Sample records for stretched continental crust

  1. Crustal Stretching Style and Lower Crust Flow of the South China Sea Northern Margin (United States)

    Bai, Y.; Dong, D.; Runlin, D.


    There is a controversy about crustal stretching style of the South China Sea (SCS) northern margin mainly due to considerable uncertainty of stretching factor estimation, for example, as much as 40% of upper crust extension (Walsh et al., 1991) would be lost by seismic profiles due to poor resolution. To discover and understand crustal stretching style and lower crustal flow on the whole, we map the Moho and Conrad geometries based on gravity inversion constrained by deep seismic profiles, then according to the assumption of upper and lower crust initial thickness, upper and lower crust stretching factors are estimated. According to the comparison between upper and lower crust stretching factors, the SCS northern margin could be segmented into three parts, (1) sediment basins where upper crust is stretched more than lower crust, (2) COT regions where lower crust is stretched more than upper crust, (3) other regions where the two layers have similar stretching factors. Stretching factor map shows that lower crust flow happened in both of COT and sediment basin regions where upper crust decouples with lower crust due to high temperature. Pressure contrast by sediment loading in basins and erosion in sediment-source regions will lead to lower crust flow away from sediment sink to source. Decoupled and fractured upper crust is stretched further by sediment loading and the following compensation would result in relatively thick lower crust than upper crust. In COT regions with thin sediment coverage, low-viscosity lower crust is easier to thin in extensional environment, also the lower crust tends to flow away induced by magma upwelling. Therefore, continental crust on the margin is not stretching in a constant way but varies with the tectonic setting changes. This work is supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 41506055, 41476042) and Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities China (No.17CX02003A).

  2. USArray Imaging of North American Continental Crust (United States)

    Ma, Xiaofei

    The layered structure and bulk composition of continental crust contains important clues about its history of mountain-building, about its magmatic evolution, and about dynamical processes that continue to happen now. Geophysical and geological features such as gravity anomalies, surface topography, lithospheric strength and the deformation that drives the earthquake cycle are all directly related to deep crustal chemistry and the movement of materials through the crust that alter that chemistry. The North American continental crust records billions of years of history of tectonic and dynamical changes. The western U.S. is currently experiencing a diverse array of dynamical processes including modification by the Yellowstone hotspot, shortening and extension related to Pacific coast subduction and transform boundary shear, and plate interior seismicity driven by flow of the lower crust and upper mantle. The midcontinent and eastern U.S. is mostly stable but records a history of ancient continental collision and rifting. EarthScope's USArray seismic deployment has collected massive amounts of data across the entire United States that illuminates the deep continental crust, lithosphere and deeper mantle. This study uses EarthScope data to investigate the thickness and composition of the continental crust, including properties of its upper and lower layers. One-layer and two-layer models of crustal properties exhibit interesting relationships to the history of North American continental formation and recent tectonic activities that promise to significantly improve our understanding of the deep processes that shape the Earth's surface. Model results show that seismic velocity ratios are unusually low in the lower crust under the western U.S. Cordillera. Further modeling of how chemistry affects the seismic velocity ratio at temperatures and pressures found in the lower crust suggests that low seismic velocity ratios occur when water is mixed into the mineral matrix

  3. A relatively reduced Hadean continental crust (United States)

    Yang, Xiaozhi; Gaillard, Fabrice; Scaillet, Bruno


    Among the physical and chemical parameters used to characterize the Earth, oxidation state, as reflected by its prevailing oxygen fugacity (fO2), is a particularly important one. It controls many physicochemical properties and geological processes of the Earth's different reservoirs, and affects the partitioning of elements between coexisting phases and the speciation of degassed volatiles in melts. In the past decades, numerous studies have been conducted to document the evolution of mantle and atmospheric oxidation state with time and in particular the possible transition from an early reduced state to the present oxidized conditions. So far, it has been established that the oxidation state of the uppermost mantle is within ±2 log units of the quartz-fayalite-magnetite (QFM) buffer, probably back to ~4.4 billion years ago (Ga) based on trace-elements studies of mantle-derived komatiites, kimberlites, basalts, volcanics and zircons, and that the O2 levels of atmosphere were initially low and rose markedly ~2.3 Ga known as the Great Oxidation Event (GOE), progressively reaching its present oxidation state of ~10 log units above QFM. In contrast, the secular evolution of oxidation state of the continental crust, an important boundary separating the underlying upper mantle from the surrounding atmosphere and buffering the exchanges and interactions between the Earth's interior and exterior, has rarely been addressed, although the presence of evolved crustal materials on the Earth can be traced back to ~4.4 Ga, e.g. by detrital zircons. Zircon is a common accessory mineral in nature, occurring in a wide variety of igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks, and is almost ubiquitous in crustal rocks. The physical and chemical durability of zircons makes them widely used in geochemical studies in terms of trace-elements, isotopes, ages and melt/mineral inclusions; in particular, zircons are persistent under most crustal conditions and can survive many secondary

  4. Generation of continental crust in intra-oceanic arcs (United States)

    Gazel, E.; Hayes, J. L.; Kelemen, P. B.; Everson, E. D.; Holbrook, W. S.; Vance, E.


    The origin of continental crust is still an unsolved mystery in the evolution of our planet. Although the best candidates to produce juvenile continental crust are intra-oceanic arcs these systems are dominated by basaltic lavas, and when silicic magmas are produced, the incompatible-element compositions are generally too depleted to be a good match for continental crust estimates. Others, such as the W. Aleutians, are dominated by andesitic melts with trace element compositions similar to average continental crust. In order to evaluate which intra-oceanic arcs produced modern continental crust, we developed a geochemical continental index (CI) through a statistical analysis that compared all available data from modern intra-oceanic arcs with global estimates of continental crust. Our results suggest that magmas from Costa Rica (tracks. Iwo-Jima and Vanuatu are in a similar tectonic scenario with subducting intraplate seamounts. Melts from the subducting oceanic crust are thought to significantly control the geochemical signature in the W. Aleutians and Panama. In the L. Antilles and E. Aleutians the continental signature may reflect recycling of a component derived from subducting continental sediments. Most of Izu-Bonin, Marianas, S. Scotia and Tonga arcs with a CI >100 have the least continent-like geochemical signatures. In these arcs the subducting plate is old (>100 Ma), not overprinted by enriched intraplate volcanism and the geochemistry may be dominated by slab-derived, aqueous fluids. We also found a strong correlation between the CI and average crustal P-wave velocity, validating the geochemical index with the available seismic data for intra-oceanic arcs. In conclusion, the production of young continental crust with compositions similar to Archean continental crust is an unusual process, limited to locations where there are especially voluminous partial melts of oceanic crust.

  5. Density Sorting During the Evolution of Continental Crust (United States)

    Kelemen, P. B.; Behn, M. D.; Hacker, B. R.


    We consider two settings - in addition to "delamination" of arc lower crust - in which dense, mafic eclogites founder into the convecting mantle while buoyant, felsic lithologies accumulate at the base of evolving continental crust. Arc processes play a central role in generating continental crust, but it remains uncertain how basaltic arc crust is transformed to andesitic continental crust. Dense, SiO2-poor products of fractionation may founder from the base of arc crust by "delamination", but lower arc crust after delamination has significantly different trace elements compared to lower continental crust (LCC). In an alternative model, buoyant magmatic rocks generated at arcs are first subducted, mainly via subduction erosion. Upon heating, these buoyant lithologies ascend through the mantle wedge or along a subduction channel, and are "relaminated" at
the base of overlying crust (e.g., Hacker et al EPSL 11, AREPS 15). Average buoyant lavas and plutons
for the Aleutians, Izu-Bonin-Marianas, Kohistan and Talkeetna arcs fall within the range of estimated LCC major and trace elements. Relamination is more efficient in generating continental crust than delamination. Himalayan cross-sections show Indian crust thrust beneath Tibetan crust, with no intervening mantle. There is a horizontal Moho at ca 80 km depth, extending from thickened Indian crust, across the region where Tibetan crust overlies Indian crust, into thickened Tibetan crust. About half the subducted Indian crust is present, whereas the other half is missing. Data (Vp/Vs; Miocene lavas formed by interaction of continental crust with mantle; xenolith thermometry) indicate 1000°C or more from ca 50 km depth to the Moho since the Miocene. We build on earlier studies (LePichon et al Tectonics 92, T'phys 97; Schulte-Pelkum et al Nature 05; Monsalve et al JGR 08) to advance the hypothesis that rapid growth of garnet occurs at 70-80 km and 1000°C within subducting Indian crust. Dense eclogites founder

  6. The extent of continental crust beneath the Seychelles (United States)

    Hammond, J. O. S.; Kendall, J.-M.; Collier, J. S.; Rümpker, G.


    The granitic islands of the Seychelles Plateau have long been recognised to overlie continental crust, isolated from Madagascar and India during the formation of the Indian Ocean. However, to date the extent of continental crust beneath the Seychelles region remains unknown. This is particularly true beneath the Mascarene Basin between the Seychelles Plateau and Madagascar and beneath the Amirante Arc. Constraining the size and shape of the Seychelles continental fragment is needed for accurate plate reconstructions of the breakup of Gondwana and has implications for the processes of continental breakup in general. Here we present new estimates of crustal thickness and VP/VS from H-κ stacking of receiver functions from a year long deployment of seismic stations across the Seychelles covering the topographic plateau, the Amirante Ridge and the northern Mascarene Basin. These results, combined with gravity modelling of historical ship track data, confirm that continental crust is present beneath the Seychelles Plateau. This is ˜30-33 km thick, but with a relatively high velocity lower crustal layer. This layer thins southwards from ˜10 km to ˜1 km over a distance of ˜50 km, which is consistent with the Seychelles being at the edge of the Deccan plume prior to its separation from India. In contrast, the majority of the Seychelles Islands away from the topographic plateau show no direct evidence for continental crust. The exception to this is the island of Desroche on the northern Amirante Ridge, where thicker low density crust, consistent with a block of continental material is present. We suggest that the northern Amirantes are likely continental in nature and that small fragments of continental material are a common feature of plume affected continental breakup.

  7. Magma-Assisted Continental Break-up Encroached on Previously Stretched Continental Lithosphere - the NE Greenland Composite Passive Margin (United States)

    Mazur, S.; Rippington, S.; Houghton, P.


    Volcanic continental margins have a number of distinctive features that are different from those typical of magma-poor continental margins. However, in some places volcanic margins may develop parallel to older, highly extended rift systems. In such situations the resultant continental margin shows a complex structure that merges the characteristics of volcanic and non-volcanic margins. Furthermore, the evolution of this younger magma-rich margin is restricted by the pre-existing lithospheric architecture, causing it to diverge from the generally assumed formation model. We use the case of NE Greenland to demonstrate the structure of a composite margin firstly subjected to extensive extension and later overprinted by magma-assisted continental break-up. The NE Greenland continental margin is a highly extended margin, that is up to 250km wide, with crystalline crust attaining the maximum thickness near to the coast of Greenland and at the Danmarkshaven Ridge. The latter represents a major basement horst formed during an Early Cretaceous rifting event. To the east of the Danmarkshaven Ridge, crust is stretched and onlapped by the Early Cretaceous sedimentary basin. The effects of Tertiary break-up are observable in a relatively narrow zone 80 km wide that usually includes an extended edge of continental crust and an adjacent section of oceanic crust. A volcano-sedimentary succession produced during the break-up reaches the maximum thickness of c. 8000 m above a continent-ocean transition (COB). Oceanic crust overlain by mixed volcanic and sedimentary rocks is thicker than usual. No observable SDRs or igneous transitional crust are present near to the COB. Instead, a chain of high density bodies follow the COB at the base of crust. The features observed suggest relatively little extension associated with the Tertiary break-up. Instead localised mantle melting presumably led to rapid break-up with crustal dilatation promptly balanced by production of thick oceanic

  8. The origin of continental crust: Outlines of a general theory (United States)

    Lowman, P. D., Jr.


    The lower continental crust, formerly very poorly understood, has recently been investigated by various geological and geophysical techniques that are beginning to yield a generally agreed on though still vague model (Lowman, 1984). As typified by at least some exposed high grade terranes, such as the Scottish Scourian complex, the lower crust in areas not affected by Phanerozoic orogeny or crustal extension appears to consist of gently dipping granulite gneisses of intermediate bulk composition, formed from partly or largely supracrustal precursors. This model, to the degree that it is correct, has important implications for early crustal genesis and the origin of continental crust in general. Most important, it implies that except for areas of major overthrusting (which may of course be considerable) normal superposition relations prevail, and that since even the oldest exposed rocks are underlain by tens of kilometers of sial, true primordial crust may still survive in the lower crustal levels (of. Phinney, 1981).

  9. Hydrogenetic Ferromanganese Crusts of the California Continental Margin (United States)

    Conrad, Tracey A.

    Hydrogenetic Ferromanganese (Fe-Mn) crusts grow from seawater and in doing so sequester elements of economic interest and serve as archives of past seawater chemistry. Ferromanganese crusts have been extensively studied in open-ocean environments. However, few studies have examined continent-proximal Fe-Mn crusts especially from the northeast Pacific. This thesis addresses Fe-Mn crusts within the northeast Pacific California continental margin (CCM), which is a dynamic geological and oceanographic environment. In the first of three studies, I analyzed the chemical and mineralogical composition of Fe-Mn crusts and show that continental-proximal processes greatly influence the chemistry and mineralogy of CCM Fe-Mn crusts. When compared to global open-ocean Fe-Mn crusts, CCM crusts have higher concentrations of iron, silica, and thorium with lower concentrations of many elements of economic interest including manganese, cobalt, and tellurium, among other elements. The mineralogy of CCM Fe-Mn crusts is also unique with more birnessite and todorokite present than found in open-ocean samples. Unlike open-ocean Fe-Mn crusts, carbonate-fluorapatite is not present in CCM crusts. This lack of phosphatization makes CCM Fe-Mn crusts excellent candidates for robust paleoceanography records. The second and third studies in this thesis use isotope geochemistry on select CCM Fe-Mn crusts from four seamounts in the CCM to study past terrestrial inputs into the CCM and sources and behavior of Pb and Nd isotopes over the past 7 million years along the northeast Pacific margin. The second study focuses on riverine inputs into the Monterey Submarine Canyon System and sources of the continental material. Osmium isotopes in the crusts are compared to the Cenozoic Os seawater curve to develop an age model for the samples that show the crusts range in age of initiation of crust growth from approximately 20 to 6 Myr. Lead and neodymium isotopes measured in select Fe-Mn crusts show that

  10. USArray Imaging of Continental Crust in the Conterminous United States (United States)

    Ma, Xiaofei; Lowry, Anthony R.


    The thickness and bulk composition of continental crust provide important constraints on the evolution and dynamics of continents. Crustal mineralogy and thickness both may influence gravity anomalies, topographic elevation, and lithospheric strength, but prior to the inception of EarthScope's USArray, seismic measurements of crustal thickness and properties useful for inferring lithology are sparse. Here we improve upon a previously published methodology for joint inversion of Bouguer gravity anomalies and seismic receiver functions by using parameter space stacking of cross correlations of modeled synthetic and observed receiver functions instead of standard H-κ amplitude stacking. The new method is applied to estimation of thickness and bulk seismic velocity ratio, vP/vS, of continental crust in the conterminous United States using USArray and other broadband network data. Crustal thickness variations are reasonably consistent with those found in other studies and show interesting relationships to the history of North American continental formation. Seismic velocity ratios derived in this study are more robust than in other analyses and hint at large-scale variations in composition of continental crust. To interpret the results, we model the pressure-/temperature-dependent thermodynamics of mineral formation for various crustal chemistries, with and without volatile constituents. Our results suggest that hydration lowers bulk crustal vP/vS and density and releases heat in the shallow crust but absorbs heat in the lowermost crust (where plagioclase breaks down to pyroxene and garnet resulting in higher seismic velocity). Hence, vP/vS variations may provide a useful proxy for hydration state in the crust.

  11. Continental crust formation on early Earth controlled by intrusive magmatism. (United States)

    Rozel, A B; Golabek, G J; Jain, C; Tackley, P J; Gerya, T


    The global geodynamic regime of early Earth, which operated before the onset of plate tectonics, remains contentious. As geological and geochemical data suggest hotter Archean mantle temperature and more intense juvenile magmatism than in the present-day Earth, two crust-mantle interaction modes differing in melt eruption efficiency have been proposed: the Io-like heat-pipe tectonics regime dominated by volcanism and the "Plutonic squishy lid" tectonics regime governed by intrusive magmatism, which is thought to apply to the dynamics of Venus. Both tectonics regimes are capable of producing primordial tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) continental crust but lithospheric geotherms and crust production rates as well as proportions of various TTG compositions differ greatly, which implies that the heat-pipe and Plutonic squishy lid hypotheses can be tested using natural data. Here we investigate the creation of primordial TTG-like continental crust using self-consistent numerical models of global thermochemical convection associated with magmatic processes. We show that the volcanism-dominated heat-pipe tectonics model results in cold crustal geotherms and is not able to produce Earth-like primordial continental crust. In contrast, the Plutonic squishy lid tectonics regime dominated by intrusive magmatism results in hotter crustal geotherms and is capable of reproducing the observed proportions of various TTG rocks. Using a systematic parameter study, we show that the typical modern eruption efficiency of less than 40 per cent leads to the production of the expected amounts of the three main primordial crustal compositions previously reported from field data (low-, medium- and high-pressure TTG). Our study thus suggests that the pre-plate-tectonics Archean Earth operated globally in the Plutonic squishy lid regime rather than in an Io-like heat-pipe regime.

  12. From a collage of microplates to stable continental crust - an example from Precambrian Europe (United States)

    Korja, Annakaisa


    of spreading. Close to the original ocean-continent plate boundary, in the core of the Svecofennian orogen, the thickened accretionary crust carries pervasive stretching lineations at surface and seismic vp-velocity anisotropy in the crust. The direction of spreading and crustal flow seems to be diverted by shapes of the pre-existing boundaries. It is concluded that lateral spreading and midcrustal flow not only rearrange the bedrock architecture but also stabilize the young accreted continental crust in emerging internal orogenic systems. Pre-existing microplate/terrane boundaries will affect the final architecture of the orogenic belt.

  13. Formation of hybrid arc andesites beneath thick continental crust (United States)

    Straub, Susanne M.; Gomez-Tuena, Arturo; Stuart, Finlay M.; Zellmer, Georg F.; Espinasa-Perena, Ramon; Cai, Yue; Iizuka, Yoshiyuki


    Andesite magmatism at convergent margins is essential for the differentiation of silicate Earth, but no consensus exists as to andesite petrogenesis. Models proposing origin of primary andesite melts from mantle and/or slab materials remain in deadlock with the seemingly irrefutable petrographic and chemical evidence for andesite formation through mixing of basaltic mantle melts with silicic components from the overlying crust. Here we use 3He/4He ratios of high-Ni olivines to demonstrate the mantle origin of basaltic to andesitic arc magmas in the central Mexican Volcanic Belt (MVB) that is constructed on ~ 50 km thick continental crust. We propose that the central MVB arc magmas are hybrids of high-Mg# > 70 basaltic and dacitic initial mantle melts which were produced by melting of a peridotite subarc mantle interspersed with silica-deficient and silica-excess pyroxenite veins. These veins formed by infiltration of reactive silicic components from the subducting slab. Partial melts from pyroxenites, and minor component melts from peridotite, mix in variable proportions to produce high-Mg# basaltic, andesitic and dacitic magmas. Moderate fractional crystallization and recharge melt mixing in the overlying crust produces then the lower-Mg# magmas erupted. Our model accounts for the contrast between the arc-typical SiO2 variability at a given Mg# and the strong correlation between major element oxides SiO2, MgO and FeO which is not reproduced by mantle-crust mixing models. Our data further indicate that viscous high-silica mantle magmas may preferentially be emplaced as intrusive silicic plutonic rocks in the crust rather than erupt. Ultimately, our results imply a stronger turnover of slab and mantle materials in subduction zones with a negligible, or lesser dilution, by materials from the overlying crust.

  14. Generation and preservation of continental crust in the Grenville Orogeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Spencer


    Zircons within the post-orogenic sedimentary successions have progressively lower ɛHf and higher δ18O values from ∼1800 to ∼1200 Ma whereupon they have higher ɛHf and δ18O within the dominant 1085–985 Ma age peak. Furthermore, the Lu-Hf isotopic profile of the Grenville-related age peak is consistent with significant assimilation and contamination by older crustal material. The timing of this dominant age peak coincides with the peak of metamorphism and magmatism associated with the Grenville Orogeny, which is a typical collisional orogenic belt. The change from broad muted age peaks in the syn-orogenic strata to a single peak in the post-orogenic sedimentary successions and in the modern river sediments implies a significant shift in provenance following continental collision. This temporal change in provenance highlights that the source(s, from which detrital zircons within syn-orogenic strata were derived, was no longer available during the later stages of the accretionary and collisional stages of the orogenic cycle. This may reflect some combination of tectonic burial, erosion, or possibly recycling into the mantle by tectonic erosion of the source(s. During continental collision, the incorporated continental crust is isolated from crustal recycling processes operative at subduction margins. This tectonic isolation combined with sedimentary recycling likely controls the presence of the isotopic signature associated with the Grenville Orogeny in the modern Mississippi and Appalachian river sediments. These results imply that zircon age peaks, which developed in conjunction with supercontinents, are the product of selective crustal preservation resulting from collisional orogenesis.

  15. Deep observation and sampling of the earth's continental crust (DOSECC): Continental scientific drilling workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Research summaries are presented of ongoing or proposed deep drilling programs to explore hydrothermal systems, buried astroblemes, continental crust, magma systems, mountain belt tectonics, subduction zones, and volcanoes. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual papers. (ACR)

  16. Peridotite weathering is the missing ingredient of Earth's continental crust composition. (United States)

    Beinlich, Andreas; Austrheim, Håkon; Mavromatis, Vasileios; Grguric, Ben; Putnis, Christine V; Putnis, Andrew


    The chemical composition of the continental crust cannot be adequately explained by current models for its formation, because it is too rich in Ni and Cr compared to that which can be generated by any of the proposed mechanisms. Estimates of the crust composition are derived from average sediment, while crustal growth is ascribed to amalgamation of differentiated magmatic rocks at continental margins. Here we show that chemical weathering of Ni- and Cr-rich, undifferentiated ultramafic rock equivalent to ~1.3 wt% of today's continental crust compensates for low Ni and Cr in formation models of the continental crust. Ultramafic rock weathering produces a residual that is enriched in Ni and also silica. In the light of potentially large volumes of ultramafic rock and high atmospheric CO 2 concentrations during the Archean, chemical weathering must therefore have played a major role in forming compositionally evolved components of the early Earth's crust.

  17. Ages and Growth of the Continental Crust from Radiogenic Isotopes (United States)

    Patchett, P. J.; Samson, S. D.


    The development and application of radiogenic isotopes to dating of geologic events, and to questions of growth, evolution, and recycling processes in the continental crust are mature areas of scientific inquiry. By this we understand that many of the approaches used to date rocks and constrain the evolution of the continents are well established, even routine, and that the scope of data available on age and evolution of continents is very large. This is not to say that new approaches have not been developed in recent years, or that new approaches and/or insights cannot be developed in the future. However, the science of continental crustal evolution is definitely a domain where many of the problems are well defined, the power of the techniques used to solve them are well known, and the limitations of field and laboratory databases, as well as the preserved geologic record, are understood.From the very early days of crustal evolution studies, it was innovations and improvements in laboratory techniques that drove the pace of discovery (e.g., Holmes, 1911; Nier, 1939). This remained true through all the increments in capability reviewed in this chapter, up to the present day. Thus, continental crustal evolution is an area of Earth science where a species of very laboratory-oriented investigator, the "radiogenic isotope geologist" or "geochronologist," has made major advances, even breakthroughs, in understanding. This is true in spite of the fact that many of the individuals of the species may have lacked field expertise, or even more than a primitive level of geologic background. Because design and building of instruments like radiation detectors or mass spectrometers requires a knowledge of physics, many of the early practitioners of rock dating were physicists, like Alfred Nier (cited above). Since the 1970s, essentially all mass spectrometers have been constructed by specialized commercial firms, and the level of physics expertise among isotope geologists has

  18. Continental Growth and Recycling in Convergent Orogens with Large Turbidite Fans on Oceanic Crust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben D. Goscombe


    Full Text Available Convergent plate margins where large turbidite fans with slivers of oceanic basement are accreted to continents represent important sites of continental crustal growth and recycling. Crust accreted in these settings is dominated by an upper layer of recycled crustal and arc detritus (turbidites underlain by a layer of tectonically imbricated upper oceanic crust and/or thinned continental crust. When oceanic crust is converted to lower continental crust it represents a juvenile addition to the continental growth budget. This two-tiered accreted crust is often the same thickness as average continental crustal and is isostatically balanced near sea level. The Paleozoic Lachlan Orogen of eastern Australia is the archetypical example of a tubidite-dominated accretionary orogeny. The Neoproterozoic-Cambrian Damaran Orogen of SW Africa is similar to the Lachlan Orogen except that it was incorporated into Gondwana via a continent-continent collision. The Mesozoic Rangitatan Orogen of New Zealand illustrates the transition of convergent margin from a Lachlan-type to more typical accretionary wedge type orogen. The spatial and temporal variations in deformation, metamorphism, and magmatism across these orogens illustrate how large volumes of turbidite and their relict oceanic basement eventually become stable continental crust. The timing of deformation and metamorphism recorded in these rocks reflects the crustal thickening phase, whereas post-tectonic magmatism constrains the timing of chemical maturation and cratonization. Cratonization of continental crust is fostered because turbidites represent fertile sources for felsic magmatism. Recognition of similar orogens in the Proterozoic and Archean is important for the evaluation of crustal growth models, particularly for those based on detrital zircon age patterns, because crustal growth by accretion of upper oceanic crust or mafic underplating does not readily result in the addition of voluminous zircon

  19. Physical analogs that help to better understand the modern concepts on continental stretching, hyperextension and rupturing (United States)

    Zalan, Pedro


    Three facts helped to establish a revolution in the understanding of how mega-continents stretch, rupture and breakup to form new continents and related passive margins: (1) the penetration of the distal portions of the Iberia-Newfoundland conjugate margins by several ODP wells (late 70's/early 80's), with the discovery of hyperextended crust and exhumation of lower crust and mantle between typical continental and oceanic domains, (2) field works in the Alps and in the Pyrenees that re-interpreted sedimentary successions and associated "ophiolites" as remnants of old Tethyan passive margins that recorded structural domains similar to those found in Iberia-Newfoundland, and (3) the acquisition of long and ultra-deep reflection seismic sections that could image for the first time sub-crustal levels (25-40 km) in several passive margins around the world. The interpretation of such sections showed that the concepts developed in the Iberia-Newfoundland margins and in the Alps could be applied to a great extent to most passive margins, especially those surrounding the North and South Atlantic Oceans. The new concepts of (i) decoupled deformation (upper brittle X lower ductile) within the proximal domain of the continental crust, (ii) of coupled deformation (hyperextension) in the distal crust and, (iii) of exhumation of deeper levels in the outer domain, with the consequent change in the physical properties of the rising rocks, defined an end-member in the new classification of passive margins, the magma-poor type (as opposed to volcanic passive margins). These concepts, together with the new reflection seismic views of the entire crustal structure of passive margins, forced the re-interpretation of older refraction and potential field data and the re-drawing of long established models. Passive margins are prime targets for petroleum exploration, thus, the great interest raised by this subject in both the academy and in the industry. Interestingly enough, the deformation

  20. Postcollisional mafic igneous rocks record crust-mantle interaction during continental deep subduction. (United States)

    Zhao, Zi-Fu; Dai, Li-Qun; Zheng, Yong-Fei


    Findings of coesite and microdiamond in metamorphic rocks of supracrustal protolith led to the recognition of continental subduction to mantle depths. The crust-mantle interaction is expected to take place during subduction of the continental crust beneath the subcontinental lithospheric mantle wedge. This is recorded by postcollisional mafic igneous rocks in the Dabie-Sulu orogenic belt and its adjacent continental margin in the North China Block. These rocks exhibit the geochemical inheritance of whole-rock trace elements and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes as well as zircon U-Pb ages and Hf-O isotopes from felsic melts derived from the subducted continental crust. Reaction of such melts with the overlying wedge peridotite would transfer the crustal signatures to the mantle sources for postcollisional mafic magmatism. Therefore, postcollisonal mafic igneous rocks above continental subduction zones are an analog to arc volcanics above oceanic subduction zones, providing an additional laboratory for the study of crust-mantle interaction at convergent plate margins.

  1. Self-Consistent Generation of Primordial Continental Crust in Global Mantle Convection Models (United States)

    Jain, C.; Rozel, A.; Tackley, P. J.


    We present the generation of primordial continental crust (TTG rocks) using self-consistent and evolutionary thermochemical mantle convection models (Tackley, PEPI 2008). Numerical modelling commonly shows that mantle convection and continents have strong feedbacks on each other. However in most studies, continents are inserted a priori while basaltic (oceanic) crust is generated self-consistently in some models (Lourenco et al., EPSL 2016). Formation of primordial continental crust happened by fractional melting and crystallisation in episodes of relatively rapid growth from late Archean to late Proterozoic eras (3-1 Ga) (Hawkesworth & Kemp, Nature 2006) and it has also been linked to the onset of plate tectonics around 3 Ga. It takes several stages of differentiation to generate Tonalite-Trondhjemite-Granodiorite (TTG) rocks or proto-continents. First, the basaltic magma is extracted from the pyrolitic mantle which is both erupted at the surface and intruded at the base of the crust. Second, it goes through eclogitic transformation and then partially melts to form TTGs (Rudnick, Nature 1995; Herzberg & Rudnick, Lithos 2012). TTGs account for the majority of the Archean continental crust. Based on the melting conditions proposed by Moyen (Lithos 2011), the feasibility of generating TTG rocks in numerical simulations has already been demonstrated by Rozel et al. (Nature, 2017). Here, we have developed the code further by parameterising TTG formation. We vary the ratio of intrusive (plutonic) and extrusive (volcanic) magmatism (Crisp, Volcanol. Geotherm. 1984) to study the relative volumes of three petrological TTG compositions as reported from field data (Moyen, Lithos 2011). Furthermore, we systematically vary parameters such as friction coefficient, initial core temperature and composition-dependent viscosity to investigate the global tectonic regime of early Earth. Continental crust can also be destroyed by subduction or delamination. We will investigate

  2. Modification of an oceanic plateau, Aruba, Dutch Caribbean: Implications for the generation of continental crust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    White, R.V.; Tarney, J.; Kerr, A.C.; Saunders, A.D.; Kempton, P.D.; Pringle, M.S.; Klaver, G.T.


    The generation of the continental crust may be connected to mantle plume activity. However, the nature of this link, and the processes involved, are not well constrained. An obstacle to understanding relationships between plume-related mafic material and associated silicic rocks is that later

  3. Estimating the formation age distribution of continental crust by unmixing zircon ages (United States)

    Korenaga, Jun


    Continental crust provides first-order control on Earth's surface environment, enabling the presence of stable dry landmasses surrounded by deep oceans. The evolution of continental crust is important for atmospheric evolution, because continental crust is an essential component of deep carbon cycle and is likely to have played a critical role in the oxygenation of the atmosphere. Geochemical information stored in the mineral zircon, known for its resilience to diagenesis and metamorphism, has been central to ongoing debates on the genesis and evolution of continental crust. However, correction for crustal reworking, which is the most critical step when estimating original formation ages, has been incorrectly formulated, undermining the significance of previous estimates. Here I suggest a simple yet promising approach for reworking correction using the global compilation of zircon data. The present-day distribution of crustal formation age estimated by the new "unmixing" method serves as the lower bound to the true crustal growth, and large deviations from growth models based on mantle depletion imply the important role of crustal recycling through the Earth history.

  4. A plate tectonics oddity: Caterpillar-walk exhumation of subducted continental crust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tirel, C.; Brun, J.-P.; Burov, E.; Wortel, M.J.R.; Lebedev, S.


    Since plate tectonics began on Earth, grandiose "subduction factories" have continually shaped the continents, accreting continental blocks and new crust at the convergent plate boundaries. An enigmatic product of subduction factories is the high-pressure to ultrahigh-pressure (HP-UHP) metamorphic

  5. A comparison of the seismic structure of oceanic island arc crust and continental accreted arc terranes (United States)

    Calvert, A. J.


    Amalgamation of island arcs and their accretion to pre-existing continents is considered to have been one of the primary mechanisms of continental growth over the last 3 Ga, with arc terranes identified within Late Archean, Proterozoic, and Phanerozoic continental crust. Crustal-scale seismic refraction surveys can provide P wave velocity models that can be used as a proxy for crustal composition, and although they indicate some velocity variation in accreted arcs, these terranes have significantly lower velocities, and are hence significantly more felsic, than modern island arcs. Modern oceanic arcs exhibit significant variations in crustal thickness, from as little as 10 km in the Bonin arc to 35 km in the Aleutian and northern Izu arcs. Although globally island arcs appear to have a mafic composition, intermediate composition crust is inferred in central America and parts of the Izu arc. The absence of a sharp velocity contrast at the Moho appears to be a first order characteristic of island arc crust, and indicates the existence of a broad crust-mantle transition zone. Multichannel seismic reflection surveys complement refraction surveys by revealing structures associated with variations in density and seismic velocity at the scale of a few hundred meters or less to depths of 60 km or more. Surveys from the Mariana and Aleutian arcs show that modern middle and lower arc crust is mostly non-reflective, but reflections are observed from depths 5-25 km below the refraction Moho suggesting the localized presence of arc roots that may comprise gabbro, garnet gabbro, and pyroxenite within a broad transition from mafic lower crust to ultramafic mantle. Such reflective, high velocity roots are likely separated from the overlying arc crust prior to, or during arc-continent collision, and seismic reflections within accreted arc crust document the collisional process and final crustal architecture.

  6. Growth of the lower continental crust via the relamination of arc magma (United States)

    He, Yumei; Zheng, Tianyu; Ai, Yinshuang; Hou, Guangbing; Chen, Qi-Fu


    How does continental crust transition from basaltic mantle-derived magmas into an andesitic composition? The relamination hypothesis has been presented as an alternative dynamical mechanism to classical delamination theory to explain new crust generation and has been supported by petrological and geochemical studies as well as by thermomechanical numerical modeling. However, direct evidence of this process from detailed seismic velocity structures is lacking. Here, we imaged the three-dimensional (3D) velocity structures of the crust and uppermost mantle beneath the geologically stable Ordos terrane of the North China Craton (NCC). We identify a region of continental crust that exhibits extreme growth using teleseismic data and an imaging technique that models the Common Conversion Point (CCP) stacking profiles. Our results show an approximately 400 × 400 km2 wide growth zone that underlies the primitive crust at depths of 30-50 km and exhibits a gradual increase of velocity with depth. The upper layer of the growth zone has a shear wave velocity of 3.6-3.9 km/s (Vp = 6.2-6.8 km/s), indicating felsic material, and the lower layer has a shear wave velocity of 4.1-4.3 km/s (Vp = 7.2-7.5 km/s), which corresponds to mafic material. We suggest that this vertical evolution of the layered structure could be created by relamination and that the keel structure formed by relamination may be the root of the supernormal stability of the ancient Ordos terrane.

  7. Numerical simulations of thermo-compositional global convection with generation of proto-continental crust (United States)

    Rozel, A. B.; Golabek, G.; Gerya, T.; Jain, C.; Tackley, P. J.


    We study the creation of primordial continental crust (TTG rocks) employing fully self-consistent numerical models of thermo-chemical convection on a global scale at the Archean. We use realistic rheological parameters [1] in 2D spherical annulus geometry using the convection code StagYY [2] for a one billion years period. Starting from a pyrolytic composition and an initially warm core, our simulations first generate mafic crust and depleted mantle in the upper mantle. The basaltic material can be both erupted (cold) and/or intruded (warm) at the base of the crust following a predefined partitioning. At all times, water concentration is considered fully saturated in the top 10 km of the domain, and it simply advected with the deforming material elsewhere. We track the pressure-temperature conditions of the newly formed hydrated basalt and check if it matches the conditions necessary for the formation of proto-continental crust [3]. We systematically test the influence of volcanism (eruption, also called "heat pipe") and plutonism (intrusive magmatism) on the time-dependent geotherm in the lithosphere. We show that the "heat-pipe" model (assuming 100% eruption) suggested to be the main heat loss mechanism during the Archean epoch [4] is not able to produce continental crust since it forms a too cold lithosphere. We also systematically test various friction coefficients and show that an intrusion fraction higher than 60% (in agreement with [5]) combined with a friction coefficient larger than 0.1 produces the expected amount of the three main petrological TTG compositions previously reported [3]. This result seems robust as the amount of TTG rocks formed vary over orders of magnitude. A large eruption over intrusion ratio can result in up to 100 times less TTG felsic crust production than a case where plutonism dominates. This study represents a major step towards the production of self-consistent convection models able to generate the continental crust of the Earth

  8. Entropy-information perspective to radiogenic heat distribution in continental crust

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    R. N. Singh


    Full Text Available Depth distribution of radiogenic heat sources in continental crust is an important parameter that controls its thermal structure as well as the mantle heat flow at the base of continental lithosphere. Various models for the depth distribution of radiogenic heat sources have been proposed. Starting from constant and exponential models based on linear heat flow–heat generation relationship the present-day layered models integrate crustal structure and laboratory measurements of radiogenic heat sources in various exposed rocks representing crustal composition. In the present work, an extended entropy theory formalism is used for estimation of radiogenic heat sources distribution in continental crust based on principle of maximum entropy (POME. The extended entropy principle yields a constant heat generation model if only a constraint given by total radiogenic heat in the crust is used and an exponential form of radiogenic heat sources distribution if an additional constraint in the form of a second moment is used in the minimization of entropy.

  9. Has 7% of Continental Crust been Lost since Pangea Broke Up? (United States)

    Scholl, D. W.; Stern, R. J.


    After modern plate tectonics began, the net growth or loss of continental crust predominantly involved the mass balance at subduction zones (SZs) between the yin of adding mantle-sourced arc igneous rocks and the subtracting yang of recycling existing crust back into the mantle. Field observations suggest that during Mesozoic and Cenozoic time, a rough long-term balance existed at ocean-margin SZs (e.g., W. N. America, Andes). But a different picture, one of net loss, emerges when additions and losses at collisional or crust-suturing SZs (e.g., India-Tibet) are considered. GAINS AND LOSSES SINCE ~200 Ma Because Mesozoic and Cenozoic convergent margins can be field inspected, the net growth of continental crust after the breakup of Pangea at ~200 Ma can be estimated. Pangea breakup also marked the beginning of the present supercontinent cycle. Newly established (Eocene) ocean-margin SZs (e.g., IBM, Tonga-Kermadec) added juvenile arc crust for at least 10-15 Myr at rates ~10-15 times higher than later and elsewhere at long-established SZs (~30 km3/Myr/km). During the Cenozoic, at colliding SZs (e.g., Alps, India-Tibet, Arabia-Eurasia) tomographic and geological data document losses of subducted continental crust sustained for 15-50 Myr at rates ~15 times that typical from the upper plate at ocean-margin SZs (~70 km3/Myr/km). For additions, we considered that as the Atlantic opened in early Jurassic time, new, prodigiously productive SZs were initiated along the western margin of North and Middle America but not along western South America and the eastern margin of Eurasia. In the Cretaceous, new SZs formed along much of the northern margin of the Tethys, along western Sumatra and southern Java, and at the great arc of the Caribbean. In the early Eocene, in the offshore, a lengthy (~20,000 km) curtain of new, voluminously productive intra-oceanic SZs formed from the Aleutian Islands southward to the Kermadec Islands. For subtractions, we applied subduction losses (~70

  10. Generation of new continental crust by sublithospheric silicic-magma relamination in arcs: A test of Taylor's andesite model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro, Antonio; Vogt, Katharina|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/370618947; Gerya, Taras


    The paradox of the Earth's continental crust is that although this reservoir is generally regarded as having differentiated from the mantle, it has an andesitic bulk composition that contrasts with the intrinsic basaltic composition of mantle-derived melts. Classical models for new crust generation

  11. Paleoarchaean rhyolitic volcanism and the origin of the granitic continental crust (United States)

    Sanchez-Garrido, C.; Stevens, G.; Armstrong, R.; Moyen, J.; Herve, M.; Doucelance, R.


    Earth’s continental crust is dominated by granitic (s. s.) rocks with substantial K2O contents and K/Na > 0.6. However, 75% of Earth’s continental crust formed during the Archaean (4.0—2.5 Ga), as sodic Tonalite-Trondhjemite-Granodiorite (TTG) granitoids (K/Na ~ 0.23). It is generally assumed that the more potassic granites arose by intracrustal recycling of this material. This assumption predicts that Earth’s bulk crustal composition remains TTG-like, limiting the volume of granitic material that can form and necessitating that it would be counterbalanced by a substantially larger volume of refractory residua from the partial melting of TTGs. Consequently, the composition of the post-Archaean crust requires an additional source of crustal K2O. Here we present evidence that in the Barberton Greenstone Belt (BGB) in South Africa, TTG magmas were formed concurrently with sub-volcanic granitic and rhyolitic magmas. This granitic magmatism occurred during each of three documented cycles of TTG magmatism at ca 3550, 3450 and 3230 Ma. The granites and rhyolites from each episode display the same major- and trace- element compositions, which preclude their derivation through fractional crystallization or partial melting of a protolith of TTG composition and indicate their source to be potassic clay-bearing sediments derived predominantly from the weathering of mafic rocks. The production of these granitic magmas that lack crustal residency and are destined to erupt, during each tectono-magmatic episode of crust production, provides a path for the accumulation of potassium in volcano-sedimentary depositories, despite the absence of granites in the plutonic record at the time. In the BGB, the orogenic reworking of the first major accumulation of these sediments (the Fig Tree Group) coincided with the last TTG producing event and fertilised the middle and lower crust for the subsequent production of granitic magmas.

  12. Constraints on the dynamics of melt migration, flow and emplacement across the continental crust (United States)

    Cavalcante, Carolina; Viegas, Gustavo


    The presence of partial melting during deformation produces a drastic change in the rheological behavior of the continental crust. The rock strength decreases with melt fractions as low as ~0.7 %. At pressure/temperature conditions typical of the middle crust, melt-bearing systems may play a critical role in the processes of strain localization and in the overall strength of the continental lithosphere. In eastern Brazil, Neoproterozoic tectonics are often associated with wide partial melting and shear zone development, that promote the exhumation of mid- to lower crustal layers where compositionally heterogeneous anatexites with variable melt fractions and leucosome structures are exposed. The leucosomes usually form interconnected networks of magma that reflect the high melt content present during deformation. In this contribution we address two case studies encompassing the dynamics of melt flow at magma chambers, represented by the Carlos Chagas anatexite, and the mechanisms of melt migration and channeling through shear zones, in which the Patos shear zone serves as an analogue. Through detailed petrostructural studies of anatexites exposed at these settings, we aim to demonstrate the way melt deforms and localizes strain, the different patterns of melt flow pathways across the crust, and the implications for the mechanical behaviour of the Earth's lithosphere during orogenic deformation.

  13. Estimating susceptibility and magnetization within the Earth's continental crust: Petrophysical and Satellite approaches (United States)

    Purucker, M. E.; McEnroe, S. A.


    Magnetic models (Xchaos) made from Champ and Orsted data are used to place constraints on the average magnetic susceptibility and its variability in the continental crust. Estimates of magnetic crustal thickness are made in a two-step process. The first step uses a recent seismic model (Crust1.0) to estimate the thickness of crystalline crust above the Moho, modified in the Andes and the Himalayas to account for the non-magnetic lower crust there. The second step calculates the magnetic field expected from such a layer of crystalline rock assuming the magnetization is solely induced in the earth's main field by rock of constant magnetic susceptibility, and modifies the starting crustal thickness to bring it into agreement with the Xchaos model. This global model removes spherical harmonic degrees less than 15 to account for the core field mask. We restrict our attention to the continental crust, in particular to Australia, western North America, and Scandinavia. Petrophysical and petrological data from Scandinavian rocks that have been deep in the crust help place limits on susceptibility values. Our simulations use two susceptibilities, 0.02 and 0.04 SI. The mean crystalline crustal thickness from the seismic model is 42 and 37 km in western North America and Australia, respectively, and the modification with the magnetic data makes little change to the mean crustal thickness, irrespective of whether the susceptibility is 0.02 or 0.04 SI. However, the modification with the magnetic data does make a significant difference to the standard deviation of the crustal thickness, increasing it by a factor of two in the case of a susceptibility of 0.04, and by a factor of four in the case of a susceptibility of 0.02. The changes to the standard deviation of the crustal thickness are also evident in the Scandinavian data, but the mean crystalline crustal thickness of 45 km is significantly larger than that found from either magnetic model (33 and 30 km). The differences

  14. Switching deformation mode and mechanisms during subduction of continental crust: a case study from Alpine Corsica

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    G. Molli


    Full Text Available The switching in deformation mode (from distributed to localized and mechanisms (viscous versus frictional represent a relevant issue in the frame of crustal deformation, being also connected with the concept of the brittle–ductile transition and seismogenesis. In a subduction environment, switching in deformation mode and mechanisms and scale of localization may be inferred along the subduction interface, in a transition zone between the highly coupled (seismogenic zone and decoupled deeper aseismic domain (stable slip. However, the role of brittle precursors in nucleating crystal-plastic shear zones has received more and more consideration being now recognized as fundamental in some cases for the localization of deformation and shear zone development, thus representing a case in which switching deformation mechanisms and scale and style of localization (deformation mode interact and relate to each other. This contribution analyses an example of a millimetre-scale shear zone localized by brittle precursor formed within a host granitic protomylonite. The studied structures, developed in ambient pressure–temperature (P–T conditions of low-grade blueschist facies (temperature T of ca. 300 °C and pressure P ≥ 0. 70 GPa during involvement of Corsican continental crust in the Alpine subduction. We used a multidisciplinary approach by combining detailed microstructural and petrographic analyses, crystallographic preferred orientation by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD, and palaeopiezometric studies on a selected sample to support an evolutionary model and deformation path for subducted continental crust. We infer that the studied structures, possibly formed by transient instability associated with fluctuations of pore fluid pressure and episodic strain rate variations, may be considered as a small-scale example of fault behaviour associated with a cycle of interseismic creep and coseismic rupture or a new analogue for

  15. Switching deformation mode and mechanisms during subduction of continental crust: a case study from Alpine Corsica (United States)

    Molli, Giancarlo; Menegon, Luca; Malasoma, Alessandro


    The switching in deformation mode (from distributed to localized) and mechanisms (viscous versus frictional) represent a relevant issue in the frame of crustal deformation, being also connected with the concept of the brittle-ductile transition and seismogenesis. In a subduction environment, switching in deformation mode and mechanisms and scale of localization may be inferred along the subduction interface, in a transition zone between the highly coupled (seismogenic zone) and decoupled deeper aseismic domain (stable slip). However, the role of brittle precursors in nucleating crystal-plastic shear zones has received more and more consideration being now recognized as fundamental in some cases for the localization of deformation and shear zone development, thus representing a case in which switching deformation mechanisms and scale and style of localization (deformation mode) interact and relate to each other. This contribution analyses an example of a millimetre-scale shear zone localized by brittle precursor formed within a host granitic protomylonite. The studied structures, developed in ambient pressure-temperature (P-T) conditions of low-grade blueschist facies (temperature T of ca. 300 °C and pressure P ≥ 0. 70 GPa) during involvement of Corsican continental crust in the Alpine subduction. We used a multidisciplinary approach by combining detailed microstructural and petrographic analyses, crystallographic preferred orientation by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), and palaeopiezometric studies on a selected sample to support an evolutionary model and deformation path for subducted continental crust. We infer that the studied structures, possibly formed by transient instability associated with fluctuations of pore fluid pressure and episodic strain rate variations, may be considered as a small-scale example of fault behaviour associated with a cycle of interseismic creep and coseismic rupture or a new analogue for episodic tremors and slow

  16. Thallium isotope composition of the upper continental crust and rivers - An investigation of the continental sources of dissolved marine thallium (United States)

    Nielsen, S.G.; Rehkamper, M.; Porcelli, D.; Andersson, P.; Halliday, A.N.; Swarzenski, P.W.; Latkoczy, C.; Gunther, D.


    The thallium (Tl) concentrations and isotope compositions of various river and estuarine waters, suspended riverine particulates and loess have been determined. These data are used to evaluate whether weathering reactions are associated with significant Tl isotope fractionation and to estimate the average Tl isotope composition of the upper continental crust as well as the mean Tl concentration and isotope composition of river water. Such parameters provide key constraints on the dissolved Tl fluxes to the oceans from rivers and mineral aerosols. The Tl isotope data for loess and suspended riverine detritus are relatively uniform with a mean of ??205Tl = -2.0 ?? 0.3 (??205Tl represents the deviation of the 205Tl/203Tl isotope ratio of a sample from NIST SRM 997 Tl in parts per 104). For waters from four major and eight smaller rivers, the majority were found to have Tl concentrations between 1 and 7 ng/kg. Most have Tl isotope compositions very similar (within ??1.5 ??205Tl) to that deduced for the upper continental crust, which indicates that no significant Tl isotope fractionation occurs during weathering. Based on these results, it is estimated that rivers have a mean natural Tl concentration and isotope composition of 6 ?? 4 ng/kg and ??205Tl = -2.5 ?? 1.0, respectively. In the Amazon estuary, both additions and losses of Tl were observed, and these correlate with variations in Fe and Mn contents. The changes in Tl concentrations have much lower amplitudes, however, and are not associated with significant Tl isotope effects. In the Kalix estuary, the Tl concentrations and isotope compositions can be explained by two-component mixing between river water and a high-salinity end member that is enriched in Tl relative to seawater. These results indicate that Tl can display variable behavior in estuarine systems but large additions and losses of Tl were not observed in the present study. Copyright ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd.

  17. The roles of texture and microstructure for seismic properties and anisotropy of the continental crust (United States)

    Almqvist, B. S. G.; Mainprice, D.


    New seismic methods provide images of the continental crust with improved resolution, carrying unique information on the structure and mass transfer regimes within the crust. At the intrinsic scale components contributing to these images are grains and the microfabric, which includes information on grain characteristics. At the extrinsic scale the presence of micro-cracks, fractures and layering are important in controlling seismic velocities. Although the wavelength of a seismic wave is orders of magnitude larger than the intrinsic scale the minerals and microstructures, the interpretations of seismic images are critically dependent on our understanding and quantification of these microscopic constituents. This contribution explores the role of texture and microstructure in governing seismic properties of rocks. We focus on prediction of seismic velocities based on calculations that take into account mineral composition and microfabric of rocks. Emphasis is placed on recent developments in modeling efforts and analytical techniques, which can consider microfabric parameters such as crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO), grain shape, layering and elastic interaction among grains. Static schemes that use Christoffel's equation, and active/dynamic wave propagation methods provide the general techniques to predict seismic velocities. Single crystal elastic constants are essential in predicting seismic properties. However, the database is incomplete considering the variation of crustal mineralogy and lack of data at elevated pressure and temperature conditions occurring in the middle and lower crust. Finally, the method used to measure CPO and microstructure data has an influence on model predictions. Neutron and X-ray goniometry techniques enable investigation of CPO for large sample volumes, but lack other microstructural information. In contrast, electron backscatter diffraction provides data on both CPO and microstructure, but for a relatively small sample

  18. Tectonic juxtaposition of crust and continental growth during orogenesis: Example from the Rengali Province, eastern India

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    Sankar Bose


    Full Text Available The southern boundary of the Singhbhum Craton witnessed multiple orogenies that juxtaposed thin slice of granulite suite of the Rengali Province against the low-grade granite-greenstone belt of the craton along the E–W trending Sukinda Thrust. The strong southerly dipping mylonitic foliation within the granulites along with the prominent down-dip mineral lineation, suggest a northerly-verging thrusting. Mylonitized charnockite at the contact zone contains enclaves of mafic and ultramafic granulite, whereas granitoid gneiss contains enclaves of pelitic granulite. Mafic granulite enclaves preserve an early (S1M foliation that formed during D1M deformation. This rock, along with the host charnockite, were intensely deformed by the D2M thrusting event and resulting S2M foliation development in both rock suites. Geothermobarometric and pseudosection analyses show that the garnet-clinopyroxene-plagioclase-orthopyroxene-ilmenite-quartz assemblage in mafic granulite was stabilized at high-pressure and temperature conditions (10−12 kbar, 860 °C and was overprinted by a fine-grained assemblage of clinopyroxene-plagioclase ± hornblende that developed during decompression (down to 5.5–7.5 kbar. Matrix hornblende shows incipient breakdown to garnet-clinopyroxene-quartz intergrowth due to a granulite facies reworking. A contrasting P-T history is preserved in the pelitic granulite. The peak assemblage garnet-orthopyroxene-cordierite-quartz-rutile was stabilized at ∼6.0 kbar, 730 °C which resulted from heating of the mid crust magma during the D2M thrusting. The contrasting P-T histories could result from the tectonic juxtaposition of lower- and mid-crustal section during the D2M event. Evidences of an early orogenic imprint within the mafic granulite imply involvement of deep continental crust during southward growth of the Singhbhum Craton.

  19. Sheared Layers in the Continental Crust: Nonlinear and Linearized inversion for Ps receiver functions (United States)

    Park, J. J.


    Sheared Layers in the Continental Crust: Nonlinear and Linearized inversion for Ps receiver functions Jeffrey Park, Yale University The interpretation of seismic receiver functions (RFs) in terms of isotropic and anisotropic layered structure can be complex. The relationship between structure and body-wave scattering is nonlinear. The anisotropy can involve more parameters than the observations can readily constrain. Finally, reflectivity-predicted layer reverberations are often not prominent in data, so that nonlinear waveform inversion can search in vain to match ghost signals. Multiple-taper correlation (MTC) receiver functions have uncertainties in the frequency domain that follow Gaussian statistics [Park and Levin, 2016a], so grid-searches for the best-fitting collections of interfaces can be performed rapidly to minimize weighted misfit variance. Tests for layer-reverberations can be performed in the frequency domain without reflectivity calculations, allowing flexible modelling of weak, but nonzero, reverberations. Park and Levin [2016b] linearized the hybridization of P and S body waves in an anisotropic layer to predict first-order Ps conversion amplitudes at crust and mantle interfaces. In an anisotropic layer, the P wave acquires small SV and SH components. To ensure continuity of displacement and traction at the top and bottom boundaries of the layer, shear waves are generated. Assuming hexagonal symmetry with an arbitrary symmetry axis, theory confirms the empirical stacking trick of phase-shifting transverse RFs by 90 degrees in back-azimuth [Shiomi and Park, 2008; Schulte-Pelkum and Mahan, 2014] to enhance 2-lobed and 4-lobed harmonic variation. Ps scattering is generated by sharp interfaces, so that RFs resemble the first derivative of the model. MTC RFs in the frequency domain can be manipulated to obtain a first-order reconstruction of the layered anisotropy, under the above modeling constraints and neglecting reverberations. Examples from long

  20. The influence of partial melting and melt migration on the rheology of the continental crust (United States)

    Cavalcante, Geane Carolina G.; Viegas, Gustavo; Archanjo, Carlos José; da Silva, Marcos Egydio


    The presence of melt during deformation produces a drastic change in the rheological behavior of the continental crust; rock strength is decreased even for melt fractions as low as ∼7%. At pressure/temperature conditions typical of the middle to lower crust, melt-bearing systems may play a critical role in the process of strain localization and in the overall strength of the continental lithosphere. In this contribution we focus on the role and dynamics of melt flow in two different mid-crustal settings formed during the Brasiliano orogeny: (i) a large-scale anatectic layer in an orthogonal collision belt, represented by the Carlos Chagas anatexite in southeastern Brazil, and (ii) a strike-slip setting, in which the Espinho Branco anatexite in the Patos shear zone (northeast Brazil) serves as an analogue. Both settings, located in eastern Brazil, are part of the Neoproterozoic tectonics that resulted in widespread partial melting, shear zone development and the exhumation of middle to lower crustal layers. These layers consist of compositionally heterogeneous anatexites, with variable former melt fractions and leucosome structures. The leucosomes usually form thick interconnected networks of magma that reflect a high melt content (>30%) during deformation. From a comparison of previous work based on detailed petrostructural and AMS studies of the anatexites exposed in these areas, we discuss the rheological implications caused by the accumulation of a large volume of melt ;trapped; in mid-crustal levels, and by the efficient melt extraction along steep shear zones. Our analyses suggest that rocks undergoing partial melting along shear settings exhibit layers with contrasting competence, implying successive periods of weakening and strengthening. In contrast, regions where a large amount of magma accumulates lack clear evidence of competence contrast between layers, indicating that they experienced only one major stage of dramatic strength drop. This comparative

  1. Stochastic Representations of Seismic Anisotropy: Verification of Effective Media Models and Application to the Continental Crust (United States)

    Song, X.; Jordan, T. H.


    The seismic anisotropy of the continental crust is dominated by two mechanisms: the local (intrinsic) anisotropy of crustal rocks caused by the lattice-preferred orientation of their constituent minerals, and the geometric (extrinsic) anisotropy caused by the alignment and layering of elastic heterogeneities by sedimentation and deformation. To assess the relative importance of these mechanisms, we have applied Jordan's (GJI, 2015) self-consistent, second-order theory to compute the effective elastic parameters of stochastic media with hexagonal local anisotropy and small-scale 3D heterogeneities that have transversely isotropic (TI) statistics. The theory pertains to stochastic TI media in which the eighth-order covariance tensor of the elastic moduli can be separated into a one-point variance tensor that describes the local anisotropy in terms of a anisotropy orientation ratio (ξ from 0 to ∞), and a two-point correlation function that describes the geometric anisotropy in terms of a heterogeneity aspect ratio (η from 0 to ∞). If there is no local anisotropy, then, in the limiting case of a horizontal stochastic laminate (η→∞), the effective-medium equations reduce to the second-order equations derived by Backus (1962) for a stochastically layered medium. This generalization of the Backus equations to 3D stochastic media, as well as the introduction of local, stochastically rotated anisotropy, provides a powerful theory for interpreting the anisotropic signatures of sedimentation and deformation in continental environments; in particular, the parameterizations that we propose are suitable for tomographic inversions. We have verified this theory through a series high-resolution numerical experiments using both isotropic and anisotropic wave-propagation codes.

  2. Noble gases preserve history of retentive continental crust in the Bravo Dome natural CO2 field, New Mexico (United States)

    Sathaye, Kiran J.; Smye, Andrew J.; Jordan, Jacob S.; Hesse, Marc A.


    Budgets of 4He and 40Ar provide constraints on the chemical evolution of the solid Earth and atmosphere. Although continental crust accounts for the majority of 4He and 40Ar degassed from the Earth, degassing mechanisms are subject to scholarly debate. Here we provide a constraint on crustal degassing by comparing the noble gases accumulated in the Bravo Dome natural CO2 reservoir, New Mexico USA, with the radiogenic production in the underlying crust. A detailed geological model of the reservoir is used to provide absolute abundances and geostatistical uncertainty of 4He, 40Ar, 21Ne, 20Ne, 36Ar, and 84Kr. The present-day production rate of crustal radiogenic 4He and 40Ar, henceforth referred to as 4He* and 40Ar*, is estimated using the basement composition, surface and mantle heat flow, and seismic estimates of crustal density. After subtracting mantle and atmospheric contributions, the reservoir contains less than 0.02% of the radiogenic production in the underlying crust. This shows unequivocally that radiogenic noble gases are effectively retained in cratonic continental crust over millennial timescales. This also requires that approximately 1.5 Gt of mantle derived CO2 migrated through the crust without mobilizing the crustally accumulated gases. This observation suggests transport along a localized fracture network. Therefore, the retention of noble gases in stable crystalline continental crust allows shallow accumulations of radiogenic gases to record tectonic history. At Bravo Dome, the crustal 4He*/40Ar* ratio is one fifth of the expected crustal production ratio, recording the preferential release of 4He during the Ancestral Rocky Mountain orogeny, 300 Ma.

  3. Differential Nb-Ta diffusion in rutile: disequilibrium formation of the continental crust (United States)

    Marschall, H. R.; Dohmen, R.; Ludwig, T.


    crustal rocks. Instead our results suggest that the low Nb/Ta ratios of crustal rocks and the high and variable Nb/Ta ratios observed in Archaean eclogites are caused by partial (as opposed to complete) equilibration of rutile and melt. The diffusive fractionation of Nb and Ta combined with their high compatibility in rutile predicts that partial melts generated in a rutile-bearing crust will have negative Ti anomalies in combination with Nb/Ta ratios significantly lower than the protolith. The restite, in contrast, will be Ti rich with slightly elevated Nb/Ta ratios. These signatures are in agreement with the overall signature of the continental crust, in contrast to the predictions derived from equilibrium melting models. Rutile-melt disequilibrium will in general govern the Nb-Ta systematics of rutile-bearing restites and melts for partial melting scenarios in the lower crust and in subducting slabs. The assumption of equilibrium partial melting has to be abandoned for the processes of crustal differentiation, at least for the element pair Nb-Ta. [1] Dohmen, Becker, Meissner, Etzel & Chakraborty (2002), Eur. J. Min. 14 1155-1168.

  4. Nature of the crust in the Laxmi Basin (14°-20°N), western continental margin of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishna, K.S.; Rao, D.G.; Sar, D.

    Kanya, respectively, across the northwest continental margin of India (Figure 1). Line drawings of interpreted seismic reflection profiles are stacked with free-air gravity and magnetic anomaly profiles, thereby an integrated analyses has been carried... for determining the crust below the shelf, Laxmi Basin and Western Basin. 3. Crustal structure ? associated gravity and magnetic anomalies In the present study we have integrated the new datasets with published geophysical data: Conrad 1707 profiles (Naini...

  5. 2.6-2.7 Ga continental crust growth in Yangtze craton, South China (United States)

    Chen, K.; Gao, S.; Wu, Y.


    A combined study of zircon U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotopes and whole rock major and trace elements and Sr-Nd isotopes has been conducted for 10 granitic and tonalitic-trondhjemitic-granodioritic (TTG) gneisses from the Kongling terrain, the only known Archean microcontinent in the Yangtze craton, South China. The results reveal a significant magmatic event at ~2.6-2.7 Ga (Fig. 1), in addition to the previously reported ~2.9 Ga and ~3.2-3.3 Ga magmatism (Zhang et al., 2006; Jiao et al., 2009; Gao et al., 2011). The ~2.6-2.7 Ga rocks show relatively high REE (530-1074 ppm), apparently negative Eu anomaly (Eu/Eu* = 0.22-0.35), low #Mg (19.51-22.63) and low LaN/YbN (10.3-24.2). Besides, they have high K-feldspar proportion and relatively evaluated (K2O+Na2O)/CaO, TFeO/MgO, Zr, Nb, Ce and Y contents. Their 10000 × Ga/Al ratios range between 3.00 and 3.54. All these features suggest that the protoliths of these gneisses are A-type granites. Most of the ~2.6-2.7 Ga zircon grains have ɛHf(t) values >0 (up to 7.93, close to the depleted mantle value). This clearly indicates a considerably higher proportion of new crustal components in the ~2.6-2.7 Ga granitoids compared to the ~3.2-3.3 Ga and ~2.9 Ga TTGs. Our results support the conclusion of worldwide studies of igneous and detrital zircons that age peaks at 2.65-2.76 Ga represent increases in the volume of juvenile continental crust. The present study also confirms the existence of the two older magmatic events in the Kongling terrain. Both whole rock ɛNd(t) values (-3.74 to 1.59) and the zircon ɛHf(t) values (-11.18 to 3.55) for the ~2.9 Ga TTG and the Hf isotopes of ~3.2-3.3 Ga igneous zircons (-7.37 to 3.12) are chondritic or subchondritic, suggesting that they were mainly generated by reworking of older rocks with a small amount of new crustal additions. References Gao, S., Yang, J., Zhou, L., Li, M., Hu, Z.C., Guo, J.L., Yuan, H.L., Gong, H.J., Xiao, G.Q., Wei, J.Q., 2011. Age and growth of the Archean Kongling terrain

  6. New perspectives on the Li isotopic composition of the upper continental crust and its weathering signature (United States)

    Sauzéat, Lucie; Rudnick, Roberta L.; Chauvel, Catherine; Garçon, Marion; Tang, Ming


    Lithium isotopes are increasingly used to trace both present-day and past weathering processes at the surface of the Earth, and could potentially be used to evaluate the average degree of past weathering recorded by the upper continental crust (UCC). Yet the previous estimate of average δ7Li of the UCC has a rather large uncertainty, hindering the use of Li isotopes for this purpose. New δ7Li for desert and periglacial loess deposits (windblown dust) from several parts of the world (Europe, Argentina, China and Tajikistan) demonstrate that the former are more homogeneous than the latter, and may therefore serve as excellent proxies of the average composition of large tracts of the UCC. The Li isotopic compositions and concentrations of desert loess samples are controlled by eolian sorting that can be quantified by a binary mixing between a weathered, fine-grained end-member, dominated by phyllosilicates and having low δ7Li, and an unweathered, coarse-grained end-member, that is a mixture of quartz and plagioclase having higher δ7Li. We use correlations between insoluble elements (REE, Nd/Hf and Fe2O3/SiO2), Li concentrations (henceforth referred as [Li]), and δ7Li to estimate a new, more precise, average Li isotopic composition and concentration for the UCC: [ Li ] = 30.5 ± 3.6 (2 σ) ppm, and δ7Li = + 0.6 ± 0.6 (2 σ). The δ7Li for desert loess deposits is anti-correlated with the chemical index of alteration (CIA). Using this relationship, along with our average δ7Li, we infer that (1) the present-day CIA of the average UCC is 61-2+4 (2 σ), higher than the common reference value of 53, and (2) the average proportion of chemically weathered components is as high as 37-10+17 (2 σ)% at the surface of the Earth.

  7. Interdisciplinary approach to exploit the tectonic memory in the continental crust of collisional belts. (United States)

    Gosso, G.; Marotta, A. M.; Rebay, G.; Regorda, A.; Roda, M.; Spalla, M. I.; Zanoni, D.; Zucali, M.


    Collisional belts result by thoroughly competing thermo-mechanical disaggregation and coupling within both continental and oceanic lithospheric slices, during construction of tectono-metamorphic architectures. In multiply reworked metamorphics, tectonic units may be contoured nowadays on the base of coherent thermo-baric and structural time-sequences rather than simply relying on lithologic affinities. Sequences of equilibrium assemblages and related fabric imprints are an approach that appears as a more reliable procedure, that enables to define tectonic units as the volume of crustal slices that underwent corresponding variations during the dynamics of an active margin and takes into account a history of physical imprints. The dimensions of these tectonic units may have varied over time and must be reconstructed combining the tracers of structural and metamorphic changes of basement rocks, since such kind of tectono-metamorphic units (TMUs) is a realistic configuration of the discrete portions of orogenic crust that experienced a coherent sequence of metamorphic and textural variations. Their translational trajectories, and bulk shape changes during deformation, cannot simply be derived from the analysis of the geometries and kinematics of tectonic units, but are to be obtained by adding the reconstruction of quantitative P-T-d-t paths making full use of fossil mineral equilibria. The joint TMU field-and-laboratory definition is an investigation procedure that bears a distinct thermo-tectonic connotation, that, through modelling, offers the opportunity to test the physical compatibilities of plate-scale interconnected variables, such as density, viscosity, and heat transfer, with respect to what current interpretative geologic histories may imply. Comparison between predictions from numerical modelling and natural data obtained by this analytical approach can help to solve ambiguities on geodynamic significance of structural and thermal signatures, also as a

  8. Interpreting U - Th distributions in the continental crust from radiometric data (United States)

    Baratoux, D.; Jessell, M. W.; Makhoudia, F.; Moyen, J. F.; Vanderhaeghe, O.; Ndiaye, P. M.; André-Mayer, A. S.


    In the mineral system concept, attainment and preservation of extreme levels of concentrations of metals require several critical elements, including a fertile source, a pathway for aqueous and magmatic fluids, and a trap. The processes involved in the transfer of energy and materials in mineral systems are inherently multi-scale. At the same time, the existence of (process-dependent) scaling laws for the trace element concentrations in the Earth's curst has been debated for several decades, with implications in economic geology, such as grade-tonnage relationships. U and Th are incompatible trace elements whose concentrations vary over several orders of magnitudes in the continental crust. They can be mapped at various scales (1 m to hundred's of km) using airborne radiometric surveys or hand-held spectroradiometers. Such data sets offer a new opportunity to examine the spatial organization of Th and U and to re-assess the existence of scaling laws and nested scales in geochemistry. We will present here a) a conceptual and numerical model for a quantitative analyse of airborne radiometric and b) its application to interpretation of radiometric data in the West Africa and Pilbara cratons. Our hypothesis implies that the relative importance of magmatic, fluid-rock and surface processes may be recognized by the analysis of the geostatistical parameters (distribution and variograms). Our model simulates a sequence of elementary geochemical processes (partial melting, fractional crystallization, dissolution - precipitation) and takes into account the scale of radiometric data to simulate U-Th concentrations and geostatistical parameters resulting from various scenarios. The characteristics of the distributions (e.g., normal, log-normal, fractal or multi-fractal) and variograms for Th - U concentrations on mafic and felsic units of the West Africa and Pilbara cratons are tentatively interpreted within this new framework.

  9. Petrology and geochronology of crustal xenoliths from the Bering Strait region: Linking deep and shallow processes in extending continental crust (United States)

    Akinin, V.V.; Miller, E.L.; Wooden, J.L.


    Petrologic, geochemical, and metamorphic data on gneissic xenoliths derived from the middle and lower crust in the Neogene Bering Sea basalt province, coupled with U-Pb geochronology of their zircons using sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe-reverse geometry (SHRIMP-RG), yield a detailed comparison between the P-T-t and magmatic history of the lower crust and magmatic, metamorphic, and deformational history of the upper crust. Our results provide unique insights into the nature of lithospheric processes that accompany the extension of continental crust. The gneissic, mostly maficxenoliths (constituting less than two percent of the total xenolith population) from lavas in the Enmelen, RU, St. Lawrence, Nunivak, and Seward Peninsula fields most likely originated through magmatic fractionation processes with continued residence at granulite-facies conditions. Zircon single-grain ages (n ??? 125) are interpreted as both magmatic and metamorphic and are entirely Cretaceous to Paleocene in age (ca. 138-60 Ma). Their age distributions correspond to the main ages of magmatism in two belts of supracrustal volcanic and plutonic rocks in the Bering Sea region. Oscillatory-zoned igneous zircons, Late Cretaceous to Paleocene metamorphic zircons and overgrowths, and lack of any older inheritance in zircons from the xenoliths provide strong evidence for juvenile addition of material to the crust at this time. Surface exposures of Precambrian and Paleozoic rocks locally reached upper amphibolite-facies (sillimanite grade) to granulite-facies conditions within a series of extension-related metamorphic culminations or gneiss domes, which developed within the Cretaceous magmatic belt. Metamorphic gradients and inferred geotherms (??30-50 ??C/km) from both the gneiss domes and xenoliths aretoo high to be explained by crustal thickening alone. Magmatic heat input from the mantle is necessary to explain both the petrology of the magmas and elevated metamorphic temperatures. Deep

  10. Post-collisional alkaline magmatism as gateway for metal and sulfur enrichment of the continental lower crust (United States)

    Fiorentini, Marco L.; LaFlamme, Crystal; Denyszyn, Steven; Mole, David; Maas, Roland; Locmelis, Marek; Caruso, Stefano; Bui, Thi-Hao


    Mafic and ultramafic magmas that intrude into the lower crust can preserve evidence for metal and sulfur transfer from the lithospheric mantle into the lower continental crust. Here we focus on a series of ultramafic, alkaline pipes in the Ivrea Zone (NW Italy), which exposes deeply buried (6-11 kbar), migmatitic metasedimentary rocks intruded by voluminous basaltic magmas of the Mafic Complex, a major crustal underplating event precisely dated via U/Pb CA-IDTIMS on zircon at 286.8 ± 0.4 Ma. The ultramafic pipes postdate the Mafic Complex and from 100 to 300 m wide cumulate-rich conduits. They are hydrated and carbonated, have unusually high incompatible element concentrations and contain blebby and semi-massive Ni-Cu-PGE sulfide mineralisation. The sulfides occur as coarse intergranular nodules (>10 mm) and as small intragranular blebs (Complex. During post-collisional gravitational collapse of the Variscan Orogen, this source produced the alkaline, metal (Ni, Cu, PGE)- and volatile (H2O, CO2, S)-rich mafic-ultramafic magma that formed the deep-crustal intrusion at Valmaggia. U/Pb dating of other chemically and geologically comparable pipes in the area shows that this process was active over at least 40 Ma. The Ivrea pipes illustrate how the lower continental crust can be fertilised with mantle-derived metals and volatiles, which are available for later remobilisation into upper-crustal ore systems. World-class mineral deposits along the margins of lithospheric blocks may thus be the result of both favourable crustal architecture (focussing of magmas and fluids) and localised volatile and metal enrichment of the lower crust related to mantle-derived hydrous metasomatism.

  11. Continental basalts record the crust-mantle interaction in oceanic subduction channel: A geochemical case study from eastern China (United States)

    Xu, Zheng; Zheng, Yong-Fei


    Continental basalts, erupted in either flood or rift mode, usually show oceanic island basalts (OIB)-like geochemical compositions. Although their depletion in Sr-Nd isotope compositions is normally ascribed to contributions from the asthenospheric mantle, their enrichment in large ion lithophile elements (LILE) and light rare earth elements (LREE) is generally associated with variable enrichments in the Sr-Nd isotope compositions. This indicates significant contributions from crustal components such as igneous oceanic crust, lower continental crust and seafloor sediment. Nevertheless, these crustal components were not incorporated into the mantle sources of continental basalts in the form of solidus rocks. Instead they were processed into metasomatic agents through low-degree partial melting in order to have the geochemical fractionation of the largest extent to achieve the enrichment of LILE and LREE in the metasomatic agents. Therefore, the mantle sources of continental basalts were generated by metasomatic reaction of the depleted mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) mantle with hydrous felsic melts. Nevertheless, mass balance considerations indicate differential contributions from the mantle and crustal components to the basalts. While the depleted MORB mantle predominates the budget of major elements, the crustal components predominate the budget of melt-mobile incompatible trace elements and their pertinent radiogenic isotopes. These considerations are verified by model calculations that are composed of four steps in an ancient oceanic subduction channel: (1) dehydration of the subducting crustal rocks at subarc depths, (2) anataxis of the dehydrated rocks at postarc depths, (3) metasomatic reaction of the depleted MORB mantle peridotite with the felsic melts to generate ultramafic metasomatites in the lower part of the mantle wedge, and (4) partial melting of the metasomatites for basaltic magmatism. The composition of metasomatites is quantitatively dictated by

  12. Syn-collisional felsic magmatism and continental crust growth: A case study from the North Qilian Orogenic Belt at the northern margin of the Tibetan Plateau (United States)

    Chen, Shuo; Niu, Yaoling; Xue, Qiqi


    The abundant syn-collisional granitoids produced and preserved at the northern Tibetan Plateau margin provide a prime case for studying the felsic magmatism as well as continental crust growth in response to continental collision. Here we present the results from a systematic study of the syn-collisional granitoids and their mafic magmatic enclaves (MMEs) in the Laohushan (LHS) and Machangshan (MCS) plutons from the North Qilian Orogenic Belt (NQOB). Two types of MMEs from the LHS pluton exhibit identical crystallization age ( 430 Ma) and bulk-rock isotopic compositions to their host granitoids, indicating their genetic link. The phase equilibrium constraints and pressure estimates for amphiboles from the LHS pluton together with the whole rock data suggest that the two types of MMEs represent two evolution products of the same hydrous andesitic magmas. In combination with the data on NQOB syn-collisional granitoids elsewhere, we suggest that the syn-collisional granitoids in the NQOB are material evidence of melting of ocean crust and sediment. The remarkable compositional similarity between the LHS granitoids and the model bulk continental crust in terms of major elements, trace elements, and some key element ratios indicates that the syn-collisional magmatism in the NQOB contributes to net continental crust growth, and that the way of continental crust growth in the Phanerozoic through syn-collisional felsic magmatism (production and preservation) is a straightforward process without the need of petrologically and physically complex processes.

  13. Temporal Evolution of the Upper Continental Crust: Implications for the Mode of Crustal Growth and the Evolution of the Hydrosphere (United States)

    Rudnick, R. L.; Gaschnig, R. M.; Li, S.; Tang, M.; Qiu, L.; Valley, J. W.; Zurkowski, C.; McDonough, W. F.


    The upper continental crust (UCC), the interface between the atmosphere and solid Earth, is the site of weathering that produces sedimentary rocks, influences ocean chemistry through runoff of soluble elements, and affects climate through CO2 draw-down. The UCC also contains more than 50% of the crust's highly incompatible element budget (including K, Th, and U). Therefore, understanding its composition and evolution provides insight into how continents have formed, evolved, and interacted with the hydrosphere. New major and trace element compositions of >100 glacial diamictites and >100 Archean shales, plus δ7Li and δ18O for a subset of these samples, combined with data from the literature, show that the average composition of the UCC has changed through time, reflecting both the rise of atmospheric oxygen and its attendant effects on weathering, as well as the mode of crust formation and differentiation. Some changes that occur as a step function near the Archean/Proterozoic boundary (increased Th/U, decreased Mo/Pr, V/Lu) reflect the rise of oxygen at the great oxidation event (GOE) and its influence on chemical weathering signatures in the UCC. Other changes are more gradual with time (e.g., higher Th/Sc and δ18O, lower Ni/Co, La/Nb, Eu/Eu* and transition metal abundances) and reflect an UCC that has transitioned from a more mafic to a more felsic bulk composition, and which experienced increased interaction with the hydrosphere with time. The gradual nature of these compositional changes likely reflects the waning heat production of the Earth, rather than an abrupt change in tectonics or style of crust formation. These more gradual changes in crust composition, which contrast with the abrupt changes associated with the GOE, suggest that a fundamental change in the nature of crust differentiation is unlikely to be responsible for the rise of atmospheric oxygen (cf. Keller and Schoene, 2012). Indeed, it appears that the opposite may be true: that the rise of

  14. Pyrenean hyper-extension : breaking, thinning, or stretching of the crust ? A view from the central north-Pyrenean zone (United States)

    de Saint Blanquat, Michel; Bajolet, Flora; Boulvais, Philippe; Boutin, Alexandre; Clerc, Camille; Delacour, Adélie; Deschamp, Fabien; Ford, Mary; Fourcade, Serge; Gouache, Corentin; Grool, Arjan; Labaume, Pierre; Lagabrielle, Yves; Lahfid, Abdeltif; Lemirre, Baptiste; Monié, Patrick; de Parseval, Philippe; Poujol, Marc


    phase of syn-metamorphic (450-600°C, P abandonment breccia which marks the emergence of the main detachment. The basal contact of the Mesozoic cover has a complex 3D geometry traced by Triassic evaporites. It corresponds to a major pre- and synorogenic polyphased tectonic contact. All these data show a geometrically complex hyper-extended rift where the crust was not stretched under a high geothermal gradient but thinned by the tectonic extraction of relatively thin lenses and perhaps cut by high angle low-grade shear zones. The 3D geometry, as well as the strain records and the breccia lithologies strongly suggest a non-cylindricity for the exhumation process, probably within a transtentional system.

  15. Fluid-driven metamorphism of the continental crust governed by nanoscale fluid flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plümper, O.; Botan, Alexandru; Los, Catharina; Liu, Yang; Malthe-Sorenssen, Anders; Jamtveit, Bjørn


    The transport of fluids through the Earth’s crust controls the redistribution of elements to form mineral and hydrocarbon deposits, the release and sequestration of greenhouse gases, and facilitates metamorphic reactions that influence lithospheric rheology. In permeable systems with a

  16. Seismic Signature of the Continental Crust: What Thermodynamics Says. An Example From the Italian Peninsula (United States)

    Diaferia, G.; Cammarano, F.


    Unraveling the temperature distribution and composition of Earth's crust is key for understanding its origin, evolution, and mechanical behavior. Models of compressional (VP) and shear wave (VS) velocity are obtained from seismological studies and can be interpreted in terms of temperature and composition, using relationship defined through laboratory experiments. These empirical evidences often do not properly account for the effects driven by temperature, pressure, water content, and phase change of minerals. In this study, we use thermodynamic modeling to properly investigate the role of these variables in affecting seismic properties, as a tool to guide (joint) inversion and interpretation of geophysical data. We find that mineralogical phase transitions can be more seismically relevant than a change in chemical composition. In particular, the α-β quartz transition would cause a jump in acoustic impedance and VP/VS ratio >8%, occurring in the 15-25 km depth range, depending on the thermal gradient. Moreover, in the case of a cold lower crust, the consumption of plagioclase in favor of high-velocity minerals might represent another relevant seismic discontinuity. Different chemical compositions proposed for the Italian crust would be seismically indistinguishable, since they give overlapping seismic properties. Values of VS VS/density ratio shows a narrow variability, suggesting that densities at depth can be directly derived in first approximation from VS.

  17. Seismic Velocity Changes in the Backarc Continental Crust After the 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku-Oki Megathrust Earthquake (United States)

    Hong, Tae-Kyung; Lee, Junhyung; Chi, Donggeun; Park, Seongjun


    The 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku-Oki megathrust earthquake accompanied coseismic and postseismic displacements around the eastern Eurasian continental plate. Noise cross correlations produced transient seismic waveforms along interstation paths in the Korean Peninsula. We measured the traveltime changes of the fundamental mode Rayleigh waves over the range of 0.03-0.08 Hz after the megathrust earthquake. The temporal seismic velocity changes in the lower crust were assessed from the traveltime changes. The traveltimes increased instantly after the megathrust earthquake and were gradually recovered over several hundreds to thousands of days. The instant shear wave velocity decreases ranged between 0.731 (±0.057)% and 4.068 (±0.173)%. The temporal medium perturbation might be caused by the transient uniaxial tensional stress due to the coseismic and postseismic displacements. The medium properties may be recovered by progressive stress field reconstruction.

  18. Application program of CRUST-1 10km continental scientific drilling rig in SK-2 scientific drilling well (United States)

    Sun, Youhong; Gao, Ke; Yu, Ping; Liu, Baochang; Guo, Wei; Ma, Yinlong; Yang, Yang


    SK-2 Well is located in DaQing city,where is site of the largest oil field in China,Heilongjiang province, north-east of China.The objective of SK-2 well is to obtain full cores of cretaceous formation in Song Liao basin,and to build the time tunnel of Cretaceous greenhouse climate change,and to clarify the causes,processes and results of the formations of DaQing oil field. This will ensure to achieve our ultimate goals,to test the CRUST-1 drilling rig and improve China's deep scientific drilling technology,to form the scientific drilling technology,method and system with independent intellectual property rights,and to provide technical knowledge and information for China's ten kilometers super-deep scientific drilling technical resources.SK-2 Well is at 6400 meter depth, where the drilling inclination is 90 degree and the continuous coring length is 3535 meter that from 2865 to 6400 meter,the recovery rate of the core is greater or equal to 95 percent with 100 millimeters core diameter and 3.9 degree per 100 meter geothermal gradient.The CRUST-1 rig is designated with special drilling equipment for continental scientific drilling combined to the oil drilling equipment ability with advanced geological drilling technology which is highly automatic and intelligent. CRUST-1 drilling ability is 10000 meter with the maximum hook load 700 tons, the total power is 4610 Kilowatt.CRUST-1 will be integrated with a complete set of automation equipment,including big torque hydraulic top drive,high accuracy automatic drilling rod feeding system, suspended automatic drill string discharge device,hydraulic intelligent iron roughneck,and hydraulic automatic catwalk to fully meet the drilling process requirements of SK-2.Designed with advanced drilling technique for 260 degree in the bottom of SK-2 well and hard rock,including the drilling tools of high temperature hydraulic hammer,high temperature resistance and high strength aluminum drill pipe,high temperature preparation of mud

  19. Porosity evolution at the brittle-ductile transition in the continental crust: Implications for deep hydro-geothermal circulation. (United States)

    Violay, M; Heap, M J; Acosta, M; Madonna, C


    Recently, projects have been proposed to engineer deep geothermal reservoirs in the ductile crust. To examine their feasibility, we performed high-temperature (up to 1000 °C), high-pressure (130 MPa) triaxial experiments on granite (initially-intact and shock-cooled samples) in which we measured the evolution of porosity during deformation. Mechanical data and post-mortem microstuctural characterisation (X-ray computed tomography and scanning electron microscopy) indicate that (1) the failure mode was brittle up to 900 °C (shear fracture formation) but ductile at 1000 °C (no strain localisation); (2) only deformation up to 800 °C was dilatant; (3) deformation at 900 °C was brittle but associated with net compaction due to an increase in the efficiency of crystal plastic processes; (4) ductile deformation at 1000 °C was compactant; (5) thermally-shocking the granite did not influence strength or failure mode. Our data show that, while brittle behaviour increases porosity, porosity loss is associated with both ductile behaviour and transitional behaviour as the failure mode evolves from brittle to ductile. Extrapolating our data to geological strain rates suggests that the brittle-ductile transition occurs at a temperature of 400 ± 100 °C, and is associated with the limit of fluid circulation in the deep continental crust.

  20. Evidence from detrital zircons for the existence of continental crust and oceans on the Earth 4.4 Gyr ago. (United States)

    Wilde, S A; Valley, J W; Peck, W H; Graham, C M


    No crustal rocks are known to have survived since the time of the intense meteor bombardment that affected Earth between its formation about 4,550 Myr ago and 4,030 Myr, the age of the oldest known components in the Acasta Gneiss of northwestern Canada. But evidence of an even older crust is provided by detrital zircons in metamorphosed sediments at Mt Narryer and Jack Hills in the Narryer Gneiss Terrane, Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia, where grains as old as approximately 4,276 Myr have been found. Here we report, based on a detailed micro-analytical study of Jack Hills zircons, the discovery of a detrital zircon with an age as old as 4,404+/-8 Myr--about 130 million years older than any previously identified on Earth. We found that the zircon is zoned with respect to rare earth elements and oxygen isotope ratios (delta18O values from 7.4 to 5.0%), indicating that it formed from an evolving magmatic source. The evolved chemistry, high delta18O value and micro-inclusions of SiO2 are consistent with growth from a granitic melt with a delta18O value from 8.5 to 9.5%. Magmatic oxygen isotope ratios in this range point toward the involvement of supracrustal material that has undergone low-temperature interaction with a liquid hydrosphere. This zircon thus represents the earliest evidence for continental crust and oceans on the Earth.

  1. Using the magmatic record to constrain the growth of continental crust-The Eoarchean zircon Hf record of Greenland (United States)

    Fisher, Christopher M.; Vervoort, Jeffrey D.


    Southern West Greenland contains some of the best-studied and best-preserved magmatic Eoarchean rocks on Earth, and these provide an excellent vantage point from which to view long-standing questions regarding the growth of the earliest continental crust. In order to address the questions surrounding early crustal growth and complementary mantle depletion, we present Laser Ablation Split Stream (LASS) analyses of the U-Pb and Hf isotope compositions of zircon from eleven samples of the least-altered meta-igneous rocks from the Itsaq (Amîtsoq) Gneisses of the Isukasia and Nuuk regions of southern West Greenland. This analytical technique allows a less ambiguous approach to determining the age and Hf isotope composition of complicated zircon. Results corroborate previous findings that Eoarchean zircon from the Itsaq Gneiss (∼3.85 Ga to ∼3.63 Ga) were derived from a broadly chondritic source. In contrast to the Sm-Nd whole rock isotope record for southern West Greenland, the zircon Lu-Hf isotope record provides no evidence for early mantle depletion, nor does it suggest the presence of crust older than ∼3.85 Ga in Greenland. Utilizing LASS U-Pb and Hf data from the Greenland zircons studied here, we demonstrate the importance of focusing on the magmatic (rather than detrital) zircon record to more confidently understand early crustal growth and mantle depletion. We compare the Greenland Hf isotope data with other Eoarchean magmatic complexes such as the Acasta Gneiss Complex, Nuvvuagittuq greenstone belt, and the gneissic complexes of southern Africa, and all lack zircons with suprachondritic Hf isotope compositions. In total, these data suggest only a very modest volume of crust was produced during (or survived from) the Hadean and earliest Eoarchean. There remains no record of planet-scale early Earth mantle depletion in the Hf isotope record prior to 3.8 Ga.

  2. Fluid-driven metamorphism of the continental crust governed by nanoscale fluid flow (United States)

    Plümper, Oliver; Botan, Alexandru; Los, Catharina; Liu, Yang; Malthe-Sørenssen, Anders; Jamtveit, Bjørn


    The transport of fluids through the Earth's crust controls the redistribution of elements to form mineral and hydrocarbon deposits, the release and sequestration of greenhouse gases, and facilitates metamorphic reactions that influence lithospheric rheology. In permeable systems with a well-connected porosity, fluid transport is largely driven by fluid pressure gradients. In less permeable rocks, deformation may induce permeability by creating interconnected heterogeneities, but without these perturbations, mass transport is limited along grain boundaries or relies on transformation processes that self-generate transient fluid pathways. The latter can facilitate large-scale fluid and mass transport in nominally impermeable rocks without large-scale fluid transport pathways. Here, we show that pervasive, fluid-driven metamorphism of crustal igneous rocks is directly coupled to the production of nanoscale porosity. Using multi-dimensional nano-imaging and molecular dynamics simulations, we demonstrate that in feldspar, the most abundant mineral family in the Earth's crust, electrokinetic transport through reaction-induced nanopores (mediated mineral transformation reactions can be considerably influenced by nanofluidic transport phenomena.

  3. Melting of subducted continental crust: Geochemical evidence from Mesozoic granitoids in the Dabie-Sulu orogenic belt, east-central China (United States)

    Zhao, Zi-Fu; Liu, Zhi-Bin; Chen, Qi


    Syn-collisional and postcollisional granitoids are common in collisional orogens, and they were primarily produced by partial melting of subducted continental crust. This is exemplified by Mesozoic granitoids from the Dabie-Sulu orogenic belt in east-central China. These granitoids were emplaced in small volumes in the Late Triassic (200-206 Ma) and the Late Jurassic (146-167 Ma) but massively in the Early Cretaceous (111-143 Ma). Nevertheless, all of them exhibit arc-like trace element distribution patterns and are enriched in Sr-Nd-Hf isotope compositions, indicating their origination from the ancient continental crust. They commonly contain relict zircons with Neoproterozoic and Triassic U-Pb ages, respectively, consistent with the protolith and metamorphic ages for ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metaigneous rocks in the Dabie-Sulu orogenic belt. Some granitoids show low zircon δ18O values, and SIMS in-situ O isotope analysis reveals that the relict zircons with Neoproterozoic and Triassic U-Pb ages also commonly exhibit low δ18O values. Neoproterozoic U-Pb ages and low δ18O values are the two diagnostic features that distinguish the subducted South China Block from the obducted North China Block. Thus, the magma source of these Mesozoic granitoids has a genetic link to the subducted continental crust of the South China Block. On the other hand, these granitoids contain relict zircons with Paleoproterozoic and Archean U-Pb ages, which are present in both the South and North China Blocks. Taken together, the Mesozoic granitoids in the Dabie-Sulu orogenic belt and its hanging wall have their magma sources that are predominated by the continental crust of the South China Block with minor contributions from the continental crust of the North China Block. The Triassic continental collision between the South and North China Blocks brought the continental crust into the thickened orogen, where they underwent the three episodes of partial melting in the Late Triassic, Late

  4. Chemical composition of the continental crust: Insights from a quantitative interpretation of the Vp/Vs ratio (United States)

    Guerri, M.; Youssof, M.; Fullea, J.


    The processes driving continental crust formation are not yet fully understood. One of the fundamental keys necessary to investigate the enigma is represented by crustal composition. The Vp/Vs ratio from seismic receiver functions or tomography studies is a powerful tool to constrain the crustal composition. However, to date only qualitative relationships between Vp/Vs and composition have been proposed. We present a quantitative interpretation of the Vp/Vs in terms of major oxide components, based on thermo-elastic constrained modelling of rock phase equilibria and physical properties. The geophysical-petrological approach is implemented in the new release of the software package LitMod, which now allows for integrated and self-consistent modeling of the entire lithosphere (crust + lithospheric mantle) and upper mantle. Forward modelling of the Vp/Vs, based on petrology and thermodynamics, reveals that, as expected, mafic compositions have higher Vp/Vs than felsic ones. However, in high temperature settings (surface heat flow > 75 mW/m2), the quartz alpha / quartz beta transition strongly increases Vp, leaving Vs almost unaltered, leading to SiO2-rich compositions displaying Vp/Vs values higher than those associated with mafic compositions. Additionally, we highlight the importance of H2O, the presence of which stabilizes amphibole (in place of pyroxene), characterized by a relatively low Vp/Vs. If H2O is present, mafic compositions show Vp/Vs ratios that are comparable to those produced by anhydrous SiO2-rich compositions. The destabilization of amphibole (in favour of pyroxene) generates a sharp seismic discontinuity, potentially detectable by, for example, seismic refraction and receiver function investigations. We invert the Vp/Vs ratio for composition and hydrous state of the crust in the Southern African cratons. Our results show that the Kaapvaal craton, Archean in age, has an intermediate (SiO2 60 wt%) composition. The finding has implications on our

  5. Petrogenesis of the Late Triassic diorites in the Hoh Xil area, northern Tibet: Insights into the origin of the high-Mg# andesitic signature of continental crust (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Gou, Guo-Ning; Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Chunfu; Dan, Wei; Wyman, Derek A.; Zhang, Xiu-Zheng


    An integrated petrologic, geochronologic, major and trace element geochemical, and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic study of Late Triassic ( 215 Ma) diorites from the Hoh Xil area, northern Tibet, provides new constraints on the genesis of intermediate magmas and insights into the origin of the high-Mg# andesitic signature of continental crust. These dioritic rocks are characterized by high MgO contents (3.3-5.0 wt%) and Mg# values (50-57) comparable to the estimates for the bulk continental crust at the same level of SiO2 contents (61.1-64.5 wt%). They also display continental crust-like trace element distribution patterns and uniformly enriched isotope compositions ([87Sr/86Sr]i = 0.7081 to 0.7094, ɛNd[t] = - 8.0 to - 6.9, and ɛHf[t]zircon = - 10.1 to - 5.0). Combining our results with published data from crystallization experiments, we propose that they were probably produced by fractional crystallization from a primitive andesite parent, rather than a primitive basalt parent. This parental magma may be geochemically similar to the roughly contemporaneous primitive andesites in the adjacent Malanshan area of northern Tibet. Our compilation of modern arc lavas shows that progressive fractional crystallization of primitive andesites is also required to reproduce the Mg# versus SiO2 array for natural arc magmas, in addition to differentiation of mantle-derived primitive basaltic magmas and/or mixing of basaltic with felsic magmas. Therefore, we emphasize that fractional crystallization of primitive andesitic magmas is potentially a frequent occurrence in arc crust and hence may play an important role in producing the high-Mg# signature of intermediate magmas comprising the continental crust.

  6. Evolution of the African continental crust as recorded by U-Pb, Lu-Hf and O isotopes in detrital zircons from modern rivers (United States)

    Iizuka, Tsuyoshi; Campbell, Ian H.; Allen, Charlotte M.; Gill, James B.; Maruyama, Shigenori; Makoka, Frédéric


    To better understand the evolutionary history of the African continental crust, a combined U-Pb, Lu-Hf and O isotopic study has been carried out by in situ analyses of approximately 450 detrital zircon grains from the Niger, Nile, Congo, Zambezi and Orange Rivers. The U-Pb isotopic data show age peaks at ca. 2.7, 2.1-1.8, 1.2-1.0, ca. 0.8, 0.7-0.5 and ca. 0.3 Ga. These peaks, with the exception of the one at ca. 0.8 Ga, correspond with the assembly of supercontinents. Furthermore, the detrital zircons that crystallized during these periods of supercontinent assembly have dominantly non-mantle-like O and Hf isotopic signatures, in contrast to the ca. 0.8 Ga detrital zircons which have juvenile characteristics. These data can be interpreted as showing that continental collisions during supercontinent assembly resulted in supermountain building accompanied by remelting of older continental crust, which in turn led to significant erosion of young igneous rocks with non-mantle-like isotopic signatures. Alternatively, the data may indicate that the major mode of crustal development changed during the supercontinent cycle: the generation of juvenile crust in extensional settings was dominant during supercontinent fragmentation, whereas the stabilization of the generated crust via crustal accretion and reworking was important during supercontinent assembly. The Lu-Hf and O isotope systematics indicate that terreigneous sediments could attain elevated 18O/16O via prolonged sediment-sediment recycling over long crustal residence time, and also that reworking of carbonate and chert which generally have elevated 18O/16O and low Hf contents is minor in granitoid magmatism. The highest 18O/16O in detrital zircon abruptly increased at ca. 2.1 Ga and became nearly constant thereafter. This indicates that reworking of mature sediments increased abruptly at that time, probably as a result of a transition in the dynamics of either granitoid crust formation or sedimentary evolution

  7. Brittle versus ductile deformation as the main control of the deep fluid circulation in continental crust (United States)

    Violay, Marie; Madonna, Claudio; Burg, Jean-Pierre


    The Japan Beyond-Brittle Project (JBBP) and the Taupo Volcanic Zone-Deep geothermal drilling project in New Zealand (TVZ-DGDP) proposed a new concept of engineered geothermal development where reservoirs are created in ductile rocks. This system has several advantages including (1) a simpler design and control of the reservoir due to homogeneous rock properties and stress states in the ductile domain ,(2) possible extraction of supercritical fluids (3) less probability for induced earthquakes. However, it is at present unknwon what and how porosity and permeability can be engineered in such environments. It has been proposed that the magmatic chamber is surrounded by a hot and ductile carapace through which heat transfer is conductive because the plastic behaviour of the rock will close possible fluid pathways. Further outward, as temperature declines, the rock will encounter the brittle-ductile transition with a concomitant increase in porosity and permeability. The thickness of the conduction-dominated, ductile boundary zone between the magmatic chamber and the convecting geothermal fluid directly determines the rate of heat transfer. To examine the brittle to ductile transition in the context of the Japanese crust, we conducted deformation experiments on very-fine-grain granite in conventional servocontrolled, gas-medium triaxial apparatus (from Paterson instrument). Temperature ranged from 600° C to 1100° C and effective confining pressure from 100 to 150 MPa. Dilatancy was measured during deformation. The method consisted in monitoring the volume of pore fluid that flows into or out of the sample at constant pore pressure. Permeability was measured under static conditions by transient pressure pulse method. Mechanical and micro-structural observations at experimental constant strain rate of 10-5 s-1 indicated that the granite was brittle and dilatant up to 900 ° C. At higher temperatures the deformation mode becomes macroscopically ductile, i

  8. 3D Numerical Examination of Continental Mantle Lithosphere Response to Lower Crust Eclogitization and Nearby Slab Subduction (United States)

    Janbakhsh, P.; Pysklywec, R.


    2D numerical modeling techniques have made great contribution to understanding geodynamic processes involved in crustal and lithospheric scale deformations for the past 20 years. The aim of this presentation is to expand the scope covered by previous researchers to 3 dimensions to address out-of-plane intrusion and extrusion of mantle material in and out of model space, and toroidal mantle wedge flows. In addition, 3D velocity boundary conditions can create more realistic models to replicate real case scenarios. 3D numerical experiments that will be presented are designed to investigate the density and viscosity effects of lower crustal eclogitization on the decoupling process of continental mantle lithosphere from the crust and its delamination. In addition, these models examine near-field effects of a subducting ocean lithosphere and a lithospheric scale fault zone on the evolution of the processes. The model solutions and predictions will also be compared against the Anatolian geology where subduction of Aegean and Arabian slabs, and the northern boundary with the North Anatolian Fault Zone are considered as two main contributing factors to anomalous crustal uplift, missing mantle lithosphere, and anomalous surface heat flux.

  9. Chemical and oxygen isotope zonings in garnet from subducted continental crust record mineral replacement and metasomatism (United States)

    Vho, Alice; Rubatto, Daniela; Regis, Daniele; Baumgartner, Lukas; Bouvier, Anne-Sophie


    Garnet is a key mineral in metamorphic petrology for constraining pressure, temperature and time paths. Garnet can preserve multiple growth stages due to its wide P-T stability field and the relatively slow diffusivity for major and trace elements at sub-solidus temperatures. Pressure-temperature-time-fluid paths of the host rock may be reconstructed by combining metamorphic petrology with microscale trace element and oxygen isotope measurements in garnet. Subduction zones represent relevant geological settings for geochemical investigation of element exchanges during aqueous fluid-rock interactions. The Sesia Zone consists of a complex continental sequence containing a variety of mono-metamorphic and poly-metamorphic lithologies such as metagranitoids, sediments and mafic boudins. The precursor Varisican-Permian amphibolite-facies basement (6-9 kbar 650-850°C; Lardeaux and Spalla, 1991; Robyr et al., 2013) experienced high pressure metamorphism (15-22 kbar 500-550°C; Regis, et al. 2014; Robyr et al., 2013) during Alpine subduction. In different lithologies of the Internal Complex (Eclogitic Micaschist Complex), including metabasites from the Ivozio Complex, Ti-rich metasediments from Val Malone and pre-Alpine Mn-quartzites associated to metagabbros from Cima Bonze, garnet is abundant and shows a variety of complex textures that cannot be reconciled with typical growth zoning, but indicate resorption and replacement processes and possible metasomatism. In-situ, microscale oxygen isotopes analysis of garnet zones was performed by ion microprobe with the SwissSIMS Cameca IMS 1280-HR at University of Lausanne and SHRIMP-SI at the Australian National University. Each sample has a distinct δ18O composition, and the δ18O values show different degrees of variation between domains. Homogeneously low values of Geology, 9, 35-59. Regis, D., Rubatto, D., Darling, J., Cenki-Tok, B., Zucali, M., & Engi, M. (2014). Multiple metamorphic stages within an eclogite

  10. Arc-continent collision and the formation of continental crust: A new geochemical and isotopic record from the Ordovician Tyrone Igneous Complex, Ireland (United States)

    Draut, Amy E.; Clift, Peter D.; Amato, Jeffrey M.; Blusztajn, Jerzy; Schouten, Hans


    Collisions between oceanic island-arc terranes and passive continental margins are thought to have been important in the formation of continental crust throughout much of Earth's history. Magmatic evolution during this stage of the plate-tectonic cycle is evident in several areas of the Ordovician Grampian-Taconic orogen, as we demonstrate in the first detailed geochemical study of the Tyrone Igneous Complex, Ireland. New U-Pb zircon dating yields ages of 493 2 Ma from a primitive mafic intrusion, indicating intra-oceanic subduction in Tremadoc time, and 475 10 Ma from a light rare earth element (LREE)-enriched tonalite intrusion that incorporated Laurentian continental material by early Arenig time (Early Ordovician, Stage 2) during arc-continent collision. Notably, LREE enrichment in volcanism and silicic intrusions of the Tyrone Igneous Complex exceeds that of average Dalradian (Laurentian) continental material that would have been thrust under the colliding forearc and potentially recycled into arc magmatism. This implies that crystal fractionation, in addition to magmatic mixing and assimilation, was important to the formation of new crust in the Grampian-Taconic orogeny. Because similar super-enrichment of orogenic melts occurred elsewhere in the Caledonides in the British Isles and Newfoundland, the addition of new, highly enriched melt to this accreted arc terrane was apparently widespread spatially and temporally. Such super-enrichment of magmatism, especially if accompanied by loss of corresponding lower crustal residues, supports the theory that arc-continent collision plays an important role in altering bulk crustal composition toward typical values for ancient continental crust. ?? 2009 Geological Society of London.

  11. Brittle/Ductile deformation at depth during continental crust eclogitization (Mont-Emilius klippe, Western Internal Alps). (United States)

    Hertgen, Solenn; Yamato, Philippe; Morales, Luiz; Angiboust, Samuel


    Eclogitic rocks are important for understanding tectonics at large scale as they provide key constraints on both the evolution (P-T-t-ɛ paths) and the deformation modes of the crust along the subduction interface. We herein focus our study on eclogitized mafic dykes remnants exposed within granulites from the continental basement silver of the Mt. Emilius klippe (Western Internal Alps, Italy). These eclogites exhibit highly deformed garnetite and clinopyroxenite levels. In some places, these rocks with a ± mylonitic aspect can be found as clasts within meter-thick brecciated fault rocks formed close to metamorphic peak conditions in eclogite facies. Especially, the garnet-rich levels tend to behave in a brittle fashion while deformation within clinopyroxene-rich levels is mostly accommodated by creep. This is evidenced by the presence of elongated grains, subgrain boundaries and intense grain size reduction close to rigid garnets. Crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) measurements in garnets indicate a quasi-random distribution. In most of the clinopyroxenes levels nevertheless, the CPO is relatively strong, with multiples of uniform distribution varying from 4 to 5.5 (value of 1 is random texture). This CPO is characterized by a strong alignment of poles (001) parallel to the lineation and (100) and [010] distributed along girdles cross-cutting the foliation plane. Our study thus attests that the materials along the subduction interface at P~2.0-2.5 GPa and T~500-550°C can locally be brittle where deformation is classically envisioned as ductile. In addition to this deformation analysis, we present a petrological study of these eclogites, from the outcrop to the microscopic scale, tracking the chemical evolution associated to the observed deformation. Based on all these data, we finally propose a tectono-metamorphic history for these rocks allowing to explain the co-existence of ductile and brittle features developed in the same metamorphic facies, and

  12. Coexisting of ductile and brittle behaviors at depth during continental crust eclogitization (Mt. Emilius klippe, Western Alps) (United States)

    Morales, L. F. G.; Yamato, P.; Hertgen, S.; Angiboust, S.


    Eclogitic rocks provide key constraints on both the evolution (P-T-t-ɛ paths) and the deformation modes of the crust along the subduction interface and therefore are crucial for the understanding of tectonics at large scale. Here we present some preliminary results of a microstructural study on eclogitized mafic dykes exposed within granulites from the continental basement silver of the Mt. Emilius klippe (Western Internal Alps, Italy). In this region, highly deformed eclogites characterized by a strong layering between garnetite and clinopyroxenite bands is the most predominant feature. These different levels present very heterogeneous deformation patterns, and while the garnet-rich levels tend to have a brittle behavior, the deformation within clinopyroxene-rich levels is possibly accommodated by creep. This is evidenced by the presence of elongated grains, subgrain boundaries and intense grain size reduction close to rigid garnets. Crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) measurements in garnets indicate a quasi-random distribution. In most of the clinopyroxenes levels nevertheless, the CPO is relatively strong, with multiples of uniform distribution varying from 4 to 5.5 (value of 1 is random texture). This CPO in the clinopyroxenes is characterized by a strong alignment of poles (001) parallel to the lineation and (100) and [010] distributed along girdles cross-cutting the foliation plane. These mylonitic rocks are sometimes found as clasts within meter-thick brecciated fault rocks formed at, or nearly close to, the metamorphic peak in eclogite facies. Therefore, the materials along the subduction interface at these P-T conditions (i.e., ~2.0-2.5 GPa; 500-550°C) can locally be brittle where deformation is classically envisioned as ductile. We propose a model that involves creep deformation, heterogeneous fluid circulation, and local brittle behavior to explain the co-existence of ductile and brittle features developed in the same depth region.

  13. Recycling of the Archaean continental crust: the case study of the Gavião, State of Bahia, NE Brazil (United States)

    Pinto, M. Santos; Peucat, J. J.; Martin, H.; Sabaté, P.


    The Gavião block, located to the west of the São Francisco Craton (State of Bahia, NE Brazil), is the oldest crustal block so far recognised in South America—3.42 Ga. In its southern part, the Gavião block has been divided into three domains on the basis of 207Pb/ 206Pb dating on single zircons and monazites combined with Sr and Nd isotopic data and major and trace element geochemical modelling. These are: (1) an Archaean juvenile domain which consists of grey gneisses (Bernada massif) which evidence mantle extraction around 3.3 Ga; (2) an Archaean domain (3.24-3.16 Ga) either recycled, or juvenile with crustal contamination, consisting of trondhjemitic grey gneisses (Aracatu massif) and K-rich calc-alkaline granitic gneisses (Mariana and Serra do Eixo massifs); (3) a Paleoproterozoic recycled domain consisting mainly of the Umburanas granites, which yielded inherited zircons ages ranging from 3.1 to 2.8 Ga, whereas the monazite age is ca 2.0 Ga. The Aracatu and Mariana massifs are cut by granites at ca 2.0 Ga the same age of the Serra da Franga massif. The Gavião block is a type example of Archaean continental crust (3.2 Ga) that has been recycled through partial melting events mainly in Paleoproterozoic times during the Transamazonian orogeny (2.0-2.1 Ga). Brasiliano cooling ages are recorded by the Rb-Sr system of biotite-whole rock pairs ca 500 Ma.

  14. Petrologic and chemical changes in ductile shear zones as a function of depth in the continental crust (United States)

    Yang, Xin-Yue

    Petrologic and geochemical changes in ductile shear zones are important for understanding deformational and geochemical processes of the continental crust. This study examines three shear zones that formed under conditions varying from lower greenschist facies to upper amphibolite facies in order to document the petrologic and geochemical changes of deformed rocks at various metamorphic grades. The studied shear zones include two greenschist facies shear zones in the southern Appalachians and an upper amphibolite facies shear zone in southern Ontario. The mylonitic gneisses and mylonites in the Roses Mill shear zone of central Virginia are derived from a ferrodiorite protolith and characterized by a lower greenschist facies mineral assemblage. Both pressure solution and recrystallization were operative deformation mechanisms during mylonitization in this shear zone. Strain-driven dissolution and solution transfer played an important role in the mobilization of felsic components (Si, Al, K, Na, and Ca). During mylonitization, 17% to 32% bulk rock volume losses of mylonites are mainly attributed to removal of these mobile felsic components by a fluid phase. Mafic components (Fe, Mg, Ti, Mn and P) and trace elements, REE, Y, V and Sc, were immobile. At Rosman, North Carolina, the Brevard shear zone (BSZ) shows a deformational transition from the coarse-grained Henderson augen gneiss (HAG) to proto-mylonite, mylonite and ultra-mylonite. The mylonites contain a retrograde mineral assemblage as a product of fluid-assisted chemical breakdown of K-feldspar and biotite at higher greenschist facies conditions. Recrystallization and intra-crystalline plastic deformation are major deformation mechanisms in the BSZ. Fluid-assisted mylonitization in the BSZ led to 6% to 23% bulk volume losses in mylonites. During mylonitization, both major felsic and mafic elements and trace elements, Rb, Sr, Zr, V, Sc, and LREE were mobile; however, the HREEs were likely immobile. A shear zone

  15. Detrital Zircon Geochronology of Sedimentary Rocks of the 3.6 - 3.2 Ga Barberton Greenstone Belt: No Evidence for Older Continental Crust (United States)

    Drabon, N.; Lowe, D. R.; Byerly, G. R.; Harrington, J.


    The crustal setting of early Archean greenstone belts and whether they formed on or associated with blocks of older continental crust or in more oceanic settings remains a major issue in Archean geology. We report detrital zircon U-Pb age data from sandstones of the 3.26-3.20 Ga Fig Tree and Moodies Groups and from 3.47 to 3.23 Ga meteorite impact-related deposits in the 3.55-3.20 Ga Barberton greenstone belt (BGB), South Africa. The provenance signatures of these sediments are characterized by zircon age peaks at 3.54, 3.46, 3.40, 3.30, and 3.25 Ga. These clusters are coincident either with the ages of major episodes of felsic to intermediate igneous activity within and around the belt or with the ages of thin felsic tuffs reflecting distant volcanic activity. Only 15 of the reported 3410 grains (zircons older than the felsic components of the BGB itself, even after widespread deformation, uplift, and deep erosion of the BGB, implies that an older continental substrate is unlikely to have existed beneath or adjacent to the BGB. Ten of the 15 pre -BGB zircons were recovered from a single meteorite impact-related layer and may have been derived from far beyond the BGB by impact-related processes. The remaining old zircons could represent felsic rocks in older, unexposed parts of the BGB sequence, but are too few to provide evidence for a continental source. This finding offers further evidence that the large, thick, high-standing, highly evolved blocks of continental crust with an andesitic bulk composition that characterize the Earth during younger geologic times were scarce in the early Archean.

  16. Continental crust subducted deeply into lithospheric mantle: the driving force of Early Carboniferous magmatism in the Variscan collisional orogen (Bohemian Massif) (United States)

    Janoušek, Vojtěch; Schulmann, Karel; Lexa, Ondrej; Holub, František; Franěk, Jan; Vrána, Stanislav


    The vigorous Late Devonian-Early Carboniferous plutonic activity in the core of the Bohemian Massif was marked by a transition from normal-K calc-alkaline, arc-related (~375-355 Ma), through high-K calc-alkaline (~346 Ma) to (ultra-)potassic (343-335 Ma) suites, the latter associated with mainly felsic HP granulites enclosing Grt/Spl mantle peridotite bodies. The changing chemistry, especially an increase in K2O/Na2O and 87Sr/86Sri with decrease in 143Nd/144Ndi in the basic end-members, cannot be reconciled by contamination during ascent. Instead it has to reflect the character of the mantle sources, changing over time. The tectonic model invokes an oceanic subduction passing to subduction of the attenuated Saxothuringian crust under the rifted Gondwana margin (Teplá-Barrandian and Moldanubian domains). The deep burial of this mostly refractory felsic metaigneous material is evidenced by the presence of coesite/diamond (Massonne 2001; Kotková et al. 2011) in the detached UHP slices exhumed through the subduction channel and thrusted over the Saxothuringian basement, and by the abundance of felsic HP granulites (> 2.3 GPa), some bearing evidence for small-scale HP melt separation, in the orogen's core (Vrána et al. 2013). The subduction channel was most likely formed by 'dirty' serpentinites contaminated by the melts/fluids derived from the underlying continental-crust slab (Zheng 2012). Upon the passage through the orogenic mantle, the continental crust-slab derived material not only contaminated the adjacent mantle forming small bodies/veins of pyroxenites (Becker 1996), glimmerites (Becker et al. 1999) or even phlogopite- and apatite-bearing peridotites (Naemura et al. 2009) but the felsic HP-HT granulites also sampled the individual peridotite types at various levels. Eventually the subducted felsic material would form an (U)HP continental wedge under the forearc/arc region, to be later redistributed under the Moldanubian crust by channel flow and crustal

  17. Subducting continental lower crust and crustal thickness variations in the intermediate seismic zone of Pamir-Hindu Kush inferred from Moho underside reflection pmP (United States)

    He, Hangqi; Pan, Fa-Bin; Chen, Hanlin; Zhang, Yujia; Zheng, Xin; He, Xiaobo


    The Pamir-Hindu Kush region is an orogenic belt which formed as a result of recent continental collision between the Indian and Eurasian Plates. A comprehensive understanding of the tectonic history of this region has been hampered due to limited seismological investigations. In this study, we use the Moho underside reflection pmP phase to constrain crustal thickness variations in the intermediate-depth seismic zone (36-37°N, 69-72°E). The seismic events characterized by focal depth deeper than 100 km and magnitude > 5.8 (Mw) were used. The crustal thickness was determined by identifying the depth phase pP and the Moho underside reflection pmP. The measured thickness varies spatially from 58.1 to 76.2 km, with uncertainties most likely resulting from deviation of the average P-wave velocities ( 6.21 km/s with a deviation of 0.22 km/s) in the crust. The strong Moho depth variations imply a large structural deformation of the crust, which reflects a complex collision-related mountain building history. We also detected two strong reflections from deep interfaces down to 97 km underneath the southernmost Pamir. Based on our direct observations and waveform modeling, we interpret that the two reflections are possibly the manifestations of the underplating subducted Eurasian lower crust in this region. Our observations complement those of other seismic results, including receiver functions from previous studies.

  18. The Taitao Granites: I-type granites formed by subduction of the Chile Ridge and its implication in growth of continental crusts (United States)

    Anma, Ryo


    Late Miocene to Early Pliocene granite plutons are exposed at the tip of the Taitao peninsula, the westernmost promontory of the Chilean coast, together with a contemporaneous ophiolite with a Penrose-type stratigraphy. Namely, the Taitao granites and the Taitao ohiolite, respectively, are located at ~30 km southeast of the Chile triple junction, where a spreading center of the Chile ridge system is subducting underneath the South America plate. This unique tectonic setting provides an excellent opportunity to study the generation processes of granitic magmas at a ridge subduction environment, and the complex magmatic interactions between the subducting ridge, overlying crust and sediments, and mantle. This paper reviews previous studies on the Taitao ophiolite/granite complex and use geochemical data and U-Pb age distributions of zircons separated from igneous and sedimentary rocks from the area to discuss the mechanism that formed juvenile magma of calc-alkaline I-type granites during ridge subduction. Our model implies that the magmas of the Taitao granites formed mainly due to partial melting of hot oceanic crust adjacent to the subducting mid-oceanic ridge that has been under influence of deep crustal contamination and/or metasomatized sub-arc mantle through slab window. The partial melting took place under garnet-free-amphibolite conditions. The juvenile magmas then incorporated a different amount of subducted sediments to form the I-type granites with various compositions. The Taitao granites provide an ideal case study field that shows the processes to develop continental crusts out of oceanic crusts through ridge subduction.

  19. Continental crust melting induced by subduction initiation of the South Tianshan Ocean: Insight from the Latest Devonian granitic magmatism in the southern Yili Block, NW China (United States)

    Bao, Zihe; Cai, Keda; Sun, Min; Xiao, Wenjiao; Wan, Bo; Wang, Yannan; Wang, Xiangsong; Xia, Xiaoping


    The Tianshan belt of the southwestern Central Asian Orogenic Belt was generated by Paleozoic multi-stage subduction and final closure of several extinct oceans, including the South Tianshan Ocean between the Kazakhstan-Yili and Tarim blocks. However, the subduction initiation and polarity of the South Tianshan Ocean remain issues of highly debated. This study presents new zircon U-Pb ages, geochemical compositions and Sr-Nd isotopes, as well as zircon Hf isotopic data of the Latest Devonian to Early Carboniferous granitic rocks in the Wusun Mountain of the Yili Paleozoic convergent margin, which, together with the spatial-temporal distributions of regional magmatic rocks, are applied to elucidate their petrogenesis and tectonic linkage to the northward subduction initiation of the South Tianshan Ocean. Our zircon U-Pb dating results reveal that these granites were emplaced at the time interval of 362.0 ± 1.2-360.3 ± 1.9 Ma, suggesting a marked partial melting event of the continental crust in the Latest Devonian to Early Carboniferous. These granites, based on their mineral compositions and textures, can be categorized as monzogranites and K-feldspar granites. Geochemically, both monzogranites and K-feldspar granites have characters of I-type granites with high K2O contents (4.64-4.83 wt.%), and the K-feldspar granites are highly fractionated I-type granites, while the monzogranites have features of unfractionated I-type granites. Whole-rock Sr-Nd isotopic modeling results suggest that ca. 20-40% mantle-derived magmas may be involved in magma mixing with continental crust partial melts to generate the parental magmas of the granites. The mantle-derived basaltic magmas was inferred not only to be a major component of magma mixture but also as an important heat source to fuse the continental crust in an extensional setting, which is evidenced by the high zircon saturation temperatures (713-727 °C and 760-782 °C) of the studied granites. The Latest Devonian to

  20. Crustal basement controls granitoid magmatism, and implications for generation of continental crust in subduction zones: A Sr-Nd-Hf-O isotopic study from the Paleozoic Tongbai orogen, central China (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Wu, Yuan-Bao; Yang, Jin-Hui; Qin, Zheng-Wei; Duan, Rui-Chun; Zhou, Lian; Yang, Sai-Hong


    Ascertaining the petrogenesis of granitoid rocks in subduction zones holds the key for understanding the processes of how continental crust is produced. The synchronous Taoyuan and Huanggang plutons occur in two different geological units of the Paleozoic Tongbai orogen of central China. They provide an optimal opportunity for a study to address the role of the crustal basement in generating voluminous granitoid magmatism in subduction zones. The Taoyuan and Huanggang plutons have identical U-Pb zircon crystallization ages of 440-444 Ma, which are temporally related to northward subduction of the Paleotethyan Ocean. The Taoyuan samples show high SiO2 (73.36-79.16%) and low Al2O3 (12.00-13.45%) contents, Mg numbers (20.6-38.2), and Sr/Y (2.04-10.1) and (La/Yb)N (2.34-7.32) ratios with negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 0.33-0.93). They yielded positive εNd(t) (+ 3.0 to + 6.7) and εHf(t) (+ 11.8 to + 13.2) values, elevated initial Sr isotopic ratios (0.7040-0.7057) and relatively low zircon δ18O values of 4.62-5.39‰. These suggest that they were produced through partial melting of hydrothermally altered lower crust of the accreted Erlangping oceanic arc. In contrast, the Huanggang samples exhibit variable whole-rock geochemical and isotopic compositions with SiO2 contents of 57.01-64.42 wt.%, initial Sr isotopic ratios of 0.7065-0.7078, and εNd(t) values of - 5.7 to - 9.4. Additionally, they have high zircon δ18O values of 7.57-8.45‰ and strongly negative zircon εHf(t) values of - 14.4 to - 10.5. They were suggested to have been mainly derived from ancient continental crust of the Kuanping crustal unit with the addition of 20-40% juvenile, mantle-derived material. Accordingly, the granitoids in both oceanic and continental arcs are likely to be mainly derived from intracrustal melting of their crustal basement. It is revealed by the Huanggang pluton that little net continental crust growth occurs in continental arcs, and addition of new volume of continental

  1. A prolonged granitoid formation in Saglek Block, Labrador: Zonal growth and crustal reworking of continental crust in the Eoarchean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Komiya


    We made a detailed sketch of a small outcrop in St. John's Harbour South (SJHS area, and classified the orthogneisses and mafic enclaves into seven generations based on the geologic occurrence. The first and second generations comprise mafic rocks and lack magmatic zircons. We conducted CL imaging and U-Pb dating of zircons from the third, sixth and seventh generation of the orthogneisses to estimate the protolith ages at 3902 ± 25, 3892 ± 33 and 3897 ± 33 Ma for each, supporting the presence of the over 3.9 Ga Iqaluk Gneiss. The geological occurrence that the mafic rocks occur as enclaves within the 3.9 Ga Iqaluk Gneiss indicates that they are the oldest supracrustal rocks in the world. Our geochronological and geological studies show the Uivak Gneiss is quite varied in lithology and age from 3.6 to >3.9 Ga, and tentatively classified into six groups based on their ages. The oldest Uivak Gneiss components including the Iqaluk Gneiss are present around the SJHS area, and the orthogneisses become young as it is away. The lines of evidence of overprinting of younger granitoid on older granitoid in small outcrops and geological-map scale as well as presence of inherited zircons even in the oldest suite suggests that crustal reworking played an important role on erasing the ancient crusts.

  2. Strain localization in the middle- to upper continental crust: examples from the Patos and Pernambuco shear zones (Borborema Province, NE Brazil) (United States)

    Viegas, G.; Archanjo, C. J.; Hollanda, M. H.; Vauchez, A. R.


    The accommodation of deformation in the Earth's lithosphere typically results in a heterogeneous distribution of strain in the continental crust, which is a function of effective pressure, temperature and strain rate at different structural levels. In Northeast Brazil, the Borborema Province is characterized by an interconnected, crustal-scale shear zone system associated with a widespread granitic plutonism. Two of the most prominent structures of this system, the Patos and Pernambuco shear zones, are characterized by ~ 600 km long E-W striking mylonite belts in which strain localization processes are observed either in association with partial melting in the Patos strike-slip fault, or as zones of overprinting brittle-ductile deformation in the Pernambuco shear zone. Deformation mechanisms are distinct across the Patos shear zone, mainly marked by crystalline plasticity and diffusion creep in the high-temperature northern border, magmatic flow in the central region and dislocation creep coupled with microfracturing in the southern sector. The Espinho Branco migmatite (~ 565 Ma) acts as a weak rheological layer that accumulates strain in the northern portion of the fault. Alternatively, the absence of partial melting and the dominant cataclastic/plastic flow regime lead to grain-size sensitive strain localization at the southern border. The Pernambuco shear zone was nucleated at the vicinities of two granitoid batholiths at c.a. 588 Ma. Low-temperature mylonites adjacent to the batholiths show several microstructures indicating coeval activity of brittle-ductile deformation. Recent zircon U-Pb (SHRIMP) data on these mylonites yielded mean ages of ~ 539 Ma, suggesting successive events of thermal input and shearing within the structure. These features suggest that strain localization processes exert an important control on the rheology of the continental lithosphere; the accommodation of deformation in the middle crust is mainly attained by the presence of weak

  3. Role of deep-Earth water cycling in the growth and evolution of continental crust: Constraints from Cretaceous magmatism in southeast China (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Wang, Xuan-Ce; Wilde, Simon A.; Liu, Liang; Li, Wu-Xian; Yang, Xuemei


    The late Mesozoic igneous province in southeast China provides an excellent opportunity to understand the processes that controlled the growth and evolution of Phanerozoic continental crust. Here we report petrological, whole-rock geochemical and isotopic data, and in situ zircon U-Pb-Lu-Hf isotopic data from granitoids and associated gabbros in the Pingtan and Tong'an complexes, southeast China. Through combining the new results with published datasets in southeast China, we show that the Early Cretaceous magmatic rocks are dominated by juvenile Nd-Hf isotopic compositions, whereas the Late Cretaceous ones display less radiogenic Nd-Hf isotope signatures. Furthermore, Nd-Hf isotope systematics are coupled with decreasing abundance of hydrous minerals and an increase of zircon saturation temperatures. Compiled zircon Hf-O data indicates that the 117-116 Ma granites have zircon δ18O values ranging from mantle values (close to 5.3‰) to as low as 3.9‰, but with dominantly positive initial epsilon Hf (εHf(t)) values. Zircon grains from 105 to 98 Ma rocks have δ18O values plotting within the mantle-like range (6.5‰ - 4.5‰), but mainly with negative εHf(t) values. Zircon grains from ca. 87 Ma rocks have positive εHf(t) values (+ 9.8 to + 0.7) and a large range of δ18O values (6.3‰ - 3.5‰). The variations in Hf-Nd-O isotopic compositions are correlated with decreasing abundance of magma water contents, presenting a case that water-fluxed melting generated large-scale granitic magmatism. Deep-Earth water cycling provides an alternative or additional mechanism to supply volatiles (e.g., H2O) for hydrous basaltic underplating, continental crustal melting, and magmatic differentiation.

  4. Receiver function images of the distorted Philippine Sea slab contact with the continental crust: Implications for generation of the 1891 Nobi earthquake (Mj 8.0) (United States)

    Iidaka, T.; Igarashi, T.; Hashima, A.; Kato, A.; Iwasaki, T.; Research Group Joint Seismic Observations at the Nobi Area


    The 28 October 1891 Nobi earthquake was one of the largest intraplate earthquakes in Japan, with an estimated magnitude of 8.0 determined by the Japan Meteorological Agency. It occurred in central Japan on the Eurasian Plate, beneath which the young Philippine Sea Plate is subducting. The geometry of this plate is not smooth; rather, beneath western Japan it appears distorted over a relatively short lateral distance. Beneath the Kinki region of central Japan, the subduction angle is approximately horizontal, and the Nobi earthquake occurred just above the horizontal section of the Philippine Sea slab. Temporary seismic stations were deployed in this area to investigate local seismic structure and its possible relationship to the cause of the earthquake. Crustal structure was investigated using receiver function analysis with a spatially dense temporary seismic network. A clear image of the subducted Philippine Sea slab was resolved, with ridge-like structures beneath the epicentral area of the Nobi earthquake. The ridge-like structure is in contact with the continental crust, and the fault plane of the Nobi earthquake is located at the edge of one such structure; i.e., in the contact area. The unique structure of the area is inferred to cause stress concentration and strain accumulation on local faults, which resulted in the large size of the Nobi earthquake.

  5. Devonian granitoids and their hosted mafic enclaves in the Gorny Altai terrane, northwestern Central Asian Orogenic Belt: crust-mantle interaction in a continental arc setting (United States)

    Chen, Ming; Sun, Min


    Granitoids are a major component in the upper continental crust and hold key information on how did the continental crust grow and differentiate. This study focuses on the Yaloman intrusive complex from the Gorny Altai terrane, northwestern Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). The association of granitoids and mafic enclaves can provide important clues on the source nature, petrogenetic processes and geodynamic setting of the Yaloman intrusive complex, which in turn will shed light on the crustal evolution in the northwestern CAOB. Zircon U-Pb dating shows that the granitoids, including quartz diorites and granodiorites, were emplaced in ca. 389-387 Ma. The moderate Na2O + K2O contents and low A/CNK values indicate that these rocks belong to the sub-alkaline series with metaluminous to weakly peraluminous compositions. The granitoids yield two-stage zircon Hf model ages of ca. 0.79-1.07 Ga and whole-rock Nd model ages of ca. 0.90-0.99 Ga, respectively, implying that they were mainly sourced from Neoproterozoic juvenile crustal materials. The mafic enclaves show an almost identical crystallization age of ca. 389 Ma. The identification of coarse-grained xenocrysts and acicular apatites, together with the fine-grained texture, makes us infer that these enclaves are likely to represent magmatic globules commingled with the host magmas. The low SiO2 and high MgO contents of the mafic enclaves further suggest that substantial mantle-derived mafic melts were probably involved in their formation. Importantly, the SiO2 contents of the granitoids and mafic enclaves are well correlated with other major elements and most of the trace elements. Also a broadly negative correlation exists between the SiO2 contents and whole-rock epsilon Nd (390 Ma) values of the granitoids. Given the observation of reversely zoned plagioclases within the granitoids and the common occurrence of igneous mafic enclaves, we propose that magma mixing probably played an important role in the formation

  6. Sudbuction-related tectonic mixing between serpentinized mantle and continental crust in the internal Western Alps: exhumed portion of a marble cake? (United States)

    Spalla, M.; Zucali, M.; Cantù, M.; Roda, M.; Marotta, A.


    The pre-Alpine continental crust of the Western Alps is widely affected by subduction-related high-pressure low-temperature (HP-LT) metamorphism and the Sesia-Lanzo Zone (SLZ) represents the widest crustal complex re-equilibrated under HP conditions during Late-Cretaceous (early-Alpine) times. Its Alpine tectonic evolution is compatible with an uplift during active oceanic lithosphere subduction (e.g. Spalla et al., 1996; Meda et al., 2010; Zucali & Spalla, 2011). In the SLZ three main lithologic complexes have been recognized (e.g. Compagnoni et al., 1977): i) Gneiss Minuti complex (GMC); ii) Eclogitic Micaschists complex (EMC); iii) II Dioritic-Kinzigitic Zone (IIDK). IIDK consists of kilometer-size lenses of pelitic and mafic granulites that escaped eclogite facies re-equilibration. EMC and GMC, both pervasively eclogitised, strongly differ in the volume percentage of greenschist facies re-equilibration (Stuenitz, 1989; Spalla et al., 1991). In the southern SLZ the metamorphic complex of Rocca Canavese thrust sheets (RCT; Pognante, 1989 a; Pognante, 1989b) has been recognised, on the ground of its strongly contrasted Alpine metamorphic evolution, characterized by a P-climax recorded under very LT conditions. A new multi-scale structural analysis, performed to acquire new detailed petrologic data and to refine the tectonic trajectory of such a peculiar metamorphic complex, pointed out that RCT is a tectonic mixing of serpentinized mantle and continental rocks deformed together under high pressure conditions. Field analysis reports a superposed grid of metamorphic foliations allowing regional scale correlation of structural and metamorphic stages, after micro-structural identification of mineral assemblages marking successive fabrics in each rock type. Chemical data on variations of mineral compositions in different micro-structural sites, led to the reconstruction of a PTdt (Pressure-Temperature-relative deformation time) path and opened therefore the possibility

  7. Low Pressure-High Temperature Metamorphism and the Advection of Heat to the Continental Crust: A Case Study from Northwest New Guinea (United States)

    Jost, B.; Webb, M.; White, L. T.


    In northwest New Guinea, Palaeozoic basement rocks forming part of the northern margin of the Australian continent are exposed in a rugged mountain range. This remote and understudied region provides a unique window into the complex Palaeozoic evolution and tectonic history of this region, which we help unravel with new field, petrographic, geochemical, and geochronological data. The basement rocks consist of extensive meta-turbidites that were subject to low pressure-high temperature metamorphism along their eastern margin. They are cross-cut by predominantly acidic granitoids. U-Pb zircon dating reveals that these granitoids intruded in three episodes in the Devonian-Carboniferous, the Carboniferous, and the Triassic. The first episode has not previously been reported in the region. The granitoids are strongly peraluminous, suggesting that partial melting of the meta-sedimentary country rock contributed to their petrogenesis (S-type). The occurrence and character of country rock xenoliths and migmatites supports this interpretation. Equilibrium thermodynamic modelling of the metapelites and the migmatites indicates that a substantial amount of heat was added to the lower and middle crust to cause partial melting and regional metamorphism at relatively low pressure. We propose repeated intrusion of hot magma as the mechanism responsible for advecting the necessary heat from the mantle. This likely occurred in an active continental margin setting during the Devonian-Carboniferous and the Triassic, possibly separated by an interval of magmatic quiescence during most of the Permian. New biostratigraphic and low-temperature thermochronological data reveal very recent Pliocene-Pleistocene uplift and unroofing of these basement rocks.

  8. Characterising the continental crust factory: new insights into the roots of an island arc from Hf isotopes in rutile (Kohistan complex, Pakistan) (United States)

    Ewing, Tanya; Müntener, Othmar; Schaltegger, Urs


    Island arcs are one of the primary sites of generation of new continental crust. As such, a question of fundamental importance to models of continental growth is to what extent island arc magmas are strictly juvenile melts derived directly from the mantle, versus potentially incorporating a significant recycled continental component, for example from subducted sediment. The Kohistan complex (northeastern Pakistan) preserves a remarkably complete ˜50 km thick cross-section through an exhumed Jurassic-Cretaceous island arc. It affords a rare opportunity to study the evolution of island arc magmatism from subduction initiation, through intra-oceanic subduction, to arc-continent collision. In this study, we investigate the ultramafic-mafic Jijal Complex, which preserves part of the plutonic roots of the Kohistan complex formed over ˜20 Ma of intra-oceanic subduction. The Jijal Complex is volumetrically dominated by ultramafic rocks and garnet-bearing gabbros whose petrogenesis is controversial. Garnet formation has variously been attributed a prograde metamorphic origin1, a magmatic origin recording crystallisation at high pressures2,3, or a restitic origin following partial melting4. We have characterised the source of the Jijal Complex using in situ LA-MC-ICPMS determination of the Hf isotope composition of rutile from garnet gabbros, which are zircon-free. This work exploits the superior sensitivity of the Neptune Plus, coupled with an improved analytical protocol, to improve precision of this novel technique and permit in situ analysis of rutile with only ˜10-30 ppm Hf. Rutile occurs included in early-formed minerals such as clinopyroxene and garnet, indicating crystallisation at high pressures and temperatures. Rutile from all samples, collected across ˜3 km of former crustal depth, has indistinguishable Hf isotope compositions close to depleted mantle values. Integrating the new Hf isotope data for rutile with previously published whole rock Nd-Sr isotope

  9. Age and composition of the UHP garnet peridotites in the Dabie orogenic belt (central China) record complex crust-mantle interaction in continental margin (United States)

    Zhao, Y.; Zheng, J.; Wang, B.


    The Dabie-Sulu UHP belt was created by the collision between the North and South China cratons in Middle Triassic time (240-225 Ma). There are lots of garnet-bearing ultramafic body occurs as a lens in the belt. Age and composition of the Maowu garnet peridotites in the Dabie orogenic belt are reported. The garnet harzburgites are main moderately refractory (Mg#Ol=92) and minor fertile (Mg#Ol=88) with high Ni (2344-2603 ppm) and low Al2O3 (0.35-0.54 wt.%), CaO (0.76-2.19 wt.%) and TiO2 (˜0.01 wt.%). Zircons in the harzburgites mainly document metamorphism at 230 ± 2 Ma, 275 ± 5 Ma, 357 ± 4 Ma, and complex minor populations of ages including: 1.8 Ga, 1.3 Ga, and Neoproterozic-early Paleozoic ages (901-420 Ma). The early Meszosic and late Paleozoic zircons have similar trace-element patterns and ranges in ɛHf(t) (+0.6 to +3.4), Th/U ratio (0.2-0.7) and Hf depleted-mantle model ages (TDM ) mainly cluster in the interval 1.2-0.9 Ga. In contrast, the Paleo-Mesoproterozoic zircons have negative ɛHf(t) (-24.9 to -2.7) and oldest Hf TDM = 3.4Ga. Zircons of Neoproterozic-early Paleozoic have a wide range of Hf depleted-mantle model ages (2.4-0.7Ga) and ɛHf(t) (-15.3 to +9.5). Above of the all, we suggest that the Maowu garnet harzburgites are interpreted as a fragment of the metasomatized ancient lithospheric mantle beneath the southern margin of the North China Craton. They experienced the Proterozoic thermal event (1.9-1.8Ga), which is coeval with the assembly of the supercontinent Columbia. And then 1.3Ga mantle metasomatism with asthenospheric materials resulted in the final breakup of the Columbia supercontinent. Neoproterozic-early Paleozoic (901-420 Ma), deep parts of the south margin of the craton were metasomatized during the assembly and breakup of the Rodinia supercontinent. Then, the southern margin of the craton occurred oceanic crust subduction ( 357 Ma), subsequent continental deep subduction and final continent-continent collision in Triassic.

  10. Fluid induced metamorphism and strength of the middle to lower continental crust - field and textural examples from Bergen Arcs, Western Norway (United States)

    Austrheim, H.; Putnis, A.; Putnis, C. V.


    Fluids may change the rheology of the lithosphere both by changing the deformation mechanism of minerals and by inducing metamorphic reactions. In the present account the influence of fluid-induced metamorphic reactions on the mineralogical and structural evolution of a thickened continental crust is described from anorthositic granulites in the Lindås Nappe, Bergen Arcs, Norway, where the Grenvillian age (~930 My) granulites (T 800°C, P≤10kbar) are transformed to Caledonian age (~420My) eclogite (~650°C and ≤ 20kbar) and amphibolite facies assemblages. The anorthosite complex ranges in composition from pure anorthosite via gabbroic anorthosite to gabbro with lenses of peridotite and pyroxenites which allow us to study the mineral reactions and assess relative rock strength in a wide range of compositions. The complex is locally banded with up to meter thick garnet-pyroxene rich layers alternating with plagioclase rich layers. In other localities the granulite facies structure is defined by oriented disc-shaped corona textures in a plagioclase rich matrix. The eclogites (garnet, omphacite, amphibole, kyanite, white micas ± plagioclase) and amphibolites (plagioclase, hornblende, kyanite, and white micas) are formed along fluid pathways such as fractures and shear zones. Breccias, where rotated blocks of granulites are surrounded by anastamosing eclogite- and amphibolite facies shear zones, outcrop over areas of km2. Pseudotachylytes are developed in the granulites while the hydrated rocks in the shear zone respond by ductile deformation. A hierachy of rock strength can be inferred from these field observations. Notably the relict granulites form rotated angular blocks within the shear zones suggesting that granulites, independent of composition, are stronger than hydrous eclogitites and amphibolites. The garnet pyroxenite layer forms rigid blocks in eclogites suggesting that the mafic parts of the granulite complex must have been stronger than the

  11. Divesidad y distribución de los crustáceos decápodos de la franja superior del talud superior continental (300-500 m. de profundidad) en la parte norte del mar Caribe colombiano Diversity and distribution of the crustacean decapods of the upper continental slope (300-500m deep) in the nort colombian Caribeanean sea


    Campos Campos Néstor Hernando; Bermúdez Tobón Adriana


    Como un primer paso para obtener la información acerca de la diversidad marina de Colombiaen aguas profundas, el INVEMAR desarrolló un proyecto para la caracterización de la ma-crofauna de la franja superior del talud continental del Mar Caribe colombiano. El trabajopresentado cubre la identificaciónn taxonómica, cuantificación, distribución y estructura dela comunidad de los crustáceos decápodos colectados en las ecoregiones Guajira, Palomino,Tayrona y Magdalena, localizadas entre La Guajira...

  12. Deep continental margin reflectors (United States)

    Ewing, J.; Heirtzler, J.; Purdy, M.; Klitgord, Kim D.


    In contrast to the rarity of such observations a decade ago, seismic reflecting and refracting horizons are now being observed to Moho depths under continental shelves in a number of places. These observations provide knowledge of the entire crustal thickness from the shoreline to the oceanic crust on passive margins and supplement Consortium for Continental Reflection Profiling (COCORP)-type measurements on land.

  13. Molybdenum isotope variations in calc-alkaline lavas from the Banda arc, Indonesia: Assessing the effect of crystal fractionation in creating isotopically heavy continental crust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wille, Martin; Nebel, Oliver; Pettke, Thomas; Vroon, Pieter Z.; König, Stephan; Schoenberg, Ronny


    Recent studies report a large Mo isotope variability of up to 1‰ (expressed in δ98/95MoNIST3134) in convergent margin lavas. These isotopic variations have been associated with subduction zone processes and ultimately may account for heavy and variable isotope signatures in evolved continental

  14. A statistical assessment of seismic models of the U.S. continental crust using Bayesian inversion of ambient noise surface wave dispersion data (United States)

    Olugboji, T. M.; Lekic, V.; McDonough, W.


    We present a new approach for evaluating existing crustal models using ambient noise data sets and its associated uncertainties. We use a transdimensional hierarchical Bayesian inversion approach to invert ambient noise surface wave phase dispersion maps for Love and Rayleigh waves using measurements obtained from Ekström (2014). Spatiospectral analysis shows that our results are comparable to a linear least squares inverse approach (except at higher harmonic degrees), but the procedure has additional advantages: (1) it yields an autoadaptive parameterization that follows Earth structure without making restricting assumptions on model resolution (regularization or damping) and data errors; (2) it can recover non-Gaussian phase velocity probability distributions while quantifying the sources of uncertainties in the data measurements and modeling procedure; and (3) it enables statistical assessments of different crustal models (e.g., CRUST1.0, LITHO1.0, and NACr14) using variable resolution residual and standard deviation maps estimated from the ensemble. These assessments show that in the stable old crust of the Archean, the misfits are statistically negligible, requiring no significant update to crustal models from the ambient noise data set. In other regions of the U.S., significant updates to regionalization and crustal structure are expected especially in the shallow sedimentary basins and the tectonically active regions, where the differences between model predictions and data are statistically significant.

  15. Partial delamination of continental mantle lithosphere, uplift-related crust mantle decoupling, volcanism and basin formation: a new model for the Pliocene Quaternary evolution of the southern East-Carpathians, Romania (United States)

    Chalot-Prat, F.; Girbacea, R.


    A geodynamic model is proposed for the Mid-Miocene to Quaternary evolution of the southern East-Carpathians in order to explain the relationships between shallow and deep geological phenomena that occurred synchronously during late-collision tectonics. In this area, an active volcanic zone cross-cuts since 2 My the suture between the overriding Tisza-Dacia and subducting European continental plates. Mafic calc-alkaline and alkaline magmas (south Harghita and Persani volcanoes) erupted contemporaneously. These magmas were supplied by partial melting of the mantle lithosphere of the subducting, and not of the overriding, plate. In an effort to decipher this geodynamically a-typical setting of magma generation, the spatial and temporal distribution of shallow and deep phenomena was successively examined in order to establish the degree of their interdependence. Our model indicates that intra-mantle delamination of the subducting European plate is the principal cause of a succession of events. It caused upwelling of the hot asthenosphere below a thinned continental lithosphere of the Carpathians, inducing the uplift of the lithosphere and its internal decoupling at the Moho level by isostatic and mostly thermal effects. During this uplift, the crust deformed flexurally whilst the mantle deformed in a ductile way. This triggered decompressional partial melting of the uppermost mantle lithosphere. Flexural deformation of the crust induced its fracturing, allowing for the rapid ascent of magmas to the surface, as well as reactivation of an older detachment horizon at the base of the Carpathian nappe stack above which the Brasov, Ciuc and Gheorghieni hinterland basins formed by extension and gravity spreading. The rapid subsidence of the Focsani foreland basin is controlled by the load exerted on the lithosphere by the delaminated mantle slab that is still attached to it. In this model, crust-mantle decoupling, magma genesis and volcanism, local near-surface hinterland

  16. Magma-poor vs. magma-rich continental rifting and breakup in the Labrador Sea (United States)

    Gouiza, M.; Paton, D.


    Magma-poor and magma-rich rifted margins show distinct structural and stratigraphic geometries during the rift to breakup period. In magma-poor margins, crustal stretching is accommodated mainly by brittle faulting and the formation of wide rift basins shaped by numerous graben and half-graben structures. Continental breakup and oceanic crust accretion are often preceded by a localised phase of (hyper-) extension where the upper mantle is embrittled, serpentinized, and exhumed to the surface. In magma-rich margins, the rift basin is narrow and extension is accompanied by a large magmatic supply. Continental breakup and oceanic crust accretion is preceded by the emplacement of a thick volcanic crust juxtaposing and underplating a moderately thinned continental crust. Both magma-poor and magma-rich rifting occur in response to lithospheric extension but the driving forces and processes are believed to be different. In the former extension is assumed to be driven by plate boundary forces, while in the latter extension is supposed to be controlled by sublithospheric mantle dynamics. However, this view fails in explaining observations from many Atlantic conjugate margins where magma-poor and magma-rich segments alternate in a relatively abrupt fashion. This is the case of the Labrador margin where the northern segment shows major magmatic supply during most of the syn-rift phase which culminate in the emplacement of a thick volcanic crust in the transitional domain along with high density bodies underplating the thinned continental crust; while the southern segment is characterized mainly by brittle extension, mantle seprentinization and exhumation prior to continental breakup. In this work, we use seismic and potential field data to describe the crustal and structural architectures of the Labrador margin, and investigate the tectonic and mechanical processes of rifting that may have controlled the magmatic supply in the different segments of the margin.

  17. Drift of continental rafts with asymmetric heating. (United States)

    Knopoff, L; Poehls, K A; Smith, R C


    A laboratory model of a lithospheric raft is propelled through a viscous asthenospheric layer with constant velocity of scaled magnitude appropriate to continental drift. The propulsion is due to differential heat concentration in the model oceanic and continental crusts.

  18. Differential motion between upper crust and lithospheric mantle in the central Basin and Range (United States)

    Schulte-Pelkum, Vera; Biasi, Glenn; Sheehan, Anne; Jones, Craig


    Stretching of the continental crust in the Basin and Range, western USA, has more than doubled the surface area of the central province. But it is unknown whether stretching affects the entire column of lithosphere down to the convecting mantle, if deep extension occurs offset to the side, or if deeper layers are entirely decoupled from the upper crust. The central Basin and Range province is unusual, compared with its northern and southern counterparts: extension began later; volcanism was far less voluminous; and the unique geochemistry of erupted basalts suggests a long-preserved mantle source. Here we use seismic data and isostatic calculations to map lithospheric thickness in the central Basin and Range. We identify an isolated root of ancient mantle lithosphere that is ~125km thick, providing geophysical confirmation of a strong, cold mantle previously inferred from geochemistry. We suggest that the root caused the later onset of extension and prevented the eruption of voluminous volcanism at the surface. We infer that the root initially pulled away from the Colorado Plateau along with the crust, but then was left behind intact during extension across Death Valley to the Sierra Nevada. We conclude that the upper crust is now decoupled from and moving relative to the root.

  19. The Lost South Gobi Microcontinent: Protolith Studies of Metamorphic Tectonites and Implications for the Evolution of Continental Crust in Southeastern Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Heumann


    Full Text Available The Central Asian Orogenic Belt, or Altaids, is an amalgamation of volcanic arcs and microcontinent blocks that records a complex late Precambrian–Mesozoic accretionary history. Although microcontinents cored by Precambrian basement are proposed to play an integral role in the accretion process, a lack of isotopic data hampers volume estimates of newly produced arc-derived versus old-cratonic crust in southeastern Mongolia. This study investigates metamorphic tectonites in southern Mongolia that have been mapped as Precambrian in age, largely on the basis of their high metamorphic grade and high strain. Here we present results from microstructural analyses and U-Pb zircon geochronology on samples from Tavan Har (44.05° N, 109.55° E and the Yagan-Onch Hayrhan metamorphic core complex (41.89° N, 104.24° E. Our results show no compelling evidence for Precambrian basement in southeastern Mongolia. Rather, the protoliths to all tectonites examined are Paleozoic–Mesozoic age rocks, formed during Devonian–Carboniferous arc magmatism and subsequent Permian–Triassic orogenesis during collision of the South Mongolia arc with the northern margin of China. These results yield important insights into the Paleozoic accretionary history of southern Mongolia, including the genesis of metamorphic and igneous basement during the Paleozoic, as well as implications for subsequent intracontinental reactivation.

  20. Late Paleogene rifting along the Malay Peninsula thickened crust (United States)

    Sautter, Benjamin; Pubellier, Manuel; Jousselin, Pierre; Dattilo, Paolo; Kerdraon, Yannick; Choong, Chee Meng; Menier, David


    Sedimentary basins often develop above internal zones of former orogenic belts. We hereafter consider the Malay Peninsula (Western Sunda) as a crustal high separating two regions of stretched continental crust; the Andaman/Malacca basins in the western side and the Thai/Malay basins in the east. Several stages of rifting have been documented thanks to extensive geophysical exploration. However, little is known on the correlation between offshore rifted basins and the onshore continental core. In this paper, we explore through mapping and seismic data, how these structures reactivate pre-existing Mesozoic basement heterogeneities. The continental core appears to be relatively undeformed after the Triassic Indosinian orogeny. The thick crustal mega-horst is bounded by complex shear zones (Ranong, Klong Marui and Main Range Batholith Fault Zones) initiated during the Late Cretaceous/Early Paleogene during a thick-skin transpressional deformation and later reactivated in the Late Paleogene. The extension is localized on the sides of this crustal backbone along a strip where earlier Late Cretaceous deformation is well expressed. To the west, the continental shelf is underlain by three major crustal steps which correspond to wide crustal-scale tilted blocks bounded by deep rooted counter regional normal faults (Mergui Basin). To the east, some pronounced rift systems are also present, with large tilted blocks (Western Thai, Songkhla and Chumphon basins) which may reflect large crustal boudins. In the central domain, the extension is limited to isolated narrow N-S half grabens developed on a thick continental crust, controlled by shallow rooted normal faults, which develop often at the contact between granitoids and the host-rocks. The outer limits of the areas affected by the crustal boudinage mark the boundary towards the large and deeper Andaman basin in the west and the Malay and Pattani basins in the east. At a regional scale, the rifted basins resemble N-S en

  1. He and N isotopes in thermal springs of the Mexican Pacific coast: subducting slab, continental crust and mantle contributions to fluids of a forearc zone. (United States)

    Taran, Yuri; Inguaggiato, Salvatore; Varley, Nicholas; Ramirez Guzman, Alejandro


    Two oceanic plates are subducting beneath the continent along the Mexican Pacific coast: Cocos Plate south of Colima graben (~19°N) and a young Rivera Plate to the north of Colima graben. The trench is situated ~ 70 km from the shore line which is very close comparing with other continental margins. There are 26 groups of thermal springs between 16°N and 21°N, in a 30 km-wide zone along the coast. The temperature and salinity ranges are 40-90°C and 100-20,000 ppm, respectively. The springs are mainly of a low salinity (Tuna) springs located within the southern board of the Colima graben discharge saline Na-Ca-Cl water (46°C, Cl=15,000 ppm) with N2/Ar > 400, δ15N = +4.6‰, almost no CH4 ( 300, δ15N = +5‰ and 3He/4He = 0.4Ra. A number of hot and warm springs associated with Puerto Vallarta graben are characterized by high 3He/4He up to 4.5Ra, elevated N2/Ar and δ15N. The last group, Punta Mita hot springs (20° 46'N), are submarine vents, 10 m deep. Their gas has elevated CH4 content, high N2/Ar and 3He/4He = 0.4Ra. The results are discussed in several aspects: (1) Why this low heat flow zone is characterized by so high hydrothermal activity? (2) Does the elevated 3He/4He within Michoacan-Colima profile relate to the slab detachment associated with the contact between Cocos and Rivera plates? (3) Do high N2/Ar and δ15N above the Rivera Plate subduction indicate the forearc degassing of the accreted organic-rich oceanic sediments? (4) How to estimate the total flux of volatiles released in a forearc zone from the subducting slab?

  2. Evolution of the Archean continental crust in the nucleus of the Yangtze block: Evidence from geochemistry of 3.0 Ga TTG gneisses in the Kongling high-grade metamorphic terrane, South China (United States)

    Qiu, Xiao-Fei; Ling, Wen-Li; Liu, Xiao-Ming; Lu, Shan-Song; Jiang, Tuo; Wei, Yun-Xu; Peng, Lian-Hong; Tan, Juan-Juan


    Archean Tonalite-Trondhjemite-Granodiorite (TTG) rocks are scattered within the Kongling high-grade metamorphic terrane (KHMT) in the northern South China block. A comprehensive geochronological and geochemical study is carried out on the Taoyuan granitic gneisses, a newly recognized TTG suite in the northwestern KHMT. This suite has long been regarded as a Mesoproterozoic magmatic pluton, but U-Pb zircon ages of 2994 ± 22 Ma and 2970 ± 15 Ma are obtained by LA-ICP-MS method in this study. The Taoyuan gneiss suite is trondhjemitic in composition, and has high SiO2 (67.80-74.93 wt.%), Na2O (5.11-5.81 wt.%) contents with Na2O/K2O ratios greater than unity, and low Ni (2.56-7.61 ppm), Cr (1.26-7.67 ppm), Yb (0.32-0.82 ppm) and Y (4.48-11.5 ppm) contents. Plots show large variation in La/Yb and Sr/Y ratios and pronounced depletion in Nb, Ta and Ti in the primitive mantle-normalized spiderdiagram. The gneiss suite also displays two-stage Nd model ages close to its crystallization age with corresponding εNd(t) values of -2.5 to +3.5. It is thus suggested that the Taoyuan gneisses, in fact, is part of the Archean Kongling basement complex. Geochemical evidence implies that the TTG rocks may be derived from partial melting of subducted oceanic crust from a garnetiferous amphibolite source with residual assemblage of garnet + amphibole + plagioclase. Our study further indicates that the nucleus of the Yangtze block might experience a juvenile continental crustal growth during Mesoarchean. We also suggest that the Yangtze block may have its own crustal evolutionary history independent from the North China craton and the Tarim block before Paleoproterozoic.

  3. Trace element characteristics of mafic and ultramafic meta-igneous rocks from the 3.5 Ga. Warrawoona group: evidence for plume-lithosphere interaction beneath Archaean continental crust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolhar, R.; Hergt, J.; Woodhead, J.


    compositionally similar volcanic greenstones in the Superior Province (Canada). However, this concept is problematic for two reasons: (1) Modern oceanic crust is typically associated with overlying terrigenous/ pelagic sediments, both of which are introduced into the mantle via subduction. Mixing with mantle and subsequent partial melting invariably produces compositions with HFSE depletion and LREE enrichment at low to moderate degrees of melting. (2) Mixing of subduction-modified lithosphere into the mantle followed by melting should be detectable in volcanic rocks with strong depletions in elements such as Nb and Ti, but increased abundances in the LILE and LREE (La/Sm pm >> 1). Compositionally, the Warrawoona meta-igneous rocks resemble compositions found in modern oceanic plateaus (e.g. Broken Ridge) which incorporated variable amounts of continental lithospheric mantle (CLM). Variability in trace element ratios (e.g. Nb/Ta, Ce/Pb, and Nb/U) may reflect source heterogeneity or the coexistence of tectonically accreted oceanic fragments with differing petrogenetic histories. However, well-defined co-variations in major and trace elements of samples from all three major stratigraphic units point to a common magmatic origin. In an attempt to link Archaean rocks to present day analogues, we conclude that the spatial association of ultramafic and mafic volcanics and crustally contaminated high-Mg, Fe rocks most resembles melting of a plume head with incorporation of CLM-components and volcanic outpouring within a (rifted?) continental environment. Support for the existence of pre-existing continental crust comes from published studies which report on xenocrystic zircons in basalts, underlying granitoids and sediments of pre-Warrawoona age and mafic inclusions within granitoid bodies. Temporal decreases in La/Sm pm and Nb/Th pm ratios, along with unfractionated HREE may be interpreted as adiabatic upwelling of plume material and a decreasing influence of the lithospheric component

  4. Crusts: biological (United States)

    Belnap, Jayne; Elias, Scott A.


    Biological soil crusts, a community of cyanobacteria, lichens, mosses, and fungi, are an essential part of dryland ecosystems. They are critical in the stabilization of soils, protecting them from wind and water erosion. Similarly, these soil surface communities also stabilized soils on early Earth, allowing vascular plants to establish. They contribute nitrogen and carbon to otherwise relatively infertile dryland soils, and have a strong influence on hydrologic cycles. Their presence can also influence vascular plant establishment and nutrition.

  5. Crustal structure variations along the NW-African continental margin: a comparison of new and existing models from wide angle and reflection seismic data (United States)

    Biari, Y.; Klingelhoefer, F.; Sahabi, M.; Aslanian, D.; Philippe, S.; Louden, K. E.; Berglar, K.; Moulin, M.; Mehdi, K.; Graindorge, D.; Evain, M.; Benabellouahed, M.; Reichert, C. J.


    Deep seismic data represent a key to understand the geometry and mechanism of continental rifting. The passive continental margin of NW-Africa is one of the oldest on earth, formed during the Upper Triassic-Lower Liassic rifting of the central Atlantic Ocean over 200 Ma. We present new and existing wide-angle and reflection seismic data from three study regions along the margin located in the North Moroccan salt basin, on the central continental margin offshore Safi and in the south, offshore Dakhla. In each of the study areas several combined wide-angle and reflection seismic profiles perpendicular and parallel to the margin have been acquired and forward modelled using comparable methods. The thickness of unthinned continental crust decreases from 36 km in the North to about 27 km in the South. In the North Moroccan Basin continental crust thins from originally 36 km to about 8 km in a 150 km wide zone. The basin itself is underlain by highly thinned continental crust. Offshore safi thinning of the continental crust is confined to a 130 km wide zone with no neighboring sedimentary basin underlain by continental crust. In both areas the zone of crustal thinning is characterised by the presence of large blocks and abundant salt diapirs. In the south crustal thinning is more rapid in a zone of 90 km and asymmetric with the upper crust thinning more closely to the continent than the lower crust, probably due to depth-dependent stretching and the presence of the precambrian Reguibat Ridge on land. Oceanic crust is characterised by a thickness of 7-8 km along the complete margin. Relatively high velocities of up to 7.5 km/s have been imaged between magnetic anomalies S1 and M25, and are probably related to changes in the spreading velocities at the time of the Kimmeridgian/Tithonian plate reorganisation. Volcanic activity seems to be confined to the region next to the Canary Islands, and is thus not related to the initial opening of the oceanic, which was related to no

  6. The wide-angle seismic image of a complex rifted margin, offshore North Namibia: Implications for the tectonics of continental breakup (United States)

    Planert, Lars; Behrmann, Jan; Jokat, Wilfried; Fromm, Tanja; Ryberg, Trond; Weber, Michael; Haberland, Christian


    Voluminous magmatism during the South Atlantic opening has been considered as a classical example for plume related continental breakup. We present a study of the crustal structure around Walvis Ridge, near the intersection with the African margin. Two wide-angle seismic profiles were acquired. One is oriented NNW-SSE, following the continent-ocean transition and crossing Walvis Ridge. A second amphibious profile runs NW-SE from the Angola Basin into continental Namibia. At the continent-ocean boundary (COB) the mafic crust beneath Walvis Ridge is up to 33 km thick, with a pronounced high-velocity lower crustal body. Towards the south there is a smooth transition to 20-25 km thick crust underlying the COB in the Walvis Basin, with a similar velocity structure, indicating a gabbroic lower crust with associated cumulates at the base. The northern boundary of Walvis Ridge towards the Angola Basin shows a sudden change to oceanic crust only 4-6 km thick, coincident with the projection of the Florianopolis Fracture Zone, one of the most prominent tectonic features of the South Atlantic ocean basin. In the amphibious profile the COB is defined by a sharp transition from oceanic to rifted continental crust, with a magmatic overprint landward of the intersection of Walvis Ridge with the Namibian margin. The continental crust beneath the Congo Craton is 40 km thick, shoaling to 35 km further SE. The velocity models show that massive high-velocity gabbroic intrusives are restricted to a narrow zone directly underneath Walvis Ridge and the COB in the south. This distribution of rift-related magmatism is not easily reconciled with models of continental breakup following the establishment of a large, axially symmetric plume in the Earth's mantle. Rift-related lithospheric stretching and associated transform faulting play an overriding role in locating magmatism, dividing the margin in a magma-dominated southern and an essentially amagmatic northern segment.

  7. Identification of radiogenic heat source distribution in the crust: A ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Radiogenic heat sources present in the continental crust contribute significantly to the total surface heat flow and temperature distribution in the crust. Various modelsforthe depth distribution of radiogenic sources have been proposed. Among these modelsthe exponential model has been shown to be an optimal, smooth ...

  8. Developing a Stretching Program. (United States)

    Beaulieu, J E


    In brief: Although stretching exercises can prevent muscle injuries and enhance athletic performance, they can also cause injury. The author explains the four most common types of stretching exercises and explains why he considers static stretching the safest. He also sets up a stretching routine for runners. In setting up a safe stretching program, one should (1) precede stretching exercises with a mild warm-up; (2) use static stretching; (3) stretch before and after a workout; (4) begin with mild and proceed to moderate exercises; (5) alternate exercises for muscle groups; (6) stretch gently and slowly until tightness, not pain, is felt; and (7) hold the position for 30 to 60 seconds.

  9. Stretch Sensor Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The invention relates to a method for determining stretch values and movement of body parts, e.g. a foot, by analysing stretch data from a stretch sensor. By analysing data from the stretch sensor it is possible to determine stretch samples which are associated with particular motion phases...

  10. Earth's crust model of the South-Okhotsk Basin by wide-angle OBS data (United States)

    Kashubin, Sergey N.; Petrov, Oleg V.; Rybalka, Alexander V.; Milshtein, Evgenia D.; Shokalsky, Sergey P.; Verba, Mark L.; Petrov, Evgeniy O.


    -waves velocity models of the sedimentary strata and the upper consolidated crust. Velocity values in the upper consolidated crust beneath the South-Okhotsk Basin (Vp = 5.50-5.80 km/s, Vp/Vs = 1.74-1.76) allow interpretation of this 2.5-3.5-km-thick layer to be consistent with a felsic (granodioritic) crust. These results suggest that the Earth's crust in this region can be considered continental in nature, rather than previously accepted oceanic crust. Even though, the crust is thinned and stretched at this location.

  11. The Mafic Lower Crust of Neoproterozoic age beneath Western Arabia: Implications for Understanding African Lower Crust (United States)

    Stern, R. J.; Mooney, W. D.


    We review evidence that the lower crust of Arabia - and by implication, that beneath much of Africa was formed at the same time as the upper crust, rather than being a product of Cenozoic magmatic underplating. Arabia is a recent orphan of Africa, separated by opening of the Red Sea ~20 Ma, so our understanding of its lower crust provides insights into that of Africa. Arabian Shield (exposed in W. Arabia) is mostly Neoproterozoic (880-540 Ma) reflecting a 300-million year process of continental crustal growth due to amalgamated juvenile magmatic arcs welded together by granitoid intrusions that make up as much as 50% of the Shield's surface. Seismic refraction studies of SW Arabia (Mooney et al., 1985) reveal two layers, each ~20 km thick, separated by a well-defined Conrad discontinuity. The upper crust has average Vp ~6.3 km/sec whereas the lower crust has average Vp ~7.0 km/sec, corresponding to a granitic upper crust and gabbroic lower crust. Neogene (Yemen to Syria. Many of these lavas contain xenoliths, providing a remarkable glimpse of the lower-crustal and upper-mantle lithosphere beneath W. Arabia. Lower crustal xenoliths brought up in 8 harrats in Saudi Arabia, Jordan, and Syria are mostly 2-pyroxene granulites of igneous (gabbroic, anorthositic, and dioritic) origin. They contain plagioclase, orthopyroxene, and clinopyroxene, and a few contain garnet and rare amphibole and yield mineral-equilibrium temperatures of 700-900°C. Pyroxene-rich and plagioclase-rich suites have mean Al2O3 contents of 13% and 19%, respectively: otherwise the two groups have similar elemental compositions, with ~50% SiO2 and ~1% TiO2, with low K2O (time. Lower crust of Arabia clearly formed during Neoproterozoic time, about the same time as its upper crust complement; a similar origin for the lower crust beneath the broad expanses of Neoproterozoic crust in N and E Africa is likely. There is no evidence that any of the mafic lower crust of Arabia formed due to underplating by

  12. The Hatton Basin and continental margin: Crustal structure from wide-angle seismic and gravity data (United States)

    Vogt, Ulrike; Makris, Jannis; O'Reilly, Brian M.; Hauser, Franz; Readman, Peter W.; Jacob, A. W. Brian; Shannon, Pat M.


    Results from a wide-angle seismic and gravity study between the Rockall Bank and the Iceland Basin in the North Atlantic are presented. Crustal and sedimentary structures are resolved in the Hatton Basin and across the Hatton continental margin (HCM) east of magnetic anomaly 24. The structure of the oceanic crust west of the anomaly is also determined. Gravity data support the seismic model in areas of good seismic coverage and are used to control the model where the wide-angle seismic data are poor. A two-layer sedimentary sequence is present both in the Hatton Basin and across the continental margin. The lower layer, with P wave velocity of about 4 km/s, is interpreted as pre-Eocene synrift sediments and is up to 3.5 km thick. A younger and thinner (1-2.5 km) postrift sequence, with a velocity of about 2 km/s, defines a strong velocity contrast, which suggests an erosional unconformity surface. The sedimentary structure is distinctly different from that in the Rockall Trough, where a third intermediate layer (Vp ≈ 3 km/s) occurs. The three-layer crust, characterized by two intracrustal reflections (PiP1 and PiP2) varies from 30 km thick under the Rockall Bank to about 15 km below the Hatton Basin, where it is stretched by a factor of 2 relative to onshore Ireland. The crust is thinnest below the Hatton Bank, where the presence of a single intracrustal reflection indicates that the lower crustal layer thins to below the seismic resolution limit. Below the HCM a region of thick lower crust with anomalously high velocity (Vp ≈ 7.2 km/s) is resolved by the seismic and gravity data. It is connected (west of anomaly 24) to a region of oceanic crust, which is thicker than in the Iceland Basin. These relationships between the thick lower crust below the HCM and the oceanic crust in the Iceland Basin are interpreted as evidence for magmatic underplating, consistent with previous models for the HCM. The inferred unconformity surface between the synrift and postrift

  13. Summary of the stretching tectonics research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Dagan


    The rise of stretching tectonics is established on the basis of recent structural geology theory, the establishment of metamorphic nucleus complex structural model on one hand plays an important promoting art to the development of stretching structure, on the other hand, it needs constant supplement and perfection in practice. Metamorphic nucleus complex is the carrier of comparatively deep geological information in vertical section of the crust and has wide distribution in the era of south China. Evidently, it can be taken as the 'key' to understanding the deep and studying the basement, Strengthening the study will play the important promoting role to the deep prospecting. The study of stretching tectonics is not only limited within the range of structure and metamorphism, but combine with the studies of sedimentation, magmatism, metamorphism and mineralization, thus form a new field of tectonic geology of self-developing system

  14. The Sr, Nd, and Hf isotopic geochemistry of rocks of the gabbro-diorite-tonalite association from the Eastern Segment of the Middle Urals as an indicator of the age of the continental crust in this area (United States)

    Smirnov, V. N.; Ivanov, K. S.; Ronkin, Yu. L.; Koroteev, V. A.; Serov, P. A.; Gerdes, A.


    According to isotopic analysis of rocks of the Reft gabbro-diorite-tonalite complex (Middle Urals), gabbro and related diorite and dikes and vein-shaped bodies of plagiogranitoids, crosscutting gabbro, are similar to the depleted mantle substance in ɛNd( T) = 8.6-9.7 and ɛHf( T) = 15.9-17.9. Their model Hf ages are correlated with the time of crystallization. Here, the tonalites and quartz diorites constituting most of the Reft massif are characterized by lower values: ɛNd( T) = 3.7-6.0, ɛHf( T) = 11.1-12.7, and T DM values significantly exceeding the age datings. This is evidence that Neoproterozoic crustal rocks were a source of parental magma for these rocks. The primary 87Sr/86Sr ratio in rocks of both groups is highly variable (0.70348-0.70495). The data obtained allow us to reach the conclusion that the Reft gabbro-diorite-tonalite complex was formed as a result of nearly synchronous processes occurring in the crust and the mantle within a limited area.

  15. Stretching Safely and Effectively (United States)

    ... of stretching before or after hitting the trail, ballet floor or soccer field. Before you plunge into ... ballistic stretching on strength and muscular fatigue of ballet dancers and resistance-trained women. Journal of Strength ...

  16. The stretching amplitude and thermal regime of the lithosphere in the nonvolcanic passive margin of Antarctica in the Mawson Sea region (United States)

    Galushkin, Yu. I.; Leitchenkov, G. L.; Guseva, Yu. B.; Dubinin, E. P.


    The burial history and thermal evolution of the lithosphere within the passive nonvolcanic Antarctic margin in the region of the Mawson Sea are numerically reconstructed for the margin areas along the seismic profile 5909 with the use of the GALO basin modeling system. The amplitudes of the lithosphere stretching at the different stages of continental rifting which took place from 160 to 90 Ma ago are calculated from the geophysical estimates of the thickness of the consolidated crust and the tectonic analysis of the variations in the thickness of the sedimentary cover and sea depths during the evolution of the basin. It is hypothesized that the formation of the recent sedimentary section sequence in the studied region of the Antarctic margin began 140 Ma ago on a basement that was thinned by a factor of 1.6 to 4.5 during the first episode of margin stretching (160-140 Ma) under a fairly high heat flux. The reconstruction of the thermal regime of the lithosphere has shown that the mantle rocks could occur within the temperature interval of serpentinization and simultaneously within the time interval of lithospheric stretching (-160 fractures in these zones is less probable. However, serpentinization could take place in these areas as in the other margin segments at the stage of presedimentation ultra slow basement stretching.

  17. Crustal growth at active continental margins: Numerical modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogt, Katharina; Gerya, Taras; Castro, Antonio

    The dynamics and melt sources for crustal growth at active continental margins are analyzed by using a 2D coupled petrological–thermomechanical numerical model of an oceanic-continental subduction zone. This model includes spontaneous slab retreat and bending, dehydration of subducted crust, aqueous

  18. The Porcupine Basin: from rifting to continental breakup (United States)

    Reston, Timothy; Gaw, Viola; Klaeschen, Dirk; McDermott, Ken


    Southwest of Ireland, the Porcupine Basin is characterized by axial stretching factors that increase southward to values greater than six and typical of rifted margins. As such, the basin can be regarded as a natural laboratory to investigate the evolution and symmetry of rifting leading towards continental separation and breakup, and in particular the processes of mantle serpentinisation, and the onset of detachment faulting. We have processed through to prestack depth migration a series of E-W profiles crossing the basin at different axial stretching factors and linked by a N-S profile running close to the rift axis. Our results constrain the structure of the basin and have implications for the evolution of rifted margins. In the north at a latitude of 52.25N, no clear detachment is imaged, although faults do appear to cut down into the mantle, so that serpentinisation may have started. Further south (51.75N), a bright reflection (here named P) cuts down to the west from the base of the sedimentary section, is overlain by small fault blocks and appears to represent a detachment fault. P may in part follow the top of partially serpentinized mantle: this interpretation is consistent with gravity modelling, with numerical models of crustal embrittlement and mantle serpentinization during extension and with wide-angle data (see posters of Prada and of Watremez). Furthermore, P closely resembles the S reflection west of Iberia, where such serpentinites are well documented. P develops where the crust was thinned to less than 3 km during rifting, again similar to S. Although overall the basin remains symmetrical, the consistent westward structural dip of the detachment implies that, at high stretching factors, extension became asymmetric. Analysis of the depth sections suggests that the detachment may have been active as a rolling hinge rooting at low-angle beneath the Porcupine Bank, consistent with the presence of a footwall of serpentinites. This requires very weak

  19. Moroccan crustal response to continental drift. (United States)

    Kanes, W H; Saadi, M; Ehrlich, E; Alem, A


    The formation and development of a zone of spreading beneath the continental crust resulted in the breakup of Pangea and formation of the Atlantic Ocean. The crust of Morocco bears an extremely complete record of the crustal response to this episode of mantle dynamics. Structural and related depositional patterns indicate that the African margin had stabilized by the Middle Jurassic as a marine carbonate environment; that it was dominated by tensile stresses in the early Mesozoic, resulting in two fault systems paralleling the Atlantic and Mediterranean margins and a basin and range structural-depositional style; and that it was affected by late Paleozoic metamorphism and intrusion. Mesozoic events record the latter portion of African involvement in the spreading episode; late Paleozoic thermal orogenesis might reflect the earlier events in the initiation of the spreading center and its development beneath significant continental crust. In that case, more than 100 million years were required for mantle dynamics to break up Pangea.

  20. Stretched Wire Mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowden, Gordon; /SLAC


    Stretched wires are beginning to play an important role in the alignment of accelerators and synchrotron light sources. Stretched wires are proposed for the alignment of the 130 meter long LCLS undulator. Wire position technology has reached sub-micron resolution yet analyses of perturbations to wire straightness are hard to find. This paper considers possible deviations of stretched wire from the simple 2-dimensional catenary form.

  1. Moho vs crust-mantle boundary: Evolution of an idea (United States)

    O'Reilly, Suzanne Y.; Griffin, W. L.


    The concept that the Mohorovicic Discontinuity (Moho) does not necessarily coincide with the base of the continental crust as defined by rock-type compositions was introduced in the early 1980s. This had an important impact on understanding the nature of the crust-mantle boundary using information from seismology and from deep-seated samples brought to the surface as xenoliths in magmas, or as tectonic terranes. The use of empirically-constrained P-T estimates to plot the locus of temperature vs depth for xenoliths defined a variety of geotherms depending on tectonic environment. The xenolith geotherms provided a framework for constructing lithological sections through the deep lithosphere, and revealed that the crust-mantle boundary in off-craton regions commonly is transitional over a depth range of about 5-20 km. Early seismic-reflection data showed common layering near the Moho, correlating with the petrological observation of multiple episodes of basaltic intrusion around the crust-mantle boundary. Developments in seismology, petrophysics and experimental petrology have refined interpretation of lithospheric domains. The expansion of in situ geochronology (especially zircon U-Pb ages and Hf-isotopes; Os isotopes of mantle sulfides) has defined tectonic events that affected whole crust-mantle sections, and revealed that the crust-mantle boundary can change in depth through time. However, the nature of the crust-mantle boundary in cratonic regions remains enigmatic, mainly due to lack of key xenoliths or exposed sections. The observation that the Moho may lie significantly deeper than the crust-mantle boundary has important implications for modeling the volume of the crust. Mapping the crust using seismic techniques alone, without consideration of the petrological problems, may lead to an overestimation of crustal thickness by 15-30%. This will propagate to large uncertainties in the calculation of elemental mass balances relevant to crust-formation processes

  2. Continental tectonics and continental kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allegre, C.J.; Jaupart, C.; Paris-7 Univ., 75


    We present a model of continental growth which combines the results of geochemical studies and tectonic ideas about the evolution of continents through geological time. The process of continental growth is mainly controlled by surface phenomena. Continental material is extracted from the mantle along subduction zones at the periphery of oceans, and is destroyed in collision zones where it is remobilized and made available for subduction. We derive an equation for S, the portion of the Earth's surface occupied by continents, which reads as follows: dS/dt=a . √(1-S)-b . S. Coefficients a and b depend on the geometry of plates, on their number and on their velocities. We assume that they decrease exponentially with time with the same time-scale α. This model satisfies both geochemical and tectonic constraints, and allows the integration of several current observations in a single framework. (orig.)

  3. Stretching: Does It Help? (United States)

    Vardiman, Phillip; Carrand, David; Gallagher, Philip M.


    Stretching prior to activity is universally accepted as an important way to improve performance and help prevent injury. Likewise, limited flexibility has been shown to decrease functional ability and predispose a person to injuries. Although this is commonly accepted, appropriate stretching for children and adolescents involved with sports and…

  4. The role of mechanical heterogeneities during continental breakup: a 3D lithospheric-scale modelling approach (United States)

    Duclaux, Guillaume; Huismans, Ritske S.; May, Dave


    How and why do continents break? More than two decades of analogue and 2D plane-strain numerical experiments have shown that despite the origin of the forces driving extension, the geometry of continental rifts falls into three categories - or modes: narrow rift, wide rift, or core complex. The mode of extension itself is strongly influenced by the rheology (and rheological behaviour) of the modelled layered system. In every model, an initial thermal or mechanical heterogeneity, such as a weak seed or a notch, is imposed to help localise the deformation and avoid uniform stretching of the lithosphere by pure shear. While it is widely accepted that structural inheritance is a key parameter for controlling rift localisation - as implied by the Wilson Cycle - modelling the effect of lithospheric heterogeneities on the long-term tectonic evolution of an extending plate in full 3D remains challenging. Recent progress in finite-element methods applied to computational tectonics along with the improved accessibility to high performance computers, now enable to switch from plane strain thermo-mechanical experiments to full 3D high-resolution experiments. Here we investigate the role of mechanical heterogeneities on rift opening, linkage and propagation during extension of a layered lithospheric systems with pTatin3d, a geodynamics modeling package utilising the material-point-method for tracking material composition, combined with a multigrid finite-element method to solve heterogeneous, incompressible visco-plastic Stokes problems. The initial model setup consists in a box of 1200 km horizontally by 250 km deep. It includes a 35 km layer of continental crust, underlaid by 85 km of sub-continental lithospheric mantle, and an asthenospheric mantle. Crust and mantle have visco-plastic rheologies with a pressure dependent yielding, which includes strain weakening, and a temperature, stress, strain-rate-dependent viscosity based on wet quartzite rheology for the crust, and wet

  5. Dense and Dry Mantle Between the Continental Crust and the Oceanic Slab: Folding, Faulting and Tearing in the Slab in the Pampean Flat Slab, Southern Central Andes Evidenced by 3D Body Wave Tomography Along the 2015 Illapel, Chile Earthquake Rupture Area (United States)

    Comte, D.; Farías, M.; Roecker, S. W.; Brandon, M. T.


    The 2015 Illapel interplate earthquake Mw 8.4 generated a large amount of aftershocks that was recorded by the Chile-Illapel Aftershock Experiment (CHILLAX) during a year after the mainshock. Using this database, along with previous seismological campaigns, an improved 3D body wave tomographic image was obtained, allowing us to visualize first-order lithospheric discontinuities. This new analysis confirms not only the presence of this dense block, but also that the Benioff zone extends with a 30° dip even below the 100 km depth, where the Nazca plate has been interpreted to be flat. Recent results of seismic anisotropy show that the oceanic plate has been detached at depths greater than 300 km. We propose that: i) The dry, cold mantle beneath the continental crust is an entrapped mantle, cooled by the slab flattening, while the western part would be hydrated by slab-derived fluid; ii) The Nazca plate would be faulted and is now subducting with a normal dip beneath the flattened slab segment. Considering that the slab segment is detached from deeper part of the subducted plate, slab pull on the flat segment would be reduced, decreasing its eastward advance. In the western side, the flat segment of the slab has been observed to be slightly folded. We propose that the current normal subduction is related to the slab break-off resulting from the loss of a slab-pull force, producing the accretion of the slab beneath the dry and cold mantle. Considering that the flat slab segment does not occur at depths shallower than 100 km, rollback of the slab is not expected. In turn, suction forces would have induced the shortening in the flat segment considering its eastward slowing down due to slab break-off, thus producing a breakthrough faulting. This proposition implies that the underplated flat slab segment, along with the overlying dense and dry mantle may be delaminated by gravitional instabilities and ablative subduction effects.

  6. Dynamic stretching is effective as static stretching at increasing flexibility


    Coons, John M.; Gould, Colleen E.; Kim, Jwa K.; Farley, Richard S.; Caputo, Jennifer L.


    This study examined the effect of dynamic and static (standard) stretching on hamstring flexibility. Twenty-five female volleyball players were randomly assigned to dynamic (n = 12) and standard (n = 13) stretching groups. The experimental group trained with repetitive dynamic stretching exercises, while the standard modality group trained with static stretching exercises. The stretching interventions were equivalent in the time at stretch and were performed three days a week for four weeks. ...

  7. The chemical evolution of Earth's emerged crust inferred from titanium isotopes (United States)

    Greber, N. D.; Dauphas, N.; Bekker, A.; Ptáček, M. P.; Bindeman, I. N.; Hofmann, A.


    Earth's earliest crust was ultramafic/mafic in composition. In contrast, modern Earth consists of a mafic oceanic crust and a continental crust dominated by felsic rocks. The Hadean zircon record suggests that at around 4.0 Ga, Earth's crust included some felsic rocks but their proportion relative to mafic rocks has been the subject of much discussion [1]. Several studies have shown evidence that the early Archean continental crust was mostly mafic and transitioned from 3.0 to 2.0 Ga to a modern-like felsic crust. This change in the nature of continental crust was tied to the onset of plate tectonics, arguing that it is difficult to make a large proportion of felsic rocks in a non-subduction setting [2]. Understanding the nature of Earth's early continental crust is also critical as it controls the bio-nutrient supply to the oceans and influences Earth's climate. Most reconstructions of the composition of Earth's emerged crust rely on terrigenous sediments whose composition can be altered relative to source rocks by weathering, sediment transport and metasomatism. We present a novel approach based on the Ti isotopic composition (δ49Ti) of shales to reconstruct the chemical composition of emerged continental crust through time. This proxy is based on the observation that the δ49Ti value of igneous rocks increases with increasing SiO2 concentration. Komatiites and basalts have an identical δ49Ti value to the bulk silicate Earth (around +0.005‰). Rocks with a granitic composition can reach up to a δ49Ti value of +0.55‰ [3]. Therefore, by measuring the δ49Ti values of shales with continental provenance, the SiO2 content of the emerged continental crust can be estimated, providing constraints on the proportion of mafic to felsic rocks. We measured δ49Ti values of shales ranging in age from 3.5 Ga to present. The average δ49Ti value of shales is almost constant over the last 3.5 Ga and always heavier than that of mafic rocks. We applied a three


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Schulmann


    Full Text Available Continental crust is formed above subduction zones by well-known process of “juvenile crust growth”. This new crust is in modern Earth assembled into continents by two ways: (i short-lived collisions of continental blocks with the Laurussian or later Eurasian continent along the “Alpine Himalayan collisional/interior orogens” in the heart of the Pangean continental plates realm; and (ii long lived lateral accretion of ocean-floor fragments along “circum-Pacific accretionary/peripheral orogens” at the border of the PaleoPacific and modern Pacific oceanic plate.

  9. Structure of the Crust beneath Cameroon, West Africa, from the Joint Inversion of Rayleigh Wave Group Velocities and Receiver Functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokam, A K; Tabod, C T; Nyblade, A A; Julia, J; Wiens, D A; Pasyanos, M E


    The Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL) is a major geologic feature that cuts across Cameroon from the south west to the north east. It is a unique volcanic lineament which has both an oceanic and a continental sector and consists of a chain of Tertiary to Recent, generally alkaline volcanoes stretching from the Atlantic island of Pagalu to the interior of the African continent. The oceanic sector includes the islands of Bioko (formerly Fernando Po) and Sao Tome and Principe while the continental sector includes the Etinde, Cameroon, Manengouba, Bamboutos, Oku and Mandara mountains, as well as the Adamawa and Biu Plateaus. In addition to the CVL, three other major tectonic features characterize the region: the Benue Trough located northwest of the CVL, the Central African Shear Zone (CASZ), trending N70 degrees E, roughly parallel to the CVL, and the Congo Craton in southern Cameroon. The origin of the CVL is still the subject of considerable debate, with both plume and non-plume models invoked by many authors (e.g., Deruelle et al., 2007; Ngako et al, 2006; Ritsema and Allen, 2003; Burke, 2001; Ebinger and Sleep, 1998; Lee et al, 1994; Dorbath et al., 1986; Fairhead and Binks, 1991; King and Ritsema, 2000; Reusch et al., 2010). Crustal structure beneath Cameroon has been investigated previously using active (Stuart et al, 1985) and passive (Dorbath et al., 1986; Tabod, 1991; Tabod et al, 1992; Plomerova et al, 1993) source seismic data, revealing a crust about 33 km thick at the south-western end of the continental portion of the CVL (Tabod, 1991) and the Adamawa Plateau, and thinner crust (23 km thick) beneath the Garoua Rift in the north (Stuart et al, 1985) (Figure 1). Estimates of crustal thickness obtained using gravity data show similar variations between the Garoua rift, Adamawa Plateau, and southern part of the CVL (Poudjom et al., 1995; Nnange et al., 2000). In this study, we investigate further crustal structure beneath the CVL and the adjacent regions in

  10. Biocatalysis: Unmasked by stretching (United States)

    Kharlampieva, Eugenia; Tsukruk, Vladimir V.


    The biocatalytic activity of enzyme-loaded responsive layer-by-layer films can be switched on and off by simple mechanical stretching. Soft materials could thus be used to trigger biochemical reactions under mechanical action, with potential therapeutic applications.

  11. Mineralization through geologic time: Evolution of continental crust (United States)

    Veizer, Jan; Laznicka, Peter; Jansen, S. L.


    In analogy to living systems, geologic entities (e.g., rocks, mineral deposits, tectonic realms and domains) are involved in the process of perpetual generation and destruction (birth/death cycles). This results in time distribution patterns akin to age structures in living populations and the systematics is amenable to treatment by the concepts of population dynamics. Utilizing this theoretical approach, the survivorship patterns for major realms of the plate tectonic system, for consitutent rocks, and for the entombed mineral resources are predicted. The present inventory encompasses global economic accumulations of metals by geologic age. The deposits of these metals were assigned to nine broad genetic categories, with an attempt to relate each category to tectonic setting within the framework of global plate tectonics.

  12. Tracking the thermal properties of the lower continental crust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ray, Labani; Förster, Hans-Jürgen; Förster, Andrea


    In this study, the bulk thermal conductivity (TC) of 26 rock samples representing different types of granulite-facies rocks, i.e., felsic, intermediate and mafic granulites, from the Southern Granulite Province, India, is measured at dry and saturated conditions with the optical-scanning method. ...

  13. Water-fluxed melting of the continental crust: A review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Weinberg, R. F.; Hasalová, Pavlína

    212-215, January (2015), s. 158-188 ISSN 0024-4937 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : aqueous fluids * crustal anatexis * granites * silicate melts * water-fluxed melting Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 3.723, year: 2015

  14. Thermochemical structure of the Earth's mantle and continental crust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerri, Mattia

    in determining crustal seismic discontinuities. In the second chapter, I deal about the possibility to disentangle the dynamic and isostatic contribution in shaping the Earth's surface topography. Dynamic topography is directly linked to mantle convection driven by mantle thermo-chemical anomalies, and can......A detailed knowledge of the Earth's thermal structure and chemical composition is fundamental in order to understand the processes driving the planet ormation and evolution. The inaccessibility of most of the Earth's interior makes the determination of its thermo-chemical conditions a challenging...... argue therefore that our understandings of the lithosphere density structure, needed to determine the isostatic topography, and of the mantle density and viscosity, required to compute the dynamic topography, are still too limited to allow a robust determination of mantle convection effects on the Earth...

  15. Global Mapping of Oceanic and Continental Shelf Crustal Thickness and Ocean-Continent Transition Structure (United States)

    Kusznir, Nick; Alvey, Andy; Roberts, Alan


    The 3D mapping of crustal thickness for continental shelves and oceanic crust, and the determination of ocean-continent transition (OCT) structure and continent-ocean boundary (COB) location, represents a substantial challenge. Geophysical inversion of satellite derived free-air gravity anomaly data incorporating a lithosphere thermal anomaly correction (Chappell & Kusznir, 2008) now provides a useful and reliable methodology for mapping crustal thickness in the marine domain. Using this we have produced the first comprehensive maps of global crustal thickness for oceanic and continental shelf regions. Maps of crustal thickness and continental lithosphere thinning factor from gravity inversion may be used to determine the distribution of oceanic lithosphere, micro-continents and oceanic plateaux including for the inaccessible polar regions (e.g. Arctic Ocean, Alvey et al.,2008). The gravity inversion method provides a prediction of continent-ocean boundary location which is independent of ocean magnetic anomaly and isochron interpretation. Using crustal thickness and continental lithosphere thinning factor maps with superimposed shaded-relief free-air gravity anomaly, we can improve the determination of pre-breakup rifted margin conjugacy and sea-floor spreading trajectory during ocean basin formation. By restoring crustal thickness & continental lithosphere thinning to their initial post-breakup configuration we show the geometry and segmentation of the rifted continental margins at their time of breakup, together with the location of highly-stretched failed breakup basins and rifted micro-continents. For detailed analysis to constrain OCT structure, margin type (i.e. magma poor, "normal" or magma rich) and COB location, a suite of quantitative analytical methods may be used which include: (i) Crustal cross-sections showing Moho depth and crustal basement thickness from gravity inversion. (ii) Residual depth anomaly (RDA) analysis which is used to investigate OCT

  16. Quantitative restoration the Gulf of Mexico continental margins based on a newly-derived, basin-wide, crustal thickness map (United States)

    Nguyen, L. C.; Mann, P.


    For decades, one of the main difficulties for understanding the tectonic evolution of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) is quantifying the amount of crustal thinning of its deeply-buried and salt-covered continental margins formed during the Triassic-Jurassic rifting. In this study, we present a new crustal thickness map for the entire GOM and its surrounding areas based on integration of: 1) depth to basement compilation of previous seismic refraction and well data; and 2) regional estimation of Moho depths from 3D gravity inversion. Gravity modeling of salt thickness and Moho depth provide new constraints on crustal thickness in areas where refraction and well data are not available from both the US and Mexican GOM. Our derived crustal thickness map shows a zone of stretched continental crust with an average thickness of 20 km extending 700 km from the Ouachita foldbelt to the Sigsbee escarpment and in a 200-km-wide zone along the north and NW edge of the Yucatan block. To fully reconstruct the GOM to its pre-rift stage, we first close the late Jurassic oceanic part of the deep GOM using the traces of oceanic transform faults mapped from satellite gravity data. We then use our crustal thickness map to restore the thinned continental crust of the conjugate margins. Restoring the Yucatan block in a NW-SE direction produces the optimal, closed-fit model which supports a two-phase, GOM opening concept with early asymmetrical rifting across a broader, more extended, North American lower plate ( 250 km) in the northern, US GOM and a narrower, less extended, Yucatan upper plate ( 100 km) in the southern, Mexican GOM. Our full-fit reconstruction shows a single, post-rift Louann-Campeche salt-filled sag basin and re-aligned Paleozoic magnetic trends between the Yucatan block and Florida.

  17. Crustal structure transition from oceanic arc to continental arc, eastern Aleutian Islands and Alaska Peninsula (United States)

    Fliedner, Moritz M.; Klemperer, Simon L.


    The Aleutian island arc crosses from the Pacific Ocean to the North-American continent at the island of Unimak. 3-D finite-difference traveltime inversion of our onshore-offshore seismic reflection/refraction data gives a velocity model of the crust and uppermost mantle. The arc crust is on average 30 km thick, but thickens to almost 40 km under the western Alaska Peninsula. The transition from oceanic arc to continental arc is characterised by a decrease in average velocity in the upper crust from about 6.5 km/s to less than 6.0 km/s, with no systematic change in the velocity of the lower crust. Throughout our study area, in the upper 15 km of the crust the highest velocities are observed in the fore-arc just south of the volcanic line. In the lower crust, the lowest velocities of just 6.2 km/s are found close to the volcanic line. The uppermost mantle is quite heterogeneous with velocities ranging from 7.6 to 8.2 km/s, in part due to the thermal gradient from cold fore-arc to hot back-arc. Whereas the Aleutian oceanic (fore-)arc has higher seismic velocities than average continental crust throughout the crust, the Peninsula section is close to the continental average in the upper c. 20 km of the crust. We infer that repeated episodes of arc magmatism can produce a felsic-to-intermediate upper crust as is observed in the continents, but arc magmatism produces a thicker mafic lower crust than the average continent retains. Some of the excess mafic material in the island-arc crust can be attributed to pre-existing oceanic crust, which is less evident or absent in a continental arc.

  18. Continental Rifts (United States)

    Rosendahl, B. R.

    Continental Rifts, edited by A. M. Quennell, is a new member of the Benchmark Papers in Geology Series, edited in toto by R. W. Fairbridge. In this series the individual volume editors peruse the literature on a given topic, select a few dozen papers of ostensibly benchmark quality, and then reorder them in some sensible fashion. Some of the original papers are republished intact, but many are chopped into “McNuggets™” of information. Depending upon the volume editor, the chopping process can range from a butchering job to careful and prudent pruning. The collecting, sifting, and reorganizing tasks are, of course, equally editor-sensitive. The end product of this series is something akin to a set of Reader's Digest of Geology.

  19. The continental lithosphere: a geochemical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkesworth, C.J.; Person, G.; Turner, S.P.; Calsteren, P. Van; Gallagher, K.


    The lithosphere is the cool strong outler layer of the Earth that is effectively a boundary layer to the convecting interior. The evidence from mantle xenoliths and continental basalts is that the lower continental crust and uppermost mantle are different beneath Archaen and proterozoic areas. Mantle xenoliths from Archaen terrains, principally the Kaapvaal craton in southern Africa, are significantly depleted in Fe and other major elements which are concentrated in basalts. Nd and Os isotope data on inclusions in diamonds and peridoties respectively, indicate that such mantle is as old as the overlying Archaen crust. Since it appears to have been coupled to the overlying crust, and to have been isolated from the homogenising effects of convection for long periods of time, it is inferred to be within the continental lithosphere. The mantle lithosphere beneath Proterozoic and younger areas is less depleted in major elements, and so it is more fertile, less buoyant, and therefore thinner, than the Archaen mantle lithosphere. (author). 136 refs, 14 figs

  20. [Crusted scabies: A review]. (United States)

    Jouret, G; Bounemeur, R; Presle, A; Takin, R


    Crusted scabies is a rare and severe form of infestation by Sarcoptes scabies var. hominis. It is characterized by profuse hyperkeratosis containing over 4000 mites per gram of skin, with treatment being long and difficult. The condition is both direct and indirectly contagious. It has a central role in epidemic cycles of scabies, the incidence of which is on the rise in economically stable countries. Recent discoveries concerning the biology of mites, the pathophysiology of hyperkeratosis and the key role of IL-17 in this severe form open up new therapeutic perspectives. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. The off-crust origin of granite batholiths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Castro


    Full Text Available Granitod batholiths of I-type features (mostly granodiorites and tonalites, and particularly those forming the large plutonic associations of active continental margins and intracontinental collisional belts, represent the most outstanding magmatic episodes occurred in the continental crust. The origin of magmas, however, remains controversial. The application of principles from phase equilibria is crucial to understand the problem of granitoid magma generation. An adequate comparison between rock compositions and experimental liquids has been addressed by using a projected compositional space in the plane F(Fe + Mg–Anorthite–Orthoclase. Many calc-alkaline granitoid trends can be considered cotectic liquids. Assimilation of country rocks and other not-cotectic processes are identified in the projected diagram. The identification of cotectic patterns in batholith implies high temperatures of magma segregation and fractionation (or partial melting from an intermediate (andesitic source. The comparison of batholiths with lower crust granulites, in terms of major-element geochemistry, yields that both represent liquids and solid residues respectively from a common andesitic system. This is compatible with magmas being formed by melting, and eventual reaction with the peridotite mantle, of subducted mélanges that are finally relaminated as magmas to the lower crust. Thus, the off-crust generation of granitoids batholiths constitutes a new paradigm in which important geological implications can be satisfactorily explained. Geochemical features of Cordilleran-type batholiths are totally compatible with this new conception.

  2. Identification and inversion of converted shear waves: case studies from the European North Atlantic continental margins (United States)

    Eccles, Jennifer D.; White, Robert S.; Christie, Philip A. F.


    Wide-angle shear wave arrivals, converted from compressional to shear waves at crustal interfaces, enable crustal Vp/Vs ratios to be determined which provide valuable constraint on geological interpretations. Analysis of the converted shear wave phases represents the next logical step in characterizing the crustal structure and composition following multichannel seismic structural imaging and tomographic inversion of the wide-angle compressional wave phases. In this offshore study across two passive margins extending from stretched continental to fully oceanic crust, the high-data density (2-10 km ocean bottom seismometer, OBS, spacing) and a consistent, efficient conversion interface produced shear wave data sets suitable for traveltime inversion. The shear waves were recorded by three orthogonal geophones in each OBS. Arrival phases, visible to 180 km offset, were identified using their arrival times, moveout velocities and particle motions. Across the North Atlantic volcanic rifted continental margins studied, breakup was accompanied by the eruption of large volumes of basalts of the North Atlantic Igneous Province. The interface between post-volcanic sediments and the top of the basalts provides the dominant conversion boundary across the oceanic crust and the continent-ocean transition. However, the shear wave data quality was significantly diminished at the continental ends of the profiles where the thick basalt flows and hence this conversion interface feathers out and crustal attenuation increases. Initial modelling of the converted shear wave phases was carried out using a layer-based approach with arrivals converted on the way up used to constrain the Vp/Vs ratio of the post-volcanic sedimentary sequence beneath each OBS. To produce a model with continuous crustal S-wave velocities, the compressional wave velocities beneath the sediment-top basalt interface were transformed into starting shear wave velocities using a constant value of Vp/Vs and the

  3. From continental to oceanic rifting in the Gulf of California (United States)

    Ferrari, Luca; Bonini, Marco; Martín, Arturo


    heterogeneities and thus early evidence of extension may provide useful information about the thermal conditions of the crust over a broader region encompassing the effects of coeval subduction and crustal stretching. On the other hand, onshore and offshore geologic studies have shown that lithospheric extension associated with a wide rift mode was already ongoing during the final stage of subduction of the Farallon plate and its remnants in the early to middle Miocene times (Ferrari et al., 2013; Murray et al., 2013; Bryan et al., 2014; Duque-Trujillo et al., 2014, 2015). More broadly, the complexity in the present rift architecture and Plio-Quaternary magmatism is related to the pre-middle Miocene geodynamic history that accompanied the removal of the slab since the Eocene (Ferrari et al., 2017).

  4. Stretching & Flexibility: An Interactive Encyclopedia of Stretching. [CD-ROM]. (United States)


    This CD-ROM offers 140 different stretches in full-motion video sequences. It focuses on the proper techniques for overall physical fitness, injury prevention and rehabilitation, and 23 different sports (e.g., golf, running, soccer, skiing, climbing, football, and baseball). Topics include stretching for sports; stretching awareness and education…

  5. Stretching the Border

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horstmann, Alexander


    In this paper, I hope to add a complementary perspective to James Scott’s recent work on avoidance strategies of subaltern mountain people by focusing on what I call the refugee public. The educated Karen elite uses the space of exile in the Thai borderland to reconstitute resources and to re-ent......-based organizations succeed to stretch the border by establishing a firm presence that is supported by the international humanitarian economy in the refugee camps in Northwestern Thailand....

  6. Noble metals in ferromanganese crusts from marginal seas of the Northwest Pacific (United States)

    Astakhova, N. V.


    Based on data on the concentration of noble metals (Au, Ag, Pt, Os, Ir, and Ru) in bulk samples of ferromanganese crusts, the presence of inclusions of micro- and nanosized grains of Ag, Au, Pd, and Pt, often with impurities of other elements, as well as their chaotic distribution, three sources of incorporation of these metals into ore crusts of Far Eastern seas are suggested: seawater, postvolcanic gas-hydrothermal fluids, and hydrothermal plumes. The presence of grains of platinoids and gold in ferromanganese crusts on only some mounts may result from peculiarities in the formation of volcanic rocks on the ancient continental basement.

  7. Physics of Neutron Star Crusts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chamel Nicolas


    Full Text Available The physics of neutron star crusts is vast, involving many different research fields, from nuclear and condensed matter physics to general relativity. This review summarizes the progress, which has been achieved over the last few years, in modeling neutron star crusts, both at the microscopic and macroscopic levels. The confrontation of these theoretical models with observations is also briefly discussed.

  8. Fractal behavior in continental crustal heat production (United States)

    Vedanti, N.; Srivastava, R. P.; Pandey, O. P.; Dimri, V. P.


    The distribution of crustal heat production, which is the most important component in the elucidation of continental thermal structure, still remains a theoretical assumption. In general the heat production values must decrease with depth, but the form of decrease of heat production in the crust is not well understood. The commonly used heat production models are: "block model", in which heat production is constant from the surface to a given depth and the "exponential model", in which heat production diminishes as an exponential function of depth. The exponential model is more widely used wherein sources of the errors are heterogeneity of rock and long wavelength changes due to changes in lithology and tectonic elements, and as such exponential distribution does not work satisfactorily for the entire crust. In the present study, we analyze for the first time, deep crustal heat production data of six global areas namely Dharwar craton (India), Kaapvaal craton (South Africa), Baltic shield (Kola, Russia), Hidaka metamorphic belt (Japan), Nissho pluton (Japan) and Continental Deep Drilling site (KTB, Germany). The power spectrum of all the studied data sets exhibits power law behaviour. This would mean slower decay of heat production with depth, which conforms to the known geologic composition of the crust. Minimum value of the scaling exponent has been found for the KTB borehole, which is apparently related to higher heat production of gneisses, however for other study areas, scaling exponent is almost similar. We also found that the lower values of scaling exponents are related to higher heat production in the crust as is the case in KTB. Present finding has a direct relevance in computation of temperature-depth profiles in continental regions.

  9. Crustal structure of the southern Okinawa Trough: Symmetrical rifting, submarine volcano, and potential mantle accretion in the continental back-arc basin (United States)

    Arai, Ryuta; Kodaira, Shuichi; Yuka, Kaiho; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Miura, Seiichi; Kaneda, Yoshiyuki


    Back-arc basins are a primary target to understand lithospheric evolution in extension associated with plate subduction. Most of the currently active back-arc basins formed in intraoceanic settings and host well-developed spreading centers where seafloor spreading has occurred. However, rift structure at its initial stage, a key to understand how the continental lithosphere starts to break in a magma-rich back-arc setting, is poorly documented. Here we present seismological evidence for structure of the southern Okinawa Trough, an active rift zone behind the Ryukyu subduction zone. We find that the southern Okinawa Trough exhibits an almost symmetric rift system across the rift axis (Yaeyama Rift) and that the sedimentary layers are highly cut by inward dipping normal faults. The rift structure also accompanies a narrow (2-7 km wide) on-axis intrusion resulted from passive upwelling of magma. On the other hand, an active submarine volcano is located 10 km away from the rift axis. The P wave velocity (Vp) model derived from seismic refraction data suggests that the crust has been significantly thinned from the original 25 km thick arc crust and the thinnest part with 12 km thickness occurs directly beneath the rift axis. The velocity model also reveals that there exists a thick layer with Vp of 6.5-7.2 km/s at lower crustal levels and may indicate that mantle materials accreted at the bottom of the crust during the crustal stretching. The abrupt crustal thinning and the velocity-depth profile suggest that the southern Okinawa Trough is at a transitional stage from continental rifting to seafloor spreading.

  10. High-Silica Hadean Crust (United States)

    Boehnke, P.; Bell, E. A.; Stephan, T.; Trappitsch, R.; Keller, C. B.; Pardo, O. S.; Davis, A. M.; Harrison, M.; Pellin, M. J.


    Understanding Hadean (>4 Ga) Earth requires knowledge of its crust. The composition of the crust and volatiles migrating through it directly influence the makeup of the atmosphere, the composition of seawater, and nutrient availability. Despite its importance, there is little known and less agreed upon regarding the nature of the Hadean crust. For example, compilations of whole-rock elemental abundances suggest to some a dominantly mafic crust, while the geochemistry and inclusions in Hadean zircons suggest the existence of felsic crust and possibly even life. We address this question by analyzing the 87Sr/86Sr ratio of apatite inclusions in Archean zircons from Nuvvuagittuq, Canada, using the Chicago Instrument for Laser Ionization (CHILI). Our results show that the protolith of the Nuvvuagittuq zircons had formed a reservoir with a high (>1) Rb/Sr ratio by 4.4 Ga. The Rb/Sr ratio of this reservoir is too high to be explained by only a mafic crust or a terrestrial "KREEP" layer. Indeed, high Rb/Sr ratios only occur in high SiO2 rocks, and our data suggests that the 4.4 Ga Nuvvuagittuq source was felsic rather than mafic. Specifically, our results suggest that the 4.4 Ga Nuvvuagittuq protolith was of rhyolitic compositions. This finding implies that the early crust had a broad range of igneous rocks, extending from mafic to highly silicic compositions.

  11. Modes of continental extension in a crustal wedge

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Guangliang


    © 2015 Elsevier B.V. We ran numerical experiments of the extension of a crustal wedge as an approximation to extension in an orogenic belt or a continental margin. We study the effects of the strength of the lower crust and of a weak mid-crustal shear zone on the resulting extension styles. A weak mid-crustal shear zone effectively decouples upper crustal extension from lower crustal flow. Without the mid-crustal shear zone, the degree of coupling between the upper and the lower crust increases and extension of the whole crust tends to focus on the thickest part of the wedge. We identify three distinct modes of extension determined by the strength of the lower crust, which are characterized by 1) localized, asymmetric crustal exhumation in a single massif when the lower crust is weak, 2) the formation of rolling-hinge normal faults and the exhumation of lower crust in multiple core complexes with an intermediate strength lower crust, and 3) distributed domino faulting over the weak mid-crustal shear zone when the lower crust is strong. A frictionally stronger mid-crustal shear zone does not change the overall model behaviors but extension occurred over multiple rolling-hinges. The 3 modes of extension share characteristics similar to geological models proposed to explain the formation of metamorphic core complexes: 1) the crustal flow model for the weak lower crust, 2) the rolling-hinge and crustal flow models when the lower crust is intermediate and 3) the flexural uplift model when the lower crust is strong. Finally we show that the intensity of decoupling between the far field extension and lower crustal flow driven by the regional pressure gradient in the wedge control the overall style of extension in the models.

  12. Kontrola kvalitete stretch folije


    Gržanić, Nino


    U završnom radu opisan je postupak ekstrudiranja i kontrole kvalitete stretch folije koji se koristi u firmi Bomark-Pak radi osiguravanja najbolje kvalitete. Kontrola kreče kod uvoza repromaterijala, nastavlja se kod izrade folije na stroju, te se glavni dio odvija nakon izrade gotovg proizvoda. U radu ćemo detaljno objasniti svaki pojedini korak, zašto se on vrši, te uz pomoć kojih mjernih instrumenata se izvršava.

  13. An improved 3-D constrained stochastic gravity inversion method, adapted to the crustal-scale study of offshore rifted continental margins (United States)

    Geng, Meixia; Welford, J. Kim; Farquharson, Colin


    While seismic methods provide the best geophysical methods for characterizing crustal structure, regional potential field studies and, specifically, constrained 3-D potential field inversion studies, provide an efficient means of bridging between seismic lines and obtaining regional views of deep structure. Most existing potential field inversion codes have been developed for the mining industry with the goal of delineating dense bodies within less dense half-spaces. While these codes can be successfully applied to crustal-scale targets, they are not designed to generate models with the kind of depth-dependent layering expected within the crust and upper mantle and consequently, the results must be interpreted with such limitations in mind. The development of improved inversion codes that will produce results that better conform to known density distributions within the crust and uppermost mantle will revolutionize the application of potential field methods for the study of rifted continental margins where only limited seismic constraints are available. Through insights gained from using existing inversion codes, we have developed a 3D inversion algorithm based on the constrained stochastic method and adapted it for use in regional crustal-scale studies. The new method honours existing sparse seismic constraints and generates models that can reproduce sharp boundaries at the base of the crust as well as more gradational density variations with depth for the crust to upper mantle transition. The improved regional crustal models provide crustal thickness estimates and crustal stretching factors that agree with the sparsely available seismic constraints, while also generating more realistic Earth models. Both synthetic and real examples from offshore eastern Canada, will be used to demonstrate the power of the new method.

  14. Continental Divide Trail (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This shapefile was created to show the proximity of the Continental Divide to the Continental Divide National Scenic Trail in New Mexico. This work was done as part...

  15. Heat production distributions and the geochemical self-organization of the crust (United States)

    Sandiford, M.


    The distribution of the heat producing elements within the lithosphere provides an important control on continental thermal regimes and the mechanical strength of the lithosphere. Moreover, the strong temperature-dependence of lithospheric rheology suggests the possibility of an important feedback between tectonic processes, such as metamorphism, deformation and magmatism, and the distribution of heat producing elements. Simple models for lithospheric rheology are used to illustrate how such feedback might serve as an important control on both the characteristic abundance of, and spatial variation in, the heat production elements in the crust. These models also imply that the organization of heat producing elements is essential for the long-term tectonic stabilisation of the continental crust. This is particularly relevant to evolution of cratons in early Earth history, wherein lies the most dramatic evidence for the role played by tectonic processes in achieving a stable ordering of the heat producing elements, consistent with the crust as a self-organizing geochemical system.

  16. Collisional stripping of planetary crusts (United States)

    Carter, Philip J.; Leinhardt, Zoë M.; Elliott, Tim; Stewart, Sarah T.; Walter, Michael J.


    Geochemical studies of planetary accretion and evolution have invoked various degrees of collisional erosion to explain differences in bulk composition between planets and chondrites. Here we undertake a full, dynamical evaluation of 'crustal stripping' during accretion and its key geochemical consequences. Crusts are expected to contain a significant fraction of planetary budgets of incompatible elements, which include the major heat producing nuclides. We present smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of collisions between differentiated rocky planetesimals and planetary embryos. We find that the crust is preferentially lost relative to the mantle during impacts, and we have developed a scaling law based on these simulations that approximates the mass of crust that remains in the largest remnant. Using this scaling law and a recent set of N-body simulations of terrestrial planet formation, we have estimated the maximum effect of crustal stripping on incompatible element abundances during the accretion of planetary embryos. We find that on average approximately one third of the initial crust is stripped from embryos as they accrete, which leads to a reduction of ∼20% in the budgets of the heat producing elements if the stripped crust does not reaccrete. Erosion of crusts can lead to non-chondritic ratios of incompatible elements, but the magnitude of this effect depends sensitively on the details of the crust-forming melting process on the planetesimals. The Lu/Hf system is fractionated for a wide range of crustal formation scenarios. Using eucrites (the products of planetesimal silicate melting, thought to represent the crust of Vesta) as a guide to the Lu/Hf of planetesimal crust partially lost during accretion, we predict the Earth could evolve to a superchondritic 176Hf/177Hf (3-5 parts per ten thousand) at present day. Such values are in keeping with compositional estimates of the bulk Earth. Stripping of planetary crusts during accretion can lead to

  17. Continental extension, magmatism and elevation; formal relations and rules of thumb (United States)

    Lachenbruch, A.H.; Morgan, P.


    To investigate simplified relations between elevation and the extensional, magmatic and thermal processes that influence lithosphere buoyancy, we assume that the lithosphere floats on an asthenosphere of uniform density and has no flexural strength. A simple graph relating elevation to lithosphere density and thickness provides an overview of expectable conditions around the earth and a simple test for consistancy of continental and oceanic lithosphere models. The mass-balance relations yield simple general rules for estimating elevation changes caused by various tectonic, magmatic and thermal processes without referring to detailed models. The rules are general because they depend principally on buoyancy, which under our assumptions is specified by elevation, a known quantity; they do not generally require a knowledge of lithosphere thickness and density. The elevation of an extended terrain contains important information on its tectonic and magmatic history. In the Great Basin where Cenozoic extension is estimated to be 100%, the present high mean elevation ( ~ 1.75 km) probably requires substantial low-density magmatic contributions to the extending lithosphere. The elevation cannot be reasonably explained solely as the buoyant residue of a very high initial terrane, or of a lithosphere that was initially very thick and subsequently delaminated and heated. Even models with a high initial elevation typically call for 10 km or so of accumulated magmatic material of near-crustal density. To understand the evolution of the Great Basin, it is important to determine whether such intruded material is present; some could replenish the stretching crust by underplating and crustal intrusion and some might reside in the upper mantle. The elevation maintained or approached by an intruded extending lithosphere depends on the ratio B of how fast magma is supplied from the asthenosphere ( b km/Ma) to how fast the lithosphere spreads the magma out by extension (?? Ma-1). For a


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Glaznev


    Full Text Available The complex geophysical 3D model of the Earth's crust and the upper mantle is created for the Archaean Karelian Craton and the Late Palaeoproterozoic accretionary Svecofennian Orogen of the southeastern Fennoscandian Shield with the use of methods of complex inversion of geophysical data based on stochastic description of interrelations of physical properties of the medium (density, P-wave velocity, and heat generation. To develop the model, we use results of deep seismic studies, gravity and surficial heat flow data on the studied region. Numerical solutions of 3D problems are obtained in the spherical setting with an allowance for the Earth's surface topography. The geophysical model is correlated with the regional geological data on the surface and results of seismic CMP studies along 4B, FIRE-1 and FIRE-3-3A profiles. Based on results of complex geophysical simulation and geological interpretation of the 3D model, the following conclusions are drawn. (1 The nearly horizontal density layering of the continental crust is superimposed on the previously formed geological structure; rock differentiation by density is decreasing with depth; the density layering is controlled by the recent and near-recent state of the crust, but can be disturbed by the latest deformations. (2 Temperature variations at the Moho are partially determined by local variations of heat generation in the mantle, which, in turn, are related to local features of its origin and transformation. (3 The concept of the lower continental crust being a reflectivity zone and the concept of the lower continental crust being a layer of high density and velocity are not equivalent: the lower crust is the deepest, high-density element of near-horizontal layering, whereas the seismic image of the reflectivity zone is primarily related to transformation of the crust as a result of magmatic under- and intraplating under conditions of extension and mantle-plume activity. (4 At certain

  19. Atlantic continental margin of the United States (United States)

    Grow, John A.; Sheridan, Robert E.; Palmer, A.R.


    The objective of this Decade of North American Geology (D-NAG) volume will be to focus on the Mesozoic and Cenozoic evolution of the U.S. Atlantic continental margin, including the onshore coastal plain, related onshore Triassic-Jurassic rift grabens, and the offshore basins and platforms. Following multiple compressional tectonic episodes between Africa and North America during the Paleozoic Era that formed the Appalachian Mountains, the Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras were dominated by tensional tectonic processes that separated Africa and North America. Extensional rifting during Triassic and Early Jurassic times resulted in numerous tensional grabens both onshore and offshore, which filled with nonmarine continental red beds, lacustrine deposits, and volcanic flows and debris. The final stage of this breakup between Africa and North America occurred beneath the present outer continental shelf and continental slope during Early or Middle Jurassic time when sea-floor spreading began to form new oceanic crust and lithosophere between the two continents as they drifted apart. Postrift subsidence of the marginal basins continued in response to cooling of the lithosphere and sedimentary loading.Geophysical surveys and oil-exploration drilling along the U.S. Atlantic continental margin during the past 5 years are beginning to answer many questions concerning its deep structure and stratigraphy and how it evolved during the rifting and early sea-floor-spreading stages of the separation of this region from Africa. Earlier geophysical studies of the U.S. continental margin used marine refraction and submarine gravity measurements. Single-channel seismic-reflection, marine magnetic, aeromagnetic, and continuous gravity measurements became available during the 1960s.

  20. Helium isotopes in ferromanganese crusts from the central Pacific Ocean (United States)

    Basu, S.; Stuart, F.M.; Klemm, V.; Korschinek, G.; Knie, K.; Hein, J.R.


    Helium isotopes have been measured in samples of two ferromanganese crusts (VA13/2 and CD29-2) from the central Pacific Ocean. With the exception of the deepest part of crust CD29-2 the data can be explained by a mixture of implanted solar- and galactic cosmic ray-produced (GCR) He, in extraterrestrial grains, and radiogenic He in wind-borne continental dust grains. 4He concentrations are invariant and require retention of less than 12% of the in situ He produced since crust formation. Loss has occurred by recoil and diffusion. High 4He in CD29-2 samples older than 42 Ma are correlated with phosphatization and can be explained by retention of up to 12% of the in situ-produced 4He. 3He/4He of VA13/2 samples varies from 18.5 to 1852 Ra due almost entirely to variation in the extraterrestrial He contribution. The highest 3He/4He is comparable to the highest values measured in interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) and micrometeorites (MMs). Helium concentrations are orders of magnitude lower than in oceanic sediments reflecting the low trapping efficiency for in-falling terrestrial and extraterrestrial grains of Fe-Mn crusts. The extraterrestrial 3He concentration of the crusts rules out whole, undegassed 4–40 μm diameter IDPs as the host. Instead it requires that the extraterrestrial He inventory is carried by numerous particles with significantly lower He concentrations, and occasional high concentration GCR-He-bearing particles.

  1. Stretch-minimising stream surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Barton, Michael


    We study the problem of finding stretch-minimising stream surfaces in a divergence-free vector field. These surfaces are generated by motions of seed curves that propagate through the field in a stretch minimising manner, i.e., they move without stretching or shrinking, preserving the length of their arbitrary arc. In general fields, such curves may not exist. How-ever, the divergence-free constraint gives rise to these \\'stretch-free\\' curves that are locally arc-length preserving when infinitesimally propagated. Several families of stretch-free curves are identified and used as initial guesses for stream surface generation. These surfaces are subsequently globally optimised to obtain the best stretch-minimising stream surfaces in a given divergence-free vector field. Our algorithm was tested on benchmark datasets, proving its applicability to incompressible fluid flow simulations, where our stretch-minimising stream surfaces realistically reflect the flow of a flexible univariate object. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Acute Muscle Stretching and Shoulder Position Sense


    Björklund, Martin; Djupsjöbacka, Mats; Crenshaw, Albert G


    Context: Stretching is common among athletes as a potential method for injury prevention. Stretching-induced changes in the muscle spindle properties are a suggested mechanism, which may imply reduced proprioception after stretching; however, little is known of this association.

  3. Stretching factors in Cenozoic multi-rift basins, western Gulf of Thailand (United States)

    Kaewkor, Chanida; Watkinson, Ian


    The Gulf of Thailand (GoT) is the biggest petroleum producing province in Thailand. It is separated by the north-south trending Ko Kra Ridge into two main parts: the Western Area and Basinal Area. A series of horsts and grabens formed by north-south oriented extensional faults subdivides the GoT into a number of basins. The two major basins, Pattani and North Malay, are located in the Basinal Area that contains the main oil and gas fields. The Western Area comprises several smaller and shallower basins but has nonetheless resulted in commercial successes, including oil fields such as Nang Nuan (Chumphon Basin), Bualuang (Western Basin) and Songkhla (Songkhla Basin). The GoT is one of several unusual Cenozoic basins within Sundaland, the continental core of SE Asia. These basins have previously been characterized by multiple distinct phases of extension and inversion, rapid post-rift subsidence, association with low-angle normal faults; and are set within hot, thin crust similar to the Basin and Range province, but surrounded by active plate boundaries. The extensional faults systems play a major role in petroleum accumulation during syn-rift and post-rift phases in this area. This paper utilises well data and 3D seismic data from the Songkhla and Western basins of the western GoT. Structural balancing and restoration techniques are used to investigate the rate of extension and the effect on tectonostratigraphy. The basins are younger to the north, the Western basin was opened in Upper Oligocene to Lower Miocene. Stretching factors of the Western basin is approximately 1.1-1.2. Songkhla basin is the oldest basin that initial rift started in Eocene. The basin is dominated by major structures; western border fault, compressional structures related reactivated inversion fault, and inter-basinal faults. There are two main phases of tectonic activity; 1) Rifting phase which can be divided into three sub-extensional phase; Eocene, Oligocene, Lower Miocene. 2) Post

  4. Profiling planktonic foraminiferal crust formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinhardt, Juliane; de Nooijer, Lennart; Brummer, Geert Jan; Reichart, Gert Jan


    Planktonic foraminifera migrate vertically through the water column during their life, thereby growing and calcifying over a range of depth-associated conditions. Some species form a calcite veneer, crust, or cortex at the end of their lifecycle. This additional calcite layer may vary in structure,

  5. Hydraulic fracture during epithelial stretching. (United States)

    Casares, Laura; Vincent, Romaric; Zalvidea, Dobryna; Campillo, Noelia; Navajas, Daniel; Arroyo, Marino; Trepat, Xavier


    The origin of fracture in epithelial cell sheets subject to stretch is commonly attributed to excess tension in the cells' cytoskeleton, in the plasma membrane, or in cell-cell contacts. Here, we demonstrate that for a variety of synthetic and physiological hydrogel substrates the formation of epithelial cracks is caused by tissue stretching independently of epithelial tension. We show that the origin of the cracks is hydraulic; they result from a transient pressure build-up in the substrate during stretch and compression manoeuvres. After pressure equilibration, cracks heal readily through actomyosin-dependent mechanisms. The observed phenomenology is captured by the theory of poroelasticity, which predicts the size and healing dynamics of epithelial cracks as a function of the stiffness, geometry and composition of the hydrogel substrate. Our findings demonstrate that epithelial integrity is determined in a tension-independent manner by the coupling between tissue stretching and matrix hydraulics.

  6. Soleus stretch reflex during cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grey, Michael James; Pierce, C. W.; Milner, T. E.


    the crank cycle, producing ankle dorsiflexion perturbations of similar trajectory. The stretch reflex was greatest during the power phase of the crank cycle and was decreased to the level of background EMG during recovery. Matched perturbations were induced under static conditions at the same crank angle...... active cycling as has been shown with the H-reflex. This lack of depression may reflect a decreased susceptibility of the stretch reflex to inhibition, possibly originating from presynaptic mechanisms....

  7. Is There Ultra-slow Spreading Oceanic Crust off the Newfoundland Rifted Margin? (United States)

    Hopper, J. R.; Funck, T.; Larsen, H. C.; Holbrook, W. S.; Louden, K.; Tucholke, B.


    A joint seismic reflection/refraction experiment was carried out along the Newfoundland Margin in July/August 2000 to determine the nature and structure of crust associated with final breakup and the initiation of seafloor spreading between Iberia/North America. Data were collected along 3 major transects and here we report on the northernmost one, which crosses the Flemish Cap and is conjugate to the Galicia margin transects. Continental crust thins rapidly from 30 km to less than 5 km over a distance of ~75km. The thin crust is marked by a deep fault-bounded basin, seaward of which is a block of transparent crust with a continental-type velocity structure. It is bounded by a large seaward dipping fault that is coincident with a dramatic change in basement depth and reflectivity as well as a change to an oceanic-type velocity structure. We interpret this to mark the continent ocean boundary. Beyond this point a zone of domino-style tilted fault blocks are found with 45° dipping normal faults spaced every 1.5 km that penetrate at least 1 km into the crust. 15 km seaward, the fault spacing decreases and is replaced by domal structures reminiscent of the megamullion or core-complex structures described along the Mid-Atlantic ridge. Continuing seaward, the crust thins from 3 km thick to only 1.5 km thick, with large normal faults that clearly penetrate the entire crust and may offset the crust-mantle boundary, which is marked by a strong reflection we term the "Z" reflector. In addition, blocks of tilted and rotated strata are found, the p-wave velocity in the crust is slower, and duplex-type structures may be indicated. Two possible interpretations for this extremely thin crust require consideration. First is that it is oceanic crust that has been thinned mechanically during an interval of magma starvation. Alternatively, it is continental crust, presumably stranded by a small ridge jump. Unfortunately, existing data does not allow us to distinguish between these

  8. Galenicals in the treatment of crusted scabies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugathan P


    Full Text Available Crusted scabies is rare. It is a therapeutic challenge, as the common drugs used against scabies are unsatisfactory. The successful use of galenicals in a 10-year-old girl with crusted scabies is reported.

  9. Geophysical Monitoring of Geodynamic Processes of Central Armenia Earth Crust (United States)

    Avetyan, R.; Pashayan, R.


    The method of geophysical monitoring of earth crust was introduced. It allows by continuous supervision to track modern geodynamic processes of Armenia. Methodological practices of monitoring come down to allocation of a signal which reflects deformation of rocks. The indicators of deformations are not only deviations of geophysical indicators from certain background values, but also parameters of variations of these indicators. Data on changes of parameters of barometric efficiency and saw tooth oscillations of underground water level before seismic events were received. Low-amplitude periodic fluctuations of water level are the reflection of geodynamic processes taking place in upper levels of earth crust. There were recorded fluctuations of underground water level resulting from luni-solar tides and enabling to control the systems of borehole-bed in changes of voluminous deformations. The slow lowering (raising) of underground water level in the form of trend reflects long-period changes of stress-deformative state of environment. Application of method promotes identification of medium-term precursors on anomalous events of variations of geomagnetic field, change of content of subsoil radon, dynamics of level of underground water, geochemistry and water temperature. Increase of activity of geodynamic processes in Central Armenian tectonic complex is observed to change macro component Na+, Ca2+, Mg2-, CL-, SO42-, HCO3-, H4SiO4, pH and gas - CO2 structure of mineral water. Modern geodynamic movements of earth crust of Armenia are the result of seismic processes and active geodynamics of deep faults of longitudinal and transversal stretching. Key Words: monitoring, hydrogeodynamics, geomagnetic field, seismicity, deformation, earth crust

  10. Relationship Between Stretch Duration And Shoulder Musculature ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To date, studies focussing on the effect of stretching on flexibility have focused almost solely on the effect of chronic stretching rather than the effects of acute stretching performed immediately prior to physical activity. The effects of different static stretches were assessed on passive shoulder range of motion (ROM).

  11. Chronology of early lunar crust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasch, E.J.; Nyquist, L.E.; Ryder, G.


    The chronology of lunar rocks is summarized. The oldest pristine (i.e., lacking meteoritic contamination of admixed components) lunar rock, recently dated with Sm-Nd by Lugmair, is a ferroan anorthosite, with an age of 4.44 + 0.02 Ga. Ages of Mg-suite rocks (4.1 to 4.5 Ga) have large uncertainties, so that age differences between lunar plutonic rock suites cannot yet be resolved. Most mare basalts crystallized between 3.1 and 3.9 Ga. The vast bulk of the lunar crust, therefore, formed before the oldest preserved terrestrial rocks. If the Moon accreted at 4.56 Ga, then 120 Ma may have elapsed before lunar crust was formed

  12. Physics of the earth crust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauterbach, R.


    This book deals in 12 chapters, amongst other things, with the subjects: Structure of the crust and the upper earth mantle, geology and geophysics of sea beds, satellite and aero-methods of geophysics, state of the art of geothermal research, geophysical potential fields and their anomalies, applied seismology, electrical methods of geophysics, geophysics in engineering and rock engineering, borehole geophysics, petrophysics, and geochemistry. (RW) [de

  13. Atomic Stretch: Optimally bounded real-time stretching and beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Ramsbøl; Nielsen, Jannik Boll


    Atomic Stretch is a plugin for your preferred Adobe video editing tool, allowing real-time smooth and optimally bounded retarget-ting from and to any aspect ratio. The plugin allows preserving of high interest pixels through a protected region, attention redirection through color-modification, co......Atomic Stretch is a plugin for your preferred Adobe video editing tool, allowing real-time smooth and optimally bounded retarget-ting from and to any aspect ratio. The plugin allows preserving of high interest pixels through a protected region, attention redirection through color...

  14. The Seismic Structure of the Crust of Madagascar (United States)

    Wysession, M. E.; Andriampenomanana Ny Ony, F. S. T.; Tsiriandrimanana, R.; Pratt, M. J.; Aleqabi, G. I.; Wiens, D. A.; Nyblade, A.; Shore, P.; Rambolamanana, G.; Tilmann, F. J.


    The structure of Madagascar's crust is determined using both body wave receiver functions as well as an analysis of surface waves using ambient-noise and two-plane-wave earthquake surface waves analyses. The primary data used are from the 2011-2013 MACOMO (Madagascar, the Comoros, and Mozambique) broadband seismic array from the PASSCAL program of IRIS (Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology), funded by the NSF. Additional data came from the RHUM-RUM project (led by G. Barruol and K. Sigloch), the Madagascar Seismic Profile (led by F. Tilmann), and the GSN. The crustal structure of Madagascar, which had previously only been inferred from a gravity survey assuming isostasy, shows a strong correlation with its tectonic history. Crustal thicknesses are greatest, reaching 45 km, along the spine of Madagascar's mountains, which run north-south across the island. Crustal thicknesses thin to the east and west, which are both regions of tectonic separation, however, with very different results. Extensive crustal thinning occurred along the western coasts of Madagascar when the island rifted away from mainland Africa beginning 160 Ma ago. The crust is as thin as 20 km here, but the thickness of basin sediments is as great as 9 km, with the crystalline basement continental crust thinning to 12 km at its thinnest. Along the east coast, the crustal thickness is within the 33-38 km range, but it is thickest in the two places where mesoarchaean crust was rifted off from the Indian subcontinent when it broke away from Madagascar. Surface wave studies show that velocities beneath Madagascar are generally slow, when compared to global models such as AK135. This appears to be due to the occurrence of Cenozoic intraplate volcanism in three regions of Madagascar (north, central, and southwest), each of which has strong underlying seismic low-velocity anomalies in the lithospheric mantle and asthenosphere.

  15. Detachment folding of partially molten crust in accretionary orogens: A new magma-enhanced vertical mass and heat transfer mechanism

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lehmann, J.; Schulmann, K.; Lexa, O.; Závada, Prokop; Štípská, P.; Hasalová, Pavlína; Belyanin, G.; Corsini, M.


    Roč. 9, č. 6 (2017), s. 889-909 ISSN 1941-8264 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : continental crust * shear-zone * gneiss domes Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy OBOR OECD: Geology Impact factor: 2.662, year: 2016

  16. Magnetotelluric imaging of anisotropic crust near Fort McMurray, Alberta: implications for engineered geothermal system development

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Liddell, M.; Unsworth, M.; Pek, Josef


    Roč. 205, č. 3 (2016), s. 1365-1381 ISSN 0956-540X Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : electrical anisotropy * composition of the continental crust * magnetotellurics * North America Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 2.414, year: 2016

  17. Continental drift before 1900. (United States)

    Rupke, N A


    The idea that Francis Bacon and other seventeenth and eighteenth century thinkers first conceived the notion of continental drift does not stand up to close scrutiny. The few authors who expressed the idea viewed the process as a catastrophic event.

  18. The connection between crustal reworking and petrological diversity in the deep crust: clues from migmatites (United States)

    Carvalho, Bruna B.; Sawyer, Edward W.; de Assis Janasi, Valdecir


    The deep levels of the continental crust have been extensively reworked as result of crustal differentiation. Migmatites are widespread in these high-grade metamorphic terrains, and provide valuable information on how processes such as partial melting, segregation of the melt from the residue and subsequent chemical exchanges lead to the petrological diversity found in the deep crust. This study investigates processes that transformed a largely uniform, metagranodiorite protolith into a very complex migmatite that contains three varieties of diatexites (grey, schlieren and homogenous diatexites) and several types of leucosomes. The Kinawa Migmatite is part of the Archean TTG crust in the São Francisco Craton (Brazil), which has been reworked in a shear zone environment at upper amphibolite facies conditions (10.1111/jmg.12180

  19. Acute effects of unilateral static stretching on handgrip strength of the stretched and non-stretched limb. (United States)

    Jelmini, Jacob D; Cornwell, Andrew; Khodiguian, Nazareth; Thayer, Jennifer; Araujo, And John


    To determine the effects of an acute bout of unilateral static stretching on handgrip strength of both the stretched and non-stretched limb. It was reasoned that if the non-stretched limb experienced a decrease in force output, further evidence for a neural mechanism to explain a post-stretch force reduction would be obtained as no mechanical adaptation would have occurred. Thirty participants performed maximum voluntary unilateral handgrip contractions of both limbs before and after stretching the finger flexors of the strength-dominant side only. Each trial was assessed for peak force, muscle activity (iEMG), and rate of force generation. Following the stretching bout, peak force and iEMG decreased by 4.4% (p = 0.001) and 6.4% (p = 0.000) respectively in the stretched limb only. However, rate of force generation was significantly impaired in both the stretched (- 17.3%; p = 0.000) and non-stretched limbs (- 10.8%; p = 0.003) 1 min post-stretch, and remained similarly depressed for both limbs 15 min later. Acute stretching negatively impacts rate of force generation more than peak force. Moreover, a reduced rate of force generation from the non-stretched limb indicates the presence of a cross-over inhibitory effect through the nervous system, which provides additional evidence for a neural mechanism.

  20. Soleus stretch reflex during cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grey, Michael James; Pierce, C. W.; Milner, T. E.


    The modulation and strength of the human soleus short latency stretch reflex was investigated by mechanically perturbing the ankle during an unconstrained pedaling task. Eight subjects pedaled at 60 rpm against a preload of 10 Nm. A torque pulse was applied to the crank at various positions durin...

  1. On the generalised stretch function

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kharlamov, Alexander A.; Filip, Petr


    Roč. 21, č. 4 (2012), s. 272-278 ISSN 1022-1344 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA103/09/2066 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : molecular length * recurrence equations * rubber * strain * stretch functions Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.606, year: 2012

  2. Optical tweezers stretching of chromatin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pope, L.H.; Bennink, Martin L.; Greve, Jan


    Recently significant success has emerged from exciting research involving chromatin stretching using optical tweezers. These experiments, in which a single chromatin fibre is attached by one end to a micron-sized bead held in an optical trap and to a solid surface or second bead via the other end,

  3. Transient filament stretching rheometer II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolte, Mette Irene; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Hassager, Ole


    The Lagrangian sspecification is used to simulate the transient stretching filament rheometer. Simulations are performed for dilute PIB-solutions modeled as a four mode Oldroyd-B fluid and a semidilute PIB-solution modeled as a non-linear single integral equation. The simulations are compared...

  4. Biaxial stretching of polyethylene, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakami, Hiroshi; Iida, Shozo


    The mechanism of oriented crystallization in mutually perpendicular direction to each other was investigated on the crosslinked linear polyethylene stretched successively and biaxially above melting point of raw material. To investigate the mechanism, the shrinkage stress, the degree of polarization and DSC of the film at the fixed length were measured on the crystallization process. The behavior observed on crystallization could be divided into that in the first period and that in the second period. The first period showed the domain of highly oriented crystallization of the crosslinked molecular chain, and in the second period the fold type crystals grew with highly oriented crystals in the first period as nuclear. Therefore, the formation of bi-component crystal structure is supposed for the crystallization. The biaxially oriented crystallization proceeded as follows: the uniaxial orientation to MD was observed in the first stretching in the initial stage, and then the further processing by the second stretching at a right angle caused the fold type crystallization of molecular chain oriented to TD. The film stretched fully and biaxially could be considered to have the oriented crystalline structure in which highly oriented fibril crystals and fold type crystals distribute at random. (auth.)

  5. Crystal fractionation processes at Baru volcano from the deep to shallow crust (United States)

    Hidalgo, Paulo J.; Rooney, Tyrone O.


    Linking shallow and deep crustal processes at volcanic arcs is an important component in evaluating the growth and evolution of the continental crust. Commonly, deep crustal processes and the nature of subarc lithosphere are studied long after the volcanism has ceased in obducted arc terranes. In active arcs, studies of deep crustal processes focus on cumulates derived from middle-lower crustal levels. Although uncommon in the erupted magmas, these cumulates are required by crustal differentiation models of arc magmatism. Quaternary magmas at Baru volcano in Panama contain ubiquitous amphibole-bearing cumulates that provide an opportunity to probe the magma plumbing system of an active arc volcano. We have determined that these cumulates are related to their host magmas by crystal fractionation processes. Pressure and temperature estimates for amphiboles within these cumulates and the host rock are consistent with sampling of mush/magma zones from throughout the arc crust. These mush zones would be localized in deep hot crustal zones where magmatic differentiation of water-saturated arc magmas takes place by crystallization of amphibole-rich cumulates. The identification of middle-lower crustal cumulates is not exclusive to Baru volcano; similar cumulates are common throughout the Panamanian arc and are consistent with a widespread amphibole-rich layer present within the arc crust of Panama. Our results highlight the importance of amphibole fractionation in the differentiation sequence of island arcs effectively driving the residual magma to the average andesitic composition of the continental crust.

  6. Continental margin radiography from a potential field and sediment thickness standpoint: the Iberian Atlantic Margin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catalan, M.; Martos, Y. M.; Martin-Davila, J.; Munoz-Martin, A.; Carbo, A.; Druet, M.


    This study reviews the state of knowledge in the Iberian Atlantic margin. In order to do this, the margin has been divided into three provinces: the Galicia margin, the southern Iberian abyssal plain, and the Tagus abyssal plain. We have used potential field and sediment thickness data. This has allowed us to study the crust, setting limits for the continental crust domain, and the amplitude of the so-called ocean-continent transition, whose end marks the beginning of the oceanic crust. The study shows the continental crust in the Galician margin to be the widest, about 210 km in length, whilst the ocean-continent transition varies slightly in this province: between 65 km wide in the south and 56 km wide in the north. This result shows up some differences with the hypothesis of other authors. The situation in the southern Iberian abyssal plain is nearly the opposite. Its continental crust extends approximately 60 km, whilst the ocean-continent transition zone is 185 km long. The Tagus abyssal plain study shows a faster morphological evolution than the others, according with the amount of crustal thinning β, the ocean-continent transition domain spanning 100 km. These results support a transitional intermediate character for almost the whole Tagus plain, in contrary to what other authors have stated. (Author)

  7. Time stretch and its applications (United States)

    Mahjoubfar, Ata; Churkin, Dmitry V.; Barland, Stéphane; Broderick, Neil; Turitsyn, Sergei K.; Jalali, Bahram


    Observing non-repetitive and statistically rare signals that occur on short timescales requires fast real-time measurements that exceed the speed, precision and record length of conventional digitizers. Photonic time stretch is a data acquisition method that overcomes the speed limitations of electronic digitizers and enables continuous ultrafast single-shot spectroscopy, imaging, reflectometry, terahertz and other measurements at refresh rates reaching billions of frames per second with non-stop recording spanning trillions of consecutive frames. The technology has opened a new frontier in measurement science unveiling transient phenomena in nonlinear dynamics such as optical rogue waves and soliton molecules, and in relativistic electron bunching. It has also created a new class of instruments that have been integrated with artificial intelligence for sensing and biomedical diagnostics. We review the fundamental principles and applications of this emerging field for continuous phase and amplitude characterization at extremely high repetition rates via time-stretch spectral interferometry.

  8. BSDB: the Biomolecule Stretching Database (United States)

    Cieplak, Marek; Sikora, Mateusz; Sulkowska, Joanna I.; Witkowski, Bartlomiej


    Despite more than a decade of experiments on single biomolecule manipulation, mechanical properties of only several scores of proteins have been measured. A characteristic scale of the force of resistance to stretching, Fmax , has been found to range between ~ 10 and 480 pN. The Biomolecule Stretching Data Base (BSDB) described here provides information about expected values of Fmax for, currently, 17 134 proteins. The values and other characteristics of the unfolding proces, including the nature of identified mechanical clamps, are available at www:// They have been obtained through simulations within a structure-based model which correlates satisfactorily with the available experimental data on stretching. BSDB also lists experimental data and results of the existing all-atom simulations. The database offers a Protein-Data-Bank-wide guide to mechano-stability of proteins. Its description is provided by a forthcoming Nucleic Acids Research paper. Supported by EC FUNMOL project FP7-NMP-2007-SMALL-1, and European Regional Development Fund: Innovative Economy (POIG.01.01.02-00-008/08).

  9. Stretching (United States)

    ... this topic for: Teens Dehydration Safety Tips: Running Knee Injuries Repetitive Stress Injuries Sports and Exercise Safety Dealing With Sports Injuries Sports Center Strains and Sprains View more Partner Message About Us Contact Us ...

  10. Continental Mathematics League. (United States)

    Quartararo, Joseph


    This article describes the activities of the Continental Mathematics League, which offers a series of meets for children in grades 3 though 9. In addition, a Calculus League and a Computer Contest are offered. The league allows schools to participate by mail so that rural schools can participate. (CR)

  11. Sedimentation on continental margins: An integrated program for innovative studies during the 1990s (United States)

    Nittrourer, Charles A.; Coleman, James M.; Rouge, Baton; Flood, Roger D.; Ginsburg, Robert N.; Gorsline, Donn S.; Hine, Albert C.; Sternberg, Richard W.; Swift, Donald J. P.; Wright, L. Donelson

    Continental margins are of great scientific interest, and they represent the focus of human interaction with the ocean. Their deep structure forms the transition from continental to oceanic crust, and their surface expression extends from coastal environments of estuaries and shorelines across the continental shelf and slope to either the base of a continental rise or a marginal trough. Modern continental margins represent natural laboratories for investigation of complex relationships between physical, chemical, and biological phenomena, which are sensitive to environmental conditions both on the land and in the ocean. The history of these conditions is preserved within the sedimentary deposits of continental margins. The deposits form repositories for much of the particulate material transported off the world's land masses and produced from dissolved components in the world ocean. Past deposits of continental margins have been uplifted to form many mountain ranges and sedimentary terrains of the world, which record details of Earth history and contain valuable natural resources, such as petroleum and natural gas. Modern deposits of continental margins record the more recent events that have influenced Earth and also contain natural resources (for instance, minerals, sand, and gravel), as well as anthropogenic pollutants (for example, heavy metals and pesticides). The fates of many materials beneficial and deleterious to humans are dependent on the pathways followed by sedimentary particles on continental margins.

  12. Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data represents geographic terms used within the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act (OCSLA or Act). The Act defines the United States outer continental shelf...

  13. Stable Continental Region Earthquakes in South China (United States)

    Liu, L.

    This paper reviews some remarkable characteristics of earthquakes in a Stable Continental Region (SCR) of the South China Block (SCB). The kernel of the SCB is the Yangtze platform solidified in late Proterozoic time, with continental growth to the southeast by a series of fold belts in Paleozoic time. The facts that the deviatoric stress is low, the orientations of the major tectonic features in the SCB are substantially normal to the maximum horizontal principal stress, and a relatively uniform crust, seem to be the major reasons for lack of significant seismicity in most regions of the SCB. Earthquakes in this region are mainly associated with three seismic zones: (1) the Southeast China Coast seismic zone related to Guangdong-Fujian coastal folding belt (associated with Eurasia-Philippine Sea plate collision); (2) the Southern Yellow Sea seismic zone associated with continental shelf rifts and basins; and (3) the Downstream Yangtze River seismic zone spatially coinciding with Tertiary rifts and basin development. All three seismic zones are close to one or two major economic and population centers in the SCB so that they pose significant seismic hazards. Earthquake focal mechanisms in the SCB are consistent with strike-slip to normal faulting stress regimes. Because of the global and national economic significance of the SCB and its dense population, the seismic hazard of the region is of outstanding importance. Comparing the SCB with another less developed region, a pending earthquake with the same size and tectonic setting would cause substantially more severe social and economic losses in the SCB. This paper also compiles an inventory of historic moderate to great earthquakes in the SCB; most of the data are not widely available in English literature.

  14. From Plate Tectonic to Continental Dynamics (United States)

    Molnar, P. H.


    By the early 1970s, the basics of plate tectonics were known. Although much understanding remained to be gained, as a topic of research, plate tectonics no longer defined the forefront of earth science. Not only had it become a foundation on which to build, but also the methods used to reveal it became tools to take in new directions. For me as a seismologist studying earthquakes and active processes, the deformation of continents offered an obvious topic to pursue. Obviously examining the deformation of continents and ignoring the widespread geologic evidence of both ongoing and finite deformation of crust would be stupid. I was blessed with the opportunity to learn from and collaborate with two of the best, Paul Tapponnier and Clark Burchfiel. Continental deformation differed from plate tectonics both because deformation was widespread but more importantly because crust shortens (extends) horizontally and thickens (thins), processes that can be ignored where plate tectonics - the relative motion of rigid plates - occurs. Where a plate boundary passes into a continent, not only must the forces that move plates do work against friction or other dissipative processes, but where high terrain is created, they must also do work against gravity, to create gravitational potential energy in high terrain. Peter Bird and Kenneth Piper and Philip England and Dan McKenzie showed that a two-dimensional thin viscous sheet with vertically averaged properties enabled both sources of resistance to be included without introducing excessive complexity and to be scaled by one dimensionless number, what the latter pair called the Argand number. Increasingly over the past thirty years, emphasis has shifted toward the role played by the mantle lithosphere, because of both its likely strength and its negative buoyancy, which makes it gravitationally unstable. Despite progress since realizing that rigid plates (the essence of plate tectonics) provides a poor description of continental

  15. Effect of stretching techniques on hamstring flexibility in female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Flexibility can be achieved by a variety of stretching techniques and the benefits of stretching are known. However, controversy remains about the best type of stretching for achieving a particular goal or outcome. The four most basic stretches are static stretching, dynamic stretching, PNF hold-relax and PNF contract-relax ...

  16. Bending and stretching of plates

    CERN Document Server

    Mansfield, E H; Hemp, W S


    The Bending and Stretching of Plates deals with elastic plate theory, particularly on small- and large-deflexion theory. Small-deflexion theory concerns derivation of basic equations, rectangular plates, plates of various shapes, plates whose boundaries are amenable to conformal transformation, plates with variable rigidity, and approximate methods. Large-deflexion theory includes general equations and some exact solutions, approximate methods in large-deflexion theory, asymptotic large-deflexion theories for very thin plates. Asymptotic theories covers membrane theory, tension field theory, a

  17. Stretching of macromolecules and proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strick, T R; Dessinges, M-N; Charvin, G; Dekker, N H; Allemand, J-F; Bensimon, D; Croquette, V


    In this paper we review the biophysics revealed by stretching single biopolymers. During the last decade various techniques have emerged allowing micromanipulation of single molecules and simultaneous measurements of their elasticity. Using such techniques, it has been possible to investigate some of the interactions playing a role in biology. We shall first review the simplest case of a non-interacting polymer and then present the structural transitions in DNA, RNA and proteins that have been studied by single-molecule techniques. We shall explain how these techniques permit a new approach to the protein folding/unfolding transition

  18. The Myanmar continental shelf

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaswamy, V.; Rao, P.S.

    the International Indian Ocean Expedition (IIOE) of the 1960’s and a more recent expedition of the Indian research Vessel ORV Sagar Kanya in 2002. The IIOE results from the Andaman Sea have been summarized by Rodolfo (1969a, 1969b) while the ORV Sagar Kanya... on the Ayeyarwady Delta also occurs during exceptional rain events. Bank overflow and Myanmar Continental Shelf 7 flooding have been controlled by construction of numerous embankments which aid freshwater and sediment discharge to the sea...

  19. Microphytic crusts: 'topsoil' of the desert (United States)

    Belnap, Jayne


    Deserts throughout the world are the home of microphytic, or cryptogamic, crusts. These crusts are dominated by cyanobacteria, previously called blue-green algae, and also include lichens, mosses, green algae, microfungi and bacteria. They are critical components of desert ecosystems, significantly modifying the surfaces on which they occur. In the cold deserts of the Colorado Plateau (including parts of Utah, Arizona, Colorado, and New Mexico), these crusts are extraordinarily well-developed, and may represent 70-80% of the living ground cover.

  20. The continental lithosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artemieva, Irina


    of the Royal Society of London. Series A, 360, 2475–2491.; Shapiro N.M., Ritzwoller M.H. 2002. Monte-Carlo inversion for a global shear velocity model of the crust and upper mantle. Geophysical Journal International 151, 1–18.] and lithospheric temperatures [Artemieva I.M., Mooney W.D., 2001. Thermal structure......, strong positive velocity anomalies of non-thermal origin (attributed to mantle depletion) are clearly seen for all of the cratons; their amplitude, however, varies laterally and decreases with depth, reflecting either a peripheral growth of the cratons in Proterozoic or their peripheral reworking...

  1. Impacts of continental arcs on global carbon cycling and climate (United States)

    Lee, C. T.; Jiang, H.; Carter, L.; Dasgupta, R.; Cao, W.; Lackey, J. S.; Lenardic, A.; Barnes, J.; McKenzie, R.


    On myr timescales, climatic variability is tied to variations in atmospheric CO2, which in turn is driven by geologic sources of CO2 and modulated by the efficiency of chemical weathering and carbonate precipitation (sinks). Long-term variability in CO2 has largely been attributed to changes in mid-ocean ridge inputs or the efficiency of global weathering. For example, the Cretaceous greenhouse is thought to be related to enhanced oceanic crust production, while the late Cenozoic icehouse is attributed to enhanced chemical weathering associated with the Himalayan orogeny. Here, we show that continental arcs may play a more important role in controlling climate, both in terms of sources and sinks. Continental arcs differ from island arcs and mid-ocean ridges in that the continental plate through which arc magmas pass may contain large amounts of sedimentary carbonate, accumulated over the history of the continent. Interaction of arc magmas with crustal carbonates via assimilation, reaction or heating can significantly add to the mantle-sourced CO2 flux. Detrital zircons and global mapping of basement rocks shows that the length of continental arcs in the Cretaceous was more than twice that in the mid-Cenozoic; maps also show many of these arcs intersected crustal carbonates. The increased length of continental arc magmatism coincided with increased oceanic spreading rates, placing convergent margins into compression, which favors continental arcs. Around 50 Ma, however, nearly all the continental arcs in Eurasia and North America terminated as India collided with Eurasia and the western Pacific rolled back, initiating the Marianas-Tonga-Kermadec intra-oceanic subduction complex and possibly leading to a decrease in global CO2 production. Meanwhile, extinct continental arcs continued to erode, resulting in regionally enhanced chemical weathering unsupported by magmatic fluxes of CO2. Continental arcs, during their magmatic lifetimes, are thus a source of CO2, driving

  2. Rifting-to-drifting transition of the South China Sea: Moho reflection characteristics in continental-ocean transition zone (United States)

    Wen, Y.; Li, C.


    Dispute remains on the process of continental rifting to subsequent seafloor spreading in the South China Sea (SCS). Several crust-scale multi-channel seismic reflection profiles acquired in the continent-ocean transition zone (COT) of the SCS provide a detailed overview of Moho and deep crustal reflectors and give key information on rifting-to-drifting transition of the area. Moho has strong but discontinuous seismic reflection in COT. These discontinuities are mainly located in the landward side of continent-ocean boundary (COB), and may own to upwelling of lower crustal materials during initial continental extension, leading to numerous volcanic edifices and volcanic ridges. The continental crust in COT shows discontinuous Moho reflections at 11-8.5 s in two-way travel time (twtt), and thins from 18-20.5 km under the uppermost slope to 6-7 km under the lower slope, assuming an average crustal velocity of 6.0 km/s. The oceanic crust has Moho reflections of moderate to high continuity mostly at 1.8-2.2 s twtt below the top of the igneous basement, which means that the crustal thickness excluding sediment layer in COT is 5.4-6.6 km. Subhorizontal Moho reflections are often abruptly interrupted by large seaward dipping normal faults in southern COT but are more continuous compared with the fluctuant and very discontinuous Moho reflections in northern COT. The thickness of thinned continental crust (4.2-4.8 km) is smaller than that of oceanic crust (5.4-6.0 km) near southern COB, indicating that the continental crust has experienced a long period of rifting before seafloor spreading started. The smaller width of northern COT (0-40 km) than in southern COT (0-60 km), and thinner continental crust in southern COT, all indicate that the continental margin rifting and extension was asymmetric. The COT width in the SCS is narrower than that found in other magma-poor continental margins, indicating a swift transition from the final stage of rifting to the inception of

  3. Continental flood basalts derived from the hydrous mantle transition zone. (United States)

    Wang, Xuan-Ce; Wilde, Simon A; Li, Qiu-Li; Yang, Ya-Nan


    It has previously been postulated that the Earth's hydrous mantle transition zone may play a key role in intraplate magmatism, but no confirmatory evidence has been reported. Here we demonstrate that hydrothermally altered subducted oceanic crust was involved in generating the late Cenozoic Chifeng continental flood basalts of East Asia. This study combines oxygen isotopes with conventional geochemistry to provide evidence for an origin in the hydrous mantle transition zone. These observations lead us to propose an alternative thermochemical model, whereby slab-triggered wet upwelling produces large volumes of melt that may rise from the hydrous mantle transition zone. This model explains the lack of pre-magmatic lithospheric extension or a hotspot track and also the arc-like signatures observed in some large-scale intracontinental magmas. Deep-Earth water cycling, linked to cold subduction, slab stagnation, wet mantle upwelling and assembly/breakup of supercontinents, can potentially account for the chemical diversity of many continental flood basalts.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayaram Maharjan


    Full Text Available Background: A warm-up is important part of preparation for sprinting. There is popularity of doing stretching as part of warm up before athletic activity. The static stretching and PNF stretching is performed by athletes but their effectiveness on sprinting performance is in state of debate. The objective is to determine the effect of static stretching and PNF stretching on sprinting performance in college sprinters and to compare the effects of PNF stretching over static stretching on sprinting performance in college sprinters. Method: A total of 100 subjects were taken for the study that fulfill the inclusion criteria and all were divided into group- A (static stretching and group- B (PNF stretching by simple random sampling method. Both the groups received 5 minutes of warm-up exercises. Pre-Post design was used, which consisted of running a 40-yard sprint immediately following 2 stretching conditions aimed at the lower limb muscles Results: In static stretching group sprint time changed from 6.55 with standard deviation of 0.93 to 6.12 with standard deviation of 1.02 (P.605. Conclusion: Hence both static stretching and PNF stretching can be performed before sprinting activity to improve the sprinting performance.

  5. Metamorphic core complex formation by density inversion and lower-crust extrusion. (United States)

    Martinez, F; Goodliffe, A M; Taylor, B


    Metamorphic core complexes are domal uplifts of metamorphic and plutonic rocks bounded by shear zones that separate them from unmetamorphosed cover rocks. Interpretations of how these features form are varied and controversial, and include models involving extension on low-angle normal faults, plutonic intrusions and flexural rotation of initially high-angle normal faults. The D'Entrecasteaux islands of Papua New Guinea are actively forming metamorphic core complexes located within a continental rift that laterally evolves to sea-floor spreading. The continental rifting is recent (since approximately 6 Myr ago), seismogenic and occurring at a rapid rate ( approximately 25 mm yr-1). Here we present evidence-based on isostatic modelling, geological data and heat-flow measurements-that the D'Entrecasteaux core complexes accommodate extension through the vertical extrusion of ductile lower-crust material, driven by a crustal density inversion. Although buoyant extrusion is accentuated in this region by the geological structure present-which consists of dense ophiolite overlaying less-dense continental crust-this mechanism may be generally applicable to regions where thermal expansion lowers crustal density with depth.

  6. Fault linkage and continental breakup (United States)

    Cresswell, Derren; Lymer, Gaël; Reston, Tim; Stevenson, Carl; Bull, Jonathan; Sawyer, Dale; Morgan, Julia


    The magma-poor rifted margin off the west coast of Galicia (NW Spain) has provided some of the key observations in the development of models describing the final stages of rifting and continental breakup. In 2013, we collected a 68 x 20 km 3D seismic survey across the Galicia margin, NE Atlantic. Processing through to 3D Pre-stack Time Migration (12.5 m bin-size) and 3D depth conversion reveals the key structures, including an underlying detachment fault (the S detachment), and the intra-block and inter-block faults. These data reveal multiple phases of faulting, which overlap spatially and temporally, have thinned the crust to between zero and a few km thickness, producing 'basement windows' where crustal basement has been completely pulled apart and sediments lie directly on the mantle. Two approximately N-S trending fault systems are observed: 1) a margin proximal system of two linked faults that are the upward extension (breakaway faults) of the S; in the south they form one surface that splays northward to form two faults with an intervening fault block. These faults were thus demonstrably active at one time rather than sequentially. 2) An oceanward relay structure that shows clear along strike linkage. Faults within the relay trend NE-SW and heavily dissect the basement. The main block bounding faults can be traced from the S detachment through the basement into, and heavily deforming, the syn-rift sediments where they die out, suggesting that the faults propagated up from the S detachment surface. Analysis of the fault heaves and associated maps at different structural levels show complementary fault systems. The pattern of faulting suggests a variation in main tectonic transport direction moving oceanward. This might be interpreted as a temporal change during sequential faulting, however the transfer of extension between faults and the lateral variability of fault blocks suggests that many of the faults across the 3D volume were active at least in part

  7. Sediment stratigraphy of the Nansen Basin, Arctic Ocean and characterization of the ultraslow-spreading oceanic crust (United States)

    Lutz, R.; Franke, D.; Berglar, K.; Schnabel, M.


    The Nansen Basin is the southern part of the Eurasia Basin in the Arctic Ocean. Opening of the Eurasia Basin started here with the tear-off of the continental Lomonossov ridge. Here we present a couple of multichannel reflection seismic lines, covering an area from the Barents Shelf to 83.2 deg N. The profiles extend for about 275 km and 170 km, respectively from the Barents Sea margin (Hinlopen margin) into northern direction and cover together ~300 km of oceanic crust on two parallel lines. One connecting profile was acquired on oceanic crust crossing anomaly C23 (~50-52 Ma). The data were acquired during ice-free conditions and reveal for the first time the architecture of the oldest sediments deposited on the oceanic crust. We discuss the seismic facies of the oldest sediments on the oceanic crust and determine their age by correlation of onlap contacts onto oceanic crust with well defined magnetic anomalies. The lowermost sedimentary unit can be subdivided by at least one more prominent seismic reflector in the distal part of the Nansen Basin and two more seismic reflectors in the proximal part. Furthermore we present images and interpretations of oceanic crust formed at the ultraslow-spreading Gakkel ridge (rate). We discuss the basement morphology, volcanic cones and major faults, bounding horsts and grabens in the light of our present understanding of melt-poor ultraslow-spreading ridges.

  8. Extension by faulting, stretching and magma intrusion in Ethiopia (United States)

    Bastow, I. D.; Keir, D.


    The 2001-2004 Ethiopia Afar Geoscientific Lithospheric Experiment showed that high seismic wavespeed, dense, mafic crustal intrusions exist beneath many zones of Quaternary magmatism in the Main Ethiopian rift, and that crustal thinning is minimal. From these observations, a consensus quickly emerged that extension presently occurs not by ductile stretching and brittle faulting but by magma intrusion. Striking InSAR images and accompanying seismic data from the 2005 Afar diking episode provided further compelling evidence in support of the magma assisted rifting hypothesis. Patterns of mantle seismic anisotropy, constrained by a combination of body and surface-wave analysis showed that melt intrusion likely also plays an important role in accommodating extension at greater depths in the extending plate. Evidence from further north in Afar, however, where crustal thickness decreases abruptly into the Danakil Depression, is not so easily explained by the magma assisted rifting hypothesis. Subsidence of the newly forming margin towards and below sea level, and eruption of voluminous basalt flows, is likely the result of late-stage thinning of the heavily intruded, weakened plate just before the onset of seafloor spreading. Faulting, stretching and magma intrusion are thus each important, but at different times during breakup. Combining, not isolating, these mechanisms of strain in new rifting models and appreciating how plate strength varies during rifting is essential in developing a clearer understanding of the incomplete geological record that documents continental breakup over time.

  9. Neutron stars with outbursts from superfluid crust (United States)

    Kaminker, A. D.; Chaikin, E. A.; Kaurov, A. A.; Yakovlev, D. G.


    We model heat propagation and the thermal surface luminosity L{s}^∞ ≤ft( t \\right) of a neutron star after an internal outburst in its crust. Simulations take into account superfluidity of free neutrons and the thickness of the outbursting layer (heater) in the crust. Crustal superfluidity can shorten and intensify variations of L{s}^∞ ≤ft( t \\right).

  10. Contact angles on stretched solids (United States)

    Mensink, Liz; Snoeijer, Jacco


    The surface energy of solid interfaces plays a central role in wetting, as they dictate the liquid contact angle. Yet, it has been challenging to measure the solid surface energies independently, without making use of Young's law. Here we present Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations by which we measure the surface properties for all interfaces, including the solids. We observe change in contact angles upon stretching the solid substrates, showing that the surface energy is actually strain dependent. This is clear evidence of the so-called Shuttleworth effect, making it necessary to distinguish surface energy from surface tension. We discuss how this effect gives rise to a new class of elasto-capillary phenomena. ERC Consolidator Grant No. 616918.

  11. Evidence of synsedimentary microbial activity and iron deposition in ferruginous crusts of the Late Cenomanian Utrillas Formation (Iberian Basin, central Spain) (United States)

    García-Hidalgo, José F.; Elorza, Javier; Gil-Gil, Javier; Herrero, José M.; Segura, Manuel


    Ferruginous sandstones and crusts are prominent sedimentary features throughout the continental (braided)-coastal siliciclastic (estuarine-tidal) wedges of the Late Cenomanian Utrillas Formation in the Iberian Basin. Crust types recognized are: Ferruginous sandy crusts (Fsc) with oxides-oxyhydroxides (hematite and goethite) concentrated on sandstone tops presenting a fibro-radial internal structure reminding organic structures that penetrate different mineral phases, suggesting the existence of bacterial activity in crust development; Ferruginous muddy crusts (Fmc) consisting of wavy, laminated, microbial mats, being composed mainly of hematite. On the other hand, a more dispersed and broader mineralization included as Ferruginous sandstones with iron oxides and oxyhydroxides (hematite and goethite) representing a limited cement phase on these sediments. The presence of microbial remains, ferruginous minerals, Microbially-induced sedimentary structures, microbial laminites and vertebrate tracks preserved due to the presence of biofilms suggest firstly a direct evidence of syn-depositional microbial activity in these sediments; and, secondly, that iron accumulation and ferruginous crusts development occurred immediately after deposition of the host, still soft sediments. Ferruginous crusts cap sedimentary cycles and they represent the gradual development of hard substrate conditions, and the development of a discontinuity surface at the top of the parasequence sets, related to very low sedimentary rates; the overlying sediments record subsequent flooding of underlying shallower environments; crusts are, consequently, interpreted as boundaries for these higher-order cycles in the Iberian Basin.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaik Raheem Saheb


    Full Text Available Background: Recently Cross body stretch and Sleeper stretch are used to improve internal rotation Range of motion in Shoulder Pathologies. It was proposed to study the effect of cross body stretch and sleeper stretch in subjects with periarthritis of shoulder. Methods: 60 subjects with a mean age of 53 years having clinical diagnosis of Periarthritis of shoulder and full filled the inclusive criteria are taken. After the initial measurements, the subjects are randomly assigned into 2 stretching groups. Group-A performed the Sleeper stretch. Group-B performed a Cross body stretch. Both Groups performed the Stretch in Duration of 6weeks – once daily for 5 repetitions holding each stretch for 30 seconds for 5 days a week. Along with this technique conventional physiotherapy like IFT, overhead pulleys, Pendula exercises, Wall climbing exercises, mariners wheel exercises are performed. After the treatment, subjects were evaluated for their pain profile using visual analogue scale, Goniometer for measuring Range of motion. Results: For within group comparison we used Paired t-test analysis, For Between group comparison we used Independent t-test for statistical analysis. At the end of 6 weeks It was found that subjects treated with cross-body stretch showed significant improvement in terms of VAS scores and Range of motion scores (P=0.000 and patients treated with Sleeper stretch showed significant improvement in terms of VAS scores and Range of motion scores (P=0.000. When compared between Groups the VAS and Range of motion scores showed a significant improvement in Cross body stretch Group than the Sleeper stretch Group (P=0.000. Conclusion: It was concluded that both stretching techniques were found improvement in Range of motion and VAS and Cross-body Stretch showed more Significant improvement than the sleeper Stretch after 6 weeks treatment.

  13. Continental scientific drilling program. [Los Alamos, New Mexico, July 17-21, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The dynamics, structure, evolution, and genesis of the continents offer a major scientific challenge. At the same time, society faces many problems that require information about the continental crust for solution. A workshop on continental drilling for scientific purposes addressed the questions of how to maximize the scientific value of current and planned efforts of federal agencies and industry and how to supplement these efforts with holes drilled solely for scientific purpoes. Four panels addressed the scientific and associated societal problems relating to basement structures and deep continental basins, thermal regimes, mineral resources, and earthuqakes. These panels identified the main problems in each area that could be solved by information obtained from drill holes. A fifth panel considered needs for technological developments. The importance of a communications and coordinating mechanism to maximize the scientific results was noted. To this end, a Continental Scientific Drilling Program is outlined, including two advisory and guiding committees, one concerned with scientific objectives, the other with operations. (RWR)

  14. Receiver function analysis of the crust and upper mantle in Fennoscandia - isostatic implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frassetto, Andrew; Thybo, Hans


    The mountains across southern Norway and other margins of the North Atlantic Ocean appear conspicuously high in the absence of recent convergent tectonics. We investigate this phenomenon with receiver functions calculated for seismometers deployed across southern Fennoscandia. These are used...... to constrain the structure and seismic properties of the lithosphere and primarily to measure the thickness and infer the bulk composition of the crust. Such parameters are key to understanding crustal isostasy and assessing its role, or lack thereof, in supporting the observed elevations. Our study focuses...... on the southern Scandes mountain range that has an average elevation >1.0 km above mean sea level. The crust-mantle boundary (Moho) is ubiquitously imaged, and we occasionally observe structures that may represent the base of the continental lithosphere or other thermal, chemical, or viscous boundaries...

  15. In situ Detection of Microbial Life in the Deep Biosphere in Igneous Ocean Crust. (United States)

    Salas, Everett C; Bhartia, Rohit; Anderson, Louise; Hug, William F; Reid, Ray D; Iturrino, Gerardo; Edwards, Katrina J


    The deep biosphere is a major frontier to science. Recent studies have shown the presence and activity of cells in deep marine sediments and in the continental deep biosphere. Volcanic lavas in the deep ocean subsurface, through which substantial fluid flow occurs, present another potentially massive deep biosphere. We present results from the deployment of a novel in situ logging tool designed to detect microbial life harbored in a deep, native, borehole environment within igneous oceanic crust, using deep ultraviolet native fluorescence spectroscopy. Results demonstrate the predominance of microbial-like signatures within the borehole environment, with densities in the range of 10(5) cells/mL. Based on transport and flux models, we estimate that such a concentration of microbial cells could not be supported by transport through the crust, suggesting in situ growth of these communities.

  16. Titanium isotopic evidence for felsic crust and plate tectonics 3.5 billion years ago. (United States)

    Greber, Nicolas D; Dauphas, Nicolas; Bekker, Andrey; Ptáček, Matouš P; Bindeman, Ilya N; Hofmann, Axel


    Earth exhibits a dichotomy in elevation and chemical composition between the continents and ocean floor. Reconstructing when this dichotomy arose is important for understanding when plate tectonics started and how the supply of nutrients to the oceans changed through time. We measured the titanium isotopic composition of shales to constrain the chemical composition of the continental crust exposed to weathering and found that shales of all ages have a uniform isotopic composition. This can only be explained if the emerged crust was predominantly felsic (silica-rich) since 3.5 billion years ago, requiring an early initiation of plate tectonics. We also observed a change in the abundance of biologically important nutrients phosphorus and nickel across the Archean-Proterozoic boundary, which might have helped trigger the rise in atmospheric oxygen. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  17. The continental waters pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsily, G. de


    This work deals with the continental water pollution. The sewage affect considerably the quality of some rivers water and of some basins. Moreover, a slow and general damage of natural waters has been established. The direct effects on men and on the natural medium (climatic change, aquatic ecosystems, water cycle) are given as well as the protection means (waste processing, the water-bearing bed and underground water protection, the aquatic ecosystems protection and planning) used and future to abate the water pollution. (O.L.). 17 refs., 6 tabs

  18. Improved appreciation of the functioning and importance of biological soil crusts in Europe: the Soil Crust International Project (SCIN). (United States)

    Büdel, Burkhard; Colesie, Claudia; Green, T G Allan; Grube, Martin; Lázaro Suau, Roberto; Loewen-Schneider, Katharina; Maier, Stefanie; Peer, Thomas; Pintado, Ana; Raggio, José; Ruprecht, Ulrike; Sancho, Leopoldo G; Schroeter, Burkhard; Türk, Roman; Weber, Bettina; Wedin, Mats; Westberg, Martin; Williams, Laura; Zheng, Lingjuan


    Here we report details of the European research initiative "Soil Crust International" (SCIN) focusing on the biodiversity of biological soil crusts (BSC, composed of bacteria, algae, lichens, and bryophytes) and on functional aspects in their specific environment. Known as the so-called "colored soil lichen community" (Bunte Erdflechtengesellschaft), these BSCs occur all over Europe, extending into subtropical and arid regions. Our goal is to study the uniqueness of these BSCs on the regional scale and investigate how this community can cope with large macroclimatic differences. One of the major aims of this project is to develop biodiversity conservation and sustainable management strategies for European BSCs. To achieve this, we established a latitudinal transect from the Great Alvar of Öland, Sweden in the north over Gössenheim, Central Germany and Hochtor in the Hohe Tauern National Park, Austria down to the badlands of Tabernas, Spain in the south. The transect stretches over 20° latitude and 2,300 m in altitude, including natural (Hochtor, Tabernas) and semi-natural sites that require maintenance such as by grazing activities (Öland, Gössenheim). At all four sites BSC coverage exceeded 30 % of the referring landscape, with the alpine site (Hochtor) reaching the highest cyanobacterial cover and the two semi-natural sites (Öland, Gössenheim) the highest bryophyte cover. Although BSCs of the four European sites share a common set of bacteria, algae (including cyanobacteria) lichens and bryophytes, first results indicate not only climate specific additions of species, but also genetic/phenotypic uniqueness of species between the four sites. While macroclimatic conditions are rather different, microclimatic conditions and partly soil properties seem fairly homogeneous between the four sites, with the exception of water availability. Continuous activity monitoring of photosystem II revealed the BSCs of the Spanish site as the least active in terms of

  19. Rehabilitation of European Biological Soil Crusts - The SCIN project (United States)

    Williams, Laura; Zheng, Lingjuan; Maier, Stefanie; Weber, Bettina; Büdel, Burkhard


    The ''Soil Crust INternational'' (SCIN) Project aims to improve the appreciation and understanding of European Biological Soil Crusts (BSC) with the goal of developing biodiversity conservation and sustainable management strategies. Our objective is to study the uniqueness of European BSC on a local scale and investigate how these communities thrive in areas with such great macroclimatic differences. In order to cover a wide diversity of European BSC a latitudinal transect was established, extending from the Great Alvar of Öland, Sweden in the north, down to Gössenheim, Central Germany and Hochtor in the Hohe Tauern National Park, Austria, continuing to the Badlands of Tabernas, in southern Spain. The transect stretches over 20° latitude and 2,300 m in altitude and includes natural and also semi-natural sites that require maintenance, for instance, by grazing. Within the SCIN project a rehabilitation study was initiated in order to investigate the recovery potential of BSC under different environmental conditions. This entailed the construction of 10 times 1m2 plots, alongside control plots, at each of the 4 sites, where the BSC was completely removed. Over the course of 2 years (2012-2014) the plots were sampled regularly to assess recovery in the form of returning organisms (cyanobacteria, algae, lichens, bryophytes, higher plants), soil stability, chlorophyll and carbon content and nutrient composition. Cyanobacteria are considered as the pioneering functional group of BSC establishment in many regions, especially arid, and may be critical for the successful formation of any of the further BSC successional stages. Therefore, the cyanobacterial assemblages of recovering plots are being investigated to shed light on the importance of cyanobacteria in the rehabilitation of BSC and whether individual species or specific communities can be ascribed to a local or wide geographical range. It also has to be considered the proximity of recovering BSC to established

  20. Anharmonic Bend-Stretch Coupling in Water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindner, Jörg; Vöhringer, Peter; Pshenichnikov, Maxim S.; Cringus, Dan; Wiersma, Douwe A.; Corkum, Paul; Jonas, David M.; Miller, R.J. Dwayne.; Weiner, Andrew M.


    Following excitation of the H-O-H bending mode of water molecules in solution the stretching mode region is monitored over its entire width. The anharmonic coupling between the two modes results in a substantial change of the transient stretch absorption that decays with the bend depopulation time.

  1. Anisotropic instability of a stretching film (United States)

    Xu, Bingrui; Li, Minhao; Deng, Daosheng


    Instability of a thin liquid film, such as dewetting arising from Van der Waals force, has been well studied, and is typically characterized by formation of many droplets. Interestingly, a thin liquid film subjected to an applied stretching during a process of thermal drawing is evolved into an array of filaments, i.e., continuity is preserved along the direction of stretching while breakup occurs exclusively in the plane of cross section. Here, to understand this anisotropic instability, we build a physical model by considering both Van der Waals force and the effect of stretching. By using the linear instability analysis method and then performing a numerical calculation, we find that the growth rate of perturbations at the cross section is larger than that along the direction of stretching, resulting in the anisotropic instability of the stretching film. These results may provide theoretical guidance to achieve more diverse structures for nanotechnology.

  2. Commercial helium reserves, continental rifting and volcanism (United States)

    Ballentine, C. J.; Barry, P. H.; Hillegonds, D.; Fontijn, K.; Bluett, J.; Abraham-James, T.; Danabalan, D.; Gluyas, J.; Brennwald, M. S.; Pluess, B.; Seneshens, D.; Sherwood Lollar, B.


    Helium has many industrial applications, but notably provides the unique cooling medium for superconducting magnets in medical MRI scanners and high energy beam lines. In 2013 the global supply chainfailed to meet demand causing significant concern - the `Liquid Helium Crisis' [1]. The 2017 closure of Quatar borders, a major helium supplier, is likely to further disrupt helium supply, and accentuates the urgent need to diversify supply. Helium is found in very few natural gas reservoirs that have focused 4He produced by the dispersed decay (a-particle) of U and Th in the crust. We show here, using the example of the Rukwa section of the Tanzanian East African Rift, how continental rifting and local volcanism provides the combination of processes required to generate helium reserves. The ancient continental crust provides the source of 4He. Rifting and associated magmatism provides the tectonic and thermal mechanism to mobilise deep fluid circulation, focusing flow to the near surface along major basement faults. Helium-rich springs in the Tanzanian Great Rift Valley were first identified in the 1950's[2]. The isotopic compositions and major element chemistry of the gases from springs and seeps are consistent with their release from the crystalline basement during rifting [3]. Within the Rukwa Rift Valley, helium seeps occur in the vicinity of trapping structures that have the potential to store significant reserves of helium [3]. Soil gas surveys over 6 prospective trapping structures (1m depth, n=1486) show helium anomalies in 5 out of the 6 at levels similar to those observed over a known helium-rich gas reservoir at 1200m depth (7% He - Harley Dome, Utah). Detailed macroseep gas compositions collected over two days (n=17) at one site allows us to distinguish shallow gas contributions and shows the deep gas to contain between 8-10% helium, significantly increasing resource estimates based on uncorrected values (1.8-4.2%)[2,3]. The remainder of the deep gas is

  3. Wilson cycle passive margins: Control of orogenic inheritance on continental breakup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kenni D.; Schiffer, Christian


    such tectonic inheritance is generally appreciated, causative physical mechanisms that affect the localization and evolution of rifts and passive margins are not well understood. We use thermo-mechanical modeling to assess the role of orogenic structures during rifting and continental breakup. Such inherited...... thinning in the mantle lithosphere rather than in the crust, and continental breakup is therefore preceded by magmatism. This implies that whether passive margins become magma-poor or magma-rich, respectively, is a function of pre-rift orogenic properties. The models show that structures of orogenic...

  4. New Insight Into the Crustal Structure of the Continental Margin offshore NW Sabah/Borneo (United States)

    Barckhausen, U.; Franke, D.; Behain, D.; Meyer, H.


    The continental margin offshore NW Sabah/Borneo (Malaysia) has been investigated with reflection and refraction seismics, magnetics, and gravity during the recent cruise BGR01-POPSCOMS. A total of 4000 km of geophysical profiles has been acquired, thereof 2900 km with reflection seismics. The focus of investigations was on the deep water areas. The margin looks like a typical accretionary margin and was presumably formed during the subduction of a proto South China Sea. Presently, no horizontal movements between the two plates are being observed. Like in major parts of the South China Sea, the area seaward of the Sabah Trough consists of extended continental lithosphere which is characterised by a pattern of rotated fault blocks and half grabens and a carbonate platform of Early Oligocene to Early Miocene age. We found evidence that the continental crust also underlies the Sabah Trough and the adjacent continental slope, a fact that raises many questions about the tectonic history and development of this margin. The tectonic pattern of the Dangerous Grounds' extended continental crust can be traced a long way landward of the Sabah Trough beneath the sedimentary succession of the upper plate. The magnetic anomalies which are dominated by the magnetic signatures of relatively young volcanic features also continue under the continental slope. The sedimentary rocks of the upper plate, in contrast, seem to generate hardly any magnetic anomalies. Based on the new data we propose the following scenario for the development of the NW Sabah continental margin: Seafloor spreading in the present South China Sea started at about 30 Ma in the Late Oligocene. The spreading process separated the Dangerous Grounds area from the SE Asian continent and ceased in late Early Miocene when the oceanic crust of the proto South China Sea was fully subducted in eastward direction along the Borneo-Palawan Trough. During Lower and/or Middle Miocene, Borneo rotated counterclockwise and was

  5. Basin Excavation, Lower Crust, Composition, and Bulk Moon Mass balance in Light of a Thin Crust (United States)

    Jolliff, B. L.; Korotev, R. L.; Ziegler, R. A.


    New lunar gravity results from GRAIL have been interpreted to reflect an overall thin and low-density lunar crust. Accordingly, crustal thickness has been modeled as ranging from 0 to 60 km, with thinnest crust at the locations of Crisium and Moscoviense basins and thickest crust in the central farside highlands. The thin crust has cosmochemical significance, namely in terms of implications for the Moon s bulk composition, especially refractory lithophile elements that are strongly concentrated in the crust. Wieczorek et al. concluded that the bulk Moon need not be enriched compared to Earth in refractory lithophile elements such as Al. Less Al in the crust means less Al has been extracted from the mantle, permitting relatively low bulk lunar mantle Al contents and low pre- and post-crust-extraction values for the mantle (or the upper mantle if only the upper mantle underwent LMO melting). Simple mass-balance calculations using the method of [4] suggests that the same conclusion might hold for Th and the entire suite of refractory lithophile elements that are incompatible in olivine and pyroxene, including the KREEP elements, that are likewise concentrated in the crust.

  6. Osmium isotope and highly siderophile element systematics of the lunar crust (United States)

    Day, J.M.D.; Walker, R.J.; James, O.B.; Puchtel, I.S.


    Coupled 187Os/188Os and highly siderophile element (HSE: Os, Ir, Ru, Pt, Pd, and Re) abundance data are reported for pristine lunar crustal rocks 60025, 62255, 65315 (ferroan anorthosites, FAN) and 76535, 78235, 77215 and a norite clast in 15455 (magnesian-suite rocks, MGS). Osmium isotopes permit more refined discrimination than previously possible of samples that have been contaminated by meteoritic additions and the new results show that some rocks, previously identified as pristine, contain meteorite-derived HSE. Low HSE abundances in FAN and MGS rocks are consistent with derivation from a strongly HSE-depleted lunar mantle. At the time of formation, the lunar floatation crust, represented by FAN, had 1.4 ?? 0.3 pg g- 1 Os, 1.5 ?? 0.6 pg g- 1 Ir, 6.8 ?? 2.7 pg g- 1 Ru, 16 ?? 15 pg g- 1 Pt, 33 ?? 30 pg g- 1 Pd and 0.29 ?? 0.10 pg g- 1 Re (??? 0.00002 ?? CI) and Re/Os ratios that were modestly elevated (187Re/188Os = 0.6 to 1.7) relative to CI chondrites. MGS samples are, on average, characterised by more elevated HSE abundances (??? 0.00007 ?? CI) compared with FAN. This either reflects contrasting mantle-source HSE characteristics of FAN and MGS rocks, or different mantle-crust HSE fractionation behaviour during production of these lithologies. Previous studies of lunar impact-melt rocks have identified possible elevated Ru and Pd in lunar crustal target rocks. The new results provide no supporting evidence for such enrichments. If maximum estimates for HSE in the lunar mantle are compared with FAN and MGS averages, crust-mantle concentration ratios (D-values) must be ??? 0.3. Such D-values are broadly similar to those estimated for partitioning between the terrestrial crust and upper mantle, with the notable exception of Re. Given the presumably completely different mode of origin for the primary lunar floatation crust and tertiary terrestrial continental crust, the potential similarities in crust-mantle HSE partitioning for the Earth and Moon are somewhat

  7. Basement-cover relationships in the Grampian Caledonides of Scotland - extensional strain preceding continental rupture and generation of the Laurentian ocean-continent transition zone (United States)

    Leslie, Graham; Smith, Martin; Gillespie, Martin; Thomas, Christopher; Krabbendam, Maarten


    Ancient rift and passive margin basins can frequently only be studied in outcrop after uplift following orogenesis. Such basins are thus deformed, metamorphosed and partially eroded as a consequence of closure of the oceanic system in which the passive margin was originally established. As a result there are significant challenges in restoration and interpretation of the original basin geometries and lithostratigraphical relationships. The mid-Neoproterozoic to Cambrian Dalradian Supergroup of Scotland and Ireland was intensively deformed and metamorphosed by mid-Ordovician arc-accretion (c. 460 Ma) during the Caledonian Orogeny. Nevertheless, we can determine a history of stretching and break-up associated with rupture of the Neoproterozoic supercontinent of Rodinia and opening of Iapetus. Continental fragments apparently separated from the passive margin during rift-drift transition. The extensional structures bounding the various fragments subsequently exerted control on the collisional geometry and acted as nuclei for deformation structures during Caledonian orogenesis. Reading the record of Neoproterozoic extension in the Scottish Caledonides is further complicated by the need to unravel the structural record at the boundary between the Dalradian Supergroup and underlying early-Neoproterozoic metamorphic basement. The depositional age of the Dalradian succession is not well constrained but the oldest strata could pre-date 800 Ma. If such should be the case, then the thick siliciclastic deposits characteristic of the lower Dalradian Grampian Group succession accumulated before 800 Ma during an early stretching phase (distributed high angle faulting) that led to crustal thinning (low-angle shearing). A major low-angle, regional-scale ductile shear zone in the upper levels of the underlying basement is arranged sub-parallel to the present structural base of the Dalradian. The high-temperature regional metamorphism in basement is c. 830 Ma old while the ductile

  8. DaMaSCUS-CRUST: Dark Matter Simulation Code for Underground Scatterings - Crust Edition (United States)

    Emken, Timon; Kouvaris, Chris


    DaMaSCUS-CRUST determines the critical cross-section for strongly interacting DM for various direct detection experiments systematically and precisely using Monte Carlo simulations of DM trajectories inside the Earth's crust, atmosphere, or any kind of shielding. Above a critical dark matter-nucleus scattering cross section, any terrestrial direct detection experiment loses sensitivity to dark matter, since the Earth crust, atmosphere, and potential shielding layers start to block off the dark matter particles. This critical cross section is commonly determined by describing the average energy loss of the dark matter particles analytically. However, this treatment overestimates the stopping power of the Earth crust; therefore, the obtained bounds should be considered as conservative. DaMaSCUS-CRUST is a modified version of DaMaSCUS (ascl:1706.003) that accounts for shielding effects and returns a precise exclusion band.

  9. Strategy as stretch and leverage. (United States)

    Hamel, G; Prahalad, C K


    Global competition is not just product versus product or company versus company. It is mind-set versus mind-set. Driven to understand the dynamics of competition, we have learned a lot about what makes one company more successful than another. But to find the root of competitiveness--to understand why some companies create new forms of competitive advantage while others watch and follow--we must look at strategic mind-sets. For many managers, "being strategic" means pursuing opportunities that fit the company's resources. This approach is not wrong, Gary Hamel and C.K. Prahalad contend, but it obscures an approach in which "stretch" supplements fit and being strategic means creating a chasm between ambition and resources. Toyota, CNN, British Airways, Sony, and others all displaced competitors with stronger reputations and deeper pockets. Their secret? In each case, the winner had greater ambition than its well-endowed rivals. Winners also find less resource-intensive ways of achieving their ambitious goals. This is where leverage complements the strategic allocation of resources. Managers at competitive companies can get a bigger bang for their buck in five basic ways: by concentrating resources around strategic goals; by accumulating resources more efficiently; by complementing one kind of resource with another; by conserving resources whenever they can; and by recovering resources from the market-place as quickly as possible. As recent competitive battles have demonstrated, abundant resources can't guarantee continued industry leadership.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Tectonic feedback and the ordering of heat producing elements within the continental lithosphere (United States)

    Sandiford, Mike; McLaren, Sandra


    The distribution of the heat producing elements within the lithosphere provides an important control on continental thermal regimes and the mechanical strength of the lithosphere. Moreover, the strong temperature dependence of lithospheric rheology suggests the possibility of an important feedback between deformation and the distribution of heat producing elements. Simple models for lithospheric rheology are used to illustrate how such feedback might serve as an important control on both the characteristic abundance of, and spatial variation in, the heat production elements in the crust. These models also imply that the organisation of heat producing elements is essential for the long-term tectonic stabilisation of the continental crust. This is particularly relevant to the evolution of cratons in early Earth history, wherein lies the most dramatic evidence for the role played by tectonic processes in achieving a stable ordering of the heat producing elements.

  11. Crust formation in drying colloidal suspensions

    KAUST Repository

    Style, R. W.


    During the drying of colloidal suspensions, the desiccation process causes the suspension near the air interface to consolidate into a connected porous matrix or crust. Fluid transport in the porous medium is governed by Darcy\\'s law and the equations of poroelasticity, while the equations of colloid physics govern processes in the suspension. We derive new equations describing this process, including unique boundary conditions coupling the two regions, yielding a moving-boundary model of the concentration and stress profiles during drying. A solution is found for the steady-state growth of a nedimensional crust during constant evaporation rate from the surface. The solution is used to demonstrate the importance of the system boundary conditions on stress profiles and diffusivity in a drying crust. © 2011 The Royal Society.

  12. Elemental composition of the Martian crust. (United States)

    McSween, Harry Y; Taylor, G Jeffrey; Wyatt, Michael B


    The composition of Mars' crust records the planet's integrated geologic history and provides clues to its differentiation. Spacecraft and meteorite data now provide a global view of the chemistry of the igneous crust that can be used to assess this history. Surface rocks on Mars are dominantly tholeiitic basalts formed by extensive partial melting and are not highly weathered. Siliceous or calc-alkaline rocks produced by melting and/or fractional crystallization of hydrated, recycled mantle sources, and silica-poor rocks produced by limited melting of alkali-rich mantle sources, are uncommon or absent. Spacecraft data suggest that martian meteorites are not representative of older, more voluminous crust and prompt questions about their use in defining diagnostic geochemical characteristics and in constraining mantle compositional models for Mars.

  13. Deep-ocean ferromanganese crusts and nodules (United States)

    Hein, James R.; Koschinsky, Andrea


    Ferromanganese crusts and nodules may provide a future resource for a large variety of metals, including many that are essential for emerging high- and green-technology applications. A brief review of nodules and crusts provides a setting for a discussion on the latest (past 10 years) research related to the geochemistry of sequestration of metals from seawater. Special attention is given to cobalt, nickel, titanium, rare earth elements and yttrium, bismuth, platinum, tungsten, tantalum, hafnium, tellurium, molybdenum, niobium, zirconium, and lithium. Sequestration from seawater by sorption, surface oxidation, substitution, and precipitation of discrete phases is discussed. Mechanisms of metal enrichment reflect modes of formation of the crusts and nodules, such as hydrogenetic (from seawater), diagenetic (from porewaters), and mixed diagenetic–hydrogenetic processes.

  14. Crustal structure variations along the NW-African continental margin: A comparison of new and existing models from wide-angle and reflection seismic data (United States)

    Klingelhoefer, Frauke; Biari, Youssef; Sahabi, Mohamed; Aslanian, Daniel; Schnabel, Michael; Matias, Luis; Benabdellouahed, Massinissa; Funck, Thomas; Gutscher, Marc-André; Reichert, Christian; Austin, James A.


    Deep seismic data represent a key to understand the geometry and mechanism of continental rifting. The passive continental margin of NW-Africa is one of the oldest on earth, formed during the Upper Triassic-Lower Liassic rifting of the central Atlantic Ocean over 200 Ma. We present new and existing wide-angle and reflection seismic data from four study regions along the margin located in the south offshore DAKHLA, on the central continental margin offshore Safi, in the northern Moroccan salt basin, and in the Gulf of Cadiz. The thickness of unthinned continental crust decreases from 36 km in the North to about 27 km in the South. Crustal thinning takes place over a region of 150 km in the north and only 70 km in the south. The North Moroccan Basin is underlain by highly thinned continental crust of only 6-8 km thickness. The ocean-continent transition zone shows a variable width between 40 and 70 km and is characterized by seismic velocities in between those of typical oceanic and thinned continental crust. The neighbouring oceanic crust is characterized by a thickness of 7-8 km along the complete margin. Relatively high velocities of up to 7.5 km/s have been imaged between magnetic anomalies S1 and M25, and are probably related to changes in the spreading velocities at the time of the Kimmeridgian/Tithonian plate reorganization. Volcanic activity seems to be mostly confined to the region next to the Canary Islands, and is thus not related to the initial opening of the ocean, which was associated to only weak volcanism. Comparison with the conjugate margin off Nova Scotia shows comparable continental crustal structures, but 2-3 km thinner oceanic crust on the American side than on the African margin.

  15. 3D numerical simulations of multiphase continental rifting (United States)

    Naliboff, J.; Glerum, A.; Brune, S.


    Observations of rifted margin architecture suggest continental breakup occurs through multiple phases of extension with distinct styles of deformation. The initial rifting stages are often characterized by slow extension rates and distributed normal faulting in the upper crust decoupled from deformation in the lower crust and mantle lithosphere. Further rifting marks a transition to higher extension rates and coupling between the crust and mantle lithosphere, with deformation typically focused along large-scale detachment faults. Significantly, recent detailed reconstructions and high-resolution 2D numerical simulations suggest that rather than remaining focused on a single long-lived detachment fault, deformation in this phase may progress toward lithospheric breakup through a complex process of fault interaction and development. The numerical simulations also suggest that an initial phase of distributed normal faulting can play a key role in the development of these complex fault networks and the resulting finite deformation patterns. Motivated by these findings, we will present 3D numerical simulations of continental rifting that examine the role of temporal increases in extension velocity on rifted margin structure. The numerical simulations are developed with the massively parallel finite-element code ASPECT. While originally designed to model mantle convection using advanced solvers and adaptive mesh refinement techniques, ASPECT has been extended to model visco-plastic deformation that combines a Drucker Prager yield criterion with non-linear dislocation and diffusion creep. To promote deformation localization, the internal friction angle and cohesion weaken as a function of accumulated plastic strain. Rather than prescribing a single zone of weakness to initiate deformation, an initial random perturbation of the plastic strain field combined with rapid strain weakening produces distributed normal faulting at relatively slow rates of extension in both 2D and

  16. Stretch due to Penile Prosthesis Reservoir Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Baten


    Full Text Available A 43-year old patient presented to the emergency department with stretch, due to impossible deflation of the penile prosthesis, 4 years after successful implant. A CT-scan showed migration of the reservoir to the left rectus abdominis muscle. Refilling of the reservoir was inhibited by muscular compression, causing stretch. Removal and replacement of the reservoir was performed, after which the prosthesis was well-functioning again. Migration of the penile prosthesis reservoir is extremely rare but can cause several complications, such as stretch.

  17. Crust and upper mantle structure in the Caribbean region by group velocity tomography and regionalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Leary, Gonzalez; Alvarez, L.; Chimera, G.; Panza, G.F.


    An overview of the crust and upper mantle structure of the Central America and Caribbean region is presented as a result of the processing of more than 200 seismograms recorded by digital broadband stations from SSSN and GSN seismic networks. By FTAN analysis of the fundamental mode of the Rayleigh waves, group velocity dispersion curves are obtained in the period range from 10 s to 40 s; the error of these measurements varies from 0.06 and 0.10 km/s. From the dispersion curves, seven tomographic maps at different periods and with average spatial resolution of 500 km are obtained. Using the logical combinatorial classification techniques, eight main groups of dispersion curves are determined from the tomographic maps and eleven main regions, each one characterized by one kind of dispersion curves, are identified. The average dispersion curves obtained for each region are extended to 150 s by adding data from the tomographic study of and inverted using a non-linear procedure. As a result of the inversion process, a set of models of the S-wave velocity vs. depth in the crust and upper mantle are found. In six regions, we identify a typically oceanic crust and upper mantle structure, while in the other two the models are consistent with the presence of a continental structure. Two regions, located over the major geological zones of the accretionary crust of the Caribbean region, are characterized by a peculiar crust and upper mantle structure, indicating the presence of lithospheric roots reaching, at least, about 200 km of depth. (author)

  18. 3D geodynamic models for the development of opposing continental subduction zones: The Hindu Kush-Pamir example (United States)

    Liao, Jie; Gerya, Taras; Thielmann, Marcel; Webb, A. Alexander G.; Kufner, Sofia-Katerina; Yin, An


    The development of opposing continental subduction zones remains scantly explored in three dimensions. The Hindu Kush-Pamir orogenic system at the western end of the Himalayan orogen provides a rare example of continental collision linked to two opposing intra-continental subduction zones. The subducted plates feature a peculiar 3D geometry consisting of two distinct lithospheric fragments with different polarities, subduction angles and slab-curvatures beneath the Hindu Kush and Pamir, respectively. Using 3D geodynamic modeling, we simulate possible development of two opposing continental subduction zones to understand the dynamic evolution of the Hindu Kush-Pamir orogenic system. Our geodynamic model reproduces the major tectonic elements observed: (1) the deeper subduction depth, the steeper dip angle and the southward offset of the Hindu Kush subduction zone relative to the Pamir naturally occur if convergence direction of the subducting Indian plate and dip-direction of the Hindu Kush subduction zone match. (2) The formation of the highly asymmetrically curved Pamir region and the south-dipping subduction is promoted by the initial geometry of the indenting Indian lithosphere together with the existence of a major strike-slip fault on the eastern margin of the Pamir region. (3) Subduction of only the lower continental crust during continental collision can occur if the coupling between upper and lower crusts is weak enough to allow a separation of these two components, and that (4) the subduction of mainly lower crust then facilitates that conditions for intermediate-depth seismicity can be reached. (5) The secondary tectonic features modeled here such as strike-slip-fault growth, north-northwest striking extension zone, and lateral flow of the thickened ductile upper crust are comparable to the current tectonics of the region. (6) Model results are further compared to the potentially similar orogenic system, i.e., the Alpine orogen, in terms of the curved

  19. Hafnium isotope stratigraphy of ferromanganese crusts (United States)

    Lee, D.-C.; Halliday, A.N.; Hein, J.R.; Burton, K.W.; Christensen, J.N.; Gunther, D.


    A Cenozoic record of hafnium isotopic compositions of central Pacific deep water has been obtained from two ferromanganese crusts. The crusts are separated by more than 3000 kilometers but display similar secular variations. Significant fluctuations in hafnium isotopic composition occurred in the Eocene and Oligocene, possibly related to direct advection from the Indian and Atlantic oceans. Hafnium isotopic compositions have remained approximately uniform for the past 20 million years, probably reflecting increased isolation of the central Pacific. The mechanisms responsible for the increase in 87Sr/86Sr in seawater through the Cenozoic apparently had no effect on central Pacific deep-water hafnium.

  20. Tungsten Stable Isotope Compositions of Ferromanganese Crusts (United States)

    Abraham, K.; Barling, J.; Hein, J. R.; Schauble, E. A.; Halliday, A. N.


    We report the first accurate and precise data for mass-dependent fractionation of tungsten (W) stable isotopes, using a double spike technique and MC-ICPMS. Results are expressed relative to the NIST 3136 W isotope standard as per mil deviations in 186W/184W (δ186W). Although heavy element mass-dependent fractionations are expected to be small, Tl and U both display significant low temperature isotopic fractionations. Theoretical calculations indicate that W nuclear volume isotopic effects should be smaller than mass-dependent fractionations at low temperatures. Hydrogenetic ferromanganese (Fe-Mn) crusts precipitate directly from seawater and have been used as paleoceanographic recorders of temporal changes in seawater chemistry. Crusts are strongly enriched in W and other metals, and are a promising medium for exploring W isotopic variability. Tungsten has a relatively long residence time in seawater of ~61,000 years, mainly as the tungstate ion (WO42-). Water depth profiles show conservative behaviour. During adsorption on Fe-Mn crusts, W species form inner-sphere complexes in the hexavalent (W6+) state. The major host phase is thought to be Mn oxides and the lighter W isotope is expected to be absorbed preferentially. Surface scrapings of 13 globally distributed hydrogenetic Fe-Mn crusts display δ186W from -0.08 to -0.22‰ (±0.03‰, 2sd). A trend toward lighter W isotope composition exists with increasing water depth (~1500 to ~5200m) and W concentration. One hydrothermal Mn-oxide sample is anomalously light and Mn nodules are both heavy and light relative to Fe-Mn crusts. Tungsten speciation depends on concentration, pH, and time in solution and is not well understood because of the extremely slow kinetics of the reactions. In addition, speciation of aqueous and/or adsorbed species might be sensitive to pressure, showing similar thermodynamic stability but different effective volumes. Thus, W stable isotopes might be used as a water-depth barometer in

  1. Effect of modified hold-relax stretching and static stretching on hamstring muscle flexibility. (United States)

    Ahmed, Hashim; Iqbal, Amir; Anwer, Shahnawaz; Alghadir, Ahmad


    [Purpose] The aim of present study was to compare the effectiveness of modified hold-relax stretching and static stretching in improving the hamstring muscle flexibility. [Subjects and Methods] Forty-five male subjects with hamstring tightness were included in this study. The subjects were randomly placed into three groups: the modified hold-relax stretching, static stretching and control groups. The modified hold-relax stretching group performed 7 seconds of isometric contraction and then relaxed for 5 seconds, and this was repeated five times daily for five consecutive days. The static stretching group received 10 minutes of static stretching with the help of a pulley and weight system for five consecutive days. The control group received only moist heat for 20 minutes for five consecutive days. A baseline reading of passive knee extension (PKE) was taken prior to the intervention; rest measurements were taken immediate post intervention on day 1, day 3, day 5, and after a 1 week follow-up, i.e., at the 12th day. [Results] On comparing the baseline readings of passive knee extension (PKE), there was no difference noted between the three groups. On comparing the posttest readings on day 5 between the 3 groups, a significant difference was noted. However, post hoc analysis revealed an insignificant difference between the modified hold-relax stretching and static stretching groups. There was a significant difference between the static stretching and control groups and between the modified hold-relax stretching and control groups. [Conclusion] The results of this study indicate that both the modified hold-relax stretching technique and static stretching are equally effective, as there was no significant difference in improving the hamstring muscle flexibility between the two groups.

  2. Anomalous heat flow belt along the continental margin of Brazil (United States)

    Hamza, Valiya M.; Vieira, Fabio P.; Silva, Raquel T. A.


    A comprehensive analysis of thermal gradient and heat flow data was carried out for sedimentary basins situated in the continental margin of Brazil (CMB). The results point to the existence of a narrow belt within CMB, where temperature gradients are higher than 30 °C/km and the heat flow is in excess of 70 mW/m2. This anomalous geothermal belt is confined between zones of relatively low to normal heat flow in the adjacent continental and oceanic regions. The width of the belt is somewhat variable, but most of it falls within the range of 100-300 km. The spatial extent is relatively large in the southern (in the basins of Pelotas, Santos and Campos) and northern (in the basins of Potiguar and Ceará) parts, when compared with those in the central parts (in the basins of South Bahia, Sergipe and Alagoas). The characteristics of heat flow anomalies appear to be compatible with those produced by thermal sources at depths in the lower crust. Hence, magma emplacement at the transition zone between lower crust and upper mantle is considered the likely mechanism producing such anomalies. Seismicity within the belt is relatively weak, with focal depths less than 10 km for most of the events. Such observations imply that "tectonic bonding" between continental and oceanic segments, at the transition zone of CMB, is relatively weak. Hence, it is proposed that passive margins like CMB be considered as constituting a type of plate boundary that is aseismic at sub-crustal levels, but allows for escape of significant amounts of earth's internal heat at shallow depths.

  3. Detachments of the subducted Indian continental lithosphere based on 3D finite-frequency tomographic images (United States)

    Liang, X.; Tian, X.; Wang, M.


    Indian plate collided with Eurasian plate at 60 Ma and there are about 3000 km crustal shortening since the continental-continental collision. At least one third of the total amount of crustal shortening between Indian and Eurasian plates could not be accounted by thickened Tibetan crust and surface erosion. It will need a combination of possible transfer of lower crust to the mantle by eclogitization and lateral extrusion. Based on the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary images beneath the Tibetan plateau, there is also at least the same amount deficit for lithospheric mantle subducted into upper/lower mantle or lateral extrusion with the crust. We have to recover a detailed Indian continental lithosphere image beneath the plateau in order to explain this deficit of mass budget. Combining the new teleseismic body waves recorded by SANDWICH passive seismic array with waveforms from several previous temporary seismic arrays, we carried out finite-frequency tomographic inversions to image three-dimensional velocity structures beneath southern and central Tibetan plateau to examine the possible image of subducted Indian lithosphere in the Tibetan upper mantle. We have recovered a continuous high velocity body in upper mantle and piece-wised high velocity anomalies in the mantle transition zone. Based on their geometry and relative locations, we interpreted these high velocity anomalies as the subducted and detached Indian lithosphere at different episodes of the plateau evolution. Detachments of the subducted Indian lithosphere should have a crucial impact on the volcanism activities and uplift history of the plateau.

  4. The evolution of magma during continental rifting: New constraints from the isotopic and trace element signatures of silicic magmas from Ethiopian volcanoes (United States)

    Hutchison, William; Mather, Tamsin A.; Pyle, David M.; Boyce, Adrian J.; Gleeson, Matthew L. M.; Yirgu, Gezahegn; Blundy, Jon D.; Ferguson, David J.; Vye-Brown, Charlotte; Millar, Ian L.; Sims, Kenneth W. W.; Finch, Adrian A.


    Magma plays a vital role in the break-up of continental lithosphere. However, significant uncertainty remains about how magma-crust interactions and melt evolution vary during the development of a rift system. Ethiopia captures the transition from continental rifting to incipient sea-floor spreading and has witnessed the eruption of large volumes of silicic volcanic rocks across the region over ∼45 Ma. The petrogenesis of these silicic rocks sheds light on the role of magmatism in rift development, by providing information on crustal interactions, melt fluxes and magmatic differentiation. We report new trace element and Sr-Nd-O isotopic data for volcanic rocks, glasses and minerals along and across active segments of the Main Ethiopian (MER) and Afar Rifts. Most δ18 O data for mineral and glass separates from these active rift zones fall within the bounds of modelled fractional crystallization trajectories from basaltic parent magmas (i.e., 5.5-6.5‰) with scant evidence for assimilation of Pan-African Precambrian crustal material (δ18 O of 7-18‰). Radiogenic isotopes (εNd = 0.92- 6.52; 87Sr/86Sr = 0.7037-0.7072) and incompatible trace element ratios (Rb/Nb Pan-African crust. However, there are important regional variations in melt evolution revealed by incompatible elements (e.g., Th and Zr) and peralkalinity (molar Na2 O +K2 O /Al2O3). The most chemically-evolved peralkaline compositions are associated with the MER volcanoes (Aluto, Gedemsa and Kone) and an off-axis volcano of the Afar Rift (Badi). On-axis silicic volcanoes of the Afar Rift (e.g., Dabbahu) generate less-evolved melts. While at Erta Ale, the most mature rift setting, peralkaline magmas are rare. We find that melt evolution is enhanced in less mature continental rifts (where parental magmas are of transitional rather than tholeiitic composition) and regions of low magma flux (due to reduced mantle melt productivity or where crustal structure inhibits magma ascent). This has important

  5. Investing in a Large Stretch Press (United States)

    Choate, M.; Nealson, W.; Jay, G.; Buss, W.


    Press for forming large aluminum parts from plates provides substantial economies. Study assessed advantages and disadvantages of investing in large stretch-forming press, and also developed procurement specification for press.

  6. Excluded Volume Effects in Gene Stretching


    Lam, Pui-Man


    We investigate the effects excluded volume on the stretching of a single DNA in solution. We find that for small force F, the extension h is not linear in F but proportion to F^{\\chi}, with \\chi=(1-\

  7. Ductile extension of syn-magmatic lower crusts, with application to volcanic passive margins: the Ivrea Zone (Southern Alps, Italy) (United States)

    Bidault, Marie; Geoffroy, Laurent; Arbaret, Laurent; Aubourg, Charles


    Deep seismic reflection profiles of present-day volcanic passive margins often show a 2-layered lower crust, from top to bottom: an apparently ductile 12 km-thick middle-lower layer (LC1) of strong folded reflectors and a 4 km-thick supra-Moho layer (LC2) of horizontal and parallel reflectors. Those layers appear to be structurally disconnected and to develop at the early stages of margins evolution. A magmatic origin has been suggested by several studies to explain those strong reflectors, favoring mafic sills intrusion hypothesis. Overlying mafic and acidic extrusives (Seaward Dipping Reflectors sequences) are bounded by continentward-dipping detachment faults rooting in, and co-structurated with, the ductile part of the lower crust (LC1). Consequently the syn-rift to post-rift evolution of volcanic passive margins (and passive margins in general) largely depends on the nature and the properties of the lower crust, yet poorly understood. We propose to investigate the properties and rheology of a magma-injected extensional lower crust with a field analogue, the Ivrea Zone (Southern Alps, Italy). The Ivrea Zone displays a complete back-thrusted section of a Variscan continental lower crust that first underwent gravitational collapse, and then lithospheric extension. This Late Paleozoic extension was apparently associated with the continuous intrusion of a large volume of mafic to acid magma. Both the magma timing and volume, and the structure of the Ivrea lower crust suggest that this section represents an adequate analogue of a syn-magmatic in-extension mafic rift zone which aborted at the end of the Permian. Notably, we may recognize the 2 layers LC1 and LC2. From a number of tectonic observations, we reconstitute the whole tectonic history of the area, focusing on the strain field evolution with time, in connection with mafic magma injection. We compare those results with available data from extensional mafic lower crusts at rifts and margins.

  8. DNA stretching on functionalized gold surfaces.


    Zimmermann, R M; Cox, E C


    We describe a method for anchoring bacteriophage lambda DNA by one end to gold by Au-biotin-streptavidin-biotin-DNA bonds. DNA anchored to a microfabricated Au line could be aligned and stretched in flow and electric fields. The anchor was shown to resist a force of at least 11 pN, a linkage strong enough to allow DNA molecules of chromosome size to be stretched and aligned.

  9. Norwegian crusted scabies: an unusual case presentation. (United States)

    Maghrabi, Michael M; Lum, Shireen; Joba, Ameha T; Meier, Molly J; Holmbeck, Ryan J; Kennedy, Kate


    Scabies is a contagious condition that is transmitted through direct contact with an infected person and has been frequently associated with institutional and healthcare-facility outbreaks. The subtype Norwegian crusted scabies can masquerade as other dermatologic diseases owing to the heavy plaque formation. Successful treatment has been documented in published reports, including oral ivermectin and topical permethrin. Few case studies documenting the treatment of Norwegian crusted scabies have reported the use of surgical debridement as an aid to topical and/or oral treatment when severe plaque formation has been noted. A nursing home patient was admitted to the hospital for severe plaque formation of both feet. A superficial biopsy was negative for both fungus and scabies because of the severity of the plaque formation on both feet. The patient underwent a surgical, diagnostic biopsy of both feet, leading to the diagnosis of Norwegian crusted scabies. A second surgical debridement was then performed to remove the extensive plaque formation and aid the oral ivermectin and topical permethrin treatment. The patient subsequently made a full recovery and was discharged back to the nursing home. At 2 and 6 months after treatment, the patient remained free of scabies infestation, and the surgical wound had healed uneventfully. The present case presentation has demonstrated that surgical debridement can be complementary to the standard topical and oral medications in the treatment of those with Norwegian crusted scabies infestation. Copyright © 2014 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Dew formation and activity of biological crusts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veste, M.; Heusinkveld, B.G.; Berkowicz, S.M.; Breckle, S.W.; Littmann, T.; Jacobs, A.F.G.


    Biological soil crusts are prominent in many drylands and can be found in diverse parts of the globe including the Atacama desert, Chile, the Namib desert, Namibia, the Succulent-Karoo desert, South Africa, and the Negev desert, Israel. Because precipitation can be negligible in deserts ¿ the

  11. Eocene deep crust at Ama Drime, Tibet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kellett, Dawn; Cottle, John; Smit, Matthijs Arjen


    for burial of the lower Indian crust beneath Tibet reported from the central-eastern Himalaya. Granulite-facies overprinting followed at ca. 15–13 Ma, as indicated by U-Pb zircon ages. Unlike ultrahigh-pressure eclogites of the northwest Himalaya, the Ama Drime eclogites are not characteristic of rapid...

  12. Comparison of two stretching methods and optimization of stretching protocol for the piriformis muscle. (United States)

    Gulledge, Brett M; Marcellin-Little, Denis J; Levine, David; Tillman, Larry; Harrysson, Ola L A; Osborne, Jason A; Baxter, Blaise


    Piriformis syndrome is an uncommon diagnosis for a non-discogenic form of sciatica whose treatment has traditionally focused on stretching the piriformis muscle (PiM). Conventional stretches include hip flexion, adduction, and external rotation. Using three-dimensional modeling, we quantified the amount of (PiM) elongation resulting from two conventional stretches and we investigated by use of a computational model alternate stretching protocols that would optimize PiM stretching. Seven subjects underwent three CT scans: one supine, one with hip flexion, adduction, then external rotation (ADD stretch), and one with hip flexion, external rotation, then adduction (ExR stretch). Three-dimensional bone models were constructed from the CT scans. PiM elongation during these stretches, femoral neck inclination, femoral head anteversion, and trochanteric anteversion were measured. A computer program was developed to map PiM length over a range of hip joint positions and was validated against the measured scans. ExR and ADD stretches elongated the PiM similarly by approximately 12%. Femoral head and greater trochanter anteversion influenced PiM elongation. Placing the hip joints in 115° of hip flexion, 40° of external rotation and 25° of adduction or 120° of hip flexion, 50° of external rotation and 30° of adduction increased PiM elongation by 30-40% compared to conventional stretches (15.1 and 15.3% increases in PiM muscle length, respectively). ExR and ADD stretches elongate the PiM similarly and therefore may have similar clinical effectiveness. The optimized stretches led to larger increases in PiM length and may be more easily performed by some patients due to increased hip flexion. Copyright © 2013 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Plate tectonics and continental basaltic geochemistry throughout Earth history (United States)

    Keller, Brenhin; Schoene, Blair


    Basaltic magmas constitute the primary mass flux from Earth's mantle to its crust, carrying information about the conditions of mantle melting through which they were generated. As such, changes in the average basaltic geochemistry through time reflect changes in underlying parameters such as mantle potential temperature and the geodynamic setting of mantle melting. However, sampling bias, preservation bias, and geological heterogeneity complicate the calculation of representative average compositions. Here we use weighted bootstrap resampling to minimize sampling bias over the heterogeneous rock record and obtain maximally representative average basaltic compositions through time. Over the approximately 4 Ga of the continental rock record, the average composition of preserved continental basalts has evolved along a generally continuous trajectory, with decreasing compatible element concentrations and increasing incompatible element concentrations, punctuated by a comparatively rapid transition in some variables such as La/Yb ratios and Zr, Nb, and Ti abundances approximately 2.5 Ga ago. Geochemical modeling of mantle melting systematics and trace element partitioning suggests that these observations can be explained by discontinuous changes in the mineralogy of mantle partial melting driven by a gradual decrease in mantle potential temperature, without appealing to any change in tectonic process. This interpretation is supported by the geochemical record of slab fluid input to continental basalts, which indicates no long-term change in the global proportion of arc versus non-arc basaltic magmatism at any time in the preserved rock record.

  14. Effects of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching and static stretching on maximal voluntary contraction. (United States)

    Miyahara, Yutetsu; Naito, Hisashi; Ogura, Yuji; Katamoto, Shizuo; Aoki, Junichiro


    This study was undertaken to investigate and compare the effects of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching and static stretching on maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). Thirteen male university students (age, 20 ± 1 years; height, 172.2 ± 4.6 cm; weight, 68.4 ± 6.7 kg; mean ± SD) completed 3 different conditions on 3 nonconsecutive days in randomized order: static stretching (SS), PNF stretching (PNF), and no stretching (control, CON). Each condition consisted of a 5-minute rest accompanied by one of the following activities: (a) control, (b) SS, or (c) PNF stretching. The hip flexion range of motion (ROM) was evaluated immediately before and after the activity. The MVC of knee flexion was then measured. Surface electromyography was recorded from the biceps femoris and vastus lateralis muscles during MVC tests and stretching. Although increases in ROM were significantly greater after PNF than after SS (p < 0.01), the decreases in MVC were similar between the 2 treatments. These results suggest that, although PNF stretching increases ROM more than SS, PNF stretching and SS is detrimental to isometric maximal strength.

  15. Seismic structure of the Slave craton crust (United States)

    Barantseva, O.; Vinnik, L. P.; Farra, V.; van der Hilst, R. D.; Artemieva, I. M.; Montagner, J. P.


    We present P- and S-receiver functions for 20 stations along a 200-km-long NNW-SSE seismological profile across the Slave craton, and estimate the average crustal Vp/Vs ratio which is indicative of rock composition. We observe high Vp/Vs ratio ( 1.85-2.00) for the bulk crust and elevated Vp values at a depth range from 20-30 km to 40 km. High Vp values (>7.0 km/s) suggest mafic composition of the lower crust. In case of dry lower crustal rocks, the Vp/Vs ratio is expected to range from 1.6 to 1.8, which is lower than the observed values of 1.9-2.0. Laboratory studies show that Vp/Vs 1.9-2.0 can be explained by the presence of numerous cracks saturated with an incompressible fluid. Our results are at odds with the structure of the cratonic crust in many regions worldwide, and may suggest a unique geodynamic evolution of the Slave crust. Possible explanations for the observed crustal structure include the presence of an underplated mafic material, possibly related to intraplate magmatism or paleosubduction. Receiver functions are highly sensitive to the change of acoustic impedance and S-wave velocities, but do not resolve the internal seismic structure with a high precision. We extend our study of the crustal structure by using ambient noise tomography (ANT). We measure Rayleigh wave dispersion from Green's functions that are estimated from one-year noise cross-correlation (NCF). The phase velocity maps are inverted for 1D wave speed profiles which are then combined to form 2D and 3D models of the crust of the Slave Province. The combined results of RF analyses and ANT are interpreted in terms of crustal structure, composition, and evolution.

  16. Wide-angle seismic constraints on hyper-extended crust at the Deep Galicia Margin (United States)

    Minshull, Tim; Davy, Richard; Bayrakci, Gaye; Morgan, Joanna; Reston, Tim; Sawyer, Dale; Bull, Jon; Klaeschen, Dirk; Papenberg, Cord


    During the Galicia3D experiment in 2013, we acquired coincident normal-incidence and wide-angle seismic data covering a 64 by 20 km region of hyper-extended continental crust and exhumed mantle on the Deep Galicia Margin west of Spain. The hyper-extended crust is characterised by steeply dipping normal faults soling out onto the low-angle S detachment. Using three-dimensional first-arrival seismic tomography across this region and two-dimensional reflection-refraction tomography along a densely sampled region through this region, we have previously shown that uppermost mantle velocities are reduced where the normal faults intersect with the S detachment, interpreted as the result of hydration. Here we present further analysis of these data using two-dimensional time-domain full-waveform inversion (FWI) and three-dimensional reflection-refraction tomography. These techniques allow us to reduce ambiguities in interpretation of syn-rift sediment, pre-rift sediment and crystalline crust above S, and provide enhanced resolution of variations in hydration beneath S.

  17. Lead isotope evolution across the Neoproterozoic boundary between craton and juvenile crust, Bayuda Desert, Sudan (United States)

    Evuk, David; Lucassen, Friedrich; Franz, Gerhard


    Metaigneous mafic and ultramafic rocks from the juvenile Neoproterozoic Arabian Nubian Shield (ANS) and the Proterozoic, reworked Saharan Metacraton (SMC) have been analysed for major- and trace elements and Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopes. Most of the rocks are amphibolites metamorphosed at amphibolite facies conditions, some with relicts of a granulite facies stage. The other rocks are metapyroxenites, metagabbros, and some ultramafic rocks. Trace element compositions of the metabasaltic (dominantly tholeiitic) rocks resemble the patterns of island arcs and primitive lavas from continental arcs. Variable Sr and Nd isotope ratios indicate depleted mantle dominance for most of the samples. 207Pb/204Pb signatures distinguish between the influence of high 207Pb/204Pb old SMC crust and depleted mantle signatures of the juvenile ANS crust. The Pb isotope signatures for most metabasaltic rocks, metapyroxenites and metagabbros from SMC indicate an autochthonous formation. The interpretation of the new data together with published evidence from mafic xenoliths on SMC and ophiolite from ANS allows an extrapolation of mantle evolution in time. There are two lines of evolution in the regional mantle, one, which incorporates potential upper crust material during Neoproterozoic, and a second one with a depleted mantle signature since pre-Neoproterozoic that still is present in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden spreading centres.

  18. Continental United States Hurricane Strikes (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Continental U.S. Hurricane Strikes Poster is our most popular poster which is updated annually. The poster includes all hurricanes that affected the U.S. since...

  19. Asthenosphere and lithosphere structure controls on early onset oceanic crust production in the southern South Atlantic (United States)

    Taposeea, Chandra A.; Armitage, John J.; Collier, Jenny S.


    The southern South Atlantic has often been considered a classic example of continental break-up in the presence of a starting mantle plume. Evidence for a mantle plume includes the Paranà-Etendeka continental flood basalts, which are associated with the Rio Grande Rise and Walvis Ridge, and the wide-spread presence of seaward dipping reflectors and high-velocity lower-crustal bodies along the conjugate margins. Observations from seaward dipping reflector distributions suggested that lithospheric segmentation played a major role in the pattern of volcanism during break-up in this region, and consequent numerical modelling was used to test this. We tested this hypothesis ourselves by measuring the thickness of the earliest oceanic crust generated. This was done through the use of 37 measurements of initial oceanic crustal thickness from wide-angle and multichannel seismic profiles collected along the conjugate margins. These measurements show that at 450 km south of the Paranà-Etendeka flood basalts the oceanic crust is thicker than the global average at 11.7 km. Farther south the oceanic crust thins, reaching 6.1 km at a distance of 2300 km along-strike. Overall, the along-strike trend of oceanic crustal thickness is linear with a regression coefficient of 0.7 and little indication of segmentation. From numerical models representing extension of the lithosphere, we find that observed melt volumes are matched with the presence of a hot layer. If we assume this region of hot mantle has a thickness of 100 km, its excess temperature relative to the asthenosphere has to decrease from 200 to 50 °C, north to south. This decrease in temperature, also seen in published thermobarometry results, suggests that temperature was the primary control of volcanism during the opening of the southern South Atlantic.

  20. Comparison of active stretching technique and static stretching technique on hamstring flexibility. (United States)

    Meroni, Roberto; Cerri, Cesare Giuseppe; Lanzarini, Carlo; Barindelli, Guido; Morte, Giancesare Della; Gessaga, Viviana; Cesana, Gian Carlo; De Vito, Giovanni


    To compare a passive and an active stretching technique to determine which one would produce and maintain the greatest gain in hamstring flexibility. To determine whether a passive or an active stretching technique results in a greater increase in hamstring flexibility and to compare whether the gains are maintained. Randomized controlled trial. Institutional. Sixty-five volunteer healthy subjects completed the enrollment questionnaire, 33 completed the required 75% of the treatment after 6 weeks, and 22 were assessed 4 weeks after the training interruption. A 6-week stretching program with subjects divided into 2 groups with group 1 performing active stretching exercises and group 2 performing passive stretching exercises. Range of motion (ROM) was measured after 3 and 6 weeks of training and again 4 weeks after the cessation of training and compared with the initial measurement. After 3 weeks of training, the mean gain in group 1 (active stretching) on performing the active knee extension range of motion (AKER) test was 5.7 degrees, whereas the mean gain in group 2 (passive stretching) was 3 degrees (P = .015). After 6 weeks of training, the mean gain in group 1 was 8.7 degrees , whereas the mean gain in group 2 was 5.3 degrees (P = .006). Twenty-two subjects were reassessed 4 weeks after the cessation of the training with the maintained gain of ROM in group 1 being 6.3 degrees , whereas the maintained gain in group 2 was 0.1 degrees (P = .003). Active stretching produced the greater gain in the AKER test, and the gain was almost completely maintained 4 weeks after the end of the training, which was not seen with the passive stretching group. Active stretching was more time efficient compared with the static stretching and needed a lower compliance to produce effects on flexibility.

  1. New Insight Into The Crustal Structure of The Continental Margin Off NW Sabah/borneo (United States)

    Barckhausen, U.; Franke, D.; Behain, D.; Meyer, H.

    The continental margin offshore NW Sabah/Borneo (Malaysia) has been investigated with reflection and refraction seismics, magnetics, and gravity during the recent cruise BGR01-POPSCOMS. A total of 4000 km of geophysical profiles has been acquired, thereof 2900 km with reflection seismics. Like in major parts of the South China Sea, the area seaward of the Sabah Trough consists of extended continental lithosphere. We found evidence that the continental crust also underlies the continental slope land- ward of the Trough, a fact that raises many questions about the tectonic history and development of this margin. The characteristic pattern of rotated fault blocks and half grabens and the carbon- ates which are observed all over the Dangerous Grounds can be traced a long way landward of the Sabah Trough beneath the sedimentary succession of the upper plate. The magnetic anomalies which are dominated by the magnetic signatures of relatively young volcanic features also continue under the continental slope. The sedimentary rocks of the upper plate, in contrast, seem to generate hardly any magnetic anoma- lies. We suspect that the volcanic activity coincided with the collision of Borneo and the Dangerous Grounds in middle or late Miocene time. The emplacement of an al- lochtonous terrane on top of the extended continental lithosphere could be explained by overthrusting as a result of the collision or it could be related to gravity sliding following a broad uplift of NW Borneo at the same time.

  2. Diffuse degassing through magmatic arc crust (Invited) (United States)

    Manning, C. E.; Ingebritsen, S.


    The crust of magmatic arcs plays an important role in the volatile cycle at convergent margins. The fluxes of subduction- and arc-related volatiles such as H2O, C, Cl, S are poorly known. It is commonly believed that gases emitted from volcanoes account nearly quantitatively for the volatiles that cross the Moho beneath the volcanic front. This volcanic degassing may occur during eruption, emission from summit fumaroles and hot springs, or more 'diffuse' delivery to volcano flanks. However, several observations suggest that volatiles also transit arc crust by even more diffuse pathways, which could account for significant volatile loss on long time and length scales. Active metamorphism of arc crust produces crustal-scale permeability that is sufficient to transport a large volume of subducted volatiles (Ingebritsen and Manning, 2002, PNAS, 99, 9113). Arc magmas may reach volatile saturation deeper than the maximum depths recorded by melt inclusions (e.g., Blundy et al., 2010, EPSL, 290, 289), and exhumed sections of magmatic arc crust typically record voluminous plutons reflecting magma crystallization and volatile loss at depths well below the volcanic edifice. At shallower depths, topographically driven meteoric groundwater systems can absorb magmatic volatiles and transport them laterally by tens of km (e.g., James et al., 1999, Geology, 27, 823; Evans et al., 2002, JVGR, 114, 291). Hydrothermal ore deposits formed at subvolcanic depths sequester vast amounts of volatiles, especially sulfur, that are only returned to the surface on the time scale of exhumation and/or erosion. Water-rich metamorphic fluids throughout the crust can readily carry exsolved volcanic gases because the solubilities of volatile bearing minerals such as calcite, anhydrite, and fluorite are quite high at elevated pressure and temperature (e.g., Newton and Manning, 2002, Am Min, 87, 1401; 2005, J Pet, 46, 701; Tropper and Manning, 2007, Chem Geol, 242, 299). Taken together, these

  3. Characteristics and management options of crusting soils in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... to control the crusting. The relationship between crust thickness and soil physical and chemical properties and management practices were assessed using stepwise regression analysis. Soil crusting was largely related to soil aggregation, infiltration, fine sand fraction, cotton monocropping and crop residue incorporation.

  4. The strontium isotopic composition of seawater, and seawater-oceanic crust interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spooner, E.T.C.


    The 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio of seawater strontium (0.7091) is less than the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio of dissolved strontium delivered to the oceans by continental run-off (approximately 0.716). Isotope exchange with strontium isotopically lighter oceanic crust during hydrothermal convection within spreading oceanic ridges can explain this observation. In quantitative terms, the current 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio of seawater (0.7091) may be maintained by balancing the continental run-off flux of strontium (0.59 x 10 12 g/yr) against a hydrothermal recirculation flux of 3.6 x 10 12 g/yr, during which the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio of seawater drops by 0.0011. A concomitant mean increase in the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio of the upper 4.5 km of oceanic crust of 0.0010 (0.7029-0.7039) should be produced. This required 87 Sr enrichment has been observed in hydrothermally metamorphosed ophiolitic rocks from the Troodos Massif, Cyprus. The post-Upper Cretaceous increase in the strontium isotopic composition of seawater (approximately 0.7075-0.7091) covaries smoothly with inferred increase in land area. This suggests that during this period the main factor which has caused variability in the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio of seawater strontium could have been variation in the magnitude of the continental run-off flux caused by variation in land area. Variations in land area may themselves have been partly a consequence of variations in global mean sea-floor spreading rate. (Auth.)

  5. How to determine local stretching and tension in a flow-stretched DNA molecule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jonas Nyvold; Marie, Rodolphe; Kristensen, Anders


    We determine the nonuniform stretching of and tension in amega base pairs-long fragment of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) that is flow stretched in a nanofluidic chip. We use no markers, do not know the contour length of the DNA, and do not have the full DNA molecule inside our field of view. Instead...

  6. Thinning Mechanism of the South China Sea Crust: New Insight from the Deep Crustal Images (United States)

    Chang, S. P.; Pubellier, M. F.; Delescluse, M.; Qiu, Y.; Liang, Y.; Chamot-Rooke, N. R. A.; Nie, X.; Wang, J.


    The passive margin in the South China Sea (SCS) has experienced a long-lived extension period from Paleocene to late Miocene, as well as an extreme stretching which implies an unusual fault system to accommodate the whole amount of extension. Previous interpretations of the fault system need to be revised to explain the amount of strain. We study a long multichannel seismic profile crossing the whole rifted margin in the southwest of SCS, using 6 km- and 8 km-long streamers. After de-multiple processing by SRME, Radon and F-K filtering, an enhanced image of the crustal geometry, especially on the deep crust, allows us to illustrate two levels of detachment at depth. The deeper detachment is around 7-8 sec TWT in the profile. The faults rooting at this detachment are characterized by large offset and are responsible for thicker synrift sediment. A few of these faults appear to reach the Moho. The geometry of the acoustic basement between these boundary faults suggests gentle tilting with a long wavelength ( 200km), and implies some internal deformation. The shallower detachment is located around 4-5 sec TWT. The faults rooting at this detachment represent smaller offset, a shorter wavelength of the basement and thinner packages of synrift sediment. Two detachments separate the crust into upper, middle and lower crust. If the lower crust shows ductile behavior, the upper and middle crust is mostly brittle and form large wavelength boudinage structure, and the internal deformation of the boudins might imply low friction detachments at shallower levels. The faults rooting to deep detachment have activated during the whole rifting period until the breakup. Within the upper and middle crust, the faults resulted in important tilting of the basement at shallow depth, and connect to the deep detachment at some places. The crustal geometry illustrates how the two detachments are important for the thinning process, and also constitute a pathway for the following magmatic



    Stretching is a common activity used by athletes, older adults, rehabilitation patients, and anyone participating in a fitness program. While the benefits of stretching are known, controversy remains about the best type of stretching for a particular goal or outcome. The purpose of this clinical commentary is to discuss the current concepts of muscle stretching interventions and summarize the evidence related to stretching as used in both exercise and rehabilitation. PMID:22319684



    Page, Phil


    Stretching is a common activity used by athletes, older adults, rehabilitation patients, and anyone participating in a fitness program. While the benefits of stretching are known, controversy remains about the best type of stretching for a particular goal or outcome. The purpose of this clinical commentary is to discuss the current concepts of muscle stretching interventions and summarize the evidence related to stretching as used in both exercise and rehabilitation.

  9. Crusted Scabies in the Burned Patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Jais Oliver; Alsbjørn, Bjarne


    The objectives of this study were 1) to describe a case of crusted scabies (CS) in a burned patient, which was primarily undiagnosed and led to a nosocomial outbreak in the burn unit; 2) to analyze and discuss the difficulties in diagnosing and treating this subset of patients with burn injury......; and 3) to design a treatment strategy for future patients. Case analysis and literature review were performed. The index patient had undiagnosed crusted scabies (sive Scabies norvegica) with the ensuing mite hyperinfestation when admitted to the department with minor acute dermal burns. Conservative...... healing and autograft healing were impaired because of the condition. Successful treatment of the burns was only accomplished secondarily to scabicide treatment. An outbreak of scabies among staff members indirectly led to diagnosis. CS is ubiquitous, and diagnosis may be difficult. This is the first...

  10. Outer crust of nonaccreting cold neutron stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruester, Stefan B.; Hempel, Matthias; Schaffner-Bielich, Juergen


    The properties of the outer crust of nonaccreting cold neutron stars are studied by using modern nuclear data and theoretical mass tables, updating in particular the classic work of Baym, Pethick, and Sutherland. Experimental data from the atomic mass table from Audi, Wapstra, and Thibault of 2003 are used and a thorough comparison of many modern theoretical nuclear models, both relativistic and nonrelativistic, is performed for the first time. In addition, the influences of pairing and deformation are investigated. State-of-the-art theoretical nuclear mass tables are compared to check their differences concerning the neutron drip line, magic neutron numbers, the equation of state, and the sequence of neutron-rich nuclei up to the drip line in the outer crust of nonaccreting cold neutron stars

  11. Sedimentological context of the continental sabkhas of Abu Dhabi (United States)

    Lokier, Stephen; Paul, Andreas; Bixiao, Xin


    For more than half a century, the coastal sabkhas of Abu Dhabi have been the focus of intensive research focusing on deposition, early diagenesis and the role of microbial communities. Given all of this activity, it is somewhat surprising that their continental counterparts have been largely neglected with only a brief mention in larger-scale regional studies. This study redresses this imbalance by documenting the sedimentological, mineralogical and early diagenetic characteristics of continental sabkhas that are hosted in the Rub al Khali desert of the United Arab Emirates. During reconnaissance surveys it has been established that organic-rich microbial mats and evaporite minerals, both similar to those observed in the coastal sabkha, also occur in these continental sabkha settings. Satellite imagery was utilised to identify potential field locations for surface and shallow sub surface investigation; subsequent field reconnaissance established the validity of sites in terms of anthropogenic disruption and accessibility. At each site, surface features were described in detail, particularly with reference to any microbial communities or evaporite crusts; sample pits were dug in order to document sub-surface facies geometries and to recover both sediment and pore water samples for subsequent analysis. In each pit, a range of environmental parameters was measured over a prolonged period, including surface and sub-surface temperatures, ground water salinity and dissolved oxygen. Sediment samples were subjected to a range of analyses in order to establish and quantify primary sediment composition and any early diagenetic mineral phases. The results of this study are used to build an atlas of sedimentary structures and textures that are associated with continental sabkha settings. These observations allow us to establish the defining sedimentological and early diagenetic characteristics that can be employed to identify similar depositional environments in ancient

  12. Optofluidic time-stretch microscopy: recent advances (United States)

    Lei, Cheng; Nitta, Nao; Ozeki, Yasuyuki; Goda, Keisuke


    Flow cytometry is an indispensable method for valuable applications in numerous fields such as immunology, pathology, pharmacology, molecular biology, and marine biology. Optofluidic time-stretch microscopy is superior to conventional flow cytometry methods for its capability to acquire high-quality images of single cells at a high-throughput exceeding 10,000 cells per second. This makes it possible to extract copious information from cellular images for accurate cell detection and analysis with the assistance of machine learning. Optofluidic time-stretch microscopy has proven its effectivity in various applications, including microalga-based biofuel production, evaluation of thrombotic disorders, as well as drug screening and discovery. In this review, we discuss the principles and recent advances of optofluidic time-stretch microscopy.

  13. Optofluidic time-stretch quantitative phase microscopy. (United States)

    Guo, Baoshan; Lei, Cheng; Wu, Yi; Kobayashi, Hirofumi; Ito, Takuro; Yalikun, Yaxiaer; Lee, Sangwook; Isozaki, Akihiro; Li, Ming; Jiang, Yiyue; Yasumoto, Atsushi; Di Carlo, Dino; Tanaka, Yo; Yatomi, Yutaka; Ozeki, Yasuyuki; Goda, Keisuke


    Innovations in optical microscopy have opened new windows onto scientific research, industrial quality control, and medical practice over the last few decades. One of such innovations is optofluidic time-stretch quantitative phase microscopy - an emerging method for high-throughput quantitative phase imaging that builds on the interference between temporally stretched signal and reference pulses by using dispersive properties of light in both spatial and temporal domains in an interferometric configuration on a microfluidic platform. It achieves the continuous acquisition of both intensity and phase images with a high throughput of more than 10,000 particles or cells per second by overcoming speed limitations that exist in conventional quantitative phase imaging methods. Applications enabled by such capabilities are versatile and include characterization of cancer cells and microalgal cultures. In this paper, we review the principles and applications of optofluidic time-stretch quantitative phase microscopy and discuss its future perspective. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Bias of purine stretches in sequenced chromosomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ussery, David; Soumpasis, Dikeos Mario; Brunak, Søren


    We examined more than 700 DNA sequences (full length chromosomes and plasmids) for stretches of purines (R) or pyrimidines (Y) and alternating YR stretches; such regions will likely adopt structures which are different from the canonical B-form. Since one turn of the DNA helix is roughly 10 bp, we...... measured the fraction of each genome which contains purine (or pyrimidine) tracts of lengths of 10 by or longer (hereafter referred to as 'purine tracts'), as well as stretches of alternating pyrimidines/purine ('pyr/pur tracts') of the same length. Using this criteria, a random sequence would be expected...... to contain 1.0% of purine tracts and also 1.0% of the alternating pyr/pur tracts. In the vast majority of cases, there are more purine tracts than would be expected from a random sequence, with an average of 3.5%, significantly larger than the expectation value. The fraction of the chromosomes containing pyr...

  15. Bias of purine stretches in sequenced chromosomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ussery, David; Soumpasis, Dikeos Mario; Brunak, Søren


    We examined more than 700 DNA sequences (full length chromosomes and plasmids) for stretches of purines (R) or pyrimidines (Y) and alternating YR stretches; such regions will likely adopt structures which are different from the canonical B-form. Since one turn of the DNA helix is roughly 10 bp, we...... to contain 1.0% of purine tracts and also 1.0% of the alternating pyr/pur tracts. In the vast majority of cases, there are more purine tracts than would be expected from a random sequence, with an average of 3.5%, significantly larger than the expectation value. The fraction of the chromosomes containing pyr......, in eukaryotes there is an abundance of long stretches of purines or alternating purine/pyrimidine tracts, which cannot be explained in this way; these sequences are likely to play an important role in eukaryotic chromosome organisation....

  16. Anisotropic dewetting on stretched elastomeric substrates. (United States)

    Qiao, L; He, L H


    We study the instability of a very thin liquid film resting on a uniformly stretched soft elastomeric substrate driven by van der Waals forces. A linear stability analysis shows that the critical fluctuation wavelength in the tensile direction is larger than those in the other directions. The magnitudes of the critical wavelengths are adjustable in the sense that they depend on the principal stretch of the substrate. For example, when the principal stretch of the substrate varies from 1.0 (unstretched) to 3.0, the range of the critical wavelength in the tensile direction increases by 7.0% while that normal to the tensile direction decreases by 8.7%. Therefore, the phenomenon may find potential applications in creating tunable topographically patterned surfaces with nano- to microscale features.

  17. Flow of nanofluid by nonlinear stretching velocity (United States)

    Hayat, Tasawar; Rashid, Madiha; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Ahmad, Bashir


    Main objective in this article is to model and analyze the nanofluid flow induced by curved surface with nonlinear stretching velocity. Nanofluid comprises water and silver. Governing problem is solved by using homotopy analysis method (HAM). Induced magnetic field for low magnetic Reynolds number is not entertained. Development of convergent series solutions for velocity and skin friction coefficient is successfully made. Pressure in the boundary layer flow by curved stretching surface cannot be ignored. It is found that magnitude of power-law index parameter increases for pressure distibutions. Magnitude of radius of curvature reduces for pressure field while opposite trend can be observed for velocity.

  18. Lattice stretching bistability and dynamic heterogeneity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peter Leth; Savin, A. V.; Zolotaryuk, A. V.


    A simple one-dimensional lattice model is suggested to describe the experimentally observed plateau in force-stretching diagrams for some macromolecules. This chain model involves the nearest-neighbor interaction of a Morse-like potential (required to have a saturation branch) and a harmonic second......-neighbor coupling. Under an external stretching applied to the chain ends, the intersite Morse-like potential results in the appearance of a double-well potential within each chain monomer, whereas the interaction between the second neighbors provides a homogeneous bistable (degenerate) ground state, at least...

  19. Stretching and folding mechanism in foams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tufaile, Alberto [Escola de Artes, Ciencias e Humanidades, Soft Matter Laboratory, Universidade de Sao Paulo, 03828-000 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail:; Pedrosa Biscaia Tufaile, Adriana [Escola de Artes, Ciencias e Humanidades, Soft Matter Laboratory, Universidade de Sao Paulo, 03828-000 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    We have described the stretching and folding of foams in a vertical Hele-Shaw cell containing air and a surfactant solution, from a sequence of upside-down flips. Besides the fractal dimension of the foam, we have observed the logistic growth for the soap film length. The stretching and folding mechanism is present during the foam formation, and this mechanism is observed even after the foam has reached its respective maximum fractal dimension. Observing the motion of bubbles inside the foam, large bubbles present power spectrum associated with random walk motion in both directions, while the small bubbles are scattered like balls in a Galton board.

  20. Three-Dimensional Numerical Modeling of Crustal Growth at Active Continental Margins (United States)

    Zhu, G.; Gerya, T.; Tackley, P. J.


    Active margins are important sites of new continental crust formation by magmatic processes related to the subduction of oceanic plates. We investigate these phenomena using a three-dimensional coupled petrological-geochemical-thermomechanical numerical model, which combines a finite-difference flow solver with a non-diffusive marker-in-cell technique for advection (I3ELVIS code, Gerya and Yuen, PEPI,2007). The model includes mantle flow associated with the subducting plate, water release from the slab, fluid propagation that triggers partial melting at the slab surface, melt extraction and the resulting volcanic crustal growth at the surface. The model also accounts for variations in physical properties (mainly density and viscosity) of both fluids and rocks as a function of local conditions in temperature, pressure, deformation, nature of the rocks, and chemical exchanges. Our results show different patterns of crustal growth and surface topography, which are comparable to nature, during subduction at active continental margins. Often, two trench-parallel lines of magmatic activity, which reflect two maxima of melt production atop the slab, are formed on the surface. The melt extraction rate controls the patterns of new crust at different ages. Moving free water reflects the path of fluids, and the velocity of free water shows the trend of two parallel lines of magmatic activity. The formation of new crust in particular time intervals is distributed in finger-like shapes, corresponding to finger-like and ridge-like cold plumes developed atop the subducting slabs (Zhu et al., G-cubed,2009; PEPI,2011). Most of the new crust is basaltic, formed from peridotitic mantle. Granitic crust extracted from melted sediment and upper crust forms in a line closer to the trench, and its distribution reflects the finger-like cold plumes. Dacitic crust extracted from the melted lower crust forms in a line farther away from the trench, and its distribution is anticorrelated with

  1. Crustal structure of the North Iberian continental margin from seismic refraction/wide-angle reflection profiles (United States)

    Ruiz, M.; Díaz, J.; Pedreira, D.; Gallart, J.; Pulgar, J. A.


    The structure and geodynamics of the southern margin of the Bay of Biscay have been investigated from a set of 11 multichannel seismic reflection profiles, recorded also at wide angle offsets in an onshore-offshore network of 24 OBS/OBH and 46 land sites. This contribution focuses on the analysis of the wide-angle reflection/refraction data along representative profiles. The results document strong lateral variations of the crustal structure along the margin and provide an extensive test of the crustal models previously proposed for the northern part of the Iberian Peninsula. Offshore, the crust has a typical continental structure in the eastern tip of the bay, which disappears smoothly towards the NW to reach crustal thickness close to 10 km at the edge of the studied area ( 45°N, 6°W). The analysis of the velocity-depth profiles, altogether with additional information provided by the multichannel seismic data and magnetic surveys, led to the conclusion that the crust in this part of the bay should be interpreted as transitional from continental to oceanic. Typical oceanic crust has not been imaged in the investigated area. Onshore, the new results are in good agreement with previous results and document the indentation of the Bay of Biscay crust into the Iberian crust, forcing its subduction to the North. The interpreted profiles show that the extent of the southward indentation is not uniform, with an Alpine root less developed in the central and western sector of the Basque-Cantabrian Basin. N-S to NE-SW transfer structures seem to control those variations in the indentation degree.

  2. Immediate effects of quantified hamstring stretching: hold-relax proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation versus static stretching. (United States)

    Puentedura, Emilio J; Huijbregts, Peter A; Celeste, Shelley; Edwards, Dale; In, Alastair; Landers, Merrill R; Fernandez-de-Las-Penas, Cesar


    To compare the immediate effects of a hold-relax proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching (HR-PNF) versus static stretch (SS) on hamstring flexibility in healthy, asymptomatic subjects. Thirty subjects (13 female; mean age 25.7 ± 3.0, range 22-37) without excessive hamstring muscle flexibility were randomly assigned to one of two stretch groups: HR-PNF or SS. The left leg was treated as a control and did not receive any intervention. The right leg was measured for ROM pre- and post-stretch interventions, with subjects receiving randomly assigned interventions one week apart. Data were analyzed with a 3 (intervention: HR-PNF, SS, control) × 2 (time: pre and post) factorial ANOVA with repeated measures and appropriate post-hoc analyses. A significant interaction was observed between intervention and time for hamstring extensibility, F(2,58) = 25.229, p < .0005. Main effect of intervention for the tested leg was not significant, p = .782 indicating that there was no difference between the two stretch conditions. However, main effect for time was significant (p < .0005), suggesting that hamstring extensibility (for both stretching conditions) after intervention was greater than before. No significant differences were found when comparing the effectiveness of HR-PNF and SS techniques. Both stretching methods resulted in significant immediate increases in hamstring length. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Crust and upper-mantle seismic anisotropy variations from the coast to inland in central and Southern Mexico (United States)

    Castellanos, Jorge; Pérez-Campos, Xyoli; Valenzuela, Raúl; Husker, Allen; Ferrari, Luca


    Subduction zones are among the most dynamic tectonic environments on Earth. Deformation mechanisms of various scales produce networks of oriented structures and faulting systems that result in a highly anisotropic medium for seismic wave propagation. In this study, we combine shear wave splitting inferred from receiver functions and the results from a previous SKS-wave study to quantify and constrain the vertically averaged shear wave splitting at different depths along the 100-station MesoAmerican Subduction Experiment array. This produces a transect that runs perpendicular to the trench across the flat slab portion of the subduction zone below central and southern Mexico. Strong anisotropy in the continental crust is found below the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) and above the source region of slow-slip events. We interpret this as the result of fluid/melt ascent. The upper oceanic crust and the overlying low-velocity zone exhibit highly complex anisotropy, while the oceanic lower crust is relatively homogeneous. Regions of strong oceanic crust anisotropy correlate with previously found low Vp/Vs regions, indicating that the relatively high Vs is an anisotropic effect. Upper-mantle anisotropy in the southern part of the array is in trench-perpendicular direction, consistent with the alignment of type-A olivine and with entrained subslab flow. The fast polarization direction of mantle anisotropy changes to N-S in the north, likely reflecting mantle wedge corner flow perpendicular to the TMVB.

  4. Low-pressure evolution of arc magmas in thickened crust: The San Pedro-Linzor volcanic chain, Central Andes, Northern Chile (United States)

    Godoy, Benigno; Wörner, Gerhard; Kojima, Shoji; Aguilera, Felipe; Simon, Klaus; Hartmann, Gerald


    Magmatism at Andean Central Volcanic Zone (CVZ), or Central Andes, is strongly influenced by differentiation and assimilation at high pressures that occurred at lower levels of the thick continental crust. This is typically shown by high light to heavy rare earth element ratios (LREE/HREE) of the erupted lavas at this volcanic zone. Increase of these ratios with time is interpreted as a change to magma evolution in the presence of garnet during evolution of Central Andes. Such geochemical signals could be introduced into the magmas be high-pressure fractionation with garnet on the liquidus and/or assimilation from crustal rocks with a garnet-bearing residue. However, lavas erupted at San Pedro-Linzor volcanic chain show no evidence of garnet fractionation in their trace element patterns. This volcanic chain is located in the active volcanic arc, between 22°00‧S and 22°30‧S, over a continental crust ˜70 km thick. Sampled lavas show Sr/Y and Sm/Yb ratios Chile. We relate our geochemical observations to shallow crustal evolution of primitive magmas involving a high degree of assimilation of upper continental crust. We emphasize that low pressure AFC- (Assimilation Fractional Crystallization) type evolution of the San Pedro-Linzor volcanic chain reflects storage, fractionation, and contamination of mantle-derived magmas at the upper felsic crust (<40 km depth). The ascent of mantle-derived magmas to mid-crustal levels is related with the extensional regime that has existed in this zone of arc-front offset since Late-Miocene age, and the relatively thin portion of mafic lower crust observed below the volcanic chain.

  5. Realistic searches on stretched exponential networks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vol. 71, No. 2. — journal of. August 2008 physics pp. 313–317. Realistic searches on stretched exponential networks. PARONGAMA SEN. Department of Physics, University of Calcutta, 92 Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road,. Kolkata 700 009, India .... [4] S Milgram, Psychology Today 1, 60 (1967). J Travers and S Milgram, ...

  6. Filament stretching rheometry of polymer melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassager, Ole; Nielsen, Jens Kromann; Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz


    The Filament Stretching Rheometry (FSR) method developed by Sridhar, McKinley and coworkers for polymer solutions has been extended to be used also for polymer melts. The design of a melt-FSR will be described and differences to conventional melt elongational rheometers will be pointed out. Results...

  7. Cloud Network Helps Stretch IT Dollars (United States)

    Collins, Hilton


    No matter how many car washes or bake sales schools host to raise money, adding funds to their coffers is a recurring problem. This perpetual financial difficulty makes expansive technology purchases or changes seem like a pipe dream for school CIOs and has education technologists searching for ways to stretch money. In 2005, state K-12 school…

  8. The stretch zone of automotive steel sheets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    on steel grade, on the rolling direction as well as on the loading rate. Stretch zones ... This interaction is demonstrated at a fracture surface as a bounded transition between initiatory crack (e.g., fatigue) and either ... The materials examined in this study are three grades of thin automotive steel sheets: XSG,. HR 45 and DP.

  9. Fractional behaviour at cyclic stretch-bending

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmens, W.C.; van den Boogaard, Antonius H.; Kazantzis, A.V.; de Hosson, J.Th.M.; Kolleck, R


    The fractional behaviour at cyclic stretch-bending has been studied by performing tensile tests at long specimens that are cyclically bent at the same time, on mild steel, dual-phase steel, stainless steel, aluminium and brass. Several types of fracture are observed, these are discussed, as are the

  10. Growth response of a deep-water ferromanganese crust to evolution of the Neogene Indian Ocean (United States)

    Banakar, V.K.; Hein, J.R.


    content of oxide-bound elements than in the older zone, possibly corresponding to further increased oxygenation of bottom-waters, increased stability of the seamount slope, and gradually reduced input of continental detritus from the erosion of the Himalayas. Middle Miocene Antarctic glaciation, which peaked ~ 12-13 Ma ago, increased the oxic bottom-water influx to the basin resulting in accretion of the crust with low detritus. Therefore, the younger crust started to accrete in response to a shift in bottom-water circulation towards the contemporary pattern, which produced a uniform growth rate and pillar structure up to the present. (C) 2000 Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  11. Continental Delamination of the Romanian Eastern Carpathians: A Lower Crustal Origin of the Vrancea Seismogenic Zone? (United States)

    Fillerup, M. A.; Knapp, J. H.; Knapp, C. C.


    Two lithosphere-scale, explosive-source seismic reflection profiles (DRACULA I and DACIA PLAN), inclusive of the hinterland and foreland of the Romanian Eastern Carpathians, provide new evidence for the geodynamic origin of the Vrancea Seismogenic Zone (VSZ) of Romania. These data, collected to evaluate existing subduction-related and delamination geodynamic models proposed to explain the intermediate depth seismicity associated with the Vrancea zone, show evidence of continental crust extending continuously above the VSZ from the Carpathian foreland well into the Transylvanian hinterland. Crustal thicknesses inferred from these data based on reflectivity show a 40-45 km crust below the Transylvanian basin abruptly shallowing to 32 km for ~120 km beneath the fold and thrust belt of the main Carpathian orogen and thickening again to 38-42 km crust in the foreland. This thinned crust outlines an apparent lower crustal sub-orogenic cavity that is overlain by a relatively subhorizontal reflective fabric absent of dipping reflectivity. The northwest dipping Vrancea seismogenic body, a 30x70x200 km volume of intermediate depth earthquakes, is located on the eastern flank of the apparently thin crust beneath the Carpathian orogen. Amplitude decay curves show penetration of seismic energy to a depth of ~60 km in the vicinity of the sub-orogenic cavity, implying this non- reflective zone is a geologic signature. Rotation of the VSZ about a hinge beneath the foreland basin at a depth of ~50 km restores to fill the lower-crustal cavity under the orogen, suggesting the VSZ represents a portion of brittle lower crust delaminated during continental lithospheric delamination which may have caused regional uplift of the Transylvanian basin. The lack of through-going, dipping crustal-scale boundaries along this composite lithospheric transect would appear to preclude subduction as an explanation for seismicity in the VSZ, consistent with abundant surface geologic data. These

  12. Opening of the Central Atlantic Ocean: Implications for Geometric Rifting and Asymmetric Initial Seafloor Spreading after Continental Breakup (United States)

    Klingelhoefer, F.; Biari, Y.; Sahabi, M.; Funck, T.; Benabdellouahed, M.; Schnabel, M.; Reichert, C. J.; Gutscher, M. A.; Bronner, A.; Austin, J. A., Jr.


    The structure of conjugate passive margins provides information about rifting styles, the initial phases of the opening of an ocean and the formation of its associated sedimentary basins. The study of the deep structure of conjugate passive continental margins combined with precise plate kinematic reconstructions can provide constraints on the mechanisms of rifting and formation of initial oceanic crust. In this study the Central Atlantic conjugate margins are compared, based on compilation of wide-angle seismic profiles from the NW-Africa Nova Scotian and US passive margins. Plate cinematic reconstructions were used to place the profiles in the position at opening and at the M25 magnetic anomaly. The patterns of volcanism, crustal thickness, geometry, and seismic velocities in the transition zone. suggest symmetric rifting followed by asymmetric oceanic crustal accretion. Conjugate profiles in the southern Central Atlantic image differences in the continental crustal thickness. While profiles on the eastern US margin are characterized by thick layers of magmatic underplating, no such underplate was imaged along the NW-African continental margin. It has been proposed that these volcanic products form part of the CAMP (Central Atlantic Magmatic Province). In the north, two wide-angle seismic profiles acquired in exactly conjugate positions show that the crustal geometry of the unthinned continental crust and the necking zone are nearly symmetric. A region including seismic velocities too high to be explained by either continental or oceanic crust is imaged along the Nova Scotia margin off Eastern Canada, corresponding on the African side to an oceanic crust with slightly elevated velocities. These might result from asymmetric spreading creating seafloor by faulting the existing lithosphere on the Canadian side and the emplacement of magmatic oceanic crust including pockets of serpentinite on the Moroccan margin. A slightly elevated crustal thickness along the

  13. Modelling continental deformation within global plate tectonic reconstructions (United States)

    Williams, S.; Whittaker, J.; Heine, C.; Müller, P.


    , and (2) we are required to make assumptions regarding the initial, pre-rift thickness of the continental crust. An alternative approach that avoids these potential weaknesses is to reconstruct continuous grids of crustal thickness at the estimated time of breakup, covering both rifted margins. We can then estimate poles of rotation for the continental rifting stage based on crustal balancing along small circle paths across the rift zone, accounting for along-strike variations in the restored crustal thicknesses. References Hellinger, S.J., 1981, The uncertainties of finite rotations in plate tectonics: Journal of Geophysical Research, 86, p. 9312-9318. Royer, J.-Y., and Chang, T., 1991, Evidence for relative motions between the Indian and Australian plates during the last 20 m.y. from plate tectonic reconstructions: implications for the deformation of the Indo-Australian plate: Journal of Geophysical Research, 96, p. 11779-11802.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashlesha Sirari


    Full Text Available Background: Flexibility helps with injury prevention, the reduction of soreness following a workout, and a general sense of well-being. There are different stretching techniques and protocols for improvements in calf extensibility and flexibility. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of two techniques i.e. CYCLIC and PNF stretching which improves calf flexibility. This study was done to find the effectiveness of calf Cyclic and PNF stretching technique to improve calf flexibility. Methods: 30 subjects with age group 21-22 years were randomly allocated to 2 groups equally. Group 1(n=15 were given CYCLIC and group 2(n=15 were given PNF stretching technique. Plantar flexion was used to measure the calf tightness which was done before and after the treatment. Treatment was given for 7 days and on the 7th day the calf tightness was again measured. Results: The mean difference of the CYCLIC is 4.6 and mean difference of PNF is 4.7 which indicate that CYCLIC and PNF both are effective to improve calf flexibility but PNF is more effective than CYCLIC to improve calf flexibility. Conclusion: The neurophysiological basis of PNF, stating that the excitatory efficient of the neuromuscular spindle or the inhibitory afferent of the Golgi tendon organ (GTO or both are responsible for the effects. During PNF stretch and isometric contraction of stretched agonists for extended period may cause activation of its neuromuscular spindle. The increase in tension created during the isometric contraction of the pre – lengthened agonist contracts concentrically. Both the fascia & the spindle of the agonist adjust to the nearly lengthened position. These impulses travel via causing post synaptic inhibition of the motor neuron to agonist increasing the tension from the GTO. These impulses can override the impulses coming from the neuromuscular spindles arousing the muscle to reflexly resist to the change in length, thus helping in lengthening

  15. Constraining Lithosphere Deformation Modes during Continental Breakup for the Iberia-Newfoundland Conjugate Margins (United States)

    Jeanniot, L.; Kusznir, N. J.; Mohn, G.; Manatschal, G.


    How the lithosphere and asthenosphere deforms during continental rifting leading to breakup and sea-floor spreading initiation is poorly understood. Observations at present-day and fossil analogue rifted margins show a complex OCT architecture which cannot be explained by a single simplistic lithosphere deformation modes. This OCT complexity includes hyper-extended continental crust and lithosphere, detachments faults, exhumed mantle, continental slivers and scattered embryonic oceanic crust. We use a coupled kinematic-dynamic model of lithosphere and asthenosphere deformation to determine the sequence of lithosphere deformation modes leading to continental breakup for Iberia-Newfoundland conjugate margin profiles. We quantitatively calibrate the models using observed present-day water loaded subsidence and crustal thickness, together with subsidence history and the age of melt generation. Flow fields, representing a sequence of lithosphere deformation modes, are generated by a 2D finite element viscous flow model (FE-Margin), and used to advect lithosphere and asthenosphere temperature and material. FE-Margin is kinematically driven by divergent deformation in the upper 15-20 km of the lithosphere inducing passive upwelling below. Buoyancy enhanced upwelling (Braun et al. 2000) is also kinematically included. Melt generation by decompressional melting is predicted using the methodology of Katz et al., 2003. The extension magnitudes used in the lithosphere deformation models are taken from Sutra et al (2013). The best fit calibrated models of lithosphere deformation evolution for the Iberia-Newfoundland conjugate margins require (i) an initial broad region of lithosphere deformation and passive upwelling, (ii) lateral migration of deformation, (iii) an increase in extension rate with time, (iv) focussing of deformation and (v) buoyancy induced upwelling. The preferred calibrated models predict faster extension rates and earlier continental crustal rupture and

  16. Continental velocity through Precambrian times: The link to magmatism, crustal accretion and episodes of global cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.D.A. Piper


    Full Text Available Quasi-integrity of continental crust between Mid-Archaean and Ediacaran times is demonstrated by conformity of palaeomagnetic poles to near-static positions between ∼2.7–2.2 Ga, ∼1.5–1.2 Ga and ∼0.75–0.6 Ga. Intervening data accord to coherent APW loops turning at “hairpins” focused near a continental-centric location. Although peripheral adjustments occurred during Early Proterozoic (∼2.2 Ga and Grenville (∼1.1 Ga times, the crust retained a low order symmetrical crescent-shaped form constrained to a single global hemisphere until break-up in Ediacaran times. Conformity of palaeomagnetic data to specific Eulerian parameters enables definition of a master Precambrian APW path used to estimate the root mean square velocity (vRMS of continental crust between 2.8 and 0.6 Ga. A long interval of little polar movement between ∼2.7 and 2.2 Ga correlates with global magmatic shutdown between ∼2.45 and 2.2 Ga, whilst this interval and later slowdown at ∼0.75–0.6 Ga to velocities of <2 cm/year correlate with episodes of widespread glaciation implying that these prolonged climatic anomalies had an internal origin; the reduced input of volcanically-derived atmospheric greenhouse gases is inferred to have permitted freeze-over conditions with active ice sheets extending into equatorial latitudes as established by low magnetic inclinations in glaciogenic deposits. vRMS variations through Precambrian times correspond to the distribution of U-Pb ages in orogenic granitoids and detrital zircons and demonstrate that mobility of continental crust has been closely related to crustal tectonism and incrementation. Both periods of near-stillstand were followed by rapid vRMS recording massive heat release from beneath the continental lid at ∼2.2 and 0.6 Ga. The first coincided with the Lomagundi-Jatuli isotopic event and led to prolonged orogenesis accompanied by continental flooding and reconfiguration of the crust on the Earth

  17. Passive Stretch Versus Active Stretch on Intervertebral Movement in Non - Specific Neck Pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El - Aziz, A.H.; Amin, D.I.; Moustafa, I.


    Neck pain is one of the most common and painful musculoskeletal conditions. Point prevalence ranges from 6% to 22% and up to 38% of the elderly population, while lifetime prevalence ranges from 14,2% to 71%. Up till now no randomized study showed the effect between controversy of active and passive stretch on intervertebral movement. The purpose: the current study was to investigate the effect of the passive and active stretch on intervertebral movement in non - specific neck pain. Material and methods: Forty five subjects from both sexes with age range between 18 and 30 years and assigned in three groups, group I (15) received active stretch, ultrasound and TENS. Group II (15) received passive stretch, ultrasound and TENS. Group III (15) received ultrasound and TENS. The radiological assessment was used to measure rotational and translational movement of intervertebral movement before and after treatment. Results: MANOVA test was used for radiological assessment before and after treatment there was significant increase in intervertebral movement in group I as p value =0.0001. Conclusion: active stretch had a effect in increasing the intervertebral movement compared to the passive stretch

  18. Structural features of the Southwest African continental margin according to results of lithosphere-scale 3D gravity and thermal modelling (United States)

    Maystrenko, Yuriy P.; Scheck-Wenderoth, Magdalena; Hartwig, Alexander; Anka, Zahie; Watts, Antony B.; Hirsch, Katja K.; Fishwick, Stewart


    To understand the structure of the Southwest African continental margin, a lithosphere-scale 3D structural model has been developed, covering the marginal Cretaceous-Cenozoic Orange, Luderitz, Walvis and Namibe basins, the easternmost Walvis Ridge offshore. Onshore, the model includes two late-Proterozoic Owambo (Etosha) and Nama basins. This 3D model integrates published thickness maps (sediment isopach maps), shallow seismic and well data as well as published deep seismic information and has been additionally constrained by 3D gravity and thermal modelling. Using 3D gravity modelling, the first order configuration of the crystalline crust has been resolved with respect to the location of the continent-ocean boundary. The distribution of a high-density lower crustal layer indicates a continuous body extending below the Cretaceous-Cenozoic depocentres and aligned parallel to the coast line. In addition, high-density zones within the continental crystalline crust had to be included in the model to fit observed and calculated gravity. The obtained Moho topography correlates with the major tectonic units of this continental margin. The results of the 3D thermal modelling indicate that there is a clear relationship between the location of thickened sediments and areas with increased temperatures within the upper 10 km of the 3D model. This indicates that the low thermal conductivity of the sediments increases heat storage within the areas covered by thick sediments. Within the deeper crust, the main feature of the temperature distribution is the transition across the continental margin from the relatively cold oceanic part to the warm continental one. This regional pattern is controlled by the thickness of the crystalline continental crust, which is characterized by an increased radiogenic heat production. At a depth of 80-90 km, the temperature becomes higher beneath the oceanic domain than beneath the continent, reflecting the configuration of the lower thermal

  19. Non-cyanobacterial diazotrophs mediate dinitrogen fixation in biological soil crusts during early crust formation. (United States)

    Pepe-Ranney, Charles; Koechli, Chantal; Potrafka, Ruth; Andam, Cheryl; Eggleston, Erin; Garcia-Pichel, Ferran; Buckley, Daniel H


    Biological soil crusts (BSCs) are key components of ecosystem productivity in arid lands and they cover a substantial fraction of the terrestrial surface. In particular, BSC N2-fixation contributes significantly to the nitrogen (N) budget of arid land ecosystems. In mature crusts, N2-fixation is largely attributed to heterocystous cyanobacteria; however, early successional crusts possess few N2-fixing cyanobacteria and this suggests that microorganisms other than cyanobacteria mediate N2-fixation during the critical early stages of BSC development. DNA stable isotope probing with (15)N2 revealed that Clostridiaceae and Proteobacteria are the most common microorganisms that assimilate (15)N2 in early successional crusts. The Clostridiaceae identified are divergent from previously characterized isolates, though N2-fixation has previously been observed in this family. The Proteobacteria identified share >98.5% small subunit rRNA gene sequence identity with isolates from genera known to possess diazotrophs (for example, Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, Shigella and Ideonella). The low abundance of these heterotrophic diazotrophs in BSCs may explain why they have not been characterized previously. Diazotrophs have a critical role in BSC formation and characterization of these organisms represents a crucial step towards understanding how anthropogenic change will affect the formation and ecological function of BSCs in arid ecosystems.

  20. How to Stretch Your Ankle After a Sprain (United States)

    ... Ankle After A Sprain How to Stretch Your Ankle After A Sprain Page Content You should perform the following stretches ... Consider these home exercises when recuperating from an ankle sprain. Perform them twice per day. While seated, bring ...

  1. Surface coating for prevention of crust formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kronberg, J.W.


    A flexible surface coating which promotes the removal of deposits as they reach the surface by preventing adhesion and crust formation is disclosed. Flexible layers are attached to each side of a flexible mesh substrate comprising of a plurality of zones composed of one or more neighboring cells, each zone having a different compressibility than its adjacent zones. The substrate is composed of a mesh made of strands and open cells. The cells may be filled with foam. Studs or bearings may also be positioned in the cells to increase the variation in compressibility and thus the degree of flexing of the coating. Surface loading produces varying amounts of compression from point to point causing the coating to flex as deposits reach it, breaking up any hardening deposits before a continuous crust forms. Preferably one or more additional layers are also used, such as an outer layer of a non-stick material such as TEFLON, which may be pigmented, and an inner, adhesive layer to facilitate applying the coating to a surface. 5 figs.

  2. CHAMP Magnetic Anomalies of the Antarctic Crust (United States)

    Kim, Hyung Rae; Gaya-Pique, Luis R.; vonFrese, Ralph R. B.; Taylor, Patrick T.; Kim, Jeong Woo


    Regional magnetic signals of the crust are strongly masked by the core field and its secular variations components and hence difficult to isolate in the satellite measurements. In particular, the un-modeled effects of the strong auroral external fields and the complicated- behavior of the core field near the geomagnetic poles conspire to greatly reduce the crustal magnetic signal-to-noise ratio in the polar regions relative to the rest of the Earth. We can, however, use spectral correlation theory to filter the static lithospheric and core field components from the dynamic external field effects. To help isolate regional lithospheric from core field components, the correlations between CHAMP magnetic anomalies and the pseudo magnetic effects inferred from gravity-derived crustal thickness variations can also be exploited.. Employing these procedures, we processed the CHAMP magnetic observations for an improved magnetic anomaly map of the Antarctic crust. Relative to the much higher altitude Orsted and noisier Magsat observations, the CHAMP magnetic anomalies at 400 km altitude reveal new details on the effects of intracrustal magnetic features and crustal thickness variations of the Antarctic.

  3. Color characterization of Arctic Biological Soil Crusts (United States)

    Mele, Giacono; Gargiulo, Laura; Ventura, Stefano


    Global climate change makes large areas lacking the vegetation coverage continuously available to primary colonization by biological soil crusts (BSCs). This happens in many different environments, included high mountains and Polar Regions where new areas can become available due to glaciers retreat. Presence of BSCs leads to the stabilization of the substrate and to a possible development of protosoil, with an increase of fertility and resilience against erosion. Polar BSCs can exhibit many different proportions of cyanobacteria, algae, microfungi, lichens, and bryophytes which induce a large variability of the crust morphology and specific ecosystem functions. An effective and easy way for identifying the BSCs in the field would be very useful to rapidly recognize their development stage and help in understanding the overall impact of climate change in the delicate polar environments. Color analysis has long been applied as an easily measurable physical attribute of soil closely correlated with pedogenic processes and some soil functions. In this preliminary work we used RGB and CIE-L*a*b* color models in order to physically characterize fourteen different BSCs identified in Spitsbergen island of Svalbard archipelago in Arctic Ocean at 79° north latitude. We found that the "redness parameter "a*" of CIE-L*a*b* model was well correlated to the succession process of some BSCs at given geomorphology condition. Most of color parameters showed, moreover, a great potential to be correlated to photosynthetic activity and other ecosystem functions of BSCs.

  4. Kinetics of the crust thickness development of bread during baking. (United States)

    Soleimani Pour-Damanab, Alireza; Jafary, A; Rafiee, Sh


    The development of crust thickness of bread during baking is an important aspect of bread quality and shelf-life. Computer vision system was used for measuring the crust thickness via colorimetric properties of bread surface during baking process. Crust thickness had a negative and positive relationship with Lightness (L (*) ) and total color change (E (*) ) of bread surface, respectively. A linear negative trend was found between crust thickness and moisture ratio of bread samples. A simple mathematical model was proposed to predict the development of crust thickness of bread during baking, where the crust thickness was depended on moisture ratio that was described by the Page moisture losing model. The independent variables of the model were baking conditions, i.e. oven temperature and air velocity, and baking time. Consequently, the proposed model had well prediction ability, as the mean absolute estimation error of the model was 7.93 %.

  5. Continental strike slip fault zones in geologically complex lithosphere: the North Anatolian Fault, Turkey. (United States)

    Cornwell, David; Thompson, David; Papaleo, Elvira; Rost, Sebastian; Houseman, Gregory; Kahraman, Metin; Turkelli, Niyazi; Teoman, Ugur; Altuncu Poyraz, Selda; Gulen, Levent; Utkucu, Murat


    As part of the multi-disciplinary Faultlab project, we present new detailed images in a geologically complex region where the crust and upper mantle is bisected by a major continental strike-slip fault system. Our study region samples the north Anatolian fault zone (NAFZ) near the epicentres of two large earthquakes that occurred in 1999 at Izmit (M7.5) and Düzce (M7.2) and where estimates of present day slip rate are 20-25 mm/yr. Using recordings of teleseismic earthquakes from a rectangular seismometer array spanning the NAFZ with 66 stations at a nominal inter-station spacing of 7 km and 7 additional stations further afield, we build a detailed 3-D image of structure and anisotropy using receiver functions, tomography and shear wave splitting and illuminate major changes in the architecture and properties of the upper crust, lower crust and upper mantle, both across and along the two branches of the NAFZ, at length scales of less than 20 km. We show that the northern NAFZ branch depth extent varies from the mid-crust to the upper mantle and it is likely to be less than 10 km wide. A high velocity lower crust and a region of crustal underthrusting appear to add strength to a heterogeneous crust and play a role in dictating the variation in faulting style and postseismic deformation. Sharp changes in lithospheric mantle velocity and anisotropy are constrained as the NAFZ is crossed, whereas crustal structure and anisotropy vary considerably both parallel and perpendicular to the faulting. We use our observations to test current models of the localisation of strike-slip deformation and develop new ideas to explain how narrow fault zones develop in extremely heterogeneous lithosphere.

  6. Anatomy of a diffuse cryptic suture zone exemplified by European Variscan belt: a new concept of continental tectonics (United States)

    Lexa, Ondrej; Schulmann, Karel; Janoušek, Vojtěch; Lardeaux, Jean Marc


    The plate tectonics paradigm has offered a link between the horizontal movement of lithospheric plates, closure of intervening oceanic basin and formation of oceanic suture zone preserved even during continental collision. On the example of the Bohemian Massif we document the evolution of Andean type orogen involved in continental collision. Based on combined geological data, geophysical imagery and fully scaled thermomechanical modelling a modified view on the internal architecture of collisional orogens is proposed. The characteristic feature of the model proposed for the Variscan orogen in the Bohemian Massif is the convergence of two contrasting domains of lithosphere, leading to subduction of an attenuated felsic metaigneous crust under the rifted (Gondwana) margin formed by a dense sequence of metasedimentary and metabasic rocks. The relamination of refractory light material rich in radioactive elements underneath the relatively dense upper plate is responsible for the gravitational instabilities that lead to the overturns in the thickened crust. This mechanism results in the formation of a diffuse cryptic suture zone, i.e., a wide zone in which materials from the lower and upper plates are mixed to form a hybrid continental crust. The diffuse cryptic suture zone remains the only evidence of the original plate boundary repeatedly re-appearing within the orogen. We propose that this model may have a general validity and possible link to modern orogens exemplified by comparison of Variscan and Tibetan orogenic systems is proposed based on petrological characteristics and similarities in geophysical signatures.

  7. Exploring the Earth's crust: history and results of controlled-source seismology (United States)

    Prodehl, Claus; Mooney, Walter D.


    This volume contains a comprehensive, worldwide history of seismological studies of the Earth’s crust using controlled sources from 1850 to 2005. Essentially all major seismic projects on land and the most important oceanic projects are covered. The time period 1850 to 1939 is presented as a general synthesis, and from 1940 onward the history and results are presented in separate chapters for each decade, with the material organized by geographical region. Each chapter highlights the major advances achieved during that decade in terms of data acquisition, processing technology, and interpretation methods. For all major seismic projects, the authors provide specific details on field observations, interpreted crustal cross sections, and key references. They conclude with global and continental-scale maps of all field measurements and interpreted Moho contours. An accompanying DVD contains important out-of-print publications and an extensive collection of controlled-source data, location maps, and crustal cross sections.

  8. Structure, mechanical properties and evolution of the lithosphere below the northwest continental margin of India (United States)

    Rao, G. Srinivasa; Kumar, Manish; Radhakrishna, M.


    The continental breakup history at the northwest continental margin of India remained conjectural due to lack of clearly discernable magnetic anomaly identifications and the presence of several enigmatic structural/basement features whose structure was partly obscured by the Late Cretaceous Deccan magmatic event. In this study, a detailed analysis of the existing seismic and seismological data covering both onshore and offshore areas of the northwest Indian margin along with 3-D/2-D constrained potential field (gravity, magnetic and geoid) modeling has been carried out. The crustal structure and lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) delineated across the margin provided valuable insights on the mechanism of continental extension. An analysis of the residual geoid anomaly (degree-10) map and the modeled LAB below Deccan volcanic province (DVP) revealed significant variation in upper mantle characteristics between the northwest (NW) and south central (SC) parts of DVP having thinner lithosphere in the NW part. The depth to LAB ranges 80-130 km at the margin with gradual thinning towards the western offshore having sharp gradient in the south (SC part of DVP) and gentle gradient in the north (NW part of DVP). The Moho configuration obtained from seismically constrained 3-D gravity inversion reveals that Moho depths vary 34-42 km below DVP and gradually thins to 16-20 km in the western offshore. The effective elastic thickness (Te) map computed through 3-D flexural modeling indicates that the Te values are in general lower in the region and range 12-25 km. Such lower Te values could be ascribed to the combined effect of the lithosphere stretching during Gondwana fragmentation in the Mesozoic and subsequent thermal influence of the Reunion plume. Based on the crustal stretching factors (β), Te estimates and the modeled lithosphere geometry at the margin in this study, we propose that the lithosphere below Laxmi-Gop basin region (β > 3.0) had undergone continuous

  9. Transparent conducting film: Effect of mechanical stretching to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    posite was fixed to a tabletop clamp and unidirectionally stretched after cutting the paper support at two opposite sides. To hold the film under the stretched condition, both edges of stretched CNT-mat/transparent-film composite was then adhered to a PMMA substrate by epoxy glue and both the sheet resistance and the ...

  10. Effects of dynamic stretches on Isokinetic hamstring and Quadriceps ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In conclusion, dynamic stretches have positive effects on muscle strength, H/Q ratios and ROM. Therefore, dynamic stretches may increase performance and reduce the risk of injury to athletes. Keywords: Quadriceps; Hamstrings; Muscles Isokinetic; Dynamic stretches. South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical ...

  11. Crust formation and its effect on the molten pool coolability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, R.J.; Lee, S.J.; Sim, S.K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    Experimental and analytical studies of the crust formation and its effect on the molten pool coolability have been performed to examine the crust formation process as a function of boundary temperatures as well as to investigate heat transfer characteristics between molten pool and overlying water in order to evaluate coolability of the molten pool. The experimental test results have shown that the surface temperature of the bottom plate is a dominant parameter in the crust formation process of the molten pool. It is also found that the crust thickness of the case with direct coolant injection into the molten pool is greater than that of the case with a heat exchanger. Increasing mass flow rate of direct coolant injection to the molten pool does not affect the temperature of molten pool after the crust has been formed in the molten pool because the crust behaves as a thermal barrier. The Nusselt number between the molten pool and the coolant of the case with no crust formation is greater than that of the case with crust formation. The results of FLOW-3D analyses have shown that the temperature distribution contributes to the crust formation process due to Rayleigh-Benard natural convection flow.

  12. Subduction of the primordial crust into the deep mantle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Ichikawa


    Full Text Available The primordial crust on the Earth formed from the crystallization of the surface magma ocean during the Hadean. However, geological surveys have found no evidence of rocks dating back to more than 4 Ga on the Earth's surface, suggesting the Hadean crust was lost due to some processes. We investigated the subduction of one of the possible candidates for the primordial crust, anorthosite and KREEP crust similar to the Moon, which is also considered to have formed from the crystallization of the magma ocean. Similar to the present Earth, the subduction of primordial crust by subduction erosion is expected to be an effective way of eliminating primordial crust from the surface. In this study, the subduction rate of the primordial crust via subduction channels is evaluated by numerical simulations. The subduction channels are located between the subducting slab and the mantle wedge and are comprised of primordial crust materials supplied mainly by subduction erosion. We have found that primordial anorthosite and KREEP crust of up to ∼50 km thick at the Earth's surface was able to be conveyed to the deep mantle within 0.1-2 Gy by that mechanism.

  13. Biological Soil Crusts: Webs of Life in the Desert (United States)

    Belnap, Jayne


    Although the soil surface may look like dirt to you, it is full of living organisms that are a vital part of desert ecosystems. This veneer of life is called a biological soil crust. These crusts are found throughout the world, from hot deserts to polar regions. Crusts generally cover all soil spaces not occupied by green plants. In many areas, they comprise over 70% of the living ground cover and are key in reducing erosion, increasing water retention, and increasing soil fertility. In most dry regions, these crusts are dominated by cyanobacteria (previously called blue-green algae), which are one of the oldest known life forms. Communities of soil crusts also include lichens, mosses, microfungi, bacteria, and green algae. These living organisms and their by-products create a continuous crust on the soil surface. The general color, surface appearance, and amount of coverage of these crusts vary depending on climate and disturbance patterns. Immature crusts are generally flat and the color of the soil, which makes them difficult to distinguish from bare ground. Mature crusts, in contrast, are usually bumpy and dark-colored due to the presence of lichens, mosses, and high densities of cyanobacteria and other organisms.

  14. Stretched cell cycle model for proliferating lymphocytes (United States)

    Dowling, Mark R.; Kan, Andrey; Heinzel, Susanne; Zhou, Jie H. S.; Marchingo, Julia M.; Wellard, Cameron J.; Markham, John F.; Hodgkin, Philip D.


    Stochastic variation in cell cycle time is a consistent feature of otherwise similar cells within a growing population. Classic studies concluded that the bulk of the variation occurs in the G1 phase, and many mathematical models assume a constant time for traversing the S/G2/M phases. By direct observation of transgenic fluorescent fusion proteins that report the onset of S phase, we establish that dividing B and T lymphocytes spend a near-fixed proportion of total division time in S/G2/M phases, and this proportion is correlated between sibling cells. This result is inconsistent with models that assume independent times for consecutive phases. Instead, we propose a stretching model for dividing lymphocytes where all parts of the cell cycle are proportional to total division time. Data fitting based on a stretched cell cycle model can significantly improve estimates of cell cycle parameters drawn from DNA labeling data used to monitor immune cell dynamics. PMID:24733943

  15. String Stretching, Frequency Modulation, and Banjo Clang


    Politzer, David


    The banjo’s floating bridge, string break angle, and flexible drumhead all contribute to substantial audio range frequency modulation. From the world of electronic music synthesis, it is known that modulating higher frequency sounds with lower acoustic frequencies leads to metallic and bell-like tone. The mechanics of the banjo does just that quite naturally, modulating fundamentals and harmonics with the motion of the bridge. In technical terms, with a floating bridge, string stretching is f...

  16. The stretch zone of automotive steel sheets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The stretch zone of automotive steel sheets. L' AMBRIŠKO1,∗ and L PEŠEK2. 1Institute of Structural Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering,. Technical University of Košice, Vysokoškolská 4, 042 00 Košice, Slovak Republic. 2Department of Materials Science, Faculty of Metallurgy,. Technical University of Košice, Letná 9, ...

  17. Spontaneous bending of pre-stretched bilayers. (United States)

    DeSimone, Antonio


    We discuss spontaneously bent configurations of pre-stretched bilayer sheets that can be obtained by tuning the pre-stretches in the two layers. The two-dimensional nonlinear plate model we use for this purpose is an adaptation of the one recently obtained for thin sheets of nematic elastomers, by means of a rigorous dimensional reduction argument based on the theory of Gamma-convergence (Agostiniani and DeSimone in Meccanica. doi:10.1007/s11012-017-0630-4, 2017, Math Mech Solids. doi:10.1177/1081286517699991, arXiv:1509.07003, 2017). We argue that pre-stretched bilayer sheets provide us with an interesting model system to study shape programming and morphing of surfaces in other, more complex systems, where spontaneous deformations are induced by swelling due to the absorption of a liquid, phase transformations, thermal or electro-magnetic stimuli. These include bio-mimetic structures inspired by biological systems from both the plant and the animal kingdoms.

  18. Dynamics and structure of stretched flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, C.K. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)


    This program aims to gain fundamental understanding on the structure, geometry, and dynamics of laminar premixed flames, and relate these understanding to the practical issues of flame extinction and stabilization. The underlying fundamental interest here is the recent recognition that the response of premixed flames can be profoundly affected by flame stretch, as manifested by flow nonuniformity, flame curvature, and flame/flow unsteadiness. As such, many of the existing understanding on the behavior of premixed flames need to be qualitatively revised. The research program consists of three major thrusts: (1) detailed experimental and computational mapping of the structure of aerodynamically-strained planar flames, with emphasis on the effects of heat loss, nonequidiffusion, and finite residence time on the flame thickness, extent of incomplete reaction, and the state of extinction. (2) Analytical study of the geometry and dynamics of stretch-affected wrinkled flame sheets in simple configurations, as exemplified by the Bunsen flame and the spatially-periodic flame, with emphasis on the effects of nonlinear stretch, the phenomena of flame cusping, smoothing, and tip opening, and their implications on the structure and burning rate of turbulent flames. (3) Stabilization and blowoff of two-dimensional inverted premixed and stabilization and determining the criteria governing flame blowoff. The research is synergistically conducted through the use of laser-based diagnostics, computational simulation of the flame structure with detailed chemistry and transport, and mathematical analysis of the flame dynamics.

  19. Stretch Moduli of Ribonucleotide Embedded Short DNAs (United States)

    Chiu, Hsiang-Chih; Koh, Kyung Duk; Riedo, Elisa; Storici, Francesca


    Understanding the mechanical properties of DNA is essential to comprehending the dynamics of many cellular functions. DNA deformations are involved in many mechanisms when genetic information needs to be stored and used. In addition, recent studies have found that Ribonucleotides (rNMPs) are among the most common non-standard nucleotides present in DNA. The presences of rNMPs in DNA might cause mutation, fragility or genotoxicity of chromosome but how they influence the structure and mechanical properties of DNA remains unclear. By means of Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) based single molecule spectroscopy, we measure the stretch moduli of double stranded DNAs (dsDNA) with 30 base pairs and 5 equally embedded rNMPs. The dsDNAs are anchored on gold substrate via thiol chemistry, while the AFM tip is used to pick up and stretch the dsDNA from its free end through biotin-streptavidin bonding. Our preliminary results indicate that the inclusion of rNMPs in dsDNA might significantly change its stretch modulus, which might be important in some biological processes.

  20. Short Durations of Static Stretching when Combined with Dynamic Stretching do not Impair Repeated Sprints and Agility (United States)

    Wong, Del P.; Chaouachi, Anis; Lau, Patrick W.C.; Behm, David G.


    This study aimed to compare the effect of different static stretching durations followed by dynamic stretching on repeated sprint ability (RSA) and change of direction (COD). Twenty-five participants performed the RSA and COD tests in a randomized order. After a 5 min aerobic warm up, participants performed one of the three static stretching protocols of 30 s, 60 s or 90 s total duration (3 stretches x 10 s, 20 s or 30 s). Three dynamic stretching exercises of 30 s duration were then performed (90 s total). Sit-and-reach flexibility tests were conducted before the aerobic warm up, after the combined static and dynamic stretching, and post- RSA/COD test. The duration of static stretching had a positive effect on flexibility with 36.3% and 85.6% greater sit-and-reach scores with the 60 s and 90 s static stretching conditions respectively than with the 30 s condition (p ≤ 0.001). However there were no significant differences in RSA and COD performance between the 3 stretching conditions. The lack of change in RSA and COD might be attributed to a counterbalancing of static and dynamic stretching effects. Furthermore, the short duration (≤ 90 s) static stretching may not have provided sufficient stimulus to elicit performance impairments. Key points The duration of combined static and dynamic stretching had a positive effect on flexibility with 36.3% and 85.6% greater sit and reach scores with the 60 s and 90 s static stretching conditions respectively than with the 30 s condition (p ≤ 0.001). No significant differences in RSA and COD between the 3 stretching conditions. The lack of change in RSA and COD might be attributed to a counterbalancing of static and dynamic stretching effects. The short duration (≤ 90 s) static stretching may not have provided sufficient stimulus to elicit performance impairments. PMID:24149890

  1. Measuring and crust-correcting finite-frequency travel time residuals - application to southwestern Scandinavia (United States)

    Kolstrup, M. L.; Maupin, V.


    We present a data-processing routine to compute relative finite-frequency travel time residuals using a combination of the Iterative Cross-Correlation and Stack (ICCS) algorithm and the Multi-Channel Cross-Correlation method (MCCC). The routine has been tailored for robust measurement of P- and S-wave travel times in several frequency bands and for avoiding cycle-skipping problems at the shortest periods. We also investigate the adequacy of ray theory to calculate crustal corrections for finite-frequency regional tomography in normal continental settings with non-thinned crust. We find that ray theory is valid for both P and S waves at all relevant frequencies as long as the crust does not contain low-velocity layers associated with sediments at the surface. Reverberations in the sediments perturb the arrival times of the S waves and the long-period P waves significantly, and need to be accounted for in crustal corrections. The data-processing routine and crustal corrections are illustrated using data from a~network in southwestern Scandinavia.

  2. Crusting susceptibility in some allic Colombian soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias, Dora M; Madero E E; Amezquita E


    Many lab methods were used: dry and water soil aggregates stability, instability index and erosion index and their results were related with soil characteristics like texture, Fe and Al oxides and organic matter. Soil samples collected within 0-2.5 and 2.5-5 cm of the soil surface came from terrains with many kinds of both forest and savanna intervened systems. Those results were analyzed like a completely randomized designed. It was found that significative changes in oxides content could increase soil-crusting susceptibility unless soil humus was up to was up to 4%. In this sense, pastures or its rotation with rice and leguminous offer a best alternative for intervening these natural systems. Intensive land husbandry or monocultures with low stubble soil incorporation caused an increase in physical instability at the top of soil. Dry soil stability test and instability index were most adequate for these soils


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Senachin


    Full Text Available Studying the density of both the crust and mantle is one of the topical problems in modern geophysics. Gravity modeling in combination with seismic tomography is an important tool for detecting density inhomogeneities in the crust and mantle, which can cause stresses and thus significantly impact the regional tectonics [Pogorelov, Baranov, 2010], especially in zones wherein continental margins actively interact with subducting oceanic plates and the entire depth of the tectonosphere is subject to stresses. Associated processes lead to considerable horizontal and vertical stresses that often cause catastrophic events on a global scale. The challenge of studying the global tectonic processes in the Earth’s tectonosphere can be addressed by gravity modeling in combination with seismic surveying.Data from previous studies. I.L. Nersesov et al. [1975] pioneered in calculating the spatial pattern of mantle density inhomogeneities in Central Asia. Although the accuracy of their estimations was not high due to the limited database, their study yielded significant results considering the structure of the crust. Numerous subsequent geophysical projects have researched the crust to a level sufficient to develop regional models, that can give quite adequate information on the depths of external and internal boundaries of the crust and suggest the distribution patterns of seismic velocities and density values. With reference to such data, mantle density inhomogeneities can be studied with higher accuracy.This paper reports on the estimations of gravity anomalies in the crust and upper mantle in Central and South Asia. The study region represents the full range of crust thicknesses and ages, as well a variety of crust formation types [Christensen, Mooney, 1995]. We used the 3D gravity modeling software package 3SGravity developed by Senachin [2015a, 2015b] that considers the spherical shape of the Earth's surface, and estimated gravitional anomalies using

  4. The Relevance of Stretch Intensity and Position: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikos eApostolopoulos


    Full Text Available Stretching exercises to increase the range of motion (ROM of joints have been used by sports coaches and medical professionals for improving performance and rehabilitation. The ability of connective and muscular tissues to change their architecture in response to stretching is important for their proper function, repair and performance. Given the dearth of relevant data in the literature, this review examined two key elements of stretching: stretch intensity and stretch position; and their significance to ROM, delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS, and inflammation in different populations. A search of three databases, Pub-Med, Google Scholar, and Cochrane Reviews, identified 152 articles, which were subsequently categorized into four groups; athletes (n = 24, clinical (n = 29, elderly (n = 12, and general population (n = 87. The use of different populations facilitated a wider examination of the stretching components and their effects. All 152 articles incorporated information regarding duration, frequency and stretch position, whereas only 79 referred to the intensity of stretching and 22 of these 79 studies were deemed high quality. It appears that the intensity of stretching is relatively under-researched, and the importance of body position and its influence on stretch intensity, is largely unknown. In conclusion, this review has highlighted areas for future research, including stretch intensity and position and their effect on musculo-tendinous tissue, in relation to the sensation of pain, delayed onset muscle soreness, inflammation, as well as muscle health and performance

  5. Hamstring Stiffness Returns More Rapidly After Static Stretching Than Range of Motion, Stretch Tolerance, and Isometric Peak Torque. (United States)

    Hatano, Genki; Suzuki, Shigeyuki; Matsuo, Shingo; Kataura, Satoshi; Yokoi, Kazuaki; Fukaya, Taizan; Fujiwara, Mitsuhiro; Asai, Yuji; Iwata, Masahiro


    Hamstring injuries are common, and lack of hamstring flexibility may predispose to injury. Static stretching increases range of motion (ROM) but also results in reduced muscle strength after stretching. The effects of stretching on the hamstring muscles and the duration of these effects remain unclear. To determine the effects of static stretching on the hamstrings and the duration of these effects. Randomized crossover study. University laboratory. Twenty-four healthy volunteers. We measured the torque-angle relationship (ROM, passive torque (PT) at the onset of pain, and passive stiffness) and isometric muscle force using an isokinetic dynamometer. After a 60-minute rest, the ROM of the dynamometer was set at maximum tolerable intensity; this position was maintained for 300 seconds while static passive torque (SPT) was measured continuously. We remeasured the torque-angle relationship and isometric muscle force after rest periods of 10, 20, and 30 minutes. Change in SPT during stretching; changes in ROM, PT at the onset of pain, passive stiffness, and isometric muscle force before stretching compared with 10, 20, and 30 minutes after stretching. SPT decreased significantly during stretching. Passive stiffness decreased significantly 10 and 20 minutes after stretching, but there was no significant pre- vs. post-stretching difference after 30 minutes. PT at the onset of pain and ROM increased significantly after stretching at all rest intervals, while isometric muscle force decreased significantly after all rest intervals. The effect of static stretching on passive stiffness of the hamstrings was not maintained as long as the changes in ROM, stretch tolerance, and isometric muscle force. Therefore, frequent stretching is necessary to improve the viscoelasticity of the muscle-tendon unit. Muscle force was decreased for 30 minutes after stretching; this should be considered prior to activities requiring maximal muscle strength.

  6. Soil Characteristics of Crusted outside and Subcanopy Areas of four ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results on compaction, salinity, pH, water holding capacity, respiration and organic carbon supported the model. The crust:shrub ratio is crucial for the functioning and sustained productivity of the system. Keywords: Soil characteristics; shrub subcanopy; crust; sink-source, Negev desert [IJARD Vol.3 2002: 162-170] ...

  7. Increasing cotton stand establishment in soils prone to soil crusting (United States)

    Many factors can contribute to poor cotton stand establishment, and cotton is notorious for its weak seedling vigor. Soil crusting can be a major factor hindering cotton seedling emergence in many of the cotton production regions of the US and the world. Crusting is mainly an issue in silty soils ...

  8. Rainfall pattern effects on crusting, infiltration and erodibility in some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rainfall characteristics affect crust formation, infiltration rate and erosion depending on intrinsic soil properties such as texture and mineralogy. The current study investigated the effects of rainfall pattern on crust strength, steady state infiltration rate (SSIR) and erosion in soils with various texture and minerals. Soil samples ...

  9. Compositional variation and genesis of ferromanganese crusts of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Ce-content is the highest reported so far (up to 3763 ppm, average ∼2250 ppm) for global ocean seamount Fe-Mn crusts. In spite of general similarity in the range of major, minor, and strictly trivalent rare earth element composition, the dissimilarity between the present Fe-Mn crusts and the Pacific seamount Fe-Mn ...

  10. Magnetic anomalies across the transitional crust of the passive conjugate margins of the North Atlantic: Iberian Abyssal Plain/Northern Newfoundland Basin (United States)

    Srivastava, S.; Sibuet, J.; Manatschal, G.


    The magma starved Iberia Abyssal Plain (IAP) margin off Iberia is probably one of the most studied non-volcanic continental margin in the world. Numerous multi-channel seismic cruises, detailed refraction surveys, and ODP drilling (Legs 149 and 173) have been carried out across it. Yet serious disagreement exists about the nature and mode of emplacement of the transitional crust which lies between true continental and true oceanic crusts in this region. One group regards this crust to be excessively thinned continental crust through which mantle was exhumed while the other group regards it to be oceanic crust, a mixture of basalt and mantle material, formed during ultraslow seafloor spreading. However, neither the drilling, which was carried out only on the basement highs and recovered serpentinized peridotites together with some gabbroic material, nor the detailed refraction measurements have been of much help in solving this dispute because the velocity values in this region neither correspond to true volcanic materials nor to true continental rocks. Similarly the magnetic anomalies in this region have been also interpreted differently by the two groups. One group negates the existence of any seafloor spreading type anomalies over the transition zone. On the other hand, examination of surface and deep-tow magnetic data from conjugate sections of the margins across this part of the North Atlantic shows a good correlation between them. The prime reason for such differences in the interpretation of magnetic data lies in the low amplitude of the surface magnetic anomalies forming the M sequence anomalies in this region compared to those of similar age present in the Central Atlantic. We demonstrate here that the symmetrical magnetic anomalies identified within the transitional zones between Iberia and North America, and across passive margins in general where separation between plates has been very slow, are caused by the serpentinization of the exhumed mantle rocks



    Del P. Wong; Anis Chaouachi; Patrick W.C. Lau; David G. Behm


    This study aimed to compare the effect of different static stretching durations followed by dynamic stretching on repeated sprint ability (RSA) and change of direction (COD). Twenty-five participants performed the RSA and COD tests in a randomized order. After a 5 min aerobic warm up, participants performed one of the three static stretching protocols of 30 s, 60 s or 90 s total duration (3 stretches x 10 s, 20 s or 30 s). Three dynamic stretching exercises of 30 s duration were then performe...

  12. Answers from deep inside the Earth; Continental Scientific Drilling at Cajon Pass, California (United States)

    Russ, D.P.


    Drilling of a 12,000-foot-deep scientific well has been completed at Cajon Pass in southern California to measure crustal properties, to determine crustal structure, and to better understanding the generation of earthquakes along the San Andreas fault. A joint effort of the National Science Foundation (NFS) and the U.S Geological Survey (USGS), the well was begun in November 1986, and is one of the first projects to be undertaken in the new national Continental Scientific Drilling Program. This program aims to enchance our knowledge of the compostiion, sturcture, dynamics, and evolution of the continental crust and of how these factors affect the origin and distribution of mineral and energy resources and natural phenomena such as volcanic eruptions and earthquakes. 

  13. Controls on continental strain partitioning above an oblique subduction zone, Northern Andes (United States)

    Schütt, Jorina M.; Whipp, David M., Jr.


    Strain partitioning is a common process at obliquely convergent plate margins dividing oblique convergence into margin-normal slip on the plate-bounding fault and horizontal shearing on a strike-slip system parallel to the subduction margin. In subduction zones, strain partitioning in the upper continental plate is mainly controlled by the shear forces acting on the plate interface and the strength of the continental crust. The plate interface forces are influenced by the subducting plate dip angle and the obliquity angle between the normal to the plate margin and the convergence velocity vector, and the crustal strength of the continent is strongly affected by the presence or absence of a volcanic arc, with the presence of the volcanic arcs being common at steep subduction zones. Along the ˜7000 km western margin of South America the convergence obliquity, subduction dip angles and presence of a volcanic arc all vary, but strain partitioning is only observed along parts of it. This raises the questions, to what extent do subduction zone characteristics control strain partitioning in the overriding continental plate, and which factors have the largest influence? We address these questions using lithospheric-scale 3D numerical geodynamic experiments to investigate the influence of subduction dip angle, convergence obliquity, and weaknesses in the crust owing to the volcanic arc on strain partitioning behavior. We base the model design on the Northern Volcanic Zone of the Andes (5° N - 2° S), characterized by steep subduction (˜ 35°), a convergence obliquity between 31° -45° and extensive arc volcanism, and where strain partitioning is observed. The numerical modelling software (DOUAR) solves the Stokes flow and heat transfer equations for a viscous-plastic creeping flow to calculate velocity fields, thermal evolution, rock uplift and strain rates in a 1600 km x 1600 km box with depth 160 km. Subduction geometry and material properties are based on a

  14. Circum-Pacific accretion of oceanic terranes to continental blocks: accretion of the Early Permian Dun Mountain ophiolite to the E Gondwana continental margin, South Island, New Zealand (United States)

    Robertson, Alastair


    Accretionary orogens, in part, grow as a result of the accretion of oceanic terranes to pre-existing continental blocks, as in the circum-Pacific and central Asian regions. However, the accretionary processes involved remain poorly understood. Here, we consider settings in which oceanic crust formed in a supra-subduction zone setting and later accreted to continental terranes (some, themselves of accretionary origin). Good examples include some Late Cretaceous ophiolites in SE Turkey, the Jurassic Coast Range ophiolite, W USA and the Early Permian Dun Mountain ophiolite of South Island, New Zealand. In the last two cases, the ophiolites are depositionally overlain by coarse clastic sedimentary rocks (e.g. Permian Upukerora Formation of South Island, NZ) that then pass upwards into very thick continental margin fore-arc basin sequences (Great Valley sequence, California; Matai sequence, South Island, NZ). Field observations, together with petrographical and geochemical studies in South Island, NZ, summarised here, provide evidence of terrane accretion processes. In a proposed tectonic model, the Early Permian Dun Mountain ophiolite was created by supra-subduction zone spreading above a W-dipping subduction zone (comparable to the present-day Izu-Bonin arc and fore arc, W Pacific). The SSZ oceanic crust in the New Zealand example is inferred to have included an intra-oceanic magmatic arc, which is no longer exposed (other than within a melange unit in Southland), but which is documented by petrographic and geochemical evidence. An additional subduction zone is likely to have dipped westwards beneath the E Gondwana margin during the Permian. As a result, relatively buoyant Early Permian supra-subduction zone oceanic crust was able to dock with the E Gondwana continental margin, terminating intra-oceanic subduction (although the exact timing is debatable). The amalgamation ('soft collision') was accompanied by crustal extension of the newly accreted oceanic slab, and

  15. Reduction of acrylamide content in bread crust by starch coating. (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Liu, Xiaojie; Man, Yong; Liu, Yawei


    A technique of starch coating to reduce acrylamide content in bread crust was proposed. Bread was prepared in accordance with a conventional procedure and corn or potato starch coating was brushed on the surface of the fermented dough prior to baking. Corn starch coating caused a decrease in acrylamide of 66.7% and 77.1% for the outer and inner crust, respectively. The decrease caused by the potato starch coating was 68.4% and 77.4%, respectively. Starch coating reduced asparagine content significantly (43.4-82.9%; P bread crust were a result of starch coating, which effectively shortened the time span (4-8 min) over which acrylamide could form and accumulate. The present study demonstrates that starch coating could be a simple, effective and practical application for reducing acrylamide levels in bread crust without changing the texture and crust color of bread. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Efficacy of static stretching and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretch on hamstrings length after a single session. (United States)

    O'Hora, John; Cartwright, Abigail; Wade, Clive D; Hough, Alan D; Shum, Gary L K


    A number of studies have investigated the efficacy of several repetitions of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching (PNF) and static stretching (SS). However, there is limited research comparing the effects of a single bout of these stretching maneuvers. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of a single bout of a therapist-applied 30-second SS vs. a single bout of therapist-applied 6-second hamstring (agonist) contract PNF. Forty-five healthy subjects between the ages of 21 and 35 were randomly allocated to 1 of the 2 stretching groups or a control group, in which no stretching was received. The flexibility of the hamstring was determined by a range of passive knee extension, measured using a universal goniometer, with the subject in the supine position and the hip at 90° flexion, before and after intervention. A significant increase in knee extension was found for both intervention groups after a single stretch (SS group = 7.53°, p < 0.01 and PNF group = 11.80°, p < 0.01). Both interventions resulted in a significantly greater increase in knee extension when compared to the control group (p < 0.01). The PNF group demonstrated significantly greater gains in knee extension compared to the SS group (mean difference 4.27°, p < 0.01). It can be concluded that a therapist applied SS or PNF results in a significant increase in hamstring flexibility. A hamstring (agonist) contract PNF is more effective than an SS in a single stretching session. These findings are important to physiotherapists or trainers working in clinical and sporting environments. Where in the past therapists may have spent time conducting multiple repetitions of a PNF and an SS, a single bout of either technique may be considered just as effective. A key component of the study methodology was the exclusion of a warm-up period before stretching. Therefore, the findings of efficacy of a single PNF are of particular relevance in sporting environments and busy clinical


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Del P. Wong


    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare the effect of different static stretching durations followed by dynamic stretching on repeated sprint ability (RSA and change of direction (COD. Twenty-five participants performed the RSA and COD tests in a randomized order. After a 5 min aerobic warm up, participants performed one of the three static stretching protocols of 30 s, 60 s or 90 s total duration (3 stretches x 10 s, 20 s or 30 s. Three dynamic stretching exercises of 30 s duration were then performed (90 s total. Sit-and-reach flexibility tests were conducted before the aerobic warm up, after the combined static and dynamic stretching, and post- RSA/COD test. The duration of static stretching had a positive effect on flexibility with 36.3% and 85.6% greater sit-and-reach scores with the 60 s and 90 s static stretching conditions respectively than with the 30 s condition (p < 0.001. However there were no significant differences in RSA and COD performance between the 3 stretching conditions. The lack of change in RSA and COD might be attributed to a counterbalancing of static and dynamic stretching effects. Furthermore, the short duration (< 90 s static stretching may not have provided sufficient stimulus to elicit performance impairments

  18. Evidence of a Neoproterozoic active continental margin - Geochemistry and isotope geology of high-grade paragneiss from the Ribeira Orogen, SE Brazil (United States)

    Capistrano, G. G.; Schmitt, R. S.; Medeiros, S. R.; Fernandes, G. L. F.


    Ediacaran paragneisses from the Palmital Unit are located in a key region, between two major tectonic domains of the Ribeira Orogen (in Rio de Janeiro, SE Brazil): the Cabo Frio Tectonic Domain and the Oriental Terrane. We present here petrographic, geochemical and isotopic data in order to partially unravel the origin and tectonic nature of the protoliths from these metamorphic rocks. Litharenites interpreted as immature sediments, mostly derived from the erosion of felsic rocks (granites/rhyolites and diorites/andesites) are here described. Multi-elements patterns and trace elements ratios reinforce an upper continental crust nature for the composition of the protoliths. These were probably located close to the source area and accommodated in semi-arid climate and high topography conditions. Tectonic discrimination diagrams indicate that the Palmital basin developed in an active continental margin, corroborated by the zircon detrital spectra. The main population of detrital zircon (ca. 750-550 Ma) is partially coeval with the age of the Rio Negro continental magmatic arc, resident in the Oriental Terrane. The Palmital basin could represent a forearc environment with no oceanic crust material, but only a continuous sedimentation of turbidites derived from the arc, with gradational bedding signifying a subaqueous environment, without outside tectonic disturbances. On the other hand, TDM ages of 1.6-1.8 Ga suggest that these sediments are not juvenile, indicating also a contribution from an ancient crust. This recycled continental crust could come either from the basement of the Oriental Terrane (which was not identified yet) or from the basement of the Cabo Frio Tectonic Domain. In the last assumption the Palmital deposition would be concomitant with the initiation of continental collision and the subduction of the passive margin of the Cabo Frio Tectonic Domain towards west. This unit was subsequently metamorphosed/deformed during the ca. 540 Ma collision between

  19. Permo-Triassic anatexis, continental rifting and the disassembly of western Pangaea (United States)

    Cochrane, Ryan; Spikings, Richard; Gerdes, Axel; Ulianov, Alexey; Mora, Andres; Villagómez, Diego; Putlitz, Benita; Chiaradia, Massimo


    Crustal anatectites are frequently observed along ocean-continent active margins, although their origins are disputed with interpretations varying between rift-related and collisional. We report geochemical, isotopic and geochronological data that define an ~ 1500 km long belt of S-type meta-granites along the Andes of Colombia and Ecuador, which formed during 275-223 Ma. These are accompanied by amphibolitized tholeiitic basaltic dykes that yield concordant zircon U-Pb dates ranging between 240 and 223 Ma. A model is presented which places these rocks within a compressive Permian arc setting that existed during the amalgamation of westernmost Pangaea. Anatexis and mafic intrusion during 240-223 Ma are interpreted to have occurred during continental rifting, which culminated in the formation of oceanic crust and initiated the break-up of western Pangaea. Compression during 275-240 Ma generated small volumes of crustal melting. Rifting during 240-225 Ma was characterized by basaltic underplating, the intrusion of tholeiitic basalts and a peak in crustal melting. Tholeiitic intrusions during 225-216 Ma isotopically resemble depleted mantle and yield no evidence for contamination by continental crust, and we assign this period to the onset of continental drift. Dissected ophiolitic sequences in northern Colombia yield zircon U-Pb dates of 216 Ma. The Permo-Triassic margin of Ecuador and Colombia exhibits close temporal, faunal and geochemical similarities with various crustal blocks that form the basement to parts of Mexico, and thus these may represent the relict conjugate margin to NW Gondwana. The magmatic record of the early disassembly of Pangaea spans ~ 20 Ma (240-216 Ma), and the duration of rifting and rift-drift transition is similar to that documented in Cretaceous-Tertiary rift settings such as the West Iberia-Newfoundland conjugate margins, and the Taupo-Lau-Havre System, where rifting and continental disassembly also occurred over periods lasting ~ 20 Ma.

  20. Lithospheric thickness jumps at the S-Atlantic continental margins from satellite gravity data and modelled isostatic anomalies (United States)

    Shahraki, Meysam; Schmeling, Harro; Haas, Peter


    Isostatic equilibrium is a good approximation for passive continental margins. In these regions, geoid anomalies are proportional to the local dipole moment of density-depth distributions, which can be used to constrain the amount of oceanic to continental lithospheric thickening (lithospheric jumps). We consider a five- or three-layer 1D model for the oceanic and continental lithosphere, respectively, composed of water, a sediment layer (both for the oceanic case), the crust, the mantle lithosphere and the asthenosphere. The mantle lithosphere is defined by a mantle density, which is a function of temperature and composition, due to melt depletion. In addition, a depth-dependent sediment density associated with compaction and ocean floor variation is adopted. We analyzed satellite derived geoid data and, after filtering, extracted typical averaged profiles across the Western and Eastern passive margins of the South Atlantic. They show geoid jumps of 8.1 m and 7.0 m for the Argentinian and African sides, respectively. Together with topography data and an averaged crustal density at the conjugate margins these jumps are interpreted as isostatic geoid anomalies and yield best-fitting crustal and lithospheric thicknesses. In a grid search approach five parameters are systematically varied, namely the thicknesses of the sediment layer, the oceanic and continental crusts and the oceanic and the continental mantle lithosphere. The set of successful models reveals a clear asymmetry between the South Africa and Argentine lithospheres by 15 km. Preferred models predict a sediment layer at the Argentine margin of 3-6 km and at the South Africa margin of 1-2.5 km. Moreover, we derived a linear relationship between, oceanic lithosphere, sediment thickness and lithospheric jumps at the South Atlantic margins. It suggests that the continental lithospheres on the western and eastern South Atlantic are thicker by 45-70 and 60-80 km than the oceanic lithospheres, respectively.

  1. To Stretch and Search for Better Ways (United States)

    Moore, John W.


    There's a lot to do to get each issue of this Journal ready for publication, and there's a lot that can go awry during that process. We the editorial staff do our utmost to make certain that each issue is the best it can possibly be, but, of necessity, a lot of our effort is focused on solving problems, correcting errors, and avoiding pitfalls. It is not surprising that we sometimes lose sight of the bigger picture--all of the things that came out as well as or better than we hoped they would. Therefore it gives us great pleasure when a reader applauds (and thereby rewards) our efforts. One such communication inspired this editorial. I have appreciated the extra effort put forward by the staff to make the Journal really come alive. The high quality of the Journal serves as an incentive to chemical educators to stretch and search for better ways to inspire our students. I fervently hope that we do encourage you "to stretch and search for better ways", not only to inspire students but in everything you do. Stretching and searching for better ways is what life, science, chemistry, and teaching are all about, and it is a wonderfully stimulating and exciting way to approach anything and everything. Sometimes, though, one's ability to stretch is akin to that of a rubber band exposed too long to sunlight. Change becomes a threat or a burden instead of an opportunity. This often happens in one area but not others, as in the case of someone doing original research but whose lecture notes are yellow with age, or someone who experiments with new teaching approaches but neglects the latest chemical discoveries. Whatever its manifestation, failure to stretch and search for better ways is a great loss, both for the individual directly involved and for others. Fortunately there are many who continually stretch and search, often in conjunction with JCE. For example, some time ago the Chair of the Board of Publication, Jerry Bell, challenged Journal readers to become Journal

  2. Optical stretching on chip with acoustophoretic prefocusing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoury Arvelo, Maria; Laub Busk, L.; Bruus, Henrik


    prefocusing. This focusing mechanism aims for target particles to always ow in the correct height relative to the optical stretcher, and is induced by a piezo-electric ultrasound transducer attached underneath the chip and driven at a frequency leading to a vertical standing ultrasound wave...... in the microchannel. Trapping and manipulation is demonstrated for dielectric beads. In addition, we show trapping, manipulation and stretching of red blood cells and vesicles, whereby we extract the elastic properties of these objects. Our design points towards the construction of a low-cost, high-throughput lab-on-a-chip...

  3. Viscous flows stretching and shrinking of surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Mehmood, Ahmer


    This authored monograph provides a detailed discussion of the boundary layer flow due to a moving plate. The topical focus lies on the 2- and 3-dimensional case, considering axially symmetric and unsteady flows. The author derives a criterion for the self-similar and non-similar flow, and the turbulent flow due to a stretching or shrinking sheet is also discussed. The target audience primarily comprises research experts in the field of boundary layer flow, but the book will also be beneficial for graduate students.

  4. Zircon evidence for incorporation of terrigenous sediments into the magma source of continental basalts. (United States)

    Xu, Zheng; Zheng, Yong-Fei; Zhao, Zi-Fu


    Crustal components may be incorporated into continental basalts by either shallow contamination or deep mixing. While the former proceeds at crustal depths with common preservation of refractory minerals, the latter occurs at mantle depths with rare survival of relict minerals. Discrimination between the two mechanisms has great bearing to subcontinental mantle geochemistry. Here we report the occurrence of relict zircons in Cenozoic continental basalts from eastern China. A combined study of zircon U-Pb ages and geochemistry indicates that detrital zircons were carried by terrigenous sediments into a subcontinental subduction zone, where the zircon were transferred by fluids into the magma sources of continental basalts. The basalts were sampled from three petrotectonic units with distinct differences in their magmatic and metamorphic ages, making the crustal contamination discernible. The terrigenous sediments were carried by the subducting oceanic crust into the asthenospheric mantle, producing both soluble and insoluble materials at the slab-mantle interface. These materials were served as metasomatic agents to react with the overlying mantle wedge peridotite, generating a kind of ultramafic metasomatites that contain the relict zircons. Therefore, the occurrence of relict zircons in continental basalts indicates that this refractory mineral can survive extreme temperature-pressure conditions in the asthenospheric mantle.

  5. Twist-stretch profiles of DNA chains (United States)

    Zoli, Marco


    Helical molecules change their twist number under the effect of a mechanical load. We study the twist-stretch relation for a set of short DNA molecules modeled by a mesoscopic Hamiltonian. Finite temperature path integral techniques are applied to generate a large ensemble of possible configurations for the base pairs of the sequence. The model also accounts for the bending and twisting fluctuations between adjacent base pairs along the molecules stack. Simulating a broad range of twisting conformation, we compute the helix structural parameters by averaging over the ensemble of base pairs configurations. The method selects, for any applied force, the average twist angle which minimizes the molecule’s free energy. It is found that the chains generally over-twist under an applied stretching and the over-twisting is physically associated to the contraction of the average helix diameter, i.e. to the damping of the base pair fluctuations. Instead, assuming that the maximum amplitude of the bending fluctuations may decrease against the external load, the DNA molecule first over-twists for weak applied forces and then untwists above a characteristic force value. Our results are discussed in relation to available experimental information albeit for kilo-base long molecules.

  6. Soil crusts to warm the planet (United States)

    Garcia-Pichel, Ferran; Couradeau, Estelle; Karaoz, Ulas; da Rocha Ulisses, Nunes; Lim Hsiao, Chiem; Northen, Trent; Brodie, Eoin


    Soil surface temperature, an important driver of terrestrial biogeochemical processes, depends strongly on soil albedo, which can be significantly modified by factors such as plant cover. In sparsely vegetated lands, the soil surface can also be colonized by photosynthetic microbes that build biocrust communities. We used concurrent physical, biochemical and microbiological analyses to show that mature biocrusts can increase surface soil temperature by as much as 10 °C through the accumulation of large quantities of a secondary metabolite, the microbial sunscreen scytonemin, produced by a group of late-successional cyanobacteria. Scytonemin accumulation decreases soil albedo significantly. Such localized warming had apparent and immediate consequences for the crust soil microbiome, inducing the replacement of thermosensitive bacterial species with more thermotolerant forms. These results reveal that not only vegetation but also microorganisms are a factor in modifying terrestrial albedo, potentially impacting biosphere feedbacks on past and future climate, and call for a direct assessment of such effects at larger scales. Based on estimates of the global biomass of cyanobacteria in soil biocrusts, one can easily calculate that there must currently exist about 15 million metric tons of scytonemin at work, warming soil surfaces worldwide

  7. A thin, dense crust for Mercury (United States)

    Sori, Michael M.


    Crustal thickness is a crucial geophysical parameter in understanding the geology and geochemistry of terrestrial planets. Recent development of mathematical techniques suggests that previous studies based on assumptions of isostasy overestimated crustal thickness on some of the solid bodies of the solar system, leading to a need to revisit those analyses. Here, I apply these techniques to Mercury. Using MESSENGER-derived elemental abundances, I calculate a map of grain density (average 2974 ± 89 kg/m3) which shows that Pratt isostasy is unlikely to be a major compensation mechanism of Mercury's topography. Assuming Airy isostasy, I find the best fit value for Mercury's mean crustal thickness is 26 ± 11 km, 25% lower than the most recently reported and previously thinnest number. Several geological implications follow from this relatively low value for crustal thickness, including showing that the largest impacts very likely excavated mantle material onto Mercury's surface. The new results also show that Mercury and the Moon have a similar proportion of their rocky silicates composing their crusts, and thus Mercury is not uniquely efficient at crustal production amongst terrestrial bodies. Higher resolution topography and gravity data, especially for the southern hemisphere, will be necessary to refine Mercury's crustal parameters further.

  8. Authigenic carbonate crusts and chimneys along the North Anatolian Fault in the Sea of Marmara, Turkey (United States)

    Yıldız, Güliz; Namık Çaǧatay, M.


    The Sea of Marmara is located on the North Anatolian Fault (NAF) fault zone that is a major continental transform plate boundary. It has ca. 1250 m-deep Tekirdag, Central and Cinarcik basins that are separated by two NE-SW trending Central and Western Highs. Extensive cold seeps occur along the active fault segments of the NAF in the deep basins and highs, which are associated with authigenic carbonate crusts, carbonate chimneys and mounds, black sulphidic sediments, and local gas hydrates and oil seepage. The cold seep sites were observed and sampled during the Nautile submersible and Victor 6000 Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) dives carried out during MARNAUT and MARSITE cruises in 2007 and 2014, respectively. Here, we report the mineralogical and stable isotopic composition of the authigenic carbonates and discuss their environmental conditions and mechanisms of formation. The carbonate crusts range up to 5 cm in thickness and the chimneys and mounds are up to 2 m high. Some chimneys are active emitting fresh to brackish water at ambient bottom water temperatures (˜ 14° C). The carbonate crusts occur as a pavements, and are commonly covered with black sulphidic sediments and bacterial mats that accommodate a rich chemosynthetic community of bivalves, sea urchins and marine annelid worms (Polychaeta). The authigenic carbonates commonly consist mainly of aragonite, but in a few instances contain subequal amounts of aragonite and calcite. High Mg-calcite is usually a minor to trace component, except in one sample in which it is present as a cement of mudstone. In the active methane emission zones, the sulphate/methane boundary occurs at or close to the seafloor, whereas elsewhere in the Sea of Marmara, the same boundary is located at 2-5 m below the seafloor. This, together with very light stable carbon isotope values (δ13C=-29.8 to - 46.3 ‰ V-PDB), indicates that the anaerobic oxidation of high methane flux emitted from the active faults is the major process

  9. Crust and uppermost-mantle structure of Greenland and the Northwest Atlantic from Rayleigh wave group velocity tomography (United States)

    Darbyshire, Fiona A.; Dahl-Jensen, Trine; Larsen, Tine B.; Voss, Peter H.; Joyal, Guillaume


    The Greenland landmass preserves ˜4 billion years of tectonic history, but much of the continent is inaccessible to geological study due to the extensive inland ice cap. We map out, for the first time, the 3-D crustal structure of Greenland and the NW Atlantic ocean, using Rayleigh wave anisotropic group velocity tomography, in the period range 10-80 s, from regional earthquakes and the ongoing GLATIS/GLISN seismograph networks. 1-D inversion gives a pseudo-3-D model of shear wave velocity structure to depths of ˜100 km with a horizontal resolution of ˜200 km. Crustal thickness across mainland Greenland ranges from ˜25 km to over 50 km, and the velocity structure shows considerable heterogeneity. The large sedimentary basins on the continental shelf are clearly visible as low velocities in the upper ˜5-15 km. Within the upper continental basement, velocities are systematically lower in northern Greenland than in the south, and exhibit a broadly NW-SE trend. The thinning of the crust at the continental margins is also clearly imaged. Upper-mantle velocities show a clear distinction between typical fast cratonic lithosphere (Vs ≥4.6 km s-1) beneath Greenland and its NE margin and anomalously slow oceanic mantle (Vs ˜4.3-4.4 km s-1) beneath the NW Atlantic. We do not observe any sign of pervasive lithospheric modification across Greenland in the regions associated with the presumed Iceland hotspot track, though the average crustal velocity in this region is higher than that of areas to the north and south. Crustal anisotropy beneath Greenland is strong and complex, likely reflecting numerous episodes of tectonic deformation. Beneath the North Atlantic and Baffin Bay, the dominant anisotropy directions are perpendicular to the active and extinct spreading centres. Anisotropy in the subcontinental lithosphere is weaker than that of the crust, but still significant, consistent with cratonic lithosphere worldwide.

  10. Effects of stretching the scalene muscles on slow vital capacity. (United States)

    Lee, Juncheol; Hwang, Sehee; Han, Seungim; Han, Dongwook


    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine whether stretching of the scalene muscles would improve slow vital capacity (SVC). [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were 20 healthy female students to whom the study's methods and purpose were explained and their agreement for participation was obtained. The SVC was measured using spirometry (Pony FX, COSMED Inc., Italy). The intervention used was stretching of the scalene muscles. Stretching was carried out for 15 min, 10 times at per each portion of scalene muscles: the anterior, middle, and posterior parts. [Results] Expiratory vital capacity (EVC) and tidal volume (Vt) noticeably increased after stretching. However, there were no changes in any of the SVC items in the control group. [Conclusion] This study demonstrated that stretching of the scalene muscles can effectively improve SVC. In particular, we confirmed that stretching of the scalene muscles was effective in increasing EVC and Vt, which are items of SVC.

  11. Mechanical stretch influence on lifetime of dielectric elastomer films (United States)

    Iannarelli, A.; Niasar, M. Ghaffarian


    Film pre-stretching is a widely adopted solution to improve dielectric strength of the DEA systems. However, to date, long term reliability of this solution has not been investigated. In this work it is explored how the dielectric elastomer lifetime is affected by film pre-stretching. The dielectric loss of soft polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) films is studied for different stretch ratios by measuring tanδ. Additionally, time-to-breakdown was measured at DC electric stress for different stretch ratios. For this purpose, accelerated life test (ALT) were performed. The results obtained are compared with non-pre-stretched samples. This study suggests that no additional dielectric losses are caused by film stretching up to 80% of original dimensions.

  12. The Continental Drift Convection Cell (United States)

    Whitehead, J. A.; Behn, M. D.


    Continents on Earth periodically assemble to form supercontinents, and then break up again into smaller continental blocks (the Wilson Cycle). Highly developed but realistic numerical models cannot resolve if continents respond passively to mantle convection or whether they modulate flow. Our simplified numerical model addresses this problem: A thermally insulating continent floats on a stress-free surface for infinite Prandtl number cellular convection with constant material properties in a chamber 8 times longer than its depth. The continent moves back and forth across the chamber driven by a "continental drift convection cell" of a form not previously described. Subduction exists at the upstream end with cold slabs dipping at an angle beneath the moving continent. Fluid moves with the continent in the upper region of this cell with return flow near the bottom. Many continent/subduction regions on Earth have these features. The drifting cell enhances vertical heat transport by approximately 30% compared to a fixed continent, especially at the core-mantle boundary, and significantly decreases lateral mantle temperature differences. However, continent drift or fixity has smaller effects on profiles of horizontally averaged temperature. Although calculations are done at Rayleigh numbers lower than expected for Earth's mantle (2x105 and 106), the drift speed extrapolates to reasonable Wilson Cycle speeds for larger Ra.

  13. An Elderly Long-Term Care Resident with Crusted Scabies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Sandre


    Full Text Available Crusted scabies is a highly contagious form of scabies. Altered immune response, nutritional deficiencies and modified host response are all risk factors for crusted scabies. The authors report a case involving a patient found to have a chronic maculopapular, erythematous rash with large hyperkeratotic, white and grey plaques on the soles of both feet. An ultimate diagnosis of crusted scabies was reached after a delay in diagnosis suspected to be caused by the similarity in appearance to more common skin conditions such as psoriasis. After topical permethrin was unsuccessful, intermittent dosing of oral ivermectin resulted in a rapid reduction in cutaneous plaques.

  14. An Itchy Problem: A Clinical Case of Crusted Scabies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Araújo Ferreira


    Full Text Available Scabies is an infestation of the skin by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei. A more severe form called crusted or Norwegian scabies may occur in immunosuppressed patients and the elderly. Crusted scabies mostly differs from normal scabies by the exuberance of its lesions, body distribution and high contagiousness, and requires different and more prolonged treatment. Early recognition of the lesions and isolation precautions are crucial for disease control and prevention of transmission. The authors describe a clinical case of crusted scabies with pruritus and exuberant cutaneous lesions.

  15. Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching : mechanisms and clinical implications. (United States)

    Sharman, Melanie J; Cresswell, Andrew G; Riek, Stephan


    Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching techniques are commonly used in the athletic and clinical environments to enhance both active and passive range of motion (ROM) with a view to optimising motor performance and rehabilitation. PNF stretching is positioned in the literature as the most effective stretching technique when the aim is to increase ROM, particularly in respect to short-term changes in ROM. With due consideration of the heterogeneity across the applied PNF stretching research, a summary of the findings suggests that an 'active' PNF stretching technique achieves the greatest gains in ROM, e.g. utilising a shortening contraction of the opposing muscle to place the target muscle on stretch, followed by a static contraction of the target muscle. The inclusion of a shortening contraction of the opposing muscle appears to have the greatest impact on enhancing ROM. When including a static contraction of the target muscle, this needs to be held for approximately 3 seconds at no more than 20% of a maximum voluntary contraction. The greatest changes in ROM generally occur after the first repetition and in order to achieve more lasting changes in ROM, PNF stretching needs to be performed once or twice per week. The superior changes in ROM that PNF stretching often produces compared with other stretching techniques has traditionally been attributed to autogenic and/or reciprocal inhibition, although the literature does not support this hypothesis. Instead, and in the absence of a biomechanical explanation, the contemporary view proposes that PNF stretching influences the point at which stretch is perceived or tolerated. The mechanism(s) underpinning the change in stretch perception or tolerance are not known, although pain modulation has been suggested.

  16. Correlation between structure and conductivity in stretched Nafion (United States)

    Allahyarov, Elshad; Taylor, Philip


    We have used coarse-grained simulation methods to investigate the effect of stretching-induced structure orientation on the proton conductivity of Nafion-like polyelectrolyte membranes. Recent experimental data on the morphology of ionomers describe Nafion as an aggregation of polymeric backbone chains forming elongated objects embedded in a continuous ionic medium. Uniaxial stretching of a recast Nafion film causes a preferential orientation of these objects in the direction of stretching. Our simulations of humid Nafion show that this has a strong effect on the proton conductivity, which is enhanced along the stretching direction, while the conductivity perpendicular to the stretched polymer backbone is strongly reduced. Stretching also causes the perfluorinated side chains to orient perpendicular to the stretching axis. The sulphonate multiplets shrink in diameter as the stretching is increased and show a spatially periodic ordering in their distribution. This in turn affects the distribution of contained water at low water contents. The water forms a continuous network with narrow bridges between small water clusters absorbed in head-group multiplets. We find the morphological changes in the stretched Nafion to be retained upon removal of the uniaxial stress.

  17. Joint Inversion Of Local And Teleseismic Data For The Crust And Mantle Structure Of The Chinese Capital Region (United States)

    Huang, J.; Zhao, D.


    The Chinese Capital (Beijing) region is located in the intersection of the Yanshan and Taihangshan uplifts in North China. It is one of the regions with the strongest continental earthquakes in the world such as the 1976 Tangshan earthquake (M 7.8) which killed 240,000 people. Hence the determination of the crust and mantle structure of this region is very important for understanding the regional tectonics and for the reduction of earthquake hazards. Since October 2001 a new digital seismic network with 107 stations has been installed in this region, which is the most advanced and densest regional digital seismic network in mainland China. In this study we used 48750 P-wave arrival times from 2973 local events and 12249 travel time residuals from 234 teleseismic events recorded by this new digital seismic network. We adopted the local and teleseismic joint inversion approach by Zhao et al. [1994] and obtained a high-resolution three-dimensional (3-D) P-wave velocity model of the crust and mantle down to a depth of 1000 km. The resolution is 50 km in the horizontal direction, and in depth it is 4-17 km in the crust and 30-50 km in the mantle. The complex morphology of the Conrad and Moho discontinuities was taken into account in the tomographic inversions. Our 3-D velocity model provides new insights into the geological structure and tectonics of this region. The velocity images of the upper crust reflect well the surface geological, topographic and lithological features. In the North China Basin, the depression and uplift areas are imaged as slow and fast velocity belts oriented in NE-SW direction. The trend of velocity anomalies is the same as that of major faults and tectonics. Paleozoic strata and Pre-Cambrian basement rocks outcrop widely in the Taihangshan and Yanshan uplift areas, which exhibit strong and broad high-velocity(high-V) anomalies in our tomographic images, while the Quaternary intermountain basins show up as small low-velocity(low-V) anomalies

  18. A Thermal Evolution Model of the Earth Including the Biosphere, Continental Growth and Mantle Hydration (United States)

    Höning, D.; Spohn, T.


    By harvesting solar energy and converting it to chemical energy, photosynthetic life plays an important role in the energy budget of Earth [2]. This leads to alterations of chemical reservoirs eventually affecting the Earth's interior [4]. It further has been speculated [3] that the formation of continents may be a consequence of the evolution life. A steady state model [1] suggests that the Earth without its biosphere would evolve to a steady state with a smaller continent coverage and a dryer mantle than is observed today. We present a model including (i) parameterized thermal evolution, (ii) continental growth and destruction, and (iii) mantle water regassing and outgassing. The biosphere enhances the production rate of sediments which eventually are subducted. These sediments are assumed to (i) carry water to depth bound in stable mineral phases and (ii) have the potential to suppress shallow dewatering of the underlying sediments and crust due to their low permeability. We run a Monte Carlo simulation for various initial conditions and treat all those parameter combinations as success which result in the fraction of continental crust coverage observed for present day Earth. Finally, we simulate the evolution of an abiotic Earth using the same set of parameters but a reduced rate of continental weathering and erosion. Our results suggest that the origin and evolution of life could have stabilized the large continental surface area of the Earth and its wet mantle, leading to the relatively low mantle viscosity we observe at present. Without photosynthetic life on our planet, the Earth would be geodynamical less active due to a dryer mantle, and would have a smaller fraction of continental coverage than observed today. References[1] Höning, D., Hansen-Goos, H., Airo, A., Spohn, T., 2014. Biotic vs. abiotic Earth: A model for mantle hydration and continental coverage. Planetary and Space Science 98, 5-13. [2] Kleidon, A., 2010. Life, hierarchy, and the

  19. Multiple crust reworking in the French Armorican Variscan belt: implication for the genesis of uranium-fertile leucogranites (United States)

    Ballouard, C.; Poujol, M.; Zeh, A.


    Muscovite peraluminous granites (MPGs) form by partial melting of the continental crust and can be related to metalliferous deposits such as tin, tungsten, and uranium (U). Metal enrichment in MPGs commonly results from fractional crystallization, but the metal contents of the source play a major role for their fertility. Between ca. 320 and 300 Ma (Late Carboniferous), the French Armorican Variscan belt was intruded by numerous U-fertile MPGs that contain inherited zircon grains with a wide range of ages from Archean-to-Carboniferous. U-Pb and Hf isotopic data of zircon grains from Brioverian-to-Carboniferous sediments, Cambrian-to-Early Carboniferous granitoids, and Late Carboniferous MPGs indicate that the crust of the Armorican Massif is made up by detritus mainly derived from the West African craton (3500-1600 Ma; T DM = 3.8-2.3 Ga), Grenvillian belt (1200-900 Ma; T DM = 2.7-1.2 Ga), and Avalonian-Cadomian belt (800-550 Ma; T DM = 2.5-0.8 Ga) and that the crust was affected by magmatic events at 510-470 Ma (T DM = 1.6-0.6 Ga), 410-330 Ma (T DM = 1.6-1 Ga), and 320-300 Ma. Furthermore, they reveal that the Late Carboniferous MPGs were mainly formed by partial melting of Brioverian sediments with Cambro-Ordovician and Devonian-Carboniferous granitoids, which are all genetically linked with each other and characterized by Th/U < 4. The new data suggest that the U-fertile MPGs result from multiple reworking of U-rich Brioverian sediments, deposited ca. 550 Ma ago on the northern margin of Gondwana, and partially molten during several Paleozoic events, causing a successive increase in U content in the middle-upper crust.

  20. Enrichment mechanisms of tellurium in ferromanganese crusts (United States)

    Sakaguchi, A.; Sugiyama, T.; Usui, A.; Takahashi, Y.


    Marine ferromanganese crusts (FMCs) consist of iron (Fe) hydroxides and manganese (Mn) oxides with various minor and trace elements. Especially for tellurium (Te), which is recognized as one of the rare metals, it has been reported that this element is concentrated about 105 times in FMCs compared with earth's crust, and the host phase might be Fe (oxy)hydroxide (Hein et al., 2003). Actually, in our previous study, the high concentration of Te in very surface layers of FMCs was found from the top to halfway down of a seamount in the Pacific Ocean. However, the concentration of Te in surface layers through the seamount showed good correlation with that of Mn instead of Fe. In this study, we attempted to clarify the enrichment mechanism of Te in FMCs with some methods including X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) technique for synthesised /natural samples. Seventeen FMC samples were collected from the Takuyo-Daigo seamount, from 950 m (summit) to 3000 m in water depth, with hyper-dolphin (remotely operated vehicle) equipped with live video camera and manipulators. The growth rates of all FMC samples were estimated to be about 3 mm/Ma. Very surface layer (less than 1 mm) of all FMC was analyzed with XRD and XAFS to confirm the mineral composition and speciation of Te. Furthermore, to serve as an aid to clarify the adsorption mechanism of Te on FMCs, distribution coefficients (Kd) and oxidation states were determined through the adsorption experiments of Te(IV) and Te(VI) on ferrihydrite and δ-MnO2. In all the experiments, pH and ionic strength were adjusted to pH 7.5 and 0.7 M, respectively. The oxidation state of Te in water phase was determined with HPLC-ICP-MS. As for the analysis of oxidation and adsorption states on the solid phase, XAFS was employed. The major mineral composition of Fe and Mn had no significant variation through the water depth of Takuyo-Daigo seamount. The oxidation state of Te in all samples showed hexavalent, and there was no significant

  1. Continental transform margins : state of art and future milestones (United States)

    Basile, Christophe


    Transform faults were defined 45 years ago as ‘a new class of fault' (Wilson, 1965), and transform margins were consequently individualized as a new class of continental margins. While transform margins represent 20 to 25 % of the total length of continent-ocean transitions, they were poorly studied, especially when compared with the amount of data, interpretations, models and conceptual progress accumulated on divergent or convergent continental margins. The best studied examples of transform margins are located in the northern part of Norway, south of South Africa, in the gulf of California and on both sides of the Equatorial Atlantic. Here is located the Côte d'Ivoire - Ghana margin, where the more complete data set was acquired, based on numerous geological and geophysical cruises, including ODP Leg 159. The first models that encompassed the structure and evolution of transform margins were mainly driven by plate kinematic reconstructions, and evidenced the diachronic end of tectonic activity and the non-cylindrical character of these margins, with a decreasing strike-slip deformation from the convex to the concave divergent-transform intersections. Further thermo-mechanical models were more specifically designed to explain the vertical displacements along transform margins, and especially the occurrence of high-standing marginal ridges. These thermo-mechanical models involved either heat transfer from oceanic to continental lithospheres across the transform faults or tectonically- or gravity-driven mass transfer in the upper crust. These models were far from fully fit observations, and were frequently dedicated to specific example, and not easily generalizable. Future work on transform continental margins may be expected to fill some scientific gaps, and the definition of working directions can benefit from the studies dedicated to other types of margins. At regional scale the structural and sedimentological variability of transform continental margins has

  2. Numerical modeling of continental lithospheric weak zone over plume (United States)

    Perepechko, Y. V.; Sorokin, K. E.


    The work is devoted to the development of magmatic systems in the continental lithosphere over diffluent mantle plumes. The areas of tension originating over them are accompanied by appearance of fault zones, and the formation of permeable channels, which are distributed magmatic melts. The numerical simulation of the dynamics of deformation fields in the lithosphere due to convection currents in the upper mantle, and the formation of weakened zones that extend up to the upper crust and create the necessary conditions for the formation of intermediate magma chambers has been carried out. Thermodynamically consistent non-isothermal model simulates the processes of heat and mass transfer of a wide class of magmatic systems, as well as the process of strain localization in the lithosphere and their influence on the formation of high permeability zones in the lower crust. The substance of the lithosphere is a rheologic heterophase medium, which is described by a two-velocity hydrodynamics. This makes it possible to take into account the process of penetration of the melt from the asthenosphere into the weakened zone. The energy dissipation occurs mainly due to interfacial friction and inelastic relaxation of shear stresses. The results of calculation reveal a nonlinear process of the formation of porous channels and demonstrate the diversity of emerging dissipative structures which are determined by properties of both heterogeneous lithosphere and overlying crust. Mutual effect of a permeable channel and the corresponding filtration process of the melt on the mantle convection and the dynamics of the asthenosphere have been studied. The formation of dissipative structures in heterogeneous lithosphere above mantle plumes occurs in accordance with the following scenario: initially, the elastic behavior of heterophase lithosphere leads to the formation of the narrow weakened zone, though sufficiently extensive, with higher porosity. Further, the increase in the width of

  3. Effects of contract-relax vs static stretching on stretch-induced strength loss and length-tension relationship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balle, S S; Magnusson, S P; McHugh, M P


    The purpose of this study was to determine the acute effects of contract-relax stretching (CRS) vs static stretching (SS) on strength loss and the length-tension relationship. We hypothesized that there would be a greater muscle length-specific effect of CRS vs SS. Isometric hamstring strength...... loss compared with SS. These results support the use of SS for stretching the hamstrings....


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena .V


    Full Text Available Background: Osteoarthritis (OA is a degenerative joint disease and one of the major public health problem that causesfunctional impairment and reduced quality of life. To compare the effectiveness of PNF Hold relax stretching versus Static stretching on pain and flexibility of hamstring following moist heat in individuals with knee osteoarthritis. Hamstring tightness is the major problem in knee osteoarthritis individuals. Therefore the need of study is comparing the effectiveness of PNF Hold relax stretching versus static stretching on pain and flexibility of hamstrings following moist heat in knee osteoarthritis participants. Determining the effects of PNF Hold relax stretching versus Static stretching along with moist heat on pain and hamstring flexibility by VAS and Active knee extension range of motion in knee osteoarthritis individuals. Methods: 30 subjects with symptoms of knee osteoarthritis were randomly distributed into 2 groups 15 in each group. PNF Hold relax stretching along with moist heat is compared to Static stretching along with moist heat. Pain was measured by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS and hamstring flexibility by Active knee Extension Range of Motion (AKEROM by universal goniometer. Measurements are taken pre and post intervention. Results: The results indicated PNF Hold relax stretching along with moist heat showed a statistically significant improvement in pain (p<0.05 and improvement in hamstring flexibility (p<0.05 when compared to Static stretching along with moist heat. Conclusion: Subjects with PNF Hold relax stretching along with moist heat showed significant improvement in pain reduction and improving hamstring flexibility than Static stretching along with moist heat.

  5. The effect of warm-up, static stretching and dynamic stretching on hamstring flexibility in previously injured subjects


    O'Sullivan, Kieran; Murray, Elaine; Sainsbury, David


    Abstract Background Warm-up and stretching are suggested to increase hamstring flexibility and reduce the risk of injury. This study examined the short-term effects of warm-up, static stretching and dynamic stretching on hamstring flexibility in individuals with previous hamstring injury and uninjured controls. Methods A randomised crossover study design, over 2 separate days. Hamstring flexibility was assessed using passive knee extension range of motion (PKE ROM). 18 previously injured indi...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Amorin Anchieta Borges da Silva, Isabel Cristina Taranto e Fernanda Piasecki


    Full Text Available Nowadays, there are many opportunities for the society to live a healthful and long life. At the same time, never people was so sedentary and without harmony. Without a healthy body and with “an occupied mind” the human loses exactly what more it needs: the disposal to produce, to coexist and to live a good life. In this context, the present research aimed to revise some terms related to labor gymnastics, which is focused in the prevention of risks related to hours of working and in the reduction of muscular tension levels that may be originated during a day of work. Thus, the present study will make a differentiation between the use of stretching and flexionament during labor gymnastic sessions.

  7. Stretched Lens Array Photovoltaic Concentrator Technology Developed (United States)

    Piszczor, Michael F., Jr.; O'Neill, Mark J.


    Solar arrays have been and continue to be the mainstay in providing power to nearly all commercial and government spacecraft. Light from the Sun is directly converted into electrical energy using solar cells. One way to reduce the cost of future space power systems is by minimizing the size and number of expensive solar cells by focusing the sunlight onto smaller cells using concentrator optics. The stretched lens array (SLA) is a unique concept that uses arched Fresnel lens concentrators to focus sunlight onto a line of high-efficiency solar cells located directly beneath. The SLA concept is based on the Solar Concentrator Array with Refractive Linear Element Technology (SCARLET) design that was used on NASA's New Millennium Deep Space 1 mission. The highly successful asteroid/comet rendezvous mission (1998 to 2001) demonstrated the performance and long-term durability of the SCARLET/SLA solar array design and set the foundation for further improvements to optimize its performance.

  8. Aerothermodynamic properties of stretched flames in enclosures (United States)

    Rotman, D. A.; Oppenheim, A. K.

    Flames are stretched by being pulled along their frontal surface by the flow field in which they reside. Their trajectories tend to approach particle paths, acquiring eventually the role of contact boundaries, -interfaces between the burnt and unburnt medium that may broaden solely as a consequence of diffusion. Fundamental properties of flow fields governing such flames are determined here on the basis of the zero Mach number model, providng a rational method of approach to the computational analysis of combustion fields in enclosures where, besides the aerodynamic properties flow, the thermodynamic process of compression must be taken into account. To illustrate its application, the method is used to reveal the mechanism of formation of a tulip-shape flame in a rectangular enclosure under nonturbulent flow conditions.

  9. San Andreas Fault dip, Peninsular Ranges mafic lower crust and partial melt in the Salton Trough, Southern California, from ambient-noise tomography (United States)

    Barak, Shahar; Klemperer, Simon L.; Lawrence, Jesse F.


    We use ambient-noise tomography to improve CVM-H11.9, a community velocity model of southern California. Our new 3-D shear-velocity model with 0.05° x 0.05° lateral and 1 km vertical blocks reveals new structure beneath the San Andreas Fault (SAF), Peninsular Ranges batholith (PRB), southern Sierra Nevada batholith (SNB), and the Salton Trough (ST). We use 4 years of data recorded on 849 broadband stations, vastly more than previous studies and including our own broadband Salton Seismic Imaging Project, a 40 station transect across the ST, as well as other campaign stations in both Mexico and the United States. Mean lower crust and upper mantle wave speeds (3.6 km/s at 20 km, 4.2 km/s at 40 km) are low by global standards. Across the SAF, southeast of San Gorgonio Pass, we observe vertical to steeply dipping lateral velocity contrasts that extend beneath the Moho. Beneath the western PRB and westernmost southern SNB, we observe relatively high shear velocities (≥3.8 km/s) in the lower crust that we interpret as the mafic roots of the overlying arc. Relatively high-velocity upper mantle (up to ˜4.5 km/s) may be part of the intact arc, or possibly a remnant of the Farallon plate. Beneath the ST, we observe zones of low shear-velocity in the lower crust and upper mantle which permit up to ˜4.5% melt in the lower crust and up to ˜6% melt in the upper mantle, depending on the assumed composition and pore geometry. Our results preclude the existence of older continental crust beneath the ST and support the creation of new crust beneath the ST.

  10. [Crusted scabies induced by topical corticosteroids: A case report]. (United States)

    Bilan, P; Colin-Gorski, A-M; Chapelon, E; Sigal, M-L; Mahé, E


    The frequency of scabies is increasing in France. Crusted (or Norwegian) scabies is a very contagious form of scabies because of the huge number of mites in the skin. It is observed in patients suffering from immunodepression, motor or sensory deficiency, or mental retardation. The clinical presentation, except for the classic manifestation of scabies, is characterized by crusted lesions. Treatment is not easy and requires hospitalization. Topical corticosteroids are frequently used for children's dermatological diseases. Their long-term and inappropriate application in an infested scabies child can induce crusted scabies. We report on a case of an 8-year-old boy who developed crusted scabies induced by topical corticosteroid application. We discuss the therapeutic aspects of this severe form of scabies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Yellow sorediate crusts called Caloplaca citrina in England

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Powell, M.; Vondrák, Jan


    Roč. 2012, č. 110 (2012), s. 20-24 ISSN 0300-4562 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : biodiversity * crytic species * sorediate crusts Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  12. Russian Federation Snow Depth and Ice Crust Surveys (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Russian Federation Snow Depth and Ice Crust Surveys, dataset DSI-9808, contains routine snow surveys that run throughout the cold season every 10 days (every five...

  13. Water sorption and transport in dry crispy bread crust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meinders, M.B.J.; Nieuwenhuijzen, van N.H.; Tromp, R.H.; Hamer, R.J.; Vliet, van T.


    Water sorption and dynamical properties of bread crust have been studied using gravimetric sorption experiments. Water uptake and loss were followed while relative humidity (RH) was stepwise in- or decreased (isotherm experiment) or varied between two adjusted values (oscillatory experiment).

  14. Formation and development of salt crusts on soil surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Dai, Sheng


    The salt concentration gradually increases at the soil free surface when the evaporation rate exceeds the diffusive counter transport. Eventually, salt precipitates and crystals form a porous sodium chloride crust with a porosity of 0.43 ± 0.14. After detaching from soils, the salt crust still experiences water condensation and salt deliquescence at the bottom, brine transport across the crust driven by the humidity gradient, and continued air-side precipitation. This transport mechanism allows salt crust migration away from the soil surface at a rate of 5 μm/h forming salt domes above soil surfaces. The surface characteristics of mineral substrates and the evaporation rate affect the morphology and the crystal size of precipitated salt. In particular, substrate hydrophobicity and low evaporation rate suppress salt spreading.

  15. The evolution of Mercury's crust: a global perspective from MESSENGER. (United States)

    Denevi, Brett W; Robinson, Mark S; Solomon, Sean C; Murchie, Scott L; Blewett, David T; Domingue, Deborah L; McCoy, Timothy J; Ernst, Carolyn M; Head, James W; Watters, Thomas R; Chabot, Nancy L


    Mapping the distribution and extent of major terrain types on a planet's surface helps to constrain the origin and evolution of its crust. Together, MESSENGER and Mariner 10 observations of Mercury now provide a near-global look at the planet, revealing lateral and vertical heterogeneities in the color and thus composition of Mercury's crust. Smooth plains cover approximately 40% of the surface, and evidence for the volcanic origin of large expanses of plains suggests that a substantial portion of the crust originated volcanically. A low-reflectance, relatively blue component affects at least 15% of the surface and is concentrated in crater and basin ejecta. Its spectral characteristics and likely origin at depth are consistent with its apparent excavation from a lower crust or upper mantle enriched in iron- and titanium-bearing oxides.

  16. Contrasting subduction structures within the Philippine Sea plate: Hydrous oceanic crust and anhydrous volcanic arc crust (United States)

    Arai, Ryuta; Iwasaki, Takaya; Sato, Hiroshi; Abe, Susumu; Hirata, Naoshi


    show contrasting subduction structures within the Philippine Sea plate inferred from active-source wide-angle reflection data. Previous studies showed that large-amplitude reflections from the slab are observed in southwest Japan and indicated that a thin low-velocity layer with a high fluid content is formed along the top of the subducting oceanic crust. On the contrary, we found that the slab reflections have smaller amplitudes in the Izu collision zone, central Japan, where the Izu-Bonin volcanic arc has been colliding/subducting, suggesting that such a low-velocity layer does not exist beneath the collision zone. This structural difference is also supported by P-wave and S-wave velocity anomalies by passive-source tomography and electrical conductivity, and correlates with the regional distribution of deep tremors and intraslab earthquakes, both of which are induced by dehydration processes within the downgoing slab. Based on these comparisons, we suggest that the original structure of the incoming plate controls the contrasting subducting systems: typical oceanic plate absorbs water by hydrothermal circulation at spreading centers and/or seawater infiltration at outer rises, whereas volcanic arc crust consumes a large amount of hydrous minerals for melt production and metamorphoses to more stable, anhydrous forms before subduction.

  17. Composition of the crust in the Grenville and Appalachian Provinces of North America inferred from VP/VS ratios (United States)

    Musacchio, G.; Mooney, W.D.; Luetgert, J.H.; Christensen, N.I.


    We use the ratios between P and S wave velocities (VP/VS), derived from seismic refraction data, to infer the composition of the crust in the Grenville and the Appalachian Provinces of North America. The crust exhibits VP/VS increasing with depth from 1.64 to 1.84; there is a clear distinction between the Grenville Province (average VP/VS=1.81) and the Appalachian Province (average VP/VS=1.73) which persists at all depths. The boundary between these provinces is east dipping extending for 100 km east of the Champlain thrust. In the Appalachian Province the increase in VP/VS ratios with depth from 1.67 to 1.74 ?? 0.02 may reflect a normal decrease of silica content in the continental crust. In the Grenville Province beneath the Central Granulite Terrane, an anomalous VP/VS ratio of 1.82 ?? 0.02 is observed extending to a depth of 10 km; this correlates with the abundance of Ca-plagioclase in the Marcy Anorthosite. At greater depth (15-20 km), where seismic lamination and high electrical conductivity is observed, VP/VS is 1-84 ?? 0.02 and correlates with the Tahawus Complex, a layered mafic intrusion. Within the 25-km-thick lower crust of the Grenville Province the VP/VS is 1-84 ?? 0.02 and P-velocity is 7.0 ?? 0.1 km/s, which are typical for plagioclase-bearing rocks (gabbro-norite). The high VP/VS ratio in the Grenville Province has not been reported in crust of any other age. Since the Grenville Province contains 75% of the world's known anorthosites, high VP/VS ratio is related to high plagioclase. We suggest that the composition of the Grenville lower crust was significantly modified by the emplacement of the anorthosites in the mid-Proterozoic. Copyright 1997 by the American Geophysical Union.

  18. Variability in Rock Thermal Properties in the Late Archean Crust of the Kapuskasing Structural Zone and Implications for its Thermal Structure and Metamorphic History. (United States)

    Merriman, J. D.; Whittington, A. G.; Hofmeister, A. M.


    The thermal properties of rocks such as internal heat production and thermal diffusivity (α) play a key role in determining the thermal structure of the lithosphere, and consequently, the rates and styles of metamorphism within the crust. Over the last decade, measurements of α using the method laser flash analysis have shown the ability of a rock to conduct heat can vary by as much as a factor of 5 between common rock types, and decrease by up to a factor of 10 for the same rock between 25-1000°C. Here we present a preliminary model for the variability in rock throughout the crust based on measurements of the α of a suite of 100 samples from late Archean crust exposed in and around the Kapuskasing Structural Zone in Ontario, Canada. Preliminary results suggest that α is controlled primarily by mineralogy, and can vary not only between different rock types as described above, but also within the same rock by a factor of 1.5 (or more). Thermal diffusivity results were combined with heat producing element concentrations measured with ICP-MS to create a thermal model of the Kapuskasing Structural Zone prior its uplift and exposure. To provide additional constraints for P-T conditions within the pre-uplift KSZ crust, a combination of trace-element and pseudosection thermobarometry was used to estimate metamorphic temperatures during an extended period of crustal stability at the end of the Archean. Preliminary results were compared to finite-difference numerical models of the steady-state geothermal gradient using heat production back-calculated to 2.6 Ga. Results suggest a minimum thickness of the continental lithosphere during the late Archean of at least 150 km. To test the response of the crust to the effects of large thermal events such as pluton emplacement, we also performed time-dependent models of the thermal structure of the pre-uplift KSZ crust. These models suggest that heat from thermal events in the upper and middle crust result in a more insulating

  19. Black manganese-rich crusts on a Gothic cathedral (United States)

    Macholdt, Dorothea S.; Herrmann, Siegfried; Jochum, Klaus Peter; Kilcoyne, A. L. David; Laubscher, Thomas; Pfisterer, Jonas H. K.; Pöhlker, Christopher; Schwager, Beate; Weber, Bettina; Weigand, Markus; Domke, Katrin F.; Andreae, Meinrat O.


    Black manganese-rich crusts are found worldwide on the façades of historical buildings. In this study, they were studied exemplarily on the façade of the Freiburger Münster (Freiburg Minster), Germany, and measured in-situ by portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF). The XRF was calibrated to allow the conversion from apparent mass fractions to Mn surface density (Mn mass per area), to compensate for the fact that portable XRF mass fraction measurements from thin layers violate the assumption of a homogeneous measurement volume. Additionally, 200-nm femtosecond laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (fs LA-ICP-MS) measurements, scanning transmission X-ray microscopy-near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (STXM-NEXAFS), Raman spectroscopy, and imaging by light microscopy were conducted to obtain further insight into the crust material, such as potential biogenic contributions, element distributions, trace element compositions, and organic functional groups. While black crusts of various types are present at many places on the minster's facade, crusts rich in Mn (with a Mn surface density >150 μg cm-2) are restricted to a maximum height of about 7 m. The only exceptions are those developed on the Renaissance-Vorhalle (Renaissance Portico) at a height of about 8 m. This part of the façade had been cleaned and treated with a silicon resin as recently as 2003. These crusts thus accumulated over a period of only 12 years. Yet, they are exceptionally Mn-rich with a surface density of 1200 μg cm-2, and therefore require an accumulation rate of about 100 μg cm-2 Mn per year. Trace element analyses support the theory that vehicle emissions are responsible for most of the Mn supply. Lead, barium, and zinc correlate with manganese, indicating that tire material, brake pads, and resuspended road dust are likely to be the element sources. Microscopic investigations show no organisms on or in the Mn-rich crusts. In contrast, Mn-free black

  20. Electroforesis of Whey and Stretching Water Protein of Mozzarella Cheese Production from Factorial Experimental of Coagulation and Stretching Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purwadi Purwadi


    Full Text Available The use of lime juice as acidifier in the making of Mozzarella cheese was aimed to learn the protein profile of whey and stretching water produced with treatment of coagulation and stretching temperature. The treatment of coagulation temperature was G1 = 30oC, G2 = 35oC, G3 = 40oC, and G4 = 45oC, and the treatment of stretching temperature was M1 = 70oC, M2 = 75oC, M3 = 80oC, and M4 = 85oC. The research result showed that coagulation temperature of 30 and 35 oC gave the same protein profile of whey as well as coagulation temperature of 40 and 45oC, while coagulation temperature of 30 and 35oC with coagulation temperatur of 40 and 45oC gave different protein profile of whey. Different coagulation temperature gave different protein profile of whey and stretching water, while different stretching temperature gave the same protein profile of stretching water. Coagulation temperature of 30 and 35oC gave the same protein profile of stretching water as well as coagulation temperature of 40 and 45oC, while coagulation temperature of 30 and 35oC with temperature of 40 and 45oC gave different protein profile of stretching water. Keywords: protein profile, Mozzarella cheese, coagulation temperature, stretching temperature


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamik Bhattacharjee


    Full Text Available Background: Healthy individuals, to ease and accomplish their activities of daily living they need flexible body without any tightness in the muscles, particularly those used for a definite function. Cooling soft tissues in a lengthened position after stretching has been shown to promote more lasting increases in soft tissue length and minimize post stretch muscle soreness. There are less documented studies which compared modified proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF stretch over passive manual stretch with cold application commonly after the interventions. Methods: Thirty high school going healthy students were divided into two groups- Group I received Passive Manual stretching (n=15 and Group II received modified PNF stretching (n=15 and both groups received cold application after the interventions for 10 minutes commonly for 5 days. ROM was taken on day 1, day 5 and day 7. Results: After day 7, Group II with Modified PNF stretching along with cold application showed a significant increase in range of motion tested with active knee extension test (AKET. Conclusion: Modified PNF stretching is considered to be the effective intervention in increasing and maintaining ROM in AKET over passive manual stretching with cold applications commonly after the interventions.

  2. Immediate Effects of Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Stretching Programs Compared With Passive Stretching Programs for Hamstring Flexibility: A Critically Appraised Topic. (United States)

    Hill, Kristian J; Robinson, Kendall P; Cuchna, Jennifer W; Hoch, Matthew C


    Clinical Scenario: Increasing hamstring flexibility through clinical stretching interventions may be an effective means to prevent hamstring injuries. However the most effective method to increase hamstring flexibility has yet to be determined. For a healthy individual, are proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching programs more effective in immediately improving hamstring flexibility when compared with static stretching programs? Summary of Key Findings: A thorough literature search returned 195 possible studies; 5 studies met the inclusion criteria and were included. Current evidence supports the use of PNF stretching or static stretching programs for increasing hamstring flexibility. However, neither program demonstrated superior effectiveness when examining immediate increases in hamstring flexibility. Clinical Bottom Line: There were consistent findings from multiple low-quality studies that indicate there is no difference in the immediate improvements in hamstring flexibility when comparing PNF stretching programs to static stretching programs in physically active adults. Strength of Recommendation: Grade B evidence exists that PNF and static stretching programs equally increase hamstring flexibility immediately following the stretching program.

  3. Formation and Thermal Infrared Spectroscopy of Halite Crusts (United States)

    Baldridge, A. M.; Christensen, P. R.


    Efflorescent salt crusts form as groundwater evaporates from capillary updraw of brine through sediment. Salts precipitate at the surface, coating and cementing the upper few layers of sediment. If enough brine is present to completely saturate and pond on top of the surface, halite will precipitate at the surface of the brine and settle out as layers of crystalline salt on top of the sediment. In playa environments, salts such as sulfates, carbonates and halides, and forms such crusts. In remote sensing studies of such surfaces, it is important to understand how the presence of salt crusts affects the spectral features of the surrounding sediment. This is especially true when the crusts form from a non-absorbing salt such as halite. Halite has been observed to exhibit unusual spectral properties in the thermal infrared. Specifically, granular mixtures of minerals with halite produced spectra in which the spectral features inverted form reflectivity, shifted to shorter wavelengths and the spectral contrast increased near absorption bands. However, in crusted surfaces, in which the halite cements, coats or overlays the mineral grains, the presence of halite has a different affect on the spectra. This work will examine the precipitation of halite and the formation of salt crusts for several sediment and brine mixtures. Laboratory measurements of thermal emission spectra for the crusts will be compared to previous studies for particulate mixtures of halite with minerals and well as to natural surface crusts. Detailed knowledge of such surfaces will allow for their discrimination and identification in terrestrial playa settings as well as in paleo-environments on Mars.

  4. Continental lithosphere of the Arabian Plate: A geologic, petrologic, and geophysical synthesis (United States)

    Stern, Robert J.; Johnson, Peter


    The Arabian Plate originated ˜ 25 Ma ago by rifting of NE Africa to form the Gulf of Aden and Red Sea. It is one of the smaller and younger of the Earth's lithospheric plates. The upper part of its crust consists of crystalline Precambrian basement, Phanerozoic sedimentary cover as much as 10 km thick, and Cenozoic flood basalt (harrat). The distribution of these rocks and variations in elevation across the Plate cause a pronounced geologic and topographic asymmetry, with extensive basement exposures (the Arabian Shield) and elevations of as much as 3000 m in the west, and a Phanerozoic succession (Arabian Platform) that thickens, and a surface that descends to sea level, eastward between the Shield and the northeastern margin of the Plate. This tilt in the Plate is partly the result of marginal uplift during rifting in the south and west, and loading during collision with, and subduction beneath, the Eurasian Plate in the northeast. But a variety of evidence suggests that the asymmetry also reflects a fundamental crustal and mantle heterogeneity in the Plate that dates from Neoproterozoic time when the crust formed. The bulk of the Plate's upper crystalline crust is Neoproterozoic in age (1000-540 Ma) reflecting, in the west, a 300-million year process of continental crustal growth between ˜ 850 and 550 Ma represented by amalgamated juvenile magmatic arcs, post-amalgamation sedimentary and volcanic basins, and granitoid intrusions that make up as much as 50% of the Shield's surface. Locally, Archean and Paleoproterozoic rocks are structurally intercalated with the juvenile Neoproterozoic rocks in the southern and eastern parts of the Shield. The geologic dataset for the age, composition, and origin of the upper crust of the Plate in the east is smaller than the database for the Shield, and conclusions made about the crust in the east are correspondingly less definitive. In the absence of exposures, furthermore, nothing is known by direct observation about the

  5. Transition in the Mode of Syn-Collisional Continental-Recycling with Secular Cooling of the Earth and its Implications for Crustal Evolution (United States)

    Chowdhury, P.; Gerya, T.; Chakraborty, S.


    Continental crustal recycling (CCR) critically controls the physico-chemical evolution of the crust-mantle system of the earth [1]. The different modes by which such recycling may occur on modern earth are recognized and are linked to plate tectonics [2]. However, the tectonic style itself is likely to have been different in an earlier hotter earth [3]. Thus, the mode and extent of CCR is also likely to have been different and extrapolation of modern recycling rates back in time could be erroneous. A systematic exploration of the nature and magnitude of CCR as a function of tectonic styles with changing thermal structure has not yet been carried out. We carried out 2D high resolution thermomechanical modeling to study the syn-collisional recycling styles at various mantle potential temperatures (Tp). With increasing mantle Tp, syn-collisional recycling mechanism changes systematically from slab failure-dominated to delamination-dominated. Viscous strength of the continental lithosphere decreases as mantle Tp increases and thereby, the tendency to delaminate increases as well. Calculation of the recycled crustal volume yielded a flux of 0.3-0.8 km3/a by slab failure and a much higher flux of 1.5-3.6 km3/a by delamination under hotter mantle conditions. Delamination removes the lower continental crust preferentially whereas slab failure recycles both upper and lower continental crust in sub-equal proportions. Linking the mantle Tp with earth's age [e.g. 4], our results predict an extensive delamination led recycling till 1.5 Ga. Subsequently, slab failure would have started to become the more common recycling mechanism at collision zones and consequently, the recycling-rates started to decline. The relative dominance of recycling by delamination (mainly lower crust) vs. slab failure (sub-equal amounts of upper- and lower crust) has major implications for the compositional evolution of the continental crust as a whole. [1] Bowring & Housh 1995, Science 269, 1535


    Commeau, R.F.; Clark, A.; Johnson, Chad; Manheim, F. T.; Aruscavage, P. J.; Lane, C.M.


    Ferromanganese crusts on raised areas of the ocean floor have joined abyssal manganese nodules and hydrothermal sulfides as potential marine resources. Significant volumes of cobalt-rich (about 1% Co) crusts have been identified to date within the US Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) in the Central Pacific: in the NW Hawaiian Ridge and Seamount region and in the seamounts in the Johnston Island and Palmyra Island regions. Large volumes of lower grade crusts, slabs, and nodules are also present in shallow ( greater than 1000 m) waters on the Blake plateau, off Florida-South Carolina in the Atlantic Ocean. Data on ferromanganese crusts have been increased by recent German and USGS cruises, but are still sparse, and other regions having crust potential are under current investigation. The authors discuss economic potentials for cobalt-rich crusts in the Central Pacific and Western North Atlantic oceans, with special reference to US EEZ areas. Additional research is needed before more quantitative resource estimates can be made.

  7. How Continental Bank outsourced its "crown jewels.". (United States)

    Huber, R L


    No industry relies more on information than banking does, yet Continental, one of America's largest banks, outsources its information technology. Why? Because that's the best way to service the customers that form the core of the bank's business, says vice chairman Dick Huber. In the late 1970s and early 1980s, Continental participated heavily with Penn Square Bank in energy investments. When falling energy prices burst Penn Square's bubble in 1982, Continental was stuck with more than $1 billion in bad loans. Eight years later when Dick Huber came on board, Continental was working hard to restore its once solid reputation. Executives had made many tough decisions already, altering the bank's focus from retail to business banking and laying off thousands of employees. Yet management still needed to cut costs and improve services to stay afloat. Regulators, investors, and analysts were watching every step. Continental executives, eager to focus on the bank's core mission of serving business customers, decided to outsource one after another in-house service--from cafeteria services to information technology. While conventional wisdom holds that banks must retain complete internal control of IT, Continental bucked this argument when it entered into a ten-year, multimillion-dollar contract with Integrated Systems Solutions Corporation. Continental is already reaping benefits from outsourcing IT. Most important, Continental staffers today focus on their true core competencies: intimate knowledge of customers' needs and relationships with customers.

  8. Finite element simulation of earthquake cycle dynamics for continental listric fault system (United States)

    Wei, T.; Shen, Z. K.


    We simulate stress/strain evolution through earthquake cycles for a continental listric fault system using the finite element method. A 2-D lithosphere model is developed, with the upper crust composed of plasto-elastic materials and the lower crust/upper mantle composed of visco-elastic materials respectively. The media is sliced by a listric fault, which is soled into the visco-elastic lower crust at its downdip end. The system is driven laterally by constant tectonic loading. Slip on fault is controlled by rate-state friction. We start with a simple static/dynamic friction law, and drive the system through multiple earthquake cycles. Our preliminary results show that: (a) periodicity of the earthquake cycles is strongly modulated by the static/dynamic friction, with longer period correlated with higher static friction and lower dynamic friction; (b) periodicity of earthquake is a function of fault depth, with less frequent events of greater magnitudes occurring at shallower depth; and (c) rupture on fault cannot release all the tectonic stress in the system, residual stress is accumulated in the hanging wall block at shallow depth close to the fault, which has to be released either by conjugate faulting or inelastic folding. We are in a process of exploring different rheologic structure and friction laws and examining their effects on earthquake behavior and deformation pattern. The results will be applied to specific earthquakes and fault zones such as the 2008 great Wenchuan earthquake on the Longmen Shan fault system.

  9. A Comparison of Continental Extension Estimates Across the Margins of the Woodlark Basin, Papua New Guinea (United States)

    Nazlim, B.; Goodliffe, A. M.


    Previous studies have shown that depth dependent extension is commonly observed across rifted margins. This has resulted in a discrepancy between the estimates of extension made through whole lithosphere/crust vs fault heave calculations (for example northwest Australia, South China Sea, Galicia). In the Woodlark Basin, the amount of extension estimated from observed subsidence and brittle extension also do not match. Taking into account sub-seismic resolution and poly-phase faulting reduces this mismatch. In the Woodlark Basin continental extension can also be estimated by extending Euler pole kinematics from the oceanic domain. Previous studies show that this predicts almost double the extension calculated from subsidence and brittle extension. Extension in the Woodlark Basin began at 8.4 Ma and transitioned to sea-floor spreading in the east at 6 Ma. The basin is an ideal place to study the extension discrepancy because of its young age and thin sediments. Seismic reflection easily images basement and fault structures. High resolution bathymetry permits tracing of major faults on the seafloor. A previous study focused on the extension discrepancy at the rifting to spreading transition. This study will focus on the discrepancy further east where seafloor spreading began just after 2 Ma and opening rates are faster. Data used in this study include bathymetry, magnetics, gravity, and low-fold 2-D seismic reflection data. Using the available data, extension estimates have been calculated through brittle extension and subsidence. Euler pole derived extension rates from previous studies were used for comparison. Results indicate that Euler pole kinematics predict far more extension than estimates calculated through subsidence and brittle extension. This provides important insights into processes in the low crust and supports earlier hypotheses that the mantle lithosphere and upper crust may be moving at different rates prior to continental breakup.

  10. Effects of acute stretching on the maximal expression of strength ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study compared the effects of four treatments (n = 12 each) [10 minutes of quiet sitting, without stretching (NS); two minutes warm up on an arm ergometer at 25 watts resistance (WU); 10 second-hold static stretching (each) of the shoulder, chest and arm muscle groups (ST10); and two sets of 20 second-hold static ...

  11. The stretch reflex and the contributions of C David Marsden. (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Kalyan B


    The stretch reflex or myotatic reflex refers to the contraction of a muscle in response to its passive stretching by increasing its contractility as long as the stretch is within physiological limits. For ages, it was thought that the stretch reflex was of short latency and it was synonymous with the tendon reflex, subserving the same spinal reflex arc. However, disparities in the status of the two reflexes in certain clinical situations led Marsden and his collaborators to carry out a series of experiments that helped to establish that the two reflexes had different pathways. That the two reflexes are dissociated has been proved by the fact that the stretch reflex and the tendon reflex, elicited by stimulation of the same muscle, have different latencies, that of the stretch reflex being considerably longer. They hypothesized that the stretch reflex had a transcortical course before it reached the spinal motor neurons for final firing. Additionally, the phenomenon of stimulus-sensitive cortical myoclonus lent further evidence to the presence of the transcortical loop where the EEG correlate preceded the EMG discharge. This concept has been worked out by later neurologists in great detail, and the general consensus is that indeed, the stretch reflex is endowed with a conspicuous transcortical component.

  12. Chaperones in Polyglutamine Aggregation : Beyond the Q-Stretch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, E. F. E.; de Mattos, Eduardo P.; Jardim, Laura B.; Kampinga, Harm H.; Bergink, Steven


    Expanded polyglutamine (polyQ) stretches in at least nine unrelated proteins lead to inherited neuronal dysfunction and degeneration. The expansion size in all diseases correlates with age at onset (AO) of disease and with polyQ protein aggregation, indicating that the expanded polyQ stretch is the

  13. Stretched exponential relaxation and ac universality in disordered dielectrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milovanov, Alexander V.; Rypdal, Kristoffer; Juul Rasmussen, Jens


    are stretched exponential character of dielectric relaxation, power-law power spectral density, and anomalous dependence of ac conduction coefficient on frequency. We propose a self-consistent model of dielectric relaxation in which the relaxations are described by a stretched exponential decay function...

  14. Time and direction preparation of the long latency stretch reflex. (United States)

    Nikaido, Yasutaka; Hatanaka, Ryota; Jono, Yasutomo; Nomura, Yoshifumi; Tani, Keisuke; Chujo, Yuta; Hiraoka, Koichi


    This study investigated time and direction preparation of motor response to force load while intending to maintain the finger at the initial neutral position. Force load extending or flexing the index finger was given while healthy humans intended to maintain the index finger at the initial neutral position. Electromyographic activity was recorded from the first dorsal interosseous muscle. A precue with or without advanced information regarding the direction of the forthcoming force load was given 1000ms before force load. Trials without the precue were inserted between the precued trials. A long latency stretch reflex was elicited by force load regardless of its direction, indicating that the long latency stretch reflex is elicited not only by muscle stretch afferents, but also by direction-insensitive sensations. Time preparation of motor response to either direction of force load enhanced the long latency stretch reflex, indicating that time preparation is not mediated by afferent discharge of muscle stretch. Direction preparation enhanced the long latency stretch reflex and increased corticospinal excitability 0-20ms after force load when force load was given in the direction stretching the muscle. These enhancements must be induced by preset of the afferent pathway mediating segmental stretch reflex. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The stretch reflex and the contributions of C David Marsden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyan B Bhattacharyya


    Full Text Available The stretch reflex or myotatic reflex refers to the contraction of a muscle in response to its passive stretching by increasing its contractility as long as the stretch is within physiological limits. For ages, it was thought that the stretch reflex was of short latency and it was synonymous with the tendon reflex, subserving the same spinal reflex arc. However, disparities in the status of the two reflexes in certain clinical situations led Marsden and his collaborators to carry out a series of experiments that helped to establish that the two reflexes had different pathways. That the two reflexes are dissociated has been proved by the fact that the stretch reflex and the tendon reflex, elicited by stimulation of the same muscle, have different latencies, that of the stretch reflex being considerably longer. They hypothesized that the stretch reflex had a transcortical course before it reached the spinal motor neurons for final firing. Additionally, the phenomenon of stimulus-sensitive cortical myoclonus lent further evidence to the presence of the transcortical loop where the EEG correlate preceded the EMG discharge. This concept has been worked out by later neurologists in great detail , and the general consensus is that indeed, the stretch reflex is endowed with a conspicuous transcortical component.

  16. Transparent conducting film: Effect of mechanical stretching to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We describe in this paper a transparent conducting film (TCF). It is a fibrous layer of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), labeled a dilute CNT mat, that was prepared and unidirectionally stretched to improve both the optical and electrical properties. After stretching by 80% strain, transmittance at 550 nm wavelength ...

  17. The effects of acute self myofascial release (MFR) and stretching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Baseline measurements were taken initially and then participants were randomly divided into four groups (control [n=10, static stretching [n=10], dynamic stretching [n=10] and self MFR [n=10]). Each group performed a 60-minute intervention. During the intervention programme the various groups took part in prescribed ...

  18. Transparent conducting film: Effect of mechanical stretching to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    The number of pixels inside a rectangle counted on the Adobe Photoshop. Figure 6. Sheet resistance and transmittance at 550 nm wave- length of a dilute CNT mat before and after stretch. Five sam- ples were stretched by 40 and 110% strain respectively and average data is shown in each case. A polyurethane elastomer.

  19. Does Postexercise Static Stretching Alleviate Delayed Muscle Soreness? (United States)

    Buroker, Katherine C.; Schwane, James A.


    Because many experts recommend stretching after exercise to relieve muscle soreness, 23 subjects performed a 30-minute step test to induce delayed muscle soreness. There was neither temporary relief of pain immediately after stretching nor a reduction in pain during the 3-day postexercise period. (Author/SM)

  20. Mechanical stretch influence on lifetime of dielectric elastomer films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iannarelli, A.; Ghaffarian Niasar, M.; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph


    Film pre-stretching is a widely adopted solution to improve dielectric strength of the DEA systems. However, to date, long term reliability of this solution has not been investigated. In this work it is explored how the dielectric elastomer lifetime is affected by film pre-stretching. The dielectric

  1. The effect of calf stretching box on stretching calf muscle compliance: a prospective, randomized single-blinded controlled trial. (United States)

    Chadchavalpanichaya, Navaporn; Srisawasdi, Gulapar; Suwannakin, Atchara


    To study the effect of calf stretching box usage in increasing the compliance of performing calf stretching exercise as compared to the conventional exercise method. To study the effect of calf stretching box usage in decreasing the calf muscle tightness and complications as compared to the conventional exercise method. Eighty patients older than 45 years old with calf muscles tightness were enrolled in a prospective, randomized single-blinded controlled trial at the out-patient Rehabilitation medicine clinic, Siriraj Hospital, Bangkok Thailand between April and August 2009. Patients were randomized into two groups, the study group (stretching by using calf stretching box) and the control group (stretching by the conventional exercise method). Patients in both groups were asked to hold the stretch for at least 1 minute and to perform the stretching program at least two times per day, every day for two weeks. Furthermore, they were asked to record the real frequency and duration of their exercise and complications in a logbook every day. Thirty-eight patients in each group completed the study. The baseline characteristics of the patients in both groups were similar. The study group had higher frequency and longer duration of performing calf stretching exercise than the control group. They also reported more decrease of calf muscle tightness with less pain complication (shoulder pain, knee pain, low back pain, and calf muscle pain) than the control group (p calf muscle and degree of ankle range of motion between the two groups. Stretching calf muscle with calf stretching box can increase compliance, decrease calf muscle tightness and decrease complications when compared with the conventional exercise method.

  2. The effect of warm-up, static stretching and dynamic stretching on hamstring flexibility in previously injured subjects. (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Kieran; Murray, Elaine; Sainsbury, David


    Warm-up and stretching are suggested to increase hamstring flexibility and reduce the risk of injury. This study examined the short-term effects of warm-up, static stretching and dynamic stretching on hamstring flexibility in individuals with previous hamstring injury and uninjured controls. A randomised crossover study design, over 2 separate days. Hamstring flexibility was assessed using passive knee extension range of motion (PKE ROM). 18 previously injured individuals and 18 uninjured controls participated. On both days, four measurements of PKE ROM were recorded: (1) at baseline; (2) after warm-up; (3) after stretch (static or dynamic) and (4) after a 15-minute rest. Participants carried out both static and dynamic stretches, but on different days. Data were analysed using Anova. Across both groups, there was a significant main effect for time (p static stretching (p = 0.04) but significantly decreased after dynamic stretching (p = 0.013). The increased flexibility after warm-up and static stretching reduced significantly (p 0.05). Using ANCOVA to adjust for the non-significant (p = 0.141) baseline difference between groups, the previously injured group demonstrated a greater response to warm-up and static stretching, however this was not statistically significant (p = 0.05). Warm-up significantly increased hamstring flexibility. Static stretching also increased hamstring flexibility, whereas dynamic did not, in agreement with previous findings on uninjured controls. The effect of warm-up and static stretching on flexibility was greater in those with reduced flexibility post-injury, but this did not reach statistical significance. Further prospective research is required to validate the hypothesis that increased flexibility improves outcomes. ACTRN12608000638336.

  3. Normal-Faulting in Madagascar: Another Round of Continental Rifting? (United States)

    Wysession, M. E.; Pratt, M. J.; Tsiriandrimanana, R.; Andriampenomanana Ny Ony, F. S. T.; Nyblade, A.; Durrheim, R. J.; Tilmann, F. J.; Rumpker, G.; Rambolamanana, G.; Aleqabi, G. I.; Shore, P.


    Analyses of seismicity and seismic structure within Madagascar suggest the current occurrence of crustal extension, which may be related to continental rifting associated with a diffuse boundary between the Somalia and Lwandle tectonic plates. Madagascar has participated in two major rifting events as part of the break-up of Gondwana: the break-away of Greater India (Madagascar, India, the Seychelles) away from mainland Africa during the Jurassic and the break-away of India from Madagascar during the Cretaceous. Seismic activity and the structures obtained from it, using data from the 2-year (2011-2013) MACOMO project, suggest that this break-up may not be finished, and that continental rifts may be developing again. There are fairly high levels of intraplate seismicity within Madagascar: over 800 events located during the 22 months of the deployment. For comparison, a 2-year deployment of seismometers within the upper Midwest of the U.S. yielded just 12 intraplate earthquakes. While the Madagascar seismicity occurs across the island, it is strongly concentrated in the central region, where Cenozoic volcanism has occurred through the Holocene, and earthquakes align along N-S-trending lineations associated with N-S-trending pull-apart graben structures. The thickness of the crust is still >40 km in this region, but it is underlain by a large low-velocity structure within the lithosphere and asthenosphere that is observed in our studies of surface-wave, body-wave, and Pn-phase tomography. Normal faulting is not observed everywhere on the island, however; seismicity in the north is largely strike-slip, and seismicity in the south appears to be largely reverse faulting. Several studies have suggested that the diffuse boundary between the Somalia and Lwandle plates runs roughly E-W across Madagascar. Extensional faulting seems to predominate only within central Madagascar, likely associated with the current volcanic activity, which also appears to be associated with the

  4. Stretch reflex regulation in healthy subjects and patients with spasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Bo; Petersen, Nicolas; Crone, Clarissa


    In recent years, part of the muscle resistance in spastic patients has been explained by changes in the elastic properties of muscles. However, the adaptive spinal mechanisms responsible for the exaggeration of stretch reflex activity also contribute to muscle stiffness. The available data suggest...... of the spastic symptoms. A recent finding also shows no sign of exaggerated stretch reflexes in muscles voluntarily activated by the spastic patient in general. This is easily explained by the control of stretch reflex activity in healthy subjects. In healthy subjects, the stretch reflex activity is increased...... movements, antagonist muscles should remain silent and maximally relaxed. This is ensured by increasing transmission in several spinal inhibitory pathways. In spastic patients, this control is inadequate, and therefore stretch reflexes in antagonist muscles are easily evoked at the beginning of voluntary...

  5. Bruxism: Is There an Indication for Muscle-Stretching Exercises? (United States)

    Gouw, Simone; de Wijer, Anton; Creugers, Nico Hj; Kalaykova, Stanimira I

    Bruxism is a common phenomenon involving repetitive activation of the masticatory muscles. Muscle-stretching exercises are a recommended part of several international guidelines for musculoskeletal disorders and may be effective in management of the jaw muscle activity that gives rise to bruxism. However, most studies of muscle-stretching exercises have mainly focused on their influence on performance (eg, range of motion, coordination, and muscle strength) of the limb or trunk muscles of healthy individuals or individuals with sports-related injuries. Very few have investigated stretching of the human masticatory muscles and none muscle-stretching exercises in the management of (sleep) bruxism. This article reviews the literature on muscle-stretching exercises and their potential role in the management of sleep bruxism or its consequences in the musculoskeletal system.

  6. Acute effect of different stretching methods on isometric muscle strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Vasconcellos de Lima Costa e Silva


    This study investigated the acute effect of static stretching methods (SS and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF on the static muscle strength (SMS. Eleven young male subjects with strength training experience, performed 3 tests with a 48h interval between them, randomly selected, where each one subject carried out all procedures: a hand grip without stretching; b hand grip preceded by static stretching of wrist flexors muscles; c hand grip preceded by PNF stretching of wrist flexors muscles. The Shapiro-Wilk test verified the normality of data, and a one-way ANOVA with repeated measures, followed by Tukey’s post hoc test, evaluated the differences between the groups. The significance was set at p 0.05. In conclusion, both stretching methods had caused negative effects on isometric strength, reducing its levels.

  7. Linear and nonlinear buckling analysis of a locally stretched plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilardj, Madina; Ikhenzzen, Ghania [University of Sciences and Technology Houari Boumediene (U.S.T.H.B), Bab Ezzouar, Algiers (Algeria); Merssager, Tanguy; Kanit, Toufik [Laboratoire de Mecanique de Lille Universite Lille 1, Cite ScientifiqueVilleneuve d' Ascq cedex (France)


    Uniformly stretched thin plates do not buckle unless they are in special boundary conditions. However, buckling commonly occurs around discontinuities, such as cracks, cuts, narrow slits, holes, and different openings, of such plates. This study aims to show that buckling can also occur in thin plates that contain no defect or singularity when the stretching is local. This specific stability problem is analyzed with the finite element method. A brief literature review on stretched plates is presented. Linear and nonlinear buckling stress analyses are conducted for a partially stretched rectangular plate, and various load cases are considered to investigate the influence of the partial loading expanse on the critical tensile buckling load. Results are summarized in iso-stress areas, tables and graphs. Local stretching on one end of the plate induces buckling in the thin plate even without geometrical imperfection.

  8. Acute effects of different stretching durations on passive torque, mobility, and isometric muscle force. (United States)

    Matsuo, Shingo; Suzuki, Shigeyuki; Iwata, Masahiro; Banno, Yasuhiro; Asai, Yuji; Tsuchida, Wakako; Inoue, Takayuki


    Static stretching is widely applied in various disciplines. However, the acute effects of different durations of stretching are unclear. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the acute effects of different stretching durations on muscle function and flexibility, and provide an insight into the optimal duration of static stretching. This randomized crossover trial included 24 healthy students (17 men and 7 women) who stretched their right hamstrings for durations of 20, 60, 180, and 300 seconds in a random order. The following outcomes were assessed using an isokinetic dynamometer as markers of lower-limb function and flexibility: static passive torque (SPT), dynamic passive torque (DPT), stiffness, straight leg raise (SLR), and isometric muscle force. Static passive torque was significantly decreased after all stretching durations (p stretching compared with that after 20-second stretching, and stiffness decreased significantly after 180- and 300-second stretching (p stretching (p stretching durations (p stretching than after 20-second stretching and higher after 300-second stretching than after 60-second stretching (p muscle force significantly decreased after all stretching durations (p stretching is associated with a decrease in SPT but an increase in SLR. Over 180 seconds of stretching was required to decrease DPT and stiffness, but isometric muscle force decreased regardless of the stretching duration. In conclusion, these results indicate that longer durations of stretching are needed to provide better flexibility.

  9. Origin of volcanic seamounts at the continental margin of California related to changes in plate margins (United States)

    Davis, A. S.; Clague, D. A.; Paduan, J. B.; Cousens, B. L.; Huard, J.


    Volcanic samples collected with the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute's ROV Tiburon from eight seamounts at the continental margin offshore central to southern California comprise a diverse suite of mainly alkalic basalt to trachyte but also include rare tholeiitic basalt and basanite. All samples experienced complex crystal fractionation probably near the crust/mantle boundary, based on the presence in some of mantle xenoliths. Incompatible trace elements, poorly correlated with isotopic compositions, suggest variable degrees of partial melting of compositionally heterogeneous mantle sources, ranging from MORB-like to relatively enriched OIB. High-precision 40Ar/39Ar ages indicate episodes of volcanic activity mainly from 16 to 7 Ma but document one eruption as recent as 2.8 Ma at San Juan Seamount. Synchronous episodes of volcanism occurred at geographically widely separated locations offshore and within the continental borderland. Collectively, the samples from these seamounts have age ranges and chemical compositions similar to those from Davidson Seamount, identified as being located atop an abandoned spreading center. These seamounts appear to have a common origin ultimately related to abandonment and partial subduction of spreading center segments when the plate boundary changed from subduction-dominated to a transform margin. They differ in composition, age, and origin from other more widespread near-ridge seamounts, which commonly have circular plans with nested calderas, and from age progressive volcanoes in linear arrays, such as the Fieberling-Guadalupe chain, that occur in the same region. Each volcanic episode represents decompression melting of discrete enriched material in the suboceanic mantle with melts rising along zones of weakness in the oceanic crust fabric. The process may be aided by transtensional tectonics related to continued faulting along the continental margin.

  10. Calorimetric studies of cryptogamic crust metabolism in response to temperature, water vapor, and liquid water (United States)

    Dorothy A. Stradling; Tonya Thygerson; Bruce N. Smith; Lee D. Hansen; Richard S. Criddle; Rosemary L. Pendleton


    Cryptogamic crusts are communities composed of lichens, cyanobacteria, algae, mosses, and fungi. These integrated soil crusts are susceptible to disturbance, but if intact, appear to play a role in providing nutrients, especially nitrogen, to higher plants. It is not known how or under what conditions desert crusts can grow. Crust samples from localities on the...

  11. Effects of crust and cracks on simulated catchment discharge and soil loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolte, J.; Ritsema, C.J.; Roo, de A.P.J.


    Sealing, crusting and cracking of crusts of the soil surface has been observed in many parts of the world in areas with sandy, silty and loamy soils. Sealing and crust formation occurs under the influence of rain storm and drying weather. With prolonged drying, surface crusts might crack, leading to

  12. Pre-exercise stretching does not impact upon running economy. (United States)

    Hayes, Philip R; Walker, Adrian


    Pre-exercise stretching has been widely reported to reduce performance in tasks requiring maximal or near-maximal force or torque. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of 3 different pre-exercise stretching routines on running economy. Seven competitive male middle and long-distance runners (mean +/- SD) age: 32.5 +/- 7.7 years; height: 175.0 +/- 8.8 cm; mass: 67.8 +/- 8.6 kg; V(.-)O2max: 66.8 +/- 7.0 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) volunteered to participate in this study. Each participant completed 4 different pre-exercise conditions: (a) a control condition, (b) static stretching, (c) progressive static stretching, and (d) dynamic stretching. Each stretching routine consisted of 2 x 30-second stretches for each of 5 exercises. Dependent variables measured were sit and reach test before and after each pre-exercise routine, running economy (ml x kg(-1) x km(-1)), and steady-state oxygen uptake (ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)), which were measured during the final 3 minutes of a 10-minute run below lactate threshold. All 3 stretching routines resulted in an increase in the range of movement (p = 0.008). There was no change in either running economy (p = 0.915) or steady-state V(.-)O2 (p = 0.943). The lack of change in running economy was most likely because it was assessed after a period of submaximal running, which may have masked any effects from the stretching protocols. Previously reported reductions in performance have been attributed to reduced motor unit activation, presumably IIX. In this study, these motor units were likely not to have been recruited; this may explain the unimpaired performance. This study suggests that pre-exercise stretching has no impact upon running economy or submaximal exercise oxygen cost.

  13. Perceiving the Crust in 3-D: A Model Integrating Geological, Geochemical, and Geophysical Data (United States)

    Strati, Virginia; Wipperfurth, Scott A.; Baldoncini, Marica; McDonough, William F.; Mantovani, Fabio


    Regional characterization of the continental crust has classically been performed through either geologic mapping, geochemical sampling, or geophysical surveys. Rarely are these techniques fully integrated, due to limits of data coverage, quality, and/or incompatible data sets. We combine geologic observations, geochemical sampling, and geophysical surveys to create a coherent 3-D geologic model of a 50 × 50 km upper crustal region surrounding the SNOLAB underground physics laboratory in Canada, which includes the Southern Province, the Superior Province, the Sudbury Structure, and the Grenville Front Tectonic Zone. Nine representative aggregate units of exposed lithologies are geologically characterized, geophysically constrained, and probed with 109 rock samples supported by compiled geochemical databases. A detailed study of the lognormal distributions of U and Th abundances and of their correlation permits a bivariate analysis for a robust treatment of the uncertainties. A downloadable 3-D numerical model of U and Th distribution defines an average heat production of 1.5-0.7+1.4 µW/m3, and predicts a contribution of 7.7-3.0+7.7 TNU (a Terrestrial Neutrino Unit is one geoneutrino event per 1032 target protons per year) out of a crustal geoneutrino signal of 31.1-4.5+8.0 TNU. The relatively high local crust geoneutrino signal together with its large variability strongly restrict the SNO+ capability of experimentally discriminating among BSE compositional models of the mantle. Future work to constrain the crustal heat production and the geoneutrino signal at SNO+ will be inefficient without more detailed geophysical characterization of the 3-D structure of the heterogeneous Huronian Supergroup, which contributes the largest uncertainty to the calculation.

  14. Preliminary three-dimensional model of mantle convection with deformable, mobile continental lithosphere (United States)

    Yoshida, Masaki


    Characteristic tectonic structures such as young orogenic belts and suture zones in a continent are expected to be mechanically weaker than the stable part of the continental lithosphere with the cratonic root (or cratonic lithosphere) and yield lateral viscosity variations in the continental lithosphere. In the present-day Earth's lithosphere, the pre-existing, mechanically weak zones emerge as a diffuse plate boundary. However, the dynamic role of a weak (low-viscosity) continental margin (WCM) in the stability of continental lithosphere has not been understood in terms of geophysics. Here, a new numerical simulation model of mantle convection with a compositionally and rheologically heterogeneous, deformable, mobile continental lithosphere is presented for the first time by using three-dimensional regional spherical-shell geometry. A compositionally buoyant and highly viscous continental assemblage with pre-existing WCMs, analogous to the past supercontinent, is modeled and imposed on well-developed mantle convection whose vigor of convection, internal heating rate, and rheological parameters are appropriate for the Earth's mantle. The visco-plastic oceanic lithosphere and the associated subduction of oceanic plates are incorporated. The time integration of the advection of continental materials with zero chemical diffusion is performed by a tracer particle method. The time evolution of mantle convection after setting the model supercontinent is followed over 800 Myr. Earth-like continental drift is successfully reproduced, and the characteristic thermal interaction between the mantle and the continent/supercontinent is observed in my new numerical model. Results reveal that the WCM protects the cratonic lithosphere from being stretched by the convecting mantle and may play a significant role in the stability of the cratonic lithosphere during the geological timescale because it acts as a buffer that prevents the cratonic lithosphere from undergoing global

  15. Tectonic evolution of the continental crust of South America and its importance in the characterization of uraniferous provinces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordani, U.G.


    The tectonic evolution of the South American Continent and its relationship with uranium mineralization is discussed. During the Phanerozoic at least three phases are identified as related to the Andean chain, namely, in the lower Palaeozoic, in the upper Palaeozoic and in the Meso-Cenozoic. Recent systematic age dating of the Precambrian indicates the period of 450-700 million years (m.y.) (Brazilian Cycle) as one of the most important tectonic events in South America. Another age-dating cluster corresponds to the 1700-2100 m.y. interval (Transamazonic Cycle). An even older event within the Archean is identified with datings older than 2600 m.y. in Venezuela (Estado Bolivar), Surinam and Brazil (Bahia, Santa Catarina, Goias). All the Brazilian uranium deposits related to the Brazilian platform, such as Amorinopolis, are located on the eastern border of the platform where the Brazilian tectonic cycle is dominant. The uranium source rocks are of alkaline granitic nature. Other deposits (Itataia, Campos Belos) are associated with polycyclic rocks belonging to the basement of the Brazilian Cycle but were affected by the 450-700 m.y. tectonic event; these amphibolitic facies rocks show alkaline metamorphism and magmatization processes which indicate large geochemical mobility during which important uranium mobilization has taken place. Finally, the Pocos de Caldas deposit is excellent evidence of the important relationship of tectonic reactivations and uranium enrichments within the Brazilian platform. (author)

  16. Middle Ordovician subduction of continental crust in the Scandinavian Caledonides - an example from Tjeliken, Seve Nappe Complex, Sweden (United States)

    Fassmer, Kathrin; Andersson, Barbro; Klonowska, Iwona; Walczak, Katarzyna; Froitzheim, Nikolaus; Majka, Jarosław; Fonseca, Raul


    The Seve Nappe Complex (SNC) in the Scandinavian Caledonides represents the distal part of the margin of Baltica, which was subducted to depth of UHP metamorphism during the Caledonian orogeny. In contrast to the ages determined for the Western Gneiss Complex in Western Norway (ca. 420 - 400 Ma) which is interpreted to represent the subducted Baltican basement , the ages in the SNC and related nappes are overall older (ca. 500-430 Ma), with a general trend of higher ages in the North (Norrbotten) than in the South (Jämtland). As the previously published ages in the SNC are quite diverging it is difficult to reconstruct the tectonometamorphic history of this unit. Therefore exact dating with different methods is necessary to get a better constraint on the exact timing of subduction. We present new age determinations on an eclogite and a garnet-phengite schist from Tjeliken in northern Jämtland, Sweden. There the SNC can be divided into three tectonic units, an Eastern, Middle and Western belt. The locality of Mt. Tjeliken is situated in the Eastern Belt. Thermodynamic modelling of the eclogite yielded a pressure of 25-26 kbar at 650-700 °C (Majka et al. 2014). Previous dating produced diverging ages of 460±4 Ma (Sm-Nd mineral isochrones, Brueckner & Van Roermund 2007) and 446±1 Ma (U-Pb zircon dating, Root & Corfu 2012). In this study metamorphic rims of zircons from the garnet-phengite schist were dated using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and yielded a concordia age of 458.9 ± 2.5 Ma. Lu-Hf garnet-whole rock dating yielded 458.5 ± 1.1 Ma for the eclogite. Garnet in the eclogite shows a prograde major-element zoning and a concentration of Lu in the cores, indicating that this age is related to garnet growth during pressure increase, i.e. subduction. The identical ages from both rock types confirm subduction of the outer margin of Baltica during the Middle Ordovician in a fast subduction-exhumation cycle. The fact that Sm-Nd and Lu-Hf dating yielded identical ages within error suggests fast subduction. Brueckner & Van Roermund 2007. Journal of the Geological Society, London, 164, 117-128. Majka et al. 2014. In: Corfu et al., eds., New Perspectives on the Caledonides of Scandinavia and Related Areas: Geological Society of London Special Publication 390, p. 369-384. Root & Corfu 2012. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 163, 769-788.

  17. Middle Ordovician subduction of continental crust in the Scandinavian Caledonides: an example from Tjeliken, Seve Nappe Complex, Sweden (United States)

    Fassmer, Kathrin; Klonowska, Iwona; Walczak, Katarzyna; Andersson, Barbro; Froitzheim, Nikolaus; Majka, Jarosław; Fonseca, Raúl O. C.; Münker, Carsten; Janák, Marian; Whitehouse, Martin


    The Seve Nappe Complex of the Scandinavian Caledonides is thought to be derived from the distal passive margin of Baltica which collided with Laurentia in the Scandian Phase of the Caledonian Orogeny at 430-400 Ma. Parts of the Seve Nappe Complex were affected by pre-Scandian high- and ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism, in a tectonic framework that is still unclear, partly due to uncertainties about the exact timing. Previous age determinations yielded between 505 and 446 Ma, with a general trend of older ages in the North (Norrbotten) than in the South (Jämtland). New age determinations were performed on eclogite and garnet-phengite gneiss at Tjeliken in northern Jämtland. Thermodynamic modelling yielded peak metamorphic conditions of 25-27 kbar/680-760 °C for the garnet-phengite gneiss, similar to published peak metamorphic conditions of the eclogite (25-26 kbar/650-700 °C). Metamorphic rims of zircons from the garnet-phengite gneiss were dated using secondary ion mass spectrometry and yielded a concordia age of 458.9 ± 2.5 Ma. Lu-Hf garnet-whole rock dating yielded 458 ± 1.0 Ma for the eclogite. Garnet in the eclogite shows prograde major-element zoning and concentration of Lu in the cores, indicating that this age is related to garnet growth during pressure increase, i.e. subduction. The identical ages from both rock types, coinciding with published Sm-Nd ages from the eclogite, confirm subduction of the Seve Nappe Complex in Northern Jämtland during the Middle Ordovician in a fast subduction-exhumation cycle.

  18. A reconnaissance view of tungsten reservoirs in some crustal and mantle rocks: Implications for interpreting W isotopic compositions and crust-mantle W cycling (United States)

    Liu, Jingao; Pearson, D. Graham; Chacko, Thomas; Luo, Yan


    their significance for crust-mantle HFSE and siderophile element budgets - to be tested in future studies. The significant concentration of W, as well as Nb and Ta hosted in rutile and titanite has interesting implications for the budget of W during crust-mantle recycling. Crust-mantle recycling models invoking the recycling of rutile-bearing eclogites to satisfy the mantle Nb/Ta ratio carry the penalty that the very high W/U and W/Th ratios of these rocks results in a concomitant large deviation from the primitive mantle-like ratios estimated for bulk continental crust. Similarly, data from the single amphibolite sample investigated in this study are inconsistent with models implicating the partial melting of amphibolite-bearing subducted slabs as a major process for formation of continental crust in the Earth's early history. Either the current widely accepted estimates for bulk continental crust W/U and W/Th ratios are in error, or partial melting or other processes lowers the W/U or W/Th of melt residues during their return to the mantle. The present small dataset cannot properly evaluate this, requiring further investigation. Finally, the lithospheric mantle has the potential to store substantial amounts of W, for example via infiltration by W-rich melts/fluids, and thus may act as a source for W mineralization in the crust.

  19. Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Orthosis Augmented by Either Stretching or Stretching and Strengthening for Stage II Tibialis Posterior Tendon Dysfunction. (United States)

    Houck, Jeff; Neville, Christopher; Tome, Josh; Flemister, Adolph


    The value of strengthening and stretching exercises combined with orthosis treatment in a home-based program has not been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of augmenting orthosis treatment with either stretching or a combination of stretching and strengthening in participants with stage II tibialis posterior tendon dysfunction (TPTD). Participants included 39 patients with stage II TPTD who were recruited from a medical center and then randomly assigned to a strengthening or stretching treatment group. Excluding 3 dropouts, there were 19 participants in the strengthening group and 17 in the stretching group. The stretching treatment consisted of a prefabricated orthosis used in conjunction with stretching exercises. The strengthening treatment consisted of a prefabricated orthosis used in conjunction with the stretching and strengthening exercises. The main outcome measures were self-report (ie, Foot Function Index and Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment) and isometric deep posterior compartment strength. Two-way analysis of variance was used to test for differences between groups at 6 and 12 weeks after starting the exercise programs. Both groups significantly improved in pain and function over the 12-week trial period. The self-report measures showed minimal differences between the treatment groups. There were no differences in isometric deep posterior compartment strength. A moderate-intensity, home-based exercise program was minimally effective in augmenting orthosis wear alone in participants with stage II TPTD. Level I, prospective randomized study. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Ophiolitic basement to the Great Valley forearc basin, California, from seismic and gravity data: Implications for crustal growth at the North American continental margin (United States)

    Godfrey, N.J.; Beaudoin, B.C.; Klemperer, S.L.; Levander, A.; Luetgert, J.; Meltzer, A.; Mooney, W.; Tréhu, A.


    The nature of the Great Valley basement, whether oceanic or continental, has long been a source of controversy. A velocity model (derived from a 200-km-long east-west reflection-refraction profile collected south of the Mendocino triple junction, northern California, in 1993), further constrained by density and magnetic models, reveals an ophiolite underlying the Great Valley (Great Valley ophiolite), which in turn is underlain by a westward extension of lower-density continental crust (Sierran affinity material). We used an integrated modeling philosophy, first modeling the seismic-refraction data to obtain a final velocity model, and then modeling the long-wavelength features of the gravity data to obtain a final density model that is constrained in the upper crust by our velocity model. The crustal section of Great Valley ophiolite is 7-8 km thick, and the Great Valley ophiolite relict oceanic Moho is at 11-16 km depth. The Great Valley ophiolite does not extend west beneath the Coast Ranges, but only as far as the western margin of the Great Valley, where the 5-7-km-thick Great Valley ophiolite mantle section dips west into the present-day mantle. There are 16-18 km of lower-density Sierran affinity material beneath the Great Valley ophiolite mantle section, such that a second, deeper, "present-day" continental Moho is at about 34 km depth. At mid-crustal depths, the boundary between the eastern extent of the Great Valley ophiolite and the western extent of Sierran affinity material is a near-vertical velocity and density discontinuity about 80 km east of the western margin of the Great Valley. Our model has important implications for crustal growth at the North American continental margin. We suggest that a thick ophiolite sequence was obducted onto continental material, probably during the Jurassic Nevadan orogeny, so that the Great Valley basement is oceanic crust above oceanic mantle vertically stacked above continental crust and continental mantle.

  1. Seismic structure of the northern continental margin of Spain from ESCIN deep seismic profiles (United States)

    Alvarez-Marrón, J.; Pérez-Estaún, A.; Danñobeitia, J. J.; Pulgar, J. A.; Martínez^Catalán, J. R.; Marcos, A.; Bastida, F.; Ayarza^Arribas, P.; Aller, J.; Gallart, A.; Gonzalez-Lodeiro, F.; Banda, E.; Comas, M. C.; Córdoba, D.


    By the end of the Carboniferous, the crust of the continental shelf in northwestern Spain was made up of deeply rooted structures related to the Variscan collision. From Permian to Triassic times the tectonic setting had changed to mainly extensional and the northern Iberian continental margin underwent rifting during Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous times, along with sea-floor spreading and the opening of the Bay of Biscay until the Late Cretaceous. Subsequently, the northern Iberian margin was active during the north-south convergence of Eurasia and Iberia in the Tertiary. A multichannel seismic experiment, consisting of two profiles, one north-south (ESCIN-4) crossing the platform margin offshore Asturias, and another (ESCIN-3) crossing the platform margin to the northwest of Galicia, was designed to study the structure of the northern Iberian margin. The ESCIN-4 stacked section reveals inverted structures in the upper crust within the Le Danois Basin. North of the steep continental slope, ESCIN-4 shows a thick sedimentary package from 6 to 9.5 s, two-way travel time (TWT). Within this latter package, a 40-km-long, north-tapering wedge of inclined, mainly south-dipping reflections is thought to represent a buried, Alpine-age accretionary prism. In the north western part of the ESCIN-3 (ESCIN-3-1) stacked section, horizontal reflections from 6.5 to 8.5 s correspond to an undisturbed package of sediments lying above oceanic-type basement. In this part of the line, a few kilometres long, strong horizontal reflection at 11.2 s within the basement may represent an oceanic Moho reflection. Also, a band of reflections dips gently towards the southeast, from the base of the gently dipping continental slope. The part of ESCIN-3 line that runs parallel to the NW-Galicia coast (ESCIN-3-2), is characterized by bright, continuous lower crustal reflections from 8 to 10 s. Beneath the lower crustal reflectivity, a band of strong reflections dips gently toward the southwest from

  2. Reflectors Made from Membranes Stretched Between Beams (United States)

    Dooley, Jennifer; Dragovan, Mark; Tolomeo, Jason


    Lightweight cylindrical reflectors of a proposed type would be made from reflective membranes stretched between pairs of identically curved and identically oriented end rails. In each such reflector, the curvature of the two beams would define the reflector shape required for the intended application. For example, the beams could be curved to define a reflector of parabolic cross section, so that light incident along the axis of symmetry perpendicular to the cylindrical axis would be focused to a line. In addition, by applying suitable forces to the ends of the beams, one could bend the beams to adjust the reflector surface figure to within a precision of the order of the wavelength of the radiation to be reflected. The figure depicts an example of beams shaped so that in the absence of applied forces, each would be flat on one side and would have a radius of curvature R on the opposite side. Alternatively, the curvature of the reflector-membrane side could be other than circular. In general, the initial curvature would be chosen to optimize the final reflector shape. Then by applying forces F between the beam ends in the positions and orientations shown in the figure, one could bend beams to adjust their shape to a closer approximation of the desired precise circular or noncircular curvature.

  3. Linear viscoelastic characterization from filament stretching rheometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wingstrand, Sara Lindeblad; Alvarez, Nicolas J.; Hassager, Ole

    Traditionally, linear viscoelasticity is measured using small amplitude oscillatory shear flow. Due to experimental difficulties, shear flows are predominately confined to the linear and mildly nonlinear regime. On the other hand, extensional flows have proven more practical in measuring viscoela......Traditionally, linear viscoelasticity is measured using small amplitude oscillatory shear flow. Due to experimental difficulties, shear flows are predominately confined to the linear and mildly nonlinear regime. On the other hand, extensional flows have proven more practical in measuring...... viscoelasticity well into the nonlinear regime. Therefore at present, complete rheological characterization of a material requires two apparatuses: a shear and an extensional rheometer. This work is focused on developing a linear viscoelastic protocol for the filament stretching rheometer (FSR) in order...... to measure both linear and nonlinear dynamics on a single apparatus. With a software modification to the FSR motor control, we show that linear viscoelasticity can be measured via small amplitude squeeze flow (SASF). Squeeze flow is a combination of both shear and extensional flow applied by axially...

  4. Using mineral thermal diffusivities measured with Laser-Flash Analysis to redefine the continental geotherm (United States)

    Branlund, J. M.; Hofmeister, A.; Merriman, J. D.; Nabelek, P. I.; Whittington, A. G.


    We've created a new model for the average continental geotherm by incorporating accurate thermal conductivity values into Fourier's law. Previous geotherm models used thermal conductivities (k) with systematic errors: (1) Pores and microcracks in polycrystalline samples provide artificially low k compared to buried rocks, (2) conventional measurement techniques involve contact losses between thermocouples and samples, especially at high temperature, and/or (3) many techniques inadequately remove ballistic radiative transfer, which does not represent true heat transfer in the earth. To provide k values appropriate for Earth’s interior, we measured thermal diffusivity and its temperature derivatives using laser-flash analysis (LFA) for common rock-forming minerals. To avoid problems of pores and microcracks artificially lowering measured k values, we mathematically mixed mineral data to create synthetic rocks representative of the upper and lower crust and mantle, and checked our values against measurements of rocks least contaminated. Compared to previous models using k of rocks measured with non-LFA methods, our mixture models give higher k of crustal rocks at room temperature, but lower values at higher temperatures. Calculating a geotherm with these revised thermal conductivity values gives a lower temperature throughout the lower crust and mantle lithosphere. Altering the composition of the crust will change the geotherm; crust with more quartz, olivine and/or pyroxene has higher k and a lower geothermal gradient. Adding calcic plagioclase lowers k and steepens the geotherm. The new constraints on k allow us to set bounds on the steady-state geotherm based on ranges of possible mineralogy, chemistry, and radiogenic contents.

  5. Magma Plumbing System of Baru Volcano From Deep to Shallow Crust (United States)

    Hidalgo, P. J.; Rooney, T. O.


    Linking shallow and deep crustal processes at volcanic arcs has been an important component in evaluating the growth and evolution of the continental crust. Commonly, deep crustal processes and the nature of sub-arc lithosphere are studied long after the volcanism has ceased in locations such as obducted arc terranes. In active arcs, studies of deep crustal processes focus on rare cumulates or restites derived from lower crustal levels. Although uncommon in the erupted magmas, these cumulates are required by crustal differentiation models of arc magmatism. Quaternary magmas at Baru volcano in Panama contain ubiquitous amphibole bearing cumulates that provide an opportunity to probe the magma plumbing system of an active arc volcano. These cumulates are present in andesitic-dacitic lavas and pyroclastic flows of adakitic character and are not related to their host magmas by crystal fractionation processes. Two cumulate groups can be readily identified. The first group typically consists of 2-5 cm nodules of large amphiboles (3-6 mm) with minor (Baru volcano. The first cumulate group may be derived from deep hot zones were magmatic differentiation of water-saturated arc magmas takes place by crystallization of amphibole-rich cumulates. The second group is consistent with derivation from shallow levels where crystallization was triggered by rapid decompression. We propose that the contrasting cumulate origin may be explained by the host adakitic magma first eroding and disaggregating an amphibole rich crystal accumulation zone in the lower-mid crust (e.g. amphibole sponge; Davidson et al., 2007, Geology, p787-790). Later, this mixture of adakitic-magma + cumulates ascended rapidly to shallower depths and entrained a shallow level cumulate pile (second cumulate group). The identification of lower-mid crustal amphibole-rich cumulates is not exclusive to Baru volcano, such cumulates have been also identified in other regions of the Panamanian arc (e.g. Quaternary

  6. Seismic Discontinuities within the Crust and Mantle Beneath Indonesia as Inferred from P Receiver Functions (United States)

    Woelbern, I.; Rumpker, G.


    Indonesia is situated at the southern margin of SE Asia, which comprises an assemblage of Gondwana-derived continental terranes, suture zones and volcanic arcs. The formation of SE Asia is believed to have started in Early Devonian. Its complex history involves the opening and closure of three distinct Tethys oceans, each accompanied by the rifting of continental fragments. We apply the receiver function technique to data of the temporary MERAMEX network operated in Central Java from May to October 2004 by the GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam. The network consisted of 112 mobile stations with a spacing of about 10 km covering the full width of the island between the southern and northern coast lines. The tectonic history is reflected in a complex crustal structure of Central Java exhibiting strong topography of the Moho discontinuity related to different tectonic units. A discontinuity of negative impedance contrast is observed throughout the mid-crust interpreted as the top of a low-velocity layer which shows no depth correlation with the Moho interface. Converted phases generated at greater depth beneath Indonesia indicate the existence of multiple seismic discontinuities within the upper mantle and even below. The strongest signal originates from the base of the mantle transition zone, i.e. the 660 km discontinuity. The phase related to the 410 km discontinuity is less pronounced, but clearly identifiable as well. The derived thickness of the mantle-transition zone is in good agreement with the IASP91 velocity model. Additional phases are observed at roughly 33 s and 90 s relative to the P onset, corresponding to about 300 km and 920 km, respectively. A signal of reversed polarity indicates the top of a low velocity layer at about 370 km depth overlying the mantle transition zone.

  7. The spin zone: Transient mid-crust permeability caused by coseismic brecciation (United States)

    Melosh, Benjamin L.; Rowe, Christie D.; Gerbi, Christopher; Bate, Charlotte E.; Shulman, Deborah


    Pore fluids migrating through the deep section of continental strike-slip fault zones have been invoked to explain such phenomena as tectonic tremor, stress transfer across the brittle-ductile transition, and short timescales of co-seismic healing. In this contribution, we describe a coseismic mechanism for forming transient vertical fluid conduits within dilational jogs in strike-slip faults. We present field observations of breccias that formed coseismically at dilational stepovers in the dextral Pofadder Shear Zone, a ∼ 1 Ga exhumed continental strike-slip fault in South Africa and Namibia. These breccias are interpreted to have formed when tensile fractures emanating from rupture tips intersected mylonitic foliation parallel to the rupture surface, which then failed, disaggregating the rock. We used quartz textures in the mylonites determined by electron backscatter diffraction to uniquely compare the orientation of each clast to the neighboring wall rock and constrain finite clast rotation within breccia bodies. Comparison of two- and three-dimensional rotation patterns show that clast trajectories are highly scattered when decoupled from wall rock, suggesting that Pofadder breccias were not formed by gradual plucking of clasts during slip. The dilational breccia bodies have sub-vertical geometries and high porosities relative to the host mylonites. We infer that the opening of these breccias may have created instantaneous, temporary vertical pathways for fluid draining through the brittle-plastic transition. These pathways healed post-seismically by cementation or ductile creep along the fault. The connection of many adjacent and overprinting breccia bodies through time provides a mechanism for fluid transport on a 10 s of km scale though the middle crust.

  8. Potential evapotranspiration and continental drying (United States)

    Milly, Paul C.D.; Dunne, Krista A.


    By various measures (drought area and intensity, climatic aridity index, and climatic water deficits), some observational analyses have suggested that much of the Earth’s land has been drying during recent decades, but such drying seems inconsistent with observations of dryland greening and decreasing pan evaporation. ‘Offline’ analyses of climate-model outputs from anthropogenic climate change (ACC) experiments portend continuation of putative drying through the twenty-first century, despite an expected increase in global land precipitation. A ubiquitous increase in estimates of potential evapotranspiration (PET), driven by atmospheric warming, underlies the drying trends, but may be a methodological artefact. Here we show that the PET estimator commonly used (the Penman–Monteith PET for either an open-water surface or a reference crop) severely overpredicts the changes in non-water-stressed evapotranspiration computed in the climate models themselves in ACC experiments. This overprediction is partially due to neglect of stomatal conductance reductions commonly induced by increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations in climate models. Our findings imply that historical and future tendencies towards continental drying, as characterized by offline-computed runoff, as well as other PET-dependent metrics, may be considerably weaker and less extensive than previously thought.

  9. Video Tutorial of Continental Food (United States)

    Nurani, A. S.; Juwaedah, A.; Mahmudatussa'adah, A.


    This research is motivated by the belief in the importance of media in a learning process. Media as an intermediary serves to focus on the attention of learners. Selection of appropriate learning media is very influential on the success of the delivery of information itself both in terms of cognitive, affective and skills. Continental food is a course that studies food that comes from Europe and is very complex. To reduce verbalism and provide more real learning, then the tutorial media is needed. Media tutorials that are audio visual can provide a more concrete learning experience. The purpose of this research is to develop tutorial media in the form of video. The method used is the development method with the stages of analyzing the learning objectives, creating a story board, validating the story board, revising the story board and making video tutorial media. The results show that the making of storyboards should be very thorough, and detailed in accordance with the learning objectives to reduce errors in video capture so as to save time, cost and effort. In video capturing, lighting, shooting angles, and soundproofing make an excellent contribution to the quality of tutorial video produced. In shooting should focus more on tools, materials, and processing. Video tutorials should be interactive and two-way.

  10. Crusted scabies-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. (United States)

    Fernández-Sánchez, Mónica; Saeb-Lima, Marcela; Alvarado-de la Barrera, Claudia; Reyes-Terán, Gustavo


    Despite the widely accepted association between crusted scabies and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infection, crusted scabies has not been included in the spectrum of infections associated with immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in HIV-infected patients initiating antiretroviral therapy. We report a case of a 28-year-old Mexican individual with late HIV-infection, who had no apparent skin lesions but soon after initiation of antiretroviral therapy, he developed an aggressive form of crusted scabies with rapid progression of lesions. Severe infestation by Sarcoptes scabiei was confirmed by microscopic examination of the scale and skin biopsy. Due to the atypical presentation of scabies in a patient responding to antiretroviral therapy, preceded by no apparent skin lesions at initiation of antiretroviral therapy, the episode was interpreted for the first time as "unmasking crusted scabies-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome". This case illustrates that when crusted scabies is observed in HIV-infected patients responding to antiretroviral therapy, it might as well be considered as a possible manifestation of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. Patient context should be considered for adequate diagnosis and treatment of conditions exacerbated by antiretroviral therapy-induced immune reconstitution.

  11. Microenvironments and microscale productivity of cyanobacterial desert crusts (United States)

    Garcia-Pichel, F.; Belnap, Jayne


    We used microsensors to characterize physicochemical microenvironments and photosynthesis occurring immediately after water saturation in two desert soil crusts from southeastern Utah, which were formed by the cyanobacteria Microcoleus vaginatus Gomont, Nostoc spp., and Scytonema sp. The light fields within the crusts presented steep vertical gradients in magnitude and spectral composition. Near-surface light-trapping zones were formed due to the scattering nature of the sand particles, but strong light attenuation resulted in euphotic zones only ca. 1 mm deep, which were progressively enriched in longer wavelengths with depth. Rates of gross photosynthesis (3.4a??9.4 mmol O2A?ma??2A?ha??1) and dark respiration (0.81a??3.1 mmol Oa??2A?ma??2A?ha??1) occurring within 1 to several mm from the surface were high enough to drive the formation of marked oxygen microenvironments that ranged from oxygen supersaturation to anoxia. The photosynthetic activity also resulted in localized pH values in excess of 10, 2a??3 units above the soil pH. Differences in metabolic parameters and community structure between two types of crusts were consistent with a successional pattern, which could be partially explained on the basis of the microenvironments. We discuss the significance of high metabolic rates and the formation of microenvironments for the ecology of desert crusts, as well as the advantages and limitations of microsensor-based methods for crust investigation.

  12. Crusted scabies-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández-Sánchez Mónica


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the widely accepted association between crusted scabies and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infection, crusted scabies has not been included in the spectrum of infections associated with immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in HIV-infected patients initiating antiretroviral therapy. Case presentation We report a case of a 28-year-old Mexican individual with late HIV-infection, who had no apparent skin lesions but soon after initiation of antiretroviral therapy, he developed an aggressive form of crusted scabies with rapid progression of lesions. Severe infestation by Sarcoptes scabiei was confirmed by microscopic examination of the scale and skin biopsy. Due to the atypical presentation of scabies in a patient responding to antiretroviral therapy, preceded by no apparent skin lesions at initiation of antiretroviral therapy, the episode was interpreted for the first time as “unmasking crusted scabies-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome”. Conclusion This case illustrates that when crusted scabies is observed in HIV-infected patients responding to antiretroviral therapy, it might as well be considered as a possible manifestation of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. Patient context should be considered for adequate diagnosis and treatment of conditions exacerbated by antiretroviral therapy-induced immune reconstitution.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ORK Nilay


    Full Text Available Product variability of manufactured leather goods such as garment leathers could be closely related to the wear comfort because each material forming the garments are affected the comfort properties of the products. Considering the significant demand to elastic woven stretch fabrics and the advantages provided to leather goods like allowing easy body movements, well-fitting and keeping the shape make the use of stretch fabrics focus in interest. In this study, the performance properties of stretch leathers, leathers and spandex fabrics were presented and the differences between the characteristic properties of the leathers were described. For this purpose, physical characteristics of leathers were investigated in terms of thickness, weight, drape ability, stiffness, bending stiffness, air and water vapor permeability. The drape ability, stiffness and bending stiffness properties were significantly affected by the stretch fabrics laminated on the suede side of the leathers. The drape ability, stiffness and bending values were increased due to the implementation of stretch fabrics. There was no significant difference between the air permeability values of the leathers prior and after the implementation of stretch fabrics in contrast to water vapor permeability. The results of this study showed that the aesthetic behavior of clothing materials such as drape and stiffness properties as well as water vapor permeability was mainly affected from the implementation of the stretch fabrics.

  14. Magnitude and duration of stretch modulate fibroblast remodeling. (United States)

    Balestrini, Jenna L; Billiar, Kristen L


    Mechanical cues modulate fibroblast tractional forces and remodeling of extracellular matrix in healthy tissue, healing wounds, and engineered matrices. The goal of the present study is to establish dose-response relationships between stretch parameters (magnitude and duration per day) and matrix remodeling metrics (compaction, strength, extensibility, collagen content, contraction, and cellularity). Cyclic equibiaxial stretch of 2-16% was applied to fibroblast-populated fibrin gels for either 6 h or 24 h/day for 8 days. Trends in matrix remodeling metrics as a function of stretch magnitude and duration were analyzed using regression analysis. The compaction and ultimate tensile strength of the tissues increased in a dose-dependent manner with increasing stretch magnitude, yet remained unaffected by the duration in which they were cycled (6 h/day versus 24 h/day). Collagen density increased exponentially as a function of both the magnitude and duration of stretch, with samples stretched for the reduced duration per day having the highest levels of collagen accumulation. Cell number and failure tension were also dependent on both the magnitude and duration of stretch, although stretch-induced increases in these metrics were only present in the samples loaded for 6 h/day. Our results indicate that both the magnitude and the duration per day of stretch are critical parameters in modulating fibroblast remodeling of the extracellular matrix, and that these two factors regulate different aspects of this remodeling. These findings move us one step closer to fully characterizing culture conditions for tissue equivalents, developing improved wound healing treatments and understanding tissue responses to changes in mechanical environments during growth, repair, and disease states.

  15. Misdiagnosed crusted scabies in an AIDS patient leads to hyperinfestation. (United States)

    Yari, Niloofar; Malone, C Helen; Rivas, Antonio


    Crusted scabies is a severe, highly contagious form of classic scabies caused by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei var hominis . Crusted scabies is more common in immunosuppressed populations and overcrowded environments. In this condition, the host's immune system is overwhelmed and unable to defend against the mites on the skin, resulting in hyperinfestation of the host. Diagnosis can be challenging because the condition resembles other common skin conditions, such as plaque psoriasis. Furthermore, delayed diagnosis and inappropriate treatment can lead to worsening of the condition. We report a case of crusted scabies that was initially misdiagnosed in a 34-year-old incarcerated man with multidrug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS. The patient had a complicated but complete recovery after treatment with permethrin and ivermectin was instituted.

  16. Vortex Pinning and Dynamics in the Neutron Star Crust (United States)

    Wlazłowski, Gabriel; Sekizawa, Kazuyuki; Magierski, Piotr; Bulgac, Aurel; Forbes, Michael McNeil


    The nature of the interaction between superfluid vortices and the neutron star crust, conjectured by Anderson and Itoh in 1975 to be at the heart vortex creep and the cause of glitches, has been a long-standing question in astrophysics. Using a qualitatively new approach, we follow the dynamics as superfluid vortices move in response to the presence of "nuclei" (nuclear defects in the crust). The resulting motion is perpendicular to the force, similar to the motion of a spinning top when pushed. We show that nuclei repel vortices in the neutron star crust, and characterize the force per unit length of the vortex line as a function of the vortex element to the nucleus separation.

  17. Structure of the Crust and the Lithosperic Mantle in Siberia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cherepanova, Yulia

    the development of a new regional crustal model, SibCrust, that is a digital crustal model for both the Siberian Craton and the West Siberian Basin. The SibCrust model, constrained by digitizing of all available seismic profiles and crustal velocity models across the Siberia, also includes a critical quality...... assessment of regional seismic data and crustal regionalization based on seismic structure of the crust. The second part of the study included the development of the SibDensity model that is the density model of the lithospheric mantle calculated by the mass balance method. Mantle density modeling involved...... in the lithospheric mantle density, are interpreted in terms of regional tectonic evolution, namely the mechanism by which the Paleozoic intracontinental basin has been formed and the tectono-magmatic processes by which the Archean-Proterozoic craton has been modified as reflected in the composition of its mantle....

  18. Entrainment in the inner crust of a neutron star

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamel, N.


    The inner crust of a neutron star, which is composed of a solid Coulomb lattice of nuclei immersed in a neutron super-fluid, is studied from both a macroscopic and a microscopic level. In the first part, we develop a non-relativistic but 4-dimensionally covariant formulation of the hydrodynamics of a perfect fluid mixture based on a variational principle. This formalism is applied to the description of neutron star crust as 2-fluid model, a neutron super-fluid and a plasma of nuclei and electrons coupled via non dissipative entrainment effects, whose microscopic evaluation is studied in a second part. Applying mean field methods beyond the Wigner-Seitz approximation, the Bragg scattering of dripped neutrons upon crustal nuclei lead to a 'mesoscopic' effective neutron mass, which unlike the 'microscopic' effective mass, takes very large values compared to the bare mass in the middle layers of the crust. (author)

  19. Exploration of the continental margins of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Siddiquie, H.N.; Hashimi, N.H.; Vora, K.H.; Pathak, M.C.

    In mid 1970's the National Institute of Oceanography, Goa, India prepared a plan for systematic regional, geological and geophysical surveys of the continental margins of India. This involved over 75,000 km of underway (bathymetric, side scan sonar...

  20. Volatile components and continental material of planets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florenskiy, K.P.; Nikolayeva, O.V.


    It is shown that the continental material of the terrestrial planets varies in composition from planet to planet according to the abundances and composition of true volatiles (H 2 0, CO 2 , etc.) in the outer shells of the planets. The formation of these shells occurs very early in a planet's evolution when the role of endogenous processes is indistinct and continental materials are subject to melting and vaporizing in the absence of an atmosphere. As a result, the chemical properties of continental materials are related not only to fractionation processes but also to meltability and volatility. For planets retaining a certain quantity of true volatile components, the chemical transformation of continental material is characterized by a close interaction between impact melting vaporization and endogeneous geological processes

  1. Phosphatization Associated Features of Ferromanganese Crusts at Lemkein Seamount, Marshall Islands (United States)

    Choi, J.; Lee, I.; Park, B. K.; Kim, J.


    Old layers of ferromanganese crusts, especially in the Pacific Ocean, have been affected by phosphatization. Ferromanganese crusts on Lemkein seamount in Marshall Islands also are phosphatized (3.3 to 4.2 wt % of P concentration). Furthermore, they have characteristic features that are different from other ferromanganese crusts. These features occur near the phosphorite, which were thought to fill the pore spaces of ferromanganese crusts. Inside the features, ferromanganese crusts are botryoidally precipitated from the round-boundary. The features of the phosphatized lower crusts of Lemkein seamount are observed using microscope and SEM. Elemental compositions of the selected samples were analyzed by SEM-EDS. Based on the observation and analysis of samples, three characteristic structures are identified: (1) phosphate-filled circles, (2) tongue-shaped framboidal crust, and (3) massive framboidal crust. The phosphate-filled circles are mostly composed of phosphorite, and they include trace fossils such as foraminifera. Phosphatized ferromanganese crusts exist at the boundary of this structure. The tongue-shaped crust is connected with the lips downward, and ferromanganese crusts inside the tongue show distinct growth rim. The massive framboidal crust is located below the tongue. Ferromanganese crusts in the massive framboidal crust are enveloped by phosphate, and some of the crusts are phosphatized. Around the structures, Mn oxide phase is concentrated as a shape of corona on BSE image. All of the structures are in the phosphatized crusts that show columnar growth of ferromanganese crusts and have sub-parallel lamination. These observation and chemical analysis of the ferromanganese crusts can provide a clue of diagenetic processes during the formation of ferromanganese crusts.

  2. AI-augmented time stretch microscopy (United States)

    Mahjoubfar, Ata; Chen, Claire L.; Lin, Jiahao; Jalali, Bahram


    Cell reagents used in biomedical analysis often change behavior of the cells that they are attached to, inhibiting their native signaling. On the other hand, label-free cell analysis techniques have long been viewed as challenging either due to insufficient accuracy by limited features, or because of low throughput as a sacrifice of improved precision. We present a recently developed artificial-intelligence augmented microscope, which builds upon high-throughput time stretch quantitative phase imaging (TS-QPI) and deep learning to perform label-free cell classification with record high-accuracy. Our system captures quantitative optical phase and intensity images simultaneously by frequency multiplexing, extracts multiple biophysical features of the individual cells from these images fused, and feeds these features into a supervised machine learning model for classification. The enhanced performance of our system compared to other label-free assays is demonstrated by classification of white blood T-cells versus colon cancer cells and lipid accumulating algal strains for biofuel production, which is as much as five-fold reduction in inaccuracy. This system obtains the accuracy required in practical applications such as personalized drug development, while the cells remain intact and the throughput is not sacrificed. Here, we introduce a data acquisition scheme based on quadrature phase demodulation that enables interruptionless storage of TS-QPI cell images. Our proof of principle demonstration is capable of saving 40 TB of cell images in about four hours, i.e. pictures of every single cell in 10 mL of a sample.

  3. Acute effect of constant torque and angle stretching on range of motion, muscle passive properties, and stretch discomfort perception. (United States)

    Cabido, Christian E T; Bergamini, Juliana C; Andrade, André G P; Lima, Fernando V; Menzel, Hans J; Chagas, Mauro H


    The aim of the present study was to compare the acute effects of constant torque (CT) and constant angle (CA) stretching exercises on the maximum range of motion (ROMmax), passive stiffness (PS), and ROM corresponding to the first sensation of tightness in the posterior thigh (FSTROM). Twenty-three sedentary men (age, 19-33 years) went through 1 familiarization session and afterward proceeded randomly to both CA and CT treatment stretching conditions, on separate days. An isokinetic dynamometer was used to analyze hamstring muscles during passive knee extension. The subjects performed 4 stretches of 30 seconds each with a 15-second interval between them. In the CA stretching, the subject reached a certain ROM (95% of ROMmax), and the angle was kept constant. However, in the CT stretching exercise, the volunteer reached a certain resistance torque (corresponding to 95% of ROMmax) and it was kept constant. The results showed an increase in ROMmax for both CA and CT (p stretch may be explained by greater changes in the biomechanical properties of the muscle-tendon unit and stretch tolerance, as indicated by the results of PS and FSTROM.

  4. Coordination: southeast continental shelf studies. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, D.W.


    The objectives are to identify important physical, chemical and biological processes which affect the transfer of materials on the southeast continental shelf, determine important parameters which govern observed temporal and spatial varibility on the continental shelf, determine the extent and modes of coupling between events at the shelf break and nearshore, and determine physical, chemical and biological exchange rates on the inner shelf. Progress in meeting these research objectives is presented. (ACR)

  5. Crust and mantle of the gulf of Mexico (United States)

    Moore, G.W.


    A SEEMING paradox has puzzled investigators of the crustal structure of the Gulf of Mexico since Ewing et al.1 calculated that a unit area of the rather thick crust in the gulf contains less mass than does a combination of the crust and enough of the upper mantle to make a comparable thickness in the Atlantic Ocean. They also noted that the free-air gravity of the gulf is essentially normal and fails by a large factor to be low enough to reflect the mass difference that they calculated. We propose a solution to this problem. ?? 1972 Nature Publishing Group.

  6. Modeling of dust emission for a crusted surface (United States)

    Ghodsi Zadeh, Z.; Klose, M.; DuBois, D. W.


    Dust storms are frequent phenomena in the southwestern United Sates. Dust source areas in the region are often (partly) crusted. A critical prerequisite in dust aerosol modeling is an accurate representation of dust emission. While several dust emission schemes have been developed over the last decades, their applicability for crusted surfaces is not well tested. In this study, we use and test the applicability of the dust emission scheme of Shao (2004) (S04), which estimates dust emission based on the soil volume removed by saltation particle impacts, to model dust emission from a crusted surface in New Mexico, USA, for three dust events in spring 2016. Detailed field data are available for these events which are used as scheme input (surface crust and vegetation fraction, friction velocity, minimally- and fully-dispersed particle-size distributions) and for evaluation (saltation flux and dust emission flux). Results show that the saltation flux modeled with the scheme of White (1979) was overestimated by three orders of magnitude. This is expected as the supply of particles available for saltation is limited at the site. As our focus is on dust emission, a constant scaling factor was applied to match modeled and observed saltation fluxes. Parameters that describe the efficiency of saltator impacts to emit dust and the degree of dispersion during erosion need to be adapted in the S04 scheme to represent the soil surface setting at the study site. Our results show that changing those parameters has little effect on the modeled dust emission and dust emission is generally underestimated when PSDs of the top 1 cm soil layer are used as it is common. The reason for this is that the crust at the site is relatively thin and the soil overall sandy, which results in only a small difference between the two PSDs. If, however, the minimally- and fully-dispersed PSDs are replaced with the PSDs of, respectively, loose erodible material and crust, then the difference increases

  7. The Continental Market Seen from the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romieu, Michel


    In this presentation, the Chairman of a French gas company (Elf) comments on the evolution of the Continental gas market from a British point of view. He first discusses the differences between the US, British and Continental gas markets, recalls the provisions of the European Gas Directive and states why a fully competitive system is a long-term prospect in Continental Europe. Seen from the UK, the provisions of the EU directive may appear modest. Due to the long transportation, British gas companies may find it hard to compete on the gas market of Continental Europe. When Inter connector, the gas pipeline connecting the gas markets in UK and the Continent, begins operation, there will be a flow of gas from the UK to the Continent according to already signed contracts. But there may be contractual flows both ways. Gas prices will level off between the UK and Northern Europe, at least for the industry. The continental markets will change gradually, the Gas Directive and the Inter connector will help the move towards a more competitive gas industry, but the fundamentals will not change: low gas prices for the next few years, competition between the big three exporters to Continental Europe, and long-term contracts that will extend beyond 2005

  8. Effects of Static Stretching and Playing Soccer on Knee Laxity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baumgart, Christian; Gokeler, Alli; Donath, Lars; Hoppe, Matthias W.; Freiwald, Juergen


    Objective: This study investigated exercise-induced effects of static stretching and playing soccer on anterior tibial translation (ATT) of the knee joint. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Setting: University biomechanics laboratory. Participants: Thirty-one athletes were randomly assigned into

  9. An updated reconstruction of basaltic crust emplacement in Tyrrhenian sea, Italy. (United States)

    Savelli, Carlo; Ligi, Marco


    Basaltic crust is present in the oceans and marginal seas. Oceanic accretion from inception to ending may be usefully recognized in small basin setting like the Tyrrhenian. Alternating episodes of strong and moderate extensional tectonics characterized the small Tyrrhenian opening. Hyperextension (drifting) of late-Miocene and latemost Pliocene age was followed by Pliocene and Late Quaternary moderate extension (rifting). Early hyperextension (~7.5-6.3 Ma) acted in the submerged margin of Hercynian Sardinia. Sardinia offshore, E-directed low-angle faults were accompanied by MORB-like volcanism of non linear shape in the shallow Vavilov plain - inherited segment of alpine-age orogen. Late hyperextension (~1.9-1.7 Ma) acted along the central N-S lineament of Vavilov plain, former metamorphic core complex. At the lineament northern side, E-dipping detachment faulting exposed serpentinized peridotite. At the other side, Vavilov volcano was faulted and its east flank tilted westwards. At the same time, volcanism with affinity to transitional MORB induced opening of Marsili basin. The drift episodes were characterized by absence or scarcity of volcanic activity on the conjugated emerged margins. The rift episodes (respectively ~5-1.9 Ma, and ~1/0.8 Ma-Recent) saw growth of major north-south trending volcanoes in bathyal area as intense volcanic activity developed on the continental margins.

  10. Mantle flow and oceanic crust formation during the opening of the Tyrrhenian back-arc basin (United States)

    Magni, Valentina


    The formation of the Tyrrhenian back-arc basin occurred through short-lived episodes of fast spreading alternated with periods of slow rifting. I present results from three-dimensional numerical models of laterally varying subduction to explain the mechanism of back-arc basin opening and its episodic spreading behaviour. Moreover, I explore the consequences of this alternation between fast and slow episodes of extension on the production of new oceanic crust in the back-arc basin. Results show that the presence of continental plates (i.e. Africa and Adria) nearby the oceanic subduction of the Ionian slab produces localised deformation within the overriding plate and it is, thus, crucial for the opening of the back-arc basin. Moreover, the occurrence of collision results in the formation of two slab windows at the ocean-continent boundaries, which is in very good agreement with what is observed in the Central Mediterranean, nearby the Calabrian slab. During the evolution of the system the trench velocity shows pulses of fast trench retreat that last a few millions of years. This is associated with episodes of more intense melting of the asthenosphere rising at the back-arc basin. Finally, these three-dimensional models are used to track the mantle flow throughout the model evolution and the source of the mantle melting at the spreading centre.

  11. Tektites, Apollo, the Crust, and Planets: A Life with Trace Elements (United States)

    Taylor, Stuart Ross


    Stuart Ross Taylor, MSc (University of New Zealand), PhD (Indiana University), ScD (University of Oxford), FAA, AC, always called Ross, grew up on a farm near Ashburton, New Zealand. Ross has worked on a wide variety of topics in trace element geochemistry, including the composition and evolution of the Moon, the continental crust, tektites, impact glasses, and island arc rocks. In 1969 he carried out the first chemical analysis of the first returned lunar sample at NASA in Houston. He has published 10 books and 240 papers in scientific journals. He was awarded the V.M. Goldschmidt Award of the Geochemical Society in 1993. In 1994 he was elected a Foreign Associate of the National Academy of Sciences. In 1998, he was awarded the Leonard Medal of the Meteoritical Society, in 2002 the Bucher Medal of the American Geophysical Union, and in 2012 the Shoemaker Distinguished Lunar Scientist Medal of the NASA Lunar Science Institute. Asteroid 5670 is named Rosstaylor.

  12. P-wave tomographic images in the Central Betics-Alborán Sea (South Spain) using local earthquakes: Contribution for a continental collision (United States)

    Serrano, Inmaculada; Morales, José; Zhao, Dapeng; Torcal, Federico; Vidal, Francisco

    To investigate the relationship between shallow and intermediate-depth earthquakes and the crust and upper mantle structure beneath the Betic-Cordillera and Alborán sea region, we have applied seismic tomography to 2569 P-wave arrival times from 367 microearthquakes recorded by both permanent and temporary seismic stations deployed in the region. These earthquakes occurred in the depth range of 0 to 110 km beneath the Central Betic Cordilleras and Alborán sea. Our results have revealed significant structural heterogeneities in the crust and upper mantle beneath the study area. In the upper crust there is a high-velocity anomaly at Sierra Gorda (western boundary of the Granada basin) penetrating to 15 km depth, which is in good agreement with the aeromagnetic anomaly. In the Granada basin, a low-velocity anomaly is located in the middle crust, which coincides with a previously detected greater cutoff depth of seismicity, and are considered to be associated with a highly fractured zone generated by an intracrustal detachment. The northern boundary of the Alborán sea (Málaga coast) is well imaged as low velocities from 50 to 90 km depths. This low-velocity zone in the upper mantle is associated with the intermediate-depth seismicity, which outline a section of continental crust related to the collision/subduction beneath the northern part of the Alborán sea-southern part of the Central Betics.

  13. Thermal history of Hawaiian pāhoehoe lava crusts at the glass transition: implications for flow rheology and emplacement (United States)

    Gottsmann, Joachim; Harris, Andrew J. L.; Dingwell, Donald B.


    We have investigated the thermal history of glassy pāhoehoe crusts across their glass transition. Ten different samples obtained between 1993 and 2003 from the active flow field of the Pu'u 'O'o-Kupaianaha eruption on Hawaii (USA) have been analysed using relaxation geospeedometry. This method employs differential scanning calorimetry to quantify the enthalpic relaxation of the glass to monitor the natural time-temperature (t-T) path followed by the melt during cooling across its glass transition. Cooling rates across the glass transition interval (at 1000- 900 K) have been found to vary between 8 and 140 K/min. The associated glass transition temperatures are up to 400 K, lower than previously anticipated by others. Melt viscosities at the glass transition for these crusts range from 10 9.4 to 10 10.7 Pa s. We have compared the t-T paths quantified via relaxation geospeedometry with those obtained from direct measurements on the active flow field. The calorimetrically determined cooling rates are consistent with either simple cooling from eruption temperatures to temperatures below the glass transition or more complex cooling paths, including periods of reheating and short-term annealing within the glass transition interval. By quantifying the relaxation times associated with these contrasting cooling histories, we show that secondary vesiculation of pāhoehoe flow crusts may be favoured by complex, nonlinear t-T paths within the glass transition. These constraints also allow us to evaluate the time scales associated with the crystallisation and inflation of flow lobes at the glass transition for different pāhoehoe lava flow types. Our results provide important quantifications of rheological parameters at the lower temperature range of viscoelastic deformation in basaltic lava flows. As such, the results may be helpful in refining models for the generation of continental flood basalt flows, as well as models of basaltic lava flow propagation for hazard


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta P Pachpute


    Full Text Available Background: Flexibility is an indisputable component of fitness defined as the ability to move a single joint or series of joints through an unrestricted pain free range of motion. Static stretching consists of stretching a muscle or group of muscle to its farthest point and then maintaining or holding that position. The literature supports that muscles are capable of exerting their greatest strength when they are fully lengthen. Hence this study was conducted to find the effect of static stretching on hamstring muscle. Methods: The study was experimental study design. 40 samples were selected by purposive sampling method. Flexibility of the hamstring muscle unilaterally right side (arbitrarily chosen was measured by active knee extension test of all the subjects who met the inclusion criteria of the study. After measuring the flexibility of hamstring muscle, strength was measured by 1RM for the same side (right hamstring muscle. Static Stretching Protocol was given for 5 days per week for 6 weeks to all the participants. After the 6 weeks of training, knee extension deficiency and 1RM was documented. Result: Statistical analysis using Paired t-test was done. The t-test showed that there was significant effect of static stretching on 1RM of hamstring muscle (p<0.05 & active knee extension test (p=0.000. Conclusion: Static stretching showed significant change in pre and post 1RM of hamstring muscle and active knee extension test. There was significant improvement of hamstring muscles flexibility and strength after giving static stretching in female population. So it is possible that females who are unable to participate in traditional strength training activities may be able to experience gains through static stretching.

  15. Effects of right atrial stretch on plasma renin activity. (United States)

    Annat, G; Grandjean, B; Vincent, M; Jarsaillon, E; Sassard, J


    In anaesthetized dog, right atrial stretch leads in the first five minutes to a decrease in plasma renin activity, when measured in inferior vena cava just above the renal veins. Bilateral cervical vagotomy increases plasma renin activity. After vagotomy, atrial stretch no longer has any effect on plasma renin activity. The results support the hypothesis of a control of renin secretion originating from atrial volume receptors.

  16. Efficacy of hamstring stretching programs in schoolchildren. A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos-Alberto BECERRA FERNANDEZ


    Full Text Available The main purpose of the present review was to examine the scientific literature on the effects of physical education-based stretching programs on hamstring extensibility in schoolchildren aged 6-11 years. For this purpose relevant studies were searched from ten electronic databases dated up through May 2015. Of the 25 potentially relevant articles identified and retrieved for more detailed evaluation, only eight studies were included in the present review because they met the inclusion criteria. The overall results showed that incorporating hamstring stretching as a part of physical education classes produces a significant improvement in the scores of the tests: straight leg raise and classic sit-and-reach, for the experimental groups, but not for control groups. Stretching programs can be included in Physical Education classes, specifically during the warm-up and the cool down periods in order to improve hamstring extensibility. Although it seems that the stretching exercises in the warm-up period could be less effective in gaining flexibility in school children. Studies that use a stretching volume between 4 and 7 minutes per session and 2-4 training classes per week, obtain statistically significant improvements on the levels of hamstring flexibility in the experimental groups. However, after a five-week detraining period, children revert back to their initial flexibility levels. Therefore, it seems appropriate that physical education teachers should implement stretching programs to improve the students´ flexibility during the Physical Education classes.

  17. Equibiaxial cyclic stretch stimulates fibroblasts to rapidly remodel fibrin. (United States)

    Balestrini, Jenna Leigh; Billiar, Kristen Lawrence


    Understanding the effects of the mechanical environment on wound healing is critical for developing more effective treatments to reduce scar formation and contracture. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dynamic mechanical stretch on cell-mediated early wound remodeling independent of matrix alignment which obscures more subtle remodeling mechanisms. Cyclic equibiaxial stretch (16% stretch at 0.2 Hz) was applied to fibroblast-populated fibrin gel in vitro wound models for eight days. Compaction, density, tensile strength, and collagen content were quantified as functional measures of remodeling. Stretched samples were approximately ten times stronger, eight-fold more dense, and eight times thinner than statically cultured samples. These changes were accompanied by a 15% increase in net collagen but no significant differences in cell number or viability. When collagen crosslinking was inhibited in stretched samples, the extensibility increased and the strength decreased. The apparent weakening was due to a reduction in compaction rather than a decrease in ability of the tissue to withstand tensile forces. Interestingly, inhibiting collagen crosslinking had no measurable effects on the statically cultured samples. These results indicate that amplified cell-mediated compaction and even a slight addition in collagen content play substantial roles in mechanically induced wound strengthening. These findings increase our understanding of how mechanical forces guide the healing response in skin, and the methods employed in this study may also prove valuable tools for investigating stretch-induced remodeling of other planar connective tissues and for creating mechanically robust engineered tissues.

  18. Effects of Stretching Exercise on Heart Rate Variability During Pregnancy. (United States)

    Logan, Jeongok G; Yeo, SeonAe

    Little evidence exists for effects of low-intensity exercises such as stretching on cardiovascular health in pregnant women. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of a 20-minute stretching exercise on heart rate variability (HRV), blood pressure (BP), and heart rate (HR) in healthy pregnant women. In 15 pregnant women with a mean (SD) age of 29.47 (4.07) years and mean (SD) gestational weeks of 26.53 (8.35), HRV, and BP were measured before and after the 20-minute stretching exercise. Compared with before the stretching exercise, standard deviation of the normal-to-normal intervals, total variability of heart rate, increased by 7.40 milliseconds (t = -2.31, P = .04) and root mean square of successive differences, a surrogate measure of parasympathetic outflow, also increased by 11.68 milliseconds (Z = -2.04, P = .04) after the stretching exercise. Diastolic BP and HR decreased by 2.13 mm Hg (t = 1.93, P = .07) and 3.31 bpm (t = 2.17, P = .05), respectively, but they did not reach statistical significance. These preliminary data suggest that 20 minutes of stretching exercise may promote cardiovascular health by attenuating the loss of parasympathetic tone associated with pregnancy.

  19. [Sciatica. From stretch rack to microdiscectomy]. (United States)

    Gruber, P; Böni, T


    In ancient times as well as in the Middle Ages treatment options for discogenic nerve compression syndrome were limited and usually not very specific because of low anatomical and pathophysiological knowledge. The stretch rack (scamnum Hippocratis) was particularly prominent but was widely used as a therapeutic device for very different spinal disorders. Since the beginning of the nineteenth century anatomical knowledge increased and the advances in the fields of asepsis, anesthesia and surgery resulted in an increase in surgical interventions on the spine. In 1908 the first successful lumbar discectomy was initiated and performed by the German neurologist Heinrich O. Oppenheim (1858-1919) and the surgeon Fedor Krause (1857-1937); however, neither recognized the true pathological condition of discogenic nerve compression syndrome. With the landmark report in the New England Journal of Medicine in 1934, the two American surgeons William Jason Mixter (1880-1958) and Joseph Seaton Barr (1901-1963) finally clarified the pathomechanism of lumbar disc herniation and furthermore, propagated discectomy as the standard therapy. Since then interventions on intervertebral discs rapidly increased and the treatment options for lumbar disc surgery quickly evolved. The surgical procedures changed over time and were continuously being refined. In the late 1960s the surgical microscope was introduced for spinal surgery by the work of the famous neurosurgeon Mahmut Gazi Yasargil and his colleague Wolfhard Caspar and so-called microdiscectomy was introduced. Besides open discectomy other interventional techniques were developed to overcome the side effects of surgical procedures. In 1964 the American orthopedic surgeon Lyman Smith (1912-1991) introduced chemonucleolysis, a minimally invasive technique consisting only of a cannula and the proteolytic enzyme chymopapain, which is injected into the disc compartment to dissolve the displaced disc material. In 1975 the Japanese orthopedic

  20. Fracture behaviour of bread crust: Effect of ingredient modification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Primo-Martin, C.; Beukelaer, de H.J.; Hamer, R.J.; Vliet, van T.


    The influence of the formulation on the crispness of bread crust was studied. Crispness is a relevant sensory attribute that depends on several factors particularly the plasticizer content (water), the mechanical properties of the solid matrix and the morphological architecture of the bread. Enzymes

  1. Fracture behaviour of bread crust: Effect of bread cooling conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Primo Martin, C.; Beukelaer, de H.J.; Hamer, R.J.; Vliet, van T.


    The effect of air and vacuum cooling on the fracture behaviour and accompanying sound emission, moisture content and crispness of bread crust were investigated. Vacuum cooling resulted in rapid evaporative cooling of products that contained high moisture content. Fracture experiments showed a clear

  2. Characteristics and management options of crusting soils in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    scheme include destruction of soil structure by heavy tillage implements prior to resettlement, low soil organic carbon input practices and high-intensity rain storms (Bronick and. Lal 2005). The objectives of this study were therefore to. (1) assess the nature and distribution of the crusting soils at the scheme and (2) determine ...

  3. Rainfall intensity effects on crusting and mode of seedling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Predicted changes in rainfall intensity due to climate change are likely to influence key soil health parameters, especially structural attributes and crop growth. Variations in rainfall intensity will impact crop ... and growth in these soils. Keywords: climate change, crusting, mineralogy, penetration resistance, soil organic matter ...

  4. Pairing :from atomic nuclei to neutron-star crusts


    Chamel, Nicolas; Pearson, Michael J.; Goriely, Stéphane


    Nuclear pairing is studied both in atomic nuclei and in neutron-star crusts in the unified framework of the energy-density functional theory using generalized Skyrme functionals complemented with a local pairing functional obtained from many-body calculations in homogeneous nuclear matter using realistic forces.

  5. Geoelectrical and geological structure of the crust in Western Slovakia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bezák, V.; Pek, Josef; Vozár, J.; Bielik, M.; Vozár, J.


    Roč. 58, č. 3 (2014), s. 473-488 ISSN 0039-3169 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : magnetotellurics * MT15 profile * Western Carpathians * applied geophysics * Earth’s crust Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 0.806, year: 2014

  6. Magnetization of the oceanic crust: TRM or CRM? (United States)

    Raymond, C. A.; Labrecque, J. L.


    A model was proposed in which chemical remanent magnetization (CRM) acquired within the first 20 Ma of crustal evolution may account for 80% of the bulk natural remanent magnetization (NRM) of older basalts. The CRM of the crust is acquired as the original thermoremanent magnetization (TRM) is lost through low temperature alteration. The CRM intensity and direction are controlled by the post-emplacement polarity history. This model explains several independent observations concerning the magnetization of the oceanic crust. The model accounts for amplitude and skewness discrepancies observed in both the intermediate wavelength satellite field and the short wavelength sea surface magnetic anomaly pattern. It also explains the decay of magnetization away from the spreading axis, and the enhanced magnetization of the Cretaceous Quiet Zones while predicting other systematic variations with age in the bulk magnetization of the oceanic crust. The model also explains discrepancies in the anomaly skewness parameter observed for anomalies of Cretaceous age. Further studies indicate varying rates of TRM decay in very young crust which depicts the advance of low temperature alteration through the magnetized layer.

  7. Crusted scabies in a chid with systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurimar C.F. Wanke


    Full Text Available A child with systemic lupus erythematosus who has been treated with prednisone for three years, developed crusted scabies. Scrapings from lesions revealed Sarcoptes scabiei adult mites mad eggs. The patient died with septicemia and renal failure soon after starting topical 20% sulfur. A marked improvement was observed in the cutaneous lesions.

  8. Characteristics and management options of crusting soils in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    agriculture is practised (Nyamapfene and Hungwe 1986). Farmers experience considerable economic losses due to poor establishment of small-seeded crops, e.g. cotton. (Gossypium hirsutum) and soybean (Glycine max), reduced water infiltration and accelerated soil erosion resulting from soil crusting (Borseli et al. 1996 ...

  9. Identification of radiogenic heat source distribution in the crust: A ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    optimal, smooth model through the variational approach applied to the heat conduction equation. ... an additional term is an optimal model for the radiogenic heat source distribution in this case also. They treated the crust as .... Burghes D, Graham A 1980 Introduction to control theory including optimal control. Mathematics.

  10. Compositional variation and genesis of ferromanganese crusts of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    mately intermixed. The dominant controls on the incorporation of various metals in the Fe–Mn crusts ... and Halbach 1995), and most dominantly enriched metal species are those of the transition group com- prising Mn ...... Banakar V K 1990 Uranium–thorium isotopes and tran- sition metal fluxes in two oriented manganese ...

  11. Platinum group elements and gold in ferromanganese crusts from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    All Ag and Os concentrations are below detection limit. $. – estimated values (see text). provide fluids that contribute to the formation of. Fe–Mn crusts nor diagenetically influence their composition (Banakar and Hein 2000; Hein and. Morgan 1999). The sources of PGE and Au in seawater are ter- restrial and cosmogenic ...

  12. Acoustic techniques for studying soil-surface seals and crusts (United States)

    The impact of raindrops on a soil surface during a rainstorm may cause soil-surface sealing and upon drying, soil crusting. Soil-surface sealing is a result of the clogging of interaggregate pores by smaller suspended particles in the water and by structural deformation of the soil fabric, which red...

  13. The effect of warm-up, static stretching and dynamic stretching on hamstring flexibility in previously injured subjects.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Sullivan, Kieran


    BACKGROUND: Warm-up and stretching are suggested to increase hamstring flexibility and reduce the risk of injury. This study examined the short-term effects of warm-up, static stretching and dynamic stretching on hamstring flexibility in individuals with previous hamstring injury and uninjured controls. METHODS: A randomised crossover study design, over 2 separate days. Hamstring flexibility was assessed using passive knee extension range of motion (PKE ROM). 18 previously injured individuals and 18 uninjured controls participated. On both days, four measurements of PKE ROM were recorded: (1) at baseline; (2) after warm-up; (3) after stretch (static or dynamic) and (4) after a 15-minute rest. Participants carried out both static and dynamic stretches, but on different days. Data were analysed using Anova. RESULTS: Across both groups, there was a significant main effect for time (p < 0.001). PKE ROM significantly increased with warm-up (p < 0.001). From warm-up, PKE ROM further increased with static stretching (p = 0.04) but significantly decreased after dynamic stretching (p = 0.013). The increased flexibility after warm-up and static stretching reduced significantly (p < 0.001) after 15 minutes of rest, but remained significantly greater than at baseline (p < 0.001). Between groups, there was no main effect for group (p = 0.462), with no difference in mean PKE ROM values at any individual stage of the protocol (p > 0.05). Using ANCOVA to adjust for the non-significant (p = 0.141) baseline difference between groups, the previously injured group demonstrated a greater response to warm-up and static stretching, however this was not statistically significant (p = 0.05). CONCLUSION: Warm-up significantly increased hamstring flexibility. Static stretching also increased hamstring flexibility, whereas dynamic did not, in agreement with previous findings on uninjured controls. The effect of warm-up and static stretching on flexibility was greater in those with reduced



    Meena .V; Shanthi .C; Madhavi .K


    Background: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease and one of the major public health problem that causesfunctional impairment and reduced quality of life. To compare the effectiveness of PNF Hold relax stretching versus Static stretching on pain and flexibility of hamstring following moist heat in individuals with knee osteoarthritis. Hamstring tightness is the major problem in knee osteoarthritis individuals. Therefore the need of study is comparing the effectiveness of PNF Hol...

  15. The effect of warm-up, static stretching and dynamic stretching on hamstring flexibility in previously injured subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murray Elaine


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Warm-up and stretching are suggested to increase hamstring flexibility and reduce the risk of injury. This study examined the short-term effects of warm-up, static stretching and dynamic stretching on hamstring flexibility in individuals with previous hamstring injury and uninjured controls. Methods A randomised crossover study design, over 2 separate days. Hamstring flexibility was assessed using passive knee extension range of motion (PKE ROM. 18 previously injured individuals and 18 uninjured controls participated. On both days, four measurements of PKE ROM were recorded: (1 at baseline; (2 after warm-up; (3 after stretch (static or dynamic and (4 after a 15-minute rest. Participants carried out both static and dynamic stretches, but on different days. Data were analysed using Anova. Results Across both groups, there was a significant main effect for time (p 0.05. Using ANCOVA to adjust for the non-significant (p = 0.141 baseline difference between groups, the previously injured group demonstrated a greater response to warm-up and static stretching, however this was not statistically significant (p = 0.05. Conclusion Warm-up significantly increased hamstring flexibility. Static stretching also increased hamstring flexibility, whereas dynamic did not, in agreement with previous findings on uninjured controls. The effect of warm-up and static stretching on flexibility was greater in those with reduced flexibility post-injury, but this did not reach statistical significance. Further prospective research is required to validate the hypothesis that increased flexibility improves outcomes. Trial Registration ACTRN12608000638336

  16. Cardiovascular Responses to Skeletal Muscle Stretching: "Stretching" the Truth or a New Exercise Paradigm for Cardiovascular Medicine? (United States)

    Kruse, Nicholas T; Scheuermann, Barry W


    Stretching is commonly prescribed with the intended purpose of increasing range of motion, enhancing muscular coordination, and preventing prolonged immobilization induced by aging or a sedentary lifestyle. Emerging evidence suggests that acute or long-term stretching exercise may modulate a variety of cardiovascular responses. Specifically, at the onset of stretch, the mechanical deformation of the vascular bed coupled with stimulation of group III muscle afferent fibers initiates a cascade of events resulting in both peripheral vasodilation and a heart rate-driven increase in cardiac output, blood pressure, and muscle blood flow. This potential to increase shear stress and blood flow without the use of excessive muscle energy expenditure may hold important implications for future therapeutic vascular medicine and cardiac health. However, the idea that a cardiovascular component may be involved in human skeletal muscle stretching is relatively new. Therefore, the primary intent of this review is to highlight topics related to skeletal muscle stretching and cardiovascular regulation and function. The current evidence suggests that acute stretching causes a significant macro- and microcirculatory event that alters blood flow and the relationship between oxygen availability and oxygen utilization. These acute vascular changes if performed chronically may result in improved endothelial function, improved arterial blood vessel stiffness, and/or reduced blood pressure. Although several mechanisms have been postulated, an increased nitric oxide bioavailability has been highlighted as one promising candidate for the improvement in vessel function with stretching. Collectively, the evidence provided in this review suggests that stretching acutely or long term may serve as a novel and alternative low intensity therapeutic intervention capable of improving several parameters of vascular function.

  17. Evolution of Fractal Parameters through Development Stage of Soil Crust (United States)

    Ospina, Abelardo; Florentino, Adriana; Tarquis, Ana Maria


    Soil surface characteristics are subjected to changes driven by several interactions between water, air, biotic and abiotic components. One of the examples of such interactions is provided through biological soil crusts (BSC) in arid and semi-arid environments. BSC are communities composed of cyanobacteria, fungi, mosses, lichens, algae and liverworts covering the soil surface and play an important role in ecosystem functioning. The characteristics and formation of these BSC influence the soil hydrological balance, control the mass of eroded sediment, increase stability of soil surface, and influence plant productivity through the modification of nitrogen and carbon cycle. The site of this work is located at Quibor and Ojo de Agua (Lara state, Venezuela). The Quibor Depression in Venezuela is a major agricultural area being at semi-arid conditions and limited drainage favor the natural process of salinization. Additionally, the extension and intensification of agriculture has led to over-exploitation of groundwater in the past 30 years (Méndoza et al., 2013). The soil microbial crust develops initially on physical crusts which are mainly generated since wetting and drying, being a recurrent feature in the Quíbor arid zone. The microbiotic crust is organic, composed of macro organisms (bryophytes and lichens) and microorganisms (cyanobacteria, fungi algae, etc.); growing on the ground, forming a thickness no greater than 3 mm. For further details see Toledo and Florentino (2009). This study focus on characterize the development stage of the BSC based on image analysis. To this end, grayscale images of different types of biological soil crust at different stages where taken, each image corresponding to an area of 12.96 cm2 with a resolution of 1024x1024 pixels (Ospina et al., 2015). For each image lacunarity and fractal dimension through the differential box counting method were calculated. These were made with the software ImageJ/Fraclac (Karperien, 2013

  18. Contributions to knowledge of the continental margin of Uruguay. Uruguayan continental margin: Physiographic and seismic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preciozzi, F


    This work is about the kind of continental margins such as a )Atlantic type passive margins which can be hard or soft b) An active or Pacific margins that because of the very frequent earthquakes develop a morphology dominated by tectonic processes. The Uruguayan continental margin belongs to a soft Atlantic margin

  19. Mesoproterozoic juvenile crust in microcontinents of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt: evidence from oxygen and hafnium isotopes in zircon. (United States)

    He, Zhen-Yu; Klemd, Reiner; Yan, Li-Li; Lu, Tian-Yu; Zhang, Ze-Ming


    We report in situ O and Hf isotope data of zircon grains from coeval Mesoproterozoic (ca. 1.4 Ga) igneous metamafic (amphibolite) and granitic rocks of the Chinese Central Tianshan microcontinent (CTM) in the southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). Zircon grains from amphibolite have mantle-like δ 18 O VSMOW values of 4.7-5.6‰ and juvenile Hf isotopic compositions (ε Hf (t) = 8.4-15.3; T DMC  = 1.57-1.22 Ga), whereas those from granitic rocks have δ 18 O VSMOW values of 5.6-7.0‰ and evolved Hf isotopic compositions (ε Hf (t) = -1.0-8.2; T DMC  = 2.09-1.62 Ga). Zircon O-Hf isotopic compositions of the metamafic and granitic rocks provide evidence for Mesoproterozoic (ca. 1.4 Ga) crustal growth and a substantial Palaeoproterozoic supracrustal component in the CTM. These findings and previous studies, reporting ca. 1.4 Ga magmatic rocks from other microcontinents of the CAOB, suggest that a large belt of Mesoproterozoic (ca. 1.4 Ga) juvenile continental crust formed in a continental terrane, fragments of which now occur over a distance of more than a thousand kilometres in the southern CAOB.

  20. Effects of Static Stretching and Playing Soccer on Knee Laxity. (United States)

    Baumgart, Christian; Gokeler, Alli; Donath, Lars; Hoppe, Matthias W; Freiwald, Jürgen


    This study investigated exercise-induced effects of static stretching and playing soccer on anterior tibial translation (ATT) of the knee joint. Randomized controlled trial. University biomechanics laboratory. Thirty-one athletes were randomly assigned into a stretching (26.9 ± 6.2 years, 1.77 ± 0.09 m, 67.9 ± 10.7 kg) and a control group (27.9 ± 7.4 years, 1.75 ± 0.08 m, 72.0 ± 14.9 kg). Thirty-one amateur soccer players in an additional soccer group (25.1 ± 5.6 years, 1.74 ± 0.10 m, 71.8 ± 14.8 kg). All participants had no history of knee injury requiring surgery and any previous knee ligament or cartilage injury. The stretching group performed 4 different static stretching exercises with a duration of 2 × 20 seconds interspersed with breaks of 10 seconds. The soccer group completed a 90-minute soccer-specific training program. The control group did not perform any physical activity for approximately 30 minutes. Anterior tibial translation was measured with the KT-1000 knee arthrometer at forces of 67 N, 89 N, and maximal manual force (Max) before and after the intervention. There was a significant increase in ATT after static stretching and playing soccer at all applied forces. Maximal manual testing revealed a mean increase of ATT after static stretching of 2.1 ± 1.6 mm (P static stretching at 67 and 89 N is significantly higher than in controls. At maximum manual testing, significant differences were evident between all groups. Static stretching and playing soccer increase ATT and may consequently influence mechanical factors of the anterior cruciate ligament. The ATT increase after static stretching was greater than after playing soccer. The observed increase in ATT after static stretching and playing soccer may be associated with changes in kinesthetic perception and sensorimotor control, activation of muscles, joint stability, overall performance, and higher injury risk.

  1. Generation of Continental Rifts, Basins and Swells by Lithosphere Instabilities (United States)

    Milelli, L.; Fourel, L.; Jaupart, C. P.


    Domal uplifts, volcanism, basin formation and rifting have often struck the same continent in different areas at the same time. Their characteristics and orientations are difficult to reconcile with mantle convection or tectonic forces and suggest a driving mechanism that is intrinsic to the continent. The rifts seem to develop preferentially at high angles to the edge of the continent whereas swells and basins seem confined to the interior. Another intriguing geometrical feature is that the rifts often branch out in complicated patterns at their landward end. In Western Africa, for example, magmatic activity currently occurs in a number of uplifted areas including the peculiar Cameroon Volcanic Line that stretches away from the continental margin over about 1000 km. Magmatic and volcanic activity has been sustained along this line for 70 My with no age progression. The mantle upwelling that feeds the volcanoes is not affected by absolute plate motions and hence is attached to the continent. The Cameroon Volcanic Line extends to the Biu swell to the North and the Jos plateau to the West defining a striking Y-shaped pattern. This structure segues into several volcanic domes including the Air, the Hoggar, the Darfur, the Tibesti and the Haruj domes towards the Mediterranean coast. Another example is provided by North America, where the late Proterozoic-early Ordovician saw the formation of four major basins, the Michigan, Illinois, Williston and Hudson Bay, as well as of major rifts in southern Oklahoma and the Mississipi Valley within a short time interval. At the same time, a series of uplifts developed, such as the Ozark and Nashville domes. Motivated by these observations, we have sought an explanation in the continental lithosphere itself. We describe a new type of convective instability at the base of the lithosphere that leads to a remarkable spatial pattern at the scale of an entire continent. We carried out fluid mechanics laboratory experiments on buoyant

  2. Ocean-Continent Transition Structure of the Pelotas Magma-Rich Continental Margin, South Atlantic (United States)

    Harkin, Caroline; Kusznir, Nick; Roberts, Alan; Manatschal, Gianreto; McDermott, Ken


    Rifted continental margins in the southern South Atlantic are magma-rich showing well developed volcanic extrusives known as seaward dipping reflectors (SDRs). Here we examine the magma-rich continental rifted margin of the Pelotas Basin, offshore Brazil. Deep seismic reflection data displays a large package of seaward dipping reflectors with an approximate width of 200 km and a varying thickness of 10 km to 17 km that have previously been interpreted as volcanic SDRs. We examine these SDRs to explore if they are composed predominantly of basaltic or sedimentary-volcaniclastic material. We also study the thickness of the crustal basement beneath the SDRs. Additionally we investigate if these SDRs are underlain by thin 'hyper-extended' continental crust or if they have been deposited on new magmatic basement. The answers to these questions are important in understanding the structure and formation processes of magma-rich continental margins. We use gravity inversion to investigate SDR composition by varying the proportion of basalt to sediments-volcaniclastics (basalt fraction) which determines the SDR densities in the gravity inversion. By matching the Moho depth and two-way travel time from gravity inversion and deep seismic reflection data, we determine the lateral variation in basalt fraction of the SDRs. Our analysis suggests: 1) There is an overall pattern of SDR basalt fraction and bulk density decreasing oceanward. This could be due to increasing sediment content oceanward or it could result from the change in basalt flows to hyaloclastites as water depth increases. 2) The SDR package can be split into two distinct sub packages based on the basalt fraction results, where the proximal side of each package has a higher basalt fraction and density. 3) The inner SDR package contains reflectors that bear a resemblance to the SDRs described by Hinz (1981) corresponding to syn-tectonic volcanic eruptions into an extensional basin, while the outer SDR package has

  3. The Continental Margin of East Asia: a collage of multiple plates formed by convergence and extension from multiple directions (United States)

    Mao, J.; Wang, T.; Ludington, S.; Qiu, Z.; Li, Z.


    East Asia is one of the most complex regions in the world. Its margin was divided into 4 parts: Northeast Asia, North China, South China and Southeast Asia. During the Phanerozoic, continental plates of East Asia have interacted successively with a) the Paleo Tethyan Ocean, b) the Tethyan and Paleo Pacific Oceans and c) the Pacific and Indian. In the Early Mesozoic, the Indosinian orogeny is characterized by the convergence and extension within multiple continental plates, whereas the Late Mesozoic Yanshanian orogeny is characterized by both convergence and compression due to oceanic subduction and by widespread extension. We propose this combination as "East Asia Continental Margin type." Except in Northeast Asia, where Jurassic and Cretaeous accretionary complexes are common, most magmatic rocks are the result of reworking of ancient margins of small continental plates; and oceanic island arc basalts and continental margin arc andesites are largely absent. Because South China is adjacent to the western margin of the Pacific Plate, some effects of its westward subduction must be unavoidable, but juvenile arc-related crust has not been identified. The East Asian Continental Margin is characterized by magmatic rocks that are the result of post-convergent tectonics, which differs markedly from the active continental margins of both South and North America. In summary, the chief characteristics of the East Asian Continental Margin are: 1) In Mesozoic, the periphery of multiple blocks experienced magmatism caused by lithospheric delamination and thinning in response to extension punctuated by shorter periods of convergence. 2) The main mechanism of magma generation was the partial melting of crustal rocks, due to underplating by upwelling mafic magma associated with the collapse of orogenic belts and both extension and compression between small continental blocks. 3) During orogeny, mostly high Sr/Y arc-related granitoids formed, whereas during post-orogenic times, A

  4. Frequency-dependent Lg Q within the continental United States (United States)

    Erickson, D.; McNamara, D.E.; Benz, H.M.


    Frequency-dependent crustal attenuation (1/Q) is determined for seven distinct physiographic/tectonic regions of the continental United States using high-quality Lg waveforms recorded on broadband stations in the frequency band 0.5 to 16 Hz. Lg attenuation is determined from time-domain amplitude measurements in one-octave frequency bands centered on the frequencies 0.75, 1.0, 3.0, 6.0, and 12.0 Hz. Modeling errors are determined using a delete-j jackknife resampling technique. The frequency-dependent quality factor is modeled in the form of Q = Q0 fη. Regions were initially selected based on tectonic provinces but were eventually limited and adjusted to maximize ray path coverage in each area. Earthquake data was recorded on several different networks and constrained to events occurring within the crust (decomposition inversion technique was applied to the data to simultaneously solve for source and receiver terms along with Q for each region at specific frequencies. The lowest crustal Q was observed in northern and southern California where Q is described by the functions Q = 152(±37)f0.72(±0.16) and Q = 105(±26)f0.67(±0.16), respectively. The Basin and Range Province, Pacific Northwest, and Rocky Mountain states also display lower Q and a strong frequency dependence characterized by the functions Q = 200(±40)f0.68(±0.12), Q = 152(±49)f0.76(±0.18), and Q = 166(±37)f0.61(±0.14), respectively. In contrast, in the central and northeast United States Q functions are Q = 640(±225)f0.344(±0.22) and Q = 650(±143)f0.36(±0.14), respectively, show a high crustal Q and a weaker frequency dependence. These results improve upon previous Lg modeling by subdividing the United States into smaller, distinct tectonic regions and using significantly more data that provide improved constraints on frequency-dependent attenuation and errors. A detailed attenuation map of the continental United States can provide significant input into hazard map mitigation. Both

  5. 3-D Numerical Modelling of Oblique Continental Collisions with ASPECT (United States)

    Karatun, L.; Pysklywec, R.


    Among the fundamental types of tectonic plate boundaries, continent-continent collision is least well understood. Deformation of the upper and middle crustal layers can be inferred from surface structures and geophysical imaging, but the fate of lower crustal rocks and mantle lithosphere is not well resolved. Previous research suggests that shortening of mantle lithosphere generally may be occurring by either: 1) a distributed thickening with a formation of a Raleigh-Tailor (RT) type instability (possibly accompanied with lithospheric folding); or 2) plate-like subduction, which can be one- or two-sided, with or without delamination and slab break-off; a combination of both could be taking place too. 3-D features of the orogens such as along-trench material transfer, bounding subduction zones can influence the evolution of the collision zone significantly. The current study was inspired by South Island of New Zealand - a young collision system where a block of continental crust is being shortened by the relativ