflex ties may occur in

  19. Late onset startle induced tics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijssen, M. A.; Brown, P.; Morris, H. R.; Lees, A.

    1999-01-01

    Three cases of late onset Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome are presented. The motor tics were mainly induced by an unexpected startling stimulus, but the startle reflex was not exaggerated. The tics developed after physical trauma or a period of undue emotional stress. Reflex tics may occur in

  20. Does a parthenogenesis-inducing Wolbachia induce vestigial cytoplasmic incompatibility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraaijeveld, Ken; Reumer, Barbara M.; Mouton, Laurence; Kremer, Natacha; Vavre, Fabrice; van Alphen, Jacques J. M.

    2011-03-01

    Wolbachia is a maternally inherited bacterium that manipulates the reproduction of its host. Recent studies have shown that male-killing strains can induce cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) when introgressed into a resistant host. Phylogenetic studies suggest that transitions between CI and other Wolbachia phenotypes have also occurred frequently, raising the possibility that latent CI may be widespread among Wolbachia. Here, we investigate whether a parthenogenesis-inducing Wolbachia strain can also induce CI. Parthenogenetic females of the parasitoid wasp Asobara japonica regularly produce a small number of males that may be either infected or not. Uninfected males were further obtained through removal of the Wolbachia using antibiotics and from a naturally uninfected strain. Uninfected females that had mated with infected males produced a slightly, but significantly more male-biased sex ratio than uninfected females that had mated with uninfected males. This effect was strongest in females that mated with males that had a relatively high Wolbachia titer. Quantitative PCR indicated that infected males did not show higher ratios of nuclear versus mitochondrial DNA content. Wolbachia therefore does not cause diploidization of cells in infected males. While these results are consistent with CI, other alternatives such as production of abnormal sperm by infected males cannot be completely ruled out. Overall, the effect was very small (9%), suggesting that if CI is involved it may have degenerated through the accumulation of mutations.

  1. Radiotherapy-induced thyroid disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jereczek-Fossa, Barbara A; Alterio, Daniela; Jassem, Jacek; Gibelli, Bianca; Tradati, Nicoletta; Orecchia, Roberto

    2004-06-01

    Despite their specific functional consequences, radiotherapy-induced thyroid abnormalities remain under-estimated and underreported. These sequelae may include primary or central hypothyroidism, thyroiditis, Graves' disease, euthyroid Graves' ophthalmopathy, benign adenomas, multinodular goitre and radiation-induced thyroid carcinoma. Primary hypothyroidism, the most common radiation-induced thyroid dysfunction, affects 20-30% of patients administered following curative radiotherapy to the neck region, with approximately half of the events occurring within the first 5 years after therapy. The relative risk of radiation-induced cancer (mainly well-differentiated tumours) is 15-53-fold higher than in non-irradiated population. The aetiology of radiation-induced thyroid injury includes vascular damage, parenchymal cell damage and auto-immune reactions. Total radiotherapy dose, irradiated volume of the thyroid gland, and the extent of prior thyroid resection are among the most important factors associated with the risk of hypothyroidism. The contribution of other treatment modalities (chemotherapy, endocrine therapy) as well as patient- and tumour-related factors is less clear. Reduction in radiation dose to the thyroid gland and hypothalamic/pituitary complex should be attempted whenever possible. New radiotherapy techniques, such as stereotactic radiosurgery, three-dimensional conformal irradiation, intensity modulated radiotherapy and proton therapy allow generally better dose distribution with lower dose to the non-target organs. The diagnostic approach to thyroid radiation injury includes baseline thyroid function assays in all patients undergoing thyroid or parasellar irradiation. Recommended follow-up procedures include at least annual evaluation with a history for symptoms of thyroid dysfunction, clinical examination, and measurement of thyroid hormones and thyrotropin. Management of overt hypothyroidism is based on hormone replacement therapy. Thyroid hormone

  2. Methadone Induced Sensorineural Hearing Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chadi Saifan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSHL caused by opiate abuse or overuse has been well documented in the medical literature. Most documented case reports have involved either heroin or hydrocodone/acetaminophen. Recently, case reposts of methadone induced SSHL have been published. Case Report. We present the case of a 31-year-old man who developed SSHL after a methadone overdose induced stupor. He was subsequently restarted on methadone at his regular dose. On follow-up audiometry exams, he displayed persistent moderately severe sensorineural hearing loss bilaterally. Discussion. This case is notable because unlike all but one previously reported case, the patient—who was restated on methadone—did not make a complete recovery. Conclusion. Methadone overuse in rare cases causes SSHL.

  3. Plasmon-induced artificial photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Kosei; Oshikiri, Tomoya; Shi, Xu; Zhong, Yuqing; Misawa, Hiroaki

    2015-06-06

    We have successfully developed a plasmon-induced artificial photosynthesis system that uses a gold nanoparticle-loaded oxide semiconductor electrode to produce useful chemical energy as hydrogen and ammonia. The most important feature of this system is that both sides of a strontium titanate single-crystal substrate are used without an electrochemical apparatus. Plasmon-induced water splitting occurred even with a minimum chemical bias of 0.23 V owing to the plasmonic effects based on the efficient oxidation of water and the use of platinum as a co-catalyst for reduction. Photocurrent measurements were performed to determine the electron transfer between the gold nanoparticles and the oxide semiconductor. The efficiency of water oxidation was determined through spectroelectrochemical experiments aimed at elucidating the electron density in the gold nanoparticles. A set-up similar to the water-splitting system was used to synthesize ammonia via nitrogen fixation using ruthenium instead of platinum as a co-catalyst.

  4. Prediction of pilot induced oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin PANĂ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available An important problem in the design of flight-control systems for aircraft under pilotedcontrol is the determination of handling qualities and pilot-induced oscillations (PIO tendencieswhen significant nonlinearities exist in the vehicle description. The paper presents a method to detectpossible pilot-induced oscillations of Category II (with rate and position limiting, a phenomenonusually due to a misadaptation between the pilot and the aircraft response during some tasks in whichtight closed loop control of the aircraft is required from the pilot. For the analysis of Pilot in the LoopOscillations an approach, based on robust stability analysis of a system subject to uncertainparameters, is proposed. In this analysis the nonlinear elements are substituted by linear uncertainparameters. This approach assumes that PIO are characterized by a limit cycle behavior.

  5. Color-induced graph colorings

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Ping

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive treatment of color-induced graph colorings is presented in this book, emphasizing vertex colorings induced by edge colorings. The coloring concepts described in this book depend not only on the property required of the initial edge coloring and the kind of objects serving as colors, but also on the property demanded of the vertex coloring produced. For each edge coloring introduced, background for the concept is provided, followed by a presentation of results and open questions dealing with this topic. While the edge colorings discussed can be either proper or unrestricted, the resulting vertex colorings are either proper colorings or rainbow colorings. This gives rise to a discussion of irregular colorings, strong colorings, modular colorings, edge-graceful colorings, twin edge colorings and binomial colorings. Since many of the concepts described in this book are relatively recent, the audience for this book is primarily mathematicians interested in learning some new areas of graph colorings...

  6. Esomeprazole-induced photoallergic dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukla A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available There are no published case reports of esomeprazole-induced photoallergic dermatitis. We report here a 58-year-old lady with prior history of propylthiouracil and carbimazole-induced photoallergy, who presented with heartburn and dysphagia. She was diagnosed to have erosive esophagitis and was treated with esomeprazole, following which she developed photoallergic dermatitis. It improved on cessation of the drug and did not recur on subsequent treatment with ranitidine. Naranjo score for this adverse drug event was 8, thereby making it a probable adverse drug reaction. This reaction may be due to sulphur moiety, which is common to all these drugs. Physicians must be aware of this possible side-effect, especially in patients with prior history of photoallergy to other drugs.

  7. Experimental model to induce obesity in rats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vinicius Von Diemen; Eduardo Neubarth Trindade; Manoel Roberto Maciel Trindade

    2006-01-01

    .... Obesity can be induced in animals by neuroendocrine, dietary or genetic changes. The most widely used models to induce obesity in rats are a lesion of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH...

  8. Induced disease resistance signaling in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, B.W.M.; Loon, L.C. van; Pieterse, C.M.J.

    2006-01-01

    To protect themselves from disease, plants have evolved sophisticated inducible defense mechanisms in which the signal molecules salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and ethylene often play crucial roles. Elucidation of signaling pathways controlling induced disease resistance is a major objective in

  9. Androgen manipulation and vasopressin binding in the rat brain and peripheral organs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Xin; Phillips, P.; Oldfield, B.; Trinder, D.; Risvanis, J.; Stephenson, J.; Johnston, C. (Univ. of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia))

    1994-03-01

    It is now widely recognized that there is a sexual dimorphism in the development of arginine vasopressin (AVP) immunoreactivity in certain parts of the brain, and that changes in brain AVP immunoreactivity change with manipulation of androgen status. The aim of the present experiment was to determine specifically any AVP receptor changes in response to manipulation of androgen levels using a selective V[sub 1] antagonist radioligand. Following castration, plasma testosterone levels fell and AVP immunoreactivity was reduced in the lateral septum and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. With testosterone supplementation in castrated animals, the immunoreactivity in these regions was restored to a higher degree than in sham-operated animals. Central and peripheral V[sub 1] AVP receptor binding (as determined using the selective AVP V)[sub 1] antagonist radioligand [[sup 125]I](d(CH[sub 2])[sub 5],sarcosine[sup 7]) AVP was not changed in any of the brain regions studied or in liver or kidney membranes from the three groups. The study demonstrates that there is no change in brain AVP receptor binding despite changes in regional AVP immunoreactivity in the brain, and excludes any confounding interaction with changes in oxytocin receptors. 23 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  10. A sex difference in the hypothalamic uncinate nucleus: relationship to gender identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Falgueras, Alicia; Swaab, Dick F

    2008-12-01

    Transsexuality is an individual's unshakable conviction of belonging to the opposite sex, resulting in a request for sex-reassignment surgery. We have shown previously that the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTc) is female in size and neuron number in male-to-female transsexual people. In the present study we investigated the hypothalamic uncinate nucleus, which is composed of two subnuclei, namely interstitial nucleus of the anterior hypothalamus (INAH) 3 and 4. Post-mortem brain material was used from 42 subjects: 14 control males, 11 control females, 11 male-to-female transsexual people, 1 female-to-male transsexual subject and 5 non-transsexual subjects who were castrated because of prostate cancer. To identify and delineate the nuclei and determine their volume and shape we used three different stainings throughout the nuclei in every 15th section, i.e. thionin, neuropeptide Y and synaptophysin, using an image analysis system. The most pronounced differences were found in the INAH3 subnucleus. Its volume in thionin sections was 1.9 times larger in control males than in females (P 0.117) and females (volume P > 0.245 and number of neurons P > 0.341). There was no difference in INAH3 between pre-and post-menopausal women, either in the volume (P > 0.84) or in the number of neurons (P gender identity.

  11. Photoperiod affects estrogen receptor α, estrogen receptor β and aggressive behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trainor, Brian C.; Rowland, Michael R.; Nelson, Randy J.

    2007-01-01

    Estrogens have important effects on male and female social behavior. Despite growing knowledge of the anatomy and behavioral effects of the two predominant estrogen receptor subtypes in mammals (ERα and ERβ), relatively little is known about how these receptors respond to salient environmental stimuli. Many seasonally breeding species respond to changing photoperiods that predict seasonal changes in resource availability. We characterized the effects of photoperiod on aggressive behavior in two species of Peromyscus that exhibit gonadal regression in short days. P. polionotus (old field mice) were more aggressive than P. maniculatus (deer mice) and both species were more aggressive in short days. We used immunocytochemistry and real-time polymerase chain reaction to characterize the effects of photoperiod on ERα and ERβ expression. In both species ERα-immunoreactive staining in the posterior bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) was increased in short vs. long days. Both species had reduced ERβ-immunoreactive expression in the posterior BNST in short days. In the medial amygdala ERβ immunoreactivity was increased in long days for both species. Using real-time polymerase chain reaction on punch samples that included the BNST, we observed that ERα mRNA was increased and ERβ mRNA was decreased in short days. These data suggest that the effects of photoperiod on ERα and ERβ expression may thus have important behavioral consequences. PMID:17614949

  12. Photoperiod affects estrogen receptor alpha, estrogen receptor beta and aggressive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trainor, Brian C; Rowland, Michael R; Nelson, Randy J

    2007-07-01

    Estrogens have important effects on male and female social behavior. Despite growing knowledge of the anatomy and behavioral effects of the two predominant estrogen receptor subtypes in mammals (ERalpha and ERbeta), relatively little is known about how these receptors respond to salient environmental stimuli. Many seasonally breeding species respond to changing photoperiods that predict seasonal changes in resource availability. We characterized the effects of photoperiod on aggressive behavior in two species of Peromyscus that exhibit gonadal regression in short days. P. polionotus (old field mice) were more aggressive than P. maniculatus (deer mice) and both species were more aggressive in short days. We used immunocytochemistry and real-time polymerase chain reaction to characterize the effects of photoperiod on ERalpha and ERbeta expression. In both species ERalpha-immunoreactive staining in the posterior bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) was increased in short vs. long days. Both species had reduced ERbeta-immunoreactive expression in the posterior BNST in short days. In the medial amygdala ERbeta immunoreactivity was increased in long days for both species. Using real-time polymerase chain reaction on punch samples that included the BNST, we observed that ERalpha mRNA was increased and ERbeta mRNA was decreased in short days. These data suggest that the effects of photoperiod on ERalpha and ERbeta expression may thus have important behavioral consequences.

  13. Two strains of roof rats as effective models for assessing new-object reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    KIYOKAWA, Yasushi; TANAKA, Kazuyuki D.; ISHII, Akiko; MIKAMI, Kaori; KATAYAMA, Masatoshi; KOIZUMI, Ryoko; MINAMI, Syota; TANIKAWA, Tsutomu; TAKEUCHI, Yukari

    2017-01-01

    Wild animals generally avoid even small and harmless novel objects and/or familiar objects moved to a novel position, which is termed “new-object reaction”. Although new-object reaction appears to be a biologically important characteristic for animals, little progress has been made in understanding the neural mechanisms underlying new-object reaction. One reason might be the lack of effective experimental animals. Two strains of roof rats (Sj and Og strains) were established from wild roof rats caught in Shinjuku, Tokyo and one of the Ogasawara Islands, respectively, by a Japanese pest control company. Based on the rat caregivers’ informal observations, we conducted behavioral and anatomical tests to assess the validity of Sj and Og strains for the analyses of new-object reaction. In Experiment 1, the Sj strain showed reduced food consumption compared with the Og strain when food was provided in a novel way, suggesting that the Sj strain had a stronger avoidance of novel objects compared with the Og strain. Experiment 2 demonstrated that the basolateral complex of the amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in experimental Sj rats had a larger percentage area compared with that of experimental Og rats, indicating these nuclei might be involved in the difference observed in avoidance of novel objects between the strains. Taken together, the present study suggests that Sj and Og strains are effective experimental animals for assessing new-object reaction. PMID:28202879

  14. Statistical modeling implicates neuroanatomical circuit mediating stress relief by 'comfort' food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M; Christiansen, Anne M; Wang, Xia; Song, Seongho; Herman, James P

    2016-07-01

    A history of eating highly palatable foods reduces physiological and emotional responses to stress. For instance, we have previously shown that limited sucrose intake (4 ml of 30 % sucrose twice daily for 14 days) reduces hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis responses to stress. However, the neural mechanisms underlying stress relief by such 'comfort' foods are unclear, and could reveal an endogenous brain pathway for stress mitigation. As such, the present work assessed the expression of several proteins related to neuronal activation and/or plasticity in multiple stress- and reward-regulatory brain regions of rats after limited sucrose (vs. water control) intake. These data were then subjected to a series of statistical analyses, including Bayesian modeling, to identify the most likely neurocircuit mediating stress relief by sucrose. The analyses suggest that sucrose reduces HPA activation by dampening an excitatory basolateral amygdala-medial amygdala circuit, while also potentiating an inhibitory bed nucleus of the stria terminalis principle subdivision-mediated circuit, resulting in reduced HPA activation after stress. Collectively, the results support the hypothesis that sucrose limits stress responses via plastic changes to the structure and function of stress-regulatory neural circuits. The work also illustrates that advanced statistical methods are useful approaches to identify potentially novel and important underlying relationships in biological datasets.

  15. Compulsivity in opioid dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolomeo, Serenella; Matthews, Keith; Steele, Douglas; Baldacchino, Alex

    2018-02-02

    This study aimed to investigate the relationship between compulsivity versus impulsivity and structural MRI abnormalities in opioid dependence. We recruited 146 participants: i) patients with a history of opioid dependence due to chronic heroin use (n=24), ii) heroin users stabilised on methadone maintenance treatment (n=48), iii) abstinent participants with a history of opioid dependence due to heroin use (n=24) and iv) healthy controls (n=50). Compulsivity was measured using Intra/Extra-Dimensional (IED) Task and impulsivity was measured using the Cambridge Gambling Task (CGT). Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) data were also obtained. As hypothesised, compulsivity was negatively associated with impulsivity (p<0.02). Testing for the neural substrates of compulsivity versus impulsivity, we found a higher compulsivity/impulsivity ratio associated with significantly decreased white matter adjacent to the nucleus accumbens, bed nucleus of stria terminalis and rostral cingulate in the abstinent group, compared to the other opioid dependent groups. In addition, self-reported duration of opioid exposure correlated negatively with bilateral globus pallidus grey matter reductions. Our findings are consistent with Volkow & Koob's addiction models and underline the important role of compulsivity versus impulsivity in opioid dependence. Our results have implications for the treatment of opioid dependence supporting the assertion of different behavioural and biological phenotypes in the opioid dependence and abstinence syndromes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Mapping the co-localization of the circadian proteins PER2 and BMAL1 with enkephalin and substance P throughout the rodent forebrain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariana Frederick

    Full Text Available Despite rhythmic expression of clock genes being found throughout the central nervous system, very little is known about their function outside of the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Determining the pattern of clock gene expression across neuronal subpopulations is a key step in understanding their regulation and how they may influence the functions of various brain structures. Using immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy, we quantified the co-expression of the clock proteins BMAL1 and PER2 with two neuropeptides, Substance P (SubP and Enkephalin (Enk, expressed in distinct neuronal populations throughout the forebrain. Regions examined included the limbic forebrain (dorsal striatum, nucleus accumbens, amygdala, stria terminalis, thalamus medial habenula of the thalamus, paraventricular nucleus and arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus and the olfactory bulb. In most regions examined, BMAL1 was homogeneously expressed in nearly all neurons (~90%, and PER2 was expressed in a slightly lower proportion of cells. There was no specific correlation to SubP- or Enk- expressing subpopulations. The olfactory bulb was unique in that PER2 and BMAL1 were expressed in a much smaller percentage of cells, and Enk was rarely found in the same cells that expressed the clock proteins (SubP was undetectable. These results indicate that clock genes are not unique to specific cell types, and further studies will be required to determine the factors that contribute to the regulation of clock gene expression throughout the brain.

  17. Imaging of aromatase distribution in rat and rhesus monkey brains with [{sup 11}C]vorozole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Kayo [Division of Pharmacology, Department of Neuroscience, Uppsala University, Uppsala SE-75124 (Sweden); Uppsala Imanet, Uppsala SE-75109 (Sweden)]. E-mail: kayo.takahashi@uppsala.imanet.se; Bergstroem, Mats [Uppsala Imanet, Uppsala SE-75109 (Sweden); Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala SE-75124 (Sweden); Fraendberg, Pernilla [Uppsala Imanet, Uppsala SE-75109 (Sweden); Vesstroem, Eva-Lotta [Uppsala Imanet, Uppsala SE-75109 (Sweden); Watanabe, Yasuyoshi [Department of Physiology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka 545-8585 (Japan); Langstroem, Bengt [Uppsala Imanet, Uppsala SE-75109 (Sweden)

    2006-07-15

    Aromatase is an enzyme that converts androgens to estrogens and may play a role in mood and mental status. The aim of this study was to demonstrate that brain aromatase distribution could be evaluated with a novel positron emission tomography (PET) tracer [{sup 11}C]vorozole. Vorozole is a nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor that reversibly binds to the heme domain of aromatase. In vitro experiments in rat brain, using frozen section autoradiography, illustrated specific binding in the medial amygdala (MA), the bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BST) and the preoptic area (POA) of male rat brain. Specific binding in female rat brain was found in the MA and the BST; however, the signals were lower than those of males. The K {sub d} of [{sup 11}C]vorozole binding to aromatase in MA was determined to be 0.60{+-}0.06 nM by Scatchard plot analysis using homogenates. An in vivo PET study in female rhesus monkey brain demonstrated the uptake of [{sup 11}C]vorozole in the amygdala, where the uptake was blocked by the presence of excess amounts of unlabeled vorozole. Thus, this tracer has a high affinity for brain aromatase and could have a potential for in vivo aromatase imaging. This technique might enable the investigation of human brain aromatase in healthy and diseased persons.

  18. Chronic social subordination stress modulates glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) 67 mRNA expression in central stress circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makinson, Ryan; Lundgren, Kerstin H.; Seroogy, Kim B.; Herman, James P.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic social subordination is a well-known precipitant of numerous psychiatric and physiological health concerns. In this study, we examine the effects of chronic social stress in the visible burrow system (VBS) on the expression of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) 67 and brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) mRNA in forebrain stress circuitry. Male rats in the VBS system form a dominance hierarchy, whereby subordinate males exhibit neuroendocrine and physiological profiles characteristic of chronic exposure to stress. We found that social subordination decreases GAD67 mRNA in the peri-paraventricular nucleus region of the hypothalamus and the interfascicular nucleus of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), and increases in GAD67 mRNA in the hippocampus, medial prefrontal cortex, and dorsal medial hypothalamus. Expression of BDNF mRNA increased in the dorsal region of the BNST, but remained unchanged in all other regions examined. Results from this study indicate that social subordination is associated with several region-specific alterations in GAD67 mRNA expression in central stress circuits, whereas changes in the expression of BDNF mRNA are limited to the BNST. PMID:26066725

  19. Models and mechanisms of anxiety: evidence from startle studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillon, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Rationale Preclinical data indicates that threat stimuli elicit two classes of defensive behaviors, those that are associated with imminent danger and are characterized by avoidance or fight (fear), and those that are associated with temporally uncertain danger and are characterized by sustained apprehension and hypervigilance (anxiety). Objective To 1) review evidence for a distinction between fear and anxiety in animal and human experimental models using the startle reflex as an operational measure of aversive states, 2) describe experimental models of anxiety, as opposed to fear, in humans, 3) examine the relevance of these models to clinical anxiety. Results The distinction between phasic fear to imminent threat and sustained anxiety to temporally uncertain danger is suggested by psychopharmacological and behavioral evidence from ethological studies and can be traced back to distinct neuroanatomical systems, the amygdala and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. Experimental models of anxiety, not fear, are relevant to non-phobic anxiety disorders. Conclusions Progress in our understanding of normal and abnormal anxiety is critically dependent on our ability to model sustained aversive states to temporally uncertain threat. PMID:18058089

  20. Cocaine-associated odor cue re-exposure increases blood oxygenation level dependent signal in memory and reward regions of the maternal rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffrey, Martha K; Febo, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    Cue triggered relapse during the postpartum period can negatively impact maternal care. Given the high reward value of pups in maternal rats, we designed an fMRI experiment to test whether offspring presence reduces the neural response to a cocaine associated olfactory cue. Cocaine conditioned place preference was carried out before pregnancy in the presence of two distinct odors that were paired with cocaine or saline (+Cue and -Cue). The BOLD response to +Cue and -Cue was measured in dams on postpartum days 2-4. Odor cues were delivered to dams in the absence and then the presence of pups. Our data indicate that several limbic and cognitive regions of the maternal rat brain show a greater BOLD signal response to a +Cue versus -Cue. These include dorsal striatum, prelimbic cortex, parietal cortex, habenula, bed nucleus of stria terminalis, lateral septum and the mediodorsal and the anterior thalamic nucleus. Of the aforementioned brain regions, only the parietal cortex of cocaine treated dams showed a significant modulatory effect of pup presence. In this area of the cortex, cocaine exposed maternal rats showed a greater BOLD activation in response to the +Cue in the presence than in the absence of pups. Specific regions of the cocaine exposed maternal rat brain are strongly reactive to drug associated cues. The regions implicated in cue reactivity have been previously reported in clinical imaging work, and previous work supports their role in various motivational and cognitive functions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Dissecting the anticipation of aversion reveals dissociable neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grupe, Daniel W; Oathes, Desmond J; Nitschke, Jack B

    2013-08-01

    The anticipation of future adversity confers adaptive benefits by engaging a suite of preparatory mechanisms, but this process can also be deleterious when carried out in excess. Neuroscientific investigations have largely treated anticipation as a unitary process, but we show here using functional magnetic resonance imaging that distinct stages of aversive anticipation are supported by dissociable neural mechanisms. Immediate anticipatory responses were observed in regions associated with threat detection and early processing of predictive cues, including the orbitofrontal cortex and pregenual anterior cingulate cortex, as well as the amygdala for individuals with elevated anxiety symptoms. Sustained anticipatory activity was observed in the forebrain/bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, anterior insula, anterior mid-cingulate cortex (aMCC), and midbrain/periaqueductal gray, regions associated with anxiety, interoception, and defensive behavior. The aMCC showed increased functional coupling with the midbrain during sustained anticipation of aversion, highlighting a circuit critical for the expression of preparatory fear responses. These data implicate distinct sets of regions that are active during different temporal stages of anticipation, and provide insight into how the human brain faces the future both adaptively and maladaptively.

  2. No impact of deep brain stimulation on fear-potentiated startle in obsessive-compulsive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna M.P. Baas

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Deep brain stimulation (DBS of the ventral internal capsule is effective in treating therapy refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD. Given the close proximity of the stimulation site to the stria terminalis (BNST, we hypothesized that the striking decrease in anxiety symptoms following DBS could be the result of the modulation of contextual anxiety. However, the effect of DBS in this region on contextual anxiety is as of yet unknown. Thus, the current study investigated the effect of DBS on contextual anxiety in an experimental threat of shock paradigm. Eight patients with DBS treatment for severe OCD were tested in a double-blind crossover design with randomly assigned two-week periods of active and sham stimulation. DBS resulted in significant decrease of obsessive-compulsive symptoms, anxiety and depression. However, even though the threat manipulation resulted in a clear context potentiated startle effect, none of the parameters derived from the startle recordings was modulated by the DBS. This suggests that DBS in the ventral internal capsule is effective in treating anxiety symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder without modulating the startle circuitry. We hypothesize that the anxiety symptoms present in OCD are likely distinct from the pathological brain circuits in defensive states of other anxiety disorders.

  3. No impact of deep brain stimulation on fear-potentiated startle in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baas, Johanna M P; Klumpers, Floris; Mantione, Mariska H; Figee, Martijn; Vulink, Nienke C; Schuurman, P Richard; Mazaheri, Ali; Denys, Damiaan

    2014-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the ventral internal capsule is effective in treating therapy refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Given the close proximity of the stimulation site to the stria terminalis (BNST), we hypothesized that the striking decrease in anxiety symptoms following DBS could be the result of the modulation of contextual anxiety. However, the effect of DBS in this region on contextual anxiety is as of yet unknown. Thus, the current study investigated the effect of DBS on contextual anxiety in an experimental threat of shock paradigm. Eight patients with DBS treatment for severe OCD were tested in a double-blind crossover design with randomly assigned 2-week periods of active and sham stimulation. DBS resulted in significant decrease of obsessive-compulsive symptoms, anxiety, and depression. However, even though the threat manipulation resulted in a clear context-potentiated startle effect, none of the parameters derived from the startle recordings was modulated by the DBS. This suggests that DBS in the ventral internal capsule is effective in treating anxiety symptoms of OCD without modulating the startle circuitry. We hypothesize that the anxiety symptoms present in OCD are likely distinct from the pathological brain circuits in defensive states of other anxiety disorders.

  4. Robust age, but limited sex, differences in mu-opioid receptors in the rat brain: relevance for reward and drug-seeking behaviors in juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Caroline J W; Ratnaseelan, Aarane M; Veenema, Alexa H

    2017-09-04

    In the brain, the µ-opioid receptor (MOR) is involved in reward-seeking behaviors and plays a pivotal role in the mediation of opioid use disorders. Furthermore, reward-seeking behaviors and susceptibility to opioid addiction are particularly evident during the juvenile period, with a higher incidence of opioid use in males and higher sensitivity to opioids in females. Despite these age and sex differences in MOR-mediated behaviors, little is known regarding potential age and sex differences in the expression of MORs in the brain. Here, we used receptor autoradiography to compare MOR binding densities between juvenile and adult male and female rats. Age differences were found in MOR binding density in 12 out of 33 brain regions analyzed, with 11 regions showing higher MOR binding density in juveniles than in adults. These include the lateral septum, as well as sub-regions of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, hippocampus, and thalamus. Sex differences in MOR binding density were observed in only two brain regions, namely, the lateral septum (higher in males) and the posterior cortical nucleus of the amygdala (higher in females). Overall, these findings provide an important foundation for the generation of hypotheses regarding differential functional roles of MOR activation in juveniles versus adults. Specifically, we discuss the possibility that higher MOR binding densities in juveniles may allow for higher MOR activation, which could facilitate behaviors that are heightened during the juvenile period, such as reward and drug-seeking behaviors.

  5. NPY signaling inhibits extended amygdala CRF neurons to suppress binge alcohol drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleil, Kristen E; Rinker, Jennifer A; Lowery-Gionta, Emily G; Mazzone, Christopher M; McCall, Nora M; Kendra, Alexis M; Olson, David P; Lowell, Bradford B; Grant, Kathleen A; Thiele, Todd E; Kash, Thomas L

    2015-04-01

    Binge alcohol drinking is a tremendous public health problem because it leads to the development of numerous pathologies, including alcohol abuse and anxiety. It is thought to do so by hijacking brain systems that regulate stress and reward, including neuropeptide Y (NPY) and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF). The central actions of NPY and CRF have opposing functions in the regulation of emotional and reward-seeking behaviors; thus, dysfunctional interactions between these peptidergic systems could be involved in the development of these pathologies. We used converging physiological, pharmacological and chemogenetic approaches to identify a precise neural mechanism in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), a limbic brain region involved in pathological reward and anxiety behaviors, underlying the interactions between NPY and CRF in the regulation of binge alcohol drinking in both mice and monkeys. We found that NPY Y1 receptor (Y1R) activation in the BNST suppressed binge alcohol drinking by enhancing inhibitory synaptic transmission specifically in CRF neurons via a previously unknown Gi-mediated, PKA-dependent postsynaptic mechanism. Furthermore, chronic alcohol drinking led to persistent alterations in Y1R function in the BNST of both mice and monkeys, highlighting the enduring, conserved nature of this effect across mammalian species. Together, these data provide both a cellular locus and signaling framework for the development of new therapeutics for treatment of neuropsychiatric diseases, including alcohol use disorders.

  6. Altered cross-talk between the hypothalamus and non-homeostatic regions linked to obesity and difficulty to lose weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-Rodríguez, Oren; Vilar-López, Raquel; Andrews, Zane B; Navas, Juan F; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Verdejo-García, Antonio

    2017-08-30

    Interactions between the hypothalamus and non-homeostatic regions may contribute to explain the difficulty to lose weight in obesity, an assumption never tested in human longitudinal studies. We investigated whether the functional connectivity between the medial and lateral hypothalamus (MH and LH) and corticostriatal regions differs between individuals with excess weight (n = 42) and normal weight (n = 39) using a seed-based resting-state approach. In addition, we examined the longitudinal association between functional connectivity and weight loss in a 3-month follow-up diet. Results showed that participants with excess weight had increased connectivity between the MH and the striatum and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex, and decreased connectivity with the middle frontal gyrus, and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), as well as a decreased connectivity between the LH and the cerebellum. Decreased connectivity between the MH and the posterior part of the BNST, and between the LH and the cerebellar cortex, predicted a greater percentage of weight loss. Functional connectivity measures explained 36% of the 3-month weight change among individuals with excess weight. We conclude that altered functional connectivity between homeostatic-hypothalamic regions and non-homeostatic corticostriatal and cerebellar regions is linked to obesity and difficulty to lose weight.

  7. Behavioral Relevance of Species-Specific Vasotocin Anatomy in Gregarious Finches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aubrey M Kelly

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite substantial species differences in the vasotocin/vasopressin (VT/VP circuitry of the medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTm and lateral septum (LS; a primary projection target of BSTm VT/VP cells, functional consequences of this variation are poorly known. Previous experiments in the highly gregarious zebra finch (Estrildidae: Taeniopygia guttata demonstrate that BSTm VT neurons promote gregariousness in a male-specific manner and reduce anxiety in both sexes. However, in contrast to the zebra finch, the less gregarious Angolan blue waxbill (Estrildidae: Uraeginthus angolensis exhibits fewer VT-immunoreactive cells in the BSTm as well as differences in receptor distribution across the LS subnuclei, suggesting that knockdown of VT production in the BSTm would produce behavioral effects in Angolan blue waxbills that are distinct from zebra finches. Thus, we here quantified social contact, gregariousness (i.e. preference for the larger of two groups, and anxiety-like behavior following bilateral antisense knockdown of VT production in the BSTm of male and female Angolan blue waxbills. We find that BSTm VT neurons promote social contact, but not gregariousness (as in male zebra finches, and that antisense effects on social contact are significantly stronger in male waxbills than in females. Knockdown of BSTm VT production has no effect on anxiety-like behavior. These data provide novel evidence that species differences in the VT/VP circuitry arising in the BSTm are accompanied by species-specific effects on affiliation behaviors.

  8. Personality is Tightly Coupled to Vasopressin-Oxytocin Neuron Activity in a Gregarious Finch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aubrey M Kelly

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Nonapeptides of the vasopressin-oxytocin family modulate social processes differentially in relation to sex, species, behavioral phenotype, and human personality. However, the mechanistic bases for these differences are not well understood, in part because multidimensional personality structures remain to be described for common laboratory animals. Based upon principal components (PC analysis of extensive behavioral measures in social and nonsocial contexts, we now describe three complex dimensions of phenotype (personality for the zebra finch, a species that exhibits a human-like social organization that is based upon biparental nuclear families embedded within larger social groups. These dimensions can be characterized as Social competence/dominance, Gregariousness, and Anxiety. We further demonstrate that the phasic Fos response of nonapeptide neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis are significantly predicted by personality, sex, social context, and their interactions. Furthermore the behavioral PCs are each associated with a distinct suite of neural PCs that incorporate both peptide cell numbers and their phasic Fos responses, indicating that personality is reflected in complex patterns of neuromodulation arising from multiple peptide cell groups. These findings provide novel insights into the mechanisms underlying sex- and phenotype-specific modulation of behavior, and should be broadly relevant, given that vasopressin-oxytocin systems are strongly conserved across vertebrates.

  9. Cannabinoid CB1 receptors in distinct circuits of the extended amygdala determine fear responsiveness to unpredictable threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, M D; Daldrup, T; Remmers, F; Szkudlarek, H J; Lesting, J; Guggenhuber, S; Ruehle, S; Jüngling, K; Seidenbecher, T; Lutz, B; Pape, H C

    2017-10-01

    The brain circuits underlying behavioral fear have been extensively studied over the last decades. Although the vast majority of experimental studies assess fear as a transient state of apprehension in response to a discrete threat, such phasic states of fear can shift to a sustained anxious apprehension, particularly in face of diffuse cues with unpredictable environmental contingencies. Unpredictability, in turn, is considered an important variable contributing to anxiety disorders. The networks of the extended amygdala have been suggested keys to the control of phasic and sustained states of fear, although the underlying synaptic pathways and mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we show that the endocannabinoid system acting in synaptic circuits of the extended amygdala can explain the fear response profile during exposure to unpredictable threat. Using fear training with predictable or unpredictable cues in mice, combined with local and cell-type-specific deficiency and rescue of cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptors, we found that presynaptic CB1 receptors on distinct amygdala projections to bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) are both necessary and sufficient for the shift from phasic to sustained fear in response to an unpredictable threat. These results thereby identify the causal role of a defined protein in a distinct brain pathway for the temporal development of a sustained state of anxious apprehension during unpredictability of environmental influences, reminiscent of anxiety symptoms in humans.

  10. Epigenetic control of vasopressin expression is maintained by steroid hormones in the adult male rat brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, Catherine J.; Coss, Dylan; Auger, Anthony P.; Forbes-Lorman, Robin M.

    2011-01-01

    Although some DNA methylation patterns are altered by steroid hormone exposure in the developing brain, less is known about how changes in steroid hormone levels influence DNA methylation patterns in the adult brain. Steroid hormones act in the adult brain to regulate gene expression. Specifically, the expression of the socially relevant peptide vasopressin (AVP) within the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) of adult brain is dependent upon testosterone exposure. Castration dramatically reduces and testosterone replacement restores AVP expression within the BST. As decreases in mRNA expression are associated with increases in DNA promoter methylation, we explored the hypothesis that AVP expression in the adult brain is maintained through sustained epigenetic modifications of the AVP gene promoter. We find that castration of adult male rats resulted in decreased AVP mRNA expression and increased methylation of specific CpG sites within the AVP promoter in the BST. Similarly, castration significantly increased estrogen receptor α (ERα) mRNA expression and decreased ERα promoter methylation within the BST. These changes were prevented by testosterone replacement. This suggests that the DNA promoter methylation status of some steroid responsive genes in the adult brain is actively maintained by the presence of circulating steroid hormones. The maintenance of methylated or demethylated states of some genes in the adult brain by the presence of steroid hormones may play a role in the homeostatic regulation of behaviorally relevant systems. PMID:21368111

  11. The avian subpallium: new insights into structural and functional subdivisions occupying the lateral subpallial wall and their embryological origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuenzel, Wayne J.; Medina, Loreta; Csillag, Andras; Perkel, David J.; Reiner, Anton

    2011-01-01

    The subpallial region of the avian telencephalon contains neural systems whose functions are critical to the survival of individual vertebrates and their species. The subpallial neural structures can be grouped into five major functional systems, namely the dorsal somatomotor basal ganglia; ventral viscerolimbic basal ganglia; subpallial extended amygdala including the central and medial extended amygdala and bed nuclei of the stria terminalis; basal telencephalic cholinergic and non-cholinergic corticopetal systems; and septum. The paper provides an overview of the major developmental, neuroanatomical and functional characteristics of the first four of these neural systems, all of which belong to the lateral telencephalic wall. The review particularly focuses on new findings that have emerged since the identity, extent and terminology for the regions was considered by the Avian Brain Nomenclature Forum. New terminology is introduced as appropriate based on the new findings. The paper also addresses regional similarities and differences between birds and mammals, and notes areas where gaps in knowledge occur for birds. PMID:22015350

  12. Autonomic, behavioral and neuroendocrine correlates of paternal behavior in male prairie voles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenkel, William M; Suboc, Gessa; Carter, C Sue

    2014-04-10

    Socially monogamous prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) are biparental and alloparental. In the present study, we compared behavioral, cardiovascular and neuroendocrine parameters in male prairie voles with experience caring for pups (Fathers), versus reproductively inexperienced Virgin males. Father and Virgins showed generally similar responses to unrelated pups. However, in the Fathers studied prior to and during pup exposure, heart rate was lower and respiratory sinus arrhythmia tended to be higher than that in Virgins. Fathers also displayed comparatively lower levels of anxiety-related behaviors in an open field test. In Fathers, compared to Virgin males, we also found higher levels of oxytocin-immunoreactivity in the paraventricular hypothalamus and two brainstem regions involved in the autonomic regulation of the heart--the nucleus ambiguus and nucleus tractus solitarius. However, Fathers had less oxytocin in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. Vasopressin did not differ significantly in these regions. Fathers also weighed less and had less subcutaneous fat and larger testes as a percentage of bodyweight. In conjunction with earlier findings in this species, the present study supports the hypothesis that oxytocin may be involved in the adaptation to fatherhood. These findings also support the hypothesis that males, with or without prior pup experience, may show simultaneous patterns of behavioral nurturance and autonomic states compatible with mobilization and vigilance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Contributions of the Paraventricular Thalamic Nucleus in the Regulation of Stress, Motivation, and Mood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Tai Hsu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to describe how the function and connections of the paraventricular thalamic nucleus (Pa may play a role in the regulation of stress and negative emotional behavior. Located in the dorsal midline thalamus, the Pa is heavily innervated by serotonin, norepinephrine, dopamine, corticotropin-releasing hormone, and orexins, and is the only thalamic nucleus connected to the group of structures comprising the amygdala, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, nucleus accumbens, and infralimbic/subgenual anterior cingulate cortex. These neurotransmitter systems and structures are involved in regulating motivation and mood, and display abnormal functioning in several psychiatric disorders including anxiety, substance use, and major depressive disorders. Furthermore, rodent studies show that the Pa is consistently and potently activated following a variety of stressors and has a unique role in regulating responses to chronic stressors. These observations provide a compelling rationale for investigating the Pa in the link between stress and negative emotional behavior, and for including the Pa in the neural pathways of stress-related psychiatric disorders.

  14. Bullous Pemphigoid Induced by Vildagliptin

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    Bengür Taşkıran Bahattin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bullous pemphigoid (BP is an uncommon chronic, autoimmune, and subepidermal disease. Tense blisters occur on normal or erythematous skin. It can be induced by medications. There is a number of reports on BP induced by dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4 inhibitors (vildagliptin, sitagliptin, saxagliptin. DPP-4 (CD26, present as a cell surface molecule on immune cells, also plays an important costimulatory role in immune activation. BP more commonly affects elderly men. We present a case of BP induced by vildagliptin. A 59-year-old male patient who was diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus had initial hemoglobin A1c level of 12.90%. Initial therapy with premix biphasic aspart insulin bid was switched to metformin and vildagliptin 50/1000 mg combo pill bid after A1c level dropped to 5.7% at 9 months of insulin therapy, Five months after vildagliptin was started, tense vesicles 8-10 in number with an erythematous base developed on the forearms and cruris. Histological examination of the lesions confirmed the diagnosis of BP. Oral antidiabetics were discontinued. He was followed up with diet alone. The lesions regressed spontaneously after cessation of antidiabetics and clobetasol propionate cream bid treatment. A1c was 5.7% 5 months after discontinuation of vildagliptin and metformin. In the literature, it has been reported that onset of BP lesions took 10 days to 2 years. Mostly the patients were on combo therapy with metformin. The lesions improved dramatically after cessation of DPP-4 inhibitors avoiding necessity for systemic treatment for BP. This is the first case of BP induced by DPP-4 inhibitors in Turkey.

  15. [Bonsai induced acute myocardial infarction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayhan, Hüseyin; Aslan, Abdullah Nabi; Süygün, Hakan; Durmaz, Tahir

    2014-09-01

    Incidences of drug abuse and cannabis have increased in young adults, recently. Cannabis induced myocardial infarction has rarely been reported in these people. There is no any literature about a synthetic cannabinoid, being recently most popular Bonsai, to cause myocardial infarction. In this case report we presented a 33-year-old male patient who developed acute myocardial infarction after taking high doses of Bonsai.

  16. Food related, exercise induced anaphylaxis.

    OpenAIRE

    Caffarelli, C.; TERZI V.; Perrone, F.; Cavagni, G.

    1996-01-01

    Four children under 12 years of age with food dependent, exercise induced anaphylaxis (EIAn) were investigated. These children and five controls performed exercise challenges when fasting and one hour after a meal without food suspected to predispose to the reaction. Patients then performed exercise tests after intake of each suspected food. Three out of 15 food-exercise combination challenges were positive, but no reactions were provoked after exercise without prior intake of suspected foods...

  17. MRI-induced retrocalcaneal bursitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tol, J.L.; Dijk, C.N. van [Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Amsterdam (Netherlands); Maas, M. [Dept. of Radiology, University of Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1999-10-01

    This case report describes a patient with acute retrocalcaneal bursitis, which developed after MRI examination of the ankle. The sagittal T2*-weighted gradient echo sequence revealed an extensive susceptibility artifact in the area surrounding the Achilles tendon near its insertion at the os calcis. This artifact was caused by postsurgical metallic particles. We postulate that these particles were mechanically stimulated by the magnetic field and induced the inflammatory response. (orig.)

  18. Agranulocytosis Induced by Sinomenine Hydrochloride

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Juerong; Zhong, Bing; Wang, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Patient: Female, 44 Final Diagnosis: Agranulocytosis Symptoms: Fever ? pharyngalgia Medication: Sinomenine Clinical Procedure: Stop taking medicine and treat it Specialty: Rheumatology Objective: Unknown ethiology Background: Sinomenine hydrochloride is an alkaloid that is extracted from the Chinese herbal plant Sinomenium acutum, and is used as a herbal medicine in the treatment or rheumatic disease. This report is the first to describe a case of sinomenine hydrochloride-induced agranulocyto...

  19. Teriparatide Induced Delayed Persistent Hypercalcemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirosshan Thiruchelvam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Teriparatide, a recombinant PTH, is an anabolic treatment for osteoporosis that increases bone density. Transient hypercalcemia is a reported side effect of teriparatide that is seen few hours following administration of teriparatide and resolves usually within 16 hours of drug administration. Persistent hypercalcemia, although not observed in clinical trials, is rarely reported. The current case describes a rare complication of teriparatide induced delayed persistent hypercalcemia.

  20. Noise-induced hearing loss

    OpenAIRE

    Mariola Sliwinska-Kowalska; Adrian Davis

    2012-01-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) still remains a problem in developed countries, despite reduced occupational noise exposure, strict standards for hearing protection and extensive public health awareness campaigns. Therefore NIHL continues to be the focus of noise research activities. This paper summarizes progress achieved recently in our knowledge of NIHL. It includes papers published between the years 2008-2011 (in English), which were identified by a literature search of accessible medic...

  1. Cadmium-induced testicular injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Erica R; Mruk, Dolores D; Porto, Catarina S; Cheng, C Yan

    2009-08-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental toxicant and an endocrine disruptor in humans and rodents. Several organs (e.g., kidney, liver) are affected by Cd and recent studies have illustrated that the testis is exceedingly sensitive to Cd toxicity. More important, Cd and other toxicants, such as heavy metals (e.g., lead, mercury) and estrogenic-based compounds (e.g., bisphenols) may account for the recent declining fertility in men among developed countries by reducing sperm count and testis function. In this review, we critically discuss recent data in the field that have demonstrated the Cd-induced toxicity to the testis is probably the result of interactions of a complex network of causes. This is likely to involve the disruption of the blood-testis barrier (BTB) via specific signal transduction pathways and signaling molecules, such as p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). We also summarize current studies on factors that confer and/or regulate the testis sensitivity to Cd, such as Cd transporters and metallothioneins, the impact of Cd on the testis as an endocrine disruptor and oxidative stress inducer, and how it may disrupt the Zn(2+) and/or Ca(2+) mediated cellular events. While much work is needed before a unified mechanistic pathway of Cd-induced testicular toxicity emerges, recent studies have helped to identify some of the likely mechanisms and/or events that take place during Cd-induced testis injury. Furthermore, some of the recent studies have shed lights on potential therapeutic or preventive approaches that can be developed in future studies by blocking or minimizing the destructive effects of Cd to testicular function in men.

  2. Chromium-induced kidney disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Wedeen, R P; Qian, L F

    1991-01-01

    Kidney disease is often cited as one of the adverse effects of chromium, yet chronic renal disease due to occupational or environmental exposure to chromium has not yet been reported. Occasional cases of acute tubular necrosis (ATN) following massive absorption of chromate have been described. Chromate-induced ATN has been extensively studied in experimental animals following parenteral administration of large doses of potassium chromate (hexavalent) (15 mg/kg body weight). The chromate is se...

  3. Food-induced Allergic Rhinitis

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Hasan Bemanian; Saba Arshi; Mohammad Nabavi

    2013-01-01

    Food allergy is estimated about 8% in children. The relationship between food and manifestation of allergy symptoms and its confirmation for accurate diagnosis is very important. Allergic rhinitis is a common disease with a prevalence of 40% among different societies. The prevalence of food-induced allergic rhinitis appears to be less than 1 percent. Food reactions often lead to rhinitis symptoms at a no immunologic nature. Although the role of food and fruits in developing allergic rhinitis ...

  4. Radiation-induced chromosomal instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritter, S. [GSI, Biophysics, Darmstadt (Germany)

    1999-03-01

    Recent studies on radiation-induced chromosomal instability in the progeny of exposed mammalian cells were briefly described as well as other related studies. For the analysis of chromosomal damage in clones, cells were seeded directly after exposure in cell well-dish to form single cell clones and post-irradiation chromosome aberrations were scored. Both exposure to isoeffective doses of X-ray or 270 MeV/u C-ions (13 keV/{mu}m) increased the number of clones with abnormal karyotype and the increase was similar for X-ray and for C-ions. Meanwhile, in the progeny of cells for mass cultures, there was no indication of a delayed expression of chromosomal damage up to 40 population doublings after the exposure. A high number of aberrant cells were only observed directly after exposure to 10.7 MeV/u O-ions, i.e. in the first cycle cells and decreased with subsequent cell divisions. The reason for these differences in the radiation-induced chromosomal instability between clonal isolates and mass culture has not been clarified. Recent studies indicated that genomic instability occurs at a high frequency in the progeny of cells irradiated with both sparsely and densely ionizing radiation. Such genomic instability is thought likely to increase the risk of carcinogenesis, but more data are required for a well understanding of the health risks resulting from radiation-induced delayed instability. (M.N.)

  5. Chromium-induced kidney disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wedeen, R.P. (VA Medical Center, East Orange, NJ (United States)); Qian, Lifen (New Jersey Medical School, Newark (United States))

    1991-05-01

    Kidney disease is often cited as one of the adverse effects of chromium, yet chronic renal disease due to occupational or environmental exposure to chromium has not been reported. Occasional cases of acute tubular necrosis (ATN) following massive absorption of chromate have been described. Chromate-induced ATN has been extensively studied in experimental animals following parenteral administration of large doses of potassium chromate (hexavalent). The chromate is selectively accumulated in the convoluted proximal tubule where necrosis occurs. An adverse long-term effect of low-dose chromium exposure on the kidneys is suggested by reports of low molecular weight (LMW) proteinuria in chromium workers. Excessive urinary excretion of {beta}{sub 2}-microglobulin, a specific proximal tubule brush border protein, and retinol-binding protein has been reported among chrome palters and welders. However, LMW proteinuria occurs after a variety of physiologic stresses, is usually reversible, and cannot by itself be considered evidence of chromic renal disease. Chromate-induced ATN and LMW proteinuria in chromium workers, nevertheless, raise the possibility that low-level, long-term exposure may produce persistent renal injury. The absence of evidence of chromate-induced chromic renal disease cannot be interpreted as evidence of the absence of such injury.

  6. YAP Induces Human Naive Pluripotency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Qin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The human naive pluripotent stem cell (PSC state, corresponding to a pre-implantation stage of development, has been difficult to capture and sustain in vitro. We report that the Hippo pathway effector YAP is nuclearly localized in the inner cell mass of human blastocysts. Overexpression of YAP in human embryonic stem cells (ESCs and induced PSCs (iPSCs promotes the generation of naive PSCs. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA can partially substitute for YAP to generate transgene-free human naive PSCs. YAP- or LPA-induced naive PSCs have a rapid clonal growth rate, a normal karyotype, the ability to form teratomas, transcriptional similarities to human pre-implantation embryos, reduced heterochromatin levels, and other hallmarks of the naive state. YAP/LPA act in part by suppressing differentiation-inducing effects of GSK3 inhibition. CRISPR/Cas9-generated YAP−/− cells have an impaired ability to form colonies in naive but not primed conditions. These results uncover an unexpected role for YAP in the human naive state, with implications for early human embryology.

  7. Local Anesthetic-Induced Neurotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Verlinde

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes current knowledge concerning incidence, risk factors, and mechanisms of perioperative nerve injury, with focus on local anesthetic-induced neurotoxicity. Perioperative nerve injury is a complex phenomenon and can be caused by a number of clinical factors. Anesthetic risk factors for perioperative nerve injury include regional block technique, patient risk factors, and local anesthetic-induced neurotoxicity. Surgery can lead to nerve damage by use of tourniquets or by direct mechanical stress on nerves, such as traction, transection, compression, contusion, ischemia, and stretching. Current literature suggests that the majority of perioperative nerve injuries are unrelated to regional anesthesia. Besides the blockade of sodium channels which is responsible for the anesthetic effect, systemic local anesthetics can have a positive influence on the inflammatory response and the hemostatic system in the perioperative period. However, next to these beneficial effects, local anesthetics exhibit time and dose-dependent toxicity to a variety of tissues, including nerves. There is equivocal experimental evidence that the toxicity varies among local anesthetics. Even though the precise order of events during local anesthetic-induced neurotoxicity is not clear, possible cellular mechanisms have been identified. These include the intrinsic caspase-pathway, PI3K-pathway, and MAPK-pathways. Further research will need to determine whether these pathways are non-specifically activated by local anesthetics, or whether there is a single common precipitating factor.

  8. Drug-induced nail disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Nail disorders are defined according to their appearance and the part of the nail affected: the nail plate, the tissues that support or hold the nail plate in place, or the lunula. The consequences of most nail disorders are purely cosmetic. Other disorders, such as ingrown nails, inflammation, erythema, abscesses or tumours, cause functional impairment or pain. The appearance of the lesions is rarely indicative of their cause. Possible causes include physiological changes, local disorders or trauma, systemic conditions, toxic substances and drugs. Most drug-induced nail disorders resolve after discontinuation of the drug, although complete resolution sometimes takes several years. Drugs appear to induce nail disorders through a variety of mechanisms. Some drugs affect the nail matrix epithelium, the nail bed or the nail folds. Some alter nail colour. Other drugs induce photosensitivity. Yet others affect the blood supply to the nail unit. Nail abnormalities are common during treatment with certain cytotoxic drugs: taxanes, anthracyclines, fluorouracil, EGFR, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, etc. Some drugs are associated with a risk of serious and painful lesions, such as abscesses. When these disorders affect quality of life, the benefits of withdrawing the drug must be weighed against the severity of the condition being treated and the drug's efficacy, taking into account the harm-benefit balance of other options. Various anti-infective drugs, including tetracyclines, quinolones, clofazimine and zidovudine, cause the nail plate to detach from the nail bed after exposure to light, or cause nail discoloration. Psoralens and retinoids can also have the same effects.

  9. Metronidazole-Induced Encephalopathy in Chronic Diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haridas, Ashwathy; Trivedi, Trupti H; Moulick, Nivedita D; Joshi, Anagha R

    2015-06-01

    Metronidazole-induced encephalopathy (MIE) is a rare cause of drug-induced toxic encephalopathy. We report the clinical and neuroimaging findings of a patient with chronic diarrhoea who developed metronidazole-induced encephalopathy. After the drug was discontinued there was complete reversal of the condition.

  10. Ion beam induced luminescence: Relevance to radiation induced bystander effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, S. B.; McNeill, F. E.; Byun, S. H.; Prestwich, W. V.; Seymour, C.; Mothersill, C. E.

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this work is quantify the light emitted as a result of charged particle interaction in materials which may be of relevance to radiation induced "bystander effects" studies. We have developed a system which employs single photon counting to measure the light emitted from samples irradiated under vacuum by a charged particle beam. The system uses a fast photomultiplier tube with a peak cathode response at 420 nm. It has been tested in a proof-of-principle experiment using polystyrene targets. Light output, as a result of irradiation, was measured. The luminescence yield appears to have a non-linear behavior with the incident ion fluence: it rises exponentially to an asymptotic value. The target was irradiated with beam energies varying from 1 to 2 MeV and showed saturation at or before an incident fluence rate of 3 × 1013 H+/cm2 s. The average saturation value for the photon output was found to be 40 × 106 cps. Some measurements were performed using filters to study the emission at specific wavelengths. In the case of filtered light measurements, the photon output was found to saturate at 28 × 103, 10 × 106, and 35 × 106 cps for wavelengths of 280 ± 5 nm, 320 ± 5 nm and 340 ± 5 nm respectively. The light output reaches a maximum value because of damage induced in the polymer. Our measurements indicate a "damage cross section" of the order of 10-14 cm2. The average radiant intensity was found to increase at wavelengths of 280 and 320 nm when the proton energy was increased. This was not found to occur at 340 nm. In conclusion, the light emission at specific wavelengths was found to depend upon the incident proton fluence and the proton energy. The wavelengths of the emitted light measured in this study have significance for the understanding of radiation induced bystander effects.

  11. Laser-induced tether & spouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delville, Jean-Pierre

    2004-03-01

    Since the seminal work of Ashkin and Dziedzic on the deformation of transparent free-surfaces induced by laser waves, the optical radiation pressure has been recognized as very appealing to locally manipulate liquid interfaces. While the first developments essentially exploited the interface bending for optical applications in adaptive lensing, radiation pressure effects have recently received renewed interest in connection with nano/bio-technologies, as a non-intrusive tool to probe microscopic surface properties of soft materials including cell stretching, or membrane and interface visco-elasticity. However, as the optical bending of a fluid interface is generally weak, these experiments were essentially limited to the linear regime in deformation. Non-linear behaviors can nevertheless be investigated using very soft transparent liquid interfaces to enhance light effects. At large optical excitation, either a large stable tether is formed, or else a break-up of the interface occurs, depending on the direction of the beam propagation. Physically, the reason for this asymmetry can be traced to whether total reflection of light at deformed interface occurs or not. Laser-induced interface instability leads to the formation of a stationary beam-centered liquid micro-jet emitting droplets, which anticipates the bases for new applications in micro-fluidics and liquid micro-spraying. On the other hand, the method can be extended to form microscopic liquid bridges of very large aspect ratio, because optical forces are able to overcome the fundamental Rayleigh-Plateau limitation. As laser-induced micro-jets, laser-sustained liquid columns are tunable in aspect ratio and adjustable in direction. Consequently, the applications range of "opto-hydrodynamic" interface instability is wide, going from micro-optics (i.e. liquid columns also behave as soft optical fibers) to micro-fluidics, as fluid transfer can be optically monitored and directed in three dimensions.

  12. Sad music induces pleasant emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Ai; Furukawa, Kiyoshi; Katahira, Kentaro; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    In general, sad music is thought to cause us to experience sadness, which is considered an unpleasant emotion. As a result, the question arises as to why we listen to sad music if it evokes sadness. One possible answer to this question is that we may actually feel positive emotions when we listen to sad music. This suggestion may appear to be counterintuitive; however, in this study, by dividing musical emotion into perceived emotion and felt emotion, we investigated this potential emotional response to music. We hypothesized that felt and perceived emotion may not actually coincide in this respect: sad music would be perceived as sad, but the experience of listening to sad music would evoke positive emotions. A total of 44 participants listened to musical excerpts and provided data on perceived and felt emotions by rating 62 descriptive words or phrases related to emotions on a scale that ranged from 0 (not at all) to 4 (very much). The results revealed that the sad music was perceived to be more tragic, whereas the actual experiences of the participants listening to the sad music induced them to feel more romantic, more blithe, and less tragic emotions than they actually perceived with respect to the same music. Thus, the participants experienced ambivalent emotions when they listened to the sad music. After considering the possible reasons that listeners were induced to experience emotional ambivalence by the sad music, we concluded that the formulation of a new model would be essential for examining the emotions induced by music and that this new model must entertain the possibility that what we experience when listening to music is vicarious emotion. PMID:23785342

  13. Amiodarone-induced thyroid dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danzi, Sara; Klein, Irwin

    2015-05-01

    Amiodarone is an effective medication for the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias. Originally developed for the treatment of angina, it is now the most frequently prescribed antiarrhythmia drug despite the fact that its use is limited because of potential serious side effects including adverse effects on the thyroid gland and thyroid hormones. Although the mechanisms of action of amiodarone on the thyroid gland and thyroid hormone metabolism are poorly understood, the structural similarity of amiodarone to thyroid hormones, including the presence of iodine moieties on the inner benzene ring, may play a role in causing thyroid dysfunction. Amiodarone-induced thyroid dysfunction includes amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis (AIT) and amiodarone-induced hypothyroidism (AIH). The AIT develops more commonly in iodine-deficient areas and AIH in iodine-sufficient areas. The AIT type 1 usually occurs in patients with known or previously undiagnosed thyroid dysfunction or goiter. The AIT type 2 usually occurs in normal thyroid glands and results in destruction of thyroid tissue caused by thyroiditis. This is the result of an intrinsic drug effect from the amiodarone itself. Mixed types are not uncommon. Patients with cardiac disease receiving amiodarone treatment should be monitored for signs of thyroid dysfunction, which often manifest as a reappearance of the underlying cardiac disease state. When monitoring patients, initial tests should include the full battery of thyroid function tests, thyroid-stimulating hormone, thyroxine, triiodothyronine, and antithyroid antibodies. Mixed types of AIT can be challenging both to diagnose and treat and therapy differs depending on the type of AIT. Treatment can include thionamides and/or glucocorticoids. The AIH responds favorably to thyroid hormone replacement therapy. Amiodarone is lipophilic and has a long half-life in the body. Therefore, stopping the amiodarone therapy usually has little short-term benefit. © The Author(s) 2013.

  14. Sad music induces pleasant emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Ai; Furukawa, Kiyoshi; Katahira, Kentaro; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    In general, sad music is thought to cause us to experience sadness, which is considered an unpleasant emotion. As a result, the question arises as to why we listen to sad music if it evokes sadness. One possible answer to this question is that we may actually feel positive emotions when we listen to sad music. This suggestion may appear to be counterintuitive; however, in this study, by dividing musical emotion into perceived emotion and felt emotion, we investigated this potential emotional response to music. We hypothesized that felt and perceived emotion may not actually coincide in this respect: sad music would be perceived as sad, but the experience of listening to sad music would evoke positive emotions. A total of 44 participants listened to musical excerpts and provided data on perceived and felt emotions by rating 62 descriptive words or phrases related to emotions on a scale that ranged from 0 (not at all) to 4 (very much). The results revealed that the sad music was perceived to be more tragic, whereas the actual experiences of the participants listening to the sad music induced them to feel more romantic, more blithe, and less tragic emotions than they actually perceived with respect to the same music. Thus, the participants experienced ambivalent emotions when they listened to the sad music. After considering the possible reasons that listeners were induced to experience emotional ambivalence by the sad music, we concluded that the formulation of a new model would be essential for examining the emotions induced by music and that this new model must entertain the possibility that what we experience when listening to music is vicarious emotion.

  15. Warfarin-induced skin necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelwix, T J; Beeson, M S

    1998-09-01

    Skin necrosis is an uncommon complication of warfarin (Coumadin; Dupont Pharma, Wilmington, DE) therapy. The presentation may mimic other disorders. This article reports a case of a 72-year-old woman who presented to the emergency department complaining of swelling and ecchymosis to her left breast and right foot. The patient had been hospitalized for coronary artery bypass grafting, and had been discharged from the hospital earlier that day. This article reviews the pathophysiology and clinical features of warfarin-induced skin necrosis.

  16. Auditory hallucinations induced by trazodone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiotsuki, Ippei; Terao, Takeshi; Ishii, Nobuyoshi; Hatano, Koji

    2014-01-01

    A 26-year-old female outpatient presenting with a depressive state suffered from auditory hallucinations at night. Her auditory hallucinations did not respond to blonanserin or paliperidone, but partially responded to risperidone. In view of the possibility that her auditory hallucinations began after starting trazodone, trazodone was discontinued, leading to a complete resolution of her auditory hallucinations. Furthermore, even after risperidone was decreased and discontinued, her auditory hallucinations did not recur. These findings suggest that trazodone may induce auditory hallucinations in some susceptible patients. PMID:24700048

  17. Esophagitis Induced by Doxycycline Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin Şenel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Esophagitis is the most common disease of the esophagus. Drug use is one of the reasons of chemical esophagitis. Herein, we report two male patients of 17 and 18 years of age who developed esophagitis in acne treatment with doxycycline. Both patients took doxycycline capsules for approximately one week. Ulcerations were detected at upper and mid-esophagus of the 17-year-old patient. Circular ulcerations were found at mid-esophagus of the 18-year-old case. Doxycycline induced esophagitis is a preventable disease with the physician giving appropriate medication ingestion advice to the patient.

  18. Luteoma-induced fetal virilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugaki, Hiromi; Enomoto, Takayuki; Tokugawa, Yoshihiro; Kimura, Tadashi

    2009-10-01

    A pregnancy luteoma represents an unusual response of ovarian stromal cells to the altered hormonal levels of pregnancy. It is a distinctive non-neoplastic lesion characterized by solid proliferations of luteinized cells resulting in a tumor-like ovarian enlargement. Most patients are asymptomatic; the ovarian enlargement is usually discovered incidentally at cesarean section or during postpartum tubal ligation. We report a typical case that we found at cesarean section to be associated with a virilized infant who manifested clitoromegaly and labial fusion. We detected an increased level of testosterone in the maternal patient. We concluded that the ovarian luteoma induced the fetal virilization.

  19. Ondansetron-induced atrial fibrillation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit S Nair

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug-induced dysrhythmias are frequently encountered with several drugs that are routinely used in the practice of medicine. However, it is difficult to predict in which group of patients the rhythm disturbances can happen. The clinician should try to identify the cause of the new onset rhythm disturbance (electrolyte imbalance, ongoing cardiac insult, hypoxia, hemodynamic disturbance, cerebrovascular event, etc.. Once a drug is suspected, it should be documented on medical case record and everyone involved in the patients care should be informed.

  20. Cephalosporin-induced immune neutropenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, M F; Metcalfe, P; Grint, P C; Green, A R; Knowles, S; Amess, J A; Waters, A H

    1985-01-01

    Neutropenia is an occasional complication of treatment with cephalosporin antibiotics. This report describes two patients who had neutropenia while receiving high doses of cephalosporins. The neutrophil counts returned to normal after stopping the drug, and cephalosporin-dependent neutrophil antibodies were demonstrated in both cases, using the granulocyte immunofluorescence test. In one patient, the immune neutropenia appeared to be due to a drug adsorption mechanism similar to penicillin-induced haemolytic anaemia, while an immune complex mechanism may have been involved in the second patient.

  1. Cetirizine-Induced atrial fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altuğ Osken

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Atrial fibrillation (AF is the most common observed arrhythmia in clinical practice. In the literature, AF events associated with drug induction are available. Cetirizine is a second-generation histamine antagonist used in the treatment of allergies, angioedema, and urticaria. We wish to present an atypical case who took cetirizine medication for relieving symptoms of upper tract respiratory system infection, experienced rapid ventricular response AF and treated successfully. To best of our knowledge, this is the first case of cetirizine-induced AF.

  2. Clozapine-induced late leukopenia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Latif, Z

    2012-03-01

    A patient with a 28-year history of schizophrenia was treated with a wide range of antipsychotic medications since diagnosis. She had experienced no clinically significant symptomatic relief until she commenced treatment on clozapine. Her psychotic symptoms, self care, and general sense of well-being improved significantly. After 6 years of successful treatment, she developed leukopenia and clozapine was discontinued. The following issues will be discussed in the article: rechallenge with clozapine following leukopenia during previous therapy and the choice of and haematological monitoring needs with other antipsychotic medications after clozapine-induced blood dyscrasia.

  3. Fidelity based measurement induced nonlocality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthuganesan, R.; Sankaranarayanan, R.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we propose measurement induced nonlocality (MIN) using a metric based on fidelity to capture global nonlocal effect of a quantum state due to locally invariant projective measurements. This quantity is a remedy for local ancilla problem in the original definition of MIN. We present an analytical expression of the proposed version of MIN for pure bipartite state and 2 × n dimensional mixed state. We also provide an upper bound of the MIN for general mixed state. Finally, we compare this quantity with MINs based on Hilbert-Schmidt norm and skew information for higher dimensional Werner and isotropic states.

  4. Pain-induced skin autoimmunity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Francesca Odoardi Winfried Neuhuber Alexander Fluege

    2014-01-01

    ......r..v—e——.d ....1..0...0...1...-—0 ,6...0..2.../..1..4..—.—$,...3...2.....0—0—www.nature.com/cr Pain--induced skin autoimm unity ffResearch(2014)24:1021—1022.doi...

  5. Adsorption-induced step formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thostrup, P.; Christoffersen, Ebbe; Lorensen, Henrik Qvist

    2001-01-01

    Through an interplay between density functional calculations, Monte Carlo simulations and scanning tunneling microscopy experiments, we show that an intermediate coverage of CO on the Pt(110) surface gives rise to a new rough equilibrium structure with more than 50% step atoms. CO is shown to bin...... so strongly to low-coordinated Pt atoms that it can break Pt-Pt bonds and spontaneously form steps on the surface. It is argued that adsorption-induced step formation may be a general effect, in particular at high gas pressures and temperatures....

  6. Drug-induced peripheral neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilholm, Ole Jakob; Christensen, Alex Alban; Zedan, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral neuropathy can be caused by medication, and various descriptions have been applied for this condition. In this MiniReview, the term 'drug-induced peripheral neuropathy' (DIPN) is used with the suggested definition: Damage to nerves of the peripheral nervous system caused by a chemical...... substance used in the treatment, cure, prevention or diagnosis of a disease. Optic neuropathy is included in this definition. A distinction between DIPN and other aetiologies of peripheral neuropathy is often quite difficult and thus, the aim of this MiniReview is to discuss the major agents associated...

  7. Protostellar Collapse Induced by Compression

    OpenAIRE

    Hennebelle, P.; Whitworth, A. P.; Gladwin, P. P.; Andre, Ph.

    2002-01-01

    We present numerical simulations of the evolution of low-mass, isothermal, molecular cores which are subjected to an increase in external pressure $P\\xt$. If $P\\xt$ increases very slowly, the core approaches instability quite quasistatically. However, for larger (but still quite modest) $dP\\xt/dt$ a compression wave is driven into the core, thereby triggering collapse from the outside in. If collapse of a core is induced by increasing $P\\xt$, this has a number of interesting consequences. (i)...

  8. Food-induced Allergic Rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hasan Bemanian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Food allergy is estimated about 8% in children. The relationship between food and manifestation of allergy symptoms and its confirmation for accurate diagnosis is very important. Allergic rhinitis is a common disease with a prevalence of 40% among different societies. The prevalence of food-induced allergic rhinitis appears to be less than 1 percent. Food reactions often lead to rhinitis symptoms at a no immunologic nature. Although the role of food and fruits in developing allergic rhinitis is not clearly identified, in a very small percentage of patients, rhinitis is the clinical manifestation of food allergy.

  9. Geomagnetically induced currents in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viljanen Ari

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Statistics of geomagnetically induced currents (GIC in the European high-voltage power grids based on 1-min geomagnetic recordings in 1996–2008 and on 1-D models of the ground conductivity have been derived in the EURISGIC project (European Risk from Geomagnetically Induced Currents. The simplified yet realistic power grid model indicates that large GIC can occur anywhere in Europe. However, geomagnetic variations are clearly larger in North Europe, so it is the likely region of significant GIC events. Additionally, there are areas in the North with especially low ground conductivities, which further tend to increase GIC. The largest modelled GIC values at single substations in 1996–2008 are about 400 A in the Nordic Countries, about 100 A in the British Isles, about 80 A in the Baltic Countries, and less than 50 A in Central and South Europe. The largest GIC event in the period studied is the Halloween storm on 29–30 October 2003, and the next largest ones occurred on 15 July 2000 and 9 November 2004.

  10. Inducible competitors and adaptive diversification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beren W. ROBINSON, David W. PFENNIG

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Identifying the causes of diversification is central to evolutionary biology. The ecological theory of adaptive diversification holds that the evolution of phenotypic differences between populations and species––and the formation of new species––stems from divergent natural selection, often arising from competitive interactions. Although increasing evidence suggests that phenotypic plasticity can facilitate this process, it is not generally appreciated that competitively mediated selection often also provides ideal conditions for phenotypic plasticity to evolve in the first place. Here, we discuss how competition plays at least two key roles in adaptive diversification depending on its pattern. First, heterogenous competition initially generates heterogeneity in resource use that favors adaptive plasticity in the form of “inducible competitors”. Second, once such competitively induced plasticity evolves, its capacity to rapidly generate phenotypic variation and expose phenotypes to alternate selective regimes allows populations to respond readily to selection favoring diversification, as may occur when competition generates steady diversifying selection that permanently drives the evolutionary divergence of populations that use different resources. Thus, competition plays two important roles in adaptive diversification––one well-known and the other only now emerging––mediated through its effect on the evolution of phenotypic plasticity [Current Zoology 59 (4: 537–552, 2013].

  11. Inducer Hydrodynamic Load Measurement Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelley, Stephen E.; Zoladz, Thomas F.

    2002-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has demonstrated two measurement devices for sensing and resolving the hydrodynamic loads on fluid machinery. The first - a derivative of the six component wind tunnel balance - senses the forces and moments on the rotating device through a weakened shaft section instrumented with a series of strain gauges. This "rotating balance" was designed to directly measure the steady and unsteady hydrodynamic loads on an inducer, thereby defining both the amplitude and frequency content associated with operating in various cavitation modes. The second device - a high frequency response pressure transducer surface mounted on a rotating component - was merely an extension of existing technology for application in water. MSFC has recently completed experimental evaluations of both the rotating balance and surface-mount transducers in a water test loop. The measurement bandwidth of the rotating balance was severely limited by the relative flexibility of the device itself, resulting in an unexpectedly low structural bending mode and invalidating the higher frequency response data. Despite these limitations, measurements confirmed that the integrated loads on the four-bladed inducer respond to both cavitation intensity and cavitation phenomena. Likewise, the surface-mount pressure transducers were subjected to a range of temperatures and flow conditions in a non-rotating environment to record bias shifts and transfer functions between the transducers and a reference device. The pressure transducer static performance was within manufacturer's specifications and dynamic response accurately followed that of the reference.

  12. Drug-induced immune thrombocytopenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Slobodan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug-induced immune thrombocytopenia (DIIT is a consequence of destruction or inadequate activation of platelets by immune system provoked by current or previous presence of a drug in human organism. Annual incidence of DIIT is around 1-2 cases on 100,000 inhabitants. There are four proposed mechanisms behind the DIIT: (1 binding of drug-dependent antibodies for platelets; (2 blocking of fibrinogen binding for glycoprotein receptors IIb/IIIa; (3 drug-independent antibodies against platelets; and (4 creation of drug-antibody immune complexes which further activate platelets and lead to thromboses. Regardless of the DIIT mechanism, it is of paramount importance that physicians think of drugs as possible causes when they encounter low platelet count in a patient. Key therapeutic measure is discontinuation of the offending drug, while platelet transfusion is used only after extreme drop of platelet count. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia is an exception, because it also requires treatment of thromboses with direct thrombin inhibitors.

  13. Dapsone-induced acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Shivkumar H; Reddy, Jyothi A; Dave, Jatin K

    2003-10-01

    To report a case of acute pancreatitis associated with dapsone use. An 87-year-old white man was prescribed dapsone for dermatitis herpetiformis. Four weeks later, he developed acute abdominal pain requiring hospitalization. The patient had elevated serum amylase and lipase levels. Laboratory test results for other possible etiologies were negative. His symptoms resolved when dapsone was discontinued. Dapsone was reintroduced for exacerbation of dermatitis herpetiformis 4 months later. The patient again had severe abdominal pain with high amylase and lipase levels. Again, symptoms resolved following dapsone discontinuation. Only 1 other case of pancreatitis associated with dapsone was found in a MEDLINE search of the literature (1966-June 2003) using the key terms dapsone and pancreatitis. An objective causality assessment revealed dapsone to be a probable cause of acute pancreatitis, based on the Naranjo probability scale. Drugs should always be considered as causative factors for pancreatitis in patients without known risk factors. Dapsone is increasingly used as a second line of treatment of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP). The recognition of dapsone-induced pancreatitis is of particular importance in these patients. While dapsone is traditionally used for the treatment of leprosy and dermatitis herpetiformis, its use for PCP prophylaxis, malaria, brown recluse spider bites, and acne is not uncommon. Pancreatitis is an uncommon adverse effect of dapsone, and greater awareness of this association will prompt a high index of suspicion in an appropriate clinical setting. Further reporting of cases and clinical research of drug-induced pancreatitis is indicated.

  14. Amylin induces hypoglycemia in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz H. Guerreiro

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Amylin is a 37-aminoacid pancreatic protein that exerts control over several metabolic events such as glycemia and lacticemia. Amylin has long been shown to induce increases in arterial plasma glucose. We decided to investigate whether amylin plays additional roles in the glucose metabolism. We evaluated glucose homeostasis using whole blood from the tail tip of fasting, conscious, unrestrained normal and streptozotocyn-induced diabetic mice following subcutaneous administration of mouse amylin. Subcutaneous injection of 1 μg mouse amylin caused a transient decrease in whole blood glucose in both normal and diabetic mice in the absence of insulin. The blood glucose levels were lowest approximately 2 hours after amylin administration, after that they gradually recovered to the levels of the control group. The hypoglycemic effect followed a dose-dependent response ranging from 0.1 to 50 µg / mouse. These results reveal the ability for amylin in the direct control of glycemia at low doses in the absence of insulin.

  15. Psychosocial aspects of induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotland, N L

    1997-09-01

    US anti-abortion groups have used misinformation on the long-term psychological impact of induced abortion to advance their position. This article reviews the available research evidence on the definition, history, cultural context, and emotional and psychiatric sequelae of induced abortion. Notable has been a confusion of normative, transient reactions to unintended pregnancy and abortion (e.g., guilt, depression, anxiety) with serious mental disorders. Studies of the psychiatric aspects of abortion have been limited by methodological problems such as the impossibility of randomly assigning women to study and control groups, resistance to follow-up, and confounding variables. Among the factors that may impact on an unintended pregnancy and the decision to abort are ongoing or past psychiatric illness, poverty, social chaos, youth and immaturity, abandonment issues, ongoing domestic responsibilities, rape and incest, domestic violence, religion, and contraceptive failure. Among the risk factors for postabortion psychosocial difficulties are previous or concurrent psychiatric illness, coercion to abort, genetic or medical indications, lack of social supports, ambivalence, and increasing length of gestation. Overall, the literature indicates that serious psychiatric illness is at least 8 times more common among postpartum than among postabortion women. Abortion center staff should acknowledge that the termination of a pregnancy may be experienced as a loss even when it is a voluntary choice. Referrals should be offered to women who show great emotional distress, have had several previous abortions, or request psychiatric consultation.

  16. Drug-induced hepatic injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Henrik; Andreasen, P B

    1992-01-01

    The Danish Committee on Adverse Drug Reactions received 1100 reports of suspected drug-induced hepatic injury during the decade 1978-1987. The causal relationship between drug and hepatic injury was classified as definite in 57 (5.2%) reports, probable in 989 (89.9%) reports, possible in 50 (4.......5%) reports and unclassifiable in four (0.4%) reports. Hepatic injuries accounted for 5.9% of all adverse drug reactions reported, and 14.7% of the lethal adverse drug reactions. A total of 47.2% were classified as acute cytotoxic, 16.2% as acute cholestatic and 26.9% as abnormal hepatic function. In 52 (4.......7%) cases the hepatic injury was lethal; only 14 (1.3%) cases were chronic. Halothane accounted for 25% of the cases. The incidence of halothane-induced hepatic injury is decreasing, and only one lethal case has been reported since 1981. Next to halothane, sulfasalazine was the drug most often suspected...

  17. Radiation-induced cardiovascular effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapio, Soile

    Recent epidemiological studies indicate that exposure to ionising radiation enhances the risk of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in a moderate but significant manner. Our goal is to identify molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of radiation-induced cardiovascular disease using cellular and mouse models. Two radiation targets are studied in detail: the vascular endothelium that plays a pivotal role in the regulation of cardiac function, and the myocardium, in particular damage to the cardiac mitochondria. Ionising radiation causes immediate and persistent alterations in several biological pathways in the endothelium in a dose- and dose-rate dependent manner. High acute and cumulative doses result in rapid, non-transient remodelling of the endothelial cytoskeleton, as well as increased lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation of the heart tissue, independent of whether exposure is local or total body. Proteomic and functional changes are observed in lipid metabolism, glycolysis, mitochondrial function (respiration, ROS production etc.), oxidative stress, cellular adhesion, and cellular structure. The transcriptional regulators Akt and PPAR alpha seem to play a central role in the radiation-response of the endothelium and myocardium, respectively. We have recently started co-operation with GSI in Darmstadt to study the effect of heavy ions on the endothelium. Our research will facilitate the identification of biomarkers associated with adverse cardiac effects of ionising radiation and may lead to the development of countermeasures against radiation-induced cardiac damage.

  18. Condensation induced water hammer safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gintner, M.A.

    1997-03-10

    Condensation induced water hammer events in piping systems can cause catastrophic steam system failures which can result in equipment damage, personal injury, and even death. As an industry, we have learned to become accustomed to the ''banging'' that we often hear in our steam piping systems, and complacent in our actions to prevent it. It is unfortunate that lives are lost needlessly, as this type of water hammer event is preventable if one only applies some basic principles when operating and maintaining their steam systems. At the U. S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site where I work, there was one such accident that occurred in 1993 which took the life of a former co-worker and friend of mine. Hanford was established as part of the Manhattan Project during World War II. it is a 560 square mile complex located along the banks of the Columbia River in Southeastern Washington State. For almost 45 years, hanford's mission was to produce weapons grade plutonium for our nations defense programs. Today, Hanford no longer produces plutonium, but is focused on site clean-up and economic diversification. Hanford still uses steam for heating and processing activities, utilizing over 20 miles of piping distribution systems similar to those found in industry. Although these aging systems are still sound, they cannot stand up to the extreme pressure pulses developed by a condensation induced water hammer.

  19. Preference pulses induced by reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachiga, Yosuke; Sakagami, Takayuki; Silberberg, Alan

    2014-11-01

    Eight rats responded on concurrent Variable-Ratio 20 Extinction schedules for food reinforcement. The assignment of variable-ratio reinforcement to a left or right lever varied randomly following each reinforcer, and was cued by illumination of a stimulus light above that lever. Postreinforcement preference levels decreased substantially and reliably over time when the lever that just delivered reinforcement was now in extinction; however, if that lever was once again associated with variable ratio, this decrease in same-lever preference tended to be small, and for some subjects, not in evidence. The changes in preference level to the extinction lever were well described by a modified version of Killeen, Hanson, and Osborne's (1978) induction model. Consistent with this model's attribution of preference change to induction, we attribute preference change in this report to a brief period of reinforcer-induced arousal that energizes responding to the lever that delivered the last reinforcer. After a few seconds, this induced responding diminishes, and the operant responding that remains comes under the control of the stimulus light cuing the lever providing variable-ratio reinforcement. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  20. Amoxicillin-induced aseptic meningoencephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radi Shahien

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Radi Shahien1, Vetaly Vieksler1, Abdalla Bowirrat11Department of Neurology and Neurophysiology, Ziv Medical Center, Safed, IsraelAbstract: Meningitis is usually produced by an infectious agent, but there are multiple noninfectious causes. Drug-induced aseptic meningitis (DIAM is an important entity and has been reported as an uncommon adverse reaction with numerous agents. Thus, DIAM constitutes a diagnostic and patient management challenge. We present a patient with three episodes of aseptic meningitis due to amoxicillin, and then review the literature on this rare idiosyncratic event which may occur after local or systemic drug administration. A 77-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with fever, headache, and neck stiffness. Seven days before admission he had a dental and gingival inflammation. He was treated with two oral doses of 500 mg daily of amoxicillin for one week. The seventh day he awoke with the complaints that prompted hospital admittance. Amoxicillin was stopped 1 day before his admission. From his history we knew of two similar episodes: The first episode was after a dental procedure 3 months before this incident. He had received a 1-week course of postprocedure amoxicillin of 500 mg daily and had similar headache, fever, and chills during the entire course of treatment. He wasn’t admitted to the hospital, because he stopped taking amoxicillin and he felt spontaneous pain relief after taking symptomatic pain treatment. The second episodes was 6 months after his first admission, he had been admitted to our hospital with the same symptoms. Amoxicillin was stopped and changed with intravenous (IV ceftriaxone (CTRX for 10 days due to suspected partial untreated meningitis. The patient improved rapidly within 2 days and was discharged from the hospital. On the basis of these three confirmed episodes of meningitis after recurrent exposure to amoxicillin, with repetitive negative testing for viral, bacterial, and mycobacterial

  1. Radiation-induced leiomyosarcoma of the oropharynx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maier Wolfgang

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Leiomyosarcoma is a malignant mesenchymal tumor originating from smooth muscle cells, which most frequently develops in the myometrium and in the gastro-intestinal tract. Reviewing the international literature, radiation-induced sarcoma arise in 0.035 to 0.2 % of all irradiated patients. Especially in the head and neck region, radiation-induced leiomyosarcoma is an extremely rare lesion. The authors report a case of a radiation-induced leiomyosarcoma of the tonsillar region of the oropharynx in a 51-year-old male patient, who had undergone radiation therapy of this region 38 years before. The lesion was treated by radical surgery. Diagnostic steps, histological presentation and therapy are described in detail and the literature concerning radiation induced malignancies in general as well as radiation induced leiomyosarcoma in particular is reviewed. The highlights of this case are an extremely uncommon location and a rare pathological entity of radiation induced malignancies.

  2. The mechanism of PDT-induced apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xiongwei; Liu, Timon C.; Ding, Xin-Min; Gu, Ying; Liu, Fan-Guang; Liu, Song-Hao

    2003-12-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) can induce apoptosis in many cancer cells in vitro and in tumors in vivo. Cells become more oxidation with PDT, and maintain differentiation and proliferation, go apoptosis and necrosis with the increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS) concentration. ROS can induce apoptosis through mitochondria by inhibiting respiration chain or oxidative phosphorylation or damaging mitochondrial membrane. ROS can initiate apoptosis through endoplamic reticulum(ER) by opening Ca2+ channel or starting unfold protein response (UPR). ROS can also induce apoptosis through Golgi by producing ganglioside GD3 by use of ceramide, which induces apoptosis by activating caspase-3, JNK and p38 MAPK. It can also induce apoptosis by activating Bip (mitochondria-dependant) or preocaspase-12 (mitochondria- independent) or inhibiting protein synthesizing. There are so complicated cross-talking among different signal pathways or organnells that we think PDT-induced apoptosis is mediated by multiplex pathways and excessive levels in a refined network.

  3. Fluvoxamine alleviates paclitaxel-induced neurotoxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Tanimukai, Hitoshi; Kudo, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Paclitaxel (Px) is an effective chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of various cancers. However, it is often associated with neurological side effects, including chemotherapy-associated cognitive impairment (CACI), such as “chemobrain”. Previously, we reported that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is involved in Px-induced neurotoxicity, and immunoglobulin heavy chain binding protein (BiP) inducer X (BIX) alleviates Px-induced neurotoxicity. However, BIX has not been used in clinical pr...

  4. Induced Cavities for Photonic Quantum Gates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahad, Ohr; Firstenberg, Ofer

    2017-09-01

    Effective cavities can be optically induced in atomic media and employed to strengthen optical nonlinearities. Here we study the integration of induced cavities with a photonic quantum gate based on Rydberg blockade. Accounting for loss in the atomic medium, we calculate the corresponding finesse and gate infidelity. Our analysis shows that the conventional limits imposed by the blockade optical depth are mitigated by the induced cavity in long media, thus establishing the total optical depth of the medium as a complementary resource.

  5. [Laser-induced Maculopathy Caused by Strangers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohberger, B; Bergua, A

    2016-10-01

    Background: Laser-induced ocular injuries are of public interest, especially when caused by strangers. Clinical signs and follow-up: Two laser-induced maculopathies were presented which had been caused by strangers. Morphological findings were shown by funduscopy and Spectralis Domain OCT follow-up. Conclusion: Severe retina injuries can be induced by laser pointers of higher classes. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Religion as Schedule-Induced Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Strand, Paul S

    2009-01-01

    In this article, I argue that a class of religious behaviors exists that is induced, for prepared organisms, by specific stimuli that are experienced according to a response-independent schedule. Like other schedule-induced behaviors, the members of this class serve as minimal units out of which functional behavior may arise. In this way, there exist two classes of religious behavior: nonoperant schedule-induced behaviors and operant behaviors. This dichotomy is consistent with the distinctio...

  7. Radiation-Induced Vaccination to Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0531 TITLE: Radiation-Induced Vaccination to Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: William H. McBride CONTRACTING...FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE 2. REPORT TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Radiation-Induced Vaccination to...determine abscopal responses that are hypothesized to be due to RT- induced vaccination . RT was started 10 days after the first and 3rd dose of

  8. MOLECULAR SIGNALING OF TRAINING-INDUCED ADAPTATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio César Zoppi

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Training is known to induce several adaptations. Physiological and biochemical changes induced by exercise training are already demonstrated in specific literature and therefore already well known. On the other hand, scanty data concerning intracellular signaling molecules and pathways, as well, are available. Here, we provided a recent literature review, about the differences in the models adopted by endurance and resistance training to induce their own specific skeletal muscle adaptations.

  9. Cytokinin Activity Induced by Thidiazuron 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, John Calvin; Katterman, Frank Reinald

    1986-01-01

    The diphenylurea derivative thidiazuron induces a variety of cytokinin responses. Levels above 5 × 10−9 molar and 4 × 10−7 molar stimulate maximum soybean callus growth and radish cotyledon expansion, respectively. A wider range of dose response related effects follows thidiazuron induced tobacco plant regeneration. Analysis of soybean callus extracts strongly suggests that thidiazuron treatment creates an accumulation and/or synthesis of purine cytokinins, able to induce the growth, expansion and regeneration, mentioned above. PMID:16664878

  10. Drug induced interstitial lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwaiblmair, Martin; Behr, Werner; Haeckel, Thomas; Märkl, Bruno; Foerg, Wolfgang; Berghaus, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    With an increasing number of therapeutic drugs, the list of drugs that is responsible for severe pulmonary disease also grows. Many drugs have been associated with pulmonary complications of various types, including interstitial inflammation and fibrosis, bronchospasm, pulmonary edema, and pleural effusions. Drug-induced interstitial lung disease (DILD) can be caused by chemotherapeutic agents, antibiotics, antiarrhythmic drugs, and immunosuppressive agents. There are no distinct physiologic, radiographic or pathologic patterns of DILD, and the diagnosis is usually made when a patient with interstitial lung disease (ILD) is exposed to a medication known to result in lung disease. Other causes of ILD must be excluded. Treatment is avoidance of further exposure and systemic corticosteroids in patients with progressive or disabling disease.

  11. Doxycycline-induced gastrointestinal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affolter, Kajsa; Samowitz, Wade; Boynton, Kathleen; Kelly, Erinn Downs

    2017-08-01

    Doxycycline-induced gastric injury is a rarely recognized adverse effect of a common medication. Only 2 cases have previously described the distinctive capillary degeneration identified in gastric mucosa. We expanded on this by describing additional involved sites, endoscopic findings, and patient characteristics. Gastrointestinal biopsy materials for cases indexed with the word doxycycline were retrieved and the histology reviewed. The medical record was used to obtain clinical details. Three cases with biopsy materials were identified from the search, and doxycycline ingestion was confirmed. All patients' gastric biopsies had small vessel injury with fibrinoid material around the vessel, and 1 patient had similar changes in the duodenum. Endoscopic findings included fundic and pyloric erosions and ulcers. One patient had a normal endoscopy on follow-up after drug cessation. Confirmation and increased understanding of this drug-specific injury pattern are important for patient management, as cessation appears to result in symptom improvement and healing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Radiation-induced hemorrhagic cystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alesawi, Anwar M; El-Hakim, Assaad; Zorn, Kevin C; Saad, Fred

    2014-09-01

    To better understand the mechanism of radiation-induced hemorrhagic cystitis and the advantages and disadvantages of available treatment options for bladder hemorrhage as well as preventive measures. There have been several attempts recently to manage hemorrhagic cystitis with hyperbaric oxygen therapy, transurethral coagulation using Greenlight potassium-titanyl-phosphate laser and other different treatment modalities, but we still need more investigation on larger cohort studies. Hemorrhagic cystitis is an uncommon urological problem. It is most often caused by radiation therapy and cyclophosphamide, but can be associated with other contributing factors. Technological advances in radiation therapy have resulted in greater treatment efficacy, with significant reduction in side-effects such as hemorrhagic cystitis. Higher dose radiation treatment, however, is more often associated with problematic hemorrhagic cystitis. Treatment of hemorrhagic cystitis is multifactorial and can range from simple bladder irrigation to cystectomy with urinary diversion.

  13. Drug-induced liver injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mille Bækdal; Ytting, Henriette; Skalshøi Kjær, Mette

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The idiosyncratic subtype of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a rare reaction to medical treatment that in severe cases can lead to acute liver failure and death. The aim of this study was to describe the presentation and outcome of DILI and to identify potential predictive factors...... biochemical findings included bilirubin elevated to above 3.2 × ULN, ALT elevated to above 9 × ULN in 86%, INR above 1.4 in 70%. Twenty two patients needed treatment in the liver intensive care unit. Fifteen patients developed acute liver failure with a severe outcome. Six patients were liver transplanted...... and nine patients died. Jaundice, a moderately elevated bilirubin level or INR at presentation was predictive of severe outcome. CONCLUSION: In this retrospective study, 35% of patients with DILI developed severe acute liver failure and were either liver transplanted or died. Our results underline...

  14. Laser induced nuclear waste transmutation

    CERN Document Server

    Hirlimann, Charles

    2016-01-01

    When producing electricity that collects the mass energy that is available at the time of the induced disintegration of radioactive elements, other unstable elements are produced with half-life span durations ranging from less than one second to hundreds of thousands of years and which are considered as waste. Managing nuclear waste with a half-life of less than 30 years is an easy task, as our societies clearly know how to keep buildings safe for more than a century, the time it takes for the activity to be divided by a factor of 8. High-activity, long-lasting waste that can last for thousands of years or even longer, up to geological time laps, cannot be taken care of for such long durations. Therefore, these types of waste are socially unacceptable; nobody wants to leave a polluted planet to descendants.

  15. Capecitabine-Induced Coronary Vasospasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danish Henry

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Capecitabine, an oral prodrug of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU, is approved for early-stage and advanced colorectal cancer and metastatic breast cancer. Cardiotoxicity of 5-FU is well described in the literature. However, cardiac adverse effects of capecitabine are poorly described. We report a case of coronary vasospasm induced by capecitabine. A 41-year-old female with metastatic breast cancer presented with chest pain 3 days after starting capecitabine. The chest pain was relieved by rest and exacerbated by exertion. Her physical examination was unremarkable except for a rapid heart rate of 100 bpm. Electrocardiogram test showed no acute ischemic changes. Troponin tests were negative. CT angiography of the chest was negative for acute pulmonary embolism. An echocardiogram showed a left ventricular ejection fraction of 60% without any wall motion abnormalities. The chest pain resolved with aspirin and analgesic use. She was discharged following an inconclusive cardiac workup. Further use of capecitabine was discontinued.

  16. Linezolid-induced optic neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Karuppannasamy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many systemic antimicrobials have been implicated to cause ocular adverse effects. This is especially relevant in multidrug therapy where more than one drug can cause a similar ocular adverse effect. We describe a case of progressive loss of vision associated with linezolid therapy. A 45-year-old male patient who was on treatment with multiple second-line anti-tuberculous drugs including linezolid and ethambutol for extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB presented to us with painless progressive loss of vision in both eyes. Color vision was defective and fundus examination revealed optic disc edema in both eyes. Ethambutol-induced toxic optic neuropathy was suspected and tablet ethambutol was withdrawn. Deterioration of vision occurred despite withdrawal of ethambutol. Discontinuation of linezolid resulted in marked improvement of vision. Our report emphasizes the need for monitoring of visual function in patients on long-term linezolid treatment.

  17. Warfarin-Induced Skin Necrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanas, Nikolaos; Karadimas, Efthimios; Polychronidis, Alexandros

    2014-01-01

    Warfarin-induced skin necrosis is an infrequent complication occurring in individuals under warfarin treatment who have a thrombophilic history or after administration of large loading doses of warfarin particularly without simultaneous initial use of heparin. A 62-year-old lady developed skin necrosis 4 days after initiating warfarin therapy of 5 mg daily without initial co-administration of heparin. The patient had a normal clotting profile. Skin necrosis progressed to eschar formation after cessation of warfarin and heparinization stopped expanding. Warfarin was reintroduced at 2 mg daily, initially together with low molecular weight heparin. Autolytic debridement of the necrotic tissue was followed by healing of the cutaneous deficit by secondary intention. Prompt diagnosis and discontinuation of warfarin are crucial for the prognosis. PMID:24648693

  18. Mechanically induced degradation of diamond

    CERN Document Server

    Bouwelen, F V

    1996-01-01

    bombardment a mechanically induced graphitisation, as opposed to a thermally activated transformation, may occur locally on collision with the CVD diamond. Two types of diamond-graphite interfaces were observed: (111) planes of diamond parallel to the a-b planes of graphite and (111) planes of diamond, smoothly within the plane, connected to a-b planes of graphite. The thesis concludes with a summary of the results, conclusions and recommendations for further work. This thesis deals with the wear of diamond occurring during frictional sliding contact between diamonds. In the introduction, a literature survey on friction, wear and polishing behaviour of diamond, with some emphasis on the anisotropy, is presented and earlier work is discussed. A review of the existing theories is given, a new hypothesis is proposed and key-experiments for verification are identified. Electron microscopical techniques such as High Resolution Electron Microscopy (HREM) imaging and Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy are described a...

  19. Lattice Induced Transparency in Metasurfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Manjappa, Manukumara; Singh, Ranjan

    2016-01-01

    Lattice modes are intrinsic to the periodic structures and their occurrence can be easily tuned and controlled by changing the lattice constant of the structural array. Previous studies have revealed excitation of sharp absorption resonances due to lattice mode coupling with the plasmonic resonances. Here, we report the first experimental observation of a lattice induced transparency (LIT) by coupling the first order lattice mode (FOLM) to the structural resonance of a metamaterial resonator at terahertz frequencies. The observed sharp transparency is a result of the destructive interference between the bright mode and the FOLM mediated dark mode. As the FOLM is swept across the metamaterial resonance, the transparency band undergoes large change in its bandwidth and resonance position. Besides controlling the transparency behaviour, LIT also shows a huge enhancement in the Q-factor and record high group delay of 28 ps, which could be pivotal in ultrasensitive sensing and slow light device applications.

  20. Radiation-Induced Oral Mucositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Muhammad Maria

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Radiation-induced oral mucositis (RIOM is a major dose-limiting toxicity in head and neck cancer patients. It is a normal tissue injury caused by radiation/radiotherapy (RT, which has marked adverse effects on patient quality of life and cancer therapy continuity. It is a challenge for radiation oncologists since it leads to cancer therapy interruption, poor local tumor control, and changes in dose fractionation. RIOM occurs in 100% of altered fractionation radiotherapy head and neck cancer patients. In the United Sates, its economic cost was estimated to reach 17,000.00 USD per patient with head and neck cancers. This review will discuss RIOM definition, epidemiology, impact and side effects, pathogenesis, scoring scales, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, prevention, and treatment.

  1. Human-induced Arctic moistening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Seung-Ki; Zhang, Xuebin; Zwiers, Francis

    2008-04-25

    The Arctic and northern subpolar regions are critical for climate change. Ice-albedo feedback amplifies warming in the Arctic, and fluctuations of regional fresh water inflow to the Arctic Ocean modulate the deep ocean circulation and thus exert a strong global influence. By comparing observations to simulations from 22 coupled climate models, we find influence from anthropogenic greenhouse gases and sulfate aerosols in the space-time pattern of precipitation change over high-latitude land areas north of 55 degrees N during the second half of the 20th century. The human-induced Arctic moistening is consistent with observed increases in Arctic river discharge and freshening of Arctic water masses. This result provides new evidence that human activity has contributed to Arctic hydrological change.

  2. Visual illusion induced by sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Ladan; Kamitani, Yukiyasu; Shimojo, Shinsuke

    2002-06-01

    We present the first cross-modal modification of visual perception which involves a phenomenological change in the quality-as opposed to a small, gradual, or quantitative change-of the percept of a non-ambiguous visual stimulus. We report a visual illusion which is induced by sound: when a single flash of light is accompanied by multiple auditory beeps, the single flash is perceived as multiple flashes. We present two experiments as well as several observations which establish that this alteration of the visual percept is due to cross-modal perceptual interactions as opposed to cognitive, attentional, or other origins. The results of the second experiment also reveal that the temporal window of these audio-visual interactions is approximately 100 ms.

  3. Akathisia induced by gabapentin withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, Sharon; Hendriks, Erin; Hsiung, Leslie

    2011-06-01

    To report a case of akathisia in a patient with type 2 diabetes after abrupt discontinuation of gabapentin. A 76-year-old female with type 2 diabetes was admitted for change in mental status, agitation, and restless limb movements. She had been taking gabapentin 3600 mg daily for approximately 1 month for diabetic neuropathy. Her other home medications were glyburide 10 mg twice daily, oxycodone/acetaminophen 5 mg/325 mg every 6 hours as needed for leg pain, and zolpidem 5 mg at bedtime. She had taken none of these drugs for 4 days prior to admission because she was unable to have the prescriptions refilled. Subsequently, the patient exhibited repeated arm and leg motions in response to an inner restlessness. Upon admission to the emergency department, she was agitated and restless; all vital signs and results of laboratory studies were within normal limits. Gabapentin was restarted at the original dosage and the symptoms resolved within 8 hours. Because the patient developed lethargy, the gabapentin dosage was reduced and titrated to the original level over 2 days. After 3 days, the patient was well oriented and experienced no further symptoms. She was discharged on the original dosage of gabapentin. To our knowledge, this is the first reported cases of akathisia induced by gabapentin withdrawal. Available case reports suggest that gabapentin withdrawal can occur at doses ranging from 400-8000 mg/day. Patients experienced symptoms similar to those that develop with benzodiazepine withdrawal and were taking gabapentin for as little as 3 weeks to as long as 5 years. This is the first case report to describe akathisia induced by gabapentin withdrawal. The Naranjo probability scale revealed a probable relationship between akathisia and gabapentin withdrawal. If gabapentin discontinuation is desired, it is prudent to gradually taper the dose to avoid withdrawal symptoms, which may occur after as little as 1 month of treatment. Should the patient experience withdrawal

  4. Tremelimumab-Induced Graves Hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Earn H; Mitchell, Anna L; Plummer, Ruth; Pearce, Simon; Perros, Petros

    2017-07-01

    Tremelimumab and ipilimumab are monoclonal antibodies directed against the extracellular domain of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and have been used as immunotherapies against immune checkpoints that suppress T-cell activation. Anti-CTLA-4 antibody-based therapies have been shown to be effective in treating various cancers including metastatic melanoma. However, a few immune-related adverse events including hypophysitis and thyroid disorder have been reported, mostly developed within the first year of receiving treatment. We report a case of tremelimumab-induced Graves hyperthyroidism in a 55-year-old man who was diagnosed with metastatic melanoma after 8 years of tremelimumab therapy. He had no personal or family history of thyroid or autoimmune diseases. His biochemical profile was in keeping with Graves disease, with raised serum free thyroid hormones, suppressed thyroid-stimulating hormone concentration, and raised thyrotropin receptor antibody level. He was treated with carbimazole as part of the block and replace therapy, without complications. Tremelimumab therapy was temporarily discontinued and recommenced when he was rendered biochemically euthyroid. There has been no further relapse of Graves hyperthyroidism since the discontinuation of block and replace therapy. The mechanistic profile of anti-CTLA-4-induced thyroid dysfunction and the long-term endocrine safety of this therapeutic approach remain unclear. It is important to monitor thyroid functions in patients receiving anti-CTLA-4 therapies, as their effects on endocrine systems could be more latent or prolonged than the data from current clinical trials suggest. Antithyroid drug therapy was safe and effective alongside anti-CTLA-4 therapy without compromising antitumour treatment efficacy.

  5. Starch Gelatinization Induced by High Hydrostatic Pressure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kazutaka YAMAMOTO

    2013-01-01

    .... Starch gelatinization can also be induced by high hydrostatic pressure. Requirements for pressure gelatinization may also differ depending on botanical origin of starch, pressure, water, and temperature...

  6. [Induced abortion in China: problems and interventions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shang-chun; Qiu, Hong-yan

    2010-10-01

    Pooled literatures showed that the induced abortion in China faces many problems:the number of induced abortion remains large; most cases are young and nulliparity women; the frequency of abortion is high; and the interval between one and another abortion is short. Health promotion strategies should be applied to address these problems. It is important to increase the population's awareness of contraception,especially among nulliparity and migrant populations. Routine and effective contraceptive methods should be recommended and emphasized during induced abortion and delivery to lower the rate of induced abortion.

  7. UVRAG Deficiency Exacerbates Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Lin; Hu, Xiao-wen; Zhang, Shasha; Hu, Xiaowen; Song, Zongpei; Naz, Amber; Zi, Zhenguo; Wu, Jian; Li, Can; Zou, Yunzeng; He, Lin; Zhu, Hongxin

    2017-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is an effective chemotherapeutic drug in the treatment of various types of cancers. However, its clinical application has been largely limited by potential development of cardiotoxicity. Previously we have shown that ultra-violet radiation resistance-associated gene (UVRAG), an autophagy-related protein, is essential for the maintenance of autophagic flux in the heart under physiological conditions. Here, we sought to determine the role of UVRAG-mediated autophagy in DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. Mouse models of acute or chronic DOX-induced cardiotoxicity were established. UVRAG deficiency exacerbated DOX-induced mortality and cardiotoxicity manifested by increased cytoplasmic vacuolization, enhanced collagen accumulation, elevated serum activities of lactate dehydrogenase and myocardial muscle creatine kinase, higher ROS levels, aggravated apoptosis and more depressed cardiac function. Autophagic flux was impaired in DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. UVRAG deficiency aggravated impaired autophagic flux in DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. Intermittent fasting restored autophagy and ameliorated pathological alterations of DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. Collectively, our data suggest that UVRAG deficiency exacerbates DOX-induced cardiotoxicity, at least in part, through aggravation of DOX-induced impaired autophagic flux. Intermittent fasting, which restores blunted autophagic flux and ameliorates pathology in the mouse models of DOX-induced cardiotoxicity, may be used as a potential preventive or therapeutic approach for DOX cardiotoxicity. PMID:28225086

  8. Induced Accelerated Aging in Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Lines from Patients with Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Lines from Patients with Parkinson’s Disease PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Birgitt Schuele CONTRACTING...Aging in Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Lines from Patients with Parkinson’s Disease 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0003 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...for grant W81XWH-12-1-0003 Title: “Induced accelerated aging in induced pluripotent stem cell lines from patients with

  9. Towards inducing superconductivity into graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efetov, Dmitri K.

    Graphenes transport properties have been extensively studied in the 10 years since its discovery in 2004, with ground-breaking experimental observations such as Klein tunneling, fractional quantum Hall effect and Hofstadters butterfly. Though, so far, it turned out to be rather poor on complex correlated electronic ground states and phase transitions, despite various theoretical predictions. The purpose of this thesis is to help understanding the underlying theoretical and experimental reasons for the lack of strong electronic interactions in graphene, and, employing graphenes high tunability and versatility, to identify and alter experimental parameters that could help to induce stronger correlations. In particular graphene holds one last, not yet experimentally discovered prediction, namely exhibiting intrinsic superconductivity. With its vanishingly small Fermi surface at the Dirac point, graphene is a semi-metal with very weak electronic interactions. Though, if it is doped into the metallic regime, where the size of the Fermi surface becomes comparable to the size of the Brillouin zone, the density of states becomes sizeable and electronic interactions are predicted to be dramatically enhanced, resulting in competing correlated ground states such as superconductivity, magnetism and charge density wave formation. Following these predictions, this thesis first describes the creation of metallic graphene at high carrier doping via electrostatic doping techniques based on electrolytic gates. Due to graphenes surface only properties, we are able to induce carrier densities above n>1014 cm-2 (epsilonF>1eV) into the chemically inert graphene. While at these record high carrier densities we yet do not observe superconductivity, we do observe fundamentally altered transport properties as compared to semi-metallic graphene. Here, detailed measurements of the low temperature resistivity reveal that the electron-phonon interactions are governed by a reduced, density

  10. DIMENSÕES DA IMITAÇÃO ENTRE EMPRESAS: UM ESTUDO NA INDÚSTRIA DE TRANSFORMAÇÃO BRASILEIRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Fernanda Franceschi Klement

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to identify the dimensions of the imitation construct between companies and to propose an operatingprocedure to measure it in business sectors. The imitation was conceptualized as a copy of capabilities. Putting them into operation was madepossible by the ease of understanding them. The perceptions of 112 managers from 14 sectors of the Brazilian economy in the State of Sao Paulowere collected. The database of the Federation of Industries of the State of São Paulo (Fiesp was used. The dimensions underlying the constructwere identified by exploratory factorial analysis. The results indicate that the less that research and development (R&D activities are carriedout, the less the importance of the level of schooling in productive processes, the lower the technological content of products and processes and theless significant the assembly of products, the greater the imitation tends to be in one sector

  11. FÓRUM - EQUILÍBRIO EM CENA: O QUE APRENDER COM AS PRÁTICAS ORGANIZACIONAIS DAS INDÚSTRIAS CULTURAIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Lant

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we outline five polarities that are shaping organizational practices in cultural industries. First, managers must reconcile expression of artistic values with the economics of mass entertainment. Second, they must seek novelty that differentiates their products without making them fundamentally different in nature from others in the same category. Third, they must analyze and address existing demand while at the same time using their imagination to extend and transform the market. Fourth, they must balance the advantages of vertically integrating diverse activities under one roof against the need to maintain creative vitality through flexible specialization. And finally, they must build creative systems to support and market cultural products but not allow the system to suppress individual inspiration, which is ultimately at the root of creating value in cultural industries.

  12. O IMPACTO DA ROTATIVIDADE E DO ABSENTEÍSMO DE PESSOAL SOBRE O CUSTO DO PRODUTO: UM ESTUDO EM UMA INDÚSTRIA GAÚCHA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Farias Cardoso

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo é analisar o impacto da rotatividade e absenteísmo de pessoal sobre o custo do produto em uma indústria gaúcha.  Para tanto, realizou-se um estudo de caso, que envolveu a participação de uma empresa multinacional, com unidade produtiva no estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Os dados foram coletados no período de 2011, por meio de entrevista semiestruturada com a responsável pelo setor de recursos humanos e também com supervisora de controladoria da empresa. Além das entrevistas foram analisados documentos contábeis e relatórios gerenciais de custos e de recursos humanos. O estudo limitou-se a analisar o produto de maior giro e o setor com maior índice de rotatividade e absenteísmo na empresa. Neste estudo foi possível demonstrar que a rotatividade e o absenteísmo apresentados pelo setor tiveram impacto relevante sobre o custo do produto analisado, diminuindo os resultados proporcionados pela venda deste produto nos períodos em que o custo apresentou maior elevação. 

  13. ELEMENTOS MINERAIS EM MADEIRAS DE EUCALIPTOS E ACÁCIA NEGRA E SUA INFLUÊNCIA NA INDÚSTRIA DE CELULOSE KRAFT BRANQUEADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria C. M. Silva

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available No ramo de papel e celulose os efluentes são um dos principais problemas e o consumo de água é crítico. Os circuitos internos estão sendo fechados e as fontes de contaminação precisam ser conhecidas. Uma das fontes de contaminação destes efluentes são os minerais da madeira, matéria-prima neste tipo de indústria. Neste trabalho foi avaliada a quantidade de alumínio, cálcio, cobre, ferro, potássio, magnésio, manganês, sódio, níquel e silício em madeiras de cinco espécies florestais, plantadas na região de Guaíba, RS, compreendendo Acacia mearnsii, Eucalyptus dunnii, Eucalyptus globulus, Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna. As amostras de madeira foram tratadas com digestão ácida e com carbonização em mufla, solubilizando em ácido para serem analisadas por ICP (Inductively Coupled Plasm. Foi observado que a quantidade de elementos é considerável e os principais elementos encontrados foram K, Ca, Na, Al, Mn, e Si. As espécies Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus saligna mostraram melhor crescimento. Por outro lado, Eucalyptus globulus e Eucalyptus dunnii mostraram menor crescimento e maior teor de elementos. Pelo fato dessas espécies introduzirem maiores quantidades de elementos no processo de fabricação, devem conduzir a maiores problemas industriais. A Acacia mearnsii mostrou o menor nível para ferro, manganês e níquel, sendo uma boa opção para uso em branqueamento com oxigênio, ozônio e peróxido. O silício observado estava em baixa quantidade, o que leva a afirmar que há, na prática industrial, muita contaminação da madeira explorada com solo já que se encontram altos valores de sílica nos circuitos de licores. A entrada dos elementos minerais estudados em uma fábrica de celulose via madeira varia de 4 a 6 kg por tonelada de polpa não-branqueada produzida. Cuidados especiais devem ser tomados com as espécies com madeiras mais ricas em cinzas e elementos minerais e mais baixas eficiências nutricionais, como foi o caso de Eucalyptus dunnii e Eucalyptus globulus.

  14. O CUSTEIO-ALVO COMO SUPORTE ÀS DECISÕES PARA DESENVOLVER NOVOS PRODUTOS: UM ESTUDO EM INDÚSTRIA MOVELEIRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romualdo Colauto

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho tem por objetivo apresentar a aplicação da metodologia do custeio-alvo como suporte à decisões de desenvolvimento de novos produtos em indústria moveleira. Os procedimentos metodológicos consistiram de uma pesquisa exploratória, realizada por meio de um estudo de caso, tendo uma empresa brasileira fabricante de móveis sob medida como sujeito d a pesquisa. Assim, inicia-se com uma breve incursão nos aspectos conceituais do target costing,  após contempla-se a abordagem da engenharia de valor, a seguir mostra-se a aplicação do custeio-alvo em uma indústria moveleira e apresenta-se as considerações finais do estudo. Os resultados da pesquisa evidenciam a viabilidade de aceitação de novo produto que atende às expectativas do cliente e ao mesmo tempo contemple o lucro operacional -meta estabelecido pela empresa.

  15. EFICÁCIA GLOBAL DE EQUIPAMENTOS (OEE PARA DIAGNÓSTICO E MELHORIA DE PRODUTIVIDADE NA INDÚSTRIA DE FUNDIÇÃO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Vinícius Dornelles

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo foi descrever a implantação do Indicador de Eficácia Global dos Equipamentos (Overall Equipment Effectiveness – OEE na unidade de fundição de uma empresa da indústria mecânica. O método de pesquisa foi o estudo de caso. O problema de pesquisa nasceu da necessidade da empresa de conhecer sua capacidade efetiva de atendimento a clientes, não apenas a capacidade nominal dos equipamentos. Para tanto, aceitou-se o pressuposto que a capacidade pode ser estimada com ajuda da OEE. Os dados de produção foram reorganizados em relatórios que permitiram calcular a OEE. Com base no resultado calculado da OEE, definiu-se que as ações de melhorias mais promissoras diziam respeito à disponibilidade de máquinas. Após seis meses de ações corretivas, a disponibilidade cresceu de 30% para 78%, o que, combinado com variações nos demais parâmetros, elevou a OEE de 23% para 38%, com o expressivo ganho de mais de 15 pontos percentuais em tempo disponível para produção. Antes do estudo, a capacidade estimada e por consequência a meta de produção eram de 17.900 kg/dia. Após o estudo, com base em cálculos e medições comprovadas de campo, a meta passou a ser de 19.200 kg/dia.

  16. DESEMPENHO TÉRMICO DE BEZERREIROS COBERTOS COM TELHA DE FIBROCIMENTO E FORRO ECOLÓGICO DE SUBPRODUTOS AGROINDÚSTRIAS ASSOCIADO A MATERIAIS ISOLANTES

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    G. Barbirato

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho descreve um estudo sobre o potencial de utilização de um forro ecológico constituído de subprodutos da agroindústria (partículas de madeira de maravalha de Pinus sp. e bagaço de cana-de-açúcar - Saccharum officinarum L. associado a placas de poliestireno expandido (isopor® e de poliuretano à base de óleo de mamona (PU-mamona, quando aplicados em bezerreiros cobertos com telha de fibrocimento. Nesse estudo foi aferida a temperatura interna, umidade relativa e o índice de temperatura e umidade (ITU, no período do verão, durante 21 dias. Os resultados obtidos indicaram que o ITU e temperatura ambiente interna das instalações com forro ecológico associado a placas de isopor® e PU-mamona foram inferiores àquelas aferidas em bezerreiros sem forro. As imagens captadas por câmera termográfica indicam que os materiais empregados como forro amorteceram a transferência de calor e radiação para o interior dos bezerreiros, ocasionando menores temperaturas internas nesses ambientes.

  17. TENDÊNCIAS BIOTECNOLÓGICAS DA INDÚSTRIA LÁCTEA A PARTIR DA PROSPECÇÃO DE PATENTES E ARTIGOS

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    Lília Calheiros de Oliveira Barretto

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A biotecnologia continua a oferecer muitas alternativas para elaboração de produtos exclusivos. A indústria de laticínios vem contribuindo para o desenvolvimento e aplicação de processos inovadores, com destaque para os alimentos funcionais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar as principais tendências sobre a biotecnologia aplicada no desenvolvimento de produtos lácteos a partir da análise de patentes, pela base Derwent, e de artigos científicos, pela base Scopus. Houve uma maior concentração de documentos de patentes entre os anos de 2003 e 2009. A Rússia foi o país líder em termos de patentes concedidas, com predominância de 73,4 % dos documentos analisados. Dentre as tecnologias, destacaram-se a produção de fermentados probióticos e a extração de oligossacarídeos do leite humano. Os países asiáticos e os europeus foram os maiores contribuidores no tocante desenvolvimento de pesquisas científicas sobre biotecnologia aplicada à indústria de laticínios, totalizando 91 % das publicações reportadas entre 2010 e 2016. Observou-se uma tendência de busca por suporte à propriedade intelectual superior às publicações científicas das biotecnologias associadas à indústria láctea.

  18. INTEGRAÇÃO ENTRE ERP E PROGRAMAÇÃO MATEMÁTICA UM ESTUDO DE CASO NA INDÚSTRIA DE AUTOPEÇAS

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    Rosana Beatriz Baptista Haddad

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta um estudo de caso para problemas de seqüenciamento de lotes numa indústria de autopeças. Nele é proposta a adição de um módulo de Capacitação a um software de ERP de forma que o Módulo de MRP deste passe a respeitar os limites de capacidade de recursos considerados críticos. Para isso, o problema de seqüenciamento de produção nos recursos críticos é modelado como problema de fluxos em redes com restrições adicionais. A grande vantagem do método está na "visão temporal" do sistema, que permite antecipações ou atrasos de lotes de fabricação - desde que exista capacidade disponível - sempre que houver sobrecarga. O método permite ainda a análise de diferentes objetivos. Ao final é apresentado um estudo de caso realizado com dados reais da empresa.

  19. IMPACTOS AMBIENTAIS NA PRODUÇÃO DO ETANOL BRASILEIRO: UMA BREVE DISCUSSÃO DO CAMPO À INDÚSTRIA

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    Lilian Pugliese

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem como objetivo compilar e apresentar conjuntamente os principais impactos ambientais causados pela produção agrícola e industrial da produção de etanol, assim como apontar medidas de mitigação que têm sido apresentadas na literatura. O delineamento do estudo foi realizado pela análise qualitativa do material obtido em revisão bibliográfica. Durante a produção agrícola, os principais impactos ambientais encontrados foram a compactação dos solos por tratores e implementos agrícolas, a contaminação de corpos d’água e solos pelo uso intensivo de fertilizantes e agrotóxicos, aplicação não controlada de vinhaça, torta de filtro ou escórias de siderurgia e poluição do ar por queimadas da palha da cana-de-açúcar. Durante a produção industrial, os principais impactos ambientais apontados relacionam-se com a poluição de ar proveniente da queima do bagaço e palhada excedente para geração de energia elétrica e cinzas dessa queima, com o descarte inadequados da água de lavagem da cana e de equipamentos, das águas residuais de condensadores e multijatos e das águas residuais domésticas. As discussões apresentadas demonstram que a produção de etanol pode gerar impactos desconhecidos pela maior parte da população, tanto na produção agrícola, quanto na produção industrial, podendo ocasionar poluição atmosférica e dos recursos hídricos. Medidas de mitigação, como biodegradação da vinhaça e produção de gases para geração de energia, diminuição do consumo e reúso da água, também são apontadas.

  20. INDÚSTRIA CULTURAL E CIBERCULTURA – APROXIMAÇÕES E DISTANCIAMENTOS DE CONCEITOS E PRÁTICAS NA CONTEMPORANEIDADE

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    Marcus Alexandre de Pádua Cavalcanti

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Marcus Alexandre de Pádua Cavalcanti DOI: 10.12957/periferia.2013.15326O presente artigo propõe uma reflexão sobre as relações e os processos de comunicação promovidos pelas redes digitais e os meios de comunicação de massas, no sentido de perceber, na contemporaneidade, como ambos se integram e se complementam em suas práticas. No decorrer desta apresentação, serão abordados os conceitos de indústria cultural, cibercultura, hegemonia, contra-hegemonia e rizoma. Tais conceitos serão utilizados para analisar e apontar as dinâmicas e configurações das formas verticais/centralizadas e horizontais/descentralizadas de comunicação. As metáforas das ramificações arborescentes e rizomáticas serão utilizadas nesse contexto para visualizar e comunicar melhor o funcionamento desses dois sistemas. Discutem-se as características desses dois paradigmas, como eles convivem e se agenciam de maneira colaborativa e concomitante, potencializando e ampliando as práticas comunicacionais.

  1. ANÁLISE DA CRISE DE 2012 NO DESEMPENHO ECONÔMICO-FINANCEIRO DAS INDÚSTRIAS DE ENERGIA ELÉTRICA LISTADAS NA BM&FBOVESPA

    OpenAIRE

    Polyandra Zampiere Pessoa da Silva

    2015-01-01

    O estudo objetivou analisar o impacto da crise de 2012 no desempenho econômico-financeiro das indústrias de energia elétrica listadas na BM&FBovespa. Para isto, realizou-se um estudo descritivo, com abordagem quantitativa nas 40 indústrias do setor de energia elétrica listadas na BM&FBovespa. As análises foram realizadas a partir dos indicadores econômico-financeiros de liquidez, rentabilidade, endividamento e atividade. Os dados para o estudo foram coletados do banco de dados do Economatica®...

  2. UMA REVISÃO SISTEMÁTICA SOBRE GESTÃO DA QUALIDADE EM INDÚSTRIAS DE MÓVEIS SOB ENCOMENDA

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    Jean Pierre Ludwig

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo apresenta a revisão sistemática da literatura sobre ferramentas da qualidade enfatizando os modelos integrados entre FMEA (Failure Mode and Effect Analysis e MASP (Method of Analysis and Solving Problems. Como resultado, foram identificados 209 trabalhos. Destes, foram selecionados 40 considerados relevantes a pesquisa. O período usado para a pesquisa foi de 2005 a 2015. A partir da análise dos artigos publicados sobre a integração das duas ferramentas, foi possível concluir sobre a inexistência de um modelo integrado que contemple os requisitos particulares das empresas fabricantes de móveis sob encomenda. Dessa maneira, a presente pesquisa se torna relevante no contexto da gestão de operações industriais, pois permitiu a proposição de um conjunto de requisitos que devem ser considerados para a elaboração de um modelo integrado de gestão da qualidade que contemple FMEA e MASP para visando estruturar os processos de melhoria contínua e gestão da qualidade de empresas fabricantes de móveis sob encomenda.

  3. ADORNO, HORKHEIMER E OS IRMÃOS WACHOWSKI: INTERFACES ENTRE A INDÚSTRIA CULTURAL, O CINEMA E A EDUCAÇÃO

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    Yuri Garcia

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo busca apontar como o cinema pode ser utilizado para beneficiar a sociedade e tentar modificar as questões sociais que preocupavam a teoria crítica de Adorno e Horkheimer. Enquanto a educação passa por uma necessidade de se integrar a novos meios de comunicação, a fim de se atualizar, o audiovisual surge nas salas de aula trazendo entretenimento e conhecimento. A trilogia “Matrix” surge na academia como interessante objeto de estudo devido ao seu êxito comercial e às suas possibilidades interdisciplinares tanto de grade básica como por perspectivas mais complexas que talvez fossem desconhecidas até por seus criadores. Através de uma análise dos filmes, procura-se destacar uma diferente perspectiva do conceito frankfurtiano.

  4. ATIVIDADE ANTIBACTERIANA DO ÓLEO ESSENCIAL DE Lippia gracilis SCHAUER SOBRE PATÓGENOS DE IMPORTÂNCIA NA INDÚSTRIA DEALIMENTOS

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    Leandro Icaro Santos Dantas

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A resistência bacteriana a antibióticos é um sério problema de saúde pública. Bactérias patogênicas como a Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus e Staphylococcus epidermis apresentam cepas resistentes, representando grave risco à saúde humana. A prospecção de fitoquímicos antimicrobianos é apontada como uma possível solução para o problema. Os óleos essenciais de espécies vegetais da caatinga têm sido testados em relação ao seu potencial antimicrobiano. Dentre as espécies medicinais da caatinga produtoras de óleo essencial encontra-se a Lippia gracilis Schauer, cujo fitocomplexo contém carvacrol, timol, ρ-cimeno, em concentrações variáveis. Apesar de sua composição e atividades biológicas apontarem para aplicações práticas no controle de patógenos humanos, a ação do óleo essencial desta espécie sobre bactérias patogênicas ainda não foi devidamente avaliada. Quadruplicatas de Placas de Petri contendo Agar Mueller-Hinton foram semeadas em superfície com culturas padronizadas dos microrganismos mencionados. Foram perfurados poços de 10 mm de diâmetro nos quais se inoculou 100 µL de cada diluição do óleo essencial de L.gracilis. As placas foram incubadas a 35±2°C/24h. Os halos de inibição foram mensurados com paquímetro. Todos os microrganismo-alvo foram fortemente inibidos. Sendo a maior inibição alcançada com O.E não diluído sobre o S. epidermis. S. aureus mostrou-se como o mais sensível sendo inibido em concentração de O.E de 9µL/mL; L. monocytogenes também foi fortemente inibido pelo óleo essencial de Lippia gracilis. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: resistência, antimicrobiano, carvacrol, Staphylococcus, Listeria

  5. CARACTERÍSTICAS E SELEÇÃO DE CURSOS TÉCNICOS VISANDO A EMPREGABILIDADE NA INDÚSTRIA PETROLÍFERA

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    Simara Netto Martins Cunha

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem a finalidade de avaliar a carreira profissional dos técnicos formados nas áreas de: eletromecânica, eletrônica, automação e eletrotécnica, que atuam em empresas do ramo petrolífero e, a partir deste levantamento, avaliar o curso técnico que oferece as melhores condições de empregabilidade na Região Norte do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. A coleta de dados foi realizada com aplicação de 86 questionários entre os profissionais técnicos que atuam em empresas petrolíferas sediadas em Macaé, RJ. O método AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process foi utilizado para seleção da melhor carreira com base nos seguintes critérios de seleção: salário, ascensão profissional, satisfação profissional, tempo para primeira contratação, duração do curso, estabilidade e periculosidade. Os técnicos formados em Eletrônica tem maior tempo de empresa, satisfação profissional, salário e conseguiram seu primeiro emprego mais rápido que os demais técnicos entrevistados. Situação oposta ocorre com os técnicos em Eletrotécnica, apesar de terem maior estabilidade no emprego. Todos os técnicos entrevistados se mostraram insatisfeitos com a ascensão profissional e aplicam parcialmente os conhecimentos adquiridos durante sua formação no ambiente de trabalho. O profissional formado em Eletromecânica julga que sua profissão apresenta periculosidade mediana, maior que os demais entrevistados. O método AHP apontou o curso de Eletromecânica como a melhor alternativa atual. Este trabalho pode auxiliar estudantes na seleção de suas carreiras, baseados na opinião de profissionais que atuam no setor petrolífero regional. O método AHP pode ser usado para tomada de decisões pessoais e oferecer uma resposta objetiva para uma decisão extremamente importante na vida dos jovens que buscam qualificação profissional para atuar na indústria do petróleo.

  6. ASPECTOS RELACIONADOS À HIGIENIZAÇÃO EM PROCESSOS DE SEPARAÇÃO POR MEMBRANAS NA INDÚSTRIA DE LATICÍNIOS

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    Adbeel Santos Lima

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A utilização da tecnologia de separação por membranas pelas indústrias de laticínios vem crescendo vertiginosamente nos últimos anos. O principal fator limitante para sua aplicação está relacionado com a formação de deposições denominadas incrustações. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar os aspectos mais importantes relativos ao mecanismo de formação dessas deposições bem como de suas principais implicações para o dimensionamento de sistemas de limpeza e sanificação para plantas que processam leite e seus derivados.

  7. ALTERAÇÃO DE UM LAYOUT FUNCIONAL PARA LAYOUT CELULAR MOTIVADO PELOS FUNDAMENTOS DA MANUFATURA ENXUTA: ESTUDO DE CASO EM UMA INDÚSTRIA DE TRANSFORMADORES

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    Felipe Crisóstomo Gadelha

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho apresenta o estudo de uma alteração de layout, de funcional para celular, motivado pelos fundamentos da manufatura enxuta. Tendo como objetivo verificar os benefícios de se utilizar a manufatura celular com fluxo enxuto (contínuo, apresenta como metodologia um estudo de caso, pós-fato, em uma indústria de transformadores, onde a mudança foi realizada. Para fundamentar o estudo, apresenta revisão dos temas: Sistema de Manufatura Enxuta e layout industrial, para, em seguida, trazer os dados apresentados por esta indústria, ainda em um arranjo físico funcional, antes da alteração, e, em seguida, nas células de manufatura com um fluxo enxuto, após a alteração, e realizar uma comparação entre ambos. Os resultados obtidos desta comparação apresentam ganhos como aumento de produção, em 20%, e produtividade, em 56%, redução de lead time, em 67%, mão de obra direta, em 30%, tempo de processamento, em 20%, e área fabril, em 24%, dentre outros, evidenciando os benefícios que a utilização de um layout celular e Manufatura Enxuta proporcionam.

  8. ESPAÇO, INDÚSTRIA E TRABALHO: A INSERÇÃO DE SOBRAL NA DIVISÃO ESPACIAL DA PRODUÇÃO CALÇADISTA

    OpenAIRE

    Gadelha, Diego

    2012-01-01

    O município de Sobral, no Estado do Ceará, Brasil, foi selecionado na década de 1990 pela capital industrial nacional para cumprir uma função específica no circuito espacial da produção calçadista. Essa inserção, fruto da reestruturação produtiva e da redefinição da divisão espacial do trabalho por qual passou o setor, no final da década de 1980, incorporou novos municípios no circuito produtivo, em especial do nordeste brasileiro. As transformações decorrentes da apropriação de Sobral para d...

  9. ELEMENTOS PARA DISCUSSÃO DA CONFIGURAÇÃO DA AGROINDÚSTRIA CANAVIEIRA NO OESTE PAULISTA E DA RELAÇÃO CAPITAL X TRABALHO

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    José Roberto Nunes de Azevedo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Vimos por meio deste texto trazer alguns elementos fundamentais para o entendimentoda configuração da agroindústria canavieira, associado, pois, à ação metabólica do capital quealicerça a sua consubstanciação no território paulista, bem como, a trama que marca o conflitocapital x trabalho nesse setor produtivo.

  10. ALGODÃO COLORIDO COMO APOIO À SUSTENTABILIDADE DA INDÚSTRIA TÊXTIL BRASILEIRA / COLORED COTTON TO SUPPORT THE SUSTAINABILITY OF THE BRAZILIAN TEXTILE INDUSTRY

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    S. GARCIA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available O segmento de moda é compreendido por várias redes de empresas, que atuam em conjunto, de forma interdependente, visando o sucesso da cadeia produtiva. Utilizando grande capilaridade, essas redes são formadas por empresas que interagem com diversos ramos de negócios e de produção de vários produtos. São também várias as formas de distribuição utilizadas nesta rede. Esta pesquisa objetivou investigar a aplicação de conceitos de sustentabilidade na cadeia de produção e de distribuição de vestuário de moda. A pesquisa foi elaborada a partir de um estudo exploratório e um estudo de caso, totalizando cinco entrevistas. A compreensão do tema sustentabilidade nos diversos segmentos que compõem as redes de empresas de moda é apresentado e discutido, sendo proposto o algodão colorido para sustentabilidade do setor.

  11. QUESTÕES ESTRATÉGICAS DE PLANEJAMENTO, NEGOCIAÇÃO E MARKETING NA INDÚSTRIA TEXTIL: UM ESTUDO DE CASO

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    Michelle Cristine Silveira Meireles

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available

    Resumo

    O presente artigo aborda questões relacionadas a estratégias de planejamento, negociação e marketing utilizadas por uma empresa na área têxtil. A realização da pesquisa pautou-se em um estudo de caso, a partir de entrevistas semi-estruturadas e consultas a materiais institucionais. As abordagens teóricas utilizadas no corpo da pesquisa são aplicadas no estudo no intuito de embasar a compreensão do fenômeno estudado. A empresa trabalha com produto de qualidade, bons preços, tendo seu maior problema localizado no capital de giro. Na realização de uma análise organizacional mais detalhada, pesquisa direta com clientes e arrolamento de novas táticas de atuação, percebeu-se que houve por parte da empresa pesquisada uma ampliação à visão de mercado abrindo caminhos e potenciais possibilidades para uma nova atuação de mercado. Assim, o estudo revelou que a empresa deve implantar um conjunto de políticas empresariais de modo agressivo e interativo dentro de suas possibilidades e limitações tanto com os consumidores/clientes quanto no mercado em que atua. 

     

    Palavras-chave: Estratégia; Indústria Têxtil; Negociação.

     

    Abstract

    The present paper approach questions related to planning, negotiation and marketing strategies carried by a textile industry enterprise. The search was based in a study of case, by semi-structured interviews and institutional document analyses. The theoric base utilized in the search was applied in sense to embased the comprehension of studied phenomenon. The enterprise play with quality product, low prices, and the major problem was in turnover capital. In the realization of a detailed organizational analyses, costumers direct search and inventore of new tatics of atuation, was perceived the occurrence of a market sense improve, leading the enterprise to new market perspectives. By this way, the study show that the organization should implant a conjoint of enterprise policies by intense and interactive way considering yours possibilities and limitations about consumers/costumers as in your market.

     

    Keywords: Strategy; Textile Industry; Negotiation.

  12. LAS BIOPELÍCULAS EN LA INDUSTRIA DE ALIMENTOS BIOFILMES NA INDÚSTRIA DE ALIMENTOS BIOFILMS IN THE FOOD INDUSTRY

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    DIANA PAOLA NAVIA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Algunos microorganismos útiles y bacterias patógenas como por ejemplo Pseudomonas, Vibrio, Escherichia, Salmonella, Listeria, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Mycobacteria, tienen la capacidad de adherirse y crecer en los alimentos y/o en las superficies que están en contacto con ellos formando biopelículas. Estas son significativamente importantes en el campo alimentario porgue causan serios problemas que dificultan y perjudican las operaciones y los procesos al generar pérdidas de energía, reducción del flujo (en tuberías y transferencia de calor, y taponamiento de poros de membranas, entre otros. Este documento considera los aspectos biológicos y fisicoquímicos relacionados con la formación y desarrollo de las biopelículas, lo cual, unido al desarrollo de metodologías de diagnóstico e identificación, permitirán desarrollar estrategias gue faciliten la prevención y control de la contaminación en la industria de alimentos para mantener los sistemas libres de biopelículas y favorecer la calidad y seguridad de los alimentos.Alguns microorganismos úteis e bactérias patogênicas, como Pseudomonas, Vibrio, Escherichia, Salmonella, Listeria, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Micobactéria, têm a capacidade de aderir e crescer em alimentos e/ou as superfícies em contato com eles. Neste contexto, os biofilmes são significativamente importantes na alimentação, porque podem causar problemas graves que impedem e dificultam as operações e processos para gerar perdas de energia, fluxo reduzido (tubos e transferência de calor, e entupimento de poros da membrana, entre outros. Este documento considera a aspectos biológicos e físico-químicas relacionadas à formação e desenvolvimento de biofilmes, que, juntamente com o desenvolvimento de métodos para o diagnóstico e identificação, ajudará a desenvolver estratégias de prevenção e controle da poluição na indústria de alimentos para manter os sistemas de biofilme livre e promover a qualidade e segurança alimentar.Some useful microorganisms and pathogenic bacteria such as Pseudomonas, Vibrio, Escherichia, Salmonella, Listeria, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Mycobacterium, have the ability to adhere and grow in food and/or surfaces in contact with them. In this context, the biofilms are significantly important in the food industry because they cause serious problems that impede and impair the operations and processes to generate energy losses, reduced flow (in pipes and heat transfer, and plugging of membrane pores, among others. This document considers the biological and physicochemical aspects related to training and development of biofilms, which, together with the development of methods for diagnosis and identification, will help develop strategies for prevention and control of pollution in the food industry to maintain biofilm-free systems and promote the quality and food safety

  13. A INFLUÊNCIA DO SISTEMA DE GESTÃO AMBIENTAL NA IMAGEM ORGANIZACIONAL PERANTE OS STAKEHOLDERS: UMA INDÚSTRIA TÊXTIL DE MINAS GERAIS

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    Juliano Franco e Silva Amaral

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Uma característica da sociedade contemporânea é a crescente inquietação com a qualidade do ambiente natural. Grupos de pressão, cientistas, consumidores, políticos e empresas estão mais conscientes do meio ambiente e cada vez mais influentes. Na década de 1990, temas e conceitos importantes foram estudados: a teoria dos stakeholders, a ética nos negócios, a gestão ambiental, a cidadania empresarial, o desenvolvimento sustentável e a governança corporativa. Para Freeman apud Kreitlon (2003, os stakeholders podem ser definidos como qualquer grupo ou indivíduo capaz de afetar ou ser afetado pela organização. Em sentido estrito, são aqueles grupos vitais para o negócio da empresa. Segundo Moreira (2001, a organização que tem gestão ambiental é aquela que possui um departamento de meio ambiente responsável por atender às exigências dos órgãos ambientais e indicar equipamentos e dispositivos de controle ambiental apropriados à realidade do negócio e aos impactos ambientais. Por outro lado, o sistema de gestão ambiental adquire uma visão estratégica do meio ambiente. A organização deixa de agir apenas em função dos riscos e passa a perceber também as oportunidades de acordo com orientações de inserção da variável ambiental na gestão do negócio. Este artigo tem como objetivo descrever a influência da implantação do sistema de gestão ambiental na imagem de uma indústria têxtil de Minas Gerais frente aos stakeholders. A metodologia utilizada foi a revisão bibliográfica sobre sistema de gestão ambiental, a análise de documentos da Empresa Alfa e entrevistas não estruturadas com os responsáveis pela implantação da ISO 14001 e pela área de relação com investidores.

  14. A INFLUÊNCIA DO SISTEMA DE GESTÃO AMBIENTAL NA IMAGEM ORGANIZACIONAL PERANTE OS STAKEHOLDERS: UMA INDÚSTRIA TÊXTIL DE MINAS GERAIS

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    Juliano Franco e Silva Amaral

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Uma característica da sociedade contemporânea é a crescente inquietação com a qualidade do ambiente natural. Grupos de pressão, cientistas, consumidores, políticos e empresas estão mais conscientes do meio ambiente e cada vez mais influentes. Na década de 1990, temas e conceitos importantes foram estudados: a teoria dos stakeholders, a ética nos negócios, a gestão ambiental, a cidadania empresarial, o desenvolvimento sustentável e a governança corporativa. Para Freeman apud Kreitlon (2003, os stakeholders podem ser definidos como qualquer grupo ou indivíduo capaz de afetar ou ser afetado pela organização. Em sentido estrito, são aqueles grupos vitais para o negócio da empresa. Segundo Moreira (2001, a organização que tem gestão ambiental é aquela que possui um departamento de meio ambiente responsável por atender às exigências dos órgãos ambientais e indicar equipamentos e dispositivos de controle ambiental apropriados à realidade do negócio e aos impactos ambientais. Por outro lado, o sistema de gestão ambiental adquire uma visão estratégica do meio ambiente. A organização deixa de agir apenas em função dos riscos e passa a perceber também as oportunidades de acordo com orientações de inserção da variável ambiental na gestão do negócio. Este artigo tem como objetivo descrever a influência da implantação do sistema de gestão ambiental na imagem de uma indústria têxtil de Minas Gerais frente aos stakeholders. A metodologia utilizada foi a revisão bibliográfica sobre sistema de gestão ambiental, a análise de documentos da Empresa Alfa e entrevistas não estruturadas com os responsáveis pela implantação da ISO 14001 e pela área de relação com investidores

  15. IMPLANTAÇÃO DA ISO 14001:2004: ESTUDO DE CASO DE UMA INDÚSTRIA DE PAPEL DA REGIÃO CENTRO-SUL DO PARANÁ

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    Katiane Crotti

    Full Text Available RESUMO Aliar as necessidades dos negócios às ambientais, trata-se de um desafio para as organizações. Os sistemas de gestão ambiental certificados pela NBR ISO 14001:2004 visam facilitar este processo, além de propiciar visibilidade positiva às organizações. No entanto, para adotar tal certificação, exige-se o atendimento de diversos requisitos e o desenvolvimento de estratégias de ecoinovação. Sob tal enfoque, esta pesquisa levantou os seguintes questionamentos: como a indústria de papel atendeu as exigências da NBR ISO 14001:2004? Quais estratégias de ecoinovação foram realizadas para a indústria conquistar a certificação? O objetivo geral buscou identificar e analisar as ações realizadas para a implantação da certificação ISO 14001:2004 em uma indústria de papel da região Centro-Sul do Paraná. Para isso utilizou-se do estudo de caso, no contexto da abordagem qualitativa, por meio de entrevistas, observação e pesquisa documental, e o tratamento destes se deu pela análise de conteúdo. Os principais resultados apontam que essa indústria atendeu aos requisitos de maneira satisfatória, demonstrando sua capacidade de adequar-se à norma. Observou-se também que as estratégias de ecoinovação desenvolvidas contribuíram para o alcance da certificação, o que exigiu da empresa adotar um processo de inovação capaz de subsidiar o atendimento de requisitos fundamentais de gestão ambiental.

  16. MAPEAMENTO DO FLUXO DE VALOR E KAIZEN COMO INSTRUMENTOS DE REDUÇÃO DE PERDAS: UM CASO NA INDÚSTRIA DE MOTOSSERRAS

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    Luis Gilberto Scherer

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Tem se verificado que as operações industriais aplicam, cada vez mais, esforços e recursos no sentido de promover a melhoria contínua de seus processos e assim garantir uma sólida posição no mercado. Este artigo visa a identificar oportunidades de redução das perdas do processo de manufatura, através da utilização da ferramenta de mapeamento de fluxo de valor e a aplicação de Kaizen. Trata-se de um estudo de caso na indústria de motosserras, em que há um levantamento detalhado de dados de todo o processo produtivo através do mapeamento da cadeia de valor, desde o recebimento da matéria-prima até os clientes. A partir da análise desses dados, demonstra-se o aumento de produtividade e outros ganhos em termos de resposta rápida e flexibilidade. Palavras-Chave: Mapeamento do Fluxo de Valor. Kaizen. Produtividade.

  17. ROMPENDO COM O COMPORTAMENTO DA CÓPIA: O DESENVOLVIMENTO DA IDENTIDADE DE PRODUTOS POR MEIO DA INTERAÇÃO ENTRE INDÚSTRIA E ARTESANATO

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    Mariana Fonseca Braga

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian industrial history and design education have not contributed to the construction of a design culture and to the preservation of cultural heritage, despite the richness and variety of its culture and renowned production of Brazilian designers. The urgency of transforming this scenario – characterized by a culture of copying – into innovative contexts has been reported in several publications. This study sheds light on the issue of copycat behaviour changes in Brazilian furniture industry through two practice-based cases analysis. These cases show the interaction between industry and craftwork towards design culture conception and cultural heritage preservation. Participant observation was the main method used to collect data in the first case (Pedra de Minas. The second case (Corn armchair was based on a semi-structured interview addressed to the company’s owner, as well as observation and analysis of archival sources such as brochures, materials used in exhibitions, and the company’s website. nterdisciplinary literature review supported the understanding of the empirical cases and context regarding copycat behaviour. This research was focused on: drivers and barriers to integrating design innovation into small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs; copycat behaviour (under-researched issue in the design field; product identity; industrial and handcraft systems and their relationship to design. The purposes of this paper are to contribute to the analysis of practice-based cases in an emerging economy, to inquiry relations between crafts, industry and design, proposing possibilities of bidirectional projects as potential sources to create value in companies and communities, to start understanding copycat behaviour related to product-design in the Brazilian furniture industry and its changes towards design innovation, to better understand the feasibility and importance of prototyping as well as their boundaries for design development in this context. The discussion and conclusion point out drivers and barriers found at the company’s level and at the macro level, emphasizing the need to develop effective design policies and appropriate infrastructure in order to support design culture conception and cultural heritage preservation.

  18. FABRICAÇÃO DE PRODUTO A BASE DE PRÓPOLIS NO COMBATE A FORMAÇÃO DE BIOFILME MICROBIOLOGICO NA INDÚSTRIA DE ALIMENTOS

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    Juliana Matos Araujo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Muitas contaminações ocorrem em indústrias de diferentes tipos de alimentos. Grande parte destas contaminações está diretamente relacionada à formação de biofilmes dentro da linha de processamento, onde muitos microrganismos estão relacionados a este problema, causando graves riscos à saúde do consumidor e danos financeiros a indústria. Dentre os microrganismos que podem participar de processos de formação de biofilmes, estão: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, P. fragi, P. fluorescens, Micrococcus sp., Enterococcus faecium, Listeria monocytogenes, Yersinia enterocolitica, Salmonella thyphimurium, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Alcaligenes e Flavobacterium. Diante disso faz-se necessário à fabricação de um detergente a base de extrato de própolis com a finalidade de combater a formação de biofilmes na indústria. A própolis foi escolhida, por apresenta propriedades anti-inflamatória, atividades antimicrobiana, antifúngico, além de possuir propriedades bacteriostática e mesmo bactericidas, diretamente proporcional a concentração da própolis. Dentre um espectro grande de microrganismo, a utilização do extrato de própolis foi comprovada a eficácia na inibição do crescimento das seguintes bactérias: Staphyloccocus aureus, Staphyloccocus epidermidis, Enterococcus spp, S. mutan, S. sanguis, S. sobrinus, Actinomyces Naeslundii, Candida Albicans, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa.Palavras-chave: biofilme, própolis, alimento.

  19. TRABALHO E EDUCAÇÃO NO CONTEXTO DE TRANSFORMAÇÕES DA AGROINDÚSTRIA CANAVIEIRA NO FINAL DO SÉCULO XX

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    Manoel Nelito Matheus do Nascimento

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa a relação trabalho-educação no contexto das transformações econômicas, políticas e sociais das últimas décadas do século XX, com recorte na agroindústria canavieira. Essas transformações produziram mudanças rápidas e radicais na produção, nos processos de trabalho, hábitos de consumo, poderes e prática do Estado, com desdobramentos para todas as instâncias da sociedade em todo o planeta. A reestruturação da produção ampliou significativamente a divisão do trabalho, com as novas tecnologias e novas formas de gestão, com consequências de grandes reduções no número de postos de trabalho, elevando o número de trabalhadores desempregados, assim como vem ocorrendo um processo de precarização do trabalho. Desta forma, o capital tem ampliado a exploração do trabalhador, exigindo que seja polivalente, flexível, possuidor de múltiplas competências, apto para cumprir múltiplas funções. Neste contexto, as ações educativas escolares e não-escolares se transformaram em resposta aos novos requisitos impostos para o trabalho. 

  20. ENGENHARIA DO CONHECIMENTO APLICADA AO SERVIÇO DE ATENDIMENTO AO CLIENTE NA INDÚSTRIA DO SOFTWARE KNOWLEDGE ENGINEERING APPLIED TO COSTUMER SERVICE IN THE SOFTWARE INDUSTRY

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    Mauricio Uriona Maldonado

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A representação do conhecimento apoia as técnicas e ferramentas de gestão e deve possuir uma compreensão substancial do negócio em que está inserido. A identificação e análise do negócio onde estão embutidos os aspectos de conhecimento são fundamentais para o sucesso da gestão do conhecimento nas organizações. Este artigo descreve a construção da primeira fase de um sistema de conhecimento para o serviço de atendimento ao usuário de uma software-house no Brasil. A metodología empregada é a engenharia do conhecimento e mais específicamente os modelos da camada contextual do CommonKADS. Inicialmente é apresentada uma revisão sobre o framework metodológico CommonKADS, com foco nos modelos de organização, tarefa e agente. Em seguida são descritas as etapas de construção do sistema de conhecimento e apresentado o local de aplicação. Conclui com as implicações do sistema de conhecimento para a software-house analizada bem como as recomendações dos próximos passos de aplicação do CommonKADS.Knowledge representation supports management tools and techniques and must possess a substantial comprehension of the business in which is inserted. This paper describes the first phase construction of a knowledge system for a Brazilian software-house´s customer service. The method applied is knowledge engineering and specifically the context-layer models of CommonKADS. First, a literature review is presented regarding the CommonKADS Methodology, focusing in the Organization, Tasks and Agent Models. Next, the development phases for the knowledge system are described as well as the company where the study was made. It concludes with the business implications of the knowledge system for the software-house as well as the next steps of application for CommonKADS.