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Sample records for stretched exponential model

  1. Stretched-exponential decay functions from a self-consistent model of dielectric relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milovanov, A.V.; Rasmussen, J.J.; Rypdal, K.

    2008-01-01

    There are many materials whose dielectric properties are described by a stretched exponential, the so-called Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts (KWW) relaxation function. Its physical origin and statistical-mechanical foundation have been a matter of debate in the literature. In this Letter we suggest a model of dielectric relaxation, which naturally leads to a stretched exponential decay function. Some essential characteristics of the underlying charge conduction mechanisms are considered. A kinetic description of the relaxation and charge transport processes is proposed in terms of equations with time-fractional derivatives

  2. Contribution of mono-exponential, bi-exponential and stretched exponential model-based diffusion-weighted MR imaging in the diagnosis and differentiation of uterine cervical carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Meng; Yu, Xiaoduo; Chen, Yan; Ouyang, Han; Zhou, Chunwu [Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Cancer Institute and Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Wu, Bing; Zheng, Dandan [GE MR Research China, Beijing (China)

    2017-06-15

    To investigate the potential of various metrics derived from mono-exponential model (MEM), bi-exponential model (BEM) and stretched exponential model (SEM)-based diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in diagnosing and differentiating the pathological subtypes and grades of uterine cervical carcinoma. 71 newly diagnosed patients with cervical carcinoma (50 cases of squamous cell carcinoma [SCC] and 21 cases of adenocarcinoma [AC]) and 32 healthy volunteers received DWI with multiple b values. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), pure molecular diffusion (D), pseudo-diffusion coefficient (D*), perfusion fraction (f), water molecular diffusion heterogeneity index (alpha), and distributed diffusion coefficient (DDC) were calculated and compared between tumour and normal cervix, among different pathological subtypes and grades. All of the parameters were significantly lower in cervical carcinoma than normal cervical stroma except alpha. SCC showed lower ADC, D, f and DDC values and higher D* value than AC; D and DDC values of SCC and ADC and D values of AC were lower in the poorly differentiated group than those in the well-moderately differentiated group. Compared with MEM, diffusion parameters from BEM and SEM may offer additional information in cervical carcinoma diagnosis, predicting pathological tumour subtypes and grades, while f and D showed promising significance. (orig.)

  3. Intravoxel water diffusion heterogeneity MR imaging of nasopharyngeal carcinoma using stretched exponential diffusion model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Vincent; Khong, Pek Lan [University of Hong Kong, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, Queen Mary Hospital, Pok Fu Lam (China); Lee, Victor Ho Fun; Lam, Ka On; Sze, Henry Chun Kin [University of Hong Kong, Department of Clinical Oncology, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, Queen Mary Hospital, Pok Fu Lam (China); Chan, Queenie [Philips Healthcare, Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories (China)

    2015-06-01

    To determine the utility of stretched exponential diffusion model in characterisation of the water diffusion heterogeneity in different tumour stages of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Fifty patients with newly diagnosed NPC were prospectively recruited. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging was performed using five b values (0-2,500 s/mm{sup 2}). Respective stretched exponential parameters (DDC, distributed diffusion coefficient; and alpha (α), water heterogeneity) were calculated. Patients were stratified into low and high tumour stage groups based on the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging for determination of the predictive powers of DDC and α using t test and ROC curve analyses. The mean ± standard deviation values were DDC = 0.692 ± 0.199 (x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s) for low stage group vs 0.794 ± 0.253 (x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s) for high stage group; α = 0.792 ± 0.145 for low stage group vs 0.698 ± 0.155 for high stage group. α was significantly lower in the high stage group while DDC was negatively correlated. DDC and α were both reliable independent predictors (p < 0.001), with α being more powerful. Optimal cut-off values were (sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio) DDC = 0.692 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s (94.4 %, 64.3 %, 2.64, 0.09), α = 0.720 (72.2 %, 100 %, -, 0.28). The heterogeneity index α is robust and can potentially help in staging and grading prediction in NPC. (orig.)

  4. Stretched exponential relaxation and ac universality in disordered dielectrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milovanov, Alexander V.; Rypdal, Kristoffer; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    2007-01-01

    are stretched exponential character of dielectric relaxation, power-law power spectral density, and anomalous dependence of ac conduction coefficient on frequency. We propose a self-consistent model of dielectric relaxation in which the relaxations are described by a stretched exponential decay function...

  5. Realistic searches on stretched exponential networks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vol. 71, No. 2. — journal of. August 2008 physics pp. 313–317. Realistic searches on stretched exponential networks. PARONGAMA SEN. Department of Physics, University of Calcutta, 92 Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road,. Kolkata 700 009, India .... [4] S Milgram, Psychology Today 1, 60 (1967). J Travers and S Milgram, ...

  6. Wealth distribution, Pareto law, and stretched exponential decay of money: Computer simulations analysis of agent-based models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydiner, Ekrem; Cherstvy, Andrey G.; Metzler, Ralf

    2018-01-01

    We study by Monte Carlo simulations a kinetic exchange trading model for both fixed and distributed saving propensities of the agents and rationalize the person and wealth distributions. We show that the newly introduced wealth distribution - that may be more amenable in certain situations - features a different power-law exponent, particularly for distributed saving propensities of the agents. For open agent-based systems, we analyze the person and wealth distributions and find that the presence of trap agents alters their amplitude, leaving however the scaling exponents nearly unaffected. For an open system, we show that the total wealth - for different trap agent densities and saving propensities of the agents - decreases in time according to the classical Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts stretched exponential law. Interestingly, this decay does not depend on the trap agent density, but rather on saving propensities. The system relaxation for fixed and distributed saving schemes are found to be different.

  7. Stretched versus compressed exponential kinetics in α-helix folding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamm, Peter; Helbing, Jan; Bredenbeck, Jens

    2006-01-01

    In a recent paper (J. Bredenbeck, J. Helbing, J.R. Kumita, G.A. Woolley, P. Hamm, α-helix formation in a photoswitchable peptide tracked from picoseconds to microseconds by time resolved IR spectroscopy, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci USA 102 (2005) 2379), we have investigated the folding of a photo-switchable α-helix with a kinetics that could be fit by a stretched exponential function exp(-(t/τ) β ). The stretching factor β became smaller as the temperature was lowered, a result which has been interpreted in terms of activated diffusion on a rugged energy surface. In the present paper, we discuss under which conditions diffusion problems occur with stretched exponential kinetics (β 1). We show that diffusion problems do have a strong tendency to yield stretched exponential kinetics, yet, that there are conditions (strong perturbation from equilibrium, performing the experiment in the folding direction) under which compressed exponential kinetics would be expected instead. We discuss the kinetics on free energy surfaces predicted by simple initiation-propagation models (zipper models) of α-helix folding, as well as by folding funnel models. We show that our recent experiment has been performed under condition for which models with strong downhill driving force, such as the zipper model, would predict compressed, rather than stretched exponential kinetics, in disagreement with the experimental observation. We therefore propose that the free energy surface along a reaction coordinate that governs the folding kinetics must be relatively flat and has a shape similar to a 1D golf course. We discuss how this conclusion can be unified with the thermodynamically well established zipper model by introducing an additional kinetic reaction coordinate

  8. Modified stretched exponential model of computer system resources management limitations-The case of cache memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strzałka, Dominik; Dymora, Paweł; Mazurek, Mirosław

    2018-02-01

    In this paper we present some preliminary results in the field of computer systems management with relation to Tsallis thermostatistics and the ubiquitous problem of hardware limited resources. In the case of systems with non-deterministic behaviour, management of their resources is a key point that guarantees theirs acceptable performance and proper working. This is very wide problem that stands for many challenges in financial, transport, water and food, health, etc. areas. We focus on computer systems with attention paid to cache memory and propose to use an analytical model that is able to connect non-extensive entropy formalism, long-range dependencies, management of system resources and queuing theory. Obtained analytical results are related to the practical experiment showing interesting and valuable results.

  9. Flow of 3D Eyring-Powell fluid by utilizing Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model and chemical processes over an exponentially stretching surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, Tanzila; Nadeem, S.

    2018-03-01

    This paper examines the three dimensional Eyring-Powell fluid flow over an exponentially stretching surface with heterogeneous-homogeneous chemical reactions. A new model of heat flux suggested by Cattaneo and Christov is employed to study the properties of relaxation time. From the present analysis we observe that there is an inverse relationship between temperature and thermal relaxation time. The temperature in Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model is lesser than the classical Fourier's model. In this paper the three dimensional Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model over an exponentially stretching surface is calculated first time in the literature. For negative values of temperature exponent, temperature profile firstly intensifies to its most extreme esteem and after that gradually declines to zero, which shows the occurrence of phenomenon (SGH) "Sparrow-Gregg hill". Also, for higher values of strength of reaction parameters, the concentration profile decreases.

  10. Stretched exponential relaxation processes in hydrogenated amorphous and polymorphous silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morigaki, Kazuo [Department of Electrical and Digital-System Engineering, Hiroshima Institute of Technology, Miyake, Saeki-ku, Hiroshima 731-5193 (Japan); Hikita, Harumi [Physics Laboratory, Meikai University, Urayasu, Chiba 279-8550 (Japan)

    2011-09-15

    Stretched exponential relaxation has been observed in various phenomena of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) and hydrogenated polymorphous silicon (pm-Si:H). As an example, we take light-induced defect creation in a-Si:H and pm-Si:H, in which defect-creation process and defect-annihilation process via hydrogen movement play important roles. We have performed the Monte Carlo simulation for hydrogen movement. Hydrogen movement exhibits anomalous diffusion. In our model of light-induced defect creation in a-Si:H, a pair of two types of dangling bonds, i.e., a normal dangling bond and a hydrogen-related dangling bond, that is a dangling bond having hydrogen in the nearby site, are created under illumination, and hydrogen dissociated from the hydrogen-related dangling bond terminates a normal dangling bond via hydrogen movement. The amorphous network reflects on the dispersive parameter of the stretched exponential function in the light-induced defect creation. We discuss this issue, taking into account the difference in the amorphous network between a-Si:H and pm-Si:H (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  11. Two-stage unified stretched-exponential model for time-dependence of threshold voltage shift under positive-bias-stresses in amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide thin-film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Chan-Yong; Kim, Hee-Joong; Hong, Sae-Young; Song, Sang-Hun; Kwon, Hyuck-In

    2017-08-01

    In this study, we show that the two-stage unified stretched-exponential model can more exactly describe the time-dependence of threshold voltage shift (ΔV TH) under long-term positive-bias-stresses compared to the traditional stretched-exponential model in amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs). ΔV TH is mainly dominated by electron trapping at short stress times, and the contribution of trap state generation becomes significant with an increase in the stress time. The two-stage unified stretched-exponential model can provide useful information not only for evaluating the long-term electrical stability and lifetime of the a-IGZO TFT but also for understanding the stress-induced degradation mechanism in a-IGZO TFTs.

  12. Stretched exponential relaxation in molecular and electronic glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    Stretched exponential relaxation, exp[-(t/τ) β ], fits many relaxation processes in disordered and quenched electronic and molecular systems, but it is widely believed that this function has no microscopic basis, especially in the case of molecular relaxation. For electronic relaxation the appearance of the stretched exponential is often described in the context of dispersive transport, where β is treated as an adjustable parameter, but in almost all cases it is generally assumed that no microscopic meaning can be assigned to 0 g , a glass transition temperature. We show that for molecular relaxation β(T g ) can be understood, providing that one separates extrinsic and intrinsic effects, and that the intrinsic effects are dominated by two magic numbers, β SR =3/5 for short-range forces, and β K =3/7 for long-range Coulomb forces, as originally observed by Kohlrausch for the decay of residual charge on a Leyden jar. Our mathematical model treats relaxation kinetics using the Lifshitz-Kac-Luttinger diffusion to traps depletion model in a configuration space of effective dimensionality, the latter being determined using axiomatic set theory and Phillips-Thorpe constraint theory. The experiments discussed include ns neutron scattering experiments, particularly those based on neutron spin echoes which measure S(Q, t) directly, and the traditional linear response measurements which span the range from μs to s, as collected and analysed phenomenologically by Angell, Ngai, Boehmer and others. The electronic materials discussed include a-Si:H, granular C 60 , semiconductor nanocrystallites, charge density waves in TaS 3 , spin glasses, and vortex glasses in high-temperature semiconductors. The molecular materials discussed include polymers, network glasses, electrolytes and alcohols, Van der Waals supercooled liquids and glasses, orientational glasses, water, fused salts, and heme proteins. In the intrinsic cases the theory of β(T g ) is often accurate to 2%, which

  13. Flow of viscous fluid along an exponentially stretching curved surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.F. Okechi

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the boundary layer analysis of flow induced by rapidly stretching curved surface with exponential velocity. The governing boundary value problem is reduced into self-similar form using a new similarity transformation. The resulting equations are solved numerically using shooting and Runge-Kutta methods. The numerical results depicts that the fluid velocity as well as the skin friction coefficient increases with the surface curvature, similar trend is also observed for the pressure. The dimensionless wall shear stress defined for this problem is greater than that of a linearly stretching curved surface, but becomes comparably less for a surface stretching with a power-law velocity. In addition, the result for the plane surface is a special case of this study when the radius of curvature of the surface is sufficiently large. The numerical investigations presented in terms of the graphs are interpreted with the help of underlying physics of the fluid flow and the consequences arising from the curved geometry. Keywords: Boundary layer flow, Curved surface, Exponential stretching, Curvature

  14. Boundary layer flow of nanofluid over an exponentially stretching surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Sohail; Lee, Changhoon

    2012-01-01

    The steady boundary layer flow of nanofluid over an exponential stretching surface is investigated analytically. The transport equations include the effects of Brownian motion parameter and thermophoresis parameter. The highly nonlinear coupled partial differential equations are simplified with the help of suitable similarity transformations. The reduced equations are then solved analytically with the help of homotopy analysis method (HAM). The convergence of HAM solutions are obtained by plotting h-curve. The expressions for velocity, temperature and nanoparticle volume fraction are computed for some values of the parameters namely, suction injection parameter α, Lewis number Le, the Brownian motion parameter Nb and thermophoresis parameter Nt.

  15. Boundary layer flow of nanofluid over an exponentially stretching surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Sohail; Lee, Changhoon

    2012-01-30

    The steady boundary layer flow of nanofluid over an exponential stretching surface is investigated analytically. The transport equations include the effects of Brownian motion parameter and thermophoresis parameter. The highly nonlinear coupled partial differential equations are simplified with the help of suitable similarity transformations. The reduced equations are then solved analytically with the help of homotopy analysis method (HAM). The convergence of HAM solutions are obtained by plotting h-curve. The expressions for velocity, temperature and nanoparticle volume fraction are computed for some values of the parameters namely, suction injection parameter α, Lewis number Le, the Brownian motion parameter Nb and thermophoresis parameter Nt.

  16. Time-resolved infrared stimulated luminescence signals in feldspars: Analysis based on exponential and stretched exponential functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagonis, V.; Morthekai, P.; Singhvi, A.K.; Thomas, J.; Balaram, V.; Kitis, G.; Chen, R.

    2012-01-01

    Time-resolved infrared-stimulated luminescence (TR-IRSL) signals from feldspar samples have been the subject of several recent experimental studies. These signals are of importance in the field of luminescence dating, since they exhibit smaller fading effects than the commonly employed continuous-wave infrared signals (CW-IRSL). This paper presents a semi-empirical analysis of TR-IRSL data from feldspar samples, by using a linear combination of exponential and stretched exponential (SE) functions. The best possible estimates of the five parameters in this semi-empirical approach are obtained using five popular commercially available software packages, and by employing a variety of global optimization techniques. The results from all types of software and from the different fitting algorithms were found to be in close agreement with each other, indicating that a global optimum solution has likely been reached during the fitting process. Four complete sets of TR-IRSL data on well-characterized natural feldspars were fitted by using such a linear combination of exponential and SE functions. The dependence of the extracted fitting parameters on the stimulation temperature is discussed within the context of a recently proposed model of luminescence processes in feldspar. Three of the four feldspar samples studied in this paper are K-rich, and these exhibited different behavior at higher stimulation temperatures, than the fourth sample which was a Na-rich feldspar. The new method of analysis proposed in this paper can help isolate mathematically the more thermally stable components, and hence could lead to better dating applications in these materials. - Highlights: ► TR-IRSL from four feldspars were analyzed using exponential and stretched exponential functions. ► A variety of global optimization techniques give good agreement. ► Na-rich sample behavior is different from the three K-rich samples. ► Experimental data are fitted for stimulation temperatures

  17. Numerical study of MHD nanofluid flow and heat transfer past a bidirectional exponentially stretching sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Rida [School of Natural Sciences (SNS), National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Mustafa, M., E-mail: meraj_mm@hotmail.com [School of Natural Sciences (SNS), National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Hayat, T. [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-I-Azam University 45320, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80257, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Alsaedi, A. [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80257, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-06-01

    Recent advancements in nanotechnology have led to the discovery of new generation coolants known as nanofluids. Nanofluids possess novel and unique characteristics which are fruitful in numerous cooling applications. Current work is undertaken to address the heat transfer in MHD three-dimensional flow of magnetic nanofluid (ferrofluid) over a bidirectional exponentially stretching sheet. The base fluid is considered as water which consists of magnetite–Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles. Exponentially varying surface temperature distribution is accounted. Problem formulation is presented through the Maxwell models for effective electrical conductivity and effective thermal conductivity of nanofluid. Similarity transformations give rise to a coupled non-linear differential system which is solved numerically. Appreciable growth in the convective heat transfer coefficient is observed when nanoparticle volume fraction is augmented. Temperature exponent parameter serves to enhance the heat transfer from the surface. Moreover the skin friction coefficient is directly proportional to both magnetic field strength and nanoparticle volume fraction. - Highlights: • Nanofluid flow due to exponentially stretching sheet. • Exponentially varying surface temperature distribution is accounted. • Sparrow–Gregg type Hills (SGH) for temperature distribution exist. • Numerical values of local Nusselt number are presented. • Cooling performance of ferrofluid is superior to pure water.

  18. Numerical study of MHD nanofluid flow and heat transfer past a bidirectional exponentially stretching sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Rida; Mustafa, M.; Hayat, T.; Alsaedi, A.

    2016-01-01

    Recent advancements in nanotechnology have led to the discovery of new generation coolants known as nanofluids. Nanofluids possess novel and unique characteristics which are fruitful in numerous cooling applications. Current work is undertaken to address the heat transfer in MHD three-dimensional flow of magnetic nanofluid (ferrofluid) over a bidirectional exponentially stretching sheet. The base fluid is considered as water which consists of magnetite–Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles. Exponentially varying surface temperature distribution is accounted. Problem formulation is presented through the Maxwell models for effective electrical conductivity and effective thermal conductivity of nanofluid. Similarity transformations give rise to a coupled non-linear differential system which is solved numerically. Appreciable growth in the convective heat transfer coefficient is observed when nanoparticle volume fraction is augmented. Temperature exponent parameter serves to enhance the heat transfer from the surface. Moreover the skin friction coefficient is directly proportional to both magnetic field strength and nanoparticle volume fraction. - Highlights: • Nanofluid flow due to exponentially stretching sheet. • Exponentially varying surface temperature distribution is accounted. • Sparrow–Gregg type Hills (SGH) for temperature distribution exist. • Numerical values of local Nusselt number are presented. • Cooling performance of ferrofluid is superior to pure water.

  19. Graphical analysis for gel morphology II. New mathematical approach for stretched exponential function with β>1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Chihiro; Panizza, Pascal; Rouch, Jacques; Ushiki, Hideharu

    2005-01-01

    A new analytical concept is applied to the kinetics of the shrinking process of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPA) gels. When PNIPA gels are put into hot water above the critical temperature, two-step shrinking is observed and the secondary shrinking of gels is fitted well by a stretched exponential function. The exponent β characterizing the stretched exponential is always higher than one, although there are few analytical concepts for the stretched exponential function with β>1. As a new interpretation for this function, we propose a superposition of step (Heaviside) function and a new distribution function of characteristic time is deduced

  20. The dynamics of photoinduced defect creation in amorphous chalcogenides: The origin of the stretched exponential function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, R. J. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, National University of Timor Lorosa' e, Av. Cidade de Lisboa, Dili, East Timor (Portugal); Shimakawa, K. [Department of General and Inorganic Chemistry, University of Pardubice, Pardubice 53002 (Czech Republic); Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Gifu University, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan); Wagner, T. [Department of General and Inorganic Chemistry, University of Pardubice, Pardubice 53002 (Czech Republic)

    2014-01-07

    The article discusses the dynamics of photoinduced defect creations (PDC) in amorphous chalcogenides, which is described by the stretched exponential function (SEF), while the well known photodarkening (PD) and photoinduced volume expansion (PVE) are governed only by the exponential function. It is shown that the exponential distribution of the thermal activation barrier produces the SEF in PDC, suggesting that thermal energy, as well as photon energy, is incorporated in PDC mechanisms. The differences in dynamics among three major photoinduced effects (PD, PVE, and PDC) in amorphous chalcogenides are now well understood.

  1. Stretched exponential dynamics of coupled logistic maps on a small-world network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Ashwini V.; Gade, Prashant M.

    2018-02-01

    We investigate the dynamic phase transition from partially or fully arrested state to spatiotemporal chaos in coupled logistic maps on a small-world network. Persistence of local variables in a coarse grained sense acts as an excellent order parameter to study this transition. We investigate the phase diagram by varying coupling strength and small-world rewiring probability p of nonlocal connections. The persistent region is a compact region bounded by two critical lines where band-merging crisis occurs. On one critical line, the persistent sites shows a nonexponential (stretched exponential) decay for all p while for another one, it shows crossover from nonexponential to exponential behavior as p → 1 . With an effectively antiferromagnetic coupling, coupling to two neighbors on either side leads to exchange frustration. Apart from exchange frustration, non-bipartite topology and nonlocal couplings in a small-world network could be a reason for anomalous relaxation. The distribution of trap times in asymptotic regime has a long tail as well. The dependence of temporal evolution of persistence on initial conditions is studied and a scaling form for persistence after waiting time is proposed. We present a simple possible model for this behavior.

  2. Magnetohydrodynamic flow of a Casson fluid over an exponentially inclined permeable stretching surface with thermal radiation and chemical reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bala Anki Reddy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the theoretical study of the steady two-dimensional MHD convective boundary layer flow of a Casson fluid over an exponentially inclined permeable stretching surface in the presence of thermal radiation and chemical reaction. The stretching velocity, wall temperature and wall concentration are assumed to vary according to specific exponential form. Velocity slip, thermal slip, solutal slip, thermal radiation, chemical reaction and suction/blowing are taken into account. The proposed model considers both assisting and opposing buoyant flows. The non-linear partial differential equations of the governing flow are converted into a system of coupled non-linear ordinary differential equations by using the similarity transformations, which are then solved numerically by shooting method with fourth order Runge–Kutta scheme. The numerical solutions for pertinent parameters on the dimensionless velocity, temperature, concentration, skin friction coefficient, the heat transfer coefficient and the Sherwood number are illustrated in tabular form and are discussed graphically.

  3. Numerical study for Darcy-Forchheimer flow of nanofluid due to an exponentially stretching curved surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, Tasawar; Haider, Farwa; Muhammad, Taseer; Alsaedi, Ahmed

    2018-03-01

    Here Darcy-Forchheimer flow of viscous nanofluid with Brownian motion and thermophoresis is addressed. An incompressible viscous liquid saturates the porous space through Darcy-Forchheimer relation. Flow is generated by an exponentially stretching curved surface. System of partial differential equations is converted into ordinary differential system. Nonlinear systems are solved numerically by NDSolve technique. Graphs are plotted for the outcomes of various pertinent variables. Skin friction coefficient and local Nusselt and Sherwood numbers have been physically interpreted. Our results indicate that the local Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are reduced for larger values of local porosity parameter and Forchheimer number.

  4. Reducing scanning electron microscope charging by using exponential contrast stretching technique on post-processing images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, K S; Tan, Y Y; Lai, M A; Tso, C P; Lim, W K

    2010-04-01

    An exponential contrast stretching (ECS) technique is developed to reduce the charging effects on scanning electron microscope images. Compared to some of the conventional histogram equalization methods, such as bi-histogram equalization and recursive mean-separate histogram equalization, the proposed ECS method yields better image compensation. Diode sample chips with insulating and conductive surfaces are used as test samples to evaluate the efficiency of the developed algorithm. The algorithm is implemented in software with a frame grabber card, forming the front-end video capture element.

  5. Flow over Exponentially Stretching Sheet through Porous Medium with Heat Source/Sink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Swain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An attempt has been made to study the heat and mass transfer effect in a boundary layer MHD flow of an electrically conducting viscous fluid subject to transverse magnetic field on an exponentially stretching sheet through porous medium. The effect of thermal radiation and heat source/sink has also been discussed in this paper. The governing nonlinear partial differential equations are transformed into a system of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations and then solved numerically using a fourth-order Runge-Kutta method with a shooting technique. Graphical results are displayed for nondimensional velocity, temperature, and concentration profiles while numerical values of the skin friction local Nusselt number and Sherwood number are presented in tabular form for various values of parameters controlling the flow system.

  6. Heat and mass transfer in magnetohydrodynamic Casson fluid over an exponentially permeable stretching surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.S.K. Raju

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study we analyzed the flow, heat and mass transfer behavior of Casson fluid past an exponentially permeable stretching surface in presence of thermal radiation, magneticfield, viscous dissipation, heat source and chemical reaction. We presented dual solutions by comparing the results of the Casson fluid with the Newtonian fluid. The governing partial nonlinear differential equations of the flow, heat and mass transfer are transformed into ordinary differential equations by using similarity transformation and solved numerically by using Matlab bvp4c package. The effects of various non-dimensional governing parameters on velocity, temperature and concentration profiles are discussed and presented graphically. Also, the friction factor, Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are analyzed and presented in tabular form for both Casson and Newtonian fluids separately. Under some special conditions the results of the present study have an excellent agreement with existing studies for both Casson and Newtonian fluid cases.

  7. Numerical and series solutions for stagnation-point flow of nanofluid over an exponentially stretching sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Meraj; Farooq, Muhammad A; Hayat, Tasawar; Alsaedi, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    This investigation is concerned with the stagnation-point flow of nanofluid past an exponentially stretching sheet. The presence of Brownian motion and thermophoretic effects yields a coupled nonlinear boundary-value problem (BVP). Similarity transformations are invoked to reduce the partial differential equations into ordinary ones. Local similarity solutions are obtained by homotopy analysis method (HAM), which enables us to investigate the effects of parameters at a fixed location above the sheet. The numerical solutions are also derived using the built-in solver bvp4c of the software MATLAB. The results indicate that temperature and the thermal boundary layer thickness appreciably increase when the Brownian motion and thermophoresis effects are strengthened. Moreover the nanoparticles volume fraction is found to increase when the thermophoretic effect intensifies.

  8. Unsteady MHD radiative flow and heat transfer of a dusty nanofluid over an exponentially stretching surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Sandeep

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the unsteady magnetohydrodynamic radiative flow and heat transfer characteristics of a dusty nanofluid over an exponentially permeable stretching surface in presence of volume fraction of dust and nano particles. We considered two types of nanofluids namely Cu-water and CuO-water embedded with conducting dust particles. The governing equations are transformed into nonlinear ordinary differential equations by using similarity transformation and solved numerically using Runge–Kutta based shooting technique. The effects of non-dimensional governing parameters namely magneticfield parameter, mass concentration of dust particles, fluid particle interaction parameter, volume fraction of dust particles, volume fraction of nano particles, unsteadiness parameter, exponential parameter, radiation parameter and suction/injection parameter on velocity profiles for fluid phase, dust phase and temperature profiles are discussed and presented through graphs. Also, friction factor and Nusselt numbers are discussed and presented for two dusty nanofluids separately. Comparisons of the present study were made with existing studies under some special assumptions. The present results have an excellent agreement with existing studies. Results indicated that the enhancement in fluid particle interaction increases the heat transfer rate and depreciates the wall friction. Also, radiation parameter has the tendency to increase the temperature profiles of the dusty nanofluid.

  9. Chemical reaction and radiation effects on MHD flow past an exponentially stretching sheet with heat sink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur Wahida Khalili, Noran; Aziz Samson, Abdul; Aziz, Ahmad Sukri Abdul; Ali, Zaileha Md

    2017-09-01

    In this study, the problem of MHD boundary layer flow past an exponentially stretching sheet with chemical reaction and radiation effects with heat sink is studied. The governing system of PDEs is transformed into a system of ODEs. Then, the system is solved numerically by using Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg fourth fifth order (RKF45) method available in MAPLE 15 software. The numerical results obtained are presented graphically for the velocity, temperature and concentration. The effects of various parameters are studied and analyzed. The numerical values for local Nusselt number, skin friction coefficient and local Sherwood number are tabulated and discussed. The study shows that various parameters give significant effect on the profiles of the fluid flow. It is observed that the reaction rate parameter affected the concentration profiles significantly and the concentration thickness of boundary layer decreases when reaction rate parameter increases. The analysis found is validated by comparing with the results previous work done and it is found to be in good agreement.

  10. Separation of type and grade in cervical tumours using non-mono-exponential models of diffusion-weighted MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winfield, Jessica M.; Collins, David J.; Morgan, Veronica A.; DeSouza, Nandita M.; Orton, Matthew R.; Ind, Thomas E.J.; Attygalle, Ayoma; Hazell, Steve

    2017-01-01

    Assessment of empirical diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) models in cervical tumours to investigate whether fitted parameters distinguish between types and grades of tumours. Forty-two patients (24 squamous cell carcinomas, 14 well/moderately differentiated, 10 poorly differentiated; 15 adenocarcinomas, 13 well/moderately differentiated, two poorly differentiated; three rare types) were imaged at 3 T using nine b-values (0 to 800 s mm -2 ). Mono-exponential, stretched exponential, kurtosis, statistical, and bi-exponential models were fitted. Model preference was assessed using Bayesian Information Criterion analysis. Differences in fitted parameters between tumour types/grades and correlation between fitted parameters were assessed using two-way analysis of variance and Pearson's linear correlation coefficient, respectively. Non-mono-exponential models were preferred by 83 % of tumours with bi-exponential and stretched exponential models preferred by the largest numbers of tumours. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and diffusion coefficients from non-mono-exponential models were significantly lower in poorly differentiated tumours than well/moderately differentiated tumours. α (stretched exponential), K (kurtosis), f and D* (bi-exponential) were significantly different between tumour types. Strong correlation was observed between ADC and diffusion coefficients from other models. Non-mono-exponential models were preferred to the mono-exponential model in DW-MRI data from cervical tumours. Parameters of non-mono-exponential models showed significant differences between types and grades of tumours. (orig.)

  11. Separation of type and grade in cervical tumours using non-mono-exponential models of diffusion-weighted MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winfield, Jessica M.; Collins, David J.; Morgan, Veronica A.; DeSouza, Nandita M. [The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, MRI Unit, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom); The Institute of Cancer Research, Cancer Research UK Cancer Imaging Centre, Division of Radiotherapy and Imaging, London (United Kingdom); Orton, Matthew R. [The Institute of Cancer Research, Cancer Research UK Cancer Imaging Centre, Division of Radiotherapy and Imaging, London (United Kingdom); Ind, Thomas E.J. [The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Gynaecology Unit, London (United Kingdom); Attygalle, Ayoma; Hazell, Steve [The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Histopathology, London (United Kingdom)

    2017-02-15

    Assessment of empirical diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) models in cervical tumours to investigate whether fitted parameters distinguish between types and grades of tumours. Forty-two patients (24 squamous cell carcinomas, 14 well/moderately differentiated, 10 poorly differentiated; 15 adenocarcinomas, 13 well/moderately differentiated, two poorly differentiated; three rare types) were imaged at 3 T using nine b-values (0 to 800 s mm{sup -2}). Mono-exponential, stretched exponential, kurtosis, statistical, and bi-exponential models were fitted. Model preference was assessed using Bayesian Information Criterion analysis. Differences in fitted parameters between tumour types/grades and correlation between fitted parameters were assessed using two-way analysis of variance and Pearson's linear correlation coefficient, respectively. Non-mono-exponential models were preferred by 83 % of tumours with bi-exponential and stretched exponential models preferred by the largest numbers of tumours. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and diffusion coefficients from non-mono-exponential models were significantly lower in poorly differentiated tumours than well/moderately differentiated tumours. α (stretched exponential), K (kurtosis), f and D* (bi-exponential) were significantly different between tumour types. Strong correlation was observed between ADC and diffusion coefficients from other models. Non-mono-exponential models were preferred to the mono-exponential model in DW-MRI data from cervical tumours. Parameters of non-mono-exponential models showed significant differences between types and grades of tumours. (orig.)

  12. Comparing exponential and exponentiated models of drug demand in cocaine users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Justin C; Lile, Joshua A; Rush, Craig R; Stoops, William W

    2016-12-01

    Drug purchase tasks provide rapid and efficient measurement of drug demand. Zero values (i.e., prices with zero consumption) present a quantitative challenge when using exponential demand models that exponentiated models may resolve. We aimed to replicate and advance the utility of using an exponentiated model by demonstrating construct validity (i.e., association with real-world drug use) and generalizability across drug commodities. Participants (N = 40 cocaine-using adults) completed Cocaine, Alcohol, and Cigarette Purchase Tasks evaluating hypothetical consumption across changes in price. Exponentiated and exponential models were fit to these data using different treatments of zero consumption values, including retaining zeros or replacing them with 0.1, 0.01, or 0.001. Excellent model fits were observed with the exponentiated model. Means and precision fluctuated with different replacement values when using the exponential model but were consistent for the exponentiated model. The exponentiated model provided the strongest correlation between derived demand intensity (Q0) and self-reported free consumption in all instances (Cocaine r = .88; Alcohol r = .97; Cigarette r = .91). Cocaine demand elasticity was positively correlated with alcohol and cigarette elasticity. Exponentiated parameters were associated with real-world drug use (e.g., weekly cocaine use) whereas these correlations were less consistent for exponential parameters. Our findings show that selection of zero replacement values affects demand parameters and their association with drug-use outcomes when using the exponential model but not the exponentiated model. This work supports the adoption of the exponentiated demand model by replicating improved fit and consistency and demonstrating construct validity and generalizability. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Numerical analysis of 3D micropolar nanofluid flow induced by an exponentially stretching surface embedded in a porous medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhani, M.; Nadeem, S.

    2017-10-01

    The present article is devoted to probe the behavior of a three-dimensional micropolar nanofluid over an exponentially stretching surface in a porous medium. The mathematical model is constructed in the form of partial differential equations using the boundary layer approach. Then by employing similarity transformations, the modelled partial differential equations are transformed to ordinary differential equations. The solution of subsequent ODEs is derived by utilizing the BVP-4C technique alongside the shooting scheme. The graphical illustrations are presented to interpret the salient features of pertinent physical parameters on the concerned profiles for different kinds of nanoparticles, namely copper, titania and alumina with water as the base fluid. For a better understanding of the fluid flow, the numerical variation in the local skin friction coefficients, Cfx and Cfy , and local Nusselt number is analyzed through tables. We can see, from the present study, that the omission of porous matrix enhances the flow of the fluid. Microrotation has a decreasing impact on the skin friction whereas it increases the rate of the heat transfer of the nanofluid.

  14. Finite difference computing with exponential decay models

    CERN Document Server

    Langtangen, Hans Petter

    2016-01-01

    This text provides a very simple, initial introduction to the complete scientific computing pipeline: models, discretization, algorithms, programming, verification, and visualization. The pedagogical strategy is to use one case study – an ordinary differential equation describing exponential decay processes – to illustrate fundamental concepts in mathematics and computer science. The book is easy to read and only requires a command of one-variable calculus and some very basic knowledge about computer programming. Contrary to similar texts on numerical methods and programming, this text has a much stronger focus on implementation and teaches testing and software engineering in particular. .

  15. Investigation on the Charge Loss Mechanisms of Nanoscale Charge Trap Non-Volatile Memory by Using Stretched Exponential Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Meng Chuan; Wong, Hin Yong

    2016-01-01

    Charge loss mechanisms of nanoscale charge trap non-volatile memory devices are carefully examined and studied. Fowler-Nordheim tunnelling mechanism is used to perform rapid program/erase cycling. Based on the good fit of post cycled and baked threshold voltage data to Stretched Exponential function, the lowest point and the peak of Vt distribution were found to evolve in a similar manner that resulted to similar derived Ea. The saturation behaviour of the threshold voltage decay can be predicted and validated through cells' threshold voltage measurements that fit well to Stretched Exponential function. The power law relationship of program/erase cycle count and the saturation behaviour was found to be similar on the device under study and NROM devices that utilizes significant different charge injection mechanisms for program/erase operation. The experimental results also demonstrated that charge injection mechanism is one of the dominant factors in determining the underlying charge loss mechanism. Moreover, the determination of charge loss mechanism depends on the total charges injected through the tunnel oxide layer of ONO stack in NB-CTNVM cell. Physical interpretation of the experimental findings of the dominant charge loss mechanism is deliberated in detail.

  16. Differentiating metastatic from nonmetastatic lymph nodes in cervical cancer patients using monoexponential, biexponential, and stretched exponential diffusion-weighted MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Qingxia; Wang, Meiyun; Shi, Dapeng [Radiological Department of Henan Provincial People' s Hospital, Zhengzhou, Henan (China); Zheng, Dandan [GE Healthcare, MR Research China, Beijing (China); Shi, Ligang [Pathological Department of Henan Provincial People' s Hospital, Zhengzhou, Henan (China); Liu, Mingbo [Radiotherapeutical Department of Henan Provincial People' s Hospital, Zhengzhou, Henan (China)

    2017-12-15

    To determine the diagnostic value of monoexponential, biexponential and stretched exponential models for identifying lymph nodes (LNs) in patients with cervical cancer. Fifty female patients with cervical cancer underwent preoperative magnetic resonance imaging. The diffusion parameters of the LNs were calculated by fitting the values to monoexponential, biexponential and stretched exponential models and were compared between the metastatic and non-metastatic LN groups. A total of 157 LNs with high signal intensity on multi-b-value DWI were detected, 41 of which were pathologically shown to be metastatic. Metastatic LNs presented with higher pure water diffusion (D) values, lower perfusion fraction (f) values, higher diffusion heterogeneity (α) values, higher short diameter (Size-S), long diameter (Size-L) and short long diameter ratio (S/L Ratio) than non-metastatic LNs (P<0.05). The Size-S of LNs exhibited the highest diagnostic value, with an area under the curve of 0.844. Compared with the size parameters, the diffusion parameters derived from multi-b-value diffusion-weighted imaging cannot reliably discriminate metastatic from non-metastatic LNs in daily clinical routine due to limited sensitivity and specificity. (orig.)

  17. An exponential decay model for mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Matthew S

    2014-10-01

    Mediation analysis is often used to investigate mechanisms of change in prevention research. Results finding mediation are strengthened when longitudinal data are used because of the need for temporal precedence. Current longitudinal mediation models have focused mainly on linear change, but many variables in prevention change nonlinearly across time. The most common solution to nonlinearity is to add a quadratic term to the linear model, but this can lead to the use of the quadratic function to explain all nonlinearity, regardless of theory and the characteristics of the variables in the model. The current study describes the problems that arise when quadratic functions are used to describe all nonlinearity and how the use of nonlinear functions, such as exponential decay, address many of these problems. In addition, nonlinear models provide several advantages over polynomial models including usefulness of parameters, parsimony, and generalizability. The effects of using nonlinear functions for mediation analysis are then discussed and a nonlinear growth curve model for mediation is presented. An empirical example using data from a randomized intervention study is then provided to illustrate the estimation and interpretation of the model. Implications, limitations, and future directions are also discussed.

  18. MHD mixed convective boundary layer flow of a nanofluid through a porous medium due to an exponentially stretching sheet

    KAUST Repository

    Ferdows, M.

    2012-01-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) boundary layer flow of a nanofluid over an exponentially stretching sheet was studied. The governing boundary layer equations are reduced into ordinary differential equations by a similarity transformation. The transformed equations are solved numerically using the Nactsheim-Swigert shooting technique together with Runge-Kutta six-order iteration schemes. The effects of the governing parameters on the flow field and heat transfer characteristics were obtained and discussed. The numerical solutions for the wall skin friction coefficient, the heat and mass transfer coefficient, and the velocity, temperature, and concentration profiles are computed, analyzed, and discussed graphically. Comparison with previously published work is performed and excellent agreement is observed. 2012 M. Ferdows et al.

  19. MHD Mixed Convective Boundary Layer Flow of a Nanofluid through a Porous Medium due to an Exponentially Stretching Sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ferdows

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD boundary layer flow of a nanofluid over an exponentially stretching sheet was studied. The governing boundary layer equations are reduced into ordinary differential equations by a similarity transformation. The transformed equations are solved numerically using the Nactsheim-Swigert shooting technique together with Runge-Kutta six-order iteration schemes. The effects of the governing parameters on the flow field and heat transfer characteristics were obtained and discussed. The numerical solutions for the wall skin friction coefficient, the heat and mass transfer coefficient, and the velocity, temperature, and concentration profiles are computed, analyzed, and discussed graphically. Comparison with previously published work is performed and excellent agreement is observed.

  20. Slip effects on MHD boundary layer flow over an exponentially stretching sheet with suction/blowing and thermal radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Mukhopadhyay

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The boundary layer flow and heat transfer towards a porous exponential stretching sheet in presence of a magnetic field is presented in this analysis. Velocity slip and thermal slip are considered instead of no-slip conditions at the boundary. Thermal radiation term is incorporated in the temperature equation. Similarity transformations are used to convert the partial differential equations corresponding to the momentum and energy equations into non-linear ordinary differential equations. Numerical solutions of these equations are obtained by shooting method. It is found that the horizontal velocity decreases with increasing slip parameter as well as with the increasing magnetic parameter. Temperature increases with the increasing values of magnetic parameter. Temperature is found to decrease with an increase of thermal slip parameter. Thermal radiation enhances the effective thermal diffusivity and the temperature rises.

  1. Stretched cell cycle model for proliferating lymphocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Mark R.; Kan, Andrey; Heinzel, Susanne; Zhou, Jie H. S.; Marchingo, Julia M.; Wellard, Cameron J.; Markham, John F.; Hodgkin, Philip D.

    2014-01-01

    Stochastic variation in cell cycle time is a consistent feature of otherwise similar cells within a growing population. Classic studies concluded that the bulk of the variation occurs in the G1 phase, and many mathematical models assume a constant time for traversing the S/G2/M phases. By direct observation of transgenic fluorescent fusion proteins that report the onset of S phase, we establish that dividing B and T lymphocytes spend a near-fixed proportion of total division time in S/G2/M phases, and this proportion is correlated between sibling cells. This result is inconsistent with models that assume independent times for consecutive phases. Instead, we propose a stretching model for dividing lymphocytes where all parts of the cell cycle are proportional to total division time. Data fitting based on a stretched cell cycle model can significantly improve estimates of cell cycle parameters drawn from DNA labeling data used to monitor immune cell dynamics. PMID:24733943

  2. Stretched-to-compressed-exponential crossover observed in the electrical degradation kinetics of some spinel-metallic screen-printed structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balitska, V.; Shpotyuk, O.; Brunner, M.; Hadzaman, I.

    2018-02-01

    Thermally-induced (170 °C) degradation-relaxation kinetics is examined in screen-printed structures composed of spinel Cu0.1Ni0.1Co1.6Mn1.2O4 ceramics with conductive Ag or Ag-Pd layered electrodes. Structural inhomogeneities due to Ag and Ag-Pd diffusants in spinel phase environment play a decisive role in non-exponential kinetics of negative relative resistance drift. If Ag migration in spinel is inhibited by Pd addition due to Ag-Pd alloy, the kinetics attains stretched exponential behavior with ∼0.58 exponent, typical for one-stage diffusion in structurally-dispersive media. Under deep Ag penetration into spinel ceramics, as for thick films with Ag-layered electrodes, the degradation kinetics drastically changes, attaining features of two-step diffusing process governed by compressed-exponential dependence with power index of ∼1.68. Crossover from stretched- to compressed-exponential kinetics in spinel-metallic structures is mapped on free energy landscape of non-barrier multi-well system under strong perturbation from equilibrium, showing transition with a character downhill scenario resulting in faster than exponential decaying.

  3. Exponentiated exponential model (Gompertz kinetics) of Na+ and K+ conductance changes in squid giant axon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, D M

    1978-04-01

    The conductance changes, gK(t) and gNa(t), of squid giant axon under voltage clamp (Hodgkin and Huxley, 1952) may be modeled by exponentiated exponential functions (Gompertz kinetics) from any holding potential VO to any membrane clamp potential V. The equation constants are set by the membrane potential V, and include, for any voltage step in the case of gK, the initial conductance, gO, the asymptote conductance g, and rate constant k: gK = g exp(-be-kt) where b = 1n g/gO. Equations of similar form relate g and k to the voltage V, and govern the corresponding parameters of the gNa system. For the gNa, the fast phase y = y exp (-be-kt) is cut down in proportion to a slow process p = (1 - p)e-k't + p, and thus gNa = py. The expo-exponential functions involve fewer constants than the Hodgkin-Huxley model. In particular, the role of the n, m, h parameters appears to be filled largely by 1n (g/gO) in the case of gK and by 1n (y/yO) in the case of gNa. Membrane action potentials during current clamp may be computed from the conductances generated by use of the appropriate differential forms of the equations; diverse other membrane behaviors may be predicted.

  4. A double exponential model for biochemical oxygen demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Ian G; McLachlan, Robert I; Gérard, Daniel T

    2006-01-01

    Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) exertion patterns in anaerobically treated farm dairy wastewater were investigated on a laboratory scale. Oxygen uptake was typically characterised by a period of rapid oxygen exertion, a transitional "shoulder" phase and a period of slower activity. A multi-species model, involving rapidly degradable and slowly degradable material, was developed, leading to a double exponential model of BOD exertion as follows:where t is time, BOD(u1)(') and BOD(u2)(') are apparent ultimate BOD (BOD(u)) values, and k(1) and k(2) are rate constants. The model provided an improved description of BOD exertion patterns in anaerobically treated farm dairy wastewater in comparison to a conventional single exponential model, with rapidly degradable rate constant values (k(1)) ranging from 2.74 to 17.36d(-1), whilst slowly degradable rate constant values (k(2)) averaged 0.25d(-1) (range 0.20-0.29). Rapidly and slowly degradable apparent BOD(u) estimates ranged from 20 to 140g/m(3) and 225 to 500g/m(3), respectively, giving total BOD(u) levels of 265-620g/m(3). The mean square error in the curve fitting procedure ranged between 20 and 60g(2)/m(6), with values on average 70% lower (range 31-91%) than those obtained for the single exponential model. When applied to existing data for a range of other wastewaters, the double exponential model demonstrated a superior fit to the conventional single exponential model and provided a marginally better fit than a mixed order model. It is proposed that the presence of rapidly degradable material may be indicated from the value of the first rate constant (k1) and the time to 95% saturation of the first exponential function. Further model development is required to describe observed transitional and lag phases.

  5. Numerical study of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD boundary layer slip flow of a Maxwell nanofluid over an exponentially stretching surface with convective boundary condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.BalaAnki Reddy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on a theoretical analysis of a steady two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic boundary layer flow of a Maxwell fluid over an exponentially stretching surface in the presence of velocity slip and convective boundary condition. This model is used for a nanofluid, which incorporates the effects of Brownian motion and thermophoresis. The resulting non-linear partial differential equations of the governing flow field are converted into a system of coupled non-linear ordinary differential equations by using suitable similarity transformations, and the resultant equations are then solved numerically by using Runge-Kutta fourth order method along with shooting technique. A parametric study is conducted to illustrate the behavior of the velocity, temperature and concentration. The influence of significant parameters on velocity, temperature, concentration, skin friction coefficient and Nusselt number has been studied and numerical results are presented graphically and in tabular form. The reported numerical results are compared with previously published works on various special cases and are found to be an in excellent agreement. It is found that momentum boundary layer thickness decreases with the increase of magnetic parameter. It can also be found that the thermal boundary layer thickness increases with Brownian motion and thermophoresis parameters.

  6. Parameter Estimation and Model Selection for Mixtures of Truncated Exponentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langseth, Helge; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre; Rumí, Rafael

    2010-01-01

    Bayesian networks with mixtures of truncated exponentials (MTEs) support efficient inference algorithms and provide a flexible way of modeling hybrid domains (domains containing both discrete and continuous variables). On the other hand, estimating an MTE from data has turned out to be a difficult...

  7. Exploring parameter constraints on quintessential dark energy: The exponential model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozek, Brandon; Abrahamse, Augusta; Albrecht, Andreas; Barnard, Michael

    2008-01-01

    We present an analysis of a scalar field model of dark energy with an exponential potential using the Dark Energy Task Force (DETF) simulated data models. Using Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling techniques we examine the ability of each simulated data set to constrain the parameter space of the exponential potential for data sets based on a cosmological constant and a specific exponential scalar field model. We compare our results with the constraining power calculated by the DETF using their 'w 0 -w a ' parametrization of the dark energy. We find that respective increases in constraining power from one stage to the next produced by our analysis give results consistent with DETF results. To further investigate the potential impact of future experiments, we also generate simulated data for an exponential model background cosmology which cannot be distinguished from a cosmological constant at DETF 'Stage 2', and show that for this cosmology good DETF Stage 4 data would exclude a cosmological constant by better than 3σ

  8. Multinomial-exponential reliability function: a software reliability model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiz de Bustamante, Amalio; Saiz de Bustamante, Barbara

    2003-01-01

    The multinomial-exponential reliability function (MERF) was developed during a detailed study of the software failure/correction processes. Later on MERF was approximated by a much simpler exponential reliability function (EARF), which keeps most of MERF mathematical properties, so the two functions together makes up a single reliability model. The reliability model MERF/EARF considers the software failure process as a non-homogeneous Poisson process (NHPP), and the repair (correction) process, a multinomial distribution. The model supposes that both processes are statistically independent. The paper discusses the model's theoretical basis, its mathematical properties and its application to software reliability. Nevertheless it is foreseen model applications to inspection and maintenance of physical systems. The paper includes a complete numerical example of the model application to a software reliability analysis

  9. The Use of Modeling Approach for Teaching Exponential Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, L. F.; Prates, D. B.; da Silva, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    This work presents a discussion related to the teaching and learning of mathematical contents related to the study of exponential functions in a freshman students group enrolled in the first semester of the Science and Technology Bachelor’s (STB of the Federal University of Jequitinhonha and Mucuri Valleys (UFVJM). As a contextualization tool strongly mentioned in the literature, the modelling approach was used as an educational teaching tool to produce contextualization in the teaching-learning process of exponential functions to these students. In this sense, were used some simple models elaborated with the GeoGebra software and, to have a qualitative evaluation of the investigation and the results, was used Didactic Engineering as a methodology research. As a consequence of this detailed research, some interesting details about the teaching and learning process were observed, discussed and described.

  10. Tunability response in exponentially graded ferroelectrics: A TIM model approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vivas C, H., E-mail: hvivasc@unal.edu.co [Grupo de Propiedades Opticas de los Materiales, Departamento de Fisica, Bloque Y, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Manizales A.A. 127 (Colombia); Jurado, J.F.; Vargas-Hernandez, C. [Grupo de Propiedades Opticas de los Materiales, Departamento de Fisica, Bloque Y, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Manizales A.A. 127 (Colombia)

    2012-02-01

    Relative dielectric function response associate to a non-homogeneous layered ferroelectric system is calculated in the framework of the Mean Field Approximation (MFA) for the Transverse Ising Model (TIM). Analytical self-consistent expressions for the average polarization, dielectric susceptibility, and tunability percentage are outlined and solved for different configurations and sizes. It is found that exponentially graded ferroelectrics magnify the tunability response for stronger interlayer coupling and it reaches its saturation value for smaller intensities of the applied electric field.

  11. Exponential Decay of Covariances for the Supercritical Membrane Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolthausen, Erwin; Cipriani, Alessandra; Kurt, Noemi

    2017-08-01

    We consider the membrane model, that is the centered Gaussian field on {\\mathbb{Z}^d} whose covariance matrix is given by the inverse of the discrete Bilaplacian. We impose a {δ}-pinning condition, giving a reward of strength {\\varepsilon} for the field to be 0 at any site of the lattice. In this paper we prove that in dimensions {d≥ 5} covariances of the pinned field decay at least exponentially, as opposed to the field without pinning, where the decay is polynomial. The proof is based on estimates for certain discrete weighted norms, a percolation argument and on a Bernoulli domination result.

  12. Exponential random graph models for networks with community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronczak, Piotr; Fronczak, Agata; Bujok, Maksymilian

    2013-09-01

    Although the community structure organization is an important characteristic of real-world networks, most of the traditional network models fail to reproduce the feature. Therefore, the models are useless as benchmark graphs for testing community detection algorithms. They are also inadequate to predict various properties of real networks. With this paper we intend to fill the gap. We develop an exponential random graph approach to networks with community structure. To this end we mainly built upon the idea of blockmodels. We consider both the classical blockmodel and its degree-corrected counterpart and study many of their properties analytically. We show that in the degree-corrected blockmodel, node degrees display an interesting scaling property, which is reminiscent of what is observed in real-world fractal networks. A short description of Monte Carlo simulations of the models is also given in the hope of being useful to others working in the field.

  13. Galilean invariance in the exponential model of atomic collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    del Pozo, A.; Riera, A.; Yaez, M.

    1986-11-01

    Using the X/sup n//sup +/(1s/sup 2/)+He/sup 2+/ colliding systems as specific examples, we study the origin dependence of results in the application of the two-state exponential model, and we show the relevance of polarization effects in that study. Our analysis shows that polarization effects of the He/sup +/(1s) orbital due to interaction with X/sup (//sup n//sup +1)+/ ion in the exit channel yield a very small contribution to the energy difference and render the dynamical coupling so strongly origin dependent that it invalidates the basic premises of the model. Further study, incorporating translation factors in the formalism, is needed.

  14. Tail modeling in a stretched magnetosphere. I - Methods and transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, David P.

    1987-01-01

    A new method is developed for representing the magnetospheric field B as a distorted dipole field. Because Delta-B = 0 must be maintained, such a distortion may be viewed as a transformation of the vector potential A. The simplest form is a one-dimensional 'stretch transformation' along the x axis, concisely represented by the 'stretch function' f(x), which is also a convenient tool for representing features of the substorm cycle. One-dimensional stretch transformations are extended to spherical, cylindrical, and parabolic coordinates and then to arbitrary coordinates. It is shown that distortion transformations can be viewed as mappings of field lines from one pattern to another; the final result only requires knowledge of the field and not of the potentials. General transformations in Cartesian and arbitrary coordinates are derived, and applications to field modeling, field line motion, MHD modeling, and incompressible fluid dynamics are considered.

  15. Thermophysical analysis for three-dimensional MHD stagnation-point flow of nano-material influenced by an exponential stretching surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiaz Ur Rehman

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper a theoretical investigation is performed to analyze heat and mass transport enhancement of water-based nanofluid for three dimensional (3D MHD stagnation-point flow caused by an exponentially stretched surface. Water is considered as a base fluid. There are three (3 types of nanoparticles considered in this study namely, CuO (Copper oxide, Fe3O4 (Magnetite, and Al2O3 (Alumina are considered along with water. In this problem we invoked the boundary layer phenomena and suitable similarity transformation, as a result our three dimensional non-linear equations of describing current problem are transmuted into nonlinear and non-homogeneous differential equations involving ordinary derivatives. We solved the final equations by applying homotopy analysis technique. Influential outcomes of aggressing parameters involved in this study, effecting profiles of temperature field and velocity are explained in detail. Graphical results of involved parameters appearing in considered nanofluid are presented separately. It is worth mentioning that Skin-friction along x and y-direction is maximum for Copper oxide-water nanofluid and minimum for Alumina-water nanofluid. Result for local Nusselt number is maximum for Copper oxide-water nanofluid and is minimum for magnetite-water nanofluid. Keywords: Heat transfer, Nanofluids, Stagnation-point flow, Three-dimensional flow, Nano particles, Boundary layer

  16. Thermophysical analysis for three-dimensional MHD stagnation-point flow of nano-material influenced by an exponential stretching surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ur Rehman, Fiaz; Nadeem, Sohail; Ur Rehman, Hafeez; Ul Haq, Rizwan

    2018-03-01

    In the present paper a theoretical investigation is performed to analyze heat and mass transport enhancement of water-based nanofluid for three dimensional (3D) MHD stagnation-point flow caused by an exponentially stretched surface. Water is considered as a base fluid. There are three (3) types of nanoparticles considered in this study namely, CuO (Copper oxide), Fe3O4 (Magnetite), and Al2O3 (Alumina) are considered along with water. In this problem we invoked the boundary layer phenomena and suitable similarity transformation, as a result our three dimensional non-linear equations of describing current problem are transmuted into nonlinear and non-homogeneous differential equations involving ordinary derivatives. We solved the final equations by applying homotopy analysis technique. Influential outcomes of aggressing parameters involved in this study, effecting profiles of temperature field and velocity are explained in detail. Graphical results of involved parameters appearing in considered nanofluid are presented separately. It is worth mentioning that Skin-friction along x and y-direction is maximum for Copper oxide-water nanofluid and minimum for Alumina-water nanofluid. Result for local Nusselt number is maximum for Copper oxide-water nanofluid and is minimum for magnetite-water nanofluid.

  17. Effects of Heat Source/Sink and Chemical Reaction on MHD Maxwell Nanofluid Flow Over a Convectively Heated Exponentially Stretching Sheet Using Homotopy Analysis Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sravanthi, C. S.; Gorla, R. S. R.

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the effects of chemical reaction and heat source/sink on a steady MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) two-dimensional mixed convective boundary layer flow of a Maxwell nanofluid over a porous exponentially stretching sheet in the presence of suction/blowing. Convective boundary conditions of temperature and nanoparticle concentration are employed in the formulation. Similarity transformations are used to convert the governing partial differential equations into non-linear ordinary differential equations. The resulting non-linear system has been solved analytically using an efficient technique, namely: the homotopy analysis method (HAM). Expressions for velocity, temperature and nanoparticle concentration fields are developed in series form. Convergence of the constructed solution is verified. A comparison is made with the available results in the literature and our results are in very good agreement with the known results. The obtained results are presented through graphs for several sets of values of the parameters and salient features of the solutions are analyzed. Numerical values of the local skin-friction, Nusselt number and nanoparticle Sherwood number are computed and analyzed.

  18. Exponential model normalization for electrical capacitance tomography with external electrodes under gap permittivity conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baidillah, Marlin R; Takei, Masahiro

    2017-01-01

    A nonlinear normalization model which is called exponential model for electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) with external electrodes under gap permittivity conditions has been developed. The exponential model normalization is proposed based on the inherently nonlinear relationship characteristic between the mixture permittivity and the measured capacitance due to the gap permittivity of inner wall. The parameters of exponential equation are derived by using an exponential fitting curve based on the simulation and a scaling function is added to adjust the experiment system condition. The exponential model normalization was applied to two dimensional low and high contrast dielectric distribution phantoms by using simulation and experimental studies. The proposed normalization model has been compared with other normalization models i.e. Parallel, Series, Maxwell and Böttcher models. Based on the comparison of image reconstruction results, the exponential model is reliable to predict the nonlinear normalization of measured capacitance in term of low and high contrast dielectric distribution. (paper)

  19. Cosmological solutions in multidimensional model with multiple exponential potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivashchuk, Vladimir D.; Melnikov, Vitaly N.; Selivanov, Alexey B.

    2003-01-01

    A family of cosmological solutions with (n+1) Ricci-flat spaces in the theory with several scalar fields and multiple exponential potential is obtained when coupling vectors in exponents obey certain relations. Two subclasses of solutions with power-law and exponential behaviour of scale factors are singled out. It is proved that power-law solutions may take place only when coupling vectors are linearly independent and exponential dependence occurs for linearly dependent set of coupling vectors. A subfamily of solutions with accelerated expansion is singled out. A generalized isotropization behaviours of certain classes of general solutions are found. In quantum case exact solutions to Wheeler-DeWitt equation are obtained and special 'ground state' wave functions are considered. (author)

  20. The Exponential Distribution and the Application to Markov Models ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... are close to zero, and very long times are increasingly unlikely. That is, the most likely values are considered to be clustered about the mean, and large deviations from the mean are viewed as increasingly unlike. If this characteristic of the negative exponential distribution seems incompatible with the application one has ...

  1. An energetic model for macromolecules unfolding in stretching experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Tommasi, D.; Millardi, N.; Puglisi, G.; Saccomandi, G.

    2013-01-01

    We propose a simple approach, based on the minimization of the total (entropic plus unfolding) energy of a two-state system, to describe the unfolding of multi-domain macromolecules (proteins, silks, polysaccharides, nanopolymers). The model is fully analytical and enlightens the role of the different energetic components regulating the unfolding evolution. As an explicit example, we compare the analytical results with a titin atomic force microscopy stretch-induced unfolding experiment showing the ability of the model to quantitatively reproduce the experimental behaviour. In the thermodynamic limit, the sawtooth force–elongation unfolding curve degenerates to a constant force unfolding plateau. PMID:24047874

  2. Optical nonlinearity of liquid nanosuspensions: Kerr versus exponential model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, E. M.; Lee, W. M.; Dholakia, K.; El-Ganainy, R.; Christodoulides, D. N.

    2009-08-01

    We report our experimental and theoretical progress towards elucidating the nonlinear optical response of nanosuspensions. To date, we have devised a fiber-optic variant of the Z-scan method to accurately measure the nonlinearity of liquid nanosuspensions. Furthermore, we shall show that the optical nonlinearity may be properly accounted theoretically by including both the virial coefficients for the soft-condensed matter system in addition to the exponential term, which does not account for particleparticle interactions, yielding an effective or renormalized Kerr effect in many cases.

  3. Assessment of early treatment response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer using non-mono-exponential diffusion models: a feasibility study comparing the baseline and mid-treatment MRI examinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedair, Reem; Manavaki, Roido; Gill, Andrew B.; Abeyakoon, Oshaani; Gilbert, Fiona J. [University of Cambridge, Department of Radiology, School of Clinical Medicine, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Priest, Andrew N.; Patterson, Andrew J. [Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, Addenbrookes Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom); McLean, Mary A. [Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, Addenbrookes Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom); University of Cambridge, Li Ka Shing Centre, Cancer Research UK Cambridge Institute, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Graves, Martin J. [University of Cambridge, Department of Radiology, School of Clinical Medicine, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, Addenbrookes Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Griffiths, John R. [University of Cambridge, Li Ka Shing Centre, Cancer Research UK Cambridge Institute, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2017-07-15

    To assess the feasibility of the mono-exponential, bi-exponential and stretched-exponential models in evaluating response of breast tumours to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) at 3 T. Thirty-six female patients (median age 53, range 32-75 years) with invasive breast cancer undergoing NACT were enrolled for diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) prior to the start of treatment. For assessment of early response, changes in parameters were evaluated on mid-treatment MRI in 22 patients. DW-MRI was performed using eight b values (0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 300, 600, 900 s/mm{sup 2}). Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), tissue diffusion coefficient (D{sub t}), vascular fraction (Florin), distributed diffusion coefficient (DDC) and alpha (α) parameters were derived. Then t tests compared the baseline and changes in parameters between response groups. Repeatability was assessed at inter- and intraobserver levels. All patients underwent baseline MRI whereas 22 lesions were available at mid-treatment. At pretreatment, mean diffusion coefficients demonstrated significant differences between groups (p < 0.05). At mid-treatment, percentage increase in ADC and DDC showed significant differences between responders (49 % and 43 %) and non-responders (21 % and 32 %) (p = 0.03, p = 0.04). Overall, stretched-exponential parameters showed excellent repeatability. DW-MRI is sensitive to baseline and early treatment changes in breast cancer using non-mono-exponential models, and the stretched-exponential model can potentially monitor such changes. (orig.)

  4. Esscher transforms and the minimal entropy martingale measure for exponential Lévy models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubalek, Friedrich; Sgarra, C.

    In this paper we offer a systematic survey and comparison of the Esscher martingale transform for linear processes, the Esscher martingale transform for exponential processes, and the minimal entropy martingale measure for exponential lévy models and present some new results in order to give...

  5. An exponential integrator for the drift-kinetic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouseilles, Nicolas; Einkemmer, Lukas; Prugger, Martina

    2018-03-01

    We propose an exponential integrator for the drift-kinetic equation in cylindrical geometry. This approach removes the CFL condition from the linear part of the system (which is often the most stringent requirement in practice) and treats the remainder explicitly using Arakawa's finite difference scheme. The present approach is mass conservative, up to machine precision, and significantly reduces the computational effort per time step. In addition, we demonstrate the efficiency of our method by performing numerical simulations in the context of the ion temperature gradient instability. In particular, we find that our numerical method can take time steps comparable to what has been reported in the literature for the (predominantly used) splitting approach. In addition, the proposed numerical method has significant advantages with respect to conservation of energy and efficient higher order methods can be obtained easily. We demonstrate this by investigating the performance of a fourth order implementation.

  6. Evaluating GPS Station Trajectory Models for Postseismic Transient Deformation: Logarithmic Versus Exponential Forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrero, F. S.; Bevis, M. G.; Bedford, J. R.; Gomez, D.; Brown, A.; Wang, F.

    2017-12-01

    Simple or multiple timescale transient models for postseismic transient displacements can be formulated using logarithmic and exponential decay formulas. The logarithmic form is associated with rate and state friction theory and afterslip, while the exponential form is associated with bulk viscoelastic relaxation of coseismic stresses. Many theorists have suggested that afterslip will be the dominant driver of postseismic displacement transients in the months and perhaps even years following an earthquake, but viscoelastic relaxation will eventually dominate. It is now quite widely understood that one can model GPS time series manifesting postseismic transient displacements almost equally well using trajectory models constructed using logarithmic or exponential transients. This is consistent with the consensus established by the late 1970's that it is difficult to use geodetic observations to distinguish between deep aseismic afterslip and more diffuse viscoelastic relaxation as the primary mechanism of postseismic deformation. We assess the relative explanatory value of both logarithmic and exponential forms by focusing on GPS time series measured with better than typical signal-to-noise ratios. We find that the logarithmic transient typically provides slightly better fits than exponential transients, when both models are given equal degrees of freedom. We will also discuss the relative utility of the hybrid transient formulas in which the logarithmic component is assigned shorter decay time scale parameters than the exponential component.

  7. Form factors of exponential fields for two-parametric family of integrable models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fateev, V.A.; Lashkevich, M.

    2004-01-01

    A two-parametric family of integrable models (the SS model) that contains as particular cases several well known integrable quantum field theories is considered. After the quantum group restriction it describes a wide class of integrable perturbed conformal field theories. Exponential fields in the SS model are closely related to the primary fields in these perturbed theories. We use the bosonization approach to derive an integral representation for the form factors of the exponential fields in the SS model. The same representations for the sausage model and the cosine-cosine model are obtained as limiting cases. The results are tested at the special points, where the theory contains free particles

  8. Form factors of exponential fields for two-parametric family of integrable models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fateev, V. A.; Lashkevich, M.

    2004-09-01

    A two-parametric family of integrable models (the SS model) that contains as particular cases several well known integrable quantum field theories is considered. After the quantum group restriction it describes a wide class of integrable perturbed conformal field theories. Exponential fields in the SS model are closely related to the primary fields in these perturbed theories. We use the bosonization approach to derive an integral representation for the form factors of the exponential fields in the SS model. The same representations for the sausage model and the cosine-cosine model are obtained as limiting cases. The results are tested at the special points, where the theory contains free particles.

  9. A generalized exponential time series regression model for electricity prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haldrup, Niels; Knapik, Oskar; Proietti, Tomasso

    on the estimated model, the best linear predictor is constructed. Our modeling approach provides good fit within sample and outperforms competing benchmark predictors in terms of forecasting accuracy. We also find that building separate models for each hour of the day and averaging the forecasts is a better...

  10. A discrete electromechanical model for human cardiac tissue: effects of stretch-activated currents and stretch conditions on restitution properties and spiral wave dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis D Weise

    Full Text Available We introduce an electromechanical model for human cardiac tissue which couples a biophysical model of cardiac excitation (Tusscher, Noble, Noble, Panfilov, 2006 and tension development (adjusted Niederer, Hunter, Smith, 2006 model with a discrete elastic mass-lattice model. The equations for the excitation processes are solved with a finite difference approach, and the equations of the mass-lattice model are solved using Verlet integration. This allows the coupled problem to be solved with high numerical resolution. Passive mechanical properties of the mass-lattice model are described by a generalized Hooke's law for finite deformations (Seth material. Active mechanical contraction is initiated by changes of the intracellular calcium concentration, which is a variable of the electrical model. Mechanical deformation feeds back on the electrophysiology via stretch-activated ion channels whose conductivity is controlled by the local stretch of the medium. We apply the model to study how stretch-activated currents affect the action potential shape, restitution properties, and dynamics of spiral waves, under constant stretch, and dynamic stretch caused by active mechanical contraction. We find that stretch conditions substantially affect these properties via stretch-activated currents. In constantly stretched medium, we observe a substantial decrease in conduction velocity, and an increase of action potential duration; whereas, with dynamic stretch, action potential duration is increased only slightly, and the conduction velocity restitution curve becomes biphasic. Moreover, in constantly stretched medium, we find an increase of the core size and period of a spiral wave, but no change in rotation dynamics; in contrast, in the dynamically stretching medium, we observe spiral drift. Our results may be important to understand how altered stretch conditions affect the heart's functioning.

  11. Assessment of early treatment response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer using non-mono-exponential diffusion models: a feasibility study comparing the baseline and mid-treatment MRI examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedair, Reem; Priest, Andrew N; Patterson, Andrew J; McLean, Mary A; Graves, Martin J; Manavaki, Roido; Gill, Andrew B; Abeyakoon, Oshaani; Griffiths, John R; Gilbert, Fiona J

    2017-07-01

    To assess the feasibility of the mono-exponential, bi-exponential and stretched-exponential models in evaluating response of breast tumours to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) at 3 T. Thirty-six female patients (median age 53, range 32-75 years) with invasive breast cancer undergoing NACT were enrolled for diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) prior to the start of treatment. For assessment of early response, changes in parameters were evaluated on mid-treatment MRI in 22 patients. DW-MRI was performed using eight b values (0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 300, 600, 900 s/mm 2 ). Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), tissue diffusion coefficient (D t ), vascular fraction (ƒ), distributed diffusion coefficient (DDC) and alpha (α) parameters were derived. Then t tests compared the baseline and changes in parameters between response groups. Repeatability was assessed at inter- and intraobserver levels. All patients underwent baseline MRI whereas 22 lesions were available at mid-treatment. At pretreatment, mean diffusion coefficients demonstrated significant differences between groups (p mono-exponential models, and the stretched-exponential model can potentially monitor such changes. • Baseline diffusion coefficients demonstrated significant differences between complete pathological responders and non-responders. • Increase in ADC and DDC at mid-treatment can discriminate responders and non-responders. • The ƒ fraction at mid-treatment decreased in responders whereas increased in non-responders. • The mono- and stretched-exponential models showed excellent inter- and intrarater repeatability. • Treatment effects can potentially be assessed by non-mono-exponential diffusion models.

  12. [An exponential universal formula and evaluation model of sustainable development for cities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z; Cheng, H; Deng, X; Zhao, X

    2001-11-01

    In order to study an evaluation model of sustainable development for cities, analysis was performed to study the features of indicator system of community, economy and environment. Based on the genetic algorithms optimum, an exponential universal formula of single indicator was proposed. Evaluation model of sustainable development about the coordinative development of community, economy and environment was developed using weighting method combining the general contrast algorithm with analytic hierarchy process for different structure. The evaluation results of sustainable development for examples using this model showed that the exponential formula of single indicator based on parameters optimum and the evaluation model are not only simple and practical, but also comparisonable, realizable and general.

  13. Exponential GARCH Modeling with Realized Measures of Volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Reinhard; Huang, Zhuo

    returns and volatility. We apply the model to DJIA stocks and an exchange traded fund that tracks the S&P 500 index and find that specifications with multiple realized measures dominate those that rely on a single realized measure. The empirical analysis suggests some convenient simplifications...

  14. Central Limit Theorem for Exponentially Quasi-local Statistics of Spin Models on Cayley Graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Tulasi Ram; Vadlamani, Sreekar; Yogeshwaran, D.

    2018-04-01

    Central limit theorems for linear statistics of lattice random fields (including spin models) are usually proven under suitable mixing conditions or quasi-associativity. Many interesting examples of spin models do not satisfy mixing conditions, and on the other hand, it does not seem easy to show central limit theorem for local statistics via quasi-associativity. In this work, we prove general central limit theorems for local statistics and exponentially quasi-local statistics of spin models on discrete Cayley graphs with polynomial growth. Further, we supplement these results by proving similar central limit theorems for random fields on discrete Cayley graphs taking values in a countable space, but under the stronger assumptions of α -mixing (for local statistics) and exponential α -mixing (for exponentially quasi-local statistics). All our central limit theorems assume a suitable variance lower bound like many others in the literature. We illustrate our general central limit theorem with specific examples of lattice spin models and statistics arising in computational topology, statistical physics and random networks. Examples of clustering spin models include quasi-associated spin models with fast decaying covariances like the off-critical Ising model, level sets of Gaussian random fields with fast decaying covariances like the massive Gaussian free field and determinantal point processes with fast decaying kernels. Examples of local statistics include intrinsic volumes, face counts, component counts of random cubical complexes while exponentially quasi-local statistics include nearest neighbour distances in spin models and Betti numbers of sub-critical random cubical complexes.

  15. Modeling volatile organic compounds sorption on dry building materials using double-exponential model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Baoqing; Ge, Di; Li, Jiajia; Guo, Yuan; Kim, Chang Nyung

    2013-01-01

    A double-exponential surface sink model for VOCs sorption on building materials is presented. Here, the diffusion of VOCs in the material is neglected and the material is viewed as a surface sink. The VOCs concentration in the air adjacent to the material surface is introduced and assumed to always maintain equilibrium with the material-phase concentration. It is assumed that the sorption can be described by mass transfer between the room air and the air adjacent to the material surface. The mass transfer coefficient is evaluated from the empirical correlation, and the equilibrium constant can be obtained by linear fitting to the experimental data. The present model is validated through experiments in small and large test chambers. The predicted results accord well with the experimental data in both the adsorption stage and desorption stage. The model avoids the ambiguity of model constants found in other surface sink models and is easy to scale up

  16. The Exponential Model for the Spectrum of a Time Series: Extensions and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proietti, Tommaso; Luati, Alessandra

    The exponential model for the spectrum of a time series and its fractional extensions are based on the Fourier series expansion of the logarithm of the spectral density. The coefficients of the expansion form the cepstrum of the time series. After deriving the cepstrum of important classes of time...... to the log-spectrum. We then propose two extensions. The first deals with replacing the logarithmic link with a more general Box-Cox link, which encompasses also the identity and the inverse links: this enables nesting alternative spectral estimation methods (autoregressive, exponential, etc.) under the same...

  17. Exponential law as a more compatible model to describe orbits of planetary systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Saeedi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available   According to the Titus-Bode law, orbits of planets in the solar system obey a geometric progression. Many investigations have been launched to improve this law. In this paper, we apply square and exponential models to planets of solar system, moons of planets, and some extra solar systems, and compare them with each other.

  18. Essential value of cocaine and food in rats: tests of the exponential model of demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Chesley J; Silberberg, Alan; Hursh, Steven R; Huntsberry, Mary E; Riley, Anthony L

    2008-06-01

    To provide a prospective test of the predictive adequacy of the exponential model of demand (Hursh and Silberberg, Psych Rev 115(1):186-198, 2008). In Experiment 1, to measure the 'essential value' (the propensity to defend consumption with changes in price) of cocaine and food in a demand analysis (functional relation between price and consumption) by means of the exponential model; in Experiment 2, to test whether the model's systematic underestimation of cocaine consumption in Experiment 1 was due to weight loss; and in Experiment 3, to evaluate the effects of cocaine on the essential value of food. In Experiment 1, demand curves for food and cocaine were determined by measuring consumption of these goods in a multiple schedule over a range of fixed ratios; in Experiment 2, a demand curve for only cocaine was determined; and in Experiment 3, demand for food was determined in the absence of cocaine. In Experiment 1, the exponential equation accommodated high portions of variance for both curves, but systematically underestimated cocaine demand; in Experiment 2, this predictive underestimation of the equation was eliminated; and in Experiment 3, the essential value of food was greater than in Experiment 1. The exponential model of demand accommodated the data variance for all cocaine and food demand curves. Compared to food, cocaine is a good of lower essential value.

  19. Modeling of the pyrolysis of biomass under parabolic and exponential temperature increases using the Distributed Activation Energy Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soria-Verdugo, Antonio; Goos, Elke; Arrieta-Sanagustín, Jorge; García-Hernando, Nestor

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Pyrolysis of biomass under parabolic and exponential temperature profiles is modeled. • The model is based on a simplified Distributed Activation Energy Model. • 4 biomasses are analyzed in TGA with parabolic and exponential temperature increases. • Deviations between the model prediction and TGA measurements are under 5 °C. - Abstract: A modification of the simplified Distributed Activation Energy Model is proposed to simulate the pyrolysis of biomass under parabolic and exponential temperature increases. The pyrolysis of pine wood, olive kernel, thistle flower and corncob was experimentally studied in a TGA Q500 thermogravimetric analyzer. The results of the measurements of nine different parabolic and exponential temperature increases for each sample were employed to validate the models proposed. The deviation between the experimental TGA measurements and the estimation of the reacted fraction during the pyrolysis of the four samples under parabolic and exponential temperature increases was lower than 5 °C for all the cases studied. The models derived in this work to describe the pyrolysis of biomass with parabolic and exponential temperature increases were found to be in good agreement with the experiments conducted in a thermogravimetric analyzer.

  20. Is a matrix exponential specification suitable for the modeling of spatial correlation structures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauß, Magdalena E; Mezzetti, Maura; Leorato, Samantha

    2017-05-01

    This paper investigates the adequacy of the matrix exponential spatial specifications (MESS) as an alternative to the widely used spatial autoregressive models (SAR). To provide as complete a picture as possible, we extend the analysis to all the main spatial models governed by matrix exponentials comparing them with their spatial autoregressive counterparts. We propose a new implementation of Bayesian parameter estimation for the MESS model with vague prior distributions, which is shown to be precise and computationally efficient. Our implementations also account for spatially lagged regressors. We further allow for location-specific heterogeneity, which we model by including spatial splines. We conclude by comparing the performances of the different model specifications in applications to a real data set and by running simulations. Both the applications and the simulations suggest that the spatial splines are a flexible and efficient way to account for spatial heterogeneities governed by unknown mechanisms.

  1. Generalization of exponential based hyperelastic to hyper-viscoelastic model for investigation of mechanical behavior of rate dependent materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narooei, K; Arman, M

    2018-03-01

    In this research, the exponential stretched based hyperelastic strain energy was generalized to the hyper-viscoelastic model using the heredity integral of deformation history to take into account the strain rate effects on the mechanical behavior of materials. The heredity integral was approximated by the approach of Goh et al. to determine the model parameters and the same estimation was used for constitutive modeling. To present the ability of the proposed hyper-viscoelastic model, the stress-strain response of the thermoplastic elastomer gel tissue at different strain rates from 0.001 to 100/s was studied. In addition to better agreement between the current model and experimental data in comparison to the extended Mooney-Rivlin hyper-viscoelastic model, a stable material behavior was predicted for pure shear and balance biaxial deformation modes. To present the engineering application of current model, the Kolsky bars impact test of gel tissue was simulated and the effects of specimen size and inertia on the uniform deformation were investigated. As the mechanical response of polyurea was provided over wide strain rates of 0.0016-6500/s, the current model was applied to fit the experimental data. The results were shown more accuracy could be expected from the current research than the extended Ogden hyper-viscoelastic model. In the final verification example, the pig skin experimental data was used to determine parameters of the hyper-viscoelastic model. Subsequently, a specimen of pig skin at different strain rates was loaded to a fixed strain and the change of stress with time (stress relaxation) was obtained. The stress relaxation results were revealed the peak stress increases by applied strain rate until the saturated loading rate and the equilibrium stress with magnitude of 0.281MPa could be reached. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Bayesian analysis for exponential random graph models using the adaptive exchange sampler

    KAUST Repository

    Jin, Ick Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Exponential random graph models have been widely used in social network analysis. However, these models are extremely difficult to handle from a statistical viewpoint, because of the existence of intractable normalizing constants. In this paper, we consider a fully Bayesian analysis for exponential random graph models using the adaptive exchange sampler, which solves the issue of intractable normalizing constants encountered in Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulations. The adaptive exchange sampler can be viewed as a MCMC extension of the exchange algorithm, and it generates auxiliary networks via an importance sampling procedure from an auxiliary Markov chain running in parallel. The convergence of this algorithm is established under mild conditions. The adaptive exchange sampler is illustrated using a few social networks, including the Florentine business network, molecule synthetic network, and dolphins network. The results indicate that the adaptive exchange algorithm can produce more accurate estimates than approximate exchange algorithms, while maintaining the same computational efficiency.

  3. Terahertz double-exponential model for adsorption of volatile organic compounds in active carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Jing; Zhan, Honglei; Miao, Xinyang; Zhao, Kun; Zhou, Qiong

    2017-01-01

    In terms of the evaluation of the diffusion-controlled adsorption and diffused rate, a mathematical model was built on the basis of the double-exponential kinetics model and terahertz amplitude in this letter. The double-exponential-THz model described the two-step mechanism controlled by diffusion. A rapid step involves external and internal diffusion, followed by a slow step controlled by intraparticle diffusion. The concentration gradient of the molecules promoted the organic molecules rapidly diffusing to the external surface of adsorbent. The solute molecules then transferred across the liquid film. Intraparticle diffusion began and was determined by the molecular sizes, as well as affinities between organics and activated carbon. (paper)

  4. Identification of a Hammerstein Model of the Stretch Reflex EMG using Cubic Splines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dempsey, Erika

    2001-01-01

    .... The identification algorithm based on a separable least squares Levenberg-Marquardt optimization is used to identify a Hammerstein model of the stretch reflex EMG recorded from a spinal cord injured patient...

  5. Exponential Shear Flow of Linear, Entangled Polymeric Liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Jesper; Park, Kyungho; Venerus, David C.

    2000-01-01

    A previously proposed reptation model is used to interpret exponential shear flow data taken on an entangled polystyrenesolution. Both shear and normal stress measurements are made during exponential shear using mechanical means. The model iscapable of explaining all trends seen in the data......, and suggests a novel analysis of the data. This analysis demonstrates thatexponential shearing flow is no more capable of stretching polymer chains than is inception of steady shear at comparableinstantaneous shear rates. In fact, all exponential shear flow stresses measured are bounded quantitatively...

  6. A new cellular automata model of traffic flow with negative exponential weighted look-ahead potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiao; Zheng, Wei-Fan; Jiang, Bao-Shan; Zhang, Ji-Ye

    2016-10-01

    With the development of traffic systems, some issues such as traffic jams become more and more serious. Efficient traffic flow theory is needed to guide the overall controlling, organizing and management of traffic systems. On the basis of the cellular automata model and the traffic flow model with look-ahead potential, a new cellular automata traffic flow model with negative exponential weighted look-ahead potential is presented in this paper. By introducing the negative exponential weighting coefficient into the look-ahead potential and endowing the potential of vehicles closer to the driver with a greater coefficient, the modeling process is more suitable for the driver’s random decision-making process which is based on the traffic environment that the driver is facing. The fundamental diagrams for different weighting parameters are obtained by using numerical simulations which show that the negative exponential weighting coefficient has an obvious effect on high density traffic flux. The complex high density non-linear traffic behavior is also reproduced by numerical simulations. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11572264, 11172247, 11402214, and 61373009).

  7. Rényi statistics for testing composite hypotheses in general exponential models

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Morales, D.; Pardo, L.; Pardo, M. C.; Vajda, Igor

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 2 (2004), s. 133-147 ISSN 0233-1888 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/02/1391 Grant - others:BMF(ES) 2003-00892; BMF(ES) 2003-04820 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1075907 Keywords : natural exponential models * Levy processes * generalized Wald statistics Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 0.323, year: 2004

  8. Turning Simulation into Estimation: Generalized Exchange Algorithms for Exponential Family Models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten Marsman

    Full Text Available The Single Variable Exchange algorithm is based on a simple idea; any model that can be simulated can be estimated by producing draws from the posterior distribution. We build on this simple idea by framing the Exchange algorithm as a mixture of Metropolis transition kernels and propose strategies that automatically select the more efficient transition kernels. In this manner we achieve significant improvements in convergence rate and autocorrelation of the Markov chain without relying on more than being able to simulate from the model. Our focus will be on statistical models in the Exponential Family and use two simple models from educational measurement to illustrate the contribution.

  9. A Variable Resolution Stretched Grid General Circulation Model: Regional Climate Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox-Rabinovitz, Michael S.; Takacs, Lawrence L.; Govindaraju, Ravi C.; Suarez, Max J.

    2000-01-01

    The development of and results obtained with a variable resolution stretched-grid GCM for the regional climate simulation mode, are presented. A global variable resolution stretched- grid used in the study has enhanced horizontal resolution over the U.S. as the area of interest The stretched-grid approach is an ideal tool for representing regional to global scale interaction& It is an alternative to the widely used nested grid approach introduced over a decade ago as a pioneering step in regional climate modeling. The major results of the study are presented for the successful stretched-grid GCM simulation of the anomalous climate event of the 1988 U.S. summer drought- The straightforward (with no updates) two month simulation is performed with 60 km regional resolution- The major drought fields, patterns and characteristics such as the time averaged 500 hPa heights precipitation and the low level jet over the drought area. appear to be close to the verifying analyses for the stretched-grid simulation- In other words, the stretched-grid GCM provides an efficient down-scaling over the area of interest with enhanced horizontal resolution. It is also shown that the GCM skill is sustained throughout the simulation extended to one year. The developed and tested in a simulation mode stretched-grid GCM is a viable tool for regional and subregional climate studies and applications.

  10. Exponential stabilization and synchronization for fuzzy model of memristive neural networks by periodically intermittent control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shiju; Li, Chuandong; Huang, Tingwen

    2016-03-01

    The problem of exponential stabilization and synchronization for fuzzy model of memristive neural networks (MNNs) is investigated by using periodically intermittent control in this paper. Based on the knowledge of memristor and recurrent neural network, the model of MNNs is formulated. Some novel and useful stabilization criteria and synchronization conditions are then derived by using the Lyapunov functional and differential inequality techniques. It is worth noting that the methods used in this paper are also applied to fuzzy model for complex networks and general neural networks. Numerical simulations are also provided to verify the effectiveness of theoretical results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Two warehouse inventory model for deteriorating item with exponential demand rate and permissible delay in payment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaliraman Naresh Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A two warehouse inventory model for deteriorating items is considered with exponential demand rate and permissible delay in payment. Shortage is not allowed and deterioration rate is constant. In the model, one warehouse is rented and the other is owned. The rented warehouse is provided with better facility for the stock than the owned warehouse, but is charged more. The objective of this model is to find the best replenishment policies for minimizing the total appropriate inventory cost. A numerical illustration and sensitivity analysis is provided.

  12. The distance-decay function of geographical gravity model: Power law or exponential law?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yanguang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: •The distance-decay exponent of the gravity model is a fractal dimension. •Entropy maximization accounts for the gravity model based on power law decay. •Allometric scaling relations relate gravity models with spatial interaction models. •The four-parameter gravity models have dual mathematical expressions. •The inverse power law is the most probable distance-decay function. -- Abstract: The distance-decay function of the geographical gravity model is originally an inverse power law, which suggests a scaling process in spatial interaction. However, the distance exponent of the model cannot be reasonably explained with the ideas from Euclidean geometry. This results in a dimension dilemma in geographical analysis. Consequently, a negative exponential function was used to replace the inverse power function to serve for a distance-decay function. But a new puzzle arose that the exponential-based gravity model goes against the first law of geography. This paper is devoted for solving these kinds of problems by mathematical reasoning and empirical analysis. New findings are as follows. First, the distance exponent of the gravity model is demonstrated to be a fractal dimension using the geometric measure relation. Second, the similarities and differences between the gravity models and spatial interaction models are revealed using allometric relations. Third, a four-parameter gravity model possesses a symmetrical expression, and we need dual gravity models to describe spatial flows. The observational data of China's cities and regions (29 elements indicative of 841 data points) in 2010 are employed to verify the theoretical inferences. A conclusion can be reached that the geographical gravity model based on power-law decay is more suitable for analyzing large, complex, and scale-free regional and urban systems. This study lends further support to the suggestion that the underlying rationale of fractal structure is entropy maximization. Moreover

  13. Open-System Quantum Annealing in Mean-Field Models with Exponential Degeneracy*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostyantyn Kechedzhi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Real-life quantum computers are inevitably affected by intrinsic noise resulting in dissipative nonunitary dynamics realized by these devices. We consider an open-system quantum annealing algorithm optimized for such a realistic analog quantum device which takes advantage of noise-induced thermalization and relies on incoherent quantum tunneling at finite temperature. We theoretically analyze the performance of this algorithm considering a p-spin model that allows for a mean-field quasiclassical solution and, at the same time, demonstrates the first-order phase transition and exponential degeneracy of states, typical characteristics of spin glasses. We demonstrate that finite-temperature effects introduced by the noise are particularly important for the dynamics in the presence of the exponential degeneracy of metastable states. We determine the optimal regime of the open-system quantum annealing algorithm for this model and find that it can outperform simulated annealing in a range of parameters. Large-scale multiqubit quantum tunneling is instrumental for the quantum speedup in this model, which is possible because of the unusual nonmonotonous temperature dependence of the quantum-tunneling action in this model, where the most efficient transition rate corresponds to zero temperature. This model calculation is the first analytically tractable example where open-system quantum annealing algorithm outperforms simulated annealing, which can, in principle, be realized using an analog quantum computer.

  14. Effective equilibrium picture in the x y model with exponentially correlated noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoluzzi, Matteo; Marconi, Umberto Marini Bettolo; Maggi, Claudio

    2018-02-01

    We study the effect of exponentially correlated noise on the x y model in the limit of small correlation time, discussing the order-disorder transition in the mean field and the topological transition in two dimensions. We map the steady states of the nonequilibrium dynamics into an effective equilibrium theory. In the mean field, the critical temperature increases with the noise correlation time τ , indicating that memory effects promote ordering. This finding is confirmed by numerical simulations. The topological transition temperature in two dimensions remains untouched. However, finite-size effects induce a crossover in the vortices proliferation that is confirmed by numerical simulations.

  15. A production inventory model with exponential demand rate and reverse logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritu Raj

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to develop an integrated production inventory model for reworkable items with exponential demand rate. This is a three-layer supply chain model with perspectives of supplier, producer and retailer. Supplier delivers raw material to the producer and finished goods to the retailer. We consider perfect and imperfect quality products, product reliability and reworking of imperfect items. After screening, defective items reworked at a cost just after the regular manufacturing schedule. At the beginning, the manufacturing system starts produce perfect items, after some time the manufacturing system can undergo into “out-of-control” situation from “in-control” situation, which is controlled by reverse logistic technique. This paper deliberates the effects of business strategies like optimum order size of raw material, exponential demand rate, production rate is demand dependent, idle times and reverse logistics for an integrated marketing system. Mathematica is used to develop the optimal solution of production rate and raw material order for maximum expected average profit. A numerical example and sensitivity analysis is illustrated to validate the model.

  16. Realistic searches on stretched exponential networks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/pram/071/02/0313-0317. Keywords. Small world effect; dynamic paths; social distances. Abstract. We consider navigation or search schemes on networks which have a degree distribution of the form () ∝ exp(−).

  17. Realistic searches on stretched exponential networks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We consider navigation or search schemes on networks which have a degree distribution of the form () ∝ exp(−). In addition, the linking probability is taken to be dependent on social distances and is governed by a parameter . The searches are realistic in the sense that not all search chains can be completed.

  18. Realistic searches on stretched exponential networks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    simulations on real networks [7–9] have been made also. In these studies, one is interested in the length of the dynamic paths, i.e., the number of steps actually taken to transmit a message or signal to another node. In the real experiments, this is done by fixing a target node and randomly selecting source nodes. The.

  19. The time-profile of cell growth in fission yeast: model selection criteria favoring bilinear models over exponential ones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sveiczer Akos

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is considerable controversy concerning the exact growth profile of size parameters during the cell cycle. Linear, exponential and bilinear models are commonly considered, and the same model may not apply for all species. Selection of the most adequate model to describe a given data-set requires the use of quantitative model selection criteria, such as the partial (sequential F-test, the Akaike information criterion and the Schwarz Bayesian information criterion, which are suitable for comparing differently parameterized models in terms of the quality and robustness of the fit but have not yet been used in cell growth-profile studies. Results Length increase data from representative individual fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe cells measured on time-lapse films have been reanalyzed using these model selection criteria. To fit the data, an extended version of a recently introduced linearized biexponential (LinBiExp model was developed, which makes possible a smooth, continuously differentiable transition between two linear segments and, hence, allows fully parametrized bilinear fittings. Despite relatively small differences, essentially all the quantitative selection criteria considered here indicated that the bilinear model was somewhat more adequate than the exponential model for fitting these fission yeast data. Conclusion A general quantitative framework was introduced to judge the adequacy of bilinear versus exponential models in the description of growth time-profiles. For single cell growth, because of the relatively limited data-range, the statistical evidence is not strong enough to favor one model clearly over the other and to settle the bilinear versus exponential dispute. Nevertheless, for the present individual cell growth data for fission yeast, the bilinear model seems more adequate according to all metrics, especially in the case of wee1Δ cells.

  20. Research and realization of ultrasonic gas flow rate measurement based on ultrasonic exponential model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Dandan; Hou, Huirang; Zhang, Tao

    2016-04-01

    For ultrasonic gas flow rate measurement based on ultrasonic exponential model, when the noise frequency is close to that of the desired signals (called similar-frequency noise) or the received signal amplitude is small and unstable at big flow rate, local convergence of the algorithm genetic-ant colony optimization-3cycles may appear, and measurement accuracy may be affected. Therefore, an improved method energy genetic-ant colony optimization-3cycles (EGACO-3cycles) is proposed to solve this problem. By judging the maximum energy position of signal, the initial parameter range of exponential model can be narrowed and then the local convergence can be avoided. Moreover, a DN100 flow rate measurement system with EGACO-3cycles method is established based on NI PCI-6110 and personal computer. A series of experiments are carried out for testing the new method and the measurement system. It is shown that local convergence doesn't appear with EGACO-3cycles method when similar-frequency noises exist and flow rate is big. Then correct time of flight can be obtained. Furthermore, through flow calibration on this system, the measurement range ratio is achieved 500:1, and the measurement accuracy is 0.5% with a low transition velocity 0.3 m/s. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. a Fast Segmentation Algorithm for C-V Model Based on Exponential Image Sequence Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, J.; Lu, L.; Xu, J.; Zhang, J.

    2017-09-01

    For the island coastline segmentation, a fast segmentation algorithm for C-V model method based on exponential image sequence generation is proposed in this paper. The exponential multi-scale C-V model with level set inheritance and boundary inheritance is developed. The main research contributions are as follows: 1) the problems of the "holes" and "gaps" are solved when extraction coastline through the small scale shrinkage, low-pass filtering and area sorting of region. 2) the initial value of SDF (Signal Distance Function) and the level set are given by Otsu segmentation based on the difference of reflection SAR on land and sea, which are finely close to the coastline. 3) the computational complexity of continuous transition are successfully reduced between the different scales by the SDF and of level set inheritance. Experiment results show that the method accelerates the acquisition of initial level set formation, shortens the time of the extraction of coastline, at the same time, removes the non-coastline body part and improves the identification precision of the main body coastline, which automates the process of coastline segmentation.

  2. A FAST SEGMENTATION ALGORITHM FOR C-V MODEL BASED ON EXPONENTIAL IMAGE SEQUENCE GENERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available For the island coastline segmentation, a fast segmentation algorithm for C-V model method based on exponential image sequence generation is proposed in this paper. The exponential multi-scale C-V model with level set inheritance and boundary inheritance is developed. The main research contributions are as follows: 1 the problems of the "holes" and "gaps" are solved when extraction coastline through the small scale shrinkage, low-pass filtering and area sorting of region. 2 the initial value of SDF (Signal Distance Function and the level set are given by Otsu segmentation based on the difference of reflection SAR on land and sea, which are finely close to the coastline. 3 the computational complexity of continuous transition are successfully reduced between the different scales by the SDF and of level set inheritance. Experiment results show that the method accelerates the acquisition of initial level set formation, shortens the time of the extraction of coastline, at the same time, removes the non-coastline body part and improves the identification precision of the main body coastline, which automates the process of coastline segmentation.

  3. Modeling the pre-industrial roots of modern super-exponential population growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutz, Aaron Jonas

    2014-01-01

    To Malthus, rapid human population growth-so evident in 18th Century Europe-was obviously unsustainable. In his Essay on the Principle of Population, Malthus cogently argued that environmental and socioeconomic constraints on population rise were inevitable. Yet, he penned his essay on the eve of the global census size reaching one billion, as nearly two centuries of super-exponential increase were taking off. Introducing a novel extension of J. E. Cohen's hallmark coupled difference equation model of human population dynamics and carrying capacity, this article examines just how elastic population growth limits may be in response to demographic change. The revised model involves a simple formalization of how consumption costs influence carrying capacity elasticity over time. Recognizing that complex social resource-extraction networks support ongoing consumption-based investment in family formation and intergenerational resource transfers, it is important to consider how consumption has impacted the human environment and demography--especially as global population has become very large. Sensitivity analysis of the consumption-cost model's fit to historical population estimates, modern census data, and 21st Century demographic projections supports a critical conclusion. The recent population explosion was systemically determined by long-term, distinctly pre-industrial cultural evolution. It is suggested that modern globalizing transitions in technology, susceptibility to infectious disease, information flows and accumulation, and economic complexity were endogenous products of much earlier biocultural evolution of family formation's embeddedness in larger, hierarchically self-organizing cultural systems, which could potentially support high population elasticity of carrying capacity. Modern super-exponential population growth cannot be considered separately from long-term change in the multi-scalar political economy that connects family formation and

  4. Non-Mono-Exponential Analysis of Diffusion-Weighted Imaging for Treatment Monitoring in Prostate Cancer Bone Metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reischauer, Carolin; Patzwahl, René; Koh, Dow-Mu; Froehlich, Johannes M; Gutzeit, Andreas

    2017-07-19

    Diffusion-weighted imaging quantified using the mono-exponential model has shown great promise for monitoring treatment response in prostate cancer bone metastases. The aim of this prospective study is to evaluate whether non-mono-exponential diffusion models better describe the water diffusion properties and may improve treatment response assessment. Diffusion-weighted imaging data of 12 treatment-naïve patients with 34 metastases acquired before and at one, two, and three months after initiation of antiandrogen treatment are analysed using the mono-exponential, the intravoxel incoherent motion, the stretched exponential, and the statistical model. Repeatability of the fitted parameters and changes under therapy are quantified. Model preference is assessed and correlation coefficients across times are calculated to delineate the relationship between the prostate-specific antigen levels and the diffusion parameters as well as between the diffusion parameters within each model. There is a clear preference for non-mono-exponential diffusion models at all time points. Particularly the stretched exponential is favoured in approximately 60% of the lesions. Its parameters increase significantly in response to treatment and are highly repeatable. Thus, the stretched exponential may be utilized as a potential optimal model for monitoring treatment response. Compared with the mono-exponential model, it may provide complementary information on tissue properties and improve response assessment.

  5. Exponentially long Equilibration times in a 1-D Collisional Model of a classical gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul; Benettin, G.

    1999-01-01

    Around the year 1900, J.H. Jeans suggested that the `abnormal' specific heats observed in diatomic gases, specifically the lack of contribution to the heat capacity from the internal vibrational degrees of freedom, in apparent violation of the equipartition theorem, might be caused by the large...... separation between the time scale for the vibration and the time scale associated with a typical binary collision in the gas. We consider here a simple 1-D model, and show how, when these time scales are well separated, the collisional dynamics is constrained by a many-particle adiabatic invariant....... The effect is that the collisional energy exchanges between the translational and the vibrational degrees of freedom are slowed down by an exponential factor (as Jeans conjectured). A metastable situation thus occurs, in which the fast vibrational degrees of freedom effectivly do not contribute...

  6. Exponential Expansion in Evolutionary Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Peter; Jagtfelt, Tue

    2013-01-01

    to this problem is proposed in the form of a model of exponential expansion. The model outlines the overall structure and function of the economy as exponential expansion. The pictographic model describes four axiomatic concepts and their exponential nature. The interactive, directional, emerging and expanding...

  7. Modeling of Single Event Transients With Dual Double-Exponential Current Sources: Implications for Logic Cell Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Dolores A.; Robinson, William H.; Wilcox, Ian Z.; Limbrick, Daniel B.; Black, Jeffrey D.

    2015-08-01

    Single event effects (SEE) are a reliability concern for modern microelectronics. Bit corruptions can be caused by single event upsets (SEUs) in the storage cells or by sampling single event transients (SETs) from a logic path. An accurate prediction of soft error susceptibility from SETs requires good models to convert collected charge into compact descriptions of the current injection process. This paper describes a simple, yet effective, method to model the current waveform resulting from a charge collection event for SET circuit simulations. The model uses two double-exponential current sources in parallel, and the results illustrate why a conventional model based on one double-exponential source can be incomplete. A small set of logic cells with varying input conditions, drive strength, and output loading are simulated to extract the parameters for the dual double-exponential current sources. The parameters are based upon both the node capacitance and the restoring current (i.e., drive strength) of the logic cell.

  8. The modelled raindrop size distribution of Skudai, Peninsular Malaysia, using exponential and lognormal distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakubu, Mahadi Lawan; Yusop, Zulkifli; Yusof, Fadhilah

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the modelled raindrop size parameters in Skudai region of the Johor Bahru, western Malaysia. Presently, there is no model to forecast the characteristics of DSD in Malaysia, and this has an underpinning implication on wet weather pollution predictions. The climate of Skudai exhibits local variability in regional scale. This study established five different parametric expressions describing the rain rate of Skudai; these models are idiosyncratic to the climate of the region. Sophisticated equipment that converts sound to a relevant raindrop diameter is often too expensive and its cost sometimes overrides its attractiveness. In this study, a physical low-cost method was used to record the DSD of the study area. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to test the aptness of the data to exponential and lognormal distributions, which were subsequently used to formulate the parameterisation of the distributions. This research abrogates the concept of exclusive occurrence of convective storm in tropical regions and presented a new insight into their concurrence appearance.

  9. Stochastic Threshold Exponential (TE) Model for Hematopoietic Tissue Reconstitution Deficit after Radiation Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, B R; Potter, C A

    2014-07-01

    Whole-body exposure to large radiation doses can cause severe loss of hematopoietic tissue cells and threaten life if the lost cells are not replaced in a timely manner through natural repopulation (a homeostatic mechanism). Repopulation to the baseline level N 0 is called reconstitution and a reconstitution deficit (repopulation shortfall) can occur in a dose-related and organ-specific manner. Scott et al. (2013) previously introduced a deterministic version of a threshold exponential (TE) model of tissue-reconstitution deficit at a given follow-up time that was applied to bone marrow and spleen cellularity (number of constituent cells) data obtained 6 weeks after whole-body gamma-ray exposure of female C.B-17 mice. In this paper a more realistic, stochastic version of the TE model is provided that allows radiation response to vary between different individuals. The Stochastic TE model is applied to post gamma-ray-exposure cellularity data previously reported and also to more limited X-ray cellularity data for whole-body irradiated female C.B-17 mice. Results indicate that the population average threshold for a tissue reconstitution deficit appears to be similar for bone marrow and spleen and for 320-kV-spectrum X-rays and Cs-137 gamma rays. This means that 320-kV spectrum X-rays could successfully be used in conducting such studies.

  10. The Modelled Raindrop Size Distribution of Skudai, Peninsular Malaysia, Using Exponential and Lognormal Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakubu, Mahadi Lawan; Yusop, Zulkifli; Yusof, Fadhilah

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the modelled raindrop size parameters in Skudai region of the Johor Bahru, western Malaysia. Presently, there is no model to forecast the characteristics of DSD in Malaysia, and this has an underpinning implication on wet weather pollution predictions. The climate of Skudai exhibits local variability in regional scale. This study established five different parametric expressions describing the rain rate of Skudai; these models are idiosyncratic to the climate of the region. Sophisticated equipment that converts sound to a relevant raindrop diameter is often too expensive and its cost sometimes overrides its attractiveness. In this study, a physical low-cost method was used to record the DSD of the study area. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to test the aptness of the data to exponential and lognormal distributions, which were subsequently used to formulate the parameterisation of the distributions. This research abrogates the concept of exclusive occurrence of convective storm in tropical regions and presented a new insight into their concurrence appearance. PMID:25126597

  11. IMPLICATIONS FOR ASYMMETRY, NONPROPORTIONALITY, AND HETEROGENEITY IN BRAND SWITCHING FROM PIECE-WISE EXPONENTIAL MIXTURE HAZARD MODELS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WEDEL, M; KAMAKURA, WA; DESARBO, WS; TERHOFSTEDE, F

    1995-01-01

    The authors develop a class of mixtures of piece-wise exponential hazard models for the analysis of brand switching behavior. The models enable the effects of marketing variables to change nonproportionally over time and can, simultaneously, be used to identify segments among which switching and

  12. Global Exponential Stability of Positive Almost Periodic Solutions for a Fishing Model with a Time-Varying Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with a nonautonomous fishing model with a time-varying delay. Under proper conditions, we employ a novel argument to establish a criterion on the global exponential stability of positive almost periodic solutions of the model with almost periodic coefficients and delays. Moreover, an example and its numerical simulation are given to illustrate the main results.

  13. Short term load forecasting technique based on the seasonal exponential adjustment method and the regression model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jie; Wang, Jianzhou; Lu, Haiyan; Dong, Yao; Lu, Xiaoxiao

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The seasonal and trend items of the data series are forecasted separately. ► Seasonal item in the data series is verified by the Kendall τ correlation testing. ► Different regression models are applied to the trend item forecasting. ► We examine the superiority of the combined models by the quartile value comparison. ► Paired-sample T test is utilized to confirm the superiority of the combined models. - Abstract: For an energy-limited economy system, it is crucial to forecast load demand accurately. This paper devotes to 1-week-ahead daily load forecasting approach in which load demand series are predicted by employing the information of days before being similar to that of the forecast day. As well as in many nonlinear systems, seasonal item and trend item are coexisting in load demand datasets. In this paper, the existing of the seasonal item in the load demand data series is firstly verified according to the Kendall τ correlation testing method. Then in the belief of the separate forecasting to the seasonal item and the trend item would improve the forecasting accuracy, hybrid models by combining seasonal exponential adjustment method (SEAM) with the regression methods are proposed in this paper, where SEAM and the regression models are employed to seasonal and trend items forecasting respectively. Comparisons of the quartile values as well as the mean absolute percentage error values demonstrate this forecasting technique can significantly improve the accuracy though models applied to the trend item forecasting are eleven different ones. This superior performance of this separate forecasting technique is further confirmed by the paired-sample T tests

  14. Flow past a permeable stretching/shrinking sheet in a nanofluid using two-phase model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairy Zaimi

    Full Text Available The steady two-dimensional flow and heat transfer over a stretching/shrinking sheet in a nanofluid is investigated using Buongiorno's nanofluid model. Different from the previously published papers, in the present study we consider the case when the nanofluid particle fraction on the boundary is passively rather than actively controlled, which make the model more physically realistic. The governing partial differential equations are transformed into nonlinear ordinary differential equations by a similarity transformation, before being solved numerically by a shooting method. The effects of some governing parameters on the fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics are graphically presented and discussed. Dual solutions are found to exist in a certain range of the suction and stretching/shrinking parameters. Results also indicate that both the skin friction coefficient and the local Nusselt number increase with increasing values of the suction parameter.

  15. Truncated exponential-rigid-rotor model for strong electron and ion rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larrabee, D.A.; Lovelace, R.V.; Fleischmann, H.H.

    1979-01-01

    A comprehensive study of exponential-rigid-rotor equilibria for strong electron and ion rings indicates the presence of a sizeable percentage of untrapped particles in all equilibria with aspect-ratios R/a approximately <4. Such aspect-ratios are required in fusion-relevant rings. Significant changes in the equilibria are observed when untrapped particles are excluded by the use of a truncated exponential-rigid-rotor distribution function. (author)

  16. On exponential cosmological type solutions in the model with Gauss-Bonnet term and variation of gravitational constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivashchuk, V.D.; Kobtsev, A.A.

    2015-01-01

    A D-dimensional gravitational model with Gauss.Bonnet term is considered. When an ansatz with diagonal cosmological type metrics is adopted, we find solutions with an exponential dependence of the scale factors (with respect to a @gsynchronous-like@h variable) which describe an exponential expansion of @gour@h 3-dimensional factor space and obey the observational constraints on the temporal variation of effective gravitational constant G. Among them there are two exact solutions in dimensions D = 22, 28 with constant G and also an infinite series of solutions in dimensions D ≥ 2690 with the variation of G obeying the observational data. (orig.)

  17. Comparison of least squares and exponential sine sweep methods for Parallel Hammerstein Models estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebillat, Marc; Schoukens, Maarten

    2018-05-01

    Linearity is a common assumption for many real-life systems, but in many cases the nonlinear behavior of systems cannot be ignored and must be modeled and estimated. Among the various existing classes of nonlinear models, Parallel Hammerstein Models (PHM) are interesting as they are at the same time easy to interpret as well as to estimate. One way to estimate PHM relies on the fact that the estimation problem is linear in the parameters and thus that classical least squares (LS) estimation algorithms can be used. In that area, this article introduces a regularized LS estimation algorithm inspired on some of the recently developed regularized impulse response estimation techniques. Another mean to estimate PHM consists in using parametric or non-parametric exponential sine sweeps (ESS) based methods. These methods (LS and ESS) are founded on radically different mathematical backgrounds but are expected to tackle the same issue. A methodology is proposed here to compare them with respect to (i) their accuracy, (ii) their computational cost, and (iii) their robustness to noise. Tests are performed on simulated systems for several values of methods respective parameters and of signal to noise ratio. Results show that, for a given set of data points, the ESS method is less demanding in computational resources than the LS method but that it is also less accurate. Furthermore, the LS method needs parameters to be set in advance whereas the ESS method is not subject to conditioning issues and can be fully non-parametric. In summary, for a given set of data points, ESS method can provide a first, automatic, and quick overview of a nonlinear system than can guide more computationally demanding and precise methods, such as the regularized LS one proposed here.

  18. Theoretical modelling of physiologically stretched vessel in magnetisable stent assisted magnetic drug targeting application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mardinoglu, Adil; Cregg, P.J.; Murphy, Kieran; Curtin, Maurice; Prina-Mello, Adriele

    2011-01-01

    The magnetisable stent assisted magnetic targeted drug delivery system in a physiologically stretched vessel is considered theoretically. The changes in the mechanical behaviour of the vessel are analysed under the influence of mechanical forces generated by blood pressure. In this 2D mathematical model a ferromagnetic, coiled wire stent is implanted to aid collection of magnetic drug carrier particles in an elastic tube, which has similar mechanical properties to the blood vessel. A cyclic mechanical force is applied to the elastic tube to mimic the mechanical stress and strain of both the stent and vessel while in the body due to pulsatile blood circulation. The magnetic dipole-dipole and hydrodynamic interactions for multiple particles are included and agglomeration of particles is also modelled. The resulting collection efficiency of the mathematical model shows that the system performance can decrease by as much as 10% due to the effects of the pulsatile blood circulation. - Research highlights: →Theoretical modelling of magnetic drug targeting on a physiologically stretched stent-vessel system. →Cyclic mechanical force applied to mimic the mechanical stress and strain of both stent and vessel. →The magnetic dipole-dipole and hydrodynamic interactions for multiple particles is modelled. →Collection efficiency of the mathematical model is calculated for different physiological blood flow and magnetic field strength.

  19. Modelling of Creep and Stress Relaxation Test of a Polypropylene Microfibre by Using Fraction-Exponential Kernel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Sorzia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A tensile test until breakage and a creep and relaxation test on a polypropylene fibre are carried out and the resulting creep and stress relaxation curves are fit by a model adopting a fraction-exponential kernel in the viscoelastic operator. The models using fraction-exponential functions are simpler than the complex ones obtained from combination of dashpots and springs and, furthermore, are suitable for fitting experimental data with good approximation allowing, at the same time, obtaining inverse Laplace transform in closed form. Therefore, the viscoelastic response of polypropylene fibres can be modelled straightforwardly through analytical methods. Addition of polypropylene fibres greatly improves the tensile strength of composite materials with concrete matrix. The proposed analytical model can be employed for simulating the mechanical behaviour of composite materials with embedded viscoelastic fibres.

  20. Prediction of Pig Trade Movements in Different European Production Systems Using Exponential Random Graph Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relun, Anne; Grosbois, Vladimir; Alexandrov, Tsviatko; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Jose M; Waret-Szkuta, Agnes; Molia, Sophie; Etter, Eric Marcel Charles; Martínez-López, Beatriz

    2017-01-01

    In most European countries, data regarding movements of live animals are routinely collected and can greatly aid predictive epidemic modeling. However, the use of complete movements' dataset to conduct policy-relevant predictions has been so far limited by the massive amount of data that have to be processed (e.g., in intensive commercial systems) or the restricted availability of timely and updated records on animal movements (e.g., in areas where small-scale or extensive production is predominant). The aim of this study was to use exponential random graph models (ERGMs) to reproduce, understand, and predict pig trade networks in different European production systems. Three trade networks were built by aggregating movements of pig batches among premises (farms and trade operators) over 2011 in Bulgaria, Extremadura (Spain), and Côtes-d'Armor (France), where small-scale, extensive, and intensive pig production are predominant, respectively. Three ERGMs were fitted to each network with various demographic and geographic attributes of the nodes as well as six internal network configurations. Several statistical and graphical diagnostic methods were applied to assess the goodness of fit of the models. For all systems, both exogenous (attribute-based) and endogenous (network-based) processes appeared to govern the structure of pig trade network, and neither alone were capable of capturing all aspects of the network structure. Geographic mixing patterns strongly structured pig trade organization in the small-scale production system, whereas belonging to the same company or keeping pigs in the same housing system appeared to be key drivers of pig trade, in intensive and extensive production systems, respectively. Heterogeneous mixing between types of production also explained a part of network structure, whichever production system considered. Limited information is thus needed to capture most of the global structure of pig trade networks. Such findings will be useful

  1. A modified exponential behavioral economic demand model to better describe consumption data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koffarnus, Mikhail N; Franck, Christopher T; Stein, Jeffrey S; Bickel, Warren K

    2015-12-01

    Behavioral economic demand analyses that quantify the relationship between the consumption of a commodity and its price have proven useful in studying the reinforcing efficacy of many commodities, including drugs of abuse. An exponential equation proposed by Hursh and Silberberg (2008) has proven useful in quantifying the dissociable components of demand intensity and demand elasticity, but is limited as an analysis technique by the inability to correctly analyze consumption values of zero. We examined an exponentiated version of this equation that retains all the beneficial features of the original Hursh and Silberberg equation, but can accommodate consumption values of zero and improves its fit to the data. In Experiment 1, we compared the modified equation with the unmodified equation under different treatments of zero values in cigarette consumption data collected online from 272 participants. We found that the unmodified equation produces different results depending on how zeros are treated, while the exponentiated version incorporates zeros into the analysis, accounts for more variance, and is better able to estimate actual unconstrained consumption as reported by participants. In Experiment 2, we simulated 1,000 datasets with demand parameters known a priori and compared the equation fits. Results indicated that the exponentiated equation was better able to replicate the true values from which the test data were simulated. We conclude that an exponentiated version of the Hursh and Silberberg equation provides better fits to the data, is able to fit all consumption values including zero, and more accurately produces true parameter values. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Network Statistical Models for Language Learning Contexts: Exponential Random Graph Models and Willingness to Communicate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, H. Colin; Robins, Garry

    2015-01-01

    As part of the shift within second language acquisition (SLA) research toward complex systems thinking, researchers have called for investigations of social network structure. One strand of social network analysis yet to receive attention in SLA is network statistical models, whereby networks are explained in terms of smaller substructures of…

  3. Approximate models for the study of exponential changed quantities: Application on the plasma waves growth rate or damping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xaplanteris, C. L.; Xaplanteris, L. C.; Leousis, D. P.

    2014-01-01

    Many physical phenomena that concern the research these days are basically complicated because of being multi-parametric. Thus, their study and understanding meets with big if not unsolved obstacles. Such complicated and multi-parametric is the plasmatic state as well, where the plasma and the physical quantities that appear along with it have chaotic behavior. Many of those physical quantities change exponentially and at most times they are stabilized by presenting wavy behavior. Mostly in the transitive state rather than the steady state, the exponentially changing quantities (Growth, Damping etc) depend on each other in most cases. Thus, it is difficult to distinguish the cause from the result. The present paper attempts to help this difficult study and understanding by proposing mathematical exponential models that could relate with the study and understanding of the plasmatic wavy instability behavior. Such instabilities are already detected, understood and presented in previous publications of our laboratory. In other words, our new contribution is the study of the already known plasmatic quantities by using mathematical models (modeling and simulation). These methods are both useful and applicable in the chaotic theory. In addition, our ambition is to also conduct a list of models useful for the study of chaotic problems, such as those that appear into the plasma, starting with this paper's examples

  4. An improved parameter estimation and comparison for soft tissue constitutive models containing an exponential function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Ankush

    2017-08-01

    Motivated by the well-known result that stiffness of soft tissue is proportional to the stress, many of the constitutive laws for soft tissues contain an exponential function. In this work, we analyze properties of the exponential function and how it affects the estimation and comparison of elastic parameters for soft tissues. In particular, we find that as a consequence of the exponential function there are lines of high covariance in the elastic parameter space. As a result, one can have widely varying mechanical parameters defining the tissue stiffness but similar effective stress-strain responses. Drawing from elementary algebra, we propose simple changes in the norm and the parameter space, which significantly improve the convergence of parameter estimation and robustness in the presence of noise. More importantly, we demonstrate that these changes improve the conditioning of the problem and provide a more robust solution in the case of heterogeneous material by reducing the chances of getting trapped in a local minima. Based upon the new insight, we also propose a transformed parameter space which will allow for rational parameter comparison and avoid misleading conclusions regarding soft tissue mechanics.

  5. Enhancement of Markov chain model by integrating exponential smoothing: A case study on Muslims marriage and divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamaluddin, Fadhilah; Rahim, Rahela Abdul

    2015-12-01

    Markov Chain has been introduced since the 1913 for the purpose of studying the flow of data for a consecutive number of years of the data and also forecasting. The important feature in Markov Chain is obtaining the accurate Transition Probability Matrix (TPM). However to obtain the suitable TPM is hard especially in involving long-term modeling due to unavailability of data. This paper aims to enhance the classical Markov Chain by introducing Exponential Smoothing technique in developing the appropriate TPM.

  6. Continuous multivariate exponential extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block, H.W.

    1975-01-01

    The Freund-Weinman multivariate exponential extension is generalized to the case of nonidentically distributed marginal distributions. A fatal shock model is given for the resulting distribution. Results in the bivariate case and the concept of constant multivariate hazard rate lead to a continuous distribution related to the multivariate exponential distribution (MVE) of Marshall and Olkin. This distribution is shown to be a special case of the extended Freund-Weinman distribution. A generalization of the bivariate model of Proschan and Sullo leads to a distribution which contains both the extended Freund-Weinman distribution and the MVE

  7. Estimating exponential scheduling preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Katrine; Börjesson, Maria; Engelson, Leonid

    2015-01-01

    distributed independent random variables: Assuming smooth preferences; this holds only for specifications with a constant marginal utility of time at the origin and an exponential or affine marginal utility of time at the destination. We apply a generalized version of this model to stated preference data...... utility of being at the origin. Another issue is that models with the exponential marginal utility formulation suffer from empirical identification problems. Though our results are not decisive, they partly support the constant-affine specification, in which the value of travel time variability...

  8. Modeling the Lag Period and Exponential Growth of Listeria monocytogenes under Conditions of Fluctuating Temperature and Water Activity Values▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Cuevas, Marina; Fernández, Pablo S.; George, Susan; Pin, Carmen

    2010-01-01

    The dynamic model for the growth of a bacterial population described by Baranyi and Roberts (J. Baranyi and T. A. Roberts, Int. J. Food Microbiol. 23:277-294, 1994) was applied to model the lag period and exponential growth of Listeria monocytogenes under conditions of fluctuating temperature and water activity (aw) values. To model the duration of the lag phase, the dependence of the parameter h0, which quantifies the amount of work done during the lag period, on the previous and current environmental conditions was determined experimentally. This parameter depended not only on the magnitude of the change between the previous and current environmental conditions but also on the current growth conditions. In an exponentially growing population, any change in the environment requiring a certain amount of work to adapt to the new conditions initiated a lag period that lasted until that work was finished. Observations for several scenarios in which exponential growth was halted by a sudden change in the temperature and/or aw were in good agreement with predictions. When a population already in a lag period was subjected to environmental fluctuations, the system was reset with a new lag phase. The work to be done during the new lag phase was estimated to be the workload due to the environmental change plus the unfinished workload from the uncompleted previous lag phase. PMID:20208022

  9. Modeling the lag period and exponential growth of Listeria monocytogenes under conditions of fluctuating temperature and water activity values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Cuevas, Marina; Fernández, Pablo S; George, Susan; Pin, Carmen

    2010-05-01

    The dynamic model for the growth of a bacterial population described by Baranyi and Roberts (J. Baranyi and T. A. Roberts, Int. J. Food Microbiol. 23:277-294, 1994) was applied to model the lag period and exponential growth of Listeria monocytogenes under conditions of fluctuating temperature and water activity (a(w)) values. To model the duration of the lag phase, the dependence of the parameter h(0), which quantifies the amount of work done during the lag period, on the previous and current environmental conditions was determined experimentally. This parameter depended not only on the magnitude of the change between the previous and current environmental conditions but also on the current growth conditions. In an exponentially growing population, any change in the environment requiring a certain amount of work to adapt to the new conditions initiated a lag period that lasted until that work was finished. Observations for several scenarios in which exponential growth was halted by a sudden change in the temperature and/or a(w) were in good agreement with predictions. When a population already in a lag period was subjected to environmental fluctuations, the system was reset with a new lag phase. The work to be done during the new lag phase was estimated to be the workload due to the environmental change plus the unfinished workload from the uncompleted previous lag phase.

  10. Simulation of the Two Stages Stretch-Blow Molding Process: Infrared Heating and Blowing Modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordival, M.; Schmidt, F. M.; Le Maoult, Y.; Velay, V.

    2007-01-01

    In the Stretch-Blow Molding (SBM) process, the temperature distribution of the reheated perform affects drastically the blowing kinematic, the bottle thickness distribution, as well as the orientation induced by stretching. Consequently, mechanical and optical properties of the final bottle are closely related to heating conditions. In order to predict the 3D temperature distribution of a rotating preform, numerical software using control-volume method has been developed. Since PET behaves like a semi-transparent medium, the radiative flux absorption was computed using Beer Lambert law. In a second step, 2D axi-symmetric simulations of the SBM have been developed using the finite element package ABAQUS registered . Temperature profiles through the preform wall thickness and along its length were computed and applied as initial condition. Air pressure inside the preform was not considered as an input variable, but was automatically computed using a thermodynamic model. The heat transfer coefficient applied between the mold and the polymer was also measured. Finally, the G'sell law was used for modeling PET behavior. For both heating and blowing stage simulations, a good agreement has been observed with experimental measurements. This work is part of the European project ''APT P ACK'' (Advanced knowledge of Polymer deformation for Tomorrow's PACKaging)

  11. A Combined Experimental and Numerical Modeling Study of the Deformation and Rupture of Axisymmetric Liquid Bridges under Coaxial Stretching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Jinda; Ju, Y Sungtaek

    2015-09-22

    The deformation and rupture of axisymmetric liquid bridges being stretched between two fully wetted coaxial disks are studied experimentally and theoretically. We numerically solve the time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations while tracking the deformation of the liquid-air interface using the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) moving mesh method to fully account for the effects of inertia and viscous forces on bridge dynamics. The effects of the stretching velocity, liquid properties, and liquid volume on the dynamics of liquid bridges are systematically investigated to provide direct experimental validation of our numerical model for stretching velocities as high as 3 m/s. The Ohnesorge number (Oh) of liquid bridges is a primary factor governing the dynamics of liquid bridge rupture, especially the dependence of the rupture distance on the stretching velocity. The rupture distance generally increases with the stretching velocity, far in excess of the static stability limit. For bridges with low Ohnesorge numbers, however, the rupture distance stay nearly constant or decreases with the stretching velocity within certain velocity windows due to the relative rupture position switching and the thread shape change. Our work provides an experimentally validated modeling approach and experimental data to help establish foundation for systematic further studies and applications of liquid bridges.

  12. Mechanistic formulation of a lineal-quadratic-linear (LQL) model: split-dose experiments and exponentially decaying sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Mariana; Carlone, Marco

    2010-08-01

    In recent years, several models were proposed that modify the standard linear-quadratic (LQ) model to make the predicted survival curve linear at high doses. Most of these models are purely phenomenological and can only be applied in the particular case of acute doses per fraction. The authors consider a mechanistic formulation of a linear-quadratic-linear (LQL) model in the case of split-dose experiments and exponentially decaying sources. This model provides a comprehensive description of radiation response for arbitrary dose rate and fractionation with only one additional parameter. The authors use a compartmental formulation of the LQL model from the literature. They analytically solve the model's differential equations for the case of a split-dose experiment and for an exponentially decaying source. They compare the solutions of the survival fraction with the standard LQ equations and with the lethal-potentially lethal (LPL) model. In the case of the split-dose experiment, the LQL model predicts a recovery ratio as a function of dose per fraction that deviates from the square law of the standard LQ. The survival fraction as a function of time between fractions follows a similar exponential law as the LQ but adds a multiplicative factor to the LQ parameter beta. The LQL solution for the split-dose experiment is very close to the LPL prediction. For the decaying source, the differences between the LQL and the LQ solutions are negligible when the half-life of the source is much larger than the characteristic repair time, which is the clinically relevant case. The compartmental formulation of the LQL model can be used for arbitrary dose rates and provides a comprehensive description of dose response. When the survival fraction for acute doses is linear for high dose, a deviation of the square law formula of the recovery ratio for split doses is also predicted.

  13. Mechanistic formulation of a lineal-quadratic-linear (LQL) model: Split-dose experiments and exponentially decaying sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero, Mariana; Carlone, Marco [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21201 (United States) and Department of Radiation Therapy, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Washington, DC 20422 (United States); Princess Margaret Hospital and Peel Regional Cancer Center, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada)

    2010-08-15

    Purpose: In recent years, several models were proposed that modify the standard linear-quadratic (LQ) model to make the predicted survival curve linear at high doses. Most of these models are purely phenomenological and can only be applied in the particular case of acute doses per fraction. The authors consider a mechanistic formulation of a linear-quadratic-linear (LQL) model in the case of split-dose experiments and exponentially decaying sources. This model provides a comprehensive description of radiation response for arbitrary dose rate and fractionation with only one additional parameter. Methods: The authors use a compartmental formulation of the LQL model from the literature. They analytically solve the model's differential equations for the case of a split-dose experiment and for an exponentially decaying source. They compare the solutions of the survival fraction with the standard LQ equations and with the lethal-potentially lethal (LPL) model. Results: In the case of the split-dose experiment, the LQL model predicts a recovery ratio as a function of dose per fraction that deviates from the square law of the standard LQ. The survival fraction as a function of time between fractions follows a similar exponential law as the LQ but adds a multiplicative factor to the LQ parameter {beta}. The LQL solution for the split-dose experiment is very close to the LPL prediction. For the decaying source, the differences between the LQL and the LQ solutions are negligible when the half-life of the source is much larger than the characteristic repair time, which is the clinically relevant case. Conclusions: The compartmental formulation of the LQL model can be used for arbitrary dose rates and provides a comprehensive description of dose response. When the survival fraction for acute doses is linear for high dose, a deviation of the square law formula of the recovery ratio for split doses is also predicted.

  14. On stable exponential cosmological solutions with non-static volume factor in the Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivashchuk, V D; Ernazarov, K K

    2017-01-01

    A ( n + 1)-dimensional gravitational model with cosmological constant and Gauss-Bonnet term is studied. The ansatz with diagonal cosmological metrics is adopted and solutions with exponential dependence of scale factors: a i ∼ exp ( v i t ), i = 1, …, n , are considered. The stability analysis of the solutions with non-static volume factor is presented. We show that the solutions with v 1 = v 2 = v 3 = H > 0 and small enough variation of the effective gravitational constant G are stable if certain restriction on ( v i ) is obeyed. New examples of stable exponential solutions with zero variation of G in dimensions D = 1 + m + 2 with m > 2 are presented. (paper)

  15. Mesoscopic models for DNA stretching under force: New results and comparison with experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manghi, Manoel; Destainville, Nicolas; Palmeri, John

    2012-10-01

    Single-molecule experiments on double-stranded B-DNA stretching have revealed one or two structural transitions, when increasing the external force. They are characterized by a sudden increase of DNA contour length and a decrease of the bending rigidity. The nature and the critical forces of these transitions depend on DNA base sequence, loading rate, salt conditions and temperature. It has been proposed that the first transition, at forces of 60-80 pN, is a transition from B to S-DNA, viewed as a stretched duplex DNA, while the second one, at stronger forces, is a strand peeling resulting in single-stranded DNAs (ssDNA), similar to thermal denaturation. But due to experimental conditions these two transitions can overlap, for instance for poly(dA-dT). In an attempt to propose a coherent picture compatible with this variety of experimental observations, we derive an analytical formula using a coupled discrete worm-like chain-Ising model. Our model takes into account bending rigidity, discreteness of the chain, linear and non-linear (for ssDNA) bond stretching. In the limit of zero force, this model simplifies into a coupled model already developed by us for studying thermal DNA melting, establishing a connection with previous fitting parameter values for denaturation profiles. Our results are summarized as follows: i) ssDNA is fitted, using an analytical formula, over a nano-Newton range with only three free parameters, the contour length, the bending modulus and the monomer size; ii) a surprisingly good fit on this force range is possible only by choosing a monomer size of 0.2 nm, almost 4 times smaller than the ssDNA nucleobase length; iii) mesoscopic models are not able to fit B to ssDNA (or S to ss) transitions; iv) an analytical formula for fitting B to S transitions is derived in the strong force approximation and for long DNAs, which is in excellent agreement with exact transfer matrix calculations; v) this formula fits perfectly well poly(dG-dC) and

  16. Assessment of ex-vitro anaerobic digestion kinetics of crop residues through first order exponential models: effect of lag phase period and curve factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahito, A.R.; Brohi, K.M.

    2013-01-01

    Kinetic studies of AD (Anaerobic Digestion) process are useful to predict the performance of digesters and design appropriate digesters and also helpful in understanding inhibitory mechanisms of biodegradation. The aim of this study was to assess the anaerobic kinetics of crop residues digestion with buffalo dung. Seven crop residues namely, bagasse, banana plant waste, canola straw, cotton stalks, rice straw, sugarcane trash and wheat straw were selected from the field and were analyzed on MC (Moisture Contents), TS (Total Solids) and VS (Volatile Solids) with standard methods. In present study, three first order exponential models namely exponential model, exponential lag phase model and exponential curve factor model were used to assess the kinetics of the AD process of crop residues and the effect of lag phase and curve factor was analyzed based on statistical hypothesis testing and on information theory. Assessment of kinetics of the AD of crop residues and buffalo dung follows the first order kinetics. Out of the three models, the simple exponential model was the poorest model, while the first order exponential curve factor model is the best fit model. In addition to statistical hypothesis testing, the exponential curve factor model has least value of AIC (Akaike's Information Criterion) and can generate methane production data more accurately. Furthermore, there is an inverse linear relationship between the lag phase period and the curve factor. (author)

  17. Mixture-of-exponentials models to explain heterogeneity in studies of the duration of Chlamydia trachomatis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Malcolm J; Ades, A E; Angelis, Daniela De; Welton, Nicky J; Macleod, John; Soldan, Kate; Turner, Katy; Simms, Ian; Horner, Paddy J

    2013-04-30

    Published studies of the duration of asymptomatic Chlamydia trachomatis infection in women have produced diverse estimates, and most reviewers have not attempted an evidence synthesis. We review the designs of duration studies, distinguishing between the incident cases presenting soon after infection in clinic-based studies and prevalent cases ascertained in population screening studies. We combine evidence from all studies under fixed-effect (single clearance rate), random-effect (study-specific clearance rate), and mixture-of-exponentials models, in which there are either two or three classes of infection that clear at different rates. We can identify classes as 'passive' infection and fast-clearing and slow-clearing infections. We estimate models by Bayesian MCMC and compared them using posterior mean residual deviance and the deviance information criterion. The single fixed-effect clearance rate model fitted very poorly. The random-effect model was adequate but inferior to the two-class and three-class mixture of exponentials. According to the two-class model, the proportion in the first class was 23% (95% CI: 16-31%), and the mean duration of C. trachomatis infection is 1.36 years (95% CI: 1.13-1.63 years). With the three-rate model, duration was similar, but identification of the proportions in each class (19%, 31%, and 49%) was poor. Although the random-effect model was descriptively adequate, the extreme degree of between-study variation in the clearance rate it predicted lacked biological plausibility. Differences in study recruitment and sampling mechanisms, acting through a mixture-of-exponentials model, better explains the apparent heterogeneity in duration. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Forecasting Inflow and Outflow of Money Currency in East Java Using a Hybrid Exponential Smoothing and Calendar Variation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susanti, Ana; Suhartono; Jati Setyadi, Hario; Taruk, Medi; Haviluddin; Pamilih Widagdo, Putut

    2018-03-01

    Money currency availability in Bank Indonesia can be examined by inflow and outflow of money currency. The objective of this research is to forecast the inflow and outflow of money currency in each Representative Office (RO) of BI in East Java by using a hybrid exponential smoothing based on state space approach and calendar variation model. Hybrid model is expected to generate more accurate forecast. There are two studies that will be discussed in this research. The first studies about hybrid model using simulation data that contain pattern of trends, seasonal and calendar variation. The second studies about the application of a hybrid model for forecasting the inflow and outflow of money currency in each RO of BI in East Java. The first of results indicate that exponential smoothing model can not capture the pattern calendar variation. It results RMSE values 10 times standard deviation of error. The second of results indicate that hybrid model can capture the pattern of trends, seasonal and calendar variation. It results RMSE values approaching the standard deviation of error. In the applied study, the hybrid model give more accurate forecast for five variables : the inflow of money currency in Surabaya, Malang, Jember and outflow of money currency in Surabaya and Kediri. Otherwise, the time series regression model yields better for three variables : outflow of money currency in Malang, Jember and inflow of money currency in Kediri.

  19. Modeling of cardiac muscle thin films: pre-stretch, passive and active behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Jongmin; Grosberg, Anna; Nawroth, Janna C; Parker, Kevin Kit; Bertoldi, Katia

    2012-03-15

    Recent progress in tissue engineering has made it possible to build contractile bio-hybrid materials that undergo conformational changes by growing a layer of cardiac muscle on elastic polymeric membranes. Further development of such muscular thin films for building actuators and powering devices requires exploring several design parameters, which include the alignment of the cardiac myocytes and the thickness/Young's modulus of elastomeric film. To more efficiently explore these design parameters, we propose a 3-D phenomenological constitutive model, which accounts for both the passive deformation including pre-stretch and the active behavior of the cardiomyocytes. The proposed 3-D constitutive model is implemented within a finite element framework, and can be used to improve the current design of bio-hybrid thin films and help developing bio-hybrid constructs capable of complex conformational changes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Research on the Compression Algorithm of the Infrared Thermal Image Sequence Based on Differential Evolution and Double Exponential Decay Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Yu Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper has proposed a new thermal wave image sequence compression algorithm by combining double exponential decay fitting model and differential evolution algorithm. This study benchmarked fitting compression results and precision of the proposed method was benchmarked to that of the traditional methods via experiment; it investigated the fitting compression performance under the long time series and improved model and validated the algorithm by practical thermal image sequence compression and reconstruction. The results show that the proposed algorithm is a fast and highly precise infrared image data processing method.

  1. Research on the Compression Algorithm of the Infrared Thermal Image Sequence Based on Differential Evolution and Double Exponential Decay Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin-Yu; Meng, Xiang-Bing; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Yong

    2014-01-01

    This paper has proposed a new thermal wave image sequence compression algorithm by combining double exponential decay fitting model and differential evolution algorithm. This study benchmarked fitting compression results and precision of the proposed method was benchmarked to that of the traditional methods via experiment; it investigated the fitting compression performance under the long time series and improved model and validated the algorithm by practical thermal image sequence compression and reconstruction. The results show that the proposed algorithm is a fast and highly precise infrared image data processing method. PMID:24696649

  2. EOQ Model for Deteriorating Items with exponential time dependent Demand Rate under inflation when Supplier Credit Linked to Order Quantity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Prakash Tripathi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In paper (2004 Chang studied an inventory model under a situation in which the supplier provides the purchaser with a permissible delay of payments if the purchaser orders a large quantity. Tripathi (2011 also studied an inventory model with time dependent demand rate under which the supplier provides the purchaser with a permissible delay in payments. This paper is motivated by Chang (2004 and Tripathi (2011 paper extending their model for exponential time dependent demand rate. This study develops an inventory model under which the vendor provides the purchaser with a credit period; if the purchaser orders large quantity. In this chapter, demand rate is taken as exponential time dependent. Shortages are not allowed and effect of the inflation rate has been discussed. We establish an inventory model for deteriorating items if the order quantity is greater than or equal to a predetermined quantity. We then obtain optimal solution for finding optimal order quantity, optimal cycle time and optimal total relevant cost. Numerical examples are given for all different cases. Sensitivity of the variation of different parameters on the optimal solution is also discussed. Mathematica 7 software is used for finding numerical examples.

  3. Modeling Stretching Modes of Common Organic Molecules with the Quantum Mechanical Harmonic Oscillator: An Undergraduate Vibrational Spectroscopy Laboratory Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnis, J. Mark; Thompson, Matthew G. K.

    2004-01-01

    An introductory undergraduate physical organic chemistry exercise that introduces the harmonic oscillator's use in vibrational spectroscopy is developed. The analysis and modeling exercise begins with the students calculating the stretching modes of common organic molecules with the help of the quantum mechanical harmonic oscillator (QMHO) model.

  4. Estimating exponential scheduling preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Katrine; Börjesson, Maria; Engelson, Leonid

    behaviour, based on a theoretical model that has an exponential-exponential specification of H and W and so is more general than the models with the additivity property. We adapt the model to take into account that the marginal utilities of travelling by car and public transport may be different...... drivers commuting to work in the morning in central Stockholm. The survey contains observations of choices between car and public transport travel alternatives, which differ in terms of departure time, monetary cost, and the distribution of travel time. We develop a discrete choice model to describe......Extended abstract Choice of departure time is a travel choice dimension that transportation planners often need to forecast in appraisal. A traveller may shift departure time in response to changes in expected travel time or travel time variability (TTV) or in response to time...

  5. Exponential vanishing of the ground-state gap of the quantum random energy model via adiabatic quantum computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adame, J.; Warzel, S.

    2015-01-01

    In this note, we use ideas of Farhi et al. [Int. J. Quantum. Inf. 6, 503 (2008) and Quantum Inf. Comput. 11, 840 (2011)] who link a lower bound on the run time of their quantum adiabatic search algorithm to an upper bound on the energy gap above the ground-state of the generators of this algorithm. We apply these ideas to the quantum random energy model (QREM). Our main result is a simple proof of the conjectured exponential vanishing of the energy gap of the QREM

  6. Additivity of statistical moments in the exponentially modified Gaussian model of chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howerton, Samuel B.; Lee Chomin; McGuffin, Victoria L.

    2002-01-01

    A homologous series of saturated fatty acids ranging from C 10 to C 22 was separated by reversed-phase capillary liquid chromatography. The resultant zone profiles were found to be fit best by an exponentially modified Gaussian (EMG) function. To compare the EMG function and statistical moments for the analysis of the experimental zone profiles, a series of simulated profiles was generated by using fixed values for retention time and different values for the symmetrical (σ) and asymmetrical (τ) contributions to the variance. The simulated profiles were modified with respect to the integration limits, the number of points, and the signal-to-noise ratio. After modification, each profile was analyzed by using statistical moments and an iteratively fit EMG equation. These data indicate that the statistical moment method is much more susceptible to error when the degree of asymmetry is large, when the integration limits are inappropriately chosen, when the number of points is small, and when the signal-to-noise ratio is small. The experimental zone profiles were then analyzed by using the statistical moment and EMG methods. Although care was taken to minimize the sources of error discussed above, significant differences were found between the two methods. The differences in the second moment suggest that the symmetrical and asymmetrical contributions to broadening in the experimental zone profiles are not independent. As a consequence, the second moment is not equal to the sum of σ 2 and τ 2 , as is commonly assumed. This observation has important implications for the elucidation of thermodynamic and kinetic information from chromatographic zone profiles

  7. Simulations of a stretching bar using a plasticity model from the shear transformation zone theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rycroft, Chris H.; Gibou, Frederic

    2010-06-05

    An Eulerian simulation is developed to study an elastoplastic model of amorphous materials that is based upon the shear transformation zone theory developed by Langer and coworkers. In this theory, plastic deformation is controlled by an effective temperature that measures the amount of configurational disorder in the material. The simulation is used to model ductile fracture in a stretching bar that initially contains a small notch, and the effects of many of the model parameters are examined. The simulation tracks the shape of the bar using the level set method. Within the bar, a finite difference discretization is employed that makes use of the essentially non-oscillatory (ENO) scheme. The system of equations is moderately stiff due to the presence of large elastic constants, and one of the key numerical challenges is to accurately track the level set and construct extrapolated field values for use in boundary conditions. A new approach to field extrapolation is discussed that is second order accurate and requires a constant amount of work per gridpoint.

  8. Effective Simulation Strategy of Multiscale Flows using a Lattice Boltzmann model with a Stretched Lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahia, Eman; Premnath, Kannan

    2017-11-01

    Resolving multiscale flow physics (e.g. for boundary layer or mixing layer flows) effectively generally requires the use of different grid resolutions in different coordinate directions. Here, we present a new formulation of a multiple relaxation time (MRT)-lattice Boltzmann (LB) model for anisotropic meshes. It is based on a simpler and more stable non-orthogonal moment basis while the use of MRT introduces additional flexibility, and the model maintains a stream-collide procedure; its second order moment equilibria are augmented with additional velocity gradient terms dependent on grid aspect ratio that fully restores the required isotropy of the transport coefficients of the normal and shear stresses. Furthermore, by introducing additional cubic velocity corrections, it maintains Galilean invariance. The consistency of this stretched lattice based LB scheme with the Navier-Stokes equations is shown via a Chapman-Enskog expansion. Numerical study for a variety of benchmark flow problems demonstrate its ability for accurate and effective simulations at relatively high Reynolds numbers. The MRT-LB scheme is also shown to be more stable compared to prior LB models for rectangular grids, even for grid aspect ratios as small as 0.1 and for Reynolds numbers of 10000.

  9. An Exponential Tilt Mixture Model for Time-to-Event Data to Evaluate Treatment Effect Heterogeneity in Randomized Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chi; Tan, Zhiqiang; Louis, Thomas A

    2014-01-01

    Evaluating the effect of a treatment on a time-to-event outcome is the focus of many randomized clinical trials. It is often observed that the treatment effect is heterogeneous, where only a subgroup of the patients may respond to the treatment due to some unknown mechanism such as genetic polymorphism. In this paper, we propose a semiparametric exponential tilt mixture model to estimate the proportion of patients who respond to the treatment and to assess the treatment effect. Our model is a natural extension of parametric mixture models to a semiparametric setting with a time-to-event outcome. We propose a nonparametric maximum likelihood estimation approach for inference and establish related asymptotic properties. Our method is illustrated by a randomized clinical trial on biodegradable polymer-delivered chemotherapy for malignant gliomas patients.

  10. Interaction Graphs: Exponentials

    OpenAIRE

    Seiller, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This paper is the fourth of a series exposing a systematic combinatorial approach to Girard's Geometry of Interaction program. This program aims at obtaining particular realizability models for linear logic that accounts for the dynamics of cut-elimination. This fourth paper tackles the complex issue of defining exponential connectives in this framework. In order to succeed in this, we use the notion of graphings, a generalization of graphs which was defined in earlier work. We explain how we...

  11. Computable error estimates of a finite difference scheme for option pricing in exponential Lévy models

    KAUST Repository

    Kiessling, Jonas

    2014-05-06

    Option prices in exponential Lévy models solve certain partial integro-differential equations. This work focuses on developing novel, computable error approximations for a finite difference scheme that is suitable for solving such PIDEs. The scheme was introduced in (Cont and Voltchkova, SIAM J. Numer. Anal. 43(4):1596-1626, 2005). The main results of this work are new estimates of the dominating error terms, namely the time and space discretisation errors. In addition, the leading order terms of the error estimates are determined in a form that is more amenable to computations. The payoff is only assumed to satisfy an exponential growth condition, it is not assumed to be Lipschitz continuous as in previous works. If the underlying Lévy process has infinite jump activity, then the jumps smaller than some (Formula presented.) are approximated by diffusion. The resulting diffusion approximation error is also estimated, with leading order term in computable form, as well as the dependence of the time and space discretisation errors on this approximation. Consequently, it is possible to determine how to jointly choose the space and time grid sizes and the cut off parameter (Formula presented.). © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

  12. Improvement of mobility edge model by using new density of states with exponential tail for organic diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad Ammar Khan; Sun Jiu-Xun

    2015-01-01

    The mobility edge (ME) model with single Gaussian density of states (DOS) is simplified based on the recent experimental results about the Einstein relationship. The free holes are treated as being non-degenerate, and the trapped holes are dealt with as being degenerate. This enables the integral for the trapped holes to be easily realized in a program. The J–V curves are obtained through solving drift-diffusion equations. When this model is applied to four organic diodes, an obvious deviation between theoretical curves and experimental data is observed. In order to solve this problem, a new DOS with exponential tail is proposed. The results show that the consistence between J–V curves and experimental data based on a new DOS is far better than that based on the Gaussian DOS. The variation of extracted mobility with temperature can be well described by the Arrhenius relationship. (paper)

  13. Prenatal stretching exercise and autonomic responses: preliminary data and a model for reducing preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, SeonAe

    2010-06-01

    Preeclampsia is a leading cause of perinatal mortality and morbidity, and it increases maternal risk for future cardiovascular disease. The purpose of the study was to explore the relationships among stretching exercise, autonomic cardiac response, and the development of preeclampsia. Secondary data analysis. Heart rate and pulse pressure were longitudinally examined in this secondary data analysis among women who engaged in stretching exercise daily from 18 weeks of gestation to the end of pregnancy compared with women who did walking exercise daily during the same time period. A total of 124 women were randomized to either stretching (n=60) or walking (n=64) in the parent study. Heart rates in the stretching group were consistently lower than those in the walking group. Based on the results of this secondary data analyses, a physiologic framework for possible beneficial effects of stretching exercise by enhancing autonomic responses on reducing risks for preeclampsia is proposed and discussed. If the protective effect is established, stretching exercise can be translated into nursing intervention for prenatal care.

  14. A partial exponential lumped parameter model to evaluate groundwater age distributions and nitrate trends in long-screened wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurgens, Bryant; Böhlke, John Karl; Kauffman, Leon J.; Belitz, Kenneth; Esser, Bradley K.

    2016-01-01

    A partial exponential lumped parameter model (PEM) was derived to determine age distributions and nitrate trends in long-screened production wells. The PEM can simulate age distributions for wells screened over any finite interval of an aquifer that has an exponential distribution of age with depth. The PEM has 3 parameters – the ratio of saturated thickness to the top and bottom of the screen and mean age, but these can be reduced to 1 parameter (mean age) by using well construction information and estimates of the saturated thickness. The PEM was tested with data from 30 production wells in a heterogeneous alluvial fan aquifer in California, USA. Well construction data were used to guide parameterization of a PEM for each well and mean age was calibrated to measured environmental tracer data (3H, 3He, CFC-113, and 14C). Results were compared to age distributions generated for individual wells using advective particle tracking models (PTMs). Age distributions from PTMs were more complex than PEM distributions, but PEMs provided better fits to tracer data, partly because the PTMs did not simulate 14C accurately in wells that captured varying amounts of old groundwater recharged at lower rates prior to groundwater development and irrigation. Nitrate trends were simulated independently of the calibration process and the PEM provided good fits for at least 11 of 24 wells. This work shows that the PEM, and lumped parameter models (LPMs) in general, can often identify critical features of the age distributions in wells that are needed to explain observed tracer data and nonpoint source contaminant trends, even in systems where aquifer heterogeneity and water-use complicate distributions of age. While accurate PTMs are preferable for understanding and predicting aquifer-scale responses to water use and contaminant transport, LPMs can be sensitive to local conditions near individual wells that may be inaccurately represented or missing in an aquifer-scale flow model.

  15. Specification and Estimation of Network Formation and Network Interaction Models with the Exponential Probability Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Hsieh, Chih-Sheng; Lee, Lung fei

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we model network formation and network interactions under a unified framework. The key feature of our model is to allow individuals to respond to incentives stemming from interaction benefits on certain activities when they choose friends (network links), while capturing homophily in terms of unobserved characteristic variables in network formation and activities. There are two advantages of this modeling approach: first, one can evaluate whether incentives from certain interac...

  16. A Computer-Assisted Learning Model Based on the Digital Game Exponential Reward System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Man-Ki; Jahng, Surng-Gahb; Kim, Tae-Yong

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this research was to construct a motivational model which would stimulate voluntary and proactive learning using digital game methods offering players more freedom and control. The theoretical framework of this research lays the foundation for a pedagogical learning model based on digital games. We analyzed the game reward system, which…

  17. Exponentiated Weibull distribution approach based inflection S-shaped software reliability growth model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.B. Sagar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to estimate the number of defects in software and remove them successfully. This paper incorporates Weibull distribution approach along with inflection S-shaped Software Reliability Growth Models (SRGM. In this combination two parameter Weibull distribution methodology is used. Relative Prediction Error (RPE is calculated to predict the validity criterion of the developed model. Experimental results on actual data from five data sets are compared with two other existing models, which expose that the proposed software reliability growth model predicts better estimation to remove the defects. This paper presents best software reliability growth model with including feature of both Weibull distribution and inflection S-shaped SRGM to estimate the defects of software system, and provide help to researchers and software industries to develop highly reliable software products.

  18. Stochastic Simulation of a Full-Chain Reptation Model with Constraint Release, Chain-Length Fluctuations and Chain Stretching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Jesper; Schieber, Jay D.

    1999-01-01

    A self-consistent reptation model that includes chain stretching, chain-length fluctuations, segment connectivity and constraint release is used to predict transient and steady flows. Quantitative comparisons are made with entangledsolution data. The model is able to capture quantitatively all...... for differentmolecular weight, the transient and steady-state behavior of the extinction angle, and the stress relaxation in cessation of steady shear flow....

  19. On stability of exponential cosmological solutions with non-static volume factor in the Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivashchuk, V.D.

    2016-01-01

    A (n + 1)-dimensional gravitational model with Gauss-Bonnet term and a cosmological constant term is considered. When ansatz with diagonal cosmological metrics is adopted, the solutions with an exponential dependence of the scale factors, a i ∝ exp(v i t), i = 1,.., n, are analyzed for n > 3. We study the stability of the solutions with non-static volume factor, i.e. K(v) = sum k=1 n v k ≠ 0. We prove that under a certain restriction R imposed solutions with K(v) > 0 are stable, while solutions with K(v) < 0 are unstable. Certain examples of stable solutions are presented. We show that the solutions with v 1 = v 2 = v 3 = H > 0 and zero variation of the effective gravitational constant are stable if the restriction R is obeyed. (orig.)

  20. On stability of exponential cosmological solutions with non-static volume factor in the Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivashchuk, V.D. [VNIIMS, Center for Gravitation and Fundamental Metrology, Moscow (Russian Federation); Peoples' Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University), Institute of Gravitation and Cosmology, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-15

    A (n + 1)-dimensional gravitational model with Gauss-Bonnet term and a cosmological constant term is considered. When ansatz with diagonal cosmological metrics is adopted, the solutions with an exponential dependence of the scale factors, a{sub i} ∝ exp(v{sup i}t), i = 1,.., n, are analyzed for n > 3. We study the stability of the solutions with non-static volume factor, i.e. K(v) = sum {sub k=1}{sup n} v{sup k} ≠ 0. We prove that under a certain restriction R imposed solutions with K(v) > 0 are stable, while solutions with K(v) < 0 are unstable. Certain examples of stable solutions are presented. We show that the solutions with v{sup 1} = v{sup 2} = v{sup 3} = H > 0 and zero variation of the effective gravitational constant are stable if the restriction R is obeyed. (orig.)

  1. Exponential sinusoidal model for predicting temperature inside underground wine cellars from a Spanish region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazarron, Fernando R.; Canas, Ignacio [Departamento de Construccion y Vias Rurales, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Agronomos, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Avda. Complutense s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2008-07-01

    This article develops a mathematical model for determining the annual cycle of air temperature inside traditional underground wine cellars in the Spanish region of ''Ribera del Duero'', known because of the quality of its wines. It modifies the sinusoidal analytical model for soil temperature calculation. Results obtained when contrasting the proposed model with experimental data of three subterranean wine cellars for 2 years are satisfactory. The RMSE is below 1 C and the index of agreement is above 0.96 for the three cellars. When using the average of experimental data corresponding to the 2 years' time, results improve noticeably: the RMSE decreases by more than 30% and the mean d reaches 0.99. This model should be a useful tool for designing underground wine cellars making the most of soil energy advantages. (author)

  2. Quantitative Analysis of Memristance Defined Exponential Model for Multi-bits Titanium Dioxide Memristor Memory Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAOUD, A. A. D.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The ability to store multiple bits in a single memristor based memory cell is a key feature for high-capacity memory packages. Studying multi-bit memristor circuits requires high accuracy in modelling the memristance change. A memristor model based on a novel definition of memristance is proposed. A design of a single memristor memory cell using the proposed model for the platinum electrodes titanium dioxide memristor is illustrated. A specific voltage pulse is used with varying its parameters (amplitude or pulse width to store different number of states in a single memristor. New state variation parameters associated with the utilized model are provided and their effects on write and read processes of memristive multi-states are analysed. PSPICE simulations are also held, and they show a good agreement with the data obtained from the analysis.

  3. Parametric exponentially correlated surface emission model for L-band passive microwave soil moisture retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surface soil moisture is an important parameter in hydrology and climate investigations. Current and future satellite missions with L-band passive microwave radiometers can provide valuable information for monitoring the global soil moisture. A factor that can play a significant role in the modeling...

  4. Inventory Model for Deteriorating Items Involving Fuzzy with Shortages and Exponential Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmila Vijai Stanly

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the fuzzy inventory model for deteriorating items for power demand under fully backlogged conditions. We define various factors which are affecting the inventory cost by using the shortage costs. An intention of this paper is to study the inventory modelling through fuzzy environment. Inventory parameters, such as holding cost, shortage cost, purchasing cost and deterioration cost are assumed to be the trapezoidal fuzzy numbers. In addition, an efficient algorithm is developed to determine the optimal policy, and the computational effort and time are small for the proposed algorithm. It is simple to implement, and our approach is illustrated through some numerical examples to demonstrate the application and the performance of the proposed methodology.

  5. Bayesian exponential random graph modeling of whole-brain structural networks across lifespan

    OpenAIRE

    Sinke, Michel R T; Dijkhuizen, Rick M; Caimo, Alberto; Stam, Cornelis J; Otte, Wim

    2016-01-01

    Descriptive neural network analyses have provided important insights into the organization of structural and functional networks in the human brain. However, these analyses have limitations for inter-subject or between-group comparisons in which network sizes and edge densities may differ, such as in studies on neurodevelopment or brain diseases. Furthermore, descriptive neural network analyses lack an appropriate generic null model and a unifying framework. These issues may be solved with an...

  6. An approximation to the adaptive exponential integrate-and-fire neuron model allows fast and predictive fitting to physiological data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loreen eHertäg

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available For large-scale network simulations, it is often desirable to have computationally tractable, yet in a defined sense still physiologically valid neuron models. In particular, these models should be able to reproduce physiological measurements, ideally in a predictive sense, and under different input regimes in which neurons may operate in vivo. Here we present an approach to parameter estimation for a simple spiking neuron model mainly based on standard f-I curves obtained from in vitro recordings. Such recordings are routinely obtained in standard protocols and assess a neuron's response under a wide range of mean input currents. Our fitting procedure makes use of closed-form expressions for the firing rate derived from an approximation to the adaptive exponential integrate-and-fire (AdEx model. The resulting fitting process is simple and about two orders of magnitude faster compared to methods based on numerical integration of the differential equations. We probe this method on different cell types recorded from rodent prefrontal cortex. After fitting to the f-I current-clamp data, the model cells are tested on completely different sets of recordings obtained by fluctuating ('in-vivo-like' input currents. For a wide range of different input regimes, cell types, and cortical layers, the model could predict spike times on these test traces quite accurately within the bounds of physiological reliability, although no information from these distinct test sets was used for model fitting. Further analyses delineated some of the empirical factors constraining model fitting and the model's generalization performance. An even simpler adaptive LIF neuron was also examined in this context. Hence, we have developed a 'high-throughput' model fitting procedure which is simple and fast, with good prediction performance, and which relies only on firing rate information and standard physiological data widely and easily available.

  7. Lake Area Analysis Using Exponential Smoothing Model and Long Time-Series Landsat Images in Wuhan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonghao Duan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The loss of lake area significantly influences the climate change in a region, and this loss represents a serious and unavoidable challenge to maintaining ecological sustainability under the circumstances of lakes that are being filled. Therefore, mapping and forecasting changes in the lake is critical for protecting the environment and mitigating ecological problems in the urban district. We created an accessible map displaying area changes for 82 lakes in the Wuhan city using remote sensing data in conjunction with visual interpretation by combining field data with Landsat 2/5/7/8 Thematic Mapper (TM time-series images for the period 1987–2013. In addition, we applied a quadratic exponential smoothing model to forecast lake area changes in Wuhan city. The map provides, for the first time, estimates of lake development in Wuhan using data required for local-scale studies. The model predicted a lake area reduction of 18.494 km2 in 2015. The average error reached 0.23 with a correlation coefficient of 0.98, indicating that the model is reliable. The paper provided a numerical analysis and forecasting method to provide a better understanding of lake area changes. The modeling and mapping results can help assess aquatic habitat suitability and property planning for Wuhan lakes.

  8. Neurophysiological bases of exponential sensory decay and top-down memory retrieval: a model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Zylberberg

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral observations suggest that multiple sensory elements can be maintained for a short time, forming a perceptual buffer which fades after a few hundred milliseconds. Only a subset of this perceptual buffer can be accessed under top-down control and broadcasted to working memory and consciousness. In turn, single-cell studies in awake-behaving monkeys have identified two distinct waves of response to a sensory stimulus: a first transient response largely determined by stimulus properties and a second wave dependent on behavioral relevance, context and learning. Here we propose a simple biophysical scheme which bridges these observations and establishes concrete predictions for neurophsyiological experiments in which the temporal interval between stimulus presentation and top-down allocation is controlled experimentally. Inspired in single-cell observations, the model involves a first transient response and a second stage of amplification and retrieval, which are implemented biophysically by distinct operational modes of the same circuit, regulated by external currents. We explicitly investigated the neuronal dynamics, the memory trace of a presented stimulus and the probability of correct retrieval, when these two stages were bracketed by a temporal gap. The model predicts correctly the dependence of performance with response times in interference experiments suggesting that sensory buffering does not require a specific dedicated mechanism and establishing a direct link between biophysical manipulations and behavioral observations leading to concrete predictions.

  9. Following a trend with an exponential moving average: Analytical results for a Gaussian model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebenkov, Denis S.; Serror, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    We investigate how price variations of a stock are transformed into profits and losses (P&Ls) of a trend following strategy. In the frame of a Gaussian model, we derive the probability distribution of P&Ls and analyze its moments (mean, variance, skewness and kurtosis) and asymptotic behavior (quantiles). We show that the asymmetry of the distribution (with often small losses and less frequent but significant profits) is reminiscent to trend following strategies and less dependent on peculiarities of price variations. At short times, trend following strategies admit larger losses than one may anticipate from standard Gaussian estimates, while smaller losses are ensured at longer times. Simple explicit formulas characterizing the distribution of P&Ls illustrate the basic mechanisms of momentum trading, while general matrix representations can be applied to arbitrary Gaussian models. We also compute explicitly annualized risk adjusted P&L and strategy turnover to account for transaction costs. We deduce the trend following optimal timescale and its dependence on both auto-correlation level and transaction costs. Theoretical results are illustrated on the Dow Jones index.

  10. A Nonlinear Super-Exponential Rational Model of Speculative Financial Bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sornette, D.; Andersen, J. V.

    Keeping a basic tenet of economic theory, rational expectations, we model the nonlinear positive feedback between agents in the stock market as an interplay between nonlinearity and multiplicative noise. The derived hyperbolic stochastic finite-time singularity formula transforms a Gaussian white noise into a rich time series possessing all the stylized facts of empirical prices, as well as accelerated speculative bubbles preceding crashes. We use the formula to invert the two years of price history prior to the recent crash on the Nasdaq (April 2000) and prior to the crash in the Hong Kong market associated with the Asian crisis in early 1994. These complex price dynamics are captured using only one exponent controlling the explosion, the variance and mean of the underlying random walk. This offers a new and powerful detection tool of speculative bubbles and herding behavior.

  11. Artificial intelligence and exponential technologies business models evolution and new investment opportunities

    CERN Document Server

    Corea, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence is a huge breakthrough technology that is changing our world. It requires some degrees of technical skills to be developed and understood, so in this book we are going to first of all define AI and categorize it with a non-technical language. We will explain how we reached this phase and what historically happened to artificial intelligence in the last century. Recent advancements in machine learning, neuroscience, and artificial intelligence technology will be addressed, and new business models introduced for and by artificial intelligence research will be analyzed. Finally, we will describe the investment landscape, through the quite comprehensive study of almost 14,000 AI companies and we will discuss important features and characteristics of both AI investors as well as investments. This is the “Internet of Thinks” era. AI is revolutionizing the world we live in. It is augmenting the human experiences, and it targets to amplify human intelligence in a future not so distant from...

  12. An exponential distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2009-01-01

    In this presentation author deals with the probabilistic evaluation of product life on the example of the exponential distribution. The exponential distribution is special one-parametric case of the weibull distribution.

  13. Modeling the epidemic of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease demonstrates an exponential increase in burden of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Chris; Razavi, Homie; Loomba, Rohit; Younossi, Zobair; Sanyal, Arun J

    2018-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and resulting nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are highly prevalent in the United States, where they are a growing cause of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and increasingly an indicator for liver transplantation. A Markov model was used to forecast NAFLD disease progression. Incidence of NAFLD was based on historical and projected changes in adult prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Assumptions were derived from published literature where available and validated using national surveillance data for incidence of NAFLD-related HCC. Projected changes in NAFLD-related cirrhosis, advanced liver disease, and liver-related mortality were quantified through 2030. Prevalent NAFLD cases are forecasted to increase 21%, from 83.1 million (2015) to 100.9 million (2030), while prevalent NASH cases will increase 63% from 16.52 million to 27.00 million cases. Overall NAFLD prevalence among the adult population (aged ≥15 years) is projected at 33.5% in 2030, and the median age of the NAFLD population will increase from 50 to 55 years during 2015-2030. In 2015, approximately 20% of NAFLD cases were classified as NASH, increasing to 27% by 2030, a reflection of both disease progression and an aging population. Incidence of decompensated cirrhosis will increase 168% to 105,430 cases by 2030, while incidence of HCC will increase by 137% to 12,240 cases. Liver deaths will increase 178% to an estimated 78,300 deaths in 2030. During 2015-2030, there are projected to be nearly 800,000 excess liver deaths. With continued high rates of adult obesity and DM along with an aging population, NAFLD-related liver disease and mortality will increase in the United States. Strategies to slow the growth of NAFLD cases and therapeutic options are necessary to mitigate disease burden. (Hepatology 2018;67:123-133). © 2017 The Authors. Hepatology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc., on behalf of the American Association for

  14. An exponential growth model with decreasing r captures bottom-up effects on the population growth of Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costamagna, A.C.; Werf, van der W.; Bianchi, F.J.J.A.; Landis, D.A.

    2007-01-01

    1 There is ample evidence that the life history and population dynamics of aphids are closely linked to plant phenology. Based on life table studies, it has been proposed that the growth of aphid populations could be modeled with an exponential growth model, with r decreasing linearly with time.

  15. Ammonium removal from aqueous solutions by clinoptilolite: determination of isotherm and thermodynamic parameters and comparison of kinetics by the double exponential model and conventional kinetic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosun, Ismail

    2012-03-01

    The adsorption isotherm, the adsorption kinetics, and the thermodynamic parameters of ammonium removal from aqueous solution by using clinoptilolite in aqueous solution was investigated in this study. Experimental data obtained from batch equilibrium tests have been analyzed by four two-parameter (Freundlich, Langmuir, Tempkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R)) and four three-parameter (Redlich-Peterson (R-P), Sips, Toth and Khan) isotherm models. D-R and R-P isotherms were the models that best fitted to experimental data over the other two- and three-parameter models applied. The adsorption energy (E) from the D-R isotherm was found to be approximately 7 kJ/mol for the ammonium-clinoptilolite system, thereby indicating that ammonium is adsorbed on clinoptilolite by physisorption. Kinetic parameters were determined by analyzing the nth-order kinetic model, the modified second-order model and the double exponential model, and each model resulted in a coefficient of determination (R(2)) of above 0.989 with an average relative error lower than 5%. A Double Exponential Model (DEM) showed that the adsorption process develops in two stages as rapid and slow phase. Changes in standard free energy (∆G°), enthalpy (∆H°) and entropy (∆S°) of ammonium-clinoptilolite system were estimated by using the thermodynamic equilibrium coefficients.

  16. Intravoxel incoherent motion diffusion-weighted imaging in the liver: comparison of mono-, bi- and tri-exponential modelling at 3.0-T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cercueil, Jean-Pierre; Petit, Jean-Michel; Nougaret, Stephanie; Pierredon-Foulongne, Marie-Ange; Schembri, Valentina; Delhom, Elisabeth; Guiu, Boris; Soyer, Philippe; Fohlen, Audrey; Schmidt, Sabine; Denys, Alban; Aho, Serge

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether a mono-, bi- or tri-exponential model best fits the intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) signal of normal livers. The pilot and validation studies were conducted in 38 and 36 patients with normal livers, respectively. The DWI sequence was performed using single-shot echoplanar imaging with 11 (pilot study) and 16 (validation study) b values. In each study, data from all patients were used to model the IVIM signal of normal liver. Diffusion coefficients (D i ± standard deviations) and their fractions (f i ± standard deviations) were determined from each model. The models were compared using the extra sum-of-squares test and information criteria. The tri-exponential model provided a better fit than both the bi- and mono-exponential models. The tri-exponential IVIM model determined three diffusion compartments: a slow (D 1 = 1.35 ± 0.03 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s; f 1 = 72.7 ± 0.9 %), a fast (D 2 = 26.50 ± 2.49 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s; f 2 = 13.7 ± 0.6 %) and a very fast (D 3 = 404.00 ± 43.7 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s; f 3 = 13.5 ± 0.8 %) diffusion compartment [results from the validation study]. The very fast compartment contributed to the IVIM signal only for b values ≤15 s/mm 2 The tri-exponential model provided the best fit for IVIM signal decay in the liver over the 0-800 s/mm 2 range. In IVIM analysis of normal liver, a third very fast (pseudo)diffusion component might be relevant. (orig.)

  17. Universality in stochastic exponential growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer-Biswas, Srividya; Crooks, Gavin E; Scherer, Norbert F; Dinner, Aaron R

    2014-07-11

    Recent imaging data for single bacterial cells reveal that their mean sizes grow exponentially in time and that their size distributions collapse to a single curve when rescaled by their means. An analogous result holds for the division-time distributions. A model is needed to delineate the minimal requirements for these scaling behaviors. We formulate a microscopic theory of stochastic exponential growth as a Master Equation that accounts for these observations, in contrast to existing quantitative models of stochastic exponential growth (e.g., the Black-Scholes equation or geometric Brownian motion). Our model, the stochastic Hinshelwood cycle (SHC), is an autocatalytic reaction cycle in which each molecular species catalyzes the production of the next. By finding exact analytical solutions to the SHC and the corresponding first passage time problem, we uncover universal signatures of fluctuations in exponential growth and division. The model makes minimal assumptions, and we describe how more complex reaction networks can reduce to such a cycle. We thus expect similar scalings to be discovered in stochastic processes resulting in exponential growth that appear in diverse contexts such as cosmology, finance, technology, and population growth.

  18. Extended Poisson Exponential Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anum Fatima

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A new mixture of Modified Exponential (ME and Poisson distribution has been introduced in this paper. Taking the Maximum of Modified Exponential random variable when the sample size follows a zero truncated Poisson distribution we have derived the new distribution, named as Extended Poisson Exponential distribution. This distribution possesses increasing and decreasing failure rates. The Poisson-Exponential, Modified Exponential and Exponential distributions are special cases of this distribution. We have also investigated some mathematical properties of the distribution along with Information entropies and Order statistics of the distribution. The estimation of parameters has been obtained using the Maximum Likelihood Estimation procedure. Finally we have illustrated a real data application of our distribution.

  19. A Variable-Resolution Stretched-Grid General Circulation Model and Data Assimilation System with Multiple Areas of Interest: Studying the Anomalous Regional Climate Events of 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox-Rabinovitz, Michael S.; Takacs, Lawrence; Govindaraju, Ravi C.; Atlas, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The new stretched-grid design with multiple (four) areas of interest, one at each global quadrant, is implemented into both a stretched-grid GCM (general circulation model) and a stretched-grid data assimilation system (DAS). The four areas of interest include: the U.S./Northern Mexico, the El Nino area/Central South America, India/China, and the Eastern Indian Ocean/Australia. Both the stretched-grid GCM and DAS annual (November 1997 through December 1998) integrations are performed with 50 km regional resolution. The efficient regional down-scaling to mesoscales is obtained for each of the four areas of interest while the consistent interactions between regional and global scales and the high quality of global circulation, are preserved. This is the advantage of the stretched-grid approach. The global variable resolution DAS incorporating the stretched-grid GCM has been developed and tested as an efficient tool for producing regional analyses and diagnostics with enhanced mesoscale resolution. The anomalous regional climate events of 1998 that occurred over the U.S., Mexico, South America, China, India, African Sahel, and Australia are investigated in both simulation and data assimilation modes. Tree assimilated products are also used, along with gauge precipitation data, for validating the simulation results. The obtained results show that the stretched-grid GCM and DAS are capable of producing realistic high quality simulated and assimilated products at mesoscale resolution for regional climate studies and applications.

  20. Developing a Stretching Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, J E

    1981-11-01

    In brief: Although stretching exercises can prevent muscle injuries and enhance athletic performance, they can also cause injury. The author explains the four most common types of stretching exercises and explains why he considers static stretching the safest. He also sets up a stretching routine for runners. In setting up a safe stretching program, one should (1) precede stretching exercises with a mild warm-up; (2) use static stretching; (3) stretch before and after a workout; (4) begin with mild and proceed to moderate exercises; (5) alternate exercises for muscle groups; (6) stretch gently and slowly until tightness, not pain, is felt; and (7) hold the position for 30 to 60 seconds.

  1. Phenomenology of stochastic exponential growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirjol, Dan; Jafarpour, Farshid; Iyer-Biswas, Srividya

    2017-06-01

    Stochastic exponential growth is observed in a variety of contexts, including molecular autocatalysis, nuclear fission, population growth, inflation of the universe, viral social media posts, and financial markets. Yet literature on modeling the phenomenology of these stochastic dynamics has predominantly focused on one model, geometric Brownian motion (GBM), which can be described as the solution of a Langevin equation with linear drift and linear multiplicative noise. Using recent experimental results on stochastic exponential growth of individual bacterial cell sizes, we motivate the need for a more general class of phenomenological models of stochastic exponential growth, which are consistent with the observation that the mean-rescaled distributions are approximately stationary at long times. We show that this behavior is not consistent with GBM, instead it is consistent with power-law multiplicative noise with positive fractional powers. Therefore, we consider this general class of phenomenological models for stochastic exponential growth, provide analytical solutions, and identify the important dimensionless combination of model parameters, which determines the shape of the mean-rescaled distribution. We also provide a prescription for robustly inferring model parameters from experimentally observed stochastic growth trajectories.

  2. Stretch Sensor Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The invention relates to a method for determining stretch values and movement of body parts, e.g. a foot, by analysing stretch data from a stretch sensor. By analysing data from the stretch sensor it is possible to determine stretch samples which are associated with particular motion phases...

  3. Advantage of make-to-stock strategy based on linear mixed-effect model: a comparison with regression, autoregressive, times series, and exponential smoothing models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Pin Liao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In the past few decades, demand forecasting has become relatively difficult due to rapid changes in the global environment. This research illustrates the use of the make-to-stock (MTS production strategy in order to explain how forecasting plays an essential role in business management. The linear mixed-effect (LME model has been extensively developed and is widely applied in various fields. However, no study has used the LME model for business forecasting. We suggest that the LME model be used as a tool for prediction and to overcome environment complexity. The data analysis is based on real data in an international display company, where the company needs accurate demand forecasting before adopting a MTS strategy. The forecasting result from the LME model is compared to the commonly used approaches, including the regression model, autoregressive model, times series model, and exponential smoothing model, with the results revealing that prediction performance provided by the LME model is more stable than using the other methods. Furthermore, product types in the data are regarded as a random effect in the LME model, hence demands of all types can be predicted simultaneously using a single LME model. However, some approaches require splitting the data into different type categories, and then predicting the type demand by establishing a model for each type. This feature also demonstrates the practicability of the LME model in real business operations.

  4. Optimization of the output of a solar cell per theoretical and experimental study of the models to one and two exponential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benyoucef B.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The production of electricity based on the conversion of the sunlight by photovoltaic cells containing crystalline silicon is the way most used on the technological and industrial level Consequently, the development of the terrestrial applications for the energy production requires high-output cells and low cost.The aim of our work is to present a comparative study between both theoretical and experimental models of a solar cell based silicon type PHYWE (connecting four cells in series of 80 mm diameter to improve photovoltaic performance.This study led to the determination of the parameters of the cell starting from the current-voltage characteristic, the influence of luminous flow on this characteristic as well as the effect of the incidental photons on the solar cell. We justify the interest to use the model with two exponential for the optimization of the output by underlining the insufficiency of the model to one exponential.

  5. Cattaneo-Christov Heat Flux Model for MHD Three-Dimensional Flow of Maxwell Fluid over a Stretching Sheet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khansa Rubab

    Full Text Available This letter investigates the MHD three-dimensional flow of upper-convected Maxwell (UCM fluid over a bi-directional stretching surface by considering the Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model. This model has tendency to capture the characteristics of thermal relaxation time. The governing partial differential equations even after employing the boundary layer approximations are non linear. Accurate analytic solutions for velocity and temperature distributions are computed through well-known homotopy analysis method (HAM. It is noticed that velocity decreases and temperature rises when stronger magnetic field strength is accounted. Penetration depth of temperature is a decreasing function of thermal relaxation time. The analysis for classical Fourier heat conduction law can be obtained as a special case of the present work. To our knowledge, the Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model law for three-dimensional viscoelastic flow problem is just introduced here.

  6. Cattaneo-Christov Heat Flux Model for MHD Three-Dimensional Flow of Maxwell Fluid over a Stretching Sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubab, Khansa; Mustafa, M

    2016-01-01

    This letter investigates the MHD three-dimensional flow of upper-convected Maxwell (UCM) fluid over a bi-directional stretching surface by considering the Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model. This model has tendency to capture the characteristics of thermal relaxation time. The governing partial differential equations even after employing the boundary layer approximations are non linear. Accurate analytic solutions for velocity and temperature distributions are computed through well-known homotopy analysis method (HAM). It is noticed that velocity decreases and temperature rises when stronger magnetic field strength is accounted. Penetration depth of temperature is a decreasing function of thermal relaxation time. The analysis for classical Fourier heat conduction law can be obtained as a special case of the present work. To our knowledge, the Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model law for three-dimensional viscoelastic flow problem is just introduced here.

  7. An exponential chemorheological model for viscosity dependence on degree-of-cure of a polyfurfuryl alcohol resin during the post-gel curing stage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dominguez, J.C.; Oliet, M.; Alonso, María Virginia

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the chemorheological behavior of a bio-based polyfurfuryl alcohol (PFA) resin has been determined by rheological isothermal tests at different curing temperatures for the post-gel curing stage of the resin, using three different amounts of catalyst (2, 4 and 6 wt %). Instead...... of modeling the evolution of the complex viscosity using a widely used chemorheological model such as the Arrhenius model for each tested temperature, the change of the complex viscosity as a function of the degree-of-cure was predicted using a new exponential type model. In this model, the logarithm...

  8. Statistical analysis of time-resolved emission from ensembles of semiconductor quantum dots: Interpretation of exponential decay models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Driel, A.F.; Nikolaev, I.S.; Vergeer, P.

    2007-01-01

    We present a statistical analysis of time-resolved spontaneous emission decay curves from ensembles of emitters, such as semiconductor quantum dots, with the aim of interpreting ubiquitous non-single-exponential decay. Contrary to what is widely assumed, the density of excited emitters and the in......We present a statistical analysis of time-resolved spontaneous emission decay curves from ensembles of emitters, such as semiconductor quantum dots, with the aim of interpreting ubiquitous non-single-exponential decay. Contrary to what is widely assumed, the density of excited emitters...... decay component is multiplied by its radiative decay rate. A central result of our paper is the derivation of the emission decay curve when both radiative and nonradiative decays are independently distributed. In this case, the well-known emission quantum efficiency can no longer be expressed...... by a single number, but is also distributed. We derive a practical description of non-single-exponential emission decay curves in terms of a single distribution of decay rates; the resulting distribution is identified as the distribution of total decay rates weighted with the radiative rates. We apply our...

  9. A mathematical model for mixed convective flow of chemically reactive Oldroyd-B fluid between isothermal stretching disks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Hashmi

    Full Text Available In this study, we have constructed a mathematical model to investigate the heat source/sink effects in mixed convection axisymmetric flow of an incompressible, electrically conducting Oldroyd-B fluid between two infinite isothermal stretching disks. The effects of viscous dissipation and Joule heating are also considered in the heat equation. The governing partial differential equations are converted into ordinary differential equations by using appropriate similarity variables. The series solution of these dimensionless equations is constructed by using homotopy analysis method. The convergence of the obtained solution is carefully examined. The effects of various involved parameters on pressure, velocity and temperature profiles are comprehensively studied. A graphical analysis has been presented for various values of problem parameters. The numerical values of wall shear stress and Nusselt number are computed at both upper and lower disks. Moreover, a graphical and tabular explanation for critical values of Frank-Kamenetskii regarding other flow parameters. Keywords: Isothermal stretching disk, Mixed convection, Viscous dissipation, Joule heating

  10. Generalization of the normal-exponential model: exploration of a more accurate parametrisation for the signal distribution on Illumina BeadArrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plancade, Sandra; Rozenholc, Yves; Lund, Eiliv

    2012-12-11

    Illumina BeadArray technology includes non specific negative control features that allow a precise estimation of the background noise. As an alternative to the background subtraction proposed in BeadStudio which leads to an important loss of information by generating negative values, a background correction method modeling the observed intensities as the sum of the exponentially distributed signal and normally distributed noise has been developed. Nevertheless, Wang and Ye (2012) display a kernel-based estimator of the signal distribution on Illumina BeadArrays and suggest that a gamma distribution would represent a better modeling of the signal density. Hence, the normal-exponential modeling may not be appropriate for Illumina data and background corrections derived from this model may lead to wrong estimation. We propose a more flexible modeling based on a gamma distributed signal and a normal distributed background noise and develop the associated background correction, implemented in the R-package NormalGamma. Our model proves to be markedly more accurate to model Illumina BeadArrays: on the one hand, it is shown on two types of Illumina BeadChips that this model offers a more correct fit of the observed intensities. On the other hand, the comparison of the operating characteristics of several background correction procedures on spike-in and on normal-gamma simulated data shows high similarities, reinforcing the validation of the normal-gamma modeling. The performance of the background corrections based on the normal-gamma and normal-exponential models are compared on two dilution data sets, through testing procedures which represent various experimental designs. Surprisingly, we observe that the implementation of a more accurate parametrisation in the model-based background correction does not increase the sensitivity. These results may be explained by the operating characteristics of the estimators: the normal-gamma background correction offers an improvement

  11. An Unusual Exponential Graph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, M. Qasim; Lovatt, Ian

    2014-01-01

    This paper is an addition to the series of papers on the exponential function begun by Albert Bartlett. In particular, we ask how the graph of the exponential function y = e[superscript -t/t] would appear if y were plotted versus ln t rather than the normal practice of plotting ln y versus t. In answering this question, we find a new way to…

  12. Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Todorova, Tamara

    2010-01-01

    Exponential functions find applications in economics in relation to growth and economic dynamics. In these fields, quite often the choice variable is time and economists are trying to determine the best timing for certain economic activities to take place. An exponential function is one in which the independent variable appears in the exponent. Very often that exponent is time. In highly mathematical courses, it is a truism that students learn by doing, not by reading. Tamara Todorova’s Pr...

  13. Autoregressive processes with exponentially decaying probability distribution functions: applications to daily variations of a stock market index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Markus; Roman, H Eduardo

    2002-04-01

    We consider autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (ARCH) processes in which the variance sigma(2)(y) depends linearly on the absolute value of the random variable y as sigma(2)(y) = a+b absolute value of y. While for the standard model, where sigma(2)(y) = a + b y(2), the corresponding probability distribution function (PDF) P(y) decays as a power law for absolute value of y-->infinity, in the linear case it decays exponentially as P(y) approximately exp(-alpha absolute value of y), with alpha = 2/b. We extend these results to the more general case sigma(2)(y) = a+b absolute value of y(q), with 0 process is taken into account, the resulting PDF becomes a stretched exponential even for q = 1, with a stretched exponent beta = 2/3, in a much better agreement with the empirical data.

  14. Estimation of the systemic burden of plutonium from urinary excretion data and a multi-exponential model for excretion in comparison with autopsy data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, S.R.; Nestor, C.W.

    1985-01-01

    The authors have adapted other's method for computing the systemic burden from urinary excretion data to use a multi-exponential model (2) for excretion, rather than Langham's power function. The mathematical basis of Synder's method is the representation of the systemic burden as the convolution integral of the observed urinary excretion data with the inverse Laplace transform of the excretion function; in the case of urinary excretion of plutonium, the power function has a Laplace transform, but for other elements (notably uranium) it does not. If the method is to be used for other radioisotopes, the excretion function must have a Laplace transform, and for this reason we have used a multi-exponential form of the excretion function. They have written a computer program to calculate estimates of the systemic burden and the integrated intake from urinary excretion data, and have compared the results with two cases for which autopsy data are available, as presented in this paper

  15. Stable exponential cosmological solutions with zero variation of G and three different Hubble-like parameters in the Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet model with a Λ-term

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernazarov, K.K. [RUDN University, Institute of Gravitation and Cosmology, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ivashchuk, V.D. [RUDN University, Institute of Gravitation and Cosmology, Moscow (Russian Federation); VNIIMS, Center for Gravitation and Fundamental Metrology, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-06-15

    We consider a D-dimensional gravitational model with a Gauss-Bonnet term and the cosmological term Λ. We restrict the metrics to diagonal cosmological ones and find for certain Λ a class of solutions with exponential time dependence of three scale factors, governed by three non-coinciding Hubble-like parameters H > 0, h{sub 1} and h{sub 2}, corresponding to factor spaces of dimensions m > 2, k{sub 1} > 1 and k{sub 2} > 1, respectively, with k{sub 1} ≠ k{sub 2} and D = 1 + m + k{sub 1} + k{sub 2}. Any of these solutions describes an exponential expansion of 3d subspace with Hubble parameter H and zero variation of the effective gravitational constant G. We prove the stability of these solutions in a class of cosmological solutions with diagonal metrics. (orig.)

  16. Stable exponential cosmological solutions with zero variation of G in the Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet model with a Λ-term

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernazarov, K.K. [RUDN University, Institute of Gravitation and Cosmology, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ivashchuk, V.D. [RUDN University, Institute of Gravitation and Cosmology, Moscow (Russian Federation); Center for Gravitation and Fundamental Metrology, VNIIMS, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-02-15

    A D-dimensional gravitational model with a Gauss-Bonnet term and the cosmological term Λ is considered. By assuming diagonal cosmological metrics, we find, for a certain fine-tuned Λ, a class of solutions with exponential time dependence of two scale factors, governed by two Hubble-like parameters H > 0 and h < 0, corresponding to factor spaces of dimensions m > 3 and l > 1, respectively, with (m,l) ≠ (6,6), (7,4), (9,3) and D = 1+m+l. Any of these solutions describes an exponential expansion of three-dimensional subspace with Hubble parameter H and zero variation of the effective gravitational constant G. We prove the stability of these solutions in a class of cosmological solutions with diagonal metrics. (orig.)

  17. A mathematical model for mixed convective flow of chemically reactive Oldroyd-B fluid between isothermal stretching disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashmi, M. S.; Khan, N.; Ullah Khan, Sami; Rashidi, M. M.

    In this study, we have constructed a mathematical model to investigate the heat source/sink effects in mixed convection axisymmetric flow of an incompressible, electrically conducting Oldroyd-B fluid between two infinite isothermal stretching disks. The effects of viscous dissipation and Joule heating are also considered in the heat equation. The governing partial differential equations are converted into ordinary differential equations by using appropriate similarity variables. The series solution of these dimensionless equations is constructed by using homotopy analysis method. The convergence of the obtained solution is carefully examined. The effects of various involved parameters on pressure, velocity and temperature profiles are comprehensively studied. A graphical analysis has been presented for various values of problem parameters. The numerical values of wall shear stress and Nusselt number are computed at both upper and lower disks. Moreover, a graphical and tabular explanation for critical values of Frank-Kamenetskii regarding other flow parameters.

  18. Wallerian degeneration in the optic nerve stretch-injury model of traumatic brain injury: a stereological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, William L; Bartlett, Emma; Morgan, Hanna

    2015-06-01

    Patients with chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) show loss of central white matter, central gray matter, and cortical gray matter with increasing post-traumatic survival. The majority of experimental studies using animals have, however, discussed only the ultrastructural pathophysiology of injured central white matter leading to secondary axotomy and the formation of axonal terminal bulbs. Using the stretch-injured optic nerve model in adult guinea pigs, the present study provides novel quantitative data concerning Wallerian degeneration of disconnected axonal fragments following secondary axotomy out to 12 weeks after injury to an optic nerve. The time course of Wallerian degeneration at the level of an individual nerve fiber is comparable to that reported in earlier studies over 48 h to two weeks after secondary axotomy. But only a relatively small proportion of nerve fibers within the optic tract degenerate via Wallerian degeneration during the first two weeks. Rather, examples of each of the three stages of Wallerian degeneration-acute axonal degeneration, latency of the distal axonal segment, and granular fragmentation-occur within the optic tract across the entire experimental survival of 12 weeks used in the present study. This data suggests that some nerve fibers initiate Wallerian degeneration days and weeks after the initial time of mechanical injury to an optic nerve. The number of intact nerve fibers continues to fall over at least three months after injury in the stretch-injury model of traumatic axonal injury. It is suggested that these novel findings relate to the mechanism(s) whereby central white matter volume decreases over months and years in CTE patients.

  19. A modified variable physical properties model, for analyzing nanofluids flow and heat transfer over nonlinearly stretching sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooria Akbarzadeh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the problem of laminar nanofluid flow which results from the nonlinear stretching of a flat sheet is investigated numerically. In this paper, a modified variable physical properties model for analyzing nanofluids flow and heat transfer is introduced. In this model, the effective viscosity, density, and thermal conductivity of the solid-liquid mixture (nanofluids which are commonly utilized in the homogenous single-phase model, are locally combined with the prevalent single-phase model. A numerical similarity solution is considered which depends on the local Prandtl number, local Brownian motion number, local Lewis number, and local thermophoresis number. The results are compared to the prevalent single-phase model. This comparison depicts that the prevalent single-phase model has a considerable deviation for predicting the behavior of nanofluids flow especially in dimensionless temperature and nanoparticle volume fraction. In addition the effect of the governing parameters such as Prandtl number, the Brownian motion number, the thermophoresis parameter, the Lewis number, and etc. on the velocity, temperature, and volume fraction distribution and the dimensionless heat and mass transfer rates are examined.

  20. Wegner estimate and localization for alloy-type models with sign-changing exponentially decaying single-site potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Karsten; Peyerimhoff, Norbert; Tautenhahn, Martin; Veselić, Ivan

    2015-05-01

    We study Schrödinger operators on L2(ℝd) and ℓ2(ℤd) with a random potential of alloy-type. The single-site potential is assumed to be exponentially decaying but not necessarily of fixed sign. In the continuum setting, we require a generalized step-function shape. Wegner estimates are bounds on the average number of eigenvalues in an energy interval of finite box restrictions of these types of operators. In the described situation, a Wegner estimate, which is polynomial in the volume of the box and linear in the size of the energy interval, holds. We apply the established Wegner estimate as an ingredient for a localization proof via multiscale analysis.

  1. Deviations from exponential decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petridis, Athanasios; Staunton, Lawrence; Luban, Marshall; Vermedahl, Jon

    2003-10-01

    We study deviations from exponetial decay in cases when the initial wavefunction is set in a potential well and is not an eigenstate of this potential. We numerically solve the time-dependent Schroedinger equation and observe a decaying but oscillatory behavior of the survival probability. Analytical calculations have been performed proving that even in the case of a simple finite square-well potential deviations from exponential decay persist for large times. Possible explanations for the limiting exponential decay for many-particle systems are developed.

  2. Exponentially Stabilizing Robot Control Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, John T.; Bayard, David S.

    1990-01-01

    New class of exponentially stabilizing laws for joint-level control of robotic manipulators introduced. In case of set-point control, approach offers simplicity of proportion/derivative control architecture. In case of tracking control, approach provides several important alternatives to completed-torque method, as far as computational requirements and convergence. New control laws modified in simple fashion to obtain asymptotically stable adaptive control, when robot model and/or payload mass properties unknown.

  3. Stretching Safely and Effectively

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of stretching before or after hitting the trail, ballet floor or soccer field. Before you plunge into ... ballistic stretching on strength and muscular fatigue of ballet dancers and resistance-trained women. Journal of Strength ...

  4. [pi] Backbonding in Carbonyl Complexes and Carbon-Oxygen Stretching Frequencies: A Molecular Modeling Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Craig D.

    2007-01-01

    An exercise is described that has illustrated the effect of various factors on [pi] backbonding to carbonyl ligands, where the students can view the molecular orbitals corresponding to the M-CO [pi] interaction as well as the competing interaction between the metal and co-ligands. The visual and hands-on nature of the modeling exercise has helped…

  5. Using Exponential Random Graph Models to Analyze the Character of Peer Relationship Networks and Their Effects on the Subjective Well-being of Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Can; Wang, Ting; Liu, Jianxin; Wu, Huanjie; Cui, Fang; Peng, Xiaozhe

    2017-01-01

    The influences of peer relationships on adolescent subjective well-being were investigated within the framework of social network analysis, using exponential random graph models as a methodological tool. The participants in the study were 1,279 students (678 boys and 601 girls) from nine junior middle schools in Shenzhen, China. The initial stage of the research used a peer nomination questionnaire and a subjective well-being scale (used in previous studies) to collect data on the peer relationship networks and the subjective well-being of the students. Exponential random graph models were then used to explore the relationships between students with the aim of clarifying the character of the peer relationship networks and the influence of peer relationships on subjective well being. The results showed that all the adolescent peer relationship networks in our investigation had positive reciprocal effects, positive transitivity effects and negative expansiveness effects. However, none of the relationship networks had obvious receiver effects or leaders. The adolescents in partial peer relationship networks presented similar levels of subjective well-being on three dimensions (satisfaction with life, positive affects and negative affects) though not all network friends presented these similarities. The study shows that peer networks can affect an individual's subjective well-being. However, whether similarities among adolescents are the result of social influences or social choices needs further exploration, including longitudinal studies that investigate the potential processes of subjective well-being similarities among adolescents.

  6. It's a dark, dark world: background evolution of interacting φCDM models beyond simple exponential potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Suprit; Singh, Parminder, E-mail: ssingh2@physics.du.ac.in, E-mail: psingh@physics.du.ac.in [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, University Road, University Enclave, New Delhi 110 007 (India)

    2016-05-01

    We study the background cosmological dynamics with a three component source content: a radiation fluid, a barotropic fluid to mimic the matter sector and a single scalar field which can act as dark energy giving rise to the late-time accelerated phase. Using the well-known dimensionless variables, we cast the dynamical equations into an autonomous system of ordinary differential equations (ASODE), which are studied by computing the fixed points and the conditions for their stability. The matter fluid and the scalar field are taken to be uncoupled at first and later, we consider a coupling between the two of the form Q = √(2/3)κβρ{sub m} φ̇ where ρ{sub m} is the barotropic fluid density. The key point of our analysis is that for the closure of ASODE, we only demand that the jerk, Γ = V V ''/ V '{sup 2} is a function of acceleration, z = −M{sub p}V'/V, that is, Γ = 1+ f ( z ). In this way, we are able to accommodate a large class of potentials that goes beyond the simple exponential potentials. The analysis is completely generic and independent of the form of the potential for the scalar field. As an illustration and confirmation of the analysis, we consider f ( z ) of the forms μ/ z {sup 2}, μ/ z , (μ− z )/ z {sup 2} and (μ− z ) to numerically compute the evolution of cosmological parameters with and without coupling. Implications of the approach and the results are discussed.

  7. Three-dimensional flow of a nanofluid over a permeable stretching/shrinking surface with velocity slip: A revised model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusoh, R.; Nazar, R.; Pop, I.

    2018-03-01

    A reformulation of the three-dimensional flow of a nanofluid by employing Buongiorno's model is presented. A new boundary condition is implemented in this study with the assumption of nanoparticle mass flux at the surface is zero. This condition is practically more realistic since the nanoparticle fraction at the boundary is latently controlled. This study is devoted to investigate the impact of the velocity slip and suction to the flow and heat transfer characteristics of nanofluid. The governing partial differential equations corresponding to the momentum, energy, and concentration are reduced to the ordinary differential equations by utilizing the appropriate transformation. Numerical solutions of the ordinary differential equations are obtained by using the built-in bvp4c function in Matlab. Graphical illustrations displaying the physical influence of the several nanofluid parameters on the flow velocity, temperature, and nanoparticle volume fraction profiles, as well as the skin friction coefficient and the local Nusselt number are provided. The present study discovers the existence of dual solutions at a certain range of parameters. Surprisingly, both of the solutions merge at the stretching sheet indicating that the presence of the velocity slip affects the skin friction coefficients. Stability analysis is carried out to determine the stability and reliability of the solutions. It is found that the first solution is stable while the second solution is not stable.

  8. Twist and Stretch of Helices Explained via the Kirchhoff-Love Rod Model of Elastic Filaments

    KAUST Repository

    Đuričković, Bojan

    2013-09-05

    In various single-molecule experiments, a chiral polymer, such as DNA, is simultaneously pulled and twisted. We address an elementary but fundamental question raised by various authors: does the molecule overwind or unwind under tension? We show that within the context of the classic Kirchhoff-Love rod model of elastic filaments, both behaviors are possible, depending on the precise constitutive relations of the polymer. More generally, our analysis provides an effective linear response theory for helical structures that relates axial force and axial torque to axial translation and rotation. © 2013 American Physical Society.

  9. Simulating the characteristics of tropical cyclones over the South West Indian Ocean using a Stretched-Grid Global Climate Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maoyi, Molulaqhooa L.; Abiodun, Babatunde J.; Prusa, Joseph M.; Veitch, Jennifer J.

    2018-03-01

    Tropical cyclones (TCs) are one of the most devastating natural phenomena. This study examines the capability of a global climate model with grid stretching (CAM-EULAG, hereafter CEU) in simulating the characteristics of TCs over the South West Indian Ocean (SWIO). In the study, CEU is applied with a variable increment global grid that has a fine horizontal grid resolution (0.5° × 0.5°) over the SWIO and coarser resolution (1° × 1°—2° × 2.25°) over the rest of the globe. The simulation is performed for the 11 years (1999-2010) and validated against the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) best track data, global precipitation climatology project (GPCP) satellite data, and ERA-Interim (ERAINT) reanalysis. CEU gives a realistic simulation of the SWIO climate and shows some skill in simulating the spatial distribution of TC genesis locations and tracks over the basin. However, there are some discrepancies between the observed and simulated climatic features over the Mozambique channel (MC). Over MC, CEU simulates a substantial cyclonic feature that produces a higher number of TC than observed. The dynamical structure and intensities of the CEU TCs compare well with observation, though the model struggles to produce TCs with a deep pressure centre as low as the observed. The reanalysis has the same problem. The model captures the monthly variation of TC occurrence well but struggles to reproduce the interannual variation. The results of this study have application in improving and adopting CEU for seasonal forecasting over the SWIO.

  10. Transient filament stretching rheometer II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolte, Mette Irene; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Hassager, Ole

    1997-01-01

    The Lagrangian sspecification is used to simulate the transient stretching filament rheometer. Simulations are performed for dilute PIB-solutions modeled as a four mode Oldroyd-B fluid and a semidilute PIB-solution modeled as a non-linear single integral equation. The simulations are compared...

  11. Network clustering analysis using mixture exponential-family random graph models and its application in genetic interaction data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yishu; Zhao, Hongyu; Deng, Minghua; Fang, Huaying; Yang, Dejie

    2017-08-24

    Epistatic miniarrary profile (EMAP) studies have enabled the mapping of large-scale genetic interaction networks and generated large amounts of data in model organisms. It provides an incredible set of molecular tools and advanced technologies that should be efficiently understanding the relationship between the genotypes and phenotypes of individuals. However, the network information gained from EMAP cannot be fully exploited using the traditional statistical network models. Because the genetic network is always heterogeneous, for example, the network structure features for one subset of nodes are different from those of the left nodes. Exponentialfamily random graph models (ERGMs) are a family of statistical models, which provide a principled and flexible way to describe the structural features (e.g. the density, centrality and assortativity) of an observed network. However, the single ERGM is not enough to capture this heterogeneity of networks. In this paper, we consider a mixture ERGM (MixtureEGRM) networks, which model a network with several communities, where each community is described by a single EGRM.

  12. Stretched Wire Mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowden, Gordon; /SLAC

    2005-09-06

    Stretched wires are beginning to play an important role in the alignment of accelerators and synchrotron light sources. Stretched wires are proposed for the alignment of the 130 meter long LCLS undulator. Wire position technology has reached sub-micron resolution yet analyses of perturbations to wire straightness are hard to find. This paper considers possible deviations of stretched wire from the simple 2-dimensional catenary form.

  13. When Economic Growth is Less than Exponential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Christian; Koch, Karl-Josef; Steger, Thomas M.

    This paper argues that growth theory needs a more general notion of "regularity" than that of exponential growth. We suggest that paths along which the rate of decline of the growth rate is proportional to the growth rate itself deserve attention. This opens up for considering a richer set...... of parameter combinations than in standard growth models. And it avoids the usual oversimplistic dichotomy of either exponential growth or stagnation. Allowing zero population growth in three different growth models (the Jones R&D-based model, a learning-by-doing model, and an embodied technical change model......) serve as illustrations that a continuum of "regular" growth processes fill the whole range between exponential growth and complete stagnation....

  14. When economic growth is less than exponential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Christian; Koch, Karl-Josef; Steger, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    This paper argues that growth theory needs a more general notion of "regularity" than that of exponential growth. We suggest that paths along which the rate of decline of the growth rate is proportional to the growth rate itself deserve attention. This opens up for considering a richer set...... of parameter combinations than in standard growth models. And it avoids the usual oversimplistic dichotomy of either exponential growth or stagnation. Allowing zero population growth in three different growth models (the Jones R&D-based model, a learning-by-doing model, and an embodied technical change model......) serves as illustration that a continuum of "regular" growth processes fill the whole range between exponential growth and complete stagnation....

  15. Predictive Abuse Detection for a PLC Smart Lighting Network Based on Automatically Created Models of Exponential Smoothing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Andrysiak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the basic elements of a Smart City is the urban infrastructure management system, in particular, systems of intelligent street lighting control. However, for their reliable operation, they require special care for the safety of their critical communication infrastructure. This article presents solutions for the detection of different kinds of abuses in network traffic of Smart Lighting infrastructure, realized by Power Line Communication technology. Both the structure of the examined Smart Lighting network and its elements are described. The article discusses the key security problems which have a direct impact on the correct performance of the Smart Lighting critical infrastructure. In order to detect an anomaly/attack, we proposed the usage of a statistical model to obtain forecasting intervals. Then, we calculated the value of the differences between the forecast in the estimated traffic model and its real variability so as to detect abnormal behavior (which may be symptomatic of an abuse attempt. Due to the possibility of appearance of significant fluctuations in the real network traffic, we proposed a procedure of statistical models update which is based on the criterion of interquartile spacing. The results obtained during the experiments confirmed the effectiveness of the presented misuse detection method.

  16. Stretch-induced nerve injury: a proposed technique for the study of nerve regeneration and evaluation of the influence of gabapentin on this model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Machado

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The rat models currently employed for studies of nerve regeneration present distinct disadvantages. We propose a new technique of stretch-induced nerve injury, used here to evaluate the influence of gabapentin (GBP on nerve regeneration. Male Wistar rats (300 g; n=36 underwent surgery and exposure of the median nerve in the right forelimbs, either with or without nerve injury. The technique was performed using distal and proximal clamps separated by a distance of 2 cm and a sliding distance of 3 mm. The nerve was compressed and stretched for 5 s until the bands of Fontana disappeared. The animals were evaluated in relation to functional, biochemical and histological parameters. Stretching of the median nerve led to complete loss of motor function up to 12 days after the lesion (P<0.001, compared to non-injured nerves, as assessed in the grasping test. Grasping force in the nerve-injured animals did not return to control values up to 30 days after surgery (P<0.05. Nerve injury also caused an increase in the time of sensory recovery, as well as in the electrical and mechanical stimulation tests. Treatment of the animals with GBP promoted an improvement in the morphometric analysis of median nerve cross-sections compared with the operated vehicle group, as observed in the area of myelinated fibers or connective tissue (P<0.001, in the density of myelinated fibers/mm2 (P<0.05 and in the degeneration fragments (P<0.01. Stretch-induced nerve injury seems to be a simple and relevant model for evaluating nerve regeneration.

  17. Development of an aerosol-chemistry transport model coupled to non-hydrostatic icosahedral atmospheric model (NICAM) through applying a stretched grid system to regional simulations around Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, D.; Nakajima, T.; Masaki, S.

    2014-12-01

    Air pollution has a great impact on both climate change and human health. One effective way to tackle with these issues is a use of atmospheric aerosol-chemistry models with high-resolution in a global scale. For this purpose, we have developed an aerosol-chemistry model based on a global cloud-resolving model (GCRM), Nonhydrostatic Icosahedral Atmospheric Model (NICAM; Tomita and Satoh, Fluid. Dyn. Res. 2004; Satoh et al., J. Comput. Phys. 2008, PEPS, 2014) under MEXT/RECCA/SALSA project. In the present study, we have simulated aerosols and tropospheric ozone over Japan by our aerosol-chemistry model "NICAM-Chem" with a stretched-grid system of approximately 10 km resolution, for saving the computer resources. The aerosol and chemistry modules are based on Spectral Radiation-Transport Model for Aerosol Species (SPRINTARS; Takemura et al., J. Geophys. Res., 2005) and Chemical AGCM for Study of Atmospheric Environment and Radiative Forcing (CHASER; Sudo et al., J. Geophys. Res., 2002). We found that our model can generally reproduce both aerosols and ozone, in terms of temporal variations (daily variations of aerosols and diurnal variations of ozone). Under MEXT/RECCA/SALSA project, we also have used these results obtained by NICAM-Chem for the assessment of their impact on human health.

  18. Minimal variance hedging of natural gas derivatives in exponential Lévy models: Theory and empirical performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewald, Christian-Oliver; Nawar, Roy; Siu, Tak Kuen

    2013-01-01

    We consider the problem of hedging European options written on natural gas futures, in a market where prices of traded assets exhibit jumps, by trading in the underlying asset. We provide a general expression for the hedging strategy which minimizes the variance of the terminal hedging error, in terms of stochastic integral representations of the payoffs of the options involved. This formula is then applied to compute hedge ratios for common options in various models with jumps, leading to easily computable expressions. As a benchmark we take the standard Black–Scholes and Merton delta hedges. We show that in natural gas option markets minimal variance hedging with underlying consistently outperform the benchmarks by quite a margin. - Highlights: ► We derive hedging strategies for European type options written on natural gas futures. ► These are tested empirically using Henry Hub natural gas futures and options data. ► We find that our hedges systematically outperform classical benchmarks

  19. Cessation of biomechanical stretch model of C2C12 cells models myocyte atrophy and anaplerotic changes in metabolism using non-targeted metabolomics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilaiwy, Amro; Quintana, Megan T; Bain, James R; Muehlbauer, Michael J; Brown, David I; Stansfield, William E; Willis, Monte S

    2016-10-01

    Studies of skeletal muscle disuse, either in patients on bed rest or experimentally in animals (immobilization), have demonstrated that decreased protein synthesis is common, with transient parallel increases in protein degradation. Muscle disuse atrophy involves a process of transition from slow to fast myosin fiber types. A shift toward glycolysis, decreased capacity for fat oxidation, and substrate accumulation in atrophied muscles have been reported, as has accommodation of the liver with an increased gluconeogenic capacity. Recent studies have modeled skeletal muscle disuse by using cyclic stretch of differentiated myotubes (C2C12), which mimics the loading pattern of mature skeletal muscle, followed by cessation of stretch. We utilized this model to determine the metabolic changes using non-targeted metabolomics analysis of the media. We identified increases in amino acids resulting from muscle atrophy-induced protein degradation (largely sarcomere) that occurs with muscle atrophy that are involved in feeding the Kreb's cycle through anaplerosis. Specifically, we identified increased alanine/proline metabolism (significantly elevated proline, alanine, glutamine, and asparagine) and increased α-ketoglutaric acid, the proposed Kreb's cycle intermediate being fed by the alanine/proline metabolic anaplerotic mechanism. Additionally, several unique pathways not clearly delineated in previous studies of muscle unloading were seen, including: (1) elevated keto-acids derived from branched chain amino acids (i.e. 2-ketoleucine and 2-keovaline), which feed into a metabolic pathway supplying acetyl-CoA and 2-hydroxybutyrate (also significantly increased); and (2) elevated guanine, an intermediate of purine metabolism, was seen at 12h unloading. Given the interest in targeting different aspects of the ubiquitin proteasome system to inhibit protein degradation, this C2C12 system may allow the identification of direct and indirect alterations in metabolism due to

  20. Coarse Grained Exponential Variational Autoencoders

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Ke

    2017-02-25

    Variational autoencoders (VAE) often use Gaussian or category distribution to model the inference process. This puts a limit on variational learning because this simplified assumption does not match the true posterior distribution, which is usually much more sophisticated. To break this limitation and apply arbitrary parametric distribution during inference, this paper derives a \\\\emph{semi-continuous} latent representation, which approximates a continuous density up to a prescribed precision, and is much easier to analyze than its continuous counterpart because it is fundamentally discrete. We showcase the proposition by applying polynomial exponential family distributions as the posterior, which are universal probability density function generators. Our experimental results show consistent improvements over commonly used VAE models.

  1. Test Exponential Pile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fermi, Enrico

    The Patent contains an extremely detailed description of an atomic pile employing natural uranium as fissile material and graphite as moderator. It starts with the discussion of the theory of the intervening phenomena, in particular the evaluation of the reproduction or multiplication factor, K, that is the ratio of the number of fast neutrons produced in one generation by the fissions to the original number of fast neutrons, in a system of infinite size. The possibility of having a self-maintaining chain reaction in a system of finite size depends both on the facts that K is greater than unity and the overall size of the system is sufficiently large to minimize the percentage of neutrons escaping from the system. After the description of a possible realization of such a pile (with many detailed drawings), the various kinds of neutron losses in a pile are depicted. Particularly relevant is the reported "invention" of the exponential experiment: since theoretical calculations can determine whether or not a chain reaction will occur in a give system, but can be invalidated by uncertainties in the parameters of the problem, an experimental test of the pile is proposed, aimed at ascertaining if the pile under construction would be divergent (i.e. with a neutron multiplication factor K greater than 1) by making measurements on a smaller pile. The idea is to measure, by a detector containing an indium foil, the exponential decrease of the neutron density along the length of a column of uranium-graphite lattice, where a neutron source is placed near its base. Such an exponential decrease is greater or less than that expected due to leakage, according to whether the K factor is less or greater than 1, so that this experiment is able to test the criticality of the pile, its accuracy increasing with the size of the column. In order to perform this measure a mathematical description of the effect of neutron production, diffusion, and absorption on the neutron density in the

  2. Stretching: Does It Help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardiman, Phillip; Carrand, David; Gallagher, Philip M.

    2010-01-01

    Stretching prior to activity is universally accepted as an important way to improve performance and help prevent injury. Likewise, limited flexibility has been shown to decrease functional ability and predispose a person to injuries. Although this is commonly accepted, appropriate stretching for children and adolescents involved with sports and…

  3. Botulinum Neurotoxin A Injections Influence Stretching of the Gastrocnemius Muscle-Tendon Unit in an Animal Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haubruck, Patrick; Mannava, Sandeep; Plate, Johannes F.; Callahan, Michael F.; Wiggins, Walter F.; Schmidmaier, Gerhard; Tuohy, Christopher J.; Saul, Katherine R.; Smith, Thomas L.

    2012-01-01

    Botulinum Neurotoxin A (BoNT-A) injections have been used for the treatment of muscle contractures and spasticity. This study assessed the influence of (BoNT-A) injections on passive biomechanical properties of the muscle-tendon unit. Mousegastrocnemius muscle (GC) was injected with BoNT-A (n = 18) or normal saline (n = 18) and passive, non-destructive, in vivo load relaxation experimentation was performed to examine how the muscle-tendon unit behaves after chemical denervation with BoNT-A. Injection of BoNT-A impaired passive muscle recovery (15% vs. 35% recovery to pre-stretching baseline, p stretch reflex; thereby modulating in vivo passive muscle properties. However, it is also possible that BoNT-A injection may alter the structure of skeletal muscle; thus modulating the in vivo passive biomechanical properties of the muscle-tendon unit. PMID:23012650

  4. Dynamic stretching is effective as static stretching at increasing flexibility

    OpenAIRE

    Coons, John M.; Gould, Colleen E.; Kim, Jwa K.; Farley, Richard S.; Caputo, Jennifer L.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effect of dynamic and static (standard) stretching on hamstring flexibility. Twenty-five female volleyball players were randomly assigned to dynamic (n = 12) and standard (n = 13) stretching groups. The experimental group trained with repetitive dynamic stretching exercises, while the standard modality group trained with static stretching exercises. The stretching interventions were equivalent in the time at stretch and were performed three days a week for four weeks. ...

  5. Multivariate Matrix-Exponential Distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Mogens; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    2010-01-01

    be written as linear combinations of the elements in the exponential of a matrix. For this reason we shall refer to multivariate distributions with rational Laplace transform as multivariate matrix-exponential distributions (MVME). The marginal distributions of an MVME are univariate matrix......-exponential distributions. We prove a characterization that states that a distribution is an MVME distribution if and only if all non-negative, non-null linear combinations of the coordinates have a univariate matrix-exponential distribution. This theorem is analog to a well-known characterization theorem...

  6. On zero variance Monte Carlo path-stretching schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lux, I.

    1983-01-01

    A zero variance path-stretching biasing scheme proposed for a special case by Dwivedi is derived in full generality. The procedure turns out to be the generalization of the exponential transform. It is shown that the biased game can be interpreted as an analog simulation procedure, thus saving some computational effort in comparison with the corresponding nonanalog game

  7. Anisotropic instability of a stretching film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bingrui; Li, Minhao; Deng, Daosheng

    2017-11-01

    Instability of a thin liquid film, such as dewetting arising from Van der Waals force, has been well studied, and is typically characterized by formation of many droplets. Interestingly, a thin liquid film subjected to an applied stretching during a process of thermal drawing is evolved into an array of filaments, i.e., continuity is preserved along the direction of stretching while breakup occurs exclusively in the plane of cross section. Here, to understand this anisotropic instability, we build a physical model by considering both Van der Waals force and the effect of stretching. By using the linear instability analysis method and then performing a numerical calculation, we find that the growth rate of perturbations at the cross section is larger than that along the direction of stretching, resulting in the anisotropic instability of the stretching film. These results may provide theoretical guidance to achieve more diverse structures for nanotechnology.

  8. ESTIMATION ACCURACY OF EXPONENTIAL DISTRIBUTION PARAMETERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    muhammad zahid rashid

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The exponential distribution is commonly used to model the behavior of units that have a constant failure rate. The two-parameter exponential distribution provides a simple but nevertheless useful model for the analysis of lifetimes, especially when investigating reliability of technical equipment.This paper is concerned with estimation of parameters of the two parameter (location and scale exponential distribution. We used the least squares method (LSM, relative least squares method (RELS, ridge regression method (RR,  moment estimators (ME, modified moment estimators (MME, maximum likelihood estimators (MLE and modified maximum likelihood estimators (MMLE. We used the mean square error MSE, and total deviation TD, as measurement for the comparison between these methods. We determined the best method for estimation using different values for the parameters and different sample sizes

  9. Comparison of two stretching methods and optimization of stretching protocol for the piriformis muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulledge, Brett M; Marcellin-Little, Denis J; Levine, David; Tillman, Larry; Harrysson, Ola L A; Osborne, Jason A; Baxter, Blaise

    2014-02-01

    Piriformis syndrome is an uncommon diagnosis for a non-discogenic form of sciatica whose treatment has traditionally focused on stretching the piriformis muscle (PiM). Conventional stretches include hip flexion, adduction, and external rotation. Using three-dimensional modeling, we quantified the amount of (PiM) elongation resulting from two conventional stretches and we investigated by use of a computational model alternate stretching protocols that would optimize PiM stretching. Seven subjects underwent three CT scans: one supine, one with hip flexion, adduction, then external rotation (ADD stretch), and one with hip flexion, external rotation, then adduction (ExR stretch). Three-dimensional bone models were constructed from the CT scans. PiM elongation during these stretches, femoral neck inclination, femoral head anteversion, and trochanteric anteversion were measured. A computer program was developed to map PiM length over a range of hip joint positions and was validated against the measured scans. ExR and ADD stretches elongated the PiM similarly by approximately 12%. Femoral head and greater trochanter anteversion influenced PiM elongation. Placing the hip joints in 115° of hip flexion, 40° of external rotation and 25° of adduction or 120° of hip flexion, 50° of external rotation and 30° of adduction increased PiM elongation by 30-40% compared to conventional stretches (15.1 and 15.3% increases in PiM muscle length, respectively). ExR and ADD stretches elongate the PiM similarly and therefore may have similar clinical effectiveness. The optimized stretches led to larger increases in PiM length and may be more easily performed by some patients due to increased hip flexion. Copyright © 2013 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. BER estimation for multi-hop RoFSO QAM or PSK OFDM communication systems over gamma gamma or exponentially modeled turbulence channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nistazakis, H. E.; Stassinakis, A. N.; Sheikh Muhammad, S.; Tombras, G. S.

    2014-12-01

    The optical wireless and in particular the radio-on-free-space-optical (RoFSO) communication systems are gaining popularity due to their high date rates, license free spectrum and adequate reliability at installation and operational costs which are much lower than comparable technologies. One significant disadvantage of these systems concerns the randomly time varying characteristics of the propagation path mainly caused by the atmospheric turbulence. In this work, we study the BER performance of a multi-hop RoFSO system which is using an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) scheme, with either quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) or phase shift keying format (PSK), over atmospheric turbulence channels modeled with the gamma gamma or the negative exponential distribution. The individual RoFSO parts of the whole optical link are connected to each other by using regenerators relay nodes. The dominant impairments which are the most significant and have been taken into account are the atmospheric turbulence, the path losses, the nonlinear responsivity of the laser diode and the inter-modulation distortion effect. For this setup, we derive closed form mathematical expressions for the estimation of the BER performance for each individual OFDM RoFSO link and for the whole relayed optical communication system, as well. Finally, the corresponding numerical results, for common link's parameters, are presented.

  11. Transverse exponential stability and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andrieu, Vincent; Jayawardhana, Bayu; Praly, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    We investigate how the following properties are related to each other: i) A manifold is “transversally” exponentially stable; ii) The “transverse” linearization along any solution in the manifold is exponentially stable; iii) There exists a field of positive definite quadratic forms whose

  12. Biocatalysis: Unmasked by stretching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharlampieva, Eugenia; Tsukruk, Vladimir V.

    2009-09-01

    The biocatalytic activity of enzyme-loaded responsive layer-by-layer films can be switched on and off by simple mechanical stretching. Soft materials could thus be used to trigger biochemical reactions under mechanical action, with potential therapeutic applications.

  13. Competition brings out the best: modelling the frustration between curvature energy and chain stretching energy of lyotropic liquid crystals in bicontinuous cubic phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Jin, Chenyu

    2017-08-06

    It is commonly considered that the frustration between the curvature energy and the chain stretching energy plays an important role in the formation of lyotropic liquid crystals in bicontinuous cubic phases. Theoretic and numeric calculations were performed for two extreme cases: parallel surfaces eliminate the variance of the chain length; constant mean curvature surfaces eliminate the variance of the mean curvature. We have implemented a model with Brakke's Surface Evolver which allows a competition between the two variances. The result shows a compromise of the two limiting geometries. With data from real systems, we are able to recover the gyroid-diamond-primitive phase sequence which was observed in experiments.

  14. Gamma and Exponential Autoregressive Moving Average (ARMA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Time series data encountered in practice depict properties that deviate from those of gaussian processes. The gamma and exponentially distributed processes which are used as basic models for positive time series fall in the class of non-gaussian processes. In this paper, we develop new and simpler representations of the ...

  15. On exponential growth [of gas breakdown

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAllister, Iain Wilson

    1991-01-01

    The agreement obtained between measured breakdown voltages and predicted breakdown values is frequently used as a means of assessing the validity of the theory/model in question. However, owing to the mathematical nature of exponential growth, it is easy to formulate a criterion that provides acc...

  16. Exponentiated Lomax Geometric Distribution: Properties and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Soliman Hassan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new four-parameter lifetime distribution, called the exponentiated Lomax geometric (ELG is introduced. The new lifetime distribution contains the Lomax geometric and exponentiated Pareto geometric as new sub-models. Explicit algebraic formulas of probability density function, survival and hazard functions are derived. Various structural properties of the new model are derived including; quantile function, Re'nyi entropy, moments, probability weighted moments, order statistic, Lorenz and Bonferroni curves. The estimation of the model parameters is performed by maximum likelihood method and inference for a large sample is discussed. The flexibility and potentiality of the new model in comparison with some other distributions are shown via an application to a real data set. We hope that the new model will be an adequate model for applications in various studies.

  17. Exponential stability of delayed fuzzy cellular neural networks with diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Tingwen

    2007-01-01

    The exponential stability of delayed fuzzy cellular neural networks (FCNN) with diffusion is investigated. Exponential stability, significant for applications of neural networks, is obtained under conditions that are easily verified by a new approach. Earlier results on the exponential stability of FCNN with time-dependent delay, a special case of the model studied in this paper, are improved without using the time-varying term condition: dτ(t)/dt < μ

  18. Bilateral matrix-exponential distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Mogens; Esparza, Luz Judith R; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    2012-01-01

    In this article we define the classes of bilateral and multivariate bilateral matrix-exponential distributions. These distributions have support on the entire real space and have rational moment-generating functions. These distributions extend the class of bilateral phasetype distributions of [1]....... As an application we demonstrate that certain multivariate disions, which are governed by the underlying Markov jump process generating a phasetype distribution, have a bilateral matrix-exponential distribution at the time of absorption, see also [4]....

  19. Exponential Stability of Stochastic Systems with Delay and Poisson Jumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenli Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the model of a class of nonlinear stochastic delay systems with Poisson jumps based on Lyapunov stability theory, stochastic analysis, and inequality technique. The existence and uniqueness of the adapted solution to such systems are proved by applying the fixed point theorem. By constructing a Lyapunov function and using Doob’s martingale inequality and Borel-Cantelli lemma, sufficient conditions are given to establish the exponential stability in the mean square of such systems, and we prove that the exponentially stable in the mean square of such systems implies the almost surely exponentially stable. The obtained results show that if stochastic systems is exponentially stable and the time delay is sufficiently small, then the corresponding stochastic delay systems with Poisson jumps will remain exponentially stable, and time delay upper limit is solved by using the obtained results when the system is exponentially stable, and they are more easily verified and applied in practice.

  20. Symmetrized exponential oscillator

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Znojil, Miloslav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 34 (2016), č. článku 1650195. ISSN 0217-7323 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-22945S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : quantum bound states * exactly solvable models * Bessel special funciton transcendental secular equation * numerical precision Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.165, year: 2016

  1. BSDB: the Biomolecule Stretching Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieplak, Marek; Sikora, Mateusz; Sulkowska, Joanna I.; Witkowski, Bartlomiej

    2011-03-01

    Despite more than a decade of experiments on single biomolecule manipulation, mechanical properties of only several scores of proteins have been measured. A characteristic scale of the force of resistance to stretching, Fmax , has been found to range between ~ 10 and 480 pN. The Biomolecule Stretching Data Base (BSDB) described here provides information about expected values of Fmax for, currently, 17 134 proteins. The values and other characteristics of the unfolding proces, including the nature of identified mechanical clamps, are available at www://info.ifpan.edu.pl/BSDB/. They have been obtained through simulations within a structure-based model which correlates satisfactorily with the available experimental data on stretching. BSDB also lists experimental data and results of the existing all-atom simulations. The database offers a Protein-Data-Bank-wide guide to mechano-stability of proteins. Its description is provided by a forthcoming Nucleic Acids Research paper. Supported by EC FUNMOL project FP7-NMP-2007-SMALL-1, and European Regional Development Fund: Innovative Economy (POIG.01.01.02-00-008/08).

  2. Exponential Stabilization of Underactuated Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersen, K.Y.

    1996-12-31

    Underactuated vehicles are vehicles with fewer independent control actuators than degrees of freedom to be controlled. Such vehicles may be used in inspection of sub-sea cables, inspection and maintenance of offshore oil drilling platforms, and similar. This doctoral thesis discusses feedback stabilization of underactuated vehicles. The main objective has been to further develop methods from stabilization of nonholonomic systems to arrive at methods that are applicable to underactuated vehicles. A nonlinear model including both dynamics and kinematics is used to describe the vehicles, which may be surface vessels, spacecraft or autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs). It is shown that for a certain class of underactuated vehicles the stabilization problem is not solvable by linear control theory. A new stability result for a class of homogeneous time-varying systems is derived and shown to be an important tool for developing continuous periodic time-varying feedback laws that stabilize underactuated vehicles without involving cancellation of dynamics. For position and orientation control of a surface vessel without side thruster a new continuous periodic feedback law is proposed that does not cancel any dynamics, and that exponentially stabilizes the origin of the underactuated surface vessel. A further issue considered is the stabilization of the attitude of an AUV. Finally, the thesis discusses stabilization of both position and attitude of an underactuated AUV. 55 refs., 28 figs.

  3. On Geodesic Exponential Kernels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feragen, Aasa; Lauze, François; Hauberg, Søren

    2015-01-01

    , symmetric positive definite matrices, human poses or graphs. The underlying metric space captures domain specific knowledge, e.g. non-linear constraints, which is available a priori. The intrinsic geodesic metric encodes this knowledge, often leading to improved statistical models.......This extended abstract summarizes work presented at CVPR 2015 [1]. Standard statistics and machine learning tools require input data residing in a Euclidean space. However, many types of data are more faithfully represented in general nonlinear metric spaces or Riemannian manifolds, e.g. shapes...

  4. Review of "Going Exponential: Growing the Charter School Sector's Best"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, David

    2011-01-01

    This Progressive Policy Institute report argues that charter schools should be expanded rapidly and exponentially. Citing exponential growth organizations, such as Starbucks and Apple, as well as the rapid growth of molds, viruses and cancers, the report advocates for similar growth models for charter schools. However, there is no explanation of…

  5. Quantifying the passive stretching response of human tibialis anterior muscle using shear wave elastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Terry K; Guo, Jing-Yi; Cohen, Jeffrey H; Parker, Kevin J

    2014-01-01

    Quantifying passive stretching responses of individual muscles helps the diagnosis of muscle disorders and aids the evaluation of surgical/rehabilitation treatments. Utilizing an animal model, we demonstrated that shear elastic modulus measured by supersonic shear wave elastography increases linearly with passive muscle force. This study aimed to use this state-of-the-art technology to study the relationship between shear elastic modulus and ankle dorsi-plantarflexion angle of resting tibialis anterior muscles and extract physiologically meaningful parameters from the elasticity-angle curve to better quantify passive stretching responses. Elasticity measurements were made at resting tibialis anterior of 20 healthy subjects with the ankle positioned from 50° plantarflexion to up to 15° dorsiflexion at every 5° for two cycles. Elasticity-angle data was curve-fitted by optimizing slack angle, slack elasticity, and rate of increase in elasticity within a piecewise exponential model. Elasticity-angle data of all subjects were well fitted by the piecewise exponential model with coefficients of determination ranging between 0.973 and 0.995. Mean (SD) of slack angle, slack elasticity, and rate of increase in elasticity were 10.9° (6.3°), 5.8 (1.9) kPa, and 0.0347 (0.0082) respectively. Intraclass correlation coefficients of each parameter were 0.852, 0.942, and 0.936 respectively, indicating excellent test-retest reliability. This study demonstrated the feasibility of using supersonic shear wave elastography to quantify passive stretching characteristics of individual muscle and provided preliminary normative values of slack angle, slack elasticity, and rate of increase in elasticity for human tibialis anterior muscles. Future studies will investigate diagnostic values of these parameters in clinical applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of metastatic abdominal and pelvic tumours is sensitive to early changes induced by a VEGF inhibitor using alternative diffusion attenuation models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orton, Matthew R. [Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, CRUK and EPSRC Cancer Imaging Centre, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom); Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom); Messiou, Christina; DeSouza, Nandita [Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, CRUK and EPSRC Cancer Imaging Centre, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom); Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom); Collins, David; Leach, Martin O. [Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, CRUK and EPSRC Cancer Imaging Centre, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom); Morgan, Veronica A. [Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom); Tessier, Jean; Young, Helen [Early Clinical Development, AstraZeneca, Macclesfield (United Kingdom)

    2016-05-15

    To assess the utility of diffusion weighted imaging for monitoring early treatment effects associated with a VEGF inhibitor. Twenty-nine patients with metastatic abdominal and pelvic tumours were recruited and imaged with DW-MRI: twice at baseline, and after 7 and 28 days of treatment with cediranib. Tumour measures were derived using mono-exponential, bi-exponential and stretched-exponential models, and parameter repeatability and treatment effects seen after 7 and 28 days were assessed. Correlations with volume changes and DCE-MRI metrics were also assessed. Diffusion coefficient repeatabilities from all models were < 6 %; f and D* (bi-exponential) were 22 % and 44 %; α (stretched-exponential) was 4.2 %. Significant increases in the diffusion coefficients from all models were observed at day 28 but not day 7. Significant decreases in D* and f.D* were observed at day 7 and in f at day 28; significant increases in α were observed at both time-points. Weak correlations between DW-MRI changes and volume changes and DCE-MRI changes were observed. DW-MRI is sensitive to early and late treatment changes caused by a VEGF inhibitor using non-mono-exponential models. Evidence of over-fitting using the bi-exponential model suggests that the stretched-exponential model is best suited to monitor such changes. (orig.)

  7. A comparison between two indirect exponentiation methods and O.D.E. integration method for RAMS calculations based on homogeneous Markovian models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatelet, E.; Djebabra, M.; Dutuit, Y.; Santos, J. dos

    1996-01-01

    Even if solving Markovian systems is usual for dependability engineers, the choice of an adequate method to compute these systems is an actual problem for them. The object of this technical note is to contribute to the practician's information by presenting a comparison between the performances of the two most frequently used computation methods: indirect exponentiation and O.D.E. integration approaches. The retained comparison criteria and desired accuracy, computer time and computer storage required are calculated separately, although the two former are often interconnected. The O.D.E. integration method appears to be a good choice in the context of this limited study, but the optimized indirect exponentiation methods are interesting for systems with one hundred or more states--because of their good control of accuracy

  8. Unwrapped phase inversion with an exponential damping

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Yun Seok

    2015-07-28

    Full-waveform inversion (FWI) suffers from the phase wrapping (cycle skipping) problem when the frequency of data is not low enough. Unless we obtain a good initial velocity model, the phase wrapping problem in FWI causes a result corresponding to a local minimum, usually far away from the true solution, especially at depth. Thus, we have developed an inversion algorithm based on a space-domain unwrapped phase, and we also used exponential damping to mitigate the nonlinearity associated with the reflections. We construct the 2D phase residual map, which usually contains the wrapping discontinuities, especially if the model is complex and the frequency is high. We then unwrap the phase map and remove these cycle-based jumps. However, if the phase map has several residues, the unwrapping process becomes very complicated. We apply a strong exponential damping to the wavefield to eliminate much of the residues in the phase map, thus making the unwrapping process simple. We finally invert the unwrapped phases using the back-propagation algorithm to calculate the gradient. We progressively reduce the damping factor to obtain a high-resolution image. Numerical examples determined that the unwrapped phase inversion with a strong exponential damping generated convergent long-wavelength updates without low-frequency information. This model can be used as a good starting model for a subsequent inversion with a reduced damping, eventually leading to conventional waveform inversion.

  9. Stretching & Flexibility: An Interactive Encyclopedia of Stretching. [CD-ROM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002

    This CD-ROM offers 140 different stretches in full-motion video sequences. It focuses on the proper techniques for overall physical fitness, injury prevention and rehabilitation, and 23 different sports (e.g., golf, running, soccer, skiing, climbing, football, and baseball). Topics include stretching for sports; stretching awareness and education…

  10. Development of multiple linear regression models as predictive tools for fecal indicator concentrations in a stretch of the lower Lahn River, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrig, Ilona M; Böer, Simone I; Brennholt, Nicole; Manz, Werner

    2015-11-15

    Since rivers are typically subject to rapid changes in microbiological water quality, tools are needed to allow timely water quality assessment. A promising approach is the application of predictive models. In our study, we developed multiple linear regression (MLR) models in order to predict the abundance of the fecal indicator organisms Escherichia coli (EC), intestinal enterococci (IE) and somatic coliphages (SC) in the Lahn River, Germany. The models were developed on the basis of an extensive set of environmental parameters collected during a 12-months monitoring period. Two models were developed for each type of indicator: 1) an extended model including the maximum number of variables significantly explaining variations in indicator abundance and 2) a simplified model reduced to the three most influential explanatory variables, thus obtaining a model which is less resource-intensive with regard to required data. Both approaches have the ability to model multiple sites within one river stretch. The three most important predictive variables in the optimized models for the bacterial indicators were NH4-N, turbidity and global solar irradiance, whereas chlorophyll a content, discharge and NH4-N were reliable model variables for somatic coliphages. Depending on indicator type, the extended mode models also included the additional variables rainfall, O2 content, pH and chlorophyll a. The extended mode models could explain 69% (EC), 74% (IE) and 72% (SC) of the observed variance in fecal indicator concentrations. The optimized models explained the observed variance in fecal indicator concentrations to 65% (EC), 70% (IE) and 68% (SC). Site-specific efficiencies ranged up to 82% (EC) and 81% (IE, SC). Our results suggest that MLR models are a promising tool for a timely water quality assessment in the Lahn area. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Possible implications of exponential decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steyerl, A.; Malik, S.S.

    1992-01-01

    Semiclassical concepts are developed which could make the appearance of a logarithmic nonlinearity in a Schroedinger-type equation plausible. This approach is based on the introduction of a novel wave function describing the center of mass (CM) motion of unstable particles or composite systems subject to statistical changes of their internal quantum state. The element of statistical randomness associated with a purely exponential decay law suggests the use of thermodynamic concepts like entropy and free energy. These concepts are applied only to a domain open-quotes blurredclose quotes by the quantum uncertainty principle where the problematic definition of a time and entropy operator might be possible. The paper consists of three main parts. Section 1 develops an extended nonrelativistic equation of motion. The proposed equation contains yet reinterprets the BBM equation, and for stable systems is reduced to the Schroedinger equation. Definite predictions are made for observable quantities. In Section 2, the family of localized, nonspreading ground-state solutions to the BBM equation is extended, in two and three spatial dimensions, to states classified by finite quantized angular momenta and definite values of entropy. The statistical behavior of CM systems and their electromagnetic interaction are investigated. In Section 3, implications of these concepts are outlined with emphasis on possible experimental manifestations. Suggested laboratory tests include high-precision measurements of unstable particle diffraction on linear gratings as well as neutron interferometer experiments of the type previously attempted to test the BBM equation. A further testing possibility is the investigation of particle resonances. An important feature of the present model is a subtle combination of quantum and classical aspects, achieved without compromising fundamental principles, while reinterpreting microreversibility. 46 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs

  12. Magnitude and duration of stretch modulate fibroblast remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestrini, Jenna L; Billiar, Kristen L

    2009-05-01

    Mechanical cues modulate fibroblast tractional forces and remodeling of extracellular matrix in healthy tissue, healing wounds, and engineered matrices. The goal of the present study is to establish dose-response relationships between stretch parameters (magnitude and duration per day) and matrix remodeling metrics (compaction, strength, extensibility, collagen content, contraction, and cellularity). Cyclic equibiaxial stretch of 2-16% was applied to fibroblast-populated fibrin gels for either 6 h or 24 h/day for 8 days. Trends in matrix remodeling metrics as a function of stretch magnitude and duration were analyzed using regression analysis. The compaction and ultimate tensile strength of the tissues increased in a dose-dependent manner with increasing stretch magnitude, yet remained unaffected by the duration in which they were cycled (6 h/day versus 24 h/day). Collagen density increased exponentially as a function of both the magnitude and duration of stretch, with samples stretched for the reduced duration per day having the highest levels of collagen accumulation. Cell number and failure tension were also dependent on both the magnitude and duration of stretch, although stretch-induced increases in these metrics were only present in the samples loaded for 6 h/day. Our results indicate that both the magnitude and the duration per day of stretch are critical parameters in modulating fibroblast remodeling of the extracellular matrix, and that these two factors regulate different aspects of this remodeling. These findings move us one step closer to fully characterizing culture conditions for tissue equivalents, developing improved wound healing treatments and understanding tissue responses to changes in mechanical environments during growth, repair, and disease states.

  13. On commuting operator exponentials, II

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Volume 123; Issue 1. On Commuting Operator Exponentials, II. Fotios C Paliogiannis. Volume 123 Issue 1 February 2013 pp 27-31. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/pmsc/123/01/0027-0031. Keywords.

  14. Stretching the Border

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horstmann, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I hope to add a complementary perspective to James Scott’s recent work on avoidance strategies of subaltern mountain people by focusing on what I call the refugee public. The educated Karen elite uses the space of exile in the Thai borderland to reconstitute resources and to re-ent......-based organizations succeed to stretch the border by establishing a firm presence that is supported by the international humanitarian economy in the refugee camps in Northwestern Thailand....

  15. Exponential Boundary Observers for Pressurized Water Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermine Som, Idellette Judith; Cocquempot, Vincent; Aitouche, Abdel

    2015-11-01

    This paper deals with state estimation on a pressurized water pipe modeled by nonlinear coupled distributed hyperbolic equations for non-conservative laws with three known boundary measures. Our objective is to estimate the fourth boundary variable, which will be useful for leakage detection. Two approaches are studied. Firstly, the distributed hyperbolic equations are discretized through a finite-difference scheme. By using the Lipschitz property of the nonlinear term and a Lyapunov function, the exponential stability of the estimation error is proven by solving Linear Matrix Inequalities (LMIs). Secondly, the distributed hyperbolic system is preserved for state estimation. After state transformations, a Luenberger-like PDE boundary observer based on backstepping mathematical tools is proposed. An exponential Lyapunov function is used to prove the stability of the resulted estimation error. The performance of the two observers are shown on a water pipe prototype simulated example.

  16. Matrix-exponential distributions in applied probability

    CERN Document Server

    Bladt, Mogens

    2017-01-01

    This book contains an in-depth treatment of matrix-exponential (ME) distributions and their sub-class of phase-type (PH) distributions. Loosely speaking, an ME distribution is obtained through replacing the intensity parameter in an exponential distribution by a matrix. The ME distributions can also be identified as the class of non-negative distributions with rational Laplace transforms. If the matrix has the structure of a sub-intensity matrix for a Markov jump process we obtain a PH distribution which allows for nice probabilistic interpretations facilitating the derivation of exact solutions and closed form formulas. The full potential of ME and PH unfolds in their use in stochastic modelling. Several chapters on generic applications, like renewal theory, random walks and regenerative processes, are included together with some specific examples from queueing theory and insurance risk. We emphasize our intention towards applications by including an extensive treatment on statistical methods for PH distribu...

  17. The exponentiated generalized Pareto distribution | Adeyemi | Ife ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recently Gupta et al. (1998) introduced the exponentiated exponential distribution as a generalization of the standard exponential distribution. In this paper, we introduce a three-parameter generalized Pareto distribution, the exponentiated generalized Pareto distribution (EGP). We present a comprehensive treatment of the ...

  18. The use of linear fractional analogues of rheological models in the problem of approximating the experimental data on the stretch polyvinylchloride elastron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza G. Ungarova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We considere and analyze the uniaxial phenomenological models of viscoelastic deformation based on fractional analogues of Scott Blair, Voigt, Maxwell, Kelvin and Zener rheological models. Analytical solutions of the corresponding differential equations are obtained with fractional Riemann–Liouville operators under constant stress with further unloading, that are written by the generalized (two-parameter fractional exponential function and contains from two to four parameters depending on the type of model. A method for identifying the model parameters based on the background information for the experimental creep curves with constant stresses was developed. Nonlinear problem of parametric identification is solved by two-step iterative method. The first stage uses the characteristic data points diagrams and features in the behavior of the models under unrestricted growth of time and the initial approximation of parameters are determined. At the second stage, the refinement of these parameters by coordinate descent (the Hooke–Jeeves's method and minimizing the functional standard deviation for calculated and experimental values is made. Method of identification is realized for all the considered models on the basis of the known experimental data uniaxial viscoelastic deformation of Polyvinylchloride Elastron at a temperature of 20∘C and five the tensile stress levels. Table-valued parameters for all models are given. The errors analysis of constructed phenomenological models is made to experimental data over the entire ensemble of curves viscoelastic deformation. It was found that the approximation errors for the Scott Blair fractional model is 14.17 %, for the Voigt fractional model is 11.13 %, for the Maxvell fractional model is 13.02 %, for the Kelvin fractional model 10.56 %, for the Zener fractional model is 11.06 %. The graphs of the calculated and experimental dependences of viscoelastic deformation of Polyvinylchloride

  19. Partial Generalized Probability Weighted Moments for Exponentiated Exponential Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neema Mohamed El Haroun

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The generalized probability weighted moments are widely used in hydrology for estimating parameters of flood distributions from complete sample. The method of partial generalized probability weighted moments was used to estimate the parameters of distributions from censored sample. This article offers new method called partial generalized probability weighted moments (PGPWMs for the analysis of censored data. The method of PGPWMs is an extended class from partial generalized probability weighted moments. To illustrate the new method, estimation of the unknown parameters from exponentiated exponential distribution based on doubly censored sample is considered. PGPWMs estimators for right and left censored samples are obtained as special cases.   Simulation study is conducted to investigate performance of estimates for exponentiated exponential distribution. Comparison between estimators is made through simulation via their biases and  mean square errors. An illustration with real data is provided. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"جدول عادي"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  20. Lattice stretching bistability and dynamic heterogeneity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peter Leth; Savin, A. V.; Zolotaryuk, A. V.

    2012-01-01

    A simple one-dimensional lattice model is suggested to describe the experimentally observed plateau in force-stretching diagrams for some macromolecules. This chain model involves the nearest-neighbor interaction of a Morse-like potential (required to have a saturation branch) and a harmonic second......-neighbor coupling. Under an external stretching applied to the chain ends, the intersite Morse-like potential results in the appearance of a double-well potential within each chain monomer, whereas the interaction between the second neighbors provides a homogeneous bistable (degenerate) ground state, at least...

  1. A kinematic wave model in Lagrangian coordinates incorporating capacity drop: Application to homogeneous road stretches and discontinuities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Kai; Knoop, Victor L.; Hoogendoorn, Serge P.

    2017-01-01

    On freeways, congestion always leads to capacity drop. This means the queue discharge rate is lower than the pre-queue capacity. Our recent research findings indicate that the queue discharge rate increases with the speed in congestion, that is the capacity drop is strongly correlated with the congestion state. Incorporating this varying capacity drop into a kinematic wave model is essential for assessing consequences of control strategies. However, to the best of authors' knowledge, no such a model exists. This paper fills the research gap by presenting a Lagrangian kinematic wave model. "Lagrangian" denotes that the new model is solved in Lagrangian coordinates. The new model can give capacity drops accompanying both of stop-and-go waves (on homogeneous freeway section) and standing queues (at nodes) in a network. The new model can be applied in a network operation. In this Lagrangian kinematic wave model, the queue discharge rate (or the capacity drop) is a function of vehicular speed in traffic jams. Four case studies on links as well as at lane-drop and on-ramp nodes show that the Lagrangian kinematic wave model can give capacity drops well, consistent with empirical observations.

  2. Science in an Exponential World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalay, Alexander

    The amount of scientific information is doubling every year. This exponential growth is fundamentally changing every aspect of the scientific process - the collection, analysis and dissemination of scientific information. Our traditional paradigm for scientific publishing assumes a linear world, where the number of journals and articles remains approximately constant. The talk presents the challenges of this new paradigm and shows examples of how some disciplines are trying to cope with the data avalanche. In astronomy, the Virtual Observatory is emerging as a way to do astronomy in the 21st century. Other disciplines are also in the process of creating their own Virtual Observatories, on every imaginable scale of the physical world. We will discuss how long this exponential growth can continue.

  3. Testable Implications of Quasi-Hyperbolic and Exponential Time Discounting

    OpenAIRE

    Echenique, Federico; Imai, Taisuke; Saito, Kota

    2014-01-01

    We present the first revealed-preference characterizations of the models of exponential time discounting, quasi-hyperbolic time discounting, and other time-separable models of consumers’ intertemporal decisions. The characterizations provide non-parametric revealed-preference tests, which we take to data using the results of a recent experiment conducted by Andreoni and Sprenger (2012). For such data, we find that less than half the subjects are consistent with exponential discounting, and on...

  4. Limit laws for exponential families

    OpenAIRE

    Balkema, August A.; Klüppelberg, Claudia; Resnick, Sidney I.

    1999-01-01

    For a real random variable [math] with distribution function [math] , define ¶ [math] ¶ The distribution [math] generates a natural exponential family of distribution functions [math] , where ¶ [math] ¶ We study the asymptotic behaviour of the distribution functions [math] as [math] increases to [math] . If [math] then [math] pointwise on [math] . It may still be possible to obtain a non-degenerate weak limit law [math] by choosing suitable scaling and centring constants [math] an...

  5. Exponential asymptotics of homoclinic snaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, A. D.; Matthews, P. C.; Cox, S. M.; King, J. R.

    2011-12-01

    We study homoclinic snaking in the cubic-quintic Swift-Hohenberg equation (SHE) close to the onset of a subcritical pattern-forming instability. Application of the usual multiple-scales method produces a leading-order stationary front solution, connecting the trivial solution to the patterned state. A localized pattern may therefore be constructed by matching between two distant fronts placed back-to-back. However, the asymptotic expansion of the front is divergent, and hence should be truncated. By truncating optimally, such that the resultant remainder is exponentially small, an exponentially small parameter range is derived within which stationary fronts exist. This is shown to be a direct result of the 'locking' between the phase of the underlying pattern and its slowly varying envelope. The locking mechanism remains unobservable at any algebraic order, and can only be derived by explicitly considering beyond-all-orders effects in the tail of the asymptotic expansion, following the method of Kozyreff and Chapman as applied to the quadratic-cubic SHE (Chapman and Kozyreff 2009 Physica D 238 319-54, Kozyreff and Chapman 2006 Phys. Rev. Lett. 97 44502). Exponentially small, but exponentially growing, contributions appear in the tail of the expansion, which must be included when constructing localized patterns in order to reproduce the full snaking diagram. Implicit within the bifurcation equations is an analytical formula for the width of the snaking region. Due to the linear nature of the beyond-all-orders calculation, the bifurcation equations contain an analytically indeterminable constant, estimated in the previous work by Chapman and Kozyreff using a best fit approximation. A more accurate estimate of the equivalent constant in the cubic-quintic case is calculated from the iteration of a recurrence relation, and the subsequent analytical bifurcation diagram compared with numerical simulations, with good agreement.

  6. Exponential asymptotics of homoclinic snaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, A D; Matthews, P C; Cox, S M; King, J R

    2011-01-01

    We study homoclinic snaking in the cubic-quintic Swift–Hohenberg equation (SHE) close to the onset of a subcritical pattern-forming instability. Application of the usual multiple-scales method produces a leading-order stationary front solution, connecting the trivial solution to the patterned state. A localized pattern may therefore be constructed by matching between two distant fronts placed back-to-back. However, the asymptotic expansion of the front is divergent, and hence should be truncated. By truncating optimally, such that the resultant remainder is exponentially small, an exponentially small parameter range is derived within which stationary fronts exist. This is shown to be a direct result of the 'locking' between the phase of the underlying pattern and its slowly varying envelope. The locking mechanism remains unobservable at any algebraic order, and can only be derived by explicitly considering beyond-all-orders effects in the tail of the asymptotic expansion, following the method of Kozyreff and Chapman as applied to the quadratic-cubic SHE (Chapman and Kozyreff 2009 Physica D 238 319–54, Kozyreff and Chapman 2006 Phys. Rev. Lett. 97 44502). Exponentially small, but exponentially growing, contributions appear in the tail of the expansion, which must be included when constructing localized patterns in order to reproduce the full snaking diagram. Implicit within the bifurcation equations is an analytical formula for the width of the snaking region. Due to the linear nature of the beyond-all-orders calculation, the bifurcation equations contain an analytically indeterminable constant, estimated in the previous work by Chapman and Kozyreff using a best fit approximation. A more accurate estimate of the equivalent constant in the cubic-quintic case is calculated from the iteration of a recurrence relation, and the subsequent analytical bifurcation diagram compared with numerical simulations, with good agreement

  7. Return probability: Exponential versus Gaussian decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izrailev, F.M. [Instituto de Fisica, BUAP, Apdo. Postal J-48, 72570 Puebla (Mexico)]. E-mail: izrailev@sirio.ifuap.buap.mx; Castaneda-Mendoza, A. [Instituto de Fisica, BUAP, Apdo. Postal J-48, 72570 Puebla (Mexico)

    2006-02-13

    We analyze, both analytically and numerically, the time-dependence of the return probability in closed systems of interacting particles. Main attention is paid to the interplay between two regimes, one of which is characterized by the Gaussian decay of the return probability, and another one is the well-known regime of the exponential decay. Our analytical estimates are confirmed by the numerical data obtained for two models with random interaction. In view of these results, we also briefly discuss the dynamical model which was recently proposed for the implementation of a quantum computation.

  8. Kontrola kvalitete stretch folije

    OpenAIRE

    Gržanić, Nino

    2016-01-01

    U završnom radu opisan je postupak ekstrudiranja i kontrole kvalitete stretch folije koji se koristi u firmi Bomark-Pak radi osiguravanja najbolje kvalitete. Kontrola kreče kod uvoza repromaterijala, nastavlja se kod izrade folije na stroju, te se glavni dio odvija nakon izrade gotovg proizvoda. U radu ćemo detaljno objasniti svaki pojedini korak, zašto se on vrši, te uz pomoć kojih mjernih instrumenata se izvršava.

  9. Flow of nanofluid by nonlinear stretching velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, Tasawar; Rashid, Madiha; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Ahmad, Bashir

    2018-03-01

    Main objective in this article is to model and analyze the nanofluid flow induced by curved surface with nonlinear stretching velocity. Nanofluid comprises water and silver. Governing problem is solved by using homotopy analysis method (HAM). Induced magnetic field for low magnetic Reynolds number is not entertained. Development of convergent series solutions for velocity and skin friction coefficient is successfully made. Pressure in the boundary layer flow by curved stretching surface cannot be ignored. It is found that magnitude of power-law index parameter increases for pressure distibutions. Magnitude of radius of curvature reduces for pressure field while opposite trend can be observed for velocity.

  10. Summary of the stretching tectonics research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Dagan

    1994-01-01

    The rise of stretching tectonics is established on the basis of recent structural geology theory, the establishment of metamorphic nucleus complex structural model on one hand plays an important promoting art to the development of stretching structure, on the other hand, it needs constant supplement and perfection in practice. Metamorphic nucleus complex is the carrier of comparatively deep geological information in vertical section of the crust and has wide distribution in the era of south China. Evidently, it can be taken as the 'key' to understanding the deep and studying the basement, Strengthening the study will play the important promoting role to the deep prospecting. The study of stretching tectonics is not only limited within the range of structure and metamorphism, but combine with the studies of sedimentation, magmatism, metamorphism and mineralization, thus form a new field of tectonic geology of self-developing system

  11. Exponential inflation with F (R ) gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikonomou, V. K.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we shall consider an exponential inflationary model in the context of vacuum F (R ) gravity. By using well-known reconstruction techniques, we shall investigate which F (R ) gravity can realize the exponential inflation scenario at leading order in terms of the scalar curvature, and we shall calculate the slow-roll indices and the corresponding observational indices, in the context of slow-roll inflation. We also provide some general formulas of the slow-roll and the corresponding observational indices in terms of the e -foldings number. In addition, for the calculation of the slow-roll and of the observational indices, we shall consider quite general formulas, for which it is not necessary for the assumption that all the slow-roll indices are much smaller than unity to hold true. Finally, we investigate the phenomenological viability of the model by comparing it with the latest Planck and BICEP2/Keck-Array observational data. As we demonstrate, the model is compatible with the current observational data for a wide range of the free parameters of the model.

  12. Compact vs. Exponential-Size LP Relaxations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, R.D.; Lancia, G.

    2000-09-01

    In this paper we introduce by means of examples a new technique for formulating compact (i.e. polynomial-size) LP relaxations in place of exponential-size models requiring separation algorithms. In the same vein as a celebrated theorem by Groetschel, Lovasz and Schrijver, we state the equivalence of compact separation and compact optimization. Among the examples used to illustrate our technique, we introduce a new formulation for the Traveling Salesman Problem, whose relaxation we show equivalent to the subtour elimination relaxation.

  13. An experimental investigation on the effects of exponential window and impact force level on harmonic reduction in impact-synchronous model analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, Ong Zhi; Cheet, Lim Hong; Yee, Khoo Shin; Rahman, Abdul Ghaffar Abdul; Ismail, Zubaidah

    2016-01-01

    A novel method called Impact-synchronous modal analysis (ISMA) was proposed previously which allows modal testing to be performed during operation. This technique focuses on signal processing of the upstream data to provide cleaner Frequency response function (FRF) estimation prior to modal extraction. Two important parameters, i.e., windowing function and impact force level were identified and their effect on the effectiveness of this technique were experimentally investigated. When performing modal testing during running condition, the cyclic loads signals are dominant in the measured response for the entire time history. Exponential window is effectively in minimizing leakage and attenuating signals of non-synchronous running speed, its harmonics and noises to zero at the end of each time record window block. Besides, with the information of the calculated cyclic force, suitable amount of impact force to be applied on the system could be decided prior to performing ISMA. Maximum allowable impact force could be determined from nonlinearity test using coherence function. By applying higher impact forces than the cyclic loads along with an ideal decay rate in ISMA, harmonic reduction is significantly achieved in FRF estimation. Subsequently, the dynamic characteristics of the system are successfully extracted from a cleaner FRF and the results obtained are comparable with Experimental modal analysis (EMA)

  14. An experimental investigation on the effects of exponential window and impact force level on harmonic reduction in impact-synchronous model analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, Ong Zhi; Cheet, Lim Hong; Yee, Khoo Shin [Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of EngineeringUniversity of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Rahman, Abdul Ghaffar Abdul [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University Malaysia Pahang, Pekan (Malaysia); Ismail, Zubaidah [Civil Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2016-08-15

    A novel method called Impact-synchronous modal analysis (ISMA) was proposed previously which allows modal testing to be performed during operation. This technique focuses on signal processing of the upstream data to provide cleaner Frequency response function (FRF) estimation prior to modal extraction. Two important parameters, i.e., windowing function and impact force level were identified and their effect on the effectiveness of this technique were experimentally investigated. When performing modal testing during running condition, the cyclic loads signals are dominant in the measured response for the entire time history. Exponential window is effectively in minimizing leakage and attenuating signals of non-synchronous running speed, its harmonics and noises to zero at the end of each time record window block. Besides, with the information of the calculated cyclic force, suitable amount of impact force to be applied on the system could be decided prior to performing ISMA. Maximum allowable impact force could be determined from nonlinearity test using coherence function. By applying higher impact forces than the cyclic loads along with an ideal decay rate in ISMA, harmonic reduction is significantly achieved in FRF estimation. Subsequently, the dynamic characteristics of the system are successfully extracted from a cleaner FRF and the results obtained are comparable with Experimental modal analysis (EMA)

  15. Direction-dependent exponential biassing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bending, R.C.

    1974-01-01

    When Monte Carlo methods are applied to penetration problems, the use of variance reduction techniques is essential if realistic computing times are to be achieved. A technique known as direction-dependent exponential biassing is described which is simple to apply and therefore suitable for problems with difficult geometry. The material cross section in any region is multiplied by a factor which depends on the particle direction, so that particles travelling in a preferred direction ''see'' a smaller cross section than those travelling in the opposite direction. A theoretical study shows that substantial gains may be obtained, and that the choice of biassing parameter is not critical. The method has been implemented alongside other importance sampling techniques in the general Monte Carlo code SPARTAN, and results obtained for simple problems using this code are included. 4 references. (U.S.)

  16. Identifiability of models for time-resolved fluorescence with underlying distributions of rate constants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boens, Noël; Van der Auweraer, Mark

    2014-02-01

    The deterministic identifiability analysis of photophysical models for the kinetics of excited-state processes, assuming errorless time-resolved fluorescence data, can verify whether the model parameters can be determined unambiguously. In this work, we have investigated the identifiability of several uncommon models for time-resolved fluorescence with underlying distributions of rate constants which lead to non-exponential decays. The mathematical functions used here for the description of non-exponential fluorescence decays are the stretched exponential or Kohlrausch function, the Becquerel function, the Förster type energy transfer function, decay functions associated with exponential, Gaussian and uniform distributions of rate constants, a decay function with extreme sub-exponential behavior, the Mittag-Leffler function and Heaviside's function. It is shown that all the models are uniquely identifiable, which means that for each specific model there exists a single parameter set that describes its associated fluorescence δ-response function.

  17. Kullback-Leibler divergence and the Pareto-Exponential approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, G V

    2016-01-01

    Recent radar research interests in the Pareto distribution as a model for X-band maritime surveillance radar clutter returns have resulted in analysis of the asymptotic behaviour of this clutter model. In particular, it is of interest to understand when the Pareto distribution is well approximated by an Exponential distribution. The justification for this is that under the latter clutter model assumption, simpler radar detection schemes can be applied. An information theory approach is introduced to investigate the Pareto-Exponential approximation. By analysing the Kullback-Leibler divergence between the two distributions it is possible to not only assess when the approximation is valid, but to determine, for a given Pareto model, the optimal Exponential approximation.

  18. Immediate effects of different types of stretching exercises on badminton jump smash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hwi S; Kim, Daeho; Park, Jihong

    2017-04-13

    Since different types of stretching exercises may alter athletic performance, we compared the effects of three types of stretching exercises on badminton jump smash. Sixteen male collegiate badminton players performed one of three different stretching exercises in a counterbalanced order on different days. Static stretching had seven typical stretches, while dynamic stretching involved nine dynamic movements, and resistance dynamic stretching was performed with weighted vests and dumbbells. Before and after each stretching exercise, subjects performed 20 trials of jump smashes. Dependent measurements were the jump heights during jump smashes, velocities of jump-smashed shuttlecocks, and drop points of jump-smashed shuttlecocks. To test the effects of each stretching exercise, we performed mixed model ANOVAs and calculated between-time effect sizes (ES). Each stretching exercise improved the jump heights during jump smashes (type main effect: F2,75= 1.19, p=0.31; static stretching: 22.1%, pstretching: 30.1%, pstretching: 17.7%, p=0.03, ES: 0.98) and velocities of jump-smashed shuttlecocks (type main effect: F2,75= 2.18, p=0.12; static stretching: 5.7%, p=0.61, ES: 0.39; dynamic stretching: 3.4%, p=0.94, ES: 0.28; resistance dynamic stretching: 6%, p=0.50, ES: 0.66). However, there were no differences among the stretching exercises for any measurement. The drop point of jump-smashed shuttlecocks did not change (interaction: F2,75= 0.88, p=0.42). All stretching exercises improved badminton jump smash performance, but we could not determine the best protocol. Since badminton requires high-speed movement and explosive force, we suggest performing dynamic stretching or resistance dynamic stretching.

  19. Stretch-minimising stream surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Barton, Michael

    2015-05-01

    We study the problem of finding stretch-minimising stream surfaces in a divergence-free vector field. These surfaces are generated by motions of seed curves that propagate through the field in a stretch minimising manner, i.e., they move without stretching or shrinking, preserving the length of their arbitrary arc. In general fields, such curves may not exist. How-ever, the divergence-free constraint gives rise to these \\'stretch-free\\' curves that are locally arc-length preserving when infinitesimally propagated. Several families of stretch-free curves are identified and used as initial guesses for stream surface generation. These surfaces are subsequently globally optimised to obtain the best stretch-minimising stream surfaces in a given divergence-free vector field. Our algorithm was tested on benchmark datasets, proving its applicability to incompressible fluid flow simulations, where our stretch-minimising stream surfaces realistically reflect the flow of a flexible univariate object. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Acute Muscle Stretching and Shoulder Position Sense

    OpenAIRE

    Björklund, Martin; Djupsjöbacka, Mats; Crenshaw, Albert G

    2006-01-01

    Context: Stretching is common among athletes as a potential method for injury prevention. Stretching-induced changes in the muscle spindle properties are a suggested mechanism, which may imply reduced proprioception after stretching; however, little is known of this association.

  1. Thermal Characterizations of Exponential Fin Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.-R. A. Khaled

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Exponential fins are mathematically analyzed in this paper. Two types are considered: (i straight exponential fins and (ii pin exponential fins. The possibility of having increasing or decreasing cross-sectional areas is considered. Different thermal performance indicators are derived. The maximum ratio between the thermal efficiency of the exponential straight fin to that of the rectangular fin is found to be 1.58 at an effective thermal length of 2.0. This ratio is even larger when exponential fins are compared with triangular and parabolic straight fins. Moreover, the maximum ratio between the thermal efficiency of the exponential pin fin to that of the rectangular pin fin is found to be 1.17 at an effective thermal length of 1.5. However, exponential pin fins thermal efficiencies are found to be lower than those of triangular and parabolic pin fins. Moreover, exponential joint-fins may transfer more heat than rectangular joint-fins especially when differences between their senders and receivers portions dimensionless indices are very large. Finally, it is found that increasing the joint-fin exponential index may cause straight exponential joint-fins to transfer more heat than rectangular joint-fins.

  2. Localization and stretch-dependence of lung elastase activity in development and compensatory growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Sarah Marie; Liu, Sheng; Joshi, Rashika; Batie, Matthew R; Kofron, Matthew; Guo, Jinbang; Woods, Jason C; Varisco, Brian Michael

    2015-04-01

    Synthesis and remodeling of the lung matrix is necessary for primary and compensatory lung growth. Because cyclic negative force is applied to developing lung tissue during the respiratory cycle, we hypothesized that stretch is a critical regulator of lung matrix remodeling. By using quantitative image analysis of whole-lung and whole-lobe elastin in situ zymography images, we demonstrated that elastase activity increased twofold during the alveolar stage of postnatal lung morphogenesis in the mouse. Remodeling was restricted to alveolar walls and ducts and was nearly absent in dense elastin band structures. In the mouse pneumonectomy model of compensatory lung growth, elastase activity increased threefold, peaking at 14 days postpneumonectomy and was higher in the accessory lobe compared with other lobes. Remodeling during normal development and during compensatory lung growth was different with increased major airway and pulmonary arterial remodeling during development but not regeneration, and with homogenous remodeling throughout the parenchyma during development, but increased remodeling only in subpleural regions during compensatory lung growth. Left lung wax plombage prevented increased lung elastin during compensatory lung growth. To test whether the adult lung retains an innate capacity to remodel elastin, we developed a confocal microscope-compatible stretching device. In ex vivo adult mouse lung sections, lung elastase activity increased exponentially with strain and in peripheral regions of lung more than in central regions. Our study demonstrates that lung elastase activity is stretch-dependent and supports a model in which externally applied forces influence the composition, structure, and function of the matrix during periods of alveolar septation. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Random cascade model in the limit of infinite integral scale as the exponential of a nonstationary 1/f noise: application to volatility fluctuations in stock markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzy, Jean-François; Baïle, Rachel; Bacry, Emmanuel

    2013-04-01

    In this paper we propose a new model for volatility fluctuations in financial time series. This model relies on a nonstationary Gaussian process that exhibits aging behavior. It turns out that its properties, over any finite time interval, are very close to continuous cascade models. These latter models are indeed well known to reproduce faithfully the main stylized facts of financial time series. However, it involves a large-scale parameter (the so-called "integral scale" where the cascade is initiated) that is hard to interpret in finance. Moreover, the empirical value of the integral scale is in general deeply correlated to the overall length of the sample. This feature is precisely predicted by our model, which, as illustrated by various examples from daily stock index data, quantitatively reproduces the empirical observations.

  4. Hydraulic fracture during epithelial stretching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casares, Laura; Vincent, Romaric; Zalvidea, Dobryna; Campillo, Noelia; Navajas, Daniel; Arroyo, Marino; Trepat, Xavier

    2015-03-01

    The origin of fracture in epithelial cell sheets subject to stretch is commonly attributed to excess tension in the cells' cytoskeleton, in the plasma membrane, or in cell-cell contacts. Here, we demonstrate that for a variety of synthetic and physiological hydrogel substrates the formation of epithelial cracks is caused by tissue stretching independently of epithelial tension. We show that the origin of the cracks is hydraulic; they result from a transient pressure build-up in the substrate during stretch and compression manoeuvres. After pressure equilibration, cracks heal readily through actomyosin-dependent mechanisms. The observed phenomenology is captured by the theory of poroelasticity, which predicts the size and healing dynamics of epithelial cracks as a function of the stiffness, geometry and composition of the hydrogel substrate. Our findings demonstrate that epithelial integrity is determined in a tension-independent manner by the coupling between tissue stretching and matrix hydraulics.

  5. Soleus stretch reflex during cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grey, Michael James; Pierce, C. W.; Milner, T. E.

    2001-01-01

    the crank cycle, producing ankle dorsiflexion perturbations of similar trajectory. The stretch reflex was greatest during the power phase of the crank cycle and was decreased to the level of background EMG during recovery. Matched perturbations were induced under static conditions at the same crank angle...... active cycling as has been shown with the H-reflex. This lack of depression may reflect a decreased susceptibility of the stretch reflex to inhibition, possibly originating from presynaptic mechanisms....

  6. Late-time acceleration with steep exponential potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahalam, M.; Yang, Weiqiang; Myrzakulov, R.; Wang, Anzhong

    2017-12-01

    In this letter, we study the cosmological dynamics of steeper potential than exponential. Our analysis shows that a simple extension of an exponential potential allows to capture late-time cosmic acceleration and retain the tracker behavior. We also perform statefinder and Om diagnostics to distinguish dark energy models among themselves and with Λ CDM. In addition, to put the observational constraints on the model parameters, we modify the publicly available CosmoMC code and use an integrated data base of baryon acoustic oscillation, latest Type Ia supernova from Joint Light Curves sample and the local Hubble constant value measured by the Hubble Space Telescope.

  7. Late-time acceleration with steep exponential potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahalam, M. [Zhejiang University of Technology, Institute for Advanced Physics and Mathematics, Hangzhou (China); Yang, Weiqiang [Liaoning Normal University, Department of Physics, Dalian (China); Myrzakulov, R. [Eurasian National University, Department of General and Theoretical Physics, Eurasian International Center for Theoretical Physics, Astana (Kazakhstan); Wang, Anzhong [Zhejiang University of Technology, Institute for Advanced Physics and Mathematics, Hangzhou (China); Baylor University, GCAP-CASPER, Department of Physics, Waco, TX (United States)

    2017-12-15

    In this letter, we study the cosmological dynamics of steeper potential than exponential. Our analysis shows that a simple extension of an exponential potential allows to capture late-time cosmic acceleration and retain the tracker behavior. We also perform statefinder and Om diagnostics to distinguish dark energy models among themselves and with ΛCDM. In addition, to put the observational constraints on the model parameters, we modify the publicly available CosmoMC code and use an integrated data base of baryon acoustic oscillation, latest Type Ia supernova from Joint Light Curves sample and the local Hubble constant value measured by the Hubble Space Telescope. (orig.)

  8. Late-time acceleration with steep exponential potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahalam, M.; Yang, Weiqiang; Myrzakulov, R.; Wang, Anzhong

    2017-01-01

    In this letter, we study the cosmological dynamics of steeper potential than exponential. Our analysis shows that a simple extension of an exponential potential allows to capture late-time cosmic acceleration and retain the tracker behavior. We also perform statefinder and Om diagnostics to distinguish dark energy models among themselves and with ΛCDM. In addition, to put the observational constraints on the model parameters, we modify the publicly available CosmoMC code and use an integrated data base of baryon acoustic oscillation, latest Type Ia supernova from Joint Light Curves sample and the local Hubble constant value measured by the Hubble Space Telescope. (orig.)

  9. An exponentiation method for XML element retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichaiwong, Tanakorn

    2014-01-01

    XML document is now widely used for modelling and storing structured documents. The structure is very rich and carries important information about contents and their relationships, for example, e-Commerce. XML data-centric collections require query terms allowing users to specify constraints on the document structure; mapping structure queries and assigning the weight are significant for the set of possibly relevant documents with respect to structural conditions. In this paper, we present an extension to the MEXIR search system that supports the combination of structural and content queries in the form of content-and-structure queries, which we call the Exponentiation function. It has been shown the structural information improve the effectiveness of the search system up to 52.60% over the baseline BM25 at MAP.

  10. Effect of the initial stage of annealing on modeling of enthalpy relaxation in a hyperquenched glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yanfei; Guo, Xiaoju; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2013-01-01

    relaxation in both HQG and AHQG during the initial stage of both the sub-Tg and above-Tg annealing cannot be captured by the existing models. In this Letter we show that the combination of a modified stretched exponential equation [M. Peyron, et al., J. Magn. Reson, Series A 118 (1996) 214] and the recently...

  11. Exponential and power law distribution of mass clusters in a (magnetic-like) deposition model of elongated grains in 2D piles

    OpenAIRE

    Trojan, K.; Ausloos, M.; Cloots, R.

    2004-01-01

    A generalized so called magnetically controlled ballistic rain-like deposition (MBD) model of granular piles has been numerically investigated in 2D. The grains are taken to be elongated disks whence characterized by a two-state scalar degree of freedom, called ''nip'', their interaction being described through a Hamiltonian. Results are discussed in order to search for the effect of nip flip (or grain rotation from vertical to horizontal and conversely) probability in building a granular pil...

  12. Multivariate Marshall and Olkin Exponential Minification Process ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A stationary bivariate minification process with bivariate Marshall-Olkin exponential distribution that was earlier studied by Miroslav et al [15]is in this paper extended to multivariate minification process with multivariate Marshall and Olkin exponential distribution as its stationary marginal distribution. The innovation and the ...

  13. Maximum likelihood estimation of exponential distribution under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maximum likelihood estimation of exponential distribution under type-ii censoring from imprecise data. ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences ... This paper deals with the estimation of exponential mean parameter under Type-II censoring scheme when the lifetime observations are fuzzy and are assumed to be ...

  14. Multivariate Exponential Autoregressive and Autoregressive Moving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Autoregressive (AR) and autoregressive moving average (ARMA) processes with multivariate exponential (ME) distribution are presented and discussed. The theory of positive dependence is used to show that in many cases, multivariate exponential autoregressive (MEAR) and multivariate autoregressive moving average ...

  15. Relationship Between Stretch Duration And Shoulder Musculature ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To date, studies focussing on the effect of stretching on flexibility have focused almost solely on the effect of chronic stretching rather than the effects of acute stretching performed immediately prior to physical activity. The effects of different static stretches were assessed on passive shoulder range of motion (ROM).

  16. Spontaneous bending of pre-stretched bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSimone, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    We discuss spontaneously bent configurations of pre-stretched bilayer sheets that can be obtained by tuning the pre-stretches in the two layers. The two-dimensional nonlinear plate model we use for this purpose is an adaptation of the one recently obtained for thin sheets of nematic elastomers, by means of a rigorous dimensional reduction argument based on the theory of Gamma-convergence (Agostiniani and DeSimone in Meccanica. doi:10.1007/s11012-017-0630-4, 2017, Math Mech Solids. doi:10.1177/1081286517699991, arXiv:1509.07003, 2017). We argue that pre-stretched bilayer sheets provide us with an interesting model system to study shape programming and morphing of surfaces in other, more complex systems, where spontaneous deformations are induced by swelling due to the absorption of a liquid, phase transformations, thermal or electro-magnetic stimuli. These include bio-mimetic structures inspired by biological systems from both the plant and the animal kingdoms.

  17. Reducing charging effects in scanning electron microscope images by Rayleigh contrast stretching method (RCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan Ismail, W Z; Sim, K S; Tso, C P; Ting, H Y

    2011-01-01

    To reduce undesirable charging effects in scanning electron microscope images, Rayleigh contrast stretching is developed and employed. First, re-scaling is performed on the input image histograms with Rayleigh algorithm. Then, contrast stretching or contrast adjustment is implemented to improve the images while reducing the contrast charging artifacts. This technique has been compared to some existing histogram equalization (HE) extension techniques: recursive sub-image HE, contrast stretching dynamic HE, multipeak HE and recursive mean separate HE. Other post processing methods, such as wavelet approach, spatial filtering, and exponential contrast stretching, are compared as well. Overall, the proposed method produces better image compensation in reducing charging artifacts. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Atomic Stretch: Optimally bounded real-time stretching and beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Ramsbøl; Nielsen, Jannik Boll

    2016-01-01

    Atomic Stretch is a plugin for your preferred Adobe video editing tool, allowing real-time smooth and optimally bounded retarget-ting from and to any aspect ratio. The plugin allows preserving of high interest pixels through a protected region, attention redirection through color-modification, co......Atomic Stretch is a plugin for your preferred Adobe video editing tool, allowing real-time smooth and optimally bounded retarget-ting from and to any aspect ratio. The plugin allows preserving of high interest pixels through a protected region, attention redirection through color...

  19. Exponential Synchronization of Uncertain Complex Dynamical Networks with Delay Coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lifu; Kong Zhi; Jing Yuanwei

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the global exponential synchronization of uncertain complex delayed dynamical networks. The network model considered is general dynamical delay networks with unknown network structure and unknown coupling functions but bounded. Novel delay-dependent linear controllers are designed via the Lyapunov stability theory. Especially, it is shown that the controlled networks are globally exponentially synchronized with a given convergence rate. An example of typical dynamical network of this class, having the Lorenz system at each node, has been used to demonstrate and verify the novel design proposed. And, the numerical simulation results show the effectiveness of proposed synchronization approaches. (general)

  20. The q-exponential family in statistical physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naudts, Jan

    2010-01-01

    The Boltzmann-Gibbs probability distribution, seen as a statistical model, belongs to the exponential family. Recently, the latter concept has been generalized. The q-exponential family has been shown to be relevant for the statistical description of small isolated systems. Two main applications are reviewed: 1. The distribution of the momentum of a single particle is a q-Gaussian, the distribution of its velocity is a deformed Maxwellian; 2. The configurational density distribution belongs to the q-exponential family. The definition of the temperature of small isolated systems is discussed. It depends on defining the thermodynamic entropy of a microcanonical ensemble in a suitable manner. The simple example of non-interacting harmonic oscillators shows that Renyi's entropy functional leads to acceptable results.

  1. Stochastic Frontier Models with Dependent Errors based on Normal and Exponential Margins || Modelos de frontera estocástica con errores dependientes basados en márgenes normal y exponencial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez-Déniz, Emilio

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Following the recent work of Gómez-Déniz and Pérez-Rodríguez (2014, this paper extends the results obtained there to the normal-exponential distribution with dependence. Accordingly, the main aim of the present paper is to enhance stochastic production frontier and stochastic cost frontier modelling by proposing a bivariate distribution for dependent errors which allows us to nest the classical models. Closed-form expressions for the error term and technical efficiency are provided. An illustration using real data from the econometric literature is provided to show the applicability of the model proposed. || Continuando el reciente trabajo de Gómez-Déniz y Pérez-Rodríguez (2014, el presente artículo extiende los resultados obtenidos a la distribución normal-exponencial con dependencia. En consecuencia, el principal propósito de este artículo es mejorar el modelado de la frontera estocástica tanto de producción como de coste proponiendo para ello una distribución bivariante para errores dependientes que nos permitan encajar los modelos clásicos. Se obtienen las expresiones en forma cerrada para el término de error y la eficiencia técnica. Se ilustra la aplicabilidad del modelo propouesto usando datos reales existentes en la literatura econométrica.

  2. The Kumaraswamy G Exponentiated Gumbel type-2 distribution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The distribution due to Okorie et al. (2016) is further extended to a wider family of distribution called the Kumaraswamy Generalized Exponentiated Gumbel type-2 distribution. Twenty two distributions are identified as sub-models of the new distribution. Some of its important statistical properties are explicitly derived and the ...

  3. Unsteady MHD flow in porous media past over exponentially ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper we are studying unsteady MHD flow in porous media past over exponentially accelerated inclined plate having variable wall temperature as well as mass transfer along with Hall current. We have used Laplace-transform technique to find the solution of the equations in the flow model. The results obtained are ...

  4. Marangoni convection radiative flow of dusty nanoliquid with exponential space dependent heat source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basavarajappa Mahanthesh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The flow of liquids submerged with nanoparticles is of significance to industrial applications, specifically in nuclear reactors and the cooling of nuclear systems to improve energy efficiency. The application of nanofluids in water-cooled nuclear systems can result in a significant improvement of their economic performance and/or safety margins. Therefore, in this paper, Marangoni thermal convective boundary layer dusty nanoliquid flow across a flat surface in the presence of solar radiation is studied. A two phase dusty liquid model is considered. Unlike classical temperature-dependent heat source effects, an exponential space-dependent heat source aspect is considered. Stretching variables are utilized to transform the prevailing partial differential system into a nonlinear ordinary differential system, which is then solved numerically via the Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg approach coupled with a shooting technique. The roles of physical parameters are focused in momentum and heat transport distributions. Graphical illustrations are also used to consider local and average Nusselt numbers. We examined the results under both linear and quadratic variation of the surface temperature. Our simulations established that the impact of Marangoni flow is useful for an enhancement of the heat transfer rate.

  5. Investigation of hyperelastic models for nonlinear elastic behavior of demineralized and deproteinized bovine cortical femur bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, M; Ghoreishi, M; Narooei, K

    2016-06-01

    In this study, the hyperelastic models of demineralized and deproteinized bovine cortical femur bone were investigated and appropriate models were developed. Using uniaxial compression test data, the strain energy versus stretch was calculated and the appropriate hyperelastic strain energy functions were fitted on data in order to calculate the material parameters. To obtain the mechanical behavior in other loading conditions, the hyperelastic strain energy equations were investigated for pure shear and equi-biaxial tension loadings. The results showed the Mooney-Rivlin and Ogden models cannot predict the mechanical response of demineralized and deproteinized bovine cortical femur bone accurately, while the general exponential-exponential and general exponential-power law models have a good agreement with the experimental results. To investigate the sensitivity of the hyperelastic models, a variation of 10% in material parameters was performed and the results indicated an acceptable stability for the general exponential-exponential and general exponential-power law models. Finally, the uniaxial tension and compression of cortical femur bone were studied using the finite element method in VUMAT user subroutine of ABAQUS software and the computed stress-stretch curves were shown a good agreement with the experimental data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Exponential Frequency Spectrum in Magnetized Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pace, D. C.; Shi, M.; Maggs, J. E.; Morales, G. J.; Carter, T. A.

    2008-01-01

    Measurements of a magnetized plasma with a controlled electron temperature gradient show the development of a broadband spectrum of density and temperature fluctuations having an exponential frequency dependence at frequencies below the ion cyclotron frequency. The origin of the exponential frequency behavior is traced to temporal pulses of Lorentzian shape. Similar exponential frequency spectra are also found in limiter-edge plasma turbulence associated with blob transport. This finding suggests a universal feature of magnetized plasma turbulence leading to nondiffusive, cross-field transport, namely, the presence of Lorentzian shaped pulses

  7. Estimation of MHD boundary layer slip flow over a permeable stretching cylinder in the presence of chemical reaction through numerical and artificial neural network modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bala Anki Reddy

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the prediction of the magnetohydrodynamic boundary layer slip flow over a permeable stretched cylinder with chemical reaction is investigated by using some mathematical techniques, namely Runge–Kutta fourth order method along with shooting technique and artificial neural network (ANN. A numerical method is implemented to approximate the flow of heat and mass transfer characteristics as a function of some input parameters, explicitly the curvature parameter, magnetic parameter, permeability parameter, velocity slip, Grashof number, solutal Grashof number, Prandtl number, temperature exponent, Schmidt number, concentration exponent and chemical reaction parameter. The non-linear partial differential equations of the governing flow are converted into a system of highly non-linear ordinary differential equations by using the suitable similarity transformations, which are then solved numerically by a Runge–Kutta fourth order along with shooting technique and then ANN is applied to them. The Back Propagation Neural Network is applied for forecasting the desired outputs. The reported numerical values and the ANN values are in good agreement than those published works on various special cases. According to the findings of this study, the ANN approach is reliable, effective and easily applicable for simulating heat and mass transfer flow over a stretched cylinder.

  8. Botulinum Neurotoxin A Injections Influence Stretching of the Gastrocnemius Muscle-Tendon Unit in an Animal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Tuohy

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Botulinum Neurotoxin A (BoNT-A injections have been used for the treatment of muscle contractures and spasticity. This study assessed the influence of (BoNT-A injections on passive biomechanical properties of the muscle-tendon unit. Mouse gastrocnemius muscle (GC was injected with BoNT-A (n = 18 or normal saline (n = 18 and passive, non-destructive, in vivo load relaxation experimentation was performed to examine how the muscle-tendon unit behaves after chemical denervation with BoNT-A. Injection of BoNT-A impaired passive muscle recovery (15% vs. 35% recovery to pre-stretching baseline, p < 0.05 and decreased GC stiffness (0.531 ± 0.061 N/mm vs. 0.780 ± 0.037 N/mm, p < 0.05 compared to saline controls. The successful use of BoNT-A injections as an adjunct to physical therapy may be in part attributed to the disruption of the stretch reflex; thereby modulating in vivo passive muscle properties. However, it is also possible that BoNT-A injection may alter the structure of skeletal muscle; thus modulating the in vivo passive biomechanical properties of the muscle-tendon unit.

  9. Hydromagnetic transport phenomena from a stretching or shrinking nonlinear nanomaterial sheet with Navier slip and convective heating: A model for bio-nano-materials processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, M. J.; Bég, O. Anwar; Amin, N.

    2014-11-01

    Steady two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic laminar free convective boundary layer slip flow of an electrically conducting Newtonian nanofluid from a translating stretching/shrinking sheet in a quiescent fluid is studied. A convective heating boundary condition is incorporated. The transport equations along with the boundary conditions are first converted into dimensionless form and following the implementation of a linear group of transformations, the similarity governing equations are developed. The transformed equations are solved numerically using the Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg fourth fifth order method from Maple. Validation of the Maple solutions is achieved with previous non-magnetic published results. The effects of the emerging thermophysical parameters; namely, stretching/shrinking, velocity slip, magnetic field, convective heat transfer and buoyancy ratio parameters, on the dimensionless velocity, temperature and concentration (nanoparticle fraction) are depicted graphically and interpreted at length. It is found that velocity increases whilst temperature and concentration reduce with the velocity slip. Magnetic field causes to reduce velocity and enhances temperature and concentration. Velocity, temperature as well as concentration rises with convective heating parameter. The study is relevant to the synthesis of bio-magnetic nanofluids of potential interest in wound treatments, skin repair and smart coatings for biological devices.

  10. Hydromagnetic transport phenomena from a stretching or shrinking nonlinear nanomaterial sheet with Navier slip and convective heating: A model for bio-nano-materials processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uddin, M.J., E-mail: jashim_74@yahoo.com [Department of Mathematics, American International University-Bangladesh, Banani Dhaka 1213 (Bangladesh); Bég, O. Anwar [Gort Engovation Research (Propulsion/Biomechanics), Gabriel' s Wing House, 15 Southmere Ave., Bradford, BD7 3NU England (United Kingdom); Amin, N. [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor (Malaysia)

    2014-11-15

    Steady two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic laminar free convective boundary layer slip flow of an electrically conducting Newtonian nanofluid from a translating stretching/shrinking sheet in a quiescent fluid is studied. A convective heating boundary condition is incorporated. The transport equations along with the boundary conditions are first converted into dimensionless form and following the implementation of a linear group of transformations, the similarity governing equations are developed. The transformed equations are solved numerically using the Runge–Kutta–Fehlberg fourth fifth order method from Maple. Validation of the Maple solutions is achieved with previous non-magnetic published results. The effects of the emerging thermophysical parameters; namely, stretching/shrinking, velocity slip, magnetic field, convective heat transfer and buoyancy ratio parameters, on the dimensionless velocity, temperature and concentration (nanoparticle fraction) are depicted graphically and interpreted at length. It is found that velocity increases whilst temperature and concentration reduce with the velocity slip. Magnetic field causes to reduce velocity and enhances temperature and concentration. Velocity, temperature as well as concentration rises with convective heating parameter. The study is relevant to the synthesis of bio-magnetic nanofluids of potential interest in wound treatments, skin repair and smart coatings for biological devices. - Highlights: • This paper analyses MHD slip flow of nofluid with convective boundary conditions. • Group method is used to transform governing equations into similarity equations. • The Runge–Kutta–Fehlberg method is used for numerical computations. • The study is relevant to synthesis of bio-magnetic nanofluids.

  11. On the performance of exponential integrators for problems in magnetohydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einkemmer, Lukas; Tokman, Mayya; Loffeld, John

    2017-02-01

    Exponential integrators have been introduced as an efficient alternative to explicit and implicit methods for integrating large stiff systems of differential equations. Over the past decades these methods have been studied theoretically and their performance was evaluated using a range of test problems. While the results of these investigations showed that exponential integrators can provide significant computational savings, the research on validating this hypothesis for large scale systems and understanding what classes of problems can particularly benefit from the use of the new techniques is in its initial stages. Resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modeling is widely used in studying large scale behavior of laboratory and astrophysical plasmas. In many problems numerical solution of MHD equations is a challenging task due to the temporal stiffness of this system in the parameter regimes of interest. In this paper we evaluate the performance of exponential integrators on large MHD problems and compare them to a state-of-the-art implicit time integrator. Both the variable and constant time step exponential methods of EPIRK-type are used to simulate magnetic reconnection and the Kevin-Helmholtz instability in plasma. Performance of these methods, which are part of the EPIC software package, is compared to the variable time step variable order BDF scheme included in the CVODE (part of SUNDIALS) library. We study performance of the methods on parallel architectures and with respect to magnitudes of important parameters such as Reynolds, Lundquist, and Prandtl numbers. We find that the exponential integrators provide superior or equal performance in most circumstances and conclude that further development of exponential methods for MHD problems is warranted and can lead to significant computational advantages for large scale stiff systems of differential equations such as MHD.

  12. Dynamic Diffusion Estimation in Exponential Family Models

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dedecius, Kamil; Sečkárová, Vladimíra

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 11 (2013), s. 1114-1117 ISSN 1070-9908 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 7D12004; GA ČR GA13-13502S Keywords : diffusion estimation * distributed estimation * paremeter estimation Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 1.639, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/AS/dedecius-0396518.pdf

  13. Acute effects of unilateral static stretching on handgrip strength of the stretched and non-stretched limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelmini, Jacob D; Cornwell, Andrew; Khodiguian, Nazareth; Thayer, Jennifer; Araujo, And John

    2018-02-16

    To determine the effects of an acute bout of unilateral static stretching on handgrip strength of both the stretched and non-stretched limb. It was reasoned that if the non-stretched limb experienced a decrease in force output, further evidence for a neural mechanism to explain a post-stretch force reduction would be obtained as no mechanical adaptation would have occurred. Thirty participants performed maximum voluntary unilateral handgrip contractions of both limbs before and after stretching the finger flexors of the strength-dominant side only. Each trial was assessed for peak force, muscle activity (iEMG), and rate of force generation. Following the stretching bout, peak force and iEMG decreased by 4.4% (p = 0.001) and 6.4% (p = 0.000) respectively in the stretched limb only. However, rate of force generation was significantly impaired in both the stretched (- 17.3%; p = 0.000) and non-stretched limbs (- 10.8%; p = 0.003) 1 min post-stretch, and remained similarly depressed for both limbs 15 min later. Acute stretching negatively impacts rate of force generation more than peak force. Moreover, a reduced rate of force generation from the non-stretched limb indicates the presence of a cross-over inhibitory effect through the nervous system, which provides additional evidence for a neural mechanism.

  14. On the formation of exponential discs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshii, Yuzuru; Sommer-Larsen, Jesper

    1989-01-01

    Spiral galaxy discs are characterized by approximately exponential surface luminosity profiles. In this paper the evolutionary equations for a star-forming, viscous disc are solved analytically or semi-analytically. It is shown that approximately exponential stellar surface density profiles result if the viscous time-scale t ν is comparable to the star-formation time scale t * everywhere in the disc. The analytical solutions are used to illuminate further on the issue of why the above mechanism leads to resulting exponential stellar profiles under certain conditions. The sensitivity of the solution to variations of various parameters are investigated and show that the initial gas surface density distribution has to be fairly regular in order that final exponential stellar surface density profiles result. (author)

  15. Exponential attractors for a nonclassical diffusion equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaozhen Ma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we prove the existence of exponential attractors for a nonclassical diffusion equation in ${H^{2}(Omega}cap{H}^{1}_{0}(Omega$ when the space dimension is less than 4.

  16. Soleus stretch reflex during cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grey, Michael James; Pierce, C. W.; Milner, T. E.

    2001-01-01

    The modulation and strength of the human soleus short latency stretch reflex was investigated by mechanically perturbing the ankle during an unconstrained pedaling task. Eight subjects pedaled at 60 rpm against a preload of 10 Nm. A torque pulse was applied to the crank at various positions durin...

  17. On the generalised stretch function

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kharlamov, Alexander A.; Filip, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 4 (2012), s. 272-278 ISSN 1022-1344 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA103/09/2066 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : molecular length * recurrence equations * rubber * strain * stretch functions Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.606, year: 2012

  18. Optical tweezers stretching of chromatin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pope, L.H.; Bennink, Martin L.; Greve, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Recently significant success has emerged from exciting research involving chromatin stretching using optical tweezers. These experiments, in which a single chromatin fibre is attached by one end to a micron-sized bead held in an optical trap and to a solid surface or second bead via the other end,

  19. Biaxial stretching of polyethylene, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakami, Hiroshi; Iida, Shozo

    1976-01-01

    The mechanism of oriented crystallization in mutually perpendicular direction to each other was investigated on the crosslinked linear polyethylene stretched successively and biaxially above melting point of raw material. To investigate the mechanism, the shrinkage stress, the degree of polarization and DSC of the film at the fixed length were measured on the crystallization process. The behavior observed on crystallization could be divided into that in the first period and that in the second period. The first period showed the domain of highly oriented crystallization of the crosslinked molecular chain, and in the second period the fold type crystals grew with highly oriented crystals in the first period as nuclear. Therefore, the formation of bi-component crystal structure is supposed for the crystallization. The biaxially oriented crystallization proceeded as follows: the uniaxial orientation to MD was observed in the first stretching in the initial stage, and then the further processing by the second stretching at a right angle caused the fold type crystallization of molecular chain oriented to TD. The film stretched fully and biaxially could be considered to have the oriented crystalline structure in which highly oriented fibril crystals and fold type crystals distribute at random. (auth.)

  20. Central limit theorem and deformed exponentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vignat, C; Plastino, A

    2007-01-01

    The central limit theorem (CLT) can be ranked among the most important ones in probability theory and statistics and plays an essential role in several basic and applied disciplines, notably in statistical thermodynamics. We show that there exists a natural extension of the CLT from exponentials to so-called deformed exponentials (also denoted as q-Gaussians). Our proposal applies exactly in the usual conditions in which the classical CLT is used. (fast track communication)

  1. Exponential stability and robust H∞ control of a class of discrete-time switched non-linear systems with time-varying delays via T-S fuzzy model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yanbing; Zhang, Hongbin

    2014-05-01

    This paper deals with stability and robust H∞ control of discrete-time switched non-linear systems with time-varying delays. The T-S fuzzy models are utilised to represent each sub-non-linear system. Thus, with two level functions, namely, crisp switching functions and local fuzzy weighting functions, we introduce a discrete-time switched fuzzy systems, which inherently contain the features of the switched hybrid systems and T-S fuzzy systems. Piecewise fuzzy weighting-dependent Lyapunov-Krasovskii functionals (PFLKFs) and average dwell-time approach are utilised in this paper for the exponentially stability analysis and controller design, and with free fuzzy weighting matrix scheme, switching control laws are obtained such that H∞ performance is satisfied. The conditions of stability and the control laws are given in the form of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) that are numerically feasible. The state decay estimate is explicitly given. A numerical example and the control of delayed single link robot arm with uncertain part are given to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method.

  2. Exponential growth and atmospheric carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurmann, J.A.; Rotty, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    The adequacy of assumptions required to project atmospheric CO 2 concentrations in time frames of practical importance is reviewed. Relevant issues concern the form assumed for future fossil fuel release, carbon cycle approximations, and the implications of revisions in fossil fuel patterns required to maintain atmospheric CO 2 levels below a chosen threshold. In general, we find that with a judiciously selected exponential fossil fuel release rate, and with a constant airborn fraction, we can estimate atmospheric CO 2 growth over the next 50 years based on essentially surprise free scenarios. Resource depletion effects must be included for projections beyond about 50 years, and on this time frame the constant airborne fraction approximation has to be questioned as well (especially in later years when the fossil fuel use begins to taper off). For projections for over 100 years, both energy demand scenarios and currently available carbon cycle models have sufficient uncertainties that atmospheric CO 2 levels derived from them are not much better than guesses

  3. Equibiaxial cyclic stretch stimulates fibroblasts to rapidly remodel fibrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestrini, Jenna Leigh; Billiar, Kristen Lawrence

    2006-01-01

    Understanding the effects of the mechanical environment on wound healing is critical for developing more effective treatments to reduce scar formation and contracture. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dynamic mechanical stretch on cell-mediated early wound remodeling independent of matrix alignment which obscures more subtle remodeling mechanisms. Cyclic equibiaxial stretch (16% stretch at 0.2 Hz) was applied to fibroblast-populated fibrin gel in vitro wound models for eight days. Compaction, density, tensile strength, and collagen content were quantified as functional measures of remodeling. Stretched samples were approximately ten times stronger, eight-fold more dense, and eight times thinner than statically cultured samples. These changes were accompanied by a 15% increase in net collagen but no significant differences in cell number or viability. When collagen crosslinking was inhibited in stretched samples, the extensibility increased and the strength decreased. The apparent weakening was due to a reduction in compaction rather than a decrease in ability of the tissue to withstand tensile forces. Interestingly, inhibiting collagen crosslinking had no measurable effects on the statically cultured samples. These results indicate that amplified cell-mediated compaction and even a slight addition in collagen content play substantial roles in mechanically induced wound strengthening. These findings increase our understanding of how mechanical forces guide the healing response in skin, and the methods employed in this study may also prove valuable tools for investigating stretch-induced remodeling of other planar connective tissues and for creating mechanically robust engineered tissues.

  4. Validation of predicted exponential concentration profiles of chemicals in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollander, Anne; Baijens, Iris; Ragas, Ad; Huijbregts, Mark; Meent, Dik van de

    2007-01-01

    Multimedia mass balance models assume well-mixed homogeneous compartments. Particularly for soils, this does not correspond to reality, which results in potentially large uncertainties in estimates of transport fluxes from soils. A theoretically expected exponential decrease model of chemical concentrations with depth has been proposed, but hardly tested against empirical data. In this paper, we explored the correspondence between theoretically predicted soil concentration profiles and 84 field measured profiles. In most cases, chemical concentrations in soils appear to decline exponentially with depth, and values for the chemical specific soil penetration depth (d p ) are predicted within one order of magnitude. Over all, the reliability of multimedia models will improve when they account for depth-dependent soil concentrations, so we recommend to take into account the described theoretical exponential decrease model of chemical concentrations with depth in chemical fate studies. In this model the d p -values should estimated be either based on local conditions or on a fixed d p -value, which we recommend to be 10 cm for chemicals with a log K ow > 3. - Multimedia mass model predictions will improve when taking into account depth dependent soil concentrations

  5. The scaling of human mobility by taxis is exponential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiao; Zheng, Xudong; Lv, Weifeng; Zhu, Tongyu; Xu, Ke

    2012-03-01

    As a significant factor in urban planning, traffic forecasting and prediction of epidemics, modeling patterns of human mobility draws intensive attention from researchers for decades. Power-law distribution and its variations are observed from quite a few real-world human mobility datasets such as the movements of banking notes, trackings of cell phone users' locations and trajectories of vehicles. In this paper, we build models for 20 million trajectories with fine granularity collected from more than 10 thousand taxis in Beijing. In contrast to most models observed in human mobility data, the taxis' traveling displacements in urban areas tend to follow an exponential distribution instead of a power-law. Similarly, the elapsed time can also be well approximated by an exponential distribution. Worth mentioning, analysis of the interevent time indicates the bursty nature of human mobility, similar to many other human activities.

  6. Predicting Escherichia coli's chemotactic drift under exponential gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Sibendu; Layek, Ritwik; Kar, Shantimoy; Raj, M. Kiran; Mukhopadhyay, Sudipta; Chakraborty, Suman

    2017-09-01

    Bacterial species are known to show chemotaxis, i.e., the directed motions in the presence of certain chemicals, whereas the motion is random in the absence of those chemicals. The bacteria modulate their run time to induce chemotactic drift towards the attractant chemicals and away from the repellent chemicals. However, the existing theoretical knowledge does not exhibit a proper match with experimental validation, and hence there is a need for developing alternate models and validating experimentally. In this paper a more robust theoretical model is proposed to investigate chemotactic drift of peritrichous Escherichia coli under an exponential nutrient gradient. An exponential gradient is used to understand the steady state behavior of drift because of the logarithmic functionality of the chemosensory receptors. Our theoretical estimations are validated through the experimentation and simulation results. Thus, the developed model successfully delineates the run time, run trajectory, and drift velocity as measured from the experiments.

  7. Time stretch and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahjoubfar, Ata; Churkin, Dmitry V.; Barland, Stéphane; Broderick, Neil; Turitsyn, Sergei K.; Jalali, Bahram

    2017-06-01

    Observing non-repetitive and statistically rare signals that occur on short timescales requires fast real-time measurements that exceed the speed, precision and record length of conventional digitizers. Photonic time stretch is a data acquisition method that overcomes the speed limitations of electronic digitizers and enables continuous ultrafast single-shot spectroscopy, imaging, reflectometry, terahertz and other measurements at refresh rates reaching billions of frames per second with non-stop recording spanning trillions of consecutive frames. The technology has opened a new frontier in measurement science unveiling transient phenomena in nonlinear dynamics such as optical rogue waves and soliton molecules, and in relativistic electron bunching. It has also created a new class of instruments that have been integrated with artificial intelligence for sensing and biomedical diagnostics. We review the fundamental principles and applications of this emerging field for continuous phase and amplitude characterization at extremely high repetition rates via time-stretch spectral interferometry.

  8. The technological singularity and exponential medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj Nabipour

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The "technological singularity" is forecasted to occur in 2045. It is a point when non-biological intelligence becomes more intelligent than humans and each generation of intelligent machines re-designs itself smarter. Beyond this point, there is a symbiosis between machines and humans. This co-existence will produce incredible impacts on medicine that its sparkles could be seen in healthcare industry and the future medicine since 2025. Ray Kurzweil, the great futurist, suggested that three revolutions in science and technology consisting genetic and molecular science, nanotechnology, and robotic (artificial intelligence provided an exponential growth rate for medicine. The "exponential medicine" is going to create more disruptive technologies in healthcare industry. The exponential medicine shifts the paradigm of medical philosophy and produces significant impacts on the healthcare system and patient-physician relationship.   

  9. Stretching

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this topic for: Teens Dehydration Safety Tips: Running Knee Injuries Repetitive Stress Injuries Sports and Exercise Safety Dealing With Sports Injuries Sports Center Strains and Sprains View more Partner Message About Us Contact Us ...

  10. Quantum Zeno effect for exponentially decaying systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshino, Kazuki; Shimizu, Akira

    2004-01-01

    The quantum Zeno effect - suppression of decay by frequent measurements - was believed to occur only when the response of the detector is so quick that the initial tiny deviation from the exponential decay law is detectable. However, we show that it can occur even for exactly exponentially decaying systems, for which this condition is never satisfied, by considering a realistic case where the detector has a finite energy band of detection. The conventional theories correspond to the limit of an infinite bandwidth. This implies that the Zeno effect occurs more widely than expected thus far

  11. Calorimeter prediction based on multiple exponentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.K.; Bracken, D.S.

    2002-01-01

    Calorimetry allows very precise measurements of nuclear material to be carried out, but it also requires relatively long measurement times to do so. The ability to accurately predict the equilibrium response of a calorimeter would significantly reduce the amount of time required for calorimetric assays. An algorithm has been developed that is effective at predicting the equilibrium response. This multi-exponential prediction algorithm is based on an iterative technique using commercial fitting routines that fit a constant plus a variable number of exponential terms to calorimeter data. Details of the implementation and the results of trials on a large number of calorimeter data sets will be presented

  12. Exponential Growth of Nonlinear Ballooning Instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, P.; Hegna, C. C.; Sovinec, C. R.

    2009-01-01

    Recent ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory predicts that a perturbation evolving from a linear ballooning instability will continue to grow exponentially in the intermediate nonlinear phase at the same linear growth rate. This prediction is confirmed in ideal MHD simulations. When the Lagrangian compression, a measure of the ballooning nonlinearity, becomes of the order of unity, the intermediate nonlinear phase is entered, during which the maximum plasma displacement amplitude as well as the total kinetic energy continues to grow exponentially at the rate of the corresponding linear phase.

  13. Exponential Data Fitting and its Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Pereyra, Victor

    2010-01-01

    Real and complex exponential data fitting is an important activity in many different areas of science and engineering, ranging from Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics to Electrical and Chemical Engineering, Vision and Robotics. The most commonly used norm in the approximation by linear combinations of exponentials is the l2 norm (sum of squares of residuals), in which case one obtains a nonlinear separable least squares problem. A number of different methods have been proposed through the years to solve these types of problems and new applications appear

  14. An Exponential Growth Learning Trajectory: Students' Emerging Understanding of Exponential Growth through Covariation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Amy B.; Ozgur, Zekiye; Kulow, Torrey; Dogan, Muhammed F.; Amidon, Joel

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an Exponential Growth Learning Trajectory (EGLT), a trajectory identifying and characterizing middle grade students' initial and developing understanding of exponential growth as a result of an instructional emphasis on covariation. The EGLT explicates students' thinking and learning over time in relation to a set of tasks…

  15. Twist-stretch profiles of DNA chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoli, Marco

    2017-06-01

    Helical molecules change their twist number under the effect of a mechanical load. We study the twist-stretch relation for a set of short DNA molecules modeled by a mesoscopic Hamiltonian. Finite temperature path integral techniques are applied to generate a large ensemble of possible configurations for the base pairs of the sequence. The model also accounts for the bending and twisting fluctuations between adjacent base pairs along the molecules stack. Simulating a broad range of twisting conformation, we compute the helix structural parameters by averaging over the ensemble of base pairs configurations. The method selects, for any applied force, the average twist angle which minimizes the molecule’s free energy. It is found that the chains generally over-twist under an applied stretching and the over-twisting is physically associated to the contraction of the average helix diameter, i.e. to the damping of the base pair fluctuations. Instead, assuming that the maximum amplitude of the bending fluctuations may decrease against the external load, the DNA molecule first over-twists for weak applied forces and then untwists above a characteristic force value. Our results are discussed in relation to available experimental information albeit for kilo-base long molecules.

  16. Stretch-induced intussuceptive and sprouting angiogenesis in the chick chorioallantoic membrane

    OpenAIRE

    Belle, Janeil; Ysasi, Alexandra; Bennett, Robert D.; Filipovic, Nenad; Imani Nejad, Mohammad; Trumper, David L.; Ackermann, Maximilian; Wagner, Willi; Tsuda, Akira; Konerding, Moritz A.; Mentzer, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Vascular systems grow and remodel in response to not only metabolic needs, but also mechanical influences as well. Here, we investigated the influence of tissue-level mechanical forces on the patterning and structure of the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) microcirculation. A dipole stretch field was applied to the CAM using custom computer-controlled servomotors. The topography of the stretch field was mapped using finite element models. After 3 days of stretch, Sholl analysis of the CAM...

  17. Stretching of red blood cells at high strain rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, J. E.; Ristenpart, W. D.

    2017-10-01

    Most work on the mechanical behavior of red blood cells (RBCs) in flow has focused on simple shear flows. Relatively little work has examined RBC deformations in the physiologically important extensional flow that occurs at the entrance to a constriction. In particular, previous work suggests that RBCs rapidly stretch out and then retract upon entering the constriction, but to date no model predicts this behavior for the extremely high strain rates typically experienced there. In this Rapid Communication, we use high speed video to perform systematic measurements of the dynamic stretching behavior of RBCs as they enter a microfluidic constriction. We demonstrate that both the Kelvin-Voigt and Skalak viscoelastic models capture the observed stretching dynamics, up to strain rates as high as 2000 s-1. The results indicate that the effective elastic modulus of the RBC membrane at these strain rates is an order of magnitude larger than moduli measured by micropipette aspiration or other low strain rate techniques.

  18. Generalized approach to non-exponential relaxation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Non-exponential relaxation is a universal feature of systems as diverse as glasses, spin glasses, earthquakes, financial markets and the universe. Complex relaxation results from hierarchically constrained dynamics with the strength of the constraints being directly related to the form of the relaxation, which ...

  19. CKM matrix exponential parametrization and Euler angles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dattoli, G.; Sabia, E.; Torre, A.

    1997-01-01

    They show that the exponential parametrization of the CKM matrix allows to establish exact relations between the Euler weak rotation angles and the entries of the CKM generating matrix, which has already been shown to include the hierarchy features of the Wolfenstein parametrization. The analysis includes CP-violating effects and its usefulness to treat the experimental data is also proved

  20. Exponential function method for solving nonlinear ordinary ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Corresponding author. E-mail: E.A.Chadwick@Salford.ac.uk; alihatam@aut.ac.ir; SaeedKazem@aut.ac.ir. MS received 29 July 2013; revised 14 June 2015. Abstract. A new approach, named the exponential function method (EFM) is used to.

  1. Academic Sacred Cows and Exponential Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heterick, Robert C., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The speech notes the linear growth of resources versus the exponential growth of costs in higher education. It identifies opportunities arising from information technology to transform teaching and learning through creation of a new scholarly information delivery system. An integrated triad of communications, computing, and library organizations…

  2. Intersection of the Exponential and Logarithmic Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukas, Andreas; Valahas, Theodoros

    2009-01-01

    The study of the number of intersection points of y = a[superscript x] and y = log[subscript a]x can be an interesting topic to present in a single-variable calculus class. In this article, the authors present a classroom presentation outline involving the basic algebra and the elementary calculus of the exponential and logarithmic functions. The…

  3. Exponential Lower Bounds For Policy Iteration

    OpenAIRE

    Fearnley, John

    2010-01-01

    We study policy iteration for infinite-horizon Markov decision processes. It has recently been shown policy iteration style algorithms have exponential lower bounds in a two player game setting. We extend these lower bounds to Markov decision processes with the total reward and average-reward optimality criteria.

  4. Effect of stretching techniques on hamstring flexibility in female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Flexibility can be achieved by a variety of stretching techniques and the benefits of stretching are known. However, controversy remains about the best type of stretching for achieving a particular goal or outcome. The four most basic stretches are static stretching, dynamic stretching, PNF hold-relax and PNF contract-relax ...

  5. Bending and stretching of plates

    CERN Document Server

    Mansfield, E H; Hemp, W S

    1964-01-01

    The Bending and Stretching of Plates deals with elastic plate theory, particularly on small- and large-deflexion theory. Small-deflexion theory concerns derivation of basic equations, rectangular plates, plates of various shapes, plates whose boundaries are amenable to conformal transformation, plates with variable rigidity, and approximate methods. Large-deflexion theory includes general equations and some exact solutions, approximate methods in large-deflexion theory, asymptotic large-deflexion theories for very thin plates. Asymptotic theories covers membrane theory, tension field theory, a

  6. Stretching of macromolecules and proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strick, T R; Dessinges, M-N; Charvin, G; Dekker, N H; Allemand, J-F; Bensimon, D; Croquette, V

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we review the biophysics revealed by stretching single biopolymers. During the last decade various techniques have emerged allowing micromanipulation of single molecules and simultaneous measurements of their elasticity. Using such techniques, it has been possible to investigate some of the interactions playing a role in biology. We shall first review the simplest case of a non-interacting polymer and then present the structural transitions in DNA, RNA and proteins that have been studied by single-molecule techniques. We shall explain how these techniques permit a new approach to the protein folding/unfolding transition

  7. Handbook of exponential and related distributions for engineers and scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Pal, Nabendu; Lim, Wooi K

    2005-01-01

    The normal distribution is widely known and used by scientists and engineers. However, there are many cases when the normal distribution is not appropriate, due to the data being skewed. Rather than leaving you to search through journal articles, advanced theoretical monographs, or introductory texts for alternative distributions, the Handbook of Exponential and Related Distributions for Engineers and Scientists provides a concise, carefully selected presentation of the properties and principles of selected distributions that are most useful for application in the sciences and engineering.The book begins with all the basic mathematical and statistical background necessary to select the correct distribution to model real-world data sets. This includes inference, decision theory, and computational aspects including the popular Bootstrap method. The authors then examine four skewed distributions in detail: exponential, gamma, Weibull, and extreme value. For each one, they discuss general properties and applicabi...

  8. Evidence for Truncated Exponential Probability Distribution of Earthquake Slip

    KAUST Repository

    Thingbaijam, Kiran K. S.

    2016-07-13

    Earthquake ruptures comprise spatially varying slip on the fault surface, where slip represents the displacement discontinuity between the two sides of the rupture plane. In this study, we analyze the probability distribution of coseismic slip, which provides important information to better understand earthquake source physics. Although the probability distribution of slip is crucial for generating realistic rupture scenarios for simulation-based seismic and tsunami-hazard analysis, the statistical properties of earthquake slip have received limited attention so far. Here, we use the online database of earthquake source models (SRCMOD) to show that the probability distribution of slip follows the truncated exponential law. This law agrees with rupture-specific physical constraints limiting the maximum possible slip on the fault, similar to physical constraints on maximum earthquake magnitudes.We show the parameters of the best-fitting truncated exponential distribution scale with average coseismic slip. This scaling property reflects the control of the underlying stress distribution and fault strength on the rupture dimensions, which determines the average slip. Thus, the scale-dependent behavior of slip heterogeneity is captured by the probability distribution of slip. We conclude that the truncated exponential law accurately quantifies coseismic slip distribution and therefore allows for more realistic modeling of rupture scenarios. © 2016, Seismological Society of America. All rights reserverd.

  9. Effect of acute stretch injury on action potential and network activity of rat neocortical neurons in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magou, George C; Pfister, Bryan J; Berlin, Joshua R

    2015-10-22

    The basis for acute seizures following traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains unclear. Animal models of TBI have revealed acute hyperexcitablility in cortical neurons that could underlie seizure activity, but studying initiating events causing hyperexcitability is difficult in these models. In vitro models of stretch injury with cultured cortical neurons, a surrogate for TBI, allow facile investigation of cellular changes after injury but they have only demonstrated post-injury hypoexcitability. The goal of this study was to determine if neuronal hyperexcitability could be triggered by in vitro stretch injury. Controlled uniaxial stretch injury was delivered to a spatially delimited region of a spontaneously active network of cultured rat cortical neurons, yielding a region of stretch-injured neurons and adjacent regions of non-stretched neurons that did not directly experience stretch injury. Spontaneous electrical activity was measured in non-stretched and stretch-injured neurons, and in control neuronal networks not subjected to stretch injury. Non-stretched neurons in stretch-injured cultures displayed a three-fold increase in action potential firing rate and bursting activity 30-60 min post-injury. Stretch-injured neurons, however, displayed dramatically lower rates of action potential firing and bursting. These results demonstrate that acute hyperexcitability can be observed in non-stretched neurons located in regions adjacent to the site of stretch injury, consistent with reports that seizure activity can arise from regions surrounding the site of localized brain injury. Thus, this in vitro procedure for localized neuronal stretch injury may provide a model to study the earliest cellular changes in neuronal function associated with acute post-traumatic seizures. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Stretching skeletal muscle: chronic muscle lengthening through sarcomerogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander M Zöllner

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle responds to passive overstretch through sarcomerogenesis, the creation and serial deposition of new sarcomere units. Sarcomerogenesis is critical to muscle function: It gradually re-positions the muscle back into its optimal operating regime. Animal models of immobilization, limb lengthening, and tendon transfer have provided significant insight into muscle adaptation in vivo. Yet, to date, there is no mathematical model that allows us to predict how skeletal muscle adapts to mechanical stretch in silico. Here we propose a novel mechanistic model for chronic longitudinal muscle growth in response to passive mechanical stretch. We characterize growth through a single scalar-valued internal variable, the serial sarcomere number. Sarcomerogenesis, the evolution of this variable, is driven by the elastic mechanical stretch. To analyze realistic three-dimensional muscle geometries, we embed our model into a nonlinear finite element framework. In a chronic limb lengthening study with a muscle stretch of 1.14, the model predicts an acute sarcomere lengthening from 3.09[Formula: see text]m to 3.51[Formula: see text]m, and a chronic gradual return to the initial sarcomere length within two weeks. Compared to the experiment, the acute model error was 0.00% by design of the model; the chronic model error was 2.13%, which lies within the rage of the experimental standard deviation. Our model explains, from a mechanistic point of view, why gradual multi-step muscle lengthening is less invasive than single-step lengthening. It also explains regional variations in sarcomere length, shorter close to and longer away from the muscle-tendon interface. Once calibrated with a richer data set, our model may help surgeons to prevent muscle overstretch and make informed decisions about optimal stretch increments, stretch timing, and stretch amplitudes. We anticipate our study to open new avenues in orthopedic and reconstructive surgery and enhance

  11. Stretching, twisting and supercoiling in short, single DNA molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Pui-Man; Zhen, Yi

    2018-02-01

    We had combined the Neukirch-Marko model that describes the extension, torque and supercoiling in single, stretched and twisted DNA of infinite contour length, with a form of the free energy suggested by Sinha and Samuels to describe short DNA, with contour length only a few times the persistence length. We find that the free energy of the stretched but untwisted DNA, is significantly modified from its infinitely length value and this in turn modifies significantly the torque and supercoiling. We show that this is consistent with short DNA being more flexible than infinitely long DNA. We hope our results will stimulate experimental investigation of torque and supercoiling in short DNA.

  12. PROPRIOCEPTIVE NEUROMUSCULAR FACILITATION STRETCHING VERSUS STATIC STRETCHING ON SPRINTING PERFORMANCE AMONG COLLEGIATE SPRINTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayaram Maharjan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: A warm-up is important part of preparation for sprinting. There is popularity of doing stretching as part of warm up before athletic activity. The static stretching and PNF stretching is performed by athletes but their effectiveness on sprinting performance is in state of debate. The objective is to determine the effect of static stretching and PNF stretching on sprinting performance in college sprinters and to compare the effects of PNF stretching over static stretching on sprinting performance in college sprinters. Method: A total of 100 subjects were taken for the study that fulfill the inclusion criteria and all were divided into group- A (static stretching and group- B (PNF stretching by simple random sampling method. Both the groups received 5 minutes of warm-up exercises. Pre-Post design was used, which consisted of running a 40-yard sprint immediately following 2 stretching conditions aimed at the lower limb muscles Results: In static stretching group sprint time changed from 6.55 with standard deviation of 0.93 to 6.12 with standard deviation of 1.02 (P.605. Conclusion: Hence both static stretching and PNF stretching can be performed before sprinting activity to improve the sprinting performance.

  13. Statistical estimation for truncated exponential families

    CERN Document Server

    Akahira, Masafumi

    2017-01-01

    This book presents new findings on nonregular statistical estimation. Unlike other books on this topic, its major emphasis is on helping readers understand the meaning and implications of both regularity and irregularity through a certain family of distributions. In particular, it focuses on a truncated exponential family of distributions with a natural parameter and truncation parameter as a typical nonregular family. This focus includes the (truncated) Pareto distribution, which is widely used in various fields such as finance, physics, hydrology, geology, astronomy, and other disciplines. The family is essential in that it links both regular and nonregular distributions, as it becomes a regular exponential family if the truncation parameter is known. The emphasis is on presenting new results on the maximum likelihood estimation of a natural parameter or truncation parameter if one of them is a nuisance parameter. In order to obtain more information on the truncation, the Bayesian approach is also considere...

  14. Vibrations of stretched damped beams under non-ideal boundary ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Stretched beam vibrations; non-ideal boundary conditions; method of multiple time scales. 1. Introduction. Beams are frequently used as design models for vibration analysis. In such analysis, types of support conditions are important and have direct effect on the solutions and natural fre- quencies. Different types of supports ...

  15. Gel stretch method: a new method to measure constitutive properties of cardiac muscle cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zile, M. R.; Cowles, M. K.; Buckley, J. M.; Richardson, K.; Cowles, B. A.; Baicu, C. F.; Cooper G, I. V.; Gharpuray, V.

    1998-01-01

    Diastolic dysfunction is an important cause of congestive heart failure; however, the basic mechanisms causing diastolic congestive heart failure are not fully understood, especially the role of the cardiac muscle cell, or cardiocyte, in this process. Before the role of the cardiocyte in this pathophysiology can be defined, methods for measuring cardiocyte constitutive properties must be developed and validated. Thus this study was designed to evaluate a new method to characterize cardiocyte constitutive properties, the gel stretch method. Cardiocytes were isolated enzymatically from normal feline hearts and embedded in a 2% agarose gel containing HEPES-Krebs buffer and laminin. This gel was cast in a shape that allowed it to be placed in a stretching device. The ends of the gel were held between a movable roller and fixed plates that acted as mandibles. Distance between the right and left mandibles was increased using a stepper motor system. The force applied to the gel was measured by a force transducer. The resultant cardiocyte strain was determined by imaging the cells with a microscope, capturing the images with a CCD camera, and measuring cardiocyte and sarcomere length changes. Cardiocyte stress was characterized with a finite-element method. These measurements of cardiocyte stress and strain were used to determine cardiocyte stiffness. Two variables affecting cardiocyte stiffness were measured, the passive elastic spring and viscous damping. The passive spring was assessed by increasing the force on the gel at 1 g/min, modeling the resultant stress vs. strain relationship as an exponential [sigma = A/k(ekepsilon - 1)]. In normal cardiocytes, A = 23.0 kN/m2 and k = 16. Viscous damping was assessed by examining the loop area between the stress vs. strain relationship during 1 g/min increases and decreases in force. Normal cardiocytes had a finite loop area = 1.39 kN/m2, indicating the presence of viscous damping. Thus the gel stretch method provided accurate

  16. Exponential Stabilization of an Underactuated Surface Vessel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Y. Pettersen

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows that a large class of underactuated vehicles cannot be asymptotically stabilized by either continuous or discontinuous state feedback. Furthermore, stabilization of an underactuated surface vessel is considered. Controllability properties of the surface vessels is presented, and a continuous periodic time-varying feedback law is proposed. It is shown that this feedback law exponentially stabilizes the surface vessel to the origin, and this is illustrated by simulations.

  17. Exponentially Light Dark Matter from Coannihilation

    OpenAIRE

    D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Mondino, Cristina; Ruderman, Joshua T.; Wang, Po-Jen

    2018-01-01

    Dark matter may be a thermal relic whose abundance is set by mutual annihilations among multiple species. Traditionally, this coannihilation scenario has been applied to weak scale dark matter that is highly degenerate with other states. We show that coannihilation among states with split masses points to dark matter that is exponentially lighter than the weak scale, down to the keV scale. We highlight the regime where dark matter does not participate in the annihilations that dilute its numb...

  18. Method for exponentiating in cryptographic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brickell, E.F.; Gordon, D.M.; McCurley, K.S.

    1992-12-31

    An improved cryptographic method utilizing exponentiation is provided which has the advantage of reducing the number of multiplications required to determine the legitimacy of a message or user. The basic method comprises the steps of selecting a key from a pre-approved group of integer keys g; exponentiating the key by an integer value e, where e represents a digital signature, to generate a value g{sup e}; transmitting the value g{sup e} to a remote facility by a communications network; receiving the value g{sup e} at the remote facility; and verifying the digital signature as originating from the legitimate user. The exponentiating step comprises the steps of initializing a plurality of memory locations with a plurality of values g{sup xi}, computing a{sub i} representations for a integer base b, where a{sub i} represents the weighing factor of the ith digit of the integer e; computing the individual values of c{sub d} according to the rule: c{sub d}={product}a{sub i}=d g{sup x {sub i}}; and computing the product of {product}{sup h}/{sub d=1} c{sub d}{sup d} from the stored values of from the plurality of memory locations so as to determine a value for g{sup e}.

  19. Nonequilibrium behaviors of the three-dimensional Heisenberg model in the Swendsen-Wang algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonomura, Yoshihiko; Tomita, Yusuke

    2016-01-01

    Recently, it was shown [Y. Nonomura, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 83, 113001 (2014), 10.7566/JPSJ.83.113001] that the nonequilibrium critical relaxation of the two-dimensional (2D) Ising model from a perfectly ordered state in the Wolff algorithm is described by stretched-exponential decay, and a universal scaling scheme was found to connect nonequilibrium and equilibrium behaviors. In the present study we extend these findings to vector spin models, and the 3D Heisenberg model could be a typical example. To evaluate the critical temperature and critical exponents precisely using the above scaling scheme, we calculate nonequilibrium ordering from the perfectly disordered state in the Swendsen-Wang algorithm, and we find that the critical ordering process is described by stretched-exponential growth with a comparable exponent to that of the 3D X Y model. The critical exponents evaluated in the present study are consistent with those in previous studies.

  20. Contact angles on stretched solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensink, Liz; Snoeijer, Jacco

    2017-11-01

    The surface energy of solid interfaces plays a central role in wetting, as they dictate the liquid contact angle. Yet, it has been challenging to measure the solid surface energies independently, without making use of Young's law. Here we present Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations by which we measure the surface properties for all interfaces, including the solids. We observe change in contact angles upon stretching the solid substrates, showing that the surface energy is actually strain dependent. This is clear evidence of the so-called Shuttleworth effect, making it necessary to distinguish surface energy from surface tension. We discuss how this effect gives rise to a new class of elasto-capillary phenomena. ERC Consolidator Grant No. 616918.

  1. Aerothermodynamic properties of stretched flames in enclosures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotman, D. A.; Oppenheim, A. K.

    Flames are stretched by being pulled along their frontal surface by the flow field in which they reside. Their trajectories tend to approach particle paths, acquiring eventually the role of contact boundaries, -interfaces between the burnt and unburnt medium that may broaden solely as a consequence of diffusion. Fundamental properties of flow fields governing such flames are determined here on the basis of the zero Mach number model, providng a rational method of approach to the computational analysis of combustion fields in enclosures where, besides the aerodynamic properties flow, the thermodynamic process of compression must be taken into account. To illustrate its application, the method is used to reveal the mechanism of formation of a tulip-shape flame in a rectangular enclosure under nonturbulent flow conditions.

  2. Exponential growth combined with exponential decline explains lifetime performance evolution in individual and human species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelot, Geoffroy; Len, Stéphane; Hellard, Philippe; Tafflet, Muriel; Guillaume, Marion; Vollmer, Jean-Claude; Gager, Bruno; Quinquis, Laurent; Marc, Andy; Toussaint, Jean-François

    2012-08-01

    The physiological parameters characterizing human capacities (the ability to move, reproduce or perform tasks) evolve with ageing: performance is limited at birth, increases to a maximum and then decreases back to zero at the day of death. Physical and intellectual skills follow such a pattern. Here, we investigate the development of sport and chess performances during the lifetime at two different scales: the individual athletes' careers and the world record by age class in 25 Olympic sports events and in grandmaster chess players. For all data sets, a biphasic development of growth and decline is described by a simple model that accounts for 91.7% of the variance at the individual level and 98.5% of the variance at the species one. The age of performance peak is computed at 26.1 years old for the events studied (26.0 years old for track and field, 21.0 years old for swimming and 31.4 years old for chess). The two processes (growth and decline) are exponential and start at age zero. Both were previously demonstrated to happen in other human and non-human biological functions that evolve with age. They occur at the individual and species levels with a similar pattern, suggesting a scale invariance property.

  3. A COMPARISION BETWEEN CROSSBODY STRETCH VERSUS SLEEPER STRETCH IN PERIARTHRITIS OF SHOULDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaik Raheem Saheb

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recently Cross body stretch and Sleeper stretch are used to improve internal rotation Range of motion in Shoulder Pathologies. It was proposed to study the effect of cross body stretch and sleeper stretch in subjects with periarthritis of shoulder. Methods: 60 subjects with a mean age of 53 years having clinical diagnosis of Periarthritis of shoulder and full filled the inclusive criteria are taken. After the initial measurements, the subjects are randomly assigned into 2 stretching groups. Group-A performed the Sleeper stretch. Group-B performed a Cross body stretch. Both Groups performed the Stretch in Duration of 6weeks – once daily for 5 repetitions holding each stretch for 30 seconds for 5 days a week. Along with this technique conventional physiotherapy like IFT, overhead pulleys, Pendula exercises, Wall climbing exercises, mariners wheel exercises are performed. After the treatment, subjects were evaluated for their pain profile using visual analogue scale, Goniometer for measuring Range of motion. Results: For within group comparison we used Paired t-test analysis, For Between group comparison we used Independent t-test for statistical analysis. At the end of 6 weeks It was found that subjects treated with cross-body stretch showed significant improvement in terms of VAS scores and Range of motion scores (P=0.000 and patients treated with Sleeper stretch showed significant improvement in terms of VAS scores and Range of motion scores (P=0.000. When compared between Groups the VAS and Range of motion scores showed a significant improvement in Cross body stretch Group than the Sleeper stretch Group (P=0.000. Conclusion: It was concluded that both stretching techniques were found improvement in Range of motion and VAS and Cross-body Stretch showed more Significant improvement than the sleeper Stretch after 6 weeks treatment.

  4. Contact of a spherical probe with a stretched rubber substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frétigny, Christian; Chateauminois, Antoine

    2017-07-01

    We report on a theoretical and experimental investigation of the normal contact of stretched neo-Hookean substrates with rigid spherical probes. Starting from a published formulation of surface Green's function for incremental displacements on a prestretched, neo-Hookean, substrate [J. Mech. Phys. Solids 56, 2957 (2008), 10.1016/j.jmps.2008.07.002], a model is derived for both adhesive and nonadhesive contacts. The shape of the elliptical contact area together with the contact load and the contact stiffness are predicted as a function of the in-plane stretch ratios λx and λy of the substrate. The validity of this model is assessed by contact experiments carried out using an uniaxally stretched silicone rubber. For stretch ratio below about 1.25, a good agreement is observed between theory and experiments. Above this threshold, some deviations from the theoretical predictions are induced as a result of the departure of the mechanical response of the silicone rubber from the neo-Hokeean description embedded in the model.

  5. Can Treadmill Perturbations Evoke Stretch Reflexes in the Calf Muscles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloot, Lizeth H; van den Noort, Josien C; van der Krogt, Marjolein M; Bruijn, Sjoerd M; Harlaar, Jaap

    2015-01-01

    Disinhibition of reflexes is a problem amongst spastic patients, for it limits a smooth and efficient execution of motor functions during gait. Treadmill belt accelerations may potentially be used to measure reflexes during walking, i.e. by dorsal flexing the ankle and stretching the calf muscles, while decelerations show the modulation of reflexes during a reduction of sensory feedback. The aim of the current study was to examine if belt accelerations and decelerations of different intensities applied during the stance phase of treadmill walking can evoke reflexes in the gastrocnemius, soleus and tibialis anterior in healthy subjects. Muscle electromyography and joint kinematics were measured in 10 subjects. To determine whether stretch reflexes occurred, we assessed modelled musculo-tendon length and stretch velocity, the amount of muscle activity, as well as the incidence of bursts or depressions in muscle activity with their time delays, and co-contraction between agonist and antagonist muscle. Although the effect on the ankle angle was small with 2.8±1.0°, the perturbations caused clear changes in muscle length and stretch velocity relative to unperturbed walking. Stretched muscles showed an increasing incidence of bursts in muscle activity, which occurred after a reasonable electrophysiological time delay (163-191 ms). Their amplitude was related to the muscle stretch velocity and not related to co-contraction of the antagonist muscle. These effects increased with perturbation intensity. Shortened muscles showed opposite effects, with a depression in muscle activity of the calf muscles. The perturbations only slightly affected the spatio-temporal parameters, indicating that normal walking was retained. Thus, our findings showed that treadmill perturbations can evoke reflexes in the calf muscles and tibialis anterior. This comprehensive study could form the basis for clinical implementation of treadmill perturbations to functionally measure reflexes during

  6. Can Treadmill Perturbations Evoke Stretch Reflexes in the Calf Muscles?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizeth H Sloot

    Full Text Available Disinhibition of reflexes is a problem amongst spastic patients, for it limits a smooth and efficient execution of motor functions during gait. Treadmill belt accelerations may potentially be used to measure reflexes during walking, i.e. by dorsal flexing the ankle and stretching the calf muscles, while decelerations show the modulation of reflexes during a reduction of sensory feedback. The aim of the current study was to examine if belt accelerations and decelerations of different intensities applied during the stance phase of treadmill walking can evoke reflexes in the gastrocnemius, soleus and tibialis anterior in healthy subjects. Muscle electromyography and joint kinematics were measured in 10 subjects. To determine whether stretch reflexes occurred, we assessed modelled musculo-tendon length and stretch velocity, the amount of muscle activity, as well as the incidence of bursts or depressions in muscle activity with their time delays, and co-contraction between agonist and antagonist muscle. Although the effect on the ankle angle was small with 2.8±1.0°, the perturbations caused clear changes in muscle length and stretch velocity relative to unperturbed walking. Stretched muscles showed an increasing incidence of bursts in muscle activity, which occurred after a reasonable electrophysiological time delay (163-191 ms. Their amplitude was related to the muscle stretch velocity and not related to co-contraction of the antagonist muscle. These effects increased with perturbation intensity. Shortened muscles showed opposite effects, with a depression in muscle activity of the calf muscles. The perturbations only slightly affected the spatio-temporal parameters, indicating that normal walking was retained. Thus, our findings showed that treadmill perturbations can evoke reflexes in the calf muscles and tibialis anterior. This comprehensive study could form the basis for clinical implementation of treadmill perturbations to functionally

  7. Anharmonic Bend-Stretch Coupling in Water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindner, Jörg; Vöhringer, Peter; Pshenichnikov, Maxim S.; Cringus, Dan; Wiersma, Douwe A.; Corkum, Paul; Jonas, David M.; Miller, R.J. Dwayne.; Weiner, Andrew M.

    2006-01-01

    Following excitation of the H-O-H bending mode of water molecules in solution the stretching mode region is monitored over its entire width. The anharmonic coupling between the two modes results in a substantial change of the transient stretch absorption that decays with the bend depopulation time.

  8. Exponential power spectra, deterministic chaos and Lorentzian pulses in plasma edge dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maggs, J E; Morales, G J

    2012-01-01

    Exponential spectra have been observed in the edges of tokamaks, stellarators, helical devices and linear machines. The observation of exponential power spectra is significant because such a spectral character has been closely associated with the phenomenon of deterministic chaos by the nonlinear dynamics community. The proximate cause of exponential power spectra in both magnetized plasma edges and nonlinear dynamics models is the occurrence of Lorentzian pulses in the time signals of fluctuations. Lorentzian pulses are produced by chaotic behavior in the separatrix regions of plasma E × B flow fields or the limit cycle regions of nonlinear models. Chaotic advection, driven by the potential fields of drift waves in plasmas, results in transport. The observation of exponential power spectra and Lorentzian pulses suggests that fluctuations and transport at the edge of magnetized plasmas arise from deterministic, rather than stochastic, dynamics. (paper)

  9. Neural pulse frequency modulation of an exponentially correlated Gaussian process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, C. E.; Chon, Y.-T.

    1976-01-01

    The effect of NPFM (Neural Pulse Frequency Modulation) on a stationary Gaussian input, namely an exponentially correlated Gaussian input, is investigated with special emphasis on the determination of the average number of pulses in unit time, known also as the average frequency of pulse occurrence. For some classes of stationary input processes where the formulation of the appropriate multidimensional Markov diffusion model of the input-plus-NPFM system is possible, the average impulse frequency may be obtained by a generalization of the approach adopted. The results are approximate and numerical, but are in close agreement with Monte Carlo computer simulation results.

  10. On the stability of some systems of exponential difference equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Psarros

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we prove the stability of the zero equilibria of two systems of difference equations of exponential type, which are some extensions of an one-dimensional biological model. The stability of these systems is investigated in the special case when one of the eigenvalues is equal to -1 and the other eigenvalue has absolute value less than 1, using centre manifold theory. In addition, we study the existence and uniqueness of positive equilibria, the attractivity and the global asymptotic stability of these equilibria of some related systems of difference equations.

  11. Progressive Exponential Clustering-Based Steganography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yue

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cluster indexing-based steganography is an important branch of data-hiding techniques. Such schemes normally achieve good balance between high embedding capacity and low embedding distortion. However, most cluster indexing-based steganographic schemes utilise less efficient clustering algorithms for embedding data, which causes redundancy and leaves room for increasing the embedding capacity further. In this paper, a new clustering algorithm, called progressive exponential clustering (PEC, is applied to increase the embedding capacity by avoiding redundancy. Meanwhile, a cluster expansion algorithm is also developed in order to further increase the capacity without sacrificing imperceptibility.

  12. Exponential operators, generalized polynomials and evolution problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dattoli, G.; Mancho, A.M.; Quattromini, M.; Torre, A.

    2001-01-01

    The operator (d/dx) χ d/dx plays a central role in the theory of operational calculus. Its exponential form is crucial in problems relevant to solutions of Fokker-Planck and Schroedinger equations. We explore the formal properties of the evolution operators associated to (d/dx) χ d/dx, discuss its link to special forms of Laguerre polynomials and Laguerre-based functions. The obtained results are finally applied to specific problems concerning the solution of Fokker-Planck equations relevant to the beam lifetime in storage rings

  13. The motion planning problem and exponential stabilization of a heavy chain. Part II

    OpenAIRE

    Piotr Grabowski

    2008-01-01

    This is the second part of paper [P. Grabowski, The motion planning problem and exponential stabilization of a heavy chain. Part I, to appear in International Journal of Control], where a model of a heavy chain system with a punctual load (tip mass) in the form of a system of partial differential equations was interpreted as an abstract semigroup system and then analysed on a Hilbert state space. In particular, in [P. Grabowski, The motion planning problem and exponential stabilization of a h...

  14. Reactor parameters and constants determination by using measurements in subcritical and exponential assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voi, Dante Luiz; Santos Bastos, Wilma dos

    1995-01-01

    Subcritical and exponential experiments are important for Reactor Physics integral parameter determinations both to validate and confirm theoretical models for reactor calculations. An exponential and subcritical facility has been constructed to be used on the internal thermal column of the Argonauta reactor at IEN-CNEN- Rio de Janeiro. An experimental research program has been developed for the determination of fundamental reactor constants as buckling, migration areas, resonance escape probabilities, thermal utilization, fast fission and fuel eta factors. (author) 23 refs

  15. Strategy as stretch and leverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, G; Prahalad, C K

    1993-01-01

    Global competition is not just product versus product or company versus company. It is mind-set versus mind-set. Driven to understand the dynamics of competition, we have learned a lot about what makes one company more successful than another. But to find the root of competitiveness--to understand why some companies create new forms of competitive advantage while others watch and follow--we must look at strategic mind-sets. For many managers, "being strategic" means pursuing opportunities that fit the company's resources. This approach is not wrong, Gary Hamel and C.K. Prahalad contend, but it obscures an approach in which "stretch" supplements fit and being strategic means creating a chasm between ambition and resources. Toyota, CNN, British Airways, Sony, and others all displaced competitors with stronger reputations and deeper pockets. Their secret? In each case, the winner had greater ambition than its well-endowed rivals. Winners also find less resource-intensive ways of achieving their ambitious goals. This is where leverage complements the strategic allocation of resources. Managers at competitive companies can get a bigger bang for their buck in five basic ways: by concentrating resources around strategic goals; by accumulating resources more efficiently; by complementing one kind of resource with another; by conserving resources whenever they can; and by recovering resources from the market-place as quickly as possible. As recent competitive battles have demonstrated, abundant resources can't guarantee continued industry leadership.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. MHD flow of Cattanneo–Christov heat flux model for Williamson fluid over a stretching sheet with variable thickness: Using numerical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salahuddin, T., E-mail: taimoor_salahuddin@yahoo.com; Malik, M.Y.; Hussain, Arif; Bilal, S.; Awais, M.

    2016-03-01

    The present analysis inspects the numerical investigation of MHD flow of Williamson fluid model over a sheet with variable thickness. Cattaneo–Christov heat flux model, an amended form of Fourier's law, is used to explore the heat transfer phenomena. The governing non-linear problem is presented and transformed into self-similar form by using similarity approach. The developed non-linear problem is solved numerically by using implicit finite difference scheme known as Keller box method. The effects of relevant physical parameters on velocity and temperature profiles are taken into consideration. The important finds are as follows: influence of Hartmann number M on velocity and temperature profile is opposite. Large values of wall thickness parameter α and Weissenberg number λ are suitable for reduction of velocity profile. A comparative investigation between the previously published results and the present results is found to be in good agreement. - Highlights: • Cattanneo–Christov heat flux model is used instead of Fourier's law. • Two-dimensional MHD flow is discussed. • The non-linear ordinary differential equations are solved numerically by using finite difference scheme known as Keller box method. • Graphical behavior is presented for each physical parameter.

  17. Neural mobilization and static stretching in an experimental sciatica model: an experimental study Mobilização neural e alongamento estático em um modelo experimental de ciatalgia: estudo experimental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladson R. F. Bertolini

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To verify the effectiveness of neural mobilization and static stretching in reducing pain in rats submitted to experimental sciatica. METHODS: The rats (n=23 were divided into three groups: sham (SG/n=8, without intervention; stretching (STCG/n=8, treated with static stretching; and neural mobilization (NMG/n=7, treated with neural mobilization. The animals underwent an experimental model of sciatica by compression of the right ischiatic nerve with catgut suture thread. There were five consecutive sessions of treatment that began on the third day after lesion. The pain caused by the sciatica was evaluated by a functional incapacitation test that measured paw elevation time (PET, and values over 10s were indicative of pain. PET was measured at the following moments: before the lesion (M1, immediately before (M2 and after the first session (M3, immediately after the last session (M4 and 24h after the last session (M5. ANOVA was applied with repeated measures and unrepeated measures for intra- and inter-group comparison, respectively. RESULTS: In the SG, post-lesion PETs were greater than M1 (pOBJETIVO: Verificar a eficácia da mobilização neural e do alongamento estático na redução da dor em ratos submetidos à ciática experimental. MÉTODOS: Os ratos (n=23 foram divididos em três grupos: simulacro (GS/n=8, sem intervenção; alongamento (GAL/n=8, tratados com alongamento estático; e mobilização neural (GMN/n=7, tratados com mobilização neural. Submeteram-se os animais a um modelo experimental de ciática, comprimindo o nervo isquiático direito com fio de catgut. Realizaram-se cinco sessões consecutivas de tratamento que se iniciaram no terceiro dia pós-lesão. Avaliou-se a dor, provocada pela ciática, pelo teste de incapacidade funcional que mensurava o tempo de elevação da pata (TEP do animal, e valores maiores que 10 segundos eram indicativos de dor. O TEP foi mensurado nos momentos: antes da lesão (M1

  18. A study of viscoelasticity index for evaluating muscle hypotonicity during static stretching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, Naomi; Tsukune, Mariko; Kobayashi, Yo; Fujie, Masakatsu G

    2014-01-01

    Static stretching is widely used as a preventative treatment for musculoskeletal disabilities by providing muscle hypotonicity, which results from changes in muscle tissue structure. However, the quantitative evaluation of hypotonicity during stretching has had limited success owing to the confounding factor of mechanical stress relaxation. To resolve this problem, we propose a new evaluation method for hypotonicity based on a viscoelastic muscle model using fractional calculus, which is known to be effective for biomaterials. We made continuous measurements of rectus skin indentation during static stretching as an indicator of reaction force in the rectus femoris muscle. The viscoelastic ratio and modulus were computed from the indentation trace. Both viscoelastic parameters decreased significantly between the early and final phases of stretching. The results suggest that our method is useful for quantitative evaluation of muscle hypotonicity during stretching.

  19. Stretch due to Penile Prosthesis Reservoir Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Baten

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A 43-year old patient presented to the emergency department with stretch, due to impossible deflation of the penile prosthesis, 4 years after successful implant. A CT-scan showed migration of the reservoir to the left rectus abdominis muscle. Refilling of the reservoir was inhibited by muscular compression, causing stretch. Removal and replacement of the reservoir was performed, after which the prosthesis was well-functioning again. Migration of the penile prosthesis reservoir is extremely rare but can cause several complications, such as stretch.

  20. Effect of modified hold-relax stretching and static stretching on hamstring muscle flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Hashim; Iqbal, Amir; Anwer, Shahnawaz; Alghadir, Ahmad

    2015-02-01

    [Purpose] The aim of present study was to compare the effectiveness of modified hold-relax stretching and static stretching in improving the hamstring muscle flexibility. [Subjects and Methods] Forty-five male subjects with hamstring tightness were included in this study. The subjects were randomly placed into three groups: the modified hold-relax stretching, static stretching and control groups. The modified hold-relax stretching group performed 7 seconds of isometric contraction and then relaxed for 5 seconds, and this was repeated five times daily for five consecutive days. The static stretching group received 10 minutes of static stretching with the help of a pulley and weight system for five consecutive days. The control group received only moist heat for 20 minutes for five consecutive days. A baseline reading of passive knee extension (PKE) was taken prior to the intervention; rest measurements were taken immediate post intervention on day 1, day 3, day 5, and after a 1 week follow-up, i.e., at the 12th day. [Results] On comparing the baseline readings of passive knee extension (PKE), there was no difference noted between the three groups. On comparing the posttest readings on day 5 between the 3 groups, a significant difference was noted. However, post hoc analysis revealed an insignificant difference between the modified hold-relax stretching and static stretching groups. There was a significant difference between the static stretching and control groups and between the modified hold-relax stretching and control groups. [Conclusion] The results of this study indicate that both the modified hold-relax stretching technique and static stretching are equally effective, as there was no significant difference in improving the hamstring muscle flexibility between the two groups.

  1. Exponential decay and exponential recovery of modal gains in high count rate channel electron multipliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, S.F.; Burch, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    A series of data on high count rate channel electron multipliers revealed an initial drop and subsequent recovery of gains in exponential fashion. The FWHM of the pulse height distribution at the initial stage of testing can be used as a good criterion for the selection of operating bias voltage of the channel electron multiplier

  2. Growth on demand: reviewing the mechanobiology of stretched skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zöllner, Alexander M; Holland, Maria A; Honda, Kord S; Gosain, Arun K; Kuhl, Ellen

    2013-12-01

    Skin is a highly dynamic, autoregulated, living system that responds to mechanical stretch through a net gain in skin surface area. Tissue expansion uses the concept of controlled overstretch to grow extra skin for defect repair in situ. While the short-term mechanics of stretched skin have been studied intensely by testing explanted tissue samples ex vivo, we know very little about the long-term biomechanics and mechanobiology of living skin in vivo. Here we explore the long-term effects of mechanical stretch on the characteristics of living skin using a mathematical model for skin growth. We review the molecular mechanisms by which skin responds to mechanical loading and model their effects collectively in a single scalar-valued internal variable, the surface area growth. This allows us to adopt a continuum model for growing skin based on the multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient into a reversible elastic and an irreversible growth part. To demonstrate the inherent modularity of this approach, we implement growth as a user-defined constitutive subroutine into the general purpose implicit finite element program Abaqus/Standard. To illustrate the features of the model, we simulate the controlled area growth of skin in response to tissue expansion with multiple filling points in time. Our results demonstrate that the field theories of continuum mechanics can reliably predict the manipulation of thin biological membranes through mechanical overstretch. Our model could serve as a valuable tool to rationalize clinical process parameters such as expander geometry, expander size, filling volume, filling pressure, and inflation timing to minimize tissue necrosis and maximize patient comfort in plastic and reconstructive surgery. While initially developed for growing skin, our model can easily be generalized to arbitrary biological structures to explore the physiology and pathology of stretch-induced growth of other living systems such as hearts

  3. Force encoding in muscle spindles during stretch of passive muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Kyle P; Lamotte D'Incamps, Boris; Zytnicki, Daniel; Ting, Lena H

    2017-09-01

    Muscle spindle proprioceptive receptors play a primary role in encoding the effects of external mechanical perturbations to the body. During externally-imposed stretches of passive, i.e. electrically-quiescent, muscles, the instantaneous firing rates (IFRs) of muscle spindles are associated with characteristics of stretch such as length and velocity. However, even in passive muscle, there are history-dependent transients of muscle spindle firing that are not uniquely related to muscle length and velocity, nor reproduced by current muscle spindle models. These include acceleration-dependent initial bursts, increased dynamic response to stretch velocity if a muscle has been isometric, and rate relaxation, i.e., a decrease in tonic IFR when a muscle is held at a constant length after being stretched. We collected muscle spindle spike trains across a variety of muscle stretch kinematic conditions, including systematic changes in peak length, velocity, and acceleration. We demonstrate that muscle spindle primary afferents in passive muscle fire in direct relationship to muscle force-related variables, rather than length-related variables. Linear combinations of whole muscle-tendon force and the first time derivative of force (dF/dt) predict the entire time course of transient IFRs in muscle spindle Ia afferents during stretch (i.e., lengthening) of passive muscle, including the initial burst, the dynamic response to lengthening, and rate relaxation following lengthening. Similar to acceleration scaling found previously in postural responses to perturbations, initial burst amplitude scaled equally well to initial stretch acceleration or dF/dt, though later transients were only described by dF/dt. The transient increase in dF/dt at the onset of lengthening reflects muscle short-range stiffness due to cross-bridge dynamics. Our work demonstrates a critical role of muscle cross-bridge dynamics in history-dependent muscle spindle IFRs in passive muscle lengthening conditions

  4. Force encoding in muscle spindles during stretch of passive muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle P Blum

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Muscle spindle proprioceptive receptors play a primary role in encoding the effects of external mechanical perturbations to the body. During externally-imposed stretches of passive, i.e. electrically-quiescent, muscles, the instantaneous firing rates (IFRs of muscle spindles are associated with characteristics of stretch such as length and velocity. However, even in passive muscle, there are history-dependent transients of muscle spindle firing that are not uniquely related to muscle length and velocity, nor reproduced by current muscle spindle models. These include acceleration-dependent initial bursts, increased dynamic response to stretch velocity if a muscle has been isometric, and rate relaxation, i.e., a decrease in tonic IFR when a muscle is held at a constant length after being stretched. We collected muscle spindle spike trains across a variety of muscle stretch kinematic conditions, including systematic changes in peak length, velocity, and acceleration. We demonstrate that muscle spindle primary afferents in passive muscle fire in direct relationship to muscle force-related variables, rather than length-related variables. Linear combinations of whole muscle-tendon force and the first time derivative of force (dF/dt predict the entire time course of transient IFRs in muscle spindle Ia afferents during stretch (i.e., lengthening of passive muscle, including the initial burst, the dynamic response to lengthening, and rate relaxation following lengthening. Similar to acceleration scaling found previously in postural responses to perturbations, initial burst amplitude scaled equally well to initial stretch acceleration or dF/dt, though later transients were only described by dF/dt. The transient increase in dF/dt at the onset of lengthening reflects muscle short-range stiffness due to cross-bridge dynamics. Our work demonstrates a critical role of muscle cross-bridge dynamics in history-dependent muscle spindle IFRs in passive muscle

  5. A large collapsed-state RNA can exhibit simple exponential single-molecule dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Glenna J; Lee, Kang Taek; Qu, Xiaohui; Xie, Zheng; Pesic, Jelena; Sosnick, Tobin R; Pan, Tao; Scherer, Norbert F

    2008-05-09

    The process of large RNA folding is believed to proceed from many collapsed structures to a unique functional structure requiring precise organization of nucleotides. The diversity of possible structures and stabilities of large RNAs could result in non-exponential folding kinetics (e.g. stretched exponential) under conditions where the molecules have not achieved their native state. We describe a single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) study of the collapsed-state region of the free energy landscape of the catalytic domain of RNase P RNA from Bacillus stearothermophilus (C(thermo)). Ensemble measurements have shown that this 260 residue RNA folds cooperatively to its native state at >or=1 mM Mg(2+), but little is known about the conformational dynamics at lower ionic strength. Our measurements of equilibrium conformational fluctuations reveal simple exponential kinetics that reflect a small number of discrete states instead of the expected inhomogeneous dynamics. The distribution of discrete dwell times, collected from an "ensemble" of 300 single molecules at each of a series of Mg(2+) concentrations, fit well to a double exponential, which indicates that the RNA conformational changes can be described as a four-state system. This finding is somewhat unexpected under [Mg(2+)] conditions in which this RNA does not achieve its native state. Observation of discrete well-defined conformations in this large RNA that are stable on the seconds timescale at low [Mg(2+)] (<0.1 mM) suggests that even at low ionic strength, with a tremendous number of possible (weak) interactions, a few critical interactions may produce deep energy wells that allow for rapid averaging of motions within each well, and yield kinetics that are relatively simple.

  6. On exponential stabilizability of linear neutral systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusser Xavier

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we deal with linear neutral functional differential systems. Using an extended state space and an extended control operator, we transform the initial neutral system in an infinite dimensional linear system. We give a sufficient condition for admissibility of the control operator B , conditions under which operator B can be acceptable in order to work with controllability and stabilizability. Necessary and sufficient conditions for exact controllability are provided; in terms of a gramian of controllability N ( μ . Assuming admissibility and exact controllability, a feedback control law is defined from the inverse of the operator N ( μ in order to stabilize exponentially the closed loop system. In this case, the semigroup generated by the closed loop system has an arbitrary decay rate.

  7. Poissonian renormalizations, exponentials, and power laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive "renormalization study" of Poisson processes governed by exponential and power-law intensities. These Poisson processes are of fundamental importance, as they constitute the very bedrock of the universal extreme-value laws of Gumbel, Fréchet, and Weibull. Applying the method of Poissonian renormalization we analyze the emergence of these Poisson processes, unveil their intrinsic dynamical structures, determine their domains of attraction, and characterize their structural phase transitions. These structural phase transitions are shown to be governed by uniform and harmonic intensities, to have universal domains of attraction, to uniquely display intrinsic invariance, and to be intimately connected to "white noise" and to "1/f noise." Thus, we establish a Poissonian explanation to the omnipresence of white and 1/f noises.

  8. Multiple Exponential Recombination for Differential Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin Qiu; Kay Chen Tan; Jian-Xin Xu

    2017-04-01

    Differential evolution (DE) is a popular population-based metaheuristic approach for solving numerical optimization problems. In recent years, considerable research has been devoted to the development of new mutation strategies and parameter adaptation mechanisms. However, as one of the basic algorithmic components of DE, the crossover operation has not been sufficiently examined in existing works. Most of the main DE variants solely employ traditional binomial recombination, which has intrinsic limitations in handling dependent subsets of variables. To fill this research niche, we propose a multiple exponential recombination that inherits all the main advantages of existing crossover operators while possessing a stronger ability in managing dependent variables. Multiple segments of the involved solutions will be exchanged during the proposed operator. The properties of the new scheme are examined both theoretically and empirically. Experimental results demonstrate the robustness of the proposed operator in solving problems with unknown variable interrelations.

  9. Statistics on exponential averaging of periodograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peeters, T.T.J.M.; Ciftcioglu, Oe.

    1994-11-01

    The algorithm of exponential averaging applied to subsequent periodograms of a stochastic process is used to estimate the power spectral density (PSD). For an independent process, assuming the periodogram estimates to be distributed according to a χ 2 distribution with 2 degrees of freedom, the probability density function (PDF) of the PSD estimate is derived. A closed expression is obtained for the moments of the distribution. Surprisingly, the proof of this expression features some new insights into the partitions and Eulers infinite product. For large values of the time constant of the averaging process, examination of the cumulant generating function shows that the PDF approximates the Gaussian distribution. Although restrictions for the statistics are seemingly tight, simulation of a real process indicates a wider applicability of the theory. (orig.)

  10. Poissonian renormalizations, exponentials, and power laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive “renormalization study” of Poisson processes governed by exponential and power-law intensities. These Poisson processes are of fundamental importance, as they constitute the very bedrock of the universal extreme-value laws of Gumbel, Fréchet, and Weibull. Applying the method of Poissonian renormalization we analyze the emergence of these Poisson processes, unveil their intrinsic dynamical structures, determine their domains of attraction, and characterize their structural phase transitions. These structural phase transitions are shown to be governed by uniform and harmonic intensities, to have universal domains of attraction, to uniquely display intrinsic invariance, and to be intimately connected to “white noise” and to “1/f noise.” Thus, we establish a Poissonian explanation to the omnipresence of white and 1/f noises.

  11. Investing in a Large Stretch Press

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choate, M.; Nealson, W.; Jay, G.; Buss, W.

    1986-01-01

    Press for forming large aluminum parts from plates provides substantial economies. Study assessed advantages and disadvantages of investing in large stretch-forming press, and also developed procurement specification for press.

  12. Excluded Volume Effects in Gene Stretching

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, Pui-Man

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the effects excluded volume on the stretching of a single DNA in solution. We find that for small force F, the extension h is not linear in F but proportion to F^{\\chi}, with \\chi=(1-\

  13. Stretch Activated ION Channels in Myocytes: Parameter Estimation, Simulations and Phenomena

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sachse, Frank B

    2001-01-01

    .... Simulations with a detailed electrophysiological model were carried out. Static stretch leaded to an increase of the resting potential and a decrease of the duration of the action potential with increasing sarcomere length...

  14. DNA stretching on functionalized gold surfaces.

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmermann, R M; Cox, E C

    1994-01-01

    We describe a method for anchoring bacteriophage lambda DNA by one end to gold by Au-biotin-streptavidin-biotin-DNA bonds. DNA anchored to a microfabricated Au line could be aligned and stretched in flow and electric fields. The anchor was shown to resist a force of at least 11 pN, a linkage strong enough to allow DNA molecules of chromosome size to be stretched and aligned.

  15. Theory for Transitions Between Exponential and Stationary Phases: Universal Laws for Lag Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himeoka, Yusuke; Kaneko, Kunihiko

    2017-04-01

    The quantitative characterization of bacterial growth has attracted substantial attention since Monod's pioneering study. Theoretical and experimental works have uncovered several laws for describing the exponential growth phase, in which the number of cells grows exponentially. However, microorganism growth also exhibits lag, stationary, and death phases under starvation conditions, in which cell growth is highly suppressed, for which quantitative laws or theories are markedly underdeveloped. In fact, the models commonly adopted for the exponential phase that consist of autocatalytic chemical components, including ribosomes, can only show exponential growth or decay in a population; thus, phases that halt growth are not realized. Here, we propose a simple, coarse-grained cell model that includes an extra class of macromolecular components in addition to the autocatalytic active components that facilitate cellular growth. These extra components form a complex with the active components to inhibit the catalytic process. Depending on the nutrient condition, the model exhibits typical transitions among the lag, exponential, stationary, and death phases. Furthermore, the lag time needed for growth recovery after starvation follows the square root of the starvation time and is inversely related to the maximal growth rate. This is in agreement with experimental observations, in which the length of time of cell starvation is memorized in the slow accumulation of molecules. Moreover, the lag time distributed among cells is skewed with a long time tail. If the starvation time is longer, an exponential tail appears, which is also consistent with experimental data. Our theory further predicts a strong dependence of lag time on the speed of substrate depletion, which can be tested experimentally. The present model and theoretical analysis provide universal growth laws beyond the exponential phase, offering insight into how cells halt growth without entering the death phase.

  16. Data assimilation on the exponentially accurate slow manifold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, Colin

    2013-05-28

    I describe an approach to data assimilation making use of an explicit map that defines a coordinate system on the slow manifold in the semi-geostrophic scaling in Lagrangian coordinates, and apply the approach to a simple toy system that has previously been proposed as a low-dimensional model for the semi-geostrophic scaling. The method can be extended to Lagrangian particle methods such as Hamiltonian particle-mesh and smooth-particle hydrodynamics applied to the rotating shallow-water equations, and many of the properties will remain for more general Eulerian methods. Making use of Hamiltonian normal-form theory, it has previously been shown that, if initial conditions for the system are chosen as image points of the map, then the fast components of the system have exponentially small magnitude for exponentially long times as ε→0, and this property is preserved if one uses a symplectic integrator for the numerical time stepping. The map may then be used to parametrize initial conditions near the slow manifold, allowing data assimilation to be performed without introducing any fast degrees of motion (more generally, the precise amount of fast motion can be selected).

  17. Effects of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching and static stretching on maximal voluntary contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyahara, Yutetsu; Naito, Hisashi; Ogura, Yuji; Katamoto, Shizuo; Aoki, Junichiro

    2013-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate and compare the effects of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching and static stretching on maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). Thirteen male university students (age, 20 ± 1 years; height, 172.2 ± 4.6 cm; weight, 68.4 ± 6.7 kg; mean ± SD) completed 3 different conditions on 3 nonconsecutive days in randomized order: static stretching (SS), PNF stretching (PNF), and no stretching (control, CON). Each condition consisted of a 5-minute rest accompanied by one of the following activities: (a) control, (b) SS, or (c) PNF stretching. The hip flexion range of motion (ROM) was evaluated immediately before and after the activity. The MVC of knee flexion was then measured. Surface electromyography was recorded from the biceps femoris and vastus lateralis muscles during MVC tests and stretching. Although increases in ROM were significantly greater after PNF than after SS (p < 0.01), the decreases in MVC were similar between the 2 treatments. These results suggest that, although PNF stretching increases ROM more than SS, PNF stretching and SS is detrimental to isometric maximal strength.

  18. Regional stretch method to measure the elastic and hyperelastic properties of soft materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, JunYuan; Guo, HaoYuan; Cao, YanPing; Feng, XiQiao

    2018-02-01

    Characterizing the mechanical properties of soft materials and biological tissues is of great significance for understanding their deformation behaviors. In this paper, a regional stretching method is proposed to measure the elastic and hyperelastic properties of a soft material with an adhesive surface or with the aid of glue. Theoretical and dimensional analyses are performed to investigate the regional stretch problem for soft materials that obey the neo-Hookean model, the Mooney-Rivlin model, or the Arruda-Boyce model. Finite element simulations are made to determine the expressions of the dimensionless functions that correlate the stretch response with the constitutive parameters. Thereby, an inverse approach is established to determine the elastic and hyperelastic properties of the tested materials. The regional stretch method is also compared to the indentation technique. Finally, experiments are performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  19. Experimental force modeling for deformation machining stretching ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Deformation machining is a hybrid process that combines two manufacturing processes—thin structure machining and single-point incremental forming. This process enables the creation of complex structures and geometries, which would be rather difficult or sometimes impossible to manufacture. A comprehensive ...

  20. Experimental force modeling for deformation machining stretching ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ARSHPREET SINGH

    magnitude of forces rises significantly. The average resul- tant force rises to 768 N for 1.0 mm incremental step size from 327 N for 0.25 mm step size, keeping other parameters constant. It can be seen that the average resultant force is directly proportional to the incremental step size and fits well with the linear trend (Eq. 5) ...

  1. Experimental force modeling for deformation machining stretching ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ARSHPREET SINGH

    Deformation machining is a hybrid process that combines two manufacturing processes—thin structure machining and ... structures and geometries, which would be rather difficult or sometimes impossible to manufacture. A com- prehensive ... sheet metal is deformed locally into plastic stage, enabling creation of complex ...

  2. Comparison of active stretching technique and static stretching technique on hamstring flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meroni, Roberto; Cerri, Cesare Giuseppe; Lanzarini, Carlo; Barindelli, Guido; Morte, Giancesare Della; Gessaga, Viviana; Cesana, Gian Carlo; De Vito, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    To compare a passive and an active stretching technique to determine which one would produce and maintain the greatest gain in hamstring flexibility. To determine whether a passive or an active stretching technique results in a greater increase in hamstring flexibility and to compare whether the gains are maintained. Randomized controlled trial. Institutional. Sixty-five volunteer healthy subjects completed the enrollment questionnaire, 33 completed the required 75% of the treatment after 6 weeks, and 22 were assessed 4 weeks after the training interruption. A 6-week stretching program with subjects divided into 2 groups with group 1 performing active stretching exercises and group 2 performing passive stretching exercises. Range of motion (ROM) was measured after 3 and 6 weeks of training and again 4 weeks after the cessation of training and compared with the initial measurement. After 3 weeks of training, the mean gain in group 1 (active stretching) on performing the active knee extension range of motion (AKER) test was 5.7 degrees, whereas the mean gain in group 2 (passive stretching) was 3 degrees (P = .015). After 6 weeks of training, the mean gain in group 1 was 8.7 degrees , whereas the mean gain in group 2 was 5.3 degrees (P = .006). Twenty-two subjects were reassessed 4 weeks after the cessation of the training with the maintained gain of ROM in group 1 being 6.3 degrees , whereas the maintained gain in group 2 was 0.1 degrees (P = .003). Active stretching produced the greater gain in the AKER test, and the gain was almost completely maintained 4 weeks after the end of the training, which was not seen with the passive stretching group. Active stretching was more time efficient compared with the static stretching and needed a lower compliance to produce effects on flexibility.

  3. Two sample Bayesian prediction intervals for order statistics based on the inverse exponential-type distributions using right censored sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Mohie El-Din

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, two sample Bayesian prediction intervals for order statistics (OS are obtained. This prediction is based on a certain class of the inverse exponential-type distributions using a right censored sample. A general class of prior density functions is used and the predictive cumulative function is obtained in the two samples case. The class of the inverse exponential-type distributions includes several important distributions such the inverse Weibull distribution, the inverse Burr distribution, the loglogistic distribution, the inverse Pareto distribution and the inverse paralogistic distribution. Special cases of the inverse Weibull model such as the inverse exponential model and the inverse Rayleigh model are considered.

  4. Rank-shaping regularization of exponential spectral analysis for application to functional parametric mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turkheimer, Federico E; Hinz, Rainer; Gunn, Roger N; Aston, John A D; Gunn, Steve R; Cunningham, Vincent J

    2003-01-01

    Compartmental models are widely used for the mathematical modelling of dynamic studies acquired with positron emission tomography (PET). The numerical problem involves the estimation of a sum of decaying real exponentials convolved with an input function. In exponential spectral analysis (SA), the nonlinear estimation of the exponential functions is replaced by the linear estimation of the coefficients of a predefined set of exponential basis functions. This set-up guarantees fast estimation and attainment of the global optimum. SA, however, is hampered by high sensitivity to noise and, because of the positivity constraints implemented in the algorithm, cannot be extended to reference region modelling. In this paper, SA limitations are addressed by a new rank-shaping (RS) estimator that defines an appropriate regularization over an unconstrained least-squares solution obtained through singular value decomposition of the exponential base. Shrinkage parameters are conditioned on the expected signal-to-noise ratio. Through application to simulated and real datasets, it is shown that RS ameliorates and extends SA properties in the case of the production of functional parametric maps from PET studies

  5. Exponential Stability of Stochastic Differential Equation with Mixed Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenli Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on a class of stochastic differential equations with mixed delay based on Lyapunov stability theory, Itô formula, stochastic analysis, and inequality technique. A sufficient condition for existence and uniqueness of the adapted solution to such systems is established by employing fixed point theorem. Some sufficient conditions of exponential stability and corollaries for such systems are obtained by using Lyapunov function. By utilizing Doob’s martingale inequality and Borel-Cantelli lemma, it is shown that the exponentially stable in the mean square of such systems implies the almost surely exponentially stable. In particular, our theoretical results show that if stochastic differential equation is exponentially stable and the time delay is sufficiently small, then the corresponding stochastic differential equation with mixed delay will remain exponentially stable. Moreover, time delay upper limit is solved by using our theoretical results when the system is exponentially stable, and they are more easily verified and applied in practice.

  6. DNA analysis by single molecule stretching in nanofluidic biochips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abad, E.; Juarros, A.; Retolaza, A.

    2011-01-01

    Stretching single DNA molecules by confinement in nanofluidic channels has attracted a great interest during the last few years as a DNA analysis tool. We have designed and fabricated a sealed micro/nanofluidic device for DNA stretching applications, based on the use of the high throughput Nano......Imprint Lithography (NIL) technology combined with a conventional anodic bonding of the silicon base and Pyrex cover. Using this chip, we have performed single molecule imaging on a bench-top fluorescent microscope system. Lambda phage DNA was used as a model sample to characterize the chip. Single molecules of λ...... a method to determining DNA size. The results of this work prove that the developed fabrication process is a good alternative for the fabrication of single molecule DNA biochips and it allows developing a variety of innovative bio/chemical sensors based on single-molecule DNA sequencing devices....

  7. Unexpected decoupling of stretching and bending modes in protein gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibaud, Thomas; Zaccone, Alessio; Del Gado, Emanuela; Trappe, Véronique; Schurtenberger, Peter

    2013-02-01

    We show that gels formed by arrested spinodal decomposition of protein solutions exhibit elastic properties in two distinct frequency domains, both elastic moduli exhibiting a remarkably strong dependence on volume fraction. Considering the large difference between the protein size and the characteristic length of the network we model the gels as porous media and show that the high and low frequency elastic moduli can be respectively attributed to stretching and bending modes. The unexpected decoupling of the two modes in the frequency domain is attributed to the length scale involved: while stretching mainly relates to the relative displacement of two particles, bending involves the deformation of a strand with a thickness of the order of a thousand particle diameters.

  8. Convective Flow of Sisko Fluid over a Bidirectional Stretching Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, Asif; Shahzad, Azeem; Khan, Masood

    2015-01-01

    The present investigation focuses the flow and heat transfer characteristics of the steady three-dimensional Sisko fluid driven by a bidirectional stretching sheet. The modeled partial differential equations are reduced to coupled ordinary differential equations by a suitable transformation. The resulting equations are solved numerically by the shooting method using adaptive Runge Kutta algorithm in combination with Newton's method in the domain [0,∞). The numerical results for the velocity and temperature fields are graphically presented and effects of the relevant parameters are discussed in detail. Moreover, the skin-friction coefficient and local Nusselt number for different values of the power-law index and stretching ratio parameter are presented through tabulated data. The numerical results are also verified with the results obtained analytically by the homotopy analysis method (HAM). Additionally, the results are validated with previously published pertinent literature as a limiting case of the problem.

  9. CARBONYL STRETCHING FREQUENCY-CHARACTERISTICS FOR THE STRONGLY HYDROPHOBIC SOLUTE, N-CYCLOHEXYL-2-PYRROLIDONE IN BINARY AQUEOUS MIXTURES AT 298.15-K - EVIDENCE FOR A 2-DOMAIN MODEL FOR 2-BUTOXYETHANOL WATER MIXTURES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engberts, Jan B F N; PERJESSY, A; Blandamer, Michael J; EATON, G

    1992-01-01

    Infrared spectra are reported in the C=O stretching region for N-cyclohexyl-2-pyrrolidone (NCP) in D2O as a function of the mole fraction of added cosolvents. As the solvent composition is changed by adding methanol, ethanol and 2-methylpropan-2-ol, the spectra reveal the presence of two types of

  10. Meet and join matrices in the poset of exponential divisors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (n > 1), written as d |e n, if d(k) | n(k) for all prime divisors pk of n. It is easy to see that (Z+\\{1}, |e) is a poset under the exponential divisibility relation but not a lattice, since the greatest common exponential divisor (GCED) and the least common exponential multiple (LCEM) do not always exist. In this paper we embed this ...

  11. On global exponential stability of delayed cellular neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Vimal

    2007-01-01

    Senan and Arik [Senan S, Arik S. New results for exponential stability of delayed cellular neural networks. IEEE Trans Circ Syst II 2005;52(3):154-8] have presented criteria for the global exponential stability of delayed cellular neural networks. A less restrictive version of their approach is highlighted presently. A simplification of the results is discussed. A simplified form of an earlier exponential stability criterion due to Liao, Chen and Sanchez is presented

  12. An analytical approach to studying non-exponential decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petridis, Athanasios; Luban, Marshall; Vermedahl, Jon; Staunton, Lawrence

    2002-04-01

    Deviations from exponential decay have been numerically established for wavefunctions initially set inside potential wells of finite depth. The survival probability features oscillations about an initially non-exponential median curve. An analytical solution is developed for certain even-parity potentials to further understand this behavior. A connection between single-particle and multi-particle systems is investigated and shown to lead to the known exponential decay law for large systems.

  13. How to determine local stretching and tension in a flow-stretched DNA molecule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jonas Nyvold; Marie, Rodolphe; Kristensen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    We determine the nonuniform stretching of and tension in amega base pairs-long fragment of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) that is flow stretched in a nanofluidic chip. We use no markers, do not know the contour length of the DNA, and do not have the full DNA molecule inside our field of view. Instead...

  14. The non-exponential relaxation of the C60 crystal around glass transition temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, F; Wang, Y.N.

    1999-01-01

    A model of the energy barrier of a molecule between two orientational states in the C 60 crystal, which depends on the neighboring molecules, is first proposed. Based on this model, the orientational relaxation of C 60 molecules around 90 K was simulated with the Monte Carlo method. The simulation results show that the relaxation is slightly non-exponential and can fit the Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts function with the non-exponential factor β = 0.962 ± 0.002, which is equal to the experimental data that has not been explained before. (orig.)

  15. On the dynamics of the power law inflation due to an exponential potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokohama, Jun'ichi; Maeda, Kei-ichi; Tokyo Univ.

    1988-01-01

    The power law inflationary universe model induced by a scalar field with an exponential potential is studied. A dissipation term due to particle creation is introduced in the inflation's classical equation of motion. It is shown that the power index of the inflation increases prominently with an adequate viscosity. Consequently, even in theories with a rather steep exponential such as some supergravity or superstring models, it turns out that a 'realistic' power law inflation (with a power index p> or approx.10) is possible. (orig.)

  16. CURRENT CONCEPTS IN MUSCLE STRETCHING FOR EXERCISE AND REHABILITATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Stretching is a common activity used by athletes, older adults, rehabilitation patients, and anyone participating in a fitness program. While the benefits of stretching are known, controversy remains about the best type of stretching for a particular goal or outcome. The purpose of this clinical commentary is to discuss the current concepts of muscle stretching interventions and summarize the evidence related to stretching as used in both exercise and rehabilitation. PMID:22319684

  17. CURRENT CONCEPTS IN MUSCLE STRETCHING FOR EXERCISE AND REHABILITATION

    OpenAIRE

    Page, Phil

    2012-01-01

    Stretching is a common activity used by athletes, older adults, rehabilitation patients, and anyone participating in a fitness program. While the benefits of stretching are known, controversy remains about the best type of stretching for a particular goal or outcome. The purpose of this clinical commentary is to discuss the current concepts of muscle stretching interventions and summarize the evidence related to stretching as used in both exercise and rehabilitation.

  18. On Using Exponential Parameter Estimators with an Adaptive Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patre, Parag; Joshi, Suresh M.

    2011-01-01

    Typical adaptive controllers are restricted to using a specific update law to generate parameter estimates. This paper investigates the possibility of using any exponential parameter estimator with an adaptive controller such that the system tracks a desired trajectory. The goal is to provide flexibility in choosing any update law suitable for a given application. The development relies on a previously developed concept of controller/update law modularity in the adaptive control literature, and the use of a converse Lyapunov-like theorem. Stability analysis is presented to derive gain conditions under which this is possible, and inferences are made about the tracking error performance. The development is based on a class of Euler-Lagrange systems that are used to model various engineering systems including space robots and manipulators.

  19. Thermal dynamics on the lattice with exponentially improved accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, Jan M.; Rothkopf, Alexander

    2018-03-01

    We present a novel simulation prescription for thermal quantum fields on a lattice that operates directly in imaginary frequency space. By distinguishing initial conditions from quantum dynamics it provides access to correlation functions also outside of the conventional Matsubara frequencies ωn = 2 πnT. In particular it resolves their frequency dependence between ω = 0 and ω1 = 2 πT, where the thermal physics ω ∼ T of e.g. transport phenomena is dominantly encoded. Real-time spectral functions are related to these correlators via an integral transform with rational kernel, so that their unfolding from the novel simulation data is exponentially improved compared to standard Euclidean simulations. We demonstrate this improvement within a non-trivial 0 + 1-dimensional quantum mechanical toy-model and show that spectral features inaccessible in standard Euclidean simulations are quantitatively captured.

  20. The SIS process in populations with exponential decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barankai, Norbert; Stéger, József

    2018-01-01

    We study the final state of a susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS) process whose running time is an exponentially distributed random variable. The population in which the spreading evolves is assumed to be homogeneously mixed. We show that whenever the state dependent normalized infection rates are on average smaller than the corresponding curing rates, the final prevalence of the process vanishes in the large population size limit, irrespectively of the mean running time of the process. We show how this statement implies similar results concerning the time evolution of the SIS and the modified SIS processes as well as the steady state of the modified SIS process. In the case of the usual SIS model, for suitably low values of the mean running time, the absence of a non-vanishing prevalence is found in the large population size limit, even if the normalized infection rate exceeds the curing rate.

  1. Fitting and Analyzing Randomly Censored Geometric Extreme Exponential Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Yameen Danish

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the Bayesian analysis of two-parameter geometric extreme exponential distribution with randomly censored data. The continuous conjugate prior of the scale and shape parameters of the model does not exist while computing the Bayes estimates, it is assumed that the scale and shape parameters have independent gamma priors. It is seen that the closed-form expressions for the Bayes estimators are not possible; we suggest the Lindley’s approximation to obtain the Bayes estimates. However, the Bayesian credible intervals cannot be constructed while using this method, we propose Gibbs sampling to obtain the Bayes estimates and also to construct the Bayesian credible intervals. Monte Carlo simulation study is carried out to observe the behavior of the Bayes estimators and also to compare with the maximum likelihood estimators. One real data analysis is performed for illustration.

  2. Predicting jet radius in electrospinning by superpositioning exponential functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widartiningsih, P M; Viridi, S; Iskandar, F; Munir, M M

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical study of the correlation between viscosity and fiber diameter in electrospinning. Control over fiber diameter in electrospinning process was important since it will determine the performance of resulting nanofiber. Theoretically, fiber diameter was determined by surface tension, solution concentration, flow rate, and electric current. But experimentally it had been proven that significantly viscosity had an influence to fiber diameter. Jet radius equation in electrospinning process was divided into three areas: near the nozzle, far from the nozzle, and at jet terminal. There was no correlation between these equations. Superposition of exponential series model provides the equations combined into one, thus the entire of working parameters on electrospinning take a contribution to fiber diameter. This method yields the value of solution viscosity has a linear relation to jet radius. However, this method works only for low viscosity. (paper)

  3. Optofluidic time-stretch microscopy: recent advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Cheng; Nitta, Nao; Ozeki, Yasuyuki; Goda, Keisuke

    2018-04-01

    Flow cytometry is an indispensable method for valuable applications in numerous fields such as immunology, pathology, pharmacology, molecular biology, and marine biology. Optofluidic time-stretch microscopy is superior to conventional flow cytometry methods for its capability to acquire high-quality images of single cells at a high-throughput exceeding 10,000 cells per second. This makes it possible to extract copious information from cellular images for accurate cell detection and analysis with the assistance of machine learning. Optofluidic time-stretch microscopy has proven its effectivity in various applications, including microalga-based biofuel production, evaluation of thrombotic disorders, as well as drug screening and discovery. In this review, we discuss the principles and recent advances of optofluidic time-stretch microscopy.

  4. Optofluidic time-stretch quantitative phase microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Baoshan; Lei, Cheng; Wu, Yi; Kobayashi, Hirofumi; Ito, Takuro; Yalikun, Yaxiaer; Lee, Sangwook; Isozaki, Akihiro; Li, Ming; Jiang, Yiyue; Yasumoto, Atsushi; Di Carlo, Dino; Tanaka, Yo; Yatomi, Yutaka; Ozeki, Yasuyuki; Goda, Keisuke

    2018-03-01

    Innovations in optical microscopy have opened new windows onto scientific research, industrial quality control, and medical practice over the last few decades. One of such innovations is optofluidic time-stretch quantitative phase microscopy - an emerging method for high-throughput quantitative phase imaging that builds on the interference between temporally stretched signal and reference pulses by using dispersive properties of light in both spatial and temporal domains in an interferometric configuration on a microfluidic platform. It achieves the continuous acquisition of both intensity and phase images with a high throughput of more than 10,000 particles or cells per second by overcoming speed limitations that exist in conventional quantitative phase imaging methods. Applications enabled by such capabilities are versatile and include characterization of cancer cells and microalgal cultures. In this paper, we review the principles and applications of optofluidic time-stretch quantitative phase microscopy and discuss its future perspective. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Bias of purine stretches in sequenced chromosomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ussery, David; Soumpasis, Dikeos Mario; Brunak, Søren

    2002-01-01

    We examined more than 700 DNA sequences (full length chromosomes and plasmids) for stretches of purines (R) or pyrimidines (Y) and alternating YR stretches; such regions will likely adopt structures which are different from the canonical B-form. Since one turn of the DNA helix is roughly 10 bp, we...... measured the fraction of each genome which contains purine (or pyrimidine) tracts of lengths of 10 by or longer (hereafter referred to as 'purine tracts'), as well as stretches of alternating pyrimidines/purine ('pyr/pur tracts') of the same length. Using this criteria, a random sequence would be expected...... to contain 1.0% of purine tracts and also 1.0% of the alternating pyr/pur tracts. In the vast majority of cases, there are more purine tracts than would be expected from a random sequence, with an average of 3.5%, significantly larger than the expectation value. The fraction of the chromosomes containing pyr...

  6. Bias of purine stretches in sequenced chromosomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ussery, David; Soumpasis, Dikeos Mario; Brunak, Søren

    2002-01-01

    We examined more than 700 DNA sequences (full length chromosomes and plasmids) for stretches of purines (R) or pyrimidines (Y) and alternating YR stretches; such regions will likely adopt structures which are different from the canonical B-form. Since one turn of the DNA helix is roughly 10 bp, we...... to contain 1.0% of purine tracts and also 1.0% of the alternating pyr/pur tracts. In the vast majority of cases, there are more purine tracts than would be expected from a random sequence, with an average of 3.5%, significantly larger than the expectation value. The fraction of the chromosomes containing pyr......, in eukaryotes there is an abundance of long stretches of purines or alternating purine/pyrimidine tracts, which cannot be explained in this way; these sequences are likely to play an important role in eukaryotic chromosome organisation....

  7. Anisotropic dewetting on stretched elastomeric substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, L; He, L H

    2008-08-01

    We study the instability of a very thin liquid film resting on a uniformly stretched soft elastomeric substrate driven by van der Waals forces. A linear stability analysis shows that the critical fluctuation wavelength in the tensile direction is larger than those in the other directions. The magnitudes of the critical wavelengths are adjustable in the sense that they depend on the principal stretch of the substrate. For example, when the principal stretch of the substrate varies from 1.0 (unstretched) to 3.0, the range of the critical wavelength in the tensile direction increases by 7.0% while that normal to the tensile direction decreases by 8.7%. Therefore, the phenomenon may find potential applications in creating tunable topographically patterned surfaces with nano- to microscale features.

  8. Stretching and folding mechanism in foams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tufaile, Alberto [Escola de Artes, Ciencias e Humanidades, Soft Matter Laboratory, Universidade de Sao Paulo, 03828-000 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: tufaile@usp.br; Pedrosa Biscaia Tufaile, Adriana [Escola de Artes, Ciencias e Humanidades, Soft Matter Laboratory, Universidade de Sao Paulo, 03828-000 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-10-13

    We have described the stretching and folding of foams in a vertical Hele-Shaw cell containing air and a surfactant solution, from a sequence of upside-down flips. Besides the fractal dimension of the foam, we have observed the logistic growth for the soap film length. The stretching and folding mechanism is present during the foam formation, and this mechanism is observed even after the foam has reached its respective maximum fractal dimension. Observing the motion of bubbles inside the foam, large bubbles present power spectrum associated with random walk motion in both directions, while the small bubbles are scattered like balls in a Galton board.

  9. Anomalies in the coil-stretch transition of flexible polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosal, Aishani; Cherayil, Binny J.

    2018-03-01

    The flow-induced coil-stretch transition of high molecular weight polymers has generally been held to be of first order. But evidence of significant slowing down in the rate at which the polymers relax to equilibrium in the vicinity of the transition suggests that the thermodynamic character of the transition may be less clear-cut. The above slowing down effect is actually characteristic of a second-order transition, and it points to the existence of a broad spectrum of conformational states in the transition region, analogous to the existence of fluctuations of all length scales at a critical point. In this paper, using a path integral approach based on a free-draining finitely extensible chain model, we calculate various polymer properties as a function of elongational flow as a way of exploring different statistical mechanical details of the coil-stretch transition. These properties include the molecular weight dependence of the flow-extension curve of the polymer, the distribution of its steady-state end-to-end distances, and the characteristic relaxation time τR of these distances. Among other findings, our calculations indicate that the coil-stretch transition is discontinuous in the N → ∞ limit, that the effective free energy of the chain is unimodal at all values of the flow, becoming broad and flat in the immediate vicinity of the transition, and that the ratio of τR to the Rouse relaxation time increases abruptly at the transition before eventually reaching a plateau value at large flow strengths. These aspects of the coil-stretch transition place it among a larger class of unconventional nominally first-order single chain transitions that include the adsorption transition of surface-tethered polymers and the escape transition of compressed polymers.

  10. shortened lag phase with seeds from early exponential phase

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL

    2012-01-12

    Jan 12, 2012 ... exponential or early stationary phase was selected as optimal. In the current study, the authors optimised inoculum conditions using a strategy that combined inoculum age and size as inoculum cell number to shorten the lag phase in yeast cultivation. Inoculum from the middle exponential phase (7th h).

  11. Ranking Exponential Trapezoidal Fuzzy Numbers by Median Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rezvani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we want represented a method for ranking of two exponential trapezoidal fuzzy numbers. A median value is proposed for the ranking of exponential trapezoidal fuzzy numbers. For the validation the results of the proposed approach are compared with different existing approaches.

  12. Exponential convergence on a continuous Monte Carlo transport problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, T.E.

    1997-01-01

    For more than a decade, it has been known that exponential convergence on discrete transport problems was possible using adaptive Monte Carlo techniques. An adaptive Monte Carlo method that empirically produces exponential convergence on a simple continuous transport problem is described

  13. Global exponential stability for nonautonomous cellular neural networks with delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qiang; Wei Xiaopeng; Xu Jin

    2006-01-01

    In this Letter, by utilizing Lyapunov functional method and Halanay inequalities, we analyze global exponential stability of nonautonomous cellular neural networks with delay. Several new sufficient conditions ensuring global exponential stability of the network are obtained. The results given here extend and improve the earlier publications. An example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the obtained results

  14. Stochastic B-series and order conditions for exponential integrators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arara, Alemayehu Adugna; Debrabant, Kristian; Kværnø, Anne

    2018-01-01

    We discuss stochastic differential equations with a stiff linear part and their approximation by stochastic exponential integrators. Representing the exact and approximate solutions using B-series and rooted trees, we derive the order conditions for stochastic exponential integrators. The resulting...

  15. On weak exponential expansiveness of evolution families in Banach spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Tian; Song, Xiao-qiu; Li, Dong-qing

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to give several characterizations for the property of weak exponential expansiveness for evolution families in Banach spaces. Variants for weak exponential expansiveness of some well-known results in stability theory (Datko (1973), Rolewicz (1986), Ichikawa (1984), and Megan et al. (2003)) are obtained.

  16. Stochastic B-series and order conditions for exponential integrators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arara, Alemayehu Adugna; Debrabant, Kristian; Kværnø, Anne

    2018-01-01

    We discuss stochastic differential equations with a stiff linear part and their approximation by stochastic exponential integrators. Representing the exact and approximate solutions using B-series and rooted trees, we derive the order conditions for stochastic exponential integrators. The resulti...... general order theory covers both It\\^{o} and Stratonovich integration....

  17. Non-exponential decay of wavefunctions and scattering resonances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petridis, Athanasios; Vermedahl, Jonathan; Staunton, Lawrence; Luban, Marshall

    2001-10-01

    We investigate the possibility for non-exponential decay of wavefunctions initially distributed inside finite-range potential wells. The time dependence of the survival probability follows a step-wise pattern, deviating from a simple exponential function. The corresponding Breit-Winger curve for scattering resonances is modified due to this effect.

  18. Residual, restarting and Richardson iteration for the matrix exponential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bochev, Mikhail A.

    2010-01-01

    A well-known problem in computing some matrix functions iteratively is a lack of a clear, commonly accepted residual notion. An important matrix function for which this is the case is the matrix exponential. Assume, the matrix exponential of a given matrix times a given vector has to be computed. We

  19. Residual, restarting and Richardson iteration for the matrix exponential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bochev, Mikhail A.; Grimm, Volker; Hochbruck, Marlis

    2013-01-01

    A well-known problem in computing some matrix functions iteratively is the lack of a clear, commonly accepted residual notion. An important matrix function for which this is the case is the matrix exponential. Suppose the matrix exponential of a given matrix times a given vector has to be computed.

  20. Blowing-up semilinear wave equation with exponential nonlinearity ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H1-norm. Hence, it is legitimate to consider an exponential nonlinearity. Moreover, the choice of an exponential nonlinearity emerges from a possible control of solutions via a. Moser–Trudinger type inequality [1, 16, 19]. In fact, Nakamura and Ozawa [17] proved global well-posedness and scattering for small Cauchy data in ...

  1. New Results of Global Exponential Stabilization for BLDCMs System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengxia Tian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The global exponential stabilization for brushless direct current motor (BLDCM system is studied. Four linear and simple feedback controllers are proposed to realize the global stabilization of BLDCM with exponential convergence rate; the control law used in each theorem is less conservative and more concise. Finally, an example is given to demonstrate the correctness of the proposed results.

  2. Immediate effects of quantified hamstring stretching: hold-relax proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation versus static stretching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puentedura, Emilio J; Huijbregts, Peter A; Celeste, Shelley; Edwards, Dale; In, Alastair; Landers, Merrill R; Fernandez-de-Las-Penas, Cesar

    2011-08-01

    To compare the immediate effects of a hold-relax proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching (HR-PNF) versus static stretch (SS) on hamstring flexibility in healthy, asymptomatic subjects. Thirty subjects (13 female; mean age 25.7 ± 3.0, range 22-37) without excessive hamstring muscle flexibility were randomly assigned to one of two stretch groups: HR-PNF or SS. The left leg was treated as a control and did not receive any intervention. The right leg was measured for ROM pre- and post-stretch interventions, with subjects receiving randomly assigned interventions one week apart. Data were analyzed with a 3 (intervention: HR-PNF, SS, control) × 2 (time: pre and post) factorial ANOVA with repeated measures and appropriate post-hoc analyses. A significant interaction was observed between intervention and time for hamstring extensibility, F(2,58) = 25.229, p < .0005. Main effect of intervention for the tested leg was not significant, p = .782 indicating that there was no difference between the two stretch conditions. However, main effect for time was significant (p < .0005), suggesting that hamstring extensibility (for both stretching conditions) after intervention was greater than before. No significant differences were found when comparing the effectiveness of HR-PNF and SS techniques. Both stretching methods resulted in significant immediate increases in hamstring length. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. AI-augmented time stretch microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahjoubfar, Ata; Chen, Claire L.; Lin, Jiahao; Jalali, Bahram

    2017-02-01

    Cell reagents used in biomedical analysis often change behavior of the cells that they are attached to, inhibiting their native signaling. On the other hand, label-free cell analysis techniques have long been viewed as challenging either due to insufficient accuracy by limited features, or because of low throughput as a sacrifice of improved precision. We present a recently developed artificial-intelligence augmented microscope, which builds upon high-throughput time stretch quantitative phase imaging (TS-QPI) and deep learning to perform label-free cell classification with record high-accuracy. Our system captures quantitative optical phase and intensity images simultaneously by frequency multiplexing, extracts multiple biophysical features of the individual cells from these images fused, and feeds these features into a supervised machine learning model for classification. The enhanced performance of our system compared to other label-free assays is demonstrated by classification of white blood T-cells versus colon cancer cells and lipid accumulating algal strains for biofuel production, which is as much as five-fold reduction in inaccuracy. This system obtains the accuracy required in practical applications such as personalized drug development, while the cells remain intact and the throughput is not sacrificed. Here, we introduce a data acquisition scheme based on quadrature phase demodulation that enables interruptionless storage of TS-QPI cell images. Our proof of principle demonstration is capable of saving 40 TB of cell images in about four hours, i.e. pictures of every single cell in 10 mL of a sample.

  4. Influence of acute static stretching on the behavior of maximum muscle strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Lúcia Borges Bastos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the influence of acute static stretching on maximal muscle strength (1RM. The non-probabilistic sample consisted of 30 subjects split into two groups: static stretching (SS= 15 and without stretching group (WS= 15. Muscle strength evaluation (1RM was conducted with a Dynamometer model 32527pp400 Pound push / pull devices coupled in knee extension (KE and bench press (BP. The Wilcoxon test for intragroup comparisons and the Kruskal-Wallis test for comparisons between groups (p< 0.05 were selected. There were no significant differences (p> 0.05 between the SS and WS in exercise KE and BP. Therefore, it can be concluded that there was no reduction in the performance of 1RM performing the exercises KE and BP when preceded by static stretching.

  5. On the role of exponential smoothing in circadian dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Luke L A

    2014-01-01

    The effects lighting has on health through modulation of circadian rhythms are becoming increasingly well documented. Data are still needed to show how light exposures are influenced by architecture and lighting design and circadian dosimetry analyses should provide duration, phase and amplitude measures of 24 h exposure profiles. Exponential smoothing is used to derive suitable metrics from 24 h light measurements collected from private dwellings. A further application of these modified exposure time series as physiological models of the light drive is discussed. Unlike previous light drive models, the dose rate persists into periods of darkness following exposures. Comparisons to long duration exposure studies suggest this type of persistent light drive model could be incorporated into contemporary physiological models of the human circadian oscillator. © 2014 Crown copyright. Photochemistry and Photobiology © 2014 The American Society of Photobiology. This article is published with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and the Queen's Printer for Scotland and Public Health England.

  6. On the construction of bivariate exponential distributions with an arbitrary correlation coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Mogens; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    coefficient (also negative). Secondly, the class satisfies that any linear combination (projection) of the marginal random variables is a phase {type distributions, The latter property is potentially important for the development hypothesis testing in linear models. Thirdly, it is very easy to simulate......In this paper we use a concept of multivariate phase-type distributions to define a class of bivariate exponential distributions. This class has the following three appealing properties. Firstly, we may construct a pair of exponentially distributed random variables with any feasible correlation...

  7. Exponential Speedup of Quantum Annealing by Inhomogeneous Driving of the Transverse Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susa, Yuki; Yamashiro, Yu; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Nishimori, Hidetoshi

    2018-02-01

    We show, for quantum annealing, that a certain type of inhomogeneous driving of the transverse field erases first-order quantum phase transitions in the p-body interacting mean-field-type model with and without longitudinal random field. Since a first-order phase transition poses a serious difficulty for quantum annealing (adiabatic quantum computing) due to the exponentially small energy gap, the removal of first-order transitions means an exponential speedup of the annealing process. The present method may serve as a simple protocol for the performance enhancement of quantum annealing, complementary to non-stoquastic Hamiltonians.

  8. Exponential stability of Cohen-Grossberg neural networks with a general class of activation functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Anhua; Wang Miansen; Peng Jigen; Qiao Hong

    2006-01-01

    In this Letter, the dynamics of Cohen-Grossberg neural networks model are investigated. The activation functions are only assumed to be Lipschitz continuous, which provide a much wider application domain for neural networks than the previous results. By means of the extended nonlinear measure approach, new and relaxed sufficient conditions for the existence, uniqueness and global exponential stability of equilibrium of the neural networks are obtained. Moreover, an estimate for the exponential convergence rate of the neural networks is precisely characterized. Our results improve those existing ones

  9. Effect of Magnetohydrodynamic Couple Stresses on Dynamic Characteristics of Exponential Slider Bearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.B. Naduvinamani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of couple stresses on static and dynamic characteristics of exponential slider bearing in the presence of magnetic field considering squeeze action is theoretically analyzed in this paper. The modified magnetohydrodynamic couple stress Reynolds type equation is derived on the basis of Stokes couple stress model and closed form expressions are obtained for static and dynamic character coefficients. Comparing with bearing lubricated with non-conducting Newtonian lubricants, the magnetohydrodynamic couple stress lubrication provides the higher steady load carrying capacity, dynamic stiffness and damping coefficient. The exponential bearing shows higher efficiency for small film thickness at higher value of couple stress parameter and Hartmann number.

  10. Discrete-ordinate method with matrix exponential for a pseudo-spherical atmosphere: Scalar case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doicu, A.; Trautmann, T.

    2009-01-01

    We present a discrete-ordinate algorithm using the matrix-exponential solution for pseudo-spherical radiative transfer. Following the finite-element technique we introduce the concept of layer equation and formulate the discrete radiative transfer problem in terms of the level values of the radiance. The layer quantities are expressed by means of matrix exponentials, which are computed by using the matrix eigenvalue method and the Pade approximation. These solution methods lead to a compact and versatile formulation of the radiative transfer. Simulated nadir and limb radiances for an aerosol-loaded atmosphere and a cloudy atmosphere are presented along with a discussion of the model intercomparisons and timings

  11. Exponential approximation for daily average solar heating or photolysis. [of stratospheric ozone layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogley, A. C.; Borucki, W. J.

    1976-01-01

    When incorporating formulations of instantaneous solar heating or photolytic rates as functions of altitude and sun angle into long range forecasting models, it may be desirable to replace the time integrals by daily average rates that are simple functions of latitude and season. This replacement is accomplished by approximating the integral over the solar day by a pure exponential. This gives a daily average rate as a multiplication factor times the instantaneous rate evaluated at an appropriate sun angle. The accuracy of the exponential approximation is investigated by a sample calculation using an instantaneous ozone heating formulation available in the literature.

  12. Filament stretching rheometry of polymer melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassager, Ole; Nielsen, Jens Kromann; Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz

    2005-01-01

    The Filament Stretching Rheometry (FSR) method developed by Sridhar, McKinley and coworkers for polymer solutions has been extended to be used also for polymer melts. The design of a melt-FSR will be described and differences to conventional melt elongational rheometers will be pointed out. Results...

  13. Cloud Network Helps Stretch IT Dollars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Hilton

    2012-01-01

    No matter how many car washes or bake sales schools host to raise money, adding funds to their coffers is a recurring problem. This perpetual financial difficulty makes expansive technology purchases or changes seem like a pipe dream for school CIOs and has education technologists searching for ways to stretch money. In 2005, state K-12 school…

  14. The stretch zone of automotive steel sheets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    on steel grade, on the rolling direction as well as on the loading rate. Stretch zones ... This interaction is demonstrated at a fracture surface as a bounded transition between initiatory crack (e.g., fatigue) and either ... The materials examined in this study are three grades of thin automotive steel sheets: XSG,. HR 45 and DP.

  15. Fractional behaviour at cyclic stretch-bending

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmens, W.C.; van den Boogaard, Antonius H.; Kazantzis, A.V.; de Hosson, J.Th.M.; Kolleck, R

    2010-01-01

    The fractional behaviour at cyclic stretch-bending has been studied by performing tensile tests at long specimens that are cyclically bent at the same time, on mild steel, dual-phase steel, stainless steel, aluminium and brass. Several types of fracture are observed, these are discussed, as are the

  16. An improved super-exponential algorithm for blind equalization of satellite SIMO communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dan; Wang, Bing; Gao, Wei; Tan, Weifeng

    2009-12-01

    Blind equalization is an effective way to suppress the inter-symbol interference (ISI), which is caused by multipath fading communication channels. An improved robust super-exponential method (ISEM) is proposed here and extended to single-input multioutput (SIMO) models which are commonly used in satellite communication systems. The method, combining super-exponential method (SEM) and minimum description length (MDL), makes the equalization achieve good results even when the signal to noise ratio (SNR) is low. ISEM estimates the noise power of the received signal and then equalizes it by reducing the noise affection. Compared with robust super-exponential method (RSEM) in [1], the presented method has better performance but less computation.

  17. Investigation on thermomechanical properties of poly (l-lactic acid) for the stretch blow moulding process of bioresorbable vascular scaffold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Huidong; Menary, Gary

    2017-10-01

    Stretch blow moulding process has been used for the manufacture of bioresorbable vascular scaffold (BVS) made by poly (l-lactic acid) (PLLA) to improve its mechanical performance. In order to better understand the process, thermomechanical properties of PLLA were investigated by experimental method. Extruded PLLA sheets were biaxial stretched under strain rate of 1s-1, 4s-1 and 16s-1 to simulate the deformation process applicable in the blow moulding process. Both the equal-biaxial stretch and constant-width stretch were conducted by an in-house developed equipment. By differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), thermal analysis for materials before and after stretch were compared to evaluate the microstructural change of PLLA materials in the deformation process. A constitutive model based on glass rubber model was presented to simulate the mechanical behaviour of PLLA above glass transition under biaxial deformation.

  18. Exponentially Weighted Moving Average Chart as a Suitable Tool for Nuchal Translucency Quality Review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hynek, M.; Smetanová, D.; Stejskal, D.; Zvárová, Jana

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 4 (2014), s. 367-376 ISSN 0197-3851 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : nuchal translucency * exponentially weighted moving average model * statistics Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 3.268, year: 2014

  19. Super-exponential bubbles in lab experiments: evidence for anchoring over-optimistic expectations on price

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hüsler, A.; Sornette, D.; Hommes, C.H.

    2013-01-01

    We analyze a controlled price formation experiment in the laboratory that shows evidence for bubbles. We calibrate two models that demonstrate with high statistical significance that these laboratory bubbles have a tendency to grow faster than exponential due to positive feedback. We show that the

  20. A demographic study of the exponential distribution applied to uneven-aged forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey H. Gove

    2016-01-01

    A demographic approach based on a size-structured version of the McKendrick-Von Foerster equation is used to demonstrate a theoretical link between the population size distribution and the underlying vital rates (recruitment, mortality and diameter growth) for the population of individuals whose diameter distribution is negative exponential. This model supports the...

  1. EFFECTIVENESS OF PNF STRETCHING AND CYCLIC STRETCHING OF CALF TIGHTNESS ON COLLEGE GOING GIRLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashlesha Sirari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Flexibility helps with injury prevention, the reduction of soreness following a workout, and a general sense of well-being. There are different stretching techniques and protocols for improvements in calf extensibility and flexibility. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of two techniques i.e. CYCLIC and PNF stretching which improves calf flexibility. This study was done to find the effectiveness of calf Cyclic and PNF stretching technique to improve calf flexibility. Methods: 30 subjects with age group 21-22 years were randomly allocated to 2 groups equally. Group 1(n=15 were given CYCLIC and group 2(n=15 were given PNF stretching technique. Plantar flexion was used to measure the calf tightness which was done before and after the treatment. Treatment was given for 7 days and on the 7th day the calf tightness was again measured. Results: The mean difference of the CYCLIC is 4.6 and mean difference of PNF is 4.7 which indicate that CYCLIC and PNF both are effective to improve calf flexibility but PNF is more effective than CYCLIC to improve calf flexibility. Conclusion: The neurophysiological basis of PNF, stating that the excitatory efficient of the neuromuscular spindle or the inhibitory afferent of the Golgi tendon organ (GTO or both are responsible for the effects. During PNF stretch and isometric contraction of stretched agonists for extended period may cause activation of its neuromuscular spindle. The increase in tension created during the isometric contraction of the pre – lengthened agonist contracts concentrically. Both the fascia & the spindle of the agonist adjust to the nearly lengthened position. These impulses travel via causing post synaptic inhibition of the motor neuron to agonist increasing the tension from the GTO. These impulses can override the impulses coming from the neuromuscular spindles arousing the muscle to reflexly resist to the change in length, thus helping in lengthening

  2. Exponential Smoothing, Long Memory and Volatility Prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proietti, Tommaso

    three models that are natural extensions of ES: the fractionally integrated first order moving average (FIMA) model, a new integrated moving average model formulated in terms of the fractional lag operator (FLagIMA), and a fractional equal root integrated moving average (FerIMA) model, proposed...... originally by Hosking. We investigate the properties of the volatility components and the forecasts arising from these specification, which depend uniquely on the memory and the moving average parameters. For statistical inference we show that, under mild regularity conditions, the Whittle pseudo...

  3. Hyperglycemia Augments the Adipogenic Transdifferentiation Potential of Tenocytes and Is Alleviated by Cyclic Mechanical Stretch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Fu; Huang, Yu-Ting; Wang, Hsing-Kuo; Yao, Chung-Chen Jane; Sun, Jui-Sheng; Chao, Yuan-Hung

    2017-12-28

    Diabetes mellitus is associated with damage to tendons, which may result from cellular dysfunction in response to a hyperglycemic environment. Tenocytes express diminished levels of tendon-associated genes under hyperglycemic conditions. In contrast, mechanical stretch enhances tenogenic differentiation. However, whether hyperglycemia increases the non-tenogenic differentiation potential of tenocytes and whether this can be mitigated by mechanical stretch remains elusive. We explored the in vitro effects of high glucose and mechanical stretch on rat primary tenocytes. Specifically, non-tenogenic gene expression, adipogenic potential, cell migration rate, filamentous actin expression, and the activation of signaling pathways were analyzed in tenocytes treated with high glucose, followed by the presence or absence of mechanical stretch. We analyzed tenocyte phenotype in vivo by immunohistochemistry using an STZ (streptozotocin)-induced long-term diabetic mouse model. High glucose-treated tenocytes expressed higher levels of the adipogenic transcription factors PPAR γ and C/EBPs. PPARγ was also highly expressed in diabetic tendons. In addition, increased adipogenic differentiation and decreased cell migration induced by high glucose implicated a fibroblast-to-adipocyte phenotypic change. By applying mechanical stretch to tenocytes in high-glucose conditions, adipogenic differentiation was repressed, while cell motility was enhanced, and fibroblastic morphology and gene expression profiles were strengthened. In part, these effects resulted from a stretch-induced activation of ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinases) and a concomitant inactivation of Akt. Our results show that mechanical stretch alleviates the augmented adipogenic transdifferentiation potential of high glucose-treated tenocytes and helps maintain their fibroblastic characteristics. The alterations induced by high glucose highlight possible pathological mechanisms for diabetic tendinopathy

  4. Characterizing and Modeling Transient Photoconductivity in Amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jiajun

    capturing the initial transients in all samples with high time-resolution. While many previous reports analyzed non-exponential transients by assuming the transients to follow certain function forms, this work introduces a distributed time constant analysis that can be applied to any relaxation response. By transferring the transient response as a function of log-scale time, any relaxation response can be represented as the convolution of a time constant distribution. Therefore, the minimum measurement duration to correctly characterize the response is identified as the inflection point on a semi-log plot versus log-scale time. With the visual features on the semi-log plot, a method to estimate the entire distribution spectrum is also introduced. This allows reasonable estimation of the asymptotic response value, which cannot be directly measured in systems involving large time constants. In the a-IGZO system, the transient photoresponse fits best to a stretched exponential function. This work discusses the applications and properties of the stretched exponential function. Two contrasting physical explanations to the stretched exponential behavior, the distributed activation energy model and the continuous-time random walk model, are discussed. While the distributed activation energy model fails to explain why an asymmetric activation energy distribution appears universally in many distinct systems, the continuous-time random walk model explains the stretched exponential behavior as arising from an exponential tail of activation energies, which fits the disordered nature of amorphous materials. Based on the continuous-time random walk model, a microscopic photoresponse mechanism compatible with the observed stretched exponential transient is proposed for the a-IGZO system.

  5. Passive Stretch Versus Active Stretch on Intervertebral Movement in Non - Specific Neck Pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El - Aziz, A.H.; Amin, D.I.; Moustafa, I.

    2016-01-01

    Neck pain is one of the most common and painful musculoskeletal conditions. Point prevalence ranges from 6% to 22% and up to 38% of the elderly population, while lifetime prevalence ranges from 14,2% to 71%. Up till now no randomized study showed the effect between controversy of active and passive stretch on intervertebral movement. The purpose: the current study was to investigate the effect of the passive and active stretch on intervertebral movement in non - specific neck pain. Material and methods: Forty five subjects from both sexes with age range between 18 and 30 years and assigned in three groups, group I (15) received active stretch, ultrasound and TENS. Group II (15) received passive stretch, ultrasound and TENS. Group III (15) received ultrasound and TENS. The radiological assessment was used to measure rotational and translational movement of intervertebral movement before and after treatment. Results: MANOVA test was used for radiological assessment before and after treatment there was significant increase in intervertebral movement in group I as p value =0.0001. Conclusion: active stretch had a effect in increasing the intervertebral movement compared to the passive stretch

  6. (Anti)symmetric multivariate exponential functions and corresponding Fourier transforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimyk, A U; Patera, J

    2007-01-01

    We define and study symmetrized and antisymmetrized multivariate exponential functions. They are defined as determinants and antideterminants of matrices whose entries are exponential functions of one variable. These functions are eigenfunctions of the Laplace operator on the corresponding fundamental domains satisfying certain boundary conditions. To symmetric and antisymmetric multivariate exponential functions there correspond Fourier transforms. There are three types of such Fourier transforms: expansions into the corresponding Fourier series, integral Fourier transforms and multivariate finite Fourier transforms. Eigenfunctions of the integral Fourier transforms are found

  7. Analytic results for asymmetric random walk with exponential transition probabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutkowicz-Krusin, D.; Procaccia, I.; Ross, J.

    1978-01-01

    We present here exact analytic results for a random walk on a one-dimensional lattice with asymmetric, exponentially distributed jump probabilities. We derive the generating functions of such a walk for a perfect lattice and for a lattice with absorbing boundaries. We obtain solutions for some interesting moment properties, such as mean first passage time, drift velocity, dispersion, and branching ratio for absorption. The symmetric exponential walk is solved as a special case. The scaling of the mean first passage time with the size of the system for the exponentially distributed walk is determined by the symmetry and is independent of the range

  8. Periodic oscillation and exponential stability of delayed CNNs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jinde

    2000-05-01

    Both the global exponential stability and the periodic oscillation of a class of delayed cellular neural networks (DCNNs) is further studied in this Letter. By applying some new analysis techniques and constructing suitable Lyapunov functionals, some simple and new sufficient conditions are given ensuring global exponential stability and the existence of periodic oscillatory solution of DCNNs. These conditions can be applied to design globally exponentially stable DCNNs and periodic oscillatory DCNNs and easily checked in practice by simple algebraic methods. These play an important role in the design and applications of DCNNs.

  9. Stretch-induced intussuceptive and sprouting angiogenesis in the chick chorioallantoic membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belle, Janeil; Ysasi, Alexandra; Bennett, Robert D; Filipovic, Nenad; Nejad, Mohammad Imani; Trumper, David L; Ackermann, Maximilian; Wagner, Willi; Tsuda, Akira; Konerding, Moritz A; Mentzer, Steven J

    2014-09-01

    Vascular systems grow and remodel in response to not only metabolic needs, but also mechanical influences as well. Here, we investigated the influence of tissue-level mechanical forces on the patterning and structure of the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) microcirculation. A dipole stretch field was applied to the CAM using custom computer-controlled servomotors. The topography of the stretch field was mapped using finite element models. After 3days of stretch, Sholl analysis of the CAM demonstrated a 7-fold increase in conducting vessel intersections within the stretch field (p0.05). In contrast, corrosion casting and SEM of the stretch field capillary meshwork demonstrated intense sprouting and intussusceptive angiogenesis. Both planar surface area (p<0.05) and pillar density (p<0.01) were significantly increased relative to control regions of the CAM. We conclude that a uniaxial stretch field stimulates the axial growth and realignment of conducting vessels as well as intussusceptive and sprouting angiogenesis within the gas exchange capillaries of the ex ovo CAM. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Stretch-induced Intussuceptive and Sprouting Angiogenesis in the Chick Chorioallantoic Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belle, Janeil; Ysasi, Alexandra; Bennett, Robert; Filipovic, Nenad; Nejad, Mohammad Imani; Trumper, David L.; Ackermann, Max; Wagner, Willi; Tsuda, Akira; Konerding, Moritz A.; Mentzer, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Vascular systems grow and remodel in response to not only metabolic needs, but mechanical influences as well. Here, we investigated the influence of tissue-level mechanical forces on the patterning and structure of the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) microcirculation. A dipole stretch field was applied to the CAM using custom computer-controlled servomotors. The topography of the stretch field was mapped using finite element models. After 3 days of stretch, Sholl analysis of the CAM demonstrated a 7-fold increase in conducting vessel intersections within the stretch field (p0.05). In contrast, corrosion casting and SEM of the stretch field capillary meshwork demonstrated intense sprouting and intussusceptive angiogenesis. Both planar surface area (p<0.05) and pillar density (p<0.01) were significantly increased relative to control regions of the CAM. We conclude that a uniaxial stretch field stimulates the axial growth and realignment of conducting vessels as well as intussusceptive and sprouting angiogenesis within the gas exchange capillaries of the ex ovo CAM. PMID:24984292

  11. How to Stretch Your Ankle After a Sprain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ankle After A Sprain How to Stretch Your Ankle After A Sprain Page Content You should perform the following stretches ... Consider these home exercises when recuperating from an ankle sprain. Perform them twice per day. While seated, bring ...

  12. Computation of nuclear reactor parameters using a stretch Kalman filtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwingelstein, G.; Poujol, A.

    1976-01-01

    A method of nonlinear stochastic filtering, the stretched Karman filter, is used for the estimation of two basic parameters involved in the control of nuclear reactor start-up. The corresponding algorithm is stored in a small Multi-8 computer and tested with data recorded for the Ulysse reactor (I.N.S.T.N.). The various practical problems involved in using the algorithm are examined: filtering initialization, influence of the model... The quality and time saving obtained in the computation make it possible for a real time operation, the computer being connected with the reactor [fr

  13. A Study on The Mixture of Exponentiated-Weibull Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Tawfik Elshahat

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mixtures of measures or distributions occur frequently in the theory and applications of probability and statistics. In the simplest case it may, for example, be reasonable to assume that one is dealing with the mixture in given proportions of a finite number of normal populations with different means or variances. The mixture parameter may also be denumerable infinite, as in the theory of sums of a random number of random variables, or continuous, as in the compound Poisson distribution. The use of finite mixture distributions, to control for unobserved heterogeneity, has become increasingly popular among those estimating dynamic discrete choice models. One of the barriers to using mixture models is that parameters that could previously be estimated in stages must now be estimated jointly: using mixture distributions destroys any additive reparability of the log likelihood function. In this thesis, the maximum likelihood estimators have been obtained for the parameters of the mixture of exponentiated Weibull distribution when sample is available from censoring scheme. The maximum likelihood estimators of the parameters and the asymptotic variance covariance matrix have been also obtained. A numerical illustration for these new results is given.

  14. Asymmetric Bimodal Exponential Power Distribution on the Real Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Niyazi Çankaya

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric bimodal exponential power (ABEP distribution is an extension of the generalized gamma distribution to the real line via adding two parameters that fit the shape of peakedness in bimodality on the real line. The special values of peakedness parameters of the distribution are a combination of half Laplace and half normal distributions on the real line. The distribution has two parameters fitting the height of bimodality, so capacity of bimodality is enhanced by using these parameters. Adding a skewness parameter is considered to model asymmetry in data. The location-scale form of this distribution is proposed. The Fisher information matrix of these parameters in ABEP is obtained explicitly. Properties of ABEP are examined. Real data examples are given to illustrate the modelling capacity of ABEP. The replicated artificial data from maximum likelihood estimates of parameters of ABEP and other distributions having an algorithm for artificial data generation procedure are provided to test the similarity with real data. A brief simulation study is presented.

  15. Kinetically modified non-minimal inflation with exponential frame function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pallis, C. [University of Cyprus, Department of Physics, Nicosia (Cyprus)

    2017-09-15

    We consider supersymmetric (SUSY) and non-SUSY models of chaotic inflation based on the φ{sup n} potential with n = 2 or 4. We show that the coexistence of an exponential non-minimal coupling to gravity f{sub R} = e{sup c{sub R}φ{sup p}} with a kinetic mixing of the form f{sub K} = c{sub K}f{sub R}{sup m} can accommodate inflationary observables favored by the Planck and Bicep2/Keck Array results for p = 1 and 2, 1 ≤ m ≤ 15 and 2.6 x 10{sup -3} ≤ r{sub RK} = c{sub R}/c{sub K}{sup p/2} ≤ 1, where the upper limit is not imposed for p = 1. Inflation is of hilltop type and it can be attained for subplanckian inflaton values with the corresponding effective theories retaining the perturbative unitarity up to the Planck scale. The supergravity embedding of these models is achieved employing two chiral gauge singlet supefields, a monomial superpotential and several (semi)logarithmic or semi-polynomial Kaehler potentials. (orig.)

  16. The Exponential Expansion of Simulation in Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Postgraduate School library online database used for this research are JSTOR (Journal Storage), INFORMS, EBSCOhost (Elton B. Stephens Co.), and ACM DL...community over the past decade—to default as “simulation” articles. For additional details and dis- cussion, see Powers (2012). 3.1 JSTOR Results...heteroscedasticity. After fitting several regression models to the JSTOR search engine data, we settle on a final parsimonious model of the form: JSTOR_Sim0.5

  17. Pre-exponential factor in general order kinetics of thermoluminescence and its influence on glow curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunta, C.M.; Ayta, W.E.F.; Chen, R.; Watanabe, S.

    1997-01-01

    A model of thermoluminescence kinetics based on a physically meaningful approach shows that the glow curve shapes undergo systematic changes with the change of trap occupancy (dose). In terms of the general order kinetics model it means that the kinetic order changes with sample dose. In parallel to the kinetic order, the pre-exponential factor also changes. In contrast to these results the glow curves calculated from the general order kinetics model show that the peak shape remains nearly constant when the trap occupancy is changed. When appropriately defined, the pre-exponential factor also has a fixed value independent of trap occupancy. In these respects the general order kinetics model, though empirical, seems to describe the glow peak behaviour quite successfully. However, regarding the peak temperature the theoretical results both from the physical as well as the empirical model seem to diverge from the experimental observations when the experimentally determined kinetics is non-first order. (author)

  18. Aspects of developed heat and mass flux models on 3D flow of Eyring-Powell fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanzila Hayat

    Full Text Available The variable thermal conductivity impacts and generalized Fourier’s and Fick’s laws over an exponentially stretching surface are reported in this paper. Another heat flux idea involving mystery of heat conduction is exploited which is not quite the same as the usual literature. Such idea has been utilized as a part of perspective of Cattaneo-Christov heat flux theory. The characteristic of temperature and concentration relaxation features are described. Other than this, chemical reactions are additionally considered.To solve the system of six highly non-linear coupled differential equations, a numerical technique bvp4c is adopted. The skin friction coefficient for three dimensional Eyring-Powell fluid model is calculated. From the present analysis we observe that the temperature and concentration profiles declines for higher values of thermal and concentration relaxation parameters. Also, for higher values of strength of reaction parameters, the concentration profile decreases. Current effort for three dimensional Cattaneo-Christov double diffusion and homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions over an exponentially stretching surface does not yet exist in the literature. Keywords: Three dimensional flow, Cattaneo-Christov double diffusion, Homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions, Variable thermal conductivity, Exponentially stretching surface

  19. Global robust exponential stability analysis for interval recurrent neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Shengyuan; Lam, James; Ho, Daniel W.C.; Zou Yun

    2004-01-01

    This Letter investigates the problem of robust global exponential stability analysis for interval recurrent neural networks (RNNs) via the linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach. The values of the time-invariant uncertain parameters are assumed to be bounded within given compact sets. An improved condition for the existence of a unique equilibrium point and its global exponential stability of RNNs with known parameters is proposed. Based on this, a sufficient condition for the global robust exponential stability for interval RNNs is obtained. Both of the conditions are expressed in terms of LMIs, which can be checked easily by various recently developed convex optimization algorithms. Examples are provided to demonstrate the reduced conservatism of the proposed exponential stability condition

  20. Re-analysis of exponential rigid-rotor astron equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovelace, R.V.; Larrabee, D.A.; Fleischmann, H.H.

    1978-01-01

    Previous studies of exponential rigid-rotor astron equilibria include particles which are not trapped in the self-field of the configuration. The modification of these studies required to exclude untrapped particles is derived

  1. Studying the method of linearization of exponential calibration curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunzh, Z.A.

    1989-01-01

    The results of study of the method for linearization of exponential calibration curves are given. The calibration technique and comparison of the proposed method with piecewise-linear approximation and power series expansion, are given

  2. Exponential Stability of Stochastic Nonlinear Dynamical Price System with Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenli Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on Lyapunov stability theory, Itô formula, stochastic analysis, and matrix theory, we study the exponential stability of the stochastic nonlinear dynamical price system. Using Taylor's theorem, the stochastic nonlinear system with delay is reduced to an n-dimensional semilinear stochastic differential equation with delay. Some sufficient conditions of exponential stability and corollaries for such price system are established by virtue of Lyapunov function. The time delay upper limit is solved by using our theoretical results when the system is exponentially stable. Our theoretical results show that if the classical price Rayleigh equation is exponentially stable, so is its perturbed system with delay provided that both the time delay and the intensity of perturbations are small enough. Two examples are presented to illustrate our results.

  3. The Multivariate Order Statistics for Exponential and Weibull Distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariyam Hafeez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have derived the distribution of multivariate order statistics for multivariate exponential & multivariate weibull distribution. The moment expression for multivariate order statistics has also been derived.

  4. Transparent conducting film: Effect of mechanical stretching to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    posite was fixed to a tabletop clamp and unidirectionally stretched after cutting the paper support at two opposite sides. To hold the film under the stretched condition, both edges of stretched CNT-mat/transparent-film composite was then adhered to a PMMA substrate by epoxy glue and both the sheet resistance and the ...

  5. Effects of dynamic stretches on Isokinetic hamstring and Quadriceps ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In conclusion, dynamic stretches have positive effects on muscle strength, H/Q ratios and ROM. Therefore, dynamic stretches may increase performance and reduce the risk of injury to athletes. Keywords: Quadriceps; Hamstrings; Muscles Isokinetic; Dynamic stretches. South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical ...

  6. Fast Modular Exponentiation and Elliptic Curve Group Operation in Maple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, S. Y.; James, G.

    2006-01-01

    The modular exponentiation, y[equivalent to]x[superscript k](mod n) with x,y,k,n integers and n [greater than] 1; is the most fundamental operation in RSA and ElGamal public-key cryptographic systems. Thus the efficiency of RSA and ElGamal depends entirely on the efficiency of the modular exponentiation. The same situation arises also in elliptic…

  7. Bivariate copulas on the exponentially weighted moving average control chart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasigarn Kuvattana

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes four types of copulas on the Exponentially Weighted Moving Average (EWMA control chart when observations are from an exponential distribution using a Monte Carlo simulation approach. The performance of the control chart is based on the Average Run Length (ARL which is compared for each copula. Copula functions for specifying dependence between random variables are used and measured by Kendall’s tau. The results show that the Normal copula can be used for almost all shifts.

  8. Meet and join matrices in the poset of exponential divisors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... exponential divisor ( G C E D ) and the least common exponential multiple ( L C E M ) do not always exist. In this paper we embed this poset in a lattice. As an application we study the G C E D and L C E M matrices, analogues of G C D and L C M matrices, which are both special cases of meet and join matrices on lattices.

  9. Global robust exponential stability for interval neural networks with delay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Shihua; Zhao Tao; Guo Jie

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, new sufficient conditions for globally robust exponential stability of neural networks with either constant delays or time-varying delays are given. We show the sufficient conditions for the existence, uniqueness and global robust exponential stability of the equilibrium point by employing Lyapunov stability theory and linear matrix inequality (LMI) technique. Numerical examples are given to show the approval of our results.

  10. An exponential observer for the generalized Rossler chaotic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Y.-J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the generalized Rossler chaotic system is considered and the state observation problem of such a system is investigated. Based on the time-domain approach, a state observer for the generalized Rossler chaotic system is developed to guarantee the global exponential stability of the resulting error system. Moreover, the guaranteed exponential convergence rate can be arbitrarily pre-specified. Finally, a numerical example is provided to illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the obtained result.

  11. String Stretching, Frequency Modulation, and Banjo Clang

    OpenAIRE

    Politzer, David

    2014-01-01

    The banjo’s floating bridge, string break angle, and flexible drumhead all contribute to substantial audio range frequency modulation. From the world of electronic music synthesis, it is known that modulating higher frequency sounds with lower acoustic frequencies leads to metallic and bell-like tone. The mechanics of the banjo does just that quite naturally, modulating fundamentals and harmonics with the motion of the bridge. In technical terms, with a floating bridge, string stretching is f...

  12. The stretch zone of automotive steel sheets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The stretch zone of automotive steel sheets. L' AMBRIŠKO1,∗ and L PEŠEK2. 1Institute of Structural Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering,. Technical University of Košice, Vysokoškolská 4, 042 00 Košice, Slovak Republic. 2Department of Materials Science, Faculty of Metallurgy,. Technical University of Košice, Letná 9, ...

  13. Exponential Reliability Coefficient based Reputation Mechanism for isolating selfish nodes in MANETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sengathir

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In mobile ad hoc networks, cooperation among active mobile nodes is considered to play a vital role in reliable transmission of data. But, the selfish mobile nodes present in an ad hoc environment refuse to forward neighbouring nodes’ packet for conserving its own energy. This intentional selfish behaviour drastically reduces the degree of cooperation maintained between the mobile nodes. Hence, a need arises for devising an effective mechanism which incorporates both energy efficiency and reputation into account for mitigating selfish behaviour in MANETs. In this paper, we propose an Exponential Reliability Coefficient based reputation Mechanism (ERCRM which isolates the selfish nodes from the routing path based on Exponential Reliability Coefficient (ExRC. This reliability coefficient manipulated through exponential failure rate based on moving average method highlights the most recent past behaviour of the mobile nodes for quantifying its genuineness. From the simulation results, it is evident that, the proposed ERCRM approach outperforms the existing Packet Conservation Monitoring Algorithm (PCMA and Spilt Half Reliability Coefficient based Mathematical Model (SHRCM in terms of performance evaluation metrics such as packet delivery ratio, throughput, total overhead and control overhead. Further, this ERCRM mechanism has a successful rate of 28% in isolating the selfish nodes from the routing path. Furthermore, it also aids in framing the exponential threshold point of detection as 0.4, where a maximum number of selfish nodes are identified when compared to the existing models available in the literature.

  14. A series of N-terminal epitope tagged Hdh knock-in alleles expressing normal and mutant huntingtin: their application to understanding the effect of increasing the length of normal huntingtin’s polyglutamine stretch on CAG140 mouse model pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Shuqiu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Huntington’s disease (HD is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease that is caused by the expansion of a polyglutamine (polyQ stretch within Huntingtin (htt, the protein product of the HD gene. Although studies in vitro have suggested that the mutant htt can act in a potentially dominant negative fashion by sequestering wild-type htt into insoluble protein aggregates, the role of the length of the normal htt polyQ stretch, and the adjacent proline-rich region (PRR in modulating HD mouse model pathogenesis is currently unknown. Results We describe the generation and characterization of a series of knock-in HD mouse models that express versions of the mouse HD gene (Hdh encoding N-terminal hemaglutinin (HA or 3xFlag epitope tagged full-length htt with different polyQ lengths (HA7Q-, 3xFlag7Q-, 3xFlag20Q-, and 3xFlag140Q-htt and substitution of the adjacent mouse PRR with the human PRR (3xFlag20Q- and 3xFlag140Q-htt. Using co-immunoprecipitation and immunohistochemistry analyses, we detect no significant interaction between soluble full-length normal 7Q- htt and mutant (140Q htt, but we do observe N-terminal fragments of epitope-tagged normal htt in mutant htt aggregates. When the sequences encoding normal mouse htt’s polyQ stretch and PRR are replaced with non-pathogenic human sequence in mice also expressing 140Q-htt, aggregation foci within the striatum, and the mean size of htt inclusions are increased, along with an increase in striatal lipofuscin and gliosis. Conclusion In mice, soluble full-length normal and mutant htt are predominantly monomeric. In heterozygous knock-in HD mouse models, substituting the normal mouse polyQ and PRR with normal human sequence can exacerbate some neuropathological phenotypes.

  15. Tangential stretching rate (TSR) analysis of non premixed reactive flows

    KAUST Repository

    Valorani, Mauro

    2016-10-16

    We discuss how the Tangential stretching rate (TSR) analysis, originally developed and tested for spatially homogeneous systems (batch reactors), is extended to spatially non homogeneous systems. To illustrate the effectiveness of the TSR diagnostics, we study the ignition transient in a non premixed, reaction–diffusion model in the mixture fraction space, whose dependent variables are temperature and mixture composition. The reactive mixture considered is syngas/air. A detailed H2/CO mechanism with 12 species and 33 chemical reactions is employed. We will discuss two cases, one involving only kinetics as a model of front propagation purely driven by spontaneous ignition, the other as a model of deflagration wave involving kinetics/diffusion coupling. We explore different aspects of the system dynamics such as the relative role of diffusion and kinetics, the evolution of kinetic eigenvalues, and of the tangential stretching rates computed by accounting for the combined action of diffusion and kinetics as well for kinetics only. We propose criteria based on the TSR concept which allow to identify the most ignitable conditions and to discriminate between spontaneous ignition and deflagration front.

  16. Harmonics analysis of the photonic time stretch system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Yuan; Xu, Boyu; Chi, Hao; Jin, Tao; Zheng, Shilie; Jin, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Xianmin

    2016-09-10

    Photonic time stretch (PTS) has been intensively investigated in recent decades due to its potential application to ultra-wideband analog-to-digital conversion. A high-speed analog signal can be captured by an electronic analog-to-digital converter (ADC) with the help of the PTS technique, which slows down the speed of signal in the photonic domain. Unfortunately, the process of the time stretch is not linear due to the nonlinear modulation of the electro-optic intensity modulator in the PTS system, which means the undesired harmonics distortion. In this paper, we present an exact analytical model to fully characterize the harmonics generation in the PTS systems for the first time, to the best of our knowledge. We obtain concise and closed-form expressions for all harmonics of the PTS system with either a single-arm Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) or a push-pull MZM. The presented model can largely simplify the PTS system design and the system parameters estimation, such as system bandwidth, harmonics power, time-bandwidth product, and dynamic range. The correctness of the mathematic model is verified by the numerical and experimental results.

  17. Dynamics and structure of stretched flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, C.K. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This program aims to gain fundamental understanding on the structure, geometry, and dynamics of laminar premixed flames, and relate these understanding to the practical issues of flame extinction and stabilization. The underlying fundamental interest here is the recent recognition that the response of premixed flames can be profoundly affected by flame stretch, as manifested by flow nonuniformity, flame curvature, and flame/flow unsteadiness. As such, many of the existing understanding on the behavior of premixed flames need to be qualitatively revised. The research program consists of three major thrusts: (1) detailed experimental and computational mapping of the structure of aerodynamically-strained planar flames, with emphasis on the effects of heat loss, nonequidiffusion, and finite residence time on the flame thickness, extent of incomplete reaction, and the state of extinction. (2) Analytical study of the geometry and dynamics of stretch-affected wrinkled flame sheets in simple configurations, as exemplified by the Bunsen flame and the spatially-periodic flame, with emphasis on the effects of nonlinear stretch, the phenomena of flame cusping, smoothing, and tip opening, and their implications on the structure and burning rate of turbulent flames. (3) Stabilization and blowoff of two-dimensional inverted premixed and stabilization and determining the criteria governing flame blowoff. The research is synergistically conducted through the use of laser-based diagnostics, computational simulation of the flame structure with detailed chemistry and transport, and mathematical analysis of the flame dynamics.

  18. Stretch Moduli of Ribonucleotide Embedded Short DNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Hsiang-Chih; Koh, Kyung Duk; Riedo, Elisa; Storici, Francesca

    2013-03-01

    Understanding the mechanical properties of DNA is essential to comprehending the dynamics of many cellular functions. DNA deformations are involved in many mechanisms when genetic information needs to be stored and used. In addition, recent studies have found that Ribonucleotides (rNMPs) are among the most common non-standard nucleotides present in DNA. The presences of rNMPs in DNA might cause mutation, fragility or genotoxicity of chromosome but how they influence the structure and mechanical properties of DNA remains unclear. By means of Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) based single molecule spectroscopy, we measure the stretch moduli of double stranded DNAs (dsDNA) with 30 base pairs and 5 equally embedded rNMPs. The dsDNAs are anchored on gold substrate via thiol chemistry, while the AFM tip is used to pick up and stretch the dsDNA from its free end through biotin-streptavidin bonding. Our preliminary results indicate that the inclusion of rNMPs in dsDNA might significantly change its stretch modulus, which might be important in some biological processes.

  19. Short Durations of Static Stretching when Combined with Dynamic Stretching do not Impair Repeated Sprints and Agility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Del P.; Chaouachi, Anis; Lau, Patrick W.C.; Behm, David G.

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the effect of different static stretching durations followed by dynamic stretching on repeated sprint ability (RSA) and change of direction (COD). Twenty-five participants performed the RSA and COD tests in a randomized order. After a 5 min aerobic warm up, participants performed one of the three static stretching protocols of 30 s, 60 s or 90 s total duration (3 stretches x 10 s, 20 s or 30 s). Three dynamic stretching exercises of 30 s duration were then performed (90 s total). Sit-and-reach flexibility tests were conducted before the aerobic warm up, after the combined static and dynamic stretching, and post- RSA/COD test. The duration of static stretching had a positive effect on flexibility with 36.3% and 85.6% greater sit-and-reach scores with the 60 s and 90 s static stretching conditions respectively than with the 30 s condition (p ≤ 0.001). However there were no significant differences in RSA and COD performance between the 3 stretching conditions. The lack of change in RSA and COD might be attributed to a counterbalancing of static and dynamic stretching effects. Furthermore, the short duration (≤ 90 s) static stretching may not have provided sufficient stimulus to elicit performance impairments. Key points The duration of combined static and dynamic stretching had a positive effect on flexibility with 36.3% and 85.6% greater sit and reach scores with the 60 s and 90 s static stretching conditions respectively than with the 30 s condition (p ≤ 0.001). No significant differences in RSA and COD between the 3 stretching conditions. The lack of change in RSA and COD might be attributed to a counterbalancing of static and dynamic stretching effects. The short duration (≤ 90 s) static stretching may not have provided sufficient stimulus to elicit performance impairments. PMID:24149890

  20. LMI Approach to Exponential Stability and Almost Sure Exponential Stability for Stochastic Fuzzy Markovian-Jumping Cohen-Grossberg Neural Networks with Nonlinear p-Laplace Diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruofeng Rao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The robust exponential stability of delayed fuzzy Markovian-jumping Cohen-Grossberg neural networks (CGNNs with nonlinear p-Laplace diffusion is studied. Fuzzy mathematical model brings a great difficulty in setting up LMI criteria for the stability, and stochastic functional differential equations model with nonlinear diffusion makes it harder. To study the stability of fuzzy CGNNs with diffusion, we have to construct a Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional in non-matrix form. But stochastic mathematical formulae are always described in matrix forms. By way of some variational methods in W1,p(Ω, Itô formula, Dynkin formula, the semi-martingale convergence theorem, Schur Complement Theorem, and LMI technique, the LMI-based criteria on the robust exponential stability and almost sure exponential robust stability are finally obtained, the feasibility of which can efficiently be computed and confirmed by computer MatLab LMI toolbox. It is worth mentioning that even corollaries of the main results of this paper improve some recent related existing results. Moreover, some numerical examples are presented to illustrate the effectiveness and less conservatism of the proposed method due to the significant improvement in the allowable upper bounds of time delays.