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Sample records for stretching phase distributed

  1. Optofluidic time-stretch quantitative phase microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Baoshan; Lei, Cheng; Wu, Yi; Kobayashi, Hirofumi; Ito, Takuro; Yalikun, Yaxiaer; Lee, Sangwook; Isozaki, Akihiro; Li, Ming; Jiang, Yiyue; Yasumoto, Atsushi; Di Carlo, Dino; Tanaka, Yo; Yatomi, Yutaka; Ozeki, Yasuyuki; Goda, Keisuke

    2018-03-01

    Innovations in optical microscopy have opened new windows onto scientific research, industrial quality control, and medical practice over the last few decades. One of such innovations is optofluidic time-stretch quantitative phase microscopy - an emerging method for high-throughput quantitative phase imaging that builds on the interference between temporally stretched signal and reference pulses by using dispersive properties of light in both spatial and temporal domains in an interferometric configuration on a microfluidic platform. It achieves the continuous acquisition of both intensity and phase images with a high throughput of more than 10,000 particles or cells per second by overcoming speed limitations that exist in conventional quantitative phase imaging methods. Applications enabled by such capabilities are versatile and include characterization of cancer cells and microalgal cultures. In this paper, we review the principles and applications of optofluidic time-stretch quantitative phase microscopy and discuss its future perspective. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Stretching

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... after a workout. Stretching still can be a beneficial activity after you have sufficiently warmed up. The ... light aerobic activity and stretching. If you're running at a quick pace, you can slow down ...

  3. Stretched exponential distributions in Nature and Economy: ``Fat tails'' with characteristic scales

    OpenAIRE

    Laherrère, Jean; Sornette, D.

    1998-01-01

    To account quantitatively for many reported ``natural'' fat tail distributions in Nature and Economy, we propose the stretched exponential family as a complement to the often used power law distributions. It has many advantages, among which to be economical with only two adjustable parameters with clear physical interpretation. Furthermore, it derives from a simple and generic mechanism in terms of multiplicative processes. We show that stretched exponentials describe very well the distributi...

  4. Travelling Wave Solutions to Stretched Beam's Equation: Phase Portraits Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betchewe, Gambo; Victor, Kuetche Kamgang; Thomas, Bouetou Bouetou; Kofane, Timoleon Crepin

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, following the phase portraits analysis, we investigate the integrability of a system which physically describes the transverse oscillation of an elastic beam under end-thrust. As a result, we find that this system actually comprises two families of travelling waves: the sub- and super-sonic periodic waves of positive- and negative-definite velocities, respectively, and the localized sub-sonic loop-shaped waves of positive-definite velocity. Expressing the energy-like of this system while depicting its phase portrait dynamics, we show that these multivalued localized travelling waves appear as the boundary solutions to which the periodic travelling waves tend asymptotically. (general)

  5. Paradigms: How Far Does Research in Distributed Leadership "Stretch"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, David

    2010-01-01

    Burrell and Morgan's widely-cited "Sociological Paradigms and Organizational Analysis" is applied here to research on distributed leadership in education. Nearly all of the extant research is regulatory, not radical; and the evidence which it has generated falls broadly within the paradigm of interpretivism. Few studies have generated the…

  6. Damage Evolution in Complex-Phase and Dual-Phase Steels during Edge Stretching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikky Pathak

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of microstructural damage in controlling the edge stretchability of Complex-Phase (CP and Dual-Phase (DP steels was evaluated using hole tension experiments. The experiments considered a tensile specimen with a hole at the center of specimen that is either sheared (sheared edge condition or drilled and then reamed (reamed edge condition. The damage mechanism and accumulation in the CP and DP steels were systematically characterized by interrupting the hole tension tests at different strain levels using scanning electron microscope (SEM analysis and optical microscopy. Martensite cracking and decohesion of ferrite-martensite interfaces are the dominant nucleation mechanisms in the DP780. The primary source of void nucleation in the CP800 is nucleation at TiN particles, with secondary void formation at martensite/bainite interfaces near the failure strain. The rate of damage evolution is considerably higher for the sheared edge in contrast with the reamed edge since the shearing process alters the microstructure in the shear affected zone (SAZ by introducing work-hardening and initial damage behind the sheared edge. The CP microstructures were shown to be less prone to shear-induced damage than the DP materials resulting in much higher sheared edge formability. Microstructural damage in the CP and DP steels was characterized to understand the interaction between microstructure, damage evolution and edge formability during edge stretching. An analytical model for void evolution and coalescence was developed and applied to predict the damage rate in these rather diverse microstructures.

  7. Damage Evolution in Complex-Phase and Dual-Phase Steels during Edge Stretching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Nikky; Butcher, Cliff; Worswick, Michael James; Bellhouse, Erika; Gao, Jeff

    2017-03-27

    The role of microstructural damage in controlling the edge stretchability of Complex-Phase (CP) and Dual-Phase (DP) steels was evaluated using hole tension experiments. The experiments considered a tensile specimen with a hole at the center of specimen that is either sheared (sheared edge condition) or drilled and then reamed (reamed edge condition). The damage mechanism and accumulation in the CP and DP steels were systematically characterized by interrupting the hole tension tests at different strain levels using scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis and optical microscopy. Martensite cracking and decohesion of ferrite-martensite interfaces are the dominant nucleation mechanisms in the DP780. The primary source of void nucleation in the CP800 is nucleation at TiN particles, with secondary void formation at martensite/bainite interfaces near the failure strain. The rate of damage evolution is considerably higher for the sheared edge in contrast with the reamed edge since the shearing process alters the microstructure in the shear affected zone (SAZ) by introducing work-hardening and initial damage behind the sheared edge. The CP microstructures were shown to be less prone to shear-induced damage than the DP materials resulting in much higher sheared edge formability. Microstructural damage in the CP and DP steels was characterized to understand the interaction between microstructure, damage evolution and edge formability during edge stretching. An analytical model for void evolution and coalescence was developed and applied to predict the damage rate in these rather diverse microstructures.

  8. Stretched exponential distributions in nature and economy: ``fat tails'' with characteristic scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laherrère, J.; Sornette, D.

    1998-04-01

    To account quantitatively for many reported "natural" fat tail distributions in Nature and Economy, we propose the stretched exponential family as a complement to the often used power law distributions. It has many advantages, among which to be economical with only two adjustable parameters with clear physical interpretation. Furthermore, it derives from a simple and generic mechanism in terms of multiplicative processes. We show that stretched exponentials describe very well the distributions of radio and light emissions from galaxies, of US GOM OCS oilfield reserve sizes, of World, US and French agglomeration sizes, of country population sizes, of daily Forex US-Mark and Franc-Mark price variations, of Vostok (near the south pole) temperature variations over the last 400 000 years, of the Raup-Sepkoski's kill curve and of citations of the most cited physicists in the world. We also discuss its potential for the distribution of earthquake sizes and fault displacements. We suggest physical interpretations of the parameters and provide a short toolkit of the statistical properties of the stretched exponentials. We also provide a comparison with other distributions, such as the shifted linear fractal, the log-normal and the recently introduced parabolic fractal distributions.

  9. Stretch Sensor Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The invention relates to a method for determining stretch values and movement of body parts, e.g. a foot, by analysing stretch data from a stretch sensor. By analysing data from the stretch sensor it is possible to determine stretch samples which are associated with particular motion phases...

  10. Ductile Glass of Polyrotaxane Toughened by Stretch-Induced Intramolecular Phase Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Kazuaki; Nemoto, Kaito; Mayumi, Koichi; Yokoyama, Hideaki; Ito, Kohzo

    2017-09-27

    A new class of ductile glasses is created from a thermoplastic polyrotaxane. The hard glass, which has a Young's modulus of 1 GPa, shows crazing, necking, and strain hardening with a total elongation of 330%. Stress concentration is prevented through a unique stretch-induced intramolecular phase separation of the cyclic components and the exposed backbone. In situ synchrotron X-ray scattering studies indicate that the backbone polymer chains slip through the cyclic components in the regions where the stress is concentrated.

  11. Measurement of the residual stress distribution in a thick pre-stretched aluminum plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, S. X.; Li, X. Q.; M, S.; Zhang, Y. C.; Gong, Y. D.

    2008-12-01

    Thick pre-stretched aluminum alloy plates are widely used in aircraft, while machining distortion caused by initial residual stress release in thick plates is a common and serious problem. To reduce the distortion, the residual stress distribution in thick plate must be measured. According to the characteristics of the thick pre-stretched aluminum alloy plate, based the elastic mechanical theory, this article deduces the modified layer-removal strain method adapting two different strain situations, which are caused by tensile and compressive stress. To validate this method, the residual stresses distribution along the thick direction of plate 2D70T351 is measured by this method, it is shown that the new method deduced in this paper is simple and accurate, and is very useful in engineering.

  12. Label-free cell-cycle analysis by high-throughput quantitative phase time-stretch imaging flow cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Aaron T. Y.; Lee, Kelvin C. M.; Wong, Kenneth K. Y.; Tsia, Kevin K.

    2018-02-01

    Biophysical properties of cells could complement and correlate biochemical markers to characterize a multitude of cellular states. Changes in cell size, dry mass and subcellular morphology, for instance, are relevant to cell-cycle progression which is prevalently evaluated by DNA-targeted fluorescence measurements. Quantitative-phase microscopy (QPM) is among the effective biophysical phenotyping tools that can quantify cell sizes and sub-cellular dry mass density distribution of single cells at high spatial resolution. However, limited camera frame rate and thus imaging throughput makes QPM incompatible with high-throughput flow cytometry - a gold standard in multiparametric cell-based assay. Here we present a high-throughput approach for label-free analysis of cell cycle based on quantitative-phase time-stretch imaging flow cytometry at a throughput of > 10,000 cells/s. Our time-stretch QPM system enables sub-cellular resolution even at high speed, allowing us to extract a multitude (at least 24) of single-cell biophysical phenotypes (from both amplitude and phase images). Those phenotypes can be combined to track cell-cycle progression based on a t-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding (t-SNE) algorithm. Using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) discriminant analysis, cell-cycle phases can also be predicted label-free with high accuracy at >90% in G1 and G2 phase, and >80% in S phase. We anticipate that high throughput label-free cell cycle characterization could open new approaches for large-scale single-cell analysis, bringing new mechanistic insights into complex biological processes including diseases pathogenesis.

  13. Phase-locked high-order-harmonic and sub-100-as pulse generation from stretched molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lan Pengfei; Lu Peixiang; Cao Wei; Wang Xinlin; Yang Guang

    2006-01-01

    High harmonic generation from diatomic molecules in a linearly polarized intense laser field is investigated and the emission time of the harmonics is discussed with the time-frequency analysis method. It is shown that high harmonic generation from molecules at equilibrium distance is similar to that from atoms. Only the harmonics in the cutoff are synchronized, i.e., well phase-locked, whereas the other harmonics are not phase-locked. For the molecule stretched well beyond its equilibrium distance, the harmonics exhibit distinct time-frequency characteristics. The harmonic spectrum can be extended to I p +8U p , where I p and U p are the ionization and ponderomotive potential, and the harmonics with energies below I p +3.17U p are not phase-locked and the harmonics with energies beyond I p +3.17U p are well phase-locked. Thus a large range of harmonics which are well phase-locked are produced, and a train of clean attosecond (as) pulses with a single 90-as pulse in each half optical cycle can be generated with a multicycle laser pulse. Using a few-cycle laser pulse, an isolated attosecond pulse with a duration of about 95 as is obtained

  14. Moment Distributions of Phase Type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Mogens; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    2011-01-01

    Moment distributions of phase-type and matrix-exponential distributions are shown to remain within their respective classes. We provide a probabilistic phase-type representation for the former case and an alternative representation, with an analytically appealing form, for the latter. First order...

  15. Structure of vortices in superfluid 3He A-like phase in uniaxially stretched aerogel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyama, Kazushi; Ikeda, Ryusuke

    2009-01-01

    Possible vortex-core transitions in A-like phase of superfluid 3 He in uniaxially stretched aerogel are investigated. Since the global anisotropy in this system induces the polar pairing state in a narrow range close to the superfluid transition in addition to the A-like and B-like phases, the polar state may occur in the core of a vortex in the A-like phase identified with the ABM pairing state, like in the case of the bulk B phase where a core including the ABM state is realized at higher pressures. We examine the core structure of a single vortex under the boundary condition compatible with the Mermin-Ho vortex in the presence of the dipole interaction. Following Salomaa and Volovik's approach, we numerically solve the Ginzburg-Landau equation for an axially symmetric vortex and, by examining its stability against nonaxisymmetric perturbations, discuss possible vortex core states. It is found that a first order transition on core states may occur on warming from an axisymmetric vortex with a nonunitary core to a singular vortex with the polar core.

  16. Structure of vortices in superfluid 3He A-like phase in uniaxially stretched aerogel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Kazushi; Ikeda, Ryusuke

    2009-02-01

    Possible vortex-core transitions in A-like phase of superfluid 3He in uniaxially stretched aerogel are investigated. Since the global anisotropy in this system induces the polar pairing state in a narrow range close to the superfluid transition in addition to the A-like and B-like phases, the polar state may occur in the core of a vortex in the A-like phase identified with the ABM pairing state, like in the case of the bulk B phase where a core including the ABM state is realized at higher pressures. We examine the core structure of a single vortex under the boundary condition compatible with the Mermin-Ho vortex in the presence of the dipole interaction. Following Salomaa and Volovik's approach, we numerically solve the Ginzburg-Landau equation for an axially symmetric vortex and, by examining its stability against nonaxisymmetric perturbations, discuss possible vortex core states. It is found that a first order transition on core states may occur on warming from an axisymmetric vortex with a nonunitary core to a singular vortex with the polar core.

  17. Detail design of a 10.4-m stretched-membrane dish. Phase 2, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    This report describes efforts conducted under Tasks 3 and 4 of the second phase of the project to develop a single-element stretched-membrane dish concept to reduce the cost of a high-performance concentrating solar collector. We completed the detailed design for such a collector suitable to drive a 25-kWe Stirling motor generator. The design includes the collectors, optical element, the drive, and support systems. The aperture of the optical element was sized to provide the required energy to the engine based on test data and analytical models of the concentrator receiver, and engine. The design of the optical element was improved based on experience gained from the design, fabrication, and testing of several prototypes.

  18. Acute effects of static and dynamic stretching on jump performance after 15 min of reconditioning shooting phase in basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annino, Giuseppe; Ruscello, Bruno; Lebone, Pietro; Palazzo, Francesco; Lombardo, Mauro; Padua, Elvira; Verdecchia, Luca; Tancredi, Virginia; Iellamo, Ferdinando

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of static (SS) and dynamic stretching (DS) on vertical jump performance executed before, immediately after and at the end of the shooting phase (i.e., 15 min later), as to simulate the actual conditions preceding a match, in professional basketball players. Ten elite basketball players (age: 29±6.73 years, height: 194.67±7.75 cm, weight: 91±8.17 kg and BMI 23.8±7.91 kg.m-2) participated to the study. SS and DS protocols were administered during the first training session of the week, 48 hours after the championship match. Stretching protocols consisted in ~7 minutes of general warm-up phase followed by ~8 minutes of SS and DS, performed with a cross-over design., and ~15 minutes of a specific warm-up shooting phase (SP). Vertical jump tests consisted in counter movement jump (CMJ) and CMJ with arm swings (CMJas) and were performed immediately after the end of each stretching phase (preS, postS, postSP). A significant decrease (P=0.05; η2partial=0.29) in jumping tests height occurred in CMJas, when performed after the SS (i.e., PostS). However, no significant differences in jumping performances, occurred after the general warm phase and the specific warm-up shooting phase, between the two stretching protocols. These results would indicate that, overall, stretching routines either dynamic or static, performed before a basketball match are transient and affect only marginally leg muscles performance. Stretching routines, particularly the dynamic ones, may be useful to maintain muscle performance before a competition, provided that this latter begins shortly after.

  19. 600 Volt Stretched Lens Array for Solar Electric Propulsion, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ENTECH, Auburn, NASA, and others have recently developed a new space photovoltaic array called the Stretched Lens Array (SLA), offering unprecedented performance...

  20. Moment Distributions of Phase Type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Mogens; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    In this paper we prove that the class of distributions on the positive reals with a rational Laplace transform, also known as matrix-exponential distributions, is closed under formation of moment distributions. In particular, the results are hence valid for the well known class of phase-type dist...... alternative representation in terms of sub{intensity matrices. Finally we are able to nd explicit expressions for both the Lorenz curve and the Gini index....

  1. 600 Volt Stretched Lens Array for Solar Electric Propulsion, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Over the past six years, ENTECH, Auburn, NASA, and other organizations have developed a new space photovoltaic array called the Stretched Lens Array (SLA), which...

  2. Phase transitions in single macromolecules: Loop-stretch transition versus loop adsorption transition in end-grafted polymer chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuangshuang; Qi, Shuanhu; Klushin, Leonid I.; Skvortsov, Alexander M.; Yan, Dadong; Schmid, Friederike

    2018-01-01

    We use Brownian dynamics simulations and analytical theory to compare two prominent types of single molecule transitions. One is the adsorption transition of a loop (a chain with two ends bound to an attractive substrate) driven by an attraction parameter ɛ and the other is the loop-stretch transition in a chain with one end attached to a repulsive substrate, driven by an external end-force F applied to the free end. Specifically, we compare the behavior of the respective order parameters of the transitions, i.e., the mean number of surface contacts in the case of the adsorption transition and the mean position of the chain end in the case of the loop-stretch transition. Close to the transition points, both the static behavior and the dynamic behavior of chains with different length N are very well described by a scaling ansatz with the scaling parameters (ɛ - ɛ*)Nϕ (adsorption transition) and (F - F*)Nν (loop-stretch transition), respectively, where ϕ is the crossover exponent of the adsorption transition and ν is the Flory exponent. We show that both the loop-stretch and the loop adsorption transitions provide an exceptional opportunity to construct explicit analytical expressions for the crossover functions which perfectly describe all simulation results on static properties in the finite-size scaling regime. Explicit crossover functions are based on the ansatz for the analytical form of the order parameter distributions at the respective transition points. In contrast to the close similarity in equilibrium static behavior, the dynamic relaxation at the two transitions shows qualitative differences, especially in the strongly ordered regimes. This is attributed to the fact that the surface contact dynamics in a strongly adsorbed chain is governed by local processes, whereas the end height relaxation of a strongly stretched chain involves the full spectrum of Rouse modes.

  3. Wealth distribution, Pareto law, and stretched exponential decay of money: Computer simulations analysis of agent-based models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydiner, Ekrem; Cherstvy, Andrey G.; Metzler, Ralf

    2018-01-01

    We study by Monte Carlo simulations a kinetic exchange trading model for both fixed and distributed saving propensities of the agents and rationalize the person and wealth distributions. We show that the newly introduced wealth distribution - that may be more amenable in certain situations - features a different power-law exponent, particularly for distributed saving propensities of the agents. For open agent-based systems, we analyze the person and wealth distributions and find that the presence of trap agents alters their amplitude, leaving however the scaling exponents nearly unaffected. For an open system, we show that the total wealth - for different trap agent densities and saving propensities of the agents - decreases in time according to the classical Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts stretched exponential law. Interestingly, this decay does not depend on the trap agent density, but rather on saving propensities. The system relaxation for fixed and distributed saving schemes are found to be different.

  4. The role of the entry-and-stretch phase at the different paces of race in front crawl swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Mathias; Monnet, Tony; Bernard, Anthony; Lacouture, Patrick; David, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the role played by the entry-and-stretch phase in the coordination of swimming, at the different paces of race. Three national level swimmers (two men and one woman) were recorded, in lateral and bottom views, in three swimming paces: sprint (50 m and 100 m), middle-distance (200 m and 400 m) and long-distance (800 m and 1500 m). Anatomical landmark positions were obtained by manual digitalisation of the videos. Computational fluid dynamics and experimental studies (with a strain gauge balance and particle image velocimetry method) were used to measure and to calculate the external forces applied to the hand and to the forearm and to visualise the flow around the profile. Entry-and-stretch is the phase which varies the most according to the swimming pace. This phase can be decomposed into two sub-phases: one, the extension forward coordinated with the insweep of the opposite arm, and another one, the rotation downward coordinated with the upsweep. Results show that, at the three paces, this phase is not propulsive and could contribute essentially to maintain the horizontal balance of the body.

  5. Flow past a permeable stretching/shrinking sheet in a nanofluid using two-phase model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairy Zaimi

    Full Text Available The steady two-dimensional flow and heat transfer over a stretching/shrinking sheet in a nanofluid is investigated using Buongiorno's nanofluid model. Different from the previously published papers, in the present study we consider the case when the nanofluid particle fraction on the boundary is passively rather than actively controlled, which make the model more physically realistic. The governing partial differential equations are transformed into nonlinear ordinary differential equations by a similarity transformation, before being solved numerically by a shooting method. The effects of some governing parameters on the fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics are graphically presented and discussed. Dual solutions are found to exist in a certain range of the suction and stretching/shrinking parameters. Results also indicate that both the skin friction coefficient and the local Nusselt number increase with increasing values of the suction parameter.

  6. Efficient full decay inversion of MRS data with a stretched-exponential approximation of the ? distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behroozmand, Ahmad A.; Auken, Esben; Fiandaca, Gianluca; Christiansen, Anders Vest; Christensen, Niels B.

    2012-08-01

    We present a new, efficient and accurate forward modelling and inversion scheme for magnetic resonance sounding (MRS) data. MRS, also called surface-nuclear magnetic resonance (surface-NMR), is the only non-invasive geophysical technique that directly detects free water in the subsurface. Based on the physical principle of NMR, protons of the water molecules in the subsurface are excited at a specific frequency, and the superposition of signals from all protons within the excited earth volume is measured to estimate the subsurface water content and other hydrological parameters. In this paper, a new inversion scheme is presented in which the entire data set is used, and multi-exponential behaviour of the NMR signal is approximated by the simple stretched-exponential approach. Compared to the mono-exponential interpretation of the decaying NMR signal, we introduce a single extra parameter, the stretching exponent, which helps describe the porosity in terms of a single relaxation time parameter, and helps to determine correct initial amplitude and relaxation time of the signal. Moreover, compared to a multi-exponential interpretation of the MRS data, the decay behaviour is approximated with considerably fewer parameters. The forward response is calculated in an efficient numerical manner in terms of magnetic field calculation, discretization and integration schemes, which allows fast computation while maintaining accuracy. A piecewise linear transmitter loop is considered for electromagnetic modelling of conductivities in the layered half-space providing electromagnetic modelling of arbitrary loop shapes. The decaying signal is integrated over time windows, called gates, which increases the signal-to-noise ratio, particularly at late times, and the data vector is described with a minimum number of samples, that is, gates. The accuracy of the forward response is investigated by comparing a MRS forward response with responses from three other approaches outlining

  7. RF phase distribution systems at the SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jobe, R.K.; Schwarz, H.D.

    1989-04-01

    Modern large linear accelerators require RF distribution systems with minimal phase drifts and errors. Through the use of existing RF coaxial waveguides, and additional installation of phase reference cables and monitoring equipment, stable RF distribution for the SLC has been achieved. This paper discusses the design and performance of SLAC systems, and some design considerations for future colliders. 6 refs., 4 figs

  8. The influence of chain stretching on the phase behavior of multiblock copolymer and comb copolymer melts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angerman, HJ; ten Brinke, G

    The subject of this paper is inspired by microphase-separated copolymer melts in which a small-scale structure is present inside one of the phases of a large-scale structure. Such a situation can arise in a diblock copolymer melt, if one of the blocks of the diblock is in itself a multiblock

  9. Moment distributions of phase-type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Mogens; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    2012-01-01

    Both matrix-exponential and phase-type distributions have a number of important closure properties. Among those are the distributions of the age and residual life-time of a stationary renewal process with inter-arrivals of either type. In this talk we show that the spread, which is the sum of the...... with phase-type distributions. For the first order distribution we present an explicit formula for the related Lorenz curve and Gini index. Moment distributions of orders one, two and three have been extensively used in areas such as economy, physics, demography and civil engineering....

  10. Role of Bending Energy and Knot Chirality in Knot Distribution and Their Effective Interaction along Stretched Semiflexible Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Najafi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Knots appear frequently in semiflexible (biopolymers, including double-stranded DNA, and their presence can affect the polymer’s physical and functional properties. In particular, it is possible and indeed often the case that multiple knots appear on a single chain, with effects which have only come under scrutiny in the last few years. In this manuscript, we study the interaction of two knots on a stretched semiflexible polymer, expanding some recent results on the topic. Specifically, we consider an idealization of a typical optical tweezers experiment and show how the bending rigidity of the chain—And consequently its persistence length—Influences the distribution of the entanglements; possibly more importantly, we observe and report how the relative chirality of the otherwise identical knots substantially modifies their interaction. We analyze the free energy of the chain and extract the effective interactions between embedded knots, rationalizing some of their pertinent features by means of simple effective models. We believe the salient aspect of the knot–knot interactions emerging from our study will be present in a large number of semiflexible polymers under tension, with important consequences for the characterization and manipulation of these systems—Be they artificial or biologica in origin—And for their technological application.

  11. Stretch Marks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... completely without the help of a dermatologist or plastic surgeon. These doctors may use one of many types of treatments — from actual surgery to techniques like microdermabrasion and laser treatment — to reduce the appearance of stretch marks. These techniques are ...

  12. The tails of rank-size distributions due to multiplicative processes: from power laws to stretched exponentials and beta-like functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naumis, G G; Cocho, G

    2007-01-01

    Although power laws have been used to fit rank distributions in many different contexts, they usually fail at the tail. Here we show that many different data in rank laws, like in granular materials, codons, author impact in scientific journals, etc are very well fitted by a β-like function ({a, b} distribution). Since this distribution is indeed ubiquitous, it is reasonable to associate it with some kind of general mechanism. In particular, we have found that the macrostates of the product of discrete probability distributions imply stretched exponential-like frequency-rank functions, which qualitatively and quantitatively can be fitted with the {a,b} distribution in the limit of many random variables. We show this by transforming the problem into an algebraic one: finding the rank of successive products of a given set of numbers

  13. High-throughput, label-free, single-cell, microalgal lipid screening by machine-learning-equipped optofluidic time-stretch quantitative phase microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Baoshan; Lei, Cheng; Kobayashi, Hirofumi; Ito, Takuro; Yalikun, Yaxiaer; Jiang, Yiyue; Tanaka, Yo; Ozeki, Yasuyuki; Goda, Keisuke

    2017-05-01

    The development of reliable, sustainable, and economical sources of alternative fuels to petroleum is required to tackle the global energy crisis. One such alternative is microalgal biofuel, which is expected to play a key role in reducing the detrimental effects of global warming as microalgae absorb atmospheric CO 2 via photosynthesis. Unfortunately, conventional analytical methods only provide population-averaged lipid amounts and fail to characterize a diverse population of microalgal cells with single-cell resolution in a non-invasive and interference-free manner. Here high-throughput label-free single-cell screening of lipid-producing microalgal cells with optofluidic time-stretch quantitative phase microscopy was demonstrated. In particular, Euglena gracilis, an attractive microalgal species that produces wax esters (suitable for biodiesel and aviation fuel after refinement), within lipid droplets was investigated. The optofluidic time-stretch quantitative phase microscope is based on an integration of a hydrodynamic-focusing microfluidic chip, an optical time-stretch quantitative phase microscope, and a digital image processor equipped with machine learning. As a result, it provides both the opacity and phase maps of every single cell at a high throughput of 10,000 cells/s, enabling accurate cell classification without the need for fluorescent staining. Specifically, the dataset was used to characterize heterogeneous populations of E. gracilis cells under two different culture conditions (nitrogen-sufficient and nitrogen-deficient) and achieve the cell classification with an error rate of only 2.15%. The method holds promise as an effective analytical tool for microalgae-based biofuel production. © 2017 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. © 2017 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  14. Stretching Safely and Effectively

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... shown that stretching immediately before an event weakens hamstring strength. Instead of static stretching, try performing a " ... If you play soccer, for instance, stretch your hamstrings as you're more vulnerable to hamstring strains. ...

  15. Phase-space distributions and orbital angular momentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquini B.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We review the concept of Wigner distributions to describe the phase-space distributions of quarks in the nucleon, emphasizing the information encoded in these functions about the quark orbital angular momentum.

  16. Maximum likelihood estimation of phase-type distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esparza, Luz Judith R

    for both univariate and multivariate cases. Methods like the EM algorithm and Markov chain Monte Carlo are applied for this purpose. Furthermore, this thesis provides explicit formulae for computing the Fisher information matrix for discrete and continuous phase-type distributions, which is needed to find......This work is concerned with the statistical inference of phase-type distributions and the analysis of distributions with rational Laplace transform, known as matrix-exponential distributions. The thesis is focused on the estimation of the maximum likelihood parameters of phase-type distributions...... confidence regions for their estimated parameters. Finally, a new general class of distributions, called bilateral matrix-exponential distributions, is defined. These distributions have the entire real line as domain and can be used, for instance, for modelling. In addition, this class of distributions...

  17. Effects of Testing Method on Stretch-Flangeability of Dual-Phase 980/1180 Steel Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrid, Mykal; Van Tyne, Chester J.; Sadagopan, Sriram; Pavlina, Erik J.; Hu, Jun; Clarke, Kester D.

    2018-06-01

    Challenging fuel economy and safety standards in the automotive industry have led to the need for materials with higher strength while maintaining levels of formability that meet component manufacturing requirements. Advanced high-strength steels, such as dual-phase steels with tensile strengths of 980 MPa and 1180 MPa, are of interest to address this need. Increasing the strength of these materials typically comes at the expense of ductility, which may result in problems when stamping parts with trimmed or sheared edges, as cracking at the sheared edge may occur at lower strains. Here, hole expansion tests were performed with different punch geometries (conical and flat-bottom) and different edge conditions (sheared and machined) to understand the effects of testing conditions on performance, and these results are discussed in terms of mechanical properties and microstructures.

  18. Distribution of guppies Poecilia reticulata (Peters, 1860 and Phalloceros caudimaculatus (Hensel, 1868 along a polluted stretch of the Paraíba do Sul River, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FG. Araújo

    Full Text Available Cyprinodontiformes fishes (guppies are widely distributed in Neotropical regions and use deteriorated microhabitats in rivers where few species can occur. This study was carried out in a stretch of the Paraíba do Sul River in bracketing a large urban-industrial complex. The aim was to assess eventual effects that the industrial complex could have on distribution of two closely related fish species of guppies, Phalloceros caudimaculatus and Poecilia reticulata. The area was divided into three zones: Z1, 40 km upriver of the major urban-industrial complex of Volta Redonda; Z2, just down river of the complex; and Z3, 30 km down river of the complex. Six sites (two in each zone were sampled monthly between November 1998 and October 1999, using a standardized fishing effort with cast net throws, trays lifts and seine hauls, covering different microhabitats, that is, riffles, pools and the proximity of the river's margins. Poecilia reticulata was widely distributed, peaking at Z2, the most polluted area, while P. caudimaculatus showed the highest abundance at Z3, being almost absent in Z1. Both species occurred in high numbers throughout the year but they were scarce between April and June. Females outnumbered males for both species in most size classes and at all sites. Juveniles were more abundant than adults, with non-pregnant females outnumbering pregnant ones. Condition factor was always higher in males than females but only males P. reticulata showed significant difference among the three zones, with the highest values at Z2. The higher number of females confirms the expectation that these species can use very polluted areas and that availability of food provided by organic loads allowed their distribution all over the area. Although these two species have shown indication of spatial separation in the study area, their similar seasonal patterns of occurrence suggest that they respond in a similar way to changes in environmental conditions.

  19. Positivity properties of phase-plane distribution functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, A.J.E.M.

    1984-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to compare the members of Cohen's class of phase-plane distributions with respect to positivity properties. It is known that certain averages (which are in a sense compatible with Heisenberg's uncertainty principle) of the Wigner distribution over the phase-plane yield

  20. Bilinear phase-plane distribution functions and positivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, A.J.E.M.

    1985-01-01

    There is a theorem of Wigner that states that phase-plane distribution functions involving the state bilinearly and having correct marginals must take negative values for certain states. The purpose of this paper is to support the statement that these phase-plane distribution functions are for

  1. DISTRIBUTION OF TWO-PHASE FLOW IN A DISTRIBUTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AZRIDJAL AZIZ

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The flow configuration and distribution behavior of two-phase flow in a distributor made of acrylic resin have been investigated experimentally. In this study, air and water were used as two-phase flow working fluids. The distributor consists of one inlet and two outlets, which are set as upper and lower, respectively. The flow visualization at the distributor was made by using a high–speed camera. The flow rates of air and water flowing out from the upper and lower outlet branches were measured. Effects of inclination angle of the distributor were investigated. By changing the inclination angle from vertical to horizontal, uneven distributions were also observed. The distribution of two-phase flow through distributor tends even flow distribution on the vertical position and tends uneven distribution on inclined and horizontal positions. It is shown that even distribution could be achieved at high superficial velocities of both air and water.

  2. Knotting in stretched polygons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rensburg, E J Janse van; Orlandini, E; Tesi, M C; Whittington, S G

    2008-01-01

    The knotting in a lattice polygon model of ring polymers is examined when a stretching force is applied to the polygon. By examining the incidence of cut-planes in the polygon, we prove a pattern theorem in the stretching regime for large applied forces. This theorem can be used to examine the incidence of entanglements such as knotting and writhing. In particular, we prove that for arbitrarily large positive, but finite, values of the stretching force, the probability that a stretched polygon is knotted approaches 1 as the length of the polygon increases. In the case of writhing, we prove that for stretched polygons of length n, and for every function f(n)=o(√n), the probability that the absolute value of the mean writhe is less than f(n) approaches 0 as n → ∞, for sufficiently large values of the applied stretching force

  3. Wigner distribution, partial coherence, and phase-space optics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastiaans, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    The Wigner distribution is presented as a perfect means to treat partially coherent optical signals and their propagation through first-order optical systems from a radiometric and phase-space optical perspective

  4. Distributed Rocket Engine Testing Health Monitoring System, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Leveraging the Phase I achievements of the Distributed Rocket Engine Testing Health Monitoring System (DiRETHMS) including its software toolsets and system building...

  5. Multivariate phase type distributions - Applications and parameter estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meisch, David

    The best known univariate probability distribution is the normal distribution. It is used throughout the literature in a broad field of applications. In cases where it is not sensible to use the normal distribution alternative distributions are at hand and well understood, many of these belonging...... and statistical inference, is the multivariate normal distribution. Unfortunately only little is known about the general class of multivariate phase type distribution. Considering the results concerning parameter estimation and inference theory of univariate phase type distributions, the class of multivariate...... projects and depend on reliable cost estimates. The Successive Principle is a group analysis method primarily used for analyzing medium to large projects in relation to cost or duration. We believe that the mathematical modeling used in the Successive Principle can be improved. We suggested a novel...

  6. Phase distribution studies in metallic alloy SIMFUEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolay, S.; Basu, M.; Kaity, S.; Das, D.

    2014-01-01

    Utilization of U-Pu based alloy fuel in the three stage nuclear power generation program in India is one of the important mandate due to shorter doubling time for breeding of the fissile isotopes ( 239 Pu and 233 U) to be used in Th based driver fuel in the 3rd stage. Reported information shows successful performance of fuel with porous alloy matrix in achieving 10-15 atom % burn-up. The porosity and microstructure of this alloy are strongly dependent on the composition and phases of the fission products incorporated in the matrix. The porosity influences the extent of fuel swelling and fission gas release, which affects the performance and integrity of the fuel. This study addresses to these issues taking the base alloy U-10wt% Zr

  7. Speedup of minimum discontinuity phase unwrapping algorithm with a reference phase distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yihang; Han, Yu; Li, Fengjiao; Zhang, Qican

    2018-06-01

    In three-dimensional (3D) shape measurement based on phase analysis, the phase analysis process usually produces a wrapped phase map ranging from - π to π with some 2 π discontinuities, and thus a phase unwrapping algorithm is necessary to recover the continuous and nature phase map from which 3D height distribution can be restored. Usually, the minimum discontinuity phase unwrapping algorithm can be used to solve many different kinds of phase unwrapping problems, but its main drawback is that it requires a large amount of computations and has low efficiency in searching for the improving loop within the phase's discontinuity area. To overcome this drawback, an improvement to speedup of the minimum discontinuity phase unwrapping algorithm by using the phase distribution on reference plane is proposed. In this improved algorithm, before the minimum discontinuity phase unwrapping algorithm is carried out to unwrap phase, an integer number K was calculated from the ratio of the wrapped phase to the nature phase on a reference plane. And then the jump counts of the unwrapped phase can be reduced by adding 2K π, so the efficiency of the minimum discontinuity phase unwrapping algorithm is significantly improved. Both simulated and experimental data results verify the feasibility of the proposed improved algorithm, and both of them clearly show that the algorithm works very well and has high efficiency.

  8. Time stretch and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahjoubfar, Ata; Churkin, Dmitry V.; Barland, Stéphane; Broderick, Neil; Turitsyn, Sergei K.; Jalali, Bahram

    2017-06-01

    Observing non-repetitive and statistically rare signals that occur on short timescales requires fast real-time measurements that exceed the speed, precision and record length of conventional digitizers. Photonic time stretch is a data acquisition method that overcomes the speed limitations of electronic digitizers and enables continuous ultrafast single-shot spectroscopy, imaging, reflectometry, terahertz and other measurements at refresh rates reaching billions of frames per second with non-stop recording spanning trillions of consecutive frames. The technology has opened a new frontier in measurement science unveiling transient phenomena in nonlinear dynamics such as optical rogue waves and soliton molecules, and in relativistic electron bunching. It has also created a new class of instruments that have been integrated with artificial intelligence for sensing and biomedical diagnostics. We review the fundamental principles and applications of this emerging field for continuous phase and amplitude characterization at extremely high repetition rates via time-stretch spectral interferometry.

  9. Distribution of dispersed oil phase in hydrocarbon fermentations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, C S; Erickson, L E

    1978-04-01

    Recent experimental results show that the spreading coefficient frequently becomes positive when Candida lipolytica is cultivated on n-hexadecane. The effects of oil spreading at the surface of air bubbles in an airlift fermentor are examined using a mathematical model. The distribution of the oil phase with position and among the phases is determined using computer simulation. The simulation results qualitatively explain some of the experimental observations which have been previously reported.

  10. Distributions of Conductance and Shot Noise and Associated Phase Transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vivo, Pierpaolo; Majumdar, Satya N.; Bohigas, Oriol

    2008-01-01

    For a chaotic cavity with two identical leads each supporting N channels, we compute analytically, for large N, the full distribution of the conductance and the shot noise power and show that in both cases there is a central Gaussian region flanked on both sides by non-Gaussian tails. The distribution is weakly singular at the junction of Gaussian and non-Gaussian regimes, a direct consequence of two phase transitions in an associated Coulomb gas problem

  11. Differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution using coherent light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, K.; Waks, E.; Yamamoto, Y.

    2003-01-01

    Differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution based on two nonorthogonal states is described. A weak coherent pulse train is sent from Alice to Bob, in which the phase of each pulse is randomly modulated by {0,π}. Bob measures the differential phase by a one-bit delay circuit. The system has a simple configuration without the need for an interferometer and a bright reference pulse in Alice's site, unlike the conventional QKD system based on two nonorthogonal states, and has an advantage of improved communication efficiency. The principle of the operation is successfully demonstrated in experiments

  12. Temporal and spatial distribution of young Brachyplatystoma spp. (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae) along the rapids stretch of the Madeira River (Brazil) before the construction of two hydroelectric dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cella-Ribeiro, A; Assakawa, L F; Torrente-Vilara, G; Zuanon, J; Leite, R G; Doria, C; Duponchelle, F

    2015-04-01

    Monthly (April 2009 to May 2010) bottom-trawl sampling for Brachyplatystoma species along the rapids stretch of the Madeira River in Brazil revealed that Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii larvae and juveniles were present in low abundances in all areas and during all hydrological periods. The presence of larvae and juveniles throughout the hydrological cycle suggests asynchronous spawning in the headwaters of the Madeira River. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  13. Influence of the stretch wrapping process on the mechanical behavior of a stretch film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Daniel; Stommel, Markus; Zimmer, Johannes

    2018-05-01

    Lightweight construction is an ongoing task in packaging development. Consequently, the stability of packages during transport is gaining importance. This study contributes to the optimization of lightweight packaging concepts regarding their stability. A very widespread packaging concept is the distribution of goods on a pallet whereas a Polyethylene (PE) stretch film stabilizes the lightweight structure during the shipment. Usually, a stretch wrapping machine applies this stretch film to the pallet. The objective of this study is to support packaging development with a method that predicts the result of the wrapping process, based on the mechanical characterization of the stretch film. This result is not only defined by the amount of stretch film, its spatial distribution on the pallet and its internal stresses that result in a containment force. More accurate, this contribution also considers the influence of the deformation history of the stretch film during the wrapping process. By focusing on similarities of stretch wrappers rather than on differences, the influence of generalized process parameters on stretch film mechanics and thereby on pallet stability can be determined experimentally. For a practical use, the predictive method is accumulated in an analytic model of the wrapping process that can be verified experimentally. This paves the way for experimental and numerical approaches regarding the optimization of pallet stability.

  14. Fisher information and statistical inference for phase-type distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Mogens; Esparza, Luz Judith R; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    2011-01-01

    This paper is concerned with statistical inference for both continuous and discrete phase-type distributions. We consider maximum likelihood estimation, where traditionally the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm has been employed. Certain numerical aspects of this method are revised and we...

  15. Minimum-phase distribution of cosmic source brightness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gal'chenko, A.A.; Malov, I.F.; Mogil'nitskaya, L.F.; Frolov, V.A.

    1984-01-01

    Minimum-phase distributions of brightness (profiles) for cosmic radio sources 3C 144 (the wave lambda=21 cm), 3C 338 (lambda=3.5 m), and 3C 353 (labda=31.3 cm and 3.5 m) are obtained. A real possibility for the profile recovery from module fragments of its Fourier-image is shown

  16. Static versus dynamic stretching: Chronic and acute effects on Agility performance in male athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Taleb-Beydokhti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the acute and chronic effects of static & dynamic stretching protocols on agility performance in amateur handball players. Twelve male amateur handball players (age: 19.66 ± 4.02 years old, weight: 67.12 ± 8.73 kg, height: 178.29 ± 7.81 cm participated in this study. The athletes were randomly allocated into two groups: static stretching or dynamic stretching. All of them underwent an initial evaluation and were submitted to the first intervention. They were evaluated once again and at the end of 12 training sessions. The results analyzed using ANOVA showed that there was a significant decrease in agility time after dynamic stretching against no stretching in the acute phase; but, there were no significant differences between dynamic stretching and no stretching in the chronic phase. In addition, there was no a significant difference between no stretching and static stretching in the acute phase; while, There was a significant decrease in agility time after no stretching against static stretching in the chronic phase. It was concluded that acute dynamic stretching as part of a warm-up may decrease agility time performance, whereas static stretching seems to increase agility time performance. Consequently, the acute and chronic static stretching should not be performed prior to an explosive athletic performance. Keywords: Handball, Agility, Dynamic stretching, Static stretching

  17. Three-Phase Harmonic Analysis Method for Unbalanced Distribution Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Hao Teng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the unbalanced features of distribution systems, a three-phase harmonic analysis method is essential to accurately analyze the harmonic impact on distribution systems. Moreover, harmonic analysis is the basic tool for harmonic filter design and harmonic resonance mitigation; therefore, the computational performance should also be efficient. An accurate and efficient three-phase harmonic analysis method for unbalanced distribution systems is proposed in this paper. The variations of bus voltages, bus current injections and branch currents affected by harmonic current injections can be analyzed by two relationship matrices developed from the topological characteristics of distribution systems. Some useful formulas are then derived to solve the three-phase harmonic propagation problem. After the harmonic propagation for each harmonic order is calculated, the total harmonic distortion (THD for bus voltages can be calculated accordingly. The proposed method has better computational performance, since the time-consuming full admittance matrix inverse employed by the commonly-used harmonic analysis methods is not necessary in the solution procedure. In addition, the proposed method can provide novel viewpoints in calculating the branch currents and bus voltages under harmonic pollution which are vital for harmonic filter design. Test results demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method.

  18. Phase size distribution in WC/Co hardmetal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roebuck, B.; Bennett, E.G.

    1986-01-01

    A high-resolution field emission scanning electron microscope was used to perform accurate quantitative metallography on a variety of WC/Co hardmetals. Particular attention was paid to obtaining the mean size and size distribution of the cobalt phase by linear analysis. Cobalt regions are frequently submicron and difficult to resolve adequately by conventional methods. The WC linear intercept distributions, and contiguity were also measured at the same time. The results were used to examine the validity of theoretic derivations of cobalt intercept size

  19. Single phase inverter for a three phase power generation and distribution system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindena, S. J.

    1976-01-01

    A breadboard design of a single-phase inverter with sinusoidal output voltage for a three-phase power generation and distribution system was developed. The three-phase system consists of three single-phase inverters, whose output voltages are connected in a delta configuration. Upon failure of one inverter the two remaining inverters will continue to deliver three-phase power. Parallel redundancy as offered by two three-phase inverters is substituted by one three-phase inverter assembly with high savings in volume, weight, components count and complexity, and a considerable increase in reliability. The following requirements must be met: (1) Each single-phase, current-fed inverter must be capable of being synchronized to a three-phase reference system such that its output voltage remains phaselocked to its respective reference voltage. (2) Each single-phase, current-fed inverter must be capable of accepting leading and lagging power factors over a range from -0.7 through 1 to +0.7.

  20. Research on three-phase unbalanced distribution network reconfiguration strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shuang; Li, Ke-Jun; Xu, Yanshun; Liu, Zhijie; Guo, Jing; Wang, Zhuodi

    2017-01-01

    With the development of social economy, the loads installed in the distribution network become more and more complex which may cause the three-phase unbalance problems. This paper proposes an optimal reconfiguration approach based on mixed integer quadric programming (MIQP) method to address the three-phase unbalance problem. It aims to minimize the total network losses of the system. By using several square constraints to substitute the circular constraint, the original optimization problem is linearized and converted into a mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) model. Then this MILP problem is solved in general algebraic model system (GAMS) software using CPLEX solver. The additional losses caused by three-phase unbalanced are also considered. An IEEE 34 nodes test system is used to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method. The results show that the losses and the voltage violation mitigation in the network can be reduced significantly.

  1. Nonclassicality indicator for the real phase-space distribution functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeghi, Parvin; Khademi, Siamak; Nasiri, Sadollah

    2010-01-01

    Benedict et al. and Kenfack et al. advocated nonclassicality indicators based on the measurement of negativity of the Wigner distribution functions. These indicators have some applications in quantum mechanics and quantum optics. In this paper we define a nonclassicality indicator in terms of the interference in phase space, which is applicable to some real distribution functions including those of Wigner. As a special case one may reproduce the previous results using our indicator for the Wigner distribution functions. This indicator is examined for cases of the Schroedinger cat state and the thermal states and the results are compared with those obtained by previous methods. It seems that the physical behavior of nonclassicality indicators originates in the uncertainty principle. This is shown by an onto correspondence between these indicators and the uncertainty principle.

  2. Imaging phase holdup distribution of three phase flow systems using dual source gamma ray tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varma, Rajneesh; Al-Dahhan, Muthanna; O'Sullivan, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Multiphase reaction and process systems are used in abundance in the chemical and biochemical industry. Tomography has been successfully employed to visualize the hydrodynamics of multiphase systems. Most of the tomography methods (gamma ray, x-ray and electrical capacitance and resistance) have been successfully implemented for two phase dynamic systems. However, a significant number of chemical and biochemical systems consists of dynamic three phases. Research effort directed towards the development of tomography techniques to image such dynamic system has met with partial successes for specific systems with applicability to limited operating conditions. A dual source tomography scanner has been developed that uses the 661 keV and 1332 keV photo peaks from the 137 Cs and 60 Co for imaging three phase systems. A new approach has been developed and applied that uses the polyenergetic Alternating Minimization (A-M) algorithm, developed by O'Sullivan and Benac (2007), for imaging the holdup distribution in three phases' dynamic systems. The new approach avoids the traditional post image processing approach used to determine the holdup distribution where the attenuation images of the mixed flow obtained from gamma ray photons of two different energies are used to determine the holdup of three phases. In this approach the holdup images are directly reconstructed from the gamma ray transmission data. The dual source gamma ray tomography scanner and the algorithm were validated using a three phase phantom. Based in the validation, three phase holdup studies we carried out in slurry bubble column containing gas liquid and solid phases in a dynamic state using the dual energy gamma ray tomography. The key results of the holdup distribution studies in the slurry bubble column along with the validation of the dual source gamma ray tomography system would be presented and discussed

  3. Generalised partition functions: inferences on phase space distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Treumann

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available It is demonstrated that the statistical mechanical partition function can be used to construct various different forms of phase space distributions. This indicates that its structure is not restricted to the Gibbs–Boltzmann factor prescription which is based on counting statistics. With the widely used replacement of the Boltzmann factor by a generalised Lorentzian (also known as the q-deformed exponential function, where κ = 1∕|q − 1|, with κ, q ∈ R both the kappa-Bose and kappa-Fermi partition functions are obtained in quite a straightforward way, from which the conventional Bose and Fermi distributions follow for κ → ∞. For κ ≠ ∞ these are subject to the restrictions that they can be used only at temperatures far from zero. They thus, as shown earlier, have little value for quantum physics. This is reasonable, because physical κ systems imply strong correlations which are absent at zero temperature where apart from stochastics all dynamical interactions are frozen. In the classical large temperature limit one obtains physically reasonable κ distributions which depend on energy respectively momentum as well as on chemical potential. Looking for other functional dependencies, we examine Bessel functions whether they can be used for obtaining valid distributions. Again and for the same reason, no Fermi and Bose distributions exist in the low temperature limit. However, a classical Bessel–Boltzmann distribution can be constructed which is a Bessel-modified Lorentzian distribution. Whether it makes any physical sense remains an open question. This is not investigated here. The choice of Bessel functions is motivated solely by their convergence properties and not by reference to any physical demands. This result suggests that the Gibbs–Boltzmann partition function is fundamental not only to Gibbs–Boltzmann but also to a large class of generalised Lorentzian distributions as well as to the

  4. Potential pitfalls of single phasing operation in a three phase distribution network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayanan, V S

    1986-07-01

    Finding it difficult to cope with the increased demand for electric power, some electricity boards have resorted to single phasing techniques in distribution system. This practice is harmful to the equipment in the power system. Some of the potential dangers associated with this undesirable practice are briefly discussed.

  5. An Industrial Gauge for Measuring The Phase Distribution of Galvanneal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher BUrnett; Roland Gouel; James R. Phillips

    1996-01-19

    Augmentation of the internal software of a commercial x-ray fluorescence gauge is shown to enable the instrument to extend its continuous on-line real-time measurements of a galvanneal coating's total elemental content to encompass similar measurements of the relative thickness of the coating's three principal metallurgical phases. The mathematical structure of this software augmentation is derived from the theory of neural networks. The empirical basis for the numerics embedded in the software's decision logic is presented. The performance of the augmented gauge is validated by comparing the gauge-implied real-time phase distribution with the phase distribution independently measured off-line on time-tagged samples drawn from the galvanneal production line where the measurement gauge had been installed. The performance validation is shown to demonstrate good agreement between the gauge and laboratory measurements and to suggest preferred approaches to be followed in future applications of the augmented gauge.

  6. Stretching & Flexibility: An Interactive Encyclopedia of Stretching. [CD-ROM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002

    This CD-ROM offers 140 different stretches in full-motion video sequences. It focuses on the proper techniques for overall physical fitness, injury prevention and rehabilitation, and 23 different sports (e.g., golf, running, soccer, skiing, climbing, football, and baseball). Topics include stretching for sports; stretching awareness and education…

  7. Time gated phase-correlation distributed Brillouin fibre sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denisov, Andrey; Soto, Marcelo A.; Thévenaz, Luc

    2013-05-01

    A random access distributed Brillouin fibre sensor is presented, based on phase modulation using a pseudo-random bit sequence (PRBS) together with time gating. The standard phase-correlation technique is known to show a noise level increasing linearly with the number of measured points due to weak gratings generated randomly along the whole sensing fibre. Here we show how intensity modulated pump and time gated detection significantly improve the signal-tonoise ratio (SNR) of the system with no impact on the spatial resolution. A measurement with 1.1 cm spatial resolution over 3.3 km is demonstrated, representing 300'000 equivalent points. The limitations of the proposed technique are discussed through the paper.

  8. Three-Phase Unbalanced Load Flow Tool for Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demirok, Erhan; Kjær, Søren Bækhøj; Sera, Dezso

    2012-01-01

    This work develops a three-phase unbalanced load flow tool tailored for radial distribution networks based on Matlab®. The tool can be used to assess steady-state voltage variations, thermal limits of grid components and power losses in radial MV-LV networks with photovoltaic (PV) generators where...... most of the systems are single phase. New ancillary service such as static reactive power support by PV inverters can be also merged together with the load flow solution tool and thus, the impact of the various reactive power control strategies on the steady-state grid operation can be simply...... investigated. Performance of the load flow solution tool in the sense of resulting bus voltage magnitudes is compared and validated with IEEE 13-bus test feeder....

  9. Stretching the Border

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horstmann, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I hope to add a complementary perspective to James Scott’s recent work on avoidance strategies of subaltern mountain people by focusing on what I call the refugee public. The educated Karen elite uses the space of exile in the Thai borderland to reconstitute resources and to re-ent......-based organizations succeed to stretch the border by establishing a firm presence that is supported by the international humanitarian economy in the refugee camps in Northwestern Thailand....

  10. Angular distribution and atomic effects in condensed phase photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, R.F.

    1981-11-01

    A general concept of condensed phase photoelectron spectroscopy is that angular distribution and atomic effects in the photoemission intensity are determined by different mechanisms, the former being determined largely by ordering phenomena such as crystal momentum conservation and photoelectron diffraction while the latter are manifested in the total (angle-integrated) cross section. In this work, the physics of the photoemission process is investigated in several very different experiments to elucidate the mechanisms of, and correlation between, atomic and angular distribution effects. Theoretical models are discussed and the connection betweeen the two effects is clearly established. The remainder of this thesis, which describes experiments utilizing both angle-resolved and angle-integrated photoemission in conjunction with synchrotron radiation in the energy range 6 eV less than or equal to h ν less than or equal to 360 eV and laboratory sources, is divided into three parts

  11. Effects of the randomly distributed magnetic field on the phase diagrams of the Ising Nanowire II: Continuous distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akıncı, Ümit

    2012-01-01

    The effect of the random magnetic field distribution on the phase diagrams and ground state magnetizations of the Ising nanowire has been investigated with effective field theory with correlations. Gaussian distribution has been chosen as a random magnetic field distribution. The variation of the phase diagrams with that distribution parameters has been obtained and some interesting results have been found such as disappearance of the reentrant behavior and first order transitions which appear in the case of discrete distributions. Also for single and double Gaussian distributions, ground state magnetizations for different distribution parameters have been determined which can be regarded as separate partially ordered phases of the system. - Highlights: ► We give the phase diagrams of the Ising nanowire under the continuous randomly distributed magnetic field. ► Ground state magnetization values obtained. ► Different partially ordered phases observed.

  12. Probabilistic Q-function distributions in fermionic phase-space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosales-Zárate, Laura E C; Drummond, P D

    2015-01-01

    We obtain a positive probability distribution or Q-function for an arbitrary fermionic many-body system. This is different to previous Q-function proposals, which were either restricted to a subspace of the overall Hilbert space, or used Grassmann methods that do not give probabilities. The fermionic Q-function obtained here is constructed using normally ordered Gaussian operators, which include both non-interacting thermal density matrices and BCS states. We prove that the Q-function exists for any density matrix, is real and positive, and has moments that correspond to Fermi operator moments. It is defined on a finite symmetric phase-space equivalent to the space of real, antisymmetric matrices. This has the natural SO(2M) symmetry expected for Majorana fermion operators. We show that there is a physical interpretation of the Q-function: it is the relative probability for observing a given Gaussian density matrix. The distribution has a uniform probability across the space at infinite temperature, while for pure states it has a maximum value on the phase-space boundary. The advantage of probabilistic representations is that they can be used for computational sampling without a sign problem. (fast track communication)

  13. Two-dimensional distributed-phase-reference protocol for quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacco, Davide; Christensen, Jesper Bjerge; Castaneda, Mario A. Usuga; Ding, Yunhong; Forchhammer, Søren; Rottwitt, Karsten; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo

    2016-12-01

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) and quantum communication enable the secure exchange of information between remote parties. Currently, the distributed-phase-reference (DPR) protocols, which are based on weak coherent pulses, are among the most practical solutions for long-range QKD. During the last 10 years, long-distance fiber-based DPR systems have been successfully demonstrated, although fundamental obstacles such as intrinsic channel losses limit their performance. Here, we introduce the first two-dimensional DPR-QKD protocol in which information is encoded in the time and phase of weak coherent pulses. The ability of extracting two bits of information per detection event, enables a higher secret key rate in specific realistic network scenarios. Moreover, despite the use of more dimensions, the proposed protocol remains simple, practical, and fully integrable.

  14. Two-dimensional distributed-phase-reference protocol for quantum key distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacco, Davide; Christensen, Jesper Bjerge; Usuga Castaneda, Mario A.

    2016-01-01

    10 years, long-distance fiber-based DPR systems have been successfully demonstrated, although fundamental obstacles such as intrinsic channel losses limit their performance. Here, we introduce the first two-dimensional DPR-QKD protocol in which information is encoded in the time and phase of weak......Quantum key distribution (QKD) and quantum communication enable the secure exchange of information between remote parties. Currently, the distributed-phase-reference (DPR) protocols, which are based on weak coherent pulses, are among the most practical solutions for long-range QKD. During the last...... coherent pulses. The ability of extracting two bits of information per detection event, enables a higher secret key rate in specific realistic network scenarios. Moreover, despite the use of more dimensions, the proposed protocol remains simple, practical, and fully integrable....

  15. Correlation between structure and conductivity in stretched Nafion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allahyarov, Elshad; Taylor, Philip

    2008-03-01

    We have used coarse-grained simulation methods to investigate the effect of stretching-induced structure orientation on the proton conductivity of Nafion-like polyelectrolyte membranes. Recent experimental data on the morphology of ionomers describe Nafion as an aggregation of polymeric backbone chains forming elongated objects embedded in a continuous ionic medium. Uniaxial stretching of a recast Nafion film causes a preferential orientation of these objects in the direction of stretching. Our simulations of humid Nafion show that this has a strong effect on the proton conductivity, which is enhanced along the stretching direction, while the conductivity perpendicular to the stretched polymer backbone is strongly reduced. Stretching also causes the perfluorinated side chains to orient perpendicular to the stretching axis. The sulphonate multiplets shrink in diameter as the stretching is increased and show a spatially periodic ordering in their distribution. This in turn affects the distribution of contained water at low water contents. The water forms a continuous network with narrow bridges between small water clusters absorbed in head-group multiplets. We find the morphological changes in the stretched Nafion to be retained upon removal of the uniaxial stress.

  16. Summary of the stretching tectonics research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Dagan

    1994-01-01

    The rise of stretching tectonics is established on the basis of recent structural geology theory, the establishment of metamorphic nucleus complex structural model on one hand plays an important promoting art to the development of stretching structure, on the other hand, it needs constant supplement and perfection in practice. Metamorphic nucleus complex is the carrier of comparatively deep geological information in vertical section of the crust and has wide distribution in the era of south China. Evidently, it can be taken as the 'key' to understanding the deep and studying the basement, Strengthening the study will play the important promoting role to the deep prospecting. The study of stretching tectonics is not only limited within the range of structure and metamorphism, but combine with the studies of sedimentation, magmatism, metamorphism and mineralization, thus form a new field of tectonic geology of self-developing system

  17. Phase transitions in distributed control systems with multiplicative noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegra, Nicolas; Bamieh, Bassam; Mitra, Partha; Sire, Clément

    2018-01-01

    Contemporary technological challenges often involve many degrees of freedom in a distributed or networked setting. Three aspects are notable: the variables are usually associated with the nodes of a graph with limited communication resources, hindering centralized control; the communication is subject to noise; and the number of variables can be very large. These three aspects make tools and techniques from statistical physics particularly suitable for the performance analysis of such networked systems in the limit of many variables (analogous to the thermodynamic limit in statistical physics). Perhaps not surprisingly, phase-transition like phenomena appear in these systems, where a sharp change in performance can be observed with a smooth parameter variation, with the change becoming discontinuous or singular in the limit of infinite system size. In this paper, we analyze the so called network consensus problem, prototypical of the above considerations, that has previously been analyzed mostly in the context of additive noise. We show that qualitatively new phase-transition like phenomena appear for this problem in the presence of multiplicative noise. Depending on dimensions, and on the presence or absence of a conservation law, the system performance shows a discontinuous change at a threshold value of the multiplicative noise strength. In the absence of the conservation law, and for graph spectral dimension less than two, the multiplicative noise threshold (the stability margin of the control problem) is zero. This is reminiscent of the absence of robust controllers for certain classes of centralized control problems. Although our study involves a ‘toy’ model, we believe that the qualitative features are generic, with implications for the robust stability of distributed control systems, as well as the effect of roundoff errors and communication noise on distributed algorithms.

  18. Core stress distribution of phase shifting multimode polymer optical fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, Rei; Matsuura, Motoharu; Nagata, Morio; Mishima, Kenji; Inoue, Azusa; Tagaya, Akihiro; Koike, Yasuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Poly-(methyl methacrylate-co-benzyl methacrylate) polarization-maintaining optical fibers are known for their high response to normal stress. In this report, responses to higher stress levels up to 0.45 MPa were investigated. The stress amplitude and direction in the fiber cross section were calculated and analyzed with a coincident mode-field obtained from the near-field pattern. The stress amplitude varies significantly in the horizontal direction and is considered to create multiple phases, explaining the measurement results. To investigate possible permanent deformation, the core yield point profile was analyzed. Although it largely exceeds the average applied stress, the calculated stress distribution indicates that the core could partially experience stress that exceeds the yield point

  19. Interset stretching does not influence the kinematic profile of consecutive bench-press sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-López, David; Izquierdo, Mikel; Rodríguez, Sergio; González-Calvo, Gustavo; Sainz, Nuria; Abadía, Olaia; Herrero, Azael J

    2010-05-01

    This study was undertaken to examine the role of interset stretching on the time course of acceleration portion AP and mean velocity profile during the concentric phase of 2 bench-press sets with a submaximal load (60% of the 1 repetition maximum). Twenty-five college students carried out, in 3 different days, 2 consecutive bench-press sets leading to failure, performing between sets static stretching, ballistic stretching, or no stretching. Acceleration portion and lifting velocity patterns of the concentric phase were not altered during the second set, regardless of the stretching treatment performed. However, when velocity was expressed in absolute terms, static stretching reduced significantly (p velocity during the second set compared to the first one. Therefore, if maintenance of a high absolute velocity over consecutive sets is important for training-related adaptations, static stretching should be avoided or replaced by ballistic stretching.

  20. EFFECTIVENESS OF PNF STRETCHING VERSUS STATIC STRETCHING ON PAIN AND HAMSTRING FLEXIBILITY FOLLOWING MOIST HEAT IN INDIVIDUALS WITH KNEE OSTEOARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena .V

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Osteoarthritis (OA is a degenerative joint disease and one of the major public health problem that causesfunctional impairment and reduced quality of life. To compare the effectiveness of PNF Hold relax stretching versus Static stretching on pain and flexibility of hamstring following moist heat in individuals with knee osteoarthritis. Hamstring tightness is the major problem in knee osteoarthritis individuals. Therefore the need of study is comparing the effectiveness of PNF Hold relax stretching versus static stretching on pain and flexibility of hamstrings following moist heat in knee osteoarthritis participants. Determining the effects of PNF Hold relax stretching versus Static stretching along with moist heat on pain and hamstring flexibility by VAS and Active knee extension range of motion in knee osteoarthritis individuals. Methods: 30 subjects with symptoms of knee osteoarthritis were randomly distributed into 2 groups 15 in each group. PNF Hold relax stretching along with moist heat is compared to Static stretching along with moist heat. Pain was measured by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS and hamstring flexibility by Active knee Extension Range of Motion (AKEROM by universal goniometer. Measurements are taken pre and post intervention. Results: The results indicated PNF Hold relax stretching along with moist heat showed a statistically significant improvement in pain (p<0.05 and improvement in hamstring flexibility (p<0.05 when compared to Static stretching along with moist heat. Conclusion: Subjects with PNF Hold relax stretching along with moist heat showed significant improvement in pain reduction and improving hamstring flexibility than Static stretching along with moist heat.

  1. IDENTIFICATION OF THE MASS DISTRIBUTIONS OF THE MILK FAT PHASE USING UNIVERSAL PEARSON DISTRIBUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Khvostov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider the problem of approximating the experimental values of the coefficient of attenuation of ultrasonic oscillations and the mass distribution of the fat globules in the milk and milk products. The analysis of experimental data in terms of the choice of the method of approximation was done. A approximating dependence is based on the solution of Pearson differential equations. The advantages of the proposed method for the type of approximation of the experimental data obtained. An algorithm for constructing a mathematical model describing the relaxation spectrum and mass distribution of the fat globules in the milk and milk products was implemented. As a result, a family of Pearson approximation curves of the experimental data shows the ability to qualitatively correctly describe the change in the distribution of the fat phase in the process of homogenization. It estimates the error of approximating dependence, which amounted to 18 %. It is shown that during of the process of homogenization of dairy products changes shape of the curve describing the distribution of the fat globules, in view of the fact that there is a local extremum, caused by the presence of the non-homogenized fat globules. The accuracy of the selected mathematical model is significantly reduced. At the same time, it loses its physical meaning and its parameters. To address the identified deviations in the proposed mass distribution of fat globules as a function with two modes. It is proved that the complexity of the model is not only doubles the number of its parameters, but also complicates the interpretation of measurement results in a control system, and makes it difficult to analyze the obtained parameters of approximation by decision-maker. As a result of approximation of experimental data suggested to use statistical moments of the distribution for problem decision.

  2. Stretched configuration of states as inferred from γ-ray angular distributions in {sup 40}Ar + {sup 208}Pb neutron transfer reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colovic, P.; Szilner, S.; Mijatovic, T.; Jelavic Malenica, D.; Soic, N. [Ruder Boskovic Institute, Zagreb (Croatia); Corradi, L.; Fioretto, E.; Stefanini, A.M.; Valiente-Dobon, J.J. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Legnaro (Italy); Pollarolo, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica Teorica, Universita di Torino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Torino (Italy); Goasduff, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Legnaro (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Padova (Italy); Montanari, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Padova (Italy); Universite de Strasbourg, Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien, CNRS-IN2P3, Strasbourg (France); Chapman, R.; Smith, J.F. [University of the West of Scotland, School of Engineering and Computing, Paisley (United Kingdom); Gadea, A. [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, CSIC-Universitat de Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Haas, F. [Universite de Strasbourg, Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien, CNRS-IN2P3, Strasbourg (France); Marginean, N.; Ur, C.A. [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering and ELI-NP, Bucharest (Romania); Mengoni, D.; Montagnoli, G.; Scarlassara, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Padova (Italy); Milin, M. [University of Zagreb, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2017-08-15

    Angular distributions of γ-rays for selected transitions in {sup 40,41,42}Ar isotopes have been studied with the PRISMA magnetic spectrometer coupled to the CLARA γ array. These transitions were populated in Ar isotopes reached via neutron transfer in the {sup 40}Ar + {sup 208}Pb reaction. By comparison with the shape of the experimental angular distribution of the known E2 transitions we established more firmly the spin and parity of excited states. In particular, in {sup 41}Ar for the (11/2{sup -}) state through the (11/2{sup -}) → 7/2{sup -} transition whose structure was discussed in terms of a phonon-fermion coupled state. The comparison with the expected fully aligned spin indicated that a high level of spin alignment has been reached. (orig.)

  3. Tube Radial Distribution Flow Separation in a Microchannel Using an Ionic Liquid Aqueous Two-Phase System Based on Phase Separation Multi-Phase Flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatani, Kosuke; Shihata, Yoshinori; Matsushita, Takahiro; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Ionic liquid aqueous two-phase systems were delivered into a capillary tube to achieve tube radial distribution flow (TRDF) or annular flow in a microspace. The phase diagram, viscosity of the phases, and TRDF image of the 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride and NaOH system were examined. The TRDF was formed with inner ionic liquid-rich and outer ionic liquid-poor phases in the capillary tube. The phase configuration was explained using the viscous dissipation principle. We also examined the distribution of rhodamine B in a three-branched microchannel on a microchip with ionic liquid aqueous two-phase systems for the first time.

  4. Visualization of velocity field and phase distribution in gas-liquid two-phase flow by NMR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, G.; Monji, H.; Obata, J.

    2004-01-01

    NMR imaging has been applied in the field of fluid mechanics, mainly single phase flow, to visualize the instantaneous flow velocity field. In the present study, NMR imaging was used to visualize simultaneously both the instantaneous phase structure and velocity field of gas-liquid two-phase flow. Two methods of NMR imaging were applied. One is useful to visualize both the one component of liquid velocity and the phase distribution. This method was applied to horizontal two-phase flow and a bubble rising in stagnant oil. It was successful in obtaining some pictures of velocity field and phase distribution on the cross section of the pipe. The other is used to visualize a two-dimensional velocity field. This method was applied to a bubble rising in a stagnant water. The velocity field was visualized after and before the passage of a bubble at the measuring cross section. Furthermore, the distribution of liquid velocity was obtained. (author)

  5. Effects of mixing methods on phase distribution in vertical bubble flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monji, Hideaki; Matsui, Goichi; Sugiyama, Takayuki.

    1992-01-01

    The mechanism of the phase distribution formation in a bubble flow is one of the most important problems in the control of two-phase flow systems. The effect of mixing methods on the phase distribution was experimentally investigated by using upward nitrogen gas-water bubble flow under the condition of fixed flow rates. The experimental results show that the diameter of the gas injection hole influences the phase distribution through the bubble size. The location of the injection hole and the direction of injection do not influence the phase distribution of fully developed bubble flow. The transitive equivalent bubble size from the coring bubble flow to the sliding bubble flow corresponds to the bubble shape transition. The analytical results show that the phase distribution may be predictable if the phase profile is judged from the bubble size. (author)

  6. Stretch-minimising stream surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Barton, Michael; Kosinka, Jin; Calo, Victor M.

    2015-01-01

    We study the problem of finding stretch-minimising stream surfaces in a divergence-free vector field. These surfaces are generated by motions of seed curves that propagate through the field in a stretch minimising manner, i.e., they move without stretching or shrinking, preserving the length of their arbitrary arc. In general fields, such curves may not exist. How-ever, the divergence-free constraint gives rise to these 'stretch-free' curves that are locally arc-length preserving when infinitesimally propagated. Several families of stretch-free curves are identified and used as initial guesses for stream surface generation. These surfaces are subsequently globally optimised to obtain the best stretch-minimising stream surfaces in a given divergence-free vector field. Our algorithm was tested on benchmark datasets, proving its applicability to incompressible fluid flow simulations, where our stretch-minimising stream surfaces realistically reflect the flow of a flexible univariate object. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Stretch-minimising stream surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Barton, Michael

    2015-05-01

    We study the problem of finding stretch-minimising stream surfaces in a divergence-free vector field. These surfaces are generated by motions of seed curves that propagate through the field in a stretch minimising manner, i.e., they move without stretching or shrinking, preserving the length of their arbitrary arc. In general fields, such curves may not exist. How-ever, the divergence-free constraint gives rise to these \\'stretch-free\\' curves that are locally arc-length preserving when infinitesimally propagated. Several families of stretch-free curves are identified and used as initial guesses for stream surface generation. These surfaces are subsequently globally optimised to obtain the best stretch-minimising stream surfaces in a given divergence-free vector field. Our algorithm was tested on benchmark datasets, proving its applicability to incompressible fluid flow simulations, where our stretch-minimising stream surfaces realistically reflect the flow of a flexible univariate object. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Wigner Distribution Functions as a Tool for Studying Gas Phase Alkali Metal Plus Noble Gas Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    WIGNER DISTRIBUTION FUNCTIONS AS A TOOL FOR STUDYING GAS PHASE ALKALI METAL PLUS NOBLE GAS COLLISIONS THESIS Keith A. Wyman, Second Lieutenant, USAF...the U.S. Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. AFIT-ENP-14-M-39 WIGNER DISTRIBUTION FUNCTIONS AS A TOOL FOR...APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED AFIT-ENP-14-M-39 WIGNER DISTRIBUTION FUNCTIONS AS A TOOL FOR STUDYING GAS PHASE ALKALI METAL PLUS

  9. Bias of purine stretches in sequenced chromosomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ussery, David; Soumpasis, Dikeos Mario; Brunak, Søren

    2002-01-01

    /pur tracts was slightly less than expected, with an average of 0.8%. One of the most surprising findings is a clear difference in the length distributions of the regions studied between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Whereas short-range correlations can explain the length distributions in prokaryotes......, in eukaryotes there is an abundance of long stretches of purines or alternating purine/pyrimidine tracts, which cannot be explained in this way; these sequences are likely to play an important role in eukaryotic chromosome organisation....

  10. Web Based Distributed Coastal Image Analysis System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project develops Web based distributed image analysis system processing the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data to provide decision...

  11. CMPH: a multivariate phase-type aggregate loss distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Jiandong

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a compound multivariate distribution designed for modeling insurance losses arising from different risk sources in insurance companies. The distribution is based on a discrete-time Markov Chain and generalizes the multivariate compound negative binomial distribution, which is widely used for modeling insurance losses.We derive fundamental properties of the distribution and discuss computational aspects facilitating calculations of risk measures of the aggregate loss, as well as allocations of the aggregate loss to individual types of risk sources. Explicit formulas for the joint moment generating function and the joint moments of different loss types are derived, and recursive formulas for calculating the joint distributions given. Several special cases of particular interest are analyzed. An illustrative numerical example is provided.

  12. Distributed Engine Control Empirical/Analytical Verification Tools, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this Phase I project, Impact Technologies, in collaboration with Prof. R.K. Yedavalli, propose a novel verification environment for eventual rapid certification...

  13. Phase pupil functions for focal-depth enhancement derived from a Wigner distribution function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalvidea, D; Sicre, E E

    1998-06-10

    A method for obtaining phase-retardation functions, which give rise to an increase of the image focal depth, is proposed. To this end, the Wigner distribution function corresponding to a specific aperture that has an associated small depth of focus in image space is conveniently sheared in the phase-space domain to generate a new Wigner distribution function. From this new function a more uniform on-axis image irradiance can be accomplished. This approach is illustrated by comparison of the imaging performance of both the derived phase function and a previously reported logarithmic phase distribution.

  14. Local Stretching Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-24

    diffusivity of the scalar. (If the scalar is heat, then the Schmidt number becomes the Prandtl number.) Momentum diffuses significantly faster than the...derive the Cramér function explicitly in the simple case where the xi have a Bernoulli distribution, though the general formula for S may be derived by...an analogous procedure. 5 Large deviation CLT for the Bernoulli distribution Let xi have the PDF of a fair coin, p(xi) = 1 2δ(xi + 1) + 1 2δ(xi − 1

  15. Spontaneous bending of pre-stretched bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSimone, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    We discuss spontaneously bent configurations of pre-stretched bilayer sheets that can be obtained by tuning the pre-stretches in the two layers. The two-dimensional nonlinear plate model we use for this purpose is an adaptation of the one recently obtained for thin sheets of nematic elastomers, by means of a rigorous dimensional reduction argument based on the theory of Gamma-convergence (Agostiniani and DeSimone in Meccanica. doi:10.1007/s11012-017-0630-4, 2017, Math Mech Solids. doi:10.1177/1081286517699991, arXiv:1509.07003, 2017). We argue that pre-stretched bilayer sheets provide us with an interesting model system to study shape programming and morphing of surfaces in other, more complex systems, where spontaneous deformations are induced by swelling due to the absorption of a liquid, phase transformations, thermal or electro-magnetic stimuli. These include bio-mimetic structures inspired by biological systems from both the plant and the animal kingdoms.

  16. Multiplicity distributions in small phase-space domains in central nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baechler, J.; Hoffmann, M.; Runge, K.; Schmoetten, E.; Bartke, J.; Gladysz, E.; Kowalski, M.; Stefanski, P.; Bialkowska, H.; Bock, R.; Brockmann, R.; Sandoval, A.; Buncic, P.; Ferenc, D.; Kadija, K.; Ljubicic, A. Jr.; Vranic, D.; Chase, S.I.; Harris, J.W.; Odyniec, G.; Pugh, H.G.; Rai, G.; Teitelbaum, L.; Tonse, S.; Derado, I.; Eckardt, V.; Gebauer, H.J.; Rauch, W.; Schmitz, N.; Seyboth, P.; Seyerlein, J.; Vesztergombi, G.; Eschke, J.; Heck, W.; Kabana, S.; Kuehmichel, A.; Lahanas, M.; Lee, Y.; Le Vine, M.; Margetis, S.; Renfordt, R.; Roehrich, D.; Rothard, H.; Schmidt, E.; Schneider, I.; Stock, R.; Stroebele, H.; Wenig, S.; Fleischmann, B.; Fuchs, M.; Gazdzicki, M.; Kosiec, J.; Skrzypczak, E.; Keidel, R.; Piper, A.; Puehlhofer, F.; Nappi, E.; Posa, F.; Paic, G.; Panagiotou, A.D.; Petridis, A.; Vassileiadis, G.; Pfenning, J.; Wosiek, B.

    1992-10-01

    Multiplicity distributions of negatively charged particles have been studied in restricted phase space intervals for central S + S, O + Au and S + Au collisions at 200 GeV/nucleon. It is shown that multiplicity distributions are well described by a negative binomial form irrespectively of the size and dimensionality of phase space domain. A clan structure analysis reveals interesting similarities between complex nuclear collisions and a simple partonic shower. The lognormal distribution agrees reasonably well with the multiplicity data in large domains, but fails in the case of small intervals. No universal scaling function was found to describe the shape of multiplicity distributions in phase space intervals of varying size. (orig.)

  17. Distributed-phase OCDMA encoder-decoders based on fiber Bragg gratings

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Zhaowei; Tian, C.; Petropoulos, P.; Richardson, D.J.; Ibsen, M.

    2007-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate new optical code-division multiple-access (OCDMA) encoder-decoders having a continuous phase-distribution. With the same spatial refractive index distribution as the reconfigurable optical phase encoder-decoders, they are inherently suitable for the application in reconfigurable OCDMA systems. Furthermore, compared with conventional discrete-phase devices, they also have additional advantages of being more tolerant to input pulse width and, therefore, have the poten...

  18. Guidelines for Stretch Flanging Advanced High Strength Steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sriram, S.; Chintamani, J.

    2005-01-01

    Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) are currently being considered for use in closure and structural panels in the automotive industry because of their high potential for affordable weight reduction and improved performance. AHSS such as dual phase steels are currently being used in some vehicle platforms. From a manufacturing perspective, stretch flanging during stamping is an important deformation mode requiring careful consideration of geometry and the die process. This paper presents some geometric and process guidelines for stretch flanging AHSS. Hole expansion experiments were conducted to determine the failure limit for a sheared edge condition. Effects of punching clearance, prestrain and prior strain path on hole expansion were explored in these experiments. In addition, dynamic explicit FE calculations using LS-DYNA were also conducted for a typical stretch flange by varying some key geometric parameters. The experimental and FEA results were then analyzed to yield process and geometric guidelines to enable successful stretch flanging of AHSS

  19. Damage percolation during stretch flange forming of aluminum alloy sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zengtao; Worswick, Michael J.; Keith Pilkey, A.; Lloyd, David J.

    2005-12-01

    A multi-scale finite element (FE)-damage percolation model was employed to simulate stretch flange forming of aluminum alloys AA5182 and AA5754. Material softening and strain gradients were captured using a Gurson-based FE model. FE results were then fed into the so-called damage percolation code, from which the damage development was modelled within measured microstructures. The formability of the stretch flange samples was predicted based upon the onset of catastrophic failure triggered by profuse void coalescence within the measured second-phase particle field. Damage development is quantified in terms of crack and void areal fractions, and compared to metallographic results obtained from interrupted stretch flange specimens. Parametric study is conducted on the effect of void nucleation strain in the prediction of formability of stretch flanges to "calibrate" proper nucleation strains for both alloys.

  20. Distributed Rocket Engine Testing Health Monitoring System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The on-ground and Distributed Rocket Engine Testing Health Monitoring System (DiRETHMS) provides a system architecture and software tools for performing diagnostics...

  1. Aerodynamic Optimization for Distributed Electro Mechanical Actuators, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Traditional hydraulic actuation and control surface layout both limit span wise control of lift distribution, and require large volume within wing cross-section,...

  2. Distributed Subarray Antennas for Multifunction Phased-Array Radar

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lin, Chih-heng

    2003-01-01

    As the target radar cross section (RCS) continuously decreases, the need for high-resolution high-gain radar increases, One approach to high resolution is to use distributed subarray antennas (DSAs...

  3. Distributed Control Architectures for Precision Spacecraft Formations, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — LaunchPoint Technologies, Inc. (LaunchPoint) proposes to develop synthesis methods and design architectures for distributed control systems in precision spacecraft...

  4. Incomplete Detection of Nonclassical Phase-Space Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohmann, M.; Tiedau, J.; Bartley, T.; Sperling, J.; Silberhorn, C.; Vogel, W.

    2018-02-01

    We implement the direct sampling of negative phase-space functions via unbalanced homodyne measurement using click-counting detectors. The negativities significantly certify nonclassical light in the high-loss regime using a small number of detectors which cannot resolve individual photons. We apply our method to heralded single-photon states and experimentally demonstrate the most significant certification of nonclassicality for only two detection bins. By contrast, the frequently applied Wigner function fails to directly indicate such quantum characteristics for the quantum efficiencies present in our setup without applying additional reconstruction algorithms. Therefore, we realize a robust and reliable approach to characterize nonclassical light in phase space under realistic conditions.

  5. Stretching cosmic strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turok, N.; Bhattacharjee, P.

    1984-01-01

    The evolution of a network of strings produced at a grand-unification phase transition in an expanding universe is discussed, with particular reference to the processes of energy exchange between the strings and the rest of the universe. This is supported by numerical calculations simulating the behavior of strings in an expanding universe. It is found that in order that the energy density of the strings does not come to dominate the total energy density there must be an efficient mechanism for energy loss: the only plausible one being the production of closed loops and their subsequent decay via gravitational radiation

  6. Atomic Stretch: Optimally bounded real-time stretching and beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Ramsbøl; Nielsen, Jannik Boll

    2016-01-01

    Atomic Stretch is a plugin for your preferred Adobe video editing tool, allowing real-time smooth and optimally bounded retarget-ting from and to any aspect ratio. The plugin allows preserving of high interest pixels through a protected region, attention redirection through color-modification, co......Atomic Stretch is a plugin for your preferred Adobe video editing tool, allowing real-time smooth and optimally bounded retarget-ting from and to any aspect ratio. The plugin allows preserving of high interest pixels through a protected region, attention redirection through color...

  7. Synchronization Methods for Three Phase Distributed Power Generation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timbus, Adrian Vasile; Teodorescu, Remus; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2005-01-01

    Nowadays, it is a general trend to increase the electricity production using Distributed Power Generation Systems (DPGS) based on renewable energy resources such as wind, sun or hydrogen. If these systems are not properly controlled, their connection to the utility network can generate problems...... on the grid side. Therefore, considerations about power generation, safe running and grid synchronization must be done before connecting these systems to the utility network. This paper is mainly dealing with the grid synchronization issues of distributed systems. An overview of the synchronization methods...

  8. Distribution of local anesthetics between aqueous and liposome phases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ruokonen, S. K.; Duša, Filip; Rantamäki, A. H.; Robciuc, A.; Holma, P.; Holopainen, J. M.; Abdel-Rehim, M.; Wiedmer, S. K.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 1479, JAN (2017), s. 194-203 ISSN 0021-9673 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : liposome electrokinetic chromatography * distribution constants * EOF markers Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 3.981, year: 2016

  9. Distribution of uranium-bearing phases in soils from Fernald

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buck, E.C.; Brown, N.R.; Dietz, N.L.

    1993-01-01

    Electron beam techniques have been used to characterize uranium-contaminated soils and the Fernald Site, Ohio. Uranium particulates have been deposited on the soil through chemical spills and from the operation of an incinerator plant on the site. The major uranium phases have been identified by electron microscopy as uraninite, autunite, and uranium phosphite [U(PO 3 ) 4 ]. Some of the uranium has undergone weathering resulting in the redistribution of uranium within the soil

  10. Possible hazard reduction by using distributed phased nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chilton, Frank [Theoretical Physics Program, Stanford Research Institute, Menio Park, CA (United States); [Department of Applied Science, University of California, Davis, CA (United States); Cheney, James A [Department of Civil Engineering, University of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1970-05-15

    The use of two or more nuclear devices, phased together in order to constructively add their respective particle velocities, is proposed herein. By directing the seismic waves of the nuclear explosions to make them more efficient in accomplishing the intended construction, we hope to be able to reduce the radioactivity, seismic, and airblast hazards substantially. Experiments are being performed with one gram charges of PETN. (author)

  11. Modified Fourier heat flux on MHD flow over stretched cylinder filled with dust, Graphene and silver nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mamatha Upadhya

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available A Comprehensive study on laminar, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD boundary layer flow of nanofluid (water + Silver, water + Graphene embedded with conducting micrometer sized dust particles over a stretching cylinder with the incorporation of Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model is conducted. Appropriate similarity variables are employed to the flow governing equations and the resulting ordinary differential equations are solved by employing Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg method. The results for varied controlling parameters for both dusty nano fluid and dust phase are shown through graphs, table and discussed in detail. Authentication of the obtained results is provided by comparing with published results. Results indicate that Graphene + water dusty nanofluid shows better heat transfer performance compared with Silver + water dusty nanofluid. Improvement in thermal relaxation boosts temperature distribution in both fluid and dust phase. Keywords: Graphene nano particles, Silver nano particles, Stretching cylinder, Dusty fluid, Cattaneo-Christov heat flux, MHD

  12. Distributed Strategy for Optimal Dispatch of Unbalanced Three-Phase Islanded Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vergara Barrios, Pedro Pablo; Rey-López, Juan Manuel; Shaker, Hamid Reza

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a distributed strategy for the optimal dispatch of islanded microgrids, modeled as unbalanced three-phase electrical distribution systems (EDS). To set the dispatch of the distributed generation (DG) units, an optimal generation problem is stated and solved distributively based......-phase microgrid. According to the obtained results, the proposed strategy achieves a lower cost solution when compared with a centralized approach based on a static droop framework, with a considerable reduction on the communication system complexity. Additionally, it corrects the mismatch between generation...

  13. Surface behaviour of the phase-space distribution for heavy nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, M.

    1987-06-01

    A part of the oscillations of the phase space distribution function is shown to be a surface effect. A series expansion for this function is given, which takes partially into account this oscillatory structure

  14. Transient filament stretching rheometer II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolte, Mette Irene; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Hassager, Ole

    1997-01-01

    The Lagrangian sspecification is used to simulate the transient stretching filament rheometer. Simulations are performed for dilute PIB-solutions modeled as a four mode Oldroyd-B fluid and a semidilute PIB-solution modeled as a non-linear single integral equation. The simulations are compared...

  15. Soleus stretch reflex during cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grey, Michael James; Pierce, C. W.; Milner, T. E.

    2001-01-01

    The modulation and strength of the human soleus short latency stretch reflex was investigated by mechanically perturbing the ankle during an unconstrained pedaling task. Eight subjects pedaled at 60 rpm against a preload of 10 Nm. A torque pulse was applied to the crank at various positions durin...

  16. Optical tweezers stretching of chromatin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pope, L.H.; Bennink, Martin L.; Greve, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Recently significant success has emerged from exciting research involving chromatin stretching using optical tweezers. These experiments, in which a single chromatin fibre is attached by one end to a micron-sized bead held in an optical trap and to a solid surface or second bead via the other end,

  17. Motif distributions in phase-space networks for characterizing experimental two-phase flow patterns with chaotic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhong-Ke; Jin, Ning-De; Wang, Wen-Xu; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2010-07-01

    The dynamics of two-phase flows have been a challenging problem in nonlinear dynamics and fluid mechanics. We propose a method to characterize and distinguish patterns from inclined water-oil flow experiments based on the concept of network motifs that have found great usage in network science and systems biology. In particular, we construct from measured time series phase-space complex networks and then calculate the distribution of a set of distinct network motifs. To gain insight, we first test the approach using time series from classical chaotic systems and find a universal feature: motif distributions from different chaotic systems are generally highly heterogeneous. Our main finding is that the distributions from experimental two-phase flows tend to be heterogeneous as well, suggesting the underlying chaotic nature of the flow patterns. Calculation of the maximal Lyapunov exponent provides further support for this. Motif distributions can thus be a feasible tool to understand the dynamics of realistic two-phase flow patterns.

  18. Models for Master-Slave Clock Distribution Networks with Third-Order Phase-Locked Loops

    OpenAIRE

    Piqueira, José Roberto Castilho; de Carvalho Freschi, Marcela

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to study the processing and transmission of clock signals in networks of geographically distributed nodes, in order to derive conditions for frequency and phase synchronization between the nodes. The focus is on the master-slave architecture, which presents a priority scheme of clock distribution. One-way master-slave (OWMS ) and two-way master-slave (TWMS) chains are studied, considering that the slave nodes are third-order phase-locked loops...

  19. Brillouin suppression in a fiber optical parametric amplifier by combining temperature distribution and phase modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Michael Rodas; Noordegraaf, Danny; Nielsen, Carsten Vandel

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate an increased gain in optical parametric amplier through suppression of stimulated Brillouin scattering by applying a temperature distribution along the fiber resulting in a reduction of the required phase modulation.......We demonstrate an increased gain in optical parametric amplier through suppression of stimulated Brillouin scattering by applying a temperature distribution along the fiber resulting in a reduction of the required phase modulation....

  20. Three-Phase AC Optimal Power Flow Based Distribution Locational Marginal Price: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Rui; Zhang, Yingchen

    2017-05-17

    Designing market mechanisms for electricity distribution systems has been a hot topic due to the increased presence of smart loads and distributed energy resources (DERs) in distribution systems. The distribution locational marginal pricing (DLMP) methodology is one of the real-time pricing methods to enable such market mechanisms and provide economic incentives to active market participants. Determining the DLMP is challenging due to high power losses, the voltage volatility, and the phase imbalance in distribution systems. Existing DC Optimal Power Flow (OPF) approaches are unable to model power losses and the reactive power, while single-phase AC OPF methods cannot capture the phase imbalance. To address these challenges, in this paper, a three-phase AC OPF based approach is developed to define and calculate DLMP accurately. The DLMP is modeled as the marginal cost to serve an incremental unit of demand at a specific phase at a certain bus, and is calculated using the Lagrange multipliers in the three-phase AC OPF formulation. Extensive case studies have been conducted to understand the impact of system losses and the phase imbalance on DLMPs as well as the potential benefits of flexible resources.

  1. An alternative phase-space distribution to sample initial conditions for classical dynamics simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Vela, A.

    2002-01-01

    A new quantum-type phase-space distribution is proposed in order to sample initial conditions for classical trajectory simulations. The phase-space distribution is obtained as the modulus of a quantum phase-space state of the system, defined as the direct product of the coordinate and momentum representations of the quantum initial state. The distribution is tested by sampling initial conditions which reproduce the initial state of the Ar-HCl cluster prepared by ultraviolet excitation, and by simulating the photodissociation dynamics by classical trajectories. The results are compared with those of a wave packet calculation, and with a classical simulation using an initial phase-space distribution recently suggested. A better agreement is found between the classical and the quantum predictions with the present phase-space distribution, as compared with the previous one. This improvement is attributed to the fact that the phase-space distribution propagated classically in this work resembles more closely the shape of the wave packet propagated quantum mechanically

  2. S-phase cell distribution in the small intestine irradiated at different times of the day. 2. Recovery phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becciolini, A; Balzi, M; Cremonini, D; Fabbrica, D [Florence Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Radiologia

    1983-01-01

    Modifications occurring during recovery in the small intestine of animals exposed to the same radiation dose given at different times of the day were evaluated. S-phase cell distribution along the crypts and invertase activity were evaluated to ascertain the functional capacity of epithelial cells. In animals killed between 5 and 6 days after exposure, S-phase cell distribution and functional conditions tended towards normality although recovery was not complete. Labelled cells occurred also at villus junctions, demonstrating limitation in size of the differentiating compartment. This was confirmed by reduced activity of the brush border enzymes. Animals irradiated at the end of the dark period recovered more quickly and efficiently. In this group, labelled cell distribution was almost the same as in the controls starting from 120 h, and invertase activity was also closer to the controls than in any other group.

  3. Probabilistic model of ligaments and tendons: Quasistatic linear stretching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontempi, M.

    2009-03-01

    Ligaments and tendons have a significant role in the musculoskeletal system and are frequently subjected to injury. This study presents a model of collagen fibers, based on the study of a statistical distribution of fibers when they are subjected to quasistatic linear stretching. With respect to other methodologies, this model is able to describe the behavior of the bundle using less ad hoc hypotheses and is able to describe all the quasistatic stretch-load responses of the bundle, including the yield and failure regions described in the literature. It has two other important results: the first is that it is able to correlate the mechanical behavior of the bundle with its internal structure, and it suggests a methodology to deduce the fibers population distribution directly from the tensile-test data. The second is that it can follow fibers’ structure evolution during the stretching and it is possible to study the internal adaptation of fibers in physiological and pathological conditions.

  4. Distribution of cesium between colloid-rock phases-establishment of experimental system and investigation of Cs distribution between colloid and rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakata, Kotaro

    2006-01-01

    Distribution and re-distribution of cesium between 3-phases (colloid, rock and water) was investigated. Analcite and bentonite colloid ware used as colloid phase and muscovite was used as rock phase. Before investigating the distribution between 3-phases, sorption and desorption behavior of Cs on analcite colloid, bentonite colloid and muscovite was investigated. It was found some fraction of Cs sorbed irreversibly on analcite colloid, while Cs sorbed reversibly on bentonite colloid. The experimental system was established for assessment of the distribution of nuclides between 3-phases by using combination of membrane filter and experimental cell. Since colloid and muscovite were separated by membrane filter, sorption of colloid on muscovite could be prevented and we could obtain distribution of Cs as ion. The distribution of Cs between 3-phases were obtained by this experimental system. Furthermore, re-distribution experiment was also carried out by using this system. After 7 days contact of colloid with Cs, distribution of sorbed Cs on colloid to liquid or muscovite phase was investigated. Comparing sorption and desorption isotherm with the distribution of Cs between 3-phases, it was found that Kd value of colloid (ratio of Cs concentration in liquid phase to amount of sorbed Cs on colloid phase) estimated in 2-phases (water and colloid) is different from that in 3-phases. Furthermore, in the case of analcite colloid, Kd value of colloid obtained in 3-phases distribution experiment was different from that obtained in re-distribution experiment. This is considered because of the irreversibility of Cs sorption on analcite colloid. Thus, it was found distribution of Cs in 3-phases was not predictable from sorption and desorption isotherm or Kd value of 2-phases (water-rock, water-colloid). (author)

  5. Enhanced power quality based single phase photovoltaic distributed generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Aurobinda; Pathak, M. K.; Srivastava, S. P.

    2016-08-01

    This article presents a novel control strategy for a 1-ϕ 2-level grid-tie photovoltaic (PV) inverter to enhance the power quality (PQ) of a PV distributed generation (PVDG) system. The objective is to obtain the maximum benefits from the grid-tie PV inverter by introducing current harmonics as well as reactive power compensation schemes in its control strategy, thereby controlling the PV inverter to achieve multiple functions in the PVDG system such as: (1) active power flow control between the PV inverter and the grid, (2) reactive power compensation, and (3) grid current harmonics compensation. A PQ enhancement controller (PQEC) has been designed to achieve the aforementioned objectives. The issue of underutilisation of the PV inverter in nighttime has also been addressed in this article and for the optimal use of the system; the PV inverter is used as a shunt active power filter in nighttime. A prototype model of the proposed system is developed in the laboratory, to validate the effectiveness of the control scheme, and is tested with the help of the dSPACE DS1104 platform.

  6. The difference of phase distributions in silicon after indentation with Berkovich and spherical indenters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarudi, I.; Zhang, L.C.; Cheong, W.C.D.; Yu, T.X.

    2005-01-01

    This study analyses the microstructure of monocrystalline silicon after indentation with a Berkovich and spherical indenter. Transmission electron microscopy on cross section view samples was used to explore the detailed distributions of various phases in the subsurfaces of indented silicon. It was found that an increase of the P max would promote the growth of the crystalline R8/BC8 phase at the bottom of the deformation zone. Microcracks were always generated in the range of the P max studied. It was also found that the deformation zones formed by the Berkovich and spherical indenters have very different phase distribution characteristics. A molecular dynamics simulation and finite element analysis supported the experimental observations and suggested that the distribution of the crystalline phases in the transformation zone after indentation was highly stress-dependent

  7. Structural Transitions in Supercoiled Stretched DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    v, Croquette

    1998-03-01

    Using magnetic micromanipulation techniques [Strick 96]( uc(T.R.) Strick, J.-F. Allemand, D. Bensimon, A. Bensimon) and uc(V.) Croquette, "The elasticity of a single supercoiled DNA molecule", Science, 271, 1835 (1996)., we have studied the mechanical properties (force versus extension) of single DNA molecules under a wide range of torsional stresses (supercoiling). We show that unwinding the DNA double helix leads to a phase separation between regular B-DNA and denaturation bubbles. The fraction of denatured molecule increases linearly with the degree of unwinding, beginning at a value of 1% unwinding. We have confirmed this denatured state by hybridization of homologous single-stranded DNA probes and by a chemical attack of the exposed bases. Surprisingly, when we overwind the molecule, the elasticity curves we obtain may also be interpreted by the coexistence of two phases, B-DNA and a new phase which we note P-DNA. The fraction of this new phase increases smoothly with overwinding, beginning at 3 % and continuing up to 300 %. Our results indicate that this new phase is four times more twisted that the standard B-DNA and is 1.75 times longer. Although the structure of this phase is not yet known, such a high twisting can only be attained if the sugar-phosphate backbones of the two strands are twisted closely while the bases are expelled outside of the molecule's core, in a structure reminiscent of the one proposed by Pauling. Indeed we have shown that this new phase is sensitive to chemical attack whereas the B-DNA is not. This new phase begins to appear on a molecule overwound by 3 % and stretched by a force of 5 pN, conditions typically encountered in vivo during gene transcription. This new phase may thus play a biological role (for more details).

  8. Tibialis anterior stretch reflex in early stance is suppressed by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zuur, Abraham T; Christensen, Mark Schram; Sinkjær, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Abstract A rapid plantar flexion perturbation in the early stance phase of walking elicits a large stretch reflex in tibialis anterior (TA). In this study we use repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) to test if this response is mediated through a transcortical pathway. TA stretch...

  9. Analysis of a filament stretching rheometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolte, Mette Irene; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Hassager, Ole

    1996-01-01

    A finite element analysis of the stretching filament rheometer of Tirtaadmadja and Sridhar (1993) is presenetd. Simulations of the stretching of a filament of the polymet test solution, fluid A, between two plates are shown.......A finite element analysis of the stretching filament rheometer of Tirtaadmadja and Sridhar (1993) is presenetd. Simulations of the stretching of a filament of the polymet test solution, fluid A, between two plates are shown....

  10. Low noise buffer amplifiers and buffered phase comparators for precise time and frequency measurement and distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichinger, R. A.; Dachel, P.; Miller, W. H.; Ingold, J. S.

    1982-01-01

    Extremely low noise, high performance, wideband buffer amplifiers and buffered phase comparators were developed. These buffer amplifiers are designed to distribute reference frequencies from 30 KHz to 45 MHz from a hydrogen maser without degrading the hydrogen maser's performance. The buffered phase comparators are designed to intercompare the phase of state of the art hydrogen masers without adding any significant measurement system noise. These devices have a 27 femtosecond phase stability floor and are stable to better than one picosecond for long periods of time. Their temperature coefficient is less than one picosecond per degree C, and they have shown virtually no voltage coefficients.

  11. BSDB: the Biomolecule Stretching Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieplak, Marek; Sikora, Mateusz; Sulkowska, Joanna I.; Witkowski, Bartlomiej

    2011-03-01

    Despite more than a decade of experiments on single biomolecule manipulation, mechanical properties of only several scores of proteins have been measured. A characteristic scale of the force of resistance to stretching, Fmax , has been found to range between ~ 10 and 480 pN. The Biomolecule Stretching Data Base (BSDB) described here provides information about expected values of Fmax for, currently, 17 134 proteins. The values and other characteristics of the unfolding proces, including the nature of identified mechanical clamps, are available at www://info.ifpan.edu.pl/BSDB/. They have been obtained through simulations within a structure-based model which correlates satisfactorily with the available experimental data on stretching. BSDB also lists experimental data and results of the existing all-atom simulations. The database offers a Protein-Data-Bank-wide guide to mechano-stability of proteins. Its description is provided by a forthcoming Nucleic Acids Research paper. Supported by EC FUNMOL project FP7-NMP-2007-SMALL-1, and European Regional Development Fund: Innovative Economy (POIG.01.01.02-00-008/08).

  12. A novel single-phase phase space-based voltage mode controller for distributed static compensator to improve voltage profile of distribution systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shokri, Abdollah; Shareef, Hussain; Mohamed, Azah; Farhoodnea, Masoud; Zayandehroodi, Hadi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A new phase space based voltage mode controller for D-STATCOM was proposed. • The proposed compensator was tested to mitigate voltage disturbances in distribution systems. • Voltage fluctuation, voltage sag and voltage swell are considered to evaluate the performance of the proposed compensator. - Abstract: Distribution static synchronous compensator (D-STATCOM) has been developed and attained a great interest to compensate the power quality disturbances of distribution systems. In this paper, a novel single-phase control scheme for D-STATCOM is proposed to improve voltage profile at the Point of Common Coupling (PCC). The proposed voltage mode (VM) controller is based on the phase space algorithm, which is able to rapidly detect and mitigate any voltage deviations from reference voltage including voltage sags and voltage swells. To investigate the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed compensator, a system is modeled using Matlab/Simulink. The simulation results approve the capability of the proposed VM controller to provide a regulated and disturbance-free voltage for the connected loads at the PCC

  13. Quark imaging in the proton via quantum phase-space distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belitsky, A.V.; Ji Xiangdong; Yuan Feng

    2004-01-01

    We develop the concept of quantum phase-space (Wigner) distributions for quarks and gluons in the proton. To appreciate their physical content, we analyze the contraints from special relativity on the interpretation of elastic form factors, and examine the physics of the Feynman parton distributions in the proton's rest frame. We relate the quark Wigner functions to the transverse-momentum dependent parton distributions and generalized parton distributions, emphasizing the physical role of the skewness parameter. We show that the Wigner functions allow us to visualize quantum quarks and gluons using the language of classical phase space. We present two examples of the quark Wigner distributions and point out some model-independent features

  14. Stretched Exponential relaxation in pure Se glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, S.; Ravindren, S.; Boolchand, P.

    A universal feature of glasses is the stretched exponential relaxation, f (t) = exp[ - t / τ ] β . The model of diffusion of excitations to randomly distributed traps in a glass by Phillips1 yields the stretched exponent β = d[d +2] where d, the effective dimensionality. We have measured the enthalpy of relaxation ΔHnr (tw) at Tg of Se glass in modulated DSC experiments as glasses age at 300K and find β = 0.43(2) for tw in the 0

  15. Pressure distribution over tube surfaces of tube bundle subjected to two phase cross flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, Woo Gun

    2013-01-01

    Two phase vapor liquid flows exist in many shell and tube heat exchangers such as condensers, evaporators and nuclear steam generators. To understand the fluid dynamic forces acting on a structure subjected to a two phase flow, it is essential to obtain detailed information about the characteristics of a two phase flow. The characteristics of a two phase flow and the flow parameters were introduced, and then, an experiment was performed to evaluate the pressure loss in the tube bundles and the fluid dynamic force acting on the cylinder owing to the pressure distribution. A two phase flow was pre mixed at the entrance of the test section, and the experiments were undertaken using a normal triangular array of cylinders subjected to a two phase cross flow. The pressure loss along the flow direction in the tube bundles was measured to calculate the two phase friction multiplier, and the multiplier was compared with the analytical value. Furthermore, the circular distributions of the pressure on the cylinders were measured. Based on the distribution and the fundamental theory of two phase flow, the effects of the void fraction and mass flux per unit area on the pressure coefficient and the drag coefficient were evaluated. The drag coefficient was calculated by integrating the measured pressure coefficient and the drag coefficient were evaluated. The drag coefficient was calculated by integrating the measured pressure on the tube by a numerical method. It was found that for low mass fluxes, the measured two phase friction multipliers agree well with the analytical results, and good agreement for the effect of the void fraction on the drag coefficients, as calculated by the measured pressure distributions, is shown qualitatively, as compared to the existing experimental results

  16. Evaluation of protein adsorption onto a polyurethane nanofiber surface having different segment distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, Yuko; Koizumi, Gaku [Frontier Fiber Technology and Science, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Fukui (Japan); Sakamoto, Hiroaki, E-mail: hi-saka@u-fukui.ac.jp [Tenure-Track Program for Innovative Research, University of Fukui (Japan); Suye, Shin-ichiro [Frontier Fiber Technology and Science, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Fukui (Japan)

    2017-02-01

    Electrospinning is well known to be an effective method for fabricating polymeric nanofibers with a diameter of several hundred nanometers. Recently, the molecular-level orientation within nanofibers has attracted particular attention. Previously, we used atomic force microscopy to visualize the phase separation between soft and hard segments of a polyurethane (PU) nanofiber surface prepared by electrospinning. The unstretched PU nanofibers exhibited irregularly distributed hard segments, whereas hard segments of stretched nanofibers prepared with a high-speed collector exhibited periodic structures along the long-axis direction. PU was originally used to inhibit protein adsorption, but because the surface segment distribution was changed in the stretched nanofiber, here, we hypothesized that the protein adsorption property on the stretched nanofiber might be affected. We investigated protein adsorption onto PU nanofibers to elucidate the effects of segment distribution on the surface properties of PU nanofibers. The amount of adsorbed protein on stretched PU nanofibers was increased compared with that of unstretched nanofibers. These results indicate that the hard segment alignment on stretched PU nanofibers mediated protein adsorption. It is therefore expected that the amount of protein adsorption can be controlled by rotation of the collector. - Highlights: • The hard segments of stretched PU nanofibers exhibit periodic structures. • The adsorbed protein on stretched PU nanofibers was increased compared with PU film. • The hard segment alignment on stretched PU nanofibers mediated protein adsorption.

  17. Energy management based on AM/FM/GIS for phase balancing application on distribution systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuo, C.-C.; Chao, Y.-T.

    2010-01-01

    Unbalanced feeder systems may deteriorate of power quality, and increase investment and operating costs for distribution systems. The phase swapping method recommends re-phasing circuits of laterals and transformers for making the current and voltage balanced and also reducing feeder loss and voltage drop. In this paper, an application program, based on the automated mapping/facilities management/ geographic information system (AM/FM/GIS) is developed which contains a function of automatically computing Z-bus, load flow and phase balancing of feeders with phase swapping by using easily selecting of feeder on a graphic user interface application. Therefore, the relative data need not be keyed in manually. The presented phase balancing algorithm are based on database and related data structures developed on the AM/FM/GIS and Visual Basic software, which can be integrated into the Tai-Power distribution automation system. Then, the phase balancing algorithm is designed to handle the load patterns and the load of transformers that connect specific feeders when evaluating phase swaps that will result in reduced daily circuit losses over all load points. The proposed application not only can effectively reduce the circuit loss and improves phase balancing, but also enhances power quality efficiently under easily using environment.

  18. CFD prediction of flow and phase distribution in fuel assemblies with spacers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anglart, H.; Nylund, O. [ABB Atom AB, Vasteras (Switzerland); Kurul, N. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    This paper is concerned with the modeling and computation of multi-dimensional two-phase flows in BWR fuel assemblies. The modeling principles are presented based on using a two-fluid model in which lateral interfacial effects are accounted for. This model has been used to evaluate the velocity fields of both vapor and liquid phases, as well as phase distribution, between fuel elements in geometries similar to BWR fuel bundles. Furthermore, this model has been used to predict, in a detailed mechanistic manner, the effects of spacers on flow and phase distribution between, and pressure drop along, fuel elements. The related numerical simulations have been performed using a CFD computer code, CFDS-FLOW3D.

  19. How old is this bird? The age distribution under some phase sampling schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hautphenne, Sophie; Massaro, Melanie; Taylor, Peter

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we use a finite-state continuous-time Markov chain with one absorbing state to model an individual's lifetime. Under this model, the time of death follows a phase-type distribution, and the transient states of the Markov chain are known as phases. We then attempt to provide an answer to the simple question "What is the conditional age distribution of the individual, given its current phase"? We show that the answer depends on how we interpret the question, and in particular, on the phase observation scheme under consideration. We then apply our results to the computation of the age pyramid for the endangered Chatham Island black robin Petroica traversi during the monitoring period 2007-2014.

  20. A model of distributed phase aberration for deblurring phase estimated from scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillett, Jason C; Astheimer, Jeffrey P; Waag, Robert C

    2010-01-01

    Correction of aberration in ultrasound imaging uses the response of a point reflector or its equivalent to characterize the aberration. Because a point reflector is usually unavailable, its equivalent is obtained using statistical methods, such as processing reflections from multiple focal regions in a random medium. However, the validity of methods that use reflections from multiple points is limited to isoplanatic patches for which the aberration is essentially the same. In this study, aberration is modeled by an offset phase screen to relax the isoplanatic restriction. Methods are developed to determine the depth and phase of the screen and to use the model for compensation of aberration as the beam is steered. Use of the model to enhance the performance of the noted statistical estimation procedure is also described. Experimental results obtained with tissue-mimicking phantoms that implement different models and produce different amounts of aberration are presented to show the efficacy of these methods. The improvement in b-scan resolution realized with the model is illustrated. The results show that the isoplanatic patch assumption for estimation of aberration can be relaxed and that propagation-path characteristics and aberration estimation are closely related.

  1. Endovascular rescue method for undesirably stretched coil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jae Hoon

    2014-10-01

    Undesirable detachment or stretching of coils within the parent artery during aneurysm embolization can be related with thrombus formation, which can be caused occlusion of parent artery or embolic event(s). To escape from this situation, several rescue methods have been reported. A case with undesirably stretched coil in which another rescue method was used, is presented. When the stretched coil is still located in the coil delivery microcatheter, the stretched coil can be removed safely using a snare and a handmade monorail microcatheter. After a snare is lodged in the handmade monorail microcatheter, the snare is introduced over the coil delivery micorcatheter and located in the distal part of the stretched coil. After then, the handmade monorail microcatheter captures the stretched coil and the snare as one unit. This technique using a handmade monorail microcatheter and a snare can be a good rescue modality for the undesirably stretched coil, still remained within the coil delivery microcatheter.

  2. Optical sectioning for optical scanning holography using phase-space filtering with Wigner distribution functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hwi; Min, Sung-Wook; Lee, Byoungho; Poon, Ting-Chung

    2008-07-01

    We propose a novel optical sectioning method for optical scanning holography, which is performed in phase space by using Wigner distribution functions together with the fractional Fourier transform. The principle of phase-space optical sectioning for one-dimensional signals, such as slit objects, and two-dimensional signals, such as rectangular objects, is first discussed. Computer simulation results are then presented to substantiate the proposed idea.

  3. Topology of event distributions as a generalized definition of phase transitions in finite systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chomaz, Ph.; Duflot, V.; Gulminelli, F.; Duflot, V.

    2000-01-01

    We propose a definition of phase transitions in finite systems based on topology anomalies of the event distribution in the space of observations. This generalizes all the definitions based on the curvature anomalies of thermodynamical potentials and provides a natural definition of order parameters. It is directly operational from the experimental point of view. It allows to study phase transitions in Gibbs equilibria as well as in other ensembles such as the Tsallis ensemble. (author)

  4. On the use of functional calculus for phase-type and related distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Mogens; Campillo Navarro, Azucena; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    of matrices. Functional calculus, which is a branch of operator theory frequently associated with complex analysis, can be applied to phase-type and matrix-exponential distributions in a rather straightforward way. In this paper we provide a number of examples on how to execute the formal arguments.......The area of phase-type distributions is renowned for its ability to obtain closed form formulas or algorithmically exact solutions to many complex stochastic models. The method of functional calculus will provide an additional tool along these lines for establishing results in terms of functions...

  5. On the use of functional calculus for phase-type and related distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Mogens; Navarro, Azucena Campillo; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    2016-01-01

    of matrices. Functional calculus, which is a branch of operator theory frequently associated with complex analysis, can be applied to phase-type and matrix-exponential distributions in a rather straightforward way. In this article we provide a number of examples of how to execute the formal arguments.......The area of phase-type distributions is renowned for its ability to obtain closed form formulas or algorithmically exact solutions to many complex stochastic models. The method of functional calculus will provide an additional tool along these lines for establishing results in terms of functions...

  6. Comment on "Wigner phase-space distribution function for the hydrogen atom"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Jens Peder; Springborg, Michael

    1999-01-01

    We object to the proposal that the mapping of the three-dimensional hydrogen atom into a four-dimensional harmonic oscillator can be readily used to determine the Wigner phase-space distribution function for the hydrogen atom. [S1050-2947(99)07005-5].......We object to the proposal that the mapping of the three-dimensional hydrogen atom into a four-dimensional harmonic oscillator can be readily used to determine the Wigner phase-space distribution function for the hydrogen atom. [S1050-2947(99)07005-5]....

  7. Halo formation in three-dimensional bunches with various phase space distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Fedotov

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A realistic treatment of halo formation must take into account 3D beam bunches and 6D phase space distributions. We recently constructed, analytically and numerically, a new class of self-consistent 6D phase space stationary distributions, which allowed us to study the halo development mechanism without being obscured by the effect of beam redistribution. In this paper we consider nonstationary distributions and study how the halo characteristics compare with those obtained using the stationary distribution. We then discuss the effect of redistribution on the halo development mechanism. In contrast to bunches with a large aspect ratio, we find that the effect of coupling between the r and z planes is especially important as the bunch shape becomes more spherical.

  8. Size distribution dynamics reveal particle-phase chemistry in organic aerosol formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraiwa, Manabu; Yee, Lindsay D.; Schilling, Katherine A.; Loza, Christine L.; Craven, Jill S.; Zuend, Andreas; Ziemann, Paul J.; Seinfeld, John H.

    2013-01-01

    Organic aerosols are ubiquitous in the atmosphere and play a central role in climate, air quality, and public health. The aerosol size distribution is key in determining its optical properties and cloud condensation nucleus activity. The dominant portion of organic aerosol is formed through gas-phase oxidation of volatile organic compounds, so-called secondary organic aerosols (SOAs). Typical experimental measurements of SOA formation include total SOA mass and atomic oxygen-to-carbon ratio. These measurements, alone, are generally insufficient to reveal the extent to which condensed-phase reactions occur in conjunction with the multigeneration gas-phase photooxidation. Combining laboratory chamber experiments and kinetic gas-particle modeling for the dodecane SOA system, here we show that the presence of particle-phase chemistry is reflected in the evolution of the SOA size distribution as well as its mass concentration. Particle-phase reactions are predicted to occur mainly at the particle surface, and the reaction products contribute more than half of the SOA mass. Chamber photooxidation with a midexperiment aldehyde injection confirms that heterogeneous reaction of aldehydes with organic hydroperoxides forming peroxyhemiacetals can lead to a large increase in SOA mass. Although experiments need to be conducted with other SOA precursor hydrocarbons, current results demonstrate coupling between particle-phase chemistry and size distribution dynamics in the formation of SOAs, thereby opening up an avenue for analysis of the SOA formation process. PMID:23818634

  9. Size distribution dynamics reveal particle-phase chemistry in organic aerosol formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraiwa, Manabu; Yee, Lindsay D; Schilling, Katherine A; Loza, Christine L; Craven, Jill S; Zuend, Andreas; Ziemann, Paul J; Seinfeld, John H

    2013-07-16

    Organic aerosols are ubiquitous in the atmosphere and play a central role in climate, air quality, and public health. The aerosol size distribution is key in determining its optical properties and cloud condensation nucleus activity. The dominant portion of organic aerosol is formed through gas-phase oxidation of volatile organic compounds, so-called secondary organic aerosols (SOAs). Typical experimental measurements of SOA formation include total SOA mass and atomic oxygen-to-carbon ratio. These measurements, alone, are generally insufficient to reveal the extent to which condensed-phase reactions occur in conjunction with the multigeneration gas-phase photooxidation. Combining laboratory chamber experiments and kinetic gas-particle modeling for the dodecane SOA system, here we show that the presence of particle-phase chemistry is reflected in the evolution of the SOA size distribution as well as its mass concentration. Particle-phase reactions are predicted to occur mainly at the particle surface, and the reaction products contribute more than half of the SOA mass. Chamber photooxidation with a midexperiment aldehyde injection confirms that heterogeneous reaction of aldehydes with organic hydroperoxides forming peroxyhemiacetals can lead to a large increase in SOA mass. Although experiments need to be conducted with other SOA precursor hydrocarbons, current results demonstrate coupling between particle-phase chemistry and size distribution dynamics in the formation of SOAs, thereby opening up an avenue for analysis of the SOA formation process.

  10. Randomly displaced phase distribution design and its advantage in page-data recording of Fourier transform holograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emoto, Akira; Fukuda, Takashi

    2013-02-20

    For Fourier transform holography, an effective random phase distribution with randomly displaced phase segments is proposed for obtaining a smooth finite optical intensity distribution in the Fourier transform plane. Since unitary phase segments are randomly distributed in-plane, the blanks give various spatial frequency components to an image, and thus smooth the spectrum. Moreover, by randomly changing the phase segment size, spike generation from the unitary phase segment size in the spectrum can be reduced significantly. As a result, a smooth spectrum including sidebands can be formed at a relatively narrow extent. The proposed phase distribution sustains the primary functions of a random phase mask for holographic-data recording and reconstruction. Therefore, this distribution is expected to find applications in high-density holographic memory systems, replacing conventional random phase mask patterns.

  11. Bending and stretching of plates

    CERN Document Server

    Mansfield, E H; Hemp, W S

    1964-01-01

    The Bending and Stretching of Plates deals with elastic plate theory, particularly on small- and large-deflexion theory. Small-deflexion theory concerns derivation of basic equations, rectangular plates, plates of various shapes, plates whose boundaries are amenable to conformal transformation, plates with variable rigidity, and approximate methods. Large-deflexion theory includes general equations and some exact solutions, approximate methods in large-deflexion theory, asymptotic large-deflexion theories for very thin plates. Asymptotic theories covers membrane theory, tension field theory, a

  12. Stretching of macromolecules and proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strick, T R; Dessinges, M-N; Charvin, G; Dekker, N H; Allemand, J-F; Bensimon, D; Croquette, V

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we review the biophysics revealed by stretching single biopolymers. During the last decade various techniques have emerged allowing micromanipulation of single molecules and simultaneous measurements of their elasticity. Using such techniques, it has been possible to investigate some of the interactions playing a role in biology. We shall first review the simplest case of a non-interacting polymer and then present the structural transitions in DNA, RNA and proteins that have been studied by single-molecule techniques. We shall explain how these techniques permit a new approach to the protein folding/unfolding transition

  13. Even distribution/dividing of single-phase fluids by symmetric bifurcation of flow channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hong; Li, Peiwen

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We addressed an issue of distributing a flow to a number of flow channels uniformly. ► The flow distribution is accomplished through bifurcation of channels. ► Some key parameters to the flow distribution uniformity have been identified. ► Flow uniformity was studied for several versions of flow distributor designs. ► A novel fluid packaging device of high efficiency was provided. -- Abstract: This study addresses a fundamental issue of distributing a single-phase fluid flow into a number of flow channels uniformly. A basic mechanism of flow distribution is accomplished through bifurcation of channels that symmetrically split one flow channel into two downstream channels. Applying the basic mechanism, cascades flow distributions are designed to split one flow into a large number of downstream flows uniformly. Some key parameters decisive to the flow distribution uniformity in such a system have been identified, and the flow distribution uniformity of air was studied for several versions of flow distributor designs using CFD analysis. The effect of the key parameters of the flow channel designs to the flow distribution uniformity was investigated. As an example of industrial application, a novel fluid packaging device of high efficiency was proposed and some CFD analysis results for the device were provided. The optimized flow distributor makes a very good uniform flow distribution which will significantly improve the efficiency of fluid packaging. The technology is expected to be of great significance to many industrial devices that require high uniformity of flow distribution

  14. Optical image encryption based on phase retrieval combined with three-dimensional particle-like distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Wen; Chen, Xudong; Sheppard, Colin J R

    2012-01-01

    We propose a new phase retrieval algorithm for optical image encryption in three-dimensional (3D) space. The two-dimensional (2D) plaintext is considered as a series of particles distributed in 3D space, and an iterative phase retrieval algorithm is developed to encrypt the series of particles into phase-only masks. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method are demonstrated by a numerical experiment, and the advantages and security of the proposed optical cryptosystems are also analyzed and discussed. (paper)

  15. Flexible voltage support control for three-phase distributed generation inverters under grid fault

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Camacho, Antonio; Castilla, Miguel; Miret, Jaume

    2013-01-01

    Operators describe the behavior of the energy source, regulating voltage limits and reactive power injection to remain connected and support the grid under fault. On the basis that different kinds of voltage sags require different voltage support strategies, a flexible control scheme for three phase grid...... connected inverters is proposed. In three phase balanced voltage sags, the inverter should inject reactive power in order to raise the voltage in all phases. In one or two phase faults, the main concern of the distributed generation inverter is to equalize voltages by reducing the negative symmetric...... sequence and clear the phase jump. Due to system limitations, a balance between these two extreme policies is mandatory. Thus, over-voltage and undervoltage can be avoided, and the proposed control scheme prevents disconnection while achieving the desired voltage support service. The main contribution...

  16. Iterative inversion of phase-Doppler-anemometry size distributions from sprays of optically inhomogeneous liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köser, O; Wriedt, T

    1996-05-20

    Using phase Doppler anemometry (PDA) to investigate sprays of optically inhomogeneous liquids leads to blurred measured size distributions. The blurring function is formed by performance of PDA measurements on single-size droplets generated by a piezoelectric droplet generator. To obtain the undistorted droplet-size distributions, a constrained iterative inversion algorithm is applied. The number of iteration steps to achieve the best possible restoration is determined by the use of synthetically generated data that has noise properties similar to the measured histograms. The obtained size distributions are checked by comparison with undistorted measurement results of an atomized optical homogeneous liquid.

  17. Ensemble distribution for immiscible two-phase flow in porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savani, Isha; Bedeaux, Dick; Kjelstrup, Signe; Vassvik, Morten; Sinha, Santanu; Hansen, Alex

    2017-02-01

    We construct an ensemble distribution to describe steady immiscible two-phase flow of two incompressible fluids in a porous medium. The system is found to be ergodic. The distribution is used to compute macroscopic flow parameters. In particular, we find an expression for the overall mobility of the system from the ensemble distribution. The entropy production at the scale of the porous medium is shown to give the expected product of the average flow and its driving force, obtained from a black-box description. We test numerically some of the central theoretical results.

  18. Control Method of Single-phase Inverter Based Grounding System in Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Wen; Yan, L.; Zeng, X.

    2016-01-01

    of neutral-to-ground voltage is critical for the safety of distribution networks. An active grounding system based on single-phase inverter is proposed to achieve this objective. Relationship between output current of the system and neutral-to-ground voltage is derived to explain the principle of neutral......The asymmetry of the inherent distributed capacitances causes the rise of neutral-to-ground voltage in ungrounded system or high resistance grounded system. Overvoltage may occur in resonant grounded system if Petersen coil is resonant with the distributed capacitances. Thus, the restraint...

  19. Intrinsically stable phase-modulated polarization encoding system for quantum key distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Xiaobao [Laboratory of Photonic Information Technology, School for Information and Optoelectronic Science and Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Liao Changjun [Laboratory of Photonic Information Technology, School for Information and Optoelectronic Science and Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)], E-mail: chliao@scnu.edu.cn; Mi Jinglong; Wang Jindong; Liu Songhao [Laboratory of Photonic Information Technology, School for Information and Optoelectronic Science and Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2008-12-22

    We demonstrate experimentally an intrinsically stable polarization coding and decoding system composed of optical-fiber Sagnac interferometers with integrated phase modulators for quantum key distribution. An interference visibility of 98.35% can be kept longtime during the experiment without any efforts of active compensation for coding all four desired polarization states.

  20. Light source distribution and scattering phase function influence light transport in diffuse multi-layered media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaudelle, Fabrice; L'Huillier, Jean-Pierre; Askoura, Mohamed Lamine

    2017-06-01

    Red and near-Infrared light is often used as a useful diagnostic and imaging probe for highly scattering media such as biological tissues, fruits and vegetables. Part of diffusively reflected light gives interesting information related to the tissue subsurface, whereas light recorded at further distances may probe deeper into the interrogated turbid tissues. However, modelling diffusive events occurring at short source-detector distances requires to consider both the distribution of the light sources and the scattering phase functions. In this report, a modified Monte Carlo model is used to compute light transport in curved and multi-layered tissue samples which are covered with a thin and highly diffusing tissue layer. Different light source distributions (ballistic, diffuse or Lambertian) are tested with specific scattering phase functions (modified or not modified Henyey-Greenstein, Gegenbauer and Mie) to compute the amount of backscattered and transmitted light in apple and human skin structures. Comparisons between simulation results and experiments carried out with a multispectral imaging setup confirm the soundness of the theoretical strategy and may explain the role of the skin on light transport in whole and half-cut apples. Other computational results show that a Lambertian source distribution combined with a Henyey-Greenstein phase function provides a higher photon density in the stratum corneum than in the upper dermis layer. Furthermore, it is also shown that the scattering phase function may affect the shape and the magnitude of the Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution (BRDF) exhibited at the skin surface.

  1. The constitutive distributed parameter model of multicomponent chemical processes in gas, fluid and solid phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemiec, W.

    1985-01-01

    In the literature of distributed parameter modelling of real processes is not considered the class of multicomponent chemical processes in gas, fluid and solid phase. The aim of paper is constitutive distributed parameter physicochemical model, constructed on kinetics and phenomenal analysis of multicomponent chemical processes in gas, fluid and solid phase. The mass, energy and momentum aspects of these multicomponent chemical reactions and adequate phenomena are utilized in balance operations, by conditions of: constitutive invariance for continuous media with space and time memories, reciprocity principle for isotropic and anisotropic nonhomogeneous media with space and time memories, application of definitions of following derivative and equation of continuity, to the construction of systems of partial differential constitutive state equations, in the following derivative forms for gas, fluid and solid phase. Couched in this way all physicochemical conditions of multicomponent chemical processes in gas, fluid and solid phase are new form of constitutive distributed parameter model for automatics and its systems of equations are new form of systems of partial differential constitutive state equations in sense of phenomenal distributed parameter control

  2. Current distribution in LV networks during 1-phase MV short-circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waes, van J.B.M.; Provoost, F.; Merwe, van der J.; Cobben, J.F.G.; Deursen, van A.P.J.; van Riet, M.J.M.; Laan, van der P.C.T.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the consequences of a fault in a medium voltage network on the grounding systems at the LV-side. To study the current distribution and to verify the models, we deliberately introduced one phase to ground faults in the 10 kV floating MV network. The selected site was the end of a

  3. Experimental comparison of phase retrieval methods which use intensity distribution at different planes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shevkunov, I A; Petrov, N V

    2014-01-01

    Performance of the three phase retrieval methods that use spatial intensity distributions was investigated in dealing with a task of reconstruction of the amplitude characteristics of the test object. These methods differ both by mathematical models and order of iteration execution. The single-beam multiple-intensity reconstruction method showed the best efficiency in terms of quality of reconstruction and time consumption.

  4. Polling Systems with Two-Phase Gated Service: Heavy Traffic Results for the Waiting Time Distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.D. van der Mei (Rob); J.A.C. Resing

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractWe study an asymmetric cyclic polling system with Poisson arrivals, general service-time and switch-over time distributions, and with so-called two-phase gated service at each queue, an interleaving scheme that aims to enforce some level of "fairness" among the different customer

  5. Coherent Control of Photofragment Distributions Using Laser Phase Modulation in the Weak-Field Limit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Vela, Alberto; Henriksen, Niels Engholm

    2015-01-01

    The possibility of quantum interference control of the final state distributions of photodissociation fragments by means of pure phase modulation of the pump laser pulse in the weak-field regime is demonstrated theoretically for the first time. The specific application involves realistic wave pac...

  6. Hermite-Gaussian beams with self-forming spiral phase distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinchik, Alexander A.; Muzychenko, Yana B.

    2014-05-01

    Spiral laser beams is a family of laser beams that preserve the structural stability up to scale and rotate with the propagation. Properties of spiral beams are of practical interest for laser technology, medicine and biotechnology. Researchers use a spiral beams for movement and manipulation of microparticles. Spiral beams have a complicated phase distribution in cross section. This paper describes the results of analytical and computer simulation of Hermite-Gaussian beams with self-forming spiral phase distribution. In the simulation used a laser beam consisting of the sum of the two modes HG TEMnm and TEMn1m1. The coefficients n1, n, m1, m were varied. Additional phase depending from the coefficients n, m, m1, n1 imposed on the resulting beam. As a result, formed the Hermite Gaussian beam phase distribution which takes the form of a spiral in the process of distribution. For modeling was used VirtualLab 5.0 (manufacturer LightTrans GmbH).

  7. Phase distribution measurements in narrow rectangular channels using image processing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentley, C.; Ruggles, A.

    1991-01-01

    Many high flux research reactor fuel assemblies are cooled by systems of parallel narrow rectangular channels. The HFIR is cooled by single phase forced convection under normal operating conditions. However, two-phase forced convection or two phase mixed convection can occur in the fueled region as a result of some hypothetical accidents. Such flow conditions would occur only at decay power levels. The system pressure would be around 0.15 MPa in such circumstances. Phase distribution of air-water flow in a narrow rectangular channel is examined using image processing techniques. Ink is added to the water and clear channel walls are used to allow high speed still photographs and video tape to be taken of the air-water flow field. Flow field images are digitized and stored in a Macintosh 2ci computer using a frame grabber board. Local grey levels are related to liquid thickness in the flow channel using a calibration fixture. Image processing shareware is used to calculate the spatially averaged liquid thickness from the image of the flow field. Time averaged spatial liquid distributions are calculated using image calculation algorithms. The spatially averaged liquid distribution is calculated from the time averaged spatial liquid distribution to formulate the combined temporally and spatially averaged fraction values. The temporally and spatially averaged liquid fractions measured using this technique compare well to those predicted from pressure gradient measurements at zero superficial liquid velocity

  8. A Three-Phase Microgrid Restoration Model Considering Unbalanced Operation of Distributed Generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zeyu; Wang, Jianhui; Chen, Chen

    2016-01-01

    Recent severe outages highlight the urgency of improving grid resiliency in the U.S. Microgrid formation schemes are proposed to restore critical loads after outages occur. Most distribution networks have unbalanced configurations that are not represented in sufficient detail by single-phase models. This study provides a microgrid formation plan that adopts a three-phase network model to represent unbalanced distribution networks. The problem formulation has a quadratic objective function with mixed-integer linear constraints. The three-phase network model enables us to examine the three-phase power outputs of distributed generators (DGs), preventing unbalanced operation that might trip DGs. Because the DG unbalanced operation constraint is non-convex, an iterative process is presented that checks whether the unbalanced operation limits for DGs are satisfied after each iteration of optimization. We also develop a relatively conservative linear approximation on the unbalanced operation constraint to handle larger networks. Compared with the iterative solution process, the conservative linear approximation is able to accelerate the solution process at the cost of sacrificing optimality to a limited extent. Simulation in the IEEE 34 node and IEEE 123 test feeders indicate that the proposed method yields more practical microgrid formations results. In addition, this paper explores the coordinated operation of DGs and energy storage (ES) installations. The unbalanced three-phase outputs of ESs combined with the relatively balanced outputs of DGs could supply unbalanced loads. In conclusion, the case study also validates the DG-ES coordination.

  9. Measurement of void fraction distribution in two-phase flow by impedance CT with neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Hideaki; Sumida, Isao; Sakai, Sinji; Wakai, Kazunori

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a new method for measurement of void distribution using impedance CT with a hierarchical neural network. The present method consists of four processes. First, output electric currents are calculated by simulation of various distributions of void fraction. The relationship between distribution of void fraction and electric current is called 'teaching data'. Second, the neural network learns the teaching data by the back propagation method. Third, output electric currents are measured about actual two-phase flow. Finally, distribution of void fraction is calculated by the taught neural network using the measured electric currents. In this paper, measurement and learning parameters are adjusted, experimental results obtained using the impedance CT method are compared with data obtained by the impedance probe method. The results show that our method is effective for measurement of void fraction distribution. (author)

  10. On the issues of probability distribution of GPS carrier phase observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, X.; Mayer, M.; Heck, B.

    2009-04-01

    In common practice the observables related to Global Positioning System (GPS) are assumed to follow a Gauss-Laplace normal distribution. Actually, full knowledge of the observables' distribution is not required for parameter estimation by means of the least-squares algorithm based on the functional relation between observations and unknown parameters as well as the associated variance-covariance matrix. However, the probability distribution of GPS observations plays a key role in procedures for quality control (e.g. outlier and cycle slips detection, ambiguity resolution) and in reliability-related assessments of the estimation results. Under non-ideal observation conditions with respect to the factors impacting GPS data quality, for example multipath effects and atmospheric delays, the validity of the normal distribution postulate of GPS observations is in doubt. This paper presents a detailed analysis of the distribution properties of GPS carrier phase observations using double difference residuals. For this purpose 1-Hz observation data from the permanent SAPOS

  11. The relationship between collisional phase defect distribution and cascade collapse efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishita, K.; Heinisch, H.L.; Ishino, S.; Sekimura, N.

    1994-01-01

    Defect distributions after the collisional phase of cascade damage processes were calculated using the computer simulation code MARLOWE, which is based on the binary collision approximation. The densities of vacant sites were evaluated in defect-dense regions at the end of the collisional phase in simulated ion irradiations of several pure metals (Au, Ag, Cu, Ni, Fe, Mo and W). The vacancy density distributions were compared to the measured cascade collapse efficiencies obtained from low-dose ion irradiations of thin foils reported in the literature to identify the minimum or ''critical'' values of the vacancy densities during the collisional phase corresponding to cascade collapse. The critical densities are generally independent of the cascade energy in the same metal. The relationships between physical properties of the target elements and the critical densities are discussed within the framework of the cascade thermal spike model. ((orig.))

  12. An Experimental Study of Two-Phase Pulse Flushing Technology in Water Distribution Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaozhao Tang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The deterioration of drinking water during distribution process is caused by many factors. The microorganisms and substances peeling off from the “growth-ring” make the secondary pollution in drinking water distribution systems. To reduce the secondary pollution, two-phase pulse flushing technology is introduced to quickly remove the “growth-ring”. In this study, experiment is undertaken for investigating the efficiency of the two-phase pulse flushing and finding the best setting combination. A case study is undertaken to compare the efficiencies between the two-phase pulse and the single-phase flushing. The best setting combination of the two-phase pulse flushing is at the frequency 4 s–6 s (air inflow time is 4 s and air cut off time is 6 s and the round air inflow nozzle is set at the bottom of the pipe. Two-phase pulse flushing technology can save 95% of water and 6 h 40 min flushing time.

  13. Hysteresis, phase transitions, and dangerous transients in electrical power distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duclut, Charlie; Backhaus, Scott; Chertkov, Michael

    2013-06-01

    The majority of dynamical studies in power systems focus on the high-voltage transmission grids where models consider large generators interacting with crude aggregations of individual small loads. However, new phenomena have been observed indicating that the spatial distribution of collective, nonlinear contribution of these small loads in the low-voltage distribution grid is crucial to the outcome of these dynamical transients. To elucidate the phenomenon, we study the dynamics of voltage and power flows in a spatially extended distribution feeder (circuit) connecting many asynchronous induction motors and discover that this relatively simple 1+1 (space+time) dimensional system exhibits a plethora of nontrivial spatiotemporal effects, some of which may be dangerous for power system stability. Long-range motor-motor interactions mediated by circuit voltage and electrical power flows result in coexistence and segregation of spatially extended phases defined by individual motor states, a "normal" state where the motors' mechanical (rotation) frequency is slightly smaller than the nominal frequency of the basic ac flows and a "stalled" state where the mechanical frequency is small. Transitions between the two states can be initiated by a perturbation of the voltage or base frequency at the head of the distribution feeder. Such behavior is typical of first-order phase transitions in physics, and this 1+1 dimensional model shows many other properties of a first-order phase transition with the spatial distribution of the motors' mechanical frequency playing the role of the order parameter. In particular, we observe (a) propagation of the phase-transition front with the constant speed (in very long feeders) and (b) hysteresis in transitions between the normal and stalled (or partially stalled) phases.

  14. Distribution of six radionuclides between soluble and particulate phase at the sea-freshwater interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peres, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    The distribution of the soluble and particulate phases of radionuclides has been studied in water samples of various salinities (0 per mill; 3.8 per mill; 7.6 per mill; 15.2 per mill; 22.8 per mill; 30.4 per mill; 34 per mill). Cesium 137, cobalt 60, manganese 54, zinc 65, chromium 51 and sodium 22 were investigated. The results are expressed as retention percentages or distribution coefficients (Kd). Increased salinities resulted in decreased retention rates varying with the radionuclides; this appeared with the lowest salinities, and the evolution was small beyond 7 per mill. Other parameters were considered beside salinity, viz.: the suspended matter characteristics (mineralogy, particle size distribution); particulate load of water; organic content, whether associated to the soluble or particulate phase; physico-chemical forms of the radionuclides. To determine the particle size spectra of the suspended matter in the experimental samples, a laser granulometer was used [fr

  15. Renewable Distributed Generation Models in Three-Phase Load Flow Analysis for Smart Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Nor

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents renewable distributed generation  (RDG models as three-phase resource in load flow computation and analyzes their effect when they are connected in composite networks. The RDG models that have been considered comprise of photovoltaic (PV and wind turbine generation (WTG. The voltage-controlled node and complex power injection node are used in the models. These improvement models are suitable for smart grid power system analysis. The combination of IEEE transmission and distribution data used to test and analyze the algorithm in solving balanced/unbalanced active systems. The combination of IEEE transmission data and IEEE test feeder are used to test the the algorithm for balanced and unbalanced multi-phase distribution system problem. The simulation results show that by increased number and size of RDG units have improved voltage profile and reduced system losses.

  16. Modelling a reliability system governed by discrete phase-type distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz-Castro, Juan Eloy; Perez-Ocon, Rafael; Fernandez-Villodre, Gemma

    2008-01-01

    We present an n-system with one online unit and the others in cold standby. There is a repairman. When the online fails it goes to repair, and instantaneously a standby unit becomes the online one. The operational and repair times follow discrete phase-type distributions. Given that any discrete distribution defined on the positive integers is a discrete phase-type distribution, the system can be considered a general one. A model with unlimited number of units is considered for approximating a system with a great number of units. We show that the process that governs the system is a quasi-birth-and-death process. For this system, performance reliability measures; the up and down periods, and the involved costs are calculated in a matrix and algorithmic form. We show that the discrete case is not a trivial case of the continuous one. The results given in this paper have been implemented computationally with Matlab

  17. RF Phase Reference Distribution System for the TESLA Technology Based Projects

    CERN Document Server

    Czuba, K; Romaniuk, R S

    2013-01-01

    Since many decades physicists have been building particle accelerators and usually new projects became more advanced, more complicated and larger than predecessors. The importance and complexity of the phase reference distribution systems used in these accelerators have grown significantly during recent years. Amongst the most advanced of currently developed accelerators are projects based on the TESLA technology. These projects require synchronization of many RF devices with accuracy reaching femtosecond levels over kilometre distances. Design of a phase reference distribution system fulfilling such requirements is a challenging scientific task. There are many interdisciplinary problems which must be solved during the system design. Many, usually negligible issues, may became very important in such system. Furthermore, the design of a distribution system on a scale required for the TESLA technology based projects is a new challenge and there is almost no literature sufficiently covering this subject. This th...

  18. Modelling a reliability system governed by discrete phase-type distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Castro, Juan Eloy [Departamento de Estadistica e Investigacion Operativa, Universidad de Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain)], E-mail: jeloy@ugr.es; Perez-Ocon, Rafael [Departamento de Estadistica e Investigacion Operativa, Universidad de Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain)], E-mail: rperezo@ugr.es; Fernandez-Villodre, Gemma [Departamento de Estadistica e Investigacion Operativa, Universidad de Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain)

    2008-11-15

    We present an n-system with one online unit and the others in cold standby. There is a repairman. When the online fails it goes to repair, and instantaneously a standby unit becomes the online one. The operational and repair times follow discrete phase-type distributions. Given that any discrete distribution defined on the positive integers is a discrete phase-type distribution, the system can be considered a general one. A model with unlimited number of units is considered for approximating a system with a great number of units. We show that the process that governs the system is a quasi-birth-and-death process. For this system, performance reliability measures; the up and down periods, and the involved costs are calculated in a matrix and algorithmic form. We show that the discrete case is not a trivial case of the continuous one. The results given in this paper have been implemented computationally with Matlab.

  19. Biaxial stretching of film principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Demeuse, M T

    2011-01-01

    Biaxial (having two axes) stretching of film is used for a range of applications and is the primary manufacturing process by which products are produced for the food packaging industry. Biaxial stretching of film: principles and applications provides an overview of the manufacturing processes and range of applications for biaxially stretched films. Part one reviews the fundamental principles of biaxial stretching. After an introductory chapter which defines terms, chapters discuss equipment design and requirements, laboratory evaluations, biaxial film structures and typical industrial processes for the biaxial orientation of films. Additional topics include post production processing of biaxially stretched films, the stress-strain behaviour of poly(ethylene terephthalate) and academic investigations of biaxially stretched films. Part two investigates the applications of biaxial films including fresh cut produce, snack packaging and product labelling. A final chapter investigates potential future trends for bi...

  20. EVOLUTION OF DARK MATTER PHASE-SPACE DENSITY DISTRIBUTIONS IN EQUAL-MASS HALO MERGERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vass, Ileana M.; Kazanzidis, Stelios; Valluri, Monica; Kravtsov, Andrey V.

    2009-01-01

    We use dissipationless N-body simulations to investigate the evolution of the true coarse-grained phase-space density distribution f(x, v) in equal-mass mergers between dark matter (DM) halos. The halo models are constructed with various asymptotic power-law indices ρ ∝ r -γ ranging from steep cusps to core-like profiles and we employ the phase-space density estimator 'EnBid' developed by Sharma and Steinmetz to compute f(x, v). The adopted force resolution allows robust phase-space density profile estimates in the inner ∼1% of the virial radii of the simulated systems. We confirm that merger events result in a decrease of the coarse-grained phase-space density in accordance with expectations from Mixing Theorems for collisionless systems. We demonstrate that binary mergers between identical DM halos produce remnants that retain excellent memories of the inner slopes and overall shapes of the phase-space density distribution of their progenitors. The robustness of the phase-space density profiles holds for a range of orbital energies, and a variety of encounter configurations including sequences of several consecutive merger events, designed to mimic hierarchical merging, and collisions occurring at different cosmological epochs. If the progenitor halos are constructed with appreciably different asymptotic power-law indices, we find that the inner slope and overall shape of the phase-space density distribution of the remnant are substantially closer to that of the initial system with the steepest central density cusp. These results explicitly demonstrate that mixing is incomplete in equal-mass mergers between DM halos, as it does not erase memory of the progenitor properties. Our results also confirm the recent analytical predictions of Dehnen regarding the preservation of merging self-gravitating central density cusps.

  1. Soot and liquid-phase fuel distributions in a newly designed optically accessible DI diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dec, J. E.; Espey, C.

    1993-10-01

    Two-dimensional (2-D) laser-sheet imaging has been used to examine the soot and liquid-phase fuel distributions in a newly designed, optically accessible, direct-injection diesel engine of the heavy-duty size class. The design of this engine preserves the intake port geometry and basic dimensions of a Cummins N-series production engine. It also includes several unique features to provide considerable optical access. Liquid-phase fuel and soot distribution studies were conducted at a medium speed (1,200 rpm) using a Cummins closed-nozzle fuel injector. The scattering was used to obtain planar images of the liquid-phase fuel distribution. These images show that the leading edge of the liquid-phase portion of the fuel jet reaches a maximum length of 24 mm, which is about half the combustion bowl radius for this engine. Beyond this point virtually all the fuel has vaporized. Soot distribution measurements were made at a high load condition using three imaging diagnostics: natural flame luminosity, 2-D laser-induced incandescence, and 2-D elastic scattering. This investigation showed that the soot distribution in the combusting fuel jet develops through three stages. First, just after the onset of luminous combustion, soot particles are small and nearly uniformly distributed throughout the luminous region of the fuel jet. Second, after about 2 crank angle degrees a pattern develops of a higher soot concentration of larger sized particles in the head vortex region of the jet and a lower soot concentration of smaller sized particles upstream toward the injector. Third, after fuel injection ends, both the soot concentration and soot particle size increase rapidly in the upstream portion of the fuel jet.

  2. Contact angles on stretched solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensink, Liz; Snoeijer, Jacco

    2017-11-01

    The surface energy of solid interfaces plays a central role in wetting, as they dictate the liquid contact angle. Yet, it has been challenging to measure the solid surface energies independently, without making use of Young's law. Here we present Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations by which we measure the surface properties for all interfaces, including the solids. We observe change in contact angles upon stretching the solid substrates, showing that the surface energy is actually strain dependent. This is clear evidence of the so-called Shuttleworth effect, making it necessary to distinguish surface energy from surface tension. We discuss how this effect gives rise to a new class of elasto-capillary phenomena. ERC Consolidator Grant No. 616918.

  3. Validation of model predictions of pore-scale fluid distributions during two-phase flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bultreys, Tom; Lin, Qingyang; Gao, Ying; Raeini, Ali Q.; AlRatrout, Ahmed; Bijeljic, Branko; Blunt, Martin J.

    2018-05-01

    Pore-scale two-phase flow modeling is an important technology to study a rock's relative permeability behavior. To investigate if these models are predictive, the calculated pore-scale fluid distributions which determine the relative permeability need to be validated. In this work, we introduce a methodology to quantitatively compare models to experimental fluid distributions in flow experiments visualized with microcomputed tomography. First, we analyzed five repeated drainage-imbibition experiments on a single sample. In these experiments, the exact fluid distributions were not fully repeatable on a pore-by-pore basis, while the global properties of the fluid distribution were. Then two fractional flow experiments were used to validate a quasistatic pore network model. The model correctly predicted the fluid present in more than 75% of pores and throats in drainage and imbibition. To quantify what this means for the relevant global properties of the fluid distribution, we compare the main flow paths and the connectivity across the different pore sizes in the modeled and experimental fluid distributions. These essential topology characteristics matched well for drainage simulations, but not for imbibition. This suggests that the pore-filling rules in the network model we used need to be improved to make reliable predictions of imbibition. The presented analysis illustrates the potential of our methodology to systematically and robustly test two-phase flow models to aid in model development and calibration.

  4. Three-phase Power Flow Calculation of Low Voltage Distribution Network Considering Characteristics of Residents Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaping; Lin, Shunjiang; Yang, Zhibin

    2017-05-01

    In the traditional three-phase power flow calculation of the low voltage distribution network, the load model is described as constant power. Since this model cannot reflect the characteristics of actual loads, the result of the traditional calculation is always different from the actual situation. In this paper, the load model in which dynamic load represented by air conditioners parallel with static load represented by lighting loads is used to describe characteristics of residents load, and the three-phase power flow calculation model is proposed. The power flow calculation model includes the power balance equations of three-phase (A,B,C), the current balance equations of phase 0, and the torque balancing equations of induction motors in air conditioners. And then an alternating iterative algorithm of induction motor torque balance equations with each node balance equations is proposed to solve the three-phase power flow model. This method is applied to an actual low voltage distribution network of residents load, and by the calculation of three different operating states of air conditioners, the result demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed model and the algorithm.

  5. Measurement of void fraction and bubble size distribution in two-phase flow system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huahun, G.

    1987-01-01

    The importance of study two phase flow parameter and microstructure has appeared increasingly, with the development of two-phase flow discipline. In the paper, the measurement methods of several important microstructure parameter in a two phase flow vertical channel have been studied. Using conductance probe the two phase flow pattern and the average void fraction have been measured previously by the authors. This paper concerns microstructure of the bubble size distribution and local void fraction. The authors studied the methods of measuring bubble velocity, size distribution and local void fraction using double conductance probes and a set of apparatus. Based on our experiments and Yoshihiro work, a formula of calculated local void fraction has been deduced by using the statistical characteristics of bubbles in two phase flow and the relation between calculated bubble size and voltage has been determined. Finally the authors checked by using photograph and fast valve, which is classical but reliable. The results are the same with what has been studied before

  6. An analysis of the effect of buoyancy on phase distribution phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maneesh Singhal; Richard T Lahey Jr

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: It is well known that pronounced lateral phase distributions may occur in two-phase conduit flows. Moreover, the lateral phase distribution appears to strongly influenced by the buoyancy of the dispersed phase. This study used a state-of-the-art two-fluid model, having no arbitrary coefficients, to predict steady, fully developed phase distribution in pipe flows. In particular, bubbly up-flows and down-flows in pipes, and slurry up-flows in pipes, having positive, negative and neutral buoyant particles, were analyzed and compared against appropriate terrestrial (1 g) data. In addition, microgravity bubbly flow data were also analyzed using the same two-fluid model. It was found that this two-fluid model was able to predict these data sets, including detailed predictions of the measured phasic velocity, dispersed phase volume fraction and turbulence (i.e., turbulent kinetic energy and Reynolds stress) fields. It was also found that the numerical algorithm, which was developed and used to evaluate the two-fluid model, was extremely efficient and could be easily run on a small PC. These results clearly demonstrate that a properly formulated two-fluid model, using mechanistically-based closure laws, can predict a wide range of multidimensional multiphase flow data without the need for 'tuners' and empirical correlations. Moreover, it appears that this approach can be used to develop and/or assess other flow-regime-specific closure laws for use in computational multiphase fluid dynamic (CMFD) solvers of transient two-fluid models, which, in turn, can be used for the design and analysis of various industrially important multiphase systems and processes. (authors)

  7. Assimilation of spatio-temporal distribution of radionuclides in early phase of radiation accident

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hofman, Radek; Šmídl, Václav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 18, 7/8 (2010), s. 226-228 ISSN 1210-7085 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0572; GA ČR(CZ) GA102/07/1596 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : decision support * early phase * Gaussian model * radioactive pollution transport Subject RIV: DL - Nuclear Waste, Radioactive Pollution ; Quality http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2010/AS/hofman-assimilation of spatio-temporal distribution of radionuclides in early phase of radiation accident .pdf

  8. Analysis of the differential-phase-shift-keying protocol in the quantum-key-distribution system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rong-Zhen, Jiao; Chen-Xu, Feng; Hai-Qiang, Ma

    2009-01-01

    The analysis is based on the error rate and the secure communication rate as functions of distance for three quantum-key-distribution (QKD) protocols: the Bennett–Brassard 1984, the Bennett–Brassard–Mermin 1992, and the coherent differential-phase-shift keying (DPSK) protocols. We consider the secure communication rate of the DPSK protocol against an arbitrary individual attack, including the most commonly considered intercept-resend and photon-number splitting attacks, and concluded that the simple and efficient differential-phase-shift-keying protocol allows for more than 200 km of secure communication distance with high communication rates. (general)

  9. The Analysis of the Strength, Distribution and Direction for the EEG Phase Synchronization by Musical Stimulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Yutaro; Ikeda, Akira; Kotani, Kiyoshi; Jimbo, Yasuhiko

    In this study, we propose the EEG phase synchronization analysis including not only the average strength of the synchronization but also the distribution and directions under the conditions that evoked emotion by musical stimuli. The experiment is performed with the two different musical stimuli that evoke happiness or sadness for 150 seconds. It is found that the average strength of synchronization indicates no difference between the right side and the left side of the frontal lobe during the happy stimulus, the distribution and directions indicate significant differences. Therefore, proposed analysis is useful for detecting emotional condition because it provides information that cannot be obtained only by the average strength of synchronization.

  10. Stretching and jamming of finite automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijer, de N.; Kourie, D.G.; Watson, B.W.; Cleophas, L.G.W.A.; Watson, B.W.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we present two transformations on automata, called stretching and jamming. These transformations will, under certain conditions, reduce the size of the transition table, and under other conditions reduce the string processing time. Given a finite automaton, we can stretch it by

  11. Entangled-Pair Transmission Improvement Using Distributed Phase-Sensitive Amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Agarwal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate the transmission of time-bin entangled photon pairs through a distributed optical phase-sensitive amplifier (OPSA. We utilize four-wave mixing at telecom wavelengths in a 5-km dispersion-shifted fiber OPSA operating in the low-gain limit. Measurements of two-photon interference curves show no statistically significant degradation in the fringe visibility at the output of the OPSA. In addition, coincidence counting rates are higher than direct passive transmission because of constructive interference between amplitudes of input photon pairs and those generated in the OPSA. Our results suggest that application of distributed phase-sensitive amplification to transmission of entangled photon pairs could be highly beneficial towards advancing the rate and scalability of future quantum communications systems.

  12. Experimental validation of the Wigner distributions theory of phase-contrast imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelly, Edwin F.; Price, Ronald R.; Pickens, David R.

    2005-01-01

    Recently, a new theory of phase-contrast imaging has been proposed by Wu and Liu [Med. Phys. 31, 2378-2384 (2004)]. This theory, based upon Wigner distributions, provides a much stronger foundation for the evaluation of phase-contrast imaging systems than did the prior theories based upon Fresnel-Kirchhoff diffraction theory. In this paper, we compare results of measurements made in our laboratory of phase contrast for different geometries and tube voltages to the predictions of the Wu and Liu model. In our previous publications, we have used an empirical measurement (the edge enhancement index) to parametrize the degree of phase-contrast effects in an image. While the Wu and Liu model itself does not predict image contrast, it does measure the degree of phase contrast that the system can image for a given spatial frequency. We have found that our previously published experimental results relating phase-contrast effects to geometry and x-ray tube voltage are consistent with the predictions of the Wu and Liu model

  13. Security of differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution against individual attacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waks, Edo; Takesue, Hiroki; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa

    2006-01-01

    We derive a proof of security for the differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution protocol under the assumption that Eve is restricted to individual attacks. The security proof is derived by bounding the average collision probability, which leads directly to a bound on Eve's mutual information on the final key. The security proof applies to realistic sources based on pulsed coherent light. We then compare individual attacks to sequential attacks and show that individual attacks are more powerful

  14. The application and design of distributed control system in reactor shutdown system of Qinshan phase III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Guoquan; Liu Wangtian; Yu Yijun; Xiong Weihua

    2006-03-01

    The design, commissioning and running of the reactor trip parameter monitoring system used in Qinshan Phase III are introduced. The applying technology of Distributed Control System realized trip parameter monitoring and realized the function of trip parameters quick data acquisitioning, transferring, saving, alarm, query. The applying of trip parameters monitoring system improved the abilities of plant status monitoring and event analyzing, and increased the security and economy of nuclear power plant. (authors)

  15. Hacking on decoy-state quantum key distribution system with partial phase randomization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shi-Hai; Jiang, Mu-Sheng; Ma, Xiang-Chun; Li, Chun-Yan; Liang, Lin-Mei

    2014-04-01

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) provides means for unconditional secure key transmission between two distant parties. However, in practical implementations, it suffers from quantum hacking due to device imperfections. Here we propose a hybrid measurement attack, with only linear optics, homodyne detection, and single photon detection, to the widely used vacuum + weak decoy state QKD system when the phase of source is partially randomized. Our analysis shows that, in some parameter regimes, the proposed attack would result in an entanglement breaking channel but still be able to trick the legitimate users to believe they have transmitted secure keys. That is, the eavesdropper is able to steal all the key information without discovered by the users. Thus, our proposal reveals that partial phase randomization is not sufficient to guarantee the security of phase-encoding QKD systems with weak coherent states.

  16. Hacking on decoy-state quantum key distribution system with partial phase randomization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shi-Hai; Jiang, Mu-Sheng; Ma, Xiang-Chun; Li, Chun-Yan; Liang, Lin-Mei

    2014-04-23

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) provides means for unconditional secure key transmission between two distant parties. However, in practical implementations, it suffers from quantum hacking due to device imperfections. Here we propose a hybrid measurement attack, with only linear optics, homodyne detection, and single photon detection, to the widely used vacuum + weak decoy state QKD system when the phase of source is partially randomized. Our analysis shows that, in some parameter regimes, the proposed attack would result in an entanglement breaking channel but still be able to trick the legitimate users to believe they have transmitted secure keys. That is, the eavesdropper is able to steal all the key information without discovered by the users. Thus, our proposal reveals that partial phase randomization is not sufficient to guarantee the security of phase-encoding QKD systems with weak coherent states.

  17. Phase-encoded measurement device independent quantum key distribution without a shared reference frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo-Dan, Zhu; Shang-Hong, Zhao; Chen, Dong; Ying, Sun

    2018-07-01

    In this paper, a phase-encoded measurement device independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) protocol without a shared reference frame is presented, which can generate secure keys between two parties while the quantum channel or interferometer introduces an unknown and slowly time-varying phase. The corresponding secret key rate and single photons bit error rate is analysed, respectively, with single photons source (SPS) and weak coherent source (WCS), taking finite-key analysis into account. The numerical simulations show that the modified phase-encoded MDI-QKD protocol has apparent superiority both in maximal secure transmission distance and key generation rate while possessing the improved robustness and practical security in the high-speed case. Moreover, the rejection of the frame-calibrating part will intrinsically reduce the consumption of resources as well as the potential security flaws of practical MDI-QKD systems.

  18. One Core Phase Shifting Transformer for Control of the Power Flow Distribution in Electric Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golub I.V.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the variant of phase shifting transformer that is made, unlike from traditional technology, on the basis of only one magnetic core. The paper describes the methodology related to the analysis of operation modes of device and its components. Additionally it presents a mathematical model of device with determines the relationship between input and output electric quantities as well as own longitudinal and transverse parameters of an equivalent circuit of phase shifting transformer (PST. Proposed configuration of PST is interesting from an economic and operational consideration; enable continuous control of power flow distribution in electric networks as a result of regulation a phase shift angle between input and output voltages of device.

  19. Three-Phase Time-Multiplexed Planar Power Transmission to Distributed Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byunghun; Ahn, Dukju; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2016-03-01

    A platform has been presented for wireless powering of receivers (Rx's) that are arbitrarily distributed over a large area. A potential application could be powering of small Rx implants, distributed over large areas of the brain. The transmitter (Tx) consists of three overlapping layers of hexagonal planar spiral coils (hex-PSC) that are horizontally shifted to provide the strongest and most homogeneous electromagnetic flux coverage. The three-layer hex-PSC array is driven by a three-phase time-division-multiplexed power Tx that takes the advantage of the carrier phase shift, coil geometries, and Rx time constant to homogeneously power the arbitrarily distributed Rx's regardless of their misalignments. The functionality of the proposed three-phase power transmission concept has been verified in a detailed scaled-up high-frequency structure simulator Advanced Design System simulation model and measurement setup, and compared with a conventional Tx. The new Tx delivers 5.4 mW to each Rx and achieves, on average, 5.8% power transfer efficiency to the Rx at the worst case 90° angular misalignment, compared with 1.4% by the conventional Tx.

  20. Strategy as stretch and leverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, G; Prahalad, C K

    1993-01-01

    Global competition is not just product versus product or company versus company. It is mind-set versus mind-set. Driven to understand the dynamics of competition, we have learned a lot about what makes one company more successful than another. But to find the root of competitiveness--to understand why some companies create new forms of competitive advantage while others watch and follow--we must look at strategic mind-sets. For many managers, "being strategic" means pursuing opportunities that fit the company's resources. This approach is not wrong, Gary Hamel and C.K. Prahalad contend, but it obscures an approach in which "stretch" supplements fit and being strategic means creating a chasm between ambition and resources. Toyota, CNN, British Airways, Sony, and others all displaced competitors with stronger reputations and deeper pockets. Their secret? In each case, the winner had greater ambition than its well-endowed rivals. Winners also find less resource-intensive ways of achieving their ambitious goals. This is where leverage complements the strategic allocation of resources. Managers at competitive companies can get a bigger bang for their buck in five basic ways: by concentrating resources around strategic goals; by accumulating resources more efficiently; by complementing one kind of resource with another; by conserving resources whenever they can; and by recovering resources from the market-place as quickly as possible. As recent competitive battles have demonstrated, abundant resources can't guarantee continued industry leadership.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Phase transitions and flux distributions of SU(2) lattice gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Yingcai.

    1993-01-01

    The strong interactions between quarks are believed to be described by Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), which is a non-abelian SU(3) gauge theory. It is known that QCD undergoes a deconfining phase transition at very high temperatures, that is, at low temperatures QCD is in confined phase, at sufficient high temperatures it is in an unconfined phase. Also, quark confinement is believed to be due to string formation. In this dissertation the authors studied SU(2) gauge theory using numerical methods of LGT, which will provide some insights about the properties of QCD because SU(2) is similar to SU(3). They measured the flux distributions of a q bar q pair at various temperatures in different volumes. They find that in the limit of infinite volumes the flux distribution is different in the two phases. In the confined phase strong evidence is found for the string formation, however, in the unconfined phase there is no string formation. On the other hand, in the limit of zero temperature and finite volumes they find a clear signal for string formation in the large volume region, however, the string tension measured in intermediate volumes is due to finite volume effects, there is no intrinsic string formation. The color flux energies (action) of the q bar q pair are described by Michael sum rules. The original Michael sum rules deal with a static q bar q pair at zero temperature in infinite volumes. To check these sum rules with flux data at finite temperatures, they present a complete derivation for the sum rules, thus generalizing them to account for finite temperature effects. They find that the flux data are consistent with the prediction of generalized sum rules. The study elucidates the rich structures of QCD, and provides evidence for quark confinement and string formation. This supports the belief that QCD is a correct theory for strong interactions, and quark confinement can be explained by QCD

  2. Dimple coalescence and liquid droplets distributions during phase separation in a pure fluid under microgravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oprisan, Ana; Oprisan, Sorinel A; Hegseth, John J; Garrabos, Yves; Lecoutre-Chabot, Carole; Beysens, Daniel

    2014-09-01

    Phase separation has important implications for the mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties of materials. Weightless conditions prevent buoyancy and sedimentation from affecting the dynamics of phase separation and the morphology of the domains. In our experiments, sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) was initially heated about 1K above its critical temperature under microgravity conditions and then repeatedly quenched using temperature steps, the last one being of 3.6 mK, until it crossed its critical temperature and phase-separated into gas and liquid domains. Both full view (macroscopic) and microscopic view images of the sample cell unit were analyzed to determine the changes in the distribution of liquid droplet diameters during phase separation. Previously, dimple coalescences were only observed in density-matched binary liquid mixture near its critical point of miscibility. Here we present experimental evidences in support of dimple coalescence between phase-separated liquid droplets in pure, supercritical, fluids under microgravity conditions. Although both liquid mixtures and pure fluids belong to the same universality class, both the mass transport mechanisms and their thermophysical properties are significantly different. In supercritical pure fluids the transport of heat and mass are strongly coupled by the enthalpy of condensation, whereas in liquid mixtures mass transport processes are purely diffusive. The viscosity is also much smaller in pure fluids than in liquid mixtures. For these reasons, there are large differences in the fluctuation relaxation time and hydrodynamics flows that prompted this experimental investigation. We found that the number of droplets increases rapidly during the intermediate stage of phase separation. We also found that above a cutoff diameter of about 100 microns the size distribution of droplets follows a power law with an exponent close to -2, as predicted from phenomenological considerations.

  3. Microtomography and pore-scale modeling of two-phase Fluid Distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silin, D.; Tomutsa, L.; Benson, S.; Patzek, T.

    2010-10-19

    Synchrotron-based X-ray microtomography (micro CT) at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) line 8.3.2 at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory produces three-dimensional micron-scale-resolution digital images of the pore space of the reservoir rock along with the spacial distribution of the fluids. Pore-scale visualization of carbon dioxide flooding experiments performed at a reservoir pressure demonstrates that the injected gas fills some pores and pore clusters, and entirely bypasses the others. Using 3D digital images of the pore space as input data, the method of maximal inscribed spheres (MIS) predicts two-phase fluid distribution in capillary equilibrium. Verification against the tomography images shows a good agreement between the computed fluid distribution in the pores and the experimental data. The model-predicted capillary pressure curves and tomography-based porosimetry distributions compared favorably with the mercury injection data. Thus, micro CT in combination with modeling based on the MIS is a viable approach to study the pore-scale mechanisms of CO{sub 2} injection into an aquifer, as well as more general multi-phase flows.

  4. Modifications of S-phase cell distribution in the intestinal crypts after multiple daily fractionation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becciolini, A; Cremonini, D; Fabbrica, D; Balzi, M [Florence Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Radiologia

    1983-01-01

    The effects obtained by multiple daily fractionation (3 Gy x2 or 3 Gy x2x2) on the distribution of S-phase cells along the crypt of the small intestine were investigated. The frequency of labelled cell distribution was reduced at early intervals; then the proliferating compartment gradually extended to the villus junctions. During recovery labelled cell frequency in the lower half of the crypts returned to control levels, while labelled cells were present in the differentiating area. With lower total dose modifications were milder and, as early as 72 h before exposure, distribution was already similar to controls. Invertase activity showed an initial increase and a higher reduction during acute damage when fractionation with higher doses was used. A lack of return to normal activity was present even 11 days after exposure when, however, the characteristic circadian pattern was observed.

  5. Tritium distribution ratios between the 30 % tributyl phosphate(TBP)-normal dodecane(nDD) organic phase and uranyl nitrate-nitric acid aqueous phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujine, Sachio; Uchiyama, Gunzou; Sugikawa, Susumu; Maeda, Mitsuru; Tsujino, Takeshi.

    1989-10-01

    Tritium distribution ratios between the organic and aqueous phases were measured for the system of 30 % tributyl phosphate(TBP)-normal dodecane(nDD)/uranyl nitrate-nitric acid water. It was confirmed that tritium is extracted by TBP into the organic phase in both chemical forms of tritiated water (HTO) and tritiated nitric acid (TNO 3 ). The value of tritium distribution ratio ranged from 0.002 to 0.005 for the conditions of 0-6 mol/L nitric acid, 0.5-800 mCi/L tritium in aqueous phase, and 0-125 g-U/L uranium in organic phase. Isotopic distribution coefficient of tritium between the organic and aqueous phases was observed to be about 0.95. (author)

  6. The distribution of Th(NO3)4, UO2(NO3)2 and HNO3 between an aqueous phase and an organic tributyl phosphate phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, T.; Zimmer, E.

    1984-05-01

    The distribution of Th(NO 3 ) 4 , UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 and HNO 3 between an aqueous phase and an organic phase, consisting of 30 Vol.% tributyl phosphate in dodecane, has been experimentally investigated. About 120 distribution data have been determined in the concentration ranges that can be seen in the THOREX process for reprocessing spent thorium bearing fuel. Based on the experimental data, two computer programs have been developed which make possible interpolations and, to some extent, extrapolations. With model 1, concentrations in the organic phase can be calculated if that in the aqueous phase are known. With model 2, concentrations in the aqueous phase can be calculated vice versa. Besides the description of the calculation models, a large body of calculated data can be found in this report. In a addition, a calculation mode is presented that makes possible the calculation of distribution data for very low thorium concentrations. (orig.) [de

  7. Phase and gain measurements in a distributed-loss cyclotron-resonance maser amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesar, Amit; Jerby, Eli

    2002-01-01

    The control of gain and phase delay in a cyclotron-resonance maser (CRM) amplifier is essential for a variety of applications. In this experiment, the gain and phase-delay variations are measured with respect to controlling parameters; the electron-beam current and the axial magnetic field. Following Chu et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1103 (1995)], the CRM amplifier comprises of a distributed-loss waveguide to enable high gain without oscillations. Our experiment yields an amplification up to 26 dB, and a phase-delay control range of 360 deg. In order to keep a fixed gain with the varying phase delay, the two controlling parameters (i.e., the solenoid field and the beam current) are operated together in a compensating mode. The experiment is conducted in a frequency of 7.3 GHz, with an electron beam of 18-kV voltage and 0.25-0.4-A current. The experimental results are compared with a theoretical model. Practical implementations of gain and phase control in CRM devices are discussed

  8. Three-Phase PV CHB Inverter for a Distributed Power Generation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierluigi Guerriero

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the design of a three-phase grid-tied photovoltaic (PV cascade H-bridge inverter for distributed power conversion. The power balancing among the phases must be properly addressed. In fact, an intra-phase power imbalance—arising from uneven irradiance and temperature conditions—generates a per-phase power imbalance. This latter can be compensated by the injection of a proper zero-sequence voltage, while the intra-phase balance is ensured by means of a hybrid modulation method which is able to guarantee the handling of unequal DC (Direct Current sources, stable circuit operation, and maximization of PV power production. The digital controller is developed and tested in Matlab/Simulink environment integrated with XSG (Xilinx System Generator, thus allowing an easy transfer on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA platform and accurately describing the behavior of a real hardware implementation. Thus, numerical results have been considered to prove the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  9. An economical analysis of stretch-out for Angra 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, M.; Mascarenhas, H.A.

    1990-01-01

    An economical assessment of Angra 1 fuel cycle stretch-out is performed by means of NUCOST 1.0, a PWR power cost calculation code. International basic costs and an interest rate of 10%a were utilized. During the natural part of the fuel cycle an hypothetical capacity factor of 70% and in the stretch-out part a decrease in Plant's thermal efficiency have also been taken into account. The neutronic data were generated by FASER, MULTIMEDIUM, MEDIUM and PINPOW code system, simulating Angra 1 in the CAOC (constant Axial-Offset Control) operation. Assumming no proplems in the Plant's strecth-out phase, an optimum extension pont of 1 MWd/kg would be attained, what affords an US$700,000 savings by cycle when fuel and operation and maintenance costs are considered. (author) [pt

  10. Stretch due to Penile Prosthesis Reservoir Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Baten

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A 43-year old patient presented to the emergency department with stretch, due to impossible deflation of the penile prosthesis, 4 years after successful implant. A CT-scan showed migration of the reservoir to the left rectus abdominis muscle. Refilling of the reservoir was inhibited by muscular compression, causing stretch. Removal and replacement of the reservoir was performed, after which the prosthesis was well-functioning again. Migration of the penile prosthesis reservoir is extremely rare but can cause several complications, such as stretch.

  11. Graphical analysis for gel morphology II. New mathematical approach for stretched exponential function with β>1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Chihiro; Panizza, Pascal; Rouch, Jacques; Ushiki, Hideharu

    2005-10-01

    A new analytical concept is applied to the kinetics of the shrinking process of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPA) gels. When PNIPA gels are put into hot water above the critical temperature, two-step shrinking is observed and the secondary shrinking of gels is fitted well by a stretched exponential function. The exponent β characterizing the stretched exponential is always higher than one, although there are few analytical concepts for the stretched exponential function with β>1. As a new interpretation for this function, we propose a superposition of step (Heaviside) function and a new distribution function of characteristic time is deduced.

  12. Graphical analysis for gel morphology II. New mathematical approach for stretched exponential function with β>1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Chihiro; Panizza, Pascal; Rouch, Jacques; Ushiki, Hideharu

    2005-01-01

    A new analytical concept is applied to the kinetics of the shrinking process of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPA) gels. When PNIPA gels are put into hot water above the critical temperature, two-step shrinking is observed and the secondary shrinking of gels is fitted well by a stretched exponential function. The exponent β characterizing the stretched exponential is always higher than one, although there are few analytical concepts for the stretched exponential function with β>1. As a new interpretation for this function, we propose a superposition of step (Heaviside) function and a new distribution function of characteristic time is deduced

  13. Graphical analysis for gel morphology II. New mathematical approach for stretched exponential function with {beta}>1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Chihiro [Graduate School of Bio-Application and System Engineering (BASE), Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi Tokyo 185-0054 (Japan); Panizza, Pascal [Centre de Physique Moleculaire Optique et Hertzienne (CPMOH), Bordeaux I University, 351 Cours de la Liberation 33405 Talance (France); Rouch, Jacques [Centre de Physique Moleculaire Optique et Hertzienne (CPMOH), Bordeaux I University, 351 Cours de la Liberation 33405 Talance (France); Ushiki, Hideharu [Graduate School of Bio-Application and System Engineering (BASE), Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi Tokyo 185-0054 (Japan)

    2005-10-19

    A new analytical concept is applied to the kinetics of the shrinking process of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPA) gels. When PNIPA gels are put into hot water above the critical temperature, two-step shrinking is observed and the secondary shrinking of gels is fitted well by a stretched exponential function. The exponent {beta} characterizing the stretched exponential is always higher than one, although there are few analytical concepts for the stretched exponential function with {beta}>1. As a new interpretation for this function, we propose a superposition of step (Heaviside) function and a new distribution function of characteristic time is deduced.

  14. Depth distribution of chemical phase concentration determined by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, P.; Ballo, P.; Dobrocka, E.; Vallo, M.; Lalinsky, T.

    2013-01-01

    Grazing incidence geometry is widely used in X-ray diffraction analysis of thin films. Penetration depth of radiation can be easily changed by an appropriate selection of the angle of incidence α that enables obtaining information from different depths of the sample. This depth can be decreased up to a nanometer scale by approaching the critical angle α_c for total external reflection. This method therefore provides an efficient tool for the analysis of depth distribution of various structural properties, such as the crystallite size, the amorphous fraction, stress or the concentration of chemical phase. However, absorption of the radiation can be characterized by an average attenuation coefficient μ a special care has to be paid to the last property. Variation of chemical phase concentration with depth usually results in depth dependence on the attenuation coefficient. In this contribution a method for determination of depth distribution of a chemical phase is outlined. The method correctly takes into account the depth variation of the attenuation coefficient. The method is tested on thin oxidized Ir layers. The aim of this paper is a comparison two simple model cases with the experimental results. (authors)

  15. Particle and solution phase depth distributions of transuranics and 55Fe in the North Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livingston, H.D.; Mann, D.R.; Casso, S.A.; Schneider, D.L.; Surprenant, L.D.; Bowen, V.T.

    1987-01-01

    In situ large volume filtration and chemisorption techniques were used to collect samples from the North Pacific for radiochemical analyses of fallout transuranics and 55 Fe in filterable and filtered phases. The data cover several locations for surface collections and a detailed depth profile north of Hawaii at 30 0 N. The observed partition of these nuclides between suspended particulate and filtered phases is directly linked to the rates at which they are moved downward through the water column in association with sinking particles. Particulate phases in open ocean surface waters contain higher Pu than subsurface particulates. 241 Am was found to exhibit much stronger particle association in accord with its known greater particle reactivity. In the high Pu deep water layer, particle associated Pu dropped to close to 1% of total Pu concentration. Together with a correlated increase in the proportion of oxidized Pu in this layer close to the sediment-water interface, this is clear evidence of remobilization of Pu from particles at, or near to, the interface. 55 Fe distributions on filtered particulates indicate a much deeper depth distribution relative to the transuranics. This may reflect both a higher particle association reactivity in respect to scavenging and a longer exposure history to scavenging. (author)

  16. The distribution of radionuclides between the dissolved and particulate phases of a contaminated freshwater stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murdock, R.N.; Johnson, M.S.; Hemingway, J.D.

    1995-01-01

    Streamwater concentrations of the radionuclides 137 Cs, 241 Am and 239,240 Pu from a contaminated freshwater stream showed significant relationships between total concentration and flow rate. When total concentrations were divided into their dissolved and particulate components 239,240 Pu was shown to exist mainly (>80%) in the solute phase ( 137 Cs and 241 Am were distributed equally between the two phases. 137 Cs was most likely present either as the dissolved ion or as the specifically adsorbed ion on particulate sediments. Particle-associated 241 Am and the small particulate component of 239,240 Pu, were believed to be bound to sediment surface coatings, such as organic or oxide/hydroxides, rather than the truly adsorbed ion. Solute phase 239,240 Pu was most likely associated with colloidal organic carbon species (such as humic or fulvic acids). This was also apparent, but to a lesser extent, for 241 Am. Distribution coefficients were determined for a number of discrete sites and environmental conditions. The response of the stream to removal of its source of radioactivity (via a re-routing scheme) was both significant and rapid. (author)

  17. The Relation Between Stretching Typology and Stretching Duration: The Effects on Range of Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Ewan; Bianco, Antonino; Paoli, Antonio; Palma, Antonio

    2018-04-01

    Different stretching strategies and protocols are widely used to improve flexibility or maintain health, acting on the muscle tendon-unit, in order to improve the range of motion (ROM) of the joints. This review aims to evaluate the current body of literature in order to understand the relation between stretching typology and ROM, and secondly to evaluate if a relation exists between stretching volume (either as a single training session, weekly training and weekly frequency) and ROM, after long-term stretching. Twenty-three articles were considered eligible and included in the quantitative synthesis. All stretching typologies showed ROM improvements over a long-term period, however the static protocols showed significant gains (p<0.05) when compared to the ballistic or PNF protocols. Time spent stretching per week seems fundamental to elicit range of movement improvements when stretches are applied for at least or more than 5 min, whereas the time spent stretching within a single session does not seem to have significant effects for ROM gains. Weekly frequency is positively associated to ROM. Evaluated data indicates that performing stretching at least 5 days a week for at least 5 min per week using static stretching may be beneficial to promote ROM improvements. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Milk cow feed intake and milk production and distribution estimates for Phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, D.M.; Darwin, R.F.; Erickson, A.R.; Eckert, R.L.

    1992-04-01

    This report provides initial information on milk production and distribution in the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project Phase I study area. The Phase I study area consists of eight countries in central Washington and two countries in northern Oregon. The primary objective of the HEDR Project is to develop estimates of the radiation doses populations could have received from Hanford operations. The objective of Phase I of the project was to determine the feasibility of reconstructing data, models, and development of preliminary dose estimates received by people living in the ten countries surrounding Hanford from 1944 to 1947. One of the most important contributors to radiation doses from Hanford during the period of interest was radioactive iodine. Consumption of milk from cows that ate vegetation contaminated with iodine is likely the dominant pathway of human exposure. To estimate the doses people could have received from this pathway, it is necessary to estimate the amount of milk that the people living in the Phase I area consumed, the source of the milk, and the type of feed that the milk cows ate. The objective of the milk model subtask is to identify the sources of milk supplied to residents of each community in the study area as well as the sources of feeds that were fed to the milk cows. In this report, we focus on Grade A cow's milk (fresh milk used for human consumption)

  19. Investigation of liquid phase axial dispersion in Taylor bubble flow by radiotracer residence time distribution analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin J.H.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A gas-liquid Taylor bubble flow occurs in small diameter channels in which gas bubbles are separated by slugs of pure liquid. This type of flow regime is well suited for solid catalyzed gas-liquid reactors in which the reaction efficiency is a strong function of axial dispersion in the regions of pure liquid. This paper presents an experimental study of liquid phase axial dispersion in a Taylor bubble flow developed in a horizontal tube using high speed photography and radiotracer residence time distribution (RTD analysis. A parametric dependence of axial dispersion on average volume fraction of gas phase was also investigated by varying the relative volumetric flow rates of the two phases. 137mBa produced from a 137Cs/137mBa radionuclide generator was used as radiotracer and measurements were made using the NaI(Tl scintillation detectors. Validation of 137mBa in the form of barium chloride as aqueous phase radiotracer was also carried out. Axial Dispersion Model (ADM was used to simulate the hydrodynamics of the system and the results of the experiment are presented. It was observed that the system is characterized by very high values of Peclet Number (Pe∼102 which reveals an approaching plug type flow. The experimental and model estimated values of mean residence times were observed in agreement with each other.

  20. Tomographic reconstruction of the time-averaged density distribution in two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fincke, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    The technique of reconstructive tomography has been applied to the measurement of time-average density and density distribution in a two-phase flow field. The technique of reconstructive tomography provides a model-independent method of obtaining flow-field density information. A tomographic densitometer system for the measurement of two-phase flow has two unique problems: a limited number of data values and a correspondingly coarse reconstruction grid. These problems were studied both experimentally through the use of prototype hardware on a 3-in. pipe, and analytically through computer generation of simulated data. The prototype data were taken on phantoms constructed of all Plexiglas and Plexiglas laminated with wood and polyurethane foam. Reconstructions obtained from prototype data are compared with reconstructions from the simulated data. Also presented are some representative results in a horizontal air/water flow

  1. Distributed optical fiber vibration sensing using phase-generated carrier demodulation algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhihua; Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Mingyu; Dai, Haolong; Zhang, Jingjing; Liu, Li; Zhang, Lijun; Jin, Xing; Wang, Gaifang; Qi, Guang

    2018-05-01

    A novel optical fiber-distributed vibration-sensing system is proposed, which is based on self-interference of Rayleigh backscattering with phase-generated carrier (PGC) demodulation algorithm. Pulsed lights are sent into the sensing fiber and the Rayleigh backscattering light from a certain position along the sensing fiber would interfere through an unbalanced Michelson interferometry to generate the interference light. An improved PGC demodulation algorithm is carried out to recover the phase information of the interference signal, which carries the sensing information. Three vibration events were applied simultaneously to different positions over 2000 m sensing fiber and demodulated correctly. The spatial resolution is 10 m, and the noise level of the Φ-OTDR system we proposed is about 10-3 rad/\\surd {Hz}, and the signal-to-noise ratio is about 30.34 dB.

  2. Investing in a Large Stretch Press

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choate, M.; Nealson, W.; Jay, G.; Buss, W.

    1986-01-01

    Press for forming large aluminum parts from plates provides substantial economies. Study assessed advantages and disadvantages of investing in large stretch-forming press, and also developed procurement specification for press.

  3. Foam topology. Bending versus stretching dominated architectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshpande, V.; Ashby, M.; Fleck, N.

    2000-01-01

    Cellular solids can deform by either the bending or stretching of the cell walls. While most cellular solids are bending-dominated, those that are stretching-dominated are much more weight-efficient for structural applications. In this study we have investigated the topological criteria that dictate the deformation mechanism of a cellular solid by analysing the rigidity (or otherwise) of pin-jointed frameworks comprising inextensional struts. We show that the minimum node connectivity for a special class of lattice structured materials to be stretching-dominated is 6 for 2D foams and 12 for 3D foams. Similarly, sandwich plates comprising of truss cores faced with planar trusses require a minimum node connectivity of 9 to undergo stretching-dominated deformation for all loading states. (author)

  4. Excluded Volume Effects in Gene Stretching

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, Pui-Man

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the effects excluded volume on the stretching of a single DNA in solution. We find that for small force F, the extension h is not linear in F but proportion to F^{\\chi}, with \\chi=(1-\

  5. A signature-based method for indexing cell cycle phase distribution from microarray profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizuno Hideaki

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cell cycle machinery interprets oncogenic signals and reflects the biology of cancers. To date, various methods for cell cycle phase estimation such as mitotic index, S phase fraction, and immunohistochemistry have provided valuable information on cancers (e.g. proliferation rate. However, those methods rely on one or few measurements and the scope of the information is limited. There is a need for more systematic cell cycle analysis methods. Results We developed a signature-based method for indexing cell cycle phase distribution from microarray profiles under consideration of cycling and non-cycling cells. A cell cycle signature masterset, composed of genes which express preferentially in cycling cells and in a cell cycle-regulated manner, was created to index the proportion of cycling cells in the sample. Cell cycle signature subsets, composed of genes whose expressions peak at specific stages of the cell cycle, were also created to index the proportion of cells in the corresponding stages. The method was validated using cell cycle datasets and quiescence-induced cell datasets. Analyses of a mouse tumor model dataset and human breast cancer datasets revealed variations in the proportion of cycling cells. When the influence of non-cycling cells was taken into account, "buried" cell cycle phase distributions were depicted that were oncogenic-event specific in the mouse tumor model dataset and were associated with patients' prognosis in the human breast cancer datasets. Conclusion The signature-based cell cycle analysis method presented in this report, would potentially be of value for cancer characterization and diagnostics.

  6. W-phase estimation of first-order rupture distribution for megathrust earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavente, Roberto; Cummins, Phil; Dettmer, Jan

    2014-05-01

    Estimating the rupture pattern for large earthquakes during the first hour after the origin time can be crucial for rapid impact assessment and tsunami warning. However, the estimation of coseismic slip distribution models generally involves complex methodologies that are difficult to implement rapidly. Further, while model parameter uncertainty can be crucial for meaningful estimation, they are often ignored. In this work we develop a finite fault inversion for megathrust earthquakes which rapidly generates good first order estimates and uncertainties of spatial slip distributions. The algorithm uses W-phase waveforms and a linear automated regularization approach to invert for rupture models of some recent megathrust earthquakes. The W phase is a long period (100-1000 s) wave which arrives together with the P wave. Because it is fast, has small amplitude and a long-period character, the W phase is regularly used to estimate point source moment tensors by the NEIC and PTWC, among others, within an hour of earthquake occurrence. We use W-phase waveforms processed in a manner similar to that used for such point-source solutions. The inversion makes use of 3 component W-phase records retrieved from the Global Seismic Network. The inverse problem is formulated by a multiple time window method, resulting in a linear over-parametrized problem. The over-parametrization is addressed by Tikhonov regularization and regularization parameters are chosen according to the discrepancy principle by grid search. Noise on the data is addressed by estimating the data covariance matrix from data residuals. The matrix is obtained by starting with an a priori covariance matrix and then iteratively updating the matrix based on the residual errors of consecutive inversions. Then, a covariance matrix for the parameters is computed using a Bayesian approach. The application of this approach to recent megathrust earthquakes produces models which capture the most significant features of

  7. Phase sensitive distributed vibration sensing based on ultraweak fiber Bragg grating array using double-pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Wang, Feng; Zhang, Xuping; Zhang, Lin; Yuan, Quan; Liu, Yu; Yan, Zhijun

    2017-08-01

    A distributed vibration sensing technique using double-optical-pulse based on phase-sensitive optical time-domain reflectometry (ϕ-OTDR) and an ultraweak fiber Bragg grating (UWFBG) array is proposed for the first time. The single-mode sensing fiber is integrated with the UWFBG array that has uniform spatial interval and ultraweak reflectivity. The relatively high reflectivity of the UWFBG, compared with the Rayleigh scattering, gains a high signal-to-noise ratio for the signal, which can make the system achieve the maximum detectable frequency limited by the round-trip time of the probe pulse in fiber. A corresponding experimental ϕ-OTDR system with a 4.5 km sensing fiber integrated with the UWFBG array was setup for the evaluation of the system performance. Distributed vibration sensing is successfully realized with spatial resolution of 50 m. The sensing range of the vibration frequency can cover from 3 Hz to 9 kHz.

  8. Measurement of precise particle distributions in emittance phase plane in the JHP LEBT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimura, S.; Ueno, A.

    1996-01-01

    A low energy beam transport (LEBT), in which any practical emittance growth due to the lens-aberration would not be caused, was developed for the Japanese Hadron Project (JHP). In the LEBT, we measured the precise distributions in the transverse emittance phase plane of the particles, which were extracted from the volume production H - ion source (VPIS) operated without cesium. The measured results showed good agreements with the simulation results using the initial particles at the exit of the VPIS generated with Ueno-Yokoya distribution (UY-dst), in which the particles are distributed uniformly in the real space (concerning with x and y) and distributed in Gaussian way concerning with x' and y'. We also detected the unexpectedly strong space-charge neutralization effect only with the residual H 2 gas with a pressure of 3.7 x 10 -6 Torr. In this condition, 93% of the beam intensity was neutralized with almost no beam loss due to electron stripping by collisions with H 2 gas. (author)

  9. Hydrophobic silver nanoparticles trapped in lipid bilayers: Size distribution, bilayer phase behavior, and optical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bothun Geoffrey D

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lipid-based dispersion of nanoparticles provides a biologically inspired route to designing therapeutic agents and a means of reducing nanoparticle toxicity. Little is currently known on how the presence of nanoparticles influences lipid vesicle stability and bilayer phase behavior. In this work, the formation of aqueous lipid/nanoparticle assemblies (LNAs consisting of hydrophobic silver-decanethiol particles (5.7 ± 1.8 nm embedded within 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC bilayers is demonstrated as a function of the DPPC/Ag nanoparticle (AgNP ratio. The effect of nanoparticle loading on the size distribution, bilayer phase behavior, and bilayer fluidity is determined. Concomitantly, the effect of bilayer incorporation on the optical properties of the AgNPs is also examined. Results The dispersions were stable at 50°C where the bilayers existed in a liquid crystalline state, but phase separated at 25°C where the bilayers were in a gel state, consistent with vesicle aggregation below the lipid melting temperature. Formation of bilayer-embedded nanoparticles was confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry and fluorescence anisotropy, where increasing nanoparticle concentration suppressed the lipid pretransition temperature, reduced the melting temperature, and disrupted gel phase bilayers. The characteristic surface plasmon resonance (SPR wavelength of the embedded nanoparticles was independent of the bilayer phase; however, the SPR absorbance was dependent on vesicle aggregation. Conclusion These results suggest that lipid bilayers can distort to accommodate large hydrophobic nanoparticles, relative to the thickness of the bilayer, and may provide insight into nanoparticle/biomembrane interactions and the design of multifunctional liposomal carriers.

  10. A study of extracellular matrix remodeling in aortic heart valves using a novel biaxial stretch bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Ying; Masjedi, Shirin; Ferdous, Zannatul

    2017-11-01

    In aortic valves, biaxial cyclic stretch is known to modulate cell differentiation, extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis and organization. We designed a novel bioreactor that can apply independent and precise stretch along radial and circumferential directions in a tissue culture environment. While this bioreactor can be used for either native or engineered tissues, this study determined matrix remodeling and strain distribution of aortic cusps after culturing under biaxial stretch for 14 days. The contents of collagen and glycosaminoglycans were determined using standard biochemical assays and compared with fresh controls. Strain fields in static cusps were more uniform than those in stretched cusps, which indicated degradation of the ECM fibers. The glycosaminoglycan content was significantly elevated in the static control as compared to fresh or stretched cusps, but no difference was observed in collagen content among the groups. The strain profile of freshly isolated fibrosa vs. ventricularis and left, right, and noncoronary cusps were also determined by Digital Image Correlation technique. Distinct strain patterns were observed under stretch on fibrosa and ventricularis sides and among the three cusps. This work highlights the critical role of the anisotropic ECM structure for proper functions of native aortic valves and the beneficial effects of biaxial stretch for maintenance of the native ECM structure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Longitudinal motion in high current ion beams: a self-consistent phase space distribution with an envelope equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuffer, D.

    1979-03-01

    Many applications of particle acceleration, such as heavy ion fusion, require longitudinal bunching of a high intensity particle beam to extremely high particle currents with correspondingly high space charge forces. This requires a precise analysis of longitudinal motion including stability analysis. Previous papers have treated the longitudinal space charge force as strictly linear, and have not been self-consistent; that is, they have not displayed a phase space distribution consistent with this linear force so that the transport of the phase space distribution could be followed, and departures from linearity could be analyzed. This is unlike the situation for transverse phase space where the Kapchinskij--Vladimirskij (K--V) distribution can be used as the basis of an analysis of transverse motion. In this paper a self-consistent particle distribution in longitudinal phase space is derived which is a solution of the Vlasov equation and an envelope equation for this solution is derived

  12. Influence of acidification of circulating water on differential distribution of dispersed phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr B. Gulyaenko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the connection between processing technologies of circulating water cooling tower and coagulation-aggregation properties of colloidal particles of the dispersed phase. In circulating water cooling tower when clarifying additional water the reduction of HCO3- and CO32- concentrations happens with corresponding pH increase. Absorption of atmospheric carbon dioxide by cooling tower circulating water offsets this increase. The estimation of the probability of adhesion to the surface of the dispersed phase, distributed in the volume of circulation water, and the heat exchange surface of the condenser for different degrees of evaporation of the coolant is made. The distribution of cooling water micro-disperse particles which are adsorbed on the heat exchange surfaces of the condenser (deposit formation and on the surface of larger particles (particle aggregation reflects the efficiency of applied water treatment technology. It is shown that acidification of additional water facilitates solution of most fine fractions and increases hardness of treated water.

  13. Real-time generation of the Wigner distribution of complex functions using phase conjugation in photorefractive materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, P C; Fainman, Y

    1990-09-01

    An optical processor for real-time generation of the Wigner distribution of complex amplitude functions is introduced. The phase conjugation of the input signal is accomplished by a highly efficient self-pumped phase conjugator based on a 45 degrees -cut barium titanate photorefractive crystal. Experimental results on the real-time generation of Wigner distribution slices for complex amplitude two-dimensional optical functions are presented and discussed.

  14. Effect of Strain Rate on Microscopic Deformation Behavior of High-density Polyethylene under Uniaxial Stretching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kida Takumitsu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The microscopic deformation behaviors such as the load sharing and the molecular orientation of high-density polyethylene under uniaxial stretching at various strain rates were investigated by using in-situ Raman spectroscopy. The chains within crystalline phase began to orient toward the stretching direction beyond the yielding region and the orientation behavior was not affected by the strain rate. While the stretching stress along the crystalline chains was also not affected by the strain rate, the peak shifts of the Raman bands at 1130, 1418, 1440 and 1460 cm-1, which are sensitive to the interchain interactions obviously, depended on the strain rate; the higher strain rates lead to the stronger stretching stress or negative pressure on the crystalline and amorphous chains. These effects of the strain rate on the microscopic deformation was associated with the cavitation and the void formation leading to the release of the internal pressure.

  15. Coherent time-stretch transformation for real-time capture of wideband signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Brandon W; Madni, Asad M; Jalali, Bahram

    2013-09-09

    Time stretch transformation of wideband waveforms boosts the performance of analog-to-digital converters and digital signal processors by slowing down analog electrical signals before digitization. The transform is based on dispersive Fourier transformation implemented in the optical domain. A coherent receiver would be ideal for capturing the time-stretched optical signal. Coherent receivers offer improved sensitivity, allow for digital cancellation of dispersion-induced impairments and optical nonlinearities, and enable decoding of phase-modulated optical data formats. Because time-stretch uses a chirped broadband (>1 THz) optical carrier, a new coherent detection technique is required. In this paper, we introduce and demonstrate coherent time stretch transformation; a technique that combines dispersive Fourier transform with optically broadband coherent detection.

  16. Study of the solvent effects on the molecular structure and Cdbnd O stretching vibrations of flurbiprofen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekin, Nalan; Pir, Hacer; Sagdinc, Seda

    2012-12-01

    The effects of 15 solvents on the C=O stretching vibrational frequency of flurbiprofen (FBF) were determined to investigate solvent-solute interactions. Solvent effects on the geometry and C=O stretching vibrational frequency, ν(C=O), of FBF were studied theoretically at the DFT/B3LYP and HF level in combination with the polarizable continuum model and experimentally using attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR). The calculated C=O stretching frequencies in the liquid phase are in agreement with experimental values. Moreover, the wavenumbers of ν(C=O) of FBF in different solvents have been obtained and correlated with the Kirkwood-Bauer-Magat equation (KBM), the solvent acceptor numbers (ANs), and the linear solvation energy relationships (LSERs). The solvent-induced stretching vibrational frequency shifts displayed a better correlation with the LSERs than with the ANs and KBM.

  17. Fibril orientation redistribution induced by stretching of cellulose nanofibril hydrogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josefsson, Gabriella; Gamstedt, E. Kristofer; Ahvenainen, Patrik; Mushi, Ngesa Ezekiel

    2015-01-01

    The mechanical performance of materials reinforced by cellulose nanofibrils is highly affected by the orientation of these fibrils. This paper investigates the nanofibril orientation distribution of films of partly oriented cellulose nanofibrils. Stripes of hydrogel films were subjected to different amount of strain and, after drying, examined with X-ray diffraction to obtain the orientation of the nanofibrils in the films, caused by the stretching. The cellulose nanofibrils had initially a random in-plane orientation in the hydrogel films and the strain was applied to the films before the nanofibrils bond tightly together, which occurs during drying. The stretching resulted in a reorientation of the nanofibrils in the films, with monotonically increasing orientation towards the load direction with increasing strain. Estimation of nanofibril reorientation by X-ray diffraction enables quantitative comparison of the stretch-induced orientation ability of different cellulose nanofibril systems. The reorientation of nanofibrils as a consequence of an applied strain is also predicted by a geometrical model of deformation of nanofibril hydrogels. Conversely, in high-strain cold-drawing of wet cellulose nanofibril materials, the enhanced orientation is promoted by slipping of the effectively stiff fibrils

  18. Modified Fourier heat flux on MHD flow over stretched cylinder filled with dust, Graphene and silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamatha Upadhya, S.; Raju, C. S. K.; Saleem, S.; Alderremy, A. A.; Mahesha

    2018-06-01

    A Comprehensive study on laminar, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) boundary layer flow of nanofluid (water + Silver, water + Graphene) embedded with conducting micrometer sized dust particles over a stretching cylinder with the incorporation of Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model is conducted. Appropriate similarity variables are employed to the flow governing equations and the resulting ordinary differential equations are solved by employing Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg method. The results for varied controlling parameters for both dusty nano fluid and dust phase are shown through graphs, table and discussed in detail. Authentication of the obtained results is provided by comparing with published results. Results indicate that Graphene + water dusty nanofluid shows better heat transfer performance compared with Silver + water dusty nanofluid. Improvement in thermal relaxation boosts temperature distribution in both fluid and dust phase.

  19. Distribution of potentially hazardous phases in the subsurface at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guthrie, G.D. Jr.; Bish, D.L.; Chipera, S.J.; Raymond, R. Jr.

    1995-05-01

    Drilling, trenching, excavation of the Exploratory Studies Facility, and other surface and underground-distributing activities have the potential to release minerals into the environment from tuffs at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Some of these minerals may be potential respiratory health hazards. Therefore, an understanding of the distribution of the minerals that may potentially be liberated during site-characterization and operation of the potential repository is crucial to ensuring worker and public safety. Analysis of previously reported mineralogy of Yucca Mountain tuffs using data and criteria from the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) suggests that the following minerals are of potential concern: quartz, cristobalite, tridymite, opal-CT, erionite, mordenite, and palygorskite. The authors have re-evaluated the three-dimensional mineral distribution at Yucca Mountain above the static water level both in bulk-rock samples and in fractures, using quantitative X-ray powder diffraction analysis. Erionite, mordenite, and palygorskite occur primarily in fractures; the crystalline-silica minerals, quartz, cristobalite, and tridymite are major bulk-rock phases. Erionite occurs in the altered zone just above the lower Topopah Spring Member vitrophyre, and an occurrence below the vitrophyre but above the Calico Hills has recently been identified. In this latter occurrence, erionite is present in the matrix at levels up to 35 wt%. Mordenite and palygorskite occur throughout the vadose zone nearly to the surface. Opal-CT is limited to zeolitic horizons

  20. Anomalies in the coil-stretch transition of flexible polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosal, Aishani; Cherayil, Binny J.

    2018-03-01

    The flow-induced coil-stretch transition of high molecular weight polymers has generally been held to be of first order. But evidence of significant slowing down in the rate at which the polymers relax to equilibrium in the vicinity of the transition suggests that the thermodynamic character of the transition may be less clear-cut. The above slowing down effect is actually characteristic of a second-order transition, and it points to the existence of a broad spectrum of conformational states in the transition region, analogous to the existence of fluctuations of all length scales at a critical point. In this paper, using a path integral approach based on a free-draining finitely extensible chain model, we calculate various polymer properties as a function of elongational flow as a way of exploring different statistical mechanical details of the coil-stretch transition. These properties include the molecular weight dependence of the flow-extension curve of the polymer, the distribution of its steady-state end-to-end distances, and the characteristic relaxation time τR of these distances. Among other findings, our calculations indicate that the coil-stretch transition is discontinuous in the N → ∞ limit, that the effective free energy of the chain is unimodal at all values of the flow, becoming broad and flat in the immediate vicinity of the transition, and that the ratio of τR to the Rouse relaxation time increases abruptly at the transition before eventually reaching a plateau value at large flow strengths. These aspects of the coil-stretch transition place it among a larger class of unconventional nominally first-order single chain transitions that include the adsorption transition of surface-tethered polymers and the escape transition of compressed polymers.

  1. Advanced Communication and Control for Distributed Energy Resource Integration: Phase 2 Scientific Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BPL Global

    2008-09-30

    The objective of this research project is to demonstrate sensing, communication, information and control technologies to achieve a seamless integration of multivendor distributed energy resource (DER) units at aggregation levels that meet individual user requirements for facility operations (residential, commercial, industrial, manufacturing, etc.) and further serve as resource options for electric and natural gas utilities. The fully demonstrated DER aggregation system with embodiment of communication and control technologies will lead to real-time, interactive, customer-managed service networks to achieve greater customer value. Work on this Advanced Communication and Control Project (ACCP) consists of a two-phase approach for an integrated demonstration of communication and control technologies to achieve a seamless integration of DER units to reach progressive levels of aggregated power output. Phase I involved design and proof-of-design, and Phase II involves real-world demonstration of the Phase I design architecture. The scope of work for Phase II of this ACCP involves demonstrating the Phase I design architecture in large scale real-world settings while integrating with the operations of one or more electricity supplier feeder lines. The communication and control architectures for integrated demonstration shall encompass combinations of software and hardware components, including: sensors, data acquisition and communication systems, remote monitoring systems, metering (interval revenue, real-time), local and wide area networks, Web-based systems, smart controls, energy management/information systems with control and automation of building energy loads, and demand-response management with integration of real-time market pricing. For Phase II, BPL Global shall demonstrate the Phase I design for integrating and controlling the operation of more than 10 DER units, dispersed at various locations in one or more Independent System Operator (ISO) Control Areas, at

  2. Process Parameter Identification in Thin Film Flows Driven by a Stretching Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyananda Panda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The flow of a thin liquid film over a heated stretching surface is considered in this study. Due to a potential nonuniform temperature distribution on the stretching sheet, a temperature gradient occurs in the fluid which produces surface tension gradient at the free surface of the thin film. As a result, the free surface deforms and these deformations are advected by the flow in the stretching direction. This work focuses on the inverse problem of reconstructing the sheet temperature distribution and the sheet stretch rate from observed free surface variations. This work builds on the analysis of Santra and Dandapat (2009 who, based on the long-wave expansion of the Navier-Stokes equations, formulate a partial differential equation which describes the evolution of the thickness of a film over a nonisothermal stretched surface. In this work, we show that after algebraic manipulation of a discrete form of the governing equations, it is possible to reconstruct either the unknown temperature field on the sheet and hence the resulting heat transfer or the stretching rate of the underlying surface. We illustrate the proposed methodology and test its applicability on a range of test problems.

  3. Stretched polygons in a lattice tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atapour, M [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, York University, Toronto, ON M3J 1P3 (Canada); Soteros, C E [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5E6 (Canada); Whittington, S G [Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H6 (Canada)], E-mail: atapour@mathstat.yorku.ca, E-mail: soteros@math.usask.ca, E-mail: swhittin@chem.utoronto.ca

    2009-08-14

    We examine the topological entanglements of polygons confined to a lattice tube and under the influence of an external tensile force f. The existence of the limiting free energy for these so-called stretched polygons is proved and then, using transfer matrix arguments, a pattern theorem for stretched polygons is proved. Note that the tube constraint allows us to prove a pattern theorem for any arbitrary value of f, while without the tube constraint it has so far only been proved for large values of f. The stretched polygon pattern theorem is used first to show that the average span per edge of a randomly chosen n-edge stretched polygon approaches a positive value, non-decreasing in f, as n {yields} {infinity}. We then show that the knotting probability of an n-edge stretched polygon confined to a tube goes to one exponentially as n {yields} {infinity}. Thus as n {yields} {infinity} when polygons are influenced by a force f, no matter its strength or direction, topological entanglements, as defined by knotting, occur with high probability. (fast track communication)

  4. Stretched polygons in a lattice tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atapour, M; Soteros, C E; Whittington, S G

    2009-01-01

    We examine the topological entanglements of polygons confined to a lattice tube and under the influence of an external tensile force f. The existence of the limiting free energy for these so-called stretched polygons is proved and then, using transfer matrix arguments, a pattern theorem for stretched polygons is proved. Note that the tube constraint allows us to prove a pattern theorem for any arbitrary value of f, while without the tube constraint it has so far only been proved for large values of f. The stretched polygon pattern theorem is used first to show that the average span per edge of a randomly chosen n-edge stretched polygon approaches a positive value, non-decreasing in f, as n → ∞. We then show that the knotting probability of an n-edge stretched polygon confined to a tube goes to one exponentially as n → ∞. Thus as n → ∞ when polygons are influenced by a force f, no matter its strength or direction, topological entanglements, as defined by knotting, occur with high probability. (fast track communication)

  5. Lattice stretching bistability and dynamic heterogeneity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peter Leth; Savin, A. V.; Zolotaryuk, A. V.

    2012-01-01

    A simple one-dimensional lattice model is suggested to describe the experimentally observed plateau in force-stretching diagrams for some macromolecules. This chain model involves the nearest-neighbor interaction of a Morse-like potential (required to have a saturation branch) and a harmonic second......-neighbor coupling. Under an external stretching applied to the chain ends, the intersite Morse-like potential results in the appearance of a double-well potential within each chain monomer, whereas the interaction between the second neighbors provides a homogeneous bistable (degenerate) ground state, at least...... stretched bonds with a double-well potential. This case allows us to explain the existence of a plateau in the force-extension diagram for DNA and α-helix protein. Finally, the soliton dynamics are studied in detail....

  6. Optofluidic time-stretch microscopy: recent advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Cheng; Nitta, Nao; Ozeki, Yasuyuki; Goda, Keisuke

    2018-04-01

    Flow cytometry is an indispensable method for valuable applications in numerous fields such as immunology, pathology, pharmacology, molecular biology, and marine biology. Optofluidic time-stretch microscopy is superior to conventional flow cytometry methods for its capability to acquire high-quality images of single cells at a high-throughput exceeding 10,000 cells per second. This makes it possible to extract copious information from cellular images for accurate cell detection and analysis with the assistance of machine learning. Optofluidic time-stretch microscopy has proven its effectivity in various applications, including microalga-based biofuel production, evaluation of thrombotic disorders, as well as drug screening and discovery. In this review, we discuss the principles and recent advances of optofluidic time-stretch microscopy.

  7. Nonclassicality of Photon-Added Displaced Thermal State via Quantum Phase-Space Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ran; Meng, Xiang-Guo; Du, Chuan-Xun; Wang, Ji-Suo

    2018-02-01

    We introduce a new kind of nonclassical mixed state generated by adding arbitrary photons to a displaced thermal state, i.e., the photon-added displaced thermal state (PADTS), and obtain the normalization factor, which is simply related to two-variable Hermite polynomials. We also discuss the nonclassicality of the PADTS by considering quantum phase-space distributions. The results indicate that the value of the photon count statistics is maximum when the number of detected photons is equal to the number of added photons, and that the photon-added operation has a similar modulation effect with increasing displacement. Moreover, the negative volume of the Wigner function for the PADTS takes a maximal value for a specific photon-added number.

  8. Suppression of Specular Reflections by Metasurface with Engineered Nonuniform Distribution of Reflection Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Mi Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We make preliminary investigations on a new approach to reducing radar cross section (RCS of conducting objects. This approach employs novel planar metasurfaces characterizing nonuniform distribution of reflection phase. The operation principle of this approach and the design rule of the associated metasurfaces are explained using a simplified theoretical model. We then present a design example of such metasurfaces, in which three-layer stacked square patches with variable sizes are utilized as the reflecting elements. The proposed RCS-reduction approach is verified by both numerical simulations and measurements on the example, under the assumption of normal plane wave incidence. It is observed that, in a fairly wide frequency band (from 3.6 to 5.5 GHz, the presented example is capable of suppressing the specular reflections of conducting plates significantly (by more than 7 dB for two orthogonal incident polarizations.

  9. A deteriorating two-system with two repair modes and sojourn times phase-type distributed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoro-Cazorla, Delia; Perez-Ocon, Rafael

    2006-01-01

    We study a two-unit cold standby system in steady-state. The online unit goes through a finite number of stages of successive degradation preceding the failure. The units are reparable, there is a repairman and two types of maintenance are considered, preventive and corrective. The preventive repair aims to improve the degradation of a unit being operative. The corrective repair is necessary when the unit fails. We will assume that the preventive repair will be interrupted in favour of a corrective repair in order to increase the availability of the system. The random operational and repair times follow phase-type distributions. For this system, the stationary probability vector, the replacement times, and the involved costs are calculated. An optimisation problem is illustrated by a numerical example. In this, the optimal degradation stage for the preventive repair of the online unit is determined by taking into account the system availability and the incurred costs

  10. Flux distribution in single phase, Si-Fe, wound transformer cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loizos, George; Kefalas, Themistoklis; Kladas, Antonios; Souflaris, Thanassis; Paparigas, Dimitris

    2008-01-01

    This paper shows experimental results of longitudinal flux density and its harmonics at the limb, the yoke and the corner as well as normal flux in the step lap joint of a single phase, Si-Fe, wound transformer core. Results show that the flux density as well as the harmonics content is higher in the inner (window) side of the core and reduces gradually towards the outer side. Variations of flux density distribution between the limb and the corner or the yoke of the core were observed. A full record of normal flux around the step lap region of the model core was also obtained. Longitudinal and normal flux findings will enable the development of more accurate numerical models that describe the magnetic behavior of magnetic cores

  11. A deteriorating two-system with two repair modes and sojourn times phase-type distributed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montoro-Cazorla, Delia [Departamento de Estadistica e I.O., Escuela Politecnica de Linares, Universidad de Jaen, 23700 Linares, Jaen (Spain); Perez-Ocon, Rafael [Departamento de Estadistica e I.O., Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, Granada 18071 (Spain)]. E-mail: rperezo@ugr.es

    2006-01-01

    We study a two-unit cold standby system in steady-state. The online unit goes through a finite number of stages of successive degradation preceding the failure. The units are reparable, there is a repairman and two types of maintenance are considered, preventive and corrective. The preventive repair aims to improve the degradation of a unit being operative. The corrective repair is necessary when the unit fails. We will assume that the preventive repair will be interrupted in favour of a corrective repair in order to increase the availability of the system. The random operational and repair times follow phase-type distributions. For this system, the stationary probability vector, the replacement times, and the involved costs are calculated. An optimisation problem is illustrated by a numerical example. In this, the optimal degradation stage for the preventive repair of the online unit is determined by taking into account the system availability and the incurred costs.

  12. Robust and flexible mapping for real-time distributed applications during the early design phases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gan, Junhe; Pop, Paul; Gruian, Flavius

    2012-01-01

    has a high chance of being schedulable, considering the wcet uncertainties, whereas a flexible mapping has a high chance to successfully accommodate the future scenarios. We propose a Genetic Algorithm-based approach to solve this optimization problem. Extensive experiments show the importance......We are interested in mapping hard real-time applications on distributed heterogeneous architectures. An application is modeled as a set of tasks, and we consider a fixed-priority preemptive scheduling policy. We target the early design phases, when decisions have a high impact on the subsequent...... in the functionality requirements are captured using “future scenarios”, which are task sets that model functionality likely to be added in the future. In this context, we derive a mapping of tasks in the application, such that the resulted implementation is both robust and flexible. Robust means that the application...

  13. Stretching and folding mechanism in foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tufaile, Alberto; Pedrosa Biscaia Tufaile, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    We have described the stretching and folding of foams in a vertical Hele-Shaw cell containing air and a surfactant solution, from a sequence of upside-down flips. Besides the fractal dimension of the foam, we have observed the logistic growth for the soap film length. The stretching and folding mechanism is present during the foam formation, and this mechanism is observed even after the foam has reached its respective maximum fractal dimension. Observing the motion of bubbles inside the foam, large bubbles present power spectrum associated with random walk motion in both directions, while the small bubbles are scattered like balls in a Galton board

  14. Filament stretching rheometer: inertia compensation revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szabo, Peter; McKinley, Gareth H.

    2003-01-01

    The necessary inertia compensation used in the force balance for the filament stretching rheometer is derived for an arbitrary frame of reference. This enables the force balance to be used to extract correctly the extensional viscosity from measurements of the tensile force at either end of the e......The necessary inertia compensation used in the force balance for the filament stretching rheometer is derived for an arbitrary frame of reference. This enables the force balance to be used to extract correctly the extensional viscosity from measurements of the tensile force at either end...

  15. Stretching and folding mechanism in foams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tufaile, Alberto [Escola de Artes, Ciencias e Humanidades, Soft Matter Laboratory, Universidade de Sao Paulo, 03828-000 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: tufaile@usp.br; Pedrosa Biscaia Tufaile, Adriana [Escola de Artes, Ciencias e Humanidades, Soft Matter Laboratory, Universidade de Sao Paulo, 03828-000 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-10-13

    We have described the stretching and folding of foams in a vertical Hele-Shaw cell containing air and a surfactant solution, from a sequence of upside-down flips. Besides the fractal dimension of the foam, we have observed the logistic growth for the soap film length. The stretching and folding mechanism is present during the foam formation, and this mechanism is observed even after the foam has reached its respective maximum fractal dimension. Observing the motion of bubbles inside the foam, large bubbles present power spectrum associated with random walk motion in both directions, while the small bubbles are scattered like balls in a Galton board.

  16. The WS transform for the Kuramoto model with distributed amplitudes, phase lag and time delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohe, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    We apply the Watanabe-Strogatz (WS) transform to a generalized Kuramoto model with distributed parameters describing the amplitude of oscillation, phase lag, and time delay at each node of the system. The model has global coupling and identical frequencies, but allows for repulsive interactions at arbitrary nodes leading to conformist-contrarian phenomena together with variable amplitude and time-delay effects. We show how to determine the initial values of the WS system for any initial conditions for the Kuramoto system, and investigate the asymptotic behaviour of the WS variables. For the case of zero time delay the possible asymptotic configurations are determined by the sign of a single parameter μ which measures whether or not the attractive nodes dominate the repulsive nodes. If μ>0 the system completely synchronizes from general initial conditions, whereas if μ<0 one of two types of phase-locked synchronization occurs, depending on the initial values, while for μ=0 periodic solutions can occur. For the case of arbitrary non-uniform time delays we derive a stability condition for completely synchronized solutions.

  17. Sequential attack with intensity modulation on the differential-phase-shift quantum-key-distribution protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsurumaru, Toyohiro

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the security of the differential-phase-shift quantum-key-distribution (DPSQKD) protocol by introducing an improved version of the so-called sequential attack, which was originally discussed by Waks et al. [Phys. Rev. A 73, 012344 (2006)]. Our attack differs from the original form of the sequential attack in that the attacker Eve modulates not only the phases but also the amplitude in the superposition of the single-photon states which she sends to the receiver. Concentrating especially on the 'discretized Gaussian' intensity modulation, we show that our attack is more effective than the individual attack, which had been the best attack up to present. As a result of this, the recent experiment with communication distance of 100 km reported by Diamanti et al. [Opt. Express 14, 13073 (2006)] turns out to be insecure. Moreover, it can be shown that in a practical experimental setup which is commonly used today, the communication distance achievable by the DPSQKD protocol is less than 95 km

  18. Use of projectional phase space data to infer a 4D particle distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, A.; Grote, D.P.; Celata, C.M.; Staples, J.W.

    2002-01-01

    We consider beams which are described by a 4D transverse distribution f(x, y, x(prime), y(prime)), where x(prime) (triple b ond) p x /p z and z is the axial coordinate. A two-slit scanner is commonly employed to measure, over a sequence of shots, a 2D projection of such a beam's phase space, e.g., f(x, x(prime)). Another scanner might yield f(y, y(prime)) or, using crossed slits, f(x, y). A small set of such 2D scans does not uniquely specify f(x, y, x(prime), y(prime)). We have developed ''tomographic'' techniques to synthesize a ''reasonable'' set of particles in a 4D phase space having 2D densities consistent with the experimental data. These techniques are described in a separate document [A. Friedman, et. al., submitted to Phys. Rev. ST-AB, 2002]. Here we briefly summarize one method and describe progress in validating it, using simulations of the High Current Experiment at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

  19. Grain Orientation and Interface Character Distribution During Austenite Precipitation Phase in Duplex Stainless Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XU Ting

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The grain orientation and the interface character distribution were investigated for γ precipitation from the supersaturated α during aging at 1323K in duplex stainless steel by using EBSD technique and misorientation analysis based on Rodrigues-Frank (R-F space. The results show that sharp texture and the grain boundary character distribution featured by a high population of low angle grain boundary (LAB and a small number of twin boundaries (TBs are produced in the γ precipitated from cold-rolled supersaturated coarse α with pre-strain of ε=2. The precipitated γ grains approximately possess K-S, N-W and Bain orientation relationship with the α matrix equally. For the unstrained α matrix of the same orientation, nearly random texture and the grain boundary character predominated by TBs are introduced in the γ precipitation after aging. Most of γ have K-S relation with the α matrix. However, twining in γ leads to the deviation from typical K-S orientation relationship. And also, one-fourth of phase boundaries along γ grains containing twins are found to obey a new orientation relationship of 35°/〈110〉 with α matrix.

  20. Broadband diffuse terahertz wave scattering by flexible metasurface with randomized phase distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yin; Liang, Lanju; Yang, Jing; Feng, Yijun; Zhu, Bo; Zhao, Junming; Jiang, Tian; Jin, Biaobing; Liu, Weiwei

    2016-05-26

    Suppressing specular electromagnetic wave reflection or backward radar cross section is important and of broad interests in practical electromagnetic engineering. Here, we present a scheme to achieve broadband backward scattering reduction through diffuse terahertz wave reflection by a flexible metasurface. The diffuse scattering of terahertz wave is caused by the randomized reflection phase distribution on the metasurface, which consists of meta-particles of differently sized metallic patches arranged on top of a grounded polyimide substrate simply through a certain computer generated pseudorandom sequence. Both numerical simulations and experimental results demonstrate the ultralow specular reflection over a broad frequency band and wide angle of incidence due to the re-distribution of the incident energy into various directions. The diffuse scattering property is also polarization insensitive and can be well preserved when the flexible metasurface is conformably wrapped on a curved reflective object. The proposed design opens up a new route for specular reflection suppression, and may be applicable in stealth and other technology in the terahertz spectrum.

  1. Distribution of CCS and HC3N in L1147, an early phase dark cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Taiki; Ohishi, Masatoshi; Hirota, Tomoya

    2014-01-01

    We used the Nobeyama 45 m radio telescope to reveal spatial distributions of CCS and HC 3 N in L1147, one of the carbon-chain producing region (CCPR) candidates, where carbon-chain molecules are dominant rather than NH 3 . We found that three cores (two CCS cores and one HC 3 N core), which are away from a very low luminosity object (a source that may turn into a sub-stellar mass brown dwarf), exist along the NE-SW filament traced by the 850 μm dust continuum. The column densities of CCS are 3-7 × 10 12 cm –2 and those of HC 3 N are 2-6 × 10 12 cm –2 , respectively, much lower than those previously reported toward other CCPRs. We also found that two CCS peaks are displaced from the peaks of HC 3 N. In order to interpret such interleaved distributions, we conducted chemical reaction network simulations and found that slightly different gas densities could lead to large variation of the CCS-to-HC 3 N ratio in the early phase of dark cloud evolution. Such a chemical 'variation' may be seen in other CCPRs. Finally, we were able to confirm that the L1147 filament can be regarded as a CCPR.

  2. Spatial energy distribution around energetic ions in condensed phases. Study by thermoluminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montret-Brugerolle, M.

    1980-01-01

    One describes a model that allows the calculation of the spatial energy distribution around a heavy ion trajectory within the physical step of the phenomena involved (10 -13 s). Experimental data are collected in order to chek the model in the condensed phase. The experimental procedure is thermoluminescence (TL). LiF : Mg, Ti, CaF 2 : Dy and CaF 2 : Mn crystals are irradiated with 60 Co-γ rays and with heavy ions: He, Ne, Cu, Kr of various incident energies. An extensive study of the TL light induced by heavy ions bombardment is carried out as a function of the energy and density of the impinging ions. It is shown that the different response observed with respect to γ-irradiation is due neither to TL traps destruction nor to the recombination of a larger amount of charge-carriers. Experimental data and those obtained from the distribution of energy density are compared, and the agreement is satisfactory. Hence, it is thought that the model may be extended to condensed media [fr

  3. Dynamic stall characterization using modal analysis of phase-averaged pressure distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, Tanner; Nikoueeyan, Pourya; Naughton, Jonathan

    2017-11-01

    Dynamic stall characterization by means of surface pressure measurements can simplify the time and cost associated with experimental investigation of unsteady airfoil aerodynamics. A unique test capability has been developed at University of Wyoming over the past few years that allows for time and cost efficient measurement of dynamic stall. A variety of rotorcraft and wind turbine airfoils have been tested under a variety of pitch oscillation conditions resulting in a range of dynamic stall behavior. Formation, development and separation of different flow structures are responsible for the complex aerodynamic loading behavior experienced during dynamic stall. These structures have unique signatures on the pressure distribution over the airfoil. This work investigates the statistical behavior of phase-averaged pressure distribution for different types of dynamic stall by means of modal analysis. The use of different modes to identify specific flow structures is being investigated. The use of these modes for different types of dynamic stall can provide a new approach for understanding and categorizing these flows. This work uses airfoil data acquired under Army contract W911W60160C-0021, DOE Grant DE-SC0001261, and a gift from BP Alternative Energy North America, Inc.

  4. THE RATIONALE FOR THE USE OF TWO-PHASE SWITCHES FOR THREE-PHASE CONNECTIONS OF DISTRIBUTIVE DEVICE 27.5 KV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. Ya. Sheika

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of materials of scientists of Moscow and Petersburg State Universities of C Ways and NIIEFAENERGO Ltd.» the author of this article with additions has considered a practical possibility of us bipolar switches on three-phase connections of distributive device 27,5 кV.

  5. Cyclic mechanical stretch enhances BMP9-induced osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yang; Tang, Yinhong; Song, Jinlin; Lei, Mingxing; Liang, Panpan; Fu, Tiwei; Su, Xudong; Zhou, Pengfei; Yang, Li; Huang, Enyi

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether mechanical stretch can enhance the bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9)-induced osteogenic differentiation in MSCs. Recombinant adenoviruses were used to overexpress the BMP9 in C3H10T1/2 MSCs. Cells were seeded onto six-well BioFlex collagen I-coated plates and subjected to cyclic mechanical stretch [6% elongation at 60 cycles/minute (1 Hz)] in a Flexercell FX-4000 strain unit for up to 12 hours. Immunostaining and confocal microscope were used to detect cytoskeleton organization. Cell cycle progression was checked by flow cytometry. Alkaline phosphatase activity was measured with a Chemiluminescence Assay Kit and was quantified with a histochemical staining assay. Matrix mineralization was examined by Alizarin Red S Staining. Mechanical stretch induces cytoskeleton reorganization and inhibits cell proliferation by preventing cells entry into S phase of the cell cycle. Although mechanical stretch alone does not induce the osteogenic differentiation of C3H10T1/2 MSCs, co-stimulation with mechanical stretch and BMP9 enhances alkaline phosphatase activity. The expression of key lineage-specific regulators (e.g., osteocalcin (OCN), SRY-related HMG-box 9, and runt-related transcription factor 2) is also increased after the co-stimulation, compared to the mechanical stretch stimulation along. Furthermore, mechanical stretch augments the BMP9-mediated bone matrix mineralization of C3H10T1/2 MSCs. Our results suggest that mechanical stretch enhances BMP9-induced osteoblastic lineage specification in C3H10T1/2 MSCs.

  6. The passive hamstring stretch test: clinical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisk, J W

    1979-03-28

    The passive hamstring stretch test is described. Using a modified goniometer it is shown that independent measurements taken by trained examiners approximate very closely to each other. This establishes the test as a valid objective measurement. The possible value of this test as a research tool in low back pain problems is discussed.

  7. Optical stretching on chip with acoustophoretic prefocusing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoury Arvelo, Maria; Laub Busk, L.; Bruus, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    in the microchannel. Trapping and manipulation is demonstrated for dielectric beads. In addition, we show trapping, manipulation and stretching of red blood cells and vesicles, whereby we extract the elastic properties of these objects. Our design points towards the construction of a low-cost, high-throughput lab...

  8. Filament stretching rheometry of polymer melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassager, Ole; Nielsen, Jens Kromann; Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz

    2005-01-01

    The Filament Stretching Rheometry (FSR) method developed by Sridhar, McKinley and coworkers for polymer solutions has been extended to be used also for polymer melts. The design of a melt-FSR will be described and differences to conventional melt elongational rheometers will be pointed out. Results...

  9. Conjugate Heat Transfer of Mixed Convection for Viscoelastic Fluid Past a Stretching Sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Long Hsiao

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A conjugate heat transfer problem of a second-grade viscoelastic fluid past a stretching sheet has been studied. Governing equations include heat conduction equation of a stretching sheet, continuity equation, momentum equation, and energy equation of a second-grade fluid, analyzed by a combination of a series expansion method, the similarity transformation, and a second-order accurate finite-difference method. These solutions are used to iterate with the heat conduction equation of the stretching sheet to obtain distributions of the local convective heat transfer coefficient and the stretching sheet temperature. Ranges of dimensionless parameters, the Prandtl number Pr, the elastic number E and the conduction-convection coefficient Ncc are from 0.001 to 10, 0.0001 to 0.01, and 0.5 to 2.0, respectively. A parameter G, which is used to represent the dominance of the buoyant effect, is present in governing equations. Results indicated that elastic effect in the flow could increase the local heat transfer coefficient and enhance the heat transfer of a stretching sheet. In addition, same as the results from Newtonian fluid flow and conduction analysis of a stretching sheet, a better heat transfer is obtained with a larger Ncc, G, and E.

  10. The effect of the flow direction inside the header on two-phase flow distribution in parallel vertical channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchitto, A.; Fossa, M.; Guglielmini, G.

    2012-01-01

    Uniform fluid distribution is essential for efficient operation of chemical-processing equipment such as contactors, reactors, mixers, burners and in most refrigeration equipment, where two phases are acting together. To obtain optimum distribution, proper consideration must be given to flow behaviour in the distributor, flow conditions upstream and downstream of the distributor, and the distribution requirements (fluid or phase) of the equipment. Even though the principles of single phase distribution have been well developed for more than three decades, they are frequently not taken in the right account by equipment designers when a mixture is present, and a significant fraction of process equipment consequently suffers from maldistribution. The experimental investigation presented in this paper is aimed at understanding the main mechanisms which drive the flow distribution inside a two-phase horizontal header in order to design improved distributors and to optimise the flow distribution inside compact heat exchanger. Experimentation was devoted to establish the influence of the inlet conditions and of the channel/distributor geometry on the phase/mass distribution into parallel vertical channels. The study is carried out with air–water mixtures and it is based on the measurement of component flow rates in individual channels and on pressure drops across the distributor. The effects of the operating conditions, the header geometry and the inlet port nozzle were investigated in the ranges of liquid and gas superficial velocities of 0.2–1.2 and 1.5–16.5 m/s, respectively. In order to control the main flow direction inside the header, different fitting devices were tested; the insertion of a co-axial, multi-hole distributor inside the header has confirmed the possibility of greatly improving the liquid and gas flow distribution by the proper selection of position, diameter and number of the flow openings between the supplying distributor and the system of

  11. Stretching single fibrin fibers hampers their lysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Lucioni, Tomas; Li, Rongzhong; Bonin, Keith; Cho, Samuel S; Guthold, Martin

    2017-09-15

    Blood clots, whose main structural component is a mesh of microscopic fibrin fibers, experience mechanical strain from blood flow, clot retraction and interactions with platelets and other cells. We developed a transparent, striated and highly stretchable substrate made from fugitive glue (a styrenic block copolymer) to investigate how mechanical strain affects lysis of single, suspended fibrin fibers. In this suspended fiber assay, lysis manifested itself by fiber elongation, thickening (disassembly), fraying and collapse. Stretching single fibrin fibers significantly hampered their lysis. This effect was seen in uncrosslinked and crosslinked fibers. Crosslinking (without stretching) also hampered single fiber lysis. Our data suggest that strain is a novel mechanosensitive factor that regulates blood clot dissolution (fibrinolysis) at the single fiber level. At the molecular level of single fibrin molecules, strain may distort, or hinder access to, plasmin cleavage sites and thereby hamper lysis. Fibrin fibers are the major structural component of a blood clot. We developed a highly stretchable substrate made from fugitive glue and a suspended fibrin fiber lysis assay to investigate the effect of stretching on single fibrin fibers lysis. The key findings from our experiments are: 1) Fibers thicken and elongate upon lysis; 2) stretching strongly reduces lysis; 3) this effect is more pronounced for uncrosslinked fibers; and 4) stretching fibers has a similar effect on reducing lysis as crosslinking fibers. At the molecular level, strain may distort plasmin cleavage sites, or restrict access to those sites. Our results suggest that strain may be a novel mechanobiological factor that regulates fibrinolysis. Copyright © 2017 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The effects of ramp stretches on active contractions in intact mammalian fast and slow muscle fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutungi, G; Ranatunga, K W

    2001-01-01

    The effects of a ramp stretch (amplitude muscle fibre length (L0), speed twitch tension and twitch tension re-development were examined in intact mammalian (rat) fast and slow muscle fibre bundles. The experiments were done in vitro at 20 degrees C and at an initial sarcomere length of 2.68 microm. In both fibre types, a stretch applied during the rising phase of the twitch response (including the time of stimulation) increased the re-developed twitch tension (15-35%). A stretch applied before the stimulus had little or no effect on the twitch myogram in fast muscle fibres, but it increased the twitch tension (approximately 5%) in slow muscle fibres. A similar stretch had little or no effect on tetanic tension in either muscle fibre type. In general, the results indicate that the contractile-activation mechanism may be stretch sensitive and this is particularly pronounced in slow muscle fibres. Recorded at a high sampling rate and examined at an appropriate time scale, the transitory tension response to a stretch rose in at least two phases; an initial rapid tension rise to a break (break point tension, P1a) followed by a slower tension rise (apparent P2a) to a peak reached at the end of the stretch. Plotted against stretch velocity, P1a tension increased in direct proportion to stretch velocity (viscous-like) whereas, P2a tension (calculated as peak tension minus P1a tension) increased with stretch velocity to a plateau (visco-elastic). Examined at the peak of a twitch, P1a tension had a slope (viscosity coefficient) of 1.8 kN m(-2) per L0 s(-1) in fast fibres and 4.7 kN m(-2) per L0 s(-1) in slow muscle fibres. In the same preparations, P2a tension had a relaxation time of 8 ms in the fast muscle fibres and 25 ms in the slow muscle fibres. The amplitudes of both tension components scaled with the instantaneous twitch tension in qualitatively the same way as the instantaneous fibre stiffness. These fast/slow fibre type differences probably reflect differences in

  13. Detecting phase separation of freeze-dried binary amorphous systems using pair-wise distribution function and multivariate data analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chieng, Norman; Trnka, Hjalte; Boetker, Johan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the use of multivariate data analysis for powder X-ray diffraction-pair-wise distribution function (PXRD-PDF) data to detect phase separation in freeze-dried binary amorphous systems. Polymer-polymer and polymer-sugar binary systems at various ratios were...... freeze-dried. All samples were analyzed by PXRD, transformed to PDF and analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA). These results were validated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) through characterization of glass transition of the maximally freeze-concentrate solute (Tg'). Analysis of PXRD......-PDF data using PCA provides a more clear 'miscible' or 'phase separated' interpretation through the distribution pattern of samples on a score plot presentation compared to residual plot method. In a phase separated system, samples were found to be evenly distributed around the theoretical PDF profile...

  14. How to determine local stretching and tension in a flow-stretched DNA molecule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jonas Nyvold; Marie, Rodolphe; Kristensen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    We determine the nonuniform stretching of and tension in amega base pairs-long fragment of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) that is flow stretched in a nanofluidic chip. We use no markers, do not know the contour length of the DNA, and do not have the full DNA molecule inside our field of view. Instead......, we analyze the transverse thermal motion of the DNA. Tension at the center of the DNA adds up to 16 pN, giving almost fully stretched DNA. This method was devised for optical mapping of DNA, specifically, DNA denaturation patterns. It may be useful also for other studies, e.g., DNA......-protein interactions, specifically, their tension dependence. Generally, wherever long strands of DNA—e.g., native DNA extracted from human cells or bacteria—must be stretched with ease for inspection, this method applies....

  15. Phase distribution and microstructural changes of self-compacting cement paste at elevated temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, G.; Liu, X.; De Schutter, G.; Taerwe, L.; Vandevelde, P.

    2007-01-01

    Self-compacting concrete, as a new smart building material with various advanced properties, has been used for a wide range of structures and infrastructures. However little investigation have been reported on the properties of Self-compacting when it is exposed to elevated temperatures. Previous experiments on fire test have shown the differences between high performance concrete and traditional concrete at elevated temperature. This difference is largely depending on the microstructural properties of concrete matrix, i.e. the cement paste, especially on the porosity, pore size distribution and the connectivity of pores in cement pastes. In this contribution, the investigations are focused on the cement paste. The phase distribution and microstructural changes of self-compacting cement paste at elevated temperatures are examined by mercury intrusion porosimetry and scanning electron microscopy. The chemical decomposition of self-compacting cement paste at different temperatures is determined by thermogravimetric analysis. The experimental results of self-compacting cement paste are compared with those of high performance cement paste and traditional cement paste. It was found that self-compacting cement paste shows a higher change of the total porosity in comparison with high performance cement paste. When the temperature is higher than 700 deg. C, a dramatic loss of mass was observed in the self-compacting cement paste samples with addition of limestone filler. This implies that the SCC made by this type of self-compacting cement paste will probably show larger damage once exposed to fire. Investigation has shown that 0.5 kg/m 3 of Polypropylene fibers in the self-compacting cement paste can avoid the damage efficiently

  16. Changes in distribution of cell cycle phases and DNA content in HeLa S3 cell after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shunbao

    1992-01-01

    The effects of irradiation and hyperthermia on the distribution in various phases and DNA content of HeLa S 3 cells were analyzed by flow cytometry and an image analysis instrument. A marked increase in DNA content from 6.718 to 9.614(AU) in HeLa S 3 cells after 6 Gy irradiation was seen to correspond with the changes in the distribution of various phases in G 2 + M, from 22% to 52%. Meanwhile, the surviving fraction of HeLa S 3 cells after 6 Gy irradiation was less than 1%. However, after heating at 44 deg C for 10 min, the amount of cells in G 2 + M increased from 22.5% to 52.5% and the surviving fraction after hyperthermia was less than 2.65%. The changes in distribution of various phases after Ir-192 irradiation were similar to those seen after X-ray irradiation. The delay of G 2 + M phase after treatment with 8 Gy plus heating at 44 deg C for 7 min in HeLa S 3 cells was similar to that seen in the case of treatment with 8 Gy alone. As the surviving fraction accompanying the G 2 + M delay after irradiation plus heat treatment was very low, we suggest that the changes of distribution in various phases of HeLa S 3 cells after treatment might be used as a rapid indicator of serious injury

  17. Multicritical phase diagrams of the Blume-Emery-Griffiths model with repulsive biquadratic coupling including metastable phases: the pair approximation and the path probability method with pair distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keskin, Mustafa; Erdinc, Ahmet

    2004-01-01

    As a continuation of the previously published work, the pair approximation of the cluster variation method is applied to study the temperature dependences of the order parameters of the Blume-Emery-Griffiths model with repulsive biquadratic coupling on a body centered cubic lattice. We obtain metastable and unstable branches of the order parameters besides the stable branches and phase transitions of these branches are investigated extensively. We study the dynamics of the model by the path probability method with pair distribution in order to make sure that we find and define the metastable and unstable branches of the order parameters completely and correctly. We present the metastable phase diagram in addition to the equilibrium phase diagram and also the first-order phase transition line for the unstable branches of the quadrupole order parameter is superimposed on the phase diagrams. It is found that the metastable phase diagram and the first-order phase boundary for the unstable quadrupole order parameter always exist at the low temperatures which are consistent with experimental and theoretical works

  18. Theta-alpha EEG phase distributions in the frontal area for dissociation of visual and auditory working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Masakazu; Tero, Atsushi; Kawasaki, Masahiro; Nishiura, Yasumasa; Yamaguchi, Yoko

    2017-03-07

    Working memory (WM) is known to be associated with synchronization of the theta and alpha bands observed in electroencephalograms (EEGs). Although frontal-posterior global theta synchronization appears in modality-specific WM, local theta synchronization in frontal regions has been found in modality-independent WM. How frontal theta oscillations separately synchronize with task-relevant sensory brain areas remains an open question. Here, we focused on theta-alpha phase relationships in frontal areas using EEG, and then verified their functional roles with mathematical models. EEG data showed that the relationship between theta (6 Hz) and alpha (12 Hz) phases in the frontal areas was about 1:2 during both auditory and visual WM, and that the phase distributions between auditory and visual WM were different. Next, we used the differences in phase distributions to construct FitzHugh-Nagumo type mathematical models. The results replicated the modality-specific branching by orthogonally of the trigonometric functions for theta and alpha oscillations. Furthermore, mathematical and experimental results were consistent with regards to the phase relationships and amplitudes observed in frontal and sensory areas. These results indicate the important role that different phase distributions of theta and alpha oscillations have in modality-specific dissociation in the brain.

  19. EFFECTIVENESS OF PNF STRETCHING AND CYCLIC STRETCHING OF CALF TIGHTNESS ON COLLEGE GOING GIRLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashlesha Sirari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Flexibility helps with injury prevention, the reduction of soreness following a workout, and a general sense of well-being. There are different stretching techniques and protocols for improvements in calf extensibility and flexibility. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of two techniques i.e. CYCLIC and PNF stretching which improves calf flexibility. This study was done to find the effectiveness of calf Cyclic and PNF stretching technique to improve calf flexibility. Methods: 30 subjects with age group 21-22 years were randomly allocated to 2 groups equally. Group 1(n=15 were given CYCLIC and group 2(n=15 were given PNF stretching technique. Plantar flexion was used to measure the calf tightness which was done before and after the treatment. Treatment was given for 7 days and on the 7th day the calf tightness was again measured. Results: The mean difference of the CYCLIC is 4.6 and mean difference of PNF is 4.7 which indicate that CYCLIC and PNF both are effective to improve calf flexibility but PNF is more effective than CYCLIC to improve calf flexibility. Conclusion: The neurophysiological basis of PNF, stating that the excitatory efficient of the neuromuscular spindle or the inhibitory afferent of the Golgi tendon organ (GTO or both are responsible for the effects. During PNF stretch and isometric contraction of stretched agonists for extended period may cause activation of its neuromuscular spindle. The increase in tension created during the isometric contraction of the pre – lengthened agonist contracts concentrically. Both the fascia & the spindle of the agonist adjust to the nearly lengthened position. These impulses travel via causing post synaptic inhibition of the motor neuron to agonist increasing the tension from the GTO. These impulses can override the impulses coming from the neuromuscular spindles arousing the muscle to reflexly resist to the change in length, thus helping in lengthening

  20. Flexibility and stretching physiology : responses and adaptations to different stretching intensities.

    OpenAIRE

    Freitas, Sandro Remo Martins Neves Ramos

    2014-01-01

    Doutoramento em Motricidade Humana, especialidade de Biomecânica Research and reported literature regarding the conceptual, methodological, and training effects of stretching with different intensities are scarce. The purposes of this thesis were to: i) explore and develop methodological conditions to achieve the second purpose (studies: 1 to 3); ii) characterize the acute and chronic effects induced by different stretching intensities on skeletal muscle and joint mechanical properti...

  1. Stretch-dependent slow force response in isolated rabbit myocardium is Na+ dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Lewinski, Dirk; Stumme, Burkhard; Maier, Lars S; Luers, Claus; Bers, Donald M; Pieske, Burkert

    2003-03-15

    Stretch induces functional and trophic effects in mammalian myocardium via various signal transduction pathways. We tested stretch signal transduction on immediate and slow force response (SFR) in rabbit myocardium. Experiments were performed in isolated right ventricular muscles from adult rabbit hearts (37 degrees C, 1 Hz stimulation rate, bicarbonate-buffer). Muscles were rapidly stretched from 88% of optimal length (L88) to near optimal length (L98) for functional analysis. The resulting immediate and slow increases in twitch force (first phase and SFR, respectively) were assessed at reduced [Na+]o or without and with blockade of stretch activated ion channels (SACs), angiotensin-II (AT1) receptors, endothelin-A (ET(A)) receptors, Na+/H+-exchange (NHE1), reverse mode Na+/Ca2+-exchange (NCX), or Na+/K+-ATPase. The effects of stretch on sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-load were characterized using rapid cooling contractures (RCCs). Intracellular pH was measured in BCECF-AM loaded muscles, and action potential duration (APD) was assessed using floating electrodes. On average, force increased to 216+/-8% of the pre-stretch value during the immediate phase, followed by a further increase to 273+/-10% during the SFR (n=81). RCCs significantly increased during SFR, whereas pH and APD did not change. Neither inhibition of SACs, AT1, or ET(A) receptors affected the stretch-dependent immediate phase nor SFR. In contrast, SFR was reduced by NHE inhibition and almost completely abolished by reduced [Na+]o or inhibition of reverse-mode NCX, whereas increased SFR was seen after raising [Na+]i by Na+/K+-ATPase inhibition. The data demonstrate the existence of a delayed, Na+- and Ca2+-dependent but pH and APD independent SFR to stretch in rabbit myocardium. This inotropic response appears to be independent of autocrine/paracrine AT1 or ET(A) receptor activation, but mediated through stretch-induced activation of NHE and reverse mode NCX.

  2. Passive Stretch Versus Active Stretch on Intervertebral Movement in Non - Specific Neck Pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El - Aziz, A.H.; Amin, D.I.; Moustafa, I.

    2016-01-01

    Neck pain is one of the most common and painful musculoskeletal conditions. Point prevalence ranges from 6% to 22% and up to 38% of the elderly population, while lifetime prevalence ranges from 14,2% to 71%. Up till now no randomized study showed the effect between controversy of active and passive stretch on intervertebral movement. The purpose: the current study was to investigate the effect of the passive and active stretch on intervertebral movement in non - specific neck pain. Material and methods: Forty five subjects from both sexes with age range between 18 and 30 years and assigned in three groups, group I (15) received active stretch, ultrasound and TENS. Group II (15) received passive stretch, ultrasound and TENS. Group III (15) received ultrasound and TENS. The radiological assessment was used to measure rotational and translational movement of intervertebral movement before and after treatment. Results: MANOVA test was used for radiological assessment before and after treatment there was significant increase in intervertebral movement in group I as p value =0.0001. Conclusion: active stretch had a effect in increasing the intervertebral movement compared to the passive stretch

  3. Stretched exponential dynamics of coupled logistic maps on a small-world network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Ashwini V.; Gade, Prashant M.

    2018-02-01

    We investigate the dynamic phase transition from partially or fully arrested state to spatiotemporal chaos in coupled logistic maps on a small-world network. Persistence of local variables in a coarse grained sense acts as an excellent order parameter to study this transition. We investigate the phase diagram by varying coupling strength and small-world rewiring probability p of nonlocal connections. The persistent region is a compact region bounded by two critical lines where band-merging crisis occurs. On one critical line, the persistent sites shows a nonexponential (stretched exponential) decay for all p while for another one, it shows crossover from nonexponential to exponential behavior as p → 1 . With an effectively antiferromagnetic coupling, coupling to two neighbors on either side leads to exchange frustration. Apart from exchange frustration, non-bipartite topology and nonlocal couplings in a small-world network could be a reason for anomalous relaxation. The distribution of trap times in asymptotic regime has a long tail as well. The dependence of temporal evolution of persistence on initial conditions is studied and a scaling form for persistence after waiting time is proposed. We present a simple possible model for this behavior.

  4. Distributed Two-Dimensional Fourier Transforms on DSPs with an Application for Phase Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeffrey Scott

    2006-01-01

    Many applications of two-dimensional Fourier Transforms require fixed timing as defined by system specifications. One example is image-based wavefront sensing. The image-based approach has many benefits, yet it is a computational intensive solution for adaptive optic correction, where optical adjustments are made in real-time to correct for external (atmospheric turbulence) and internal (stability) aberrations, which cause image degradation. For phase retrieval, a type of image-based wavefront sensing, numerous two-dimensional Fast Fourier Transforms (FFTs) are used. To meet the required real-time specifications, a distributed system is needed, and thus, the 2-D FFT necessitates an all-to-all communication among the computational nodes. The 1-D floating point FFT is very efficient on a digital signal processor (DSP). For this study, several architectures and analysis of such are presented which address the all-to-all communication with DSPs. Emphasis of this research is on a 64-node cluster of Analog Devices TigerSharc TS-101 DSPs.

  5. Multi-phase AC/AC step-down converter for distribution systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeloiza, Eddy C.; Burgos, Rolando P.

    2017-10-25

    A step-down AC/AC converter for use in an electric distribution system includes at least one chopper circuit for each one of a plurality of phases of the AC power, each chopper circuit including a four-quadrant switch coupled in series between primary and secondary sides of the chopper circuit and a current-bidirectional two-quadrant switch coupled between the secondary side of the chopper circuit and a common node. Each current-bidirectional two-quadrant switch is oriented in the same direction, with respect to the secondary side of the corresponding chopper circuit and the common node. The converter further includes a control circuit configured to pulse-width-modulate control inputs of the switches, to convert a first multiphase AC voltage at the primary sides of the chopper circuits to a second multiphase AC voltage at the secondary sides of the chopper circuits, the second multiphase AC voltage being lower in voltage than the first multiphase AC voltage.

  6. Phase-remapping attack in practical quantum-key-distribution systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fung, Chi-Hang Fred; Qi, Bing; Lo, Hoi-Kwong; Tamaki, Kiyoshi

    2007-01-01

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) can be used to generate secret keys between two distant parties. Even though QKD has been proven unconditionally secure against eavesdroppers with unlimited computation power, practical implementations of QKD may contain loopholes that may lead to the generated secret keys being compromised. In this paper, we propose a phase-remapping attack targeting two practical bidirectional QKD systems (the 'plug-and-play' system and the Sagnac system). We showed that if the users of the systems are unaware of our attack, the final key shared between them can be compromised in some situations. Specifically, we showed that, in the case of the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) protocol with ideal single-photon sources, when the quantum bit error rate (QBER) is between 14.6% and 20%, our attack renders the final key insecure, whereas the same range of QBER values has been proved secure if the two users are unaware of our attack; also, we demonstrated three situations with realistic devices where positive key rates are obtained without the consideration of Trojan horse attacks but in fact no key can be distilled. We remark that our attack is feasible with only current technology. Therefore, it is very important to be aware of our attack in order to ensure absolute security. In finding our attack, we minimize the QBER over individual measurements described by a general POVM, which has some similarity with the standard quantum state discrimination problem

  7. The correlation of defect distribution in collisional phase with measured cascade collapse probability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishita, K.; Ishino, S.; Sekimura, N.

    1995-01-01

    The spatial distributions of atomic displacement at the end of the collisional phase of cascade damage processes were calculated using the computer simulation code MARLOWE, which is based on the binary collision approximation (BCA). The densities of the atomic displacement were evaluated in high dense regions (HDRs) of cascades in several pure metals (Fe, Ni, Cu, Ag, Au, Mo and W). They were compared with the measured cascade collapse probabilities reported in the literature where TEM observations were carried out using thin metal foils irradiated by low-dose ions at room temperature. We found that there exists the minimum or ''critical'' values of the atomic displacement densities for the HDR to collapse into TEM-visible vacancy clusters. The critical densities are generally independent of the cascade energy in the same metal. Furthermore, the material dependence of the critical densities can be explained by the difference in the vacancy mobility at the melting temperature of target materials. This critical density calibration, which is extracted from the ion-irradiation experiments and the BCA simulations, is applied to estimation of cascade collapse probabilities in the metals irradiated by fusion neutrons. (orig.)

  8. Equilibrium phase-space distributions and space charge limits in linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lysenko, W.P.

    1977-10-01

    Limits on beam current and emittance in proton and heavy ion linear accelerators resulting from space charge forces are calculated. The method involves determining equilibrium distributions in phase space using a continuous focusing, no acceleration, model in two degrees of freedom using the coordinates r and z. A nonlinear Poisson equation must be solved numerically. This procedure is a matching between the longitudinal and transverse directions to minimize the effect of longitudinal-transverse coupling which is believed to be the main problem in emittance growth due to space charge in linacs. Limits on the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) accelerator performance are calculated as an example. The beam physics is described by a few space charge parameters so that accelerators with different physical parameters can be compared in a natural way. The main result of this parameter study is that the requirement of a high-intensity beam is best fulfilled with a low-frequency accelerator whereas the requirement of a high-brightness beam is best fulfilled with a high-frequency accelerator

  9. Practical round-robin differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhen; Yuan, Xiao; Cao, Zhu; Ma, Xiongfeng

    2017-01-01

    The security of quantum key distribution (QKD) relies on the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, with which legitimate users are able to estimate information leakage by monitoring the disturbance of the transmitted quantum signals. Normally, the disturbance is reflected as bit flip errors in the sifted key; thus, privacy amplification, which removes any leaked information from the key, generally depends on the bit error rate. Recently, a round-robin differential-phase-shift QKD protocol for which privacy amplification does not rely on the bit error rate (Sasaki et al 2014 Nature 509 475) was proposed. The amount of leaked information can be bounded by the sender during the state-preparation stage and hence, is independent of the behavior of the unreliable quantum channel. In our work, we apply the tagging technique to the protocol and present a tight bound on the key rate and employ a decoy-state method. The effects of background noise and misalignment are taken into account under practical conditions. Our simulation results show that the protocol can tolerate channel error rates close to 50% within a typical experiment setting. That is, there is a negligible restriction on the error rate in practice. (paper)

  10. Optimal threshold of error decision related to non-uniform phase distribution QAM signals generated from MZM based on OCS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xifeng; Zhou, Wen

    2018-03-01

    Optical vector radio-frequency (RF) signal generation based on optical carrier suppression (OCS) in one Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) can realize frequency-doubling. In order to match the phase or amplitude of the recovered quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) signal, phase or amplitude pre-coding is necessary in the transmitter side. The detected QAM signals usually have one non-uniform phase distribution after square-law detection at the photodiode because of the imperfect characteristics of the optical and electrical devices. We propose to use optimal threshold of error decision for non-uniform phase contribution to reduce the bit error rate (BER). By employing this scheme, the BER of 16 Gbaud (32 Gbit/s) quadrature-phase-shift-keying (QPSK) millimeter wave signal at 36 GHz is improved from 1 × 10-3 to 1 × 10-4 at - 4 . 6 dBm input power into the photodiode.

  11. Effect of spinal manipulative therapy with stretching compared with stretching alone on full-swing performance of golf players: a randomized pilot trial☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Soraya M.V.; Chibana, Yumi E.T.; Giavarotti, Leandro; Compagnoni, Débora S.; Shiono, Adriana H.; Satie, Janice; Bracher, Eduardo S.B.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Objective There has been a steady growth of chiropractic treatment using spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) that aims to increase the performance of athletes in various sports. This study evaluates the effect of SMT by chiropractors on the performance of golf players. Methods Golfers of 2 golf clubs in São Paulo, Brazil, participated in this study. They were randomized to 1 of 2 groups: Group I received a stretch program, and group II received a stretch program in addition to SMT. Participants in both groups performed the same standardized stretching program. Spinal manipulative therapy to dysfunctional spinal segments was performed on group II only. All golfers performed 3 full-swing maneuvers. Ball range was considered as the average distance for the 3 shots. Treatment was performed after the initial measurement, and the same maneuvers were performed afterward. Each participant repeated these procedures for a 4-week period. Student t test, Mann-Whitney nonparametric test, and 1-way analysis of variance for repeated measures with significance level of 5% were used to analyze the study. Results Forty-three golfers completed the protocol. Twenty participants were allocated to group I and 23 to group II. Average age, handicap, and initial swing were comparable. No improvement of full-swing performance was observed during the 4 sessions on group I (stretch only). An improvement was observed at the fourth session of group II (P = .005); when comparing the posttreatment, group II had statistical significance at all phases (P = .003). Conclusions Chiropractic SMT in association with muscle stretching may be associated with an improvement of full-swing performance when compared with muscle stretching alone. PMID:19948307

  12. Hydromagnetic Flow and Heat Transfer over a Porous Oscillating Stretching Surface in a Viscoelastic Fluid with Porous Medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sami Ullah; Ali, Nasir; Abbas, Zaheer

    2015-01-01

    An analysis is carried out to study the heat transfer in unsteady two-dimensional boundary layer flow of a magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) second grade fluid over a porous oscillating stretching surface embedded in porous medium. The flow is induced due to infinite elastic sheet which is stretched periodically. With the help of dimensionless variables, the governing flow equations are reduced to a system of non-linear partial differential equations. This system has been solved numerically using the finite difference scheme, in which a coordinate transformation is used to transform the semi-infinite physical space to a bounded computational domain. The influence of the involved parameters on the flow, the temperature distribution, the skin-friction coefficient and the local Nusselt number is shown and discussed in detail. The study reveals that an oscillatory sheet embedded in a fluid-saturated porous medium generates oscillatory motion in the fluid. The amplitude and phase of oscillations depends on the rheology of the fluid as well as on the other parameters coming through imposed boundary conditions, inclusion of body force term and permeability of the porous medium. It is found that amplitude of flow velocity increases with increasing viscoelastic and mass suction/injection parameters. However, it decreases with increasing the strength of the applied magnetic field. Moreover, the temperature of fluid is a decreasing function of viscoelastic parameter, mass suction/injection parameter and Prandtl number.

  13. The influence of stretching on tensile strength and solubility of poly(vinyl alcohol) fibres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heikens, D.; Bleijenberg, A.C.A.M.; Hoppenbrouwers, J.J.M.; Barentsen, W.M.

    1971-01-01

    The strength of wet-spun poly(vinyl alcohol) (pva) fibres is given as function of bath-stretching, wet-stretching and hot-stretching. In the two equations derived for strength of wet-stretching and hot-stretching the complex influence of the bath-stretching and hot-stretching is demonstrated. The

  14. Stretch strength of Al-Li alloy sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, K.; Sawa, Y.; Yokoyama, T.; Fujimoto, S. [Science Univ. of Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Mech. Eng.; Sakamoto, T. [Kobe Steel Works, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-07-01

    Stretch test on Al-Li alloy sheet was carried out in stretch rate of 0.01 to 0.2 mm/sec. The limiting stretch depth was measured in various conditions and the following results were obtained. (1) Stretch rate does not affect the limiting stretch depth of Al-Li alloy. (2) The limiting stretch depth is increased with increase of the profile radius. (3) Strain hardening exponent(n-value) and r-value of Lankford do not affect the limiting stretch depth. (4) Rapture pattern in stretch test of Al is {alpha} type rapture and that of Al-Li alloy is straight line type rapture. (orig.) 4 refs.

  15. String Stretching, Frequency Modulation, and Banjo Clang

    OpenAIRE

    Politzer, David

    2014-01-01

    The banjo’s floating bridge, string break angle, and flexible drumhead all contribute to substantial audio range frequency modulation. From the world of electronic music synthesis, it is known that modulating higher frequency sounds with lower acoustic frequencies leads to metallic and bell-like tone. The mechanics of the banjo does just that quite naturally, modulating fundamentals and harmonics with the motion of the bridge. In technical terms, with a floating bridge, string stretching is f...

  16. The stretch zone of automotive steel sheets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The stretch zone of automotive steel sheets. L' AMBRIŠKO1,∗ and L PEŠEK2. 1Institute of Structural Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering,. Technical University of Košice, Vysokoškolská 4, 042 00 Košice, Slovak Republic. 2Department of Materials Science, Faculty of Metallurgy,. Technical University of Košice, Letná 9, ...

  17. Weak depth and along-strike variations in stretching from a multi-episodic finite stretching model: Evidence for uniform pure-shear extension in the opening of the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Zhang, Zhongjie; Song, Haibin

    2013-12-01

    The South China Sea is widely believed to have been opened by seafloor spreading during the Cenozoic. The details of its lithospheric extension are still being debated, and it is unknown whether pure, simple, or conjunct shears are responsible for the opening of the South China Sea. The depth-dependent and along-strike extension derived from the single-stage finite stretching model or instantaneous stretching model is inconsistent with the observation that the South China Sea proto-margins have experienced multi-episodic extension since the Late Cretaceous. Based on the multi-episodic finite stretching model, we present the amount of lithosphere stretching at the northern continental margin of the South China Sea for different depth scales (upper crust, whole crust and lithosphere) and along several transects. The stretching factors are estimated by integrating seven deep-penetration seismic profiles, the Moho distribution derived from gravity modeling, and the tectonic subsidence data for 41 wells. The results demonstrate that the amount of stretching increases rapidly from 1.1 at the continent shelf to over 3.5 at the lower slope, but the stretching factors at the crust and lithosphere scales are consistent within error (from the uncertainty in paleobathymetry and sea-level change). Furthermore, the along-strike variation in stretching factor is within the range of 1.11-1.9 in west-east direction, accompanied by significant west-east differences in the thickness of high-velocity layers (HVLs) within the lowermost crust. This weak along-strike variation of the stretching factor is most likely produced by the preexisting contrasts in the composition and thermal structure of the lithosphere. The above observations suggest that the continental extension in the opening of the South China Sea mainly takes the form of a uniform pure shear rather than depth-dependent stretching.

  18. Unravelling the role of quantum interference in the weak-field laser phase modulation control of photofragment distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García-Vela, Alberto; Henriksen, Niels Engholm

    2016-01-01

    The role played by quantum interference in the laser phase modulation coherent control of photofragment distributions in the weak-field regime is investigated in detail in this work. The specific application involves realistic wave packet calculations of the transient vibrational populations of t...

  19. Dynamics and structure of stretched flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, C.K. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This program aims to gain fundamental understanding on the structure, geometry, and dynamics of laminar premixed flames, and relate these understanding to the practical issues of flame extinction and stabilization. The underlying fundamental interest here is the recent recognition that the response of premixed flames can be profoundly affected by flame stretch, as manifested by flow nonuniformity, flame curvature, and flame/flow unsteadiness. As such, many of the existing understanding on the behavior of premixed flames need to be qualitatively revised. The research program consists of three major thrusts: (1) detailed experimental and computational mapping of the structure of aerodynamically-strained planar flames, with emphasis on the effects of heat loss, nonequidiffusion, and finite residence time on the flame thickness, extent of incomplete reaction, and the state of extinction. (2) Analytical study of the geometry and dynamics of stretch-affected wrinkled flame sheets in simple configurations, as exemplified by the Bunsen flame and the spatially-periodic flame, with emphasis on the effects of nonlinear stretch, the phenomena of flame cusping, smoothing, and tip opening, and their implications on the structure and burning rate of turbulent flames. (3) Stabilization and blowoff of two-dimensional inverted premixed and stabilization and determining the criteria governing flame blowoff. The research is synergistically conducted through the use of laser-based diagnostics, computational simulation of the flame structure with detailed chemistry and transport, and mathematical analysis of the flame dynamics.

  20. Stretches of alternating pyrimidine/purines and purines are respectively linked with pathogenicity and growth temperature in prokaryotes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ussery, David; Bohlin, J; Hardy, SP

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The genomic fractions of purine (RR) and alternating pyrimidine/purine (YR) stretches of 10 base pairs or more, have been linked to genomic AT content, the formation of different DNA helices, strand-biased gene distribution, DNA structure, and more. Although some of these factors are ...... phyla. RR stretches are overrepresented in all phyla except for the Actinobacteria and beta-Proteobacteria. In contrast, YR tracts are underrepresented in all phyla except for the beta-Proteobacterial group. YR-stretches are associated with phylum, pathogenicity and habitat, whilst RR...

  1. Temperature distributions in trapezoidal built in storage solar water heaters with/without phase change materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarhan, Sefa; Sari, Ahmet; Yardim, M. Hakan

    2006-01-01

    Built in storage solar water heaters (BSSWHs) have been recognized for their more compact constructions and faster solar gain than conventional solar water heaters, however, their water temperatures quickly go down during the cooling period. A trapezoidal BSSWH without PCM storage unit was used as the control heater (reference) to investigate the effect of two differently configured PCM storage units on the temperature distributions in water tanks. In the first design, myristic acid was filled into the PCM storage tank, which also served as an absorbing plate. In the second design, lauric acid was filled into the PCM storage tank, which also served as a baffle plate. The water temperature changes were followed by five thermocouples placed evenly and longitudinally into each of the three BSSWHs. The effects of the PCMs on the water temperature distributions depended on the configuration of the PCM storage unit and the longitudinal position in the water tanks. The use of lauric acid lowered the values of the peak temperatures by 15% compared to the control heater at the upper portion of the water tanks because of the low melting temperature of lauric acid, but it did not have any consistent effect on the retention of the water temperatures during the cooling period. The ability of the myristic acid storage unit to retain the water temperatures got more remarkable, especially at the middle portion of the water tank. The myristic acid storage increased the dip temperatures by approximately 8.8% compared to the control heater. In conclusion, lauric acid storage can be used to stabilize the water temperature during the day time, while the myristic acid storage unit can be used as a thermal barrier against heat loss during the night time because of its relatively high melting temperature and low heat conduction coefficient in its solid phase. The experimental results have also indicated that the thermal characteristics of the PCM and the configuration of the PCM storage

  2. Morphology and distribution of martensite in dual phase (DP980) steel and its relation to the multiscale mechanical behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Fan, E-mail: fan.zhang@wsu.edu [School of Mechanical and Material Eng., Washington State University (United States); Ruimi, Annie [Department of Mechanical Eng., Texas A& M University at Qatar, Doha (Qatar); Wo, Pui Ching; Field, David P. [School of Mechanical and Material Eng., Washington State University (United States)

    2016-04-06

    Among generations of advanced high-strength steel alloys, dual-phase steels exhibit a unique combination of strength and formability making them excellent candidates for use in the automotive industry. In this study, we seek to establish a relation between mechanical properties and microstructure of DP980. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD)and nanoindentation are used to identify and characterize martensite and ferrite phases. Spatial distributions of martensite and ferrite phases of subjected to various annealing treatments are found using a 2-point correlation function. Micro- and macro-mechanical properties are measured with nanoindentation, Vickers hardness and tensile tests and the results are used to determine the relation between martensite and ferrite phases and the strength of the metal. During the annealing/recovery process, the strength of the martensite phase decreases, the dislocation structure relaxes in the phase boundary region of the ferrite, and the martensite alignment along the rolling direction decreases resulting in the observed metal strength reduction. It is also shown that the higher the annealing temperature, the more homogeneous and equiaxed the distribution of martensite.

  3. Morphology and distribution of martensite in dual phase (DP980) steel and its relation to the multiscale mechanical behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Fan; Ruimi, Annie; Wo, Pui Ching; Field, David P.

    2016-01-01

    Among generations of advanced high-strength steel alloys, dual-phase steels exhibit a unique combination of strength and formability making them excellent candidates for use in the automotive industry. In this study, we seek to establish a relation between mechanical properties and microstructure of DP980. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD)and nanoindentation are used to identify and characterize martensite and ferrite phases. Spatial distributions of martensite and ferrite phases of subjected to various annealing treatments are found using a 2-point correlation function. Micro- and macro-mechanical properties are measured with nanoindentation, Vickers hardness and tensile tests and the results are used to determine the relation between martensite and ferrite phases and the strength of the metal. During the annealing/recovery process, the strength of the martensite phase decreases, the dislocation structure relaxes in the phase boundary region of the ferrite, and the martensite alignment along the rolling direction decreases resulting in the observed metal strength reduction. It is also shown that the higher the annealing temperature, the more homogeneous and equiaxed the distribution of martensite.

  4. Key Distribution and Changing Key Cryptosystem Based on Phase Retrieval Algorithm and RSA Public-Key Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tieyu Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The optical image encryption has attracted more and more researchers’ attention, and the various encryption schemes have been proposed. In existing optical cryptosystem, the phase functions or images are usually used as the encryption keys, and it is difficult that the traditional public-key algorithm (such as RSA, ECC, etc. is used to complete large numerical key transfer. In this paper, we propose a key distribution scheme based on the phase retrieval algorithm and the RSA public-key algorithm, which solves the problem for the key distribution in optical image encryption system. Furthermore, we also propose a novel image encryption system based on the key distribution principle. In the system, the different keys can be used in every encryption process, which greatly improves the security of the system.

  5. Design of Two Feeder Three Phase Four Wire Distribution System Utilizing Multi Converter UPQC with Fuzzy Logic Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Babu Paduchuri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the instantaneous p-q theory based fuzzy logic controller (FLC for multi converter unified power quality conditioner (MC-UPQC to mitigate power quality issues in two feeders three-phase four-wire distribution systems. The proposed system is extended system of the existing one feeder three-phase four-wire distribution system, which is operated with UPQC. This system is employed with three voltage source converters, which are connected commonly to two feeder distribution systems. The performance of this proposed system used to compensate voltage sag, neutral current mitigation and compensation of voltage and current harmonics under linear and nonlinear load conditions. The neutral current flowing in series transformers is zero in the implementation of the proposed system. The simulation performance analysis is carried out using MATLAB.

  6. An examination of the stretching practices of Division I and Division III college football programs in the midwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Lawrence W; Craig, Bruce; Baudendistal, Steve; Bodey, Kimberly J

    2009-07-01

    Research supports the use of preactivity warm-up and stretching, and the purpose of this study was to determine whether college football programs follow these guidelines. Questionnaires designed to gather demographic, professional, and educational information, as well as specific pre- and postactivity practices, were distributed via e-mail to midwestern collegiate programs from NCAA Division I and III conferences. Twenty-three male coaches (12 from Division IA schools and 11 from Division III schools) participated in the study. Division I schools employed certified strength coaches (CSCS; 100%), whereas Division III schools used mainly strength coordinators (73%), with only 25% CSCS. All programs used preactivity warm-up, with the majority employing 2-5 minutes of sport-specific jogging/running drills. Pre stretching (5-10 minutes) was performed in 19 programs (91%), with 2 (9%) performing no pre stretching. Thirteen respondents used a combination of static/proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation/ballistic and dynamic flexibility, 5 used only dynamic flexibility, and 1 used only static stretching. All 12 Division I coaches used stretching, whereas only 9 of the 11 Division III coaches did (p = 0.22). The results indicate that younger coaches did not use pre stretching (p = 0.30). The majority of the coaches indicated that they did use post stretching, with 11 of the 12 Division I coaches using stretching, whereas only 5 of the 11 Division III coaches used stretching postactivity (p = 0.027). Divisional results show that the majority of Division I coaches use static-style stretching (p = 0.049). The results of this study indicate that divisional status, age, and certification may influence how well research guidelines are followed. Further research is needed to delineate how these factors affect coaching decisions.

  7. A robust optimization model for distribution and evacuation in the disaster response phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fereiduni, Meysam; Shahanaghi, Kamran

    2017-03-01

    Natural disasters, such as earthquakes, affect thousands of people and can cause enormous financial loss. Therefore, an efficient response immediately following a natural disaster is vital to minimize the aforementioned negative effects. This research paper presents a network design model for humanitarian logistics which will assist in location and allocation decisions for multiple disaster periods. At first, a single-objective optimization model is presented that addresses the response phase of disaster management. This model will help the decision makers to make the most optimal choices in regard to location, allocation, and evacuation simultaneously. The proposed model also considers emergency tents as temporary medical centers. To cope with the uncertainty and dynamic nature of disasters, and their consequences, our multi-period robust model considers the values of critical input data in a set of various scenarios. Second, because of probable disruption in the distribution infrastructure (such as bridges), the Monte Carlo simulation is used for generating related random numbers and different scenarios; the p-robust approach is utilized to formulate the new network. The p-robust approach can predict possible damages along pathways and among relief bases. We render a case study of our robust optimization approach for Tehran's plausible earthquake in region 1. Sensitivity analysis' experiments are proposed to explore the effects of various problem parameters. These experiments will give managerial insights and can guide DMs under a variety of conditions. Then, the performances of the "robust optimization" approach and the "p-robust optimization" approach are evaluated. Intriguing results and practical insights are demonstrated by our analysis on this comparison.

  8. Short Durations of Static Stretching when Combined with Dynamic Stretching do not Impair Repeated Sprints and Agility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Del P; Chaouachi, Anis; Lau, Patrick W C; Behm, David G

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the effect of different static stretching durations followed by dynamic stretching on repeated sprint ability (RSA) and change of direction (COD). Twenty-five participants performed the RSA and COD tests in a randomized order. After a 5 min aerobic warm up, participants performed one of the three static stretching protocols of 30 s, 60 s or 90 s total duration (3 stretches x 10 s, 20 s or 30 s). Three dynamic stretching exercises of 30 s duration were then performed (90 s total). Sit-and-reach flexibility tests were conducted before the aerobic warm up, after the combined static and dynamic stretching, and post- RSA/COD test. The duration of static stretching had a positive effect on flexibility with 36.3% and 85.6% greater sit-and-reach scores with the 60 s and 90 s static stretching conditions respectively than with the 30 s condition (p ≤ 0.001). However there were no significant differences in RSA and COD performance between the 3 stretching conditions. The lack of change in RSA and COD might be attributed to a counterbalancing of static and dynamic stretching effects. Furthermore, the short duration (≤ 90 s) static stretching may not have provided sufficient stimulus to elicit performance impairments. Key pointsThe duration of combined static and dynamic stretching had a positive effect on flexibility with 36.3% and 85.6% greater sit and reach scores with the 60 s and 90 s static stretching conditions respectively than with the 30 s condition (p ≤ 0.001).No significant differences in RSA and COD between the 3 stretching conditions.The lack of change in RSA and COD might be attributed to a counterbalancing of static and dynamic stretching effects.The short duration (≤ 90 s) static stretching may not have provided sufficient stimulus to elicit performance impairments.

  9. Short Durations of Static Stretching when Combined with Dynamic Stretching do not Impair Repeated Sprints and Agility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Del P.; Chaouachi, Anis; Lau, Patrick W.C.; Behm, David G.

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the effect of different static stretching durations followed by dynamic stretching on repeated sprint ability (RSA) and change of direction (COD). Twenty-five participants performed the RSA and COD tests in a randomized order. After a 5 min aerobic warm up, participants performed one of the three static stretching protocols of 30 s, 60 s or 90 s total duration (3 stretches x 10 s, 20 s or 30 s). Three dynamic stretching exercises of 30 s duration were then performed (90 s total). Sit-and-reach flexibility tests were conducted before the aerobic warm up, after the combined static and dynamic stretching, and post- RSA/COD test. The duration of static stretching had a positive effect on flexibility with 36.3% and 85.6% greater sit-and-reach scores with the 60 s and 90 s static stretching conditions respectively than with the 30 s condition (p ≤ 0.001). However there were no significant differences in RSA and COD performance between the 3 stretching conditions. The lack of change in RSA and COD might be attributed to a counterbalancing of static and dynamic stretching effects. Furthermore, the short duration (≤ 90 s) static stretching may not have provided sufficient stimulus to elicit performance impairments. Key points The duration of combined static and dynamic stretching had a positive effect on flexibility with 36.3% and 85.6% greater sit and reach scores with the 60 s and 90 s static stretching conditions respectively than with the 30 s condition (p ≤ 0.001). No significant differences in RSA and COD between the 3 stretching conditions. The lack of change in RSA and COD might be attributed to a counterbalancing of static and dynamic stretching effects. The short duration (≤ 90 s) static stretching may not have provided sufficient stimulus to elicit performance impairments. PMID:24149890

  10. Lamb's plane problem in a thermo-elastic micropolar medium with stretch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. K. Chadha

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available A study is made of the Lamb plane problem in a thermo-elastic micropolar medium with the effect of stretch. The problem is solved for an arbitrary, normal load distribution by using the double Fourier transform. The displacement components, force stress, couple stress, vector first moment and the temperature field are determined for a half space subjected to an arbitrary normal load. Two special cases of a horizontal force and a torque which are oscillating with a frequency ω have been investigated. It is shown that results of this analysis reduce to those without stretch.

  11. Responses of Cloud Type Distributions to the Large-Scale Dynamical Circulation: Water Budget-Related Dynamical Phase Space and Dynamical Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Sun; Del Genio, Anthony; Wang, Tao; Kahn, Brian; Fetzer, Eric J.; L'Ecuyer, Tristan S.

    2015-01-01

    Goals: Water budget-related dynamical phase space; Connect large-scale dynamical conditions to atmospheric water budget (including precipitation); Connect atmospheric water budget to cloud type distributions.

  12. Controlling the length scale and distribution of the ductile phase in metallic glass composites through friction stir processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Harpreet Singh; Mridha, Sanghita; Grewal, Harpreet Singh; Singh, Harpreet; Hofmann, Douglas C; Mukherjee, Sundeep

    2014-06-01

    We demonstrate the refinement and uniform distribution of the crystalline dendritic phase by friction stir processing (FSP) of titanium based in situ ductile-phase reinforced metallic glass composite. The average size of the dendrites was reduced by almost a factor of five (from 24 μ m to 5 μ m) for the highest tool rotational speed of 900 rpm. The large inter-connected dendrites become more fragmented with increased circularity after processing. The changes in thermal characteristics were measured by differential scanning calorimetry. The reduction in crystallization enthalpy after processing suggests partial devitrification due to the high strain plastic deformation. FSP resulted in increased hardness and modulus for both the amorphous matrix and the crystalline phase. This is explained by interaction of shear bands in amorphous matrix with the strain-hardened dendritic phase. Our approach offers a new strategy for microstructural design in metallic glass composites.

  13. Phase diagrams of a spin-1/2 transverse Ising model with three-peak random field distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassir, A.; Bassir, C.E.; Benyoussef, A.; Ez-Zahraouy, H.

    1996-07-01

    The effect of the transverse magnetic field on the phase diagrams structures of the Ising model in a random longitudinal magnetic field with a trimodal symmetric distribution is investigated within a finite cluster approximation. We find that a small magnetizations ordered phase (small ordered phase) disappears completely for a sufficiently large value of the transverse field or/and large value of the concentration of the disorder of the magnetic field. Multicritical behaviour and reentrant phenomena are discussed. The regions where the tricritical, reentrant phenomena and the small ordered phase persist are delimited as a function of the transverse field and the concentration p. Longitudinal magnetizations are also presented. (author). 33 refs, 6 figs

  14. Branch current state estimation of three phase distribution networks suitable for paralellization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaauwbroek, N.; Nguyen, H.P.; Gibescu, M.; Slootweg, J.G.

    2017-01-01

    The evolution of distribution networks from passive to active distribution systems puts new requirements on the monitoring and control capabilities of these systems. The development of state estimation algorithms to gain insight in the actual system state of a distribution network has resulted in a

  15. The sensitivities of in cloud and cloud top phase distributions to primary ice formation in ICON-LEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beydoun, H.; Karrer, M.; Tonttila, J.; Hoose, C.

    2017-12-01

    Mixed phase clouds remain a leading source of uncertainty in our attempt to quantify cloud-climate and aerosol-cloud climate interactions. Nevertheless, recent advances in parametrizing the primary ice formation process, high resolution cloud modelling, and retrievals of cloud phase distributions from satellite data offer an excellent opportunity to conduct closure studies on the sensitivity of the cloud phase to microphysical and dynamical processes. Particularly, the reliability of satellite data to resolve the phase at the top of the cloud provides a promising benchmark to compare model output to. We run large eddy simulations with the new ICOsahedral Non-hydrostatic atmosphere model (ICON) to place bounds on the sensitivity of in cloud and cloud top phase to the primary ice formation process. State of the art primary ice formation parametrizations in the form of the cumulative ice active site density ns are implemented in idealized deep convective cloud simulations. We exploit the ability of ICON-LEM to switch between a two moment microphysics scheme and the newly developed Predicted Particle Properties (P3) scheme by running our simulations in both configurations for comparison. To quantify the sensitivity of cloud phase to primary ice formation, cloud ice content is evaluated against order of magnitude changes in ns at variable convective strengths. Furthermore, we assess differences between in cloud and cloud top phase distributions as well as the potential impact of updraft velocity on the suppression of the Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen process. The study aims to evaluate our practical understanding of primary ice formation in the context of predicting the structure and evolution of mixed phase clouds.

  16. Stretching a semiflexible polymer with orientation-dependent interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhen Yi; Vilgis, Thomas A

    2009-01-01

    The mean field variational approach is employed to study the effect of a nematic field and an external constant force field on the elasticity of a semiflexible polymer. In the stationary phase, we obtain the force–extension relationship and calculate the hairpin density of a stretched semiflexible polymer in nematic solvents. The force–extension behavior is found to be controlled by the parameters gl p and gf where g is the strength of the nematic field, l p is the bare persistence length and f is the external force. Several distinct regimes for the elastic response and the hairpin density emerge depending on the value of gl p and gf. Qualitative comparisons between our computation and other theories are presented

  17. Assessing the stretch-blow moulding FE simulation of PET over a large process window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, J.; Menary, G. H.; Yan, S.

    2017-10-01

    Injection stretch blow moulding has been extensively researched for numerous years and is a well-established method of forming thin-walled containers. This paper is concerned with validating the finite element analysis of the stretch-blow-moulding (SBM) process in an effort to progress the development of injection stretch blow moulding of poly(ethylene terephthalate). Extensive data was obtained experimentally over a wide process window accounting for material temperature, air flow rate and stretch-rod speed while capturing cavity pressure, stretch-rod reaction force, in-mould contact timing and material thickness distribution. This data was then used to assess the accuracy of the correlating FE simulation constructed using ABAQUS/Explicit solver and an appropriate user-defined viscoelastic material subroutine. Results reveal that the simulation was able to pick up the general trends of how the pressure, reaction force and in-mould contact timings vary with the variation in preform temperature and air flow rate. Trends in material thickness were also accurately predicted over the length of the bottle relative to the process conditions. The knowledge gained from these analyses provides insight into the mechanisms of bottle formation, subsequently improving the blow moulding simulation and potentially providing a reduction in production costs.

  18. A modified variable physical properties model, for analyzing nanofluids flow and heat transfer over nonlinearly stretching sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooria Akbarzadeh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the problem of laminar nanofluid flow which results from the nonlinear stretching of a flat sheet is investigated numerically. In this paper, a modified variable physical properties model for analyzing nanofluids flow and heat transfer is introduced. In this model, the effective viscosity, density, and thermal conductivity of the solid-liquid mixture (nanofluids which are commonly utilized in the homogenous single-phase model, are locally combined with the prevalent single-phase model. A numerical similarity solution is considered which depends on the local Prandtl number, local Brownian motion number, local Lewis number, and local thermophoresis number. The results are compared to the prevalent single-phase model. This comparison depicts that the prevalent single-phase model has a considerable deviation for predicting the behavior of nanofluids flow especially in dimensionless temperature and nanoparticle volume fraction. In addition the effect of the governing parameters such as Prandtl number, the Brownian motion number, the thermophoresis parameter, the Lewis number, and etc. on the velocity, temperature, and volume fraction distribution and the dimensionless heat and mass transfer rates are examined.

  19. The complete information for phenomenal distributed parameter control of multicomponent chemical processes in gas, fluid and solid phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemiec, W.

    1985-01-01

    A constitutive mathematical model of distributed parameters of multicomponent chemical processes in gas, fluid and solid phase is utilized to the realization of phenomenal distributed parameter control of these processes. Original systems of partial differential constitutive state equations, in the following derivative forms /I/, /II/ and /III/ are solved in this paper from the point of view of information for phenomenal distributed parameter control of considered processes. Obtained in this way for multicomponent chemical processes in gas, fluid and solid phase: -dynamical working space-time characteristics/analytical solutions in working space-time of chemical reactors/, -dynamical phenomenal Green functions as working space-time transfer functions, -statical working space characteristics /analytical solutions in working space of chemical reactors/, -statical phenomenal Green functions as working space transfer functions, are applied, as information for realization of constitutive distributed parameter control of mass, energy and momentum aspects of above processes. Two cases are considered by existence of: A/sup o/ - initial conditions, B/sup o/ - initial and boundary conditions, for multicomponent chemical processes in gas, fluid and solid phase

  20. Combination of (M)DSC and surface analysis to study the phase behaviour and drug distribution of ternary solid dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeus, Joke; Scurr, David J; Chen, Xinyong; Amssoms, Katie; Davies, Martyn C; Roberts, Clive J; Van den Mooter, Guy

    2015-04-01

    Miscibility of the different compounds that make up a solid dispersion based formulation play a crucial role in the drug release profile and physical stability of the solid dispersion as it defines the phase behaviour of the dispersion. The standard technique to obtain information on phase behaviour of a sample is (modulated) differential scanning calorimetry ((M)DSC). However, for ternary mixtures (M)DSC alone is not sufficient to characterize their phase behaviour and to gain insight into the distribution of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) in a two-phased polymeric matrix. MDSC was combined with complementary surface analysis techniques, specifically time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Three spray-dried model formulations with varying API/PLGA/PVP ratios were analyzed. MDSC, TOF-SIMS and AFM provided insights into differences in drug distribution via the observed surface coverage for 3 differently composed ternary solid dispersions. Combining MDSC and surface analysis rendered additional insights in the composition of mixed phases in complex systems, like ternary solid dispersions.

  1. Phase distribution phenomena in upward cocurrent bubbly flows. A critical review of the experimental and theoretical works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossetete, C.

    1992-09-01

    The most important and challenging problems in two-phase bubbly flow today are related to the physical understanding and the modeling of multidimensional phenomena such as the distribution of phases in space. We present here a critical review of the available experimental and theoretical studies in gas-liquid adiabatic and non-reactive upward bubbly flows which have been carried out to define and improve the physical models needed to close the three-dimensional two-fluid model equations. It appears that: so far, the axial development of two-phase upward bubbly flows has not been handled thoroughly. Little is known about the way the pressure gradient as well as the gas-liquid mixing conditions affect the distribution of phases, the problems related to the closing of the two-fluid model equations are far from being solved. The physical models proposed seem often to be too much complex considering how little we know about the mechanisms involved, there are still very few multidimensional numerical models whose results have been compared with experimental data on bubbly flows. The boundary conditions introduced in the codes as well as the sensitivity of the results to the parameters of the codes are never precisely stated. To bridge some of those gaps, we propose to perform an experimental and numerical study of the axial development of two-phase air-water upward bubbly flows in vertical pipes

  2. Mixed quantum/classical approach to OH-stretch inelastic incoherent neutron scattering spectroscopy for ambient and supercooled liquid water and ice Ih

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, L.; Skinner, J. L. [Theoretical Chemistry Institute and Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2015-07-07

    OH-stretch inelastic incoherent neutron scattering (IINS) has been measured to determine the vibrational density of states (VDOS) in the OH-stretch region for liquid water, supercooled water, and ice Ih, providing complementary information to IR and Raman spectroscopies about hydrogen bonding in these phases. In this work, we extend the combined electronic-structure/molecular-dynamics (ES/MD) method, originally developed by Skinner and co-workers to simulate OH-stretch IR and Raman spectra, to the calculation of IINS spectra with small k values. The agreement between theory and experiment in the limit k → 0 is reasonable, further validating the reliability of the ES/MD method in simulating OH-stretch spectroscopy in condensed phases. The connections and differences between IINS and IR spectra are analyzed to illustrate the advantages of IINS over IR in estimating the OH-stretch VDOS.

  3. Mixed quantum/classical approach to OH-stretch inelastic incoherent neutron scattering spectroscopy for ambient and supercooled liquid water and ice Ih

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, L.; Skinner, J. L.

    2015-01-01

    OH-stretch inelastic incoherent neutron scattering (IINS) has been measured to determine the vibrational density of states (VDOS) in the OH-stretch region for liquid water, supercooled water, and ice Ih, providing complementary information to IR and Raman spectroscopies about hydrogen bonding in these phases. In this work, we extend the combined electronic-structure/molecular-dynamics (ES/MD) method, originally developed by Skinner and co-workers to simulate OH-stretch IR and Raman spectra, to the calculation of IINS spectra with small k values. The agreement between theory and experiment in the limit k → 0 is reasonable, further validating the reliability of the ES/MD method in simulating OH-stretch spectroscopy in condensed phases. The connections and differences between IINS and IR spectra are analyzed to illustrate the advantages of IINS over IR in estimating the OH-stretch VDOS

  4. Phase I Project: Fiber Optic Distributed Acoustic Sensing for Periodic Hydraulic Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Matthew

    2017-12-31

    The extraction of heat from hot rock requires circulation of fluid through fracture networks. Because the geometry and connectivity of these fractures determines the efficiency of fluid circulation, many tools are used to characterize fractures before and after development of the reservoir. Under this project, a new tool was developed that allows hydraulic connectivity between geothermal boreholes to be identified. Nanostrain in rock fractures is measured using fiber optic distributed acoustic sensing (DAS). This strain is measured in one borehole in response to periodic pressure pulses induced in another borehole. The strain in the fractures represents hydraulic connectivity between wells. DAS is typically used at frequencies of Hz to kHz, but strain at mHz frequencies were measured for this project. The tool was demonstrated in the laboratory and in the field. In the laboratory, strain in fiber optic cables was measured in response to compression due to oscillating fluid pressure. DAS recorded strains as small as 10 picometer/m in response to 1 cm of water level change. At a fractured crystalline rock field site, strain was measured in boreholes. Fiber-optic cable was mechanically coupled borehole walls using pressured flexible liners. In one borehole 30 m from the oscillating pumping source, pressure and strain were measured simultaneously. The DAS system measured fracture displacement at frequencies of less than 1 mHz (18 min periods) and amplitudes of less than 1 nm, in response to fluid pressure changes of less 20 Pa (2 mm of water). The attenuation and phase shift of the monitored strain signal is indicative of the permeability and storage (compliance) of the fracture network that connects the two wells. The strain response as a function of oscillation frequency is characteristic of the hydraulic structure of the formation. This is the first application of DAS to the measurement of low frequency strain in boreholes. It has enormous potential for monitoring

  5. Polarization states encoded by phase modulation for high bit rate quantum key distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaobao; Tang Zhilie; Liao Changjun; Lu Yiqun; Zhao Feng; Liu Songhao

    2006-01-01

    We present implementation of quantum cryptography with polarization code by wave-guide type phase modulator. At four different low input voltages of the phase modulator, coder encodes pulses into four different polarization states, 45 o , 135 o linearly polarized or right, left circle polarized, while the decoder serves as the complementary polarizers

  6. To Stretch and Search for Better Ways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John W.

    2000-06-01

    There's a lot to do to get each issue of this Journal ready for publication, and there's a lot that can go awry during that process. We the editorial staff do our utmost to make certain that each issue is the best it can possibly be, but, of necessity, a lot of our effort is focused on solving problems, correcting errors, and avoiding pitfalls. It is not surprising that we sometimes lose sight of the bigger picture--all of the things that came out as well as or better than we hoped they would. Therefore it gives us great pleasure when a reader applauds (and thereby rewards) our efforts. One such communication inspired this editorial. I have appreciated the extra effort put forward by the staff to make the Journal really come alive. The high quality of the Journal serves as an incentive to chemical educators to stretch and search for better ways to inspire our students. I fervently hope that we do encourage you "to stretch and search for better ways", not only to inspire students but in everything you do. Stretching and searching for better ways is what life, science, chemistry, and teaching are all about, and it is a wonderfully stimulating and exciting way to approach anything and everything. Sometimes, though, one's ability to stretch is akin to that of a rubber band exposed too long to sunlight. Change becomes a threat or a burden instead of an opportunity. This often happens in one area but not others, as in the case of someone doing original research but whose lecture notes are yellow with age, or someone who experiments with new teaching approaches but neglects the latest chemical discoveries. Whatever its manifestation, failure to stretch and search for better ways is a great loss, both for the individual directly involved and for others. Fortunately there are many who continually stretch and search, often in conjunction with JCE. For example, some time ago the Chair of the Board of Publication, Jerry Bell, challenged Journal readers to become Journal

  7. Stretched horizons, quasiparticles, and quasinormal modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iizuka, Norihiro; Kabat, Daniel; Lifschytz, Gilad; Lowe, David A.

    2003-01-01

    We propose that stretched horizons can be described in terms of a gas of noninteracting quasiparticles. The quasiparticles are unstable, with a lifetime set by the imaginary part of the lowest quasinormal mode frequency. If the horizon arises from an AdS-CFT style duality the quasiparticles are also the effective low-energy degrees of freedom of the finite-temperature CFT. We analyze a large class of models including Schwarzschild black holes, nonextremal Dp-branes, the rotating BTZ black hole and de Sitter space, and we comment on degenerate horizons. The quasiparticle description makes manifest the relationship between entropy and area

  8. Viscous flows stretching and shrinking of surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Mehmood, Ahmer

    2017-01-01

    This authored monograph provides a detailed discussion of the boundary layer flow due to a moving plate. The topical focus lies on the 2- and 3-dimensional case, considering axially symmetric and unsteady flows. The author derives a criterion for the self-similar and non-similar flow, and the turbulent flow due to a stretching or shrinking sheet is also discussed. The target audience primarily comprises research experts in the field of boundary layer flow, but the book will also be beneficial for graduate students.

  9. Artificial intelligence in label-free microscopy biological cell classification by time stretch

    CERN Document Server

    Mahjoubfar, Ata; Jalali, Bahram

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces time-stretch quantitative phase imaging (TS-QPI), a high-throughput label-free imaging flow cytometer developed for big data acquisition and analysis in phenotypic screening. TS-QPI is able to capture quantitative optical phase and intensity images simultaneously, enabling high-content cell analysis, cancer diagnostics, personalized genomics, and drug development. The authors also demonstrate a complete machine learning pipeline that performs optical phase measurement, image processing, feature extraction, and classification, enabling high-throughput quantitative imaging that achieves record high accuracy in label -free cellular phenotypic screening and opens up a new path to data-driven diagnosis. • Demonstrates how machine learning is used in high-speed microscopy imaging to facilitate medical diagnosis; • Provides a systematic and comprehensive illustration of time stretch technology; • Enables multidisciplinary application, including industrial, biomedical, and artificial intell...

  10. SHORT DURATIONS OF STATIC STRETCHING WHEN COMBINED WITH DYNAMIC STRETCHING DO NOT IMPAIR REPEATED SPRINTS AND AGILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Del P. Wong

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare the effect of different static stretching durations followed by dynamic stretching on repeated sprint ability (RSA and change of direction (COD. Twenty-five participants performed the RSA and COD tests in a randomized order. After a 5 min aerobic warm up, participants performed one of the three static stretching protocols of 30 s, 60 s or 90 s total duration (3 stretches x 10 s, 20 s or 30 s. Three dynamic stretching exercises of 30 s duration were then performed (90 s total. Sit-and-reach flexibility tests were conducted before the aerobic warm up, after the combined static and dynamic stretching, and post- RSA/COD test. The duration of static stretching had a positive effect on flexibility with 36.3% and 85.6% greater sit-and-reach scores with the 60 s and 90 s static stretching conditions respectively than with the 30 s condition (p < 0.001. However there were no significant differences in RSA and COD performance between the 3 stretching conditions. The lack of change in RSA and COD might be attributed to a counterbalancing of static and dynamic stretching effects. Furthermore, the short duration (< 90 s static stretching may not have provided sufficient stimulus to elicit performance impairments

  11. Distributed Electric Propulsion Aircraft Comprehensive Analysis and Design Tool, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The solicitation seeks innovative approaches in designing and analyzing Distributed Electric Propulsion (DEP) aircraft to support ARMD's Strategic Thrust #3...

  12. Direct observation of dopant distribution in GaAs compound semiconductors using phase-shifting electron holography and Lorentz microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Hirokazu; Otomo, Shinya; Minato, Ryuichiro; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Hirayama, Tsukasa

    2014-06-01

    Phase-shifting electron holography and Lorentz microscopy were used to map dopant distributions in GaAs compound semiconductors with step-like dopant concentration. Transmission electron microscope specimens were prepared using a triple beam focused ion beam (FIB) system, which combines a Ga ion beam, a scanning electron microscope, and an Ar ion beam to remove the FIB damaged layers. The p-n junctions were clearly observed in both under-focused and over-focused Lorentz microscopy images. A phase image was obtained by using a phase-shifting reconstruction method to simultaneously achieve high sensitivity and high spatial resolution. Differences in dopant concentrations between 1 × 10(19) cm(-3) and 1 × 10(18) cm(-3) regions were clearly observed by using phase-shifting electron holography. We also interpreted phase profiles quantitatively by considering inactive layers induced by ion implantation during the FIB process. The thickness of an inactive layer at different dopant concentration area can be measured from the phase image. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japanese Society of Microscopy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Visualization of Two-Phase Fluid Distribution Using Laser Induced Exciplex Fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J. U.; Darrow, J.; Schock, H.; Golding, B.; Nocera, D.; Keller, P.

    1998-03-01

    Laser-induced exciplex (excited state complex) fluorescence has been used to generate two-dimensional images of dispersed liquid and vapor phases with spectrally resolved two-color emissions. In this method, the vapor phase is tagged by the monomer fluorescence while the liquid phase is tracked by the exciplex fluorescence. A new exciplex visualization system consisting of DMA and 1,4,6-TMN in an isooctane solvent was developed.(J.U. Kim et al., Chem. Phys. Lett. 267, 323-328 (1997)) The direct ca

  14. Combined arm stretch positioning and neuromuscular electrical stimulation during rehabilitation does not improve range of motion, shoulder pain or function in patients after stroke : a randomised trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Lex D.; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; Gerritsen, Johan; Geurts, Alexander C. H.; Postema, Klaas

    2013-01-01

    Question Does static stretch positioning combined with simultaneous neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) in the subacute phase after stroke have beneficial effects on basic arm body functions and activities? Design Multicentre randomised trial with concealed allocation, assessor blinding, and

  15. Twist-stretch profiles of DNA chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoli, Marco

    2017-06-01

    Helical molecules change their twist number under the effect of a mechanical load. We study the twist-stretch relation for a set of short DNA molecules modeled by a mesoscopic Hamiltonian. Finite temperature path integral techniques are applied to generate a large ensemble of possible configurations for the base pairs of the sequence. The model also accounts for the bending and twisting fluctuations between adjacent base pairs along the molecules stack. Simulating a broad range of twisting conformation, we compute the helix structural parameters by averaging over the ensemble of base pairs configurations. The method selects, for any applied force, the average twist angle which minimizes the molecule’s free energy. It is found that the chains generally over-twist under an applied stretching and the over-twisting is physically associated to the contraction of the average helix diameter, i.e. to the damping of the base pair fluctuations. Instead, assuming that the maximum amplitude of the bending fluctuations may decrease against the external load, the DNA molecule first over-twists for weak applied forces and then untwists above a characteristic force value. Our results are discussed in relation to available experimental information albeit for kilo-base long molecules.

  16. Stretch sensors for human body motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Ben; Gisby, Todd; Anderson, Iain A.

    2014-03-01

    Sensing motion of the human body is a difficult task. From an engineers' perspective people are soft highly mobile objects that move in and out of complex environments. As well as the technical challenge of sensing, concepts such as comfort, social intrusion, usability, and aesthetics are paramount in determining whether someone will adopt a sensing solution or not. At the same time the demands for human body motion sensing are growing fast. Athletes want feedback on posture and technique, consumers need new ways to interact with augmented reality devices, and healthcare providers wish to track recovery of a patient. Dielectric elastomer stretch sensors are ideal for bridging this gap. They are soft, flexible, and precise. They are low power, lightweight, and can be easily mounted on the body or embedded into clothing. From a commercialisation point of view stretch sensing is easier than actuation or generation - such sensors can be low voltage and integrated with conventional microelectronics. This paper takes a birds-eye view of the use of these sensors to measure human body motion. A holistic description of sensor operation and guidelines for sensor design will be presented to help technologists and developers in the space.

  17. Curved Piezoelectric Actuators for Stretching Optical Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Sidney G.; Shams, Qamar A.; Fox, Robert L.

    2008-01-01

    Assemblies containing curved piezoceramic fiber composite actuators have been invented as means of stretching optical fibers by amounts that depend on applied drive voltages. Piezoceramic fiber composite actuators are conventionally manufactured as sheets or ribbons that are flat and flexible, but can be made curved to obtain load-carrying ability and displacement greater than those obtainable from the flat versions. In the primary embodiment of this invention, piezoceramic fibers are oriented parallel to the direction of longitudinal displacement of the actuators so that application of drive voltage causes the actuator to flatten, producing maximum motion. Actuator motion can be transmitted to the optical fiber by use of hinges and clamp blocks. In the original application of this invention, the optical fiber contains a Bragg grating and the purpose of the controlled stretching of the fiber is to tune the grating as part of a small, lightweight, mode-hop-free, rapidly tunable laser for demodulating strain in Bragg-grating strain-measurement optical fibers attached to structures. The invention could also be used to apply controllable tensile force or displacement to an object other than an optical fiber.

  18. Pu-239+240 and Pu-238 distribution among dissolved, colloidal and particulate phases in the Rhone River (France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyrolle, F.; Goutelard, F.; Calmet, D.

    1999-01-01

    The determination of plutonium distribution among dissolved, colloidal and particulate phases was investigated in the Rhone River at Arles, 50 km upstream the river mouth, in May 1997. The flow rate of the river reached its average annual value (i.e., 1800 m 3 s -1 ). 1100 l of fresh water were collected, a part (900 l) was prefiltered on 1200 and 450 nm, then ultrafiltered by sequential ultrafiltration

  19. Integrated Sensing and Processing (ISP) Phase II: Demonstration and Evaluation for Distributed Sensor Netowrks and Missile Seeker Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-28

    National Industrial Security Program Operating Manual (NISPOM), Chapter 5, Section 7, or DOD 5200.1-R, Information Security Program Regulation...Sensing and Processing (ISP) Phase II: Demonstration and Evaluation for Distributed Sensor Netowrks and Missile Seeker Systems 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b... SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 41 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON a. REPORT unclassified b. ABSTRACT

  20. Harmonic Emissions of Three-Phase Diode Rectifiers in Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zare, Firuz; Soltani, Hamid; Kumar, Dinesh

    2017-01-01

    Harmonic emissions have been changed in distribution networks, with respect to frequency range and magnitude, due to the penetration of modern power electronics systems. Two new frequency ranges: 2–9 kHz and 9–150 kHz have been identified as new disturbing frequency ranges affecting distribution ...

  1. Loaded dice in Monte Carlo : importance sampling in phase space integration and probability distributions for discrepancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hameren, Andreas Ferdinand Willem van

    2001-01-01

    Discrepancies play an important role in the study of uniformity properties of point sets. Their probability distributions are a help in the analysis of the efficiency of the Quasi Monte Carlo method of numerical integration, which uses point sets that are distributed more uniformly than sets of

  2. A Novel HMM Distributed Classifier for the Detection of Gait Phases by Means of a Wearable Inertial Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juri Taborri

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we decided to apply a hierarchical weighted decision, proposed and used in other research fields, for the recognition of gait phases. The developed and validated novel distributed classifier is based on hierarchical weighted decision from outputs of scalar Hidden Markov Models (HMM applied to angular velocities of foot, shank, and thigh. The angular velocities of ten healthy subjects were acquired via three uni-axial gyroscopes embedded in inertial measurement units (IMUs during one walking task, repeated three times, on a treadmill. After validating the novel distributed classifier and scalar and vectorial classifiers-already proposed in the literature, with a cross-validation, classifiers were compared for sensitivity, specificity, and computational load for all combinations of the three targeted anatomical segments. Moreover, the performance of the novel distributed classifier in the estimation of gait variability in terms of mean time and coefficient of variation was evaluated. The highest values of specificity and sensitivity (>0.98 for the three classifiers examined here were obtained when the angular velocity of the foot was processed. Distributed and vectorial classifiers reached acceptable values (>0.95 when the angular velocity of shank and thigh were analyzed. Distributed and scalar classifiers showed values of computational load about 100 times lower than the one obtained with the vectorial classifier. In addition, distributed classifiers showed an excellent reliability for the evaluation of mean time and a good/excellent reliability for the coefficient of variation. In conclusion, due to the better performance and the small value of computational load, the here proposed novel distributed classifier can be implemented in the real-time application of gait phases recognition, such as to evaluate gait variability in patients or to control active orthoses for the recovery of mobility of lower limb joints.

  3. Effect of phase coupling on surface amplitude distribution of wind waves

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.

    Nonlinear features of wind generated surface waves are considered here to be caused by nonrandomness (non-Uniform) in the phase spectrum. Nonrandomness in recorded waves, if present, would be generally obscured within the error level of observations...

  4. Efficient Integration, Validation and Troubleshooting in Multimodal Distributed Diagnostic Schemes, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In general, development and validation of diagnostic models for complex safety critical systems are time and cost intensive jobs. The proposed Phase-II effort will...

  5. The role of microstructure and phase distribution in the failure mechanisms and life prediction model for PSZ coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisson, R. D., Jr.; Sone, Ichiro; Biederman, R. R.

    1985-01-01

    Partially Stabilized Zirconia (PSZ) may become widely used for Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBC). Failure of these coatings can occur due to thermal fatigue in oxidizing atmospheres. The failure is due to the strains that develop due to thermal gradients, differences in thermal expansion coefficients, and oxidation of the bond coating. The role of microstructure and the cubic, tetragonal, and monoclinic phase distribution in the strain development and subsequent failure will be discussed. An X-ray diffraction technique for accurate determination of the fraction of each phase in PSZ will be applied to understanding the phase transformations and strain development. These results will be discussed in terms of developing a model for life prediction in PSZ coatings during thermal cycling.

  6. Identification of lines of electric lines of three-phase distribution networks in the composition of ASMAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omorov Turatbek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of protection of a three-phase four-wire distribution network (DEN with a voltage of 0.4 kV from the interruption of electric power lines is considered. On the basis of the analysis of the values of complex resistances of interpersonal sections of the main line of the network, criteria are proposed that allow detecting critical situations associated with discontinuities in power transmission lines. Using these criteria makes it possible to localize the places of breaks of phase and neutral wires. Mathematical models and methods that are used to evaluate the complex resistances of interpersonal sections of a three-phase network are briefly considered. The obtained results are oriented for use in the automated system of electricity control and accounting (ASMAE.

  7. Reliability models for a nonrepairable system with heterogeneous components having a phase-type time-to-failure distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Heungseob; Kim, Pansoo

    2017-01-01

    This research paper presents practical stochastic models for designing and analyzing the time-dependent reliability of nonrepairable systems. The models are formulated for nonrepairable systems with heterogeneous components having phase-type time-to-failure distributions by a structured continuous time Markov chain (CTMC). The versatility of the phase-type distributions enhances the flexibility and practicality of the systems. By virtue of these benefits, studies in reliability engineering can be more advanced than the previous studies. This study attempts to solve a redundancy allocation problem (RAP) by using these new models. The implications of mixing components, redundancy levels, and redundancy strategies are simultaneously considered to maximize the reliability of a system. An imperfect switching case in a standby redundant system is also considered. Furthermore, the experimental results for a well-known RAP benchmark problem are presented to demonstrate the approximating error of the previous reliability function for a standby redundant system and the usefulness of the current research. - Highlights: • Phase-type time-to-failure distribution is used for components. • Reliability model for nonrepairable system is developed using Markov chain. • System is composed of heterogeneous components. • Model provides the real value of standby system reliability not an approximation. • Redundancy allocation problem is used to show usefulness of this model.

  8. Specific features of phase distribution in a draught part of the tank type boiling water cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedulin, V.N.; Bartolomej, G.G.; Solodkij, V.A.; Shmelev, V.E.

    1984-01-01

    The results of experimental investigation of the two-phase flow structure in a draught part of the VK-50 boiling water cooled reactor are presented. A qualitative physical model of steam-water mixture flow in the large diameter draught part is suggested. It is shown that for hydrodynamically unstable two-phase flows a considerable nonuniformity in steam content distribution over the draught part volume which determines the possibility of the recirculating coolant flow formation in the peripheral zone is observed. At the draught part inlet the radial distribution of steam content is determined by the complex effects of power distribution and coolant flow rate change over the core radius. The flow structure in the lower section of the draught part adjoining to the core is determined to a considerable degree by a coolant jet outflow from fuel assembly (FA) nozzels Jet height depends on the velocity of outgoing two-phase flow, working pressure and hydrodynamics of the draught part. The jet height does not exceed 0.4 m for the K-50 reactor. Due to the increased steam outflow from the central FAs and the existence of radial pressure gradient the water-steam mixture is turned from the draught part periphery to its central part, where accelerated water steam flow with an increased steam content is formed. When a certain height is achieved a graduel expansion of the water-steam flow begins leading to equalizing the steam content over the draught part cross section

  9. Examination of measurement and its method of compensation of the sensitivity distribution using phased array coil for body scan

    CERN Document Server

    Kimura, T; Iizuka, A; Taniguchi, Y; Ishikuro, A; Hongo, T; Inoue, H; Ogura, A

    2003-01-01

    The influence on the quality of images by measurement of a sensitivity distribution and the use of a sensitivity compensation filter was considered using an opposite-type phased array coil and volume-type phased array coil. With the opposite-type phased array coil, the relation between coil interval and filter was investigated for the image intensity correction (IIC) filter, surface coil intensity correction (SCIC) filter (GE), and the Normalize filter (SIEMENS). The SCIC filter and Normalize filter showed distance dependability over the coil interval of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and uniformity was observed, and the existence of an optimal coil interval was suggested. Moreover, with the IIC filter, distance dependability over a coil interval was small, and the decrease in contrast with use was remarkable. On the other hand, with the volume-type phased array coil, the overlap of an array element was investigated to determine the influence it had on sensitivity distribution. Although the value stabilized in t...

  10. Influence of slope steepness, foot position and turn phase on plantar pressure distribution during giant slalom alpine ski racing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Falda-Buscaiot

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the evolution of ground reaction force during alpine skiing turns. Specifically, this study investigated how turn phases and slope steepness affected the whole foot normal GRF pattern while performing giant slalom turns in a race-like setting. Moreover, the outside foot was divided into different plantar regions to see whether those parameters affected the plantar pressure distribution. Eleven skiers performed one giant slalom course at race intensity. Runs were recorded synchronously using a video camera in the frontal plane and pressure insoles under both feet's plantar surface. Turns were divided according to kinematic criteria into four consecutive phases: initiation, steering1, steering2 and completion; both steering phases being separated by the gate passage. Component of the averaged Ground Reaction Force normal to the ski's surface([Formula: see text], /BW, and Pressure Time Integral relative to the entire foot surface (relPTI, % parameters were calculated for each turn phases based on plantar pressure data. Results indicated that [Formula: see text] under the total foot surface differed significantly depending on the slope (higher in steep sections vs. flat sections, and the turn phase (higher during steering2 vs. three other phases, although such modifications were observable only on the outside foot. Moreover, [Formula: see text] under the outside foot was significantly greater than under the inside foot.RelPTI under different foot regions of the outside foot revealed a global shift from forefoot loading during initiation phase, toward heel loading during steering2 phase, but this was dependent on the slope studied. These results suggest a differentiated role played by each foot in alpine skiing turns: the outside foot has an active role in the turning process, while the inside foot may only play a role in stability.

  11. Hierarchically mesoporous silica materials prepared from the uniaxially stretched polypropylene membrane and surfactant templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaocong; Ma Jin; Liu Jin; Zhou Chen; Zhao, Yan; Yi Shouzhi; Yang Zhenzhong

    2006-01-01

    Hierarchically mesoporous silica materials with a bimodal distribution were template-prepared from uniaxially stretched polypropylene membrane in the presence of a surfactant via a sol-gel process. Their regularity and morphologies were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), x-ray diffraction and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analysis. The larger channel pores formed by removing the microfibrils of uniaxially stretched polypropylene membrane have a broad pore size distribution, and their size is around 13 nm. In contrast, the smaller mesopores formed by surfactant templates have a narrow distribution; their size is about 3.9 nm. The size of the smaller pores could be tuned from 2 to 6 nm by selecting different surfactants and by changing the concentration of reactants

  12. Effect of different strain distributions on the phase transformations in steel. Einfluss verschiedener Dehnungszustaende auf das Umwandlungsverhalten eines Stahls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyra, A.; Dahl, W. (Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Eisenhuettenkunde)

    1990-01-01

    Using tensile specimens with two different geometries (notched and unnotched) and five cooling rates the anisothermal phase transformation of a 100 Cr 6 steel has been investigated under influence of different strain distributions inside the specimens. The nonhomogeneous distribution of plastic strain has been achieved by tensile testing at high temperatures (800deg C). Measurement of the transformation temperatures was carried out by dilatometry and differential thermal analysis (DTA). The results reveal that due to hot deformation the pearlitic transformation curves in the CCT-Diagram are dislocated to shorter times and higher temperatures compared with the underformed state. The extent of the displacement is however a function of the strain distribution inside the specimens. (orig.).

  13. Instruments and techniques for analysing the time-resolved transverse phase space distribution of high-brightness electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudolph, Jeniffa

    2012-01-01

    This thesis deals with the instruments and techniques used to characterise the transverse phase space distribution of high-brightness electron beams. In particular, methods are considered allowing to measure the emittance as a function of the longitudinal coordinate within the bunch (slice emittance) with a resolution in the ps to sub-ps range. The main objective of this work is the analysis of techniques applicable for the time-resolved phase space characterisation for future high-brightness electron beam sources and single-pass accelerators based on these. The competence built up by understanding and comparing different techniques is to be used for the design and operation of slice diagnostic systems for the Berlin Energy Recovery Linac Project (BERLinPro). In the framework of the thesis, two methods applicable for slice emittance measurements are considered, namely the zero-phasing technique and the use of a transverse deflector. These methods combine the conventional quadrupole scan technique with a transfer of the longitudinal distribution into a transverse distribution. Measurements were performed within different collaborative projects. The experimental setup, the measurement itself and the data analysis are discussed as well as measurement results and simulations. In addition, the phase space tomography technique is introduced. In contrast to quadrupole scan-based techniques, tomography is model-independent and can reconstruct the phase space distribution from simple projected measurements. The developed image reconstruction routine based on the Maximum Entropy algorithm is introduced. The quality of the reconstruction is tested using different model distributions, simulated data and measurement data. The results of the tests are presented. The adequacy of the investigated techniques, the experimental procedures as well as the developed data analysis tools could be verified. The experimental and practical experience gathered during this work, the

  14. Flexible and Scalable Methods for Multi-Agent Distributed Resource Allocations by Exploiting Phase Transitions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang, Weixiong

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes the main findings and results on five independent yet closely related research topics, which were motivated by some difficult distributed constraint problems from Autonomous Negotiating Teams (ANTs) domains: (1...

  15. A Real-Time Fault Management Software System for Distributed Environments, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — DyMA-FM (Dynamic Multivariate Assessment for Fault Management) is a software architecture for real-time fault management. Designed to run in a distributed...

  16. Aero-Effected Distributed Adaptive Control of Flexible Aircraft Using Active Bleed, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed research focuses on the development of a new adaptive control methodology for active control of wing aerodynamic shape to effect distributed aerodynamic...

  17. Fault Detection, Identification, Reconstruction, and Fault-Tolerant Estimation for Distributed Spacecraft, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Formation flying enables new capabilities in distributed sensing, surveillance in Earth orbit and for interferometer imaging in deep space as envisioned by the...

  18. RF model of the distribution system as a communication channel, phase 2. Volume 3: Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustay, R. C.; Gajjar, J. T.; Rankin, R. W.; Wentz, R. C.; Wooding, R.

    1982-01-01

    Program documentation concerning the design, implementation, and verification of a computerized model for predicting the steady-state sinusoidal response of radial configured distribution feeders is presented in these appendices.

  19. System-Level Development of Fault-Tolerant Distributed Aero-Engine Control Architecture, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's vision for an "intelligent engine" will be realized with the development of a truly distributed control system and reliable smart transducer node components;...

  20. Distributed Anemometry via High-Definition Fiber Optic Sensing, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Luna is developing a distributed anemometer that can directly measure flow field velocity profiles using high-definition fiber optic sensing (HD-FOS). The concept is...

  1. In-Space Distributed Fiber Optic Hydrogen Leak Sensor, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Broadband Photonics Inc. proposes development of a patent-pending distributed fiber optic sensor for in-space hydrogen leak detection. Reliable and fast detection of...

  2. Tunable Laser for High-Performance, Low-Cost Distributed Sensing Platform, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed effort will establish technical feasibility of an approach to optimizing a low-cost, fast-sweeping tunable laser for distributed sensing. Multiple...

  3. RF model of the distribution system as a communication channel, phase 2. Volume 2: Task reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustay, R. C.; Gajjar, J. T.; Rankin, R. W.; Wentz, R. C.; Wooding, R.

    1982-01-01

    Based on the established feasibility of predicting, via a model, the propagation of Power Line Frequency on radial type distribution feeders, verification studies comparing model predictions against measurements were undertaken using more complicated feeder circuits and situations. Detailed accounts of the major tasks are presented. These include: (1) verification of model; (2) extension, implementation, and verification of perturbation theory; (3) parameter sensitivity; (4) transformer modeling; and (5) compensation of power distribution systems for enhancement of power line carrier communication reliability.

  4. Particle size distribution properties in mixed-phase monsoon clouds from in situ measurements during CAIPEEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patade, Sachin; Prabha, T. V.; Axisa, D.; Gayatri, K.; Heymsfield, A.

    2015-10-01

    A comprehensive analysis of particle size distributions measured in situ with airborne instrumentation during the Cloud Aerosol Interaction and Precipitation Enhancement Experiment (CAIPEEX) is presented. In situ airborne observations in the developing stage of continental convective clouds during premonsoon (PRE), transition, and monsoon (MON) period at temperatures from 25 to -22°C are used in the study. The PRE clouds have narrow drop size and particle size distributions compared to monsoon clouds and showed less development of size spectra with decrease in temperature. Overall, the PRE cases had much lower values of particle number concentrations and ice water content compared to MON cases, indicating large differences in the ice initiation and growth processes between these cloud regimes. This study provided compelling evidence that in addition to dynamics, aerosol and moisture are important for modulating ice microphysical processes in PRE and MON clouds through impacts on cloud drop size distribution. Significant differences are observed in the relationship of the slope and intercept parameters of the fitted particle size distributions (PSDs) with temperature in PRE and MON clouds. The intercept values are higher in MON clouds than PRE for exponential distribution which can be attributed to higher cloud particle number concentrations and ice water content in MON clouds. The PRE clouds tend to have larger values of dispersion of gamma size distributions than MON clouds, signifying narrower spectra. The relationships between PSDs parameters are presented and compared with previous observations.

  5. Design, fabrication, and properties of 2-2 connectivity cement/polymer based piezoelectric composites with varied piezoelectric phase distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dongyu, Xu; Xin, Cheng; Shifeng, Huang; Banerjee, Sourav

    2014-01-01

    The laminated 2-2 connectivity cement/polymer based piezoelectric composites with varied piezoelectric phase distribution were fabricated by employing Lead Zirconium Titanate ceramic as active phase, and mixture of cement powder, epoxy resin, and hardener as matrix phase with a mass proportion of 4:4:1. The dielectric, piezoelectric, and electromechanical coupling properties of the composites were studied. The composites with large total volume fraction of piezoelectric phase have large piezoelectric strain constant and relative permittivity, and the piezoelectric and dielectric properties of the composites are independent of the dimensional variations of the piezoelectric ceramic layer. The composites with small total volume fraction of piezoelectric phase have large piezoelectric voltage constant, but also large dielectric loss. The composite with gradually increased dimension of piezoelectric ceramic layer has the smallest dielectric loss, and that with the gradually increased dimension of matrix layer has the largest piezoelectric voltage constant. The novel piezoelectric composites show potential applications in fabricating ultrasonic transducers with varied surface vibration amplitude of the transducer

  6. A preliminary evaluation of myoelectrical energy distribution of the front neck muscles in pharyngeal phase during normal swallowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingxing Zhu; Wanzhang Yang; Samuel, Oluwarotimi Williams; Yun Xiang; Jianping Huang; Haiqing Zou; Guanglin Li

    2016-08-01

    Pharyngeal phase is a central hub of swallowing in which food bolus pass through from the oral cavity to the esophageal. Proper understanding of the muscular activities in the pharyngeal phase is useful for assessing swallowing function and the occurrence of dysphagia in humans. In this study, high-density (HD) surface electromyography (sEMG) was used to study the muscular activities in the pharyngeal phase during swallowing tasks involving three healthy male subjects. The root mean square (RMS) of the HD sEMG data was computed by using a series of segmented windows as myoelectrical energy. And the RMS of each window covering all channels (16×5) formed a matrix. During the pharyngeal phase of swallowing, three of the matrixes were chosen and normalized to obtain the HD energy maps and the statistical parameter. The maps across different viscosity levels offered the energy distribution which showed the muscular activities of the left and right sides of the front neck muscles. In addition, the normalized average RMS (NARE) across different viscosity levels revealed a left-right significant correlation (r=0.868±0.629, pstronger correlation when swallowing water. This pilot study suggests that HD sEMG would be a potential tool to evaluate muscular activities in pharyngeal phase during normal swallowing. Also, it might provide useful information for dysphagia diagnosis.

  7. Gas-particle phase partitioning and particle size distribution of chlorinated and brominated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in haze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Rong; Zheng, Minghui; Yang, Hongbo; Yang, Lili; Wu, Xiaolin; Xu, Yang; Liu, Guorui

    2017-12-01

    Chlorinated and brominated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (Cl/Br-PAHs) are emerging semi-volatile organic pollutants in haze-associated particulate matter (PM). Their gas-particle phase partitioning and distribution among PM fractions have not been clarified. Clarification would increase understanding of atmospheric behavior and health risks of Cl/Br-PAHs. In this study, samples of the gas phase and 4 PM phases (aerodynamic diameters (d ae ) > 10 μm, 2.5-10 μm, 1.0-2.5 μm, and <1.0 μm) were collected simultaneously during haze events in Beijing and analyzed. Normalized histogram distribution indicated that the Cl/Br-PAHs tended to adhere to fine particles. Over 80% of the Cl-PAHs and 70% of the Br-PAHs were associated with fine PM (d ae  < 2.5 μm). The gas-particle phase partitioning and PM distribution of Cl/Br-PAHs when heating of buildings was required, which was associated with haze events, were obviously different from those when heating was not required. The relationship between the logarithmic geometric mean diameters of the Cl/Br-PAH congeners and reciprocal of the temperature (1/T) suggested that low air temperatures during the heating period could lead to high proportions of Cl/Br-PAHs in the fine particles. Increased coal burning during the heating period also contributed to high Cl/Br-PAH loads in the fine particles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Pion scattering to 8- stretched states in 60Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clausen, B.L.

    1988-03-01

    Using the Energetic Pion Channel and Spectrometer at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility, differential cross sections for pion scattering were measured for ten previously known J/sup π/ = 8/sup /minus// stretched states in 60 Ni. A possible new pure isoscalar stretched state was also found. The data were taken near the /DELTA//sub 3,3/-resonance using 162 MeV incident pions and scattering angles of 65/degree/, 80/degree/, and 90/degree/ for π + and 65/degree/ and 80/degree/ for π/sup /minus//. The analysis of the 60 Ni data found that the use of Woods-Saxon wave functions in the theoretical calculations gave much better agreement with data than the use of the usual harmonic oscillator wave functions. The WS theory gave better predictions of: the angle at which the π/sup /minus// and π + angular distributions are maximum, the ratios of π/sup /minus// to π + cross sections for pure isovector states (which were much larger than unity), and the absolute size of the cross sections for all states (so that the normalization factor necessary to arrive at agreement of theory with data was closer to unity). The theoretical calculations used the distorted wave impulse approximation, including new methods for unbound states. The sensitivities of the calculations to input parameters were investigated. This analysis using WS wave functions was extended to five other nuclei ( 12 C, 14 C, 16 O, 28 Si, and 54 Fe) on which both pion scattering and electron scattering have been done. A significant improvement in arriving at a normalization factor close to unity was found when WS wave functions were consistently used for analyzing both pion and electron inelastic scattering data. 101 refs., 26 figs., 13 tabs

  9. Constellation Stretch Goals: Review of Industry Inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, John

    2006-01-01

    Many good ideas received based on industry experience: a) Shuttle operations; b) Commercial aircraft production; c) NASA's historical way of doing business; d) Military and commercial programs. Aerospace performed preliminary analysis: a) Potential savings; b) Cost of implementation; c) Performance or other impact/penalties; d) Roadblocks; e) Unintended consequences; f) Bottom line. Significant work ahead for a "Stretch Goal"to become a good, documented requirement: 1) As a group, the relative "value" of goals are uneven; 2) Focused analysis on each goal is required: a) Need to ensure that a new requirement produces the desired consequence; b) It is not certain that some goals will not create problems elsewhere. 3) Individual implementation path needs to be studied: a) Best place to insert requirement (what level, which document); b) Appropriate wording for the requirement. Many goals reflect "best practices" based on lessons learned and may have value beyond near-term CxP requirements process.

  10. LABOR GYMNASTICS: STRETCHING EXERCISE X FLEXIONAMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Amorin Anchieta Borges da Silva, Isabel Cristina Taranto e Fernanda Piasecki

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, there are many opportunities for the society to live a healthful and long life. At the same time, never people was so sedentary and without harmony. Without a healthy body and with “an occupied mind” the human loses exactly what more it needs: the disposal to produce, to coexist and to live a good life. In this context, the present research aimed to revise some terms related to labor gymnastics, which is focused in the prevention of risks related to hours of working and in the reduction of muscular tension levels that may be originated during a day of work. Thus, the present study will make a differentiation between the use of stretching and flexionament during labor gymnastic sessions.

  11. Linear viscoelastic characterization from filament stretching rheometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wingstrand, Sara Lindeblad; Alvarez, Nicolas J.; Hassager, Ole

    to measure both linear and nonlinear dynamics on a single apparatus. With a software modification to the FSR motor control, we show that linear viscoelasticity can be measured via small amplitude squeeze flow (SASF). Squeeze flow is a combination of both shear and extensional flow applied by axially......Traditionally, linear viscoelasticity is measured using small amplitude oscillatory shear flow. Due to experimental difficulties, shear flows are predominately confined to the linear and mildly nonlinear regime. On the other hand, extensional flows have proven more practical in measuring...... viscoelasticity well into the nonlinear regime. Therefore at present, complete rheological characterization of a material requires two apparatuses: a shear and an extensional rheometer. This work is focused on developing a linear viscoelastic protocol for the filament stretching rheometer (FSR) in order...

  12. Buckling and stretching of thin viscous sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Kiely, Doireann; Breward, Chris; Griffiths, Ian; Howell, Peter; Lange, Ulrich

    2016-11-01

    Thin glass sheets are used in smartphone, battery and semiconductor technology, and may be manufactured by producing a relatively thick glass slab and subsequently redrawing it to a required thickness. The resulting sheets commonly possess undesired centerline ripples and thick edges. We present a mathematical model in which a viscous sheet undergoes redraw in the direction of gravity, and show that, in a sufficiently strong gravitational field, buckling is driven by compression in a region near the bottom of the sheet, and limited by viscous resistance to stretching of the sheet. We use asymptotic analysis in the thin-sheet, low-Reynolds-number limit to determine the centerline profile and growth rate of such a viscous sheet.

  13. Loads applied to fixations for chain stretching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahrens, K; Brychta, P

    1985-06-01

    The chains of scraper chain conveyors must be pre-stretched during standstill in order to compensate the elongations occurring during operation. They require frequent retensiening in order to meet the varying operational requirements. During tensioning, the chains are fixed in a point in the top run by means of fixation elements. The authors present a method for calculating the retaining force needed in the fixations. There are three different initial conditions of the chain before trensioning: Tensionsfree chain, pretensioned chain (stressed chain), slack chain. In all three cases, it is important to find out whether or nor the tensioning drive reaches full speed. The method of calculation is illustrated by the example of a scraper chain conveyor; it enables the establishment of rules for tensioning without damaging the chain and is a good basis for the dimensioning of new types of fixation elements.

  14. Aerothermodynamic properties of stretched flames in enclosures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotman, D. A.; Oppenheim, A. K.

    Flames are stretched by being pulled along their frontal surface by the flow field in which they reside. Their trajectories tend to approach particle paths, acquiring eventually the role of contact boundaries, -interfaces between the burnt and unburnt medium that may broaden solely as a consequence of diffusion. Fundamental properties of flow fields governing such flames are determined here on the basis of the zero Mach number model, providng a rational method of approach to the computational analysis of combustion fields in enclosures where, besides the aerodynamic properties flow, the thermodynamic process of compression must be taken into account. To illustrate its application, the method is used to reveal the mechanism of formation of a tulip-shape flame in a rectangular enclosure under nonturbulent flow conditions.

  15. Impact of Martensite Spatial Distribution on Quasi-Static and Dynamic Deformation Behavior of Dual-Phase Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manpreet; Das, Anindya; Venugopalan, T.; Mukherjee, Krishnendu; Walunj, Mahesh; Nanda, Tarun; Kumar, B. Ravi

    2018-02-01

    The effects of microstructure parameters of dual-phase steels on tensile high strain dynamic deformation characteristic were examined in this study. Cold-rolled steel sheets were annealed using three different annealing process parameters to obtain three different dual-phase microstructures of varied ferrite and martensite phase fraction. The volume fraction of martensite obtained in two of the steels was near identical ( 19 pct) with a subtle difference in its spatial distribution. In the first microstructure variant, martensite was mostly found to be situated at ferrite grain boundaries and in the second variant, in addition to at grain boundaries, in-grain martensite was also observed. The third microstructure was very different from the above two with respect to martensite volume fraction ( 67 pct) and its morphology. In this case, martensite packets were surrounded by a three-dimensional ferrite network giving an appearance of core and shell type microstructure. All the three steels were tensile deformed at strain rates ranging from 2.7 × 10-4 (quasi-static) to 650 s-1 (dynamic range). Field-emission scanning electron microscope was used to characterize the starting as well as post-tensile deformed microstructures. Dual-phase steel consisting of small martensite volume fraction ( 19 pct), irrespective of its spatial distribution, demonstrated high strain rate sensitivity and on the other hand, steel with large martensite volume fraction ( 67 pct) displayed a very little strain rate sensitivity. Interestingly, total elongation was found to increase with increasing strain rate in the dynamic regime for steel with core-shell type of microstructure containing large martensite volume fraction. The observed enhancement in plasticity in dynamic regime was attributed to adiabatic heating of specimen. To understand the evolving damage mechanism, the fracture surface and the vicinity of fracture ends were studied in all the three dual-phase steels.

  16. Newton Power Flow Methods for Unbalanced Three-Phase Distribution Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sereeter, B.; Vuik, C.; Witteveen, C.

    2017-01-01

    Two mismatch functions (power or current) and three coordinates (polar, Cartesian andcomplex form) result in six versions of the Newton–Raphson method for the solution of powerflow problems. In this paper, five new versions of the Newton power flow method developed forsingle-phase problems in our

  17. Gas phase polymerization of propylene. Reaction kinetics and molecular weight distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meier, G.B.; Weickert, G.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    2001-01-01

    Gas-phase polymerizations have been executed at different temperatures, pressures, and hydrogen concentrations using Me2Si[Ind]2ZrCl2 / methylaluminoxane / SiO2(Pennsylvania Quarts) as a catalyst. The reaction rate curves have been described by a kinetic model, which takes into account the initially

  18. Gas-phase photoemission with soft x-rays: cross sections and angular distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirley, D.A.; Kobrin, P.H.; Truesdale, C.M.; Lindle, D.W.; Ferrett, T.A.; Heimann, P.A.; Becker, U.; Kerkhoff, H.G.; Southworth, S.H.

    1983-09-01

    A summary is presented of typical gas-phase photoemission studies based on synchrotron radiation in the 50-5000 eV range, using beam lines at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. Three topics are addressed: atomic inner-shell photoelectron cross sections and asymmetries, correlation peaks in rare gases, and core-level shape resonances in molecules

  19. The effect of dynamic stretching on hamstrings flexibility with respect to the spino-pelvic rhythm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasebe, Kiyotaka; Okubo, Yu; Kaneoka, Koji; Takada, Kohei; Suzuki, Daisuke; Sairyo, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    To ascertain the dynamic stretch effects of flexibility of the hamstrings on lumbar spine and pelvic kinematics. Tight hamstrings are positively correlated with low back pain. However, it is unclear how flexibility of the hamstrings affects spino-pelvic rhythm. Twelve healthy men participated in the study. The straight leg raising (SLR) angle, finger floor distance (FFD), and spino-pelvic rhythm was measured before and after the 6-week stretching protocol. The forward bending task was divided into 4 phases. The paired t-test was used to determine significant differences before and after the FFD, SLR angle, lumbar motion, and pelvic motion, and spino-pelvic rhythm in each phase (phamstrings are important for preventing low back pain.

  20. Exxon nuclear power distribution control for pressurized water reactors: Phase II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, J.S.; Burnside, R.J.

    1978-01-01

    The power distribution control procedure, denoted PDC-II, described in this report enables nuclear plants to manage core power distributions such that Technical Specification Limits on F/sub Q//sup T/ are not violated during normal operation and limits on MDNBR are not violated during steady-state, load-follow, and anticipated transients. The PDC-II data base described provides the means for predicting the maximum F/sub Q//sup T/(z) distribution anticipated during operation under the PDC-II procedure taking into account the incore measured equilibrium power distribution data for the reactor in question. A comparison of this distribution with the Technical Specification limit curve determines whether the Technical Specification limit can be protected by PDC-II procedure. If such protection can be confirmed for a given operating cycle interval, APDMS monitoring is not necessary over this interval and the excore monitored constant axial offset limits will protect the Technical Specification F/sub Q//sup T/ limits. This document describes the maximum possible variation in F/sub Q//sup T/(z) which can occur during operation when following the PDC-II procedures. This bounding variation in F/sub Q//sup T/(z) is referred to as V(z). This V(z) distribution represents the maximun variation in F/sub Q//sup T/(z) when the axial offset is maintained within the range defined in this report [+- 5% at full power condition

  1. Determination of size distribution of bubbles in a bubbly column two phase flows by ultrasound and neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baroni, Douglas B.; Lamy, Carlos A.; Bittencourt, Marcelo S.Q.; Pereira, Claudio M.N.A.; Cunha Filho, Jurandyr S.; Motta, Mauricio S.

    2011-01-01

    The development of advanced nuclear reactor conceptions depends largely on the amount of available data to the designer. Non invasive ultrasonic techniques can contribute to the evaluation of gas-liquid two-phase regimes in the nuclear thermo-hydraulic circuits. A key-point for success of those techniques is the interpretation of the ultrasonic signal. In this work, a methodology based in artificial neural networks (ANN) is proposed to predict size distribution of bubbles in a bubbly flow. To accomplish that, an air feed system control was used to obtain specific bubbly flows in an experimental system utilizing a Plexiglas vertical bubbly column. Four different size distribution of bubbles were generated. The bubbles were photographed and measured. To evaluate the different size distribution of bubbles it was used the ultrasonic reflected echo on the opposite wall of the column. Then, an ANN has been developed for predicting size distribution of bubbles by using the frequency spectra of the ultrasonic signal as input. A trained artificial neural network using ultrasonic signal in the frequency domain can evaluate with a good precision the size distribution of bubbles generated in this system. (author)

  2. Determination of size distribution of bubbles in a bubbly column two phase flows by ultrasound and neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baroni, Douglas B.; Lamy, Carlos A.; Bittencourt, Marcelo S.Q.; Pereira, Claudio M.N.A., E-mail: douglasbaroni@ien.gov.b, E-mail: lamy@ien.gov.b, E-mail: bittenc@ien.gov.b, E-mail: cmnap@ien.gov.b [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Cunha Filho, Jurandyr S. [Escola Tecnica Estadual Visconde de Maua (ETEVM/RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Motta, Mauricio S., E-mail: mmotta@cefet-rj.b [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica Celso Suckow da Fonseca (CEFET/RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The development of advanced nuclear reactor conceptions depends largely on the amount of available data to the designer. Non invasive ultrasonic techniques can contribute to the evaluation of gas-liquid two-phase regimes in the nuclear thermo-hydraulic circuits. A key-point for success of those techniques is the interpretation of the ultrasonic signal. In this work, a methodology based in artificial neural networks (ANN) is proposed to predict size distribution of bubbles in a bubbly flow. To accomplish that, an air feed system control was used to obtain specific bubbly flows in an experimental system utilizing a Plexiglas vertical bubbly column. Four different size distribution of bubbles were generated. The bubbles were photographed and measured. To evaluate the different size distribution of bubbles it was used the ultrasonic reflected echo on the opposite wall of the column. Then, an ANN has been developed for predicting size distribution of bubbles by using the frequency spectra of the ultrasonic signal as input. A trained artificial neural network using ultrasonic signal in the frequency domain can evaluate with a good precision the size distribution of bubbles generated in this system. (author)

  3. Distribution characteristics of interfacial parameter in downward gas-liquid two-phase flow in vertical circular tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Guoqiang; Yan Changqi; Tian Daogui; Sun Licheng

    2014-01-01

    Experimental study was performed on distribution characteristics of interfacial parameters of downward gas-liquid flow in a vertical circular tube with the measurement by a two-sensor optical fiber probe. The test section is a circular pipe with the inner diameter of 50 mm and the length of 2000 mm. The superficial velocities of the gas and the liquid phases cover the ranges of 0.004-0.077 m/s and 0.43-0.71 m/s, respectively. The results show that the distributions of the interfacial parameters in downward bubbly flows are quite different from those in upward bubbly flows. For the case of upward flow, the parameters present the 'wall-peak' or 'core-peak' distributions, but for the case of downward flow, they show 'wall-peak' or 'wide-peak' distributions. The average value of void fraction in vertical downward flow is about 119.6%-145.0% larger than that in upward flow, and the interfacial area concentration is about 18.8%-82.5% larger than that in upward flow. The distribution of interfacial parameters shows an obvious tendency of uniformity. (authors)

  4. Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Jones

    1985-01-01

    Quaking aspen is the most widely distributed native North American tree species (Little 1971, Sargent 1890). It grows in a great diversity of regions, environments, and communities (Harshberger 1911). Only one deciduous tree species in the world, the closely related Eurasian aspen (Populus tremula), has a wider range (Weigle and Frothingham 1911)....

  5. Influence of phase transformations on the asymptotic residual stress distribution arising near a sharp V-notch tip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferro, P

    2012-01-01

    In this work, the residual stress distribution induced by the solidification and cooling of a fusion zone in the vicinity of a sharp V-notch tip is investigated. The intensity of the residual asymptotic stress fields, quantified by the notch stress intensity factors, was studied for two different V-notch specimen geometries under generalized plane-strain conditions. In order to analyze the influence of phase transformations on the obtained results, simulations with and without the effects of phase transformation were carried out on ASTM SA 516 steel plates. Thanks to the possibilities of numerical modelling, additional analyses were performed without taking into account the transformation plasticity phenomenon. It was found that phase transformation effects (both volume change and transformation plasticity) have a great influence on the intensity and sign of the asymptotic stress fields at the sharp V-notch tips. This result is believed to be very important for the correct numerical determination (and future applications) of notch stress intensity factors resulting from asymptotic residual stress distributions induced by transient thermal loads. The analyses were performed with the finite element code SYSWELD. (paper)

  6. S-phase cell distribution in the small intestine irradiated at different times of the day. I. Acute irradiation injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becciolini, A; Balzi, M; Cremonini, D; Fabbrica, D [Florence Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Radiologia

    1983-01-01

    The S-phase cell distribution has been analysed to evaluate the behaviour of proliferative cells in the intestinal epithelium after irradiation at different times of the day. A marked reduction of S cell frequency was observed at early intervals after abdominal irradiation; this reduction was particularly evident in the lower half of the crypts. At subsequent intervals a progressive extension of the proliferative compartment, with labelled cells also at the top of the crypt, was present. The irradiated groups generally showed a homogeneous behaviour even if a more marked reduction in S-phase cells was observed in group C. The invertase activity, a brush border enzyme synthetized during the differentiation process, presented a different behaviour at the early intervals in the irradiated groups. When the extension of the proliferative compartment occurred the invertase activity reached values close to zero. The modifications in brush border enzymes and in S-phase cell distribution, at early killing times, led to the hypothesis of an early differentiation.

  7. Determining solid-fluid interface temperature distribution during phase change of cryogenic propellants using transient thermal modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellur, K.; Médici, E. F.; Hermanson, J. C.; Choi, C. K.; Allen, J. S.

    2018-04-01

    Control of boil-off of cryogenic propellants is a continuing technical challenge for long duration space missions. Predicting phase change rates of cryogenic liquids requires an accurate estimation of solid-fluid interface temperature distributions in regions where a contact line or a thin liquid film exists. This paper described a methodology to predict inner wall temperature gradients with and without evaporation using discrete temperature measurements on the outer wall of a container. Phase change experiments with liquid hydrogen and methane in cylindrical test cells of various materials and sizes were conducted at the Neutron Imaging Facility at the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Two types of tests were conducted. The first type of testing involved thermal cycling of an evacuated cell (dry) and the second involved controlled phase change with cryogenic liquids (wet). During both types of tests, temperatures were measured using Si-diode sensors mounted on the exterior surface of the test cells. Heat is transferred to the test cell by conduction through a helium exchange gas and through the cryostat sample holder. Thermal conduction through the sample holder is shown to be the dominant mode with the rate of heat transfer limited by six independent contact resistances. An iterative methodology is employed to determine contact resistances between the various components of the cryostat stick insert, test cell and lid using the dry test data. After the contact resistances are established, inner wall temperature distributions during wet tests are calculated.

  8. β-Phase poly(vinylidene fluoride) films encouraged more homogeneous cell distribution and more significant deposition of fibronectin towards the cell–material interface compared to α-phase poly(vinylidene fluoride) films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Low, Y.K.A.; Zou, X. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, N4.1 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Fang, Y.M. [School of Computer Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, N4 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Wang, J.L. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, N4.1 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Lin, W.S. [School of Computer Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, N4 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Boey, F.Y.C. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, N4.1 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Ng, K.W., E-mail: kwng@ntu.edu.sg [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, N4.1 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2014-01-01

    The piezoelectric response from β-phase poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) can potentially be exploited for biomedical application. We hypothesized that α and β-phase PVDF exert direct but different influence on cellular behavior. α- and β-phase PVDF films were synthesized through solution casting and characterized with FT-IR, XRD, AFM and PFM to ensure successful fabrication of α and β-phase PVDF films. Cellular evaluation with L929 mouse fibroblasts over one-week was conducted with AlamarBlue® metabolic assay and PicoGreen® proliferation assay. Immunostaining of fibronectin investigated the extent and distribution of extracellular matrix deposition. Image saliency analysis quantified differences in cellular distribution on the PVDF films. Our results showed that β-phase PVDF films with the largest area expressing piezoelectric effect elicited highest cell metabolic activity at day 3 of culture. Increased fibronectin adsorption towards the cell–material interface was shown on β-phase PVDF films. Image saliency analysis showed that fibroblasts on β-phase PVDF films were more homogeneously distributed than on α-phase PVDF films. Taken collectively, the different molecular packing of α and β-phase PVDF resulted in differing physical properties of films, which in turn induced differences in cellular behaviors. Further analysis of how α and β-phase PVDF may evoke specific cellular behavior to suit particular application will be intriguing. - Highlights: • β-Phase PVDF exhibited strongest piezoelectric effects compared to α-phase PVDF. • β-Phase PVDF induced more homogeneous cell distribution than α-phase PVDF. • β-Phase PVDF encouraged more fibronectin deposition at the cell–material interface.

  9. Micro-macro model for prediction of local temperature distribution in heterogeneous and two-phase media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furmański Piotr

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Heat flow in heterogeneous media with complex microstructure follows tortuous path and therefore determination of temperature distribution in them is a challenging task. Two-scales, micro-macro model of heat conduction with phase change in such media was considered in the paper. A relation between temperature distribution on the microscopic level, i.e., on the level of details of microstructure, and the temperature distribution on the macroscopic level, i.e., on the level where the properties were homogenized and treated as effective, was derived. The expansion applied to this relation allowed to obtain its more simplified, approximate form corresponding to separation of micro- and macro-scales. Then the validity of this model was checked by performing calculations for 2D microstructure of a composite made of two constituents. The range of application of the proposed micro-macro model was considered in transient states of heat conduction both for the case when the phase change in the material is present and when it is absent. Variation of the effective thermal conductivity with time was considered and a criterion was found for which application of the considered model is justified.

  10. Accessing the molecular frame through strong-field alignment of distributions of gas phase molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Katharine L.

    2018-03-01

    A rationale for creating highly aligned distributions of molecules is that it enables vector properties referenced to molecule-fixed axes (the molecular frame) to be determined. In the present work, the degree of alignment that is necessary for this to be achieved in practice is explored. Alignment is commonly parametrized in experiments by a single parameter, ?, which is insufficient to enable predictive calculations to be performed. Here, it is shown that, if the full distribution of molecular axes takes a Gaussian form, this single parameter can be used to determine the complete set of alignment moments needed to characterize the distribution. In order to demonstrate the degree of alignment that is required to approach the molecular frame, the alignment moments corresponding to a few chosen values of ? are used to project a model molecular frame photoelectron angular distribution into the laboratory frame. These calculations show that ? needs to approach 0.9 in order to avoid significant blurring to be caused by averaging. This article is part of the theme issue `Modern theoretical chemistry'.

  11. LEAK DETECTION AND WIRELESS TELEMETRY FOR WATER DISTRIBUTION AND SEWERAGE SYSTEMS - PHASE I

    Science.gov (United States)

    According to the study EPA 2000 Community Water System Survey Data on Pipe Assets, the infrastructure for water distribution and sewerage systems is aging and requires replacement.  In addition, in EPA’s September 2002 report Clean Water and Drinking Water Infr...

  12. Distribution of lead-210 and polonium-210 between soluble and particulate phases in seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, D.W.

    1975-01-01

    Results are reported from radiometric measurements of the distribution of 210 Pb and 210 Po in surface seawater and suspended particulate matter. Samples of plankton and sediments collected from some locations were also analyzed. Samples of seawater and suspended particulate matter were collected from stations located in the Gulf of Maine, the North Atlantic, and approximately 500 miles southwest of Gilbraltar. (U.S.)

  13. EFFICACY OF MODIFIED PROPRIOCEPTIVE NEUROMUSCULAR FACILITATION STRETCHING WITH CRYOTHERAPY OVER MANUAL PASSIVE STRETCHING WITH CRYOTHERAPY ON HAMSTRING FLEXIBILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamik Bhattacharjee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Healthy individuals, to ease and accomplish their activities of daily living they need flexible body without any tightness in the muscles, particularly those used for a definite function. Cooling soft tissues in a lengthened position after stretching has been shown to promote more lasting increases in soft tissue length and minimize post stretch muscle soreness. There are less documented studies which compared modified proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF stretch over passive manual stretch with cold application commonly after the interventions. Methods: Thirty high school going healthy students were divided into two groups- Group I received Passive Manual stretching (n=15 and Group II received modified PNF stretching (n=15 and both groups received cold application after the interventions for 10 minutes commonly for 5 days. ROM was taken on day 1, day 5 and day 7. Results: After day 7, Group II with Modified PNF stretching along with cold application showed a significant increase in range of motion tested with active knee extension test (AKET. Conclusion: Modified PNF stretching is considered to be the effective intervention in increasing and maintaining ROM in AKET over passive manual stretching with cold applications commonly after the interventions.

  14. Reliable Grid Condition Detection and Control of Single-Phase Distributed Power Generation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciobotaru, Mihai

    standards addressed to the grid-connected systems will harmonize the combination of the DPGS and the classical power plants. Consequently, the major tasks of this thesis were to develop new grid condition detection techniques and intelligent control in order to allow the DPGS not only to deliver power...... to the utility grid but also to sustain it. This thesis was divided into two main parts, namely "Grid Condition Detection" and "Control of Single-Phase DPGS". In the first part, the main focus was on reliable Phase Locked Loop (PLL) techniques for monitoring the grid voltage and on grid impedance estimation...... techniques. Additionally, a new technique for detecting the islanding mode has been developed and successfully tested. In the second part, the main reported research was concentrated around adaptive current controllers based on the information provided by the grid condition detection techniques. To guarantee...

  15. Phase distribution of ecologically controlled chemical elements in production of extraction phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazak, V.G.; Agnelov, A.I.; Zajtsev, P.M.

    1995-01-01

    Content of 16 ecologically controlled chemical element (among them Cd, Sr, Th, U, V, Y) in solid and liquid phases of extraction phosphorus acid (EPA) production is determined. These elements are recommended to control by Scientific research institute of human ecology and environment to establish their extraction coefficients to phosphogypsum and EPA and optimal variant of production of ecologically sate phosphorus fertilizers. X-ray fluorescent, atomic-absorption and polarographic methods are used for analysis these elements

  16. Impact of Neutral Point Current Control on Copper Loss Distribution of Five Phase PM Generators Used in Wind Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARASHLOO, R. S.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency improvement under faulty conditions is one of the main objectives of fault tolerant PM drives. This goal can be achieved by increasing the output power while reducing the losses. Stator copper loss not only directly affects the total efficiency, but also plays an important role in thermal stress generations of iron core. In this paper, the effect of having control on neutral point current is studied on the efficiency of five-phase permanent magnet machines. Open circuit fault is considered for both one and two phases, and the distribution of copper loss along the windings are evaluated in each case. It is shown that only by having access to neutral point, it is possible to generate less stator thermal stress and more mechanical power in five-phase permanent magnet generators. Wind power generation and their applications are kept in mind, and the results are verified via simulations and experimental tests on an outer-rotor type of five-phase PM machine.

  17. Security of continuous-variable quantum key distribution: towards a de Finetti theorem for rotation symmetry in phase space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leverrier, A; Karpov, E; Cerf, N J; Grangier, P

    2009-01-01

    Proving the unconditional security of quantum key distribution (QKD) is a highly challenging task as one needs to determine the most efficient attack compatible with experimental data. This task is even more demanding for continuous-variable QKD as the Hilbert space where the protocol is described is infinite dimensional. A possible strategy to address this problem is to make an extensive use of the symmetries of the protocol. In this paper, we investigate a rotation symmetry in phase space that is particularly relevant to continuous-variable QKD, and explore the way towards a new quantum de Finetti theorem that would exploit this symmetry and provide a powerful tool to assess the security of continuous-variable protocols. As a first step, a single-party asymptotic version of this quantum de Finetti theorem in phase space is derived.

  18. Self-induced frequency scanning and distributed Bragg reflection in semiconductor lasers with phase-conjugate feedback

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cronin-Golomb; Yariv

    1986-07-01

    A GaA1As semiconductor laser with feedback from a barium titanate photorefractive ring passive phase-conjugate mirror can be made to perform repeating or nonrepeating frequency scans over a 10-nm range toward either the blue or the red. The direction of scanning and whether the scans repeat may be controlled by adjusting the overlap of the interaction beams in the crystal. This overlap region may be adjusted so that the diode frequency spectrum, originally occupying about 10 longitudinal modes, scans and narrows as the conjugate signal builds up, coming to rest often in one, but sometimes two or three, longitudinal modes as a result of self-generated distributed-feedback effects. Also reported similar effects caused by feedback from the total-internal-reflection passive phase-conjugate mirror. The alignment-control mechanism of the ring mirror is, however, not available in this case.

  19. Self-induced frequency scanning and distributed Bragg reflection in semiconductor lasers with phase-conjugate feedback

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cronin-Golomb, M.; Yariv, A.

    1986-07-01

    A GaAlAs semiconductor laser with feedback from a barium titanate photorefractive ring passive phase-conjugate mirror can be made to perform repeating or nonrepeating frequency scans over a 10-nm range toward either the blue or the red. The direction of scanning and whether the scans repeat may be controlled by adjusting the overlap of the interaction beams in the crystal. This overlap region may be adjusted so that the diode frequency spectrum, originally occupying about 10 longitudinal modes, scans and narrows as the conjugate signal builds up, coming to rest often in one, but sometimes two or three, longitudinal modes as a result of self-generated distributed-feedback effects. We also report similar effects caused by feedback from the total-internal-reflection passive phase-conjugate mirror. The alignment-control mechanism of the ring mirror is, however, not available in this case.

  20. Self-induced frequency scanning and distributed bragg reflection in semiconductor lasers with phase-conjugate feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin-Golomb, Mark; Yariv, Amnon

    1986-07-01

    A GaAlAs semiconductor laser with feedback from a barium titanate photorefractive ring passive phase-conjugate mirror can be made to perform repeating or nonrepeating frequency scans over a 10-nm range toward either the blue or the red. The direction of scanning and whether the scans repeat may be controlled by adjusting the overlap of the interaction beams in the crystal. This overlap region may be adjusted so that the diode frequency spectrum, originally occupying about 10 longitudinal modes, scans and narrows as the conjugate signal builds up, coming to rest often in one, but sometimes two or three, longitudinal modes as a result of self-generated distributed-feedback effects. We also report similar effects caused by feedback from the total-internal-reflection passive phase-conjugate mirror. The alignment-control mechanism of the ring mirror is, however, not available in this case.

  1. Measurement of residence time distribution of liquid phase in an industrial-scale continuous pulp digester using radiotracer technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheoran, Meenakshi; Goswami, Sunil; Pant, Harish J; Biswal, Jayashree; Sharma, Vijay K; Chandra, Avinash; Bhunia, Haripada; Bajpai, Pramod K; Rao, S Madhukar; Dash, A

    2016-05-01

    A series of radiotracer experiments was carried out to measure residence time distribution (RTD) of liquid phase (alkali) in an industrial-scale continuous pulp digester in a paper industry in India. Bromine-82 as ammonium bromide was used as a radiotracer. Experiments were carried out at different biomass and white liquor flow rates. The measured RTD data were treated and mean residence times in individual digester tubes as well in the whole digester were determined. The RTD was also analyzed to identify flow abnormalities and investigate flow dynamics of the liquid phase in the pulp digester. Flow channeling was observed in the first section (tube 1) of the digester. Both axial dispersion and tanks-in-series with backmixing models preceded with a plug flow component were used to simulate the measured RTD and quantify the degree of axial mixing. Based on the study, optimum conditions for operating the digester were proposed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. FE-Analysis of Stretch-Blow Moulded Bottles Using an Integrative Process Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopmann, C.; Michaeli, W.; Rasche, S.

    2011-05-01

    The two-stage stretch-blow moulding process has been established for the large scale production of high quality PET containers with excellent mechanical and optical properties. The total production costs of a bottle are significantly caused by the material costs. Due to this dominant share of the bottle material, the PET industry is interested in reducing the total production costs by an optimised material efficiency. However, a reduced material inventory means decreasing wall thicknesses and therewith a reduction of the bottle properties (e.g. mechanical properties, barrier properties). Therefore, there is often a trade-off between a minimal bottle weight and adequate properties of the bottle. In order to achieve the objectives Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) techniques can assist the designer of new stretch-blow moulded containers. Hence, tools such as the process simulation and the structural analysis have become important in the blow moulding sector. The Institute of Plastics Processing (IKV) at RWTH Aachen University, Germany, has developed an integrative three-dimensional process simulation which models the complete path of a preform through a stretch-blow moulding machine. At first, the reheating of the preform is calculated by a thermal simulation. Afterwards, the inflation of the preform to a bottle is calculated by finite element analysis (FEA). The results of this step are e.g. the local wall thickness distribution and the local biaxial stretch ratios. Not only the material distribution but also the material properties that result from the deformation history of the polymer have significant influence on the bottle properties. Therefore, a correlation between the material properties and stretch ratios is considered in an integrative simulation approach developed at IKV. The results of the process simulation (wall thickness, stretch ratios) are transferred to a further simulation program and mapped on the bottles FE mesh. This approach allows a local

  3. System Integration of Distributed Power for Complete Building Systems: Phase 2 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, R.

    2003-12-01

    This report describes NiSource Energy Technologies Inc.'s second year of a planned 3-year effort to advance distributed power development, deployment, and integration. Its long-term goal is to design ways to extend distributed generation into the physical design and controls of buildings. NET worked to meet this goal through advances in the implementation and control of combined heat and power systems in end-user environments and a further understanding of electric interconnection and siting issues. The specific objective of work under this subcontract is to identify the system integration and implementation issues of DG and develop and test potential solutions to these issues. In addition, recommendations are made to resolve identified issues that may hinder or slow the integration of integrated energy systems into the national energy picture.

  4. Input modeling with phase-type distributions and Markov models theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Buchholz, Peter; Felko, Iryna

    2014-01-01

    Containing a summary of several recent results on Markov-based input modeling in a coherent notation, this book introduces and compares algorithms for parameter fitting and gives an overview of available software tools in the area. Due to progress made in recent years with respect to new algorithms to generate PH distributions and Markovian arrival processes from measured data, the models outlined are useful alternatives to other distributions or stochastic processes used for input modeling. Graduate students and researchers in applied probability, operations research and computer science along with practitioners using simulation or analytical models for performance analysis and capacity planning will find the unified notation and up-to-date results presented useful. Input modeling is the key step in model based system analysis to adequately describe the load of a system using stochastic models. The goal of input modeling is to find a stochastic model to describe a sequence of measurements from a real system...

  5. A study on DC hybrid three-phase fault current limiting interrupter for a power distribution system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao, Hongtian; Satoh, Tomoyuki; Yamaguchi, Mitsugi; Fukui, Satoshi; Ogawa, Jun; Satoh, Takao; Ishikawa, Hiroyuki

    2005-01-01

    For the purpose of protecting electric power system, many researches and developments of fault current limiters are being performed. The authors studied a dc hybrid three-phase fault current limiting interrupter (FCLI) composed of a superconducting reactor and an S/N transition element, connected in series each other. The dc hybrid type fault current limiting interrupter can limit a fault current by means of the inductance of high temperature superconducting (HTS) coil together with the normal transition of HTS bulk material (HTSB). In the case of an accident, the normal transition of the bulk material can be accelerated by the magnetic field of the HTS coil. In this paper, the dc hybrid type fault current limiting interrupter for 5.5 km long 6.6 kV-600 A power distribution system is analyzed, and performances of fault current limitation and interruption are confirmed. Moreover, a reclosing operation is discussed for this power distribution system

  6. Visualization and automatic detection of defect distribution in GaN atomic structure from sampling Moiré phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qinghua; Ri, Shien; Tsuda, Hiroshi; Kodera, Masako; Suguro, Kyoichi; Miyashita, Naoto

    2017-09-19

    Quantitative detection of defects in atomic structures is of great significance to evaluating product quality and exploring quality improvement process. In this study, a Fourier transform filtered sampling Moire technique was proposed to visualize and detect defects in atomic arrays in a large field of view. Defect distributions, defect numbers and defect densities could be visually and quantitatively determined from a single atomic structure image at low cost. The effectiveness of the proposed technique was verified from numerical simulations. As an application, the dislocation distributions in a GaN/AlGaN atomic structure in two directions were magnified and displayed in Moire phase maps, and defect locations and densities were detected automatically. The proposed technique is able to provide valuable references to material scientists and engineers by checking the effect of various treatments for defect reduction. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  7. Measurement of power distribution in FCA-HCLWR core (Phase-1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Akio; Osugi, Toshitaka; Satoh, Kunio

    1991-11-01

    In the report are described experiments with zone-type mock-up cores (FCA XIV) which consisted of uranium fuels and polystilene plates, assembled at FCA (Fast Critical Assembly), to study a series of physical characteristics for high conversion light water reactors. As one example of those characteristics, power distributions were measured by a γ-counting method in the mock-up cores by changing parametrically voidage states of the moderator, volume ratio of moderator to fuel and fuel enrichment. Fine structures of fission rate in a plate-array cell having strong heterogeneities were obtained at the center cell of the core to investigate the validity of the SRAC code for the analysis of the high conversion light water reactor. Furthermore infinite multiplication factors K ∞ which are an important physical parameter were derived from calculated migration areas and bucklings of each direction. This was obtained by fitting the measured power distributions into a cosine function. Calculated power distributions of radial directions overestimate largely the measure ones, while those of axial directions agree well with the measured values. Calculations on fine structure of fission ratio in the cell follow generally the measured values, but it is recognized that the calculation underestimates the measurement in a soft neutron spectrum core. As for infinite multiplication factors K ∞ , calculated values by the SRAC code agree within experimental errors with measured ones. No trend is observed on different voidage state of moderator and fuel enrichment in the limit of this experiment. (author)

  8. The stretch reflex and the contributions of C David Marsden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyan B Bhattacharyya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The stretch reflex or myotatic reflex refers to the contraction of a muscle in response to its passive stretching by increasing its contractility as long as the stretch is within physiological limits. For ages, it was thought that the stretch reflex was of short latency and it was synonymous with the tendon reflex, subserving the same spinal reflex arc. However, disparities in the status of the two reflexes in certain clinical situations led Marsden and his collaborators to carry out a series of experiments that helped to establish that the two reflexes had different pathways. That the two reflexes are dissociated has been proved by the fact that the stretch reflex and the tendon reflex, elicited by stimulation of the same muscle, have different latencies, that of the stretch reflex being considerably longer. They hypothesized that the stretch reflex had a transcortical course before it reached the spinal motor neurons for final firing. Additionally, the phenomenon of stimulus-sensitive cortical myoclonus lent further evidence to the presence of the transcortical loop where the EEG correlate preceded the EMG discharge. This concept has been worked out by later neurologists in great detail , and the general consensus is that indeed, the stretch reflex is endowed with a conspicuous transcortical component.

  9. Possible stretched exponential parametrization for humidity absorption in polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacinliyan, A; Skarlatos, Y; Sahin, G; Atak, K; Aybar, O O

    2009-04-01

    Polymer thin films have irregular transient current characteristics under constant voltage. In hydrophilic and hydrophobic polymers, the irregularity is also known to depend on the humidity absorbed by the polymer sample. Different stretched exponential models are studied and it is shown that the absorption of humidity as a function of time can be adequately modelled by a class of these stretched exponential absorption models.

  10. NON-INVASIVE DETERMINATION OF THE LOCATION AND DISTRIBUTION OF FREE-PHASE DENSE NONAQUEOUS PHASE LIQUIDS (DNAPL) BY SEISMIC REFLECTION TECHNIQUES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael G. Waddell; William J. Domoracki; Tom J. Temples; Jerome Eyer

    2001-01-01

    The Earth Sciences and Resources Institute, University of South Carolina is conducting a 14 month proof of concept study to determine the location and distribution of subsurface Dense Nonaqueous Phase Liquid (DNAPL) carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) contamination at the 216-Z-9 crib, 200 West area, Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site, Washington by use of two-dimensional high resolution seismic reflection surveys and borehole geophysical data. The study makes use of recent advances in seismic reflection amplitude versus offset (AVO) technology to directly detect the presence of subsurface DNAPL. The techniques proposed are a noninvasive means towards site characterization and direct free-phase DNAPL detection. This report covers the results of Task 3 and change of scope of Tasks 4-6. Task 1 contains site evaluation and seismic modeling studies. The site evaluation consists of identifying and collecting preexisting geological and geophysical information regarding subsurface structure and the presence and quantity of DNAPL. The seismic modeling studies were undertaken to determine the likelihood that an AVO response exists and its probable manifestation. Task 2 is the design and acquisition of 2-D seismic reflection data designed to image areas of probable high concentration of DNAPL. Task 3 is the processing and interpretation of the 2-D data. Task 4, 5, and 6 were designing, acquiring, processing, and interpretation of a three dimensional seismic survey (3D) at the Z-9 crib area at 200 west area, Hanford

  11. Identification and verification of critical performance dimensions. Phase 1 of the systematic process redesign of drug distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colen, Hadewig B; Neef, Cees; Schuring, Roel W

    2003-06-01

    Worldwide patient safety has become a major social policy problem for healthcare organisations. As in other organisations, the patients in our hospital also suffer from an inadequate distribution process, as becomes clear from incident reports involving medication errors. Medisch Spectrum Twente is a top primary-care, clinical, teaching hospital. The hospital pharmacy takes care of 1070 internal beds and 1120 beds in an affiliated psychiatric hospital and nursing homes. In the beginning of 1999, our pharmacy group started a large interdisciplinary research project to develop a safe, effective and efficient drug distribution system by using systematic process redesign. The process redesign includes both organisational and technological components. This article describes the identification and verification of critical performance dimensions for the design of drug distribution processes in hospitals (phase 1 of the systematic process redesign of drug distribution). Based on reported errors and related causes, we suggested six generic performance domains. To assess the role of the performance dimensions, we used three approaches: flowcharts, interviews with stakeholders and review of the existing performance using time studies and medication error studies. We were able to set targets for costs, quality of information, responsiveness, employee satisfaction, and degree of innovation. We still have to establish what drug distribution system, in respect of quality and cost-effectiveness, represents the best and most cost-effective way of preventing medication errors. We intend to develop an evaluation model, using the critical performance dimensions as a starting point. This model can be used as a simulation template to compare different drug distribution concepts in order to define the differences in quality and cost-effectiveness.

  12. Descriptive statistics and spatial distributions of geochemical variables associated with manganese oxide-rich phases in the northern Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botbol, Joseph Moses; Evenden, Gerald Ian

    1989-01-01

    Tables, graphs, and maps are used to portray the frequency characteristics and spatial distribution of manganese oxide-rich phase geochemical data, to characterize the northern Pacific in terms of publicly available nodule geochemical data, and to develop data portrayal methods that will facilitate data analysis. Source data are a subset of the Scripps Institute of Oceanography's Sediment Data Bank. The study area is bounded by 0° N., 40° N., 120° E., and 100° W. and is arbitrarily subdivided into 14-20°x20° geographic subregions. Frequency distributions of trace metals characterized in the original raw data are graphed as ogives, and salient parameters are tabulated. All variables are transformed to enrichment values relative to median concentration within their host subregions. Scatter plots of all pairs of original variables and their enrichment transforms are provided as an aid to the interpretation of correlations between variables. Gridded spatial distributions of all variables are portrayed as gray-scale maps. The use of tables and graphs to portray frequency statistics and gray-scale maps to portray spatial distributions is an effective way to prepare for and facilitate multivariate data analysis.

  13. Extracting CKM phases and Bs-B-bars mixing parameters from angular distributions of non-leptonic B decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dighe, A.S.; Dunietz, I.; Fleischer, R.

    1998-04-01

    Suggestions for efficiently determining the lifetimes and mass difference of the light and heavy B s mesons (B L s , B H s ) from B s →J/ψφ, D *+ s D *- s decays are given. Using appropriate weighting functions for the angular distributions of the decay products (moment analysis), one can extract (Γ H , Γ L , Δm) Bs . Such a moment analysis allows the determination of the relative magnitudes and phases of the CP-odd and CP-even decay amplitudes. Efficient determinations of CP-violating effects occurring in B s →J/ψφ, D *+ s D *- s are discussed in the light of a possible width difference (ΔΓ) Bs , and the utility of this method for B→J/ψK * , D *+ s D-bar * decays is noted. Since our approach is very general, it can in principle be applied to all kings of angular distributions and allows the determination of all relevant observables, including fundamental CKM (Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa) parameters, as well as tests of various aspects of the factorization hypothesis. Explicit angular distributions and weighting functions are given, and the general method that can be used for any angular distribution is indicated. (author)

  14. Spectrum of OH-stretching vibrations of water in a "floating" water bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshurko, V. B.; Ropyanoi, A. A.; Fedorov, A. N.; Fedosov, M. V.; Shelaeva, N. A.

    2012-11-01

    The axial distribution (over the cross section) of the spectra of the OH-stretching band of water in a water bridge is investigated using the Raman scattering method. It is found that the axial structure of the bridge is inhomogeneous: the core at the center of the bridge contains a larger amount of water with an "icelike" structure and a presumably larger number of H+ ions, while the outer layer probably consists of water with a larger number of OH- ions.

  15. Bruxism: Is There an Indication for Muscle-Stretching Exercises?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouw, Simone; de Wijer, Anton; Creugers, Nico Hj; Kalaykova, Stanimira I

    Bruxism is a common phenomenon involving repetitive activation of the masticatory muscles. Muscle-stretching exercises are a recommended part of several international guidelines for musculoskeletal disorders and may be effective in management of the jaw muscle activity that gives rise to bruxism. However, most studies of muscle-stretching exercises have mainly focused on their influence on performance (eg, range of motion, coordination, and muscle strength) of the limb or trunk muscles of healthy individuals or individuals with sports-related injuries. Very few have investigated stretching of the human masticatory muscles and none muscle-stretching exercises in the management of (sleep) bruxism. This article reviews the literature on muscle-stretching exercises and their potential role in the management of sleep bruxism or its consequences in the musculoskeletal system.

  16. Acute effect of different stretching methods on isometric muscle strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Vasconcellos de Lima Costa e Silva

    2014-03-01

    This study investigated the acute effect of static stretching methods (SS and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF on the static muscle strength (SMS. Eleven young male subjects with strength training experience, performed 3 tests with a 48h interval between them, randomly selected, where each one subject carried out all procedures: a hand grip without stretching; b hand grip preceded by static stretching of wrist flexors muscles; c hand grip preceded by PNF stretching of wrist flexors muscles. The Shapiro-Wilk test verified the normality of data, and a one-way ANOVA with repeated measures, followed by Tukey’s post hoc test, evaluated the differences between the groups. The significance was set at p 0.05. In conclusion, both stretching methods had caused negative effects on isometric strength, reducing its levels.

  17. RF model of the distribution system as a communication channel, phase 2. Volume 1: Summary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustay, R. C.; Gajjar, J. T.; Rankin, R. W.; Wentz, R. C.; Wooding, R.

    1982-01-01

    The design, implementation, and verification of a computerized model for predicting the steady-state sinusoidal response of radial (tree) configured distribution feeders was undertaken. That work demonstrated the feasibility and validity based on verification measurements made on a limited size portion of an actual live feeder. On that basis a follow-on effort concerned with (1) extending the verification based on a greater variety of situations and network size, (2) extending the model capabilities for reverse direction propagation, (3) investigating parameter sensitivities, (4) improving transformer models, and (5) investigating procedures/fixes for ameliorating propagation trouble spots was conducted. Results are summarized.

  18. Rapidity distribution and duality of a phase-space branching model for multiparticle production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwa, R.C.; Lam, C.S.

    1985-11-01

    A branching model is developed for the description of multiparticle production processes at high energy. The starting point is the essential phenomenological validity of approximate KNO scaling. A quasirapidity variable is introduced, in terms of which the exclusive distribution of the produced particles can be calculated. The model is then described in the context of s- and t-channel duality. The dual picture lends itself to a physical interpretation of the model, the contrast of which from dual topological unitarization is pointed out

  19. Atomic pairwise distribution function analysis of the amorphous phase prepared by different manufacturing routes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boetker, Johan P.; Koradia, Vishal; Rades, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    was subjected to quench cooling thereby creating an amorphous form of the drug from both starting materials. The milled and quench cooled samples were, together with the crystalline starting materials, analyzed with X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), Raman spectroscopy and atomic pair-wise distribution function...... (PDF) analysis of the XRPD pattern. When compared to XRPD and Raman spectroscopy, the PDF analysis was superior in displaying the difference between the amorphous samples prepared by milling and quench cooling approaches of the two starting materials....

  20. Finite element analysis of plantar fascia under stretch-the relative contribution of windlass mechanism and Achilles tendon force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hsin-Yi Kathy; Lin, Chun-Li; Wang, Hsien-Wen; Chou, Shih-Wei

    2008-01-01

    Stretching plays an important role in the treatment of plantar fasciitis. Information on the internal stresses/strains of the plantar fascia under stretch is useful in enhancing knowledge on the stretch mechanisms. Although direct measurement can monitor plantar fascia changes, it is invasive and gathers only localized information. The purpose of this paper was to construct a three-dimensional finite element model of the foot to calculate the stretch effects on plantar fascia and monitor its stress/strain distributions and concentrations. A three-dimensional foot model was developed and contained 26 bones with joint cartilages, 67 ligaments and a fan-like solid plantar fascia modeling. All tissues were idealized as linear elastic, homogeneous and isotropic whilst the plantar fascia was assigned as hyperelastic to represent its nonlinearity. The plantar fascia was monitored for its biomechanical responses under various stretch combinations: three toe dorsiflexion angles (windlass effect: 15 degrees , 30 degrees and 45 degrees ) and five Achilles tendon forces (100, 200, 300, 400 and 500N). Our results indicated that the plantar fascia strain increased as the dorsiflexion angles increased, and this phenomenon was enhanced by increasing Achilles tendon force. A stress concentration was found near the medial calcaneal tubercle, and the fascia stress was higher underneath the first foot ray and gradually decreased as it moved toward the fifth ray. The current model recreated the position of the foot when stretch is placed on the plantar fascia. The results provided a general insight into the mechanical and biomechanical aspects of the influences of windlass mechanism and Achilles tendon force on plantar fascia stress and strain distribution. These findings might have practical implications onto plantar fascia stretch approaches, and provide guidelines to its surgical release.

  1. Effects of contract-relax vs static stretching on stretch-induced strength loss and length-tension relationship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balle, S S; Magnusson, S P; McHugh, M P

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the acute effects of contract-relax stretching (CRS) vs static stretching (SS) on strength loss and the length-tension relationship. We hypothesized that there would be a greater muscle length-specific effect of CRS vs SS. Isometric hamstring strength wa...

  2. Effect of the corn breaking method on oil distribution between stillage phases of dry-grind corn ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H; Wang, T; Johnson, L A; Pometto, A L

    2008-11-12

    The majority of fuel ethanol in the United States is produced by using the dry-grind corn ethanol process. The corn oil that is contained in the coproduct, distillers' dried grains with solubles (DDGS), can be recovered for use as a biodiesel feedstock. Oil removal will also improve the feed quality of DDGS. The most economical way to remove oil is considered to be at the centrifugation step for separating thin stillage (liquid) from coarse solids after distilling the ethanol. The more oil there is in the liquid, the more it can be recovered by centrifugation. Therefore, we studied the effects of corn preparation and grinding methods on oil distribution between liquid and solid phases. Grinding the corn to three different particle sizes, flaking, flaking and grinding, and flaking and extruding were used to break up the corn kernel before fermentation, and their effects on oil distribution between the liquid and solid phases were examined by simulating an industrial decanter centrifuge. Total oil contents were measured in the liquid and solids after centrifugation. Dry matter yield and oil partitioning in the thin stillage were highly positively correlated. Flaking slightly reduced bound fat. The flaked and then extruded corn meal released the highest amount of free oil, about 25% compared to 7% for the average of the other treatments. The freed oil from flaking, however, became nonextractable after the flaked corn was ground. Fine grinding alone had little effect on oil partitioning.

  3. Inherited textures in the bcc phase furnish information about the type of transformation from the fcc phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, V.

    1982-07-01

    Drawing annealed cylindric 18/8 Cr Ni steels, which are originally free of textures, produces the transformed phases - hcp and bcc - both showing major texture contributions with increasing stretching of the cylindric specimens. After stretching the original fcc-phase shows two orientations: [100]fcc vertical stroke vertical stroke cylinder axis and [111]fcc vertical stroke vertical stroke cylinder axis, i.e. direction of stress. In both cases the martensitic phase is produced by gliding and shear in the sequence fcc → hcp → bcc by Nishiyama-Wasserman (N-W) or Kurdjumov-Sachs (K-S) transformation in the (111)fcc planes, which enclose a small angle with direction of stress, i.e. cylinder axis. The calculated orientation distributions of the (110)bcc reflex are compared with the distribution measured by neutron diffraction to get information on the bulk material. The special K-S transformation with only 6 (110)bcc orientations shows relatively good agreement with the measured distribution, except at small angles ω between the cylinder axis and the scattering vector. This might be caused by the isotropic fraction of the fcc phase producing an anisotropic (110)bcc orientation distribution. (orig.) [de

  4. Upper bounds for the security of two distributed-phase reference protocols of quantum cryptography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branciard, Cyril; Gisin, Nicolas; Scarani, Valerio

    2008-01-01

    The differential-phase-shift (DPS) and the coherent-one-way (COW) are among the most practical protocols for quantum cryptography, and are therefore the object of fast-paced experimental developments. The assessment of their security is also a challenge for theorists: the existing tools, that allow to prove security against the most general attacks, do not apply to these two protocols in any straightforward way. We present new upper bounds for their security in the limit of large distances (d∼>50 km with typical values in optical fibers) by considering a large class of collective attacks, namely those in which the adversary attaches ancillary quantum systems to each pulse or to each pair of pulses. We introduce also two modified versions of the COW protocol, which may prove more robust than the original one

  5. Velocity and phase distribution measurements in vertical air-water annular flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vassallo, P.

    1997-07-01

    Annular flow topology for three air-water conditions in a vertical duct is investigated through the use of a traversing double-sensor hot-film anemometry probe and differential pressure measurements. Near wall measurements of mean and fluctuating velocities, as well as local void fraction, are taken in the liquid film, with the highest turbulent fluctuations occurring for the flow condition with the largest pressure drop. A modified law-of-the-wall formulation for wall shear is presented which, using near wall values of mean velocity and kinetic energy, agrees reasonably well with the average stress obtained from direct pressure drop measurements. The linear profile using wall coordinates in the logarithmic layer is preserved in annular flow; however, the slope and intercept of the profile differ from the single-phase values for the annular flow condition which has a thicker, more turbulent, liquid film

  6. Characterization of mechanical behavior of a porcine pulmonary artery strip using a randomized uniaxial stretch and stretch-rate protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Criscione John C

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Much of the experimental work in soft tissue mechanics has been focused on fitting approximate relations for specific tissue types from aggregate data on multiple samples of the tissue. Such relations are needed for modeling applications and have reasonable predictability – especially given the natural variance in specimens. There is, however, much theoretical and experimental work to be done in determining constitutive behaviors for particular specimens and tissues. In so doing, it may be possible to exploit the natural variation in tissue ultrastructure – so to relate ultrastructure composition to tissue behavior. Thus, this study focuses on an experimental method for determining constitutive behaviors and illustrates the method with analysis of a porcine pulmonary artery strip. The method characterizes the elastic part of the response (implicitly in terms of stretch and the inelastic part in terms of short term stretch history (i.e., stretch-rate Ht2, longer term stretch history Ht1, and time since the start of testing T. Methods A uniaxial testing protocol with a random stretch and random stretch-rate was developed. The average stress at a particular stretch was chosen as the hyperelastic stress response, and deviation from the mean at this particular stretch is chosen as the inelastic deviation. Multivariable Linear Regression Analysis (MLRA was utilized to verify if Ht2, Ht1, and T are important factors for characterizing the inelastic deviation. For acquiring Ht2 and Ht1, an integral function type of stretch history was employed with time constants chosen from the relaxation spectrum of an identical size strip from the same tissue with the same orientation. Finally, statistical models that characterize the inelasticity were developed at various, nominal values of stretch, and their predictive capability was examined. Results Inelastic deviation from hyperelasticity was high (31% for low stretch and declined

  7. A suggestion of reference data for flow distribution at ankle and foot level using quantitative 99Tc-HDP three-phase bone scintigraphy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tøndevold, Niklas; Reving, Sofie; Møller, Nette

    2012-01-01

    To determine reference intervals for quantitative 99mTc-hydroxymethylene diphosphonate (99mTc-HDP) three-phase bone scintigraphy regarding flow distribution at ankle and mid-foot level.......To determine reference intervals for quantitative 99mTc-hydroxymethylene diphosphonate (99mTc-HDP) three-phase bone scintigraphy regarding flow distribution at ankle and mid-foot level....

  8. Extracting CKM phases from angular distributions of $B_{d,s}$ decays into admixtures of CP eigenstates

    CERN Document Server

    Fleischer, Robert

    1999-01-01

    The time-dependent angular distributions of certain B/sub d, s/ decays into final states that are admixtures of CP-even and CP-odd configurations provide valuable information about CKM phases and hadronic parameters. We present the general formalism to accomplish this task, taking also into account penguin contributions, and illustrate it by considering a few specific decay modes. We give particular emphasis to the decay B/sub d/ to J/ psi rho /sup 0/, which can be combined with B/sub s/ to J/ psi phi to extract the B /sub d//sup 0/-B/sub d//sup 0/ mixing phase and-if penguin effects in the former mode should be sizeable-also the angle gamma of the unitarity triangle. As an interesting by-product, this strategy allows us to take into account also the penguin effects in the extraction of the B/sub s//sup 0/-B/sub s//sup 0/ mixing phase from B /sub s/ to J/ psi phi . Moreover, a discrete ambiguity in the extraction of the CKM angle beta can be resolved, and valuable insights into SU(3)-breaking effects can be o...

  9. Optimization of VPSC Model Parameters for Two-Phase Titanium Alloys: Flow Stress Vs Orientation Distribution Function Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, V. M.; Semiatin, S. L.; Szczepanski, C.; Pilchak, A. L.

    2018-06-01

    The ability to predict the evolution of crystallographic texture during hot work of titanium alloys in the α + β temperature regime is greatly significant to numerous engineering disciplines; however, research efforts are complicated by the rapid changes in phase volume fractions and flow stresses with temperature in addition to topological considerations. The viscoplastic self-consistent (VPSC) polycrystal plasticity model is employed to simulate deformation in the two phase field. Newly developed parameter selection schemes utilizing automated optimization based on two different error metrics are considered. In the first optimization scheme, which is commonly used in the literature, the VPSC parameters are selected based on the quality of fit between experiment and simulated flow curves at six hot-working temperatures. Under the second newly developed scheme, parameters are selected to minimize the difference between the simulated and experimentally measured α textures after accounting for the β → α transformation upon cooling. It is demonstrated that both methods result in good qualitative matches for the experimental α phase texture, but texture-based optimization results in a substantially better quantitative orientation distribution function match.

  10. Measurement of residence time distribution of liquid phase in an industrial-scale continuous pulp digester using radiotracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheoran, Meenakshi; Goswami, Sunil; Pant, Harish J.; Biswal, Jayashree; Sharma, Vijay K.; Chandra, Avinash; Bhunia, Haripada; Bajpai, Pramod K.; Rao, S. Madhukar; Dash, A.

    2016-01-01

    A series of radiotracer experiments was carried out to measure residence time distribution (RTD) of liquid phase (alkali) in an industrial-scale continuous pulp digester in a paper industry in India. Bromine-82 as ammonium bromide was used as a radiotracer. Experiments were carried out at different biomass and white liquor flow rates. The measured RTD data were treated and mean residence times in individual digester tubes as well in the whole digester were determined. The RTD was also analyzed to identify flow abnormalities and investigate flow dynamics of the liquid phase in the pulp digester. Flow channeling was observed in the first section (tube 1) of the digester. Both axial dispersion and tanks-in-series with backmixing models preceded with a plug flow component were used to simulate the measured RTD and quantify the degree of axial mixing. Based on the study, optimum conditions for operating the digester were proposed. - Highlights: • Radiotracer experiments were conducted to measure RTD of liquid phase in a pulp digester • Mean residence times of white liquor were measured • Axial dispersion and tanks-in-series models were used to investigate flow patterns • Parallel flow paths were observed in first section of the digester • Optimized flow rates of biomass and liquor were obtained

  11. Effects of nicotine on cellular proliferation, cell cycle phase distribution, and macromolecular synthesis in human promyelocytic HL-60 leukaemia cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konno, S.; Wu, J.M.; Chiao, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    Addition of nicotine causes a dose- and time-dependent inhibition of cell growth in the human promyelocytic HL-60 leukemia cells, with 4 mM nicotine resulting in a 50% inhibition of cellular proliferation after 48-50h. Accompanying the anticellular effect of nicotine is a significant change in the cell cycle distribution of HL-60 cells. For example, treatment with 4 mM nicotine for 20h causes an increase in the proportion of G1-phase cells (from 49% to 57%) and a significant decrease in the proportion of S-phase cells (from 41% to 32%). These results suggest that nicotine causes partial cell arrest in the G-1 phase which may in part account for its effects on cell growth. To determine whether nicotine changes the cellular uptake/transport to macromolecular precursors, HL-60 cells were treated with 216 mM nicotine for 30h, at the end of which time cells were labelled with ( 3 H)thymidine, ( 3 H)uridine, ( 14 C)lysine and( 35 S)methionine, the trichloroacetic acid soluble and insoluble radioactivities from each of the labelling conditions were determined. These studies show that nicotine mainly affects the ''de novo synthesis'' of proteins. (author)

  12. Design considerations and challenges for mechanical stretch bioreactors in tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Ying; Ferdous, Zannatul

    2016-05-01

    With the increase in average life expectancy and growing aging population, lack of functional grafts for replacement surgeries has become a severe problem. Engineered tissues are a promising alternative to this problem because they can mimic the physiological function of the native tissues and be cultured on demand. Cyclic stretch is important for developing many engineered tissues such as hearts, heart valves, muscles, and bones. Thus a variety of stretch bioreactors and corresponding scaffolds have been designed and tested to study the underlying mechanism of tissue formation and to optimize the mechanical conditions applied to the engineered tissues. In this review, we look at various designs of stretch bioreactors and common scaffolds and offer insights for future improvements in tissue engineering applications. First, we summarize the requirements and common configuration of stretch bioreactors. Next, we present the features of different actuating and motion transforming systems and their applications. Since most bioreactors must measure detailed distributions of loads and deformations on engineered tissues, techniques with high accuracy, precision, and frequency have been developed. We also cover the key points in designing culture chambers, nutrition exchanging systems, and regimens used for specific tissues. Since scaffolds are essential for providing biophysical microenvironments for residing cells, we discuss materials and technologies used in fabricating scaffolds to mimic anisotropic native tissues, including decellularized tissues, hydrogels, biocompatible polymers, electrospinning, and 3D bioprinting techniques. Finally, we present the potential future directions for improving stretch bioreactors and scaffolds. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:543-553, 2016. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  13. Control of a maintenance system when failure and repair times have phase type distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decassiamenesesrodrigues, Rita

    1990-09-01

    In the model of machine repair discussed there are M + R identical machines, M operating, and R spares. All machines are independent of one another. When an operating machine fails, it is sent to a single server repair station and immediately replaced by a spare machine, if one is available. The server has two available service types to choose from. There are waiting costs, repair costs, lost production costs, and switch-over costs. The following decision problem is treated: to obtain a stationary policy which determines the service type as a function of the state of the system in order to minimize the long-run average cost when failure and repair times have second-order Coxian distribution. This control problem is represented by a semi-Markov decision process. The policy-iteration algorithm and the value-iteration algorithm are used to obtain the optimal policy. Numerical results are given for these two optimization methods.

  14. Structure in the 3D Galaxy Distribution. III. Fourier Transforming the Universe: Phase and Power Spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scargle, Jeffrey D.; Way, M. J.; Gazis, P. R., E-mail: Jeffrey.D.Scargle@nasa.gov, E-mail: Michael.J.Way@nasa.gov, E-mail: PGazis@sbcglobal.net [NASA Ames Research Center, Astrobiology and Space Science Division, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

    2017-04-10

    We demonstrate the effectiveness of a relatively straightforward analysis of the complex 3D Fourier transform of galaxy coordinates derived from redshift surveys. Numerical demonstrations of this approach are carried out on a volume-limited sample of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey redshift survey. The direct unbinned transform yields a complex 3D data cube quite similar to that from the Fast Fourier Transform of finely binned galaxy positions. In both cases, deconvolution of the sampling window function yields estimates of the true transform. Simple power spectrum estimates from these transforms are roughly consistent with those using more elaborate methods. The complex Fourier transform characterizes spatial distributional properties beyond the power spectrum in a manner different from (and we argue is more easily interpreted than) the conventional multipoint hierarchy. We identify some threads of modern large-scale inference methodology that will presumably yield detections in new wider and deeper surveys.

  15. Distribution of some chemical elements between dissolved and particulate phases in the ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, D.W.; Bacon, M.P.; Sachs, P.L.; Fleer, A.P.; Shafer, D.K.; Belastock, R.A.; Hammer, T.R.

    1985-01-01

    The long-range goal of our research is to understand the processes that control the distribution and fate of chemical elements in the ocean, with emphasis on the rates at which the governing processes operate. Such an understanding is essential in predicting the fate of substances such as heavy metals and radionuclides that are released to the environment as a consequence of energy-producing activities. In pursuit of this goal we have, during the present contract period, devoted all of our effort to participation in the Shelf-Edge Exchange Processes (SEEP) program. Initial results from SEEP-1 are consistent with our hypothesis of enhanced scavenging of reactive chemical substances in upper slope sediments. During the next year we will complete our analytical work for SEEP-1 and carry out quantitative interpretations of our data with mathematical models to assess the importance of boundary uptake in this region of the continental margin. 8 references, 5 figures, 1 table

  16. Application of reconstructive tomography to the measurement of density distribution in two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fincke, J.R.; Berggren, M.J.; Johnson, S.A.

    1980-01-01

    The technique of reconstructive tomography has been applied to the measurement of average density and density distribution in multiphase flows. The technique of reconstructive tomography provides a model independent method of obtaining flow field density information. The unique features of interest in application of a practical tomographic densitometer system are the limited number of data values and the correspondingly coarse reconstruction grid (0.5 by 0.5 cm). These features were studied both experimentally, through the use of prototype hardware on a 3-in. pipe, and analytically, through computer generation of simulated data. Prototypical data were taken on phantoms constructed of Plexiglas and laminated Plexiglas, wood, and polyurethane foam. Reconstructions obtained from prototype data were compared with reconstructions from the simulated data

  17. Structure in the 3D Galaxy Distribution. III. Fourier Transforming the Universe: Phase and Power Spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scargle, Jeffrey D.; Way, M. J.; Gazis, P. R.

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate the effectiveness of a relatively straightforward analysis of the complex 3D Fourier transform of galaxy coordinates derived from redshift surveys. Numerical demonstrations of this approach are carried out on a volume-limited sample of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey redshift survey. The direct unbinned transform yields a complex 3D data cube quite similar to that from the Fast Fourier Transform of finely binned galaxy positions. In both cases, deconvolution of the sampling window function yields estimates of the true transform. Simple power spectrum estimates from these transforms are roughly consistent with those using more elaborate methods. The complex Fourier transform characterizes spatial distributional properties beyond the power spectrum in a manner different from (and we argue is more easily interpreted than) the conventional multipoint hierarchy. We identify some threads of modern large-scale inference methodology that will presumably yield detections in new wider and deeper surveys.

  18. Universal Linear Motor Driven Leg Press Dynamometer and Concept of Serial Stretch Loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamar, Dušan

    2015-08-24

    Paper deals with backgrounds and principles of universal linear motor driven leg press dynamometer and concept of serial stretch loading. The device is based on two computer controlled linear motors mounted to the horizontal rails. As the motors can keep either constant resistance force in selected position or velocity in both directions, the system allows simulation of any mode of muscle contraction. In addition, it also can generate defined serial stretch stimuli in a form of repeated force peaks. This is achieved by short segments of reversed velocity (in concentric phase) or acceleration (in eccentric phase). Such stimuli, generated at the rate of 10 Hz, have proven to be a more efficient means for the improvement of rate of the force development. This capability not only affects performance in many sports, but also plays a substantial role in prevention of falls and their consequences. Universal linear motor driven and computer controlled dynamometer with its unique feature to generate serial stretch stimuli seems to be an efficient and useful tool for enhancing strength training effects on neuromuscular function not only in athletes, but as well as in senior population and rehabilitation patients.

  19. Gas-phase photoemission with soft x-rays: Cross sections and angular distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirley, D.A.; Kobrin, P.H.; Truesdale, C.M.; Lindle, D.W.; Ferrett, T.A.; Heimann, P.A.; Becker, U.; Kerkhoff, H.G.; Southworth, S.H.

    1983-01-01

    A summary is presented of typical gas-phase photoemission studies based on synchrotron radiation in the 50-5000 eV range, using beam lines at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. Three topics are addressed: atomic inner-shell photoelectron cross sections and asymmetries, correlation peaks in rare gases, and core-level shape resonances in molecules. Photoelectron cross-section σ(n iota) and asymmetry-parameter β(n iota) studies in mercury vapor at photon energies up to 270 eV (up to 600 eV for β/sub 4f/) extend coverage of these parameters to n≤5 and iota≤3. Comparison with Dirac-Slater and relativistic random-phase approximation calculations reveals systematic discrepancies. For example, distinct Cooper minima in σ(n iota) are observed but not predicted, while predicted β(n iota) values are typically too high. Correlation satellites have been studied for the K shells of helium (hν = 68-90 eV), neon (hν = 870-960 eV) and argon (hν = 3200-3320 eV). In helium the n=2 satellite peak was shown to have mainly 2p character at threshold, and its asymmetry was measured through the autoionizing resonance region. Tentative evidence was obtained that the neon satellites are less intense near threshold than in the high-energy limit, and that their intensities stay constant or decrease with increasing energy near threshold. A new satellite was observed in argon at 24.6 eV which appears to increase in intensity with energy. Molecular core-level shape resonances were observed for the first time by photoemission, yielding σ(hν) and β(hν) for core levels from 180 eV binding energy (S 2p in SF/sub 6/ and OCS) through C 1s in CO, CO/sub 2/ and CF/sub 4/, N 1s in N/sub 2/ and NO, and O 1s in CO and CO/sub 2/ to 2490 eV (S 1s in SF/sub 6/). Several conclusions can be drawn about the photoelectron and Auger cross sections and asymmetry parameters

  20. Comparison of simulated and experimental results of temperature distribution in a closed two-phase thermosyphon cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaanika, E.; Yamaguchi, K.; Miki, M.; Ida, T.; Izumi, M.; Murase, Y.; Oryu, T.; Yanamoto, T.

    2017-12-01

    Superconducting generators offer numerous advantages over conventional generators of the same rating. They are lighter, smaller and more efficient. Amongst a host of methods for cooling HTS machinery, thermosyphon-based cooling systems have been employed due to their high heat transfer rate and near-isothermal operating characteristics associated with them. To use them optimally, it is essential to study thermal characteristics of these cryogenic thermosyphons. To this end, a stand-alone neon thermosyphon cooling system with a topology resembling an HTS rotating machine was studied. Heat load tests were conducted on the neon thermosyphon cooling system by applying a series of heat loads to the evaporator at different filling ratios. The temperature at selected points of evaporator, adiabatic tube and condenser as well as total heat leak were measured. A further study involving a computer thermal model was conducted to gain further insight into the estimated temperature distribution of thermosyphon components and heat leak of the cooling system. The model employed boundary conditions from data of heat load tests. This work presents a comparison between estimated (by model) and experimental (measured) temperature distribution in a two-phase cryogenic thermosyphon cooling system. The simulation results of temperature distribution and heat leak compared generally well with experimental data.

  1. Magnitude and duration of stretch modulate fibroblast remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestrini, Jenna L; Billiar, Kristen L

    2009-05-01

    Mechanical cues modulate fibroblast tractional forces and remodeling of extracellular matrix in healthy tissue, healing wounds, and engineered matrices. The goal of the present study is to establish dose-response relationships between stretch parameters (magnitude and duration per day) and matrix remodeling metrics (compaction, strength, extensibility, collagen content, contraction, and cellularity). Cyclic equibiaxial stretch of 2-16% was applied to fibroblast-populated fibrin gels for either 6 h or 24 h/day for 8 days. Trends in matrix remodeling metrics as a function of stretch magnitude and duration were analyzed using regression analysis. The compaction and ultimate tensile strength of the tissues increased in a dose-dependent manner with increasing stretch magnitude, yet remained unaffected by the duration in which they were cycled (6 h/day versus 24 h/day). Collagen density increased exponentially as a function of both the magnitude and duration of stretch, with samples stretched for the reduced duration per day having the highest levels of collagen accumulation. Cell number and failure tension were also dependent on both the magnitude and duration of stretch, although stretch-induced increases in these metrics were only present in the samples loaded for 6 h/day. Our results indicate that both the magnitude and the duration per day of stretch are critical parameters in modulating fibroblast remodeling of the extracellular matrix, and that these two factors regulate different aspects of this remodeling. These findings move us one step closer to fully characterizing culture conditions for tissue equivalents, developing improved wound healing treatments and understanding tissue responses to changes in mechanical environments during growth, repair, and disease states.

  2. Timing distribution and Data Flow for the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Phase II Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)713745; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The Hadronic Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) detector is one of the several subsystems composing the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The LHC upgrade program plans an increase of order five times the LHC nominal instantaneous luminosity culminating in the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). In order to accommodate the detector to the new HL-LHC parameters, the TileCal read out electronics is being redesigned introducing a new read out strategy with a full-digital trigger system. In the new read out architecture, the front-end electronics allocates the MainBoards and the DaughterBoards. The MainBoard digitizes the analog signals coming from the PhotoMultiplier Tubes (PMTs), provides integrated data for minimum bias monitoring and includes electronics for PMT calibration. The DaughterBoard receives and distributes Detector Control System (DCS) commands, clock and timing commands to the rest of the elements of the front-end electronics, as well as, collects and transmits the digitized data to the back-e...

  3. Data set: 31 years of spatially distributed air temperature, humidity, precipitation amount and precipitation phase from a mountain catchment in the rain-snow transition zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirty one years of spatially distributed air temperature, relative humidity, dew point temperature, precipitation amount, and precipitation phase data are presented for the Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed. The data are spatially distributed over a 10m Lidar-derived digital elevation model at ...

  4. Modeling stretched solitary waves along magnetic field lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Muschietti

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A model is presented for a new type of fast solitary waves which is observed in downward current regions of the auroral zone. The three-dimensional, coherent structures are electrostatic, have a positive potential, and move along the magnetic field lines with speeds on the order of the electron drift. Their parallel potential profile is flattened and cannot fit to the Gaussian shape used in previous work. We develop a detailed BGK model which includes a flattened potential and an assumed cylindrical symmetry around a centric magnetic field line. The model envisions concentric shells of trapped electrons slowly drifting azimuthally while bouncing back and forth in the parallel direction. The electron dynamics is analysed in terms of three basic motions that occur on different time scales characterized by the cyclotron frequency We , the bounce frequency wb , and the azimuthal drift frequency wg. The ordering We >> wb >> wg is required. Self-consistent distribution functions are calculated in terms of approximate constants of motion. Constraints on the parameters characterizing the amplitude and shape of the stretched solitary wave are discussed.

  5. Characterizing the stretch-flangeability of hot rolled multiphase steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathak, N.; Butcher, C.; Worswick, M.; Gao, J.

    2013-01-01

    Hole expansion tests are commonly used to characterize the edge stretching limit of a material. Traditionally, a conical punch is used to expand a punched hole until a through-thickness crack appears. However, many automotive stretch flanging operations involve in-plane edge stretching that is best captured with a flat punch. In this paper, hole expansion tests were carried out on two different hot-rolled multiphase steels using both flat and conical punches. The fracture mechanisms for both punch types were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM)

  6. Growth of non-axisymmetric disturbances of the free surface in the filament stretching rheometer: experiments and simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz; Bach, Anders; Longin, Pierre-Yves

    2002-01-01

    A filament stretching rheometer has been equipped with a bottom plate with a number of equally distributed perturbations of the circular rim. The temporal development of the resulting disturbance of the meniscus is followed with video recording and with simulations. At high strain rates the surface...

  7. Distribution of particle-phase hydrocarbons, PAHs and OCPs in Tianjin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shui-Ping; Tao, Shu; Zhang, Zhi-Huan; Lan, Tian; Zuo, Qian

    Aliphatic hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined in the total suspended particles (TSP) collected from 13 different locations in Tianjin, China, where intensive coal burning for domestic heating in winter takes place and a large quantity of pesticides had been produced and applied. Carbon preference index (CPI), carbon number maximum (C max) of n-alkane and plant wax index (%wax C n) indicate that n-alkanes come from both biogenic and petrogenic sources, and biogenic source contributes more n-alkanes in autumn than in winter. Petroleum biomarkers as indicators of petrogenic source such as hopanes and steranes were also detected in both seasons' samples. The sum of 16 PAH concentrations (∑PAH) ranged from 69.3 to 2170 ng m -3 in winter and from 7.01 to 40.0 ng m -3 in autumn. Seasonal variations were mainly attributed to the difference in coal combustion emission and meteorological conditions. The results of a source diagnostic analysis suggest that PAHs in TSP mainly come from coal combustion. Seven OCPs (four hexachlorohexanes (HCHs) and three dichlorodipheny-trichloroethane and metabolites (DDTs)) were detected in most samples. Concentrations of the sum of α-, β-, δ- and γ-HCH (∑HCH) and the sum of p, p'-DDT, p, p'-DDD and p, p'-DDE (∑DDT) in autumn varied in the ranges of 0.002-0.9 ng m -3 and 0.025-2.21 ng m -3 with the average±standard deviation values of 0.127±0.241 ng m -3 and 0.239±0.546 ng m -3, respectively. In winter, ∑HCH and ∑DDT in TSP ranged from 0.071 to 5.35 ng m -3 and from 0.416 to 3.14 ng m -3 with the average±standard deviation values 1.05±1.88 ng m -3 and 0.839±0.713 ng m -3, respectively. Both of the illegal application of technical HCH and DDT and the volatilization from topsoil contributed to the particle-phase contents of HCHs and DDTs in the atmosphere.

  8. Occurrence and fate of pesticides in the Argentine stretch of the Paraguay-Paraná basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etchegoyen, M A; Ronco, A E; Almada, P; Abelando, M; Marino, D J

    2017-02-01

    The Argentine stretch of the del Plata basin crosses regions devoted to extensive and intensive agriculture mostly with chemical pest control. The utilization of pesticides in the region has increased 900% in the last two decades associated with the introduction of biotech crops and direct-seeding techniques. Our objective was to study the occurrence, concentration, and fate of pesticides in surface water and bottom sediments of the principal tributaries and main watercourse of the Paraguay-Paraná River. We sampled 22 sites in the distal positions of the main affluents and main watercourse of the Paraná and report here results from two monitoring campaigns (2010-2012). Surface water and bottom sediments were analyzed according to standardized methods by matrix-solid-phase dispersion and liquid-liquid extraction, respectively. Twenty-three pesticide compounds were analyzed by gas chromatography. The results from both campaigns indicated a generalized but variable distribution in the concentrations detected throughout the basin. The ranges of total measured pesticide concentrations in water and sediments were, respectively, 0.004-6.62 μg/l and 0.16-221.3 μg/kg dry weight. Endosulfans, cypermethrin, and chlorpyrifos were ubiquitous compounds in both environmental compartments and quantitatively the most relevant. All concentrations detected in water were over the recommended guidelines for the protection of aquatic biota. The partitioning indicated a higher affinity for the sediments. Agricultural activity is the source of pesticide-pollution loads, transported by tributaries that reach the main watercourse and alter the quality of the aquatic ecosystem.

  9. Dynamics of the OH stretching mode in crystalline Ba(ClO4)2.3H2O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutzler, Daniel; Brunner, Christian; Petkov, Petko St.; Heine, Thomas; Fischer, Sighart F.; Riedle, Eberhard; Kienberger, Reinhard; Iglev, Hristo

    2018-02-01

    The vibrational dynamics of the OH stretching mode in Ba(ClO4)2 trihydrate are investigated by means of femtosecond infrared spectroscopy. The sample offers plane cyclic water trimers in the solid phase that feature virtually no hydrogen bond interaction between the water molecules. Selective excitation of the symmetric and asymmetric stretching leads to fast population redistribution, while simultaneous excitation yields quantum beats, which are monitored via a combination tone that dominates the overtone spectrum. The combination of steady-state and time-resolved spectroscopy with quantum chemical simulations and general theoretical considerations gives indication of various aspects of symmetry breakage. The system shows a joint population lifetime of 8 ps and a long-lived coherence between symmetric and asymmetric stretching, which decays with a time constant of 0.6 ps.

  10. Communication: A coil-stretch transition in planar elongational flow of an entangled polymeric melt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafar Sefiddashti, Mohammad H.; Edwards, Brian J.; Khomami, Bamin

    2018-04-01

    Virtual experimentation of atomistic entangled polyethylene melts undergoing planar elongational flow revealed an amazingly detailed depiction of individual macromolecular dynamics and the resulting effect on bistable configurational states. A clear coil-stretch transition was evident, in much the same form as first envisioned by de Gennes for dilute solutions of high polymers, resulting in an associated hysteresis in the configurational flow profile over the range of strain rates predicted by theory. Simulations conducted at steady state revealed bimodal distribution functions, in which equilibrium configurational states were simultaneously populated by relatively coiled and stretched molecules which could transition from one conformational mode to the other over a relatively long time scale at critical values of strain rates. The implication of such behavior points to a double-well conformational free energy potential with an activation barrier between the two configurational minima.

  11. Beyond phthalates: Gas phase concentrations and modeled gas/particle distribution of modern plasticizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schossler, Patricia [Fraunhofer WKI, Department of Material Analysis and Indoor Chemistry, Bienroder Weg 54E, D-38108 Braunschweig (Germany); Institute of Environmental and Sustainable Chemistry, Technische Universitaet Braunschweig, Hagenring 30, D-38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Schripp, Tobias, E-mail: tobias.schripp@wki.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer WKI, Department of Material Analysis and Indoor Chemistry, Bienroder Weg 54E, D-38108 Braunschweig (Germany); Salthammer, Tunga [Fraunhofer WKI, Department of Material Analysis and Indoor Chemistry, Bienroder Weg 54E, D-38108 Braunschweig (Germany); Bahadir, Muefit [Institute of Environmental and Sustainable Chemistry, Technische Universitaet Braunschweig, Hagenring 30, D-38106 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2011-09-01

    The ongoing health debate about polymer plasticizers based on the esters of phthalic acid, especially di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), has caused a trend towards using phthalates of lower volatility such as diisononyl phthalate (DINP) and towards other acid esters, such as adipates, terephthalates, citrates, etc. Probably the most important of these so-called 'alternative' plasticizers is diisononyl cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylate (DINCH). In the indoor environment, the continuously growing market share of this compound since its launch in 2002 is inter alia apparent from the increasing concentration of DINCH in settled house dust. From the epidemiological point of view there is considerable interest in identifying how semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) distribute in the indoor environment, especially in air, airborne particles and sedimented house dust. This, however, requires reliable experimental concentration data for the different media and good measurements or estimates of their physical and chemical properties. This paper reports on air concentrations for DINP, DINCH, diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP), diisobutyl adipate (DIBA), diisobutyl succinate (DIBS) and diisobutyl glutarate (DIBG) from emission studies in the Field and Laboratory Emission Cell (FLEC). For DINP and DINCH it took about 50 days to reach the steady-state value: for four months no decay in the concentration could be observed. Moreover, vapor pressures p{sub 0} and octanol-air partitioning coefficients K{sub OA} were obtained for 37 phthalate and non-phthalate plasticizers from two different algorithms: EPI Suite and SPARC. It is shown that calculated gas/particle partition coefficients K{sub p} and fractions can widely differ due to the uncertainty in the predicted p{sub 0} and K{sub OA} values. For most of the investigated compounds reliable experimental vapor pressures are not available. Rough estimates can be obtained from the measured emission rate of the pure compound in a

  12. Axial dispersion, holdup and slip velocity of dispersed phase in a pulsed sieve plate extraction column by radiotracer residence time distribution analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Din, Ghiyas Ud; Chughtai, Imran Rafiq; Inayat, Mansoor Hameed; Khan, Iqbal Hussain

    2008-12-01

    Axial dispersion, holdup and slip velocity of dispersed phase have been investigated for a range of dispersed and continuous phase superficial velocities in a pulsed sieve plate extraction column using radiotracer residence time distribution (RTD) analysis. Axial dispersion model (ADM) was used to simulate the hydrodynamics of the system. It has been observed that increase in dispersed phase superficial velocity results in a decrease in its axial dispersion and increase in its slip velocity while its holdup increases till a maximum asymptotic value is achieved. An increase in superficial velocity of continuous phase increases the axial dispersion and holdup of dispersed phase until a maximum value is obtained, while slip velocity of dispersed phase is found to decrease in the beginning and then it increases with increase in superficial velocity of continuous phase.

  13. Single Shot Measurements of the 4-Dimensional Transverse Phase Space Distribution of Intense Ion Beams at the UNILAC at GSI

    CERN Document Server

    Groening, L

    2003-01-01

    The UNILAC is used as an injector for the synchrotron SIS. It is designed to fill the synchrotron up to its space charge limit. The upper limit for the useful beam emittance of the UNILAC is given by the finite acceptance of the SIS during the injection process. In order to remain within this acceptance the emittance growth during beam acceleration and transportation due to space charge effects must be minimized by applying an appropriate beam focusing. Therefore, the influence of the magnetic focusing strength on the beam emittance growth was investigated experimentally for different beam currents. Measurements of transverse phase space distributions were performed before and after the Alvarez accelerator with a periodic focusing channel, respectively. In order to perform such a wide parameter scan within a reasonable time with respect to machine stability, the pepper pot technique was applied. The pepper pot method allows for single-pulse measurements. For comparison several measurements using the slit-grid...

  14. Effect of noise-induced nucleation on grain size distribution studied via the phase-field crystal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, J; Cheng, M; Emmerich, H

    2009-01-01

    We contribute to the more detailed understanding of the phase-field crystal model recently developed by Elder et al (2002 Phys. Rev. Lett. 88 245701), by focusing on its noise term and examining its impact on the nucleation rate in a homogeneously solidifying system as well as on successively developing grain size distributions. In this context we show that principally the grain size decreases with increasing noise amplitude, resulting in both a smaller average grain size and a decreased maximum grain size. Despite this general tendency, which we interpret based on Panfilis and Filiponi (2000 J. Appl. Phys. 88 562), we can identify two different regimes in which nucleation and successive initial growth are governed by quite different mechanisms.

  15. Radiative heat transfer with hydromagnetic flow and viscous dissipation over a stretching surface in the presence of variable heat flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Hitesh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The boundary layer steady flow and heat transfer of a viscous incompressible fluid due to a stretching plate with viscous dissipation effect in the presence of a transverse magnetic field is studied. The equations of motion and heat transfer are reduced to non-linear ordinary differential equations and the exact solutions are obtained using properties of confluent hypergeometric function. It is assumed that the prescribed heat flux at the stretching porous wall varies as the square of the distance from origin. The effects of the various parameters entering into the problem on the velocity field and temperature distribution are discussed.

  16. Effect of Machine Smoking Intensity and Filter Ventilation Level on Gas-Phase Temperature Distribution Inside a Burning Cigarette

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Bin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate measurements of cigarette coal temperature are essential to understand the thermophysical and thermo-chemical processes in a burning cigarette. The last system-atic studies of cigarette burning temperature measurements were conducted in the mid-1970s. Contemporary cigarettes have evolved in design features and multiple standard machine-smoking regimes have also become available, hence there is a need to re-examine cigarette combustion. In this work, we performed systematic measurements on gas-phase temperature of burning cigarettes using an improved fine thermocouple technique. The effects of machine-smoking parameters (puff volume and puff duration and filter ventilation levels were studied with high spatial and time resolutions during single puffs. The experimental results were presented in a number of differ-ent ways to highlight the dynamic and complex thermal processes inside a burning coal. A mathematical distribution equation was used to fit the experimental temperature data. Extracting and plotting the distribution parameters against puffing time revealed complex temperature profiles under different coal volume as a function of puffing intensities or filter ventilation levels. By dividing the coal volume prior to puffing into three temperature ranges (low-temperature from 200 to 400 °C, medium-temperature from 400 to 600 °C, and high-temperature volume above 600 °C by following their development at different smoking regimes, useful mechanistic details were obtained. Finally, direct visualisation of the gas-phase temperature through detailed temperature and temperature gradient contour maps provided further insights into the complex thermo-physics of the burning coal. [Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 26 (2014 191-203

  17. [Sciatica. From stretch rack to microdiscectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, P; Böni, T

    2015-12-01

    In ancient times as well as in the Middle Ages treatment options for discogenic nerve compression syndrome were limited and usually not very specific because of low anatomical and pathophysiological knowledge. The stretch rack (scamnum Hippocratis) was particularly prominent but was widely used as a therapeutic device for very different spinal disorders. Since the beginning of the nineteenth century anatomical knowledge increased and the advances in the fields of asepsis, anesthesia and surgery resulted in an increase in surgical interventions on the spine. In 1908 the first successful lumbar discectomy was initiated and performed by the German neurologist Heinrich O. Oppenheim (1858-1919) and the surgeon Fedor Krause (1857-1937); however, neither recognized the true pathological condition of discogenic nerve compression syndrome. With the landmark report in the New England Journal of Medicine in 1934, the two American surgeons William Jason Mixter (1880-1958) and Joseph Seaton Barr (1901-1963) finally clarified the pathomechanism of lumbar disc herniation and furthermore, propagated discectomy as the standard therapy. Since then interventions on intervertebral discs rapidly increased and the treatment options for lumbar disc surgery quickly evolved. The surgical procedures changed over time and were continuously being refined. In the late 1960s the surgical microscope was introduced for spinal surgery by the work of the famous neurosurgeon Mahmut Gazi Yasargil and his colleague Wolfhard Caspar and so-called microdiscectomy was introduced. Besides open discectomy other interventional techniques were developed to overcome the side effects of surgical procedures. In 1964 the American orthopedic surgeon Lyman Smith (1912-1991) introduced chemonucleolysis, a minimally invasive technique consisting only of a cannula and the proteolytic enzyme chymopapain, which is injected into the disc compartment to dissolve the displaced disc material. In 1975 the Japanese orthopedic

  18. Optimal stretching in the reacting wake of a bluff body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinge; Tithof, Jeffrey; Nevins, Thomas D; Colón, Rony O; Kelley, Douglas H

    2017-12-01

    We experimentally study spreading of the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction behind a bluff body in a laminar flow. Locations of reacted regions (i.e., regions with high product concentration) correlate with a moderate range of Lagrangian stretching and that range is close to the range of optimal stretching previously observed in topologically different flows [T. D. Nevins and D. H. Kelley, Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 164502 (2016)]. The previous work found optimal stretching in a closed, vortex dominated flow, but this article uses an open flow and only a small area of appreciable vorticity. We hypothesize that optimal stretching is common in advection-reaction-diffusion systems with an excitation threshold, including excitable and bistable systems, and that the optimal range depends on reaction chemistry and not on flow shape or characteristic speed. Our results may also give insight into plankton blooms behind islands in ocean currents.

  19. Effects of Static Stretching and Playing Soccer on Knee Laxity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baumgart, Christian; Gokeler, Alli; Donath, Lars; Hoppe, Matthias W.; Freiwald, Juergen

    Objective: This study investigated exercise-induced effects of static stretching and playing soccer on anterior tibial translation (ATT) of the knee joint. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Setting: University biomechanics laboratory. Participants: Thirty-one athletes were randomly assigned into

  20. Effects of Static Stretching and Playing Soccer on Knee Laxity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baumgart, Christian; Gokeler, Alli; Donath, Lars; Hoppe, Matthias W.; Freiwald, Juergen

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated exercise-induced effects of static stretching and playing soccer on anterior tibial translation (ATT) of the knee joint. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Setting: University biomechanics laboratory. Participants: Thirty-one athletes were randomly assigned into

  1. Stretched flow of Carreau nanofluid with convective boundary ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    journal of. January 2016 physics pp. 3–17. Stretched flow of Carreau nanofluid with ... fluid over a flat plate subjected to convective surface condition. ... the steady laminar boundary layer flow over a permeable plate with a convective boundary.

  2. Assessing phase stability and element distribution in Co-base superalloys at elevated temperatures by in situ TEM heating experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggeler, Yolita; Mueller, Julian; Spiecker, Erdmann [Lehrstuhl fuer Mikro- und Nanostrukturforschung and Center for Nanoanalysis and Electron Microscopy (CENEM), Department Werkstoffwissenschaften, Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Co-based alloys, of a composition of Co-12Al-9W, form a stable two phase γ/γ{sup '} microstructure at 900 C. γ{sup '} cubes, consisting of the L12 crystal structure are coherently embedded in a solid solution fcc (A1) γ matrix. To ensure precipitate hardening at temperatures, which are relevant to practical applications, 700-1100 C, as experienced in gas turbine applications, the stability of the γ/γ{sup '} phases is of fundamental importance. In this analysis in situ TEM studies with chip-based heating systems (by DENS solution) are applied on new Co-based superalloys. After in situ heating at apr. 900 C and controlled quenching with different quenching rates the elemental distribution at the γ/γ{sup '} interface is measured using ChemiSTEM EDX. Exploiting the driving force for interface movement resulting from temperature-dependent volume fraction of γ and γ{sup '} insight into the diffusion of individual alloying elements and the relationship between local chemistry and ordering can be gained from transient phenomena. The experimental results will be compared with theoretical calculations. This work has been carried out within the framework of the SFB-TR 103 ''Single Crystal Superalloys''.

  3. Measurements of liquid phase residence time distributions in a pilot-scale continuous leaching reactor using radiotracer technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, H J; Sharma, V K; Shenoy, K T; Sreenivas, T

    2015-03-01

    An alkaline based continuous leaching process is commonly used for extraction of uranium from uranium ore. The reactor in which the leaching process is carried out is called a continuous leaching reactor (CLR) and is expected to behave as a continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) for the liquid phase. A pilot-scale CLR used in a Technology Demonstration Pilot Plant (TDPP) was designed, installed and operated; and thus needed to be tested for its hydrodynamic behavior. A radiotracer investigation was carried out in the CLR for measurement of residence time distribution (RTD) of liquid phase with specific objectives to characterize the flow behavior of the reactor and validate its design. Bromine-82 as ammonium bromide was used as a radiotracer and about 40-60MBq activity was used in each run. The measured RTD curves were treated and mean residence times were determined and simulated using a tanks-in-series model. The result of simulation indicated no flow abnormality and the reactor behaved as an ideal CSTR for the range of the operating conditions used in the investigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Micromechanical analysis of martensite distribution on strain localization in dual phase steels by scanning electron microscopy and crystal plasticity simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jafari, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ziaei-Rad, S., E-mail: szrad@cc.iut.ac.ir [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Saeidi, N. [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jamshidian, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-07-18

    The morphology and distribution of the dispersed martensite islands in the ferrite matrix plays a key role in the formation of shear bands in dual phase steels. In this study, we investigate the relationship between the martensite dispersion and the strain localization regions due to the formation of shear bands in fine-grained DP 780 steel, employing experimental observations as well as numerical simulations. SEM studies of the deformed microstructure showed that voids nucleated at ferrite-martensite interface within larger ferrite grains and regions with low local martensite fraction. The experimental results were precisely analyzed by finite element simulations based on the theory of crystal plasticity. A parametric study was then performed to obtain a deeper insight in to the effect of martensite dispersion on the strain localization of the neighboring ferrite. Crystal plasticity simulation results revealed that in a more regular structure compared to a random structure, a greater region of the ferrite phase contributes to accommodate plasticity. In addition, these regions limit the formation of main shear bands by creating barriers against stress concentration regions, results in lower growth and interaction of stress concentration regions with each others.

  5. A Japanese Stretching Intervention Can Modify Lumbar Lordosis Curvature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadono, Norio; Tsuchiya, Kazushi; Uematsu, Azusa; Kamoshita, Hiroshi; Kiryu, Kazunori; Hortobágyi, Tibor; Suzuki, Shuji

    2017-08-01

    Eighteen healthy male adults were assigned to either an intervention or control group. Isogai dynamic therapy (IDT) is one of Japanese stretching interventions and has been practiced for over 70 years. However, its scientific quantitative evidence remains unestablished. The objective of this study was to determine whether IDT could modify lumbar curvature in healthy young adults compared with stretching exercises used currently in clinical practice. None of previous studies have provided data that conventional stretching interventions could modify spinal curvatures. However, this study provides the first evidence that a specific form of a Japanese stretching intervention can acutely modify the spinal curvatures. We compared the effects of IDT, a Japanese stretching intervention (n=9 males), with a conventional stretching routine (n=9 males) used widely in clinics to modify pelvic tilt and lumbar lordosis (LL) angle. We measured thoracic kyphosis (TK) and LL angles 3 times during erect standing using the Spinal Mouse before and after each intervention. IDT consisted of: (1) hip joint correction, (2) pelvic tilt correction, (3) lumbar alignment correction, and (4) squat exercise stretch. The control group performed hamstring stretches while (1) standing and (2) sitting. IDT increased LL angle to 25.1 degrees (±5.9) from 21.2 degrees (±6.9) (P=0.047) without changing TK angle (pretest: 36.8 degrees [±6.9]; posttest: 36.1 degrees [±6.5]) (P=0.572). The control group showed no changes in TK (P=0.819) and LL angles (P=0.744). IDT can thus be effective for increasing LL angle, hence anterior pelvic tilt. Such modifications could ameliorate low back pain and improve mobility in old adults with an unfavorable pelvic position.

  6. Assessment of fluid distribution and flow properties in two phase fluid flow using X-ray CT technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lanlan; Wu, Bohao; Li, Xingbo; Wang, Sijia; Wang, Dayong; Zhou, Xinhuan; Zhang, Yi

    2018-04-01

    To study on microscale distribution of CO2 and brine during two-phase flow is crucial for understanding the trapping mechanisms of CO2 storage. In this study, CO2-brine flow experiments in porous media were conducted using X-ray computed tomography. The porous media were packed with glass beads. The pore structure (porosity/tortuosity) and flow properties at different flow rates and flow fractions were investigated. The results showed that porosity of the packed beads differed at different position as a result of heterogeneity. The CO2 saturation is higher at low injection flow rates and high CO2 fractions. CO2 distribution at the pore scale was also visualized. ∅ Porosity of porous media CT brine_ sat grey value of sample saturated with brine CT dry grey value of sample saturated with air CT brine grey value of pure brine CT air grey value of pure air CT flow grey values of sample with two fluids occupying the pore space {CT}_{CO_2_ sat} grey value of sample saturated with CO2 {f}_{CO_2}({S}_{CO_2}) CO2 fraction {q}_{CO_2} the volume flow rate for CO2 q brine the volume flow rate for brine L Thickness of the porous media, mm L e a bundle of capillaries of equal length, mm τ Tortuosity, calculated from L e / L.

  7. Efficient Computation of Coherent Synchrotron Radiation Taking into Account 6D Phase Space Distribution of Emitting Electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chubar, O.; Couprie, M.-E.

    2007-01-01

    CPU-efficient method for calculation of the frequency domain electric field of Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) taking into account 6D phase space distribution of electrons in a bunch is proposed. As an application example, calculation results of the CSR emitted by an electron bunch with small longitudinal and large transverse sizes are presented. Such situation can be realized in storage rings or ERLs by transverse deflection of the electron bunches in special crab-type RF cavities, i.e. using the technique proposed for the generation of femtosecond X-ray pulses (A. Zholents et. al., 1999). The computation, performed for the parameters of the SOLEIL storage ring, shows that if the transverse size of electron bunch is larger than the diffraction limit for single-electron SR at a given wavelength -- this affects the angular distribution of the CSR at this wavelength and reduces the coherent flux. Nevertheless, for transverse bunch dimensions up to several millimeters and a longitudinal bunch size smaller than hundred micrometers, the resulting CSR flux in the far infrared spectral range is still many orders of magnitude higher than the flux of incoherent SR, and therefore can be considered for practical use

  8. Efficacy of hamstring stretching programs in schoolchildren. A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos-Alberto BECERRA FERNANDEZ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the present review was to examine the scientific literature on the effects of physical education-based stretching programs on hamstring extensibility in schoolchildren aged 6-11 years. For this purpose relevant studies were searched from ten electronic databases dated up through May 2015. Of the 25 potentially relevant articles identified and retrieved for more detailed evaluation, only eight studies were included in the present review because they met the inclusion criteria. The overall results showed that incorporating hamstring stretching as a part of physical education classes produces a significant improvement in the scores of the tests: straight leg raise and classic sit-and-reach, for the experimental groups, but not for control groups. Stretching programs can be included in Physical Education classes, specifically during the warm-up and the cool down periods in order to improve hamstring extensibility. Although it seems that the stretching exercises in the warm-up period could be less effective in gaining flexibility in school children. Studies that use a stretching volume between 4 and 7 minutes per session and 2-4 training classes per week, obtain statistically significant improvements on the levels of hamstring flexibility in the experimental groups. However, after a five-week detraining period, children revert back to their initial flexibility levels. Therefore, it seems appropriate that physical education teachers should implement stretching programs to improve the students´ flexibility during the Physical Education classes.

  9. Equibiaxial cyclic stretch stimulates fibroblasts to rapidly remodel fibrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestrini, Jenna Leigh; Billiar, Kristen Lawrence

    2006-01-01

    Understanding the effects of the mechanical environment on wound healing is critical for developing more effective treatments to reduce scar formation and contracture. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dynamic mechanical stretch on cell-mediated early wound remodeling independent of matrix alignment which obscures more subtle remodeling mechanisms. Cyclic equibiaxial stretch (16% stretch at 0.2 Hz) was applied to fibroblast-populated fibrin gel in vitro wound models for eight days. Compaction, density, tensile strength, and collagen content were quantified as functional measures of remodeling. Stretched samples were approximately ten times stronger, eight-fold more dense, and eight times thinner than statically cultured samples. These changes were accompanied by a 15% increase in net collagen but no significant differences in cell number or viability. When collagen crosslinking was inhibited in stretched samples, the extensibility increased and the strength decreased. The apparent weakening was due to a reduction in compaction rather than a decrease in ability of the tissue to withstand tensile forces. Interestingly, inhibiting collagen crosslinking had no measurable effects on the statically cultured samples. These results indicate that amplified cell-mediated compaction and even a slight addition in collagen content play substantial roles in mechanically induced wound strengthening. These findings increase our understanding of how mechanical forces guide the healing response in skin, and the methods employed in this study may also prove valuable tools for investigating stretch-induced remodeling of other planar connective tissues and for creating mechanically robust engineered tissues.

  10. Effectiveness of different exercises and stretching physiotherapy on pain and movement in patellofemoral pain syndrome: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyano, F Revelles; Valenza, M C; Martin, L Martin; Caballero, Y Castellote; Gonzalez-Jimenez, E; Demet, G Valenza

    2013-05-01

    To compare the effectiveness of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation combined with exercise, classic stretching physiotherapy intervention, and educational intervention at improving patient function and pain in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. Randomized, controlled, blind trial over four months. Urban population, Spain. Patients undergoing primary care for retropatellar pain. Subjects were allocated on three different treatment options: a proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation and aerobic exercise group, a classic stretching group, and a control treatment were applied over four months under the supervision of a physiotherapist. Knee Society Score, pain reported (Visual analogue scale) and knee range of motion. Assessments were completed at baseline and after four months. 74 patients were enrolled in the study and distributed between groups. Both the proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation and classic stretching group showed significant changes in all variables after four months intervention (p < 0.001). The difference in mean Kujala knee score changes between groups (classic stretching group vs. proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation group vs. control group) at four months was -24.05 (95% confidence interval (CI) -30.19, -17.90), p ≤ 0.001; vs. -39.03 (95% confidence interval (CI) -42.5, -35.5), p ≤ 0.001; vs. -0.238 (95% confidence interval (CI) -1.2, 0.726), p = 0.621, respectively. A proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation intervention protocol combined with aerobic exercise showed a better outcome than a classic stretching protocol after four months.

  11. Genomic Mapping of Human DNA provides Evidence of Difference in Stretch between AT and GC rich regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reifenberger, Jeffrey; Dorfman, Kevin; Cao, Han

    Human DNA is a not a polymer consisting of a uniform distribution of all 4 nucleic acids, but rather contains regions of high AT and high GC content. When confined, these regions could have different stretch due to the extra hydrogen bond present in the GC basepair. To measure this potential difference, human genomic DNA was nicked with NtBspQI, labeled with a cy3 like fluorophore at the nick site, stained with YOYO, loaded into a device containing an array of nanochannels, and imaged. Over 473,000 individual molecules of DNA, corresponding to roughly 30x coverage of a human genome, were collected and aligned to the human reference. Based on the known AT/GC content between aligned pairs of labels, the stretch was measured for regions of similar size but different AT/GC content. We found that regions of high GC content were consistently more stretched than regions of high AT content between pairs of labels varying in size between 2.5 kbp and 500 kbp. We measured that for every 1% increase in GC content there was roughly a 0.06% increase in stretch. While this effect is small, it is important to take into account differences in stretch between AT and GC rich regions to improve the sensitivity of detection of structural variations from genomic variations. NIH Grant: R01-HG006851.

  12. Protective role of Nrf2 against mechanical-stretch-induced apoptosis in mouse fibroblasts: a potential therapeutic target of mechanical-trauma-induced stress urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiannan; Li, Bingshu; Liu, Cheng; Wang, Linlin; Tang, Jianming; Hong, Li

    2018-01-10

    We investigated the protective effect and underlying molecular mechanism of nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) against mechanical-stretch-induced apoptosis in mouse fibroblasts. Normal cells, Nrf2 silencing cells, and Nrf2 overexpressing cells were respectively divided into two groups-nonintervention and cyclic mechanical strain (CMS)-subjected to CMS of 5333 μ (1.0 Hz for 4 h), six groups in total (control, CMS, shNfe212, shNfe212 + CMS, LV-shNfe212, and LV-shNfe212 + CMS). After treatment, cell apoptosis; cell-cycle distribution; expressions of Nrf2, Bax, Bcl-2, Cyt-C, caspase-3, caspase-9, cleaved-caspase-3, and cleaved-caspase-9; mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm); reactive oxygen species (ROS); and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were measured. Thirty virgin female C57BL/6 mice were divided into two groups: control (without intervention) and vaginal distension (VD) groups, which underwent VD for 1 h with an 8-mm dilator (0.3 ml saline). Leak-point pressure (LPP) was tested on day 7 after VD; Nrf2 expression, apoptosis, and MDA levels were then measured in urethra and anterior vaginal wall. Mechanical stretch decreased Nrf2 messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expressions. Overexpression of Nrf2 alleviated mechanical-stretch-induced cell apoptosis; S-phase arrest of cell cycle; up-regulation of Bax, cytochrome C (Cyt-C), ROS, MDA, ratio of cleaved-caspase-3/caspase-3 and cleaved-caspase-9/caspase-9; and exacerbated the decrease of Bcl2 and ΔΨm in L929 cells. On the contrary, silencing of Nrf2 showed opposite effects. Besides, VD reduced LPP levels and Nrf2 expression and increased cell apoptosis and MDA generation in the urethra and anterior vaginal wall. Nrf2 exhibits a protective role against mechanical-stretch -induced apoptosis on mouse fibroblasts, which might indicate a potential therapeutic target of mechanical-trauma-induced stress urinary incontinence (SUI).

  13. Phased Restoration Plan for Degraded Land in North Korea by the Clustered Distribution Pattern of Suitable Afforestation Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. G.; Lee, W. K.; Choi, H. A.; Yoo, H.; Song, C.; Son, Y.; Cha, S.; Bae, S. W.

    2017-12-01

    Degraded forest of North Korea (DPRK; The Democratic People's Republic of Koprea) is not only confined itself, it could cause serious problem in Korean Peninsula. The importance of restoration for degraded land has increased to improve an healthy ecosystem and solve a shortage of food in North Korea lately. On the other hand, although effort of North Korea government, degraded problem have consistently got worse. There are two main reasons it does not show effectively. The most critical one is absence of technique and information to restore, they concentrate urgent problem which is related to a poor food supply. The other problem is that they demand an efficiency plan in a short period. In these aspect, this study aims selecting suitable tree by spatial characteristics and establishing phased restoration plan to support policy decision about a degraded land in North Korea. The suitable tree for restoration is taken from references which involve natural plant distribution of North and South Korea (ROK; Republic of Korea). Optimal environmental predicted map is deducted from accumulated data of plant physiology whose endemic environmental optimal range individually. It is integrated a map by order of priorities that first is suitable tree species according to the region, and second is clustering distribution rate in a same species. The two types of priority is applied to weighting method. The research result shows that 23 afforestation species fit to restore, and lager distributed plants agree with the major species in Korean Peninsula. The integrated map considers weight of priorities, and it appears that Picea jezoensis is matched the widest. The integrated map shows a view of suitable restoration according to the space, but this is finespun to utilize in a policy. Therefore It provides 3 step plan to support policy decision by Block Statistics, as 12.5km (long-term general plan), 5km (medium-term detailed plan), 1km (short-term implementation plan).

  14. A graphical user interface (GUI) toolkit for the calculation of three-dimensional (3D) multi-phase biological effective dose (BED) distributions including statistical analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauweloa, Kevin I; Gutierrez, Alonso N; Stathakis, Sotirios; Papanikolaou, Niko; Mavroidis, Panayiotis

    2016-07-01

    A toolkit has been developed for calculating the 3-dimensional biological effective dose (BED) distributions in multi-phase, external beam radiotherapy treatments such as those applied in liver stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and in multi-prescription treatments. This toolkit also provides a wide range of statistical results related to dose and BED distributions. MATLAB 2010a, version 7.10 was used to create this GUI toolkit. The input data consist of the dose distribution matrices, organ contour coordinates, and treatment planning parameters from the treatment planning system (TPS). The toolkit has the capability of calculating the multi-phase BED distributions using different formulas (denoted as true and approximate). Following the calculations of the BED distributions, the dose and BED distributions can be viewed in different projections (e.g. coronal, sagittal and transverse). The different elements of this toolkit are presented and the important steps for the execution of its calculations are illustrated. The toolkit is applied on brain, head & neck and prostate cancer patients, who received primary and boost phases in order to demonstrate its capability in calculating BED distributions, as well as measuring the inaccuracy and imprecision of the approximate BED distributions. Finally, the clinical situations in which the use of the present toolkit would have a significant clinical impact are indicated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Different Diversity and Distribution of Archaeal Community in the Aqueous and Oil Phases of Production Fluid From High-Temperature Petroleum Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Liang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available To get a better knowledge on how archaeal communities differ between the oil and aqueous phases and whether environmental factors promote substantial differences on microbial distributions among production wells, we analyzed archaeal communities in oil and aqueous phases from four high-temperature petroleum reservoirs (55–65°C by using 16S rRNA gene based 454 pyrosequencing. Obvious dissimilarity of the archaeal composition between aqueous and oil phases in each independent production wells was observed, especially in production wells with higher water cut, and diversity in the oil phase was much higher than that in the corresponding aqueous phase. Statistical analysis further showed that archaeal communities in oil phases from different petroleum reservoirs tended to be more similar, but those in aqueous phases were the opposite. In the high-temperature ecosystems, temperature as an environmental factor could have significantly affected archaeal distribution, and archaeal diversity raised with the increase of temperature (p < 0.05. Our results suggest that to get a comprehensive understanding of petroleum reservoirs microbial information both in aqueous and oil phases should be taken into consideration. The microscopic habitats of oil phase, technically the dispersed minuscule water droplets in the oil could be a better habitat that containing the indigenous microorganisms.

  16. The effect of warm-up, static stretching and dynamic stretching on hamstring flexibility in previously injured subjects.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Sullivan, Kieran

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Warm-up and stretching are suggested to increase hamstring flexibility and reduce the risk of injury. This study examined the short-term effects of warm-up, static stretching and dynamic stretching on hamstring flexibility in individuals with previous hamstring injury and uninjured controls. METHODS: A randomised crossover study design, over 2 separate days. Hamstring flexibility was assessed using passive knee extension range of motion (PKE ROM). 18 previously injured individuals and 18 uninjured controls participated. On both days, four measurements of PKE ROM were recorded: (1) at baseline; (2) after warm-up; (3) after stretch (static or dynamic) and (4) after a 15-minute rest. Participants carried out both static and dynamic stretches, but on different days. Data were analysed using Anova. RESULTS: Across both groups, there was a significant main effect for time (p < 0.001). PKE ROM significantly increased with warm-up (p < 0.001). From warm-up, PKE ROM further increased with static stretching (p = 0.04) but significantly decreased after dynamic stretching (p = 0.013). The increased flexibility after warm-up and static stretching reduced significantly (p < 0.001) after 15 minutes of rest, but remained significantly greater than at baseline (p < 0.001). Between groups, there was no main effect for group (p = 0.462), with no difference in mean PKE ROM values at any individual stage of the protocol (p > 0.05). Using ANCOVA to adjust for the non-significant (p = 0.141) baseline difference between groups, the previously injured group demonstrated a greater response to warm-up and static stretching, however this was not statistically significant (p = 0.05). CONCLUSION: Warm-up significantly increased hamstring flexibility. Static stretching also increased hamstring flexibility, whereas dynamic did not, in agreement with previous findings on uninjured controls. The effect of warm-up and static stretching on flexibility was greater in those with reduced

  17. The effect of warm-up, static stretching and dynamic stretching on hamstring flexibility in previously injured subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murray Elaine

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Warm-up and stretching are suggested to increase hamstring flexibility and reduce the risk of injury. This study examined the short-term effects of warm-up, static stretching and dynamic stretching on hamstring flexibility in individuals with previous hamstring injury and uninjured controls. Methods A randomised crossover study design, over 2 separate days. Hamstring flexibility was assessed using passive knee extension range of motion (PKE ROM. 18 previously injured individuals and 18 uninjured controls participated. On both days, four measurements of PKE ROM were recorded: (1 at baseline; (2 after warm-up; (3 after stretch (static or dynamic and (4 after a 15-minute rest. Participants carried out both static and dynamic stretches, but on different days. Data were analysed using Anova. Results Across both groups, there was a significant main effect for time (p 0.05. Using ANCOVA to adjust for the non-significant (p = 0.141 baseline difference between groups, the previously injured group demonstrated a greater response to warm-up and static stretching, however this was not statistically significant (p = 0.05. Conclusion Warm-up significantly increased hamstring flexibility. Static stretching also increased hamstring flexibility, whereas dynamic did not, in agreement with previous findings on uninjured controls. The effect of warm-up and static stretching on flexibility was greater in those with reduced flexibility post-injury, but this did not reach statistical significance. Further prospective research is required to validate the hypothesis that increased flexibility improves outcomes. Trial Registration ACTRN12608000638336

  18. No evidence hip joint angle modulates intrinsically produced stretch reflex in human hopping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, W; Campbell, A; Allison, G

    2013-09-01

    Motor output in activities such as walking and hopping is suggested to be mediated neurally by purported stretch reflex augmentation of muscle output. Reflex EMG activity during these tasks has been frequently investigated in the soleus muscle; with alterations in reflex amplitude being associated with changes in hip joint angle/phase of the gait cycle. Previous work has focussed on reflex activity induced by an artificial perturbation or by induction of H-reflexes. As such, it is currently unknown if stretch reflex activity induced intrinsically (as part of the task) is modulated by changes in hip joint angle. This study investigated whether hip joint angle modulated reflex EMG 'burst' activity during a hopping task performed on a custom-built partially reclined sleigh. Ten subjects participated; EMG and kinematic data (VICON motor capture system) was collected for each hop cycle. Participants completed 5 sets of 30s of self-paced hopping in (1) hip neutral and (2) hip 60° flexion conditions. There was no difference in EMG 'burst' activity or in sagittal plane kinematics (knee/ankle) in the hopping task between the two conditions. The results indicate that during a functional task such as hopping, changes in hip angle do not alter the stretch reflex-like activity associated with landing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Investigations on the electron bunch distribution in the longitudinal phase space at a laser driven RF electron source for the European X-FEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roensch, Juliane

    2010-01-15

    The Photoinjector Test facility at DESY, Zeuthen site, (PITZ) is aiming for the optimization of electron guns for SAS-FELs. For this it is necessary to investigate the characteristics of the six dimensional phase space of the bunch produced by a photoinjector. This thesis is focused on the analysis of the longitudinal properties of the electron bunch distribution, this means the temporal current distribution and the momentum distribution as well as the correlation of both properties. The complete distribution of the electron bunch in longitudinal phase space of a photoinjector was measured directly for the first time at a beam momentum of about 5 MeV/c, using an existing apparatus. This system had been designed for an accelerating gradient of 40 MV/m. Its subcomponents were analysed to understand sources of uncertainties of the measurement system. The usage of higher accelerating gradients in the gun (60 MV/m, resulting in a beam momentum of about 6.8 MeV/c) demands major modifications of the existing measurement system for the longitudinal phase space distribution. An upgrade of the facility by an additional accelerating cavity required the design of further longitudinal diagnostics systems for the analysis at higher momenta (up to 40 MeV/c). Measurements of the longitudinal beam properties to determine the influence of different operation parameters, like RF launch phase, charge, accelerating field gradient and laser distribution were performed and compared to simulations. (orig.)

  20. Investigations on the electron bunch distribution in the longitudinal phase space at a laser driven RF electron source for the European X-FEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roensch, Juliane

    2010-01-01

    The Photoinjector Test facility at DESY, Zeuthen site, (PITZ) is aiming for the optimization of electron guns for SAS-FELs. For this it is necessary to investigate the characteristics of the six dimensional phase space of the bunch produced by a photoinjector. This thesis is focused on the analysis of the longitudinal properties of the electron bunch distribution, this means the temporal current distribution and the momentum distribution as well as the correlation of both properties. The complete distribution of the electron bunch in longitudinal phase space of a photoinjector was measured directly for the first time at a beam momentum of about 5 MeV/c, using an existing apparatus. This system had been designed for an accelerating gradient of 40 MV/m. Its subcomponents were analysed to understand sources of uncertainties of the measurement system. The usage of higher accelerating gradients in the gun (60 MV/m, resulting in a beam momentum of about 6.8 MeV/c) demands major modifications of the existing measurement system for the longitudinal phase space distribution. An upgrade of the facility by an additional accelerating cavity required the design of further longitudinal diagnostics systems for the analysis at higher momenta (up to 40 MeV/c). Measurements of the longitudinal beam properties to determine the influence of different operation parameters, like RF launch phase, charge, accelerating field gradient and laser distribution were performed and compared to simulations. (orig.)

  1. Stretching After Heat But Not After Cold Decreases Contractures After Spinal Cord Injury in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasawa, Hiroyuki; Nomura, Masato; Sakitani, Naoyoshi; Watanabe, Kosuke; Watanabe, Daichi; Moriyama, Hideki

    2016-12-01

    Contractures are a prevalent and potentially severe complication in patients with neurologic disorders. Although heat, cold, and stretching are commonly used for treatment of contractures and/or spasticity (the cause of many contractures), the sequential effects of these modalities remain unclear. Using an established rat model with spinal cord injury with knee flexion contracture, we sought to determine what combination of heat or cold before stretching is the most effective for treatment of contractures derived from spastic paralyses and investigated which treatment leads to the best (1) improvement in the loss of ROM; (2) restoration of deterioration in the muscular and articular factors responsible for contractures; and (3) amelioration of histopathologic features such as muscular fibrosis in biceps femoris and shortening of the joint capsule. Forty-two adolescent male Wistar rats were used. After spasticity developed at 2 weeks postinjury, each animal with spinal cord injury underwent the treatment protocol daily for 1 week. Knee extension ROM was measured with a goniometer by two examiners blinded to each other's scores. The muscular and articular factors contributing to contractures were calculated by measuring ROM before and after the myotomies. We quantitatively measured the muscular fibrosis and the synovial intima length, and observed the distribution of collagen of skeletal muscle. The results were confirmed by a blinded observer. The ROM of heat alone (34° ± 1°) and cold alone (34° ± 2°) rats were not different with the numbers available from that of rats with spinal cord injury (35° ± 2°) (p = 0.92 and 0.89, respectively). Stretching after heat (24° ± 1°) was more effective than stretching alone (27° ± 3°) at increasing ROM (p contractures. Although quantification of muscular fibrosis in the rats with spinal cord injury (11% ± 1%) was higher than that of controls (9% ± 0.4%) (p = 0.01), no difference was found between spinal cord

  2. Effects of Static Stretching and Playing Soccer on Knee Laxity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgart, Christian; Gokeler, Alli; Donath, Lars; Hoppe, Matthias W; Freiwald, Jürgen

    2015-11-01

    This study investigated exercise-induced effects of static stretching and playing soccer on anterior tibial translation (ATT) of the knee joint. Randomized controlled trial. University biomechanics laboratory. Thirty-one athletes were randomly assigned into a stretching (26.9 ± 6.2 years, 1.77 ± 0.09 m, 67.9 ± 10.7 kg) and a control group (27.9 ± 7.4 years, 1.75 ± 0.08 m, 72.0 ± 14.9 kg). Thirty-one amateur soccer players in an additional soccer group (25.1 ± 5.6 years, 1.74 ± 0.10 m, 71.8 ± 14.8 kg). All participants had no history of knee injury requiring surgery and any previous knee ligament or cartilage injury. The stretching group performed 4 different static stretching exercises with a duration of 2 × 20 seconds interspersed with breaks of 10 seconds. The soccer group completed a 90-minute soccer-specific training program. The control group did not perform any physical activity for approximately 30 minutes. Anterior tibial translation was measured with the KT-1000 knee arthrometer at forces of 67 N, 89 N, and maximal manual force (Max) before and after the intervention. There was a significant increase in ATT after static stretching and playing soccer at all applied forces. Maximal manual testing revealed a mean increase of ATT after static stretching of 2.1 ± 1.6 mm (P soccer of 1.0 ± 1.5 mm (P = 0.001). The ATT increase after static stretching at 67 and 89 N is significantly higher than in controls. At maximum manual testing, significant differences were evident between all groups. Static stretching and playing soccer increase ATT and may consequently influence mechanical factors of the anterior cruciate ligament. The ATT increase after static stretching was greater than after playing soccer. The observed increase in ATT after static stretching and playing soccer may be associated with changes in kinesthetic perception and sensorimotor control, activation of muscles, joint stability, overall performance, and higher injury risk.

  3. How To Stretch Your Food Service Dollars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, B. Robert

    1973-01-01

    The implications of any program as large as food service suggests that the administrator be conversant with the total field of food service distribution and the extras'' available as part of a burgeoning industry. An administrator has the right to expect competitive prices, excellent quality, good delivery, and superior peripheral services.…

  4. Realistic searches on stretched exponential networks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We consider navigation or search schemes on networks which have a degree distribution of the form () ∝ exp(−). In addition, the linking probability is taken to be dependent on social distances and is governed by a parameter . The searches are realistic in the sense that not all search chains can be completed.

  5. Mechanical stretching of proteins-a theoretical survey of the Protein Data Bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulkowska, Joanna I; Cieplak, Marek

    2007-01-01

    The mechanical stretching of single proteins has been studied experimentally for about 50 proteins, yielding a variety of force patterns and peak forces. Here we perform a theoretical survey of proteins of known native structure and map out the landscape of possible dynamical behaviours under stretching at constant speed. We consider 7510 proteins comprising not more than 150 amino acids and 239 longer proteins. The model used is constructed based on the native geometry. It is solved by methods of molecular dynamics and validated by comparing the theoretical predictions to experimental results. We characterize the distribution of peak forces and investigate correlations with the system size and with the structure classification as characterized by the CATH scheme. Despite the presence of such correlations, proteins with the same CATH index may belong to different classes of dynamical behaviour. We identify proteins with the biggest forces and show that they belong to few topology classes. We determine which protein segments act as mechanical clamps and show that, in most cases, they correspond to long stretches of parallel β-strands, but other mechanisms are also possible. (topical review)

  6. Measurements of liquid phase residence time distributions in a pilot-scale continuous leaching reactor using radiotracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pant, H.J.; Sharma, V.K.; Shenoy, K.T.; Sreenivas, T.

    2015-01-01

    An alkaline based continuous leaching process is commonly used for extraction of uranium from uranium ore. The reactor in which the leaching process is carried out is called a continuous leaching reactor (CLR) and is expected to behave as a continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) for the liquid phase. A pilot-scale CLR used in a Technology Demonstration Pilot Plant (TDPP) was designed, installed and operated; and thus needed to be tested for its hydrodynamic behavior. A radiotracer investigation was carried out in the CLR for measurement of residence time distribution (RTD) of liquid phase with specific objectives to characterize the flow behavior of the reactor and validate its design. Bromine-82 as ammonium bromide was used as a radiotracer and about 40–60 MBq activity was used in each run. The measured RTD curves were treated and mean residence times were determined and simulated using a tanks-in-series model. The result of simulation indicated no flow abnormality and the reactor behaved as an ideal CSTR for the range of the operating conditions used in the investigation. - Highlights: • Radiotracer technique was applied for evaluation of design of a pilot-scale continuous leaching reactor. • Mean residence time and dead volume were estimated. Dead volume was found to be ranging from 4% to 15% at different operating conditions. • Tank-in-series model was used to simulate the measured RTD data and was found suitable to describe the flow in the reactor. • No flow abnormality was found and the reactor behaved as a well-mixed system. The design of the reactor was validated

  7. Age-related changes in phase-space distribution of ABPM data in normotensive and hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recordati, Giorgio

    2011-04-26

    The data collected by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring have been studied in the phase-space of R-R interval and blood pressure and their individual distribution quantified by the slope of the regression line through 24-h values. This slope has been termed "ambulatory autonomic reciprocity index" and abbreviated as AARIs and AARId, the "s" and "d" indicating the relation with systolic and diastolic blood pressure respectively. Ambulatory monitoring was performed in 200 normotensive (NT: 135 females) and 200 untreated hypertensive patients (HT: 59 females). The AARIs was: NT: -6.04±2.7 and HT: -4.69±2.4ms/mmHg, respectively (p<0.001); the AARId was: -7.04±2.9 for NT and -5.79±2.8 for HT subjects (p<0.001). When distributed by decades of life the steepest AARIs occurred at the 20-29 decade, while the flattest at the 60-69 decade. At the 60-69 decade and above, the AARIs was similar in both groups (ANOVA o.w. NT: p<0.001; HT: p<0.01). AARIs and AARId were strongly correlated with 24-h variability of R-R interval, either 24-h standard deviation or coefficient of variation (p<0.001), and poorly correlated with 24-h variability of blood pressure. These data suggest that the AARI, when seen in the context of the "Autonomic Space", may be viewed as a 24-h period index of centrally driven cardiovagal function. Being based on both blood pressure and heart rate measurements, the AARI may become clinically useful to address life style changes and pharmacological treatment of hypertensive patients towards optimal results. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Cyclic Stretch Alters Vascular Reactivity of Mouse Aortic Segments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Leloup

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Large, elastic arteries buffer the pressure wave originating in the left ventricle and are constantly exposed to higher amplitudes of cyclic stretch (10% than muscular arteries (2%. As a crucial factor for endothelial and smooth muscle cell function, cyclic stretch has, however, never been studied in ex vivo aortic segments of mice. To investigate the effects of cyclic stretch on vaso-reactivity of mouse aortic segments, we used the Rodent Oscillatory Tension Set-up to study Arterial Compliance (ROTSAC. The aortic segments were clamped at frequencies of 6–600 bpm between two variable preloads, thereby mimicking dilation as upon left ventricular systole and recoiling as during diastole. The preloads corresponding to different transmural pressures were chosen to correspond to a low, normal or high amplitude of cyclic stretch. At different time intervals, cyclic stretch was interrupted, the segments were afterloaded and isometric contractions by α1-adrenergic stimulation with 2 μM phenylephrine in the absence and presence of 300 μM L-NAME (eNOS inhibitor and/or 35 μM diltiazem (blocker of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels were measured. As compared with static or cyclic stretch at low amplitude (<10 mN or low frequency (0.1 Hz, cyclic stretch at physiological amplitude (>10 mN and frequency (1–10 Hz caused better ex vivo conservation of basal NO release with time after mounting. The relaxation of PE-precontracted segments by addition of ACh to stimulate NO release was unaffected by cyclic stretch. In the absence of basal NO release (hence, presence of L-NAME, physiological in comparison with aberrant cyclic stretch decreased the baseline tension, attenuated the phasic contraction by phenylephrine in the absence of extracellular Ca2+ and shifted the smaller tonic contraction more from a voltage-gated Ca2+ channel-mediated to a non-selective cation channel-mediated. Data highlight the need of sufficient mechanical activation of endothelial and

  9. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT STRETCHING PROTOCOLS ON VERTICAL JUMP PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Serin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the effect of different stretching exercises on vertical jump performance. A total of 14 national male athletes sporting in the elite level took part in the study. The age average of the participants was 20.25±1.03 year, the average height was 1.80±.08 m, the average body weight was 77.14±18.91 kg, average of sporting age was 9.87±3.31 year and the average number of participation in international games was 10.0±3.31. As stretching protocol: Method 1 (5 minutes of jogging and 2 minutes of active rest followed by Method 2 (static stretching for 4 different muscle groups 3 repetitions for 15 seconds of static stretching, rest for 10 seconds between groups and then consecutively, Method 3 (Dynamic stretching exercises with 3 repetitions for 15 seconds and 10 seconds rest between different muscle groups were applied in the study. The vertical jump performance before and after different stretching exercises of the participants was determined by means of the vertical jump test using the smart speed lite system. Before and after the training of all athletes, HR was recorded with a heart rate monitor (RS 800, Polar Vantage NV, Polar Electro Oy, Finland with 5 seconds intervals. Before the study, the chest band of the heartbeat monitor was placed on the chest of the athlete and the HR was recorded from the monitor. SPSS 15.0 statistical package program was used for evaluation and calculation of the data. In this study in addition to descriptive statistics (mean and standard deviation paired samples t-test was used to determine the difference between the vertical jump performance of the participants before and after different stretching exercises. As a result, this study showed that; applying the dynamic and static stretching exercises consecutively affected the vertical jump performance 4.5 cm positively (p<.05. It is suggested that different dynamic and static stretching exercises should be included in the vertical jump.

  10. Modelling study on the three-dimensional neutron depolarisation response of the evolving ferrite particle size distribution during the austenite-ferrite phase transformation in steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, H.; van der Zwaag, S.; van Dijk, N. H.

    2018-07-01

    The magnetic configuration of a ferromagnetic system with mono-disperse and poly-disperse distribution of magnetic particles with inter-particle interactions has been computed. The analysis is general in nature and applies to all systems containing magnetically interacting particles in a non-magnetic matrix, but has been applied to steel microstructures, consisting of a paramagnetic austenite phase and a ferromagnetic ferrite phase, as formed during the austenite-to-ferrite phase transformation in low-alloyed steels. The characteristics of the computational microstructures are linked to the correlation function and determinant of depolarisation matrix, which can be experimentally obtained in three-dimensional neutron depolarisation (3DND). By tuning the parameters in the model used to generate the microstructure, we studied the effect of the (magnetic) particle size distribution on the 3DND parameters. It is found that the magnetic particle size derived from 3DND data matches the microstructural grain size over a wide range of volume fractions and grain size distributions. A relationship between the correlation function and the relative width of the particle size distribution was proposed to accurately account for the width of the size distribution. This evaluation shows that 3DND experiments can provide unique in situ information on the austenite-to-ferrite phase transformation in steels.

  11. Stretch-sensitive paresis and effort perception in hemiparesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinti, Maria; Bayle, Nicolas; Hutin, Emilie; Burke, David; Gracies, Jean-Michel

    2015-08-01

    In spastic paresis, stretch applied to the antagonist increases its inappropriate recruitment during agonist command (spastic co-contraction). It is unknown whether antagonist stretch: (1) also affects agonist recruitment; (2) alters effort perception. We quantified voluntary activation of ankle dorsiflexors, effort perception, and plantar flexor co-contraction during graded dorsiflexion efforts at two gastrocnemius lengths. Eighteen healthy (age 41 ± 13) and 18 hemiparetic (age 54 ± 12) subjects performed light, medium and maximal isometric dorsiflexion efforts with the knee flexed or extended. We determined dorsiflexor torque, Root Mean Square EMG and Agonist Recruitment/Co-contraction Indices (ARI/CCI) from the 500 ms peak voluntary agonist recruitment in a 5-s maximal isometric effort in tibialis anterior, soleus and medial gastrocnemius. Subjects retrospectively reported effort perception on a 10-point visual analog scale. During gastrocnemius stretch in hemiparetic subjects, we observed: (1) a 25 ± 7 % reduction of tibialis anterior voluntary activation (maximum reduction 98 %; knee extended vs knee flexed; p = 0.007, ANOVA); (2) an increase in dorsiflexion effort perception (p = 0.03, ANCOVA). Such changes did not occur in healthy subjects. Effort perception depended on tibialis anterior recruitment only (βARI(TA) = 0.61, p hemiparesis, voluntary ability to recruit agonist motoneurones is impaired--sometimes abolished--by antagonist stretch, a phenomenon defined here as stretch-sensitive paresis. In addition, spastic co-contraction increases effort perception, an additional incentive to evaluate and treat this phenomenon.

  12. Stretch activates myosin light chain kinase in arterial smooth muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barany, K.; Rokolya, A.; Barany, M.

    1990-01-01

    Stretching of porcine carotid arterial muscle increased the phosphorylation of the 20 kDa myosin light chain from 0.23 to 0.68 mol [32P]phosphate/mol light chain, whereas stretching of phorbol dibutyrate treated muscle increased the phosphorylation from 0.30 to 0.91 mol/mol. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by two-dimensional tryptic phosphopeptide mapping was used to identify the enzyme involved in the stretch-induced phosphorylation. Quantitation of the [32P]phosphate content of the peptides revealed considerable light chain phosphorylation by protein kinase C only in the phorbol dibutyrate treated arterial muscle, whereas most of the light chain phosphorylation was attributable to myosin light chain kinase. Upon stretch of either the untreated or treated muscle, the total increment in [32P]phosphate incorporation into the light chain could be accounted for by peptides characteristic for myosin light chain kinase catalyzed phosphorylation, demonstrating that the stretch-induced phosphorylation is caused by this enzyme exclusively

  13. Radioactive pollution of the Chernobyl cooling pond bottom sediments. II. Distribution of 137Cs, 241Am, 90Sr in a solid phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Pirnach

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The second part of complex research of the Chernobyl cooling pond bottom sediments are presented Data about vertical distribution of radioactive pollution 137Cs, 241Am, 90Sr in a solid phase of sediments are received. Distribution coefficients 137Cs and 90Sr, selectivity coefficients of their exchange with similar cations and physical-chemical forms are defined. Results of research of radionuclide chemical recovery from the sediment samples are analyzed.

  14. Effect of two-step aging on spatial distribution of γ-phase particles and mechanical properties of Ni-14at.% Al single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyapkin, Yu.D.; Travina, N.T.; Ugarova, E.V.

    1977-01-01

    Electron microscope images were processed by statistical methods to investigate the space distribution of particles of the γ'-phase (formation of ''quasiperiodic micro-lattices'') after various conditions of single- and double-stage aging of the Ni-14 at.% Al alloy. Mechanical properties in uniaxial tension of single crystals were studied. Parameters of the space distribution of particles have been correlated with the mechanical properties

  15. Pollution level and distribution of PCDD/PCDF congeners between vapor phase and particulate phase in winter air of Dalian, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Qin, Songtao; Song, Yu; Xu, Qian; Ni, Yuwen; Chen, Jiping; Zhang, Xueping; Mu, Jim; Zhu, Xiuhua

    2011-06-01

    In December 2009, ambient air was sampled with active high-volume air samplers at two sites: on the roof of the No. l building of Dalian Jiaotong University and on the roof of the building of Dalian Meteorological Observatory. The concentrations and the congeners between vapor phase and particulate phase of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in the air were measured. Sample analysis results showed that the concentrations of PCDD/Fs in particulate phase was higher than that in gaseous phase. The ratio of PCDD to PCDF in gaseous phase and particulate phase was lower than 0.4 in all samples. The total I-TEQ value in gaseous phase and particulate phase was 5.5 and 453.8 fg/m(3) at Dalian Jiaotong University, 16.6 and 462.1 fg/m(3) at Dalian Meteorological Observatory, respectively. The I-TEQ value of Dalian atmosphere was 5.5-462.1 fg/m(3) which was lower than international standard, the atmospheric quality in Dalian is better. Copyright © 2011 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The Solid Phase Distribution and Bioaccessibility of Arsenic, Chromium, and Nickel in Natural Ironstone Soils in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Wragg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty soil samples (12 residential gardens and 18 allotments were collected from the Cherwell District of north Oxfordshire in south-central England. The underlying parent geology of the area is dominated by Jurassic ironstone. The samples were analysed for their total contents of As, Cr, and Ni by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and for the bioaccessible fractions of these elements using a physiologically based extraction test. Four soils (two residential soils and two allotment soils were chosen for further determination of their element solid phase distribution. The study showed that whilst total concentrations of As, Cr, and Ni are elevated due to the soil parent material, the bioaccessibility test showed that only a small proportion of the total concentration is available for absorption into the human body (<15%. The sequential extraction test showed that the nonmobile forms of the elements are strongly sorbed on to iron oxides. Parent material geology has a significant effect on the total element concentrations and the bioaccessibility of potentially harmful element (PHE. Land use does not show such a large effect but the allotment bioaccessibility data show a bigger spread and possibly higher values for As and Cr which may be due to agronomic (cultivation practices such as addition of fertilisers and organic matter.

  17. Reactivity of main components and substituent distribution in esterified sugarcane bagasse prepared by effective solid phase reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Tao; Zhang, Yanjuan; Chen, Yane; Hu, Huayu; Yang, Mei; Huang, Zuqiang; Chen, Dong; Huang, Aimin

    2018-02-01

    Three main components of lignocellulose (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin isolated from sugarcane bagasse (SCB)) as well as holocellulose and SCB were modified with maleic acid by mechanical activation (MA)-assisted solid phase reaction (MASPR) technology. The order of reactivity was found to be lignin>hemicellulose>cellulose. The amorphous structure of lignin and hemicellulose mainly attributed to their better reactivity, and the modified lignin could reach a maximum degree of esterification (DE) of 93.45%. MA improved the accessibility and reactivity of cellulose, as the DE of modified cellulose gradually increased with milling time and reached the maximum value of 57.30% at 120min, which had significant effect on structure changes and DE of modified holocellulose and SCB. MA enhanced the esterification of all three components in lignocellulose with relatively high substituent distribution in them, and maleated SCB with a maximum DE of 64.17% was successfully prepared by this simple, green, and effective MASPR technology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Pollution level, phase distribution and health risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in indoor air at public places of Hangzhou, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Hao; Zhu Lizhong; Chen Shuguang

    2008-01-01

    PAHs pollution survey in air of public places was conducted in Hangzhou, China. The most serious PAHs pollution was observed in indoor air of shopping centers and the slightest was in train stations. The molecular weight of chrysene (MW 228) appeared to be the dividing line for the PAHs with a larger or smaller distribution in the vapor or particulate phase. Concentrations of 15 PAHs on PM 2.5 accounted for 71.3% of total particulate PAHs, and followed by PM 2.5-10 fraction (17.6%) and >PM 10 fraction (11.1%). In shopping centers and supermarkets, emission of 2-4 rings PAHs occurred from indoor sources, whereas 5-6 rings PAHs predominantly originated from transport of outdoor air. In temples, PAHs in indoor air mainly originated from incense burning. Health risks associated with the inhalation of PAHs were assessed, and naphthalene made the greatest contribution (62.4%) to the total health risks. - Concentrations of PAHs in the air of selected public places in Hangzhou correspond to 10 -3 life-time lung cancer risk

  19. A general method for propagation of the phase space distribution, with application to the saw-tooth instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warnock, R.L.

    2000-01-01

    The authors propose and illustrate a general numerical method to follow the probability distribution in phase space as a function of time. It applies to any multiparticle system governed by Liouville, Vlasov or Vlasov-Fokker-Planck dynamics. The technique, based on discretization of the local Perron-Frobenius operator, is simple in concept, easy to implement, and numerically stable in examples studied to date. The authors illustrate by treating longitudinal dynamics in electron storage rings with realistic wake field. Applied to the SLC damping rings, the method gives the observed current threshold for bunch lengthening, and several aspects of observed behavior above threshold, including the presence of a bursting or sawtooth mode. In contrast to previous particle-in-cell simulations, the authors have very low numerical noise and the ability to follow the motion over several damping times. The method has also been applied to the coherent beam-beam interaction. It appears likely that this approach will be of interest for some of the central problems of this workshop, for instance matching of space-charge dominated beams to a focusing channel, and coherent synchrotron radiation with self-consistent charge/current density

  20. Simultaneous reconstruction of 3D refractive index, temperature, and intensity distribution of combustion flame by double computed tomography technologies based on spatial phase-shifting method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhenyan; Song, Yang; Yuan, Qun; Wulan, Tuya; Chen, Lei

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, a transient multi-parameter three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction method is proposed to diagnose and visualize a combustion flow field. Emission and transmission tomography based on spatial phase-shifted technology are combined to reconstruct, simultaneously, the various physical parameter distributions of a propane flame. Two cameras triggered by the internal trigger mode capture the projection information of the emission and moiré tomography, respectively. A two-step spatial phase-shifting method is applied to extract the phase distribution in the moiré fringes. By using the filtered back-projection algorithm, we reconstruct the 3D refractive-index distribution of the combustion flow field. Finally, the 3D temperature distribution of the flame is obtained from the refractive index distribution using the Gladstone-Dale equation. Meanwhile, the 3D intensity distribution is reconstructed based on the radiation projections from the emission tomography. Therefore, the structure and edge information of the propane flame are well visualized.