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Sample records for stretching-induced force deficit

  1. Does vibration counteract the static stretch-induced deficit on muscle force development?

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    Fernandes, Igor Alexandre; Kawchuk, Gregory; Bhambhani, Yagesh; Gomes, Paulo Sergio Chagas

    2013-09-01

    To determine the residual acute vibration-stretching effect on preactivation levels, short-latency stretch reflex, and performance during execution of drop jumps. Repeated measures. Eleven male recreational athletes performed a set of three 45cm drop jumps before and immediately after a 30s static stretching exercise with and without simultaneously imposed muscle vibration (45Hz, 5mm). Drop jump height, ground reaction forces and electromyographic data including Vastus Lateralis onset/levels of preactivation and short-latency stretch reflex were recorded. No changes were induced on drop jump height. However, stretching-induced decrements on ground reaction force peak and time to peak as well as an increment in contact time followed a delay in short-latency stretch reflex onset and a reduced preactivation level of Vastus Lateralis. Otherwise, when vibration was simultaneously imposed, there was no evidence of changes in high-speed force production variables or electromyographic recordings. Mechanical vibration, when applied simultaneously to static-stretching routines, appeared to be effective to counteract decreased musculotendinous unit stiffness-induced high-speed force production deficit during jumping performance. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Stretch-induced force deficits in murine extensor digitorum longus muscles after cardiotoxin injection.

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    Markert, Chad; Petroski, Gregory F; Childers, Charles K; McDonald, Kerry S; Childers, Martin K

    2006-10-01

    A leftward shift in a muscle's length-tension relationship is thought to impair myofilament overlap. We hypothesized that left-shifted muscles would incur greater eccentric contraction-induced damage compared to controls. We evaluated contractile properties and force deficits in regenerating murine extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles 7, 14, and 21 days after cardiotoxin (CTX) injection. Specific tension recovered to control values by 21 days. CTX-injected muscles demonstrated left-shifted length-tension curves and incurred greater contraction-induced force deficits than controls (P < 0.001) on day 7. We speculate that increased contraction-induced damage in 7-day CTX-injected muscles results from changes in myofilament overlap that occurs during early regeneration.

  3. Neuromuscular rate of force development deficit in Parkinson disease.

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    Hammond, Kelley G; Pfeiffer, Ronald F; LeDoux, Mark S; Schilling, Brian K

    2017-06-01

    Bradykinesia and reduced neuromuscular force exist in Parkinson disease. The interpolated twitch technique has been used to evaluate central versus peripheral manifestations of neuromuscular strength in healthy, aging, and athletic populations, as well as moderate to advanced Parkinson disease, but this method has not been used in mild Parkinson disease. This study aimed to evaluate quadriceps femoris rate of force development and quantify potential central and peripheral activation deficits in individuals with Parkinson disease. Nine persons with mild Parkinson Disease (Hoehn & Yahr≤2, Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale total score=mean 19.1 (SD 5.0)) and eight age-matched controls were recruited in a cross-sectional investigation. Quadriceps femoris voluntary and stimulated maximal force and rate of force development were evaluated using the interpolated twitch technique. Thirteen participants satisfactorily completed the protocol. Individuals with early Parkinson disease (n=7) had significantly slower voluntary rate of force development (p=0.008; d=1.97) and rate of force development ratio (p=0.004; d=2.18) than controls (n=6). No significant differences were found between groups for all other variables. Persons with mild-to-moderate Parkinson disease display disparities in rate of force development, even without deficits in maximal force. The inability to produce force at a rate comparable to controls is likely a downstream effect of central dysfunction of the motor pathway in Parkinson disease. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Periostin inhibits mechanical stretch-induced apoptosis in osteoblast-like MG-63 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kai-Wen; Yao, Chung-Chen; Jeng, Jiiang-Huei; Shieh, Hao-Ying; Chen, Yi-Jane

    2018-04-01

    Appropriate mechanical stress plays an important role in regulating the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts, whereas high-level mechanical stress may be harmful and compromise cell survival. Periostin, a matricellular protein, is essential in maintaining functional integrity of bone and collagen-rich connective tissue in response to mechanical stress. This study investigated whether or not high-level mechanical stretch induces cell apoptosis and the regulatory role of periostin in mechanical stretch-induced apoptosis in osteoblastic cells. Osteoblast-like MG-63 cells were seeded onto Bio-Flex I culture plates and subjected to cyclic mechanical stretching (15% elongation, 0.1 Hz) in a Flexercell tension plus system-5000. The same process was applied to cells pre-treated with exogenous human recombinant periostin before mechanical stretching. We used a chromatin condensation and membrane permeability dead cell apoptosis kit to evaluate the stretch-induced cell responses. Expression of caspase-3 and cPARP was examined by immunofluorescent stain and flow cytometry. The expression of periostin in MG-63 cells is involved in the TGF-β signaling pathway. High-level cyclic mechanical stretch induced apoptotic responses in MG-63 osteoblastic cells. The percentages of apoptotic cells and cells expressing cPARP protein increased in the groups of cells subjected to mechanical stretch, but these responses were absent in the presence of exogenous periostin. Our study revealed that high-level mechanical stretch induces apoptotic cell death, and that periostin plays a protective role against mechanical stretch-induced apoptosis in osteoblastic cells. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Cyclic Mechanical Stretching Induces Autophagic Cell Death in Tenofibroblasts Through Activation of Prostaglandin E2 Production

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    Hua Chen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Autophagic cell death has recently been implicated in the pathophysiology of tendinopathy. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, a known inflammatory mediator of tendinitis, inhibits tenofibroblast proliferation in vitro; however, the underlying mechanism is unclear. The present study investigated the relationship between PGE2 production and autophagic cell death in mechanically loaded human patellar tendon fibroblasts (HPTFs in vitro. Methods: Cultured HPTFs were subjected to exogenous PGE2 treatment or repetitive cyclic mechanical stretching. Cell death was determined by flow cytometry with acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining. Induction of autophagy was assessed by autophagy markers including the formation of autophagosomes and autolysosomes (by electron microscopy, AO staining, and formation of GPF-LC3-labeled vacuoles and the expression of LC3-II and BECN1 (by western blot. Stretching-induced PGE2 release was determined by ELISA. Results: Exogenous PGE2 significantly induced cell death and autophagy in HPTFs in a dose-dependent manner. Blocking autophagy using inhibitors 3-methyladenine and chloroquine, or small interfering RNAs against autophagy genes Becn-1 and Atg-5 prevented PGE2-induced cell death. Cyclic mechanical stretching at 8% and 12% magnitudes for 24 h significantly stimulated PGE2 release by HPTFs in a magnitude-dependent manner. In addition, mechanical stretching induced autophagy and cell death. Blocking PGE2 production using COX inhibitors indomethacin and celecoxib significantly reduced stretching-induced autophagy and cell death. Conclusion: Taken together, cyclic mechanical stretching induces autophagic cell death in tenofibroblasts through activation of PGE2 production.

  6. Caspase-12 is involved in stretch-induced apoptosis mediated endoplasmic reticulum stress.

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    Zhang, Qiang; Liu, Jianing; Chen, Shulan; Liu, Jing; Liu, Lijuan; Liu, Guirong; Wang, Fang; Jiang, Wenxin; Zhang, Caixia; Wang, Shuangyu; Yuan, Xiao

    2016-04-01

    It is well recognized that mandibular growth, which is caused by a variety of functional appliances, is considered to be the result of both neuromuscular and skeletal adaptations. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that apoptosis plays an important role in the adaptation of skeletal muscle function. However, the underlying mechanism of apoptosis that is induced by stretch continues to be incompletely understood. Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS), a newly defined signaling pathway, initiates apoptosis. This study seeks to determine if caspase-12 is involved in stretch-induced apoptosis mediated endoplasmic reticulum stress in myoblast and its underlying mechanism. Apoptosis was assessed by Hochest staining, DAPI staining and annexin V binding and PI staining. ER chaperones, such as GRP78, CHOP and caspase-12, were determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot. Furthermore, caspase-12 inhibitor was used to value the mechanism of the caspase-12 pathway. Apoptosis of myoblast, which is subjected to cyclic stretch, was observed in a time-dependent manner. We found that GRP78 mRNA and protein were significantly increased and CHOP and caspase-12 were activated in myoblast that was exposed to cyclic stretch. Caspase-12 inhibition reduced stretch-induced apoptosis, and caspase-12 activated caspase-3 to induce apoptosis. We concluded that caspase-12 played an important role in stretch-induced apoptosis that is associated by endoplasmic reticulum stress by activating caspase-3.

  7. Deficit

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    UCL's former provost, Sir Derek Roberts, has been drafted in for a year to run the college. UCL is expected to have a 6 million pounds deficit this year and up to a 10 million pounds deficit next year. Sir Christopher Llewellyn-Smith took over at UCL nearly 4 years ago and decided then that the finanical situation was serious enough to warrant a reduction in the vast expansion policy undertaken by his predecessor (1 page).

  8. Bilateral deficit in explosive force production is not caused by changes in agonist neural drive.

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    Matthew W Buckthorpe

    Full Text Available Bilateral deficit (BLD describes the phenomenon of a reduction in performance during synchronous bilateral (BL movements when compared to the sum of identical unilateral (UL movements. Despite a large body of research investigating BLD of maximal voluntary force (MVF there exist a paucity of research examining the BLD for explosive strength. Therefore, this study investigated the BLD in voluntary and electrically-evoked explosive isometric contractions of the knee extensors and assessed agonist and antagonist neuromuscular activation and measurement artefacts as potential mechanisms. Thirteen healthy untrained males performed a series of maximum and explosive voluntary contractions bilaterally (BL and unilaterally (UL. UL and BL evoked twitch and octet contractions were also elicited. Two separate load cells were used to measure MVF and explosive force at 50, 100 and 150 ms after force onset. Surface EMG amplitude was measured from three superficial agonists and an antagonist. Rate of force development (RFD and EMG were reported over consecutive 50 ms periods (0-50, 50-100 and 100-150 ms. Performance during UL contractions was compared to combined BL performance to measure BLD. Single limb performance during the BL contractions was assessed and potential measurement artefacts, including synchronisation of force onset from the two limbs, controlled for. MVF showed no BLD (P = 0.551, but there was a BLD for explosive force at 100 ms (11.2%, P = 0.007. There was a BLD in RFD 50-100 ms (14.9%, P = 0.004, but not for the other periods. Interestingly, there was a BLD in evoked force measures (6.3-9.0%, P<0.001. There was no difference in agonist or antagonist EMG for any condition (P≥0.233. Measurement artefacts contributed minimally to the observed BLD. The BLD in volitional explosive force found here could not be explained by measurement issues, or agonist and antagonist neuromuscular activation. The BLD in voluntary and evoked explosive force

  9. Stretch-induced nerve injury: a proposed technique for the study of nerve regeneration and evaluation of the influence of gabapentin on this model

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    J.A. Machado

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The rat models currently employed for studies of nerve regeneration present distinct disadvantages. We propose a new technique of stretch-induced nerve injury, used here to evaluate the influence of gabapentin (GBP on nerve regeneration. Male Wistar rats (300 g; n=36 underwent surgery and exposure of the median nerve in the right forelimbs, either with or without nerve injury. The technique was performed using distal and proximal clamps separated by a distance of 2 cm and a sliding distance of 3 mm. The nerve was compressed and stretched for 5 s until the bands of Fontana disappeared. The animals were evaluated in relation to functional, biochemical and histological parameters. Stretching of the median nerve led to complete loss of motor function up to 12 days after the lesion (P<0.001, compared to non-injured nerves, as assessed in the grasping test. Grasping force in the nerve-injured animals did not return to control values up to 30 days after surgery (P<0.05. Nerve injury also caused an increase in the time of sensory recovery, as well as in the electrical and mechanical stimulation tests. Treatment of the animals with GBP promoted an improvement in the morphometric analysis of median nerve cross-sections compared with the operated vehicle group, as observed in the area of myelinated fibers or connective tissue (P<0.001, in the density of myelinated fibers/mm2 (P<0.05 and in the degeneration fragments (P<0.01. Stretch-induced nerve injury seems to be a simple and relevant model for evaluating nerve regeneration.

  10. Cyclic stretch-induced stress fiber dynamics - Dependence on strain rate, Rho-kinase and MLCK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chin-Fu; Haase, Candice; Deguchi, Shinji; Kaunas, Roland

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Cyclic stretch induces stress fiber disassembly, reassembly and fusion perpendicular to the direction of stretch. → Stress fiber disassembly and reorientation were not induced at low stretch frequency. → Stretch caused actin fiber formation parallel to stretch in distinct locations in cells treated with Rho-kinase and MLCK inhibitors. -- Abstract: Stress fiber realignment is an important adaptive response to cyclic stretch for nonmuscle cells, but the mechanism by which such reorganization occurs is not known. By analyzing stress fiber dynamics using live cell microscopy, we revealed that stress fiber reorientation perpendicular to the direction of cyclic uniaxial stretching at 1 Hz did not involve disassembly of the stress fiber distal ends located at focal adhesion sites. Instead, these distal ends were often used to assemble new stress fibers oriented progressively further away from the direction of stretch. Stress fiber disassembly and reorientation were not induced when the frequency of stretch was decreased to 0.01 Hz, however. Treatment with the Rho-kinase inhibitor (Y27632) reduced stress fibers to thin fibers located in the cell periphery which bundled together to form thick fibers oriented parallel to the direction of stretching at 1 Hz. In contrast, these thin fibers remained diffuse in cells subjected to stretch at 0.01 Hz. Cyclic stretch at 1 Hz also induced actin fiber formation parallel to the direction of stretch in cells treated with the myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) inhibitor ML-7, but these fibers were located centrally rather than peripherally. These results shed new light on the mechanism by which stress fibers reorient in response to cyclic stretch in different regions of the actin cytoskeleton.

  11. Enhanced tolerance to stretch-induced performance degradation of stretchable MnO2-based supercapacitors.

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    Huang, Yan; Huang, Yang; Meng, Wenjun; Zhu, Minshen; Xue, Hongtao; Lee, Chun-Sing; Zhi, Chunyi

    2015-02-04

    The performance of many stretchable electronics, such as energy storage devices and strain sensors, is highly limited by the structural breakdown arising from the stretch imposed. In this article, we focus on a detailed study on materials matching between functional materials and their conductive substrate, as well as enhancement of the tolerance to stretch-induced performance degradation of stretchable supercapacitors, which are essential for the design of a stretchable device. It is revealed that, being widely utilized as the electrode material of the stretchable supercapacitor, metal oxides such as MnO2 nanosheets have serious strain-induced performance degradation due to their rigid structure. In comparison, with conducting polymers like a polypyrrole (PPy) film as the electrochemically active material, the performance of stretchable supercapacitors can be well preserved under strain. Therefore, a smart design is to combine PPy with MnO2 nanosheets to achieve enhanced tolerance to strain-induced performance degradation of MnO2-based supercapacitors, which is realized by fabricating an electrode of PPy-penetrated MnO2 nanosheets. The composite electrodes exhibit a remarkable enhanced tolerance to strain-induced performance degradation with well-preserved performance over 93% under strain. The detailed morphology and electrochemical impedance variations are investigated for the mechanism analyses. Our work presents a systematic investigation on the selection and matching of electrode materials for stretchable supercapacitors to achieve high performance and great tolerance to strain, which may guide the selection of functional materials and their substrate materials for the next-generation of stretchable electronics.

  12. Stretch induced endothelin-1 secretion by adult rat astrocytes involves calcium influx via stretch-activated ion channels (SACs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostrow, Lyle W.; Suchyna, Thomas M.; Sachs, Frederick

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Endothelin-1 expression by adult rat astrocytes correlates with cell proliferation. → Stretch-induced ET-1 is inhibited by GsMtx-4, a specific inhibitor of Ca 2+ permeant SACs. → The less specific SAC inhibitor streptomycin also inhibits ET-1 secretion. → Stretch-induced ET-1 production depends on a calcium influx. → SAC pharmacology may provide a new class of therapeutic agents for CNS pathology. -- Abstract: The expression of endothelins (ETs) and ET-receptors is often upregulated in brain pathology. ET-1, a potent vasoconstrictor, also inhibits the expression of astrocyte glutamate transporters and is mitogenic for astrocytes, glioma cells, neurons, and brain capillary endothelia. We have previously shown that mechanical stress stimulates ET-1 production by adult rat astrocytes. We now show in adult astrocytes that ET-1 production is driven by calcium influx through stretch-activated ion channels (SACs) and the ET-1 production correlates with cell proliferation. Mechanical stimulation using biaxial stretch ( 2+ threshold. This coupling of mechanical stress to the astrocyte endothelin system through SACs has treatment implications, since all pathology deforms the surrounding parenchyma.

  13. Correct, Fake and Absent Pre-Information Does Not Affect the Occurrence and Magnitude of the Bilateral Force Deficit

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    Lars Donath

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined whether different pre-information conditions could lead to a volitional modulation of the occurrence and magnitude of the bilateral force deficit (BFD during isometric leg press. Twenty trained male adults (age: 24.5 ± 1.7 years; weight: 77.5 ± 7.1 kg; height: 1.81 ± 0.05 m were examined on three days within a week. Isometric leg press was performed on a negatively inclined leg press slide. Each participant completed three maximal isometric strength test sessions with different pre-information conditions given in a graphical chart: no pre-information (NPI; first day, false pre-information (FPI; bilateral force > sum of unilateral forces; second or third day and correct pre-information (CPI; bilateral force < sum of unilateral forces; second or third day during bilateral, unilateral-left and unilateral-right leg-press. The sum of left- and right-sided force values were calculated for bilateral (FBL = FBL_left + FBL_right and unilateral (FUL = FUL_left + FUL_right analyses. Force data for NPI revealed: Mean (SD: FUL_NPI = 3023 N (435 vs. FBL_NPI = 2812 (453; FPI showed FUL_FPI = 3013 N (459 vs. FBL_FPI = 2843 (446 and the CPI revealed FUL_CPI = 3035 (425 vs. FBL_CPI = 2844 (385. The three (no, false, correct x 2 (FUL, FBL rANOVA revealed a high significant main effect of Force (F = 61.82, p < 0.001. No significant main effect of the factor Condition and no significant interaction between Force x Condition was observed. The BFD does not rely on the trueness of the given pre-information (no, false, correct. Cognition-based volitional influences on the BFD on supra-spinal level seem negligible.

  14. Correct, fake and absent pre-information does not affect the occurrence and magnitude of the bilateral force deficit.

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    Donath, Lars; Siebert, Tobias; Faude, Oliver; Puta, Christian

    2014-05-01

    The present study examined whether different pre-information conditions could lead to a volitional modulation of the occurrence and magnitude of the bilateral force deficit (BFD) during isometric leg press. Twenty trained male adults (age: 24.5 ± 1.7 years; weight: 77.5 ± 7.1 kg; height: 1.81 ± 0.05 m) were examined on three days within a week. Isometric leg press was performed on a negatively inclined leg press slide. Each participant completed three maximal isometric strength test sessions with different pre-information conditions given in a graphical chart: no pre-information (NPI; first day), false pre-information (FPI; bilateral force > sum of unilateral forces; second or third day) and correct pre-information (CPI; bilateral force < sum of unilateral forces; second or third day) during bilateral, unilateral-left and unilateral-right leg-press. The sum of left- and right-sided force values were calculated for bilateral (FBL = FBL_left + FBL_right) and unilateral (FUL = FUL_left + FUL_right) analyses. Force data for NPI revealed: Mean (SD): FUL_NPI = 3023 N (435) vs. FBL_NPI = 2812 (453); FPI showed FUL_FPI = 3013 N (459) vs. FBL_FPI = 2843 (446) and the CPI revealed FUL_CPI = 3035 (425) vs. FBL_CPI = 2844 (385). The three (no, false, correct) x 2 (FUL, FBL) rANOVA revealed a high significant main effect of Force (F = 61.82, p < 0.001). No significant main effect of the factor Condition and no significant interaction between Force x Condition was observed. The BFD does not rely on the trueness of the given pre-information (no, false, correct). Cognition-based volitional influences on the BFD on supra-spinal level seem negligible. Key pointsBFD is reliable occurring phenomenonAvailable theoretical knowledge does not affect the BFDAlternating sport should include alternating strength exercises.

  15. Soil Endowments, Female Labor Force Participation, and the Demographic Deficit of Women in India

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    Eliana Carranza

    2014-01-01

    Differences in relative female employment by soil texture are used to explain the heterogeneous deficit of female children across districts within India. Soil texture varies exogenously and determines the depth of land tillage. Deep tillage, possible in loamy but not in clayey soil textures, reduces the demand for labor in agricultural tasks traditionally performed by women. Girls have a l...

  16. Cyclic stretch induces cell reorientation on substrates by destabilizing catch bonds in focal adhesions.

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    Bin Chen

    Full Text Available A minimal model of cellular mechanosensing system that consists of a single stress fiber adhering on a substrate via two focal adhesions made of catch bonds is adopted to investigate the phenomena of cell reorientation on substrates induced by an applied uniaxial cyclic stretch. The model indicates that the catch bonds in the focal adhesions experience a periodically oscillating internal force with amplitude and frequency controlled by two intrinsic clocks of the stress fiber, one associated with localized activation and the other with homogeneous activation of sarcomere units along the stress fiber. It is shown that this oscillating force due to cyclic stretch tends to destabilize focal adhesions by reducing the lifetime of catch bonds. The resulting slide or relocation of focal adhesions then causes the associated stress fiber to shorten and rotate to configurations nearly perpendicular to the stretching direction. These predicted behaviors from our model are consistent with a wide range of experimental observations.

  17. l-arginine ingestion inhibits eccentric contraction-induced proteolysis and force deficit via S-nitrosylation of calpain.

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    Kanzaki, Keita; Watanabe, Daiki; Aibara, Chihiro; Kawakami, Yuki; Yamada, Takashi; Takahashi, Yoshitaka; Wada, Masanobu

    2018-01-01

    It has been shown that calpains are involved in the proteolysis of muscle proteins that occurs with eccentric contraction (ECC) and that exogenously applied nitric oxide decreases the calpain-mediated proteolysis. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of ingestion of l-arginine (ARG), a nitric oxide precursor, on ECC-related calpain activation. In the first and second experiments, male Wistar rats were given ARG in water for 7 days starting from 3 days before the ECC protocol (average ingestion, ~600 mg kg-body wt -1  day -1 ). Tibialis anterior muscles underwent 200 repeated ECCs and, subsequently, were excised 3 days later. Whole muscle analyses (the first experiment) revealed that ARG attenuated ECC-induced force deficit and autolysis of calpain-1, and increased the amounts of S-nitrosylated calpain-1. Regarding ryanodine receptor (RyR) and dihydropyridine receptor (DHPR), ECC-induced proteolysis was completely inhibited by ARG, whereas the inhibition was partial for junctophilin-1 (JP1). Skinned fiber analyses (the second experiment) showed that ARG also inhibited ECC-elicited reductions in the ratio of depolarization-induced to maximum Ca 2+ -activated force. In the third experiment, homogenates of rested muscles were treated with S-nitrosylating agent, S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), and/or high Ca 2+ concentration ([Ca 2+ ]). Treatment with high [Ca 2+ ] and without GSNO produced proteolysis of RyR, DHPR, and JP1. On the other hand, treatment with high [Ca 2+ ] and GSNO caused complete inhibition of RyR and DHPR proteolysis and partial inhibition of JP1 proteolysis. These results indicate that ARG ingestion can attenuate ECC-induced proteolysis of Ca 2+ regulatory proteins and force deficit by decreasing calpain activation via S-nitrosylation. © 2018 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  18. Stretch-induced intussuceptive and sprouting angiogenesis in the chick chorioallantoic membrane

    OpenAIRE

    Belle, Janeil; Ysasi, Alexandra; Bennett, Robert D.; Filipovic, Nenad; Imani Nejad, Mohammad; Trumper, David L.; Ackermann, Maximilian; Wagner, Willi; Tsuda, Akira; Konerding, Moritz A.; Mentzer, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Vascular systems grow and remodel in response to not only metabolic needs, but also mechanical influences as well. Here, we investigated the influence of tissue-level mechanical forces on the patterning and structure of the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) microcirculation. A dipole stretch field was applied to the CAM using custom computer-controlled servomotors. The topography of the stretch field was mapped using finite element models. After 3 days of stretch, Sholl analysis of the CAM...

  19. Stretch-induced intussuceptive and sprouting angiogenesis in the chick chorioallantoic membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belle, Janeil; Ysasi, Alexandra; Bennett, Robert D; Filipovic, Nenad; Nejad, Mohammad Imani; Trumper, David L; Ackermann, Maximilian; Wagner, Willi; Tsuda, Akira; Konerding, Moritz A; Mentzer, Steven J

    2014-09-01

    Vascular systems grow and remodel in response to not only metabolic needs, but also mechanical influences as well. Here, we investigated the influence of tissue-level mechanical forces on the patterning and structure of the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) microcirculation. A dipole stretch field was applied to the CAM using custom computer-controlled servomotors. The topography of the stretch field was mapped using finite element models. After 3days of stretch, Sholl analysis of the CAM demonstrated a 7-fold increase in conducting vessel intersections within the stretch field (p0.05). In contrast, corrosion casting and SEM of the stretch field capillary meshwork demonstrated intense sprouting and intussusceptive angiogenesis. Both planar surface area (p<0.05) and pillar density (p<0.01) were significantly increased relative to control regions of the CAM. We conclude that a uniaxial stretch field stimulates the axial growth and realignment of conducting vessels as well as intussusceptive and sprouting angiogenesis within the gas exchange capillaries of the ex ovo CAM. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Stretch-induced Intussuceptive and Sprouting Angiogenesis in the Chick Chorioallantoic Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belle, Janeil; Ysasi, Alexandra; Bennett, Robert; Filipovic, Nenad; Nejad, Mohammad Imani; Trumper, David L.; Ackermann, Max; Wagner, Willi; Tsuda, Akira; Konerding, Moritz A.; Mentzer, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Vascular systems grow and remodel in response to not only metabolic needs, but mechanical influences as well. Here, we investigated the influence of tissue-level mechanical forces on the patterning and structure of the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) microcirculation. A dipole stretch field was applied to the CAM using custom computer-controlled servomotors. The topography of the stretch field was mapped using finite element models. After 3 days of stretch, Sholl analysis of the CAM demonstrated a 7-fold increase in conducting vessel intersections within the stretch field (p0.05). In contrast, corrosion casting and SEM of the stretch field capillary meshwork demonstrated intense sprouting and intussusceptive angiogenesis. Both planar surface area (p<0.05) and pillar density (p<0.01) were significantly increased relative to control regions of the CAM. We conclude that a uniaxial stretch field stimulates the axial growth and realignment of conducting vessels as well as intussusceptive and sprouting angiogenesis within the gas exchange capillaries of the ex ovo CAM. PMID:24984292

  1. Denervated muscle fibers explain the deficit in specific force following reinnervation of the rat extensor digitorum longus muscle.

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    van der Meulen, Jack H; Urbanchek, Melanie G; Cederna, Paul S; Eguchi, Tomoaki; Kuzon, William M

    2003-10-01

    The authors tested the hypothesis that, after denervation and reinnervation of skeletal muscle, observed deficits in specific force can be completely attributed to the presence of denervated muscle fibers. The peroneal nerve innervating the extensor digitorum longus muscle in rats was sectioned and the distal stump was coapted to the proximal stump, allowing either a large number of motor axons (nonreduced, n = 12) or a drastically reduced number of axons access to the distal nerve stump (drastically reduced, n = 18). A control group of rats underwent exposure of the peroneal nerve, without transection, followed by wound closure (control, n = 9). Four months after the operation, the maximum tetanic isometric force (Fo) of the extensor digitorum longus muscle was measured in situ and the specific force (sFo) was calculated. Cross-sections of the muscles were labeled for neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) protein to distinguish between innervated and denervated muscle fibers. Compared with extensor digitorum longus muscles from rats in the control (295 +/- 11 kN/m2) and nonreduced (276 +/- 12 kN/m2) groups, sFo of the extensor digitorum longus muscles from animals in the drastically reduced group was decreased (227 +/- 15 kN/m2, p extensor digitorum longus muscles from animals in the drastically reduced group (18 +/- 3 percent) was significantly higher than in the control (3 +/- 1 percent) group, but not compared with the nonreduced (9 +/- 2 percent) group. After exclusion of the denervated fibers, sFo did not differ between extensor digitorum longus muscles from animals in the drastically reduced (270 +/- 20 kN/m2), nonreduced (301 +/- 13 kN/m2), or control (303 +/- 10 kN/m2) groups. The authors conclude that, under circumstances of denervation and rapid reinnervation, the decrease in sFo of muscle can be attributed to the presence of denervated muscle fibers.

  2. Nitric oxide mediates stretch-induced Ca2+ release via activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt pathway in smooth muscle.

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    Wei, Bin; Chen, Zheng; Zhang, Xu; Feldman, Morris; Dong, Xian-zhi; Doran, Robert; Zhao, Bao-Lu; Yin, Wen-xuan; Kotlikoff, Michael I; Ji, Guangju

    2008-06-25

    Hollow smooth muscle organs such as the bladder undergo significant changes in wall tension associated with filling and distension, with attendant changes in muscle tone. Our previous study indicated that stretch induces Ca(2+) release occurs in the form of Ca(2+) sparks and Ca(2+) waves in urinary bladder myocytes. While, the mechanism underlying stretch-induced Ca2+ release in smooth muscle is unknown. We examined the transduction mechanism linking cell stretch to Ca(2+) release. The probability and frequency of Ca(2+) sparks induced by stretch were closely related to the extent of cell extension and the time that the stretch was maintained. Experiments in tissues and single myocytes indicated that mechanical stretch significantly increases the production of nitric oxide (NO) and the amplitude and duration of muscle contraction. Stretch-induced Ca(2+) sparks and contractility increases were abrogated by the NO inhibitor L-NAME and were also absent in eNOS knockout mice. Furthermore, exposure of eNOS null mice to exogenously generated NO induced Ca(2+) sparks. The soluble guanylyl cyclase inhibitor ODQ did not inhibit SICR, but this process was effectively blocked by the PI3 kinase inhibitors LY494002 and wortmannin; the phosphorylation of Akt and eNOS were up-regulated by 204+/-28.6% and 258+/-36.8% by stretch, respectively. Moreover, stretch significantly increased the eNOS protein expression level. Taking together, these results suggest that stretch-induced Ca2+ release is NO dependent, resulting from the activation of PI3K/Akt pathway in smooth muscle.

  3. Nitric oxide mediates stretch-induced Ca2+ release via activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt pathway in smooth muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wei

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Hollow smooth muscle organs such as the bladder undergo significant changes in wall tension associated with filling and distension, with attendant changes in muscle tone. Our previous study indicated that stretch induces Ca(2+ release occurs in the form of Ca(2+ sparks and Ca(2+ waves in urinary bladder myocytes. While, the mechanism underlying stretch-induced Ca2+ release in smooth muscle is unknown.We examined the transduction mechanism linking cell stretch to Ca(2+ release. The probability and frequency of Ca(2+ sparks induced by stretch were closely related to the extent of cell extension and the time that the stretch was maintained. Experiments in tissues and single myocytes indicated that mechanical stretch significantly increases the production of nitric oxide (NO and the amplitude and duration of muscle contraction. Stretch-induced Ca(2+ sparks and contractility increases were abrogated by the NO inhibitor L-NAME and were also absent in eNOS knockout mice. Furthermore, exposure of eNOS null mice to exogenously generated NO induced Ca(2+ sparks. The soluble guanylyl cyclase inhibitor ODQ did not inhibit SICR, but this process was effectively blocked by the PI3 kinase inhibitors LY494002 and wortmannin; the phosphorylation of Akt and eNOS were up-regulated by 204+/-28.6% and 258+/-36.8% by stretch, respectively. Moreover, stretch significantly increased the eNOS protein expression level.Taking together, these results suggest that stretch-induced Ca2+ release is NO dependent, resulting from the activation of PI3K/Akt pathway in smooth muscle.

  4. Contralateral limb deficit after ACL-reconstruction: an analysis of early and late phase of rate of force development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirkov, Dragan M; Knezevic, Olivera M; Maffiuletti, Nicola A; Kadija, Marko; Nedeljkovic, Aleksandar; Jaric, Slobodan

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of a unilateral anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) on maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) and explosive strength of both the involved limb and the uninvolved limb. Nineteen male athletes completed a standard isometric testing protocol 4 months post-ACLR, while 16 healthy participants served as a control group (CG). The explosive strength of the knee extensors and flexors was assessed as RFD obtained from the slope of the force-time curves over various time intervals. Both muscle groups of the involved limb had significantly lower MVC compared to the uninvolved. The involved limb also had significantly lower RFD in the late phase of contraction (140-250 ms) for both knee extensors and flexors (P < 0.05). There was no difference in MVC between the uninvolved limb and the CG. However, RFD of the uninvolved limb was lower compared to CG for both knee extensors (0-180 ms; P < 0.01) and flexors (0-150 ms; P < 0.05). ACLR leads to lower MVC and explosive strength of the involved limb. As a consequence of potential crossover (presumably neural-mediated) effects, explosive strength deficits could be bilateral, particularly in the early phase of the contraction (<100 ms).

  5. Forced running exercise attenuates hippocampal neurogenesis impairment and the neurocognitive deficits induced by whole-brain irradiation via the BDNF-mediated pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Jian-feng; Ji, Sheng-jun; Sun, Rui; Li, Kun; Zhang, Yuan; Zhang, Li-yuan; Tian, Ye

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •Forced exercise can ameliorate WBI induced cognitive impairment in our rat model. •Mature BDNF plays an important role in the effects of forced exercise. •Exercise may be a possible treatment of the radiation-induced cognitive impairment. -- Abstract: Cranial radiotherapy induces progressive and debilitating cognitive deficits, particularly in long-term cancer survivors, which may in part be caused by the reduction of hippocampal neurogenesis. Previous studies suggested that voluntary exercise can reduce the cognitive impairment caused by radiation therapy. However, there is no study on the effect of forced wheel exercise and little is known about the molecular mechanisms mediating the effect of exercise. In the present study, we investigated whether the forced running exercise after irradiation had the protective effects of the radiation-induced cognitive impairment. Sixty-four Male Sprague–Dawley rats received a single dose of 20 Gy or sham whole-brain irradiation (WBI), behavioral test was evaluated using open field test and Morris water maze at 2 months after irradiation. Half of the rats accepted a 3-week forced running exercise before the behavior detection. Immunofluorescence was used to evaluate the changes in hippocampal neurogenesis and Western blotting was used to assess changes in the levels of mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), phosphorylated tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB) receptor, protein kinase B (Akt), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), calcium-calmodulin dependent kinase (CaMKII), cAMP-calcium response element binding protein (CREB) in the BDNF–pCREB signaling. We found forced running exercise significantly prevented radiation-induced cognitive deficits, ameliorated the impairment of hippocampal neurogenesis and attenuated the down-regulation of these proteins. Moreover, exercise also increased behavioral performance, hippocampal neurogenesis and elevated BDNF–pCREB signaling in non

  6. Forced running exercise attenuates hippocampal neurogenesis impairment and the neurocognitive deficits induced by whole-brain irradiation via the BDNF-mediated pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Jian-feng; Ji, Sheng-jun; Sun, Rui; Li, Kun; Zhang, Yuan; Zhang, Li-yuan; Tian, Ye, E-mail: dryetian@hotmail.com

    2014-01-10

    Highlights: •Forced exercise can ameliorate WBI induced cognitive impairment in our rat model. •Mature BDNF plays an important role in the effects of forced exercise. •Exercise may be a possible treatment of the radiation-induced cognitive impairment. -- Abstract: Cranial radiotherapy induces progressive and debilitating cognitive deficits, particularly in long-term cancer survivors, which may in part be caused by the reduction of hippocampal neurogenesis. Previous studies suggested that voluntary exercise can reduce the cognitive impairment caused by radiation therapy. However, there is no study on the effect of forced wheel exercise and little is known about the molecular mechanisms mediating the effect of exercise. In the present study, we investigated whether the forced running exercise after irradiation had the protective effects of the radiation-induced cognitive impairment. Sixty-four Male Sprague–Dawley rats received a single dose of 20 Gy or sham whole-brain irradiation (WBI), behavioral test was evaluated using open field test and Morris water maze at 2 months after irradiation. Half of the rats accepted a 3-week forced running exercise before the behavior detection. Immunofluorescence was used to evaluate the changes in hippocampal neurogenesis and Western blotting was used to assess changes in the levels of mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), phosphorylated tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB) receptor, protein kinase B (Akt), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), calcium-calmodulin dependent kinase (CaMKII), cAMP-calcium response element binding protein (CREB) in the BDNF–pCREB signaling. We found forced running exercise significantly prevented radiation-induced cognitive deficits, ameliorated the impairment of hippocampal neurogenesis and attenuated the down-regulation of these proteins. Moreover, exercise also increased behavioral performance, hippocampal neurogenesis and elevated BDNF–pCREB signaling in non

  7. Bilateral deficits in fine motor control and pinch grip force are not associated with electrodiagnostic findings in women with carpal tunnel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Llave-Rincón, Ana Isabel; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Pérez-de-Heredia-Torres, Marta; Martínez-Perez, Almudena; Valenza, Marie Carmen; Pareja, Juan A

    2011-06-01

    : The aim of this study was to analyze the differences in deficits in fine motor control and pinch grip force between patients with minimal, moderate/mild, or severe carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and healthy age- and hand dominance-matched controls. : A case-control study was conducted. The subtests of the Purdue Pegboard Test (one-hand and bilateral pin placements and assemblies) and pinch grip force between the thumb and the remaining four fingers of the hand were bilaterally evaluated in 66 women with minimal (n = 16), moderate (n = 16), or severe (n = 34) CTS and in 20 age- and hand-matched healthy women. The differences among the groups were analyzed using different mixed models of analysis of variance. : A two-way mixed analysis of variance revealed significant differences between groups, not depending on the presence of unilateral or bilateral symptoms (side), for the one-hand pin placement subtest: patients showed bilateral lower scores compared with controls (P < 0.001), without differences among those with minimal, moderate, or severe CTS (P = 0.946). The patients also exhibited lower scores in bilateral pin placement (P < 0.001) and assembly (P < 0.001) subtests, without differences among them. The three-way analysis of variance revealed significant differences among groups (P < 0.001) and fingers (P < 0.001), not depending on the presence of unilateral/bilateral symptoms (P = 0.684), for pinch grip force: patients showed bilateral lower pinch grip force in all fingers compared with healthy controls, without differences among those with minimal, moderate, or severe CTS. : The current study revealed similar bilateral deficits in fine motor control and pinch grip force in patients with minimal, moderate, or severe CTS, supporting that fine motor control deficits are a common feature of CTS not associated with electrodiagnostic findings.

  8. Force

    CERN Document Server

    Graybill, George

    2007-01-01

    Forces are at work all around us. Discover what a force is, and different kinds of forces that work on contact and at a distance. We use simple language and vocabulary to make this invisible world easy for students to ""see"" and understand. Examine how forces ""add up"" to create the total force on an object, and reinforce concepts and extend learning with sample problems.

  9. Scientific Élan Vital: Entropy Deficit or Inhomogeneity as a Unified Concept of Driving Forces of Life in Hierarchical Biosphere Driven by Photosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Sato

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Life is considered something different from non-living things, but no single driving force can account for all the different aspects of life, which consists of different levels of hierarchy, such as metabolism, cell physiology, multi-cellular development and organization, population dynamics, ecosystem, and evolution. Although free energy is evidently the driving force in biochemical reactions, there is no established relationship between metabolic energy and spatiotemporal organization of living organisms, or between metabolic energy and genetic information. Since Schrödinger pointed out the importance of exporting entropy in maintaining life, misunderstandings of entropy notion have been obstacles in constructing a unified view on the driving forces of life. Here I present a simplified conceptual framework for unifying driving forces of life at various different levels of hierarchy. The key concept is “entropy deficit”, or simply, ‘inhomogeneity’, which is defined as the difference of maximal possible entropy and actual entropy. This is equivalent to information content in genetic information and protein structure, and is also defined similarly for non-homogeneous structures in ecosystems and evolution. Entropy deficit or inhomogeneoity is a unified measure of all driving forces of life, which could be considered a scientific equivalent to ‘élan vital’ of Bergson.

  10. Protective role of Nrf2 against mechanical-stretch-induced apoptosis in mouse fibroblasts: a potential therapeutic target of mechanical-trauma-induced stress urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiannan; Li, Bingshu; Liu, Cheng; Wang, Linlin; Tang, Jianming; Hong, Li

    2018-01-10

    We investigated the protective effect and underlying molecular mechanism of nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) against mechanical-stretch-induced apoptosis in mouse fibroblasts. Normal cells, Nrf2 silencing cells, and Nrf2 overexpressing cells were respectively divided into two groups-nonintervention and cyclic mechanical strain (CMS)-subjected to CMS of 5333 μ (1.0 Hz for 4 h), six groups in total (control, CMS, shNfe212, shNfe212 + CMS, LV-shNfe212, and LV-shNfe212 + CMS). After treatment, cell apoptosis; cell-cycle distribution; expressions of Nrf2, Bax, Bcl-2, Cyt-C, caspase-3, caspase-9, cleaved-caspase-3, and cleaved-caspase-9; mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm); reactive oxygen species (ROS); and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were measured. Thirty virgin female C57BL/6 mice were divided into two groups: control (without intervention) and vaginal distension (VD) groups, which underwent VD for 1 h with an 8-mm dilator (0.3 ml saline). Leak-point pressure (LPP) was tested on day 7 after VD; Nrf2 expression, apoptosis, and MDA levels were then measured in urethra and anterior vaginal wall. Mechanical stretch decreased Nrf2 messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expressions. Overexpression of Nrf2 alleviated mechanical-stretch-induced cell apoptosis; S-phase arrest of cell cycle; up-regulation of Bax, cytochrome C (Cyt-C), ROS, MDA, ratio of cleaved-caspase-3/caspase-3 and cleaved-caspase-9/caspase-9; and exacerbated the decrease of Bcl2 and ΔΨm in L929 cells. On the contrary, silencing of Nrf2 showed opposite effects. Besides, VD reduced LPP levels and Nrf2 expression and increased cell apoptosis and MDA generation in the urethra and anterior vaginal wall. Nrf2 exhibits a protective role against mechanical-stretch -induced apoptosis on mouse fibroblasts, which might indicate a potential therapeutic target of mechanical-trauma-induced stress urinary incontinence (SUI).

  11. Cyclic Mechanical Stretch Induced Smooth Muscle Cell Changes in Cerebral Aneurysm Progress by Reducing Collagen Type IV and Collagen Type VI Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peixi Liu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Cerebral aneurysm growth is characterized by continuous structural weakness of local smooth muscle cells, though the mechanism is unclear. In this study, we examine protein changes in cerebral aneurysm and human brain vascular smooth muscle cells after cyclic mechanical stretch. We further explore the relationship between the smooth muscle cell changes and reductions in the levels of collagen types IV and VI. Methods: Saccular cerebral aneurysms (n=10 were collected, and temporal artery samples were used as controls. Quantitative proteomics were analyzed and histopathological changes were examined. Smooth muscle cells were cultured in a flexible silicone chamber and subjected to 15% cyclic mechanical stretch. The effect of stretch on the cell viability, function, gene and protein expression were further studied for the understanding the molecular mechanism of aneurysm development. Results: Proteomics analysis revealed 92 proteins with increased expression and 88 proteins with decreased expression compared to the controls (p<0.05. KEGG pathway analysis showed that the change in focal adhesion and extracellular matrix-receptor interaction, suggesting the involvement of collagen type IV and VI. The aneurysm tissue exhibited fewer smooth muscle cells and lower levels of collagen type IV and VI. Human brain vascular smooth muscle cell culture showed spindle-like cells and obvious smooth muscle cell layer. Cell proteomics analysis showed that decreased expression of 118 proteins and increased expression of 32 proteins in smooth muscle cells after cyclic mechanical stretch. KEGG pathway analysis indicated that focal adhesion and ECM-receptor interaction were involved. After cyclic mechanical stretch, collagen type IV and IV expression were decreased. Moreover, the stretch induced MMP-1 and MMP-3 expression elevation. Conclusion: We demonstrated that collagen type IV and VI were decreased in cerebral aneurysms and continuous cyclic

  12. The kinase Pyk2 is involved in renal fibrosis by means of mechanical stretch-induced growth factor expression in renal tubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonomura, Kazuhiro; Okigaki, Mitsuhiko; Kimura, Taikou; Matsuoka, Eiko; Shiotsu, Yayoi; Adachi, Takaomi; Kado, Hiroshi; Ishida, Ryo; Kusaba, Tetsuro; Matsubara, Hiroaki; Mori, Yasukiyo

    2012-03-01

    Unilateral ureteral obstruction is a well-established experimental model of progressive renal fibrosis. We tested whether mechanical stretch and subsequent renal tubular distension might lead to renal fibrosis by first studying renal tubular epithelial cells in culture. We found that mechanical stretch induced reactive oxygen species that in turn activated the cytoplasmic proline-rich tyrosine kinase-2 (Pyk2). This kinase is abundantly expressed in tubular epithelial cells where it is activated by several stimuli. Using mice with deletion of Pyk2 we found that the expression of transforming growth factor-β1 induced by mechanical stretch in renal tubular epithelial cells was significantly reduced. The expression of connective tissue growth factor was also reduced in the Pyk2(-/-) mice. We also found that expression of connective tissue growth factor was independent of transforming growth factor-β1, but dependent on the Rho-associated coiled-coil forming protein kinase pathway. Thus, Pyk2 may be an important initiating factor in renal fibrosis and might be a new therapeutic target for ameliorating renal fibrosis.

  13. Somatosensory deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingner, Carsten M; Witte, Otto W

    2018-01-01

    The analysis and interpretation of somatosensory information are performed by a complex network of brain areas located mainly in the parietal cortex. Somatosensory deficits are therefore a common impairment following lesions of the parietal lobe. This chapter summarizes the clinical presentation, examination, prognosis, and therapy of sensory deficits, along with current knowledge about the anatomy and function of the somatosensory system. We start by reviewing how somatosensory signals are transmitted to and processed by the parietal lobe, along with the anatomic and functional features of the somatosensory system. In this context, we highlight the importance of the thalamus for processing somatosensory information in the parietal lobe. We discuss typical patterns of somatosensory deficits, their clinical examination, and how they can be differentiated through a careful neurologic examination that allows the investigator to deduce the location and size of the underlying lesion. In the context of adaption and rehabilitation of somatosensory functions, we delineate the importance of somatosensory information for motor performance and the prognostic evaluation of somatosensory deficits. Finally, we review current rehabilitation approaches for directing cortical reorganization in the appropriate direction and highlight some challenging questions that are unexplored in the field. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Quantifying mechanical force in axonal growth and guidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ibrahim Mahmoud Athamneh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical force plays a fundamental role in neuronal development, physiology, and regeneration. In particular, research has shown that force is involved in growth cone-mediated axonal growth and guidance as well as stretch-induced elongation when an organism increases in size after forming initial synaptic connections. However, much of the details about the exact role of force in these fundamental processes remain unknown. In this review, we highlight (1 standing questions concerning the role of mechanical force in axonal growth and guidance and (2 different experimental techniques used to quantify forces in axons and growth cones. We believe that satisfying answers to these questions will require quantitative information about the relationship between elongation, forces, cytoskeletal dynamics, axonal transport, signaling, substrate adhesion, and stiffness contributing to directional growth advance. Furthermore, we address why a wide range of force values have been reported in the literature, and what these values mean in the context of neuronal mechanics. We hope that this review will provide a guide for those interested in studying the role of force in development and regeneration of neuronal networks.

  15. Force produced after stretch in sarcomeres and half-sarcomeres isolated from skeletal muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minozzo, Fábio C.; Baroni, Bruno M.; Correa, José A.; Vaz, Marco A.; Rassier, Dilson E.

    2013-07-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate if isolated sarcomeres and half-sarcomeres produce a long-lasting increase in force after a stretch is imposed during activation. Single and half-sarcomeres were isolated from myofibrils using micro-needles, which were also used for force measurements. After full force development, both preparations were stretched by different magnitudes. The sarcomere length (SL) or half-sarcomere length variations (HSL) were extracted by measuring the initial and final distances from the Z-line to the adjacent Z-line or to a region externally adjacent to the M-line of the sarcomere, respectively. Half-sarcomeres generated approximately the same amount of isometric force (29.0 +/- SD 15.5 nN.μm-2) as single sarcomeres (32.1 +/- SD 15.3 nN.μm-2) when activated. In both cases, the steady-state forces after stretch were higher than the forces during isometric contractions at similar conditions. The results suggest that stretch-induced force enhancement is partly caused by proteins within the half-sarcomere.

  16. Cognitive control in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dramsdahl, Margaretha; Westerhausen, René; Haavik, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the ability of adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) to direct their attention and exert cognitive control in a forced instruction dichotic listening (DL) task. The performance of 29 adults with ADHD was compared with 58......-forced condition), or to focus and report either the right- or left-ear syllable (forced-right and forced-left condition). This procedure is presumed to tap distinct cognitive processes: perception (non-forced condition), orienting of attention (forced-right condition), and cognitive control (forced-left condition......). Adults with ADHD did not show significant impairment in the conditions tapping perception and attention orientation, but were significantly impaired in their ability to report the left-ear syllable during the forced-left instruction condition, whereas the control group showed the expected left...

  17. Cognitive deficits in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Chattopadhyay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The term schizophrenia was coined by Eugene Bleuler. Symptoms of schizophrenia are arranged into groups or clusters called as domains. The domains of dysfunctions are positive symptoms, negative symptoms, cognitive impairments, mood and suicidity, and aggression. Cognition is the sum total of mental processes that makes us acquire knowledge and keeps us aware of our surroundings and thus enables us to arrive at appropriate judgments. Cognitive deficits are recognized as enduring and persistent features in schizophrenia and can be neuro-cognitive or relating to social cognition. Neurocognitive deficits are deficits in speed of processing, attention / vigilance, working memory, verbal memory, visual memory, reasoning and problem solving, social cognition. Cognitive function can be assessed by various methods like experimental approach, neuropsychological and psychometric and ecologic approach. Cognitive deficits are present at onset of illness producing substantial impairment. Unlike psychotic symptoms, which remit with treatment, functional impairments remain stable over time. Detail understanding of such symptoms will help in disability limitation. Various cognitive remediation programmes are underway with such intent. Articles till March, 2012 were searched through PubMed and Google Scholar, which were studied in an attempt of understanding the topic. The information was structured and organized.

  18. Beyond the knowledge deficit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Janus Staffan; Holm, Lotte; Frewer, Lynn

    2003-01-01

    The paper reviews psychological and social scientific research on lay attitudes to food risks. Many experts (scientists, food producers and public health advisors) regard public unease about food risks as excessive. This expert-lay discrepancy is often attributed to a 'knowledge deficit' among lay...

  19. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001551.htm Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a problem caused ...

  20. Attention deficits and divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Geneviève; Saint-Aubin, Jean

    2014-09-01

    Building on previous work on the role of attention deficits associated with the regulation of executive control in psychiatric disorders, we examine whether these attention deficits are related to an interpersonal disturbance, the experience of divorce. Attentional capacities of 95 randomly selected couples from the general population were measured with a well-established task, the Attentional Network Task, which assesses the efficiency of 3 attention networks (that is, alerting, orienting, and executive control). Among the 190 participants, 32 had experienced a divorce in the past. ANCOVAs were used to compare divorced people in marital or cohabiting unions with people in first unions in their performance on this purely cognitive task. Our findings indicate that divorced people who are currently living in a cohabiting relationship show significantly lower executive control than other adults living as couples, after controlling for sex, age, income, and education. This subgroup of divorced people not only exhibit greater difficulty in responding to some stimuli while ignoring irrelevant ones but also manifest cognitive deficits in conflict resolution. This study highlights the links between attention and the long-term maintenance of intimate relationships. Our results may have important implications for the identification of people at risk for divorce.

  1. Increasing Northern Hemisphere water deficit

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Gregory J.; Wolock, David M.

    2015-01-01

    A monthly water-balance model is used with CRUTS3.1 gridded monthly precipitation and potential evapotranspiration (PET) data to examine changes in global water deficit (PET minus actual evapotranspiration) for the Northern Hemisphere (NH) for the years 1905 through 2009. Results show that NH deficit increased dramatically near the year 2000 during both the cool (October through March) and warm (April through September) seasons. The increase in water deficit near 2000 coincides with a substantial increase in NH temperature and PET. The most pronounced increases in deficit occurred for the latitudinal band from 0 to 40°N. These results indicate that global warming has increased the water deficit in the NH and that the increase since 2000 is unprecedented for the 1905 through 2009 period. Additionally, coincident with the increase in deficit near 2000, mean NH runoff also increased due to increases in P. We explain the apparent contradiction of concurrent increases in deficit and increases in runoff.

  2. Rapid Processing of Letters, Digits and Symbols: What Purely Visual-Attentional Deficit in Developmental Dyslexia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Johannes C.; Pech-Georgel, Catherine; Dufau, Stephane; Grainger, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Visual-attentional theories of dyslexia predict deficits for dyslexic children not only for the perception of letter strings but also for non-alphanumeric symbol strings. This prediction was tested in a two-alternative forced-choice paradigm with letters, digits, and symbols. Children with dyslexia showed significant deficits for letter and digit…

  3. Intermittent stretching induces fibrosis in denervated rat muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faturi, Fernanda M; Franco, Rúbia C; Gigo-Benato, Davilene; Turi, Andriette C; Silva-Couto, Marcela A; Messa, Sabrina P; Russo, Thiago L

    2016-01-01

    Stretching (St) has been used for treating denervated muscles. However, its effectiveness and safety claims require further study. Rats were divided into: (1) those with denervated (D) muscles, evaluated 7 or 15 days after sciatic nerve crush injury; (2) those with D muscles submitted to St during 7 or 15 days; and (3) those with normal muscles. Muscle fiber cross-sectional area, serial sarcomere number, sarcomere length, and connective tissue density were measured. MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1, TGF-β1, and myostatin mRNAs were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction. MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity was evaluated by zymography. Collagen I was localized using immunofluorescence. St did not prevent muscle atrophy due to denervation, but it increased fibrosis and collagen I deposition at day 15. St also upregulated MMP-9 and TGF-β1 gene expressions at day 7, and myostatin at day 15. Stretching denervated muscle does not prevent atrophy, but it increases fibrosis via temporal modulation of TGF-β1/myostatin and MMP-9 cascades. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Labor Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The labor force is the number of people ages 16 or older who are either working or looking for work. It does not include active-duty military personnel or the institutionalized population, such as prison inmates. Determining the size of the labor force is a way of determining how big the economy can get. The size of the labor force depends on two…

  5. Beyond the knowledge deficit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Janus Staffan; Holm, Lotte; Frewer, Lynn

    2003-01-01

    The paper reviews psychological and social scientific research on lay attitudes to food risks. Many experts (scientists, food producers and public health advisors) regard public unease about food risks as excessive. This expert-lay discrepancy is often attributed to a 'knowledge deficit' among lay...... people. However, much research in psychology and sociology suggests that lay risk assessments are complex, situationally sensitive expressions of personal value systems. The paper is organised around four themes: risk perception, the communication of risk, lay handling of risk, and public trust...

  6. [Neuroleptic induced deficit syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szafrański, T

    1995-01-01

    Increasing interest in subjective aspects of therapy and rehabilitation focused the attention of psychiatrists, psychologists and psychopharmacologists on the mental side effects of neuroleptics. For the drug-related impairment of affective, cognitive and social function the name of neuroleptic-induced deficit syndrome (NIDS) is proposed. Patients with NIDS appear to be indifferent to the environmental stimuli, retarded and apathetic. They complain of feeling drugged and drowsy, weird, they suffer from lack of motivation, feel like "zombies". The paper presents description of NIDS and its differentiation from negative and depressive symptoms in schizophrenia and subjective perceiving of extrapyramidal syndromes.

  7. Dispersion Forces

    CERN Document Server

    Buhmann, Stefan Yoshi

    2012-01-01

    In this book, a modern unified theory of dispersion forces on atoms and bodies is presented which covers a broad range of advanced aspects and scenarios. Macroscopic quantum electrodynamics is shown to provide a powerful framework for dispersion forces which allows for discussing general properties like their non-additivity and the relation between microscopic and macroscopic interactions. It is demonstrated how the general results can be used to obtain dispersion forces on atoms in the presence of bodies of various shapes and materials. Starting with a brief recapitulation of volume I, this volume II deals especially with bodies of irregular shapes, universal scaling laws, dynamical forces on excited atoms, enhanced forces in cavity quantum electrodynamics, non-equilibrium forces in thermal environments and quantum friction. The book gives both the specialist and those new to the field a thorough overview over recent results in the field. It provides a toolbox for studying dispersion forces in various contex...

  8. Forced marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    Guidelines to help A&E staff and other healthcare professionals who suspect cases of forced marriage were launched this month by the government. The guidelines provide practical advice on how to recognise the warning signs, and what to do if patients disclose that they have been, or are about to be, forced to marry. The guidelines, Dealing with Cases of Forced Marriage, are available at www.fco.gov.uk/forcedmarriage.

  9. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Marguerite; Nigg, Joel T.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last two decades, there have been numerous technical and methodological advances available to clinicians and researchers to better understand attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its etiology. Despite the growing body of literature investigating the disorder’s pathophysiology, ADHD remains a complex psychiatric disorder to characterize. This chapter will briefly review the literature on ADHD, with a focus on its history, the current genetic insights, neurophysiologic theories, and the use of neuroimaging to further understand the etiology. We address some of the major concerns that remain unclear about ADHD, including subtype instability, heterogeneity, and the underlying neural correlates that define the disorder. We highlight that the field of ADHD is rapidly evolving; the descriptions provided here will hopefully provide a sturdy foundation for which to build and improve our understanding of the disorder. PMID:24214656

  10. Auditory deficits in amusia extend beyond poor pitch perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteford, Kelly L; Oxenham, Andrew J

    2017-05-01

    Congenital amusia is a music perception disorder believed to reflect a deficit in fine-grained pitch perception and/or short-term or working memory for pitch. Because most measures of pitch perception include memory and segmentation components, it has been difficult to determine the true extent of pitch processing deficits in amusia. It is also unclear whether pitch deficits persist at frequencies beyond the range of musical pitch. To address these questions, experiments were conducted with amusics and matched controls, manipulating both the stimuli and the task demands. First, we assessed pitch discrimination at low (500Hz and 2000Hz) and high (8000Hz) frequencies using a three-interval forced-choice task. Amusics exhibited deficits even at the highest frequency, which lies beyond the existence region of musical pitch. Next, we assessed the extent to which frequency coding deficits persist in one- and two-interval frequency-modulation (FM) and amplitude-modulation (AM) detection tasks at 500Hz at slow (f m =4Hz) and fast (f m =20Hz) modulation rates. Amusics still exhibited deficits in one-interval FM detection tasks that should not involve memory or segmentation. Surprisingly, amusics were also impaired on AM detection, which should not involve pitch processing. Finally, direct comparisons between the detection of continuous and discrete FM demonstrated that amusics suffer deficits in both coding and segmenting pitch information. Our results reveal auditory deficits in amusia extending beyond pitch perception that are subtle when controlling for memory and segmentation, and are likely exacerbated in more complex contexts such as musical listening. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Different forces

    CERN Multimedia

    1982-01-01

    The different forces, together with a pictorial analogy of how the exchange of particles works. The table lists the relative strength of the couplings, the quanta associated with the force fields and the bodies or phenomena in which they have a dominant role.

  12. Pragmatic communication deficits in children with epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeders, M.; Geurts, H.; Jennekens-Schinkel, A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Various psychiatric and neurological disorders including epilepsy have been associated with language deficits. Pragmatic language deficits, however, have seldom been the focus of earlier studies in children with epilepsy. Moreover, it is unknown whether these pragmatic deficits are

  13. Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tube DysfunctionStrep ThroatHyperthyroidismOpioid AddictionDiabetesCroupAnemia Home Diseases and Conditions Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Condition Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity ...

  14. Visual search deficits in amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirlin, Inna; Colpa, Linda; Goltz, Herbert C; Wong, Agnes M F

    2018-04-01

    Amblyopia is a neurodevelopmental disorder defined as a reduction in visual acuity that cannot be corrected by optical means. It has been associated with low-level deficits. However, research has demonstrated a link between amblyopia and visual attention deficits in counting, tracking, and identifying objects. Visual search is a useful tool for assessing visual attention but has not been well studied in amblyopia. Here, we assessed the extent of visual search deficits in amblyopia using feature and conjunction search tasks. We compared the performance of participants with amblyopia (n = 10) to those of controls (n = 12) on both feature and conjunction search tasks using Gabor patch stimuli, varying spatial bandwidth and orientation. To account for the low-level deficits inherent in amblyopia, we measured individual contrast and crowding thresholds and monitored eye movements. The display elements were then presented at suprathreshold levels to ensure that visibility was equalized across groups. There was no performance difference between groups on feature search, indicating that our experimental design controlled successfully for low-level amblyopia deficits. In contrast, during conjunction search, median reaction times and reaction time slopes were significantly larger in participants with amblyopia compared with controls. Amblyopia differentially affects performance on conjunction visual search, a more difficult task that requires feature binding and possibly the involvement of higher-level attention processes. Deficits in visual search may affect day-to-day functioning in people with amblyopia.

  15. The core domain as the force sensor of the yeast mechanosensitive TRP channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zhenwei; Anishkin, Andriy; Kung, Ching; Saimi, Yoshiro

    2011-12-01

    Stretch-activated conductances are commonly encountered in careful electric recordings. Those of known proteins (TRP, MscL, MscS, K(2p), Kv, etc.) all share a core, which houses the ion pathway and the gate, but no recognizable force-sensing domain. Like animal TRPs, the yeast TRPY1 is polymodal, activated by stretch force, Ca(2+), etc. To test whether its S5-S6 core senses the stretch force, we tried to uncouple it from the peripheral domains by strategic peptide insertions to block the covalent core-periphery interactions. Insertion of long unstructured peptides should distort, if not disrupt, protein structures that transmit force. Such insertions between S6 and the C-terminal tail largely removed Ca(2+) activation, showing their effectiveness. However, such insertions as well as those between S5 and the N-terminal region, which includes S1-S4, did not significantly alter mechanosensitivity. Even insertions at both locations flanking the S5-S6 core did not much alter mechanosensitivity. Tryptophan scanning mutations in S5 were also constructed to perturb possible noncovalent core-periphery contacts. The testable tryptophan mutations also have little or no effects on mechanosensitivity. Boltzmann fits of the wild-type force-response curves agree with a structural homology model for a stretch-induced core expansion of ~2 nm(2) upon opening. We hypothesize that membrane tension pulls on S5-S6, expanding the core and opening the TRPY1 gate. The core being the major force sensor offers the simplest, though not the only, explanation of why so many channels of disparate designs are mechanically sensitive. Compared with the bacterial MscL, TRPY1 is much less sensitive to force, befitting a polymodal channel that relies on multiple stimuli.

  16. PRAGMATIC DEFICITS OF ASPERGER SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silmy Arizatul Humaira’

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Human being is social creature who needs other people to interact with. One of the ways to interact with others is communication with language. However, communication could be a complicated problem for those who were born with developmental disorder called Asperger Syndrome (AS. The communication challenge of Asperger’s is the difficulty using language appropriately for social purposes or known as pragmatic deficits. Many excellent books about autism are published whereas knowledge on pragmatic deficits are still very limited. Thus, it is expected to be a beneficial reference to understand the pragmatic deficits and to create strategies for them to communicate effectively. Therefore, this study aimed at exploring the kinds of pragmatic deficits of an individual with AS. The verbal language profiles of autism purposed by MacDonald (2004 is used to analyzed the data in depth. The descriptive qualitative method is applied to develop a comprehensive understanding about the AS case in Temple Grandin movie.The finding shows that all of the five types of communication deficits are appearing and the dominant of which is unresponsive.

  17. Budget deficits and public debt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph. D. Student Ionut Constantin

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In the recent decades, the budget deficit has become one of the characteristics of national economies. Furthermore, it finds its dimensions amplification. Despite this, more and more are the economists who dispute the need to balance the budget, arguing the need even the deficit and systematic use of in order to achieve economic equilibrium. Such guidance is substantiated by the need to promote an economic policy which ensures full use of resources and non-inflation economic growth.In these circumstances, balancing the budgest is clearly of secondary importance. In this context, it supported the need to increase expenditure at a pace faster than income growth and, implicitly , to keep budget deficits.

  18. Cluster forcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Budde

    , Portugal and New Zealand have adopted the concept. Public sector interventions that aim to support cluster development in industries most often focus upon economic policy goals such as enhanced employment and improved productivity, but rarely emphasise broader societal policy goals relating to e.......g. sustainability or quality of life. The purpose of this paper is to explore how and to what extent public sector interventions that aim at forcing cluster development in industries can support sustainable development as defined in the Brundtland tradition and more recently elaborated in such concepts as eco...... in 2000 by the Welsh Automotive Task Force under the Welsh Assembly Government. The Accelerate programme takes basically different two directions: The first one, which was the first to be launched, is concerned with the upgrading of existing supply chains in the automotive industry in Wales. The programme...

  19. Efficacy and safety of mixed amphetamine salts extended release (adderall XR) in the management of oppositional defiant disorder with or without comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in school-aged children and adolescents: A 4-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, forced-dose-escalation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Thomas J; Abikoff, Howard B; Connor, Daniel F; Biederman, Joseph; Pliszka, Steven R; Boellner, Samuel; Read, Stephanie C; Pratt, Raymond

    2006-03-01

    Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD)is associated with a high degree of impairment in social skills, family interaction, and academic functioning. Comorbid ODD is reportedly present in 40% to 70% of children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The goal of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of mixed amphetamine salts extended release (MAS XR) for the treatment of ODD in children and adolescents aged 6 to 17 years. This was a 4-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, forced-dose-escalation study. Patients were randomized to receive active treatment with MAS XR 10, 20, 30, or 40 mg/d or placebo. The primary efficacy end point was the ODD subscale of the Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham-IV (SNAP-IV) parent rating. Primary safety measures included adverse events recorded at each visit and for 30 days after study drug discontinuation, and changes in vital signs, 12-lead electrocardiographic (ECG) findings, laboratory tests and physical examinations, and body weight. A post hoc efficacy reanalysis was completed based on the results for the per-protocol population. For this analysis, patients were divided into high and low baseline severity categories according to the dichotomized baseline ODD parent or teacher score or dichotomized baseline ADHD parent or teacher score (high defined as scores at the median or greater and low defined as scores less than the median). A total of 308 children and adolescents (age range, 6-17 years; 213 males, 95 females) were randomized to receive active treatment with MAS XR 10 mg/d (n = 60) 20 mg/d (n = 58), 30 mg/d (n = 69), or 40 mg/d (n = 61) or placebo (n = 60). Of the 308 study patients, 244 (79.2%) had comorbid ADHD. A significant change from baseline in the ODD symptoms measured with the SNAP-IV parent rating subscale was found for the MAS XR 30-mg/d (-0.52; P < 0.001) and 40-mg/d (-0.56; P = 0.002) groups in the per-protocol analysis and for the MAS XR

  20. Visual Search Deficits Are Independent of Magnocellular Deficits in Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Craig M.; Conlon, Elizabeth G.; Dyck, Murray

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the theory that visual magnocellular deficits seen in groups with dyslexia are linked to reading via the mechanisms of visual attention. Visual attention was measured with a serial search task and magnocellular function with a coherent motion task. A large group of children with dyslexia (n = 70) had slower…

  1. One-way unlocalizable information deficit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Xuena; Fei Shaoming

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a one-way unlocalizable information deficit with respect to the one-way information deficit, similar to the definition of one-way unlocalizable quantum discord with respect to one-way quantum discord. The properties of the one-way unlocalizable information deficit and the relations among one-way unlocalizable information deficit, one-way unlocalizable quantum discord, one-way quantum discord, one-way information deficit and other quantum correlations are investigated. Analytical formulas of the one-way unlocalizable information deficit are given with detailed examples. (paper)

  2. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-04-10

    This podcast discusses Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, or ADHD, the most common behavioral disorder in children. Learn about symptoms, risk factors, and treatment.  Created: 4/10/2014 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD).   Date Released: 5/7/2014.

  3. Offsetting deficit conceptualisations: methodological considerations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... higher education students to show how certain methodological and theoretical choices engender anti-deficit conceptualisations. The study's analytic framework uses the concepts of literacy practices and knowledge recontextualisation to place analytic attention on both the students' assignment practices and the influence ...

  4. Persistent Motor Deficits in DAMP

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2000-01-01

    Motor control in ability to perform everyday and spare-time activities was assessed at 11 to 12 years of age in 10 boys with deficits in attention, motor control and perception (DAMP) and compared with a group of 20 boys without DAMP.

  5. Neurobehavioral Deficits in Progressive Experimental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    visual problems, depression, deterioration of balance and motor function as well as deterioration in learning and memory function. (Shokunbi et al., 2002; Del Bigio et al., 2003; Gupta et al., 2007). These neurobehavioural deficits have been correlated with acute alterations in the cerebral white matter diffusion tenor imaging ...

  6. Rhythm Deficits in "Tone Deafness"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxton, Jessica M.; Nandy, Rachel K.; Griffiths, Timothy D.

    2006-01-01

    It is commonly observed that "tone deaf" individuals are unable to hear the beat of a tune, yet deficits on simple timing tests have not been found. In this study, we investigated rhythm processing in nine individuals with congenital amusia ("tone deafness") and nine controls. Participants were presented with pairs of 5-note sequences, and were…

  7. Faststats: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)* Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... visits Number of visits to physician offices with attention deficit disorder as the primary diagnosis: 10.9 ...

  8. Adult Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Overview Adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental health disorder that ... combination of persistent problems, such as difficulty paying attention, hyperactivity and impulsive behavior. Adult ADHD can lead ...

  9. Kognitive deficit ved skizofreni og andre psykoser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagerlund, Birgitte; Glenthøj, Birte Y

    2008-01-01

    Cognitive deficits are vulnerability indicators for psychotic disorders, particularly schizophrenia. The deficits remain stable throughout the illness in schizophrenia, but fluctuate with clinical state in other psychotic disorders. They are limiting factors for patients' prognoses...... and there is considerable incentive to develop treatments that can improve these deficits. The current brief review summarizes the relevance of cognitive deficits for the pathogenesis and prognosis of psychotic disorders, and identifies pertinent issues within the research field Udgivelsesdato: 2008/11/10...

  10. Kognitive deficit ved skizofreni og andre psykoser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagerlund, Birgitte; Glenthøj, Birte Y

    2008-01-01

    Cognitive deficits are vulnerability indicators for psychotic disorders, particularly schizophrenia. The deficits remain stable throughout the illness in schizophrenia, but fluctuate with clinical state in other psychotic disorders. They are limiting factors for patients' prognoses...... and there is considerable incentive to develop treatments that can improve these deficits. The current brief review summarizes the relevance of cognitive deficits for the pathogenesis and prognosis of psychotic disorders, and identifies pertinent issues within the research field....

  11. Pragmatic Communication Deficits in Children with Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broeders, Mark; Geurts, Hilde; Jennekens-Schinkel, Aag

    2010-01-01

    Background: Various psychiatric and neurological disorders including epilepsy have been associated with language deficits. Pragmatic language deficits, however, have seldom been the focus of earlier studies in children with epilepsy. Moreover, it is unknown whether these pragmatic deficits are related to general intellectual functioning. Both…

  12. Coriolis Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciuc, Daly; Solschi, Viorel

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the Coriolis effect is essential for explaining the movement of air masses and ocean currents. The lesson we propose aims to familiarize students with the manifestation of the Coriolis effect. Students are guided to build, using the GeoGebra software, a simulation of the motion of a body, related to a rotating reference system. The mathematical expression of the Coriolis force is deduced, for particular cases, and the Foucault's pendulum is presented and explained. Students have the opportunity to deepen the subject, by developing materials related to topics such as: • Global Wind Pattern • Ocean Currents • Coriolis Effect in Long Range Shooting • Finding the latitude with a Foucault Pendulum

  13. Joining Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Anne Mette

    2013-01-01

    The interest in Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has grown dramatically over the last three years in Greenland. A vast geographical area with a tiny population, Greenland has recently obtained self-government status and is going through a rapid development economically and socially...... as the country moves towards embracing extractive industries (oil, gas and mining) as a path to development. Both government, civil society and business are increasingly looking for new and innovative ways of joining forces across sectors to solve some of the country's many critical social issues. Greenlandic...... companies have over the last 23 years embraced the concept of strategic CSR and are increasingly engaging in cross-sector partnerships as part of their CSR strategy. The partnerships take different forms both in regards to number of partners, focus areas and level of strategic engagement. In the article...

  14. Multicomponent attention deficits in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiliç, Birim Günay; Sener, Sahnur; Koçkar, Aylin Ilden; Karakaş, Sirel

    2007-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the specific aspects of attention, such as selective attention, sustained attention, and short-term memory in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, combined subtype (ADHD-C). A total of 40 children with a diagnosis of ADHD from the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, aged 6-11 years old were compared with 40 controls matched for age and gender on a battery of tests. Short-term memory span and attention was measured by Visual Aural Digit Span Test-Revised. Stroop test and the Turkish version of Cancellation Test were used to assess selective and sustained attention, respectively. In order to check for factor structure in two groups on the test scores, principal component analysis was conducted for both groups separately. Relative to the comparison children, children with ADHD showed significant deficits on tests that are related to different aspects of attention. The results are consistent with the theories explaining the biological basis of ADHD by scattered attention networks in the brain, which have reciprocal dynamic interactions. Further comparative studies are needed to elucidate whether the cognitive processes that are known to be assessed by these tests are specific to ADHD.

  15. Transmission dose estimation algorithm for tissue deficit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Hyong Geun; Shin, Kyo Chul; Chie, Eui Kyu; Huh, Soon Nyung; Woo, Hong Gyun; Ha, Sung Whan; Lee, Hyoung Koo

    2002-01-01

    Measurement of transmission dose is useful for in vivo dosimetry. In this study, previous algorithm for estimation of transmission dose was modified for use in cases with tissue deficit. The beam data was measured with flat solid phantom in various conditions of tissue deficit. New algorithm for correction of transmission dose for tissue deficit was developed by physical reasoning. The algorithm was tested in experimental settings with irregular contours mimicking breast cancer patients using multiple sheets of solid phantoms. The correction algorithm for tissue deficit could accurately reflect the effect of tissue deficit with errors within ± 1.0% in most situations and within ± 3.0% in experimental settings with irregular contours mimicking breast cancer treatment set-up. Developed algorithm could accurately reflect the effect of tissue deficit and irregularly shaped body contour on transmission dosimetry

  16. Reducing the Deficit: Spending and Revenue Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-01

    Wojak-Piotrow prepared the report for publica - tion. Robert D. Reischauer Director March 1994 Contents ONE CURBING THE LONG-RUN GROWTH OF THE FEDERAL...3 2. Major Elements of Deficit Reduction Under OBRA -90 .............................. 5 3. Major Elements of Deficit Reduction Under OBRA ...the Omnibus Budget Rec- of GDP, the federal deficit would decline to a low onciliation Act of 1993 ( OBRA -93). The actions of 2.2 percent in 1996 (down

  17. The determinants of public deficit volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Agnello, Luca; Sousa, Ricardo M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper empirically analyzes the political, institutional and economic sources of public deficit volatility. Using the system-GMM estimator for linear dynamic panel data models and a sample of 125 countries analyzed from 1980 to 2006, we show that higher public deficit volatility is typically associated with higher levels of political instability and less democracy. In addition, public deficit volatility tends to be magnified for small countries, in the outcome of hyper-inflation episodes ...

  18. A Multiple Deficit Model of Reading Disability and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Searching for Shared Cognitive Deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Lauren M.; Pennington, Bruce F.; Shanahan, Michelle A.; Santerre-Lemmon, Laura E.; Barnard, Holly D.; Willcutt, Erik G.; DeFries, John C.; Olson, Richard K.

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study tests a multiple cognitive deficit model of reading disability (RD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and their comorbidity. Methods: A structural equation model (SEM) of multiple cognitive risk factors and symptom outcome variables was constructed. The model included phonological awareness as a unique…

  19. Velocity Deficits in the Wake of Model Lemon Shark Dorsal Fins Measured with Particle Image Velocimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, K. N.; Turner, V.; Hackett, E.

    2017-12-01

    Aquatic animals' morphology provides inspiration for human technological developments, as their bodies have evolved and become adapted for efficient swimming. Lemon sharks exhibit a uniquely large second dorsal fin that is nearly the same size as the first fin, the hydrodynamic role of which is unknown. This experimental study looks at the drag forces on a scale model of the Lemon shark's unique two-fin configuration in comparison to drag forces on a more typical one-fin configuration. The experiments were performed in a recirculating water flume, where the wakes behind the scale models are measured using particle image velocimetry. The experiments are performed at three different flow speeds for both fin configurations. The measured instantaneous 2D distributions of the streamwise and wall-normal velocity components are ensemble averaged to generate streamwise velocity vertical profiles. In addition, velocity deficit profiles are computed from the difference between these mean streamwise velocity profiles and the free stream velocity, which is computed based on measured flow rates during the experiments. Results show that the mean velocities behind the fin and near the fin tip are smallest and increase as the streamwise distance from the fin tip increases. The magnitude of velocity deficits increases with increasing flow speed for both fin configurations, but at all flow speeds, the two-fin configurations generate larger velocity deficits than the one-fin configurations. Because the velocity deficit is directly proportional to the drag force, these results suggest that the two-fin configuration produces more drag.

  20. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokor, Gyula; Anderson, Peter D

    2014-08-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurobiological condition of childhood onset with the hallmarks of inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Inattention includes excessive daydreaming, disorganization, and being easily distracted. Impulsivity manifests as taking an action before fully thinking of the consequences. Hyperactivity includes an excessive rate of speech and motor activity. Complications of ADHD include academic failure, low self-esteem, poor work performance, substance abuse, criminal justice issues, and social problems. ADHD is predominately due to decreased activity in the frontal lobe. Dopamine and norepinephrine are the main neurotransmitters involved in the pathophysiology of ADHD. Pharmacological treatment of ADHD includes psychostimulants, norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, α2 agonists, bupropion, and monoamine oxidase inhibitors. The most effective medications are the psychostimulants. Nonpharmacological treatment of ADHD includes coaching, providing structure, academic accommodations, and work accommodations. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Handbook of force transducers

    CERN Document Server

    Stefanescu, Dan Mihai

    2011-01-01

    Part I introduces the basic ""Principles and Methods of Force Measurement"" acording to a classification into a dozen of force transducers types: resistive, inductive, capacitive, piezoelectric, electromagnetic, electrodynamic, magnetoelastic, galvanomagnetic (Hall-effect), vibrating wires, (micro)resonators, acoustic and gyroscopic. Two special chapters refer to force balance techniques and to combined methods in force measurement. Part II discusses the ""(Strain Gauge) Force Transducers Components"", evolving from the classical force transducer to the digital / intelligent one, with the inco

  2. Measuring Working Memory Deficits in Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Jamie F.; Murray, Laura L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Many adults with aphasia demonstrate concomitant deficits in working memory (WM), but such deficits are difficult to quantify because of a lack of validated measures as well as the complex interdependence between language and WM. We examined the feasibility, reliability, and internal consistency of an "n"-back task for…

  3. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Intervention: Strategies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper addresses attention deficit hyperactivity disorder intervention strategies for primary school teachers. Wrong labelling of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder has given rise to this paper. Hitherto not much attention has been given to the pupils who manifest symptoms of this chronic behavioural ...

  4. Neurologic deficit after resection of the sacrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagini, R; Ruggieri, P; Mercuri, M; Capanna, R; Briccoli, A; Perin, S; Orsini, U; Demitri, S; Arlecchini, S

    1997-01-01

    The authors describe neurologic deficit (sensory, motor, and sphincteral) resulting from sacrifice of the sacral nerve roots removed during resection of the sacrum. The anatomical and functional bases of sphincteral continence and the amount of neurologic deficit are discussed based on level of sacral resection. A large review of the literature on the subject is reported and discussed. The authors emphasize how the neurophysiological bases of sphincteral continence (rectum and bladder) and of sexual ability are still not well known, and how the literature reveals disagreement on the subject. A score system is proposed to evaluate neurologic deficit. The clinical model of neurologic deficit caused by resection of the sacrum may be extended to an evaluation of post-traumatic deficit.

  5. A Forced-Choice Technique to Evaluate Deafness in the Hysterical or Malingering Patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankratz, Loren; And Others

    1975-01-01

    The two-alternative forced-choice technique, which has been used to examine hysterical blindness, was used to assess purported loss of hearing in a 27-year-old male. The results are discussed in terms of using the forced-choice technique as a strategy for assessing sensory deficits. (Author)

  6. StringForce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barendregt, Wolmet; Börjesson, Peter; Eriksson, Eva

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present the forced collaborative interaction game StringForce. StringForce is developed for a special education context to support training of collaboration skills, using readily available technologies and avoiding the creation of a "mobile bubble". In order to play StringForce ...

  7. Dissociations between developmental dyslexias and attention deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukov, Limor; Friedmann, Naama; Shalev, Lilach; Khentov-Kraus, Lilach; Shalev, Nir; Lorber, Rakefet; Guggenheim, Revital

    2014-01-01

    We examine whether attention deficits underlie developmental dyslexia, or certain types of dyslexia, by presenting double dissociations between the two. We took into account the existence of distinct types of dyslexia and of attention deficits, and focused on dyslexias that may be thought to have an attentional basis: letter position dyslexia (LPD), in which letters migrate within words, attentional dyslexia (AD), in which letters migrate between words, neglect dyslexia, in which letters on one side of the word are omitted or substituted, and surface dyslexia, in which words are read via the sublexical route. We tested 110 children and adults with developmental dyslexia and/or attention deficits, using extensive batteries of reading and attention. For each participant, the existence of dyslexia and the dyslexia type were tested using reading tests that included stimuli sensitive to the various dyslexia types. Attention deficit and its type was established through attention tasks assessing sustained, selective, orienting, and executive attention functioning. Using this procedure, we identified 55 participants who showed a double dissociation between reading and attention: 28 had dyslexia with normal attention and 27 had attention deficits with normal reading. Importantly, each dyslexia with suspected attentional basis dissociated from attention: we found 21 individuals with LPD, 13 AD, 2 neglect dyslexia, and 12 surface dyslexia without attention deficits. Other dyslexia types (vowel dyslexia, phonological dyslexia, visual dyslexia) also dissociated from attention deficits. Examination of 55 additional individuals with both a specific dyslexia and a certain attention deficit found no attention function that was consistently linked with any dyslexia type. Specifically, LPD and AD dissociated from selective attention, neglect dyslexia dissociated from orienting, and surface dyslexia dissociated from sustained and executive attention. These results indicate that

  8. Postural control deficits identify lingering post-concussion neurological deficits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas A. Buckley

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Concussion, or mild traumatic brain injury, incidence rates have reached epidemic levels and impaired postural control is a cardinal symptom. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the linear and non-linear assessments of post-concussion postural control. The current acute evaluation for concussion utilizes the subjective balance error scoring system (BESS to assess postural control. While the sensitivity of the overall test battery is high, the sensitivity of the BESS is unacceptably low and, with repeat administration, is unable to accurately identify recovery. Sophisticated measures of postural control, utilizing traditional linear assessments, have identified impairments in postural control well beyond BESS recovery. Both assessments of quiet stance and gait have identified lingering impairments for at least 1 month post-concussion. Recently, the application of non-linear metrics to concussion recovery have begun to receive limited attention with the most commonly utilized metric being approximate entropy (ApEn. ApEn, most commonly in the medial-lateral plane, has successfully identified impaired postural control in the acute post-concussion timeframe even when linear assessments of instrumented measures are equivalent to healthy pre-injury values; unfortunately these studies have not gone beyond the acute phase of recovery. One study has identified lingering deficits in postural control, utilizing Shannon and Renyi entropy metrics, which persist at least through clinical recovery and return to participation. Finally, limited evidence from two studies suggest that individuals with a previous history of a single concussion, even months or years prior, may display altered ApEn metrics. Overall, non-linear metrics provide a fertile area for future study to further the understanding of postural control impairments acutely post-concussion and address the current challenge of sensitive identification of recovery.

  9. On the Budget Deficits and Capital Expenditure

    OpenAIRE

    Malcolm Sawyer

    1998-01-01

    It has almost become the conventional wisdom that there should be rules governing the size of the budget deficits, without regard for the impact of such deficits on the macro economy. This is reflected in the push for a balanced budget in the United States and the 3 percent deficit to GDP ratio convergence criteria in the Maastricht Treaty (and designed for observance by countries signing up for the single currency). The purpose of this paper is not to present further arguments against defici...

  10. Interfacial force measurements using atomic force microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chu, L.

    2018-01-01

    Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) can not only image the topography of surfaces at atomic resolution, but can also measure accurately the different interaction forces, like repulsive, adhesive and lateral existing between an AFM tip and the sample surface. Based on AFM, various extended techniques have

  11. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosler, M.; Casas, M.; Konofal, E.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine available literature regarding attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults. METHODS: An electronic literature search of peer-reviewed English language articles using MEDLINE (without time limits) was undertaken. RESULTS: Symptoms of ADHD in adults exert a

  12. Magnesium supplementation in children with attention deficit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Farida El Baza

    2015-07-07

    Jul 7, 2015 ... Abstract Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevel- opmental disorder with associated ... attention, hyperactivity, increased impulsivity and emotional deregulation, resulting in ... Full detailed medical history including presence of organic or psychological diseases ...

  13. Focusing on ADHD - Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Subscribe September 2014 Print this issue Focusing on ADHD Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder En español Send us ... Power of Pets Sound Health Wise Choices Managing ADHD Help kids with ADHD stay on top of ...

  14. Detection of feigned attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tucha, Lara; Fuermaier, Anselm B.M.; Koerts, Janneke; Groen, Yvonne; Thome, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there is an increasing awareness that individuals may purposely feign or exaggerate symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to gain external incentives, including access to stimulant drugs or special academic accommodations. There are vast consequences of

  15. Dissociations between developmental dyslexias and attention deficits

    OpenAIRE

    Lukov, Limor; Friedmann, Naama; Shalev, Lilach; Khentov-Kraus, Lilach; Shalev, Nir; Lorber, Rakefet; Guggenheim, Revital

    2015-01-01

    We examine whether attention deficits underlie developmental dyslexia, or certain types of dyslexia, by presenting double dissociations between the two. We took into account the existence of distinct types of dyslexia and of attention deficits, and focused on dyslexias that may be thought to have an attentional basis: letter position dyslexia (LPD), in which letters migrate within words, attentional dyslexia (AD), in which letters migrate between words, neglect dyslexia, in which letters on o...

  16. Neurocognitive Deficits in Borderline Personality Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Marianne Skovgaard; Ruocco, Anthony C; Carcone, Dean

    2017-01-01

    completed a comprehensive battery of neurocognitive tests, a retrospective questionnaire on early life trauma and a dimensional measure of personality psychopathology. Patients with BPD primarily showed deficits in verbal comprehension, sustained visual attention, working memory and processing speed....... Comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and an elevated childhood history of physical trauma were each accompanied by more severe neurocognitive deficits. There were no statistically significant associations between neurocognitive function and dimensions of personality psychopathology. These results...

  17. A study on forces acting on a flapping wing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cetiner O.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the forces acting on a flapping wing, an experimental investigation is performed in steady water flow. In this study, a SD7003 airfoil undergoes combined pitching and plunging motion which simulates the forward flight of small birds. The frequency of pitching motion is equal to the frequency of plunging motion and pitch leads the plunge by a phase angle of 90 degrees. The experiments are conducted at Reynolds numbers of 2500 ≤ Re ≤ 13700 and the vortex formation is recorded using the digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV technique. A prediction of thrust force and efficiency is calculated from the average wake deficit of DPIV data, the near-wake vorticity patterns and time dependent velocity vectors are determined to comment on the thrust and drag indication. Direct force measurements are attempted using a Force/Torque sensor which is capable of measuring forces and moments in three axial directions.

  18. Sugarbeet leaf growth and yield response to soil water deficit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    18 oct. 1999 ... This study evaluated the responses of sugarbeet leaf growth, sugar yield and yield components to soil water deficit imposed at various periods during growth in a glasshouse. Leaf growth showed high sensitivity to soil water deficit and responses varied with periods at which the deficit occurred. Water deficit ...

  19. Labor Force Participation Rate

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — This thematic map presents the labor force participation rate of working-age people in the United States in 2010. The 2010 Labor Force Participation Rate shows the...

  20. Aerodynamic Lifting Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weltner, Klaus

    1990-01-01

    Describes some experiments showing both qualitatively and quantitatively that aerodynamic lift is a reaction force. Demonstrates reaction forces caused by the acceleration of an airstream and the deflection of an airstream. Provides pictures of demonstration apparatus and mathematical expressions. (YP)

  1. Acoustic force spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sitters, G.; Kamsma, D.; Thalhammer, G.; Ritsch-Marte, M.; Peterman, E.J.G.; Wuite, G.J.L.

    2015-01-01

    Force spectroscopy has become an indispensable tool to unravel the structural and mechanochemical properties of biomolecules. Here we extend the force spectroscopy toolbox with an acoustic manipulation device that can exert forces from subpiconewtons to hundreds of piconewtons on thousands of

  2. Forces in General Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgely, Charles T.

    2010-01-01

    Many textbooks dealing with general relativity do not demonstrate the derivation of forces in enough detail. The analyses presented herein demonstrate straightforward methods for computing forces by way of general relativity. Covariant divergence of the stress-energy-momentum tensor is used to derive a general expression of the force experienced…

  3. Color perception deficits in co-existing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and chronic tic disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roessner, V.; Banaschewski, T.; Fillmer-Otte, A.; Becker, A.; Albrecht, B.; Uebel, H.; Sergeant, J.A.; Tannock, R.; Rothenberger, A.

    2008-01-01

    Preliminary findings suggest that color perception, particularly of blue-yellow stimuli, is impaired in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as well as in chronic tic disorders (CTD). However, these findings have been not replicated and it is unclear what these deficits mean for the

  4. Color perception deficits in co-existing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and chronic tic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roessner, V; Banaschewski, T; Fillmer-Otte, A; Becker, A; Albrecht, B; Uebel, H; Sergeant, J; Tannock, R; Rothenberger, A

    2008-01-01

    Preliminary findings suggest that color perception, particularly of blue-yellow stimuli, is impaired in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as well as in chronic tic disorders (CTD). However, these findings have been not replicated and it is unclear what these deficits mean for the comorbidity of ADHD + CTD. Four groups (ADHD, CTD, ADHD + CTD, controls) of children with similar age, IQ and gender distribution were investigated with the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 Hue Test (FMT) and the Stroop-Color-Word Task using a factorial design. Color perception deficits, as indexed by the FMT, were found for both main factors (ADHD and CTD), but there were no interaction effects. A preponderance of deficits on the blue-yellow compared to the red-green axis was detected for ADHD. In the Stroop task only the 'pure' ADHD group showed impairments in interference control and other parameters of Stroop performance. No significant correlations between any FMT parameter and color naming in the Stroop task were found. Basic color perception deficits in both ADHD and CTD could be found. Beyond that, it could be shown that these deficits are additive in the case of comorbidity (ADHD + CTD). Performance deficits on the Stroop task were present only in the 'pure' ADHD group. Hence, the latter may be compensated in the comorbid group by good prefrontal capabilities of CTD. The influence of color perception deficits on Stroop task performance might be negligible.

  5. Oculomotor Performance Identifies Underlying Cognitive Deficits in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loe, Irene M.; Feldman, Heidi M.; Yasui, Enami; Luna, Beatriz

    2009-01-01

    The evaluation of the cognitive control in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder through the use of oculomotor tests reveal that this group showed susceptibility to peripheral distractors and deficits in response inhibition. All subjects were found to have intact sensorimotor function and working memory.

  6. Story Comprehension and Academic Deficits in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: What Is the Connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthiaume, Kristen S.

    2006-01-01

    Based on the reliable findings that children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have both attentional and academic difficulties, it is assumed that the attentional deficit contributes to the academic problems. In this article, existing support for a link between the attentional and academic difficulties experienced by children…

  7. Test Differences in Diagnosing Reading Comprehension Deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Janice M.; Meenan, Chelsea E.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the implications of test differences for defining and diagnosing comprehension deficits using reading comprehension tests. We had 995 children complete the Gray Oral Reading Test-3, the Qualitative Reading Inventory-3, the Woodcock-Johnson Passage Comprehension-3, and the Peabody Individual Achievement Test, and compared which children were identified by each test as being in the lowest 10%. Although a child who performs so poorly might be expected to do poorly on all tests, we found that the average overlap between tests in diagnosing comprehension difficulties was only 43%. Consistency in diagnosis was greater for younger children, when comprehension deficits are due to weaker decoding skills, than for older children. Inconsistencies between tests were just as evident when identifying the top performers. The different children identified as having a comprehension deficit by each test were compared on four profile variables - word decoding skill, IQ, ADHD symptoms, and working memory skill – to understand the nature of the different deficits assessed by each test. Theoretical and practical implications of these test differences in defining and diagnosing comprehension deficits are discussed. PMID:22442251

  8. Statistics of force networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tighe, Brian

    2009-03-01

    We study the statistics of contact forces in the force network ensemble, a minimal model of jammed granular media that emphasizes the role of vector force balance. We show that the force probability distribution can be calculated analytically by way of an analogy to equilibrium ensemble methods. In two dimensions the large force tail decays asymptotically as a Gaussian, distinct from earlier predictions, due to the existence of a conserved quantity related to the presence of local vector force balance. We confirm our predictions with highly accurate statistical sampling -- we sample the force distribution over more than 40 decades -- permitting unambiguous confrontation of theory with numerics. We show how the conserved quantity arises naturally within the context of any constant stress ensemble.

  9. Quantum fictitious forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bialynicki-Birula, I; Cirone, M.A.; Dahl, Jens Peder

    2002-01-01

    We present Heisenberg's equation of motion for the radial variable of a free non-relativistic particle in D dimensions. The resulting radial force consists of three contributions: (i) the quantum fictitious force which is either attractive or repulsive depending on the number of dimensions, (ii......) a singular quantum force located at the origin, and (iii) the centrifugal force associated with non-vanishing angular momentum. Moreover, we use Heisenberg's uncertainty relation to introduce a lower bound for the kinetic energy of an ensemble of neutral particles. This bound is quadratic in the number...... of atoms and can be traced back to the repulsive quantum fictitious potential. All three forces arise for a free particle: "Force without force"....

  10. Grip force modulation characteristics as a marker for clinical disease progression in individuals with Parkinson disease: case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Sujata; Scherer, Reinhold; Matsuoka, Yoky; Kelly, Valerie E

    2015-03-01

    Upper extremity deficits are prevalent in individuals with Parkinson disease (PD). In the early stages of PD, such deficits can be subtle and challenging to document on clinical examination. The purpose of this study was to use a novel force sensor system to characterize grip force modulation, including force, temporal, and movement quality parameters, during a fine motor control task in individuals with early stage PD. A case-control study was conducted. Fourteen individuals with early stage PD were compared with a control group of 14 healthy older adults. The relationship of force modulation parameters with motor symptom severity and disease chronicity also was assessed in people with PD. Force was measured during both precision and power grasp tasks using an instrumented twist-cap device capable of rotating in either direction. Compared with the control group, the PD group demonstrated more movement arrests during both precision and power grasp and longer total movement times during the power grasp. These deficits persisted when a concurrent cognitive task was added, with some evidence of force control deficits in the PD group, including lower rates of force production during the precision grasp task and higher peak forces during the power grasp task. For precision grasp, a higher number of movement arrests in single- and dual-task conditions as well as longer total movement times in the dual-task condition were associated with more severe motor symptoms. The sample was small and consisted of individuals in the early stages of PD with mild motor deficits. The group with PD was predominantly male, whereas the control group was predominantly female. The results suggest that assessing grip force modulation deficits during fine motor tasks is possible with instrumented devices, and such sensitive measures may be important for detecting and tracking change early in the progression of PD. © 2015 American Physical Therapy Association.

  11. Park power deficit due to atmospheric stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose; Barthelmie, Rebecca; Ott, Søren

    The purpose of this paper is to present a power deficit analysis based on offshore wind farm measurements with respect to the atmospheric stability classification. The result is used to validate wind farm prediction models under different inflow and atmospheric stability conditions......The purpose of this paper is to present a power deficit analysis based on offshore wind farm measurements with respect to the atmospheric stability classification. The result is used to validate wind farm prediction models under different inflow and atmospheric stability conditions...

  12. Temporary Nerve Block at Selected Digits Revealed Hand Motor Deficits in Grasping Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aude Carteron

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral sensory feedback plays a crucial role in ensuring correct motor execution throughout hand grasp control. Previous studies utilized local anesthesia to deprive somatosensory feedback in the digits or hand, observations included sensorimotor deficits at both corticospinal and peripheral levels. However, the questions of how the disturbed and intact sensory input integrate and interact with each other to assist the motor program execution, and whether the motor coordination based on motor output variability between affected and non-affected elements (e.g., digits becomes interfered by the local sensory deficiency, have not been answered. The current study aims to investigate the effect of peripheral deafferentation through digital nerve blocks at selective digits on motor performance and motor coordination in grasp control. Our results suggested that the absence of somatosensory information induced motor deficits in hand grasp control, as evidenced by reduced maximal force production ability in both local and non-local digits, impairment of force and moment control during object lift and hold, and attenuated motor synergies in stabilizing task performance variables, namely the tangential force and moment of force. These findings implied that individual sensory input is shared across all the digits and the disturbed signal from local sensory channel(s has a more comprehensive impact on the process of the motor output execution in the sensorimotor integration process. Additionally, a feedback control mechanism with a sensation-based component resides in the formation process for the motor covariation structure.

  13. Relativistic Linear Restoring Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D.; Franklin, J.; Mann, N.

    2012-01-01

    We consider two different forms for a relativistic version of a linear restoring force. The pair comes from taking Hooke's law to be the force appearing on the right-hand side of the relativistic expressions: d"p"/d"t" or d"p"/d["tau"]. Either formulation recovers Hooke's law in the non-relativistic limit. In addition to these two forces, we…

  14. RSOI: Force Deployment Bottleneck

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    D'Amato, Mark

    1998-01-01

    This study uses The Theory Of Constraints (TOC) management methodology and recent military missions to show that RSOI operations are generally the limiting constraint to force deployment operations...

  15. Bi-Force

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Peng; Speicher, Nora K; Röttger, Richard

    2014-01-01

    outperformed existing tools with Bi-Force at least when following the evaluation protocols from Eren et al. Bi-Force is implemented in Java and integrated into the open source software package of BiCluE. The software as well as all used datasets are publicly available at http://biclue.mpi-inf.mpg.de....... of pairwise similarities. We first evaluated the power of Bi-Force to solve dedicated bicluster editing problems by comparing Bi-Force with two existing algorithms in the BiCluE software package. We then followed a biclustering evaluation protocol in a recent review paper from Eren et al. (2013) (A...

  16. Intermolecular and surface forces

    CERN Document Server

    Israelachvili, Jacob N

    2011-01-01

    This reference describes the role of various intermolecular and interparticle forces in determining the properties of simple systems such as gases, liquids and solids, with a special focus on more complex colloidal, polymeric and biological systems. The book provides a thorough foundation in theories and concepts of intermolecular forces, allowing researchers and students to recognize which forces are important in any particular system, as well as how to control these forces. This third edition is expanded into three sections and contains five new chapters over the previous edition.· starts fr

  17. Macroscopic forces from supersymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Dimopoulos, Savas K

    1996-01-01

    We argue that theories in which supersymmetry breaking originates at low energies often contain scalar particles that mediate coherent gravitational strength forces at distances less than a cm. We estimate the strength and range of these forces in several cases. Present limits on such forces are inadequate. However new techniques, such as those based on small cryogenic mechanical oscillators, may improve the present limits by ten orders of magnitude or discover new forces as weak as 1 \\% of gravity at distances down to 40 microns.

  18. Modafinil Trial in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A film-coated tablet formulation of modafinil (ProvigilR was used to treat a total of 246 patients, ages 6 to 17 years, with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD at the Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, and other centers.

  19. Did goethe describe attention deficit hyperactivity disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonazza, Sara; Scaglione, Cesa; Poppi, Massimo; Rizzo, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    As early as 1846, the typical symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were described by Heinrich Hoffmann (1809-1894). However, in Goethe's masterpiece Faust (1832), the character of Euphorion strongly suggests ADHD diagnosis. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Medication Treatment for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Joseph B.; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Hughes, Elizabeth M.

    2011-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has become the most commonly diagnosed psychiatric disorder among school-age children. For more than half a century, physicians have prescribed medications to help manage behaviors such as hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention. Today, there is a growing consensus that ADHD is a biologically…

  1. Personality Correlates of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilveil, Ira; Clark, Dona

    This study delineates personality correlates of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD.) A standardized projective technique (the Roberts Apperception Test for Children (RATC) and the Conners Parent Rating Scale were administered to 52 ADHD children, ages 6-15. Results indicated that, when compared to the RATC standardization sample, ADHD…

  2. Stigma in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, Kathi; Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Koerts, Janneke; Tucha, Lara

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a frequently diagnosed disorder in child- and adulthood with a high impact affecting multiple facets of social life. Therefore, patients suffering from ADHD are at high risk to be confronted with stigma, prejudices, and discrimination. A review of

  3. Intervertebral Disc Characteristic on Progressive Neurological Deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Yudoyono

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the intervertebral disc characteristic on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in lumbar herniated disc (LHD patients with progressive neurological deficit. Methods: Patients were collected retrospectively from Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Database from 2011–2013 with LHD, had neurological deficit such as radiculopathy and cauda equine syndrome for less than four weeks with a positive sign confirmed by neurological examination and confirmatory with MRI examination. Results: A total of 14 patients with lumbar herniated disc disease (10 males, 4 females suffered from progressive neurological deficit with an average age of (52.07±10.9 years old. Early disc height was 9.38±0.5 mm and progressive neurological deficit state disc height was 4.03±0.53 mm, which were significantly different statisticaly (p<0.01. Symptoms of radiculopathy were seen in 11 patients and cauda equine syndrome in three patients. Modic changes grade 1 was found in five patients, grade 2 in eight patients,grade 3 in one patient, Pfirmman grade 2 in eleven patients and grade 3 in three patients. Thecal sac compression 1/3 compression was seen in four patients and 2/3 compression in ten patients. Conclusions: Neurosurgeon should raise concerns on the characteristic changes of intervertebral disc in magnetic resonance imaging examination to avoid further neural injury in lumbar herniated disc patients.

  4. Neuropsychological deficits associated with uraemic encephalopathy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although uraemic patients with end-stage renal disease. (ESRD) often present with impaired cognitive functions, little ... personality variables, these cognitive deficits have important implications for patient compliance and management .... impairment in visual recognition, visual orientation with regard to spatial relationships,.

  5. Invest to Improve: The Cybersecurity Talent Deficit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Business-Higher Education Forum, 2017

    2017-01-01

    "Invest to Improve: The Cybersecurity Talent Deficit" provides recommendations for cybersecurity stakeholders--employers, government agencies, and higher education institutions--to enable regional partnerships to meet today's cybersecurity skills needs. This report combines data from a 2017 Gallup survey of business executives and higher…

  6. Sensorimotor gating deficits in multiple system atrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoetmulder, Marielle; Biernat, Heidi Bryde; Nikolic, Miki

    2014-01-01

    Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the auditory blink reflex is a measure of sensorimotor gating, which reflects an organism's ability to filter out irrelevant sensory information. PPI has never been studied in patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA), although sensorimotor deficits are frequently...

  7. Financing the U.S. Trade Deficit

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jackson, James K

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. merchandise trade deficit is a part of the overall U.S. balance of payments, a summary statement of all economic transactions between the residents of the United States and the rest of the world, during a given period of time...

  8. Inter-municipal cooperation : a democratic deficit?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denters, Sebastianus A.H.; Klok, Pieter J.; Boogers, Marcel; Sanders, Maurits

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we study the existence of a democratic deficit in intermunicipal cooperation in the Netherlands and the effect of the structure of intermunicipal cooperation on democratic quality. We study both direct effects and indirect effects through the cultural climate of cooperation. Rival

  9. Primary School Teacher's knowledge towards Attention Deficit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Primary School Teacher's knowledge towards Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and its associated factors in Nekemte town, Oromiya Region, Western Ethiopia. ... There are 10 government and 20 private full cycle primary schools in the town. Institution based descriptive cross-sectional study were applied.

  10. Magnesium supplementation in children with attention deficit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder with associated mineral deficiency. Aim: To assess magnesium level in ADHD children and compare it to the normal levels in children. Then, to detect the effect of magnesium supplementation as an add on therapy, ...

  11. [A core deficit in Parkinson disease?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez-Burraco, A; Herrera, E; Cuetos, F

    2016-05-01

    Parkinson disease is a neurodegenerative condition involving motor, cognitive, and linguistic deficits. It is important to know why all these different deficits co-occur in the affected people. This paper aims to clarify whether these comorbid deficits result from the selective impairment of a computational primitive, namely, a context-sensitive computational ability according to Chomsky's Hierarchy (a well-established research tool in comparative neuroscience). A total of 15 medicated subjects with Parkinson disease and 15 controls were selected. They were matched in age and education. A battery of tasks was designed to test 3 different domains (motor capacities, cognition, and language) and 2 different computational abilities (context-free and context-sensitive operations). Significant differences between groups were observed only regarding the linguistic task involving context-sensitive computations (correferences). The observed deficits in our patients with Parkinson disease cannot be explained in terms of the selective impairment of one only unspecific, low-level computational process. At the same time, differences between patients and controls are expected to be greater if the former are not medicated. Moreover, we should pursue in the search of (this kind of) computational primitives than can be selectively impaired in people with Parkinson disease, because they may help to achieve an earlier diagnosis of this condition. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Respiratory functional and motor control deficits in children with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Goutam; Behrman, Andrea L; Aslan, Sevda C; Trimble, Shelley; Ovechkin, Alexander V

    2018-01-01

    Children with spinal cord injury (SCI) are at high risk for developing complications due to respiratory motor control deficits. However, underlying mechanisms of these abnormalities with respect to age, development, and injury characteristics are unclear. To evaluate the effect of SCI and age on respiratory motor control in children with SCI, we compared pulmonary function and respiratory motor control outcome measures in healthy typically developing (TD) children to age-matched children with chronic SCI. We hypothesized that the deficits in respiratory functional performance in children with SCI are due to the abnormal and age-dependent respiratory muscle activation patterns. Fourteen TD (age 7±2 yrs., Mean±SD) and twelve children with SCI (age 6±1 yrs.) were evaluated by assessing Forced Vital Capacity (FVC); Forced Expiratory Volume in 1sec (FEV 1 ); and respiratory electromyographic activity during maximum inspiratory and maximum expiratory airway pressure measurements (PI max and PE max ). The results indicate a significant reduction (prespiratory muscles below the neurological level of injury (rectus abdominous and external oblique muscles). In addition, children with SCI had significantly increased (prespiratory functional and motor control deficits in children are age-dependent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Climate forcings and feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, James

    1993-01-01

    Global temperature has increased significantly during the past century. Understanding the causes of observed global temperature change is impossible in the absence of adequate monitoring of changes in global climate forcings and radiative feedbacks. Climate forcings are changes imposed on the planet's energy balance, such as change of incoming sunlight or a human-induced change of surface properties due to deforestation. Radiative feedbacks are radiative changes induced by climate change, such as alteration of cloud properties or the extent of sea ice. Monitoring of global climate forcings and feedbacks, if sufficiently precise and long-term, can provide a very strong constraint on interpretation of observed temperature change. Such monitoring is essential to eliminate uncertainties about the relative importance of various climate change mechanisms including tropospheric sulfate aerosols from burning of coal and oil smoke from slash and burn agriculture, changes of solar irradiance changes of several greenhouse gases, and many other mechanisms. The considerable variability of observed temperature, together with evidence that a substantial portion of this variability is unforced indicates that observations of climate forcings and feedbacks must be continued for decades. Since the climate system responds to the time integral of the forcing, a further requirement is that the observations be carried out continuously. However, precise observations of forcings and feedbacks will also be able to provide valuable conclusions on shorter time scales. For example, knowledge of the climate forcing by increasing CFC's relative to the forcing by changing ozone is important to policymakers, as is information on the forcing by CO2 relative to the forcing by sulfate aerosols. It will also be possible to obtain valuable tests of climate models on short time scales, if there is precise monitoring of all forcings and feedbacks during and after events such as a large volcanic eruption

  14. Primary empathy deficits in frontotemporal dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baez, Sandra; Manes, Facundo; Huepe, David; Torralva, Teresa; Fiorentino, Natalia; Richter, Fabian; Huepe-Artigas, Daniela; Ferrari, Jesica; Montañes, Patricia; Reyes, Pablo; Matallana, Diana; Vigliecca, Nora S.; Decety, Jean; Ibanez, Agustin

    2014-01-01

    Loss of empathy is an early central symptom and diagnostic criterion of the behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD). Although changes in empathy are evident and strongly affect the social functioning of bvFTD patients, few studies have directly investigated this issue by means of experimental paradigms. The current study assessed multiple components of empathy (affective, cognitive and moral) in bvFTD patients. We also explored whether the loss of empathy constitutes a primary deficit of bvFTD or whether it is explained by impairments in executive functions (EF) or other social cognition domains. Thirty-seven bvFTD patients with early/mild stages of the disease and 30 healthy control participants were assessed with a task that involves the perception of intentional and accidental harm. Participants were also evaluated on emotion recognition, theory of mind (ToM), social norms knowledge and several EF domains. BvFTD patients presented deficits in affective, cognitive and moral aspects of empathy. However, empathic concern was the only aspect primarily affected in bvFTD that was neither related nor explained by deficits in EF or other social cognition domains. Deficits in the cognitive and moral aspects of empathy seem to depend on EF, emotion recognition and ToM. Our findings highlight the importance of using tasks depicting real-life social scenarios because of their greater sensitivity in the assessment of bvFTD. Moreover, our results contribute to the understanding of primary and intrinsic empathy deficits of bvFTD and have important theoretical and clinical implications. PMID:25346685

  15. Robotic identification of kinesthetic deficits after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semrau, Jennifer A; Herter, Troy M; Scott, Stephen H; Dukelow, Sean P

    2013-12-01

    Kinesthesia, the sense of body motion, is essential to proper control and execution of movement. Despite its importance for activities of daily living, no current clinical measures can objectively measure kinesthetic deficits. The goal of this study was to use robotic technology to quantify prevalence and severity of kinesthetic deficits of the upper limb poststroke. Seventy-four neurologically intact subjects and 113 subjects with stroke (62 left-affected, 51 right-affected) performed a robot-based kinesthetic matching task with vision occluded. The robot moved the most affected arm at a preset speed, direction, and magnitude. Subjects were instructed to mirror-match the movement with their opposite arm (active arm). A large number of subjects with stroke were significantly impaired on measures of kinesthesia. We observed impairments in ability to match movement direction (69% and 49% impaired for left- and right-affected subjects, respectively) and movement magnitude (42% and 31%). We observed impairments to match movement speed (32% and 27%) and increased response latencies (48% and 20%). Movement direction errors and response latencies were related to clinical measures of function, motor recovery, and dexterity. Using a robotic approach, we found that 61% of acute stroke survivors (n=69) had kinesthetic deficits. Additionally, these deficits were highly related to existing clinical measures, suggesting the importance of kinesthesia in day-to-day function. Our methods allow for more sensitive, accurate, and objective identification of kinesthetic deficits after stroke. With this information, we can better inform clinical treatment strategies to improve poststroke rehabilitative care and outcomes.

  16. Oculomotor Anomalies in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Evidence for Deficits in Response Preparation and Inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahone, E. Mark; Mostofsky, Stewart H.; Lasker, Adrian G.; Zee, David; Denckla, Martha B.

    2009-01-01

    Girls, but not boys, with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have significantly longer visually guided saccades latencies. It is found that sex differences in children with ADHD extend beyond symptom presentation to the development of oculomotor control.

  17. Elementary Particles and Forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigg, Chris

    1985-01-01

    Discusses subatomic particles (quarks, leptons, and others) revealed by higher accelerator energies. A connection between forces at this subatomic level has been established, and prospects are good for a description of forces that encompass binding atomic nuclei. Colors, fundamental interactions, screening, camouflage, electroweak symmetry, and…

  18. The forces in Nature

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN AC

    1998-01-01

    The different forces, together with a pictorial analogy of how the exchange of particles works. The table lists the relative strength of the couplings, the quanta associated with the force fields and the bodies of phenomena in which they have a dominant role.

  19. Forces in yeast flocculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kirat-Chatel, Sofiane; Beaussart, Audrey; Vincent, Stéphane P.; Abellán Flos, Marta; Hols, Pascal; Lipke, Peter N.; Dufrêne, Yves F.

    2015-01-01

    In the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cell-cell adhesion (``flocculation'') is conferred by a family of lectin-like proteins known as the flocculin (Flo) proteins. Knowledge of the adhesive and mechanical properties of flocculins is important for understanding the mechanisms of yeast adhesion, and may help controlling yeast behaviour in biotechnology. We use single-molecule and single-cell atomic force microscopy (AFM) to explore the nanoscale forces engaged in yeast flocculation, focusing on the role of Flo1 as a prototype of flocculins. Using AFM tips labelled with mannose, we detect single flocculins on Flo1-expressing cells, showing they are widely exposed on the cell surface. When subjected to force, individual Flo1 proteins display two distinct force responses, i.e. weak lectin binding forces and strong unfolding forces reflecting the force-induced extension of hydrophobic tandem repeats. We demonstrate that cell-cell adhesion bonds also involve multiple weak lectin interactions together with strong unfolding forces, both associated with Flo1 molecules. Single-molecule and single-cell data correlate with microscale cell adhesion behaviour, suggesting strongly that Flo1 mechanics is critical for yeast flocculation. These results favour a model in which not only weak lectin-sugar interactions are involved in yeast flocculation but also strong hydrophobic interactions resulting from protein unfolding.

  20. Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Data and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Note: Javascript is disabled ... claims to understand diagnosis and treatment patterns for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). On this page you ...

  1. Cognitive deficits in the remitted state of unipolar depressive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Bo Jacob; Knorr, Ulla Benedichte Søsted; Hasselbalch, Steen

    2012-01-01

    Patients with unipolar depressive disorder may present with cognitive deficits in the remitted state, and the aim of the present study was to investigate whether cognitive deficits within specific cognitive domains are present....

  2. Stretching-induced crystallinity and orientation to improve the mechanical properties of electrospun PAN nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Xiaoxiao; Yang, Xiaoping; Zhang, Liqun; Waclawik, E.; Wu, Sizhu

    2010-01-01

    Polyacrylonitrile-based carbon fibers, embedded with single-walled carbon nanotubes have been prepared by the electrospinning technique. The as-spun nanofibers were hot-stretched in an oven to enhance the orientation and crystallinity which has been confirmed by X-ray diffraction and DSC etc. With the hot-stretched process and the introduction of SWNTs, the mechanical properties of PAN nanofibers such as the modulus and tensile strength will be enhanced correspondingly. In addition, the electrical conductivities of the PAN/SWNTs nanofiber composites were also enhanced. It was concluded that the hot-stretched nanofibers and the PAN/SWNTs nanofiber composites can be used as a potential precursor to produce high-performance carbon nanocomposites.

  3. Stretch-induced biodegradation of polyelectrolyte multilayer films for drug release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthes, Julien; Mertz, Damien; Bach, Charlotte; Metz-Boutigue, Marie-Hélène; Senger, Bernard; Voegel, Jean-Claude; Schaaf, Pierre; Lavalle, Philippe

    2012-09-25

    The design of stimuli-responsive polymer assemblies for the controlled release of bioactive molecules has raised considerable interest these two last decades. Herein, we report the design of mechanically responsive drug-releasing films made of polyelectrolyte multilayers. A layer-by-layer (LbL) reservoir containing biodegradable polyelectrolytes is capped with a mechanosensitive LbL barrier and responds to stretching by a total enzymatic degradation of the film. This strategy is successfully applied for the release in solution of an anticancer drug initially loaded within the architecture.

  4. The role of gap junctions in stretch-induced atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Norihiro; Yamamoto, Mitsuru; Honjo, Haruo; Kodama, Itsuo; Kamiya, Kaichiro

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of gap junctions in atrial fibrillation (AF) by analysing the effects of a gap junction enhancer and blocker on AF vulnerability and electrophysiological properties of isolated hearts. The acute atrial stretch model of AF in the isolated rabbit heart was used. Sustained AF (SAF) was induced by a burst of high-frequency stimulation of the Bachmann's bundle. The effective refractory period (ERP) was measured, and the total conduction time (TCT) and the pattern of conduction of the anterior surface of the left atrium were monitored by using an optical mapping system. The effect of enhancing gap junction function by 100-1000 nM rotigaptide (ZP123) and block by 30 μM carbenoxolone on these parameters was measured. SAF inducibility was increased with an elevation of intra-atrial pressure. Enhanced gap junction conductance induced by treatment with 100-1000 nM rotigaptide reduced SAF inducibility, and the gap junction blocker carbenoxolone increased SAF inducibility. In the absence of gap junction enhancer or blocker, normal conduction was observed at 0 cmH2O. When intra-atrial pressure was raised to 12 cmH2O, the conduction pattern was changed to a heterogeneous zig-zag pattern and TCT was prolonged. Conduction pattern was not affected by either agent. Rotigaptide shortened TCT, whereas carbenoxolone prolonged TCT. ERP was significantly shortened with an increase in intra-atrial pressure, but ERP was unaffected by either agent. Gap junction modulators changed AF inducibility through their effects on atrial conduction, not by altering ERP. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

  5. Prolonged passive static stretching-induced innervation zone shift in biceps brachii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xin; Beck, Travis W; Wages, Nathan P

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of a bout of repeated and prolonged passive static stretching on the innervation zone (IZ) location of the human biceps brachii muscle. Eleven men performed 12 sets of 100-s passive stretches on their biceps brachii. Before (Pre) and immediately after (Post) the stretching intervention, isometric strength was tested during the maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) of the forearm flexors. The subjects also performed several separate isometric forearm flexion muscle actions at 30%, 50%, and 70% of their predetermined MVCs for examining the locations of the IZ at different contraction intensities. The IZ was identified through multi-channel surface electromyographic (EMG) recordings from a linear electrode array. The stretching intervention induced an average of 10% isometric strength loss for the forearm flexors (mean±SD: Pre-MVC vs. Post-MVC=332.12±59.40 N vs. 299.53±70.51 N; p<0.001). In addition, the average IZ shift was nearly 4.5 mm in average in the proximal direction. However, this shift was not specific to the contraction intensity. We believe that the IZ shift was caused by the elongation of the entire muscle-tendon unit in the proximal direction. Therefore, caution should be taken when using surface EMG technique to examine possible changes in the EMG variables after a stretching protocol, as these variables can be contaminated by the shift of the IZ.

  6. Protein phosphatase 2A in stretch-induced endothelial cell proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, K.; Mills, I.; Sumpio, B. E.

    1996-01-01

    We previously proposed that activation of protein kinase C is a key mechanism for control of cell growth enhanced by cyclic strain [Rosales and Sumpio (1992): Surgery 112:459-466]. Here we examined protein phosphatase 1 and 2A activity in bovine aortic endothelial cells exposed to cyclic stain. Protein phosphatase 2A activity in the cytosol was decreased by 36.1% in response to cyclic strain for 60 min, whereas the activity in the membrane did not change. Treatment with low concentration (0.1 nM) of okadaic acid enhanced proliferation of both static and stretched endothelial cells in 10% fetal bovine serum. These data suggest that protein phosphatase 2A acts as a growth suppressor and cyclic strain may enhance cellular proliferation by inhibiting protein phosphatase 2A as well as stimulating protein kinase C.

  7. Mechanical stretch induces MMP-2 release and activation in lung endothelium: role of EMMPRIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haseneen, Nadia A; Vaday, Gayle G; Zucker, Stanley; Foda, Hussein D

    2003-03-01

    High-volume mechanical ventilation leads to ventilator-induced lung injury. This type of lung injury is accompanied by an increased release and activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). To investigate the mechanism leading to the increased MMP release, we systematically studied the effect of mechanical stretch on human microvascular endothelial cells isolated from the lung. We exposed cells grown on collagen 1 BioFlex plates to sinusoidal cyclic stretch at 0.5 Hz using the Flexercell system with 17-18% elongation of cells. After 4 days of cell stretching, conditioned media and cell lysate were collected and analyzed by gelatin, casein, and reverse zymograms as well as Western blotting. RT-PCR of mRNA extracted from stretched cells was performed. Our results show that 1) cyclic stretch led to increased release and activation of MMP-2 and MMP-1; 2) the activation of MMP-2 was accompanied by an increase in membrane type-1 MMP (MT1-MMP) and inhibited by a hydroxamic acid-derived inhibitor of MMPs (Prinomastat, AG3340); and 3) the MMP-2 release and activation were preceded by an increase in production of extracellular MMP inducer (EMMPRIN). These results suggest that cyclic mechanical stretch leads to MMP-2 activation through an MT1-MMP mechanism. EMMPRIN may play an important role in the release and activation of MMPs during lung injury.

  8. Cyclic stretch induces human bladder smooth muscle cell proliferation in vitro through muscarinic receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yi; Tian, Ye; Luo, De-Yi; Wazir, Romel; Yue, Xuan; Li, Hong; Wang, Kun-Jie

    2015-03-01

    The present study aimed to investigate whether the cyclic stretch‑induced proliferation of human bladder smooth muscle cells (HBSMCs) is mediated by muscarinic (M) receptors, together with the signal transduction mechanisms involved in this process. HBSMCs seeded onto silicone membranes were subjected to different cyclic stretches (5, 10, 15 and 20%) for 6 and 12 h. As the effect of cyclic stretch on M2 and M3 mRNA expression levels was maximal at 6 h 10% stretch, all subsequent experiments were performed at this stretch. Western blot analysis was used to quantify M2, M3, protein kinase C (PKC) and phosphorylated (p)‑PKC protein expression levels, flow cytometry was employed to examine cell cycle distribution and a 5-bromo‑2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation assay was used to assess cell proliferation at this stretch. Subsequently, HBSMCs were exposed to different acetylcholine concentrations and/or cyclic stretch, M receptor antagonists [AF-DX16, an M2 receptor antagonist; 1,1-dimethyl-4-diphenylacetoxypiperidinium iodide (4-DAMP), an M3 receptor antagonist and atropine, a non‑selective antagonist] and GF 109203X, a PKC antagonist, to assess the possible underlying signaling mechanisms. Cyclic stretch was found to increase the proliferation of HBSMCs and the expression levels of M2, M3, PKC and p‑PKC proteins. M receptor and PKC antagonists exerted no apparent effect on nonstretched cells, but reduced the incorporation of BrdU into stretched cells; the most pronounced effects were observed when non‑selective M receptor and PKC antagonists were applied. Notably, 4‑DAMP did not inhibit stretch‑induced PKC activation. These results indicate that the activation of the M3 receptor signaling pathway in stretch‑induced HBSMC proliferation occurs via PKC-independent mechanisms.

  9. Co film stretching induced by lattice mismatch and annealing: The role of Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlomagno, I.; Drnec, J.; Vlaic, S.; Vinogadrov, N.; Carlà, F.; Isern, H.; Meneghini, C.; Felici, R.

    2018-02-01

    Thin Co films intercalated between a Graphene capping layer and the Ir(111) surface are of interest for spintronics applications due to their peculiar magnetic properties and to their chemical stability. The structure, and then the magnetic properties, of the Co films depend on the intercalation process which is strongly influenced by the temperature, total amount of Cobalt and quality of the capping Graphene layer. In order to identify and disentangle the effects of these contributions, we report on the structural characterisation of four Co films as a function of thickness, annealing temperature, and Graphene capping. From the structural point of view, the deposition of Co on a hot Ir substrate mimics quite well the intercalation process proving the validity of the colander model describing the Graphene role during the process.

  10. Contralateral leg deficits in kinetic and kinematic variables during running in Australian rules football players with previous hamstring injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brughelli, Matt; Cronin, John; Mendiguchia, Jurdan; Kinsella, Dave; Nosaka, Ken

    2010-09-01

    Contralateral leg deficits between lower limbs during athletic movements are thought to increase the risk of injury and compromise performance. The purpose of this study was to quantify the magnitude of leg deficits during running in noninjured and previously injured Australian Rules football (ARF) players. The players included a group of noninjured ARF players (n = 11) and a group of previously injured ARF players (n = 11; hamstring injuries only). The players in the injured group (IG) had at least 1 acute hamstring injury in the previous 2 years. The legs of the noninjured players (NIG) were classified as right and left, whereas the legs of the injured players were classified as injured or noninjured. The players ran on a nonmotorized force treadmill at approximately 80% of their maximum velocity (Vmax). For the NIG, there were no significant differences between right and left legs for any of the variables. For the IG, the only variable that was significantly (p force (175 +/- 30 vs. 326 +/- 44 N). Furthermore, horizontal force was significantly greater in the noninjured leg (IG) in comparison with either legs in the NIG (19.2% and 20.5%) and significantly less in the injured leg (IG) in comparison with either legs of the NIG (31.5% and 32.7%). In the present study, athletes with previous hamstring injuries had contralateral leg deficits in horizontal but not vertical force during running at submaximal velocities.

  11. Cognitive deficits in the remitted state of unipolar depressive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Jacob; Knorr, Ulla; Hasselbalch, Steen Gregers

    2012-01-01

    Patients with unipolar depressive disorder may present with cognitive deficits in the remitted state, and the aim of the present study was to investigate whether cognitive deficits within specific cognitive domains are present.......Patients with unipolar depressive disorder may present with cognitive deficits in the remitted state, and the aim of the present study was to investigate whether cognitive deficits within specific cognitive domains are present....

  12. Wind turbine wakes; power deficit in clusters and wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose; Barthelmie, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to present recent power deficit analysis based on wind farm measurements. The power deficit is used to validate wind farm prediction models for different inflow conditions......The purpose of this presentation is to present recent power deficit analysis based on wind farm measurements. The power deficit is used to validate wind farm prediction models for different inflow conditions...

  13. Altered brain serotonergic neurotransmission following caffeine withdrawal produces behavioral deficits in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaliq, Saima; Haider, Saida; Naqvi, Faizan; Perveen, Tahira; Saleem, Sadia; Haleem, Darakhshan Jabeen

    2012-01-01

    Caffeine administration has been shown to enhance performance and memory in rodents and humans while its withdrawal on the other hand produces neurobehavioral deficits which are thought to be mediated by alterations in monoamines neurotransmission. A role of decreased brain 5-HT (5-hydroxytryptamine, serotonin) levels has been implicated in impaired cognitive performance and depression. Memory functions of rats were assessed by Water Maze (WM) and immobility time by Forced Swim Test (FST). The results of this study showed that repeated caffeine administration for 6 days at 30 mg/kg dose significantly increases brain 5-HT (pcaffeine. Withdrawal of caffeine however produced memory deficits and significantly increases the immobility time of rats in FST. The results of this study are linked with caffeine induced alterations in serotonergic neurotransmission and its role in memory and depression.

  14. Greenhouse evaluation of deficit irrigation on the growth of tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Deficit irrigation is considered to be an important approach for crop cultivation in dry regions where water resources are scarce. Deficit irrigation can be used also to decrease the level of infections by some moisturedependent plant pests and diseases such as root-knot nematode disease. Therefore, deficit irrigation at levels ...

  15. Word Processing in Dyslexics: An Automatic Decoding Deficit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Regina; Van Der Leu, Aryan

    1993-01-01

    Compares dyslexic children with normal readers on measures of phonological decoding and automatic word processing. Finds that dyslexics have a deficit in automatic phonological decoding skills. Discusses results within the framework of the phonological deficit and the automatization deficit hypotheses. (RS)

  16. Human brain lesion-deficit inference remapped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Yee-Haur; Husain, Masud; Rees, Geraint; Nachev, Parashkev

    2014-09-01

    Our knowledge of the anatomical organization of the human brain in health and disease draws heavily on the study of patients with focal brain lesions. Historically the first method of mapping brain function, it is still potentially the most powerful, establishing the necessity of any putative neural substrate for a given function or deficit. Great inferential power, however, carries a crucial vulnerability: without stronger alternatives any consistent error cannot be easily detected. A hitherto unexamined source of such error is the structure of the high-dimensional distribution of patterns of focal damage, especially in ischaemic injury-the commonest aetiology in lesion-deficit studies-where the anatomy is naturally shaped by the architecture of the vascular tree. This distribution is so complex that analysis of lesion data sets of conventional size cannot illuminate its structure, leaving us in the dark about the presence or absence of such error. To examine this crucial question we assembled the largest known set of focal brain lesions (n = 581), derived from unselected patients with acute ischaemic injury (mean age = 62.3 years, standard deviation = 17.8, male:female ratio = 0.547), visualized with diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, and processed with validated automated lesion segmentation routines. High-dimensional analysis of this data revealed a hidden bias within the multivariate patterns of damage that will consistently distort lesion-deficit maps, displacing inferred critical regions from their true locations, in a manner opaque to replication. Quantifying the size of this mislocalization demonstrates that past lesion-deficit relationships estimated with conventional inferential methodology are likely to be significantly displaced, by a magnitude dependent on the unknown underlying lesion-deficit relationship itself. Past studies therefore cannot be retrospectively corrected, except by new knowledge that would render them redundant

  17. OOTW Force Design Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, R.E.; Hartley, D.S.III; Packard, S.L.

    1999-05-01

    This report documents refined requirements for tools to aid the process of force design in Operations Other Than War (OOTWs). It recommends actions for the creation of one tool and work on other tools relating to mission planning. It also identifies the governmental agencies and commands with interests in each tool, from whom should come the user advisory groups overseeing the respective tool development activities. The understanding of OOTWs and their analytical support requirements has matured to the point where action can be taken in three areas: force design, collaborative analysis, and impact analysis. While the nature of the action and the length of time before complete results can be expected depends on the area, in each case the action should begin immediately. Force design for OOTWs is not a technically difficult process. Like force design for combat operations, it is a process of matching the capabilities of forces against the specified and implied tasks of the operation, considering the constraints of logistics, transport and force availabilities. However, there is a critical difference that restricts the usefulness of combat force design tools for OOTWs: the combat tools are built to infer non-combat capability requirements from combat capability requirements and cannot reverse the direction of the inference, as is required for OOTWs. Recently, OOTWs have played a larger role in force assessment, system effectiveness and tradeoff analysis, and concept and doctrine development and analysis. In the first Quadrennial Defense Review (QDR), each of the Services created its own OOTW force design tool. Unfortunately, the tools address different parts of the problem and do not coordinate the use of competing capabilities. These tools satisfied the immediate requirements of the QDR, but do not provide a long-term cost-effective solution.

  18. Forced magnetic reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vekstein, G.

    2017-10-01

    This is a tutorial-style selective review explaining basic concepts of forced magnetic reconnection. It is based on a celebrated model of forced reconnection suggested by J. B. Taylor. The standard magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory of this process has been pioneered by Hahm & Kulsrud (Phys. Fluids, vol. 28, 1985, p. 2412). Here we also discuss several more recent developments related to this problem. These include energetics of forced reconnection, its Hall-mediated regime, and nonlinear effects with the associated onset of the secondary tearing (plasmoid) instability.

  19. Rate of force development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maffiuletti, Nicola A; Aagaard, Per; Blazevich, Anthony J

    2016-01-01

    development and to discuss various methodological considerations inherent to its evaluation for research and clinical purposes. Rate of force development (1) seems to be mainly determined by the capacity to produce maximal voluntary activation in the early phase of an explosive contraction (first 50-75 ms......The evaluation of rate of force development during rapid contractions has recently become quite popular for characterising explosive strength of athletes, elderly individuals and patients. The main aims of this narrative review are to describe the neuromuscular determinants of rate of force...

  20. Calcium-activated force of human muscle fibers following a standardized eccentric contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seung Jun; Widrick, Jeffrey J

    2010-12-01

    Peak Ca(2+)-activated specific force (force/fiber cross-sectional area) of human chemically skinned vastus lateralis muscle fiber segments was determined before and after a fixed-end contraction or an eccentric contraction of standardized magnitude (+0.25 optimal fiber length) and velocity (0.50 unloaded shortening velocity). Fiber myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform content was assayed by SDS-PAGE. Posteccentric force deficit, a marker of damage, was similar for type I and IIa fibers but threefold greater for type IIa/IIx hybrid fibers. A fixed-end contraction had no significant effect on force. Multiple linear regression revealed that posteccentric force was explained by a model consisting of a fiber type-independent and a fiber type-specific component (r(2) = 0.91). Preeccentric specific force was directly associated with a greater posteccentric force deficit. When preeccentric force was held constant, type I and IIa fibers showed identical susceptibility to damage, while type IIa/IIx fibers showed a significantly greater force loss. This heightened sensitivity to damage was directly related to the amount of type IIx MHC in the hybrid fiber. Our model reveals a fiber-type sensitivity of the myofilament lattice or cytoskeleton to mechanical strain that can be described as follows: type IIa/IIx > type IIa = type I. If these properties extend to fibers in vivo, then alterations in the number of type IIa/IIx fibers may modify a muscle's susceptibility to eccentric damage.

  1. Common Cognitive Deficits in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Autism: Working Memory and Visual-Motor Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englund, Julia A.; Decker, Scott L.; Allen, Ryan A.; Roberts, Alycia M.

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive deficits in working memory (WM) are characteristic features of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and autism. However, few studies have investigated cognitive deficits using a wide range of cognitive measures. We compared children with ADHD ("n" = 49) and autism ("n" = 33) with a demographically matched…

  2. Neuropsychological deficits in patients with myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherin P. Antony

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Myocardial Infarction (MI, commonly known as a Heart Attack, remains a leading cause of death throughout the world. Studies have shown that patients, who had MI, have cognitive impairment affecting attention, problem solving, memory, visuospatial, executive function and even dementia. Since cognition and emotion are integral part of the disease, there are no focused studies addressing this issue in the Indian context. Hence the present study. The objective of the study was to determine the neuropsychological deficits in patients with MI and with MI after cardiac bypass surgery. The sample consisted of 30 patients, 15 MI and 15 MI after CABG. All patients were assessed on. a battery of Neuropsychological tests and Hamilton Rating Scale for depression, The findings revealed impairment in mental speed, sustained attention, Animal Fluency Test, Phonemic Fluency Test, verbal and visual working memory, planning, response inhibition, verbal and visual learning and memory. On comparison with MI patients CABG patients showed significant deficits in Planning.

  3. Jealousy delirium associated with memory deficits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orazio Zanetti

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease is a progressive and fatal neurodegenerative disorder manifested by cognitive and memory deterioration, progressive impairment of activities of daily living, and a variety of neuropsychiatric symptoms and behavioural disturbances. A correct and early diagnosis not only allows prompt treatment but can also give the person with Alzheimer’s and his family more time to arm themselves with knowledge about this type of dementia and the best way to live with the disease. The role of Family Physician is very important in early diagnosis: dementia may be suspected if memory deficits are exhibited during the medical history and physical examination. Information from the patient’s family members, friends and caregivers may also point to signs of dementia. We report a case of a 75-years-old man who was suffering from cognitive deficits and behavioural problems: the first disease symptom was a strong feeling of jealousy towards his wife.

  4. The Impact of Motor Axon Misdirection and Attrition on Behavioral Deficit Following Experimental Nerve Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alant, Jacob Daniel de Villiers; Senjaya, Ferry; Ivanovic, Aleksandra; Forden, Joanne; Shakhbazau, Antos; Midha, Rajiv

    2013-01-01

    Peripheral nerve transection and neuroma-in-continuity injuries are associated with permanent functional deficits, often despite successful end-organ reinnervation. Axonal misdirection with non-specific reinnervation, frustrated regeneration and axonal attrition are believed to be among the anatomical substrates that underlie the poor functional recovery associated with these devastating injuries. Yet, functional deficits associated with axonal misdirection in experimental neuroma-in-continuity injuries have not yet been studied. We hypothesized that experimental neuroma-in-continuity injuries would result in motor axon misdirection and attrition with proportional persistent functional deficits. The femoral nerve misdirection model was exploited to assess major motor pathway misdirection and axonal attrition over a spectrum of experimental nerve injuries, with neuroma-in-continuity injuries simulated by the combination of compression and traction forces in 42 male rats. Sciatic nerve injuries were employed in an additional 42 rats, to evaluate the contribution of axonal misdirection to locomotor deficits by a ladder rung task up to 12 weeks. Retrograde motor neuron labeling techniques were utilized to determine the degree of axonal misdirection and attrition. Characteristic histological neuroma-in-continuity features were demonstrated in the neuroma-in-continuity groups and poor functional recovery was seen despite successful nerve regeneration and muscle reinnervation. Good positive and negative correlations were observed respectively between axonal misdirection (pinjuries of mixed motor nerves that contribute to the long-term functional deficits. Although widely accepted in theory, to our knowledge, this is the first experimental evidence to convincingly demonstrate these correlations with data inclusive of the neuroma-in-continuity spectrum. This work emphasizes the need to focus on strategies that promote both robust and accurate nerve regeneration to optimize

  5. Motor Adaptation Deficits in Ideomotor Apraxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutha, Pratik K; Stapp, Lee H; Sainburg, Robert L; Haaland, Kathleen Y

    2017-02-01

    The cardinal motor deficits seen in ideomotor limb apraxia are thought to arise from damage to internal representations for actions developed through learning and experience. However, whether apraxic patients learn to develop new representations with training is not well understood. We studied the capacity of apraxic patients for motor adaptation, a process associated with the development of a new internal representation of the relationship between movements and their sensory effects. Thirteen healthy adults and 23 patients with left hemisphere stroke (12 apraxic, 11 nonapraxic) adapted to a 30-degree visuomotor rotation. While healthy and nonapraxic participants successfully adapted, apraxics did not. Rather, they showed a rapid decrease in error early but no further improvement thereafter, suggesting a deficit in the slow, but not the fast component of a dual-process model of adaptation. The magnitude of this late learning deficit was predicted by the degree of apraxia, and was correlated with the volume of damage in parietal cortex. Apraxics also demonstrated an initial after-effect similar to the other groups likely reflecting the early learning, but this after-effect was not sustained and performance returned to baseline levels more rapidly, consistent with a disrupted slow learning process. These findings suggest that the early phase of learning may be intact in apraxia, but this leads to the development of a fragile representation that is rapidly forgotten. The association between this deficit and left parietal damage points to a key role for this region in learning to form stable internal representations. (JINS, 2017, 23, 139-149).

  6. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in prison inmates

    OpenAIRE

    Ginsberg, Ylva

    2012-01-01

    Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is an inherited developmental disorder with early onset, chronically persisting in the vast majority of cases. ADHD is associated with pervasive cognitive, emotional and functional impairments, as well as an increased rate of coexisting disorders. ADHD in the presence of early disruptive behaviours increase the risk for later delinquency. ADHD is estimated to be present in about 25-45% of adult prison inmates, thus 10-times increased...

  7. Prereading Deficits in Children in Foster Care

    OpenAIRE

    Pears, Katherine C.; Heywood, Cynthia V.; Kim, Hyoun K.; Fisher, Philip A.

    2011-01-01

    Reading skills are core competencies in children's readiness to learn and may be particularly important for children in foster care, who are at risk for academic difficulties and higher rates of special education placement. In this study, prereading skills (phonological awareness, alphabetic knowledge, and oral language ability) and kindergarten performance of 63 children in foster care were examined just prior to and during the fall of kindergarten. The children exhibited prereading deficits...

  8. Stigma in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller, Anna K.; Fuermaier, Anselm B. M.; Koerts, Janneke; Tucha, Lara

    2012-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a frequently diagnosed disorder in child- and adulthood with a high impact affecting multiple facets of social life. Therefore, patients suffering from ADHD are at high risk to be confronted with stigma, prejudices, and discrimination. A review of the empirical research in the field of ADHD with regard to stigma was performed. The findings of investigations in this field were clustered in different categories, including stigma in children wit...

  9. Genetic Basis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Nihal Yurteri; A. Evren Tufan; Gizem Melissa Akgun; Ayten Erdogan

    2011-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neuropsychiatric disorders of childhood. Due to studies reporting that the effects of ADHD diagnosis on functioning may last throughout life, this disorder, which has great importance for child and adolescent psychiatry, started to attract greater attention recently in terms of adult psychiatry. A review, evaluating the results of studies conducted on the genetic basis of ADHD, which started to attract increasing attent...

  10. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    White, Russell D.; Harris, George D.; Gibson, Margaret E.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is common in the general population, and many individuals with this condition participate in sports activity at all competition levels. Evidence Acquisition: Related studies were selected through literature searches of PubMed, MEDLINE, and Cochrane databases for the years 1991 to 2011. Key search terms were ADD, ADHD, sports, athletes, athletics, guidelines, NCAA, WADA, IOC, college, concussion, diagnosis, management, treatment, evaluat...

  11. The deficit mechanism of the Hungarian municipalities

    OpenAIRE

    Vasvári, Tamás

    2012-01-01

    The management of the Hungarian municipal sector has received special attention since the crisis in 2008 and interest in the sector increased further due to the changes in legislation in 2011. A great number of economy experts and speakers on behalf of the government or the municipalities provided further details on prevailing issues in the municipal sector, however, their assessment of the severity of these issues varied greatly. By describing the logical framework of the deficit mechanism t...

  12. ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER. A CLINICAL LECTURE

    OpenAIRE

    A. S. Kotov; M. N. Borisova; M. V. Panteleeva; Yu. V. Matyuk; A. V. Shatalin

    2015-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a serious problem to pediatric neurologists. The prevalence of ADHD in developed countries ranges from 1 to 20 %. ADHD is characterized by a triad of symptoms: inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity (the International Statistical Classification of Diseases, 10th revision, codes it as F90) and it is the most common conduct disorder in children. The etiology of ADHD remains disсutable to the present day; there are a few basic concepts of t...

  13. Gender Specific Social Deficits in the Elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Spilling, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    The possibility of age-related declines in social functioning has not been thoroughly explored. This study aimed to determine whether the elderly were impaired on a number of social tasks that are dependent on the frontal lobes, and whether these deficits were consistent with either: Reinforcement and Reversal Theory, Representation of Social Knowledge or Theory of Mind. 40 participants were recruited, 20 forming the young age group and 20 forming the older age group; these were matched for I...

  14. Government Deficits, Liquidity Preference, and Schumpeterian Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    L. Randall Wray

    1999-01-01

    Wray asserts that rigorous analyses of the role played by innovation in economic development must acknowledge the contribution of Joseph Schumpeter. However, the author suggests that the current stagnation confronting most developed, capitalist economies "cannot be understood without synthesizing Schumpeter's insights with those of Kalecki and Keynes." Hence, Schumpeter's work alone is inadequate in explaining the links between government deficits in ensuring aggregate demand and corporate pr...

  15. Mindfulness and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Smalley, Susan L.; Loo, Sandra K.; Hale, T. Sigi; Shrestha, Anshu; McGough, James; Flook, Lisa; Reise, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a disorder characterized by attentional difficulties. Mindfulness is a receptive attention to present experience. Both ADHD and mindfulness are associated with attention and personality. This study tests whether individuals with ADHD have lower mindfulness scores than controls and, if true, whether personality contributes to these differences. 105 adults (half with ADHD) were assessed for mindfulness, using the Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulne...

  16. Objective Force Warrior

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shisler, Vernon

    2001-01-01

    This presentation concerns technology aimed at the dismounted soldier, Capstone demonstrations for FY06-07, fielding in the Objective Force time frame, strong interest in a lightweight weapon family...

  17. Packing force data correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiman, S.M.

    1994-01-01

    One of the issues facing valve maintenance personnel today deals with an appropriate methodology for installing and setting valve packing that will minimize leak rates, yet ensure functionality of the the valve under all anticipated operating conditions. Several variables can affect a valve packing's ability to seal, such as packing bolt torque, stem finish, and lubrication. Stem frictional force can be an excellent overall indicator of some of the underlying conditions that affect the sealing characteristics of the packing and the best parameter to use when adjusting the packing. This paper addresses stem friction forces, analytically derives the equations related to these forces, presents a methodology for measuring these forces on valve stems, and attempts to correlate the data directly to the underlying variables

  18. Institutionalizing Security Force Assistance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Binetti, Michael R

    2008-01-01

    .... It looks at the manner in which security assistance guidance is developed and executed. An examination of national level policy and the guidance from senior military and civilian leaders highlights the important role of Security Force Assistance...

  19. Hanscom Air Force Base

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — MIT Lincoln Laboratory occupies 75 acres (20 acres of which are MIT property) on the eastern perimeter of Hanscom Air Force Base, which is at the nexus of Lexington,...

  20. On the fifth forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treder, Hans-Jürgen

    1991-03-01

    We discuss the possibility of “fifth forces” in relativistic gravitation theories of fourth order. The fifth force may be an analog to the “weak forces” in the theories of electroweak interactions.

  1. Medical Comorbidities in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irem Yalug

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is one of the most common developmental disorders of childhood with a reported world-wide prevalence of 8 to 12 %. In studies conducted in our country the prevalence rates in community were reported to vary between 8.6 to 8.1 % while clinical prevalence rates were reported to vary between 8.6 to 29.44 %. Fifty to eighty percent of cases were reported to continue into adolescence while thirty to fifty percent may continue into adulthood. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is known to accompany subtle physical anomalies, allergic and neurologic disorders, obesity and eating disorders, traumatic injuries, risky sexual behavior, sleep disorders, substance and alcohol use, axis I and II disorders, occupational, legal and academic problems and increased treatment expenditures. Though the effects of this disorder continue throughout life, create burdens to the society along with its treatment as well as disabling the affected patients through their lives, and receive increasing attention in recent years, reviews focusing on problems associated with it are lacking. Therefore, this study aimed to summarize the results of previous studies conducted about medical comorbidities in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

  2. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition ameliorates deficits in motivational drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinowich Keri

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Apathy is frequently observed in numerous neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's, as well as neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. Apathy is defined as a lack of motivation characterized by diminished goal-oriented behavior and self-initiated activity. This study evaluated a chronic restraint stress (CRS protocol in modeling apathetic behavior, and determined whether administration of an anticholinesterase had utility in attenuating CRS-induced phenotypes. Methods We assessed behavior as well as regional neuronal activity patterns using FosB immunohistochemistry after exposure to CRS for 6 h/d for a minimum of 21 d. Based on our FosB findings and recent clinical trials, we administered an anticholinesterase to evaluate attenuation of CRS-induced phenotypes. Results CRS resulted in behaviors that reflect motivational loss and diminished emotional responsiveness. CRS-exposed mice showed differences in FosB accumulation, including changes in the cholinergic basal forebrain system. Facilitating cholinergic signaling ameliorated CRS-induced deficits in initiation and motivational drive and rescued immediate early gene activation in the medial septum and nucleus accumbens. Conclusions Some CRS protocols may be useful for studying deficits in motivation and apathetic behavior. Amelioration of CRS-induced behaviors with an anticholinesterase supports a role for the cholinergic system in remediation of deficits in motivational drive.

  3. Pollination deficits in UK apple orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Potts

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Apple production in the UK is worth over £100 million per annum and this production is heavily dependent on insect pollination. Despite its importance, it is not clear which insect pollinators carry out the majority of this pollination. Furthermore, it is unknown whether current UK apple production, in terms of both yield and quality, suffers pollination deficits and whether production value could be increased through effective management of pollination services. The present study set out to address some of these unknowns and showed that solitary bee activity is high in orchards and that they could be making a valuable contribution to pollination. Furthermore, fruit set and apple seed number were found to be suffering potential pollination deficits although these were not reflected in apple quality. Deficits could be addressed through orchard management practices to improve the abundance and diversity of wild pollinators. Such practices include provision of additional floral resources and nesting habitats as well as preservation of semi-natural areas. The cost effectiveness of such strategies would need to be understood taking into account the potential gains to the apple industry.

  4. Word Learning Deficits in Children With Dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, Mary; Hogan, Tiffany; Green, Samuel; Gray, Shelley; Cabbage, Kathryn; Cowan, Nelson

    2017-04-14

    The purpose of this study is to investigate word learning in children with dyslexia to ascertain their strengths and weaknesses during the configuration stage of word learning. Children with typical development (N = 116) and dyslexia (N = 68) participated in computer-based word learning games that assessed word learning in 4 sets of games that manipulated phonological or visuospatial demands. All children were monolingual English-speaking 2nd graders without oral language impairment. The word learning games measured children's ability to link novel names with novel objects, to make decisions about the accuracy of those names and objects, to recognize the semantic features of the objects, and to produce the names of the novel words. Accuracy data were analyzed using analyses of covariance with nonverbal intelligence scores as a covariate. Word learning deficits were evident for children with dyslexia across every type of manipulation and on 3 of 5 tasks, but not for every combination of task/manipulation. Deficits were more common when task demands taxed phonology. Visuospatial manipulations led to both disadvantages and advantages for children with dyslexia. Children with dyslexia evidence spoken word learning deficits, but their performance is highly dependent on manipulations and task demand, suggesting a processing trade-off between visuospatial and phonological demands.

  5. Pollination deficits in UK apple orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Paul Douglas Garratt

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Apple production in the UK is worth over £100 million per annum and this production is heavily dependent on insect pollination. Despite its importance, it is not clear which insect pollinators carry out the majority of this pollination. Furthermore, it is unknown whether current UK apple production, in terms of both yield and quality, suffers pollination deficits and whether production value could be increased through effective management of pollination services. The present study set out to address some of these unknowns and showed that solitary bee activity is high in orchards and that they could be making a valuable contribution to pollination. Furthermore, fruit set and apple seed number were found to be suffering potential pollination deficits although these were not reflected in apple quality. Deficits could be addressed through orchard management practices to improve the abundance and diversity of wild pollinators. Such practices include provision of additional floral resources and nesting habitats as well as preservation of semi-natural areas. The cost effectiveness of such strategies would need to be understood taking into account the potential gains to the apple industry.

  6. Bow Crushing Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of these notes is to present a basis for the estimation of the internal collision forces between conventinal merchant vessels and large volume offshore structures in the form of gravity-supported offshore installations and bridges crossing international shipping routes.The main emphasis...... is on the presentation of impact loads on fixed offshore structures due to bow collisions. The crushing forces are determined as functions of vessels size, vessels speed, bow profile, collision angles and eccentric impacts....

  7. Security Force Assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    Group 8-59. Cultures may be individualistic or collectivist in their orientation. An individualist culture is one in which the ties between...relatively little weight on offensive and defensive operations from a U.S. perspective . However, when U.S. forces accompany foreign security forces (FSF) in...precedence when conducting SFA. As a result, the brigade combat team (BCT) may be a supported command from a U.S. perspective as well as acting as

  8. Joint Force Fires Coordination: Towards a Joint Force Answer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fearn, William

    1997-01-01

    .... Components compete for decisive effect not only with each other but with the joint force. The contemporary joint force is confederated, the joint force headquarters a weak arbitration authority...

  9. Forced-Attention Dichotic Listening with University Students with Dyslexia: Search for a Core Deficit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kershner, John R.

    2016-01-01

    Rapidly changing environments in day-to-day activities, enriched with stimuli competing for attention, require a cognitive control mechanism to select relevant stimuli, ignore irrelevant stimuli, and shift attention between alternative features of the environment. Such attentional orchestration is essential to the acquisition of reading skills. In…

  10. Isometric force exaggeration in simulated weightlessness by water immersion: role of visual feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalecki, Marc; Bock, Otmar

    2014-06-01

    Previous studies reported that humans produce exaggerated isometric forces (20-50%) in microgravity, hypergravity, and under water. Subjects were not provided with visual feedback and exaggerations were attributed to proprioceptive deficits. The few studies that provided visual feedback in micro- and hypergravity found no deficits. The present work was undertaken to find out whether visual feedback can reduce or eliminate isometric force exaggerations during shallow water immersion, a working environment for astronauts and divers. There were 48 subjects who had to produce isometric forces of 15 N with a joystick; targets were presented via screen. Procedures were similar to earlier studies, but provided visual feedback. Subjects were tested 16.4 ft (5 m) under water (WET) and on dry land (DRY). Response accuracy was calculated with landmarks such as initial and peak force magnitude, and response timing. Initial force and response timing were equal in WET compared to DRY. A small but significant force exaggeration (+5%) remained for peak force in WET that was limited to directions toward the trunk. Force exaggeration under water is largely compensated, but not completely eliminated by visual feedback. As in earlier studies without visual feedback, force exaggeration manifested during later but not early response parts, speaking for impaired proprioceptive feedback rather than for erroneous central motor planning. Since in contrast to micro/hypergravity, visual feedback did not sufficiently abolish force deficits under water, proprioceptive information seems to be weighted differently in micro/hypergravity and shallow water immersion, probably because only the latter environment produces increased ambient pressure, which is known to induce neuronal changes.

  11. Brain neurodevelopmental markers related to the deficit subtype of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Tsutomu; Takayanagi, Yoichiro; Nishikawa, Yumiko; Nakamura, Mihoko; Komori, Yuko; Furuichi, Atsushi; Kido, Mikio; Sasabayashi, Daiki; Noguchi, Kyo; Suzuki, Michio

    2017-08-30

    Deficit schizophrenia is a homogeneous subtype characterized by a trait-like feature of primary and prominent negative symptoms, but the etiologic factors related to this specific subtype remain largely unknown. This magnetic resonance imaging study aimed to examine gross brain morphology that probably reflects early neurodevelopment in 38 patients with deficit schizophrenia, 37 patients with non-deficit schizophrenia, and 59 healthy controls. Potential brain neurodevelopmental markers investigated in this study were the adhesio interthalamica (AI), cavum septi pellucidi (CSP), and surface morphology (i.e., olfactory sulcus depth, sulcogyral pattern, and number of orbital sulci) of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). The subtype classification of schizophrenia patients was based on the score of Proxy for the Deficit Syndrome. The deficit schizophrenia group had a significantly shorter AI compared with the non-deficit group and controls. The deficit group, but not the non-deficit group, was also characterized by an altered distribution of the OFC sulcogyral pattern, as well as fewer posterior orbital sulcus compared with controls. Other neurodevelopmental markers did not differentiate the deficit and non-deficit subgroups. These results suggest that the deficit subtype of schizophrenia and its clinical manifestation may be at least partly related to prominent neurodevelopmental pathology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Testing the double-deficit hypothesis in an adult sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Carlin J; Miller, Scott R; Bloom, Juliana S; Jones, Lauren; Lindstrom, William; Craggs, Jason; Garcia-Barrera, Mauricio; Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Gilger, Jeffrey W; Hynd, George W

    2006-06-01

    The double-deficit hypothesis of dyslexia posits that reading deficits are more severe in individuals with weaknesses in phonological awareness and rapid naming than in individuals with deficits in only one of these reading composite skills. In this study, the hypothesis was tested in an adult sample as a model of reading achievement. Participants were parents of children referred for evaluation of reading difficulties. Approximately half of all participants reported difficulty learning to read in childhood and a small subset demonstrated ongoing weaknesses in reading. Structural equation modeling results suggest that the double-deficit hypothesis is an accurate model for understanding adult reading achievement. Better reading achievement was associated with better phonological awareness and faster rapid automatized naming in adults. Posthoc analyses indicated that individuals with double deficits had significantly lower reading achievement than individuals with single deficits or no deficits.

  13. Metacognition deficits as a risk factor for prospective motivation deficits in schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luther, Lauren; Firmin, Ruth L; Minor, Kyle S; Vohs, Jenifer L; Buck, Benjamin; Buck, Kelly D; Lysaker, Paul H

    2016-11-30

    Although motivation deficits are key determinants of functional outcomes, little is known about factors that contribute to prospective motivation in people with schizophrenia. One candidate factor is metacognition, or the ability to form complex representations about oneself, others, and the world. This study aimed to assess whether metacognition deficits were a significant predictor of reduced prospective motivation, after controlling for the effects of baseline motivation, anticipatory pleasure, and antipsychotic medication dose. Fifty-one participants with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder completed measures of metacognition and anticipatory pleasure at baseline; participants also completed a measure of motivation at baseline and six months after the initial assessment. Baseline antipsychotic dose was obtained from medical charts. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that lower levels of baseline metacognition significantly predicted reduced levels of motivation assessed six months later, after controlling for baseline levels of motivation, anticipatory pleasure, and antipsychotic dose. Higher baseline antipsychotic dose was also a significant predictor of reduced six month motivation. Results suggest that metacognition deficits and higher antipsychotic dose may be risk factors for the development of motivation deficits in schizophrenia. Implications include utilizing interventions to improve metacognition in conjunction with evaluating and possibly lowering antipsychotic dose for people struggling with motivation deficits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Executive and attentional contributions to Theory of Mind deficit in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary, Alison; Slama, Hichem; Mousty, Philippe; Massat, Isabelle; Capiau, Tatiana; Drabs, Virginie; Peigneux, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children has been associated with attentional and executive problems, but also with socioemotional difficulties possibly associated with deficits in Theory of Mind (ToM). Socioemotional problems in ADHD are associated with more negative prognoses, notably interpersonal, educational problems, and an increased risk of developing other psychiatric disorders that emphasize the need to clarify the nature of their ToM deficits. In this study, we hypothesized that ToM dysfunction in children with ADHD is largely attributable to their attentional and/or executive deficits. Thirty-one children with ADHD (8-12 years, IQ > 85) and 31 typically developing (TD) children were assessed using executive functions (inhibition, planning, and flexibility) and attentional tasks, as well as two advanced ToM tasks (Reading the Mind in the Eyes and Faux Pas) involving different levels of executive control. Children with ADHD performed more poorly than TD children in attentional, executive function, and ToM tasks. Linear regression analyses conducted in the ADHD group indicated that inhibition scores predicted performance on the "Faux Pas" task the best, while attention scores were the best for predicting performance on the Reading the Mind in the Eyes task. When controlled for inhibition and attentional variables, ToM performance in children with ADHD was actually similar to TD children. Contrarily, controlling for ToM scores did not normalize performance for inhibition and attentional tasks in children with ADHD. This unidirectional relationship suggests that deficits in the EF and attentional domains are responsible for ToM deficits in ADHD, which therefore may contribute to their socioemotional difficulties.

  15. Widespread auditory deficits in tune deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jennifer L; Zalewski, Christopher; Brewer, Carmen; Lucker, Jay; Drayna, Dennis

    2009-02-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate auditory function in individuals with deficits in musical pitch perception. We hypothesized that such individuals have deficits in nonspeech areas of auditory processing. We screened 865 randomly selected individuals to identify those who scored poorly on the Distorted Tunes test (DTT), a measure of musical pitch recognition ability. Those who scored poorly were given a comprehensive audiologic examination, and those with hearing loss or other confounding audiologic factors were excluded from further testing. Thirty-five individuals with tune deafness constituted the experimental group. Thirty-four individuals with normal hearing and normal DTT scores, matched for age, gender, handedness, and education, and without overt or reported psychiatric disorders made up the normal control group. Individual and group performance for pure-tone frequency discrimination at 1000 Hz was determined by measuring the difference limen for frequency (DLF). Auditory processing abilities were assessed using tests of pitch pattern recognition, duration pattern recognition, and auditory gap detection. In addition, we evaluated both attention and short- and long-term memory as variables that might influence performance on our experimental measures. Differences between groups were evaluated statistically using Wilcoxon nonparametric tests and t-tests as appropriate. The DLF at 1000 Hz in the group with tune deafness was significantly larger than that of the normal control group. However, approximately one-third of participants with tune deafness had DLFs within the range of performance observed in the control group. Many individuals with tune deafness also displayed a high degree of variability in their intertrial frequency discrimination performance that could not be explained by deficits in memory or attention. Pitch and duration pattern discrimination and auditory gap-detection ability were significantly poorer in the group with tune deafness

  16. Forces in strategy formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensen, Elmer Fly; Sanchez, Ron

    2008-01-01

    This chapter proposes that organizational strategy formation should be characterized theoretically as a process that is subject to several interacting forces, rather than represented by separate discrete decisionmodels or theoretic perspectives, as is commonly done in the strategic management...... literature. Based on an extensive review of relevant theory and empirical work in strategic decision-making, organizational change theory, cognitive and social psychology, and strategy processes, seven kinds of ''forces'' - rational, imposed, teleological, learning, political, heuristic, and social...... - are identified as interacting in and having significant influence on the strategy formation process. It is further argued that by applying a holistic ''forces-view'' of the significant and interacting influences on strategy formation, we can better understand the dynamics and challenges in managing the process...

  17. Electrochemical force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalinin, Sergei V.; Jesse, Stephen; Collins, Liam F.; Rodriguez, Brian J.

    2017-01-10

    A system and method for electrochemical force microscopy are provided. The system and method are based on a multidimensional detection scheme that is sensitive to forces experienced by a biased electrode in a solution. The multidimensional approach allows separation of fast processes, such as double layer charging, and charge relaxation, and slow processes, such as diffusion and faradaic reactions, as well as capturing the bias dependence of the response. The time-resolved and bias measurements can also allow probing both linear (small bias range) and non-linear (large bias range) electrochemical regimes and potentially the de-convolution of charge dynamics and diffusion processes from steric effects and electrochemical reactivity.

  18. ForcePAD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindemann, J.; Damkilde, Lars

    2009-01-01

    ForcePAD is a 2-dimensional finite element application that started as a concept application for finite element modeling. Over the course of 10 years the application has been evolved into an application that is used extensively in both an educational setting as well as a tool for design and engin......ForcePAD is a 2-dimensional finite element application that started as a concept application for finite element modeling. Over the course of 10 years the application has been evolved into an application that is used extensively in both an educational setting as well as a tool for design...

  19. WATER MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES UNDER DEFICIT IRRIGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino Capra

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Deficit irrigation (DI is an optimization strategy whereby net returns are maximized by reducing the amount of irrigation water; crops are deliberated allowed to sustain some degree of water deficit and yield reduction. Although the DI strategy dates back to the 1970s, this technique is not usually adopted as a practical alternative to full irrigation by either academics or practitioners. Furthermore, there is a certain amount of confusion regarding its concept. In fact, a review of recent literature dealing with DI has shown that only a few papers use the concept of DI in its complete sense (e.g. both the agronomic and economic aspects. A number of papers only deal with the physiological and agronomical aspects of DI or concern techniques such as Regulated Deficit Irrigation (RDI and Partial Root Drying (PRD. The paper includes two main parts: i a review of the principal water management strategies under deficit conditions (e.g. conventional DI, RDI and PRD; and ii a description of a recent experimental research conducted by the authors in Sicily (Italy that integrates agronomic, engineering and economic aspects of DI at farm level. Most of the literature reviewed here showed, in general, quite positive effects from DI application, mostly evidenced when the economics of DI is included in the research approach. With regard to the agronomic effects, total fresh mass and total production is generally reduced under DI, whereas the effects on dry matter and product quality are positive, mainly in crops for which excessive soil water availability can cause significant reductions in fruit size, colour or composition (grapes, tomatoes, mangos, etc.. The experimental trial on a lettuce crop in Sicily, during 2005 and 2006, shows that the highest mean marketable yield of lettuce (55.3 t ha-1 in 2005 and 51.9 t ha-1 in 2006 was recorded in plots which received 100% of ET0-PM (reference evapotranspiration by the Penman- Monteith method applied water. In

  20. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, S.

    2013-01-01

    The proposed revision of the diagnostic criteria in DSM-5 for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) will not fundamentally change the concept of ADHD. This is mainly due to the fact that, DSM-5 will retain the exact DSM-IV wording of all 18 symptoms, but will add new examples that make...... will most likely increase the prevalence of ADHD, especially in adults and adolescents, but maybe also in children. The added examples will also result in necessary revisions and new validations of rating scales and diagnostic interviews. This review will examine each of the proposed DSM-5 changes...

  1. Treatment Approaches to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antai-Otong, Deborah; Zimmerman, Michele L

    2016-06-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder in children, adolescents, and adults, with a prevalence estimated from 5% to 7% across cultures and approximately 2% to 5% in adults. This lifelong disorder challenges nurses to understand the basis of ADHD, analyze symptoms, differentiate coexisting disorders, gather health information from varied sources, and implement person-centered multimodal treatment. Nurses are poised to plan, and work with patients, families, and teachers in the community and school systems to optimize academic and occupational performance and improve quality of life. Pharmacotherapy, psychoeducation, and behavioral therapies are strong components of multimodal treatment planning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [DMS-5 - attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banaschewski, Tobias; Döpfner, Manfred

    2014-07-01

    Modifications to the DSM-5 criteria for the diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders are described and discussed. The main modifications concern the onset of the disorder, the reduction on the number of criteria fulfilled for a diagnosis in patients aged 17 years or older, and the elimination of autism spectrum disorders as an exclusion criterion for this diagnosis. These changes are mainly welcomed. However, the demanded increase in the age for the latest onset of the disorder may prove to be problematic.

  3. Environment, migration and the European demographic deficit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Many countries in the more developed world, and some in the less developed, are facing new economic and social pressures associated with the ageing of their populations. Europe, in particular, is forecast to have a demographic deficit, which may be alleviated by in-migration to the region. However, several commentators have proposed that Europe will not be able to successfully compete with other regions, in particular Asia, in the coming years for the skills it will require. This letter explores these themes, arguing that climate change will increase the attractiveness of Europe as a destination of economic choice for future skilled workers, to the detriment of more environmentally challenged regions. (letter)

  4. The Dance of Attention: Toward an Aesthetic Dimension of Attention-Deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Kasper

    2018-03-01

    What role does the aesthetics of bodily movement play in the understanding of attention among children diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)? This article animates a phenomenological approach to attention and embodiment with a special focus on the relation between aesthetic or expressive bodily movement and behavioral awareness in children diagnosed with ADHD. However, beyond this it is argued that the aesthetic aspect of movement calls for an expansion of the phenomenological perspective. In this context Gilles Deleuze's notion of aesthetics as a "science of the sensible" is activated and discussed in relation to the phenomenological concept of perception. Empirically the article takes point of departure in a qualitative study conducted with a group of children with attention-deficit practicing the Afro-Brazilian marital art, capoeira. Combining ethnographic and phenomenological methods, it is demonstrated that capoeira can be considered a form of aesthetic movement that offers a transition of attention-deficit into a productive force of expression that changes the notions of sensation and movement in ADHD.

  5. Are auditory and visual processing deficits related to developmental dyslexia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, George K; Papadopoulos, Timothy C; Zarouna, Elena; Parrila, Rauno

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine if children with dyslexia learning to read a consistent orthography (Greek) experience auditory and visual processing deficits and if these deficits are associated with phonological awareness, rapid naming speed and orthographic processing. We administered measures of general cognitive ability, phonological awareness, orthographic processing, short-term memory, rapid automatized naming, auditory and visual processing, and reading fluency to 21 Grade 6 children with dyslexia, 21 chronological age-matched controls and 20 Grade 3 reading age-matched controls. The results indicated that the children with dyslexia did not experience auditory processing deficits, but about half of them showed visual processing deficits. Both orthographic processing and rapid automatized naming deficits were associated with dyslexia in our sample, but it is less clear that they were associated with visual processing deficits. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. A Cognitive Distortions and Deficits Model of Suicide Ideation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazakas-DeHoog, Laura L; Rnic, Katerina; Dozois, David J A

    2017-05-01

    Although cognitive distortions and deficits are known risk factors for the development and escalation of suicide ideation and behaviour, no empirical work has examined how these variables interact to predict suicide ideation. The current study proposes an integrative model of cognitive distortions (hopelessness and negative evaluations of self and future) and deficits (problem solving deficits, problem solving avoidance, and cognitive rigidity). To test the integrity of this model, a sample of 397 undergraduate students completed measures of deficits, distortions, and current suicide ideation. A structural equation model demonstrated excellent fit, and findings indicated that only distortions have a direct effect on suicidal thinking, whereas cognitive deficits may exert their effects on suicide ideation via their reciprocal relation with distortions. Findings underscore the importance of both cognitive distortions and deficits for understanding suicidality, which may have implications for preventative efforts and treatment.

  7. A Cognitive Distortions and Deficits Model of Suicide Ideation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura L. Fazakas-DeHoog

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Although cognitive distortions and deficits are known risk factors for the development and escalation of suicide ideation and behaviour, no empirical work has examined how these variables interact to predict suicide ideation. The current study proposes an integrative model of cognitive distortions (hopelessness and negative evaluations of self and future and deficits (problem solving deficits, problem solving avoidance, and cognitive rigidity. To test the integrity of this model, a sample of 397 undergraduate students completed measures of deficits, distortions, and current suicide ideation. A structural equation model demonstrated excellent fit, and findings indicated that only distortions have a direct effect on suicidal thinking, whereas cognitive deficits may exert their effects on suicide ideation via their reciprocal relation with distortions. Findings underscore the importance of both cognitive distortions and deficits for understanding suicidality, which may have implications for preventative efforts and treatment.

  8. Sleep Restores Daytime Deficits in Procedural Memory in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prehn-Kristensen, Alexander; Molzow, Ina; Munz, Manuel; Wilhelm, Ines; Muller, Kathrin; Freytag, Damaris; Wiesner, Christian D.; Baving, Lioba

    2011-01-01

    Sleep supports the consolidation of declarative and procedural memory. While prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity supports the consolidation of declarative memory during sleep, opposite effects of PFC activity are reported with respect to the consolidation of procedural memory during sleep. Patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)…

  9. due to Capillary Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassen M. Ouakad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We present modeling and analysis for the static behavior and collapse instabilities of doubly-clamped and cantilever microbeams subjected to capillary forces. These forces can be as a result of a volume of liquid trapped underneath the microbeam during the rinsing and drying process in fabrication. The model considers the microbeam as a continuous medium, the capillary force as a nonlinear function of displacement, and accounts for the mid-plane stretching and geometric nonlinearities. The capillary force is assumed to be distributed over a specific length underneath the microbeam. The Galerkin procedure is used to derive a reduced-order model consisting of a set of nonlinear algebraic and differential equations that describe the microbeams static and dynamic behaviors. We study the collapse instability, which brings the microbeam from its unstuck configuration to touch the substrate and gets stuck in the so-called pinned configuration. We calculate the pull-in length that distinguishes the free from the pinned configurations as a function of the beam thickness and gap width for both microbeams. Comparisons are made with analytical results reported in the literature based on the Ritz method for linear and nonlinear beam models. The instability problem, which brings the microbeam from a pinned to adhered configuration is also investigated. For this case, we use a shooting technique to solve the boundary-value problem governing the deflection of the microbeams. The critical microbeam length for this second instability is also calculated.

  10. The fifth force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischbach, E.; Sudarsky, D.; Szafer, A.; Talmadge, C.; Aronson, S.H.

    1986-01-01

    We present a phenomenological description of the ''fifth force'' which focuses on the implications of the existing data from satellite and geophysical measurements of gravity, the Eoetvoes experiment, decays into hyperphotons, and the energy-dependence of the K 0 - anti K 0 parameters

  11. Magnetic Force Microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abelmann, Leon

    Principle of MFM In magnetic force microscopy (MFM), the magnetic stray field above a very flat specimen, or sample, is detected by placing a small magnetic element, the tip, mounted on a cantilever spring very close to the surface of the sample (Figure 1). Typical dimensions are a cantilever length

  12. Separation problems and forcing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zapletal, Jindřich

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 1 (2013), s. 1350002 ISSN 0219-0613 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : separation * set of uniqueness * forcing Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.364, year: 2012 http://www.worldscientific.com/doi/abs/10.1142/S0219061313500025

  13. Allegiance: Egypt Security Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    expected after the uprising of 2011 never truly materialized; the Interior Ministry instituted various cosmetic changes, but its basic construct and...military forces located there. The masked men appeared to be shooting and the army responded, shooting back.284 Whatever the stories

  14. Activation force splines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engell-Nørregård, Morten Pol; Erleben, Kenny

    We present a method for simulating the active contraction of deformable models, usable for interactive animation of soft deformable objects. We present a novel physical principle as the governing equation for the coupling between the low dimensional 1D activation force model and the higher...

  15. Word learning in children with vocabulary deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Marysia; Donaldson, Morag L

    2005-04-01

    Word learning in 16 children with specific language impairment (SLI) was compared with that of chronological-age controls (CAC) and vocabulary-age controls (VAC), to examine the extent and nature of word-learning deficits in the children with SLI. The children were exposed to novel words in a story and an explicit teaching context. Five tasks assessed how much the children had learned about the words' phonological form and semantic properties after 6 repetitions (Time 1) and again after 12 repetitions (Time 2) of the words in each context. The SLI group performed significantly worse than the CAC group at both Time 1 and Time 2 on all measures of the words presented in both contexts. They performed similarly to the VAC group (who were on average 21/2 years younger) on Time 1 and Time 2 measures from both contexts, except for the Naming task at Time 2, on which their performance was significantly lower. These findings suggest that children with vocabulary deficits have difficulties with both phonological and semantic aspects of word learning.

  16. Taxation, Fiscal Deficit and Inflation in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Rasool Madni

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Fiscal policy has more controversial debate regarding its effectiveness on different macroeconomic activities of an economy. Taxation and government expenditure are two main instruments of fiscal policy. This paper is aimed to analyze and update the effects of different instruments of fiscal policy on inflation in Pakistan economy. The data time span for this study is 1979-2013. The impact of fiscal policy on inflation is analyzed by utilizing the Bounds testing procedure and ARDL approach of co-integration which is a better estimation technique for small sample size. It is found that investment negatively and significantly affect the inflation rate. The outcomes of the study show that both types of taxes (direct and indirect are causing to increase the inflation level while fiscal deficit is also one of the reasons to increase the inflation in the country. The study proposed that government should decrease the level of expenditure to reduce the level of fiscal deficit and investment have to be promoted to decrease the inflation in the country. Furthermore, it is also suggested to decrease the level of taxation for controlling inflation.

  17. Stroke caused auditory attention deficits in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Maria Ibraim da Freiria Elias

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To verify the auditory selective attention in children with stroke. METHODS: Dichotic tests of binaural separation (non-verbal and consonant-vowel and binaural integration - digits and Staggered Spondaic Words Test (SSW - were applied in 13 children (7 boys, from 7 to 16 years, with unilateral stroke confirmed by neurological examination and neuroimaging. RESULTS: The attention performance showed significant differences in comparison to the control group in both kinds of tests. In the non-verbal test, identifications the ear opposite the lesion in the free recall stage was diminished and, in the following stages, a difficulty in directing attention was detected. In the consonant- vowel test, a modification in perceptual asymmetry and difficulty in focusing in the attended stages was found. In the digits and SSW tests, ipsilateral, contralateral and bilateral deficits were detected, depending on the characteristics of the lesions and demand of the task. CONCLUSION: Stroke caused auditory attention deficits when dealing with simultaneous sources of auditory information.

  18. Has the charm deficit really vanished?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schindler, R.H.

    1987-09-01

    Many experiments have observed charmed particles inclusively in e + e - annihilation, hadro-, photo-, and neutrino- production, and recently in the direct cascade process from B meson decay. The scale of these measurements is set largely by the branching ratios B(D 0 → K - π + ) and B(D + → K - π + π + ). These branching fractions have been measured by attributing the enhancement in the total hadronic cross section at the psi(3770) resonance to D anti D production, and normalizing the rates for K - π + and K - π + π + accordingly. These height measurements however exhibit a wide variance. Two years ago a new technique for measuring branching fractions was introduced by the Mark III, which largely avoided the cross section normalization. The result, however, yielded significantly larger values for all branching ratios while leaving their relative values unchanged. In turn, it created a problem for subsequent high statistics inclusive measurements of charm (in particular the continuum e + e - production rate and B cascade decay rates) where an ∼50% ''deficit'' of charm was claimed to exist by CLEO. With the rescaling downward by 24% (21%) of the Mark III D 0 (D + ) values, the so-called ''charm deficit'' is again addressed in this review. Also introduced here are new measurements from ARGUS and HRS which also directly address the issue of charm normalization with statistics comparable to other measurements. Finally, an attempt is made to understand the whole body of psi(3770) resonance data. 13 refs

  19. Emotion-processing deficits in eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bydlowski, Sarah; Corcos, Maurice; Jeammet, Philippe; Paterniti, Sabrina; Berthoz, Sylvie; Laurier, Catherine; Chambry, Jean; Consoli, Silla M

    2005-05-01

    First, we measured both emotional awareness and alexithymia to understand better emotion-processing deficits in eating disorder patients (EDs). Second, we increased the reliability of the measures by limiting the influence of confounding factors (negative affects). Seventy females with eating disorders were compared with 70 female controls. Participants completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI; depression), the Hospital and Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS; anxiety), the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS; alexithymia), and the Level of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS). EDs exhibited higher alexithymia scores and lower LEAS scores, with an inability to identify and describe their own emotions, as well as an impairment in mentalizing others' emotional experience. Whereas alexithymia scores were related to depression scores, LEAS scores were not. After controlling for depression, alexithymia scores were similar in EDs and controls. The marked impairment in emotion processing found in EDs is independent of affective disorders. Thus, the joint use of TAS and LEAS suggests a global emotion-processing deficit in EDs. Copyright 2005 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc

  20. Denial of memory deficit in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevush, S; Leve, N

    1993-05-01

    Patients with probable Alzheimer's disease often deny or underestimate the severity of their memory impairment. The authors examined the relationships between denial and severity of cognitive impairment and between denial and the presence of depressed mood and sad affect in 128 patients with probable Alzheimer's disease. Denial of memory deficit was evaluated by structured interview. Cognition was evaluated with a quantitative examination that assessed performance on 16 subtests. Depression was rated by using a scale that included patients' self-ratings as well as caregivers' and examiners' assessments of the patient's mood and affect. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to quantify the relationship between denial and demographic, cognitive, and depression variables. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was used to further examine the relationship between denial and individual cognitive subset scores. Denial did not correlate with age at onset of Alzheimer's disease, duration of illness, or educational background. It did correlate with gender: women exhibited greater denial than men. A significant correlation was found between denial and overall severity of cognitive deficit and particularly with impairment in object naming. A negative correlation was found between denial and depression. The association between denial and cognitive impairment may suggest that denial of probable Alzheimer's disease results from disruption of cognitive abilities needed for awareness of illness. The negative association between denial and depression may suggest that depression in Alzheimer's disease is in part reactive in nature.

  1. Dysrhythmia: a specific congenital rhythm perception deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques eLaunay

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Why do some people have problems ‘feeling the beat’? Here we investigate participants with congenital impairments in musical rhythm perception and production. A web-based version of the Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia (MBEA was used to screen for difficulties with rhythmic processing in a large sample and we identified three ‘dysrhythmic’ individuals who scored below cut-off for the rhythm subtest, but not the pitch-based subtests. Follow-up testing in the laboratory was conducted to characterize the nature of both rhythm perception and production deficits in these dysrhythmic individuals. We found that they differed from control participants when required to synchronize their tapping to an external stimulus with a metrical pulse, but not when required to tap spontaneously (with no external stimulus or to tap in time to an isochronous stimulus. Dysrhythmics exhibited a general tendency to tap at half the expected tempo when asked to synchronize to the beat of strongly metrical rhythms. These results suggest that the individuals studied here did not have motor production problems, but suffer from a selective rhythm perception deficit that influences the ability to entrain to metrical rhythms.

  2. Fifth force, sixth force and all that

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recami, E.; Tonin Zanchin, V.

    1988-01-01

    In the recent literature, a few claims appeared about possible deviations from the ordinary gravitational laws (both at the terrestrial and at the galactic level). The experimental evidence does not seem to be conclusive; nor its is clear if new forces are showing up, or if we have to accept actual deviations from Newton or Einstein gravitation (in the latter case, the validity of the very Equivalence Principle might be on the stage). In such a situation, the attempts by various authors at explaining the ''new effects'' just on the basis of the ordinary theory of General Relativity (for instance, in terms of quantum gravity) can be regarded as logically instance, in terms of quantum gravity) can be regarded as logically questionable. In this pedagogically oriented paper, the problem is approached within the classical realm, by exploring whether the possible new effects can be accounted for through minimal modifications of the standard formulatiaon of General Relativity: in particular, through exploitation and extension of the role of the cosmological constant

  3. Biodegradable Piezoelectric Force Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Eli J; Ke, Kai; Chorsi, Meysam T; Wrobel, Kinga S; Miller, Albert N; Patel, Avi; Kim, Insoo; Feng, Jianlin; Yue, Lixia; Wu, Qian; Kuo, Chia-Ling; Lo, Kevin W-H; Laurencin, Cato T; Ilies, Horea; Purohit, Prashant K; Nguyen, Thanh D

    2018-01-30

    Measuring vital physiological pressures is important for monitoring health status, preventing the buildup of dangerous internal forces in impaired organs, and enabling novel approaches of using mechanical stimulation for tissue regeneration. Pressure sensors are often required to be implanted and directly integrated with native soft biological systems. Therefore, the devices should be flexible and at the same time biodegradable to avoid invasive removal surgery that can damage directly interfaced tissues. Despite recent achievements in degradable electronic devices, there is still a tremendous need to develop a force sensor which only relies on safe medical materials and requires no complex fabrication process to provide accurate information on important biophysiological forces. Here, we present a strategy for material processing, electromechanical analysis, device fabrication, and assessment of a piezoelectric Poly-l-lactide (PLLA) polymer to create a biodegradable, biocompatible piezoelectric force sensor, which only employs medical materials used commonly in Food and Drug Administration-approved implants, for the monitoring of biological forces. We show the sensor can precisely measure pressures in a wide range of 0-18 kPa and sustain a reliable performance for a period of 4 d in an aqueous environment. We also demonstrate this PLLA piezoelectric sensor can be implanted inside the abdominal cavity of a mouse to monitor the pressure of diaphragmatic contraction. This piezoelectric sensor offers an appealing alternative to present biodegradable electronic devices for the monitoring of intraorgan pressures. The sensor can be integrated with tissues and organs, forming self-sensing bionic systems to enable many exciting applications in regenerative medicine, drug delivery, and medical devices.

  4. The Twin Deficits Hypothesis: An Empirical Analysis for Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manamba Epaphra

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the relationship between current account and government budget deficits in Tanzania. The paper tests the validity of the twin deficits hypothesis, using annual time series data for the 1966-2015 period. The paper is thought to be significant because the concept of the twin deficit hypothesis is fraught with controversy. Some researches support the hypothesis that there is a positive relationship between current account deficits and fiscal deficits in the economy while others do not. In this paper, the empirical tests fail to reject the twin deficits hypothesis, indicating that rising budget deficits put more strain on the current account deficits in Tanzania. Specifically, the Vector Error Correction Model results support the conventional theory of a positive relationship between fiscal and external balances, with a relatively high speed of adjustment toward the equilibrium position. This evidence is consistent with a small open economy. To address the problem that may result from this kind of relationship, appropriate policy variables for reducing budget deficits such as reduction in non-development expenditure, enhancement of domestic revenue collection and actively fight corruption and tax evasion should be adopted. The government should also target export oriented firms and encourage an import substitution industry by creating favorable business environments.

  5. Musical, visual and cognitive deficits after middle cerebral artery infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Rosemann

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The perception of music can be impaired after a stroke. This dysfunction is called amusia and amusia patients often also show deficits in visual abilities, language, memory, learning, and attention. The current study investigated whether deficits in music perception are selective for musical input or generalize to other perceptual abilities. Additionally, we tested the hypothesis that deficits in working memory or attention account for impairments in music perception. Twenty stroke patients with small infarctions in the supply area of the middle cerebral artery were investigated with tests for music and visual perception, categorization, neglect, working memory and attention. Two amusia patients with selective deficits in music perception and pronounced lesions were identified. Working memory and attention deficits were highly correlated across the patient group but no correlation with musical abilities was obtained. Lesion analysis revealed that lesions in small areas of the putamen and globus pallidus were connected to a rhythm perception deficit. We conclude that neither a general perceptual deficit nor a minor domain general deficit can account for impairments in the music perception task. But we find support for the modular organization of the music perception network with brain areas specialized for musical functions as musical deficits were not correlated to any other impairment.

  6. Musical, visual and cognitive deficits after middle cerebral artery infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosemann, Stephanie; Brunner, Freimuth; Kastrup, Andreas; Fahle, Manfred

    2017-03-01

    The perception of music can be impaired after a stroke. This dysfunction is called amusia and amusia patients often also show deficits in visual abilities, language, memory, learning, and attention. The current study investigated whether deficits in music perception are selective for musical input or generalize to other perceptual abilities. Additionally, we tested the hypothesis that deficits in working memory or attention account for impairments in music perception. Twenty stroke patients with small infarctions in the supply area of the middle cerebral artery were investigated with tests for music and visual perception, categorization, neglect, working memory and attention. Two amusia patients with selective deficits in music perception and pronounced lesions were identified. Working memory and attention deficits were highly correlated across the patient group but no correlation with musical abilities was obtained. Lesion analysis revealed that lesions in small areas of the putamen and globus pallidus were connected to a rhythm perception deficit. We conclude that neither a general perceptual deficit nor a minor domain general deficit can account for impairments in the music perception task. But we find support for the modular organization of the music perception network with brain areas specialized for musical functions as musical deficits were not correlated to any other impairment.

  7. Neurally-dissociable cognitive components of reading deficits in subacute stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga eBoukrina

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available According to cognitive models of reading, words are processed by interacting orthographic (spelling, phonological (sound and semantic (meaning information. Despite extensive study of the neural basis of reading in healthy participants, little group data exist on patients with reading deficits from focal brain damage pointing to critical neural systems for reading. Here we report on one such study. We have performed neuropsychological testing and MRI on 11 patients with left-hemisphere stroke (<= 5 weeks post stroke. Patients completed tasks assessing cognitive components of reading such as semantics (matching picture or word choices to a target based on meaning, phonology (matching word choices to a target based on rhyming, and orthography (a two-alternative forced choice of the most plausible nonword. They also read aloud pseudowords and words with high or low levels of usage frequency, imageability, and spelling-sound consistency. As predicted by the cognitive model, when averaged across patients, the influence of semantics was most salient for low-frequency, low-consistency words, when phonological decoding is especially difficult. Qualitative subtraction analyses revealed lesion sites specific to phonological processing. These areas were consistent with those shown previously to activate for phonology in healthy participants, including supramarginal, posterior superior temporal, middle temporal, inferior frontal gyri, and underlying white matter. Notable divergence between this analysis and previous functional imaging is the association of lesions in the mid-fusiform gyrus and anterior temporal lobe with phonological reading deficits. This study represents progress toward identifying brain lesion-deficit relationships in the cognitive components of reading. Such correspondences are expected to help not only better understand the neural mechanisms of reading, but may also help tailor reading therapy to individual neurocognitive deficit

  8. Development of maize and palisadegrass plants cultivated in intercrop under water deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Coelho de Araujo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the development and productive traits of palisadegrass single cultivated or intercropped with corn, in addition to corn intercropped with pasture, under water deficit at different development stages of the plants. It was used a complete block experimental design with split plots and three replicates. Periods of water deficit were placed in the plots and types of cultivation were placed in the subplots. Irrigation was stopped at germination and initial tillering of palisadegrass and at V4 and V15 stages of corn and returned when soil moisture was 40% of available water capacity. Tiller density and palisadegrass height were evaluated weekly. Dry matter (DM of fractions of herbage mass as well as leaf area of the plants were evaluated at corn tasseling and when grains reached physiological maturity. Components of corn production were determined in the second sampling. In palisadegrass, water influenced only tillering, which was reduced in the plots in which water defict was forced at the moment of germination or at the beginning of tilering, in both cultivation systems. Plant height and DM production were affected only by cultivation, reducing when intercropped with corn. Evaluated production components did not influence corn grain productivity, which was similar in all treatments (average of 10,145 kg/ha. Palisadegrass plants produce more DM in single cultivation than intercropped with corn. Water deficit during germination and initial tillering reduces tillering of palisadegrass during establishment phase. Water deficit, applied in this trial, does not reduce DM yield in palisadegrass or corn.

  9. Social skills deficits and their association with Internet addiction and activities in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Chou, Wen-Jiun; Huang, Mei-Feng; Chang, Yu-Ping; Chen, Yu-Min; Hu, Huei-Fan; Yen, Cheng-Fang

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims The aims of this study were to examine the association between social skills deficits and Internet addiction and activities in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as well as the moderators for this association. Methods A total of 300 adolescents, aged between 11 and 18 years, who had been diagnosed with ADHD participated in this study. Their Internet addiction levels, social skills deficits, ADHD, parental characteristics, and comorbidities wer...

  10. Greater bilateral deficit in leg press than in handgrip exercise might be linked to differences in postural stability requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnus, Charlene R A; Farthing, Jonathan P

    2008-12-01

    Bilateral deficit is defined as the difference in the summed force between contracting muscles alone and contracting contralateral homologous muscles in combination. The purpose of the study was to investigate how postural stability influences bilateral deficit by comparing an exercise requiring more postural stability (the leg press) with an exercise requiring less postural stability (the handgrip). Eight participants volunteered for the study (3 males, 5 females). Maximal strength was determined by a 1-repetition maximum for the leg press (weight machine) and handgrip (dynamometer) exercises. Electromyography was used to measure activation of the effectors (flexor carpi ulnaris for the handgrip and vastus lateralis for the leg press) and the core muscles (rectus abdominis and external obliques). Bilateral deficit was greater in the leg press (-12.08 +/- 10.22%) than the handgrip (-0.677 +/- 5.00%; p < 0.05). Muscle activation of the effectors and core muscles was not significantly different between unilateral and bilateral conditions for either exercise. However, core muscle activation was significantly greater during the leg press (48.30 +/- 19.60 microV) than during the handgrip (16.50 +/- 8.10 microV; p < 0.05) exercise. These results support the hypothesis that an exercise requiring more postural stability (e.g., the leg press) will have a larger deficit and greater activation of core muscles than an exercise requiring less postural stability (e.g., the handgrip). Since the bilateral deficit was only apparent for the leg press exercise, we conclude that postural stability requirements might influence the magnitude of bilateral deficit.

  11. Force Modulator System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redmond Clark

    2009-04-30

    Many metal parts manufacturers use large metal presses to shape sheet metal into finished products like car body parts, jet wing and fuselage surfaces, etc. These metal presses take sheet metal and - with enormous force - reshape the metal into a fully formed part in a manner of seconds. Although highly efficient, the forces involved in forming metal parts also damage the press itself, limit the metals used in part production, slow press operations and, when not properly controlled, cause the manufacture of large volumes of defective metal parts. To date, the metal-forming industry has not been able to develop a metal-holding technology that allows full control of press forces during the part forming process. This is of particular importance in the automotive lightweighting efforts under way in the US automotive manufacturing marketplace. Metalforming Controls Technology Inc. (MC2) has developed a patented press control system called the Force Modulator that has the ability to control these press forces, allowing a breakthrough in stamping process control. The technology includes a series of hydraulic cylinders that provide controlled tonnage at all points in the forming process. At the same time, the unique cylinder design allows for the generation of very high levels of clamping forces (very high tonnages) in very small spaces; a requirement for forming medium and large panels out of HSS and AHSS. Successful production application of these systems testing at multiple stamping operations - including Ford and Chrysler - has validated the capabilities and economic benefits of the system. Although this technology has been adopted in a number of stamping operations, one of the primary barriers to faster adoption and application of this technology in HSS projects is system cost. The cost issue has surfaced because the systems currently in use are built for each individual die as a custom application, thus driving higher tooling costs. This project proposed to better

  12. Suicide and forced marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pridmore, Saxby; Walter, Garry

    2013-03-01

    The prevailing view that the vast majority of those who complete suicide have an underlying psychiatric disorder has been recently challenged by research on the contribution of "predicaments", in the absence of mental illness, to suicide. In this paper, we sought data to support the notion that forced marriage may lead to suicide without the presence of psychiatric disorder. Historical records, newspapers, and the electronic media were searched for examples. Two examples from ancient times and six from the last hundred years were located and described. These cases suggest that forced marriage may lead to suicide and complements earlier findings that loss of fortune, health, liberty, and reputation may lead to suicide in the absence of mental disorder.

  13. Flora rapid reaction forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Виктор Васильевич Туганаев

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Flora rapid reaction forces ­– there are explerents that have high productivity and weak competitiveness. Their innately functional allocation is to plant disturbed acres as soon as possible preventing by that biosphere homeostasis disturbance. Disturbed acres were used to take place in geological history. Nowadays they take especially big areas. Considering a historical line of Dactylis glomerata L. authors suggest to separate out an especial group of anthropochores which they call medieophytes

  14. Air Force Leadership Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-06

    College, Air University, Maxwell AFB, AL. He grew up as part of an Air Force family, entered active duty in 1996, and is a career Aircraft Maintenance... artificially limit them to capping out at O-6 if we want to encourage diversity in our most senior leadership levels as we seek to create a stronger...but I am not sure it does. I find it interesting that as of 31 December 2016 the Deputy Chief of Staff for Intelligence , Surveillance and

  15. The task force process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Applegate, J.S.

    1995-01-01

    This paper focuses on the unique aspects of the Fernald Citizens Task Force process that have contributed to a largely successful public participation effort at Fernald. The Fernald Citizens Task Force passed quickly by many procedural issues. Instead, the Task Force concentrated on (a) educating itself about the site, its problems, and possible solutions, and (b) choosing a directed way to approach its mandate: To make recommendations on several open-quotes big pictureclose quotes issues, including future use of the site, cleanup levels, waste disposition, and cleanup priorities. This paper presents the approach used at Fernald for establishing and running a focused site-specific advisory board, the key issues that have been faced, and how these issues were resolved. The success of Fernald in establishing a strong and functioning site-specific advisory board serves as a useful model for other DOE facilities, although the Fernald model is just one of many approaches that can be taken. However, the approach presented here has worked extremely well for Fernald

  16. Gap Task Force

    CERN Multimedia

    Lissuaer, D

    One of the more congested areas in the ATLAS detector is the GAP region (the area between the Barrel Calorimeter and the End Cap calorimeter) where Inner Detector services, LAr Services and some Tile services all must co-habitat in a very limited area. It has been clear for some time that the space in the GAP region is not sufficient to accommodate all that is needed. In the last few month additional problems of routing all the services to Z=0 have been encountered due to the very limited space between the Tile Calorimeter and the first layer of Muon chambers. The Technical Management Board (TMB) and the Executive Board (EB) decided in the middle of March to establish a Task Force to look at this problem and come up with a solution within well-specified guidelines. The task force consisted of experts from the ID, Muon, Liquid Argon and Tile systems in addition to experts from the Technical Coordination team and the Physics coordinator. The task force held many meetings and in general there were some very l...

  17. ``Force,'' ontology, and language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, David T.; Etkina, Eugenia

    2009-06-01

    We introduce a linguistic framework through which one can interpret systematically students’ understanding of and reasoning about force and motion. Some researchers have suggested that students have robust misconceptions or alternative frameworks grounded in everyday experience. Others have pointed out the inconsistency of students’ responses and presented a phenomenological explanation for what is observed, namely, knowledge in pieces. We wish to present a view that builds on and unifies aspects of this prior research. Our argument is that many students’ difficulties with force and motion are primarily due to a combination of linguistic and ontological difficulties. It is possible that students are primarily engaged in trying to define and categorize the meaning of the term “force” as spoken about by physicists. We found that this process of negotiation of meaning is remarkably similar to that engaged in by physicists in history. In this paper we will describe a study of the historical record that reveals an analogous process of meaning negotiation, spanning multiple centuries. Using methods from cognitive linguistics and systemic functional grammar, we will present an analysis of the force and motion literature, focusing on prior studies with interview data. We will then discuss the implications of our findings for physics instruction.

  18. Crouched Posture Maximizes Ground Reaction Forces Generated by Muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Hoa X.; Reinbolt, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    Crouch gait decreases walking efficiency due to the increased knee and hip flexion during the stance phase of gait. Crouch gait is generally considered to be disadvantageous for children with cerebral palsy; however, a crouched posture may allow biomechanical advantages that lead some children to adopt a crouch gait. To investigate one possible advantage of crouch gait, a musculoskeletal model created in OpenSim was placed in 15 different postures from upright to severe crouch during initial, middle, and final stance of the gait cycle for a total of 45 different postures. A series of optimizations was performed for each posture to maximize transverse plane ground reaction forces in the 8 compass directions by modifying muscle forces acting on the model. We compared the force profile areas across all postures. Larger force profile areas were allowed by postures from mild crouch (for initial stance) to crouch (for final stance). The overall ability to generate larger ground reaction force profiles represents a mechanical advantage of a crouched posture. This increase in muscle capacity while in a crouched posture may allow a patient to generate new movements to compensate for impairments associated with cerebral palsy, such as motor control deficits. PMID:22542242

  19. From deficit to democracy (re-visited).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Taking as its frame the last twenty years of policy-making and academic discussion regarding public engagement with science (PES), this short article offers a personal evaluation of the balance between failure and achievement, and reflects upon some of the other contributions to the special issue. Put in the most general terms, have we been moving forwards or in circles? The persistence of public engagement efforts and existence of constructive science-social science collaborations are noted. However, the ambiguous character of the institutional embrace of social science and the instrumental role accorded to PES research remain as significant issues. Following a retrospective discussion of the 'deficit' model of science-public relations, some conclusions are drawn concerning the future needs of both reflective practice and practical reflection.

  20. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder during adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnin, E; Maurs, C

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), although considered a childhood-onset neurodevelopmental condition, is nevertheless a frequent and disabling condition in adults. A proportion of such patients are not diagnosed during childhood or adolescence, as diagnosis of the syndrome is rather complex, especially when other psychiatric, neurological or other neurodevelopmental conditions are also associated, yet comorbidities and consequences of ADHD are frequently observed in adults and older populations. As ADHD patients present to memory clinics with attentional and executive disorders, neuropsychological examinations of undiagnosed ADHD patients may reveal atypical cognitive profiles that can complicate the usual diagnostic procedure and increase the risk of delayed diagnosis or misdiagnosis. Thus, explorations of cognitive and/or behavioral disorders in adult populations should systematically screen for this neurodevelopmental condition. Accurate diagnosis could lead to non-pharmaceutical and/or pharmaceutical treatments to improve symptoms and quality of life for adult ADHD patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Detection of feigned attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucha, Lara; Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Koerts, Janneke; Groen, Yvonne; Thome, Johannes

    2015-08-01

    In recent years, there is an increasing awareness that individuals may purposely feign or exaggerate symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to gain external incentives, including access to stimulant drugs or special academic accommodations. There are vast consequences of undetected feigned ADHD such as substantial costs covered by society for unnecessary assessments and treatments, unjustified occupation of limited medical resources and undermining society's trust in the existence of the disorder or the effectiveness of treatment. In times of economic crisis and cost savings in the medical sector, the detection of feigned ADHD is of importance. This review briefly describes the research on this topic with an emphasis on the approaches available for detection of feigned ADHD (i.e., self-report questionnaires, personality inventories, cognitive tests used in routine neuropsychological assessment and tests specifically designed for detecting feigned cognitive dysfunction). Promising approaches and measures are available for identifying feigned ADHD but there is an immediate need for further research.

  2. Force transmission in epithelial tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Claudia G; Martin, Adam C

    2016-03-01

    In epithelial tissues, cells constantly generate and transmit forces between each other. Forces generated by the actomyosin cytoskeleton regulate tissue shape and structure and also provide signals that influence cells' decisions to divide, die, or differentiate. Forces are transmitted across epithelia because cells are mechanically linked through junctional complexes, and forces can propagate through the cell cytoplasm. Here, we review some of the molecular mechanisms responsible for force generation, with a specific focus on the actomyosin cortex and adherens junctions. We then discuss evidence for how these mechanisms promote cell shape changes and force transmission in tissues. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Do cognitive deficits predict negative emotionality and aggression in schizophrenia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Anthony O; Richardson, Jenae; Buckner, Alex; Romanoff, Sabrina; Feder, Michelle; Oragunye, Njideka; Ilnicki, Andriana; Bhat, Ishrat; Hoptman, Matthew J; Lindenmayer, Jean-Pierre

    2018-01-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with an elevated risk of aggression. Cognitive deficits have been associated with inpatient aggression and future violence. The relationship between cognitive deficits and violent behavior has however been inconsistent across studies. In addition, studies have failed to inform how cognitive deficits may contribute to aggression in schizophrenia. The current study examined the association of cognitive deficits with schizophrenia-related aggression and violent offending. It also explored the putative mediating role of negative emotionality on the impact of cognitive deficits on aggression. People with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder (N = 78) were recruited from a state hospital. Participants were classified based on their history of violent offending. Participants completed measures of cognition, symptoms, and aggression. Deficits in working memory, reasoning/problem-solving, and verbal learning were the most prioritized for the prediction of violent offender status. Violent offenders demonstrated greater impairments in most cognitive domains especially working memory and verbal learning. Offenders also demonstrated greater negative emotionality, excitement/agitation, and incidents of verbal and physical aggression. Negative emotionality and excitement/agitation fully transmitted the effect of cognitive deficits on impulsive aggression in meditational models. Cognitive deficits increase the risk of impulsive aggression in schizophrenia via inefficient regulation of negative affective states. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Depression in adolescence:testing a social skills deficit theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beek, Y.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/107292300

    2017-01-01

    C145. DEPRESSION IN ADOLESCENCE:TESTING A SOCIAL SKILLS DEFICIT THEORYVan Beek, Y. Utrecht University, NetherlandsThe Social Skill Deficit Model for depression suggeststhat less optimal social skills lead to negativefeedback of others, which in turn results in negativeself-views and depression.

  5. Fiscal Deficits and Inflation in Nigeria | Ozurumba | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Research in National Development ... This paper examines the causal relationship between inflation and fiscal deficits in Nigeria, covering the period 1970-2009. This was ... It is recommended that policies targeted at inflationary control in Nigeria could best be achieved if they are aimed at fiscal deficits reduction.

  6. Cognitive deficits in Parkinson's disease: a cognitive neuroscience perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robbins, T.W.; Cools, R.

    2014-01-01

    Progress in characterization of the nature, neural basis, and treatment of cognitive deficits in Parkinson's disease is reviewed from the perspective of cognitive neuroscience. An initial emphasis on fronto-striatal executive deficits is surveyed along with the discoveries of disruption as well as

  7. Encoding, Memory, and Transcoding Deficits in Childhood Apraxia of Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Lohmeier, Heather L.; Strand, Edythe A.; Jakielski, Kathy J.

    2012-01-01

    A central question in Childhood Apraxia of Speech (CAS) is whether the core phenotype is limited to transcoding (planning/programming) deficits or if speakers with CAS also have deficits in auditory-perceptual "encoding" (representational) and/or "memory" (storage and retrieval of representations) processes. We addressed this and other questions…

  8. Auditory Temporal Processing as a Specific Deficit among Dyslexic Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fostick, Leah; Bar-El, Sharona; Ram-Tsur, Ronit

    2012-01-01

    The present study focuses on examining the hypothesis that auditory temporal perception deficit is a basic cause for reading disabilities among dyslexics. This hypothesis maintains that reading impairment is caused by a fundamental perceptual deficit in processing rapid auditory or visual stimuli. Since the auditory perception involves a number of…

  9. Effect of progressive water deficit stress on proline accumulation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water deficit stress is one of the important factors limiting chickpea production in arid and semi-arid regions of West Asia and North Africa. When water deficit stress is imposed, different molecular and biochemical responses take place. This study was carried out to investigate proline accumulation and protein profiles of ...

  10. Democracy in the Arab World : Explaining the Deficit | CRDI - Centre ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Democracy in the Arab World : Explaining the Deficit. Couverture du livre Democracy in the Arab World : Explaining the Deficit. Directeur(s) : Ibrahim Elbadawi et Samir Makdisi. Maison(s) d'édition : Routledge, CRDI. 10 septembre 2010. ISBN : 9780415779999. 352 pages. e-ISBN : 9781552504918. Téléchargez le PDF.

  11. Neuropsychological Treatment of Attention Deficit Disorder in Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solovieva, Yulia; Quintanar, Luis

    2017-01-01

    The syndrome of attention deficit disorder is one of the most frequent pictures of disabilities in pre-scholars. The present study analyses the results of fulfillment of tasks for mechanisms of control and spatial functions. 14 pre-scholars with attention deficit disorder took part in the study. The neuropsychological evaluation was applied before…

  12. Persistence of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder into adulthood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Persistence of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder into adulthood: A study conducted on parents of children diagnosed with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Z Mahomedy, D van der Westhuizen, MJ van der Linde, J Coetsee. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  13. Pragmatic Deficits and Social Impairment in Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staikova, Ekaterina; Gomes, Hilary; Tartter, Vivien; McCabe, Allyssa; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Impaired social functioning has been well documented in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Existing treatments for ADHD are effective for managing core symptoms, but have limited effectiveness at improving social skills, suggesting that social deficits in ADHD may not be directly related to core symptoms…

  14. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Executive Function Impairment: An Overview.

    OpenAIRE

    Carruthers, Lindsey.

    2016-01-01

    As with any cognitive ability, attention is vulnerable to dysfunction. The most common attentional problem is attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This brief overview will highlight the symptoms and deficits associated with ADHD, its prevalence in today’s society, the association between executive function impairment and ADHD using Barkley’s (1997) work, and the personal and societal effects of the disorder.

  15. Democracy in the Arab World: Explaining the Deficit | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-09-10

    Sep 10, 2010 ... Despite notable socio-economic development in the Arab region, a deficit in democracy and political rights has continued to prevail. This book examines the major reasons underlying the persistence of this democracy deficit over the past decades and touches on the prospect for deepening the process of ...

  16. Are Auditory and Visual Processing Deficits Related to Developmental Dyslexia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, George K.; Papadopoulos, Timothy C.; Zarouna, Elena; Parrila, Rauno

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine if children with dyslexia learning to read a consistent orthography (Greek) experience auditory and visual processing deficits and if these deficits are associated with phonological awareness, rapid naming speed and orthographic processing. We administered measures of general cognitive ability, phonological…

  17. Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserstein, Jeanette; Wasserstein, Adella; Wolf, Lorraine E.

    This digest examines attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults and symptoms of the disability. Pertinent adult problems include: (1) substance abuse, antisocial behaviors, and criminality, all of which can occur in adults with ADHD; (2) poor social skills or deficits in self-awareness are also frequent; (3) occurrence of ADHD with…

  18. Social perception deficits, cognitive distortions, and empathy deficits in sex offenders: a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Emily; Gannon, Theresa

    2008-01-01

    This literature review examines the differences between sex offenders and nonoffenders with regard to social perception skills, cognitive distortions, and empathy skills in order to investigate sex offenders' cognition. The literature on cognitive distortions is discussed, with reference to the confusion surrounding its definition, and the debate between cognitive distortions as offense-supportive beliefs or justifications is examined. In terms of social perception, particular reference is made to sex offenders' misinterpretations of women's social cues and the source of this deficit. The authors discuss possibilities for this deficit, including offense-supportive beliefs that are driven by underlying implicit theories or schemata held by offenders. The concept of empathy and its relation to both social perception skills and cognitive distortions is discussed, and the integration of these factors is represented in a new model.

  19. Force modulation for improved conductive-mode atomic force microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelmans, W.W.; Sebastian, Abu; Despont, Michel; Pozidis, Haris

    We present an improved conductive-mode atomic force microscopy (C-AFM) method by modulating the applied loading force on the tip. Unreliable electrical contact and tip wear are the primary challenges for electrical characterization at the nanometer scale. The experiments show that force modulation

  20. Predictability of Forced Lorenz Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Baosheng; Ding, Ruiqiang; Li, Jianping; Zhong, Quanjia

    2017-04-01

    Based on the nonlinear local Lyapunov exponent (NLLE) approach, the influences of external forcing on the predictability are studied in the Lorenz systems with constant and quasi-periodic forces in this paper. The results indicate that for the Lorenz systems with constant and quasi-periodic forces, their predictability limits increase with the forcing strength. With the same magnitude and different directions, the constant or quasi-periodic forcing shows different effects on the predictability limit in the Lorenz system, and these effects become significant with the increase of the forcing strength. Generally speaking, the positive forcing leads to a higher predictability limit than the negative forcing. Therefore, when we think about the effects of positive and negative elements and phases in the atmosphere and ocean research, the predictability problems driven by different phases should be considered separately. In addition, the influences of constant and quasi-periodic forces on the predictability are different in the Lorenz system. The effect of the constant forcing on the predictability is mainly reflected in the linear phase of error growth, while the nonlinear phase should also be considered for the situation of the quasi-periodic forcing. The predictability limit of the system under constant forcing is longer than the system under quasi-periodic forcing. These results based on simple chaotic model could provide insight into the studies of the actual atmosphere predictability.

  1. Genetic and physiological controls of growth under water deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardieu, François; Parent, Boris; Caldeira, Cecilio F; Welcker, Claude

    2014-04-01

    The sensitivity of expansive growth to water deficit has a large genetic variability, which is higher than that of photosynthesis. It is observed in several species, with some genotypes stopping growth in a relatively wet soil, whereas others continue growing until the lower limit of soil-available water. The responses of growth to soil water deficit and evaporative demand share an appreciable part of their genetic control through the colocation of quantitative trait loci as do the responses of the growth of different organs to water deficit. This result may be caused by common mechanisms of action discussed in this paper (particularly, plant hydraulic properties). We propose that expansive growth, putatively linked to hydraulic processes, determines the sink strength under water deficit, whereas photosynthesis determines source strength. These findings have large consequences for plant modeling under water deficit and for the design of breeding programs.

  2. ANALYSIS OF BUDGET DEFICIT AND ITS PROBLEMS IN LITHUANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Jaseviciene

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Budget deficit is one of the most important parts of macroeconomics. Since 1990, the government of the Lithuanian Republic has been faced with problems in balancing the budget deficit; most of the years, the country’s budget was deficit with the lack of incoming money flow. The budget deficit value in Lithuania has been a significant theme since 2004, when Lithuania became part of the European Union, and one of the liabilities was to insure the litas replacement with euro currency and the budget deficit was one of the Maastricht’s criteria. Also it is very important to maintain effective management of public finances. The government is responsible for managing the country’s budget in respect to various economical parameters, for example, GDP, inflation rate, unemployment rate, etc., in order to plan income level and distribute it to the relevant economic areas. Also, the budget deficit’s problems are revealed in this article.

  3. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and tuberous sclerosis complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agati, Elisa; Moavero, Romina; Cerminara, Caterina; Curatolo, Paolo

    2009-10-01

    The neurobiological basis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in tuberous sclerosis complex is still largely unknown. Cortical tubers may disrupt several brain networks that control different types of attention. Frontal lobe dysfunction due to seizures or epileptiform electroencephalographic discharges may perturb the development of brain systems that underpin attentional and hyperactive functions during a critical early stage of brain maturation. Comorbidity of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with mental retardation and autism spectrum disorders is frequent in children with tuberous sclerosis. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may also reflect a direct effect of the abnormal genetic program. Treatment of children with tuberous sclerosis complex with combined symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and epilepsy may represent a challenge for clinicians, because antiepileptic therapy and drugs used to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may aggravate the clinical picture of each other.

  4. Complexity of force output during static exercise in individuals with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffernan, Kevin S; Sosnoff, Jacob J; Ofori, Edward; Jae, Sae Young; Baynard, Tracy; Collier, Scott R; Goulopoulou, Stella; Figueroa, Arturo; Woods, Jeffrey A; Pitetti, Kenneth H; Fernhall, Bo

    2009-04-01

    Force variability is greater in individuals with Down syndrome (DS) compared with persons without DS and is similar to that seen with normal aging. The purpose of this study was to examine the structure (in both time and frequency domains) of force output variability in persons with DS to determine whether deficits in force control are similar between individuals with DS and older adults. An isometric handgrip task at a constant force (30% of maximal voluntary contraction) was completed by individuals with DS (n = 29, age 26 yr), and healthy young (n = 26, age 27 yr) and older (n = 33, age 70 yr) individuals. Mean, standard deviation (SD), and coefficient of variation (CV) were used to analyze the magnitude of force output variability. Spectral analysis and approximate entropy (ApEn) were used to analyze the structure of force output variability. Mean force output for DS was lower than in young controls (P 0.05). In conclusion, young persons with DS demonstrate enhanced temporal structure and greater amplitude of low-frequency oscillations in the force output signal than age-matched non-DS peers. Interestingly, young persons with DS and older persons without DS have similar time-dependent structure of force output variability. This would suggest a possible link between premature aging and less complex force output in persons with DS.

  5. Modernization of African Armed Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Concept paper framing the debate at the Dakar Forum Workshop on Modernization of Armed forces in Africa.......Concept paper framing the debate at the Dakar Forum Workshop on Modernization of Armed forces in Africa....

  6. Force Dynamics of Verb Complementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Woźny

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Force Dynamics of Verb Complementation The concepts of motion and force are both extensively discussed in cognitive linguistics literature. But they are discussed separately. The first usually in the context of ‘motion situations’ (Talmy, Slobin, Zlatev, the other as part of the Force Dynamics framework, which was developed by Talmy. The aim of this paper is twofold: first, to argue that the concepts of force and motion should not be isolated but considered as two inseparable parts of force-motion events. The second goal is to prove that the modified Force Dynamics (force-motion framework can be used for precise characterization of the verb complementation patterns. To this end, a random sample of 50 sentences containing the verb ‘went’ is analyzed, demonstrating the differences between the categories of intensive and intransitive complementation with respect to the linguistically coded parameters of force and motion.

  7. Social skills deficits and their association with Internet addiction and activities in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Wen-Jiun; Huang, Mei-Feng; Chang, Yu-Ping; Chen, Yu-Min; Hu, Huei-Fan; Yen, Cheng-Fang

    2017-03-01

    Background and aims The aims of this study were to examine the association between social skills deficits and Internet addiction and activities in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as well as the moderators for this association. Methods A total of 300 adolescents, aged between 11 and 18 years, who had been diagnosed with ADHD participated in this study. Their Internet addiction levels, social skills deficits, ADHD, parental characteristics, and comorbidities were assessed. The various Internet activities that the participants engaged in were also examined. Results The associations between social skills deficits and Internet addiction and activities and the moderators of these associations were examined using logistic regression analyses. Social skills deficits were significantly associated with an increased risk of Internet addiction after adjustment for the effects of other factors [odds ratio (OR) = 1.049, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.030-1.070]. Social skills deficits were also significantly associated with Internet gaming and watching movies. The maternal occupational socioeconomic levels of the participants moderated the association between social skills deficits and Internet addiction. Conclusions Social skills deficits should be considered targets in prevention and intervention programs for treating Internet addiction among adolescents with ADHD.

  8. Impact of Executive Function Deficits and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) on Academic Outcomes in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biederman, Joseph; Monuteaux, Michael C.; Doyle, Alysa E.; Seidman, Larry J.; Wilens, Timothy E.; Ferrero, Frances; Morgan, Christie L.; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2004-01-01

    The association between executive function deficits (EFDs) and functional outcomes were examined among children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Participants were children and adolescents with (n = 259) and without (n = 222) ADHD, as ascertained from pediatric and psychiatric clinics. The authors defined EFD as…

  9. Reading-Related Cognitive Deficits in Developmental Dyslexia, Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, and Developmental Coordination Disorder Among Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Connie Suk-Han; Chan, David Wai-Ock; Leung, Patrick W. L.; Lee, Suk-Han; Tsang, Suk-Man

    2005-01-01

    Most past research findings suggest that phonological deficit is unique to developmental dyslexia insofar as alphabetic languages are concerned. The present study investigated the existence of any similar unique reading-related cognitive deficits associated with developmental dyslexia in a nonalphabetic script, Chinese. The pattern of comorbidity…

  10. The law of electromagnetic force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.J. Kutkovetskyy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Calculation peculiarities for Lorentz force, Ampere force, interaction of parallel electric currents, and the moment of electrical machines are analyzed. They have exceptions on application, and they are the rules which result from the law of electromagnetic force as coordinate derivative of the operating magnetic flow. An addition to the direction of electromagnetic force action is proposed. Standards of salient-pole electrical machine designing are considered.

  11. Atomic Force Microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, R.D.; Russell, P.E.

    1988-12-01

    The Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) is a recently developed instrument that has achieved atomic resolution imaging of both conducting and non- conducting surfaces. Because the AFM is in the early stages of development, and because of the difficulty of building the instrument, it is currently in use in fewer than ten laboratories worldwide. It promises to be a valuable tool for obtaining information about engineering surfaces and aiding the .study of precision fabrication processes. This paper gives an overview of AFM technology and presents plans to build an instrument designed to look at engineering surfaces.

  12. Causal Entropic Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissner-Gross, A. D.; Freer, C. E.

    2013-04-01

    Recent advances in fields ranging from cosmology to computer science have hinted at a possible deep connection between intelligence and entropy maximization, but no formal physical relationship between them has yet been established. Here, we explicitly propose a first step toward such a relationship in the form of a causal generalization of entropic forces that we find can cause two defining behaviors of the human “cognitive niche”—tool use and social cooperation—to spontaneously emerge in simple physical systems. Our results suggest a potentially general thermodynamic model of adaptive behavior as a nonequilibrium process in open systems.

  13. Role of attractive forces in tapping tip force microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyhle, Anders; Sørensen, Alexis Hammer; Bohr, Jakob

    1997-01-01

    We present experimental and numerical results demonstrating the drastic influence of attractive forces on the behaviour of the atomic force microscope when operated in the resonant tapping tip mode in an ambient environment. It is often assumed that tapping is related to repulsive interaction....... In contrast, we find that in general the attractive forces are the most dominant interaction in this mode of operation. We show that attractive forces in combination with the repulsive elastic type of forces cause points of instability in the parameter space constituted by: the cantilever swing amplitude...

  14. Small amplitude atomic force spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Beer, Sissi; van den Ende, Henricus T.M.; Ebeling, Daniel; Mugele, Friedrich Gunther; Bhushan, Bharat

    2011-01-01

    Over the years atomic force microscopy has developed from a pure imaging technique to a tool that can be employed for measuring quantitative tip–sample interaction forces. In this chapter we provide an overview of various techniques to extract quantitative tip–sample forces focusing on both

  15. Effects of carpal tunnel syndrome on adaptation of multi-digit forces to object weight for whole-hand manipulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    Full Text Available The delicate tuning of digit forces to object properties can be disrupted by a number of neurological and musculoskeletal diseases. One such condition is Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS, a compression neuropathy of the median nerve that causes sensory and motor deficits in a subset of digits in the hand. Whereas the effects of CTS on median nerve physiology are well understood, the extent to which it affects whole-hand manipulation remains to be addressed. CTS affects only the lateral three and a half digits, which raises the question of how the central nervous system integrates sensory feedback from affected and unaffected digits to plan and execute whole-hand object manipulation. We addressed this question by asking CTS patients and healthy controls to grasp, lift, and hold a grip device (445, 545, or 745 g for several consecutive trials. We found that CTS patients were able to successfully adapt grip force to object weight. However, multi-digit force coordination in patients was characterized by lower discrimination of force modulation to lighter object weights, higher across-trial digit force variability, the consistent use of excessively large digit forces across consecutive trials, and a lower ability to minimize net moments on the object. Importantly, the mechanical requirement of attaining equilibrium of forces and torques caused CTS patients to exert excessive forces at both CTS-affected digits and digits with intact sensorimotor capabilities. These findings suggest that CTS-induced deficits in tactile sensitivity interfere with the formation of accurate sensorimotor memories of previous manipulations. Consequently, CTS patients use compensatory strategies to maximize grasp stability at the expense of exerting consistently larger multi-digit forces than controls. These behavioral deficits might be particularly detrimental for tasks that require fine regulation of fingertip forces for manipulating light or fragile objects.

  16. Force and motion

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C

    2002-01-01

    Intimidated by inertia? Frightened by forces? Mystified by Newton s law of motion? You re not alone and help is at hand. The stop Faking It! Series is perfect for science teachers, home-schoolers, parents wanting to help with homework all of you who need a jargon-free way to learn the background for teaching middle school physical science with confidence. With Bill Roberton as your friendly, able but somewhat irreverent guide, you will discover you CAN come to grips with the basics of force and motion. Combining easy-to-understand explanations with activities using commonly found equipment, this book will lead you through Newton s laws to the physics of space travel. The book is as entertaining as it is informative. Best of all, the author understands the needs of adults who want concrete examples, hands-on activities, clear language, diagrams and yes, a certain amount of empathy. Ideas For Use Newton's laws, and all of the other motion principles presented in this book, do a good job of helping us to underst...

  17. TRIGA forced shutdowns analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negut, Gheorghe; Laslau, Florica

    2008-01-01

    The need for improving the operation leads us to use new methods and strategies. Probabilistic safety assessments and statistical analysis provide insights useful for our reactor operation. This paper is dedicated to analysis of the forced shutdowns during the first reactor operation period, between 1980 to 1989. A forced shutdown data base was designed using data on forced shutdowns collected from the reactor operation logbooks. In order to sort out the forced shutdowns the records have the following fields: - current number, date, equipment failed, failure type (M for mechanical, E for electrical, D for irradiation device, U for human factor failure; - scram mode, SE for external scram, failure of reactor cooling circuits and/or irradiation devices, SR for reactor scram, exceeding of reactor nuclear parameters, SB for reactor scram by control rod drop, SM for manual scram required by the abnormal reactor status; - scram cause, giving more information on the forced shutdown. This data base was processed using DBase III. The data processing techniques are presented. To sort out the data, one of the criteria was the number of scrams per year, failure type, scram mode, etc. There are presented yearly scrams, total operation time in hours, total unavailable time, median unavailable time period, reactor availability A. There are given the formulae used to calculate the reactor operational parameters. There are shown the scrams per year in the 1980 to 1989 period, the reactor operation time per year, the reactor shutdown time per year and the operating time versus down time per year. Total number of scrams in the covered period was 643 which caused a reactor down time of 4282.25 hours. In a table the scrams as sorted on the failure type is shown. Summarising, this study emphasized some problems and difficulties which occurred during the TRIGA reactor operation at Pitesti. One main difficulty in creating this data base was the unstandardized scram record mode. Some times

  18. Overweight in Boys With ADHD Is Related to Candidate Genes and Not to Deficits in Cognitive Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanć, Tomasz; Dmitrzak-Węglarz, Monika; Borkowska, Aneta; Wolańczyk, Tomasz; Pytlińska, Natalia; Rybakowski, Filip; Słopień, Radosław; Słopień, Agnieszka

    2016-11-03

    The aim of the study was to assess the relationship of overweight, the polymorphisms of selected candidate genes, and deficits in the executive functions among children with ADHD. We examined 109 boys with ADHD aged between 7 and 17 years. The study indicated variants of 14 polymorphisms in eight candidate genes. We applied seven neuropsychological tests to evaluate the executive functions. Overweight was diagnosed on the basis of the guidelines of the International Obesity Task Force. Analyses revealed significant association between DRD4 rs1800955, SNAP25 rs363039 and rs363043, 5HTR2A rs17288723, and overweight in boys with ADHD. There were no significant differences in the level of neuropsychological test results between patients with overweight and without overweight. Overweight in boys with ADHD is associated with polymorphisms in three candidate genes: DRD4, SNAP25, and 5HTR2A, but not through conditioning deficits in cognitive functions. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. CT findings predictive of neurological deficits in throracolumbar burst fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Tae Yong; Jeong, Hee Seok; Jeong, Yeo Jin [Pusan National University and Research Institute for Convergence of Biomedical Science and Technology, Dept. of Radiology, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, In Sook [Dept. of Radiology, Pusan National University Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    To determine the computed tomography (CT) findings predictive of neurological deficits in thoracolumbar spine injuries. One hundred two patients with thoracolumbar spinal burst fractures, after excluding the patients with brain and cervical cord injuries and unconsciousness, who underwent consecutive spine 128-multidetector CT scan formed the study group. The neurological findings were clinically classified as no deficit (n = 58), complete deficit with paraplegia (n = 22), and incomplete deficit with either motor or sensory impairment (n = 22). The following four CT imaging parameters were analyzed: the level of the main burst fracture as the cord (n = 44) and the cauda equina (n = 58) levels; the extent of canal encroachment as central canal ratios (CCRs) below 0.5 (n = 43) and above 0.5 (n = 59); the degree of laminar fracture as no fracture (n = 33), linear fracture (n = 7), separated fracture (n = 27), and displaced fracture (n = 35); fractured vertebra counted as single (n = 53) and multiple (n = 49). Complete neurological deficit was associated with injuries at the cord level (p = 0.000) and displaced laminar fractures (p = 0.000); incomplete neurological deficit was associated with CCRs below 0.5 (p = 0.000) and multiple vertebral injuries (p = 0.002). CT scan can provide additional findings predictive of neurological deficits in thoracolumbar spinal burst fractures.

  20. CT findings predictive of neurological deficits in throracolumbar burst fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Tae Yong; Jeong, Hee Seok; Jeong, Yeo Jin; Lee, In Sook

    2016-01-01

    To determine the computed tomography (CT) findings predictive of neurological deficits in thoracolumbar spine injuries. One hundred two patients with thoracolumbar spinal burst fractures, after excluding the patients with brain and cervical cord injuries and unconsciousness, who underwent consecutive spine 128-multidetector CT scan formed the study group. The neurological findings were clinically classified as no deficit (n = 58), complete deficit with paraplegia (n = 22), and incomplete deficit with either motor or sensory impairment (n = 22). The following four CT imaging parameters were analyzed: the level of the main burst fracture as the cord (n = 44) and the cauda equina (n = 58) levels; the extent of canal encroachment as central canal ratios (CCRs) below 0.5 (n = 43) and above 0.5 (n = 59); the degree of laminar fracture as no fracture (n = 33), linear fracture (n = 7), separated fracture (n = 27), and displaced fracture (n = 35); fractured vertebra counted as single (n = 53) and multiple (n = 49). Complete neurological deficit was associated with injuries at the cord level (p = 0.000) and displaced laminar fractures (p = 0.000); incomplete neurological deficit was associated with CCRs below 0.5 (p = 0.000) and multiple vertebral injuries (p = 0.002). CT scan can provide additional findings predictive of neurological deficits in thoracolumbar spinal burst fractures

  1. Airway somatosensory deficits and dysphagia in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Michael J; Murphy, Caitlin A; Abrams, Trisha M

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) often experience substantial impairment of swallow control, and are typically unaware of the presence or severity of their impairments suggesting that these individuals may also experience airway sensory deficits. However, the degree to which impaired swallow function in PD may relate to airway sensory deficits has yet to be formally tested. The purpose of this study was to examine whether airway sensory function is associated with swallow impairment in PD. Eighteen PD participants and 18 healthy controls participated in this study and underwent endoscopic assessment of airway somatosensory function, endoscopic assessment of swallow function, and clinical ratings of swallow and disease severity. PD participants exhibited abnormal airway somatosensory function and greater swallow impairment compared with healthy controls. Swallow and sensory deficits in PD were correlated with disease severity. Moreover, PD participants reported similar self-rated swallow function as healthy controls, and swallow deficits were correlated with sensory function suggesting an association between impaired sensory function and poor self-awareness of swallow deficits in PD. These results suggest that control of swallow is influenced by airway somatosensory function, that swallow-related deficits in PD are related to abnormal somatosensation, and that swallow and airway sensory function may degrade as a function of disease severity. Therefore, the basal ganglia and related neural networks may play an important role to integrate airway sensory input for swallow-related motor control. Furthermore, the airway deficits observed in PD suggest a disintegration of swallow-related sensory and motor control.

  2. Changes in ground reaction force during jump landing in subjects with functional instability of the ankle joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, Brian; Garrett, Mary

    2004-07-01

    To identify changes in ground reaction force during jump landing in subjects with functional instability of the ankle joint. Comparison of ground reaction force during jump landing between subjects with functional instability and healthy controls. We have recently demonstrated significantly altered patterns of ankle and knee movement immediately pre- and post-impact in subjects with functional instability compared to healthy controls. We now examine the changes in timing and magnitude of forces sustained by the unstable ankle during jump landing. Fourteen subjects with unstable ankles and 10 age, sex and activity matched controls performed five single leg jumps onto a force platform whilst ground reaction forces were sampled. Timing and magnitudes of forces during the first 150 ms following impact were analysed and compared between groups. Lateral and anterior force peaks occurred significantly earlier in subjects with functional instability. Significant differences were seen between groups' time-averaged vertical, frontal and sagittal components of ground reaction force. These ranged from 5% (frontal force) to 100% (vertical force) of body mass. These changes occur immediately post-impact and too early for reflex correction/modification. The disordered force patterns observed in subjects with functional instability are likely to result in repeated injury due to significant increase in stress on ankle joint structures during jump landing. We suggest that they are most likely to result from deficits in feed-forward motor control. These results identify the potentially injurious nature of the changes in the forces applied to the unstable ankle joint during jump landing. The timing of these changes suggests that they are caused by a motor control deficit. Treatment approaches aimed at retraining feed-forward control of ankle joint movement could succeed in restoring more normal patterns of force absorption and reduce the occurrence of repeated micro-trauma to ankle

  3. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Motor Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulardins, Juliana B; Marques, Juliana C B; De Oliveira, Jorge A

    2017-04-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neurobehavioral disorder during childhood, affecting approximately 3-6% of school-aged children; its cardinal symptoms of high activity, impulsivity, and behavioral distractibility might be assumed to have close relationships to interferences with motor skills. A separate body of literature attests to ways that motor problems can severely impact children's daily lives, as motor problems may occur in 30-50% of children with ADHD. This article critically reviews research on motor impairment in children with ADHD, notable differences in motor performance of individuals with ADHD compared with age-matched controls, and possible neural underpinnings of this impairment. We discuss the highly prevalent link between ADHD and developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and the lack of a clear research consensus about motor difficulties in ADHD. Despite increasing evidence and diagnostic classifications that define DCD by motor impairment, the role of ADHD symptoms in DCD has not been delineated. Similarly, while ADHD may predispose children to motor problems, it is unclear whether any such motor difficulties observed in this population are inherent to ADHD or are mediated by comorbid DCD. Future research should address the exact nature and long-term consequences of motor impairment in children with ADHD and elucidate effective treatment strategies for these disorders together and apart.

  4. Somatosensory deficits after stroke: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessner, Simon S; Bingel, Ulrike; Thomalla, Götz

    2016-04-01

    In the past years, there have been increasing research activities focusing on somatosensory symptoms following stroke. However, as compared to the large number of clinical and neuroimaging studies on motor symptoms, the number of studies tracing somatosensory symptoms after stroke and their recovery is rather small. It is an ongoing discussion, to which extent somatosensory deficits after stroke influence patient's long-term outcome in motor and sensory performance and functional independence in activities of daily living. Modern brain imaging techniques allow for studying the impact of stroke lesion localization and size on acute and persisting clinical impairment. Here, we review the literature on somatosensory symptoms after stroke. We summarize epidemiological information on frequency and characteristics of somatosensory symptoms affecting all parts of the body in the acute and chronic stage of stroke. We further give an overview of brain imaging studies of stroke affecting the somatosensory system. Finally, we identify open questions which need to be addressed in future research and summarize the implications for clinical practice.

  5. ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER. A CLINICAL LECTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kotov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a serious problem to pediatric neurologists. The prevalence of ADHD in developed countries ranges from 1 to 20 %. ADHD is characterized by a triad of symptoms: inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity (the International Statistical Classification of Diseases, 10th revision, codes it as F90 and it is the most common conduct disorder in children. The etiology of ADHD remains disсutable to the present day; there are a few basic concepts of the origin of this disorder. Its manifestations may be a reason for family conflicts, poor peer relationships, social and school maladjustment, learning problems, lower academic performance, accidents and injuries, smoking, psychoactive substance abuse (toxicomania, narcomania, delinquencies, deviant social behavior, thus having a negative impact on all spheres of a patient’s life. The manifestations of ADHD may continue in adulthood, resulting in work and family life problems, low self-evaluation, alcohol and psychoactive substance abuse, and other unfavorable consequences. The authors describe the etiology, pathogenesis, diagnostic principles (diagnostic scales and tests, differential diagnosis (by setting out a large group of different diseases, the manifestations of which can mimic ADHD, treatment, and prognosis of the disorder. Within its therapeutic correction framework, the authors present the definition and general principles of Montessori therapy, including recommendations for parents and relatives to deal with children with ADHD. 

  6. [Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and adoption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Mayoralas, Daniel Martín; Fernández-Perrone, Ana L; López-Arribas, Sonia; Pelaz-Antolín, Antonio; Fernández-Jaén, Alberto

    2015-02-25

    The term adoption or adoptive filiation is understood as referring to the legal act by which family ties are created between two persons such that a relationship of fatherhood or motherhood is established between them. AIMS. The purpose of this study is to outline the problems derived from prenatal exposure to alcohol and other risk factors, from hypostimulation during the 'critical period' in institutionalised patients (especially those adopted from eastern European countries) and their relation with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This work also seeks to take a deeper look into the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of these problems. These children have problems in terms of psychosocial relationships, behavioural problems, delayed language or reading development and, above all, ADHD. In practice it is extremely difficult to separate the two factors during the assessment of children adopted from eastern European countries in neuropaediatric consultations. Exactly how all these factors are interrelated is not well understood. There is a close relationship between prenatal exposure to alcohol and the consequences of adoption. There is a need for placebo-controlled randomised studies, with larger population samples, that test the benefits and profile of side effects, both with psychostimulants and with atomoxetine in this group of patients.

  7. Developmental psychopathology: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Sören; Petermann, Franz

    2009-09-17

    Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), formerly regarded as a typical childhood disorder, is now known as a developmental disorder persisting over the lifespan. Starting in preschool-age, symptoms vary depending on the age group affected. According to the variability of ADHD-symptoms and the heterogeneity of comorbid psychiatric disorders, a broad review of recent studies was performed. These findings were summarized in a developmental psychopathological model, documenting relevant facts on a timeline. Based on a genetic disposition and a neuropsychological deregulation, there is evidence for factors which persist across the lifespan, change age-dependently, or show validity in a specific developmental phase. Qualitative changes can be found for children in preschool-age and adults. These differences have implications for clinical practice as they can be used for prevention, diagnostic proceedings, and therapeutic intervention as well as for planning future studies. The present article is a translated and modified version of the German article "Entwicklungspsychopathologie der ADHS", published in Zeitschrift für Psychiatrie, Psychologie und Psychotherapie, 56, 2008, S. 265-274.

  8. Developmental psychopathology: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petermann Franz

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD, formerly regarded as a typical childhood disorder, is now known as a developmental disorder persisting over the lifespan. Starting in preschool-age, symptoms vary depending on the age group affected. Method According to the variability of ADHD-symptoms and the heterogeneity of comorbid psychiatric disorders, a broad review of recent studies was performed. These findings were summarized in a developmental psychopathological model, documenting relevant facts on a timeline. Results Based on a genetic disposition and a neuropsychological deregulation, there is evidence for factors which persist across the lifespan, change age-dependently, or show validity in a specific developmental phase. Qualitative changes can be found for children in preschool-age and adults. Conclusion These differences have implications for clinical practice as they can be used for prevention, diagnostic proceedings, and therapeutic intervention as well as for planning future studies. The present article is a translated and modified version of the German article "Entwicklungspsychopathologie der ADHS", published in Zeitschrift für Psychiatrie, Psychologie und Psychotherapie, 56, 2008, S. 265-274.

  9. Stigma in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Anna K; Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Koerts, Janneke; Tucha, Lara

    2012-09-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a frequently diagnosed disorder in child- and adulthood with a high impact affecting multiple facets of social life. Therefore, patients suffering from ADHD are at high risk to be confronted with stigma, prejudices, and discrimination. A review of the empirical research in the field of ADHD with regard to stigma was performed. The findings of investigations in this field were clustered in different categories, including stigma in children with ADHD, stigma in adults with ADHD, stigma in relatives or in people close to a patient with ADHD, and the influence of stigma on authorities' attitudes toward patients with ADHD. Variables identified to contribute to stigma in ADHD are public's uncertainty concerning the reliability/validity of an ADHD diagnosis and the related diagnostic assessment, public's perceived dangerousness of individuals with ADHD, socio-demographical factors as age, gender, and ethnicity of the respondent or the target individual with ADHD, stigmatization of ADHD treatment, for example public's skepticism toward ADHD medication and disclosure of diagnostic status as well as medication status of the individual with ADHD. The contribution of stigma associated with ADHD can be conceptualized as an underestimated risk factor, affecting treatment adherence, treatment efficacy, symptom aggravation, life satisfaction, and mentally well-being of individuals affected by ADHD. Public as well as health professionals' concepts about ADHD are highly diverse, setting individuals with an ADHD diagnosis at greater risk to get stigmatized.

  10. Emotion regulation deficits in intermittent explosive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fettich, Karla C; McCloskey, Michael S; Look, Amy E; Coccaro, Emil F

    2015-01-01

    Intermittent explosive disorder (IED) is a psychiatric disorder characterized by repeated acts of affective aggression. Despite the diagnostic emphasis on the failure to control aggressive impulses, there is little research on affective processes and emotion regulation in IED; however, this research suggests possible dysfunctions in experiences of emotional intensity and lability. The hypothesis in the present study was that compared to individuals with other psychiatric disorders, and psychologically healthy individuals, individuals with IED experience greater negative affect intensity and emotional lability. Participants (N = 373) consisted of 202 individuals diagnosed with IED, 68 non-IED psychiatric controls (PC), and 103 healthy volunteers (HV). Emotion regulation was assessed using the General Behavior Inventory, the Affective Lability Scale, and the Affect Intensity Measure. Results showed that IED participants reported greater negative affect intensity and greater emotional lability across several emotion domains (e.g., anger, anxiety, depression) than PC and HV participants. These findings suggest that IED is characterized by more global emotion regulation deficits than those associated with anger alone. Aggr. Behav. 41:25-33 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. [Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdizán, J R; Izaguerri-Gracia, A C

    2009-02-27

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may exist in up to 60% of adults, whose first symptoms appeared before they were seven years old. Since it is a neurobiological condition, its basic symptoms -lack of attention, hyperactivity and impulsiveness- are similar at all ages, but in adults the clinical manifestations are specific to the subgroup with more frequent comorbidities than in childhood. Manifestations that characteristically appear in adults are difficulty in concentrating, poorer memory and short-term memory, disorganisation, difficulties with self-discipline, impulsiveness, low self-esteem, mental restlessness, frustration and limited social skills. Today, adult cases are underdiagnosed because for a long time ADHD was thought to be a condition that only affected children and teenagers; however, although its clinical manifestations in adults are essentially similar to those seen in children, they are different and have different forms of presentation. There are no biomedical tests that allow an objective diagnosis to be established, and thus care must be taken to draw up and evaluate a patient record that includes possible symptoms since childhood, typical signs and symptoms, and any relevant comorbidities. Self-evaluation scales are necessary as the preferred instrument for use as an aid to the patient record. The main pharmacological treatment is based on psychopharmaceuticals such as immediate-, controlled- or extended-release methylphenidate and on atomoxetine; cognitive-behavioural and psychosocial treatment should also be associated.

  12. Pragmatic comprehension deficit in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtgraves, Thomas; McNamara, Patrick

    2010-04-01

    Recognizing the specific speech act (Searle, 1969) that a speaker performs with an utterance is a fundamental feature of pragmatic competence. However, little is known about neurocognitive mediation of speech act comprehension. The present research examined the extent to which people with Parkinson's disease (PD) comprehend specific speech acts. In the first experiment, participants read conversational utterances and then performed a lexical decision task (decide whether a target string of letters was a word). Consistent with past research, nonimpaired participants performed this task more quickly when the target string was the speech act associated with the preceding utterance. In contrast, people with PD did not demonstrate this effect, suggesting that speech act activation is slowed or is not an automatic component of comprehension for people with PD. In a second study, participants were given unlimited time to indicate their recognition of the speech act performed with an utterance. PD participants were significantly poorer at this task than were control participants. We conclude that a previously undocumented language disorder exists in PD and that this disorder involves a selective deficit in speech act comprehension. Frontostriatal systems (the systems impaired in PD) likely contribute to normal speech act comprehension.

  13. Pitch perception deficits in nonverbal learning disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Prieto, I; Caprile, C; Tinoco-González, D; Ristol-Orriols, B; López-Sala, A; Póo-Argüelles, P; Pons, F; Navarra, J

    2016-12-01

    The nonverbal learning disability (NLD) is a neurological dysfunction that affects cognitive functions predominantly related to the right hemisphere such as spatial and abstract reasoning. Previous evidence in healthy adults suggests that acoustic pitch (i.e., the relative difference in frequency between sounds) is, under certain conditions, encoded in specific areas of the right hemisphere that also encode the spatial elevation of external objects (e.g., high vs. low position). Taking this evidence into account, we explored the perception of pitch in preadolescents and adolescents with NLD and in a group of healthy participants matched by age, gender, musical knowledge and handedness. Participants performed four speeded tests: a stimulus detection test and three perceptual categorization tests based on colour, spatial position and pitch. Results revealed that both groups were equally fast at detecting visual targets and categorizing visual stimuli according to their colour. In contrast, the NLD group showed slower responses than the control group when categorizing space (direction of a visual object) and pitch (direction of a change in sound frequency). This pattern of results suggests the presence of a subtle deficit at judging pitch in NLD along with the traditionally-described difficulties in spatial processing. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Sensory gating deficits in parents of schizophrenics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldo, M.; Madison, A.; Freedman, R. [Univ. of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-18

    Although schizophrenia clusters in families, it is not inherited in Mendelian fashion. This suggests that there may be alternative phenotypic expressions of genes that convey risk for schizophrenia, such as more elementary physiological or biochemical defects. One proposed phenotype is impaired inhibitory gating of the auditory evoked potential to repeated stimuli. Normally, the amplitude of the P50 response to the second stimulus is significantly less than the response to the first, but this gating of response is generally impaired in schizophrenia. Clinically unaffected individuals within a pedigree who have both an ancestral and descendant history of schizophrenia may be useful for studying whether this physiological defect is a possible alternative phenotype. We have studied inhibitory gating of the auditory P50 response to pairs of auditory stimuli in 17 nuclear families. In 11, there was one parent who had another relative with a chronic psychotic illness, in addition to the schizophrenic proband. AR of the parents with family histories of schizophrenia had gating of the P50 response similar to their schizophrenia offspring, whereas only 7% of the parents without family history had gating of the P50 response in the abnormal range. These results support loss of gating of the auditory P50 wave as an inherited deficit related to schizophrenia and suggest that studies of parents may help elucidate the neurobiological expression of genes that convey risk for schizophrenia. 36 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. [Chronic subdural hematoma and transient neurologic deficits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoli, F; Milandre, L; Lemarquis, P; Bazan, M; Jau, P

    1990-01-01

    Three cases of chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) revealed by transient neurological accidents are reported. Although well-known this condition is rare: 1 to 9 p. 100 of CSDHs. Questioning may bring out a history of cranial injury and headache, even minor ones, which are unusual in transient ischemic accidents (TIA). Transient phenomena, such as motor aphasia or speech interruption, point to the diagnosis, especially in male patients over 60 years of age. The finding at electroencephalography of a delta activity more than 48 hours after a TND should exclude the diagnosis of TIA until a CT scan is performed. Since the causes of neurological deficits regressing within less than 24 hours may be ischemia as well a hemorrhage or tumour, the term of transient neurological accident (TNA) should preferably be used, and an emergency CT scan should be performed for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Owing to the possibility of another concomitant cause of TNA, the finding of a subdural haematoma should not deter from pursuing cardiovascular examinations. The mechanism of TNA probably involves a vascular factor, as suggested by I-123 IMP cerebral SPECT which shows an intercritical decrease in cerebral blood flow and/or an epileptic factor.

  16. Current pharmacotherapy of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, D S

    2013-10-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurobehavioral developmental disorder in children and adults characterized by a persistent pattern of impulsiveness, inattention and hyperactivity. It affects about 3-10% of children and 2-5% of adolescents and adults and occurs about four times more commonly in boys than girls. The cause of ADHD is unknown, but it has strong genetic and environment components. The first-line treatment options for ADHD include behavioral therapy, pharmacotherapy with stimulants or both. Methylphenidate and amphetamine salts are the stimulant drugs of choice for ADHD treatment. Amphetamines act by increasing presynaptic release of dopamine and other biogenic amines in the brain. Methylphenidate inhibits the reuptake of dopamine and norepinephrine and therefore its pharmacology is identical to that of amphetamines. Lisdex-amfetamine is a prodrug of dextroamphetamine with low feasibility for abuse. Atomoxetine, a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, is an alternative, non-stimulant drug for ADHD but it is less efficacious than stimulants. Stimulants are generally safe but are associated with adverse effects including headache, insomnia, anorexia and weight loss. There is increased awareness about serious cardiovascular and psychiatric adverse events with ADHD drugs including concern for growth suppression in children. Stimulants have a high potential for abuse and dependence, and should be handled safely to prevent misuse and abuse. Copyright 2013 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.

  17. Mindfulness and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalley, Susan L; Loo, Sandra K; Hale, T Sigi; Shrestha, Anshu; McGough, James; Flook, Lisa; Reise, Steven

    2009-10-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a disorder characterized by attentional difficulties. Mindfulness is a receptive attention to present experience. Both ADHD and mindfulness are associated with attention and personality. This study tests whether individuals with ADHD have lower mindfulness scores than controls and, if true, whether personality contributes to these differences. One hundred and five adults (half with ADHD) were assessed for mindfulness, using the Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills, and personality, using the Tridimensional Character Inventory. Individuals with ADHD report themselves as less mindful than non-ADHD controls and more novelty-seeking, less self-directed, and more self-transcendent. Mindfulness is negatively associated with ADHD and positively associated with self-directedness and self-transcendence. Analyses of subscales of mindfulness suggest that ADHD is associated most with the "Acting in Awareness" dimension, perhaps because of shared items reflecting attentional variability. The current findings support that a large portion of variability in trait mindfulness can be explained by ADHD status and personality traits of self-directedness and self-transcendence. It further suggests that interventions that increase mindfulness might improve symptoms of ADHD and increase self-directedness and/or self-transcendence.

  18. Equivalent linearization of nonlinear forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Guang; Xue, Zhongqing

    1987-07-01

    A method used for equivalent linearization of the two orthogonal squeeze-film forces is extended here to the general case of n degrees of freedom and n components of nonlinear forces, and the expressions for equivalent linear coefficients are derived. Nonlinear forces can be linearized by the methods of Fourier expansion, active and reactive powers, or mean-square error. The n components of nonlinear forces can all be expressed formally as the sum of an average force, a linear spring force, and a linear damping force. This paper also gives a flow chart for calculating the steady-state responses of a nonlinear system with many degrees of freedom, using the method of equivalent linearization. The resulting saving in computation time is demonstrated by a numerical example of a flexible rotor-bearing system with a noncentralized squeeze-film damper.

  19. Differential magnetic force microscope imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Wang, Zuobin; Liu, Jinyun; Hou, Liwei

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a method for differential magnetic force microscope imaging based on a two-pass scanning procedure to extract differential magnetic forces and eliminate or significantly reduce background forces with reversed tip magnetization. In the work, the difference of two scanned images with reversed tip magnetization was used to express the local magnetic forces. The magnetic sample was first scanned with a low lift distance between the MFM tip and the sample surface, and the magnetization direction of the probe was then changed after the first scan to perform the second scan. The differential magnetic force image was obtained through the subtraction of the two images from the two scans. The theoretical and experimental results have shown that the proposed method for differential magnetic force microscope imaging is able to reduce the effect of background or environment interference forces, and offers an improved image contrast and signal to noise ratio (SNR). © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Comparison between static maximal force and handbrake pulling force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chateauroux, E; Wang, X

    2012-01-01

    The measurement of maximum pulling force is important not only for specifying force limit of industrial workers but also for designing controls requiring high force. This paper presents a comparison between maximal static handbrake pulling force (FST) and force exerted during normal handbrake pulling task (FDY). These forces were measured for different handle locations and subject characteristics. Participants were asked to pull a handbrake on an adjustable car mock-up as they would do when parking their own car, then to exert a force as high as possible on the pulled handbrake. Hand pulling forces were measured using a six-axes force sensor. 5 fixed handbrake positions were tested as well as a neutral handbrake position defined by the subject. FST and FDY were significantly correlated. Both were found to be dependent on handbrake position, age and gender. As expected, women and older subjects exerted lower forces. FST was significantly higher than FDY. The ratio FmR (FDY divided by FST) was also analyzed. Women showed higher FmR than men meaning that the task required a higher amount of muscle capability for women. FmR was also influenced by handbrake location. These data will be useful for handbrake design.

  1. Flow mechanotransduction regulates traction forces, intercellular forces, and adherens junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Lucas H.; Jahn, Jessica R.; Jung, Joon I.; Shuman, Benjamin R.; Feghhi, Shirin; Han, Sangyoon J.; Rodriguez, Marita L.

    2012-01-01

    Endothelial cells respond to fluid shear stress through mechanotransduction responses that affect their cytoskeleton and cell-cell contacts. Here, endothelial cells were grown as monolayers on arrays of microposts and exposed to laminar or disturbed flow to examine the relationship among traction forces, intercellular forces, and cell-cell junctions. Cells under laminar flow had traction forces that were higher than those under static conditions, whereas cells under disturbed flow had lower traction forces. The response in adhesion junction assembly matched closely with changes in traction forces since adherens junctions were larger in size for laminar flow and smaller for disturbed flow. Treating the cells with calyculin-A to increase myosin phosphorylation and traction forces caused an increase in adherens junction size, whereas Y-27362 cause a decrease in their size. Since tugging forces across cell-cell junctions can promote junctional assembly, we developed a novel approach to measure intercellular forces and found that these forces were higher for laminar flow than for static or disturbed flow. The size of adherens junctions and tight junctions matched closely with intercellular forces for these flow conditions. These results indicate that laminar flow can increase cytoskeletal tension while disturbed flow decreases cytoskeletal tension. Consequently, we found that changes in cytoskeletal tension in response to shear flow conditions can affect intercellular tension, which in turn regulates the assembly of cell-cell junctions. PMID:22447948

  2. [Sleeping disorders can imitate attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvolby, Allan; Jørgensen, Jan Ib; Bilenberg, Niels

    2005-10-10

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is often associated with anxiety, depression, oppositional defiant disorder and sleeping difficulties. Sleeping disorders are reported in more than 50% of children with ADHD. On the other hand, symptoms of sleep disorder, inattention, hyperactivity and impulsiveness can imitate the symptoms of ADHD. We describe a 5(1/2)-year-old boy with symptoms of attention deficit and social withdrawal. His sleep was disturbed, with late sleep onset and frequent awakening during the night. After correction of his sleep pattern, the symptoms of attention deficit and social withdrawal disappeared.

  3. Experimental Detection of Information Deficit in a Photonic Contextuality Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Xiang; Kurzyński, Paweł; Kaszlikowski, Dagomir; Wang, Kunkun; Bian, Zhihao; Zhang, Yongsheng; Xue, Peng

    2017-12-01

    Contextuality is an essential characteristic of quantum theory, and supplies the power for many quantum information processes. Previous tests of contextuality focus mainly on the probability distribution of measurement results. However, a test of contextuality can be formulated in terms of entropic inequalities whose violations imply information deficit in the studied system. This information deficit has not been observed on a single local system. Here we report the first experimental detection of information deficit in an entropic test of quantum contextuality based on photonic setup. The corresponding inequality is violated with more than 13 standard deviations.

  4. [Research advances on cortical functional and structural deficits of amblyopia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y; Liu, L Q

    2017-05-11

    Previous studies have observed functional deficits in primary visual cortex. With the development of functional magnetic resonance imaging and electrophysiological technique, the research of the striate, extra-striate cortex and higher-order cortical deficit underlying amblyopia reaches a new stage. The neural mechanisms of amblyopia show that anomalous responses exist throughout the visual processing hierarchy, including the functional and structural abnormalities. This review aims to summarize the current knowledge about structural and functional deficits of brain regions associated with amblyopia. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2017, 53: 392 - 395) .

  5. Cerebral perfusion deficits in divers with neurological decompression illness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmshurst, P.T.; O'Doherty, M.J.; Nunan, T.O.

    1993-01-01

    Cerebral perfusion deficits detected by injection of 99 Tc m -hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HMPAO) and single photon emission tomography is said to correlate well with clinical findings in divers with neurological decompression illness. We studied 12 divers. Six had residual cerebral signs (group 1) and six had no residual cerebral symptoms or signs (group 2). Perfusion deficits were as common in group 2 as in group 1. The site of the deficit did not correlate well with either the neurological findings at presentation or the residual clinical signs after treatment. The data suggest that claims that HMPAO scanning correlates with clinical findings and can be used for patient management were incorrect. (author)

  6. A refined measurement of the sunspot radiative flux deficit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bray, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    New measurements of the radiative flux deficits of two large sunspots are presented, based on detailed isophotometric maps. Results are given separately for umbrae and penumbrae. The umbral and penumbral deficits are 4-5 x 10 10 and 1-1.5 x 10 10 erg cm -2 s -1 respectively, the larger figures referring to the larger spot. Over limited areas centered on the umbral cores the deficits for the two spots amount to 76 and 86% of the photospheric flux. (orig.)

  7. Amusia and cognitive deficits after stroke: is there a relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Särkämö, Teppo; Tervaniemi, Mari; Soinila, Seppo; Autti, Taina; Silvennoinen, Heli M; Laine, Matti; Hietanen, Marja

    2009-07-01

    We studied the relationship between musical and cognitive deficits by testing middle cerebral arterial (MCA) stroke patients (n= 53) with a shortened version of the Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia (MBEA) and an extensive neuropsychological test battery. Results showed that amusic patients (n= 32) had more severe cognitive deficits, especially in working memory and executive functioning, than did non-amusic patients (n= 21), and the severity of amusia also correlated with attention deficits. These findings thus suggest that domain-general attention, executive, and working memory processes are associated with amusia after stroke.

  8. Chin force in violin playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obata, Satoshi; Kinoshita, Hiroshi

    2012-06-01

    Force generated between the left mandible of violinists and the chinrest of the violin was examined using a force-sensing chinrest developed in this study. A strain-gauge force sensor was built, and it was fixed between the violin's top plate and a chin cup. Fifteen professional/amateur violinists held the violin statically, played musical scales with different sound properties and sounding techniques, as well as an excerpt from a Max Bruch concerto. Peak and mean forces were evaluated for each task. In a separate experiment, lateral movement of the lower teeth due to different levels of voluntary chin force exertion was measured. Static holding forces observed were 15 and 22 N with and without the help of the left hand, respectively. Peak force increased from 16 N at soft dynamics to 20 N at strong dynamics during scales. The force further increased to 29 N with the use of vibrato technique and 35 N during shifts. Tempo and hand position did not affect the force. Playing a Bruch concerto induced a mean peak force of 52 N, ranging from 31 to 82 N among the violinists. The developed force-sensing chinrest could accurately record the generated chin force. Typical chin force to stabilize the violin during ordinary musical performance was less than 30 N, but it could momentarily exceed 50 N when technically demanding musical pieces were performed. The lateral shift of the mandible was fairly small (<0.4 mm) even with high chin-force exertion, possibly due to clenching of the molars.

  9. Students' conceptions about force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soeguet, Oe.

    2005-01-01

    Students from a young age have developed in their own minds differing concepts of things such as all creatures having a soul. Also children see the environment and interpret what they see according to their own understanding and explanation. In particular, with regards to physics, things like light, heat, motion, structure of matter and energy are understood at the level of a child s comprehension. Most often the child s understanding varies quite differently from the actual true meaning. As a result the child is reluctant to accept any other explanation. In such situations the necessary difficulties must be tackled with care and caution pertinent to the individual. Studies at K.S.U University related to force and motion of various departments in the Faculty of Science and Letters have been investigated. After evaluations of all the findings a number of suggestions have been made to change student views and ideas

  10. Silicon force sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galambos, Paul C.; Crenshaw, Thomas B.; Nishida, Erik E.; Burnett, Damon J.; Lantz, Jeffrey W.

    2016-07-05

    The various technologies presented herein relate to a sensor for measurement of high forces and/or high load shock rate(s), whereby the sensor utilizes silicon as the sensing element. A plate of Si can have a thinned region formed therein on which can be formed a number of traces operating as a Wheatstone bridge. The brittle Si can be incorporated into a layered structure comprising ductile and/or compliant materials. The sensor can have a washer-like configuration which can be incorporated into a nut and bolt configuration, whereby tightening of the nut and bolt can facilitate application of a compressive preload upon the sensor. Upon application of an impact load on the bolt, the compressive load on the sensor can be reduced (e.g., moves towards zero-load), however the magnitude of the preload can be such that the load on the sensor does not translate to tensile stress being applied to the sensor.

  11. The resistible force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeschlin, D.L.

    1980-01-01

    Many people of today have an oppositional attitude towards the continual loss of sense of existence which manifests itself in 'the great refusal'. They also behave in an anti-authoritarian manner towards their first father Marx. They realize that it is ourselves who have to search and find. The protest groups of the most different origin have come into being as 'the sand in the wheels' of a seemingly irresistable force. They have formed themselves beyond the 'Left' and the 'Right'. Nuclear energy is the instrument which acts as a gear for their opposition, which establishes it and which provides the basis for their self-concept. It is the symbol where the conflict between living standard and living quality breaks open. In essential, however, the protest is growing towards supporting an effective administration of all goods of our world. (orig./HP) [de

  12. Direct measurements of intermolecular forces by chemical force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vezenov, Dmitri Vitalievich

    1999-12-01

    Detailed description of intermolecular forces is key to understanding a wide range of phenomena from molecular recognition to materials failure. The unique features of atomic force microscopy (AFM) to make point contact force measurements with ultra high sensitivity and to generate spatial maps of surface topography and forces have been extended to include measurements between well-defined organic molecular groups. Chemical modification of AFM probes with self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) was used to make them sensitive to specific molecular interactions. This novel chemical force microscopy (CFM) technique was used to probe forces between different molecular groups in a range of environments (vacuum, organic liquids and aqueous solutions); measure surface energetics on a nanometer scale; determine pK values of the surface acid and base groups; measure forces to stretch and unbind a short synthetic DNA duplex and map the spatial distribution of specific functional groups and their ionization state. Studies of adhesion forces demonstrated the important contribution of hydrogen bonding to interactions between simple organic functionalities. The chemical identity of the tip and substrate surfaces as well as the medium had a dramatic effect on adhesion between model monolayers. A direct correlation between surface free energy and adhesion forces was established. The adhesion between epoxy polymer and model mixed SAMs varied with the amount of hydrogen bonding component in the monolayers. A consistent interpretation of CFM measurements in polar solvents was provided by contact mechanics models and intermolecular force components theory. Forces between tips and surfaces functionalized with SAMs terminating in acid or base groups depended on their ionization state. A novel method of force titration was introduced for highly local characterization of the pK's of surface functional groups. The pH-dependent changes in friction forces were exploited to map spatially the

  13. Force 2025 and Beyond Strategic Force Design Analytic Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-12

    the methodology used to construct force design models. The Summary section provides a summary of our findings. Background By 2025, a leaner ...designs. We describe a data development methodology that characterizes the data required to construct a force design model using our approach. We...from a model constructed using this methodology in a case study. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Force design, mixed integer programming, optimization, value

  14. Automated force controller for amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyagi, Atsushi, E-mail: atsushi.miyagi@inserm.fr, E-mail: simon.scheuring@inserm.fr; Scheuring, Simon, E-mail: atsushi.miyagi@inserm.fr, E-mail: simon.scheuring@inserm.fr [U1006 INSERM, Université Aix-Marseille, Parc Scientifique et Technologique de Luminy, 163 Avenue de Luminy, 13009 Marseille (France)

    2016-05-15

    Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is widely used in physics, chemistry, and biology to analyze the topography of a sample at nanometer resolution. Controlling precisely the force applied by the AFM tip to the sample is a prerequisite for faithful and reproducible imaging. In amplitude modulation (oscillating) mode AFM, the applied force depends on the free and the setpoint amplitudes of the cantilever oscillation. Therefore, for keeping the applied force constant, not only the setpoint amplitude but also the free amplitude must be kept constant. While the AFM user defines the setpoint amplitude, the free amplitude is typically subject to uncontrollable drift, and hence, unfortunately, the real applied force is permanently drifting during an experiment. This is particularly harmful in biological sciences where increased force destroys the soft biological matter. Here, we have developed a strategy and an electronic circuit that analyzes permanently the free amplitude of oscillation and readjusts the excitation to maintain the free amplitude constant. As a consequence, the real applied force is permanently and automatically controlled with picoNewton precision. With this circuit associated to a high-speed AFM, we illustrate the power of the development through imaging over long-duration and at various forces. The development is applicable for all AFMs and will widen the applicability of AFM to a larger range of samples and to a larger range of (non-specialist) users. Furthermore, from controlled force imaging experiments, the interaction strength between biomolecules can be analyzed.

  15. Aphasia diagrams: a new notational scheme for representing neurolinguistic deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbury, C; Bub, D

    1998-01-01

    Models of language processing are becoming extremely complex. As a result, it has become very difficult to develop a thorough understanding of even a single patient's deficits, let alone to represent those deficits in a way which renders their significance apparent to others. In this paper, we describe and demonstrate the use of a notational system which has been developed specifically for representing the complexities of neurolinguistic deficits. The notational system is simple to learn and to use and may easily be extended and adapted to different models of language processing. It may also be used to represent the results from other nonlinguistic neuropsychological batteries which are composed of tightly interdependent subtests with many related factors included in each subtest. Despite its simplicity, the notational system has proven itself in the field as a useful tool for rendering complex deficits more easily interpretable.

  16. Clinical treatment reverses attentional deficits in congestive heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamai Sérgio

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Congestive heart failure (CHF is associated with cognitive deficits, particularly of memory and attention. The present study aims to clarify whether clinical treatment can reverse the attentional deficits of patients with CHF. Methods A convenience sample of 50 patients with CHF functional class IV and 30 elderly controls were recruited from a teaching hospital in Brazil. Participants received a clinical and cognitive examination that included the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, Cambridge Cognitive Examination of the Elderly (CAMCOG, Digit Span, Digit-Symbol Substitution, and Letter Cancellation test. The cognitive performance of CHF patients was reassessed 6 weeks after the introduction of clinical treatment. Results Twenty-seven CHF subjects had MMSE 0.10. Conclusions CHF is associated with deficits in attention and psychomotor speed. These deficits improve with clinical treatment.

  17. Visual deficits in Nepalese patients with oculocutaneous albinism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safal Khanal

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: Patients with OCA present with a broad spectrum of visual deficits that impair the visual functions. Significant improvement in visual acuity following optical correction serves as an impetus to the reduction of visual disabilities in individuals with albinism.

  18. Water deficit increases stilbene metabolism in Cabernet Sauvignon berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deluc, Laurent G; Decendit, Alain; Papastamoulis, Yorgos; Mérillon, Jean-Michel; Cushman, John C; Cramer, Grant R

    2011-01-12

    The impact of water deficit on stilbene biosynthesis in wine grape (Vitis vinifera) berries was investigated. Water deficit increased the accumulation of trans-piceid (the glycosylated form of resveratrol) by 5-fold in Cabernet Sauvignon berries but not in Chardonnay. Similarly, water deficit significantly increased the transcript abundance of genes involved in the biosynthesis of stilbene precursors in Cabernet Sauvignon. Increased expression of stilbene synthase, but not that of resveratrol-O-glycosyltransferase, resulted in increased trans-piceid concentrations. In contrast, the transcript abundance of the same genes declined in Chardonnay in response to water deficit. Twelve single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in the promoters of stilbene synthase genes of Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay, and Pinot Noir. These polymorphisms resulted in eight changes within the predicted cis regulatory elements in Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay. These results suggest that cultivar-specific molecular mechanisms might exist that control resveratrol biosynthesis in grapes.

  19. Stigmatization in teachers towards adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuermaier, Anselm B.M.; Tucha, Lara; Müller, Kathi; Koerts, Janneke; Hauser, Joachim; Lange, Klaus W; Tucha, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is understood as a developmental disorder which shares common characteristics between childhood, adolescence and adulthood. However, ADHD is widely associated with misconceptions and misbeliefs which can lead to stigmatization. Teachers

  20. Complex Prospective Memory in Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuermaier, Anselm B. M.; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Aschenbrenner, Steffen; Westermann, Celina; Weisbrod, Matthias; Lange, Klaus W.; Tucha, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults has been associated with disturbances of attention and executive functions. Furthermore, impairments of verbal and figural retrospective memory were reported. However, little is known about the effects of ADHD on prospective

  1. The arcuate fasciculus network and verbal deficits in psychosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kenney, Joanne P.M.; McPhilemy, Genevieve; Scanlon, Cathy; Najt, Pablo; McInerney, Shane; Arndt, Sophia; Scherz, Elisabeth; Byrne, Fintan; Leemans, Alexander; Jeurissen, Ben; Hallahan, Brian; McDonald, Colm; Cannon, Dara M.

    2017-01-01

    Verbal learning (VL) and fluency (VF) are prominent cognitive deficits in psychosis, of which the precise neuroanatomical contributions are not fully understood. We investigated the arcuate fasciculus (AF) and its associated cortical regions to identify structural abnormalities contributing to these

  2. Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Symptoms and Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Note: Javascript is disabled ... for developmental level: Often fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes in schoolwork, ...

  3. Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): The Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Signs Treating ADHD Reprints For More Information Share Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): The Basics Download PDF ... Overview Do you find it hard to pay attention? Do you feel the need to move constantly ...

  4. Dansk standardisering af attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder-ratingskalaen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lotte; Jørgensen, Siv Lykke; Dalsgaard, Søren

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. The diagnostic classification is based on developmental anamnesis, objective examination, neuropsychological tests, observation of the child, and evaluation of the symptoms...

  5. Functional deficits in carpal tunnel syndrome reflect reorganization of primary somatosensory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Yumi; Kettner, Norman; Holden, Jameson; Lee, Jeungchan; Kim, Jieun; Cina, Stephen; Malatesta, Cristina; Gerber, Jessica; McManus, Claire; Im, Jaehyun; Libby, Alexandra; Mezzacappa, Pia; Morse, Leslie R; Park, Kyungmo; Audette, Joseph; Tommerdahl, Mark; Napadow, Vitaly

    2014-06-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome, a median nerve entrapment neuropathy, is characterized by sensorimotor deficits. Recent reports have shown that this syndrome is also characterized by functional and structural neuroplasticity in the primary somatosensory cortex of the brain. However, the linkage between this neuroplasticity and the functional deficits in carpal tunnel syndrome is unknown. Sixty-three subjects with carpal tunnel syndrome aged 20-60 years and 28 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects were evaluated with event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging at 3 T while vibrotactile stimulation was delivered to median nerve innervated (second and third) and ulnar nerve innervated (fifth) digits. For each subject, the interdigit cortical separation distance for each digit's contralateral primary somatosensory cortex representation was assessed. We also evaluated fine motor skill performance using a previously validated psychomotor performance test (maximum voluntary contraction and visuomotor pinch/release testing) and tactile discrimination capacity using a four-finger forced choice response test. These biobehavioural and clinical metrics were evaluated and correlated with the second/third interdigit cortical separation distance. Compared with healthy control subjects, subjects with carpal tunnel syndrome demonstrated reduced second/third interdigit cortical separation distance (P somatosensory cortex, corroborating our previous preliminary multi-modal neuroimaging findings. For psychomotor performance testing, subjects with carpal tunnel syndrome demonstrated reduced maximum voluntary contraction pinch strength (P somatosensory cortex was associated with worse symptomatology (particularly paraesthesia), reduced fine motor skill performance, and worse sensory discrimination accuracy for median nerve innervated digits. In conclusion, primary somatosensory cortex neuroplasticity for median nerve innervated digits in carpal tunnel syndrome is indeed

  6. Tau reduction diminishes spatial learning and memory deficits after mild repetitive traumatic brain injury in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason S Cheng

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Because reduction of the microtubule-associated protein Tau has beneficial effects in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease and epilepsy, we wanted to determine whether this strategy can also improve the outcome of mild traumatic brain injury (TBI. METHODS: We adapted a mild frontal impact model of TBI for wildtype C57Bl/6J mice and characterized the behavioral deficits it causes in these animals. The Barnes maze, Y maze, contextual and cued fear conditioning, elevated plus maze, open field, balance beam, and forced swim test were used to assess different behavioral functions. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, 7 Tesla and histological analysis of brain sections were used to look for neuropathological alterations. We also compared the functional effects of this TBI model and of controlled cortical impact in mice with two, one or no Tau alleles. RESULTS: Repeated (2-hit, but not single (1-hit, mild frontal impact impaired spatial learning and memory in wildtype mice as determined by testing of mice in the Barnes maze one month after the injury. Locomotor activity, anxiety, depression and fear related behaviors did not differ between injured and sham-injured mice. MRI imaging did not reveal focal injury or mass lesions shortly after the injury. Complete ablation or partial reduction of tau prevented deficits in spatial learning and memory after repeated mild frontal impact. Complete tau ablation also showed a trend towards protection after a single controlled cortical impact. Complete or partial reduction of tau also reduced the level of axonopathy in the corpus callosum after repeated mild frontal impact. INTERPRETATION: Tau promotes or enables the development of learning and memory deficits and of axonopathy after mild TBI, and tau reduction counteracts these adverse effects.

  7. Update on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Katie Campbell

    2004-04-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is present in 3% to 10% of children in the United States. Children with ADHD can have academic impairments, social dysfunction, and poor self-esteem. There is also a higher risk of both cigarette smoking and substance abuse. Given this, the importance of treatment for ADHD needs to be underscored. This article will briefly review the diagnosis, etiology, and treatment of ADHD, with particular focus on nonstimulant medication and alternative treatment modalities. Recent evidence suggests that the overall rate of medication treatment for ADHD has been increasing, with over 2 million children being treated with stimulants in 1997. With this increase, controversy has arisen over the possible association of stimulants with growth suppression. In addition, estimates indicate that as many as 30% of children with ADHD either do not respond to stimulant treatment or cannot tolerate the treatment secondary to side effects. This has lead to the consideration of treatment with both nonstimulant medications as well as alternative therapies, including diet, iron supplementation, herbal medications, and neurofeedback. Considering the various treatment options now available for ADHD, along with the complexity of the condition, clinical practice guidelines are emerging for the treatment of ADHD and will be discussed. ADHD continues to be a serious health problem. Adequate treatment is needed to avoid academic impairments, social dysfunction, and poor self-esteem. This treatment includes consideration of stimulant medication, nonstimulant medication, as well as alternative therapies. The child with ADHD is likely better served with a mutimodal treatment plan, including medication, parent/school counseling, and behavioral therapy. Implementing an evidenced based algorithm for the treatment of ADHD may prove to be most effective.

  8. Zinc in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, L Eugene; DiSilvestro, Robert A

    2005-08-01

    The aim of this study was to review the published evidence for a role of zinc nutrition in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A computer literature search was supplemented by the authors' knowledge. Numerous controlled studies report cross-sectional evidence of lower zinc tissue levels (serum, red cells, hair, urine, nails) in children who have ADHD, compared to normal controls and population norms. A few studies show correlations of zinc level with either clinical severity or a change thereof in response to stimulant or chemical challenge. Two placebo-controlled trials--one of zinc monotherapy, the other of zinc supplementation of methylphenidate--reported significant benefit. However, diagnostic procedures and sample representativeness were often not clear, and most such reports have come from countries and cultures with different diets and/or socioeconomic realities than are found in the United States (only one American sample in nine published reports). In particular, both positive clinical trials of zinc supplementation came from the Mid-East (Turkey and Iran), an area with suspected endemic zinc deficiency. The largest of these trials used zinc doses above the recommended upper tolerable limit and had a 2 in 3 dropout rate. It is not clear how well the accumulating evidence for a possible role of zinc in ADHD applies to middle-class American children. However, the evidence appears strong enough to warrant further controlled study in well-diagnosed samples representative of the socioeconomic spectrum. Hypothesis-testing clinical trials are needed of this potential treatment that, if found effective, might become a relatively safe, cheap substitute for, or adjunct to, current treatments in some patients. At present, it should remain an investigational treatment.

  9. Alexithymia: a general deficit of interoception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Richard; Bird, Geoffrey

    2016-01-01

    Alexithymia is a sub-clinical construct, traditionally characterized by difficulties identifying and describing one's own emotions. Despite the clear need for interoception (interpreting physical signals from the body) when identifying one's own emotions, little research has focused on the selectivity of this impairment. While it was originally assumed that the interoceptive deficit in alexithymia is specific to emotion, recent evidence suggests that alexithymia may also be associated with difficulties perceiving some non-affective interoceptive signals, such as one's heart rate. It is therefore possible that the impairment experienced by those with alexithymia is common to all aspects of interoception, such as interpreting signals of hunger, arousal, proprioception, tiredness and temperature. In order to determine whether alexithymia is associated with selectively impaired affective interoception, or general interoceptive impairment, we investigated the association between alexithymia and self-reported non-affective interoceptive ability, and the extent to which individuals perceive similarity between affective and non-affective states (both measured using questionnaires developed for the purpose of the current study), in both typical individuals (n = 105 (89 female), mean age = 27.5 years) and individuals reporting a diagnosis of a psychiatric condition (n = 103 (83 female), mean age = 31.3 years). Findings indicated that alexithymia was associated with poor non-affective interoception and increased perceived similarity between affective and non-affective states, in both the typical and clinical populations. We therefore suggest that rather than being specifically associated with affective impairment, alexithymia is better characterized by a general failure of interoception. PMID:27853532

  10. Social communication deficits: Specific associations with Social Anxiety Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Halls, Georgia; Cooper, Peter J.; Creswell, Cathy

    2015-01-01

    Background\\ud Social communication deficits are prevalent amongst children with anxiety disorders; however whether they are over-represented specifically among children with Social Anxiety Disorder has not been examined. This study set out to examine social communication deficits among children with Social Anxiety Disorder in comparison to children with other forms of anxiety disorder.\\ud \\ud Methods\\ud Parents of 404 children with a diagnosed anxiety disorder completed the Social Communicati...

  11. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Adolescents With Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Karen L; Lam, David; Tsui, Sarah; Ngan, Mary; Tsang, Brian; Lam, Siu M

    2016-04-01

    We examined attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in adolescents with epilepsy and the association with seizure-related and sociodemographic variables. Strengths and Weakness of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms and Normal Behaviors rating scale was administered to 122 children with epilepsy and 50 children with asthma, aged 10 to 18 years attending mainstream schools. Twenty-nine (23.7%) adolescents with epilepsy compared with five (10%) with asthma had attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (P = 0.037). Adolescents with epilepsy had a significantly higher score in the inattention subscale when compared with those with asthma (-0.25 ± 1.2 vs -0.64 ± 1.07, P = 0.049). Combined subtype was most frequent in the epilepsy group. Oppositional defiant disorders were more prevalent in those having attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Psychiatric assistance had only been provided to one third of our patients with epilepsy and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder at the time of study. There was a negative correlation between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder scores and age of seizure onset. A positive correlation was observed between the number of antiepileptic drugs and the inattentive subscale score. The impact of various correlates on individual subtypes was not identical. Independent risk factors associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder were medical comorbidities (odds ratio = 12.82, 95% confidence interval 4.44, 37.03, P Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is overrepresented in adolescents with epilepsy; screening for its symptoms should be an integral part of management in adolescents with epilepsy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Nicotine Administration Attenuates Methamphetamine-Induced Novel Object Recognition Deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira-Brock, Paula L; McFadden, Lisa M; Nielsen, Shannon M; Smith, Misty D; Hanson, Glen R; Fleckenstein, Annette E

    2015-07-11

    Previous studies have demonstrated that methamphetamine abuse leads to memory deficits and these are associated with relapse. Furthermore, extensive evidence indicates that nicotine prevents and/or improves memory deficits in different models of cognitive dysfunction and these nicotinic effects might be mediated by hippocampal or cortical nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. The present study investigated whether nicotine attenuates methamphetamine-induced novel object recognition deficits in rats and explored potential underlying mechanisms. Adolescent or adult male Sprague-Dawley rats received either nicotine water (10-75 μg/mL) or tap water for several weeks. Methamphetamine (4 × 7.5mg/kg/injection) or saline was administered either before or after chronic nicotine exposure. Novel object recognition was evaluated 6 days after methamphetamine or saline. Serotonin transporter function and density and α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor density were assessed on the following day. Chronic nicotine intake via drinking water beginning during either adolescence or adulthood attenuated the novel object recognition deficits caused by a high-dose methamphetamine administration. Similarly, nicotine attenuated methamphetamine-induced deficits in novel object recognition when administered after methamphetamine treatment. However, nicotine did not attenuate the serotonergic deficits caused by methamphetamine in adults. Conversely, nicotine attenuated methamphetamine-induced deficits in α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor density in the hippocampal CA1 region. Furthermore, nicotine increased α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor density in the hippocampal CA3, dentate gyrus and perirhinal cortex in both saline- and methamphetamine-treated rats. Overall, these findings suggest that nicotine-induced increases in α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the hippocampus and perirhinal cortex might be one mechanism by which novel object recognition deficits are

  13. Extinction learning deficit in a rodent model of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brackney Ryan J

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deficient operant extinction has been hypothesized to be constitutive of ADHD dysfunction. In order to elucidate the behavioral mechanisms underlying this deficit, the performance of an animal model of ADHD, the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR, was compared against the performance of a control strain, the Wistar-Kyoto rat (WKY during extinction. Method Following extensive training of lever pressing under variable interval schedules of food reinforcement (reported previously, SHR and WKY rats were exposed to two sessions of extinction training. Extinction data was analyzed using the Dynamic Bi-Exponential Refractory Model (DBERM of operant performance. DBERM assumes that operant responses are organized in bouts separated by pauses; during extinction, bouts may decline across multiple dimensions, including frequency and length. DBERM parameters were estimated using hierarchical Bayesian modeling. Results SHR responded more than WKY during the first extinction session. DBERM parameter estimates revealed that, at the onset of extinction, SHR produced more response bouts than WKY. Over the course of extinction, response bouts progressively shortened for WKY but not for SHR. Conclusions Based on prior findings on the sensitivity of DBERM parameters to motivational and schedule manipulations, present data suggests that (1 more frequent response bouts in SHR are likely related to greater incentive motivation, and (2 the persistent length of bouts in SHR are likely related to a slower updating of the response-outcome association. Overall, these findings suggest specific motivational and learning deficits that may explain ADHD-related impairments in operant performance.

  14. Hydrodynamic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Elaine Schmid

    Microfluidic networks and microporous materials have long been of interest in areas such as hydrology, petroleum engineering, chemical and electrochemical engineering, medicine and biochemical engineering. With the emergence of new processes in gas separation, cell sorting, ultrafiltration, and advanced materials synthesis, the importance of building a better qualitative and quantitative understanding of these key technologies has become apparent. However, microfluidic measurement and theory is still relatively underdeveloped, presenting a significant obstacle to the systematic design of microfluidic devices and materials. Theoretical challenges arise from the breakdown of classical viscous flow models as the flow dimensions approach the mean free path of individual molecules. Experimental challenges arise from the lack of flow profilometry techniques at sub-micron length scales. Here we present an extension of scanning probe microscopy techniques, which we have termed Hydrodynamic Force Microscopy (HFM). HFM exploits fluid drag to profile microflows and to map the permeability of microporous materials. In this technique, an atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilever is scanned close to a microporous sample surface. The hydrodynamic interactions arising from a pressure-driven flow through the sample are then detected by mapping the deflection of an AFM cantilever. For gas flows at atmospheric pressure, HFM has been shown to achieve a velocity sensitivity of 1 cm/s with a spatial resolution of ˜ 10 nm. This compares very favorably to established techniques such as hot-wire and laser Doppler anemometry, whose spatial resolutions typically exceed 1 mum and which may rely on the use of tracer particles or flow markers1. We demonstrate that HFM can successfully profile Poiseuille flows inside pores as small as 100 nm and can distinguish Poiseuille flow from uniform flow for short entry lengths. HFM detection of fluid jets escaping from porous samples can also reveal a

  15. Genetic analysis of water-deficit response traits in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, M; Saleem, M; Ahsan, M; Ahmad, A

    2016-03-28

    A set of sixty inbred lines of maize (Zea mays L.) were screened in the greenhouse at the seedling stage under both normal and water-deficit conditions. Six water deficit-tolerant inbred lines were selected based on root to shoot ratios. These selected lines were crossed in a diallel pattern. The parental, F1, and reciprocal cross plants were planted in a field under both normal and water-deficit conditions. Normal irrigation was applied to the control set, while the water-deficit set received 50% of normal irrigation levels. Analyses of variance of various morpho-physiological parameters identified significant differences among the selected lines under both conditions, indicating the presence of significant genetic variability. Variance components for general combining ability (GCA), specific combining ability (SCA), and reciprocal effects for all the parameters were estimated to determine the relative importance of additive and non-additive or dominance type of gene action. Variance components for GCA were larger than for SCA indicating the preponderance of additive types of gene action for all the traits under study. Hybrids developed from inbred lines W-10 and W-64SP proved to have the best grain yield under normal and water-deficit conditions. Under water-deficit conditions, the best performing cross was B-34 x W-10. Hence, these inbred lines and the hybrids might be of value in future breeding programs.

  16. Can DRYAD explain age-related associative memory deficits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Andrea C; Naveh-Benjamin, Moshe

    2016-02-01

    A recent interesting theoretical account of aging and memory judgments, the DRYAD (density of representations yields age-related deficits; Benjamin, 2010; Benjamin, Diaz, Matzen, & Johnson, 2012), attributes the extensive findings of disproportional age-related deficits in memory for source, context, and associations, to a global decline in memory fidelity. It is suggested that this global deficit, possibly due to a decline in attentional processes, is moderated by weak representation of contextual information to result in disproportional age-related declines. In the current article, we evaluate the DRYAD model, comparing it to specific age-related deficits theories, in particular, the ADH (associative deficit hypothesis, Naveh-Benjamin, 2000). We question some of the main assumptions/hypotheses of DRYAD in light of data reported in the literature, and we directly assess the role of attention in age-related deficits by manipulations of divided attention and of the instructions regarding what to pay attention to in 2 experiments (one from the literature and a new one). The results of these experiments fit the predictions of the ADH and do not support the main assumption/hypotheses of DRYAD. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Set shifting and visuospatial organization deficits in body dysmorphic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Jennifer L; Weingarden, Hilary; Reuman, Lillian; Abrams, Dylan; Mothi, Suraj S; Wilhelm, Sabine

    2017-11-24

    Individuals with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) over-attend to perceived defect(s) in their physical appearance, often becoming "stuck" obsessing about perceived flaws and engaging in rituals to hide flaws. These symptoms suggest that individuals with BDD may experience deficits in underlying neurocognitive functions, such as set-shifting and visuospatial organization. These deficits have been implicated as risk and maintenance factors in disorders with similarities to BDD but have been minimally investigated in BDD. The present study examined differences in neurocognitive functions among BDD participants (n = 20) compared to healthy controls (HCs; n = 20). Participants completed neuropsychological assessments measuring set-shifting (Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery Intra-Extra Dimensional Set Shift [IED] task) and visuospatial organization and memory (Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test [ROCF]). Results revealed a set-shifting deficit among BDD participants compared to HCs on the IED. On the ROCF, BDD participants exhibited deficits in visuospatial organization compared to HCs, but they did not differ in visuospatial memory compared to HCs. Results did not change when accounting for depression severity. Findings highlight neurocognitive deficits as potential endophenotype markers of clinical features (i.e., delusionality). Understanding neuropsychological deficits may clarify similarities and differences between BDD and related disorders and may guide targets for BDD treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A framework of psychological compensation in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkt, Julia; Reinelt, Tilman; Petermann, Franz

    2015-01-01

    The term compensation is widely used in the context of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), yet, it is neither defined nor theory driven. Adapting a model of psychological compensation (Bäckman and Dixon, 1992) to fit ADHD research is the aim of this review: we will (1) introduce the existing theoretical framework of psychological compensation, (2) discuss its applicability to ADHD and adapt the model to fit ADHD research, and (3) set up requirements for research on psychological compensation in ADHD. According to the framework psychological compensation can be inferred if a deficit (i.e., a mismatch between skill and environmental demand) is counterbalanced by the investment of more effort, the utilization of latent skills, or the acquisition of new skills. The framework has to be adapted because ADHD deficits are developmental and in individuals with ADHD compensation can appear independent of awareness of the deficit. A better understanding of psychological compensation in ADHD could foster diagnosis and interventions. Therefore, we suggest that future studies should follow a research design incorporating independent measures of deficit, compensation, and outcome as well as include individuals who compensate for their ADHD related deficits.

  19. A framework of psychological compensation in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia eMerkt

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The term compensation is widely used in the context of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD, yet, it is neither defined nor theory driven. Adapting a model of psychological compensation (Bäckman and Dixon, 1992 to fit ADHD research is the aim of this review: We will (1 introduce the existing theoretical framework of psychological compensation, (2 discuss its applicability to ADHD and adapt the model to fit ADHD research, and (3 set up requirements for research on psychological compensation in ADHD. According to the framework psychological compensation can be inferred if a deficit (i.e., a mismatch between skill and environmental demand is counterbalanced by the investment of more effort, the utilization of latent skills, or the acquisition of new skills. The framework has to be adapted because ADHD deficits are developmental and in individuals with ADHD compensation can appear independent of awareness of the deficit. A better understanding of psychological compensation in ADHD could foster diagnosis and interventions. Therefore, we suggest that future studies should follow a research design incorporating independent measures of deficit, compensation and outcome as well as include individuals who compensate for their ADHD related deficits.

  20. Non-conservative optical forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhov, Sergey; Dogariu, Aristide

    2017-11-01

    Undoubtedly, laser tweezers are the most recognized application of optically induced mechanical action. Their operation is usually described in terms of conservative forces originating from intensity gradients. However, the fundamental optical action on matter is non-conservative. We will review different manifestations of non-conservative optical forces (NCF) and discuss their dependence on the specific spatial properties of optical fields that generate them. New developments relevant to the NCF such as tractor beams and transversal forces are also discussed.

  1. MEMS Bragg grating force sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reck, Kasper; Thomsen, Erik Vilain; Hansen, Ole

    2011-01-01

    We present modeling, design, fabrication and characterization of a new type of all-optical frequency modulated MEMS force sensor based on a mechanically amplified double clamped waveguide beam structure with integrated Bragg grating. The sensor is ideally suited for force measurements in harsh...... environments and for remote and distributed sensing and has a measured sensitivity of -14 nm/N, which is several times higher than what is obtained in conventional fiber Bragg grating force sensors. © 2011 Optical Society of America....

  2. Magnetic Resonance Force Microscopy System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Magnetic Resonance Force Microscopy (MRFM) system, developed by ARL, is the world's most sensitive nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic analysis tool,...

  3. Blocking of Brute Force Attack

    OpenAIRE

    M.Venkata Krishna Reddy

    2012-01-01

    A common threat Web developers face is a password-guessing attack known as a brute-force attack. A brute-force attack is an attempt to discover a password by systematically trying every possible combination of letters, numbers, and symbols until you discover the one correct combination that works. If your Web site requires user authentication, you are a good target for a brute-force attack. An attacker can always discover a password through a brute-force attack, but the downside is that it co...

  4. Wind Forces on Container Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ingrid Marie Vincent

    2012-01-01

    An investigation of the wind forces acting on a 9,000+ TEU container ship has been carried out through a series of wind tunnel tests. It was investigated how the wind forces depend on the container configuration on the deck using a 1:450 scale model and a series of appropriate container...... are presented as nondimensional coefficients. It is concluded, that the measured forces and moment depend on the container configuration on deck, and the results may provide a general idea of how the magnitude of the wind forces is affected by a given container stacking configuration on a similar container ship....

  5. Force As A Momentum Current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munera, Hector A.

    2010-01-01

    Advantages of a neo-Cartesian approach to classical mechanics are noted. If conservation of linear momentum is the fundamental principle, Newton's three laws become theorems. A minor paradox in static Newtonian mechanics is identified, and solved by reinterpreting force as a current of momentum. Contact force plays the role of a mere midwife in the exchange of momentum; however, force cannot be eliminated from physics because it provides the numerical value for momentum current. In this sense, in a neo-Cartesian formulation of mechanics the concept of force becomes strengthened rather than weakened.

  6. Forces of nature

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2072602

    2016-01-01

    A breathtaking and beautiful exploration of our planet. This groundbreaking book, which accompanies the new BBC1 TV series, provides the deepest answers to the simplest questions. 'Why is the sky blue?' 'Why is the Earth round?' 'Why is every snowflake unique?' To answer these and many other questions, Professor Brian Cox will reveal some of the most extraordinary phenomena and events on Earth and in the Universe and beyond. From the immensity of Earth's globe to all the world's myriad snowflakes, the forces of nature shape everything we see. Pushed to extremes, the results are astonishing. From the realm of auroras to the heart of our planet, the ingredients that make everything on Earth connect each one of us in an eternal cycle of life. Brian will reveal why Earth is the most colourful world we know, exploring the white light of the sun as it travels through the darkness of space until it hits Earth's atmosphere where it begins a new journey, splitting into a rainbow of colours. From the great plains of th...

  7. Measuring Forces between Oxide Surfaces Using the Atomic Force Microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik Guldberg; Høj, Jakob Weiland

    1996-01-01

    The interactions between colloidal particles play a major role in processing of ceramics, especially in casting processes. With the Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) it is possible to measure the inter-action force between a small oxide particle (a few micron) and a surface as function of surface...

  8. Conceptual physics differences by pedagogy and gender: Questioning the deficit model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majors, Twanelle Deann Walker

    The differences in physics performance between males and females have been studied extensively (Blue & Heller, 2003; Coletta, 2015; Madsen, McKagan, & Sayre 2013; McCullough, 2002, 2004, 2011; Pollock, Finkelstein, & Kost, 2007; Zohar & Sela, 2003). The purpose of this study was to look at the ways teaching methods and assessment choices have fabricated a gender gap. Deficit ways of thinking have further marginalized women by renegotiating prior acts of power that initiated and perpetuated marginalization. Outside of the deficit model, the blame for the underperformance of females has been attributed to discourses of power as well as less-than-critical ways of evaluating learning and schooling. Students in introductory algebra-based physics courses from 2008-2014 at Tennessee Technological University were self-enrolled in PHYS2010 sections that were taught using either a traditional or constructivist, interactive-engagement Learner-centered Environment for Algebra-based Physics (LEAP) pedagogy. Propensity scoring on all feasible and relevant independent variables was used to adjust for the probability of students choosing either LEAP or traditional sections. The Force Concept Inventory (FCI) and Gender Force Concept Inventory (GFCI) were used as the measures to gauge students' performance on physics concepts. The results showed that there were no differences in the FCI or GFCI performance of males and females. Results also showed that when accounting for pretest performance and the likelihood of choosing a LEAP section, LEAP pedagogy accounted for roughly 30% of performance differences. Not only was this true on the average, it was true for both genders. This meant that the main effect of LEAP pedagogy was even stronger and more generalizable. Gender did not moderate pedagogy, indicating that a pedagogy gap focus was more appropriate for evaluating physics learners.

  9. Language Deficits in Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders: Practical Applications for Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getty, Laura A.; Summy, Sarah E.

    2006-01-01

    A limited body of research on language deficits in children with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) exists. However, initial studies have found a direct relationship between language deficits and EBD. Reading, writing, and math deficits have been found to co-occur in children with EBD and language deficits. Additionally, antisocial behaviors…

  10. Emotion Perception or Social Cognitive Complexity: What Drives Face Processing Deficits in Autism Spectrum Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Jennifer A.; Creighton, Sarah E.; Rutherford, M. D.

    2016-01-01

    Some, but not all, relevant studies have revealed face processing deficits among those with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In particular, deficits are revealed in face processing tasks that involve emotion perception. The current study examined whether either deficits in processing emotional expression or deficits in processing social cognitive…

  11. Influence of the Coriolis force on the structure and evolution of wind turbine wakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abkar, Mahdi; Porté-Agel, Fernando

    2016-10-01

    In this study, large-eddy simulation combined with a turbine model is used to investigate the effect of vertical wind veer associated with the Coriolis force on the structure and evolution of wind turbine wakes. In order to isolate the Coriolis effect on the wake, two cases are considered. In the first case, atmospheric boundary-layer flow is driven by a geostrophic wind, including the effect of Earth's rotation and the Coriolis force. In the second case, the boundary-layer flow is unidirectional and is forced by an imposed pressure gradient. Both cases have the same mean horizontal velocity and turbulence intensity at the hub height. The simulation results show that the Coriolis force significantly affects the aerodynamics of the wake including the mean velocity deficit, turbulence statistics, and wake-meandering characteristics downwind of the turbine. In particular, when the flow is forced by a geostrophic wind, vertical wind veer causes a skewed spatial structure in the wake. Moreover, the presence of lateral wind shear, in addition to the vertical one, enhances the shear production of turbulent kinetic energy and the turbulent momentum flux. This leads to a larger flow entrainment and, thus, a faster wake recovery compared to the case forced by unidirectional pressure gradient. Consistent with this result, wake meandering is also stronger in both lateral and vertical directions in the case of geostrophic forcing compared to the case with pressure-gradient forcing.

  12. Increased Force Variability Is Associated with Altered Modulation of the Motorneuron Pool Activity in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng; Kwon, Minhyuk; Mohanty, Suman; Schmitt, Lauren M; White, Stormi P; Christou, Evangelos A; Mosconi, Matthew W

    2017-03-25

    Force control deficits have been repeatedly documented in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). They are associated with worse social and daily living skill impairments in patients suggesting that developing a more mechanistic understanding of the central and peripheral processes that cause them may help guide the development of treatments that improve multiple outcomes in ASD. The neuromuscular mechanisms underlying force control deficits are not yet understood. Seventeen individuals with ASD and 14 matched healthy controls completed an isometric index finger abduction test at 60% of their maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) during recording of the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle to determine the neuromuscular processes associated with sustained force variability. Central modulation of the motorneuron pool activation of the FDI muscle was evaluated at delta (0-4 Hz), alpha (4-10 Hz), beta (10-35 Hz) and gamma (35-60 Hz) frequency bands. ASD patients showed greater force variability than controls when attempting to maintain a constant force. Relative to controls, patients also showed increased central modulation of the motorneuron pool at beta and gamma bands. For controls, reduced force variability was associated with reduced delta frequency modulation of the motorneuron pool activity of the FDI muscle and increased modulation at beta and gamma bands. In contrast, delta, beta, and gamma frequency oscillations were not associated with force variability in ASD. These findings suggest that alterations of central mechanisms that control motorneuron pool firing may underlie the common and often impairing symptoms of ASD.

  13. Societal Forces That ERODE Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert; Kaufman, James C.

    2018-01-01

    Background/Context: Creativity is an indispensable force in intellectual, social, cultural, and economic development. Yet societal forces conspire to erode it. Educators have despaired for many years over how schools often fail to encourage creativity, but society as a whole is just as guilty. But how do schools and society fail to encourage, or…

  14. Adhesive forces at bimetallic interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, M.P.; Nafari, N.; Ziesche, P.; Kaschner, H.R.

    1987-03-01

    Force concepts in condensed systems have progressed significantly in recent years. In the context of bimetallic interfaces we consider the Pauli-Hellman-Feynman theorem, use it to check the variational calculations of interfacial energies and estimate the force constants. (author). 13 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  15. Force optimized recoil control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, P. E.; Radkiewicz, R. J.; Gartner, R. F.

    1982-05-01

    Reduction of the recoil force of high rate of fire automatic guns was proven effective. This system will allow consideration of more powerful guns for use in both helicopter and armored personnel carrier applications. By substituting the large shock loads of firing guns with a nearly constant force, both vibration and fatigue problems that prevent mounting of powerful automatic guns is eliminated.

  16. Force.com enterprise architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Fawcett, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This book is for advanced Force.com developers and architects who need to understand the Salesforce platform from the perspective of enterprise-level requirements. You should have an existing understanding of Apex and Visualforce. Those familiar with other enterprise software ecosystems will also find this book ideal as they adopt Force.com.

  17. Relationship between visuospatial neglect and kinesthetic deficits after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semrau, Jennifer A; Wang, Jeffery C; Herter, Troy M; Scott, Stephen H; Dukelow, Sean P

    2015-05-01

    After stroke, visuospatial and kinesthetic (sense of limb motion) deficits are common, occurring in approximately 30% and 60% of individuals, respectively. Although both types of deficits affect aspects of spatial processing necessary for daily function, few studies have investigated the relationship between these 2 deficits after stroke. We aimed to characterize the relationship between visuospatial and kinesthetic deficits after stroke using the Behavioral Inattention Test (BIT) and a robotic measure of kinesthetic function. Visuospatial attention (using the BIT) and kinesthesia (using robotics) were measured in 158 individuals an average of 18 days after stroke. In the kinesthetic matching task, the robot moved the participant's stroke-affected arm at a preset direction, speed, and magnitude. Participants mirror-matched the robotic movement with the less/unaffected arm as soon as they felt movement in their stroke affected arm. We found that participants with visuospatial inattention (neglect) had impaired kinesthesia 100% of the time, whereas only 59% of participants without neglect were impaired. For those without neglect, we observed that a higher percentage of participants with lower but passing BIT scores displayed impaired kinesthetic behavior (78%) compared with those participants who scored perfect or nearly perfect on the BIT (49%). The presence of visuospatial neglect after stroke is highly predictive of the presence of kinesthetic deficits. However, the presence of kinesthetic deficits does not necessarily always indicate the presence of visuospatial neglect. Our findings highlight the importance of assessment and treatment of kinesthetic deficits after stroke, especially in patients with visuospatial neglect. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Color naming deficits and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A retinal dopaminergic hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tannock Rosemary

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individuals with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD have unexplained difficulties on tasks requiring speeded processing of colored stimuli. Color vision mechanisms, particularly short-wavelength (blue-yellow pathways, are highly sensitive to various diseases, toxins and drugs that alter dopaminergic neurotransmission. Thus, slow color processing might reflect subtle impairments in the perceptual encoding stage of stimulus color, which arise from hypodopaminergic functioning. Presentation of hypotheses 1 Color perception of blue-yellow (but not red-green stimuli is impaired in ADHD as a result of deficient retinal dopamine; 2 Impairments in the blue-yellow color mechanism in ADHD contribute to poor performance on speeded color naming tasks that include a substantial proportion of blue-yellow stimuli; and 3 Methylphenidate increases central dopamine and is also believed to increase retinal dopamine, thereby normalizing blue-yellow color perception, which in turn improves performance on the speeded color naming tasks. Testing the hypothesis Requires three approaches, including:1 direct assessment of color perception in individuals with ADHD to determine whether blue-yellow color perception is selectively impaired; 2 determination of relationship between performance on neuropsychological tasks requiring speeded color processing and color perception; and 3 randomized, controlled pharmacological intervention with stimulant medication to examine the effects of enhancing central dopamine on color perception and task performance Implications of hypothesis If substantiated, the findings of color perception problems would necessitate a re-consideration of current neuropsychological models of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, guide psycho-education, academic instruction, and require consideration of stimulus color in many of the widely used neuropsychological tests.

  19. Handbook of Molecular Force Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Noy, Aleksandr

    2008-01-01

    "...Noy's Handbook of Molecular Force Spectroscopy is both a timely and useful summary of fundamental aspects of molecular force spectroscopy, and I believe it would make a worthwhile addition to any good scientific library. New research groups that are entering this field would be well advisedto study this handbook in detail before venturing into the exciting and challenging world of molecular force spectroscopy." Matthew F. Paige, University of Saskatchewan, Journal of the American Chemical Society Modern materials science and biophysics are increasingly focused on studying and controlling intermolecular interactions on the single-molecule level. Molecular force spectroscopy was developed in the past decade as the result of several unprecedented advances in the capabilities of modern scientific instrumentation, and defines a number of techniques that use mechanical force measurements to study interactions between single molecules and molecular assemblies in chemical and biological systems. Examples of these...

  20. Force sensing in surgical sutures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Horeman

    Full Text Available The tension in a suture is an important factor in the process of wound healing. If there is too much tension in the suture, the blood flow is restricted and necrosis can occur. If the tension is too low, the incision opens up and cannot heal properly. The purpose of this paper is to describe the design and evaluation of the Stitch Force (SF sensor and the Hook-In Force (HIF sensor. These sensors were developed to measure the force on a tensioned suture inside a closed incision and to measure the pulling force used to close the incision. The accuracy of both sensors is high enough to determine the relation between the force in the thread of a stitch and the pulling force applied on the suture by the physician. In a pilot study, a continuous suture of 7 stitches was applied on the fascia of the abdominal wall of multiple pigs to study this relationship. The results show that the max force in the thread of the second stitch drops from 3 (SD 1.2 to 1 (SD 0.3 newton after the 4(th stitch was placed. During placement of the 5(th, 6(th and 7(th stitch, the force in the 2(nd stitch was not influenced anymore. This study indicates that in a continuous suture the force in the thread remains constant up to more than 3 stiches away from the pulled loose end of the suture. When a force feedback tool is developed specially for suturing in surgery on patients, the proposed sensors can be used to determine safety threshold for different types of tissue and sutures.

  1. Force sensing in surgical sutures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horeman, Tim; Meijer, Evert-Jan; Harlaar, Joris J; Lange, Johan F; van den Dobbelsteen, John J; Dankelman, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    The tension in a suture is an important factor in the process of wound healing. If there is too much tension in the suture, the blood flow is restricted and necrosis can occur. If the tension is too low, the incision opens up and cannot heal properly. The purpose of this paper is to describe the design and evaluation of the Stitch Force (SF) sensor and the Hook-In Force (HIF) sensor. These sensors were developed to measure the force on a tensioned suture inside a closed incision and to measure the pulling force used to close the incision. The accuracy of both sensors is high enough to determine the relation between the force in the thread of a stitch and the pulling force applied on the suture by the physician. In a pilot study, a continuous suture of 7 stitches was applied on the fascia of the abdominal wall of multiple pigs to study this relationship. The results show that the max force in the thread of the second stitch drops from 3 (SD 1.2) to 1 (SD 0.3) newton after the 4(th) stitch was placed. During placement of the 5(th), 6(th) and 7(th) stitch, the force in the 2(nd) stitch was not influenced anymore. This study indicates that in a continuous suture the force in the thread remains constant up to more than 3 stiches away from the pulled loose end of the suture. When a force feedback tool is developed specially for suturing in surgery on patients, the proposed sensors can be used to determine safety threshold for different types of tissue and sutures.

  2. Combined lesions of hippocampus and subiculum Do not produce deficits in a nonspatial social olfactory memory task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, S; Murphy, D; Qureshi, U; Sutton, P; O'Keefe, J

    2000-07-15

    Rats transmit information to each other about which foods are safe to eat. If a rat smells a food odor on the breath of another rat, it is subsequently more likely to eat that food than an alternative. Work by Galef et al. (1988) has shown that the observer rat forms an association between two olfactory stimuli on the breath of the demonstrator rat that has eaten the food, the food odor and carbon disulphide, which is normally present in the rat breath. Bunsey and Eichenbaum (1995) claimed that the hippocampus/subicular region is required for the long-term retention of this nonspatial form of associative memory on the basis that combined lesions of the hippocampus and subiculum produced a deficit, but lesions of either structure alone did not. We report here a failure to repeat this finding. Rats with either combined lesions of the hippocampus and subiculum or with amygdala lesions were tested on their ability to remember this association either immediately (testing short-term memory) or after a 24 hr delay (testing long-term memory). Neither lesion group exhibited significant memory deficits on this nonspatial associative task at either test interval. In contrast, a deficit was observed on a spatial memory task (forced-choice alternation t-maze) for animals with combined lesions of the hippocampus and subiculum. These results contradict the findings of Bunsey and Eichenbaum (1995) and support the idea that the hippocampus/subicular region is not required for this nonspatial associative memory.

  3. Behavioral analysis of NR2C knockout mouse reveals deficit in acquisition of conditioned fear and working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Brandon G; Gupta, Subhash C; Stairs, Dustin J; Buonanno, Andres; Dravid, Shashank M

    2011-05-01

    N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors play an important role in excitatory neurotransmission and mediate synaptic plasticity associated with learning and memory. NMDA receptors are composed of two NR1 and two NR2 subunits and the identity of the NR2 subunit confers unique electrophysiologic and pharmacologic properties to the receptor. The precise role of NR2C-containing receptors in vivo is poorly understood. We have performed a battery of behavioral tests on NR2C knockout/nβ-galactosidase knock-in mice and found no difference in spontaneous activity, basal anxiety, forced-swim immobility, novel object recognition, pain sensitivity and reference memory in comparison to wildtype counterparts. However, NR2C knockout mice were found to exhibit deficits in fear acquisition and working memory compared to wildtype mice. Deficit in fear acquisition correlated with lack of fear conditioning-induced plasticity at the thalamo-amygdala synapse. These findings suggest a unique role of NR2C-containing receptors in associative and executive learning representing a novel therapeutic target for deficits in cognition. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Knowledge of Repetitions Range Affects Force Production in Trained Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Halperin, Saied J. Aboodarda, Fabien A. Basset, David G. Behm

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Most studies have examined pacing strategies with cyclical activities (running and cycling. It has been demonstrated that males employ different pacing strategies during repeated maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs dependent upon a known endpoint. Since different fatiguing mechanisms have been identified between the genders, it is not known if females use comparable pacing strategies. The purpose of this study was to examine if informing female subjects regarding the number of MVCs to perform would affect force and electromyography (EMG. Twenty well-trained females completed 3 fatiguing protocols in a randomized order. In the control condition participants were informed they would perform twelve MVCs and then actually completed twelve. In the unknown condition they were not told how many MVCs to perform but were stopped after twelve. In the deception condition they were initially informed to perform 6 MVCs, but after the 6th MVC they were asked to perform a few more MVCs and were stopped after twelve. During the first 6 MVCs, forces in the deception condition were greater compared to the unknown (p = 0.021, ES = 0.65, 5% and control (p = 0.022, ES = 0.42, 3% conditions. No differences were found between conditions in the last 6 MVCs. A main effect for repetitions showed force deficits during the first 6 MVCs (p = 0.000, ES = 1.81, 13% and last 6 MVCs (p = 0.05, ES = 0.34, 3%. No differences were found between conditions in biceps and triceps EMG. However, EMG decreased during the first 6 MVCs for biceps (p = 0.001, ES = 1.0, 14% and triceps (p = 0.001, ES = 0.76, 14% across conditions. No differences were found in the last 6 MVCs. The anticipation of performing fewer MVCs led to increased force, whereas no endpoint led to decreased force production.

  5. Bite force evaluation in subjects with cleft lip and palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Renata Sipert

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the masticatory function of subjects with cleft lip and palate by analyzing the bite force developed by these individuals. Bite force was evaluated in a group of 27 individuals with repaired unilateral cleft lip and palate (14 males and 13 females - aged 18-26 years and compared to the data achieved from a group of 20 noncleft subjects (10 males and 10 females - aged 18-26 years. Measurement was achieved on three positions within the dental arch (incisors, right molars and left molars, three times at each position considering the highest value for each one. Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA and Mann-Whitney test ( α = 5%. There was a significant deficit in bite force in male individuals with cleft lip and palate compared to the male control group (p=0.02, p=0.004, p=0.003 for incisors, right and left molars, respectively. For the female group, the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.79, p=0.06, p=0.47. In the group of individuals with clefts, 92.6% were under orthodontic treatment, which could be a reason for the present findings, since it can decrease the bite force more remarkably in males than in females. In conclusion, the bite force is significantly reduced in men when comparing the cleft group to the noncleft group. In females, this reduction was not significant in the same way. However, the main reason for this reduction and for the different behavior between genders should be further investigated.

  6. CREB Overexpression Ameliorates Age-related Behavioral and Biophysical Deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao-Wen

    Age-related cognitive deficits are observed in both humans and animals. Yet, the molecular mechanisms underlying these deficits are not yet fully elucidated. In aged animals, a decrease in intrinsic excitability of pyramidal neurons from the CA1 sub-region of hippocampus is believed to contribute to age-related cognitive impairments, but the molecular mechanism(s) that modulate both these factors has yet to be identified. Increasing activity of the transcription factor cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) in young adult rodents has been shown to facilitate cognition, and increase intrinsic excitability of their neurons. However, how CREB changes with age, and how that impacts cognition in aged animals, is not clear. Therefore, we first systematically characterized age- and training-related changes in CREB levels in dorsal hippocampus. At a remote time point after undergoing behavioral training, levels of total CREB and activated CREB (phosphorylated at S133, pCREB) were measured in both young and aged rats. We found that pCREB, but not total CREB was significantly reduced in dorsal CA1 of aged rats. Importantly, levels of pCREB were found to be positively correlated with short-term spatial memory in both young and aged rats i.e. higher pCREB in dorsal CA1 was associated with better spatial memory. These findings indicate that an age-related deficit in CREB activity may contribute to the development of age-related cognitive deficits. However, it was still unclear if increasing CREB activity would be sufficient to ameliorate age-related cognitive, and biophysical deficits. To address this question, we virally overexpressed CREB in CA1, where we found the age-related deficit. Young and aged rats received control or CREB virus, and underwent water maze training. While control aged animals exhibited deficits in long-term spatial memory, aged animals with CREB overexpression performed at levels comparable to young animals. Concurrently, aged neurons

  7. [Unawareness of deficits in Alzheimer's disease: a multidimentional approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trouillet, Raphaël; Gély-Nargeot, Marie-Christine; Derouesné, Christian

    2003-06-01

    Partial or complete unawareness of deficits in Alzheimer's disease (AD) may result in delaying diagnosis and difficulties for caring. Many theories have been proposed to explain unawareness of neurological or cognitive deficits. Neurological theories use the term of anosognosia to describe unawareness as a consequence of the severity and location of brain lesions. They predict an association between the unawareness of deficits in AD and the severity of dementia or location of the lesions in the right cerebral hemisphere or in the frontal regions. More recent theories have been based on models derived from cognitive neuropsychology. Some models have been designed to explain unawareness of specific deficits such as the memory disorders, others are more extensive based on models of consciousness of the Self. Psychopathological theories postulate that unawareness of deficits is the consequence of a psychological defense mechanism, termed denial. Therefore, unawareness of deficits in AD should be linked to the premorbid personality, abilities to cope with the disease and its consequences more than to the severity and location of brain lesions. The validity of each theory is discussed according to the data from the literature. However, the analysis of the literature is clouded by many methodological difficulties due to the variability of terminology and tools used to assess the unawareness. Moreover, most studies were too narrowly focused on specific points, not taking into account a global model of insight. Nevertheless, some conclusions can be drawn from the available data: 1) the nature of the unawareness of deficits in AD is multidimensional. Terms such anosognosia or denial do not describe single phenomena but correspond to disturbances of various neurological, neuropsychological and psychopathological mechanisms, which can not be explained by a single theory; 2) unawareness should no more be considered as a category but according to a dimensional approach. There is

  8. Deficits in Interval Timing Measured by the Dual-Task Paradigm among Children and Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Shoou-Lian; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Hsu, Wen-Yau; Wu, Yu-Yu

    2010-01-01

    Background: The underlying mechanism of time perception deficit in long time intervals in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is still unclear. This study used the time reproduction dual task to explore the role of the attentional resource in time perception deficits among children and adolescents with ADHD. Methods: Participants…

  9. Seeping Deficit Thinking Assumptions Maintain the Neoliberal Education Agenda: Exploring Three Conceptual Frameworks of Deficit Thinking in Inner-City Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manu

    2018-01-01

    This article draws awareness to the subtle and seeping "common sense" mentality of neoliberalism and deficit thinking assumptions about racially marginalized students in inner-city schools. From a literature review conducted on deficit thinking and deficit practices in schools, I developed three different frameworks for understanding the…

  10. Hippocampal ER stress and learning deficits following repeated pyrethroid exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Muhammad M; DiCicco-Bloom, Emanuel; Richardson, Jason R

    2015-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is implicated as a significant contributor to neurodegeneration and cognitive dysfunction. Previously, we reported that the widely used pyrethroid pesticide deltamethrin causes ER stress-mediated apoptosis in SK-N-AS neuroblastoma cells. Whether or not this occurs in vivo remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate that repeated deltamethrin exposure (3 mg/kg every 3 days for 60 days) causes hippocampal ER stress and learning deficits in adult mice. Repeated exposure to deltamethrin caused ER stress in the hippocampus as indicated by increased levels of C/EBP-homologous protein (131%) and glucose-regulated protein 78 (96%). This was accompanied by increased levels of caspase-12 (110%) and activated caspase-3 (50%). To determine whether these effects resulted in learning deficits, hippocampal-dependent learning was evaluated using the Morris water maze. Deltamethrin-treated animals exhibited profound deficits in the acquisition of learning. We also found that deltamethrin exposure resulted in decreased BrdU-positive cells (37%) in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, suggesting potential impairment of hippocampal neurogenesis. Collectively, these results demonstrate that repeated deltamethrin exposure leads to ER stress, apoptotic cell death in the hippocampus, and deficits in hippocampal precursor proliferation, which is associated with learning deficits. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Fiscal Deficits and Stock Prices in India: Empirical Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Joshi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The study aims at examining how fiscal deficits affect the performance of the stock market in India by using annual data from 1988–2012. The study makes use of Ng-Perron unit root tests to check the non-stationarity property of the series; the Auto Regressive Distributed Lag (ARDL bounds test and a Vector Error Correction Model (VECM for testing both short and long run dynamic relationships. The variance decomposition (VDC is used to predict the exogenous shocks of the variables. The findings of the bounds test reveal that the estimated equation and the series are co-integrated. The ARDL results suggest a long run negative relationship exists between budget deficit and stock prices and do not show any significant relationship in the short run. The VECM result shows that fiscal deficits influence the stock price only in the short run. The results of the Variance Decomposition show that stock price movement in the long run is mostly explained by shocks of fiscal deficits. The study implies that the government must adopt appropriate macroeconomic policies to reduce budget deficit, which will result in stock market growth and in turn will lead to the financial development of the country.

  12. Estimation of Maize photosynthesis Efficiency Under Deficit Irrigation and Mulch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hadithi, S.

    2004-01-01

    This research aims at estimating maize photosynthesis efficiency under deficit irrigation and soil mulching. A split-split plot design experiment was conducted with three replicates during the fall season 2000 and spring season 2001 at the experimental Station of Soil Dept./ Iraq Atomic Energy Commission. The main plots were assigned to full and deficit irrigation treatments: (C) control. The deficit irrigation treatment included the omission of one irrigation at establishment (S1, 15 days), vegetation (S2, 35 days), flowering (S3, 40 days) and yield formation (S4, 30 days) stages. The sub-plots were allocated for the two varieties, Synthetic 5012 (V1) and Haybrid 2052 (V2). The sub-sub-plots were assigned to mulch (M1) with wheat straw and no mulch (M0). Results showed that the deficit irrigation did not affect photosynthesis efficiency in both seasons, which ranged between 1.90 to 2.15% in fall season and between 1.18 and 1.45% in spring season. The hybrid variety was superior 9.39 and 9.15% over synthetic variety in fall and spring seasons, respectively. Deficit irrigation, varieties and mulch had no significant effects on harvest index in both seasons. This indicates that the two varieties were stable in their partitioning efficiency of nutrient matter between plant organ and grains under the condition of this experiment. (Author) 21 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs

  13. Brain differences between persistent and remitted attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattfeld, Aaron T; Gabrieli, John D E; Biederman, Joseph; Spencer, Thomas; Brown, Ariel; Kotte, Amelia; Kagan, Elana; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan

    2014-09-01

    Previous resting state studies examining the brain basis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder have not distinguished between patients who persist versus those who remit from the diagnosis as adults. To characterize the neurobiological differences and similarities of persistence and remittance, we performed resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging in individuals who had been longitudinally and uniformly characterized as having or not having attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in childhood and again in adulthood (16 years after baseline assessment). Intrinsic functional brain organization was measured in patients who had a persistent diagnosis in childhood and adulthood (n = 13), in patients who met diagnosis in childhood but not in adulthood (n = 22), and in control participants who never had attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (n = 17). A positive functional correlation between posterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortices, major components of the default-mode network, was reduced only in patients whose diagnosis persisted into adulthood. A negative functional correlation between medial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices was reduced in both persistent and remitted patients. The neurobiological dissociation between the persistence and remittance of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder may provide a framework for the relation between the clinical diagnosis, which indicates the need for treatment, and additional deficits that are common, such as executive dysfunctions. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Responses of Six Wheat Cultivars to Terminal Water Deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Behrozi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the morpho-physiological and biochemical responses of six wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivars to late season water deficit stress, this experiment was carried out in controlled conditions at College of Agriculture of Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran during 2013-14. The experimental treatments were water deficit (50 and 100% F.C. and wheat cultivars (Sirvan, Chamran, Shiraz, Marvdasht, Hamoun, Pishtaz. The results showed that water deficit significantly reduced flag leaf area (7.23%, number of grains per spike (17.37%, 1000 grain weight (20.88%, grain yield (17.73%, biological yield (15%, and harvest index (10.75% and increased the chlorophyll content (14.48% in all wheat cultivars. Significant differences were found in physiological responses among wheat cultivars. Under water deficit stress, Sirvan and Chamran cultivars had significantly higher growth and yield compared to other wheat cultivars. Water stress increased the activity of catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase and this increase was significantly higher in Sirvan and Chamran cultivars. It could be concluded that in Sirvan and Chamran cultivars the increased antioxidants activities led to the partial amelioration of the adverse effects of water deficit, resulting in greater grain yield and yield components, compared to the remaining genotypes.

  15. [Deficits in medical counseling in olfactory dysfunction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haxel, B R; Nisius, A; Fruth, K; Mann, W J; Muttray, A

    2012-05-01

    Olfactory dysfunctions are common with a prevalence of up to 20% in the population. An impaired sense of smell can lead to specific dangers, therefore, counseling and warning of hazardous situations to raise patient awareness is an important medical function. In this study 105 patients presenting to the University of Mainz Medical Centre with dysosmia were evaluated using a questionnaire. For quantification of the olfactory dysfunction a standardized olfactory test (Sniffin' Sticks) was used. Of the patients 46% were hyposmic and 40% were functionally anosmic. The median duration of the olfactory impairment was 10 months and the main causes of dysosmia were upper respiratory tract infections and idiopathic disorders. More than 90% of the patients consulted an otorhinolaryngologist and 60% a general practitioner before presenting to the University of Mainz Medical Center. More than two thirds of the patients conducted a professional activity, 95% of patients reported that they had not received any medical counseling and 6% of the subjects were forced to discontinue their profession because of olfactory dysfunction. In patients with olfactory dysfunctions appropriate diagnostics, including olfactometry should be performed. Furthermore, correct medical counseling concerning necessary additional arrangements (e.g. installation of smoke or gas detectors, precautions while cooking or for hygiene) has to be performed. For patients in a profession an analysis of the hazards at work is crucial.

  16. Differential force balances during levitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Paul

    The simplest arithmetic of inertial, buoyant, magnetic and electrokinetic levitation is explored in the context of a model living system with “acceleration-sensitive structures” in which motion, if allowed, produces a biological effect. The simple model is a finite-sized object enclosed within another finite-sized object suspended in an outer fluid (liquid or vapor) medium. The inner object has density and electrical and magnetic properties quantitatively different from those of the outer object and the medium. In inertial levitation (“weightlessness”) inertial accelerations are balanced, and the forces due to them are canceled in accordance with Newton’s third law. In the presence of inertial acceleration (gravity, centrifugal) motionlessness depends on a balance between the levitating force and the inertial force. If the inner and outer objects differ in density one or the other will be subjected to an unbalanced force when one object is levitated by any other force (buoyant, magnetic, electrokinetic). The requirements for motionlessness of the internal object in the presence of a levitating force are equality of density in the case of buoyant levitation, equality of magnetic susceptibility in the case of magnetic levitation, and equality of zeta potential and dielectric constant in the case of electrokinetic levitation. Examples of internal “acceleration-sensitive structures” are cellular organelles and the organs of advanced plants and animals. For these structures fundamental physical data are important in the interpretation of the effects of forces used for levitation.

  17. Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlson, R. J.; Schwartz, S. E.; Hales, J. M.; Cess, R. D.; Coakley, J. A., Jr.; Hansen, J. E.; Hofmann, D. J.

    1992-01-01

    Although long considered to be of marginal importance to global climate change, tropospheric aerosol contributes substantially to radiative forcing, and anthropogenic sulfate aerosol, in particular, has imposed a major perturbation to this forcing. Both the direct scattering of short-wavelength solar radiation and the modification of the shortwave reflective properties of clouds by sulfate aerosol particles increase planetary albedo, thereby exerting a cooling influence on the planet. Current climate forcing due to anthropogenic sulfate is estimated to be -1 to -2 watts per square meter, globally averaged. This perturbation is comparable in magnitude to current anthropogenic greenhouse gas forcing but opposite in sign. Thus, the aerosol forcing has likely offset global greenhouse warming to a substantial degree. However, differences in geographical and seasonal distributions of these forcings preclude any simple compensation. Aerosol effects must be taken into account in evaluating anthropogenic influences on past, current, and projected future climate and in formulating policy regarding controls on emission of greenhouse gases and sulfur dioxide. Resolution of such policy issues requires integrated research on the magnitude and geographical distribution of aerosol climate forcing and on the controlling chemical and physical processes.

  18. Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charlson, R.J.; Schwartz, S.E.; Hales, J.M.; Cess, R.D.; Coakley, J.A. Jr.; Hansen, J.E.; Hofmann, D.J. (University of Washington, Seattle, WA (USA). Inst. for Environmental Studies, Dept. of Atmospheric Sciences)

    1992-01-24

    Although long considered to be of marginal importance to global climate change, tropospheric aerosol contributes substantially to radiative forcing, and anthropogenic sulfate aerosol in particular has imposed a major perturbation to this forcing. Both the direct scattering of short wavelength solar radiation and the modification of the shortwave reflective properties of clouds by sulfate aerosol particles increase planetary albedo, thereby exerting a cooling influence on the planet. Current climate forcing due to anthropogenic sulfate is estimated to be -1 to -2 watts per square metre, globally averaged. This perturbation is comparable in magnitude to current anthropogenic greenhouse gas forcing but opposite in sign. Thus, the aerosol forcing has likely offset global greenhouse warming to a substantial degree. However, differences in geographical and seasonal distributions of these forcings preclude any simple compensation. Aerosol effects must be taken into account in evaluating anthropogenic influences on past, current, and projected future climate and in formulating policy regarding controls on emission of greenhouse gases and sulfur dioxide. Resolution of such policy issues requires integrated research on the magnitude and geographical distribution of aerosol climate forcing and on the controlling chemical and physical processes. 73 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Embedded Media - A Force Multiplier or Force Divider

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sipes, John A

    2006-01-01

    .... forces operating in Iraq. Some had preconceived agendas about how they were going to exploit the terrible horrors they were about to encounter in an effort to degrade the military leadership, dissuade the civilian leadership...

  20. Contractors on the Battlefield Force Multipliers or Force Dividers?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nelson, Kim

    2000-01-01

    .... An increased reliance on contractor support has helped ease the burden on a heavily reduced force structure, but has left military commanders vulnerable to declaring a non-mission capable status during times of crisis...

  1. Radiohumeral stability to forced translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steen Lund; Olsen, Bo Sanderhoff; Seki, Atsuhito

    2002-01-01

    Radiohumeral stability to forced translation was experimentally analyzed in 8 osteocartilaginous joint preparations. The joints were dislocated in 8 centrifugal directions at 12 different combinations of joint flexion and rotation while a constant joint compression force of 23 N was applied....... Stability was measured as the maximum resistance to translation. On average, the specimens could resist a transverse force of 16.4 N (range, 13.0-19.1 N). Stability was greater in some directions than in others. Rotating the joint changed the direction at which stability was greatest, whereas joint flexion...

  2. Optimization of Force Balancing Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    2) The derivation of generalized force starts from the principle of virtual work (see Ref. 4); i.e., 6W = 0 (3-3) 15 y q th SoRs io L 0 3PRIN I J Y Q...I I OYT Figure 3- ierFoc-aacigSse 16 The virtual work due to the applied force during the virtual displacement is 6W = FT 6r (3-4) where F = applied...the virtual work done by equilibrators and by external forces be 6Weq and 6W ex, respectively. Then the virtual work done by r linear spring

  3. Consistent force fields for saccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kjeld

    1999-01-01

    Consistent force fields for carbohydrates were hitherto developed by extensive optimization ofpotential energy function parameters on experimental data and on ab initio results. A wide range of experimental data is used: internal structures obtained from gas phase electron diffraction and from x......-anomeric effects are accounted for without addition of specific terms. The work is done in the framework of the Consistent Force Field which originatedin Israel and was further developed in Denmark. The actual methods and strategies employed havebeen described previously. Extensive testing of the force field...

  4. Influence of Coriolis forces on the structure and evolution of wind-turbine wakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abkar, Mahdi; Porté-Agel, Fernando

    2015-11-01

    In this study, large-eddy simulation (LES) is combined with a turbine model to investigate the effect of Coriolis forces on the structure and evolution of wind-turbine wakes. In order to isolate the Coriolis effect on the turbulent wake flow, two set of simulations are performed. In the first set of simulations, atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) flow is driven by the geostrophic forces including the effect of Earth's rotation, while in the second case, the ABL flow is driven by a unidirectional pressure gradient forcing. Both cases have the same mean horizontal velocity and turbulence intensity at the hub height. The simulation results show that the Coriolis forces significantly affect the spatial distribution of the mean velocity deficit and turbulence statistics in the wake region. In particular, it is found that the Coriolis effect, responsible for vertical wind veer, has important lateral wake stretching effects, which in turn significantly impacts the wake recovery and wake meandering characteristics downwind of the turbines. We also apply the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) to LES data of the wake. The results indicate a very high correlation between the most energetic modes and both maximum velocity deficit and wake meandering characteristics.

  5. Speech and language deficits in separation anxiety disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roha M. Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Separation anxiety disorder (SAD is one of the most commonly occurring pediatric anxiety disorders. Children with SAD are characterized by excessive anxiety of separation from the primary attachment figure. These children exhibit fear of separation from their parents and display behaviors such as clinging, excessive crying, and tantrums. Children with SAD are found to have significant brain changes. SAD can co-occur with other conditions such as autism spectrum disorders, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Past studies have identified not only cognitive deficits in children diagnosed with SAD, but also speech and language deficits, which vary depending on comorbidities. A team-centered approach is essential in the assessment and treatment of children diagnosed with SAD.

  6. MEASURING THE STRUCTURAL BUDGET DEFICIT IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARJOCU ANA-MARIA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Changes to the institutional framework of the Treaty on Stability, Coordination and Governance put great emphasis on fiscal discipline in the European Union, especially for countries belonging to the Eurozone, but also for the accession countries. Surveillance of budgetary policies and the excessive deficit procedure are directions, which have to be followed, to meet debt limit and public deficit of gross domestic product, so as to fulfil fiscal and financial stability and economic integration. The objectives of this paper are to analyze, using the method of estimating the structural budget deficit, the EU Member State’s ability to fulfill the requirements of fiscal and financial stability. The findings of the scientific research and the methodology used shows the potential of the 28 member states of the European Union to fulfil the requirements for fiscal and financial stability

  7. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Preschool-Age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Mini; Pergjika, Alba

    2017-07-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder marked by age-inappropriate deficits in attention or hyperactivity/impulsivity that interfere with functioning or development. It is highly correlated with other disorders, such as oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, and mood symptoms. The etiology is multifactorial, and neuroimaging findings are nonspecific. Although assessment tools exist, there is variability among them, and historically, parent-teacher agreement has not been consistent. Treatment algorithm for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in preschoolers includes behavioral interventions first followed by psychopharmacologic treatment when behavioral therapies fail. Other nonpharmacologic and nonbehavioral interventions are discussed including the role of exercise and nutrition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Age-related associative deficits and the isolation effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badham, Stephen P; Maylor, Elizabeth A

    2013-01-01

    If all but one of the items in a list are similar (e.g., all black except one red), memory for the different item is enhanced (the isolation effect). Older adults generally show similar or smaller isolation effects compared to young adults, which has been attributed to age-related deficits in associative memory whereby older adults are less able to associate an isolated stimulus to its isolating feature. Experiment 1 examined the isolation effect for isolation based on spatial position, modality and color; in Experiment 2, the criterion for isolation was the associative relation between stimuli. The results consistently showed no differences between young and older participants in the magnitude of the isolation effect. Whilst age deficits in associative memory may act to reduce the isolation effect in older adults, age deficits in self-initiated processing and inhibitory functionality may counteract this reduction by enhancing the isolation effect in older adults.

  9. Does pronounceability modulate the letter string deficit of children with dyslexia? A study with the rate and amount model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinelli, Chiara V; Traficante, Daniela; Zoccolotti, Pierluigi

    2014-01-01

    The locus of the deficit of children with dyslexia in dealing with strings of letters may be a deficit at a pre-lexical graphemic level or an inability to bind orthographic and phonological information. We evaluate these alternative hypotheses in two experiments by examining the role of stimulus pronounceability in a lexical decision task (LDT) and in a forced-choice letter discrimination task (Reicher-Wheeler paradigm). Seventeen fourth grade children with dyslexia and 24 peer control readers participated to two experiments. In the LDT children were presented with high-, low-frequency words, pronounceable pseudowords (such as DASU) and unpronounceable non-words (such as RNGM) of 4-, 5-, or 6- letters. No sign of group by pronounceability interaction was found when over-additivity was taken into account. Children with dyslexia were impaired when they had to process strings, not only of pronounceable stimuli but also of unpronounceable stimuli, a deficit well accounted for by a single global factor. Complementary results were obtained with the Reicher-Wheeler paradigm: both groups of children gained in accuracy in letter discrimination in the context of pronounceable primes (words and pseudowords) compared to unpronounceable primes (non-words). No global factor was detected in this task which requires the discrimination between a target letter and a competitor but does not involve simultaneous letter string processing. Overall, children with dyslexia show a selective difficulty in simultaneously processing a letter string as a whole, independent of its pronounceability; however, when the task involves isolated letter processing, also these children can make use of the ortho-phono-tactic information derived from a previously seen letter string. This pattern of findings is in keeping with the idea that an impairment in pre-lexical graphemic analysis may be a core deficit in developmental dyslexia.

  10. The familial basis of facial emotion recognition deficits in adolescents with conduct disorder and their unaffected relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sully, K; Sonuga-Barke, E J S; Fairchild, G

    2015-07-01

    There is accumulating evidence of impairments in facial emotion recognition in adolescents with conduct disorder (CD). However, the majority of studies in this area have only been able to demonstrate an association, rather than a causal link, between emotion recognition deficits and CD. To move closer towards understanding the causal pathways linking emotion recognition problems with CD, we studied emotion recognition in the unaffected first-degree relatives of CD probands, as well as those with a diagnosis of CD. Using a family-based design, we investigated facial emotion recognition in probands with CD (n = 43), their unaffected relatives (n = 21), and healthy controls (n = 38). We used the Emotion Hexagon task, an alternative forced-choice task using morphed facial expressions depicting the six primary emotions, to assess facial emotion recognition accuracy. Relative to controls, the CD group showed impaired recognition of anger, fear, happiness, sadness and surprise (all p < 0.005). Similar to probands with CD, unaffected relatives showed deficits in anger and happiness recognition relative to controls (all p < 0.008), with a trend toward a deficit in fear recognition. There were no significant differences in performance between the CD probands and the unaffected relatives following correction for multiple comparisons. These results suggest that facial emotion recognition deficits are present in adolescents who are at increased familial risk for developing antisocial behaviour, as well as those who have already developed CD. Consequently, impaired emotion recognition appears to be a viable familial risk marker or candidate endophenotype for CD.

  11. Greater neurobehavioral deficits occur in adult mice after repeated, as compared to single, mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Jessica N; Deshane, Alok S; Niedzielko, Tracy L; Smith, Cory D; Floyd, Candace L

    2016-02-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) accounts for the majority of all brain injuries and affected individuals typically experience some extent of cognitive and/or neuropsychiatric deficits. Given that repeated mTBIs often result in worsened prognosis, the cumulative effect of repeated mTBIs is an area of clinical concern and on-going pre-clinical research. Animal models are critical in elucidating the underlying mechanisms of single and repeated mTBI-associated deficits, but the neurobehavioral sequelae produced by these models have not been well characterized. Thus, we sought to evaluate the behavioral changes incurred after single and repeated mTBIs in mice utilizing a modified impact-acceleration model. Mice in the mTBI group received 1 impact while the repeated mTBI group received 3 impacts with an inter-injury interval of 24h. Classic behavior evaluations included the Morris water maze (MWM) to assess learning and memory, elevated plus maze (EPM) for anxiety, and forced swim test (FST) for depression/helplessness. Additionally, species-typical behaviors were evaluated with the marble-burying and nestlet shredding tests to determine motivation and apathy. Non-invasive vibration platforms were used to examine sleep patterns post-mTBI. We found that the repeated mTBI mice demonstrated deficits in MWM testing and poorer performance on species-typical behaviors. While neither single nor repeated mTBI affected behavior in the EPM or FST, sleep disturbances were observed after both single and repeated mTBI. Here, we conclude that behavioral alterations shown after repeated mTBI resemble several of the deficits or disturbances reported by patients, thus demonstrating the relevance of this murine model to study repeated mTBIs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Shift of circadian feeding pattern by high-fat diets is coincident with reward deficits in obese mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Morales

    Full Text Available Recent studies provide evidence that high-fat diets (HF trigger both i a deficit of reward responses linked to a decrease of mesolimbic dopaminergic activity, and ii a disorganization of circadian feeding behavior that switch from a structured meal-based schedule to a continuous snacking, even during periods normally devoted to rest. This feeding pattern has been shown to be a cause of HF-induced overweight and obesity. Our hypothesis deals with the eventual link between the rewarding properties of food and the circadian distribution of meals. We have investigated the effect of circadian feeding pattern on reward circuits by means of the conditioned-place preference (CPP paradigm and we have characterized the rewarding properties of natural (food and artificial (cocaine reinforcers both in free-feeding ad libitum HF mice and in HF animals submitted to a re-organized feeding schedule based on the standard feeding behavior displayed by mice feeding normal chow ("forced synchronization". We demonstrate that i ad libitum HF diet attenuates cocaine and food reward in the CPP protocol, and ii forced synchronization of feeding prevents this reward deficit. Our study provides further evidence that the rewarding impact of food with low palatability is diminished in mice exposed to a high-fat diet and strongly suggest that the decreased sensitivity to chow as a positive reinforcer triggers a disorganized feeding pattern which might account for metabolic disorders leading to obesity.

  13. Neural oscillatory deficits in schizophrenia predict behavioral and neurocognitive impairments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antigona eMartinez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Paying attention to visual stimuli is typically accompanied by event-related desynchronizations (ERD of ongoing alpha (7-14 Hz activity in visual cortex. The present study used time-frequency based analyses to investigate the role of impaired alpha ERD in visual processing deficits in schizophrenia (Sz. Subjects viewed sinusoidal gratings of high (HSF and low (LSF spatial frequency designed to test functioning of the parvo- versus magnocellular pathways, respectively. Patients with Sz and healthy controls paid attention selectively to either the LSF or HSF gratings which were presented in random order. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs were recorded to all stimuli. As in our previous study, it was found that Sz patients were selectively impaired at detecting LSF target stimuli and that ERP amplitudes to LSF stimuli were diminished, both for the early sensory-evoked components and for the attend minus unattend difference component (the Selection Negativity, which is generally regarded as a specific index of feature-selective attention. In the time-frequency domain, the differential ERP deficits to LSF stimuli were echoed in a virtually absent theta-band phase locked response to both unattended and attended LSF stimuli (along with relatively intact theta-band activity for HSF stimuli. In contrast to the theta-band evoked responses which were tightly stimulus locked, stimulus-induced desynchronizations of ongoing alpha activity were not tightly stimulus locked and were apparent only in induced power analyses. Sz patients were significantly impaired in the attention-related modulation of ongoing alpha activity for both HSF and LSF stimuli. These deficits correlated with patients’ behavioral deficits in visual information processing as well as with visually based neurocognitive deficits. These findings suggest an additional, pathway-independent, mechanism by which deficits in early visual processing contribute to overall cognitive impairment in

  14. Utility of the electroencephalogram in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millichap, J Gordon; Millichap, John J; Stack, Cynthia V

    2011-07-01

    An electroencephalogram (EEG) has not been routinely utilized in the evaluation of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The utility of the EEG in ADHD is unclear. A recent study in our laboratory using sleep and sleep deprivation routinely found one in four non-epileptic children evaluated for attention deficit disorder has epileptiform discharges in the EEG, more than half focal. The majority of abnormalities (97.5%) occur in sleep and sleep-deprived records compared to 7% in prior wake only records. A review of eight publications showed that laboratories using awake only as routine EEG recordings report a relatively low prevalence of epileptiform discharges, whereas the higher prevalence of epileptiform discharges is seen in those with more prolonged sleep recordings. We have determined that sleep deprivation and sleep are essential to rule out an abnormal EEG in attention deficit disorder. In patients with attention deficit disorder complicated by epilepsy, stimulant therapy is generally safe, provided seizures are controlled by antiepileptic medication. Patients with epilepsy or subclinical electrographic abnormalities not treated with anticonvulsants are at increased risk of seizures when stimulant therapy is introduced, especially extended-release methylphenidate. Apart from an increase in risk of seizures and need for caution in use of stimulants, studies show that epileptiform discharges in the electroencephalogram are linked to a better response of attention deficit to methylphenidate and a higher cognitive performance. Transient cognitive impairment related to subclinical electrographic abnormalities responds to antiepileptic medication. An EEG is important in selected cases of attention deficit disorder and is useful in choice of medication, especially in children with lack of awareness and transient cognitive impairment.

  15. A Drier world in the future? Assessing water deficit frequency and spatial extent using the ISI-MIP multi-model experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuntoli, Ignazio; Prudhomme, Christel; Clark, Douglas; Robinson, Emma; Hannah, David

    2013-04-01

    Water security is one of the most pressing issues facing society, given a rapidly increasing world population and changing climate. It is anticipated that the future space-time distribution of extreme hydrological events will be altered. Projection of changes in the hydrological cycle, particularly drought occurence, is critical for understanding future patterns of water availability and making decisions to ensure water security. To address this research gap, this study aims to assess the frequency and worldwide extent of water deficits using future simulations from a multimodel ensemble. Daily total runoff time series from the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISI-MIP) experiment are used to calculate a daily deficiency index worldwide over two periods: 1976-2006 (control runs) and 2070-2100 (future runs). The experiment consists of 6 hydrological models (excluding water management effects) forced by 3 different global circulation models (GCMs) for the four different worlds described by Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs). Days with water deficit are are defined when total runoff is below a daily-varying threshold of the 10th percentile of runoff (Q10) for the control runs. The results highlight hot-spots where substantial water deficits are projected by most models: Mexico, North-East Latin America, West Africa, Southern Europe/Northern Africa, South Western Australia. Water deficits are sensitive to RCPs with the highest emission concentrations (RCP 8.5) to which the greatest increase in frequency and spatial extent is associated. While future distributions of global extent of water deficits are statistically different from the control runs for all climate-hydrological model combinations, runs under RCP 2.6 are associated with lowest increase in water deficit, suggesting that lowering emissions may mitigate the impact of climate change on water resources with major implications for provision of future water security.

  16. Self-force on an arbitrarily coupled scalar charge in cylindrical thin-shell spacetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasini, C.; Rubín de Celis, E.; Simeone, C.

    2018-02-01

    We consider the arbitrarily coupled field and self-force of a static massless scalar charge in cylindrical spacetimes with one or two asymptotic regions, with the only matter content concentrated in a thin-shell characterized by the trace of the extrinsic curvature jump κ . The self-force is studied numerically and analytically in terms of the curvature coupling ξ . We found the critical values ξ _c^{(n)} = n/( ρ (r_s) κ ) , with n \\in N and ρ (r_s) the metric's profile function at the position of the shell, for which the scalar field is divergent in the background configuration. The pathological behavior is removed by restricting the coupling to a domain of stability. The coupling has a significant influence over the self-force at the vicinities of the shell, and we identified ξ =1/4 as the value for which the scalar force changes sign at a neighborhood of r_s; if κ (1-4ξ )>0 the shell acts repulsively as an effective potential barrier, while if κ (1-4ξ )force only depends on whether there is an angle deficit or not on the external region where the charge is placed; conical asymptotics produce a leading attractive force, while Minkowski regions produce a repulsive asymptotic self-force.

  17. Knee Joint Loads and Surrounding Muscle Forces during Stair Ascent in Patients with Total Knee Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasnick, Robert; Standifird, Tyler; Reinbolt, Jeffrey A.; Cates, Harold E.

    2016-01-01

    Total knee replacement (TKR) is commonly used to correct end-stage knee osteoarthritis. Unfortunately, difficulty with stair climbing often persists and prolongs the challenges of TKR patents. Complete understanding of loading at the knee is of great interest in order to aid patient populations, implant manufacturers, rehabilitation, and future healthcare research. Musculoskeletal modeling and simulation approximates joint loading and corresponding muscle forces during a movement. The purpose of this study was to determine if knee joint loadings following TKR are recovered to the level of healthy individuals, and determine the differences in muscle forces causing those loadings. Data from five healthy and five TKR patients were selected for musculoskeletal simulation. Variables of interest included knee joint reaction forces (JRF) and the corresponding muscle forces. A paired samples t-test was used to detect differences between groups for each variable of interest (pknee extension moment and muscle forces during the loading response phase indicates the presence of deficits in TKR in quadriceps muscle force production during stair ascent. This result combined with greater flexor muscle forces resulted in similar compressive JRF during loading response between groups. PMID:27258086

  18. Tethered swimming can be used to evaluate force contribution for short-distance swimming performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morouço, Pedro G; Marinho, Daniel A; Keskinen, Kari L; Badillo, Juan J; Marques, Mário C

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was two-fold: (a) to compare stroke and the physiological responses between maximal tethered and free front crawl swimming and (b) to evaluate the contribution of force exertion for swimming performance over short distances. A total of 34 male swimmers, representing various levels of competitive performance, participated in this study. Each participant was tested in both a 30-second maximal tethered swimming test and a 50-m free swimming test. The tethered force parameters, the swimming speed, stroke (stroke rate [SR]), and the physiological responses (increase in blood lactate concentration [ΔBLa], heart rate, and rate of perceived exertion) were recorded and calculated. The results showed no differences in stroke and the physiological responses between tethered and free swimming, with a high level of agreement for the SR and ΔBLa. A strong correlation was obtained between the maximum impulse of force per stroke and the speed (r = 0.91; p swimming performance. The relationship between the swimming speed and maximum force tended to be nonlinear, whereas linear relationships were observed with the maximum impulse. This study demonstrates that tethered swimming does not significantly alter stroke and the physiological responses compared with free swimming, and that the maximum impulse per stroke should be used to evaluate the balance between force and the ability to effectively apply force during sprint swimming. Consequently, coaches can rely on tethered forces to identify strength deficits and improve swimming performance over short distances.

  19. Is there a specific polysomnographic sleep pattern in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirov, Roumen; Kinkelbur, Joerg; Heipke, Susanne; Kostanecka-Endress, Tatiana; Westhoff, Moritz; Cohrs, Stefan; Ruther, Eckart; Hajak, Goran; Banaschewski, Tobias; Rothenberger, Aribert

    2004-03-01

    The aim of the study was to characterize the sleep pattern in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). By means of polysomnography (PSG), sleep patterns were studied in 17 unmedicated preadolescent boys rigorously diagnosed with ADHD and 17 control boys precisely matched for age and intelligence. Although ADHD children did not display a general sleep alteration, major PSG data showed a significant increase in the duration of the absolute rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and the number of sleep cycles in ADHD group when compared with controls. In addition, REM sleep latency tended to be shorter in ADHD children. These results suggest that in ADHD children, a forced REM sleep initiation may produce a higher incidence of sleep cycles and may also contribute to an increased duration of the absolute REM sleep. The overall pattern of the findings implies that a forced ultradian cycling appears characteristic for the sleep in ADHD children, which may be related to alterations of brain monoamines and cortical inhibitory control accompanying the ADHD psychopathology.

  20. Ergonomic deficits in robotic gynecologic oncology surgery: a need for intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craven, Renatta; Franasiak, Jason; Mosaly, Prithima; Gehrig, Paola A

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate surgeon strain using validated ergonomic assessment tools. Observational study (Canadian Task Force classification III). Academic medical center. Robotic surgeons performing gynecologic oncology surgical procedures. Videotape footage of surgeons performing robotic gynecologic oncology procedures was obtained. A human factors engineer experienced with health care ergonomics analyzed the video recordings and performed ergonomic evaluations of the surgeons. An initial evaluation was conducted using the Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) survey, an ergonomic assessment and prioritization method for determining posture, force, and frequency concerns with focus on the upper limbs. A more detailed analysis followed using the Strain Index (SI) method, which uses multiplicative interactions to identify jobs that are potentially hazardous. Seventeen hours of video recordings were analyzed, and descriptive data based on RULA/SI analysis were collected. Ergonomic evaluation of surgeon activity resulted in a mean RULA score of 6.46 (maximum possible RULA score, 7), indicating a need for further investigation. The mean SI grand score was 24.34. SI scores >10 suggest a potential for hazard to the operator. Thus, the current use of the surgical robot is potentially dangerous with regards to ergonomic positioning and should be modified. At a high-volume robotics center, there are ergonomics deficits that are hazardous to gynecologic surgeons and suggest the need for modification and intervention. A training strategy must be developed to address these ergonomic issues and knowledge deficiencies. Copyright © 2013 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. "Deficits Don't Matter": Abundance, Indebtedness and American Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroes, Rob

    If deficits, nor defaults, don't really matter anymore, what sign of our times is it? What has changed from the days that Franklin Delano Roosevelt risked the fragile economic recovery from the great depression by returning, in 1937, to the standard of his economic orthodoxy, a belief in fiscal rectitude and anaversion to debts and deficits? If that was a sign of a certain American character, what has happened to it? A massive shift in public culture must have occurred, affecting people's views on public probity and political rectitude. The following is an attempt to trace some of the main shifts on the way to our present quandary.

  2. [Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and/or bipolar disorder?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Fonseca, D; Adida, M; Belzeaux, R; Azorin, J-M

    2014-12-01

    The attention deficit disorder and the bipolar disorder maintain a complex relation. Indeed, these two syndromes share numerous symptoms that engender numerous diagnostic difficulties. According to several studies, it seems that these two disorders are really different with significant differences at the functional and anatomical level. However, there are common cognitive deficits as well as relatively frequent co-morbidity which is necessary to know in order to adjust the treatment. Copyright © 2014 L’Encéphale. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  3. Deficit irrigation principles applied to olive orchard in Slovene Istria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja PODGORNIK

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The olive tree has anatomical-morphological and physiological adaptations which enable it to cope well with dry conditions and water deficits. However, if water shortage occurs during the development phases (shoot growth, flower bud development, bloom, fruit set, cell division and enlargement and oil accumulation, which are the most susceptible to stress, it can also have a negative effect on the growth and productivity of olive trees. The Slovenian Istria is facing with increased risk of drought. Due to increased occurrence and intensity of agricultural droughts controlled deficit irrigation will become an inevitable element of agricultural practice in Slovene Istria.

  4. Transcriptome profiling of tobacco under water deficit conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roel C. Rabara

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Drought is one of the limiting environmental factors that affect crop production. Understanding the molecular basis of how plants respond to this water deficit stress is key to developing drought tolerant crops. In this study we generated time course-based transcriptome profiles of tobacco plants under water deficit conditions using microarray technology. In this paper, we describe in detail the experimental procedures and analyses performed in our study. The data set we generated (available in the NCBI/GEO database under GSE67434 has been analysed to identify genes that are involved in the regulation of tobacco's responses to drought.

  5. Active Power Deficit Estimation in Presence of Renewable Energy Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoseinzadeh, Bakhtyar; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da; Bak, Claus Leth

    2015-01-01

    following outage of SMs during cascading events. Therefore, the active power deficit following the disturbance/s may not be properly estimated by existing conventional System Frequency Response (SFR) methods in which the total inertia of the power system is required to be known. In this paper, the actual...... active power deficit is estimated independent of grid inertia, type and number of occurred cascading events after each Load Shedding (LS) stage using shed load amount, pre-shed and post-shed Rate of Change of Frequency (ROCOF). Numerical simulations conducted on IEEE 39 bus standard test system in Dig...

  6. Command in the Objective Force

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilbeck, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    This paper seeks to answer what type of command will best serve the Army's Objective Force in gaining the initiative, building momentum, and exploiting success to achieve land dominance in the future...

  7. US Air Force Balloon Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Worksheets containing pilot balloon data computed from releases at Air Force stations in the western United States. Elevation and azimuth angles are used to compute...

  8. Centrifugal force: a few surprises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramowicz, M.A.; Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik und Astrophysik, Garching

    1990-01-01

    The need for a rather fundamental revision in understanding of the nature of the centrifugal force is discussed. It is shown that in general relativity (and contrary to the situation in Newtonian theory) rotation of a reference frame is a necessary but not sufficient condition for the centrifugal force to appear. A sufficient condition for its appearance, in the instantaneously corotating reference frame of a particle, is that the particle motion in space (observed in the global rest frame) differs from a photon trajectory. The direction of the force is the same as that of the gradient of the effective potential for photon motion. In some cases, the centrifugal force will attract towards the axis of rotation. (author)

  9. Voice Force tulekul / Tõnu Ojala

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ojala, Tõnu, 1969-

    2005-01-01

    60. sünnipäeva tähistava Tallinna Tehnikaülikooli Akadeemilise Meeskoori juubelihooaja üritusest - a capella pop-gruppide festivalist Voice Force (kontserdid 12. nov. klubis Parlament ja 3. dets. Vene Kultuurikeskuses)

  10. Teleoperation with virtual force feedback

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, R.J.

    1993-08-01

    In this paper we describe an algorithm for generating virtual forces in a bilateral teleoperator system. The virtual forces are generated from a world model and are used to provide real-time obstacle avoidance and guidance capabilities. The algorithm requires that the slaves tool and every object in the environment be decomposed into convex polyhedral Primitives. Intrusion distance and extraction vectors are then derived at every time step by applying Gilbert`s polyhedra distance algorithm, which has been adapted for the task. This information is then used to determine the compression and location of nonlinear virtual spring-dampers whose total force is summed and applied to the manipulator/teleoperator system. Experimental results validate the whole approach, showing that it is possible to compute the algorithm and generate realistic, useful psuedo forces for a bilateral teleoperator system using standard VME bus hardware.

  11. Active media under rotational forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Villar, Vicente; Porteiro, Jose L. F.; Muñuzuri, Alberto P.

    2006-10-01

    The bubble-free Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction has been used to study the effects of centrifugal forces on autowave propagation. The reaction parameters were chosen such that the system oscillates naturally creating target waves. In the present study, the system was forced to rotate with a constant velocity around a central axis. In studying the effects of such a forcing on the system, we focused on target dynamics. The system reacts to this forcing in different ways, the most spectacular being a dramatic increase in the period of the target, the effect growing stronger as we move away from the center of rotation. A numerical study was carried out using the two-variable Oregonator model, modified to include convective effects through the diffusion coefficient. The numerical results showed a good qualitative agreement with those of the experiments.

  12. US Air Force Base Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hourly observations taken by U.S. Air Force personnel at bases in the United States and around the world. Foreign observations concentrated in the Middle East and...

  13. Forces in Liquid Metal Contacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duggen, Lars; Mátéfi-Tempfli, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Using rather well known theory about capillary bridges between two electrodes we calculate the tensile force that can be applied to liquid metal contacts in the micrometer regime. Assuming circular symmetry, full wetting of the electrodes, and neglecting gravity, we present a brief review of the ...... of the necessary theory and find numerically the forces to be in the 100μN range for liquid metals as mercury and liquid Gallium suspended between electrodes of 20μm radius....

  14. Productive force and labour productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulik V.I.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available the authors discuss productive forces of a society – work and capital, as well as two intermediaries: the intermediary between the world of the nature and the person – means of work or “fixed capital” of a society, as productive force of social activities, and the intermediary inside a society – cost in the form of money that allows to define labour productivity and structural transformations in a society.

  15. Feedback trap using optical force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Yonggun; Pak, Hyuk Kyu

    Recently, the feedback trap using electrophoretic force (ABEL trap) has been used in the experimental study of non-equilibrium thermodynamics such as Landauer's erasure principle. This trap can trap and manipulate a small particle in solution by canceling the Brownian fluctuations. Here, we propose a simple way to control a bead using optical force with feedback and show the dynamics of a single particle in the virtual potential.

  16. A New Set of Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    correcting forces is the free market itself. Unfortunately, macroeconomic principles do not always prove useful at the microeconomic level...model for this discussion are not relevant, but the underlying principle of the model is—forces can be self-correcting. Any im- balance in one...Performance-based acqui- sition appears to be one of those principles that looks good on paper and has proved quite successful in private industry but has had

  17. Wave Forces on Windturbine Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Brian Juul; Frigaard, Peter

    A testprogramme has been performed to determine the wave forces on two types of foundations for an offshore windturbine. the tested foundation types are a monopile and cone. Furthermore the shaft of the cone has been tested.......A testprogramme has been performed to determine the wave forces on two types of foundations for an offshore windturbine. the tested foundation types are a monopile and cone. Furthermore the shaft of the cone has been tested....

  18. A new force in nature?

    CERN Document Server

    Fischbach, Ephraim; Szafer, A; Talmadge, C; Aronson, S H

    1986-01-01

    We review recent experimental and theoretical work dealing with the proposed fifth force. Further analysis of the original Eötvös experiments has uncovered no challenges to our original assertion that these data evidence a correlation characteristic of the presence of a new coupling to baryon number or hypercharge. Various models suggest that the proposed fifth force could be accomodated naturally into the existing theoretical framework.

  19. The Effect of Anabolic Steroid Administration on Passive Stretching-Induced Expression of Mechano-Growth Factor in Skeletal Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Ikeda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Stretching of skeletal muscle induces expression of the genes which encode myogenic transcription factors or muscle contractile proteins and results in muscle growth. Anabolic steroids are reported to strengthen muscles. We have previously studied the effects of muscle stretching on gene expression. Here, we studied the effect of a combination of passive stretching and the administration of an anabolic steroid on mRNA expression of a muscle growth factor, insulin-like growth factor-I autocrine variant, or mechano-growth factor (MGF. Methods. Twelve 8-week-old male Wistar rats were used. Metenolone was administered and passive repetitive dorsiflexion and plantar flexion of the ankle joint performed under deep anesthesia. After 24 h, the gastrocnemius muscles were removed and the mRNA expression of insulin-like growth factor-I autocrine variant was measured using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results. Repetitive stretching in combination with metenolone, but not stretching alone, significantly increased MGF mRNA expression. Conclusion. Anabolic steroids enhance the effect of passive stretching on MGF expression in skeletal muscle.

  20. Cyclic stretch induces upregulation of endothelin-1 with keratinocytes in vitro: Possible role in mechanical stress-induced hyperpigmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurita, Masakazu, E-mail: masakazukurita@gmail.com [Department of Plastic Surgery, Kyorin University School of Medicine, 6-20-2 Shinkawa, Mitaka-shi, Tokyo 181-8611 (Japan); Okazaki, Mutsumi [Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8510 (Japan); Fujino, Takashi [Department of Pathology, Kyorin University School of Medicine, 6-20-2 Shinkawa, Mitaka-shi, Tokyo 181-8611 (Japan); Takushima, Akihiko; Harii, Kiyonori [Department of Plastic Surgery, Kyorin University School of Medicine, 6-20-2 Shinkawa, Mitaka-shi, Tokyo 181-8611 (Japan)

    2011-05-27

    Highlights: {yields} Influence of cyclic stretch on melanogenetic paracrine cytokines was investigated. {yields} Keratinocyte-derived endothelin-1 was upregulated with cyclic stretch. {yields} Degree of upregulation increases dose-dependently. {yields} This upregulation possibly plays a role in the pathogenesis of pigmented disorders. -- Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the possible pathological relation between mechanical stress and hyperpigmentation. We did this by investigating the influence of cyclic stretch on the expression of keratinocyte- and fibroblast-derived melanogenetic paracrine cytokines in vitro. Using primary human keratinocytes and fibroblasts, alterations of mRNA expression of melanogenetic paracrine cytokines due to cyclic stretch were investigated using a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The cytokines included basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), stem cell factor (SCF), granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor, interleukin-1{alpha}, and endothelin-1 (ET-1) for keratinocytes and bFGF, SCF, and hepatocyte growth factor for fibroblasts. The dose dependence of keratinocyte-derived ET-1 upregulation was further investigated using real-time PCR and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We also investigated the effects of cyclic stretch on the proliferation and differentiation of keratinocytes. Among the melanogenetic paracrine cytokines investigated, keratinocyte-derived ET-1 was consistently upregulated in all four cell lines. The degree of upregulation increased with the degree of the length and frequency of the stretch; in contrast, cell number and differentiation markers showed no obvious alterations with cyclic stretch. Keratinocyte-derived ET-1 upregulation possibly plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of pigmented disorders, such as friction melanosis, caused by mechanical stress.

  1. Effects of contract-relax vs static stretching on stretch-induced strength loss and length-tension relationship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balle, S S; Magnusson, S P; McHugh, M P

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the acute effects of contract-relax stretching (CRS) vs static stretching (SS) on strength loss and the length-tension relationship. We hypothesized that there would be a greater muscle length-specific effect of CRS vs SS. Isometric hamstring strength...... loss compared with SS. These results support the use of SS for stretching the hamstrings....

  2. The effect of anabolic steroid administration on passive stretching-induced expression of mechano-growth factor in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Satoshi; Kamikawa, Yurie; Ohwatashi, Akihiko; Harada, Katsuhiro; Yoshida, Akira

    2013-01-01

    Stretching of skeletal muscle induces expression of the genes which encode myogenic transcription factors or muscle contractile proteins and results in muscle growth. Anabolic steroids are reported to strengthen muscles. We have previously studied the effects of muscle stretching on gene expression. Here, we studied the effect of a combination of passive stretching and the administration of an anabolic steroid on mRNA expression of a muscle growth factor, insulin-like growth factor-I autocrine variant, or mechano-growth factor (MGF). Twelve 8-week-old male Wistar rats were used. Metenolone was administered and passive repetitive dorsiflexion and plantar flexion of the ankle joint performed under deep anesthesia. After 24 h, the gastrocnemius muscles were removed and the mRNA expression of insulin-like growth factor-I autocrine variant was measured using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Repetitive stretching in combination with metenolone, but not stretching alone, significantly increased MGF mRNA expression. Anabolic steroids enhance the effect of passive stretching on MGF expression in skeletal muscle.

  3. Caffeine improves spatial learning deficits in an animal model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) -- the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prediger, Rui D S; Pamplona, Fabrício A; Fernandes, Daniel; Takahashi, Reinaldo N

    2005-12-01

    The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) is generally considered to be a suitable genetic model for the study of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), since it displays hyperactivity, impulsivity, poorly sustained attention, and deficits in learning and memory processes. Converging evidence suggests a primary role of disturbance in the dopaminergic neurotransmission in ADHD patients and in SHR, and in addition, some studies have also demonstrated alterations in adenosinergic neurotransmission in SHR. In the present study, adult female Wistar (WIS) and SHR rats received caffeine (1-10 mg/kg i.p.) 30 min before training, immediately after training, or 30 min before a test session in the spatial version of the Morris water maze. The effect of caffeine administration on WIS and SHR blood pressure was also measured. SHR needed significantly more trials in the training session to acquire the spatial information, but they displayed a similar profile to that of WIS rats in the test session (48 h later), demonstrating a selective deficit in spatial learning. Pre-training administration of caffeine (1-10 mg/kg i.p.) improved this spatial learning deficit in SHR, but did not alter the WIS performance. In contrast, post-training administration of caffeine (3 mg/kg i.p.) did not alter the SHR test performance, but increased memory retention in WIS rats. No dose of caffeine tested altered the mean blood pressure of WIS or SHR. These results demonstrate a selective spatial learning deficit in SHR which can be attenuated by pre-training administration of caffeine. In addition, the present findings indicate that the spatial learning deficit in SHR is not directly related to hypertension.

  4. Brief experimental analysis of reading deficits for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fienup, Daniel M; Reyes-Giordano, Kimberly; Wolosik, Katarzyna; Aghjayan, Anto; Chacko, Anil

    2015-01-01

    Reading difficulties are especially high among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Although there are a number of empirically supported reading interventions for children with ADHD, there is little data to guide the selection of the most efficacious reading intervention for a specific child. Brief experimental analysis (BEA) is a procedure that directly compares the efficacy of various academic interventions with the goal of guiding the selection of the intervention that results in optimal efficacy. The current proof of concept study examined the efficacy of the BEA methodology for determining the relative effectiveness of seven reading interventions for children with ADHD. The seven interventions included empirically supported ADHD interventions as well as traditional interventions found in the BEA literature. Six children diagnosed with ADHD completed the proof of concept study. Results indicated that the BEA successfully determined an efficacious intervention for each participant. The efficacy of the interventions and the optimal intervention based on BEA procedures varied for each child, suggesting the importance of a BEA approach when comparing various interventions for reading in children with ADHD. Implications and future directions for selecting effective reading interventions for children with ADHD are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Water deficit imposed by deficit irrigation at different plant growth stages of maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvache, M.; Reichardt, C.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify specific growth stages of maize Crop, at which the plant is less sensitive to water stress so that irrigation can be omitted withhout significant decrease yield. The field experiment was conducted at a University experiment station, Tumbaco, Pichincha, Ecuador, during may - october 1993, on a sandy loam soil ( typic durustoll). Soil moisture was monitored with a neutron probe down to 0.70 m depth, before and 24 h after each irrigation. The actual evapotranspiration of the crop was estimated by the water - balance technique. Field water efficiency and crop water use efficiency were calculated by dividing actual grain yield by irrigation and by ETa, respectively. Nitrogen fertilizer use efficiency was calculated using N - 15 methodology in the 75 kg N/ ha treatment. From the yield data, it can be concluded that treatments which had irrigation deficit had lower yield than those that had suplementary irrigation. The flowering and yield formation stages were the most sensitive to moisture stress. Nitrogen fertilization significantly increased the grain yield. The crop water use effeciency was the lowest at the flowering and yield formation of the region, the treatments I1 and I7 had the same crop water use efficiency. The results of N - 15 labelled plots ( F1) showed that soil water deficiency significantly affects nitrogen was derived from fertilizer in treatments I3 and I7 and only 11 - 9% in the treatments I2 and I5 respectively. ( Author)

  6. Evaluating reading and metacognitive deficits in children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, Jesús Ma; Puente, Aníbal; Jiménez, Virginia; Arrebillaga, Lorena

    2011-05-01

    The reading achievement of children and adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has scarcely been explored in research conducted in the Spanish language and when it has, the results have been contradictory. The focus of the present research is to analyze participants' reading competency and metacognitive strategies as they carry out reading comprehension tasks. The sample was comprised of 187 Argentine schoolchildren aged 9 to 13 years old. 94 constituted the control group and the clinical group consisted of 93 schoolchildren diagnosed with ADHD. The metacognitive assessment was made up of two metacognitive tests, the Reading Awareness Scale (ESCOLA; acronym in Spanish) and a Spanish adaptation of Metacognitive Awareness of Reading Strategies Inventory (MARSI), and one test of reading comprehension, the Evaluation of Reading Processes for Secondary Education Students (PROLEC-SE; acronym in Spanish). Students with ADHD had lower achievement on tests o reading comprehension compared to the control group. Nevertheless, our results suggest their difficulties did not stem from readin comprehension problems, but rather from alterations in their Executive Functions, because when subjects' reading comprehensio was equalized, students with ADHD still exhibited a lower level of Metacognition, particularly when it came to planning.

  7. Identification of neuromotor deficits common to autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and imitation deficits specific to autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biscaldi, Monica; Rauh, Reinhold; Müller, Cora; Irion, Lisa; Saville, Christopher W N; Schulz, Eberhard; Klein, Christoph

    2015-12-01

    Deficits in motor and imitation abilities are a core finding in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), but impaired motor functions are also found in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Given recent theorising about potential aetiological overlap between the two disorders, the present study aimed to assess difficulties in motor performance and imitation of facial movements and meaningless gestures in a sample of 24 ADHD patients, 22 patients with ASD, and 20 typically developing children, matched for age (6-13 years) and similar in IQ (>80). Furthermore, we explored the impact of comorbid ADHD symptoms on motor and imitation performance in the ASD sample and the interrelationships between the two groups of variables in the clinical groups separately. The results show motor dysfunction was common to both disorders, but imitation deficits were specific to ASD. Together with the pattern of interrelated motor and imitation abilities, which we found exclusively in the ASD group, our findings suggest complex phenotypic, and possibly aetiological, relationships between the two neurodevelopmental conditions.

  8. Persistence of attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder into adulthood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-02-14

    Feb 14, 2006 ... Introduction. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), which is marked by inattention, distractibility and impulsivity, has long been known as a childhood disorder. ADHD is the most common emotional, cognitive and behavioural disorder treated in children affecting an estimated 4-12% of school aged ...

  9. Classroom Discipline with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Edward A.; Kirby, Sandra H.

    1994-01-01

    Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are often discipline problems, but their disruptive behavior is usually not willful or intentional. After describing the educational history of one person with ADHD, the article makes suggestions for disciplining children with ADHD in the classroom. (SM)

  10. Test Anxiety and College Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jason M.; Lindstrom, Will; Foels, Patricia A.

    2014-01-01

    Test anxiety was examined in college students with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Results indicated that, relative to college students without ADHD, college students with ADHD reported higher total test anxiety as well as specific aspects of test anxiety, including worry (i.e., cognitive aspects of test anxiety) and…

  11. Budget Deficits and Interest Rates: An Empirical Analysis for Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayfur BAYAT

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze causality between budget deficits and its ratio to gross domestic product and interest rate in the Turkish economy during years between 2006 and 2011. By doing so, we investigate the validity of crowding out view against the Ricardian equivalence hypothesis. To this end, we employee the conventional Toda-Yamamoto (1995 linear Granger type causality test and Hacker and Hatemi-J (2005, 2006 bootstrap process-based Toda-Yamamoto linear Granger type causality test. In this regard, we use Kwiatkowski, Phillips, Schmidt and Shin (1992, KPSS and Elliot, Rothenberg, Stock (1996, DF-GLS unit root tests. Analysis results show that there is no causal relation between budget deficits, budget deficit ratio to gross domestic product and nominal interest rate. Results reveal the existence of Ricardian equivalence hypothesis. Rational household predict that there is no difference between payment time of taxes and they know that expansionary fiscal policies financed by loan do not affect aggregate demand and capital allocation in a full-employment economy via nominal interest rate channel. Results of empirical analysis support Ricardian equivalence hypothesis and imply that there is no effect of financing type of budget deficit on nominal interest rate.

  12. Bernstein's "Codes" and the Linguistics of "Deficit"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Peter E.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the key linguistic arguments underpinning Basil Bernstein's theory of "elaborated" and "restricted" "codes". Building on a review of selected highlights from the collective critical response to Bernstein, the paper attempts to clarify the relationship of the theory to "deficit" views…

  13. Smell Identification Function in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Bahrani, Maryam; Miri, Ramin; Sahraian, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Objective Deficits in olfactory function are common features in neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders. Olfactory processing is related to dopamine metabolism and orbitofrontal cortex functioning, both known to be involved in the neurobiology of ADHD. Some investigations suggested alterations in olfactory processing (identification and detection threshold) in patients with ADHD. Despite increasing knowledge, controversy about this topic still exists regarding children with ADHD. Thi...

  14. CLINICAL ASPECTS OF IRON DEFICIT AMONG CHILDREN AND THEIR CORRECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.N. Zakharova

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the findings of the prospective observation of 43 infants, suffering from iron-deficient statuses — iron-deficient anemia and latent iron deficit. it was confirmed that prescription of the hydroxide and polymaltose iron iii complex (Ferrum LEK, LEK D.D., Slovenia in the form of a syrup to the children, suffering from iron-deficient anemia (dosage: 5 mg/kg per day for 8–12 weeks led to hemoglobulin normalization (main course. Full normalization of iron reserves in the body dependent on the anemia severity occurred, in case the treatment duration made up 12–20 weeks. Duration of efficient treatment of latent iron deficit (normalization of serumal ferritin level by the medicine dosed at 2.5 mg/kg per day for 8 weeks. It has been noted that hydroxide and polymaltose iron iii complex is an efficient and safe antianemic medicine, which can not only eliminate the discernible iron-deficient anemia, but also jugulate the clinical aspects of latent iron deficit.Key words: children, anemia, latent iron deficit, hydroxide and polymaltose iron III complex.

  15. [Neurocognitive and social cognition deficits in patients with anorexia nervosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kułakowska, Dorota; Biernacka, Katarzyna; Wilkos, Ewelina; Rybakowski, Filip; Kucharska-Pietura, Katarzyna

    2014-01-01

    In the first part of the article the authors present a set of the actual concepts explaining problems of cognitive functions and social cognition currently observed in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN). It is possible; through the neuroimaging research, to get better understanding of the brain specifics in these individuals. Even though, the AN remains a disease with very complex and multifactorial etiology which remains a huge medical challenge. Currently, popular is the view that takes into consideration the integrating role of the insula and subcortical structures (such as hippocampus, amygdala, thalamus) in the regulation of cognitive and emotional processes in people suffering from AN. There is still an open problem, however, of the selection of therapeutic interventions targeting these deficits. The second part of the article presents the attempt to describe deficits in neurocognitive and social cognition in people with AN occurring prior to illness, during and after the recovery. Particular attention has been paid to the most frequently described in the literature--neurocognitive deficits such as rigidity of thinking, weak central coherence, and deficits in social cognition, including mental processes of perception and expression of emotions, disorders of the theory of mind (ToM) and empathy. The results of previous studies, their scarcity in Poland, do not give a satisfactory answer to the question whether the above mentioned disorders are a feature of endophenotype or condition in an episode of the disease. Research point to the more permanent nature, which may be more resistant to therapeutic modifications.

  16. Social and Pragmatic Deficits in Autism: Cognitive or Affective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron-Cohen, Simon

    1988-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature describing the pervasive deficits in social relations and pragmatics found in autistic children. It then considers two different psychological theories of these phenomena, the Affective theory and the Cognitive theory, concludes that the Cognitive theory better predicts behavior patterns, and suggests future…

  17. Interference Control in Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mourik, Rosa; Papanikolau, Alky; van Gellicum-Bijlhout, Joyce; van Oostenbruggen, Janneke; Veugelers, Diane; Post-Uiterweer, Annebeth; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2009-01-01

    The view that Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is associated with a diminished ability to control interference is controversial and based exclusively on results of (verbal)-visual interference tasks, primarily the Stroop Color Word task. The present study compares medication-naive children with ADHD (n = 35 and n = 51 in Experiments…

  18. Developmental Dyslexia: The Visual Attention Span Deficit Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosse, Marie-Line; Tainturier, Marie Josephe; Valdois, Sylviane

    2007-01-01

    The visual attention (VA) span is defined as the amount of distinct visual elements which can be processed in parallel in a multi-element array. Both recent empirical data and theoretical accounts suggest that a VA span deficit might contribute to developmental dyslexia, independently of a phonological disorder. In this study, this hypothesis was…

  19. Guanfacine ameliorates hypobaric hypoxia induced spatial working memory deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauser, H; Sahu, S; Kumar, S; Panjwani, U

    2014-01-17

    Hypobaric hypoxia (HH) observed at high altitude causes mild cognitive impairment specifically affecting attention and working memory. Adrenergic dysregulation and neuronal damage in prefrontal cortex (PFC) has been implicated in hypoxia induced memory deficits. Optimal stimulation of alpha 2A adrenergic receptor in PFC facilitates the spatial working memory (SWM) under the conditions of adrenergic dysregulation. Therefore the present study was designed to test the efficacy of alpha 2A adrenergic agonist, Guanfacine (GFC), to restore HH induced SWM deficits and PFC neuronal damage. The rats were exposed to chronic HH equivalent to 25,000ft for 7days in an animal decompression chamber and received daily treatment of GFC at a dose of 1mg/kg body weight via the intramuscular route during the period of exposure. The cognitive performance was assessed by Delayed Alternation Task (DAT) using T-Maze and PFC neuronal damage was studied by apoptotic and neurodegenerative markers. Percentage of correct choice decreased significantly while perseverative errors showed a significant increase after 7days HH exposure, GFC significantly ameliorated the SWM deficits and perseveration. There was a marked and significant increase in chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation, neuronal pyknosis and fluoro Jade positive cells in layer II of the medial PFC in hypoxia exposed group, administration of GFC significantly reduced the magnitude of these changes. Modulation of adrenergic mechanisms by GFC may serve as an effective countermeasure in amelioration of prefrontal deficits and neurodegenerative changes during HH. © 2013.

  20. Prevalence of HIV associated neurocognitive deficit among HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: HIV associated neurocognitive deficit impairs motor activity, neuropsychiatric functioning, daily activity and work activity usually due to the immune suppression effect of the virus. Sub-Saharan region including Ethiopia is the region with the highest burden of HIV. However, a few studies are found on this aspect ...

  1. DSM-5 Further Inflates Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batstra, Laura; Frances, Allen

    Since the publication of DSM-IV in 1994, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) prevalence and medication use unexpectedly increased significantly. In this article, we explore the DSM-5 proposals for ADHD that are likely to further increase its prevalence. We also address the possible

  2. Language Impairment in the Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, Sean M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a ubiquitous designation that affects the identification, assessment, treatment, and study of pediatric language impairments (LIs). Method: Current literature is reviewed in 4 areas: (a) the capacity of psycholinguistic, neuropsychological, and socioemotional behavioral indices to…

  3. Parents Psychopathology of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margari, Francesco; Craig, Francesco; Petruzzelli, Maria Giuseppina; Lamanna, Annalinda; Matera, Emilia; Margari, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a disorder with extremely complex etiology, not yet well defined but certainly multi-factorial. This study investigated the possible etiopathogenetic role of ADHD symptoms and psychopathology disorders in parents of children with ADHD. We present a case-control study of parents of 50 children…

  4. Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Participating in Recess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Matthew D.; Justice, Michael J.; Rosko, Kelly M.

    2014-01-01

    The participation of a student with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in recess can often be both challenging and rewarding for the student and teacher. This paper will address common characteristics of children with ADHD and present basic solutions to improve the experience of these children in the recess setting. Initially, the…

  5. School Experiences of Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Judith; Daniels, Lesley

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on a qualitative study of the school experiences of adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the context of quantitative research on teacher attitudes and practices, adolescent self-appraisals, and social and family relationships. Twelve adolescents with ADHD participated in in-depth, semistructured…

  6. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms mediate early-onset smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizink, A.C.; Van Lier, P.A.C.; Crijnen, A.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aims: Symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have often been associated with early-onset smoking. We hypothesize that reductions in ADHD symptoms due to an intervention have a mediating effect on early-onset smoking. Methods: In a universal, school-based, randomized

  7. Exploring five common assumptions on Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batstra, Laura; Nieweg, Edo H.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    The number of children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and treated with medication is steadily increasing. The aim of this paper was to critically discuss five debatable assumptions on ADHD that may explain these trends to some extent. These are that ADHD (i) causes

  8. The Categorical Perception Deficit in Dyslexia: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noordenbos, Mark W.; Serniclaes, Willy

    2015-01-01

    Speech perception in dyslexia is characterized by a categorical perception (CP) deficit, demonstrated by weaker discrimination of acoustic differences between phonemic categories in conjunction with better discrimination of acoustic differences within phonemic categories. We performed a meta-analysis of studies that examined the reliability of the…

  9. Viewing a Phonological Deficit within a Multifactorial Model of Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catts, Hugh W.; McIlraith, Autumn; Bridges, Mindy Sittner; Nielsen, Diane Corcoran

    2017-01-01

    Participants were administered multiple measures of phonological awareness, oral language, and rapid automatized naming at the beginning of kindergarten and multiple measures of word reading at the end of second grade. A structural equation model was fit to the data and latent scores were used to identify children with a deficit in phonological…

  10. Field evaluation of deficit irrigation effects on tomato growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two field experiments were conducted using a common tomato cultivar (GS12) to assess the effect of deficit irrigation (DI) regimes on tomato growth performance, and on root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica galling and abundance. Irrigation treatments consisted of five irrigation regimes: 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and ...

  11. Discovering Focus: Helping Students with ADD (Attention Deficit Disorder)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkenburg, Jim

    2012-01-01

    Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) is a neurological disorder which effects learning and that has a confusing set of diagnostic symptoms and an even more confusing set of remedies ranging from medication to meditation to nothing at all. Current neurological research suggests, however, that there are strategies that the individual with ADD can use to…

  12. Sustaining smallholder farmers' livelihoods through rainfall-deficit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main objective of this article is to assess the contributions in sustaining the livelihoods of smallholder farmers of rainfall-deficit-index-based crop insurance pilot project based on haricot beans implemented in Ethiopia in 2009. Based on crosssectional data, assessment results revealed that crop insurance has a ...

  13. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Functional Defecation Disorders in Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuizenga-Wessel, Sophie; Koppen, Ilan J. N.; Vriesman, Mana H.; Di Lorenzo, Carlo; van Dijk, Marieke; Beelen, Maureen L. R.; Groeneweg, Michael; Stoffelsen, Reino J.; Benninga, Marc A.

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children presenting with functional defecation disorders (FDDs) and to assess the prevalence of FDDs in children with ADHD. Methods: A cross-sectional cohort study was carried out

  14. Impact of Methods of Administering Growth-Stage Deficit Irrigation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... significantly different from that which received weekly irrigation throughout the crop growing season. Moreover, the productivity of water applied was higher while water loss to deep percolation was drastically reduced. Keywords: Deficit irrigation scheduling, Economic net return, Maize crop, Irrigation water management ...

  15. Cognitive control deficits associated with antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeier, Joshua D; Baskin-Sommers, Arielle R; Hiatt Racer, Kristina D; Newman, Joseph P

    2012-07-01

    Antisociality has been linked to a variety of executive functioning deficits, including poor cognitive control. Surprisingly, cognitive control deficits are rarely found in psychopathic individuals, despite their notoriously severe and persistent antisocial behavior. In fact, primary (low-anxious) psychopathic individuals display superior performance on cognitive control-type tasks under certain circumstances. To clarify these seemingly contradictory findings, we administered a response competition (i.e., flanker) task to incarcerated offenders, who were assessed for Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD) symptoms and psychopathy. As hypothesized, APD related to poorer accuracy, especially on incongruent trials. Contrary to expectation, however, the same pattern of results was found in psychopathy. Additional analyses indicated that these effects of APD and psychopathy were associated with overlapping variance. The findings suggest that psychopathy and APD symptoms are both associated with deficits in cognitive control, and that this deficit relates to general antisociality as opposed to a specific antisocial syndrome. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. 'Deficits Don’t Matter' : Abundance, Indebtedness and American Culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroes, Rob

    2015-01-01

    If deficits, nor defaults, don't really matter anymore, what sign of our times is it? What has changed from the days that Franklin Delano Roosevelt risked the fragile economic recovery from the great depression by returning, in 1937, to the standard of his economic orthodoxy, a belief in fiscal

  17. Posterior Cortical Atrophy: Visuomotor Deficits in Reaching and Grasping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin P Meek

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Posterior Cortical Atrophy (PCA is a rare clinical syndrome characterised by the predominance of higher-order visual disturbances such as optic ataxia, a characteristic of Balint’s syndrome. Deficits result from progressive neurodegeneration of occipito-temporal and occipito-parietal cortices. The current study sought to explore the visuomotor functioning of four individuals with PCA by testing their ability to reach out and grasp real objects under various viewing conditions. Experiment 1 had participants reach out and grasp simple, rectangular blocks under visually- and memory-guided conditions. Experiment 2 explored participants’ abilities to accurately reach for objects located in their visual periphery. This investigation revealed that PCA patients demonstrate many of the same deficits that have been previously reported in other individuals with optic ataxia, such as ‘magnetic misreaching’ – a pathological reaching bias towards the point of visual fixation when grasping peripheral targets. Unlike many other individuals with optic ataxia, however, the patients in the current study also show symptoms indicative of damage to the more perceptual stream of visual processing, including abolished grip scaling during memory-guided grasping and deficits in face and object identification. These investigations are the first to perform a quantitative analysis of the visuomotor deficits exhibited by patients with Posterior Cortical Atrophy. Critically, this study helps characterize common symptoms of PCA, a vital first step for generating effective diagnostic criteria and therapeutic strategies for this understudied neurodegenerative disorder.

  18. Neuropsychological deficits in temporal lobe epilepsy: A comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengqing Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE is the most prevalent form of complex partial seizures with temporal lobe origin of electrical abnormality. Studies have shown that recurrent seizures affect all aspects of cognitive functioning, including memory, language, praxis, executive functions, and social judgment, among several others. In this article, we will review these cognitive impairments along with their neuropathological correlates in a comprehensive manner. We will see that neuropsychological deficits are prevalent in TLE. Much of the effort has been laid on memory due to the notion that temporal lobe brain structures involved in TLE play a central role in consolidating information into memory. It seems that damage to the mesial structure of the temporal lobe, particularly the amygdale and hippocampus, has the main role in these memory difficulties and the neurobiological plausibility of the role of the temporal lobe in different aspects of memory. Here, we will cover the sub-domains of working memory and episodic memory deficits. This is we will further proceed to evaluate the evidences of executive function deficits in TLE and will see that set-shifting among other EFs is specifically affected in TLE as is social cognition. Finally, critical components of language related deficits are also found in the form of word-finding difficulties. To conclude, TLE affects several of cognitive function domains, but the etiopathogenesis of all these dysfunctions remain elusive. Further well-designed studies are needed for a better understanding of these disorders.

  19. Base Deficit as an Indicator of Significant Blunt Abdominal Trauma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    multiruka1

    Abstract. Background: Blunt abdominal trauma (BAT) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality among trauma patients. Base deficit (BD) has been proposed as an early available tool alongside focused assessment with sonography for trauma (FAST) in the screening of patients suspected to have BAT and also to help ...

  20. Infrared thermometry for deficit irrigation of peach trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water shortage has been a major concern for crop production in the western states of the USA and other arid regions in the world. Deficit irrigation can be used in some cropping systems as a potential water saving strategy to alleviate water shortage, however, the margin of error in irrigation manag...

  1. Impact of nitrogen nutrition and moisture deficits on growth, yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crop production in arid and semi arid areas is restricted by soil deficiencies in moisture and plant nutrients, especially nitrogen. In order to evaluate the impact of nitrogen nutrition and moisture deficits on growth, yield and radiation use efficiency of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), a field experiment was conducted at Agronomic ...

  2. Cognitive deficits associated with restless legs syndrome (RLS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Virginia E; Allen, Richard P; Dean, Terry; Gamaldo, Charlene E; Lesage, Suzanne R; Earley, Christopher J

    2006-01-01

    Restless legs syndrome produces significant chronic sleep loss, which despite not causing expected profound sleepiness, might nonetheless produce cognitive deficits similar to those seen with acute sleep deprivation, i.e. involving mostly pre-frontal cortical (PFC) functioning. Sixteen patients off RLS treatment for at least 2 weeks and 15 age- and gender-matched control subjects had polysomnograms (PSGs) on two consecutive nights. Cognitive tests were given in the morning after the second night. Six cognitive tests were used: two Verbal Fluency tests and the Trail Making tests were selected to be particularly sensitive to PFC function and sleep loss. Porteus Mazes and the Stroop Test were selected to reflect more general frontal and executive function. The Colored Progressive Matrices were used to assess general cognitive skills. RLS patients compared to controls showed significant (P<0.05) and sizeable (20-40%) deficits on two of the three PFC tests and marginally non-significant deficit (P<0.1) on the third. The other three tests showed no significant differences. The results indicate that RLS patients show cognitive deficits similar to that reported for one night of sleep loss.

  3. Explanation of the bilateral deficit in human vertical squat jumping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bobbert, M.F.; de Graaf, W.W.; Jonk, J.N.; Casius, L.J.R.

    2006-01-01

    In the literature, it has been reported that the mechanical output per leg is less in two-leg jumps than in one-leg jumps. This so-called bilateral deficit has been attributed to a reduced neural drive to muscles in two-leg jumps. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the possible

  4. Syllabic Complexity, Metalinguistic Deficits and Reading in Developmental Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ramesh Kumar

    2006-01-01

    A metalinguistic deficit in the awareness of phonological aspects of spoken language has long been assumed to be the single most important cause of reading failure among developmental dyslexics. Majority of this proposal's empirical support has come from examination of reading problems in irregular language like English and it's relation to the…

  5. Nigeria's Fiscal Deficits: A History of its Colonial Foundations, 1899 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In fact, since the beginning of democratic rule in the current fourth republic, government has increasingly failed to balance its budget with grave consequences for price levels, interest rates, inflation and macroeconomic stability. This paper shows that deficit financing of public expenditure by the Nigerian government is ...

  6. Sleep disturbance and deficits of sustained attention following stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Samuel C; Stolwyk, Renerus J; New, Peter W; Anderson, Clare

    2016-01-01

    To simultaneously investigate the prevalence of and impact that the poststroke complications of daytime sleepiness, poor sleep quality, depression, and fatigue may be having upon deficits of sustained attention, as assessed using the Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT). Twenty-two patients with stroke (mean age: 68.23 ± 12.17 years) and 20 healthy control participants (mean age: 68.1 ± 9.5 years) completed subjective measures of daytime sleepiness, sleep quality, fatigue, and depression and an objective measure of sustained attention as assessed using the PVT. Patients with stroke compared to controls showed heightened levels of fatigue (p = .001, η(2) = .29) and depression (p = .002, η(2) = .23), plus greater deficits of sustained attention as reflected by poorer performance across all PVT outcome measures including: slower mean reaction times (p = .002, η(2) = .22); increased number of lapses (p = .002, η(2) = .24); and greater variability in reaction time (RT) responses (p = .016, η(2) = .15). Reaction time distribution analysis suggested that daytime sleepiness and sleep quality had little influence across PVT performance; however, depressive symptomology was associated with longer RT responses, indicative of inattention, and fatigue impacted upon the entire distribution of PVT responses. PVT performance illustrated significant deficits across the domain of sustained attention for patients with stroke in comparison to healthy controls, in terms of inattention as well as slower sensory-motor speed. The common poststroke complications of depressive symptomology and fatigue appear to be associated with these deficits in sustained attention, warranting further investigation.

  7. Neurocognitive psychotherapy for adult attention deficit hyperactive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susmita Halder

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Previously thought as a childhood disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is reported to be spreading at an increasing rate and affecting 4% to 5% of the adult population. It is characterized by persistent problems of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. We present the case of an adult ADHD patient intervened with neurocognitive psychotherapy.

  8. Reading Comprehension Deficits in Adolescents: Addressing Underlying Language Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nippold, Marilyn A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to discuss reading comprehension deficits in adolescents in relation to their word reading skills and lexical and syntactic development. Although reading comprehension strategies (e.g., "Find the main idea") are often recommended, it is argued that before these can be effective, students'…

  9. Trend analysis of the water requirements, consumption and deficit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Supit, I.; Diepen, van C.A.; Boogaard, H.L.; Ludwig, F.; Baruth, B.

    2010-01-01

    Recent trends in European seasonal weather conditions and related crop water requirements, crop water consumption and crop water deficits were studied using the Crop Growth Monitoring System of the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission for the period 1976–2005. Soft wheat was selected as

  10. School-Based Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Brandon K.; Storer, Jennifer; Watabe, Yuko; Sadler, Joanna; Evans, Steven W.

    2011-01-01

    The authors review the research literature regarding school-based treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Students with ADHD often do not receive access to special services, even though the impairments associated with the disorder often compromise learning and cause concerns for classroom teachers, school administrators, and…

  11. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and social dysfunctioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijmeijer, Judith S.; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Mulligan, Aisling; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with functional impairments in different areas of daily life. One such area is social functioning. The purpose of this paper is to critically review research on social dysfunctioning in children with ADHD. Children with ADHD often have

  12. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and social dysfunctioning.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijmeijer, J.S.; Minderaa, R.B.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Mulligan, A.; Hartman, C.A.; Hoekstra, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with functional impairments in different areas of daily life. One such area is social functioning. The purpose of this paper is to critically review research on social dysfunctioning in children with ADHD. Children with ADHD often have

  13. Evaluation of Oxygen Deficit Stress on Germination Indicators and Seedling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Hoseini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the relationship oxygen deficit stress on germination indicators and seedling growth of five wheat cultivars in laboratory condition, an experiment with Randomized Complete Block design in factorial arrangement with three replications was conducted in 2008. The treatments consisted of five wheat cultivars (Chamran, Flat, Roshan, Stare and Shole as A factor, and two oxygen level (normal seed and seed under oxygen deficit stress conditions as B factor in each of these figures was done. Results showed that oxygen deficit stress caused to decrease for various cultivars germination percentage, germination rate, allometric coefficient, seed vigor index and other germination indicators. Therefore, this test as a suitable method for determining the quality of various seed lot can be used in the water logging condition. In addition, among different cultivars characterized that Roshan cultivar was more resistant to oxygen deficit stress than Chamran, Flat and Star cultivars. Although Chamran cultivar is common cultivar in Khouzestan, but of look most germination indicators arranged as weak seed class. The highest correlation coefficients among the tested cultivars have been related to seed vigor with seedling length and dry weight of radicle with seedling with 0.92 and 0.90, respectively.

  14. Temporal Preparation and Inhibitory Deficit in Fibromyalgia Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Angel; Miro, Elena; Martinez, M. Pilar; Sanchez, Ana I.; Lupianez, Juan

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive deficits in fibromyalgia may be specifically related to controlled processes, such as those measured by working memory or executive function tasks. This hypothesis was tested here by measuring controlled temporal preparation (temporal orienting) during a response inhibition (go no-go) task. Temporal orienting effects (faster reaction…

  15. Spatial Learning Deficits in Adult Children of Alcoholic Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schandler, Steven L.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Investigated whether visuospatial deficits displayed by chronic alcoholics are present in persons at risk for alcoholism. Compared 17 social drinkers who were children of alcoholics and 17 who had no family alcoholism history. Visuospatial learning of children of alcoholics was significantly poorer than that of subjects with no family alcoholism…

  16. Topology-based hierarchical scheduling using deficit round robin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Hao; Yan, Ying; Berger, Michael Stubert

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a topology-based hierarchical scheduling scheme using Deficit Round Robin (DRR). The main idea of the topology-based hierarchical scheduling is to map the topology of the connected network into the logical structure of the scheduler, and combine several token schedulers accord...... of malicious traffic. This is significant for IPTV services in Carrier Ethernet networks....

  17. Effect of water deficit on growth and photosynthetic characteristics of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water deficit decreased total leaf area, above-ground biomass, net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, internal CO2 concentration and the actual quantum yield of PS II electron transport relative to cultivars that were grown under control condition. Measurement of stomatal conductance provided useful information to ...

  18. GAME BIOFEEDBACK TECHNOLOGY IN ATTENTION DEFICIT/HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Stoller

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We continue the study of students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder when using betastimulating game neurofeedback. The dynamics of segmental characteristics of the alpha rhythm and θ/β ratio for different groups of successful training. Evaluate the effectiveness of training in terms of the number of ADHD symptoms (at the beginning and end of the training.

  19. Measurement of Stigmatization towards Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuermaier, Anselm B. M.; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Mueller, Anna K.; Lange, Klaus W.; Tucha, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: In general, assessment tools for stigma in mental disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are lacking. Moreover, misbeliefs and misconceptions about ADHD are common, in particular with regard to the adult form of ADHD. The aim of the present study was to develop

  20. Proprioceptive deficits after ACL injury : Are they clinically relevant?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.E. Hewett; Anne Benjaminse; Engelhardt M; M.P. Arnold; S.M. Lephart; K. Postema; L. Engebretsen; A. Gokeler; E. Ageberg; P.U. Dijkstra; E. Otten

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To establish the clinical relevance of proprioceptive deficits reported after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A literature search was done in electronic databases from January 1990 to June 2009. Inclusion criteria for studies were ACL deficient (ACL-D) and

  1. Relationship between Learning Problems and Attention Deficit in Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponde, Milena Pereira; Cruz-Freire, Antonio Carlos; Silveira, Andre Almeida

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of attention deficit on learning problems in a sample of schoolchildren in the city of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Method: All students enrolled in selected elementary schools were included in this study, making a total of 774 children. Each child was assessed by his or her teacher using a standardized scale. "The…

  2. Study Of thyroid Function In Children With Attention Deficit

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a well recognized psychiatric disorder of childhood. Its cause is ... and overactivity.2 The treatment of ADHD requires expertise in many different treatment modalities. ..... that low IQ was related to antisocial behavior and chronically high levels of aggression.

  3. Quasar evolution: not a deficit at low redshifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avni, Y.; Schiller, N.

    1983-01-01

    We consider the recent suggestion of Hawkins and Stewart that complete quasar samples can be interpreted in terms of a (real or apparent) deficit of quasars at low redshifts. By using a larger sample and a more efficient method of analysis, we rule out this interpretation

  4. Executive Function Deficits in Preschool Children with ADHD and DBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoemaker, Kim; Bunte, Tessa; Wiebe, Sandra A.; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Dekovic, Maja; Matthys, Walter

    2012-01-01

    Background: Impairments in executive functions (EF) are consistently associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and to a lesser extent, with disruptive behavior disorder (DBD), that is, oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder, in school-aged children. Recently, larger numbers of children with these disorders are…

  5. Importance of attenuating quadriceps activation deficits after total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Abbey C; Stevens-Lapsley, Jennifer E

    2012-04-01

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is associated with persistent quadriceps dysfunction. Because quadriceps dysfunction impairs functional performance, minimizing quadriceps dysfunction by attenuating central activation deficits early after surgery may improve function later in life. Rehabilitation strategies incorporating neuromuscular electrical stimulation and early, aggressive quadriceps strengthening may prove beneficial. Furthermore, surgical approaches, such as minimally invasive TKA, may minimize postoperative quadriceps dysfunction.

  6. Remediating Computational Deficits at Third Grade: A Randomized Field Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Lynn S.; Powell, Sarah R.; Hamlett, Carol L.; Fuchs, Douglas; Cirino, Paul T.; Fletcher, Jack M.

    2008-01-01

    The major purposes of this study were to assess the efficacy of tutoring to remediate 3rd-grade computational deficits and to explore whether remediation is differentially efficacious depending on whether students experience mathematics difficulty alone or concomitantly with reading difficulty. At 2 sites, 127 students were stratified on…

  7. Thermal infrared sensors for postharvest deficit irrigation of peach

    Science.gov (United States)

    California has been in a historic drought and the lack of water has been a major problem for agriculture especially for crops that depend on irrigation. A multi-year field study was carried out to demonstrate the feasibility of applying thermal infrared sensors for managing deficit irrigation in an ...

  8. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Korean Juvenile Delinquents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Paul Kyuman; Jung, Hyun-Oak; Noh, Kyung-Sun

    2001-01-01

    Identifies attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) in Korean juvenile delinquents. Intelligence tests, Test of Variables of Attention, Teacher Report form, Youth Self-Report, and Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale were administered to 98 incarcerated youth and 84 nondelinquent youth. In the delinquent youth, 42.2% of the adolescents were…

  9. Early Writing Deficits in Preschoolers with Oral Language Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puranik, Cynthia S.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether preschool children with language impairments (LI), a group with documented reading difficulties, also experience writing difficulties. In addition, a purpose was to examine if the writing outcomes differed when children had concomitant cognitive deficits in addition to oral language problems. A…

  10. Developmental Dyslexia: Related to Specific or General Deficits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Daal, Victor; van der Leij, Aryan

    1999-01-01

    A study of 114 12-year-olds in the Netherlands found that dyslexia was associated with deficits in: (1) phonological recoding, word recognition in both Dutch and English, and spelling skills; and (2) naming speed for letters and digits. Dyslexia was not associated with other cognitive and motor skills evaluated. (Contains extensive references.)…

  11. 309 Counselling for Facilitating Learning for the Attention – Deficit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    Abstract. The study investigated the extent of counsellor's identification of the symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and the counselling strategies the counsellors use to facilitate learning for such learners. Two research questions and two hypotheses guided the study. The design of the study was survey.

  12. Estimating runoff and soil moisture deficit in guinea savannah region ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The estimation ofrunoff and soil moisture deficit in Guinea Savannah region using semi arid model based on soil water balance technique (SAMBA) was carried out. The input to the SAMBA model are daily rainfall, daily evapotranspiration. type and date of planting of crop, and soil parameters. The estimated runoff was ...

  13. Impact of Methods of Administering Growth-Stage Deficit Irrigation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSRACT: Field experiments were conducted in 2009/10 and 2010/11 irrigation seasons at the Institute for. Agricultural Research, Samaru Zaria, to assess the impact of two methods of administering Growth-stage deficit irrigation scheduling (GSDIS) on yield and soil water balance of an early maturing maize variety.

  14. Soybean response to nitrogen fertilizer under water deficit conditions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to determine the effect of water deficit and nitrogen fertilizer application on growth indices, yield and yield component of three soybean (Glycine Max L. Merr) genotypes a split plot factorial experiment based on randomized complete block with three replications was carried out. Soybean genotypes (Williams, K1410 ...

  15. Studies on water deficits on apical development and panicle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Controlled temperature glasshouse experiments were performed to determine the influence of water deficits, imposed during the period between seedling emergence and panicle initiation, on leaf primordium production, apex growth, and panicle initiation of grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench). The consequence of ...

  16. Controlling water deficit by osmolytes and enzymes: Enhancement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study demonstrates the effect of polyethylene glycol-6000 (PEG) induced water-deficit stress on growth, physiological and biochemical responses in six wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars viz. C 306, C 273, PBW 175 (drought tolerant), PBW 534, PBW 343 and PBW 550 (drought susceptibile) at seedling stage ...

  17. Wind Turbine Down-regulation Strategy for Minimum Wake Deficit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Kuichao; Zhu, Jiangsheng; N. Soltani, Mohsen

    2017-01-01

    on minimum wake deficit is proposed in this paper, for the power improvement of the downwind turbine in low and medium wind speed region. The main idea is to operate turbine work at an appropriate operating point through rotor speed and torque control. The effectiveness of the strategy is verified...

  18. Morph-physiological responses to water deficit in parental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medicago truncatula is an omni-Mediterranean species grown as an annual forage legume. In addition to its small genome size and simple genetics, M. truncatula harbors several attributes which make it an attractive model legume. In this study, we investigated morphological and photosynthetic responses to water deficit in ...

  19. Emotional intelligence in learners with Attention Deficit Disorder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was undertaken to analyse and evaluate the nature and quality of emotional intelligence in learners with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD), and to investigate whether their emotional intelligence was enhanced, and whether the symptoms and behaviour of these learners improved, after exposure to a programme ...

  20. Water deficit effects on morpho-physiologicals parameters in durum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Various morpho-physiological characters related to the water deficit (relative water content, rate water loss, stomatal density, stomatal resistance), were studied at five durum wheat genotypes under two hydrous conditions. The relationship between traits and adaptative strategies develops by each genotype have been ...