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Sample records for stretch-affected flame speed

  1. Linear response of stretch-affected premixed flames to flow oscillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, H.Y.; Law, C.K. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Lieuwen, T. [School of Aerospace Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States)

    2009-04-15

    The linear response of 2D wedge-shaped premixed flames to harmonic velocity disturbances was studied, allowing for the influence of flame stretch manifested as variations in the local flame speed along the wrinkled flame front. Results obtained from analyzing the G-equation show that the flame response is mainly characterized by a Markstein number {sigma}{sub C}, which measures the curvature effect of the wrinkles, and a Strouhal number, St{sub f}, defined as the angular frequency of the disturbance normalized by the time taken for the disturbance to propagate the flame length. Flame stretch is found to become important when the disturbance frequency satisfies {sigma}{sub C}St{sub f}{sup 2}{proportional_to} O(1), i.e. St{sub f}{proportional_to} O({sigma}{sub C}{sup -1/2}). Specifically, for disturbance frequencies below this order, stretch effects are small and the flame responds as an unstretched one. When the disturbance frequencies are of this order, the transfer function, defined as the ratio of the normalized fluctuation of the heat release rate to that of the velocity, is contributed mostly from fluctuations of the flame surface area, which is now affected by stretch. Finally, as the disturbance frequency increases to St{sub f}{proportional_to} O({sigma}{sub C}{sup -1}), i.e. {sigma}{sub C}St{sub f}{proportional_to} O(1), the direct contribution from the stretch-affected flame speed fluctuation to the transfer function becomes comparable to that of the flame surface area. The present study phenomenologically explains the experimentally observed filtering effect in which the flame wrinkles developed at the flame base decay along the flame surface for large frequency disturbances as well as for thermal-diffusively stable and weakly unstable mixtures. (author)

  2. Theoretical analysis of the conical premixed flame response to upstream velocity disturbances considering flame speed development effects

    OpenAIRE

    Ghazaleh Esmaeelzade; Mohammad Reza Khani; Rouzbeh Riazi; Mohammad Hossein Sabour

    2017-01-01

    The effect of upstream velocity perturbations on the response of a premixed flame was investigated in terms of the flame transfer function dependency on excitation frequency. In this study, the assumption of constant flame speed was extended and the effect of flame speed development was considered; i.e., the flame speed would grow with the time after ignition or with the distance from a flame-holder. In the present study, the kinematics of a conical flame was investigated by linearization of ...

  3. Chemical kinetic model uncertainty minimization through laminar flame speed measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Okjoo; Veloo, Peter S.; Sheen, David A.; Tao, Yujie; Egolfopoulos, Fokion N.; Wang, Hai

    2016-01-01

    Laminar flame speed measurements were carried for mixture of air with eight C3-4 hydrocarbons (propene, propane, 1,3-butadiene, 1-butene, 2-butene, iso-butene, n-butane, and iso-butane) at the room temperature and ambient pressure. Along with C1-2 hydrocarbon data reported in a recent study, the entire dataset was used to demonstrate how laminar flame speed data can be utilized to explore and minimize the uncertainties in a reaction model for foundation fuels. The USC Mech II kinetic model was chosen as a case study. The method of uncertainty minimization using polynomial chaos expansions (MUM-PCE) (D.A. Sheen and H. Wang, Combust. Flame 2011, 158, 2358–2374) was employed to constrain the model uncertainty for laminar flame speed predictions. Results demonstrate that a reaction model constrained only by the laminar flame speed values of methane/air flames notably reduces the uncertainty in the predictions of the laminar flame speeds of C3 and C4 alkanes, because the key chemical pathways of all of these flames are similar to each other. The uncertainty in model predictions for flames of unsaturated C3-4 hydrocarbons remain significant without considering fuel specific laminar flames speeds in the constraining target data set, because the secondary rate controlling reaction steps are different from those in the saturated alkanes. It is shown that the constraints provided by the laminar flame speeds of the foundation fuels could reduce notably the uncertainties in the predictions of laminar flame speeds of C4 alcohol/air mixtures. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that an accurate prediction of the laminar flame speed of a particular C4 alcohol/air mixture is better achieved through measurements for key molecular intermediates formed during the pyrolysis and oxidation of the parent fuel. PMID:27890938

  4. Flame Speed and Self-Similar Propagation of Expanding Turbulent Premixed Flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Swetaprovo; Wu, Fujia; Zhu, Delin; Law, Chung K.

    2012-01-01

    In this Letter we present turbulent flame speeds and their scaling from experimental measurements on constant-pressure, unity Lewis number expanding turbulent flames, propagating in nearly homogeneous isotropic turbulence in a dual-chamber, fan-stirred vessel. It is found that the normalized turbulent flame speed as a function of the average radius scales as a turbulent Reynolds number to the one-half power, where the average radius is the length scale and the thermal diffusivity is the transport property, thus showing self-similar propagation. Utilizing this dependence it is found that the turbulent flame speeds from the present expanding flames and those from the Bunsen geometry in the literature can be unified by a turbulent Reynolds number based on flame length scales using recent theoretical results obtained by spectral closure of the transformed G equation.

  5. Effect of cylindrical confinement on the determination of laminar flame speeds using outwardly propagating flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, Michael P.; Chen, Zheng; Ju, Yiguang; Dryer, Frederick L. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2009-04-15

    The effect of nonspherical (i.e. cylindrical) bomb geometry on the evolution of outwardly propagating flames and the determination of laminar flame speeds using the conventional constant-pressure technique is investigated experimentally and theoretically. The cylindrical chamber boundary modifies the propagation rate through the interaction of the wall with the flow induced by thermal expansion across the flame (even with constant pressure), which leads to significant distortion of the flame surface for large flame radii. These departures from the unconfined case, especially the resulting nonzero burned gas velocities, can lead to significant errors in flame speeds calculated using the conventional assumptions, especially for large flame radii. For example, at a flame radius of 0.5 times the wall radius, the flame speed calculated neglecting confinement effects can be low by {proportional_to}15% (even with constant pressure). A methodology to estimate the effect of nonzero burned gas velocities on the measured flame speed in cylindrical chambers is presented. Modeling and experiments indicate that the effect of confinement can be neglected for flame radii less than 0.3 times the wall radius while still achieving acceptable accuracy (within 3%). The methodology is applied to correct the flame speed for nonzero burned gas speeds, in order to extend the range of flame radii useful for flame speed measurements. Under the proposed scaling, the burned gas speed can be well approximated as a function of only flame radius for a given chamber geometry - i.e. the correction function need only be determined once for an apparatus and then it can be used for any mixture. Results indicate that the flow correction can be used to extract flame speeds for flame radii up to 0.5 times the wall radius with somewhat larger, yet still acceptable uncertainties for the cases studied. Flow-corrected burning velocities are measured for hydrogen and syngas mixtures at atmospheric and

  6. Theoretical analysis of the conical premixed flame response to upstream velocity disturbances considering flame speed development effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazaleh Esmaeelzade

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of upstream velocity perturbations on the response of a premixed flame was investigated in terms of the flame transfer function dependency on excitation frequency. In this study, the assumption of constant flame speed was extended and the effect of flame speed development was considered; i.e., the flame speed would grow with the time after ignition or with the distance from a flame-holder. In the present study, the kinematics of a conical flame was investigated by linearization of the front tracking equation of flame to uniform and convected fluctuations of the flow velocity and the response was compared with that of a V-shaped flame and the experimental data in the previous studies. The results show that the effect of flame speed development could influence a decreasing gain and increase the phase of the flame response to the uniform velocity oscillations in low and moderate frequencies. Comparing the variations in the gain of flame response upon normalized frequency, show that a conical flame has lower values than the V-flame. In other words, these flames might be less susceptible to combustion instabilities than the V-flames. Furthermore, the variations in phase of the V-flames responses, which show a quasi-linear behavior with normalized frequency, have higher values than the saturated behavior in phase of the conical flame responses. Also, considering that the flame speed development induces an increase in the gain and phase of the conical flame response to the convected velocity oscillations in certain frequencies; because the developed flame front has longer length in comparison to the flame front in constant flame speed model. Therefore, the flame length may be longer than convective wavelength and the heat release would be generated in different points of the flame; consequently the flow oscillations might exert a stronger impact on the unsteady heat release fluctuations.

  7. Laminar Flame Speeds of Gasoline Surrogates Measured with the Flat Flame Method

    KAUST Repository

    Liao, Y.-H.; Roberts, William L.

    2016-01-01

    © 2016 American Chemical Society. The adiabatic, laminar flame speeds of gasoline surrogates at atmospheric pressure over a range of equivalence ratios of = 0.8-1.3 and unburned gas temperatures of 298-400 K are measured with the flat flame method

  8. Measurements and Experimental Database Review for Laminar Flame Speed Premixed Ch4/Air Flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubrilin, I. A.; Matveev, S. S.; Matveev, S. G.; Idrisov, D. V.

    2018-01-01

    Laminar flame speed (SL ) of CH4 was determined at atmospheric pressure and initial gas temperatures in range from 298 to 358 K. The heat flux method was employed to measure the flame speed in non-stretched flames. The kinetic mechanism GRI 3.0 [1] were used to simulate SL . The measurements were compared with available literature results. The data determined with the heat flux method agree with some previous burner measurements and disagree with the data from some vessel closed method and counterflow method. The GRI 3.0 mechanism was able to reproduce the present experiments. Laminar flame speed was determined at pressures range from of 1 to 20 atmospheres through mechanism GRI 3.0. Based on experimental data and calculations was obtained SL dependence on pressure and temperature. The resulting of dependence recommended use during the numerical simulation of methane combustion.

  9. Laminar Flame Speeds of Gasoline Surrogates Measured with the Flat Flame Method

    KAUST Repository

    Liao, Y.-H.

    2016-01-27

    © 2016 American Chemical Society. The adiabatic, laminar flame speeds of gasoline surrogates at atmospheric pressure over a range of equivalence ratios of = 0.8-1.3 and unburned gas temperatures of 298-400 K are measured with the flat flame method, which produces a one-dimensional flat flame free of stretch. Surrogates used in the current work are the primary reference fuels (PRFs, mixtures of n-heptane and isooctane), the toluene reference fuels (TRFs, mixtures of toluene and PRFs), and the ethanol reference fuels (ERFs, mixtures of ethanol and PRFs). In general, there is good agreement between the present work and the literature data for single-component fuel and PRF mixtures. Surrogates of TRF mixtures are found to exhibit comparable flame speeds to a real gasoline, while there is discrepancy observed between isooctane and gasoline. Moreover, the laminar flame speeds of TRF mixtures with similar fractions of n-heptane are found to be insensitive to the quantity of toluene in the mixture. Mixtures of ERFs exhibit comparable flame speeds to those of TRFs with similar mole fractions of n-heptane and isooctane.

  10. Turbulent Flame Speed Scaling for Positive Markstein Number Expanding Flames in Near Isotropic Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Swetaprovo; Wu, Fujia; Law, Chung

    2012-11-01

    In this work we clarify the role of Markstein diffusivity on turbulent flame speed and it's scaling, from analysis and experimental measurements on constant-pressure expanding flames propagating in near isotropic turbulence. For all C0-C4 hydrocarbon-air mixtures presented in this work and recently published C8 data from Leeds, the normalized turbulent flame speed data of individual mixtures approximately follows the recent theoretical and experimental ReT, f 0 . 5 scaling, where the average radius is the length scale and thermal diffusivity is the transport property. We observe that for a constant ReT, f 0 . 5 , the normalized turbulent flame speed decreases with increasing Mk. This could be explained by considering Markstein diffusivity as the large wavenumber, flame surface fluctuation dissipation mechanism. As originally suggested by the theory, replacing thermal diffusivity with Markstein diffusivity in the turbulence Reynolds number definition above, the present and Leeds dataset could be scaled by the new ReT, f 0 . 5 irrespective of the fuel considered, equivalence ratio, pressure and turbulence intensity for positive Mk flames. This work was supported by the Combustion Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under Award Number DE-SC0001198 and by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research.

  11. Bounds for the propagation speed of combustion flames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fort, Joaquim; Campos, Daniel; Gonzalez, Josep R; Velayos, Joaquim

    2004-01-01

    We focus on a combustion model for premixed flames based on two coupled equations determining the spatial dynamics of temperature and fuel density. We rewrite these equations as a classical reaction-diffusion model, so that we can apply some known methods for the prediction of lower and upper bounds to the front speed. The predictions are compared to simulations, which show that our new bounds substantially improve those following from the linearization method, used in the previous work of Fort et al (2000 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 33 6953). Radiative losses lead to pulses rather than fronts. We find a bound for their speed which (in contrast to the linearization one) correctly predicts the order of magnitude of the flame speed

  12. Bounds for the propagation speed of combustion flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fort, Joaquim [Departament de FIsica, Universitat de Girona, Campus de Montilivi, 17071 Girona, Catalonia (Spain); Campos, Daniel [Grup de FIsica EstadIstica, Departament de FIsica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Gonzalez, Josep R [Grup de Mecanica de Fluids, Departament d' Enginyeria Mecanica, Universitat de Girona, Campus de Montilivi, 17071 Girona, Catalonia (Spain); Velayos, Joaquim [Grup de Mecanica de Fluids, Departament d' Enginyeria Mecanica, Universitat de Girona, Campus de Montilivi, 17071 Girona, Catalonia (Spain)

    2004-07-23

    We focus on a combustion model for premixed flames based on two coupled equations determining the spatial dynamics of temperature and fuel density. We rewrite these equations as a classical reaction-diffusion model, so that we can apply some known methods for the prediction of lower and upper bounds to the front speed. The predictions are compared to simulations, which show that our new bounds substantially improve those following from the linearization method, used in the previous work of Fort et al (2000 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 33 6953). Radiative losses lead to pulses rather than fronts. We find a bound for their speed which (in contrast to the linearization one) correctly predicts the order of magnitude of the flame speed.

  13. Correction of edge-flame propagation speed in a counterflow, annular slot burner

    KAUST Repository

    Tran, Vu Manh

    2015-10-22

    To characterize the propagation modes of flames, flame propagation speed must be accurately calculated. The impact of propagating edge-flames on the flow fields of unburned gases is limited experimentally. Thus, few studies have evaluated true propagation speeds by subtracting the flow velocities of unburned gases from flame displacement speeds. Here, we present a counterflow, annular slot burner that provides an ideal one-dimensional strain rate and lengthwise zero flow velocity that allowed us to study the fundamental behaviors of edge-flames. In addition, our burner has easy optical access for detailed laser diagnostics. Flame displacement speeds were measured using a high-speed camera and related flow fields of unburned gases were visualized by particle image velocimetry. These techniques allowed us to identify significant modifications to the flow fields of unburned gases caused by thermal expansion of the propagating edges, which enabled us to calculate true flame propagation speeds that took into account the flow velocities of unburned gases.

  14. Turbulent Flame Speeds and NOx Kinetics of HHC Fuels with Contaminants and High Dilution Levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Eric [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Krejci, Michael [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Mathieu, Olivier [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Vissotski, Andrew [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Ravi, Sankat [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Plichta, Drew [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Sikes, Travis [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Levacque, Anthony [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Camou, Alejandro [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Aul, Christopher [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2014-01-24

    This final report documents the technical results of the 3-year project entitled, “Turbulent Flame Speeds and NOx Kinetics of HHC Fuels with Contaminants and High Dilution Levels,” funded under the NETL of DOE. The research was conducted under six main tasks: 1) program management and planning; 2) turbulent flame speed measurements of syngas mixtures; 3) laminar flame speed measurements with diluents; 4) NOx mechanism validation experiments; 5) fundamental NOx kinetics; and 6) the effect of impurities on NOx kinetics. Experiments were performed using primary constant-volume vessels for laminar and turbulent flame speeds and shock tubes for ignition delay times and species concentrations. In addition to the existing shock- tube and flame speed facilities, a new capability in measuring turbulent flame speeds was developed under this grant. Other highlights include an improved NOx kinetics mechanism; a database on syngas blends for real fuel mixtures with and without impurities; an improved hydrogen sulfide mechanism; an improved ammonia kintics mechanism; laminar flame speed data at high pressures with water addition; and the development of an inexpensive absorption spectroscopy diagnostic for shock-tube measurements of OH time histories. The Project Results for this work can be divided into 13 major sections, which form the basis of this report. These 13 topics are divided into the five areas: 1) laminar flame speeds; 2) Nitrogen Oxide and Ammonia chemical kinetics; 3) syngas impurities chemical kinetics; 4) turbulent flame speeds; and 5) OH absorption measurements for chemical kinetics.

  15. Correction of edge-flame propagation speed in a counterflow, annular slot burner

    KAUST Repository

    Tran, Vu Manh; Cha, Min

    2015-01-01

    to study the fundamental behaviors of edge-flames. In addition, our burner has easy optical access for detailed laser diagnostics. Flame displacement speeds were measured using a high-speed camera and related flow fields of unburned gases were visualized

  16. Measurements of Turbulent Flame Speed and Integral Length Scales in a Lean Stationary Premixed Flame

    OpenAIRE

    Klingmann, Jens; Johansson, Bengt

    1998-01-01

    Turbulent premixed natural gas - air flame velocities have been measured in a stationary axi-symmetric burner using LDA. The flame was stabilized by letting the flow retard toward a stagnation plate downstream of the burner exit. Turbulence was generated by letting the flow pass through a plate with drilled holes. Three different hole diameters were used, 3, 6 and 10 mm, in order to achieve different turbulent length scales. Turbulent integral length scales were measured using two-point LD...

  17. Fabrication of 4-cylinder transparent engine and measurement of the flame propagation behavior with high speed camera at idle condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, S.H. [Yonsei University Graduate School, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chun, K.M. [Yonse University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-04-01

    A transparent engine for visualization study is made using a production 4 cylinder engine. Flame propagation results from individual combustion cycles with high-speed cinematography are presented and discussed for idle condition. The flame propagation image and the in-cylinder pressure were obtained simultaneously, and the image processing software which can calculate the flame area and the flame center was developed. The flame propagation behavior of each cycle shows high cyclic variations, and there are linear correlation between flame area and the in-cylinder pressure. (author). 4 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  18. High-Pressure Turbulent Flame Speeds and Chemical Kinetics of Syngas Blends with and without Impurities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Eric; Mathieu, Olivier; Morones, Anibal; Ravi, Sankar; Keesee, Charles; Hargis, Joshua; Vivanco, Jose

    2014-12-01

    This Topical Report documents the first year of the project, from October 1, 2013 through September 30, 2014. Efforts for this project included experiments to characterize the atmospheric-pressure turbulent flame speed vessel over a range of operating conditions (fan speeds and turbulent length scales). To this end, a new LDV system was acquired and set up for the detailed characterization of the turbulence field. Much progress was made in the area of impurity kinetics, which included a numerical study of the effect of impurities such as NO2, NO, H2S, and NH3 on ignition delay times and laminar flame speeds of syngas blends at engine conditions. Experiments included a series of laminar flame speed measurements for syngas (CO/H2) blends with various levels of CH4 and C2H6 addition, and the results were compared to the chemical kinetics model of NUI Galway. Also, a final NOx kinetics mechanism including ammonia was assembled, and a journal paper was written and is now in press. Overall, three journal papers and six conference papers related to this project were published this year. Finally, much progress was made on the design of the new high-pressure turbulent flame speed facility. An overall design that includes a venting system was decided upon, and the detailed design is in progress.

  19. Effects of optical diagnostic techniques on the accuracy of laminar flame speeds measured from Bunsen flames: OH* chemiluminescence, OH-PLIF and acetone/kerosene-PLIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yi; Modica, Vincent; Yu, Xilong; Li, Fei; Grisch, Frédéric

    2018-01-01

    The effects of optical diagnostic techniques on the accuracy of laminar flame speed measured from Bunsen flames were investigated. Laminar flame speed measurements were conducted for different fuel/air mixtures including CH4/air, acetone/air and kerosene (Jet A-1)/air in applying different optical diagnostic techniques, i.e. OH* chemiluminescence, OH-PLIF and acetone/kerosene-PLIF. It is found that the OH* chemiluminescence imaging technique cannot directly derive the location of the outer edge of the fresh gases and it is necessary to correct the position of the OH* peak to guarantee the accuracy of the measurements. OH-PLIF and acetone/kerosene-PLIF respectively are able to measure the disappearance of the fresh gas contour and the appearance of the reaction zone. It shows that the aromatic-PLIF technique gives similar laminar flame speed values when compared with those obtained from corrected OH* chemiluminescence images. However, discrepancies were observed between the OH-PLIF and the aromatic-PLIF techniques, in that OH-PLIF slightly underestimates laminar flame speeds by up to 5%. The difference between the flame contours obtained from different optical techniques are further analysed and illustrated with 1D flame structure simulation using detailed kinetic mechanisms.

  20. High-Speed Linear Raman Spectroscopy for Instability Analysis of a Bluff Body Flame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Jun; Fischer, David

    2013-01-01

    We report a high-speed laser diagnostics technique based on point-wise linear Raman spectroscopy for measuring the frequency content of a CH4-air premixed flame stabilized behind a circular bluff body. The technique, which primarily employs a Nd:YLF pulsed laser and a fast image-intensified CCD camera, successfully measures the time evolution of scalar parameters (N2, O2, CH4, and H2O) in the vortex-induced flame instability at a data rate of 1 kHz. Oscillation of the V-shaped flame front is quantified through frequency analysis of the combustion species data and their correlations. This technique promises to be a useful diagnostics tool for combustion instability studies.

  1. Experimental and numerical study of the accuracy of flame-speed measurements for methane/air combustion in a slot burner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selle, L.; Ferret, B. [Universite de Toulouse, INPT, UPS, IMFT, Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse (France); CNRS, IMFT, Toulouse (France); Poinsot, T. [Universite de Toulouse, INPT, UPS, IMFT, Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse (France); CNRS, IMFT, Toulouse (France); CERFACS, Toulouse (France)

    2011-01-15

    Measuring the velocities of premixed laminar flames with precision remains a controversial issue in the combustion community. This paper studies the accuracy of such measurements in two-dimensional slot burners and shows that while methane/air flame speeds can be measured with reasonable accuracy, the method may lack precision for other mixtures such as hydrogen/air. Curvature at the flame tip, strain on the flame sides and local quenching at the flame base can modify local flame speeds and require corrections which are studied using two-dimensional DNS. Numerical simulations also provide stretch, displacement and consumption flame speeds along the flame front. For methane/air flames, DNS show that the local stretch remains small so that the local consumption speed is very close to the unstretched premixed flame speed. The only correction needed to correctly predict flame speeds in this case is due to the finite aspect ratio of the slot used to inject the premixed gases which induces a flow acceleration in the measurement region (this correction can be evaluated from velocity measurement in the slot section or from an analytical solution). The method is applied to methane/air flames with and without water addition and results are compared to experimental data found in the literature. The paper then discusses the limitations of the slot-burner method to measure flame speeds for other mixtures and shows that it is not well adapted to mixtures with a Lewis number far from unity, such as hydrogen/air flames. (author)

  2. Concurrent Flame Growth, Spread and Extinction over Composite Fabric Samples in Low Speed Purely Forced Flow in Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoyang; T'ien, James S.; Ferkul, Paul V.; Olson, Sandra L.

    2015-01-01

    As a part of the NASA BASS and BASS-II experimental projects aboard the International Space Station, flame growth, spread and extinction over a composite cotton-fiberglass fabric blend (referred to as the SIBAL fabric) were studied in low-speed concurrent forced flows. The tests were conducted in a small flow duct within the Microgravity Science Glovebox. The fuel samples measured 1.2 and 2.2 cm wide and 10 cm long. Ambient oxygen was varied from 21% down to 16% and flow speed from 40 cm/s down to 1 cm/s. A small flame resulted at low flow, enabling us to observe the entire history of flame development including ignition, flame growth, steady spread (in some cases) and decay at the end of the sample. In addition, by decreasing flow velocity during some of the tests, low-speed flame quenching extinction limits were found as a function of oxygen percentage. The quenching speeds were found to be between 1 and 5 cm/s with higher speed in lower oxygen atmosphere. The shape of the quenching boundary supports the prediction by earlier theoretical models. These long duration microgravity experiments provide a rare opportunity for solid fuel combustion since microgravity time in ground-based facilities is generally not sufficient. This is the first time that a low-speed quenching boundary in concurrent spread is determined in a clean and unambiguous manner.

  3. Spherical expanding flames in H{sub 2}-N{sub 2}O-Ar mixtures: flame speed measurements and kinetic modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mevel, R.; Dupre, G.; Paillard, C.-E. [Institut de Combustion, Aerothermique, Reactivite et Environnement (ICARE) Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Orleans (France); University of Orleans (France); Lafosse, F.; Chaumeix, N. [Institut de Combustion, Aerothermique, Reactivite et Environnement (ICARE) Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Orleans (France)

    2009-11-15

    Although ignition of hydrogen-nitrous oxide mixtures is a serious issue for nuclear waste storage and semi-conductor manufacturing, available flame speed data have not been recently updated and thermodiffusive stability is not known. In order to palliate this, the flame speed of a hydrogen-nitrous oxide mixture diluted in Ar (60% mol) was measured in a spherical bomb as a function of equivalence ratio. The initial pressure and temperature were held constant around ambient conditions. It is shown that the unstretched flame speed of the hydrogen-nitrous oxide mixture is relatively low for a hydrogen-based mixture, with a maximum of 56 cm/s for the stoichiometric condition. Further, hydrogen-nitrous oxide-argon flames appear unstable with respect to thermodiffusive effects at an equivalence ratio of 1. The downward flammability limit of hydrogen-nitrous oxide-argon was observed for hydrogen content of 8 mol%. The modeling of these experimental data has been performed with three recently developed models. All kinetic schemes give satisfactory predictions of the experimentally observed data. Sensitivity and reaction pathway analysis have demonstrated that the dynamic of the system is dominated by the reaction N{sub 2}O + H = N{sub 2} + OH which governs the rate of energy release. (author)

  4. Experimental study of laminar and turbulent flame speed of a spherical flame in a fan-stirred closed vessel for hydrogen safety application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goulier, J. [Institut de Combustion, Aérothermique, Réactivité et Environnement, CNRS-ICARE (France); Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN) (France); Chaumeix, N., E-mail: chaumeix@cnrs-orleans.fr [Institut de Combustion, Aérothermique, Réactivité et Environnement, CNRS-ICARE (France); Halter, F. [Institut de Combustion, Aérothermique, Réactivité et Environnement, CNRS-ICARE (France); Meynet, N.; Bentaïb, A. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN) (France)

    2017-02-15

    The aim of this paper is to report new experimental results on the effect of turbulence on the propagation speed of hydrogen/air flames. To do so, a new experimental setup, called the spherical bomb, has been designed and built at CNRS-ICARE laboratory. With this new setup, the effect of a given and well-characterized turbulence intensity on the increase of hydrogen/air flame speed can be investigated. This new facility consists of a spherical vessel equipped (563 mm internal diameter) equipped with 8 motors which are linked to fans inside the bomb. Fan actuation induces the generation of a turbulent flow inside the vessel prior to any ignition. The spherical bomb is equipped with 4 quartz windows (200 mm optical diameter) that allow the use of a Particle Image Velocimetry diagnostic in order to characterize the turbulence level inside the bomb. The flame propagation was recorded using a high speed camera at 19,002 frames per second. These experiments were performed for lean to stoichiometric hydrogen/air mixtures (16–20% of H{sub 2} in air), initially at ambient temperature and pressure, and for a rotation speed from 1000 to 5000 rpm. The PIV measurements showed that a homogeneous and isotropic turbulence is created with a fluctuation speed that can reach 4 m/s at 5000 rpm.

  5. Turbulent Flame Speeds and NOx Kinetics of HHC Fuels with Contaminants and High Dilution Levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, Eric; Krejci, Michael; Mathieu, Olivier; Vissotski, Andrew; Ravi, Sankar; Sikes, Travis; Levacque, Anthony; Aul, Christopher; Peterson, Eric

    2011-09-30

    This progress report documents the first year of the project, from October 1, 2010 through September 30, 2011. Laminar flame speeds and ignition delay times have been measured for hydrogen and various compositions of H2/CO (syngas) at elevated pressures and elevated temperatures. Two constant-volume cylindrical vessels were used to visualize the spherical growth of the flame through the use of a schlieren optical setup to measure the laminar flame speed of the mixture. Hydrogen experiments were performed at initial pressures up to 10 atm and initial temperatures up to 443 K. A syngas composition of 50/50 was chosen to demonstrate the effect of carbon monoxide on H2-O2 chemical kinetics at standard temperature and pressures up to 10 atm. All atmospheric mixtures were diluted with standard air, while all elevated-pressure experiments were diluted with a He:O2 of 7:1 to minimize hydrodynamic instabilities. The laminar flame speed measurements of hydrogen and syngas are compared to available literature data over a wide range of equivalence ratios where good agreement can be seen with several data sets. Additionally, an improved chemical kinetics model is shown for all conditions within the current study. The model and the data presented herein agree well, which demonstrates the continual, improved accuracy of the chemical kinetics model. A high-pressure shock tube was used to measure ignition delay times for several baseline compositions of syngas at three pressures across a wide range of temperatures. The compositions of syngas (H2/CO) presented in this study include 80/20, 50/50, 40/60, 20/80, and 10/90, all of which are compared to previously published ignition delay times from a hydrogen-oxygen mixture to demonstrate the effect of carbon monoxide addition. Generally, an increase in carbon monoxide increases the ignition delay time, but there does seem to be a pressure dependency. At low temperatures and

  6. Cell formation effects on the burning speeds and flame front area of synthetic gas at high pressures and temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Askari, Omid; Elia, Mimmo; Ferrari, Matthew; Metghalchi, Hameed

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Effect of cell formation on burning speed and flame surface area is investigated. • A new developed non-dimensional number called cellularity factor is introduced. • Cellular burning speed and mass burning rate are calculated using differential based multi-shell model. • Flame instability is studied using thermo-diffusive and hydrodynamics effects. • Power law correlations are developed for cellular burning speeds and mass burning rates. - Abstract: Cellular burning speeds and mass burning rates of premixed syngas/oxidizer/diluent (H_2/CO/O_2/He) have been determined at high pressures and temperatures over a wide range of equivalence ratios which are at engine-relevant conditions. Working on high pressure combustion helps to reduce the pollution and increase the energy efficiency in combustion devices. The experimental facilities consisted of two spherical and cylindrical chambers. The spherical chamber, which can withstand high pressures up to 400 atm, was used to collect pressure rise data due to combustion, to calculate cellular burning speed and mass burning rate. For flame structure and instability analysis the cylindrical chamber was used to take pictures of propagating flame using a high speed CMOS camera and a schlieren photography system. A new differential based multi-shell model based on pressure rise data was used to determine the cellular burning speed and mass burning rate. In this paper, cellular burning speed and mass burning rate of H_2/CO/O_2/He mixture have been measured for a wide range of equivalence ratios from 0.6 to 2, temperatures from 400 to 750 K and pressures from 2 to 50 atm for three hydrogen concentrations of 5, 10 and 25% in the syngas. The power law correlations for cellular burning speed and mass burning rate were developed as a function of equivalence ratio, temperature and pressure. In this study a new developed parameter, called cellularity factor, which indicates the cell formation effect on flame

  7. Turbulent flame speeds and NOx kinetics of HHC fuels with contaminants and high dilution levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, Eric; Krejci, Michael; Mathieu, Olivier; Vissotski, Andrew; Ravi, Sankar; Plichta, Drew; Sikes, Travis; Levacque, Anthony; Aul, Christopher; Petersen, Eric

    2012-09-30

    This progress report documents the second year of the project, from October 1, 2011 through September 30, 2012. Characterization of the new turbulent flame speed vessel design was completed. Turbulence statistics of three impellers with different geometric features were measured using particle image velocimetry inside a Plexiglas model (~1:1 scale) of a cylindrical flame speed vessel (30.5 cm ID × 35.6 cm L). With four impellers arranged in a central-symmetric configuration, turbulence intensities between 1.2 and 1.7 m/s with negligible mean flow (0.1u´) were attained at the lowest fan speeds. Acceptable ranges for homogeneity and isotropy ratios of the velocity fields were set within a narrow bandwidth near unity (0.9-1.1). Homogeneity ratios were unaffected by changes to the impeller geometry, and the prototype with the higher number of blades caused the flow to become anisotropic. The integral length scale of the flow fields varied between 27 and 20 mm, which correlates well with those typically observed inside a gas turbine combustor. The mechanism to independently vary the intensity level and the integral length scale was established, where turbulence intensity level was dependent on the rotational speed of the fan, and the integral length scale decreased with increasing blade pitch angle. Ignition delay times of H₂/O₂ mixtures highly diluted with Ar and doped with various amounts of N₂O (100, 400, 1600, 3200 ppm) were measured in a shock tube behind reflected shock waves over a wide range of temperatures (940-1675 K). The pressure range investigated during this work (around 1.6, 13, and 30 atm) allows studying the effect of N₂O on hydrogen ignition at pressure conditions that have never been heretofore investigated. Ignition delay times were decreased when N₂O was added to the mixture only for the higher nitrous oxide concentrations, and some changes in the activation energy were also observed at 1.5 and 30 atm. When it occurred, the decrease in

  8. Flame Acceleration and Transition to Detonation in High-Speed Turbulent Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-21

    ficult to overestimate, as it is the main process in all internal-combustion engines used for propulsion and energy generation. These include piston ...distorted tulip flame develops a double -cusped, concave flame front (6.91 and 7.34 ms) . By t his time, the pressure waves are amplified , and

  9. Flame structure of methane/oxygen shear coaxial jet with velocity ratio using high-speed imaging and OH*, CH* chemiluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Myungbo; Noh, Kwanyoung; Yoon, Woongsup

    2018-06-01

    In this study, the effects of gaseous methane/oxygen injection velocity ratio on the shear coaxial jet flame structure are analyzed using high-speed imaging along with OH* and CH* chemiluminescence. The images show that, as the velocity ratio is increased, the visual flame length increases and wrinkles of the flame front are developed further downstream. The region near the equivalence ratio 1 condition in the flame could be identified by the maximum OH* position, and this region is located further downstream as the velocity ratio is increased. The dominant CH* chemiluminescence is found in the near-injector region. As the velocity ratio is decreased, the signal intensity is higher at the same downstream distance in each flame. From the results, as the velocity ratio is decreased, there is increased entrainment of the external jet, the mixing of the two jets is enhanced, the region near the stoichiometric mixture condition is located further upstream, and consequently, the flame length decreases.

  10. Flame Acceleration and Transition to Detonation in High Speed Turbulent Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-21

    Contract number N000141410177 for the time period December 31, 2013- December 31 , 2016 Principal Investigator: Elaine S. Oran Co-Investigator: Norman ...channel shown. (a) Rough walls generate turbulence. Flame ( green ) accelerates as it propagates down the channel. (b) DDT in the boundary layer near t

  11. An experimental and modeling study of propene oxidation. Part 2: Ignition delay time and flame speed measurements

    KAUST Repository

    Burke, Sinéad M.

    2015-02-01

    Experimental data obtained in this study (Part II) complement the speciation data presented in Part I, but also offer a basis for extensive facility cross-comparisons for both experimental ignition delay time (IDT) and laminar flame speed (LFS) observables. To improve our understanding of the ignition characteristics of propene, a series of IDT experiments were performed in six different shock tubes and two rapid compression machines (RCMs) under conditions not previously studied. This work is the first of its kind to directly compare ignition in several different shock tubes over a wide range of conditions. For common nominal reaction conditions among these facilities, cross-comparison of shock tube IDTs suggests 20-30% reproducibility (2σ) for the IDT observable. The combination of shock tube and RCM data greatly expands the data available for validation of propene oxidation models to higher pressures (2-40. atm) and lower temperatures (750-1750. K).Propene flames were studied at pressures from 1 to 20. atm and unburned gas temperatures of 295-398. K for a range of equivalence ratios and dilutions in different facilities. The present propene-air LFS results at 1. atm were also compared to LFS measurements from the literature. With respect to initial reaction conditions, the present experimental LFS cross-comparison is not as comprehensive as the IDT comparison; however, it still suggests reproducibility limits for the LFS observable. For the LFS results, there was agreement between certain data sets and for certain equivalence ratios (mostly in the lean region), but the remaining discrepancies highlight the need to reduce uncertainties in laminar flame speed experiments amongst different groups and different methods. Moreover, this is the first study to investigate the burning rate characteristics of propene at elevated pressures (>5. atm).IDT and LFS measurements are compared to predictions of the chemical kinetic mechanism presented in Part I and good

  12. An experimental and modeling study of propene oxidation. Part 2: Ignition delay time and flame speed measurements

    KAUST Repository

    Burke, Siné ad M.; Burke, Ultan; Mc Donagh, Reuben; Mathieu, Olivier; Osorio, Irmis; Keesee, Charles L.; Morones, Aní bal; Petersen, Eric L.; Wang, Weijing; DeVerter, Trent A.; Oehlschlaeger, Matthew A.; Rhodes, Brandie; Hanson, Ronald K.; Davidson, David F.; Weber, Bryan W.; Sung, Chihjen; Santner, Jeffrey S.; Ju, Yiguang; Haas, Francis M.; Dryer, Frederick L.; Volkov, Evgeniy N.; Nilsson, Elna J K; Konnov, Alexander A.; Alrefae, Majed; Khaled, Fathi; Farooq, Aamir; Dirrenberger, Patricia; Glaude, Pierre Alexandre; Battin-Leclerc, F.; Curran, Henry J.

    2015-01-01

    Experimental data obtained in this study (Part II) complement the speciation data presented in Part I, but also offer a basis for extensive facility cross-comparisons for both experimental ignition delay time (IDT) and laminar flame speed (LFS) observables. To improve our understanding of the ignition characteristics of propene, a series of IDT experiments were performed in six different shock tubes and two rapid compression machines (RCMs) under conditions not previously studied. This work is the first of its kind to directly compare ignition in several different shock tubes over a wide range of conditions. For common nominal reaction conditions among these facilities, cross-comparison of shock tube IDTs suggests 20-30% reproducibility (2σ) for the IDT observable. The combination of shock tube and RCM data greatly expands the data available for validation of propene oxidation models to higher pressures (2-40. atm) and lower temperatures (750-1750. K).Propene flames were studied at pressures from 1 to 20. atm and unburned gas temperatures of 295-398. K for a range of equivalence ratios and dilutions in different facilities. The present propene-air LFS results at 1. atm were also compared to LFS measurements from the literature. With respect to initial reaction conditions, the present experimental LFS cross-comparison is not as comprehensive as the IDT comparison; however, it still suggests reproducibility limits for the LFS observable. For the LFS results, there was agreement between certain data sets and for certain equivalence ratios (mostly in the lean region), but the remaining discrepancies highlight the need to reduce uncertainties in laminar flame speed experiments amongst different groups and different methods. Moreover, this is the first study to investigate the burning rate characteristics of propene at elevated pressures (>5. atm).IDT and LFS measurements are compared to predictions of the chemical kinetic mechanism presented in Part I and good

  13. Dynamics and structure of stretched flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, C.K. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This program aims to gain fundamental understanding on the structure, geometry, and dynamics of laminar premixed flames, and relate these understanding to the practical issues of flame extinction and stabilization. The underlying fundamental interest here is the recent recognition that the response of premixed flames can be profoundly affected by flame stretch, as manifested by flow nonuniformity, flame curvature, and flame/flow unsteadiness. As such, many of the existing understanding on the behavior of premixed flames need to be qualitatively revised. The research program consists of three major thrusts: (1) detailed experimental and computational mapping of the structure of aerodynamically-strained planar flames, with emphasis on the effects of heat loss, nonequidiffusion, and finite residence time on the flame thickness, extent of incomplete reaction, and the state of extinction. (2) Analytical study of the geometry and dynamics of stretch-affected wrinkled flame sheets in simple configurations, as exemplified by the Bunsen flame and the spatially-periodic flame, with emphasis on the effects of nonlinear stretch, the phenomena of flame cusping, smoothing, and tip opening, and their implications on the structure and burning rate of turbulent flames. (3) Stabilization and blowoff of two-dimensional inverted premixed and stabilization and determining the criteria governing flame blowoff. The research is synergistically conducted through the use of laser-based diagnostics, computational simulation of the flame structure with detailed chemistry and transport, and mathematical analysis of the flame dynamics.

  14. Experimental flame speed in multi-layered nano-energetic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manesh, Navid Amini; Basu, Saptarshi; Kumar, Ranganathan [Department of Mechanical, Material and Aerospace Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States)

    2010-03-15

    This paper deals with the reaction of dense Metastable Intermolecular Composite (MIC) materials, which have a higher density than conventional energetic materials. The reaction of a multilayer thin film of aluminum and copper oxide has been studied by varying the substrate material and thicknesses. The in-plane speed of propagation of the reaction was experimentally determined using a time of- flight technique. The experiment shows that the reaction is completely quenched for a silicon substrate having an intervening silica layer of less than 200 nm. The speed of reaction seems to be constant at 40 m/s for silica layers with a thickness greater than 1 {mu}m. Different substrate materials such as glass and photoresist were also used. (author)

  15. Structural and technological formation of surface nanostructured Ti-Ni-Mo layers by high-speed gas-flame spraying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blednova Zhesfina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article covers a complex method of forming surface-modified layers using materials with shape memory effect (SME based on TiNiMo including pre-grinding and mechanical activation of the coating material, high-speed gas-flame spraying of Ni adhesive layer and subsequent TiNiMo spraying with molybdenum content up to 2%, thermal and thermomechanical processing in a single technological cycle. This allowed forming nanostructured surface layers with a high level of functional mechanical and performance properties. We defined control parameters of surface steel modification using material with shape memory effect based on TiNiMo, which monitor the structural material state, both at the stage of spraying, and during subsequent combined treatment, which allows affecting purposefully on the functional properties of the SME surface layer. Test results of samples before coating and after surface modification with TiNiMo in the seawater indicate that surface modification brings to a slower damage accumulation and to increase of steel J91171 endurance limit in seawater by 45%. Based on complex metallophysical research of surface layers we obtained new data about nano-sized composition “steel - Ni - TiNiMo”.

  16. The combustion chemistry of a fuel tracer: Measured flame speeds and ignition delays and a detailed chemical kinetic model for the oxidation of acetone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pichon, S.; Black, G.; Simmie, J.M.; Curran, H.J. [Combustion Chemistry Centre, National University of Ireland, Galway (Ireland); Chaumeix, N.; Yahyaoui, M. [Institut de Combustion Aerothermique Reactivite et Environnement, CNRS, Orleans (France); Donohue, R. [Information Technology, National University of Ireland, Galway (Ireland)

    2009-02-15

    Acetone ignition delay and stretch-free laminar flame speed measurements have been carried out and a kinetic model has been developed to simulate these and literature data for acetone and for ketene, which was found to be an important intermediate in its oxidation. The mechanism has been based on one originally devised for dimethyl ether and modified through validation of the hydrogen, carbon monoxide and methane sub-mechanisms. Acetone oxidation in argon was studied behind reflected shock waves in the temperature range 1340-1930 K, at 1 atm and at equivalence ratios of 0.5, 1 and 2; it is also shown that the addition of up to 15% acetone to a stoichiometric n-heptane mixture has no effect on the measured ignition delay times. Flame speeds at 298 K and 1 atm of pure acetone in air were measured in a spherical bomb; a maximum flame speed of {proportional_to}35 cm s{sup -1} at {phi}=1.15 is indicated. (author)

  17. On the Experimental and Theoretical Investigations of Lean Partially Premixed Combustion, Burning Speed, Flame Instability and Plasma Formation of Alternative Fuels at High Temperatures and Pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askari, Omid

    composition and thermodynamic properties. The method was applied to compute the thermodynamic properties of hydrogen/air and methane/air plasma mixtures for a wide range of temperatures (1,000-100,000 K), pressures (10-6-100 atm) and different equivalence ratios within flammability limit. In calculating the individual thermodynamic properties of the atomic species, the Debye-Huckel cutoff criterion has been used for terminating the series expression of the electronic partition function. A new differential-based multi-shell model was developed in conjunction with Schlieren photography to measure laminar burning speed and to study the flame instabilities for different alternative fuels such as syngas and GTL. Flame instabilities such as cracking and wrinkling were observed during flame propagation and discussed in terms of the hydrodynamic and thermo-diffusive effects. Laminar burning speeds were measured using pressure rise data during flame propagation and power law correlations were developed over a wide range of temperatures, pressures and equivalence ratios. As a part of this work, the effect of EGR addition and substitution of nitrogen with helium in air on flame morphology and laminar burning speed were extensively investigated. The effect of cell formation on flame surface area of syngas fuel in terms of a newly defined parameter called cellularity factor was also evaluated. In addition to that the experimental onset of auto-ignition and theoretical ignition delay times of premixed GTL/air mixture were determined at high pressures and low temperatures over a wide range of equivalence ratios.

  18. High-speed laser diagnostics for the study of flame dynamics in a lean premixed gas turbine model combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxx, Isaac; Arndt, Christoph M.; Carter, Campbell D.; Meier, Wolfgang

    2012-03-01

    A series of measurements was taken on two technically premixed, swirl-stabilized methane-air flames (at overall equivalence ratios of ϕ = 0.73 and 0.83) in an optically accessible gas turbine model combustor. The primary diagnostics used were combined planar laser-induced fluorescence of the OH radical and stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (PIV) with simultaneous repetition rates of 10 kHz and a measurement duration of 0.8 s. Also measured were acoustic pulsations and OH chemiluminescence. Analysis revealed strong local periodicity in the thermoacoustically self-excited (or ` noisy') flame (ϕ = 0.73) in the regions of the flow corresponding to the inner shear layer and the jet-inflow. This periodicity appears to be the result of a helical precessing vortex core (PVC) present in that region of the combustor. The PVC has a precession frequency double (at 570 Hz) that of the thermo-acoustic pulsation (at 288 Hz). A comparison of the various data sets and analysis techniques applied to each flame suggests a strong coupling between the PVC and the thermo-acoustic pulsation in the noisy flame. Measurements of the stable (` quiet') flame (ϕ = 0.83) revealed a global fluctuation in both velocity and heat-release around 364 Hz, but no clear evidence of a PVC.

  19. High-speed flame spraying, an alternative process for producing thermal insulation layers; Hochgeschwindigkeitsflammspritzen - Ein alternatives Verfahren zum Herstellen von Waermedaemmschichten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steffens, H.D.; Wilden, J.; Josefiak, L.; Moebus, S. [Dortmund Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Werkstofftechnologie

    1996-12-31

    Ceramic thermal insulation layers on a ZrO{sub 2} basis produced by high-speed flame spraying differ in their structure from layers produced by atmospheric plasma spraying. If suitable powder modifications are chosen, the reulting layer structure can compensate thermally induced stresses efficiently. The layers also had a higher thermoshock resistance than APS layers. [Deutsch] Mittels Hochgeschwindigkeitsflammspritzens erzeugte keramische Waermedaemmschichten auf Basis von ZrO{sub 2} unterscheiden sich bezueglich ihrer Gefuegestruktur deutlich von atmosphaerisch plasmagespritzten WDS. Bei der Wahl geeigneter Pulvermodifikationen ermoeglicht die entstehende Schichtstruktur in hohem Mass den Ausgleich thermisch induzierter Spannungen. In vergleichenden Thermoschockversuchen erreichten HGFS-gespritzte WDS bei gleicher thermischer Isolationsfaehigkeit bessere Werte der Thermoschockbestaendigkeit als ASP-gespritzte. (orig.)

  20. Speed

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Speed. The rate of information transferred per second is the speed of the information. Measured in bits per second. Need for speed on the net: You-Tube phenomenon; IPTV; 3D Video telephony. Online gaming; HDTV.

  1. Flame structure of methane inverse diffusion flame

    KAUST Repository

    Elbaz, Ayman M.

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents high speed images of OH-PLIF at 10. kHz simultaneously with 2D PIV (particle image velocimetry) measurements collected along the entire length of an inverse diffusion flame with circumferentially arranged methane fuel jets. For a fixed fuel flow rate, the central air jet Re was varied, leading to four air to fuel velocity ratios, namely Vr = 20.7, 29, 37.4 and 49.8. A double flame structure could be observed composed of a lower fuel entrainment region and an upper mixing and intense combustion region. The entrainment region was enveloped by an early OH layer, and then merged through a very thin OH neck to an annular OH layer located at the shear layer of the air jet. The two branches of this annular OH layer broaden as they moved downstream and eventfully merged together. Three types of events were observed common to all flames: breaks, closures and growing kernels. In upstream regions of the flames, the breaks were counterbalanced by flame closures. These breaks in OH signal were found to occur at locations where locally high velocity flows were impinging on the flame. As the Vr increased to 37.4, the OH layers became discontinuous over the downstream region of the flame, and these regions of low or no OH moved upstream. With further increases in Vr, these OH pockets act as flame kernels, growing as they moved downstream, and became the main mechanism for flame re-ignition. Along the flame length, the direction of the two dimensional principle compressive strain rate axis exhibited a preferred orientation of approximately 45° with respect to the flow direction. Moreover, the OH zones were associated with elongated regions of high vorticity. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

  2. Flame structure of methane inverse diffusion flame

    KAUST Repository

    Elbaz, Ayman M.; Roberts, William L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents high speed images of OH-PLIF at 10. kHz simultaneously with 2D PIV (particle image velocimetry) measurements collected along the entire length of an inverse diffusion flame with circumferentially arranged methane fuel jets. For a

  3. Mode Selection in Flame-Vortex driven Combustion Instabilities

    KAUST Repository

    Speth, Ray; Hong, Seung Hyuck; Shanbogue, Santosh; Ghoniem, Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    is governed by a combustion-related time delay inversely proportional to the flame speed. Our model predicts the transition between distinct operating modes. We introduce non-dimensional parameters characterizing the flame speed and stretch rate, and develop a

  4. The ignition delay, laminar flame speed and adiabatic temperature characteristics of n-pentane, n-hexane and n-heptane under O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Ran [Huazhong Univ. of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). State Key Lab. of Coal Combustion; Wuhan Textile Univ. (China). School of Environment and Urban Construction; Liu, Hao; Zhong, Xiaojiao; Wang, Zijian; Jin, Ziqin; Qiu, Jianrong [Huazhong Univ. of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). State Key Lab. of Coal Combustion; Chen, Yingming [Wuhan Textile Univ. (China). School of Environment and Urban Construction

    2013-07-01

    Oxy-fuel (O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2}) combustion is one of the several promising new technologies which can realize the integrated control of CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub X} and other pollutants. However, when fuels are burned in the high CO{sub 2} concentration environment, the combustion characteristics can be very different from conventional air-fired combustion. Such changes imply that the high CO{sub 2} concentration atmosphere has impacts on the combustion processes. In this paper, the ignition time, laminar flame speed and adiabatic temperature property of C{sub 5} {proportional_to} C{sub 7} n-alkane fuels were studied under both ordinary air atmosphere and O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} atmospheres over a wide range of CO{sub 2} concentration in the combustion systems. A new unified detailed chemical kinetic model was validated and used to simulate the three liquid hydrocarbon fuel's flame characteristics. Based on the verified model, the influences of various parameters (atmosphere, excess oxygen ratio, O{sub 2} concentration, CO{sub 2} concentration, and alkane type) on the C{sub 5} {proportional_to} C{sub 7} n-alkane's flame characteristics were systematically investigated. It can be concluded that high CO{sub 2} concentration atmosphere has negative effect on n-pentane, n-hexane and n-heptane flame's ignition, laminar flame speed and adiabatic temperature. Besides, this work confirms that high CO{sub 2} concentration atmosphere's chemical effects play a pronounced role on the flame characteristics, especially for the ignition time property.

  5. A flame particle tracking analysis of turbulence–chemistry interaction in hydrogen–air premixed flames

    KAUST Repository

    Uranakara, Harshavardhana A.; Chaudhuri, Swetaprovo; Dave, Himanshu L.; Arias, Paul G.; Im, Hong G.

    2015-01-01

    Interactions of turbulence, molecular transport, and energy transport, coupled with chemistry play a crucial role in the evolution of flame surface geometry, propagation, annihilation, and local extinction/re-ignition characteristics of intensely turbulent premixed flames. This study seeks to understand how these interactions affect flame surface annihilation of lean hydrogen–air premixed turbulent flames. Direct numerical simulations (DNSs) are conducted at different parametric conditions with a detailed reaction mechanism and transport properties for hydrogen–air flames. Flame particle tracking (FPT) technique is used to follow specific flame surface segments. An analytical expression for the local displacement flame speed (Sd) of a temperature isosurface is considered, and the contributions of transport, chemistry, and kinematics on the displacement flame speed at different turbulence-flame interaction conditions are identified. In general, the displacement flame speed for the flame particles is found to increase with time for all conditions considered. This is because, eventually all flame surfaces and their resident flame particles approach annihilation by reactant island formation at the end of stretching and folding processes induced by turbulence. Statistics of principal curvature evolving in time, obtained using FPT, suggest that these islands are ellipsoidal on average enclosing fresh reactants. Further examinations show that the increase in Sd is caused by the increased negative curvature of the flame surface and eventual homogenization of temperature gradients as these reactant islands shrink due to flame propagation and turbulent mixing. Finally, the evolution of the normalized, averaged, displacement flame speed vs. stretch Karlovitz number are found to collapse on a narrow band, suggesting that a unified description of flame speed dependence on stretch rate may be possible in the Lagrangian description.

  6. A flame particle tracking analysis of turbulence–chemistry interaction in hydrogen–air premixed flames

    KAUST Repository

    Uranakara, Harshavardhana A.

    2015-11-21

    Interactions of turbulence, molecular transport, and energy transport, coupled with chemistry play a crucial role in the evolution of flame surface geometry, propagation, annihilation, and local extinction/re-ignition characteristics of intensely turbulent premixed flames. This study seeks to understand how these interactions affect flame surface annihilation of lean hydrogen–air premixed turbulent flames. Direct numerical simulations (DNSs) are conducted at different parametric conditions with a detailed reaction mechanism and transport properties for hydrogen–air flames. Flame particle tracking (FPT) technique is used to follow specific flame surface segments. An analytical expression for the local displacement flame speed (Sd) of a temperature isosurface is considered, and the contributions of transport, chemistry, and kinematics on the displacement flame speed at different turbulence-flame interaction conditions are identified. In general, the displacement flame speed for the flame particles is found to increase with time for all conditions considered. This is because, eventually all flame surfaces and their resident flame particles approach annihilation by reactant island formation at the end of stretching and folding processes induced by turbulence. Statistics of principal curvature evolving in time, obtained using FPT, suggest that these islands are ellipsoidal on average enclosing fresh reactants. Further examinations show that the increase in Sd is caused by the increased negative curvature of the flame surface and eventual homogenization of temperature gradients as these reactant islands shrink due to flame propagation and turbulent mixing. Finally, the evolution of the normalized, averaged, displacement flame speed vs. stretch Karlovitz number are found to collapse on a narrow band, suggesting that a unified description of flame speed dependence on stretch rate may be possible in the Lagrangian description.

  7. Quantitative Infrared Image Analysis Of Simultaneous Upstream and Downstream Microgravity Flame Spread over Thermally-Thin Cellulose in Low Speed Forced Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, S. L.; Lee, J. R.; Fujita, O.; Kikuchi, M.; Kashiwagi, T.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of low velocity forced flow on microgravity flame spread is examined using quantitative analysis of infrared video imaging. The objective of the quantitative analysis is to provide insight into the mechanisms of flame spread in microgravity where the flame is able to spread from a central location on the fuel surface, rather than from an edge. Surface view calibrated infrared images of ignition and flame spread over a thin cellulose fuel were obtained along with a color video of the surface view and color images of the edge view using 35 mm color film at 2 Hz. The cellulose fuel samples were mounted in the center of a 12 cm wide by 16 cm tall flow duct and were ignited in microgravity using a straight hot wire across the center of the 7.5 cm wide by 14 cm long samples. Four cases, at 1 atm. 35%O2 in N2, at forced flows from 2 cm/s to 20 cm/s are presented here. This flow range captures flame spread from strictly upstream spread at low flows, to predominantly downstream spread at high flow. Surface temperature profiles are evaluated as a function of time, and temperature gradients for upstream and downstream flame spread are measured. Flame spread rates from IR image data are compared to visible image spread rate data. IR blackbody temperatures are compared to surface thermocouple readings to evaluate the effective emissivity of the pyrolyzing surface. Preheat lengths and pyrolysis lengths are evaluated both upstream and downstream of the central ignition point. A surface energy balance estimates the net heat flux from the flame to the fuel surface along the length of the fuel. Surface radiative loss and gas-phase radiation from soot are measured relative to the net heat feedback from the flame. At high surface heat loss relative to heat feedback, the downstream flame spread does not occur.

  8. Flame dynamics of a meso-scale heat recirculating combustor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vijayan, V.; Gupta, A.K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    The dynamics of premixed propane-air flame in a meso-scale ceramic combustor has been examined here. The flame characteristics in the combustor were examined by measuring the acoustic emissions and preheat temperatures together with high-speed cinematography. For the small-scale combustor, the volume to surface area ratio is small and hence the walls have significant effect on the global flame structure, flame location and flame dynamics. In addition to the flame-wall thermal coupling there is a coupling between flame and acoustics in the case of confined flames. Flame-wall thermal interactions lead to low frequency flame fluctuations ({proportional_to}100 Hz) depending upon the thermal response of the wall. However, the flame-acoustic interactions can result in a wide range of flame fluctuations ranging from few hundred Hz to few kHz. Wall temperature distribution is one of the factors that control the amount of reactant preheating which in turn effects the location of flame stabilization. Acoustic emission signals and high-speed flame imaging confirmed that for the present case flame-acoustic interactions have more significant effect on flame dynamics. Based on the acoustic emissions, five different flame regimes have been identified; whistling/harmonic mode, rich instability mode, lean instability mode, silent mode and pulsating flame mode. (author)

  9. Flame Length

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Flame length was modeled using FlamMap, an interagency fire behavior mapping and analysis program that computes potential fire behavior characteristics. The tool...

  10. Tulip flames: changes in shape of premixed flames propagating in closed tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn-Rankin, D.; Sawyer, R. F.

    The experimental results that are the subject of this communication provide high-speed schlieren images of the closed-tube flame shape that has come to be known as the tulip flame. The schlieren images, along with in-chamber pressure records, help demonstrate the effects of chamber length, equivalence ratio, and igniter geometry on formation of the tulip flame. The pressure/time records show distinct features which correlate with flame shape changes during the transition to tulip. The measurements indicate that the basic tulip flame formation is a robust phenomenon that depends on little except the overall geometry of the combustion vessel.

  11. Behaviors of tribrachial edge flames and their interactions in a triple-port burner

    KAUST Repository

    Yamamoto, Kazuhiro

    2015-05-01

    In a triple-port burner, various non-premixed flames have been observed previously. Especially for the case with two lifted flames, such configuration could be suitable in studying interaction between two tribrachial flames. In the present study, the flame characteristics have been investigated numerically by adopting a reduced kinetic mechanism in the triple-port burner. Four different types of flame configurations, including two attached flames, inner lifted/outer attached flames, inner attached/outer lifted flames, and twin lifted flames, were successfully simulated depending on the flow conditions. The representative edge propagation speed of a single lifted flame or an upstream lifted flame in the case of twin lifted flames increased as the liftoff height became higher. In the twin lifted flames, the inner lifted flame was affected appreciably when the other flame was located further upstream such that the lifted flame located further downstream encountered the axial velocity acceleration induced by the gas expansion from the lifted flame located upstream, while thermal effects were not observed since the temperature of the incoming flow toward the lifted flame was not affected. A unique flip-flop behavior between the inner and outer flames, observed experimentally previously, was successfully captured in the simulation such that the inner lifted flame became attached to the nozzle as the liftoff height of the outer lifted flame grew higher with an increase in the outer air velocity.

  12. Mensuration of the propagation speed of mixed flames of Methane-air and gas natural, Guajira - air using the method of the angle of the cone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjumea Hernandez, Pedro Nel; Higuita Bedoya Carlos Mario; Cordoba Perez, Camilo Andres

    2004-01-01

    In this work, the burning velocity of premixed laminar flames of methane-air and Guajira natural gas-air mixtures was measured by the cone's angle method using a cylindrical Bunsen burner. In the development of the experiments, a fuel concentration in the fuel-air mixture ranging from 9% -11% was taken. The maximum value of the burning velocity was obtained for mixtures a little bit richer than the stoichiometric case. For methane, this flame velocity was 44.1 cm/s and for the Guajira natural gas was 43.1 cm/s. From the results, it was possible to see that the Guajira natural gas inert content led to a burning velocity value lesser than the methane's, in spite of the Guajira natural gas having a higher heavy hydrocarbon content. Methane burning velocity values following similar trends to those reported by the literature were obtained. The systematic error found in the results is mainly a consequence of inaccuracies in the method used to measure the fuel-gas mixture velocity at the burner exit

  13. Flame surface statistics of constant-pressure turbulent expanding premixed flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Abhishek; Chaudhuri, Swetaprovo; Law, Chung K.

    2014-04-01

    In this paper we investigate the local flame surface statistics of constant-pressure turbulent expanding flames. First the statistics of local length ratio is experimentally determined from high-speed planar Mie scattering images of spherically expanding flames, with the length ratio on the measurement plane, at predefined equiangular sectors, defined as the ratio of the actual flame length to the length of a circular-arc of radius equal to the average radius of the flame. Assuming isotropic distribution of such flame segments we then convolute suitable forms of the length-ratio probability distribution functions (pdfs) to arrive at the corresponding area-ratio pdfs. It is found that both the length ratio and area ratio pdfs are near log-normally distributed and shows self-similar behavior with increasing radius. Near log-normality and rather intermittent behavior of the flame-length ratio suggests similarity with dissipation rate quantities which stimulates multifractal analysis.

  14. Flames in vortices & tulip-flame inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dold, J. W.

    This article summarises two areas of research regarding the propagation of flames in flows which involve significant fluid-dynamical motion [1]-[3]. The major difference between the two is that in the first study the fluid motion is present before the arrival of any flame and remains unaffected by the flame [1, 2] while, in the second study it is the flame that is responsible for all of the fluid dynamical effects [3]. It is currently very difficult to study flame-motion in which the medium is both highly disturbed before the arrival of a flame and is further influenced by the passage of the flame.

  15. Understanding the Role of Heat Recirculation in Enhancing the Speed of Premixed Laminar Flames in a Parallel Plate Micro-Combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    U) and passage height (d) ([14-17])………………………………………………………………..…20 Figure 1-8: Nusselt number at the outer surface (Nuh) as a function of zPe for...both pre and post- flame regions. 25 Figure 1-8: Nusselt number at the outer surface (Nuh) as a function of zPe for pipe Poiseuille flow. h...dimensional flow coordinate ( zPe ). The figure shows that Nuh depends strongly on the 26 zPe number for low zPe for conductive walls and that

  16. A comparative experimental and computational study of methanol, ethanol, and n-butanol flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veloo, Peter S.; Wang, Yang L.; Egolfopoulos, Fokion N. [Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-1453 (United States); Westbrook, Charles K. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    Laminar flame speeds and extinction strain rates of premixed methanol, ethanol, and n-butanol flames were determined experimentally in the counterflow configuration at atmospheric pressure and elevated unburned mixture temperatures. Additional measurements were conducted also to determine the laminar flame speeds of their n-alkane/air counterparts, namely methane, ethane, and n-butane in order to compare the effect of alkane and alcohol molecular structures on high-temperature flame kinetics. For both propagation and extinction experiments the flow velocities were determined using the digital particle image velocimetry method. Laminar flame speeds were derived through a non-linear extrapolation approach based on direct numerical simulations of the experiments. Two recently developed detailed kinetics models of n-butanol oxidation were used to simulate the experiments. The experimental results revealed that laminar flame speeds of ethanol/air and n-butanol/air flames are similar to those of their n-alkane/air counterparts, and that methane/air flames have consistently lower laminar flame speeds than methanol/air flames. The laminar flame speeds of methanol/air flames are considerably higher compared to both ethanol/air and n-butanol/air flames under fuel-rich conditions. Numerical simulations of n-butanol/air freely propagating flames, revealed discrepancies between the two kinetic models regarding the consumption pathways of n-butanol and its intermediates. (author)

  17. Impact of flame-wall interaction on premixed flame dynamics and transfer function characteristics

    KAUST Repository

    Kedia, K.S.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we numerically investigate the response of a perforated-plate stabilized laminar methane-air premixed flame to imposed inlet velocity perturbations. A flame model using detailed chemical kinetics mechanism is applied and heat exchange between the burner plate and the gas mixture is incorporated. Linear transfer functions, for low mean inlet velocity oscillations, are analyzed for different equivalence ratio, mean inlet velocity, plate thermal conductivity and distance between adjacent holes. The oscillations of the heat exchange rate at the top of the burner surface plays a critical role in driving the growth of the perturbations over a wide range of conditions, including resonance. The flame response to the perturbations at its base takes the form of consumption speed oscillations in this region. Flame stand-off distance increases/decreases when the flame-wall interaction strengthens/weakens, impacting the overall dynamics of the heat release. The convective lag between the perturbations and the flame base response govern the phase of heat release rate oscillations. There is an additional convective lag between the perturbations at the flame base and the flame tip which has a weaker impact on the heat release rate oscillations. At higher frequencies, the flame-wall interaction is weaker and the heat release oscillations are driven by the flame area oscillations. The response of the flame to higher amplitude oscillations are used to gain further insight into the mechanisms. © 2010 Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of The Combustion Institute. All rights reserved.

  18. Blowoff dynamics of bluff body stabilized turbulent premixed flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhuri, Swetaprovo; Kostka, Stanislav; Renfro, Michael W.; Cetegen, Baki M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Connecticut, 191 Auditorium Road, U-3139, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    This article concerns the flame dynamics of a bluff body stabilized turbulent premixed flame as it approaches lean blowoff. Time resolved chemiluminescence imaging along with simultaneous particle image velocimetry and OH planar laser-induced fluorescence were utilized in an axisymmetric bluff body stabilized, propane-air flame to determine the sequence of events leading to blowoff and provide a quantitative analysis of the experimental results. It was found that as lean blowoff is approached by reduction of equivalence ratio, flame speed decreases and the flame shape progressively changes from a conical to a columnar shape. For a stably burning conical flame away from blowoff, the flame front envelopes the shear layer vortices. Near blowoff, the columnar flame front and shear layer vortices overlap to induce high local stretch rates that exceed the extinction stretch rates instantaneously and in the mean, resulting in local flame extinction along the shear layers. Following shear layer extinction, fresh reactants can pass through the shear layers to react within the recirculation zone with all other parts of the flame extinguished. This flame kernel within the recirculation zone may survive for a few milliseconds and can reignite the shear layers such that the entire flame is reestablished for a short period. This extinction and reignition event can happen several times before final blowoff which occurs when the flame kernel fails to reignite the shear layers and ultimately leads to total flame extinguishment. (author)

  19. Propagating nonpremixed edge-flames in a counterflow, annular slot burner under DC electric fields

    KAUST Repository

    Tran, Vu Manh; Cha, Min

    2016-01-01

    to be negligible after correcting the flame displacement speed with respect to the unburned flow velocity ahead of the flame edge. This indicates that the displacement speed of an edge-flame strongly depends on ionic wind and that an electric field has little

  20. Premixed Flames Under Microgravity and Normal Gravity Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krikunova, Anastasia I.; Son, Eduard E.

    2018-03-01

    Premixed conical CH4-air flames were studied experimentally and numerically under normal straight, reversed gravity conditions and microgravity. Low-gravity experiments were performed in Drop tower. Classical Bunsen-type burner was used to find out features of gravity influence on the combustion processes. Mixture equivalence ratio was varied from 0.8 to 1.3. Wide range of flow velocity allows to study both laminar and weakly turbulized flames. High-speed flame chemoluminescence video-recording was used as diagnostic. The investigations were performed at atmospheric pressure. As results normalized flame height, laminar flame speed were measured, also features of flame instabilities were shown. Low- and high-frequency flame-instabilities (oscillations) have a various nature as velocity fluctuations, preferential diffusion instability, hydrodynamic and Rayleigh-Taylor ones etc., that was explored and demonstrated.

  1. Gravitational Effects on Cellular Flame Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunsky, C. M.; Fernandez-Pello, A. C.

    1991-01-01

    An experimental investigation has been conducted of the effect of gravity on the structure of downwardly propagating, cellular premixed propane-oxygen-nitrogen flames anchored on a water-cooled porous-plug burner. The flame is subjected to microgravity conditions in the NASA Lewis 2.2-second drop tower, and flame characteristics are recorded on high-speed film. These are compared to flames at normal gravity conditions with the same equivalence ratio, dilution index, mixture flow rate, and ambient pressure. The results show that the cellular instability band, which is located in the rich mixture region, changes little under the absence of gravity. Lifted normal-gravity flames near the cellular/lifted limits, however, are observed to become cellular when gravity is reduced. Observations of a transient cell growth period following ignition point to heat loss as being an important mechanism in the overall flame stability, dominating the stabilizing effect of buoyancy for these downwardly-propagating burner-anchored flames. The pulsations that are observed in the plume and diffusion flame generated downstream of the premixed flame in the fuel rich cases disappear in microgravity, verifying that these fluctuations are gravity related.

  2. Visualization of ionic wind in laminar jet flames

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Daegeun

    2017-07-03

    Electric field, when it is applied to hydrocarbon flames, generates ionic wind due to the electric body force on charge carrying species. Ionic wind has been shown to influence soot emission, propagation speed, and stability of flames; however, a detailed behavior of ionic wind and its effects on flames is still not clear. Here, we investigated the dynamic behaviors of flames and ionic wind in the presence of direct current (DC) and alternating current (AC) electric fields in nonpremixed and premixed jet flames with a jet nozzle placed between two parallel electrodes. We observed a skewed flame toward a lower potential electrode with DC and lower frequency AC (e.g., 10Hz) and a steady flame with higher frequencies AC (1000Hz), while we found that the ionic wind blew toward both the anode and cathode regardless of flame type (nonpremixed or premixed) or the source of the electric field (DC and AC).

  3. Mechanisms of stabilization and blowoff of a premixed flame downstream of a heat-conducting perforated plate

    KAUST Repository

    Kedia, Kushal S.

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this work is to investigate the flame stabilization mechanism and the conditions leading to the blowoff of a laminar premixed flame anchored downstream of a heat-conducting perforated-plate/multi-hole burner, with overall nearly adiabatic conditions. We use unsteady, fully resolved, two-dimensional simulations with detailed chemical kinetics and species transport for methane-air combustion. Results show a bell-shaped flame stabilizing above the burner plate hole, with a U-shaped section anchored between neighboring holes. The base of the positively curved U-shaped section of the flame is positioned near the stagnation point, at a location where the flame displacement speed is equal to the flow speed. This location is determined by the combined effect of heat loss and flame stretch on the flame displacement speed. As the mass flow rate of the reactants is increased, the flame displacement speed at this location varies non-monotonically. As the inlet velocity is increased, the recirculation zone grows slowly, the flame moves downstream, and the heat loss to the burner decreases, strengthening the flame and increasing its displacement speed. As the inlet velocity is raised, the stagnation point moves downstream, and the flame length grows to accommodate the reactants mass flow. Concomitantly, the radius of curvature of the flame base decreases until it reaches an almost constant value, comparable to the flame thickness. While the heat loss decreases, the higher flame curvature dominates thereby reducing the displacement speed of the flame base. For a stable flame, the gradient of the flame base displacement speed normal to the flame is higher than the gradient of the flow speed along the same direction, leading to dynamic stability. As inlet velocity is raised further, the former decreases while the latter increases until the stability condition is violated, leading to blowoff. The flame speed during blow off is determined by the feedback between the

  4. Flame Quenching Dynamics of High Velocity Flames in Rectangular Cross-section Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Mahuthannan, Ariff Magdoom; Lacoste, Deanna; Damazo, Jason; Kwon, Eddie; Roberts, William L.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding flame quenching for different conditions is necessary to develop safety devices like flame arrestors. In practical applications, the speed of a deflagration in the lab-fixed reference frame will be a strong function of the geometry through which the deflagration propagates. This study reports on the effect of the flame speed, at the entrance of a quenching section, on the quenching distance. A 2D rectangular channel joining two main spherical vessels is considered for studying this effect. Two different velocity regimes are investigated and referred to as configurations A, and B. For configuration A, the velocity of the flame is 20 m/s, while it is about 100 m/s for configuration B. Methane-air stoichiometric mixtures at 1 bar and 298 K are used. Simultaneous dynamic pressure measurements along with schlieren imaging are used to analyze the quenching of the flame. Risk assessment of re-ignition is also reported and analyzed.

  5. Flame Quenching Dynamics of High Velocity Flames in Rectangular Cross-section Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Mahuthannan, Ariff Magdoom

    2017-01-05

    Understanding flame quenching for different conditions is necessary to develop safety devices like flame arrestors. In practical applications, the speed of a deflagration in the lab-fixed reference frame will be a strong function of the geometry through which the deflagration propagates. This study reports on the effect of the flame speed, at the entrance of a quenching section, on the quenching distance. A 2D rectangular channel joining two main spherical vessels is considered for studying this effect. Two different velocity regimes are investigated and referred to as configurations A, and B. For configuration A, the velocity of the flame is 20 m/s, while it is about 100 m/s for configuration B. Methane-air stoichiometric mixtures at 1 bar and 298 K are used. Simultaneous dynamic pressure measurements along with schlieren imaging are used to analyze the quenching of the flame. Risk assessment of re-ignition is also reported and analyzed.

  6. Flame Structure and Chemiluminescence Emissions of Inverse Diffusion Flames under Sinusoidally Driven Plasma Discharges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Grazia De Giorgi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Reduction of nitric oxides (NOx in aircraft engines and in gas turbines by lean combustion is of great interest in the design of novel combustion systems. However, the stabilization of the flame under lean conditions is a main issue. In this context, the present work investigates the effects of sinusoidal dielectric barrier discharge (DBD on a lean inverse diffusive methane/air flame in a Bunsen-type burner under different actuation conditions. The flame appearance was investigated with fixed methane loading (mass flux, but with varying inner airflow rate. High-speed flame imaging was done by using an intensified (charge-coupled device CCD camera equipped with different optical filters in order to selectively record signals from the chemiluminescent species OH*, CH*, or CO2* to evaluate the flame behavior in presence of plasma actuation. The electrical power consumption was less than 33 W. It was evident that the plasma flame enhancement was significantly influenced by the plasma discharges, particularly at high inner airflow rates. The flame structure changes drastically when the dissipated plasma power increases. The flame area decreases due to the enhancement of mixing and chemical reactions that lead to a more anchored flame on the quartz exit with a reduction of the flame length.

  7. Aerodynamic features of flames in premixed gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheim, A. K.

    1984-01-01

    A variety of experimentally established flame phenomena in premixed gases are interpreted by relating them to basic aerodynamic properties of the flow field. On this basis the essential mechanism of some well known characteristic features of flames stabilized in the wake of a bluff-body or propagating in ducts are revealed. Elementary components of the flame propagation process are shown to be: rotary motion, self-advancement, and expansion. Their consequences are analyzed under a most strict set of idealizations that permit the flow field to be treated as potential in character, while the flame is modelled as a Stefan-like interface capable of exerting a feed-back effect upon the flow field. The results provide an insight into the fundamental fluid-mechanical reasons for the experimentally observed distortions of the flame front, rationalizing in particular its ability to sustain relatively high flow velocities at amazingly low normal burning speeds.

  8. Conical quarl swirl stabilized non-premixed flames: flame and flow field interaction

    KAUST Repository

    Elbaz, Ayman M.; Roberts, William L.

    2017-01-01

    The flame-flow field interaction is studied in non-premixed methane swirl flames stabilized in quartz quarl via simultaneous measurements of the flow field using a stereo PIV and OH-PLIF at 5 KHz repetition rate. Under the same swirl intensity, two flames with different fuel jet velocity were investigated. The time-averaged flow field shows a unique flow pattern at the quarl exit, where two recirculation vortices are formed; a strong recirculation zone formed far from the quarl exit and a larger recirculation zone extending inside the quarl. However, the instantaneous images show that, the flow pattern near the quarl exit plays a vital role in the spatial location and structure of the reaction zone. In the low fuel jet velocity flame, a pair of vortical structures, located precisely at the corners of the quarl exit, cause the flame to roll up into the central region of low speed flow, where the flame sheet then tracks the axial velocity fluctuations. The vorticity field reveals a vortical structure surrounding the reaction zones, which reside on a layer of low compressive strain adjacent to that vortical structure. In the high fuel jet velocity flame, initially a laminar flame sheet resides at the inner shear layer of the main jet, along the interface between incoming fresh gas and high temperature recirculating gas. Further downstream, vortex breakdown alters the flame sheet path toward the central flame region. The lower reaction zones show good correlation to the regions of maximum vorticity and track the regions of low compressive strain associated with the inner shear layer of the jet flow. In both flames the reactions zones conform the passage of the large structure while remaining inside the low speed regions or at the inner shear layer.

  9. Conical quarl swirl stabilized non-premixed flames: flame and flow field interaction

    KAUST Repository

    Elbaz, Ayman M.

    2017-09-19

    The flame-flow field interaction is studied in non-premixed methane swirl flames stabilized in quartz quarl via simultaneous measurements of the flow field using a stereo PIV and OH-PLIF at 5 KHz repetition rate. Under the same swirl intensity, two flames with different fuel jet velocity were investigated. The time-averaged flow field shows a unique flow pattern at the quarl exit, where two recirculation vortices are formed; a strong recirculation zone formed far from the quarl exit and a larger recirculation zone extending inside the quarl. However, the instantaneous images show that, the flow pattern near the quarl exit plays a vital role in the spatial location and structure of the reaction zone. In the low fuel jet velocity flame, a pair of vortical structures, located precisely at the corners of the quarl exit, cause the flame to roll up into the central region of low speed flow, where the flame sheet then tracks the axial velocity fluctuations. The vorticity field reveals a vortical structure surrounding the reaction zones, which reside on a layer of low compressive strain adjacent to that vortical structure. In the high fuel jet velocity flame, initially a laminar flame sheet resides at the inner shear layer of the main jet, along the interface between incoming fresh gas and high temperature recirculating gas. Further downstream, vortex breakdown alters the flame sheet path toward the central flame region. The lower reaction zones show good correlation to the regions of maximum vorticity and track the regions of low compressive strain associated with the inner shear layer of the jet flow. In both flames the reactions zones conform the passage of the large structure while remaining inside the low speed regions or at the inner shear layer.

  10. Turbulent structure and dynamics of swirled, strongly pulsed jet diffusion flames

    KAUST Repository

    Liao, Ying-Hao

    2013-11-02

    The structure and dynamics of swirled, strongly pulsed, turbulent jet diffusion flames were examined experimentally in a co-flow swirl combustor. The dynamics of the large-scale flame structures, including variations in flame dimensions, the degree of turbulent flame puff interaction, and the turbulent flame puff celerity were determined from high-speed imaging of the luminous flame. All of the tests presented here were conducted with a fixed fuel injection velocity at a Reynolds number of 5000. The flame dimensions were generally found to be more impacted by swirl for the cases of longer injection time and faster co-flow flow rate. Flames with swirl exhibited a flame length up to 34% shorter compared to nonswirled flames. Both the turbulent flame puff separation and the flame puff celerity generally decreased when swirl was imposed. The decreased flame length, flame puff separation, and flame puff celerity are consistent with a greater momentum exchange between the flame and the surrounding co-flow, resulting from an increased rate of air entrainment due to swirl. Three scaling relations were developed to account for the impact of the injection time, the volumetric fuel-to-air flow rate ratio, and the jet-on fraction on the visible flame length. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  11. Effect of CH4–Air Ratios on Gas Explosion Flame Microstructure and Propagation Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available To reveal the inner mechanism of gas explosion dynamic behavior affected by gas equivalent concentration, a high speed Schlieren image system and flow field measurement technology was applied to record the gas explosion flame propagation and flame structure transition. The results show that a flame front structure transition occurs, followed by a flame accelerating propagation process. The laminar to turbulence transition was the essential cause of the flame structure changes. The laminar flame propagation behavior was influenced mainly by gas expansion and fore-compressive wave effect, while the turbulent flame speed mostly depended on turbulence intensity, which also played an important role in peak value of the explosive pressure and flame speed. On the condition that the laminar-turbulent transition was easier to form, the conclusion was drawn that, the lowest CH4 concentration for maximum overpressure can be obtained, which was the essential reason why the ideal explosive concentration differs under different test conditions.

  12. Recent measurements of flame acceleration in semiconfined geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abou-Arab, T.W. (King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (SA). Mechanical Engineering Dept.); Enayet, M.M.; Kamel, M.M. (Cairo Univ., Giza (EG). Mechanical Power Engineering Dept.)

    1991-04-01

    Turbulent premixed combustion under certain conditions may lead to large flame speeds sufficient to cause significant damage to nearby structures. Experiments, both large and small scale, have confirmed that obstructions cause severe flame acceleration to occur. In these cases, flame speeds as high as 800 ms{sup -1} may be achieved. In this work experimental investigation of some factors affecting flame acceleration in a semiconfined channel has been carried out. The experimental facility and the developed ionization gap measuring technique are also described. It has been found that the presence of obstacles, degree of confinement, height of fuel-air cloud (FAC), as well as fuel concentration gradient in the FAC have profound effects on the rate at which the flame accelerates. Finally, consideration of the flame acceleration as a possible mechanism for the transition to detonation will be discussed. (author).

  13. Experiment and Simulation of Autoignition in Jet Flames and its Relevance to Flame Stabilization and Structure

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Noman, Saeed M.

    2016-06-01

    Autoignition characteristics of pre-vaporized iso-octane, primary reference fuels, gasolines, and dimethyl ether (DME) have been investigated experimentally in a coflow with elevated temperature of air. With the coflow air at relatively low initial temperatures below autoignition temperature Tauto, an external ignition source was required to stabilize the flame. Non-autoignited lifted flames had tribrachial edge structures and their liftoff heights correlated well with the jet velocity scaled by the stoichiometric laminar burning velocity, indicating the importance of the edge propagation speed on flame stabilization balanced with local flow velocity. At high initial temperatures over Tauto, the autoignited flames were stabilized without requiring an external ignition source. The autoignited lifted flames exhibited either tribrachial edge structures or Mild combustion behaviors depending on the level of fuel dilution. For the iso-octane and n-heptane fuels, two distinct transition behaviors were observed in the autoignition regime from a nozzle-attached flame to a lifted tribrachial-edge flame and then a sudden transition to lifted Mild combustion as the jet velocity increased at a certain fuel dilution level. The liftoff data of the autoignited flames with tribrachial edges were analyzed based on calculated ignition delay times for the pre-vaporized fuels. Analysis of the experimental data suggested that ignition delay time may be much less sensitive to initial temperature under atmospheric pressure conditions as compared with predictions. For the gasoline fuels for advanced combustion engines (FACEs), and primary reference fuels (PRFs), autoignited liftoff data were correlated with Research Octane Number and Cetane Number. For the DME fuel, planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of formaldehyde (CH2O) and CH* chemiluminescence were visualized qualitatively. In the autoignition regime for both tribrachial structure and mild combustion, formaldehyde were found

  14. Turbulent premixed flames on fractal-grid-generated turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soulopoulos, N; Kerl, J; Sponfeldner, T; Beyrau, F; Hardalupas, Y; Taylor, A M K P [Mechanical Engineering Department, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Vassilicos, J C, E-mail: ns6@ic.ac.uk [Department of Aeronautics, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2013-12-15

    A space-filling, low blockage fractal grid is used as a novel turbulence generator in a premixed turbulent flame stabilized by a rod. The study compares the flame behaviour with a fractal grid to the behaviour when a standard square mesh grid with the same effective mesh size and solidity as the fractal grid is used. The isothermal gas flow turbulence characteristics, including mean flow velocity and rms of velocity fluctuations and Taylor length, were evaluated from hot-wire measurements. The behaviour of the flames was assessed with direct chemiluminescence emission from the flame and high-speed OH-laser-induced fluorescence. The characteristics of the two flames are considered in terms of turbulent flame thickness, local flame curvature and turbulent flame speed. It is found that, for the same flow rate and stoichiometry and at the same distance downstream of the location of the grid, fractal-grid-generated turbulence leads to a more turbulent flame with enhanced burning rate and increased flame surface area. (paper)

  15. Assessment of elliptic flame front propagation characteristics of iso-octane, gasoline, M85 and E85 in an optical engine

    OpenAIRE

    Ihracska, Balazs; Korakianitis, Theodosios P.; Ruiz, Paula; Emberson, David Robert; Crookes, Roy James; Diez, Alvaro; Wen, Dongsheng

    2014-01-01

    Premixed fuel-air flame propagation is investigated in a single-cylinder, spark-ignited, four-stroke optical test engine using high-speed imaging. Circles and ellipses are fitted onto image projections of visible light emitted by the flames. The images are subsequently analysed to statistically evaluate: flame area; flame speed; centroid; perimeter; and various flame-shape descriptors. Results are presented for gasoline, isooctane, E85 and M85. The experiments were conducted at stoichiometric...

  16. Turbulent Flame Propagation Characteristics of High Hydrogen Content Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitzman, Jerry [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Lieuwen, Timothy [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2014-09-30

    This final report describes the results of an effort to better understand turbulent flame propagation, especially at conditions relevant to gas turbines employing fuels with syngas or hydrogen mixtures. Turbulent flame speeds were measured for a variety of hydrogen/carbon monoxide (H2/CO) and hydrogen/methane (H2/CH4) fuel mixtures with air as the oxidizer. The measurements include global consumption speeds (ST,GC) acquired in a turbulent jet flame at pressures of 1-10 atm and local displacement speeds (ST,LD) acquired in a low-swirl burner at atmospheric pressure. The results verify the importance of fuel composition in determining turbulent flame speeds. For example, different fuel-air mixtures having the same unstretched laminar flame speed (SL,0) but different fuel compositions resulted in significantly different ST,GC for the same turbulence levels (u'). This demonstrates the weakness of turbulent flame speed correlations based simply on u'/SL,0. The results were analyzed using a steady-steady leading points concept to explain the sensitivity of turbulent burning rates to fuel (and oxidizer) composition. Leading point theories suggest that the premixed turbulent flame speed is controlled by the flame front characteristics at the flame brush leading edge, or, in other words, by the flamelets that advance farthest into the unburned mixture (the so-called leading points). For negative Markstein length mixtures, this is assumed to be close to the maximum stretched laminar flame speed (SL,max) for the given fuel-oxidizer mixture. For the ST,GC measurements, the data at a given pressure were well-correlated with an SL,max scaling. However the variation with pressure was not captured, which may be due to non-quasi-steady effects that are not included in the current model. For the ST,LD data, the leading points model again faithfully captured the variation of turbulent flame speed over a wide range of fuel-compositions and turbulence intensities. These

  17. Characterisation of the Interaction between Toroidal Vortex Structures and Flame Front Propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, E J; Hargrave, G K; Jarvis, S; Justham, T; Halliwell, N

    2006-01-01

    Experimental laser diagnostic data is presented for flame characterisation during interactions with toroidal vortices generated in the wake of an annular obstacle. A novel twin section combustion chamber has been utilised to allow the controlled formation of stable eddy structures into which a flame front can propagate. High speed laser sheet visualisation was employed to record the flow field and flame front temporal development and high-speed digital particle image velocimetry was used to quantify the velocity field of the unburnt mixture ahead of the flame front. Results provide characterisation of the toroidal vortex/flame front interaction for a range of vortex scales of and recirculation strengths

  18. Characterisation of the Interaction between Toroidal Vortex Structures and Flame Front Propagation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, E J; Hargrave, G K; Jarvis, S; Justham, T; Halliwell, N [Wolfson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire, LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-15

    Experimental laser diagnostic data is presented for flame characterisation during interactions with toroidal vortices generated in the wake of an annular obstacle. A novel twin section combustion chamber has been utilised to allow the controlled formation of stable eddy structures into which a flame front can propagate. High speed laser sheet visualisation was employed to record the flow field and flame front temporal development and high-speed digital particle image velocimetry was used to quantify the velocity field of the unburnt mixture ahead of the flame front. Results provide characterisation of the toroidal vortex/flame front interaction for a range of vortex scales of and recirculation strengths.

  19. Characterisation of the Interaction between Toroidal Vortex Structures and Flame Front Propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, E. J.; Hargrave, G. K.; Jarvis, S.; Justham, T.; Halliwell, N.

    2006-07-01

    Experimental laser diagnostic data is presented for flame characterisation during interactions with toroidal vortices generated in the wake of an annular obstacle. A novel twin section combustion chamber has been utilised to allow the controlled formation of stable eddy structures into which a flame front can propagate. High speed laser sheet visualisation was employed to record the flow field and flame front temporal development and high-speed digital particle image velocimetry was used to quantify the velocity field of the unburnt mixture ahead of the flame front. Results provide characterisation of the toroidal vortex/flame front interaction for a range of vortex scales of and recirculation strengths.

  20. Propagating nonpremixed edge-flames in a counterflow, annular slot burner under DC electric fields

    KAUST Repository

    Tran, Vu Manh

    2016-09-11

    Characteristics of propagating nonpremixed edge-flames were investigated in a counterflow, annular slot burner. A high-voltage direct current (DC) was applied to the lower part of the burner and the upper part was grounded, creating electric field lines perpendicular to the direction of edge-flame propagation. Upon application of an electric field, an ionic wind is caused by the migration of positive and negative ions to lower and higher electrical potential sides of a flame, respectively. Under an applied DC, we found a significant decrease in edge-flame displacement speeds unlike several previous studies, which showed an increase in displacement speed. Within a moderate range of field intensity, we found effects on flame propagation speeds to be negligible after correcting the flame displacement speed with respect to the unburned flow velocity ahead of the flame edge. This indicates that the displacement speed of an edge-flame strongly depends on ionic wind and that an electric field has little or no impact on propagation speed. The ionic wind also influenced the location of the stoichiometric contour in front of the propagating edge in a given configuration such that a propagating edge was relocated to the higher potential side due to an imbalance between ionic winds originating from positive and negative ions. In addition, we observed a steadily wrinkled flame following transient propagation of the edge-flame, a topic for future research. © 2016 The Combustion Institute

  1. An Experimental Study of Turbulent Nonpremixed Jet Flames in Crossflow Under Low-Gravity Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxx, Isaac G.; Idicheria, Cherian A.; Clemens, Noel T.

    2002-11-01

    We will present results of a study of turbulent nonpremixed jet flames in crossflow under normal and low gravity conditions. This enables us to experimentally separate the competing influences of initial jet-to-crossflow momentum ratio and buoyancy effects on the flame structure. The low gravity conditions (10-30 milli-g) are achieved by dropping a self-contained jet flame rig in the University of Texas 1.25-second drop tower facility. This rig uses a small blow-through wind tunnel to create the crossflow. The jet flames issue from an orifice that is flush with the wall. High-speed CCD imaging of jet flame luminosity is the primary diagnostic. We present results for hydrocarbon jet flames with initial jet-to-crossflow momentum ratios of 10-20. Results such as flame trajectory, flame length, large scale structure and flame tip dynamics will be presented.

  2. On the Flame Height Definition for Upward Flame Spread

    OpenAIRE

    Consalvi, Jean L; Pizzo, Yannick; Porterie, Bernard; Torero, Jose L

    2007-01-01

    Flame height is defined by the experimentalists as the average position of the luminous flame and, consequently is not directly linked with a quantitative value of a physical parameter. To determine flame heights from both numerical and theoretical results, a more quantifiable criterion is needed to define flame heights and must be in agreement with the experiments to allow comparisons. For wall flames, steady wall flame experiments revealed that flame height may be define...

  3. Time evolution of propagating nonpremixed flames in a counterflow, annular slot burner under AC electric fields

    KAUST Repository

    Tran, Vu Manh

    2016-06-19

    The mechanism behind improved flame propagation speeds under electric fields is not yet fully understood. Although evidence supports that ion movements cause ionic wind, how this wind affects flame propagation has not been addressed. Here, we apply alternating current electric fields to a gap between the upper and lower parts of a counterflow, annular slot burner and present the characteristics of the propagating nonpremixed edge-flames produced. Contrary to many other previous studies, flame displacement speed decreased with applied AC voltage, and, depending on the applied AC frequency, the trailing flame body took on an oscillatory wavy motion. When flame displacement speeds were corrected using measured unburned flow velocities, we found no significant difference in flame propagation speeds, indicating no thermal or chemical effects by electric fields on the burning velocity. Thus, we conclude that the generation of bidirectional ionic wind is responsible for the impact of electric fields on flames and that an interaction between this bidirectional ionic wind and the flame parameters creates visible and/or measurable phenomenological effects. We also explain that the presence of trailing flame bodies is a dynamic response to an electric body force on a reaction zone, an area that can be considered to have a net positively charged volume. In addition, we characterize the wavy motion of the transient flame as a relaxation time independent of mixture strength, strain rate, and Lewis number.

  4. GRAVITATIONALLY UNSTABLE FLAMES: RAYLEIGH-TAYLOR STRETCHING VERSUS TURBULENT WRINKLING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, E. P.; Rosner, R.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we provide support for the Rayleigh-Taylor-(RT)-based subgrid model used in full-star simulations of deflagrations in Type Ia supernovae explosions. We use the results of a parameter study of two-dimensional direct numerical simulations of an RT unstable model flame to distinguish between the two main types of subgrid models (RT or turbulence dominated) in the flamelet regime. First, we give scalings for the turbulent flame speed, the Reynolds number, the viscous scale, and the size of the burning region as the non-dimensional gravity (G) is varied. The flame speed is well predicted by an RT-based flame speed model. Next, the above scalings are used to calculate the Karlovitz number (Ka) and to discuss appropriate combustion regimes. No transition to thin reaction zones is seen at Ka = 1, although such a transition is expected by turbulence-dominated subgrid models. Finally, we confirm a basic physical premise of the RT subgrid model, namely, that the flame is fractal, and thus self-similar. By modeling the turbulent flame speed, we demonstrate that it is affected more by large-scale RT stretching than by small-scale turbulent wrinkling. In this way, the RT instability controls the flame directly from the large scales. Overall, these results support the RT subgrid model.

  5. Flame kernel generation and propagation in turbulent partially premixed hydrocarbon jet

    KAUST Repository

    Mansour, Mohy S.

    2014-04-23

    Flame development, propagation, stability, combustion efficiency, pollution formation, and overall system efficiency are affected by the early stage of flame generation defined as flame kernel. Studying the effects of turbulence and chemistry on the flame kernel propagation is the main aim of this work for natural gas (NG) and liquid petroleum gas (LPG). In addition the minimum ignition laser energy (MILE) has been investigated for both fuels. Moreover, the flame stability maps for both fuels are also investigated and analyzed. The flame kernels are generated using Nd:YAG pulsed laser and propagated in a partially premixed turbulent jet. The flow field is measured using 2-D PIV technique. Five cases have been selected for each fuel covering different values of Reynolds number within a range of 6100-14400, at a mean equivalence ratio of 2 and a certain level of partial premixing. The MILE increases by increasing the equivalence ratio. Near stoichiometric the energy density is independent on the jet velocity while in rich conditions it increases by increasing the jet velocity. The stability curves show four distinct regions as lifted, attached, blowout, and a fourth region either an attached flame if ignition occurs near the nozzle or lifted if ignition occurs downstream. LPG flames are more stable than NG flames. This is consistent with the higher values of the laminar flame speed of LPG. The flame kernel propagation speed is affected by both turbulence and chemistry. However, at low turbulence level chemistry effects are more pronounced while at high turbulence level the turbulence becomes dominant. LPG flame kernels propagate faster than those for NG flame. In addition, flame kernel extinguished faster in LPG fuel as compared to NG fuel. The propagation speed is likely to be consistent with the local mean equivalence ratio and its corresponding laminar flame speed. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  6. Enhancement of flame development by microwave-assisted spark ignition in constant volume combustion chamber

    KAUST Repository

    Wolk, Benjamin

    2013-07-01

    The enhancement of laminar flame development using microwave-assisted spark ignition has been investigated for methane-air mixtures at a range of initial pressures and equivalence ratios in a 1.45. l constant volume combustion chamber. Microwave enhancement was evaluated on the basis of several parameters including flame development time (FDT) (time for 0-10% of total net heat release), flame rise time (FRT) (time for 10-90% of total net heat release), total net heat release, flame kernel growth rate, flame kernel size, and ignitability limit extension. Compared to a capacitive discharge spark, microwave-assisted spark ignition extended the lean and rich ignition limits at all pressures investigated (1.08-7.22. bar). The addition of microwaves to a capacitive discharge spark reduced FDT and increased the flame kernel size for all equivalence ratios tested and resulted in increases in the spatial flame speed for sufficiently lean flames. Flame enhancement is believed to be caused by (1) a non-thermal chemical kinetic enhancement from energy deposition to free electrons in the flame front and (2) induced flame wrinkling from excitation of flame (plasma) instability. The enhancement of flame development by microwaves diminishes as the initial pressure of the mixture increases, with negligible flame enhancement observed above 3. bar. © 2013 The Combustion Institute.

  7. Opposed-flow Flame Spread Over Solid Fuels in Microgravity: the Effect of Confined Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuangfeng; Hu, Jun; Xiao, Yuan; Ren, Tan; Zhu, Feng

    2015-09-01

    Effects of confined spaces on flame spread over thin solid fuels in a low-speed opposing flow is investigated by combined use of microgravity experiments and computations. The flame behaviors are observed to depend strongly on the height of the flow tunnel. In particular, a non-monotonic trend of flame spread rate versus tunnel height is found, with the fastest flame occurring in the 3 cm high tunnel. The flame length and the total heat release rate from the flame also change with tunnel height, and a faster flame has a larger length and a higher heat release rate. The computation analyses indicate that a confined space modifies the flow around the spreading flame. The confinement restricts the thermal expansion and accelerates the flow in the streamwise direction. Above the flame, the flow deflects back from the tunnel wall. This inward flow pushes the flame towards the fuel surface, and increases oxygen transport into the flame. Such a flow modification explains the variations of flame spread rate and flame length with tunnel height. The present results suggest that the confinement effects on flame behavior in microgravity should be accounted to assess accurately the spacecraft fire hazard.

  8. Pulsating Instability of Turbulent Thermonuclear Flames in Type Ia Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poludnenko, Alexei Y.

    2014-01-01

    Presently, one of the main explosion scenarios of type Ia supernovae (SNIa), aimed at explaining both "normal" and subluminous events, is the thermonuclear incineration of a white-dwarf in a single-degenerate system. The underlying engine of such explosions is the turbulent thermonuclear flame. Modern, large-scale, multidimensional simulations of SNIa cannot resolve the internal flame structure, and instead must include a subgrid-scale prescription for the turbulent-flame properties. As a result, development of robust, parameter-free, large-scale models of SNIa crucially relies on the detailed understanding of the turbulent flame properties during each stage of the flame evolution. Due to the complexity of the flame dynamics, such understanding must be validated by the first-principles direct numerical simulations (DNS). In our previous work, we showed that sufficiently fast turbulent flames are inherently susceptible to the development of detonations, which may provide the mechanism for the deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) in the delayed-detonation model of SNIa. Here we extend this study by performing detailed analysis of the turbulent flame properties at turbulent intensities below the critical threshold for DDT. We carried out a suite of 3D DNS of turbulent flames for a broad range of turbulent intensities and system sizes using a simplified, single-step, Arrhenius-type reaction kinetics. Our results show that at the later stages of the explosion, as the turbulence intensity increases prior to the possible onset of DDT, the flame front will become violently unstable. We find that the burning rate exhibits periodic pulsations with the energy release rate varying by almost an order of magnitude. Furthermore, such flame pulsations can produce pressure waves and shocks as the flame speed approaches the critical Chapman-Jouguet deflagration speed. Finally, in contrast with the current theoretical understanding, such fast turbulent flames can propagate at

  9. Lifted Turbulent Jet Flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-14

    flame length L simultaneously with h, and measuring the visible radiation I simultaneously with h. L(t) was found to be nearly uncorrelated with h(t...variation of 7i/2 /76 with ýh. These experiments included measuring the flame length L simultaneously with h, and measuring the visible radiation I...Measurements of Liftoff Height and Flame Length ... 66 4.5 Simultaneous Measurements of Liftoff Height and Radiation ....... 71 4.6 D scussion

  10. Log-Normality and Multifractal Analysis of Flame Surface Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Abhishek; Chaudhuri, Swetaprovo; Law, Chung K.

    2013-11-01

    The turbulent flame surface is typically highly wrinkled and folded at a multitude of scales controlled by various flame properties. It is useful if the information contained in this complex geometry can be projected onto a simpler regular geometry for the use of spectral, wavelet or multifractal analyses. Here we investigate local flame surface statistics of turbulent flame expanding under constant pressure. First the statistics of local length ratio is experimentally obtained from high-speed Mie scattering images. For spherically expanding flame, length ratio on the measurement plane, at predefined equiangular sectors is defined as the ratio of the actual flame length to the length of a circular-arc of radius equal to the average radius of the flame. Assuming isotropic distribution of such flame segments we convolute suitable forms of the length-ratio probability distribution functions (pdfs) to arrive at corresponding area-ratio pdfs. Both the pdfs are found to be near log-normally distributed and shows self-similar behavior with increasing radius. Near log-normality and rather intermittent behavior of the flame-length ratio suggests similarity with dissipation rate quantities which stimulates multifractal analysis. Currently at Indian Institute of Science, India.

  11. Measurements of turbulent premixed flame dynamics using cinema stereoscopic PIV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberg, Adam M.; Driscoll, James F. [University of Michigan, Department of Aerospace Engineering, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Ceccio, Steven L. [University of Michigan, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2008-06-15

    A new experimental method is described that provides high-speed movies of turbulent premixed flame wrinkling dynamics and the associated vorticity fields. This method employs cinema stereoscopic particle image velocimetry and has been applied to a turbulent slot Bunsen flame. Three-component velocity fields were measured with high temporal and spatial resolutions of 0.9 ms and 140{mu}m, respectively. The flame-front location was determined using a new multi-step method based on particle image gradients, which is described. Comparisons are made between flame fronts found with this method and simultaneous CH-PLIF images. These show that the flame contour determined corresponds well to the true location of maximum gas density gradient. Time histories of typical eddy-flame interactions are reported and several important phenomena identified. Outwardly rotating eddy pairs wrinkle the flame and are attenuated at they pass through the flamelet. Significant flame-generated vorticity is produced downstream of the wrinkled tip. Similar wrinkles are caused by larger groups of outwardly rotating eddies. Inwardly rotating pairs cause significant convex wrinkles that grow as the flame propagates. These wrinkles encounter other eddies that alter their behavior. The effects of the hydrodynamic and diffusive instabilities are observed and found to be significant contributors to the formation and propagation of wrinkles. (orig.)

  12. Instabilities and soot formation in spherically expanding, high pressure, rich, iso-octane-air flames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockett, R D

    2006-01-01

    Flame instabilities, cellular structures and soot formed in high pressure, rich, spherically expanding iso-octane-air flames have been studied experimentally using high speed Schlieren cinematography, OH fluorescence, Mie scattering and laser induced incandescence. Cellular structures with two wavelength ranges developed on the flame surface. The larger wavelength cellular structure was produced by the Landau-Darrieus hydrodynamic instability, while the short wavelength cellular structure was produced by the thermal-diffusive instability. Large negative curvature in the short wavelength cusps caused local flame quenching and fracture of the flame surface. In rich flames with equivalence ratio φ > 1.8, soot was formed in a honeycomb-like structure behind flame cracks associated with the large wavelength cellular structure induced by the hydrodynamic instability. The formation of soot precursors through low temperature pyrolysis was suggested as a suitable mechanism for the initiation of soot formation behind the large wavelength flame cracks

  13. Instabilities and soot formation in spherically expanding, high pressure, rich, iso-octane-air flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lockett, R D [School of Engineering and Mathematical Sciences, City University, Northampton Square, London EC1V OHB (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-15

    Flame instabilities, cellular structures and soot formed in high pressure, rich, spherically expanding iso-octane-air flames have been studied experimentally using high speed Schlieren cinematography, OH fluorescence, Mie scattering and laser induced incandescence. Cellular structures with two wavelength ranges developed on the flame surface. The larger wavelength cellular structure was produced by the Landau-Darrieus hydrodynamic instability, while the short wavelength cellular structure was produced by the thermal-diffusive instability. Large negative curvature in the short wavelength cusps caused local flame quenching and fracture of the flame surface. In rich flames with equivalence ratio {phi} > 1.8, soot was formed in a honeycomb-like structure behind flame cracks associated with the large wavelength cellular structure induced by the hydrodynamic instability. The formation of soot precursors through low temperature pyrolysis was suggested as a suitable mechanism for the initiation of soot formation behind the large wavelength flame cracks.

  14. Experimental study on a comparison of typical premixed combustible gas-air flame propagation in a horizontal rectangular closed duct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Kaiqiang; Duan, Qiangling; Liew, K M; Peng, Zhongjing; Gong, Liang; Sun, Jinhua

    2017-04-05

    Research surrounding premixed flame propagation in ducts has a history of more than one hundred years. Most previous studies focus on the tulip flame formation and flame acceleration in pure gas fuel-air flame. However, the premixed natural gas-air flame may show different behaviors and pressure dynamics due to its unique composition. Natural gas, methane and acetylene are chosen here to conduct a comparison study on different flame behaviors and pressure dynamics, and to explore the influence of different compositions on premixed flame dynamics. The characteristics of flame front and pressure dynamics are recorded using high-speed schlieren photography and a pressure transducer, respectively. The results indicate that the compositions of the gas mixture greatly influence flame behaviors and pressure. Acetylene has the fastest flame tip speed and the highest pressure, while natural gas has a faster flame tip speed and higher pressure than methane. The Bychkov theory for predicting the flame skirt motion is verified, and the results indicate that the experimental data coincide well with theory in the case of equivalence ratios close to 1.00. Moreover, the Bychkov theory is able to predict flame skirt motion for acetylene, even outside of the best suitable expansion ratio range of 6

  15. Flame-Vortex Interactions Imaged in Microgravity - To Assess the Theory Flame Stretch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, James F.

    2001-01-01

    The goals of this research are to: 1) Assess the Theory of Flame Stretch by operating a unique flame-vortex experiment under microgravity conditions in the NASA Glenn 2.2 Second Drop Tower (drops to identify operating conditions have been completed); 2) Obtain high speed shadowgraph images (500-1000 frames/s) using the drop rig (images were obtained at one-g, and the NASA Kodak RO camera is being mounted on the drop rig); 3) Obtain shadowgraph and PIV images at 1-g while varying the effects of buoyancy by controlling the Froude number (completed); 4) Numerically model the inwardly-propagating spherical flame that is observed in the experiment using full chemistry and the RUN 1DL code (completed); 5) Send images of the flame shape to Dr. G. Patniak at NRL who is numerically simulating the entire flame-vortex interaction of the present experiment (data transfer completed); and 6) Assess the feasibility of obtaining PIV velocity field images in the drop rig, which would be useful (but not required) for our assessment of the Theory of Flame Stretch (PIV images were obtained at one-g using same low laser power that is available from fiber optic cable in drop tower). The motivation for the work is to obtain novel measurement needed to develop a physically accurate model of turbulent combustion that can help in the control of engine pollutants. The unique experiment allows, for the first time, the detailed study of a negatively-curved (negatively stretched) flame, which is one of the five fundamental types of premixed flames. While there have been studies of flat flames, positively-curved (outwardly-propagating) cases and positively-strained (counterflow) cases, this is the first detailed study of a negatively-curved (inwardly-propagating) flame. The first set of drops in the 2.2 Second Drop Tower showed that microgravity provides more favorable conditions for achieving inwardly-propagating flames (IPFs) than 1-g. A vortex interacts with a flame and creates a spherical

  16. Experimental and numerical study of cap-like lean limit flames in H 2 -CH 4 -air mixtures

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Zhen

    2017-11-15

    Lean limit flames of H2-CH4-air mixtures stabilized inside a tube with an inner diameter of 30 mm in a downward flow are studied experimentally and numerically. A transition from bubble-like flames, with a long decaying skirt, to cap-like flames with a sharp visible flame edge at the bottom is observed as the lean flammability limit is approached. This transition is accompanied by formation of a secondary weak flame front inside the cap-like flame. The CH* chemiluminescence distribution of the studied flames is recorded and the velocity field of the lean limit flames is measured using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The flame temperature field is measured utilizing the Rayleigh scattering method. Numerical prediction with a mixture-averaged transport model and skeletal mechanism for CH4 qualitatively reproduces the above experimentally observed phenomena. The presence of negative flame displacement speed for the entire leading edge of the cap-like flames is numerically predicted and experimentally demonstrated. The secondary weak flame front is located in a region with reverse upward flow of the recirculation zone, which is found to support the propagation of the leading edge with a negative flame displacement speed. Furthermore, radiative heat loss has a significant influence on the lean flammability limit of the cap-like flames.

  17. Influence of Turbulent Scalar Mixing Physics on Premixed Flame Propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kolla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of reactive scalar mixing physics on turbulent premixed flame propagation is studied, within the framework of turbulent flame speed modelling, by comparing predictive ability of two algebraic flame speed models: one that includes all relevant physics and the other ignoring dilatation effects on reactive scalar mixing. This study is an extension of a previous work analysing and validating the former model. The latter is obtained by neglecting modelling terms that include dilatation effects: a direct effect because of density change across the flame front and an indirect effect due to dilatation on turbulence-scalar interaction. An analysis of the limiting behaviour shows that neglecting the indirect effect alters the flame speed scaling considerably when / is small and the scaling remains unaffected when / is large. This is evident from comparisons of the two models with experimental data which show that the quantitative difference between the two models is as high as 66% at /=0.3 but only 4% at /=52.4. Furthermore, neglecting the direct effect results in a poor prediction of turbulent flame speed for all values of /, and both effects are important for practically relevant values of this velocity ratio.

  18. Stability and Behaviors of Methane/Propane and Hydrogen Micro Flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimoto, Takamitsu; Kinoshita, Koichiro; Kitamura, Hideki; Tanigawa, Ryoichi

    The flame stability limits essentially define the fundamental operation of the combustion system. Recently the micro diffusion flame has been remarked. The critical conditions of the flame stability limit are highly dependent on nozzle diameter, species of fuel and so on. The micro diffusion flame of Methane/Propane and Hydrogen is formed by using the micro-scale nozzle of which inner diameter is less than 1mm. The configurations and behaviors of the flame are observed directly and visualized by the high speed video camera The criteria of stability limits are proposed for the micro diffusion flame. The objectives of the present study are to get further understanding of lifting/blow-off for the micro diffusion flame. The results obtained are as follows. (1) The behaviors of the flames are classified into some regions for each diffusion flame. (2) The micro diffusion flame of Methane/Propane cannot be sustained, when the nozzle diameter is less than 0.14 mm. (3) The diffusion flame cannot be sustained below the critical fuel flow rate. (4) The minimum flow which is formed does not depends on the average jet velocity, but on the fuel flow rate. (5) the micro flame is laminar. The flame length is decided by fuel flow rate.

  19. Characteristics of diffusion flames with accelerated motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lou Bo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to present an experiment to study the characteristics of a laminar diffusion flame under acceleration. A Bunsen burner (nozzle diameter 8 mm, using liquefied petroleum gas as its fuel, was ignited under acceleration. The temperature field and the diffusion flame angle of inclination were visualised with the assistance of the visual display technology incorporated in MATLAB™. Results show that the 2-d temperature field under different accelerations matched the variation in average temperatures: they both experience three variations at different time and velocity stages. The greater acceleration has a faster change in average temperature with time, due to the accumulation of combustion heat: the smaller acceleration has a higher average temperature at the same speed. No matter what acceleration was used, in time, the flame angle of inclination increased, but the growth rate decreased until an angle of 90°: this could be explained by analysis of the force distribution within the flame. It is also found that, initially, the growth rate of angle with velocity under the greater acceleration was always smaller than that at lower accelerations; it was also different in flames with uniform velocity fire conditions.

  20. Unsteady Flame Embedding

    KAUST Repository

    El-Asrag, Hossam A.

    2011-01-01

    Direct simulation of all the length and time scales relevant to practical combustion processes is computationally prohibitive. When combustion processes are driven by reaction and transport phenomena occurring at the unresolved scales of a numerical simulation, one must introduce a dynamic subgrid model that accounts for the multiscale nature of the problem using information available on a resolvable grid. Here, we discuss a model that captures unsteady flow-flame interactions- including extinction, re-ignition, and history effects-via embedded simulations at the subgrid level. The model efficiently accounts for subgrid flame structure and incorporates detailed chemistry and transport, allowing more accurate prediction of the stretch effect and the heat release. In this chapter we first review the work done in the past thirty years to develop the flame embedding concept. Next we present a formulation for the same concept that is compatible with Large Eddy Simulation in the flamelet regimes. The unsteady flame embedding approach (UFE) treats the flame as an ensemble of locally one-dimensional flames, similar to the flamelet approach. However, a set of elemental one-dimensional flames is used to describe the turbulent flame structure directly at the subgrid level. The calculations employ a one-dimensional unsteady flame model that incorporates unsteady strain rate, curvature, and mixture boundary conditions imposed by the resolved scales. The model is used for closure of the subgrid terms in the context of large eddy simulation. Direct numerical simulation (DNS) data from a flame-vortex interaction problem is used for comparison. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011.

  1. Effect of Lewis number on ball-like lean limit flames

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Zhen

    2017-10-13

    The lean limit flames for three different fuel compositions premixed with air, representing three different mixture Lewis numbers, stabilized inside a tube in a downward flow are examined by experiments and numerical simulations. The CH* chemiluminescence distribution in CH4–air and CH4–H2–air flames and the OH* chemiluminescence distribution in H2–air flames are recorded in the experiments. Cell-like flames are observed for the CH4–air mixture for all tested equivalence ratios. However, for CH4–H2–air and H2–air flames, ball-like lean limit flames are observed. Flame temperature fields are measured using Rayleigh scattering. The experimentally observed lean limit flames are predicted qualitatively by numerical simulation with the mixture-averaged transport model and skeletal mechanism of CH4. The results of the simulations show that the entire lean limit flames of CH4–H2–air and H2–air mixtures are located inside a recirculation zone. However, for the lean limit CH4–air flame, only the leading edge is located inside the recirculation zone. A flame structure with negative flame displacement speed is observed for the leading edges of the predicted lean limit flames with all three different fuel compositions. As compared with 1D planar flames, the fuel transport caused by convection is less significant in the present 2D lean limit flames for the three different fuel compositions. For the trailing edges of the three predicted lean limit flames, a diffusion dominated flame structure is observed.

  2. The blow-off mechanism of a bluff-body stabilized laminar premixed flame

    KAUST Repository

    Kedia, Kushal S.

    2015-04-01

    © 2014 The Combustion Institute. The objective of this work is to investigate the dynamics leading to blow-off of a laminar premixed flame stabilized on a confined bluff-body using high fidelity numerical simulations. We used unsteady, fully resolved, two-dimensional simulations with detailed chemical kinetics and species transport for methane-air combustion. The flame-wall interaction between the hot reactants and the heat conducting bluff-body was accurately captured by incorporating the conjugate heat exchange between them. Simulations showed a shear-layer stabilized flame just downstream of the bluff-body, with a recirculation zone formed by the products of combustion. The flame was negatively stretched along its entire length, primarily dominated by the normal component of the strain. Blow-off was approached by decreasing the mixture equivalence ratio, at a fixed Reynolds number, of the incoming flow. A flame is stable (does not undergo blow-off) when (1) flame displacement speed is equal to the flow speed and (2) the gradient of the flame displacement speed normal to its surface is higher than the gradient of the flow speed along the same direction. As the equivalence ratio is reduced, the difference between the former and the latter shrinks until the dynamic stability condition (2) is violated, leading to blow-off. Blow-off initiates at a location where this is first violated along the flame. Our results showed that this location was far downstream from the flame anchoring zone, near the end of the recirculation zone. Blow-off started by flame pinching separating the flame into an upstream moving (carried within the recirculation zone) and a downstream convecting (detached from the recirculation zone) flame piece. Within the range of operating conditions investigated, the conjugate heat exchange with the bluff-body had no impact on the flame blow-off.

  3. Mode Selection in Flame-Vortex driven Combustion Instabilities

    KAUST Repository

    Speth, Ray

    2011-01-04

    In this paper, we investigate flame-vortex interaction in a lean premixed, laboratory scale, backward-facing step combustor. Two series of tests were conducted, using propane/hydrogen mixtures and carbon monoxide/hydrogen mixtures as fuels, respectively. Pressure measurements and high speed particle imaging velocimetry (PIV) were employed to generate pressure response curves as well as the images of the velocity field and the flame brush. We demonstrate that the step combustor exhibits several operating modes depending on the inlet conditions and fuel composition, characterized by the amplitude and frequency of pressure oscillations along with distinct dynamic flame shapes. We propose a model in which the combustor\\'s selection of the acoustic mode is governed by a combustion-related time delay inversely proportional to the flame speed. Our model predicts the transition between distinct operating modes. We introduce non-dimensional parameters characterizing the flame speed and stretch rate, and develop a relationship between these quantities at the operating conditions corresponding to each mode transition. Based on this relationship, we show that numerically-calculated density-weighted strained flame speed can be used to collapse the combustion dynamics data over the full range of conditions (inlet temperature, fuel composition, and equivalence ratio). Finally, we validate our strain flame based model by measuring the strain rate using the flame image and the velocity field from the PIV measurement. Our results show that the measured strain rates lie in the same range as the critical values at the transitions among distinct modes as those predicted by our model.

  4. Unsteady Flame Embedding (UFE) Subgrid Model for Turbulent Premixed Combustion Simulations

    KAUST Repository

    El-Asrag, Hossam

    2010-01-04

    We present a formulation for an unsteady subgrid model for premixed combustion in the flamelet regime. Since chemistry occurs at the unresolvable scales, it is necessary to introduce a subgrid model that accounts for the multi-scale nature of the problem using the information available on the resolved scales. Most of the current models are based on the laminar flamelet concept, and often neglect the unsteady effects. The proposed model\\'s primary objective is to encompass many of the flame/turbulence interactions unsteady features and history effects. In addition it provides a dynamic and accurate approach for computing the subgrid flame propagation velocity. The unsteady flame embedding approach (UFE) treats the flame as an ensemble of locally one-dimensional flames. A set of elemental one dimensional flames is used to describe the turbulent flame structure at the subgrid level. The stretched flame calculations are performed on the stagnation line of a strained flame using the unsteady filtered strain rate computed from the resolved- grid. The flame iso-surface is tracked using an accurate high-order level set formulation to propagate the flame interface at the coarse resolution with minimum numerical diffusion. In this paper the solver and the model components are introduced and used to investigate two unsteady flames with different Lewis numbers in the thin reaction zone regime. The results show that the UFE model captures the unsteady flame-turbulence interactions and the flame propagation speed reasonably well. Higher propagation speed is observed for the lower than unity Lewis number flame because of the impact of differential diffusion.

  5. Hydrogen-enriched non-premixed jet flames : analysis of the flame surface, flame normal, flame index and Wobbe index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ranga Dinesh, K.K.J.; Jiang, X.; Oijen, van J.A.

    2014-01-01

    A non-premixed impinging jet flame is studied using three-dimensional direct numerical simulation with detailed chemical kinetics in order to investigate the influence of fuel variability on flame surface, flame normal, flame index and Wobbe index for hydrogen-enriched combustion. Analyses indicate

  6. Validation of a mixture-averaged thermal diffusion model for premixed lean hydrogen flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlup, Jason; Blanquart, Guillaume

    2018-03-01

    The mixture-averaged thermal diffusion model originally proposed by Chapman and Cowling is validated using multiple flame configurations. Simulations using detailed hydrogen chemistry are done on one-, two-, and three-dimensional flames. The analysis spans flat and stretched, steady and unsteady, and laminar and turbulent flames. Quantitative and qualitative results using the thermal diffusion model compare very well with the more complex multicomponent diffusion model. Comparisons are made using flame speeds, surface areas, species profiles, and chemical source terms. Once validated, this model is applied to three-dimensional laminar and turbulent flames. For these cases, thermal diffusion causes an increase in the propagation speed of the flames as well as increased product chemical source terms in regions of high positive curvature. The results illustrate the necessity for including thermal diffusion, and the accuracy and computational efficiency of the mixture-averaged thermal diffusion model.

  7. A two-dimensional analytical model of laminar flame in lycopodium dust particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahbari, Alireza [Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shakibi, Ashkan [Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bidabadi, Mehdi [Combustion Research Laboratory, Narmak, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    A two-dimensional analytical model is presented to determine the flame speed and temperature distribution of micro-sized lycopodium dust particles. This model is based on the assumptions that the particle burning rate in the flame front is controlled by the process of oxygen diffusion and the flame structure consists of preheat, reaction and post flame zones. In the first step, the energy conservation equations for fuel-lean condition are expressed in two dimensions, and then these differential equations are solved using the required boundary condition and matching the temperature and heat flux at the interfacial boundaries. Consequently, the obtained flame temperature and flame speed distributions in terms of different particle diameters and equivalence ratio for lean mixture are compared with the corresponding experimental data for lycopodium dust particles. Consequently, it is shown that this two-dimensional model demonstrates better agreement with the experimental results compared to the previous models.

  8. A two-dimensional analytical model of laminar flame in lycopodium dust particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahbari, Alireza; Shakibi, Ashkan; Bidabadi, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    A two-dimensional analytical model is presented to determine the flame speed and temperature distribution of micro-sized lycopodium dust particles. This model is based on the assumptions that the particle burning rate in the flame front is controlled by the process of oxygen diffusion and the flame structure consists of preheat, reaction and post flame zones. In the first step, the energy conservation equations for fuel-lean condition are expressed in two dimensions, and then these differential equations are solved using the required boundary condition and matching the temperature and heat flux at the interfacial boundaries. Consequently, the obtained flame temperature and flame speed distributions in terms of different particle diameters and equivalence ratio for lean mixture are compared with the corresponding experimental data for lycopodium dust particles. Consequently, it is shown that this two-dimensional model demonstrates better agreement with the experimental results compared to the previous models.

  9. Unsteady Flame Embedding

    KAUST Repository

    El-Asrag, Hossam A.; Ghoniem, Ahmed F.

    2011-01-01

    simulation, one must introduce a dynamic subgrid model that accounts for the multiscale nature of the problem using information available on a resolvable grid. Here, we discuss a model that captures unsteady flow-flame interactions- including extinction, re

  10. FLAME facility: The effect of obstacles and transverse venting on flame acceleration and transition on detonation for hydrogen-air mixtures at large scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherman, M.P.; Tieszen, S.R.; Benedick, W.B.

    1989-04-01

    This report describes research on flame acceleration and deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) for hydrogen-air mixtures carried out in the FLAME facility, and describes its relevance to nuclear reactor safety. Flame acceleration and DDT can generate high peak pressures that may cause failure of containment. FLAME is a large rectangular channel 30.5 m long, 2.44 m high, and 1.83 m wide. It is closed on the ignition end and open on the far end. The three test variables were hydrogen mole fraction (12--30%), degree of transverse venting (by moving steel top plates---0%, 13%, and 50%), and the absence or presence of certain obstacles in the channel (zero or 33% blockage ratio). The most important variable was the hydrogen mole fraction. The presence of the obstacles tested greatly increased the flame speeds, overpressures, and tendency for DDT compared to similar tests without obstacles. Different obstacle configurations could have greater or lesser effects on flame acceleration and DDT. Large degrees of transverse venting reduced the flame speeds, overpressures, and possibility of DDT. For small degrees of transverse venting (13% top venting), the flame speeds and overpressures were higher than for no transverse venting with reactive mixtures (>18% H 2 ), but they were lower with leaner mixtures. The effect of the turbulence generated by the flow out the vents on increasing flame speed can be larger than the effect of venting gas out of the channel and hence reducing the overpressure. With no obstacles and 50% top venting, the flame speeds and overpressures were low, and there was no DDT. For all other cases, DDT was observed above some threshold hydrogen concentration. DDT was obtained at 15% H 2 with obstacles and no transverse venting. 67 refs., 62 figs

  11. Strained flamelets for turbulent premixed flames, I: Formulation and planar flame results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolla, H.; Swaminathan, N. [Department of Engineering, Cambridge University, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)

    2010-05-15

    A strained flamelet model is proposed for turbulent premixed flames using scalar dissipation rate as a parameter. The scalar dissipation rate of reaction progress variable is a suitable quantity to describe the flamelet structure since it is governed by convection-diffusion-reaction balance and it is defined at every location in the flamelets, which are represented by laminar flames in reactant-to-product opposed flow configuration. The mean reaction rate is obtained by using the flamelets reaction rate and the joint pdf of the progress variable and its dissipation rate. The marginal pdf of the progress variable is presumed to be {beta}-pdf and the pdf of the conditional dissipation rate is taken to be log-normal. The conditional mean dissipation rate is obtained from modelled mean dissipation rate. This reaction rate closure is assessed using RANS calculations of statistically planar flames in the corrugated flamelets and thin reaction zones regimes. The flame speeds calculated using this closure are close to the experimental data of Abdel-Gayed et al. (1987) for flames in both the regimes. Comparisons with other reaction rate closures showed the benefits of the strained flamelets approach. (author)

  12. Two-dimensional simulations of steady perforated-plate stabilized premixed flames

    KAUST Repository

    Altay, H. Murat

    2010-03-17

    The objective of this work is to examine the impact of the operating conditions and the perforated-plate design on the steady, lean premixed flame characteristics. We perform two-dimensional simulations of laminar flames using a reduced chemical kinetics mechanism for methane-air combustion, consisting of 20 species and 79 reactions. We solve the heat conduction problem within the plate, allowing heat exchange between the gas mixture and the solid plate. The physical model is based on a zero-Mach-number formulation of the axisymmetric compressible conservation equations. The results suggest that the flame consumption speed, the flame structure, and the flame surface area depend significantly on the equivalence ratio, mean inlet velocity, the distance between the perforated-plate holes and the plate thermal conductivity. In the case of an adiabatic plate, a conical flame is formed, anchored near the corner of the hole. When the heat exchange between themixture and the plate is finite, the flame acquires a Gaussian shape stabilizing at a stand-off distance, that grows with the plate conductivity. The flame tip is negatively curved; i.e. concave with respect to the reactants. Downstream of the plate, the flame base is positively curved; i.e. convex with respect to the reactants, stabilizing above a stagnation region established between neighboring holes. As the plate\\'s thermal conductivity increases, the heat flux to the plate decreases, lowering its top surface temperature. As the equivalence ratio increases, the flame moves closer to the plate, raising its temperature, and lowering the flame stand-off distance. As the mean inlet velocity increases, the flame stabilizes further downstream, the flame tip becomes sharper, hence raising the burning rate at that location. The curvature of the flame base depends on the distance between the neighboring holes; and the flame there is characterized by high concentration of intermediates, like carbon monoxide. © 2010 Taylor

  13. Experimental study of flame stability in biogas premix system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz G, Carlos A; Amell A Andres; Cardona Luis F

    2008-01-01

    Utilization of new renewable energy sources have had a special interest in last years looking for decrease the dependence of fossil fuels and the environmental impact generated for them. This work studies experimentally the flame stability of a simulated biogas with a volumetric composition of 60% methane and 40% carbon dioxide. The objective of this study is to obtain information about design and interchangeability of gases in premixed combustion systems that operate with different fuel gases. The critical velocity gradient was the stability criteria used. Utilization of this criteria and the experimental method followed, using a partial premixed burner, stability flame diagram of biogas studied had been obtained. Presence of carbon dioxide has a negative effect in flame stability, decreasing significantly the laminar flame speed and consequently, the stability range of biogas burners because of apparition of blow off.

  14. Strained flamelets for turbulent premixed flames II: Laboratory flame results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolla, H.; Swaminathan, N. [Department of Engineering, Cambridge University, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-15

    The predictive ability of strained flamelets model for turbulent premixed flames is assessed using Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) calculations of laboratory flames covering a wide range of conditions. Reactant-to-product (RtP) opposed flow laminar flames parametrised using the scalar dissipation rate of reaction progress variable are used as strained flamelets. Two turbulent flames: a rod stabilised V-flame studied by Robin et al. [Combust. Flame 153 (2008) 288-315] and a set of pilot stabilised Bunsen flames studied by Chen et al. [Combust. Flame 107 (1996) 223-244] are calculated using a single set of model parameters. The V-flame corresponds to the corrugated flamelets regime. The strained flamelet model and an unstrained flamelet model yield similar predictions which are in good agreement with experimental measurements for this flame. On the other hand, for the Bunsen flames which are in the thin reaction zones regime, the unstrained flamelet model predicts a smaller flame brush compared to experiment. The predictions of the strained flamelets model allowing for fluid-dynamics stretch induced attenuation of the chemical reaction are in good agreement with the experimental data. This model predictions of major and minor species are also in good agreement with experimental data. The results demonstrate that the strained flamelets model using the scalar dissipation rate can be used across the combustion regimes. (author)

  15. Autoignited laminar lifted flames of methane, ethylene, ethane, and n-butane jets in coflow air with elevated temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Byungchul

    2010-12-01

    The autoignition characteristics of laminar lifted flames of methane, ethylene, ethane, and n-butane fuels have been investigated experimentally in coflow air with elevated temperature over 800. K. The lifted flames were categorized into three regimes depending on the initial temperature and fuel mole fraction: (1) non-autoignited lifted flame, (2) autoignited lifted flame with tribrachial (or triple) edge, and (3) autoignited lifted flame with mild combustion. For the non-autoignited lifted flames at relatively low temperature, the existence of lifted flame depended on the Schmidt number of fuel, such that only the fuels with Sc > 1 exhibited stationary lifted flames. The balance mechanism between the propagation speed of tribrachial flame and local flow velocity stabilized the lifted flames. At relatively high initial temperatures, either autoignited lifted flames having tribrachial edge or autoignited lifted flames with mild combustion existed regardless of the Schmidt number of fuel. The adiabatic ignition delay time played a crucial role for the stabilization of autoignited flames. Especially, heat loss during the ignition process should be accounted for, such that the characteristic convection time, defined by the autoignition height divided by jet velocity was correlated well with the square of the adiabatic ignition delay time for the critical autoignition conditions. The liftoff height was also correlated well with the square of the adiabatic ignition delay time. © 2010 The Combustion Institute.

  16. Understanding premixed flame chemistry of gasoline fuels by comparing quantities of interest

    KAUST Repository

    Selim, Hatem; Mohamed, Samah; Dawood, Alaaeldin; Sarathy, Mani

    2016-01-01

    Gasoline fuels are complex mixtures that vary in composition depending on crude oil feedstocks and refining processes. Gasoline combustion in high-speed spark ignition engines is governed by flame propagation, so understanding fuel composition

  17. Turbulent jet diffusion flame length evolution with cross flows in a sub-pressure atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qiang; Hu, Longhua; Zhang, Xiaozheng; Zhang, Xiaolei; Lu, Shouxiang; Ding, Hang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Quantifying turbulent jet diffusion flame length with cross flows. • Unique data revealed for a sub-atmospheric pressure. • Non-dimensional global correlation proposed for flame trajectory-line length. - Abstract: This paper investigates the evolution characteristics of turbulent jet diffusion flame (flame trajectory-line length, flame height in vertical jet direction) with increasing cross flows in a sub-pressure (64 kPa) atmosphere. The combined effect of cross flow and a special sub-pressure atmosphere condition is revealed, where no data is available in the literatures. Experiments are carried out with a wind tunnel built specially in Lhasa city (altitude: 3650 m; pressure: 64 kPa) and in Hefei city (altitude: 50 m; pressure: 100 kPa), using nozzles with diameter of 3 mm, 4 mm and 5 mm and propane as fuel. It is found that, as cross flow air speed increases from zero, the flame trajectory-line length firstly decreases and then becomes almost stable (for relative small nozzle, 3 mm in this study) or increases (for relative large nozzle, 4 mm and 5 mm in this study) beyond a transitional critical cross flow air speed in normal pressure, however decreases monotonically until being blown-out in the sub-pressure atmosphere. The flame height in jet direction decreases monotonically with cross air flow speed and then reaches a steady value in both pressures. For the transitional state of flame trajectory-line length with increasing cross air flow speed, the corresponding critical cross flow air speed is found to be proportional to the fuel jet velocity, meanwhile independent of nozzle diameter. Correlation models are proposed for the flame height in jet direction and the flame trajectory-line length for both ambient pressures, which are shown to be in good agreement with the experimental results.

  18. Flaming on YouTube

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moor, Peter J.; Heuvelman, A.; Verleur, R.

    2010-01-01

    In this explorative study, flaming on YouTube was studied using surveys of YouTube users. Flaming is defined as displaying hostility by insulting, swearing or using otherwise offensive language. Three general conclusions were drawn. First, although many users said that they themselves do not flame,

  19. Stratified turbulent Bunsen flames : flame surface analysis and flame surface density modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramaekers, W.J.S.; Oijen, van J.A.; Goey, de L.P.H.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper it is investigated whether the Flame Surface Density (FSD) model, developed for turbulent premixed combustion, is also applicable to stratified flames. Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) of turbulent stratified Bunsen flames have been carried out, using the Flamelet Generated Manifold

  20. A temporal PIV study of flame/obstacle generated vortex interactions within a semi-confined combustion chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, S.; Hargrave, G. K.

    2006-01-01

    Experimental data obtained using a new multiple-camera digital particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique are presented for the interaction between a propagating flame and the turbulent recirculating velocity field generated during flame-solid obstacle interaction. The interaction between the gas movement and the obstacle creates turbulence by vortex shedding and local wake recirculations. The presence of turbulence in a flammable gas mixture can wrinkle a flame front, increasing the flame surface area and enhancing the burning rate. To investigate propagating flame/turbulence interaction, a novel multiple-camera digital PIV technique was used to provide high spatial and temporal characterization of the phenomenon for the turbulent flow field in the wake of three sequential obstacles. The technique allowed the quantification of the local flame speed and local flow velocity. Due to the accelerating nature of the explosion flow field, the wake flows develop 'transient' turbulent fields. Multiple-camera PIV provides data to define the spatial and temporal variation of both the velocity field ahead of the propagating flame and the flame front to aid the understanding of flame-vortex interaction. Experimentally obtained values for flame displacement speed and flame stretch are presented for increasing vortex complexity.

  1. Ignition parameters and early flame kernel development of laser-ignited combustible gas mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopecek, H.; Wintner, E.; Ruedisser, D.; Iskra, K.; Neger, T.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Laser induced breakdown of focused pulsed laser radiation, the subsequent plasma formation and thermalization offers a possibility of ignition of combustible gas mixtures free from electrode interferences, an arbitrary choice of the location within the medium and exact timing regardless of the degree of turbulence. The development and the decreasing costs of solid state laser technologies approach the pay-off for the higher complexity of such an ignition system due to several features unique to laser ignition. The feasability of laser ignition was demonstrated in an 1.5 MW(?) natural gas engine, and several investigations were performed to determine optimal ignition energies, focus shapes and laser wavelengths. The early flame kernel development was investigated by time resolved planar laser induced fluorescence of the OH-radical which occurs predominantly in the flame front. The flame front propagation showed typical features like toroidal initial flame development, flame front return and highly increased flame speed along the laser focus axis. (author)

  2. Turbulent structure and emissions of strongly-pulsed jet diffusion flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fregeau, Mathieu

    This current research project studied the turbulent flame structure, the fuel/air mixing, the combustion characteristics of a nonpremixed pulsed (unsteady) and unpulsed (steady) flame configuration for both normal- and microgravity conditions, as well as the flame emissions in normal gravity. The unsteady flames were fully-modulated, with the fuel flow completely shut off between injection pulses using an externally controlled valve, resulting in the generation of compact puff-like flame structures. Conducting experiments in normal and microgravity environments enabled separate control over the relevant Richardson and Reynolds numbers to clarify the influence of buoyancy on the flame behavior, mixing, and structure. Experiments were performed in normal gravity in the laboratory at the University of Washington and in microgravity using the NASA GRC 2.2-second Drop Tower facility. High-speed imaging, as well as temperature and emissions probes were used to determine the large-scale structure dynamics, the details of the flame structure and oxidizer entrainment, the combustion temperatures, and the exhaust emissions of the pulsed and steady flames. Of particular interest was the impact of changes in flame structure due to pulsing on the combustion characteristics of this system. The turbulent flame puff celerity (i.e., the bulk velocity of the puffs) was strongly impacted by the jet-off time, increasing markedly as the time between pulses was decreased, which caused the degree of puff interaction to increase and the strongly-pulsed flame to more closely resemble a steady flame. This increase occurred for all values of injection time as well as for constant fuelling rate and in both the presence and absence of buoyancy. The removal of positive buoyancy in microgravity resulted in a decrease in the flame puff celerity in all cases, amounting to as much as 40%, for both constant jet injection velocity and constant fuelling rate. The mean flame length of the strongly

  3. Direct Flame Impingement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-09-01

    During the DFI process, high velocity flame jets impinge upon the material being heated, creating a high heat transfer rate. As a result, refractory walls and exhaust gases are cooler, which increases thermal efficiency and lowers NOx emissions. Because the jet nozzles are located a few inches from the load, furnace size can be reduced significantly.

  4. Fast Hydrogen-Air Flames for Turbulence Driven Deflagration to Detonation Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Jessica; Ahmed, Kareem

    2016-11-01

    Flame acceleration to Detonation produces several combustion modes as the Deflagration-to-Detonation Transition (DDT) is initiated, including fast deflagration, auto-ignition, and quasi-detonation. Shock flame interactions and turbulence levels in the reactant mixture drive rapid flame expansion, formation of a leading shockwave and post-shock conditions. An experimental study to characterize the developing shock and flame front behavior of propagating premixed hydrogen-air flames in a square channel is presented. To produce each flame regime, turbulence levels and flame propagation velocity are controlled using perforated plates in several configurations within the experimental facility. High speed optical diagnostics including Schlieren and Particle Image Velocimetry are used to capture the flow field. In-flow pressure measurements acquired post-shock, detail the dynamic changes that occur in the compressed gas directly ahead of the propagating flame. Emphasis on characterizing the turbulent post-shock environment of the various flame regimes helps identify the optimum conditions to initiate the DDT process. The study aims to further the understanding of complex physical mechanisms that drive transient flame conditions for detonation initiation. American Chemical Society.

  5. Flame visualization in power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulshof, H J.M.; Thus, A W; Verhage, A J.L. [KEMA - Fossil Power Plants, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    1993-01-01

    The shapes and temperature of flames in power stations, fired with powder coal and gas, have been measured optically. Spectral information in the visible and near infrared is used. Coal flames are visualized in the blue part of the spectrum, natural gas flames are viewed in the light of CH-emission. Temperatures of flames are derived from the best fit of the Planck-curve to the thermal radiation spectrum of coal and char, or to that of soot in the case of gas flames. A measuring method for the velocity distribution inside a gas flame is presented, employing pulsed alkali salt injection. It has been tested on a 100 kW natural gas flame. 3 refs., 9 figs.

  6. Onset of Darrieus-Landau Instability in Expanding Flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Shikhar; Matalon, Moshe

    2017-11-01

    The effect of small amplitude perturbations on the propagation of circular flames in unconfined domains is investigated, computationally and analytically, within the context of the hydrodynamic theory. The flame, treated as a surface of density discontinuity separating fresh combustible mixture from the burnt gas, propagates at a speed dependent upon local curvature and hydrodynamic strain. For mixtures with Lewis numbers above criticality, thermodiffusive effects have stabilizing influences which largely affect the flame at small radii. The amplitude of these disturbances initially decay and only begin to grow once a critical radius is reached. This instability is hydrodynamic in nature and is a consequence of thermal expansion. Through linear stability analysis, predictions of critical flame radius at the onset of instability are obtained as functions of Markstein length and thermal expansion coefficients. The flame evolution is also examined numerically where the motion of the interface is tracked via a level-set method. Consistent with linear stability results, simulations show the flame initially remaining stable and the existence of a particular mode that will be first to grow and later determine the cellular structure observed experimentally at the onset of instability.

  7. Effects of Driving Frequency on Propagation Characteristics of Methane - Air Premixed Flame Influenced by Ultrasonic Standing Wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Jeong Soo [Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Hang Seok [Hanwha Corporation, DaeJeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    An experimental study was conducted to scrutinize the influence of the frequency of an ultrasonic standing wave on the variation in the behavior of a methane-air premixed flame. The evolutionary features of the propagating flame were captured by a high-speed camera, and the macroscopic flame behavior, including the flame structure and local velocities, was investigated in detail using a post-processing analysis of the high-speed images. It was found that a structural variation and propagation-velocity augmentation of the methane-air premixed flame were caused by the intervention of the ultrasonic standing wave, which enhanced the combustion reaction. Conclusive evidence for the dependency of the flame behaviors on the driving frequency of the ultrasonic standing wave and equivalence ratio of the reactants is presented.

  8. Automatic, non-intrusive, flame detection in pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, M.D.; Mehta, S.A.; Moore, R.G. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering; Al-Himyary, T.J. [Al-Himyary Consulting Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Flames have been known to occur within small diameter pipes operating under conditions of high turbulent flow. Although there are several methods of flame detection, few offer remote, non-line-of-site detection. In particular, combustion cannot be detected in cases where flammable mixtures are carried in flare lines, storage tank vents, air drilling or improperly designed purging operations. Combustion noise is being examined as a means to address this problem. A study was conducted in which flames within a small diameter tube were automatically detected using high speed pressure measurements and a newly developed algorithm. Commercially available, high-pressure, dynamic-pressure transducers were used for the measurements. The results of an experimental study showed that combustion noise can be distinguished from other sources of noise by its inverse power law relationship with frequency. This paper presented a newly developed algorithm which provides early detection of flames when combined with high-speed pressure measurements. The algorithm can also separate combustion noise automatically from other sources of noise when combined with other filters. In this study, the noise generated by a fluttering check valve was attenuated using a stop band filter. This detection method was found to be very reliable under the conditions tests, as long as there was no flow restriction between the sensor and the flame. A flow restriction would have resulted in the detection of only the strongest flame noise. It was shown that acoustic flame detection can be applied successfully in flare stacks, industrial burners and turbine combustors. It can be 15 times more sensitive than optical or electrical methods in diagnosing combustion problems with lean burning combustors. It may also be the only method available in applications that require remote, non-line-of-sight detection. 11 refs., 3 tabs., 15 figs.

  9. Effect of Electric Field on Outwardly Propagating Spherical Flame

    KAUST Repository

    Mannaa, Ossama

    2012-06-01

    The thesis comprises effects of electric fields on a fundamental study of spheri­cal premixed flame propagation.Outwardly-propagating spherical laminar premixed flames have been investigated in a constant volume combustion vessel by applying au uni-directional electric potential.Direct photography and schlieren techniques have been adopted and captured images were analyzed through image processing. Unstretched laminar burning velocities under the influence of electric fields and their associated Markstein length scales have been determined from outwardly prop­agating spherical flame at a constant pressure. Methane and propane fuels have been tested to assess the effect of electric fields on the differential diffusion of the two fuels.The effects of varying equivalence ratios and applied voltages have been in­vestigated, while the frequency of AC was fixed at 1 KHz. Directional propagating characteristics were analyzed to identify the electric filed effect. The flame morphology varied appreciably under the influence of electric fields which in turn affected the burning rate of mixtures.The flame front was found to propagate much faster toward to the electrode at which the electric fields were supplied while the flame speeds in the other direction were minimally influenced. When the voltage was above 7 KV the combustion is markedly enhanced in the downward direction since intense turbulence is generated and as a result the mixing process or rather the heat and mass transfer within the flame front will be enhanced.The com­bustion pressure for the cases with electric fields increased rapidly during the initial stage of combustion and was relatively higher since the flame front was lengthened in the downward direction.

  10. Highly stabilized partially premixed flames of propane in a concentric flow conical nozzle burner with coflow

    KAUST Repository

    Elbaz, Ayman M.

    2018-01-11

    Partially premixed turbulent flames with non-homogeneous jet of propane were generated in a concentric flow conical nozzle burner in order to investigate the effect of the coflow on the stability and flame structure. The flame stability is first mapped and then high-speed stereoscopic particle image velocimetry, SPIV, plus OH planar laser-induced fluorescence, OH-PLIF, measurements were conducted on a subset of four flames. The jet equivalence ratio Φ = 2, Jet exit Reynolds number Re = 10,000, and degree of premixing are kept constant for the selected flames, while the coflow velocity, Uc, is progressively changed from 0 to 15 m/s. The results showed that the flame is stable between two extinction limits of mixture inhomogeneity, and the optimum stability is obtained at certain degree of mixture inhomogeneity. Increasing Φ, increases the span between these two extinction limits, while these limits converge to a single point (corresponding to optimum mixture inhomogeneity) with increasing Re. Regardless the value of Φ, increasing the coflow velocity improves the flame stability. The correlation between recessed distance of the burner tubes and the fluctuation of the mixture fraction, Δξ, shows that at Δξ around 40% of the flammability limits leads to optimum flame stability. The time averaged SPIV results show that the coflow induces a big annular recirculation zone surrounds the jet flames. The size and the location of this zone is seen to be sensitive to Uc. However, the instantaneous images show the existence of a small vortical structure close to the shear layer, where the flame resides there in the case of no-coflow. These small vertical structures are seen playing a vital role in the flame structure, and increasing the flame corrugation close to the nozzle exit. Increasing the coflow velocity expands the central jet at the expense of the jet velocity, and drags the flame in the early flame regions towards the recirculation zone, where the flame tracks

  11. Antimony: a flame fighter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintzer, Niki E.; Guberman, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Antimony is a brittle, silvery-white semimetal that conducts heat poorly. The chemical compound antimony trioxide (Sb2O3) is widely used in plastics, rubbers, paints, and textiles, including industrial safety suits and some children’s clothing, to make them resistant to the spread of flames. Also, sodium antimonate (NaSbO3) is used during manufacturing of high-quality glass, which is found in cellular phones.

  12. Self Induced Buoyant Blow Off in Upward Flame Spread on Thin Solid Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Michael C.; T'ien, James S.; Muff, Derek E.; Olson, Sandra L.; Ferkul, Paul V.

    2013-01-01

    Upward flame spread experiments were conducted on a thin fabric cloth consisting of 75% cotton and 25% fiberglass. The sample is sandwiched symmetrically with stainless steel plates with the exposed width varying between 2 to 8.8 cm from test to test and >1.5m tall. The bottom edge was ignited resulting in a symmetric two sided flame. For the narrower samples (. 5cm), two sided flame growth would proceed until reaching some limiting value (15-30 cm depending on sample width). Fluctuation or instability of the flame base on one side would initially become visible and then the flame base would retreat downstream and cause extinguishment on one side. Detailed examination of the still images shows that the fuel continues to vaporize from the extinguished side due to the thermally thin nature of the fuel. But, due to the remaining inert fiberglass mesh, which acts as a flashback arrestor, the extinguished side was not able to be reignited by the remaining flame. The remaining flame would then shrink in length due to the reduced heat transfer to the solid to a shorter length. The one-sided flame will spread stably with a constant speed and a constant flame length to the end of the sample. A constant length flame implies that the pyrolysis front and the burnt out fronts move at the same speed. For the wider samples (. 7cm), no one-sided extinction is observed. Two-sided flames spread all the way to the top of the sample. For these wider widths, the flames are still growing and have not reached their limiting length if it exists. Care was taken to minimize the amount of non-symmetries in the experimental configuration. Repeated tests show that blow-off can occur on either side of the sample. The flame growth is observed to be very symmetric during the growth phase and grew to significant length (>10cm) before extinction of the flame on one side. Our proposed explanation of this unusual phenomenon (i.e. stronger two ]sided flame cannot exist but weaker one-sided flame can

  13. Subwoofer and nanotube butterfly acoustic flame extinction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aliev, Ali E.; Mayo, Nathanael K.; Baughman, Ray H.; Mills, Brent T.; Habtour, Ed

    2017-01-01

    Nonchemical flame control using acoustic waves from a subwoofer and a lightweight carbon nanotube thermoacoustic projector was demonstrated. The intent was to manipulate flame intensity, direction and propagation. The mechanisms of flame suppression using low frequency acoustic waves were discussed.

  14. DNS of spark ignition and edge flame propagation in turbulent droplet-laden mixing layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neophytou, A.; Mastorakos, E.; Cant, R.S. [Hopkinson Laboratory, Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2010-06-15

    A parametric study of forced ignition at the mixing layer between air and air carrying fine monosized fuel droplets is done through one-step chemistry direct numerical simulations to determine the influence of the size and volatility of the droplets, the spark location, the droplet-air mixing layer initial thickness and the turbulence intensity on the ignition success and the subsequent flame propagation. The propagation is analyzed in terms of edge flame displacement speed, which has not been studied before for turbulent edge spray flames. Spark ignition successfully resulted in a tribrachial flame if enough fuel vapour was available at the spark location, which occurred when the local droplet number density was high. Ignition was achieved even when the spark was offset from the spray, on the air side, due to the diffusion of heat from the spark, provided droplets evaporated rapidly. Large kernels were obtained by sparking close to the spray, since fuel was more readily available. At long times after the spark, for all flames studied, the probability density function of the displacement speed was wide, with a mean value in the range 0.55-0.75S{sub L}, with S{sub L} the laminar burning velocity of a stoichiometric gaseous premixed flame. This value is close to the mean displacement speed in turbulent edge flames with gaseous fuel. The displacement speed was negatively correlated with curvature. The detrimental effect of curvature was attenuated with a large initial kernel and by increasing the thickness of the mixing layer. The mixing layer was thicker when evaporation was slow and the turbulence intensity higher. However, high turbulence intensity also distorted the kernel which could lead to high values of curvature. The edge flame reaction component increased when the maximum temperature coincided with the stoichiometric contour. The results are consistent with the limited available experimental evidence and provide insights into the processes associated with

  15. Experimental and numerical study on premixed hydrogen/air flame propagation in a horizontal rectangular closed duct

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Huahua; Wang, Qingsong; He, Xuechao; Sun, Jinhua; Yao, Liyin [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)

    2010-02-15

    Hydrogen is a promising energy in the future, and it is desirable to characterize the combustion behavior of its blends with air. The premixed hydrogen/air flame microstructure and propagation in a horizontal rectangular closed duct were recorded using high-speed video and Schlieren device. Numerical simulation was also performed on Fluent CFD code to compare with the experimental result. A tulip flame is formed during the flame propagating, and then the tulip flame formation mechanism was proposed based on the analysis. The induced reverse flow and vortex motion were observed both in experiment and simulation. The interactions among the flame, reverse flow and vortices in the burned gas change the flame shape and ultimately it develops into a tulip flame. During the formation of the tulip flame, the tulip cusp slows down and stops moving after its slightly forward moving, and then, it starts to move backward and keeps on a longer time, after that, it moves forward again. The structure of the tulip flame is becoming less stable with its length decreasing in flame propagation direction. The flame thickness increases gradually which is due to turbulence combustion. (author)

  16. On the theory of turbulent flame velocity

    OpenAIRE

    Bychkov, Vitaly; Akkerman, Vyacheslav; Petchenko, Arkady

    2012-01-01

    The renormalization ideas of self-similar dynamics of a strongly turbulent flame front are applied to the case of a flame with realistically large thermal expansion of the burning matter. In that case a flame front is corrugated both by external turbulence and the intrinsic flame instability. The analytical formulas for the velocity of flame propagation are obtained. It is demonstrated that the flame instability is of principal importance when the integral turbulent length scale is much large...

  17. Investigation of a flame holder geometry effect on flame structure in non-premixed combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashemi, S. A.; Hajialigol, N.; Fattahi, A.; Heydari, R.; Mazaheri, K.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the effect of flame holder geometry on flame structure is studied. The obtained numerical results using realizable k-ε and β-PDF models show a good agreement with experimental data. The results show that increasing in flame holder length decreases flame length and increases flame temperature. Additionally, it is observed that flame lengths decrease by increasing in flame holder radius and increase for larger radii. Furthermore in various radii, the flame temperature is higher for smaller flame lengths. It was found that behavior of flame structure is mainly affected by the mass flow rate of hot gases that come near the reactant by the recirculation zone.

  18. Investigation of a flame holder geometry effect on flame structure in non-premixed combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashemi, S. A.; Hajialigol, N.; Fattahi, A.; Heydari, R. [University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mazaheri, K. [University of Tarbiat Moddares, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    In this paper the effect of flame holder geometry on flame structure is studied. The obtained numerical results using realizable k-ε and β-PDF models show a good agreement with experimental data. The results show that increasing in flame holder length decreases flame length and increases flame temperature. Additionally, it is observed that flame lengths decrease by increasing in flame holder radius and increase for larger radii. Furthermore in various radii, the flame temperature is higher for smaller flame lengths. It was found that behavior of flame structure is mainly affected by the mass flow rate of hot gases that come near the reactant by the recirculation zone.

  19. Flame acceleration of hydrogen - air - diluent mixtures at middle scale using ENACCEF: experiments and modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrice Malet; Nathalie Lamoureux; Nabiha Djebaili-Chaumeix; Claude-Etienne Paillard; Pierre Pailhories; Jean-Pierre L'heriteau; Bernard Chaumont; Ahmed Bentaib

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: In the case of hypothetic severe accident on light water nuclear reactor, hydrogen would be produced during reactor core degradation and released to the reactor building which could subsequently raise a combustion hazard. A local ignition of the combustible mixture would give birth initially to a slow flame which can be accelerated due to turbulence. Depending on the geometry and the premixed combustible mixture composition, the flame can accelerate and for some conditions transit to detonation or be quenched after a certain distance. The flame acceleration is responsible for the generation of high pressure loads that could damage the reactor's building. Moreover, geometrical configuration is a major factor leading to flame acceleration. Thus, recording experimental data notably on mid-size installations is required for the numeric simulations validation before modelling realistic scales. The ENACCEF vertical facility is a 6 meters high acceleration tube aimed at representing steam generator room leading to containment dome. This setup can be equipped with obstacles of different blockage ratios and shapes in order to obtain an acceleration of the flame. Depending on the geometrical characteristics of these obstacles, different regimes of the flame propagation can be achieved. The mixture composition's influence on flame velocity and acceleration has been investigated. Using a steam physical-like diluent (40% He - 60% CO 2 ), influence of dilution on flame speed and acceleration has been investigated. The flame front has also been recorded with ultra fast ombroscopy visualization, both in the tube and in dome's the entering. The flame propagation is computed using the TONUS code. Based on Euler's equation solving code using structured finite volumes, it includes the CREBCOM flames modelling and simulates the hydrogen/air turbulent flame propagation, taking into account 3D complex geometry and reactants concentration gradients. Since

  20. Polydisperse effects in jet spray flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Noam; Greenberg, J. Barry

    2018-01-01

    A laminar jet polydisperse spray diffusion flame is analysed mathematically for the first time using an extension of classical similarity solutions for gaseous jet flames. The analysis enables a comparison to be drawn between conditions for flame stability or flame blow-out for purely gaseous flames and for spray flames. It is found that, in contrast to the Schmidt number criteria relevant to gas flames, droplet size and initial spray polydispersity play a critical role in determining potential flame scenarios. Some qualitative agreement for lift-off height is found when comparing predictions of the theory and sparse independent experimental evidence from the literature.

  1. Propagation of a premixed flame in a divided-chamber combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattolica, R. J.; Barr, P. K.; Mansour, N. N.

    1989-01-01

    Experimental observations on the propagation of lean premixed ethylene-air flames in a divided-chamber combustion vessel have been compared with the results of numerical simulations based on a flame sheet-vortex dynamics model in axisymmetric coordinates. Flame speeds were found to increase from 10-24 cm/s as the equivalence ratio was varied from 0.5-0.65 in the experiments. Using the associated increase in gas velocity with equivalence ratio, the estimated Reynolds number in the experiment was changed from 1870 to 8090. Good agreement between experimental and theoretical results was obtained for the prechamber flame propagation rates and for the spatial and temporal development of the flame in the main combustion chamber at the lowest Reynolds number.

  2. Characteristics of sound radiation from turbulent premixed flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaram, Rajesh

    Turbulent combustion processes are inherently unsteady and, thus, a source of acoustic radiation, which occurs due to the unsteady expansion of reacting gases. While prior studies have extensively characterized the total sound power radiated by turbulent flames, their spectral characteristics are not well understood. The objective of this research work is to measure the flow and acoustic properties of an open turbulent premixed jet flame and explain the spectral trends of combustion noise. The flame dynamics were characterized using high speed chemiluminescence images of the flame. A model based on the solution of the wave equation with unsteady heat release as the source was developed and was used to relate the measured chemiluminescence fluctuations to its acoustic emission. Acoustic measurements were performed in an anechoic environment for several burner diameters, flow velocities, turbulence intensities, fuels, and equivalence ratios. The acoustic emissions are shown to be characterized by four parameters: peak frequency (Fpeak), low frequency slope (beta), high frequency slope (alpha) and Overall Sound Pressure Level (OASPL). The peak frequency (Fpeak) is characterized by a Strouhal number based on the mean velocity and a flame length. The transfer function between the acoustic spectrum and the spectrum of heat release fluctuations has an f2 dependence at low frequencies, while it converged to a constant value at high frequencies. Furthermore, the OASPL was found to be characterized by (Fpeak mfH)2, which resembles the source term in the wave equation.

  3. Turbulent Premixed Flame Propagation in Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, S.; Disseau, M.; Chakravarthy, V. K.; Jagoda, J.

    1997-01-01

    A facility in which turbulent Couette flow could be generated in a microgravity environment was designed and built. To fit into the NASA Lewis drop tower the device had to be very compact. This means that edge effects and flow re-circulation were expected to affect the flow. The flow was thoroughly investigated using LDV and was found to be largely two dimensional away from the edges with constant turbulence intensities in the core. Slight flow asymmetries are introduced by the non symmetric re-circulation of the fluid outside the test region. Belt flutter problems were remedied by adding a pair of guide plates to the belt. In general, the flow field was found to be quite similar to previously investigated Couette flows. However, turbulence levels and associated shear stresses were higher. This is probably due to the confined re-circulation zone reintroducing turbulence into the test section. An estimate of the length scales in the flow showed that the measurements were able to resolve nearly all the length scales of interest. Using a new LES method for subgrid combustion it has been demonstrated that the new procedure is computational feasible even on workstation type environment. It is found that this model is capable of capturing the propagation of the premixed names by resolving the flame in the LES grid within 2-3 grid points. In contrast, conventional LES results in numerical smearing of the flame and completely inaccurate estimate of the turbulent propagation speed. Preliminary study suggests that there is observable effect of buoyancy in the 1g environment suggesting the need for microgravity experiments of the upcoming experimental combustion studies. With the cold flow properties characterized, an identical hot flow facility is under construction. It is assumed that the turbulence properties ahead of the flame in this new device will closely match the results obtained here. This is required since the hot facility will not enable LDV measurements. The

  4. Asymptotic analysis to the effect of temperature gradient on the propagation of triple flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Malki, Faisal

    2018-05-01

    We study asymptotically in this paper the influence of the temperature gradient across the mixing layer on the propagation triple flames formed inside a porous wall channel. The study begins by formulating the problem mathematically using the thermo-diffusive model and then presents a thorough asymptotic analysis of the problem in the limit of large activation energy and thin flames. Analytical formulae for the local burning speed, the flame shape and the propagation speed in terms of the temperature gradient parameter have been derived. It was shown that varying the feed temperatures can significantly enhance the burning of the reactants up to a critical threshold, beyond which no solutions can be obtained. In addition, the study showed that increasing the temperature at the boundaries will modify the usual triple structure of the flame by inverting the upper premixed branch and extending it to the boundary, which may have great implications on the safety of the adopted combustion chambers.

  5. On flame kernel formation and propagation in premixed gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisazadeh-Far, Kian; Metghalchi, Hameed [Northeastern University, Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Department, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Parsinejad, Farzan [Chevron Oronite Company LLC, Richmond, CA 94801 (United States); Keck, James C. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    Flame kernel formation and propagation in premixed gases have been studied experimentally and theoretically. The experiments have been carried out at constant pressure and temperature in a constant volume vessel located in a high speed shadowgraph system. The formation and propagation of the hot plasma kernel has been simulated for inert gas mixtures using a thermodynamic model. The effects of various parameters including the discharge energy, radiation losses, initial temperature and initial volume of the plasma have been studied in detail. The experiments have been extended to flame kernel formation and propagation of methane/air mixtures. The effect of energy terms including spark energy, chemical energy and energy losses on flame kernel formation and propagation have been investigated. The inputs for this model are the initial conditions of the mixture and experimental data for flame radii. It is concluded that these are the most important parameters effecting plasma kernel growth. The results of laminar burning speeds have been compared with previously published results and are in good agreement. (author)

  6. An Experimental Study of the Structure of Turbulent Non-Premixed Jet Flames in Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxx, Isaac; Idicheria, Cherian; Clemens, Noel

    2000-11-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate the structure of transitional and turbulent non-premixed jet flames under microgravity conditions. The microgravity experiments are being conducted using a newly developed drop rig and the University of Texas 1.5 second drop tower. The rig itself measures 16”x33”x38” and contains a co-flowing round jet flame facility, flow control system, CCD camera, and data/image acquisition computer. These experiments are the first phase of a larger study being conducted at the NASA Glenn Research Center 2.2 second drop tower facility. The flames being studied include methane and propane round jet flames at jet exit Reynolds numbers as high as 10,000. The primary diagnostic technique employed is emission imaging of flame luminosity using a relatively high-speed (350 fps) CCD camera. The high-speed images are used to study flame height, flame tip dynamics and burnout characteristics. Results are compared to normal gravity experimental results obtained in the same apparatus.

  7. Development and application of a computer model for large-scale flame acceleration experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marx, K.D.

    1987-07-01

    A new computational model for large-scale premixed flames is developed and applied to the simulation of flame acceleration experiments. The primary objective is to circumvent the necessity for resolving turbulent flame fronts; this is imperative because of the relatively coarse computational grids which must be used in engineering calculations. The essence of the model is to artificially thicken the flame by increasing the appropriate diffusivities and decreasing the combustion rate, but to do this in such a way that the burn velocity varies with pressure, temperature, and turbulence intensity according to prespecified phenomenological characteristics. The model is particularly aimed at implementation in computer codes which simulate compressible flows. To this end, it is applied to the two-dimensional simulation of hydrogen-air flame acceleration experiments in which the flame speeds and gas flow velocities attain or exceed the speed of sound in the gas. It is shown that many of the features of the flame trajectories and pressure histories in the experiments are simulated quite well by the model. Using the comparison of experimental and computational results as a guide, some insight is developed into the processes which occur in such experiments. 34 refs., 25 figs., 4 tabs

  8. Experimental and numerical study of premixed hydrogen/air flame propagating in a combustion chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Huahua; Sun, Jinhua; Chen, Peng

    2014-03-15

    An experimental and numerical study of dynamics of premixed hydrogen/air flame in a closed explosion vessel is described. High-speed shlieren cinematography and pressure recording are used to elucidate the dynamics of the combustion process in the experiment. A dynamically thickened flame model associated with a detailed reaction mechanism is employed in the numerical simulation to examine the flame-flow interaction and effect of wall friction on the flame dynamics. The shlieren photographs show that the flame develops into a distorted tulip shape after a well-pronounced classical tulip front has been formed. The experimental results reveal that the distorted tulip flame disappears with the primary tulip cusp and the distortions merging into each other, and then a classical tulip is repeated. The combustion dynamics is reasonably reproduced in the numerical simulations, including the variations in flame shape and position, pressure build-up and periodically oscillating behavior. It is found that both the tulip and distorted tulip flames can be created in the simulation with free-slip boundary condition at the walls of the vessel and behave in a manner quite close to that in the experiments. This means that the wall friction could be unimportant for the tulip and distorted tulip formation although the boundary layer formed along the sidewalls has an influence to a certain extent on the flame behavior near the sidewalls. The distorted tulip flame is also observed to be produced in the absence of vortex flow in the numerical simulations. The TF model with a detailed chemical scheme is reliable for investigating the dynamics of distorted tulip flame propagation and its underlying mechanism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Mechanistic aspects of ionic reactions in flames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egsgaard, H.; Carlsen, L.

    1993-01-01

    Some fundamentals of the ion chemistry of flames are summarized. Mechanistic aspects of ionic reactions in flames have been studied using a VG PlasmaQuad, the ICP-system being substituted by a simple quartz burner. Simple hydrocarbon flames as well as sulfur-containing flames have been investigated...

  10. Examining flow-flame interaction and the characteristic stretch rate in vortex-driven combustion dynamics using PIV and numerical simulation

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Seunghyuck; Speth, Raymond L.; Shanbhogue, Santosh J.; Ghoniem, Ahmed F.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we experimentally investigate the combustion dynamics in lean premixed flames in a laboratory scale backward-facing step combustor in which flame-vortex driven dynamics are observed. A series of tests was conducted using propane/hydrogen/air mixtures for various mixture compositions at the inlet temperature ranging from 300K to 500K and at atmospheric pressure. Pressure measurements and high speed particle image velocimetry (PIV) are used to generate pressure response curves and phase-averaged vorticity and streamlines as well as the instantaneous flame front, respectively, which describe unsteady flame and flow dynamics in each operating regime. This work was motivated in part by our earlier study where we showed that the strained flame consumption speed Sc can be used to collapse the pressure response curves over a wide range of operating conditions. In previous studies, the stretch rate at which Sc was computed was determined by trial and error. In this study, flame stretch is estimated using the instantaneous flame front and velocity field from the PIV measurement. Independently, we also use computed strained flame speed and the experimental data to determine the characteristic values of stretch rate near the mode transition points at which the flame configuration changes. We show that a common value of the characteristic stretch rate exists across all the flame configurations. The consumption speed computed at the characteristic stretch rate captures the impact of different operating parameters on the combustor dynamics. These results suggest that the unsteady interactions between the turbulent flow and the flame dynamics can be encapsulated in the characteristic stretch rate, which governs the critical flame speed at the mode transitions and thereby plays an important role in determining the stability characteristics of the combustor. © 2013 The Combustion Institute.

  11. Examining flow-flame interaction and the characteristic stretch rate in vortex-driven combustion dynamics using PIV and numerical simulation

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Seunghyuck

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, we experimentally investigate the combustion dynamics in lean premixed flames in a laboratory scale backward-facing step combustor in which flame-vortex driven dynamics are observed. A series of tests was conducted using propane/hydrogen/air mixtures for various mixture compositions at the inlet temperature ranging from 300K to 500K and at atmospheric pressure. Pressure measurements and high speed particle image velocimetry (PIV) are used to generate pressure response curves and phase-averaged vorticity and streamlines as well as the instantaneous flame front, respectively, which describe unsteady flame and flow dynamics in each operating regime. This work was motivated in part by our earlier study where we showed that the strained flame consumption speed Sc can be used to collapse the pressure response curves over a wide range of operating conditions. In previous studies, the stretch rate at which Sc was computed was determined by trial and error. In this study, flame stretch is estimated using the instantaneous flame front and velocity field from the PIV measurement. Independently, we also use computed strained flame speed and the experimental data to determine the characteristic values of stretch rate near the mode transition points at which the flame configuration changes. We show that a common value of the characteristic stretch rate exists across all the flame configurations. The consumption speed computed at the characteristic stretch rate captures the impact of different operating parameters on the combustor dynamics. These results suggest that the unsteady interactions between the turbulent flow and the flame dynamics can be encapsulated in the characteristic stretch rate, which governs the critical flame speed at the mode transitions and thereby plays an important role in determining the stability characteristics of the combustor. © 2013 The Combustion Institute.

  12. Autoignition characteristics of laminar lifted jet flames of pre-vaporized iso-octane in heated coflow air

    KAUST Repository

    Alnoman, Saeed

    2015-12-01

    The stabilization characteristics of laminar non-premixed jet flames of pre-vaporized iso-octane, one of the primary reference fuels for octane rating, have been studied experimentally in heated coflow air. Non-autoignited and autoignited lifted flames were analyzed. With the coflow air at relatively low initial temperatures below 940 K, an external ignition source was required to stabilize the flame. These lifted flames had tribrachial edge structures and their liftoff heights correlated well with the jet velocity scaled by stoichiometric laminar burning velocity, indicating the importance of the edge propagation speed on flame stabilization. At high initial temperatures over 940 K, the autoignited flames were stabilized without requiring an external ignition source. These autoignited lifted flames exhibited either tribrachial edge structures or mild combustion behaviors depending on the level of fuel dilution. Two distinct transition behaviors were observed in the autoignition regime from a nozzle-attached flame to a lifted tribrachial-edge flame and then to lifted mild combustion as the jet velocity increased at a certain fuel dilution level. The liftoff data of the autoignited flames with tribrachial edges were analyzed based on calculated ignition delay times. Analysis of the experimental data suggested that ignition delay time may be much less sensitive to initial temperature under atmospheric pressure conditions as compared with predictions. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Effects of Buoyancy on Characteristics of Turbulent Nonpremixed Jet Flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idicheria, Cherian; Boxx, Isaac; Clemens, Noel

    2002-11-01

    This work addresses the influence of buoyant forces on the underlying structure of turbulent nonpremixed jet flames. Buoyancy effects are investigated by studying transitional and turbulent propane and ethylene flames (Re_D=2500-10500) at normal, low and microgravity conditions. The reduced gravity experiments are conducted by dropping a combustion rig in the University of Texas 1.25-second drop tower and the NASA Glenn 2.2-second drop tower. The diagnostic employed is high-speed luminosity imaging using a CCD camera. The images obtained are used to compare flame length, mean, RMS and flame tip oscillation characteristics The results showed that, in contrast to previous studies, the high Reynolds number flames at all gravity levels were essentially identical. Furthermore, the parameter ξL (Becker and Yamazaki, 1978) is sufficient for quantifying the effects of buoyancy on the flame characteristics. The large-scale structure and flame tip dynamics are essentially identical to those of purely momentum driven flames provided ξL is less than approximately 3.

  14. Effect of Soret diffusion on lean hydrogen/air flames at normal and elevated pressure and temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Zhen; Hernandez Perez, Francisco; Shoshin, Yuriy; van Oijen, Jeroen A.; de Goey, Laurentius P.H.

    2017-01-01

    The influence of Soret diffusion on lean premixed flames propagating in hydrogen/air mixtures is numerically investigated with a detailed chemical and transport models at normal and elevated pressure and temperature. The Soret diffusion influence on the one-dimensional (1D) flame mass burning rate and two-dimensional (2D) flame propagating characteristics is analysed, revealing a strong dependency on flame stretch rate, pressure and temperature. For 1D flames, at normal pressure and temperature, with an increase of Karlovitz number from 0 to 0.4, the mass burning rate is first reduced and then enhanced by Soret diffusion of H2 while it is reduced by Soret diffusion of H. The influence of Soret diffusion of H2 is enhanced by pressure and reduced by temperature. On the contrary, the influence of Soret diffusion of H is reduced by pressure and enhanced by temperature. For 2D flames, at normal pressure and temperature, during the early phase of flame evolution, flames with Soret diffusion display more curved flame cells. Pressure enhances this effect, while temperature reduces it. The influence of Soret diffusion of H2 on the global consumption speed is enhanced at elevated pressure. The influence of Soret diffusion of H on the global consumption speed is enhanced at elevated temperature. The flame evolution is more affected by Soret diffusion in the early phase of propagation than in the long run due to the local enrichment of H2 caused by flame curvature effects. The present study provides new insights into the Soret diffusion effect on the characteristics of lean hydrogen/air flames at conditions that are relevant to practical applications, e.g. gas engines and turbines.

  15. Effect of Soret diffusion on lean hydrogen/air flames at normal and elevated pressure and temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Zhen

    2017-04-12

    The influence of Soret diffusion on lean premixed flames propagating in hydrogen/air mixtures is numerically investigated with a detailed chemical and transport models at normal and elevated pressure and temperature. The Soret diffusion influence on the one-dimensional (1D) flame mass burning rate and two-dimensional (2D) flame propagating characteristics is analysed, revealing a strong dependency on flame stretch rate, pressure and temperature. For 1D flames, at normal pressure and temperature, with an increase of Karlovitz number from 0 to 0.4, the mass burning rate is first reduced and then enhanced by Soret diffusion of H2 while it is reduced by Soret diffusion of H. The influence of Soret diffusion of H2 is enhanced by pressure and reduced by temperature. On the contrary, the influence of Soret diffusion of H is reduced by pressure and enhanced by temperature. For 2D flames, at normal pressure and temperature, during the early phase of flame evolution, flames with Soret diffusion display more curved flame cells. Pressure enhances this effect, while temperature reduces it. The influence of Soret diffusion of H2 on the global consumption speed is enhanced at elevated pressure. The influence of Soret diffusion of H on the global consumption speed is enhanced at elevated temperature. The flame evolution is more affected by Soret diffusion in the early phase of propagation than in the long run due to the local enrichment of H2 caused by flame curvature effects. The present study provides new insights into the Soret diffusion effect on the characteristics of lean hydrogen/air flames at conditions that are relevant to practical applications, e.g. gas engines and turbines.

  16. Role of the outer-edge flame on flame extinction in nitrogen-diluted non-premixed counterflow flames with finite burner diameters

    KAUST Repository

    Chung, Yong Ho; Park, Daegeun; Park, Jeong; Kwon, Oh Boong; Yun, Jin Han; Keel, Sang In

    2013-01-01

    This study of nitrogen-diluted non-premixed counterflow flames with finite burner diameters investigates the important role of the outer-edge flame on flame extinction through experimental and numerical analyses. It explores flame stability diagrams

  17. Flame spraying of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varacalle, D.J. Jr.; Zeek, D.P.; Couch, K.W.; Benson, D.M.; Kirk, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    Statistical design-of-experiment studies of the thermal spraying of polymer powders are presented. Studies of the subsonic combustion (i.e., Flame) process were conducted in order to determine the quality and economics of polyester and urethane coatings. Thermally sprayed polymer coatings are of interest to several industries for anticorrosion applications, including the chemical, automotive, and aircraft industries. In this study, the coating design has been optimized for a site-specific application using Taguchi-type fractional-factorial experiments. Optimized coating designs are presented for the two powder systems. A substantial range of thermal processing conditions and their effect on the resultant polymer coatings is presented. The coatings were characterized by optical metallography, hardness testing, tensile testing, and compositional analysis. Characterization of the coatings yielded the thickness, bond strength, Knoop microhardness, roughness, deposition efficiency, and porosity. Confirmation testing was accomplished to verify the coating designs

  18. Physical and Chemical Processes in Turbulent Flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-23

    equiangular sectors, defined as the ratio of the actual flame length to the length of a circular-arc of radius equal to the average flame radius. Assuming... flame length ratio obtained directly from the experiments, without any assumption. As explained earlier (Eq. 2.8) the length ratio, (LR=dl(G0)/dl0) is...spherically expanding flames, with the length ratio on the measurement plane, at predefined equiangular sectors, defined as the ratio of the actual flame length to

  19. Numerical analysis of flow fields generated by accelerating flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurylo, J.

    1977-12-01

    Presented here is a numerical technique for the analysis of non-steady flow fields generated by accelerating flames in gaseous media. Of particular interest in the study is the evaluation of the non-steady effects on the flow field and the possible transition of the combustion process to detonation caused by an abrupt change in the burning speed of an initially steady flame propagating in an unconfined combustible gas mixture. Optically recorded observations of accelerating flames established that the flow field can be considered to consist of non-steady flow fields associated with an assembly of interacting shock waves, contact discontinuities, deflagration and detonation fronts. In the analysis, these flow fields are treated as spatially one-dimensional, the influence of transport phenomena is considered to be negligible, and unburned and burned substances are assumed to behave as perfect gases with constant, but different, specific heats. The basis of the numerical technique is an explicit, two step, second order accurate, finite difference scheme employed to integrate the flow field equations expressed in divergence form. The burning speed, governing the motion of the deflagration, is expressed in the form of a power law dependence on pressure and temperature immediately ahead of its front. The steady wave solution is obtained by the vector polar interaction technique, that is, by determining the point of intersection between the loci of end states in the plane of the two interaction invariants, pressure and particle velocity. The technique is illustrated by a numerical example in which a steady flame experiences an abrupt change in its burning speed. Solutions correspond either to the eventual reestablishment of a steady state flow field commensurate with the burning speed or to the transition to detonation. The results are in satisfactory agreement with experimental observations.

  20. Neurotoxicity of brominated flame retardants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been commonly used as commercial flame retardants in a variety of products including plastics and textiles. Despite their decreasing usage worldwide, congeners continue to accumulate in the environment, including soil, dust, food, anima...

  1. Extinction of laminar partially premixed flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aggarwal, Suresh K. [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, 842 W. Taylor Street, Room 2039, MC-251, Chicago, IL 60607-7022 (United States)

    2009-12-15

    Flame extinction represents one of the classical phenomena in combustion science. It is important to a variety of combustion systems in transportation and power generation applications. Flame extinguishment studies are also motivated from the consideration of fire safety and suppression. Such studies have generally considered non-premixed and premixed flames, although fires can often originate in a partially premixed mode, i.e., fuel and oxidizer are partially premixed as they are transported to the reaction zone. Several recent investigations have considered this scenario and focused on the extinction of partially premixed flames (PPFs). Such flames have been described as hybrid flames possessing characteristics of both premixed and non-premixed flames. This paper provides a review of studies dealing with the extinction of PPFs, which represent a broad family of flames, including double, triple (tribrachial), and edge flames. Theoretical, numerical and experimental studies dealing with the extinction of such flames in coflow and counterflow configurations are discussed. Since these flames contain both premixed and non-premixed burning zones, a brief review of the dilution-induced extinction of premixed and non-premixed flames is also provided. For the coflow configuration, processes associated with flame liftoff and blowout are described. Since lifted non-premixed jet flames often contain a partially premixed or an edge-flame structure prior to blowout, the review also considers such flames. While the perspective of this review is broad focusing on the fundamental aspects of flame extinction and blowout, results mostly consider flame extinction caused by the addition of a flame suppressant, with relevance to fire suppression on earth and in space environment. With respect to the latter, the effect of gravity on the extinction of PPFs is discussed. Future research needs are identified. (author)

  2. Combustion instabilities in sudden expansion oxy-fuel flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ditaranto, Mario; Hals, Joergen [Department of Energy Processes, SINTEF Energy Research, 7465 Trondheim (Norway)

    2006-08-15

    An experimental study on combustion instability is presented with focus on oxy-fuel type combustion. Oxidants composed of CO{sub 2}/O{sub 2} and methane are the reactants flowing through a premixer-combustor system. The reaction starts downstream a symmetric sudden expansion and is at the origin of different instability patterns depending on oxygen concentration and Reynolds number. The analysis has been conducted through measurement of pressure, CH* chemiluminescence, and velocity. As far as stability is concerned, oxy-fuel combustion with oxygen concentration similar to that found in air combustion cannot be sustained, but requires at least 30% oxygen to perform in a comparable manner. Under these conditions and for the sudden expansion configuration used in this study, the instability is at low frequency and low amplitude, controlled by the flame length inside the combustion chamber. Above a threshold concentration in oxygen dependent on equivalence ratio, the flame becomes organized and concentrated in the near field. Strong thermoacoustic instability is then triggered at characteristic acoustic modes of the system. Different modes can be triggered depending on the ratio of flame speed to inlet velocity, but for all types of instability encountered, the heat release and pressure fluctuations are linked by a variation in mass-flow rate. An acoustic model of the system coupled with a time-lag-based flame model made it possible to elucidate the acoustic mode selection in the system as a function of laminar flame speed and Reynolds number. The overall work brings elements of reflection concerning the potential risk of strong pressure oscillations in future gas turbine combustors for oxy-fuel gas cycles. (author)

  3. Edge flame instability in low-strain-rate counterflow diffusion flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, June Sung; Hwang, Dong Jin; Park, Jeong; Kim, Jeong Soo; Kim, Sungcho [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Sunchon National University, 315 Maegok-dong, Suncheon, Jeonnam 540-742 (Korea, Republic of); Keel, Sang In [Environment & amp; Energy Research Division, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, P.O. Box 101, Yusung-gu, Taejon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Kwon [School of Mechanical & amp; Automotive Engineering, Keimyung University, 1000 Sindang-dong, Dalseo-gu, Daegu 704-701 (Korea, Republic of); Noh, Dong Soon [Energy System Research Department, Korea Institute of Energy Research, 71-2 Jang-dong, Yusung-gu, Taejon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-09-15

    Experiments in low-strain-rate methane-air counterflow diffusion flames diluted with nitrogen have been conducted to study flame extinction behavior and edge flame oscillation in which flame length is less than the burner diameter and thus lateral conductive heat loss, in addition to radiative loss, could be high at low global strain rates. The critical mole fraction at flame extinction is examined in terms of velocity ratio and global strain rate. Onset conditions of the edge flame oscillation and the relevant modes are also provided with global strain rate and nitrogen mole fraction in the fuel stream or in terms of fuel Lewis number. It is observed that flame length is intimately relevant to lateral heat loss, and this affects flame extinction and edge flame oscillation considerably. Lateral heat loss causes flame oscillation even at fuel Lewis number less than unity. Edge flame oscillations, which result from the advancing and retreating edge flame motion of the outer flame edge of low-strain-rate flames, are categorized into three modes: a growing, a decaying, and a harmonic-oscillation mode. A flame stability map based on the flame oscillation modes is also provided for low-strain-rate flames. The important contribution of lateral heat loss even to edge flame oscillation is clarified finally. (author)

  4. Flame analysis using image processing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Her Jie, Albert Chang; Zamli, Ahmad Faizal Ahmad; Zulazlan Shah Zulkifli, Ahmad; Yee, Joanne Lim Mun; Lim, Mooktzeng

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents image processing techniques with the use of fuzzy logic and neural network approach to perform flame analysis. Flame diagnostic is important in the industry to extract relevant information from flame images. Experiment test is carried out in a model industrial burner with different flow rates. Flame features such as luminous and spectral parameters are extracted using image processing and Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). Flame images are acquired using FLIR infrared camera. Non-linearities such as thermal acoustic oscillations and background noise affect the stability of flame. Flame velocity is one of the important characteristics that determines stability of flame. In this paper, an image processing method is proposed to determine flame velocity. Power spectral density (PSD) graph is a good tool for vibration analysis where flame stability can be approximated. However, a more intelligent diagnostic system is needed to automatically determine flame stability. In this paper, flame features of different flow rates are compared and analyzed. The selected flame features are used as inputs to the proposed fuzzy inference system to determine flame stability. Neural network is used to test the performance of the fuzzy inference system.

  5. Stratified turbulent Bunsen flames: flame surface analysis and flame surface density modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaekers, W. J. S.; van Oijen, J. A.; de Goey, L. P. H.

    2012-12-01

    In this paper it is investigated whether the Flame Surface Density (FSD) model, developed for turbulent premixed combustion, is also applicable to stratified flames. Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) of turbulent stratified Bunsen flames have been carried out, using the Flamelet Generated Manifold (FGM) reduction method for reaction kinetics. Before examining the suitability of the FSD model, flame surfaces are characterized in terms of thickness, curvature and stratification. All flames are in the Thin Reaction Zones regime, and the maximum equivalence ratio range covers 0.1⩽φ⩽1.3. For all flames, local flame thicknesses correspond very well to those observed in stretchless, steady premixed flamelets. Extracted curvature radii and mixing length scales are significantly larger than the flame thickness, implying that the stratified flames all burn in a premixed mode. The remaining challenge is accounting for the large variation in (subfilter) mass burning rate. In this contribution, the FSD model is proven to be applicable for Large Eddy Simulations (LES) of stratified flames for the equivalence ratio range 0.1⩽φ⩽1.3. Subfilter mass burning rate variations are taken into account by a subfilter Probability Density Function (PDF) for the mixture fraction, on which the mass burning rate directly depends. A priori analysis point out that for small stratifications (0.4⩽φ⩽1.0), the replacement of the subfilter PDF (obtained from DNS data) by the corresponding Dirac function is appropriate. Integration of the Dirac function with the mass burning rate m=m(φ), can then adequately model the filtered mass burning rate obtained from filtered DNS data. For a larger stratification (0.1⩽φ⩽1.3), and filter widths up to ten flame thicknesses, a β-function for the subfilter PDF yields substantially better predictions than a Dirac function. Finally, inclusion of a simple algebraic model for the FSD resulted only in small additional deviations from DNS data

  6. Experimental quantification of transient stretch effects from vortices interacting with premixed flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danby, Sean James

    The understanding of complex premixed combustion reactions is paramount to the development of new concepts and devices used to increase the overall usefulness and capabilities of current technology. The complex interactions which occur within any modern practical combustion device were studied by isolating a single turbulent scale of the turbulence-chemistry interaction. Methane-air flame equivalence ratios (φ = 0.64, 0.90, and 1.13) were chosen to observe the mild affects of thermo-diffusive stability on the methane-air flame. Nitrogen was used as a diluent to retard the flame speeds of the φ = 0.90, and 1.13 mixtures so that the undisturbed outwardly propagating spherical flame kernel propagation rates, drf/dt, were approximately equal. Five primary propane equivalence ratios were utilized for investigation: φ = 0.69, 0.87, 1.08, 1.32, and 1.49. The choice of equivalence ratio was strategically made so that the φ = 0.69/1.49 and φ = 0.87/1.32 mixtures have the same undiluted flame propagation rate, drf/dt. Therefore, in the undiluted case, there are three flame speeds (in laboratory coordinates, not to be confused with burning velocity) represented by these mixtures. Three vortices were selected to be used in this investigation. The vortex rotational velocities were measured to be 77 cm/s, 266 cm/s and 398 cm/s for the "weak", "medium" and "strong" vortices, respectively. Ignition of the flame occurred in two ways: (1) spark-ignition or (2) laser ignition using an Nd:YAG laser at its second harmonic (lambda = 532 nm) in order to quantify the effect of electrode interference. Accompanying high-speed chemiluminescence imaging measurements, instantaneous pressure measurements were obtained to give a more detailed understanding of the effect of vortex strength on the overall flame speed and heat release rate over an extended time scale and to explore the use of a simple measurement to describe turbulent mixing. Further local flame-vortex interface analysis was

  7. Active Control of High Speed Jet Flames Using Counterflow

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Krothapalli, Anjaneyulu

    2003-01-01

    .... An optical temperature measurement technique, refereed to as Laser Speckle Displacement (LSD) was developed for instantaneous temperature field measurements. It is shown that the technique is easy to implement and can be used in conjunction with PIV for simultaneous velocity and temperature measurements in reacting flows.

  8. Dimensional analysis of flame angles versus wind speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Martin; Mark A. Finney; Domingo M. Molina; David B. Sapsis; Scott L. Stephens; Joe H. Scott; David R. Weise

    1991-01-01

    Dimensional analysis has potential to help explain and predict physical phenomena, but has been used very little in studies of wildland fire behavior. By combining variables into dimensionless groups, the number of variables to be handled and the experiments to be run is greatly reduced. A low velocity wind tunnel was constructed, and methyl, ethyl, and isopropyl...

  9. Properties of flames propagating in rich propane-air mixtures at microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S. F.; Pu, Y. K.; Jia, F.; Jarosinski, J.

    Under normal gravity conditions it was found that the rich flammability limits for propane-air mixture are 9 2 C 3 H 8 equivalence ratio phi 2 42 for upward and 6 3 C 3 H 8 phi 1 60 for downward propagating flames An extremely large concentration gap exists between these two limits which is attributed to the influence of buoyancy and preferential diffusion in the mixture The present study enables a better understanding of flame behaviors in rich propane-air mixtures through microgravity experiments in which flame propagation can be examined in the absence of buoyancy The experiments were carried out in a cubic closed vessel of 80 mm inner length made of quartz glass A high-speed camera recorded flame propagation in the combustion vessel while the pressure history was measured by a transducer to indicate corresponding changes in heat release rate and the temperature development was measured by a thermocouple During the microgravity experiments the vessel was located inside a drop tower assembly The experimental data were compared with similar experiments conducted under normal gravity The flame characteristics were investigated for mixture concentrations between 6 5 C 3 H 8 and 9 2 C 3 H 8 Reliable data related to laminar burning velocity and flame thickness were obtained Some new details of the flame propagation near rich flammability limits were deduced Comparative experiments revealed the influence of gravity on combustion processes of rich propane-air

  10. Effects of thin-layer boilover on flame geometry and dynamics in large hydrocarbon pool fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrero, Fabio; Munoz, Miguel; Arnaldos, Josep [Centre d' Estudis del Risc Tecnologic (CERTEC), Chemical Engineering Department, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, 08028-Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain)

    2007-03-15

    This work aims to estimate the effects of thin-layer boilover on flame geometry and dynamics. A series of large scale experiments (in pools ranging from 1.5 to 6 m in diameter) were performed using gasoline and diesel as fuel. As expected, only diesel showed evidence of this phenomenon. This article presents a summary of the results obtained for flame height, tilt and pulsation. Flame height increases during water ebullition, though the increase is no longer detectable when wind speed exceeds certain values. Correlations previously presented in the literature to predict flame length and tilt were modified in order to fit the results obtained during thin-layer boilover. However, the influence on flame tilt is not as great and the equations for the stationary period seem suitable for the entire fire. Results of flame pulsation during the stationary period fill the gap in the literature for fires between 1.5 and 6 m and fit previous correlations. On the other hand, during ebullition, the flame pulsates faster, as air entrainment is greater and, as one would expect, this effect decreases with pool size. A new equation for estimating pulsation frequency during boilover is proposed. (author)

  11. Understanding premixed flame chemistry of gasoline fuels by comparing quantities of interest

    KAUST Repository

    Selim, Hatem

    2016-07-23

    Gasoline fuels are complex mixtures that vary in composition depending on crude oil feedstocks and refining processes. Gasoline combustion in high-speed spark ignition engines is governed by flame propagation, so understanding fuel composition effects on premixed flame chemistry is important. In this study, the combustion chemistry of low-pressure, burner-stabilized, premixed flames of two gasoline fuels was investigated under stoichiometric conditions. Flame speciation was conducted using vacuum-ultraviolet synchrotron photoionization time-of-flight molecular beam mass spectroscopy. Stable end-products, intermediate hydrocarbons, and free radicals were detected and quantified. In addition, several isomeric species in the reaction pool were distinguished and quantified with the help of the highly tunable synchrotron radiation. A comparison between the products of both flames is presented and the major differences are highlighted. Premixed flame numerical simulations were conducted using surrogate fuel kinetic models for each flame. Furthermore, a new approach was developed to elucidate the main discrepancies between experimental measurements and the numerical predictions by comparing quantities of interest. © 2016.

  12. Development of Combustion Tube for Gaseous, Liquid, and Solid Fuels to Study Flame Acceleration and DDT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziano, Tyler J.

    An experimental combustion tube of 20 ft. in length and 10.25 in. in internal diameter was designed and fabricated in order to perform combustion tests to study deflagration rates, flame acceleration, and the possibility of DDT. The experiment was designed to allow gaseous, liquid, or solid fuels, or any combination of the three to produce a homogenous fuel/air mixture within the tube. Combustion tests were initiated with a hydrogen/oxygen torch igniter and the resulting flame behavior was measured with high frequency ion probes and pressure transducers. Tests were performed with a variety of gaseous and liquid fuels in an unobstructed tube with a closed ignition end and open muzzle. The flame performance with the gaseous fuels is loosely correlated with the expansion ratio, while there is a stronger correlation with the laminar flame speed. The strongest correlation to flame performance is the run-up distance scaling factor. This trend was not observed with the liquid fuels. The reason for this is likely due to incomplete evaporation of the liquid fuel droplets resulting in a partially unburned mixture, effectively altering the intended equivalence ratio. Results suggest that the simple theory for run-up distance and flame acceleration must be modified to more accurately predict the behavior of gaseous fuels. Also, it is likely that more complex spray combustion modeling is required to accurately predict the flame behavior for liquid fuels.

  13. Pulsed Current-Voltage-Induced Perturbations of a Premixed Propane/Air Flame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob. B. Schmidt

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of millisecond wide sub-breakdown pulsed voltage-current induced flow perturbation has been measured in premixed laminar atmospheric pressure propane/air flame. The flame equivalence ratios were varied from 0.8 to 1.2 with the flow speeds near 1.1 meter/second. Spatio-temporal flame structure changes were observed through collection of CH (A-X and OH (A-X chemiluminescence and simultaneous spontaneous Raman scattering from N2. This optical collection scheme allows us to obtain a strong correlation between the measured gas temperature and the chemiluminescence intensity, verifying that chemiluminescence images provide accurate measurements of flame reaction zone structure modifications. The experimental results suggest that the flame perturbation is caused by ionic wind originating only from the radial positive space-charge distribution in/near the cathode fall. A net momentum transfer acts along the annular space discharge distribution in the reaction zone at or near the cathode fall which modifies the flow field near the cathodic burner head. This radially inward directed body force appears to enhance mixing similar to a swirl induced modification of the flame structure. The flame fluidic response exhibit a strong dependence on the voltage pulse width ≤10 millisecond.

  14. Research on flame retardation of wool fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enomoto, Ichiro; Ametani, Kazuo; Sawai, Takeshi

    1990-01-01

    Flame retardant, vinyl phosphonate oligomer, was uniformly impregnated in wool fibers, and by irradiating low energy electron beam or cobalt-60 gamma ray, the flame retardation of fabrics was attempted, as the results, the following knowledges were obtained. At the rate of sticking of flame retardant lower than that in cotton fabrics, sufficient flame retarding property can be given. The flame retarding property withstands 30 times of washing. The lowering of strength due to the processing hardly arose. For the flame retardation, gamma-ray was more effective than electron beam. Since the accidents of burning clothes have occurred frequently, their flame retardation has been demanded. So far the flame retardation of cotton fabrics has been advanced, but this time the research on the flame retardation of wool fabrics was carried out by the same method. The experimental method is explained. As for the performance of the processed fabrics, the rate of sticking of the flame retardant, the efficiency of utilization, the flame retarding property, the endurance in washing and the tensile and tearing strength were examined. As the oxygen index was higher, the flame retarding property was higher, and in the case of the index being more than 27, the flame retarding property is sufficient, that is, the rate of sticking of 6% in serge and 5% in muslin. (K.I.)

  15. In situ measurements of soot formation in simple flames using small angle X-ray scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, C. [Institute of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, University of Wales, Aberystwyth SY23 3BZ (United Kingdom); Greaves, G.N. [Institute of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, University of Wales, Aberystwyth SY23 3BZ (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: gng@aber.ac.uk; Hargrave, G.K. [Wolfson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Jarvis, S. [Wolfson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Wildman, P. [Wolfson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Meneau, F. [Institute of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, University of Wales, Aberystwyth SY23 3BZ (United Kingdom); Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO), DUBBLE CRG/ESRF, P.O. Box 220, F38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Bras, W. [Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO), DUBBLE CRG/ESRF, P.O. Box 220, F38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Thomas, G. [Institute of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, University of Wales, Aberystwyth SY23 3BZ (United Kingdom)

    2005-08-15

    Direct SAXS measurements of soot formation from ethylene have been made using laminar pre-mixed flames for the first time. The slot burner was configured to maximise the signal from particulates. The geometry also enabled the thermal background from the surrounding hot gasses to be accurately removed. With cold flame speeds of 40 cm s{sup -1} we have been able to identify particle sizes and densities from moderately sooty to rich flame conditions. By adjusting the height of the burner in the beam, the development of particles as a function of position above the flame tip and therefore as a function of time from ignition have been obtained. These reveal evidence for bimodal particle nucleation and growth at different stages in the continuous combustion of ethylene.

  16. In situ measurements of soot formation in simple flames using small angle X-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, C.; Greaves, G.N.; Hargrave, G.K.; Jarvis, S.; Wildman, P.; Meneau, F.; Bras, W.; Thomas, G.

    2005-01-01

    Direct SAXS measurements of soot formation from ethylene have been made using laminar pre-mixed flames for the first time. The slot burner was configured to maximise the signal from particulates. The geometry also enabled the thermal background from the surrounding hot gasses to be accurately removed. With cold flame speeds of 40 cm s -1 we have been able to identify particle sizes and densities from moderately sooty to rich flame conditions. By adjusting the height of the burner in the beam, the development of particles as a function of position above the flame tip and therefore as a function of time from ignition have been obtained. These reveal evidence for bimodal particle nucleation and growth at different stages in the continuous combustion of ethylene

  17. In situ measurements of soot formation in simple flames using small angle X-ray scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, C.; Greaves, G. N.; Hargrave, G. K.; Jarvis, S.; Wildman, P.; Meneau, F.; Bras, W.; Thomas, G.

    2005-08-01

    Direct SAXS measurements of soot formation from ethylene have been made using laminar pre-mixed flames for the first time. The slot burner was configured to maximise the signal from particulates. The geometry also enabled the thermal background from the surrounding hot gasses to be accurately removed. With cold flame speeds of 40 cm s-1 we have been able to identify particle sizes and densities from moderately sooty to rich flame conditions. By adjusting the height of the burner in the beam, the development of particles as a function of position above the flame tip and therefore as a function of time from ignition have been obtained. These reveal evidence for bimodal particle nucleation and growth at different stages in the continuous combustion of ethylene.

  18. Flame visualization in power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulshof, H J.M.; Thus, A W; Verhage, A J.L. [KEMA Fossil Generation, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    1994-01-01

    The study on the title subject is aimed at the determination of the form of the flame and the radiation temperature of the flames of the burners in electric power plants. The adjustment of the burners in a boiler is assessed on the basis of the total performance, in which the NO[sub x]- and CO-concentrations in the flue gases are normative. By comparing the burners mutually, deviating adjustments can be observed, applying optical monitoring techniques. Measurements have been carried out of the coal flames in the unit Gelderland13 of the Dutch energy production company EPON and of the gas flames at the Claus plant A and B of the Dutch energy company EPZ. The final aim of the title study is to draft guidelines, based on the measured flame data, by means of which for every individual burner the adjustment of the fuel supply, the relation with the air supply and the swirl of the combustion air can be optimized

  19. Role of the outer-edge flame on flame extinction in nitrogen-diluted non-premixed counterflow flames with finite burner diameters

    KAUST Repository

    Chung, Yong Ho

    2013-03-01

    This study of nitrogen-diluted non-premixed counterflow flames with finite burner diameters investigates the important role of the outer-edge flame on flame extinction through experimental and numerical analyses. It explores flame stability diagrams mapping the flame extinction response of nitrogen-diluted non-premixed counterflow flames to varying global strain rates in terms of burner diameter, burner gap, and velocity ratio. A critical nitrogen mole fraction exists beyond which the flame cannot be sustained; the critical nitrogen mole fraction versus global strain rate curves have C-shapes for various burner diameters, burner gaps, and velocity ratios. At sufficiently high strain-rate flames, these curves collapse into one curve; therefore, the flames follow the one-dimensional flame response of a typical diffusion flame. Low strain-rate flames are significantly affected by radial conductive heat loss, and therefore flame length. Three flame extinction modes are identified: flame extinction through shrinkage of the outer-edge flame with or without oscillations at the outer-edge flame prior to the extinction, and flame extinction through a flame hole at the flame center. The extinction modes are significantly affected by the behavior of the outer-edge flame. Detailed explanations are provided based on the measured flame-surface temperature and numerical evaluation of the fractional contribution of each term in the energy equation. Radial conductive heat loss at the flame edge to ambience is the main mechanism of extinction through shrinkage of the outer-edge flame in low strain-rate flames. Reduction of the burner diameter can extend the flame extinction mode by shrinking the outer-edge flame in higher strain-rate flames. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Instability and electrical response of small laminar coflow diffusion flames under AC electric fields: Toroidal vortex formation and oscillating and spinning flames

    KAUST Repository

    Xiong, Yuan; Chung, Suk-Ho; Cha, Min

    2016-01-01

    Dynamical and electrical responses of a small coflow diffusion flame were investigated by applying a high-voltage alternating current (AC), to a fuel jet nozzle. High-speed imaging and electrical diagnostics were adopted to capture flame dynamics and electrical signals, such as voltage (V ), frequency (f ) and current (I ). In the V -f domain of 0-5kV and 0-5kHz, AC-driven instabilities, resulting in various flame modes such as an oscillation, pinch-off and spinning of flames were identified. Characteristic frequency of each mode was determined and a visualization of near-nozzle flow structures suggested a close causality of initial counter-rotating vortices (inner and outer toroidal vortices - ITV and OTV), to the other observed flame. An axisymmetric ITV shedding was identified within oscillating and pinch-off modes, while asymmetric ITV shedding was identified with the spinning mode. Integrated electric power over several AC periods correlated well with variation in the flame surface area for these instabilities, demonstrating that measured electric power is a potential indicator of combustion instabilities in electric-field-assisted combustion.

  1. Instability and electrical response of small laminar coflow diffusion flames under AC electric fields: Toroidal vortex formation and oscillating and spinning flames

    KAUST Repository

    Xiong, Yuan

    2016-06-24

    Dynamical and electrical responses of a small coflow diffusion flame were investigated by applying a high-voltage alternating current (AC), to a fuel jet nozzle. High-speed imaging and electrical diagnostics were adopted to capture flame dynamics and electrical signals, such as voltage (V ), frequency (f ) and current (I ). In the V -f domain of 0-5kV and 0-5kHz, AC-driven instabilities, resulting in various flame modes such as an oscillation, pinch-off and spinning of flames were identified. Characteristic frequency of each mode was determined and a visualization of near-nozzle flow structures suggested a close causality of initial counter-rotating vortices (inner and outer toroidal vortices - ITV and OTV), to the other observed flame. An axisymmetric ITV shedding was identified within oscillating and pinch-off modes, while asymmetric ITV shedding was identified with the spinning mode. Integrated electric power over several AC periods correlated well with variation in the flame surface area for these instabilities, demonstrating that measured electric power is a potential indicator of combustion instabilities in electric-field-assisted combustion.

  2. Flame Retardants Used in Flexible Polyurethane Foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    The partnership project on flame retardants in furniture seeks to update the health and environmental profiles of flame-retardant chemicals that meet fire safety standards for upholstered consumer products with polyurethane foam

  3. Effects of AC Electric Field on Small Laminar Nonpremixed Flames

    KAUST Repository

    Xiong, Yuan

    2015-04-01

    baseline case, leading to the formation of toroidal vortices. Increased residence time and heat recirculation inside the vortex resulted in appreciable formation of PAHs and soot near the nozzle exit. Decreased residence time along the jet axis through flow acceleration by the vortex led to a reduction in the soot volume fraction in the downstream sooting zone. Electromagnetic force generated by AC was proposed as a viable mechanism for the formation of the toroidal vortex. By varying applied AC in a wide range of frequency and voltage, several insta- bility modes were observed, including flicking flames, partial pinch-off of flames, and spinning flames. High speed imaging together with Mie scattering techniques were combined to reveal the flame dynamics as well as the flow structure inside the flames. Original steady toroidal vortices triggered by AC were noted to exhibit axisymmetric axial instability in the flicking and partial pinch-off modes and non-axisymmetric azimuthal instability in the spinning mode. Electrical measurements were also conducted simultaneously to identify the voltage, current, and electrical power responses. Integrated power was noted to be sensitive to indicate subtle variation of flames properties and to the occurrence of axial instability. Under low frequency AC forcing with electrical conditions not generating toroidal vortices, responses of flames were further investigated. Several nonlinear flame responses, including frequency doubling and tripling phenomena, were identified. Spectral analysis revealed that such nonlinear responses were attributed to the combined effects of triggering buoyancy-induced oscillation of the flame as well as the Lorenz force generated by applying AC. Phase delay behaviors between the applied voltage and the heat release rate (or flame size) were also studied to explore the potential of applying AC in controlling flame instability. It was found that the phase delay had large variations for AC frequency smaller than

  4. Experiment and Simulation of Autoignition in Jet Flames and its Relevance to Flame Stabilization and Structure

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Noman, Saeed M.

    2016-01-01

    temperature coflow air were studied numerically. Several flame configurations were investigated by varying the initial temperature and fuel mole fraction. Characteristics of chemical kinetics structures for autoignited lifted flames were discussed based on the kinetic structures of homogeneous autoignition and flame propagation of premixed mixtures. Results showed that for autoignited lifted flame with tribrachial structure, a transition from autoignition to flame propagation modes occurs for reasonably stoichiometric mixtures. Characteristics of Mild combustion can be treated as an autoignited lean premixed lifted flame. Transition behavior from Mild combustion to a nozzle-attached flame was also investigated by increasing the fuel mole fraction.

  5. Flame emission, atomic absorption and fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horlick, G.

    1980-01-01

    Six hundred and thirty references are cited in this review. The information in the review is divided into 12 major areas: books, reviews, and bibliographies; fundamental studies in flames; developments in instrumentation; measurement techniques and procedure; flame emission spectrometry; flame atomic absorption spectrometry; flame molecular absorption spectrometry; electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectroscopy; hydride generation techniques; graphite furnace atomic emission spectrometry; atomic fluorescence spectrometry; and analytical comparisons

  6. 30 CFR 14.20 - Flame resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Flame resistance. 14.20 Section 14.20 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF... § 14.20 Flame resistance. Conveyor belts for use in underground coal mines must be flame-resistant and...

  7. TURBULENT OXYGEN FLAMES IN TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspden, A. J.; Bell, J. B.; Woosley, S. E.

    2011-01-01

    In previous studies, we examined turbulence-flame interactions in carbon-burning thermonuclear flames in Type Ia supernovae. In this study, we consider turbulence-flame interactions in the trailing oxygen flames. The two aims of the paper are to examine the response of the inductive oxygen flame to intense levels of turbulence, and to explore the possibility of transition to detonation in the oxygen flame. Scaling arguments analogous to the carbon flames are presented and then compared against three-dimensional simulations for a range of Damkoehler numbers (Da 16 ) at a fixed Karlovitz number. The simulations suggest that turbulence does not significantly affect the oxygen flame when Da 16 16 >1, turbulence enhances heat transfer and drives the propagation of a flame that is narrower than the corresponding inductive flame would be. Furthermore, burning under these conditions appears to occur as part of a combined carbon-oxygen turbulent flame with complex compound structure. The simulations do not appear to support the possibility of a transition to detonation in the oxygen flame, but do not preclude it either.

  8. Hysteresis and transition in swirling nonpremixed flames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tummers, M.J.; Hübner, A.W.; van Veen, E.H.; Hanjalic, K.; van der Meer, Theodorus H.

    2009-01-01

    Strongly swirling nonpremixed flames are known to exhibit a hysteresis when transiting from an attached long, sooty, yellow flame to a short lifted blue flame, and vice versa. The upward transition (by increasing the air and fuel flow rates) corresponds to a vortex breakdown, i.e. an abrupt change

  9. Flame acceleration due to wall friction: Accuracy and intrinsic limitations of the formulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirgok, Berk; Sezer, Hayri; Akkerman, V.'Yacheslav

    2015-11-01

    The analytical formulations on the premixed flame acceleration induced by wall friction in two-dimensional (2D) channels [Bychkov et al., Phys. Rev. E 72 (2005) 046307] and cylindrical tubes [Akkerman et al., Combust. Flame 145 (2006) 206] are revisited. Specifically, pipes with one end closed are considered, with a flame front propagating from the closed pipe end to the open one. The original studies provide the analytical formulas for the basic flame and fluid characteristics such as the flame acceleration rate, the flame shape and its propagation speed, as well as the flame-generated flow velocity profile. In the present work, the accuracy of these approaches is verified, computationally, and the intrinsic limitations and validity domains of the formulations are identified. Specifically, the error diagrams are presented to demonstrate how the accuracy of the formulations depends on the thermal expansion in the combustion process and the Reynolds number associated with the flame propagation. It is shown that the 2D theory is accurate enough for a wide range of parameters. In contrast, the zeroth-order approximation for the cylindrical configuration appeared to be quite inaccurate and had to be revisited. It is subsequently demonstrated that the first-order approximation for the cylindrical geometry is very accurate for realistically large thermal expansions and Reynolds numbers. Consequently, unlike the zeroth-order approach, the first-order formulation can constitute a backbone for the comprehensive theory of the flame acceleration and detonation initiation in cylindrical tubes. Cumulatively, the accuracy of the formulations deteriorates with the reduction of the Reynolds number and thermal expansion.

  10. Experimental characterization of methane inverse diffusion flame

    KAUST Repository

    Elbaz, Ayman M.

    2014-06-26

    This article presents 10-kHz images of OH-PLIF simultaneously with 2-D PIV measurements in an inverse methane diffusion flame. Under a constant fuel flow rate, the central air jet Re was varied, leading to air to fuel velocity ratio, Vr, to vary from 8.3 to 66.5. Starting from Vr = 20.7, the flame is commonly characterized by three distinct zones. The length of the lower fuel entrainment region is inversely proportional to Vr. The flames investigated resemble a string shear layer confining this zone, and converging into the second distinct region, the flame neck zone. The third region is the rest of the flame, which spreads in a jet-like manner. The inverse diffusion flames exhibit varying degrees of partial premixing, depending upon on the velocity ratio Vr, and this region of partial premixing evolves into a well-mixed reaction zone along the flame centerline. The OH distribution correlated with the changes in the mean characteristics of the flow through reduction in the local Reynolds number due to heat release. The existence of a flame suppresses or laminarizes the turbulence at early axial locations and promotes fluctuations at the flame tip for flames with Vr < 49.8. In addition, the flame jet width can be correlated to the OH distribution. In upstream regions of the flames, the breaks in OH are counterbalanced by flame closures and are governed by edge flame propagation. These local extinctions were found to occur at locations where large flow structures were impinging on the flame and are associated with a locally higher strain rate or correlated to the local high strain rates at the flame hole edges without this flow impinging. Another contributor to re-ignition was found to be growing flame kernels. As the flames approach global blow-off, these kernels become the main mechanism for re-ignition further downstream of the flames. At low Vr, laminarization within the early regions of the flame provides an effective shield, preventing the jet flow from

  11. Numerical study of influences of crosswind and additional steam on the flow field and temperature of propane non-premixed turbulence flame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wusnah; Bindar, Y.; Yunardi; Nur, F. M.; Syam, A. M.

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents results the process of combustion propane using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to simulate the turbulent non-premixed flame under the influences of crosswinds and the ratio of fuel (propane) to steam, S. Configuration, discretization and boundary conditions of the flame are described using GambitTM software and integrated with FluentTM software for calculations of flow and reactive fields. This work focuses on the influence of various crosswind speeds (0–10 m/s) and values of S (0.14–2.35) while the velocity of fuel issued from the nozzle was kept constant at 20 m/s. A turbulence model, k-ɛ standard and combustion model, Eddy Dissipation model were employed for the calculation of velocity and temperature fields, respectively. The results are displayed in the form of predictive terrain profile of the propane flame at different crosswind speeds. The results of the propane flame profile demonstrated that the crosswind significantly affect the structure velocity and position of the flame which was off-center moving towards the direction of crosswind, eventually affect the temperature along the flame. As the values of S is increasing, the flame contour temperature decreases, until the flame was extinguished at S equals to 2.35. The combustion efficiency for a variety of crosswind speeds decreases with increasing values of S.

  12. The VLT FLAMES Tarantula Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans, C.; Taylor, W.; Sana, H.; Hénault-Brunet, V.; Bagnoli, T.; Bastian, N.; Bestenlehner, J.; Bonanos, A.; Bressert, E.; Brott, I.; Campbell, M.; Cantiello, M.; Carraro, G.; Clark, S.; Costa, E.; Crowther, P.; de Koter, A.; de Mink, S.; Doran, E.; Dufton, P.; Dunstall, P.; Garcia, M.; Gieles, M.; Gräfener, G.; Herrero, A.; Howarth, I.; Izzard, R.; Köhler, K.; Langer, N.; Lennon, D.; Maíz Apellániz, J.; Markova, N.; Najarro, P.; Puls, J.; Ramirez, O.; Sabín-Sanjulián, C.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Smartt, S.; Stroud, V.; van Loon, J.; Vink, J.S.; Walborn, N.

    2011-01-01

    We introduce the VLT FLAMES Tarantula Survey, an ESO Large Programme from which we have obtained optical spectroscopy of over 800 massive stars in the spectacular 30 Doradus region of the Large Magellanic Cloud. A key feature is the use of multi-epoch observations to provide strong constraints on

  13. Plasma assisted combustion : Interaction of a flat flame with a nanosecond dielectric barrier discharge plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elkholy, A.H.E.; van Oijen, J.A.; de Goey, L.P.H.

    2016-01-01

    Using of non-equilibrium Plasma-assisted for ignition, combustion and high speed flow applications are rapidly developing in the last decades due to its ability to produce a large amount of radicals and excited species. Which has a great potential in flame stabilization and emission control.

  14. Flex-flame burner and combustion method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soupos, Vasilios; Zelepouga, Serguei; Rue, David M.; Abbasi, Hamid A.

    2010-08-24

    A combustion method and apparatus which produce a hybrid flame for heating metals and metal alloys, which hybrid flame has the characteristic of having an oxidant-lean portion proximate the metal or metal alloy and having an oxidant-rich portion disposed above the oxidant lean portion. This hybrid flame is produced by introducing fuel and primary combustion oxidant into the furnace chamber containing the metal or metal alloy in a substoichiometric ratio to produce a fuel-rich flame and by introducing a secondary combustion oxidant into the furnace chamber above the fuel-rich flame in a manner whereby mixing of the secondary combustion oxidant with the fuel-rich flame is delayed for a portion of the length of the flame.

  15. Simulation of flame surface density and burning rate of a premixed turbulent flame using contour advection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, B.H.Y.; Chan, C.K. [Department of Applied Mathematics, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2006-10-15

    In this paper, a 2-dimensional rod-stabilized V-shaped flame is simulated using contour advection with surgery as well as the random vortex method. Effects of turbulence on various quantities, such as flame brush thickness and flame surface density, are investigated. The flame surface density S is estimated using the Bray-Moss-Libby formulation, which involves the use of a mean orientation factor {sigma}{sub c}. As a comparison, values of S are also obtained using Shepherd's model, which employs the values of mean flame surface area and mean flame length. Local flame structure is characterized in terms of turbulent flame brush, orientation factor, and flame surface density. Profiles of S obtained using the two different models are compared and show that discrepancy is more evident with increasing turbulence intensity. (author)

  16. A numerical study of three-dimensional flame propagation over thin solids in purely forced concurrent flow including gas-phase radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feier, Ioan I., Jr.

    The effect of flame radiation on concurrent-flow flame spread over a thin solid sample of finite width in a low-speed wind tunnel is modeled using three-dimensional full Navier-Stokes equations and three-dimensional flame radiation transfer equations. The formulation includes the conservation of mass, momentum, energy, and species: fuel vapor, oxygen, carbon dioxide and water vapor. The SN discrete ordinates method is used to solve the radiation transfer equation with a mean absorption coefficient kappa = Ckappa p, where kappap is the Planck mean absorption coefficient of the gas mixture. The varying parameter C has a value between 0 and 1; C represents the strength of flame radiation. In addition, the solid fuel absorptivity alpha is varied to ascertain the effect of flame radiation heat feedback to the solid. The flow tunnel modeled has a dimension of 10x10x30 cm, the solid fuel has a width of 6-cm with two 1-cm inert strips as edges. Incoming forced flow velocity (5 cm/s) of 21% oxygen is assumed. For comparison with the three-dimensional results, corresponding two-dimensional computations are also performed. Detailed spatial flame profiles, solid surface profiles, and heat fluxes are presented. Increasing the flame radiation strength decreases the flame length. Although flame radiation provides an additional heat transfer mechanism to preheat the solid, it is insufficient to offset the decreased convective heating due to the shorter flame; the net effect is a slower spread rate. The percentage of unreacted fuel vapor that escapes from the flame is under 2%. It is theorized that some of the pyrolyzed fuel vapor diffuses sideway and reacts at the flame edges. A radiative energy balance is analyzed also. Flame radiative feedback to the solid plays a more important role in two-dimensional flames. With high solid fuel absorptivity, a peak in the flame spread rate occurs at an intermediate value of flame radiation strength---due to the competition between two

  17. Impact of co-flow air on buoyant diffusion flames flicker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gohari Darabkhani, H., E-mail: h.g.darabkhani@gmail.com [School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering, University of Manchester, Sackville Street, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Wang, Q.; Chen, L.; Zhang, Y. [Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Sheffield, Mapping Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} We present the co-flow effects on flickering behaviour of diffusion flames. {yields} Co-flow air is shown to fully suppress the buoyancy driven flame oscillations. {yields} Schlieren and PIV illustrate the shift of outer vortices beyond the flame zone. {yields} Stability controlling parameter as a ratio of air to fuel velocities is presented. {yields} Equation for linear increase in flickering frequency by co-flow air is presented. - Abstract: This paper describes experimental investigation of co-flow air velocity effects on the flickering behaviour of laminar non-lifted methane diffusion flames. Chemiluminescence, high-speed photography, schlieren and Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV), have been used to study the changes in the flame/vortex interactions as well as the flame flickering frequency and magnitude by the co-flow air. Four cases of methane flow rates at different co-flow air velocities are investigated. It has been observed that the flame dynamics and stability of co-flow diffusion flames are strongly affected by the co-flow air velocity. When the co-flow velocity has reached a certain value the buoyancy driven flame oscillation was completely suppressed. The schlieren and PIV imaging have revealed that the co-flow of air is able to push the initiation point of the outer toroidal vortices beyond the visible flame to create a very steady laminar flow region in the reaction zone. Then the buoyancy driven instability is only effective in the plume of hot gases above the visible flame. It is observed that a higher co-flow rate is needed in order to suppress the flame flickering at a higher fuel flow rate. Therefore the ratio of the air velocity to the fuel velocity, {gamma}, is a stability controlling parameter. The velocity ratio, {gamma}, was found to be 0.72 for the range of tested flow rates. The dominant flickering frequency was observed to increase linearly with the co-flow rate (a) as; f = 0.33a + 11. The frequency amplitudes

  18. A multi-probe thermophoretic soot sampling system for high-pressure diffusion flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas, Alex M.; Gülder, Ömer L. [Institute for Aerospace Studies, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M3H 5T6 (Canada)

    2016-05-15

    Optical diagnostics and physical probing of the soot processes in high pressure combustion pose challenges that are not faced in atmospheric flames. One of the preferred methods of studying soot in atmospheric flames is in situ thermophoretic sampling followed by transmission electron microscopy imaging and analysis for soot sizing and morphology. The application of this method of sampling to high pressures has been held back by various operational and mechanical problems. In this work, we describe a rotating disk multi-probe thermophoretic soot sampling system, driven by a microstepping stepper motor, fitted into a high-pressure chamber capable of producing sooting laminar diffusion flames up to 100 atm. Innovative aspects of the sampling system design include an easy and precise control of the sampling time down to 2.6 ms, avoidance of the drawbacks of the pneumatic drivers used in conventional thermophoretic sampling systems, and the capability to collect ten consecutive samples in a single experimental run. Proof of principle experiments were performed using this system in a laminar diffusion flame of methane, and primary soot diameter distributions at various pressures up to 10 atm were determined. High-speed images of the flame during thermophoretic sampling were recorded to assess the influence of probe intrusion on the flow field of the flame.

  19. Large scale Direct Numerical Simulation of premixed turbulent jet flames at high Reynolds number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attili, Antonio; Luca, Stefano; Lo Schiavo, Ermanno; Bisetti, Fabrizio; Creta, Francesco

    2016-11-01

    A set of direct numerical simulations of turbulent premixed jet flames at different Reynolds and Karlovitz numbers is presented. The simulations feature finite rate chemistry with 16 species and 73 reactions and up to 22 Billion grid points. The jet consists of a methane/air mixture with equivalence ratio ϕ = 0 . 7 and temperature varying between 500 and 800 K. The temperature and species concentrations in the coflow correspond to the equilibrium state of the burnt mixture. All the simulations are performed at 4 atm. The flame length, normalized by the jet width, decreases significantly as the Reynolds number increases. This is consistent with an increase of the turbulent flame speed due to the increased integral scale of turbulence. This behavior is typical of flames in the thin-reaction zone regime, which are affected by turbulent transport in the preheat layer. Fractal dimension and topology of the flame surface, statistics of temperature gradients, and flame structure are investigated and the dependence of these quantities on the Reynolds number is assessed.

  20. Effects of diluents on cellular instabilities in outwardly propagating spherical syngas-air premixed flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vu, Tran Manh; Park, Jeong; Kwon, Oh Boong; Bae, Dae Seok [School of Mechanical Engineering, Pukyong National University, San 100, Yongdang-dong, Nam-gu, Busan 608-739 (Korea); Yun, Jin Han; Keel, Sang In [Environment and Energy Research Division, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, 171 Jang-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea)

    2010-04-15

    Experiments were conducted in a constant pressure combustion chamber using schlieren system to investigate the effects of carbon dioxide-nitrogen-helium diluents on cellular instabilities of syngas-air premixed flames at room temperature and elevated pressures. The cellular instabilities for the diluted syngas-air flames were interpreted and evaluated in the viewpoint of the hydrodynamic and diffusional-thermal instabilities. Laminar burning velocities and Markstein lengths were calculated by analyzing high-speed schlieren images at various diluent concentrations and equivalence ratios. The measured unstretched laminar burning velocities were compared with the predicted results computed using the PREMIX code with the kinetic mechanism developed by Sun et al. Also, experimentally measured Peclet numbers were compared with the predicted results for fuel-lean flames. Experimental results showed substantial reduction of the laminar burning velocities and of the Markstein lengths with the diluent additions in the fuel blends. Effective Lewis numbers of helium-diluted syngas-air flames increased but those of carbon dioxide- and nitrogen-diluted syngas-air flames decreased in increase of diluents in the reactant mixtures. With helium diluent, the propensity for cells formation was significantly diminished, whereas the cellular instabilities for carbon dioxide- and nitrogen-diluted syngas-air flames were not suppressed. (author)

  1. The anchoring mechanism of a bluff-body stabilized laminar premixed flame

    KAUST Repository

    Kedia, Kushal S.

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this work is to investigate the mechanism of the laminar premixed flame anchoring near a heat-conducting bluff-body. We use unsteady, fully resolved, two-dimensional simulations with detailed chemical kinetics and species transport for methane-air combustion. No artificial flame anchoring boundary conditions were imposed. Simulations show a shear-layer stabilized flame just downstream of the bluff-body, with a recirculation zone formed by the products of combustion. A steel bluff-body resulted in a slightly larger recirculation zone than a ceramic bluff-body; the size of which grew as the equivalence ratio was decreased. A significant departure from the conventional two-zone flame-structure is shown in the anchoring region. In this region, the reaction zone is associated with a large negative energy convection (directed from products to reactants) resulting in a negative flame-displacement speed. It is shown that the premixed flame anchors at an immediate downstream location near the bluff-body where favorable ignition conditions are established; a region associated with (1) a sufficiently high temperature impacted by the conjugate heat exchange between the heat-conducting bluff-body and the hot reacting flow and (2) a locally maximum stoichiometry characterized by the preferential diffusion effects. © 2014 The Combustion Institute.

  2. Experimental study of the inverse diffusion flame using high repetition rate OH/acetone PLIF and PIV

    KAUST Repository

    Elbaz, Ayman M.; Roberts, William L.

    2015-01-01

    Most previous work on inverse diffusion flames (IDFs) has focused on laminar IDF emissions and the soot formation characteristics. Here, we investigate the characteristics and structure of methane IDFs using high speed planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) images of OH, particle image velocimetry (PIV), and acetone PLIF imaging for non-reacting cases. First, the flame appearance was investigated with fixed methane loading (mass flux) but with varying airflow rates, yielding a central air jet Reynolds number (Re) of 1,000 to 6,000 (when blow-off occurs). Next, it was investigated a fixed central air jet Re of 4500, but with varied methane mass flux such that the global equivalence ratio spanned 0.5 to 4. It was observed that at Re smaller than 2000, the inner air jet promotes the establishment of an inverse diffusion flame surrounded by a normal diffusion flame. However, when the Re was increased to 2500, two distinct zones became apparent in the flame, a lower entrainment zone and an upper mixing and combustion zone. 10 kHz OH-PLIF images, and 2D PIV allow the identification of the fate and spatial flame structure. Many flame features were identified and further analyzed using simple but effective image processing methods, where three types of structure in all the flames investigated here: flame holes or breaks; closures; and growing kernels. Insights about the rate of evolution of these features, the dynamics of local extinction, and the sequence of events that lead to re-ignition are reported here. In the lower entrainment zone, the occurrence of the flame break events is counterbalanced by closure events, and the edge propagation appears to control the rate at which the flame holes and closures propagate. The rate of propagation of holes was found to be statistically faster than the rate of closure. As the flames approach blow-off, flame kernels become the main mechanism for flame re-ignition further downstream. The simultaneous OH-PLIF/Stereo PIV

  3. Experimental study of the inverse diffusion flame using high repetition rate OH/acetone PLIF and PIV

    KAUST Repository

    Elbaz, Ayman M.

    2015-10-29

    Most previous work on inverse diffusion flames (IDFs) has focused on laminar IDF emissions and the soot formation characteristics. Here, we investigate the characteristics and structure of methane IDFs using high speed planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) images of OH, particle image velocimetry (PIV), and acetone PLIF imaging for non-reacting cases. First, the flame appearance was investigated with fixed methane loading (mass flux) but with varying airflow rates, yielding a central air jet Reynolds number (Re) of 1,000 to 6,000 (when blow-off occurs). Next, it was investigated a fixed central air jet Re of 4500, but with varied methane mass flux such that the global equivalence ratio spanned 0.5 to 4. It was observed that at Re smaller than 2000, the inner air jet promotes the establishment of an inverse diffusion flame surrounded by a normal diffusion flame. However, when the Re was increased to 2500, two distinct zones became apparent in the flame, a lower entrainment zone and an upper mixing and combustion zone. 10 kHz OH-PLIF images, and 2D PIV allow the identification of the fate and spatial flame structure. Many flame features were identified and further analyzed using simple but effective image processing methods, where three types of structure in all the flames investigated here: flame holes or breaks; closures; and growing kernels. Insights about the rate of evolution of these features, the dynamics of local extinction, and the sequence of events that lead to re-ignition are reported here. In the lower entrainment zone, the occurrence of the flame break events is counterbalanced by closure events, and the edge propagation appears to control the rate at which the flame holes and closures propagate. The rate of propagation of holes was found to be statistically faster than the rate of closure. As the flames approach blow-off, flame kernels become the main mechanism for flame re-ignition further downstream. The simultaneous OH-PLIF/Stereo PIV

  4. Effect of an external electric field on the propagation velocity of premixed flames

    KAUST Repository

    Sánchez-Sanz, Mario

    2015-01-01

    © 2014 The Combustion Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. There have been many experimental investigations into the ability of electric fields to enhance combustion by acting upon ion species present in flames [1]. In this work, we examine this phenomenon using a one-dimensional model of a lean premixed flame under the influence of a longitudinal electric field. We expand upon prior two-step chain-branching reaction laminar models with reactions to model the creation and consumption of both a positively-charged radical species and free electrons. Also included are the electromotive force in the conservation equation for ion species and the electrostatic form of the Maxwell equations in order to resolve ion transport by externally applied and internally induced electric fields. The numerical solution of these equations allows us to compute changes in flame speed due to electric fields. Further, the variation of key kinetic and transport parameters modifies the electrical sensitivity of the flame. From changes in flame speed and reactant profiles we are able to gain novel, valuable insight into how and why combustion can be controlled by electric fields.

  5. Numerical modeling of turbulent combustion and flame spread

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan Zhenghua

    1999-01-01

    Theoretical models have been developed to address several important aspects of numerical modeling of turbulent combustion and flame spread. The developed models include a pyrolysis model for charring and non-charring solid materials, a fast narrow band radiation property evaluation model (FASTNB) and a turbulence model for buoyant flow and flame. In the pyrolysis model, a completely new algorithm has been proposed, where a moving dual mesh concept was developed and implemented. With this new concept, it provides proper spatial resolution for both temperature and density and automatically considers the regression of the surface of the non-charring solid material during its pyrolysis. It is simple, very efficient and applicable to both charring and non-charring materials. FASTNB speeds up significantly the evaluation of narrow band spectral radiation properties and thus provides a potential of applying narrow band model in numerical simulations of practical turbulent combustion. The turbulence model was developed to improve the consideration of buoyancy effect on turbulence and turbulent transport. It was found to be simple, promising and numerically stable. It has been tested against both plane and axisymmetric thermal plumes and an axisymmetric buoyant diffusion flame. When compared with the widely used standard buoyancy-modified {kappa} - {epsilon} model, it gives significant improvement on numerical results. These developed models have been fully incorporated into CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) code and coupled with other CFD sub-models, including the DT (Discrete Transfer) radiation model, EDC (Eddy Dissipation Concept) combustion model, flamelet combustion model, various soot models and transpired wall function. Comprehensive numerical simulations have been carried out to study soot formation and oxidation in turbulent buoyant diffusion flames, flame heat transfer and flame spread in fires. The gas temperature and velocity, soot volume fraction, wall

  6. Impact of flame-wall interaction on premixed flame dynamics and transfer function characteristics

    KAUST Repository

    Kedia, K.S.; Altay, H.M.; Ghoniem, A.F.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we numerically investigate the response of a perforated-plate stabilized laminar methane-air premixed flame to imposed inlet velocity perturbations. A flame model using detailed chemical kinetics mechanism is applied and heat exchange

  7. Speed mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Handley, Bill

    2012-01-01

    This new, revised edition of the bestselling Speed Mathematics features new chapters on memorising numbers and general information, calculating statistics and compound interest, square roots, logarithms and easy trig calculations. Written so anyone can understand, this book teaches simple strategies that will enable readers to make lightning-quick calculations. People who excel at mathematics use better strategies than the rest of us; they are not necessarily more intelligent. With Speed Mathematics you'll discover methods to make maths easy and fun. This book is perfect for stud

  8. Extinction of corrugated hydrogen/air flames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizomoto, M.; Asaka, Y.; Ikai, S.; Law, C.K.

    1982-01-01

    Recent studies on flammability limits reveal the importance of flow nonuniformity, flame curvature, and molecular and thermal diffusivities in determining the extinguishability and the associated limits of premixed fuel/air flames. In particular, it is found that conditions which favor extinction of a lean flame may cause intensification of a rich flame. In the present study the authors have experimentally determined the extinction characteristics and limits of highly curved hydrogen/air flames as represented by the opening of bunsen flame tips. Results show that the tip opens at a constant fuel equivalence ratio of phi = 1.15, regardless of the velocity and uniformity of the upstream flow. This critical mixture concentration, while being rich, is still on the lean side of that corresponding to the maximum burning velocity (phi = 1.8), implying that for highly diffusive systems, the relevant reference concentration is that for maximum burning velocity instead of stoichiometry

  9. Experimental study on flame propagation characteristics of Hydrogen premixed gas in gas pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Danzhu; Li, Zhuang; Jia, Fengrui; Li, Zhou

    2018-06-01

    Hydrogen is the cleanest high-energy gas fuel, and also is the main industrial material. However, hydrogen is more explosive and more powerful than conventional gas fuels, which restricts its application. In particular, the expansion of premixed combustion under a strong constraint is more complicated, the reaction spreads faster. The flame propagation characteristics of premixed hydrogen/air were investigated by experiment. The mechanism of reaction acceleration is discussed, and then the speed of the flame propagation and the reaction pressure were tested and analysed.

  10. Investigation of non-premixed flame combustion characters in GO2/GH2 shear coaxial injectors using non-intrusive optical diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jian; Yu, NanJia; Cai, GuoBiao

    2015-12-01

    Single-element combustor experiments are conducted for three shear coaxial geometry configuration injectors by using gaseous oxygen and gaseous hydrogen (GO2/GH2) as propellants. During the combustion process, several spatially and timeresolved non-intrusive optical techniques, such as OH planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF), high speed imaging, and infrared imaging, are simultaneously employed to observe the OH radical concentration distribution, flame fluctuations, and temperature fields. The results demonstrate that the turbulent flow phenomenon of non-premixed flame exhibits a remarkable periodicity, and the mixing ratio becomes a crucial factor to influence the combustion flame length. The high speed and infrared images have a consistent temperature field trend. As for the OH-PLIF images, an intuitionistic local flame structure is revealed by single-shot instantaneous images. Furthermore, the means and standard deviations of OH radical intensity are acquired to provide statistical information regarding the flame, which may be helpful for validation of numerical simulations in future. Parameters of structure configurations, such as impinging angle and oxygen post thickness, play an important role in the reaction zone distribution. Based on a successful flame contour extraction method assembled with non-linear anisotropic diffusive filtering and variational level-set, it is possible to implement a fractal analysis to describe the fractal characteristics of the non-premixed flame contour. As a result, the flame front cannot be regarded as a fractal object. However, this turbulent process presents a self-similarity characteristic.

  11. Characteristics of Early Flame Development in a Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition CNG Engine Fitted with a Variable Swirl Control Valve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd Rashid Abd Aziz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study was conducted to investigate the effect of the structure of the induction flow on the characteristics of early flames in a lean-stratified and lean-homogeneous charge combustion of compressed natural gas (CNG fuel in a direct injection (DI engine at different engine speeds. The engine speed was varied at 1500 rpm, 1800 rpm and 2100 rpm, and the ignition timing was set at a 38.5° crank angle (CA after top dead center (TDC for all conditions. The engine was operated in a partial-load mode and a homogeneous air/fuel charge was achieved by injecting the fuel early (before the intake valve closure, while late injection during the compression stroke was used to produce a stratified charge. Different induction flow structures were obtained by adjusting the swirl control valves (SCV. Using an endoscopic intensified CCD (ICCD camera, flame images were captured and analyzed. Code was developed to analyze the level of distortion of the flame and its wrinkledness, displacement and position relative to the spark center, as well as the flame growth rate. The results showed a higher flame growth rate with the flame kernel in the homogeneous charge, compared to the stratified combustion case. In the stratified charge combustion scenario, the 10° SCV closure (medium-tumble resulted in a higher early flame growth rate, whereas a homogeneous charge combustion (characterized by strong swirl resulted in the highest rate of flame growth.

  12. An experimental and numerical study of nitrogen oxide formation mechanisms in ammonia-hydrogen-air flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Praveen

    The demand for sustainable alternative fuels is ever-increasing in the power generation, transportation, and energy sectors due to the inherent non-sustainable characteristics and political constraints of current energy resources. A number of alternative fuels derived from cellulosic biomass, algae, or waste are being considered, along with the conversion of electricity to non-carbon fuels such as hydrogen or ammonia (NH3). The latter is receiving attention recently because it is a non-carbon fuel that is readily produced in large quantities, stored and transported with current infrastructure, and is often a byproduct of biomass or waste conversion processes. However, pure or anhydrous ammonia combustion is severely challenging due to its high auto-ignition temperature (650 °C), low reactivity, and tendency to promote NOx formation. As such, the present study focuses on two major aspects of the ammonia combustion. The first is an applied investigation of the potential to achieve pure NH3 combustion with low levels of emissions in flames of practical interest. In this study, a swirl-stabilized flame typically used in fuel-oil home-heating systems is optimized for NH3 combustion, and measurements of NO and NH3 are collected for a wide range of operating conditions. The second major focus of this work is on fundamental investigation of NO x formation mechanisms in flames with high levels of NH3 in H2. For laminar premixed and diffusion jet flames, experimental measurements of flame speeds, exhaust-gas sampling, and in-situ NO measurements (NO PLIF) are compared with numerically predicted flames using complex chemical kinetics within CHEMKIN and reacting CFD codes i.e., UNICORN. From the preliminary testing of the NOx formation mechanisms, (1) Tian (2) Konnov and (3) GRI-Mech3.0 in laminar premixed H2/NH 3 flames, the Tian and Konnov mechanisms are found to capture the reduction in measured flame speeds with increasing NH3 in the fuel mixture, both qualitatively and

  13. Combined Influence of Strain and Heat Loss on Turbulent Premixed Flame Stabilization

    KAUST Repository

    Tay-Wo-Chong, Luis

    2015-11-16

    The present paper argues that the prediction of turbulent premixed flames under non-adiabatic conditions can be improved by considering the combined effects of strain and heat loss on reaction rates. The effect of strain in the presence of heat loss on the consumption speed of laminar premixed flames was quantified by calculations of asymmetric counterflow configurations (“fresh-to-burnt”) with detailed chemistry. Heat losses were introduced by setting the temperature of the incoming stream of products on the “burnt” side to values below those corresponding to adiabatic conditions. The consumption speed decreased in a roughly exponential manner with increasing strain rate, and this tendency became more pronounced in the presence of heat losses. An empirical relation in terms of Markstein number, Karlovitz Number and a non-dimensional heat loss parameter was proposed for the combined influence of strain and heat losses on the consumption speed. Combining this empirical relation with a presumed probability density function for strain in turbulent flows, an attenuation factor that accounts for the effect of strain and heat loss on the reaction rate in turbulent flows was deduced and implemented into a turbulent combustion model. URANS simulations of a premixed swirl burner were carried out and validated against flow field and OH chemiluminescence measurements. Introducing the effects of strain and heat loss into the combustion model, the flame topology observed experimentally was correctly reproduced, with good agreement between experiment and simulation for flow field and flame length.

  14. Opposed-Flow Flame Spread over Thin Solid Fuels in a Narrow Channel under Different Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xia; Yu, Yong; Wan, Shixin; Wei, Minggang; Hu, Wen-Rui

    Flame spread over solid surface is critical in combustion science due to its importance in fire safety in both ground and manned spacecraft. Eliminating potential fuels from materials is the basic method to protect spacecraft from fire. The criterion of material screening is its flamma-bility [1]. Since gas flow speed has strong effect on flame spread, the combustion behaviors of materials in normal and microgravity will be different due to their different natural convec-tion. To evaluate the flammability of materials used in the manned spacecraft, tests should be performed under microgravity. Nevertheless, the cost is high, so apparatus to simulate mi-crogravity combustion under normal gravity was developed. The narrow channel is such an apparatus in which the buoyant flow is restricted effectively [2, 3]. The experimental results of the horizontal narrow channel are consistent qualitatively with those of Mir Space Station. Quantitatively, there still are obvious differences. However, the effect of the channel size on flame spread has only attracted little attention, in which concurrent-flow flame spread over thin solid in microgravity is numerically studied[4], while the similarity of flame spread in different gravity is still an open question. In addition, the flame spread experiments under microgravity are generally carried out in large wind tunnels without considering the effects of the tunnel size [5]. Actually, the materials are always used in finite space. Therefore, the flammability given by experiments using large wind tunnels will not correctly predict the flammability of materials in the real environment. In the present paper, the effect of the channel size on opposed-flow flame spread over thin solid fuels in both normal and microgravity was investigated and compared. In the horizontal narrow channel, the flame spread rate increased before decreased as forced flow speed increased. In low speed gas flows, flame spread appeared the same trend as that in

  15. Flame Motion In Gas Turbine Burner From Averages Of Single-Pulse Flame Fronts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tylli, N.; Hubschmid, W.; Inauen, A.; Bombach, R.; Schenker, S.; Guethe, F. [Alstom (Switzerland); Haffner, K. [Alstom (Switzerland)

    2005-03-01

    Thermo acoustic instabilities of a gas turbine burner were investigated by flame front localization from measured OH laser-induced fluorescence single pulse signals. The average position of the flame was obtained from the superposition of the single pulse flame fronts at constant phase of the dominant acoustic oscillation. One observes that the flame position varies periodically with the phase angle of the dominant acoustic oscillation. (author)

  16. Characteristics of Oscillating Flames in a Coaxial Confined Jet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Suk Cha

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Flame characteristics when a non-premixed n-butane jet is ejected into a coaxial cylindrical tube are investigated experimentally. Flame stability depends mainly on the characteristics of flame propagation as well as air entrainment which depend on the jet momentum and on the distance between the nozzle exit and the base of a confined tube. As flow rate increases, the flame lifts off from a nozzle attached diffusion flame and a stationary lifted flame can be stabilized. The liftoff height increases nearly linearly with the average velocity at the nozzle exit. The lifted flame has a tribrachial flame structure, which consists of a rich premixed flame, a lean premixed flame, and a diffusion flame, all extending from a single location. As flow rate further increases, periodically oscillating flames are observed inside the confined tube. Once flame oscillation occurs, the flame undergoes relatively stable oscillation such that it has nearly constant oscillation amplitude and frequency. The criteria of flame oscillation are mapped as functions of nozzle diameter, the distance between nozzle and tube, and jet velocity. This type of flame oscillation can be characterized by Strouhal number in terms of flame oscillation amplitude, frequency, and jet velocity. Buoyancy driven flame oscillation which is one of the viable mechanism for flame oscillation is modeled and the results agrees qualitatively with experimental results, suggesting that the oscillation is due to periodic blowoff and flashback under the influence of buoyancy.

  17. Pole solutions for flame front propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Kupervasser, Oleg

    2015-01-01

    This book deals with solving mathematically the unsteady flame propagation equations. New original mathematical methods for solving complex non-linear equations and investigating their properties are presented. Pole solutions for flame front propagation are developed. Premixed flames and filtration combustion have remarkable properties: the complex nonlinear integro-differential equations for these problems have exact analytical solutions described by the motion of poles in a complex plane. Instead of complex equations, a finite set of ordinary differential equations is applied. These solutions help to investigate analytically and numerically properties of the flame front propagation equations.

  18. CloudFlame: Cyberinfrastructure for combustion research

    KAUST Repository

    Goteng, Gokop

    2013-12-01

    Combustion experiments and chemical kinetics simulations generate huge data that is computationally and data intensive. A cloud-based cyber infrastructure known as Cloud Flame is implemented to improve the computational efficiency, scalability and availability of data for combustion research. The architecture consists of an application layer, a communication layer and distributed cloud servers running in a mix environment of Windows, Macintosh and Linux systems. The application layer runs software such as CHEMKIN modeling application. The communication layer provides secure transfer/archive of kinetic, thermodynamic, transport and gas surface data using private/public keys between clients and cloud servers. A robust XML schema based on the Process Informatics Model (Prime) combined with a workflow methodology for digitizing, verifying and uploading data from scientific graphs/tables to Prime is implemented for chemical molecular structures of compounds. The outcome of using this system by combustion researchers at King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) Clean Combustion Research Center and its collaborating partners indicated a significant improvement in efficiency in terms of speed of chemical kinetics and accuracy in searching for the right chemical kinetic data.

  19. Speed ot travelling waves in reaction-diffusion equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benguria, R.D.; Depassier, M.C.; Mendez, V.

    2002-01-01

    Reaction diffusion equations arise in several problems of population dynamics, flame propagation and others. In one dimensional cases the systems may evolve into travelling fronts. Here we concentrate on a reaction diffusion equation which arises as a simple model for chemotaxis and present results for the speed of the travelling fronts. (Author)

  20. Study on the Enhancement Effect of Dielectric Barrier Discharge on the Premixed Methane/Oxygen/Helium Flame Velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mu Haibao; Yu Lin; Li Ping; Zhang Guanjun; Tang Chenglong; Wang Jinhua

    2015-01-01

    Recently, plasma-assisted combustion has become a potentially applicable technology in many combustion scenarios. In this paper, a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma generator is designed to explore the effect of plasma on the CH4 oxidation process, and several properties of combustion are considered. First, in the presence or absence of plasma discharge, physical appearance of the flame is examined and analyzed. Second, the flame propagation velocity is calculated by the flame front extracted from the imaging data with the Bunsen burner method. Finally, the main molecular components and their intensity variation in the flame and the plasma zones are identified with an emission spectrograph to analyze the effect of active species on the combustion process. We also discuss the possible kinetic regime of plasma-assisted combustion. Experimental results imply that plasma discharge applied to the premixed CH4/O2/He mixture significantly raises the flame speed with equivalence ratios ranging from 0.85 to 1.10, with the flame speed improved by 17% to 35%. It can be seen that plasma can improve methane oxidation efficiency in the premixed fuel/oxidizer, especially at a low equivalence ratio. (paper)

  1. Effect of pressure on high Karlovitz number lean turbulent premixed hydrogen-enriched methane-air flames using LES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicoria, David; Chan, C. K.

    2017-07-01

    Large eddy simulation (LES) is employed to investigate the effect of pressure on lean CH4-H2-air turbulent premixed flames at high Karlovitz number for mixtures up to 60% of hydrogen in volume. The subfilter combustion term representing the interaction between turbulence and chemistry is modelled using the PaSR model, along with complex chemistry using a skeletal mechanism based on GRI-MECH3.0. The influence of pressure at high turbulence levels is studied by means of the local flame structure, and the assessment of species formation inside the flame. Results show that the ratio of turbulent flame thickness to laminar flame thickness δt/δu increases faster with pressure, and increases with the fraction of hydrogen in the mixture, leading to higher ratio of turbulent to laminar flame speed. The flame displays smaller structures and higher degree of wrinkling at higher pressure. Final species of CO2 and H2O formation is almost independent of pressure. For intermediate species CO and OH, an increase in pressure at constant volume fraction of hydrogen β leads to a decrease of emission of these species.

  2. Experimental studies of flame stability limits of biogas flame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Wanneng; Qin Chaokui; Chen Zhiguang; Tong Chao; Liu Pengjun

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Premixed biogas flame stability for RTBs was studied on different conditions. ► An unusual “float off” phenomenon was observed. ► Decrease of port diameter or gas temperature or methane content motivates lifting. ► Increase of methane content or gas temperature or port diameter motivates yellow tipping. ► Lifting curves become straight lines when semi-logarithmic graph paper is applied. - Abstract: Flame stability of premixed biogas flame for Reference Test Burner (RTB) was investigated. In this study, six kinds of test gases were used to simulate biogas in which CO 2 volume fraction varied from 30% to 45%. A series of experiments were conducted on two RTBs with different port diameters and at different outlet unburned mixture temperatures. It was found that the lifting and yellow tipping limits show similar trends regardless of the biogas components, port diameters and mixture temperatures. A “float off” phenomenon could be observed at low gas flow rate and low primary air ratio. Low mixture temperature, small ports and high CO 2 concentration in biogas can lead to the unstable condition of “float off”. The lifting limits are enhanced with an increase of port diameter or mixture temperature and with a decrease of CO 2 concentration. The yellow tipping limits are extended with an increase of CO 2 concentration and with a decrease of mixture temperature or port diameter. In addition, the lifting limit curve becomes a straight line when semi-logarithmic graph paper is applied. The intercept increases with a decrease of the CO 2 concentration in biogas and with an increase of port diameter or gas temperature.

  3. Simultaneous planar measurements of soot structure and velocity fields in a turbulent lifted jet flame at 3 kHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, M.; Boxx, I.; Geigle, K. P.; Meier, W.

    2011-05-01

    We describe a newly developed combustion diagnostic for the simultaneous planar imaging of soot structure and velocity fields in a highly sooting, lifted turbulent jet flame at 3000 frames per second, or two orders of magnitude faster than "conventional" laser imaging systems. This diagnostic uses short pulse duration (8 ns), frequency-doubled, diode-pumped solid state (DPSS) lasers to excite laser-induced incandescence (LII) at 3 kHz, which is then imaged onto a high framerate CMOS camera. A second (dual-cavity) DPSS laser and CMOS camera form the basis of a particle image velocity (PIV) system used to acquire 2-component velocity field in the flame. The LII response curve (measured in a laminar propane diffusion flame) is presented and the combined diagnostics then applied in a heavily sooting lifted turbulent jet flame. The potential challenges and rewards of application of this combined imaging technique at high speeds are discussed.

  4. "Simultaneous measurement of flame impingement and piston surface temperatures in an optically accessible spark ignition engine"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Carl-Philipp; Honza, Rene; Böhm, Benjamin; Dreizler, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    This paper shows the results of spatially resolved temperature measurements of the piston surface of an optically accessible direct injection spark ignition engine during flame impingement. High-speed thermographic phosphor thermometry (TPT), using Gd3Ga5O12:Cr,Ce, and planar laser-induced fluorescence of the hydroxyl radical (OH-PLIF) were used to investigate the temperature increase and the time and position of flame impingement at the piston surface. Measurements were conducted at two operating cases and showed heating rates of up to 16,000 K/s. The OH-PLIF measurements were used to localize flame impingement and calculate conditioned statistics of the temperature profiles. The TPT coating was characterized and its influence on the temperature measurements evaluated.

  5. Improvement of flame resistance of non-flame retardant cables by applying fire protection measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takemura, Yujiro; Segoshi, Yoshinori; Jinno, Susumu; Mii, Kazuki

    2017-01-01

    The new regulatory requirements, which were put in force after the Fukushima Daiichi accident, impose the use of flame retardant cables on the plant components having safety functions for the purpose of fire protection. However, some Japanese nuclear power plants built in the early days use non-flame retardant cables that do not pass the demonstration test to check for the flame resistance. To cope with the new regulatory requirements, a fire protection measure for non-flame retardant cables was introduced to assure flame resistance of non-flame retardant cables equivalent to or higher than that of flame retardant cables. To illustrate the fire protection measure, both non-flame retardant cables and its cable tray are covered with fire protection sheet fabricated from incombustible material to form an assembly. Considering the demonstration test results, it can be concluded that flame resistance performance of non-flame retardant cables equivalent to or higher than that of flame retardant cables can be assured by forming the assembly even if an external fire outside the assembly and internal cable fire inside the assembly are assumed. This paper introduces the design of the assembly consisting of a bundle of cables and a cable tray and summarizes the results of demonstration tests. (author)

  6. Simulations of flame generated particles

    KAUST Repository

    Patterson, Robert

    2016-01-05

    The nonlinear structure of the equations describing the evolution of a population of coagulating particles in a flame make the use of stochastic particle methods attractive for numerical purposes. I will present an analysis of the stochastic fluctuations inherent in these numerical methods leading to an efficient sampling technique for steady-state problems. I will also give some examples where stochastic particle methods have been used to explore the effect of uncertain parameters in soot formation models. In conclusion I will try to indicate some of the issues in optimising these methods for the study of uncertain model parameters.

  7. Simulations of flame generated particles

    KAUST Repository

    Patterson, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The nonlinear structure of the equations describing the evolution of a population of coagulating particles in a flame make the use of stochastic particle methods attractive for numerical purposes. I will present an analysis of the stochastic fluctuations inherent in these numerical methods leading to an efficient sampling technique for steady-state problems. I will also give some examples where stochastic particle methods have been used to explore the effect of uncertain parameters in soot formation models. In conclusion I will try to indicate some of the issues in optimising these methods for the study of uncertain model parameters.

  8. Nonequilibrium theory of flame propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merzhanov, A.G.

    1995-01-01

    The nonequilibrium theory of flame propagation is considered as applied to the following three processes of wave propagation: the combustion waves of the second kind, the combustion waves with broad reaction zones, and the combustion waves with chemical stages. Kinetic and combustion wave parameters are presented for different in composition mixtures of boron and transition metals, such as Zr, Hf, Ti, Nb, Ta, Mo, as well as for the Ta-N, Zr-C-H, Nb-B-O systems to illustrate specific features of the above-mentioned processes [ru

  9. Impact of Vitiation on a Swirl-Stabilized and Premixed Methane Flame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Vitiation refers to the condition where the oxygen concentration in the air is reduced due to the mix of dilution gas. The vitiation effects on a premixed methane flame were investigated on a swirl-stabilized gas turbine model combustor under atmospheric pressure. The main purpose is to analyze the combustion stability and CO emission performance in vitiated air and compare the results with the flame without vitiation. The N2, CO2, and H2O (steam were used as the dilution gas. Measurements were conducted in a combustor inlet temperature of 384 K and 484 K. The equivalence ratio was varied from stoichiometric conditions to the LBO (Lean Blowout limits where the flame was physically blown out from the combustor. The chemical kinetics calculation was performed with Chemkin software to analyze the vitiation effects on the flame reaction zone. Based on the calculation results, the changes in the temperature gradient, CO concentration, and active radicals across the flame reaction zone were identified. The time-averaged CH chemiluminescence images were recorded and the results indicated the features of the flame shape and location. The CH signal intensity provided the information about the heat-release zone in the combustor. The combustion LBO limits were measured and the vitiation of CO2 and H2O were found to have a stronger impact to elevate the LBO limits than N2. Near the LBO limits, the instability of the flame reaction was revealed by the high-speed chemiluminescence imaging and the results were analyzed by FFT (Fast Fourier Transfer. CO emission was measured with a water-cooled probe which is located at the exit of the combustor. The combustion vitiation has been found to have the compression effect on the operation range for low CO emission. However, this compression effect could be compensated by improving the combustor inlet temperature.

  10. Chemical processes in the HNF flame

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ermolin, N.E.; Zarko, V.E.; Keizers, H.L.J.

    2006-01-01

    Results of modeling the HNF flame structure are presented. From an analysis of literature data on the thermal decomposition and combustion of HNF, it is concluded that the dissociative vaporization of HNF proceeds via the route HNFliq → (N2H4)g + (HC(NO 2)3)g. The flame structure is modeled using a

  11. Laser Doppler thermometry in flat flames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maaren, van A.; Goey, de L.P.H.

    1994-01-01

    Laser Doppler Velocimetry measurements are performed in flat flames, stabilized on a newly developed flat-flame burner. It is shown that the velocity component perpendicular to the main flow direction, induced by expansion in the reaction zone and buoyancy in the burnt gas, is significant. A method

  12. Development of PIV for Microgravity Diffusion Flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Paul S.; Wernet, Mark P.; Yanis, William; Urban, David L.; Sunderland, Peter B.

    2003-01-01

    Results are presented from the application of Particle Image Velocimetry(PIV) to the overfire region of a laminar gas jet diffusion flame in normal gravity. A methane flame burning in air at 0.98 bar was considered. The apparatus demonstrated here is packaged in a drop rig designed for use in the 2.2 second drop tower.

  13. Flame spread along thermally thick horizontal rods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuera, F. J.

    2002-06-01

    An analysis is carried out of the spread of a flame along a horizontal solid fuel rod, for which a weak aiding natural convection flow is established in the underside of the rod by the action of the axial gradient of the pressure variation that gravity generates in the warm gas surrounding the flame. The spread rate is determined in the limit of infinitely fast kinetics, taking into account the effect of radiative losses from the solid surface. The effect of a small inclination of the rod is discussed, pointing out a continuous transition between upward and downward flame spread. Flame spread along flat-bottomed solid cylinders, for which the gradient of the hydrostatically generated pressure drives the flow both along and across the direction of flame propagation, is also analysed.

  14. Burning velocity of the heterogeneous flame propagation in the SHS process expressed in explicit form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makino, A.; Law, C.K.

    1995-01-01

    The combustion behavior of the self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) process has been the subject of many analytical and experimental investigations. Recently, a theory based on spray combustion was proposed for the SHS flame structure and propagation. In contrast to previous studies based on the homogeneous premixed flame, this theory accounts for the premixed-mode of propagation of the bulk flame and the non-premixed reaction of the dispersed nonmetal (or higher melting-point metal) particles which supports the bulk flame. Finite-rate reaction at the particle surface and the temperature-dependent, Arrhenius nature of mass diffusion are both incorporated. The heterogeneous nature of the theory has satisfactorily captured the effects of particle size on the flame propagation speed. The final solution of Makino and Law was obtained numerically and hence presented parametrically. The authors have since then derived an approximate analytical expression for the burning velocity, which explicitly displays the functional dependence of the burning velocity on the various system parameters. This result is presented herein. Applicability of this expression is examined by comparing it with the numerical results for Ti-C, Ti-B, Zr-B, Hf-B, and Co-Ti systems. A fair degree of agreement has been shown as far as the general trend and approximate magnitude are concerned

  15. Phenomenology and numerical calculations of lean hydrogen-air premixed flame propagation in a turbulent flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faix-Gantier, A.

    2001-12-01

    This thesis concerns the study of flame propagation in a turbulent flow of lean hydrogen-air mixtures. The aim is to precise the characteristics of propagation as well as combustion and turbulence models able to take into account the peculiarities of these mixtures. This research work is related to the prevention of fire hazards associated with accidental release of hydrogen within the reactor of a nuclear power plant. In a first part, the scales (the flame velocity and thickness) associated with the laminar flame propagation in hydrogen-air mixtures are studied. A specific attention is devoted to the intrinsic instability properties of such flames. Then, the turbulence scales potentially present within a reactor are estimated in order to allow for the determination of the regimes of combustion that might be present within the reactor and among which the flamelet regime appears to be conceivable. In a second part, starting with the analysis of the propagation properties of a mean reaction zone calculated with a flamelet model, we show that, with an adequate tuning of the parameter appearing in the mean reaction rate expression, it is possible to predict numerically the turbulent flame speeds available with the literature. (author)

  16. Comprehensive Validation of Skeletal Mechanism for Turbulent Premixed Methane–Air Flame Simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Luca, Stefano

    2017-08-01

    A new skeletal mechanism, consisting of 16 species and 72 reactions, has been developed for lean methane–air premixed combustion from the GRI-Mech 3.0. The skeletal mechanism is validated for elevated unburnt temperatures (800 K) and pressures up to 4 atm, thereby addressing realistic gas turbine conditions. The skeletal mechanism is obtained by applying the directed relation graph method and performing sensitivity analysis on the detailed mechanism. The mechanism has been validated for flame speed and flame structure in a wide range of conditions and configurations. A good agreement between the skeletal mechanism and GRI-3.0 was obtained. The configurations considered include one-dimension laminar premixed flames, laminar non-premixed counterflow burners, and two- and three-dimensional unsteady configurations with variations of temperature, pressure, and composition. The skeletal mechanism allows for the inclusion of accurate finite rate chemistry in large-scale direct numerical simulations of lean turbulent premixed flames. In a large-scale direct numerical simulation, the use of the skeletal mechanism reduces the memory requirements by more than a factor of 3 and accelerates the simulation by a factor of 7 compared with the detailed mechanism. The skeletal mechanism is suitable for unsteady three-dimensional simulations of methane turbulent premixed, non-premixed, and globally lean partially premixed flames and is available as supplementary material.

  17. Flame Structure and Emissions of Strongly-Pulsed Turbulent Diffusion Flames with Swirl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Ying-Hao

    This work studies the turbulent flame structure, the reaction-zone structure and the exhaust emissions of strongly-pulsed, non-premixed flames with co-flow swirl. The fuel injection is controlled by strongly-pulsing the fuel flow by a fast-response solenoid valve such that the fuel flow is completely shut off between pulses. This control strategy allows the fuel injection to be controlled over a wide range of operating conditions, allowing the flame structure to range from isolated fully-modulated puffs to interacting puffs to steady flames. The swirl level is controlled by varying the ratio of the volumetric flow rate of the tangential air to that of the axial air. For strongly-pulsed flames, both with and without swirl, the flame geometry is strongly impacted by the injection time. Flames appear to exhibit compact, puff-like structures for short injection times, while elongated flames, similar in behaviors to steady flames, occur for long injection times. The flames with swirl are found to be shorter for the same fuel injection conditions. The separation/interaction level between flame puffs in these flames is essentially governed by the jet-off time. The separation between flame puffs decreases as swirl is imposed, consistent with the decrease in flame puff celerity due to swirl. The decreased flame length and flame puff celerity are consistent with an increased rate of air entrainment due to swirl. The highest levels of CO emissions are generally found for compact, isolated flame puffs, consistent with the rapid quenching due to rapid dilution with excess air. The imposition of swirl generally results in a decrease in CO levels, suggesting more rapid and complete fuel/air mixing by imposing swirl in the co-flow stream. The levels of NO emissions for most cases are generally below the steady-flame value. The NO levels become comparable to the steady-flame value for sufficiently short jet-off time. The swirled co-flow air can, in some cases, increase the NO

  18. Analysis of flame shapes in turbulent hydrogen jet flames with coaxial air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Hee Jang

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses the characteristics of flame shapes and flame length in three types of coaxial air flames realizable by varying coaxial air and/or fuel velocity. Forcing coaxial air into turbulent jet flames induces substantial changes in flame shapes and NOx emissions through the complex flow interferences that exist within the mixing region. Mixing enhancement driven by coaxial air results in flame volume decrease, and such a diminished flame volume finally reduces NOx emissions significantly by decreasing NOx formation zone where a fuel/air mixture burns. It is found that mixing in the vicinity of high temperature zone mainly results from the increase of diffusive flux than the convective flux, and that the increase of mass diffusion is amplified as coaxial air is increased. Besides, it is reaffirmed that nonequilibrium chemistry including HO 2 /H 2 O 2 should be taken into account for NOx prediction and scaling analysis by comparing turbulent combustion models. In addition, it is found that coaxial air can break down the self-similarity law of flames by changing mixing mechanism, and that EINOx scaling parameters based on the self-similarity law of simple jet flames may not be eligible in coaxial air flames

  19. Analysis of flame shapes in turbulent hydrogen jet flames with coaxial air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Hee Jang [Korea Aerospace University, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-06-15

    This paper addresses the characteristics of flame shapes and flame length in three types of coaxial air flames realizable by varying coaxial air and/or fuel velocity. Forcing coaxial air into turbulent jet flames induces substantial changes in flame shapes and NOx emissions through the complex flow interferences that exist within the mixing region. Mixing enhancement driven by coaxial air results in flame volume decrease, and such a diminished flame volume finally reduces NOx emissions significantly by decreasing NOx formation zone where a fuel/air mixture burns. It is found that mixing in the vicinity of high temperature zone mainly results from the increase of diffusive flux than the convective flux, and that the increase of mass diffusion is amplified as coaxial air is increased. Besides, it is reaffirmed that nonequilibrium chemistry including HO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} should be taken into account for NOx prediction and scaling analysis by comparing turbulent combustion models. In addition, it is found that coaxial air can break down the self-similarity law of flames by changing mixing mechanism, and that EINOx scaling parameters based on the self-similarity law of simple jet flames may not be eligible in coaxial air flames

  20. Thermal-diffusional Instability in White Dwarf Flames: Regimes of Flame Pulsation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing, Guangzheng; Zhao, Yibo; Zhou, Cheng; Gao, Yang; Law, Chung K. [Center for Combustion Energy, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Modestov, Mikhail, E-mail: gaoyang-00@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn [Nordita, KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Stockholm University, SE-10691, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2017-05-20

    Thermal-diffusional pulsation behaviors in planar as well as outwardly and inwardly propagating white dwarf (WD) carbon flames are systematically studied. In the 1D numerical simulation, the asymptotic degenerate equation of state and simplified one-step reaction rates for nuclear reactions are used to study the flame propagation and pulsation in WDs. The numerical critical Zel’dovich numbers of planar flames at different densities ( ρ = 2, 3, and 4 × 10{sup 7} g cm{sup −3}) and of spherical flames (with curvature c = −0.01, 0, 0.01, and 0.05) at a particular density ( ρ = 2 × 10{sup 7} g cm{sup −3}) are presented. Flame front pulsation in different environmental densities and temperatures are obtained to form the regime diagram of pulsation, showing that carbon flames pulsate in the typical density of 2 × 10{sup 7} g cm{sup −3} and temperature of 0.6 × 10{sup 9} K. While being stable at higher temperatures, at relatively lower temperatures, the amplitude of the flame pulsation becomes larger. In outwardly propagating spherical flames the pulsation instability is enhanced and flames are also easier to quench due to pulsation at small radius, while the inwardly propagating flames are more stable.

  1. The FLAME project in Atomki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunyadi, M.; Iski, N.

    2011-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Eleven regions of eight Central European countries have launched the FLAME Project in 2010 (Future Laboratory for the diffusion and Application of innovation in Material Sciences and Engineering) to start and manage a new initiative of a network for innovation activities in the MS and E sector. The project aimed at supporting actors in the field of materials science and exploiting their research and commercial potentials. FLAME partners encourage trans-regional cooperation between R and D centres, universities, start-ups and SMEs by helping companies to distribute their innovations and supporting research in transferring results to the market. The project will implement a new cooperation model: the 'Future Lab', where duly trained 'regional facilitation coaches' will assist SMEs in accessing the whole Central European MS and E market and research potential. Each Future Lab will be specialized on thematic fields and help to make efficient use of local and regional potentials. The three Future Labs will be hosted by the Austrian, Italian and Slovenian partner organizations. Figure 1. Competence and innovation landscape on the FLAME website. Source: http://www.flameurope.eu/mse-actors-145.html As the first step of project implementation in 2011 the competence and innovation maps within the participating regions were elaborated in order to list the relevant actors in the MS and E sector (Figure 1). In 2011, each project partner delegated two regional professionals as facilitation coaches to attend four training weeks across Europe. The facilitation coaches play an active role in the exchange of information and in motivating collaboration between research institutions and enterprises on technology based projects. The training sessions were located at four of the project partners: Kapfenberg/Austria (lead partner - Area m Styria); Warsaw/Poland (PP2 - Warsaw University of Technology); Debrecen/Hungary (PP5 - Atomki); Milan/Italy (PP

  2. The dilution effect on the extinction of wall diffusion flame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghiti Nadjib

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic process of the interaction between a turbulent jet diffusion methane flame and a lateral wall was experimentally studied. The evolution of the flame temperature field with the Nitrogen dilution of the methane jet flame was examined. The interaction between the diffusion flame and the lateral wall was investigated for different distance between the wall and the central axes of the jet flame. The dilution is found to play the central role in the flame extinction process. The flame response as the lateral wall approaches from infinity and the increasing of the dilution rate make the flame extinction more rapid than the flame without dilution, when the nitrogen dilution rate increase the flame temperature decrease.

  3. Prediction of flame formation in highly preheated air combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jang Sik; Choi, Gyung Min; Kim, Duck Jool; Katsuki, Masashi

    2008-01-01

    Fundamental information about the ignition position and shape of a flame in highly preheated air combustion was obtained, and the suitability of the suggested reduced kinetic mechanism that reflects the characteristics of the highly preheated air combustion was demonstrated. Flame lift height and flame length with variations of premixed air temperature and oxygen concentration were measured by CH chemiluminescence intensity, and were computed with a reduced kinetic mechanism. Flame attached near a fuel nozzle started to lift when preheated air temperature became close to auto-ignition temperature and/or oxygen concentration reduced. The flame lift height increased but the flame length decreased with decreasing preheated air temperature and flame length reversed after a minimum value. Calculated results showed good agreement with those of experiment within tolerable error. Flame shape shifted from diffusion flame shape to partial premixed flame shape with increasing lift height and this tendency was also observed in the computation results

  4. Prediction of flame formation in highly preheated air combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jang Sik; Choi, Gyung Min; Kim, Duck Jool [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Katsuki, Masashi [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan)

    2008-11-15

    Fundamental information about the ignition position and shape of a flame in highly preheated air combustion was obtained, and the suitability of the suggested reduced kinetic mechanism that reflects the characteristics of the highly preheated air combustion was demonstrated. Flame lift height and flame length with variations of premixed air temperature and oxygen concentration were measured by CH chemiluminescence intensity, and were computed with a reduced kinetic mechanism. Flame attached near a fuel nozzle started to lift when preheated air temperature became close to auto-ignition temperature and/or oxygen concentration reduced. The flame lift height increased but the flame length decreased with decreasing preheated air temperature and flame length reversed after a minimum value. Calculated results showed good agreement with those of experiment within tolerable error. Flame shape shifted from diffusion flame shape to partial premixed flame shape with increasing lift height and this tendency was also observed in the computation results

  5. Systems and methods for controlling flame instability

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min Suk

    2016-07-21

    A system (62) for controlling flame instability comprising: a nozzle (66) coupled to a fuel supply line (70), an insulation housing (74) coupled to the nozzle, a combustor (78) coupled to the nozzle via the insulation housing, where the combustor is grounded (80), a pressure sensor (82) coupled to the combustor and configured to detect pressure in the combustor, and an instability controlling assembly coupled to the pressure sensor and to an alternating current power supply (86), where, the instability controlling assembly can control flame instability of a flame in the system based on pressure detected by the pressure sensor.

  6. Aromatics oxidation and soot formation in flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, J.B.; Pope, C.J.; Shandross, R.A.; Yadav, T. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This project is concerned with the kinetics and mechanisms of aromatics oxidation and soot and fullerenes formation in flames. The scope includes detailed measurements of profiles of stable and radical species concentrations in low-pressure one-dimensional premixed flames. Intermediate species identifications and mole fractions, fluxes, and net reaction rates calculated from the measured profiles are used to test postulated reaction mechanisms. Particular objectives are to identify and to determine or confirm rate constants for the main benzene oxidation reactions in flames, and to characterize fullerenes and their formation mechanisms and kinetics.

  7. Structure of diffusion flames from a vertical burner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Finney; Dan Jimenez; Jack D. Cohen; Isaac C. Grenfell; Cyle Wold

    2010-01-01

    Non-steady and turbulent flames are commonly observed to produce flame contacts with adjacent fuels during fire spread in a wide range of fuel bed depths. A stationary gas-fired burner (flame wall) was developed to begin study of flame edge variability along an analagous vertical fuel source. This flame wall is surrogate for a combustion interface at the edge of a deep...

  8. Effect of H2 addition on combustion characteristics of dimethyl ether jet diffusion flame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Yinhu; Lu, Xiaofeng; Wang, Quanhai; Gan, Lu; Ji, Xuanyu; Wang, Hu; Guo, Qiang; Song, Decai; Ji, Pengyu

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • DME- and H 2 -dominated combustion regimes were quantitatively characterized. • The flame structure changed significantly when H 2 addition was above 60 vol.%. • An empirical correlation for normalized flame entrainment rate was developed. • The optimal H 2 addition to DME was 60 vol.% in the practical engineering. - Abstract: In this paper, experiments and numerical calculations were conducted to investigate the effect of H 2 addition on dimethyl ether (DME) jet diffusion flame behaviors, in terms of thermal and chemical structures, reaction zone size, flame entrainment, and NOx and CO emission indices. A wide range of H 2 additions from pure DME to pure H 2 were involved herein, while maintaining the volumetric flow rate of fuel mixture constant. The results indicate that when H 2 mole fraction in the fuel mixture exceeded 60%, the blended fuel was converted to H 2 -dominated. Besides, the flames behaved rather distinctly at the DME- and H 2 -dominated regimes. With the increment in H 2 addition, flame temperature, H 2 , H, O, and OH concentrations increased gradually, but concentrations of the intermediate hydrocarbons (such as CO, CH 2 O, CH 2 , and CH 3 ) decreased on the contrary. Additionally, after the flame became H 2 -dominated, the species concentrations varied increasingly quickly with H 2 addition. The reaction zone length and width decreased nearly linearly with H 2 addition at the DME- and H 2 -dominated regimes. But the decreasing speed of reaction zone length became faster after the flame was converted to H 2 -dominated. At the DME-dominated regime, the dependence of flame entrainment coefficient (C e ) on H 2 addition was rather small. While at the H 2 -dominated regime, C e increased increasingly quickly with H 2 addition. Moreover, with the increment in H 2 addition, NOx emission index increased and CO emission index decreased gradually. In addition, at the DME-dominated regime, NOx emission index increased fairly slowly

  9. Direct numerical simulations of non-premixed ethylene-air flames: Local flame extinction criterion

    KAUST Repository

    Lecoustre, Vivien R.

    2014-11-01

    Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) of ethylene/air diffusion flame extinctions in decaying two-dimensional turbulence were performed. A Damköhler-number-based flame extinction criterion as provided by classical large activation energy asymptotic (AEA) theory is assessed for its validity in predicting flame extinction and compared to one based on Chemical Explosive Mode Analysis (CEMA) of the detailed chemistry. The DNS code solves compressible flow conservation equations using high order finite difference and explicit time integration schemes. The ethylene/air chemistry is simulated with a reduced mechanism that is generated based on the directed relation graph (DRG) based methods along with stiffness removal. The numerical configuration is an ethylene fuel strip embedded in ambient air and exposed to a prescribed decaying turbulent flow field. The emphasis of this study is on the several flame extinction events observed in contrived parametric simulations. A modified viscosity and changing pressure (MVCP) scheme was adopted in order to artificially manipulate the probability of flame extinction. Using MVCP, pressure was changed from the baseline case of 1 atm to 0.1 and 10 atm. In the high pressure MVCP case, the simulated flame is extinction-free, whereas in the low pressure MVCP case, the simulated flame features frequent extinction events and is close to global extinction. Results show that, despite its relative simplicity and provided that the global flame activation temperature is correctly calibrated, the AEA-based flame extinction criterion can accurately predict the simulated flame extinction events. It is also found that the AEA-based criterion provides predictions of flame extinction that are consistent with those provided by a CEMA-based criterion. This study supports the validity of a simple Damköhler-number-based criterion to predict flame extinction in engineering-level CFD models. © 2014 The Combustion Institute.

  10. Sub-grid scale combustion models for large eddy simulation of unsteady premixed flame propagation around obstacles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Sarli, Valeria; Di Benedetto, Almerinda; Russo, Gennaro

    2010-08-15

    In this work, an assessment of different sub-grid scale (sgs) combustion models proposed for large eddy simulation (LES) of steady turbulent premixed combustion (Colin et al., Phys. Fluids 12 (2000) 1843-1863; Flohr and Pitsch, Proc. CTR Summer Program, 2000, pp. 61-82; Kim and Menon, Combust. Sci. Technol. 160 (2000) 119-150; Charlette et al., Combust. Flame 131 (2002) 159-180; Pitsch and Duchamp de Lageneste, Proc. Combust. Inst. 29 (2002) 2001-2008) was performed to identify the model that best predicts unsteady flame propagation in gas explosions. Numerical results were compared to the experimental data by Patel et al. (Proc. Combust. Inst. 29 (2002) 1849-1854) for premixed deflagrating flame in a vented chamber in the presence of three sequential obstacles. It is found that all sgs combustion models are able to reproduce qualitatively the experiment in terms of step of flame acceleration and deceleration around each obstacle, and shape of the propagating flame. Without adjusting any constants and parameters, the sgs model by Charlette et al. also provides satisfactory quantitative predictions for flame speed and pressure peak. Conversely, the sgs combustion models other than Charlette et al. give correct predictions only after an ad hoc tuning of constants and parameters. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Gas-Flame Brazing of Metals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Asinovskaya, G

    1964-01-01

    .... Since a gas flame implies the presence of considerable heat, the term brazing will be used in this translation save where low heats are specifically indicated, or where both high and low heats...

  12. Systems and methods for controlling flame instability

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min; Xiong, Yuan; Chung, Suk-Ho

    2016-01-01

    A system (62) for controlling flame instability comprising: a nozzle (66) coupled to a fuel supply line (70), an insulation housing (74) coupled to the nozzle, a combustor (78) coupled to the nozzle via the insulation housing, where the combustor

  13. Nanocellular foam with solid flame retardant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Kelly-Rowley, Anne M.; Bunker, Shana P.; Costeux, Stephane

    2017-11-21

    Prepare nanofoam by (a) providing an aqueous solution of a flame retardant dissolved in an aqueous solvent, wherein the flame retardant is a solid at 23.degree. C. and 101 kiloPascals pressure when in neat form; (b) providing a fluid polymer composition selected from a solution of polymer dissolved in a water-miscible solvent or a latex of polymer particles in a continuous aqueous phase; (c) mixing the aqueous solution of flame retardant with the fluid polymer composition to form a mixture; (d) removing water and, if present, solvent from the mixture to produce a polymeric composition having less than 74 weight-percent flame retardant based on total polymeric composition weight; (e) compound the polymeric composition with a matrix polymer to form a matrix polymer composition; and (f) foam the matrix polymer composition into nanofoam having a porosity of at least 60 percent.

  14. Distribution of electric potential in hydrocarbon flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fialkov, B.S.; Shcherbakov, N.D.; Plitsyn, V.T.

    1978-01-01

    A study was made of the distribution of electrical potential and temperatures in laminar methane and propane--butane flames when the excess air coefficient in the mixture is changed from 0 to 1.2. 7 references, 3 figures.

  15. CloudFlame: Cyberinfrastructure for combustion research

    KAUST Repository

    Goteng, Gokop; Nettyam, Naveena; Sarathy, Mani

    2013-01-01

    Combustion experiments and chemical kinetics simulations generate huge data that is computationally and data intensive. A cloud-based cyber infrastructure known as Cloud Flame is implemented to improve the computational efficiency, scalability

  16. Synthesis of Nano-Particles in Flames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Tue

    flame burner and a premixed burner with a precursor jet. The experimental setups and results are shown and discussed in detail. Alumina powder with specific surface area between 45 m2/g and 190 m2/g was obtained.Temperature and flow fields of the flame processes are analysed by numerical simulations...... energy expression.Furthermore, the model is validated by comparison with experimental data of the flame synthesis of titania by combustion of TiCl4 previously presented by Pratsinis et al. (1996).The combination of particle dynamics and CFD simulations has proved to be an efficient method......The scope of this work is to investigate the synthesis of aluminum oxide particles in flames from the combustion of an aluminum alkoxide precursor.A general introduction to particles formation in the gas phase is presented with emphasis on the mechanisms that control the particle morphology after...

  17. Numerical modelling of ion transport in flames

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Jie; Belhi, Memdouh; Bisetti, Fabrizio; Sarathy, Mani

    2015-01-01

    that changes in polarizability propagate with decreasing effect from binary transport coefficients to species number densities. We conclude that the chosen polarizability value has a limited effect on the ion distribution in freely propagating flames. We expect

  18. Characterization of flame radiosity in shrubland fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel G. Cruz; Bret W. Butler; Domingos X. Viegas; Pedro Palheiro

    2011-01-01

    The present study is aimed at quantifying the flame radiosity vertical profile and gas temperature in moderate to high intensity spreading fires in shrubland fuels. We report on the results from 11 experimental fires conducted over a range of fire rate of spread and frontal fire intensity varying respectively between 0.04-0.35ms-1 and 468-14,973kWm-1. Flame radiosity,...

  19. Measurements of laminar burning velocities and flame stability analysis for dissociated methanol-air-diluent mixtures at elevated temperatures and pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xuan; Huang, Zuohua; Zhang, Zhiyuan; Zheng, Jianjun; Yu, Wu; Jiang, Deming [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2009-06-15

    The laminar burning velocities and Markstein lengths for the dissociated methanol-air-diluent mixtures were measured at different equivalence ratios, initial temperatures and pressures, diluents (N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}) and dilution ratios by using the spherically outward expanding flame. The influences of these parameters on the laminar burning velocity and Markstein length were analyzed. The results show that the laminar burning velocity of dissociated methanol-air mixture increases with an increase in initial temperature and decreases with an increase in initial pressure. The peak laminar burning velocity occurs at equivalence ratio of 1.8. The Markstein length decreases with an increase in initial temperature and initial pressure. Cellular flame structures are presented at early flame propagation stage with the decrease of equivalence ratio or dilution ratio. The transition positions can be observed in the curve of flame propagation speed to stretch rate, indicating the occurrence of cellular structure at flame fronts. Mixture diluents (N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}) will decrease the laminar burning velocities of mixtures and increase the sensitivity of flame front to flame stretch rate. Markstein length increases with an increase in dilution ratio except for very lean mixture (equivalence ratio less than 0.8). CO{sub 2} dilution has a greater impact on laminar flame speed and flame front stability compared to N{sub 2}. It is also demonstrated that the normalized unstretched laminar burning velocity is only related to dilution ratio and is not influenced by equivalence ratio. (author)

  20. Stabilization and structure of N-heptane flame on CWJ-spray burner with kHZ SPIV and OH-PLIF

    KAUST Repository

    Mansour, Morkous S.

    2015-08-31

    A curved wall-jet (CWJ) burner was employed to stabilize turbulent spray flames that utilized a Coanda effect by supplying air as annular-inward jet over a curved surface, surrounding an axisymmetric solid cone fuel spray. The stabilization characteristics and structure of n-heptane/air turbulent flames were investigated with varying fuel and air flow rates and the position of pressure atomizer (L). High-speed planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of OH radicals delineated reaction zone contours and simultaneously stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (SPIV) quantified the flow field features, involving turbulent mixing within spray, ambient air entrainment and flame-turbulence interaction. High turbulent rms velocities were generated within the recirculation zone, which improved the flame stabilization. OH fluorescence signals revealed a double flame structure near the stabilization edge of lifted flame that consisted of inner partially premixed flame and outer diffusion flame front. The inner reaction zone is highly wrinkled and folded due to significant turbulent mixing between the annular-air jet and the fuel vapor generated from droplets along the contact interface of this air jet with the fuel spray. Larger droplets, having higher momentum are able to penetrate the inner reaction zone and then vaporized in the low-speed hot region bounded by these reaction zones; this supports the outer diffusion flame. Frequent local extinctions in the inner reaction zone were observed at low air flow rate. As flow rate increases, the inner zone is more resistant to local extinction despite of its high wrinkling and corrugation degree. However, the outer reaction zone exhibits stable and mildly wrinkled features irrespective of air flow rate. The liftoff height increases with the air mass flow rate but decreases with L.

  1. A two-step chemical scheme for kerosene-air premixed flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzelli, B.; Riber, E.; Sanjose, M. [CERFACS, CFD Team, 42 Avenue G. Coriolis, 31057 Toulouse Cedex 01 (France); Poinsot, T. [IMFT-UMR 5502, allee du Professeur Camille Soula, 31400 Toulouse (France)

    2010-07-15

    A reduced two-step scheme (called 2S-KERO-BFER) for kerosene-air premixed flames is presented in the context of Large Eddy Simulation of reacting turbulent flows in industrial applications. The chemical mechanism is composed of two reactions corresponding to the fuel oxidation into CO and H{sub 2}O, and the CO - CO{sub 2} equilibrium. To ensure the validity of the scheme for rich combustion, the pre-exponential constants of the two reactions are tabulated versus the local equivalence ratio. The fuel and oxidizer exponents are chosen to guarantee the correct dependence of laminar flame speed with pressure. Due to a lack of experimental results, the detailed mechanism of Dagaut composed of 209 species and 1673 reactions, and the skeletal mechanism of Luche composed of 91 species and 991 reactions have been used to validate the reduced scheme. Computations of one-dimensional laminar flames have been performed with the 2S{sub K}ERO{sub B}FER scheme using the CANTERA and COSILAB softwares for a wide range of pressure ([1; 12] atm), fresh gas temperature ([300; 700] K), and equivalence ratio ([0.6; 2.0]). Results show that the flame speed is correctly predicted for the whole range of parameters, showing a maximum for stoichiometric flames, a decrease for rich combustion and a satisfactory pressure dependence. The burnt gas temperature and the dilution by Exhaust Gas Recirculation are also well reproduced. Moreover, the results for ignition delay time are in good agreement with the experiments. (author)

  2. NO concentration imaging in turbulent nonpremixed flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schefer, R.W. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The importance of NO as a pollutant species is well known. An understanding of the formation characteristics of NO in turbulent hydrocarbon flames is important to both the desired reduction of pollutant emissions and the validation of proposed models for turbulent reacting flows. Of particular interest is the relationship between NO formation and the local flame zone, in which the fuel is oxidized and primary heat release occurs. Planar imaging of NO provides the multipoint statistics needed to relate NO formation to the both the flame zone and the local turbulence characteristics. Planar imaging of NO has been demonstrated in turbulent flames where NO was seeded into the flow at high concentrations (2000 ppm) to determine the gas temperature distribution. The NO concentrations in these experiments were significantly higher than those expected in typical hydrocarbon-air flames, which require a much lower detectability limit for NO measurements. An imaging technique based on laser-induced fluorescence with sufficient sensitivity to study the NO formation mechanism in the stabilization region of turbulent lifted-jet methane flames.

  3. Preparation of Flame Retardant Modified with Titanate for Asphalt Binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving the compatibility between flame retardant and asphalt is a difficult task due to the complex nature of the materials. This study explores a low dosage compound flame retardant and seeks to improve the compatibility between flame retardants and asphalt. An orthogonal experiment was designed taking magnesium hydroxide, ammonium polyphosphate, and melamine as factors. The oil absorption and activation index were tested to determine the effect of titanate on the flame retardant additive. The pavement performance test was conducted to evaluate the effect of the flame retardant additive. Oxygen index test was conducted to confirm the effect of flame retardant on flame ability of asphalt binder. The results of this study showed that the new composite flame retardant is more effective in improving the compatibility between flame retardant and asphalt and reducing the limiting oxygen index of asphalt binder tested in this study.

  4. Flame synthesis of zinc oxide nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merchan-Merchan, Wilson, E-mail: wmerchan-merchan@ou.edu [School of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Farahani, Moien Farmahini [School of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We report a single-step flame method for the synthesis of Zn oxide nanocrystals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Diverse flame positions lead to a variation of Zn oxide nanocrystal growth. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The synthesized crystals have polyhedral, pipet- and needle-like shape. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High length-to-diameter aspect-ratio crystals appear in a higher temperature flame. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The crystal growth mechanism corresponds to vapor-to-solid conversion. - Abstract: Distinctive zinc oxide (ZnO) nanocrystals were synthesized on the surface of Zn probes using a counter-flow flame medium formed by methane/acetylene and oxygen-enriched air streams. The source material, a zinc wire with a purity of {approx}99.99% and diameter of 1 mm, was introduced through a sleeve into the oxygen rich region of the flame. The position of the probe/sleeve was varied within the flame medium resulting in growth variation of ZnO nanocrystals on the surface of the probe. The shape and structural parameters of the grown crystals strongly depend on the flame position. Structural variations of the synthesized crystals include single-crystalline ZnO nanorods and microprisms (ZMPs) (the ZMPs have less than a few micrometers in length and several hundred nanometers in cross section) with a large number of facets and complex axial symmetry with a nanorod protruding from their tips. The protruding rods are less than 100 nm in diameter and lengths are less than 1 {mu}m. The protruding nanorods can be elongated several times by increasing the residence time of the probe/sleeve inside the oxygen-rich flame or by varying the flame position. At different flame heights, nanorods having higher length-to-diameter aspect-ratio can be synthesized. A lattice spacing of {approx}0.26 nm was measured for the synthesized nanorods, which can be closely correlated with the (0 0 2) interplanar spacing of hexagonal ZnO (Wurtzite) cells

  5. Flame Structure of Vitiated Fuel-Rich Inverse Diffusion Flames in a Cross-Flow (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    downstream of the slot. The flame length increases as the blowing ratio increases as a result of the greater mass of air which reacts. Ignition of...attributed to the greater penetration of the jet into the cross-stream. It is noted that the flame lengths are similar for the different blowing ratios

  6. On the dynamics of flame edges in diffusion-flame/vortex interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermanns, Miguel; Linan, Amable [Departamento de Motopropulsion y Termofluidodinamica, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Pza. Cardenal Cisneros 3, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Vera, Marcos [Area de Mecanica de Fluidos, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganes (Spain)

    2007-04-15

    We analyze the local flame extinction and reignition of a counterflow diffusion flame perturbed by a laminar vortex ring. Local flame extinction leads to the appearance of flame edges separating the burning and extinguished regions of the distorted mixing layer. The dynamics of these edges is modeled based on previous numerical results, with heat release effects fully taken into account, which provide the propagation velocity of triple and edge flames in terms of the upstream unperturbed value of the scalar dissipation. The temporal evolution of the mixing layer is determined using the classical mixture fraction approach, with both unsteady and curvature effects taken into account. Although variable density effects play an important role in exothermic reacting mixing layers, in this paper the description of the mixing layer is carried out using the constant density approximation, leading to a simplified analytical description of the flow field. The mathematical model reveals the relevant nondimensional parameters governing diffusion-flame/vortex interactions and provides the parameter range for the more relevant regime of local flame extinction followed by reignition via flame edges. Despite the simplicity of the model, the results show very good agreement with previously published experimental results. (author)

  7. Response of a swirl-stabilized flame to transverse acoustic excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Jacqueline

    This work addresses the issue of transverse combustion instabilities in annular gas turbine combustor geometries. While modern low-emissions combustion strategies have made great strides in reducing the production of toxic emissions in aircraft engines and power generation gas turbines, combustion instability remains one of the foremost technical challenges in the development of next generation combustor technology. To that end, this work investigates the response of a swirling flow and swirl-stabilized flame to a transverse acoustic field is using a variety of high-speed laser techniques, especially high-speed particle image velocimetry (PIV) for detailed velocity measurements of this highly unsteady flow phenomenon. Several important issues are addressed. First, the velocity-coupled pathway by which the unsteady velocity field excites the flame is described in great detail. Here, a transfer function approach has been taken to illustrate the various pathways through which the flame is excited by both acoustic and vortical velocity fluctuations. It has been shown that while the direct excitation of the flame by the transverse acoustic field is a negligible effect in most combustor architectures, the coupling between the transverse acoustic mode in the combustor and the longitudinal mode in the nozzle is an important pathway that can result in significant flame response. In this work, the frequency response of this pathway as well as the resulting flame response is measured using PIV and chemiluminescence measurements, respectively. Next, coupling between the acoustic field and the hydrodynamically unstable swirling flow provides a pathway that can lead to significant flame wrinkling by large coherent structures in the flow. Swirling flows display two types of hydrodynamic instability: an absolutely unstable jet and convectively unstable shear layers. The absolute instability of the jet results in vortex breakdown, a large recirculation zone along the centerline of

  8. Turbulence-flame interactions in DNS of a laboratory high Karlovitz premixed turbulent jet flame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haiou; Hawkes, Evatt R.; Chen, Jacqueline H.

    2016-09-01

    In the present work, direct numerical simulation (DNS) of a laboratory premixed turbulent jet flame was performed to study turbulence-flame interactions. The turbulent flame features moderate Reynolds number and high Karlovitz number (Ka). The orientations of the flame normal vector n, the vorticity vector ω and the principal strain rate eigenvectors ei are examined. The in-plane and out-of-plane angles are introduced to quantify the vector orientations, which also measure the flame geometry and the vortical structures. A general observation is that the distributions of these angles are more isotropic downstream as the flame and the flow become more developed. The out-of-plane angle of the flame normal vector, β, is a key parameter in developing the correction of 2D measurements to estimate the corresponding 3D quantities. The DNS results show that the correction factor is unity at the inlet and approaches its theoretical value of an isotropic distribution downstream. The alignment characteristics of n, ω and ei, which reflect the interactions of turbulence and flame, are also studied. Similar to a passive scalar gradient in non-reacting flows, the flame normal has a tendency to align with the most compressive strain rate, e3, in the flame, indicating that turbulence contributes to the production of scalar gradient. The vorticity dynamics are examined via the vortex stretching term, which was found to be the predominant source of vorticity generation balanced by dissipation, in the enstrophy transport equation. It is found that although the vorticity preferentially aligns with the intermediate strain rate, e2, the contribution of the most extensive strain rate, e1, to vortex stretching is comparable with that of the intermediate strain rate, e2. This is because the eigenvalue of the most extensive strain rate, λ1, is always large and positive. It is confirmed that the vorticity vector is preferentially positioned along the flame tangential plane, contributing

  9. Tabulated Combustion Model Development For Non-Premixed Flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Prithwish

    D diffusion flame solver. The proposed model did not use progress variables like the traditional chemistry tabulation methods. The resulting model demonstrated an order of magnitude computational speed up over the RIF model. The results were validated across a wide range of operating conditions for diesel injections and the results were in close agreement to those of the experimental data. History of scalar dissipation rates plays a very important role in non premixed flames. However, tabulated methods have not been able to incorporate this physics in their models. A comparative approach is developed that can quantify these effects and find correlations with flow variables. A new model is proposed to include these effects in tabulated combustion models. The model is initially validated for 1D counterflow diffusion flame problems at engine conditions. The model is further implemented and validated in a 3D RANS code across a range of operating conditions for spray flames.

  10. Radiation Effects on the Thermodiffusive Instability of Premixed Flames on a Cylindrical Porous Flame Holder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Minglong; Yang, Lijun

    2017-10-01

    A linear analysis method was used to investigate the mechanics of radiation heat loss and mass transfer in the porous wall of premixed annular flames and their effect on thermodiffusive instability. The dispersion relation between the disturbance wave growth rate and wavenumber was calculated numerically. Results showed that radiation heat loss elevated the annular flame slightly away from the porous wall. In the annular flame with small Lewis numbers, radiation heat loss changed the thermodiffusive instability from a pulsating to a cellular state, while for the large Lewis numbers, only the pulsating instability was represented. Increasing radiation heat loss and the radius of the porous wall enhanced the instability of the annular flames. Heat losses decreased with the continued increase in thickness of the porous wall and the decrease in porosity. Annular flames with long-wave mode along the angular direction were more unstable than the shortwave mode.

  11. A, a Brominated Flame Retardant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomomi Takeshita

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA, a brominated flame retardant, has been found to exacerbate pneumonia in respiratory syncytial virus- (RSV- infected mice. We examined the effect of Brazilian propolis (AF-08 on the exacerbation of RSV infection by TBBPA exposure in mice. Mice were fed a powdered diet mixed with 1% TBBPA alone, 0.02% AF-08 alone, or 1% TBBPA and 0.02% AF-08 for four weeks and then intranasally infected with RSV. TBBPA exposure increased the pulmonary virus titer and level of IFN-γ, a representative marker of pneumonia due to RSV infection, in the lungs of infected mice without toxicity. AF-08 was significantly effective in reducing the virus titers and IFN-γ level increased by TBBPA exposure. Also, AF-08 significantly reduced proinflammatory cytokine (TNF-α and IL-6 levels in the lungs of RSV-infected mice with TBBPA exposure, but Th2 cytokine (IL-4 and IL-10 levels were not evidently increased. Neither TBBPA exposure nor AF-08 treatment affected the anti-RSV antibody production in RSV-infected mice. In flow cytometry analysis, AF-08 seemed to be effective in reducing the ratio of pulmonary CD8a+ cells in RSV-infected mice with TBBPA exposure. TBBPA and AF-08 did not exhibit anti-RSV activity in vitro. Thus, AF-08 probably ameliorated pneumonia exacerbated by TBBPA exposure in RSV-infected mice by limiting excess cellular immune responses.

  12. Enhancement of flame development by microwave-assisted spark ignition in constant volume combustion chamber

    KAUST Repository

    Wolk, Benjamin; DeFilippo, Anthony; Chen, Jyh-Yuan; Dibble, Robert; Nishiyama, Atsushi; Ikeda, Yuji

    2013-01-01

    -thermal chemical kinetic enhancement from energy deposition to free electrons in the flame front and (2) induced flame wrinkling from excitation of flame (plasma) instability. The enhancement of flame development by microwaves diminishes as the initial pressure

  13. Numerical Simulation of a Laboratory-Scale Turbulent SlotFlame

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, John B.; Day, Marcus S.; Grcar, Joseph F.; Lijewski,Michael J.; Driscoll, James F.; Filatyev, Sergei A.

    2006-04-20

    We present three-dimensional, time-dependent simulations ofthe flowfield of a laboratory-scale slot burner. The simulations areperformed using an adaptive time-dependent low Mach number combustionalgorithm based on a second-order projection formulation that conservesboth species mass and total enthalpy. The methodology incorporatesdetailed chemical kinetics and a mixture model for differential speciesdiffusion. Methane chemistry and transport are modeled using the DRM-19mechanism along with its associated thermodynamics and transportdatabases. Adaptive mesh refinementdynamically resolves the flame andturbulent structures. Detailedcomparisons with experimental measurementsshow that the computational results provide a good prediction of theflame height, the shape of the time-averaged parabolic flame surfacearea, and the global consumption speed (the volume per second ofreactants consumed divided by the area of the time-averaged flame). Thethickness of the computed flamebrush increases in the streamwisedirection, and the flamesurface density profiles display the same generalshapes as the experiment. The structure of the simulated flame alsomatches the experiment; reaction layers are thin (typically thinner than1 mm) and the wavelengths of large wrinkles are 5--10 mm. Wrinklesamplify to become long fingers of reactants which burn through at a neckregion, forming isolated pockets of reactants. Thus both the simulatedflame and the experiment are in the "corrugated flameletregime."

  14. Shock wave and flame front induced detonation in a rapid compression machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Qi, Y.; Xiang, S.; Mével, R.; Wang, Z.

    2018-05-01

    The present study focuses on one mode of detonation initiation observed in a rapid compression machine (RCM). This mode is referred to as shock wave and flame front-induced detonation (SWFID). Experimental high-speed imaging and two-dimensional numerical simulations with skeletal chemistry are combined to unravel the dominant steps of detonation initiation under SWFID conditions. It is shown that the interaction between the shock wave generated by the end-gas auto-ignition and the spherical flame creates a region of high pressure and temperature which enables the acceleration of the flame front and the detonation onset. The experimental observation lacks adequate spatial and temporal resolution despite good reproducibility of the detonation onset. Based on the numerical results, phenomenological interpretation of the event within the framework of shock wave refraction indicates that the formation of a free-precursor shock wave at the transition between regular and irregular refraction may be responsible for detonation onset. The present results along with previous findings on shock wave reflection-induced detonation in the RCM indicate that super-knock occurs after the interaction of the shock wave generated by end-gas auto-ignition with the RCM walls, preignition flame, or another shock wave.

  15. Gravity Effects Observed In Partially Premixed Flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Ishwar K.; Aggarwal, Suresh K.; Lock, Andrew J.; Gauguly, Ranjan; Hegde, Uday

    2003-01-01

    Partially premixed flames (PPFs) contain a rich premixed fuel air mixture in a pocket or stream, and, for complete combustion to occur, they require the transport of oxidizer from an appropriately oxidizer-rich (or fuel-lean) mixture that is present in another pocket or stream. Partial oxidation reactions occur in fuel-rich portions of the mixture and any remaining unburned fuel and/or intermediate species are consumed in the oxidizer-rich portions. Partial premixing, therefore, represents that condition when the equivalence ratio (phi) in one portion of the flowfield is greater than unity, and in another section its value is less than unity. In general, for combustion to occur efficiently, the global equivalence ratio is in the range fuel-lean to stoichiometric. These flames can be established by design by placing a fuel-rich mixture in contact with a fuel-lean mixture, but they also occur otherwise in many practical systems, which include nonpremixed lifted flames, turbulent nonpremixed combustion, spray flames, and unwanted fires. Other practical applications of PPFs are reported elsewhere. Although extensive experimental studies have been conducted on premixed and nonpremixed flames under microgravity, there is a absence of previous experimental work on burner stabilized PPFs in this regard. Previous numerical studies by our group employing a detailed numerical model showed gravity effects to be significant on the PPF structure. We report on the results of microgravity experiments conducted on two-dimensional (established on a Wolfhard-Parker slot burner) and axisymmetric flames (on a coannular burner) that were investigated in a self-contained multipurpose rig. Thermocouple and radiometer data were also used to characterize the thermal transport in the flame.

  16. Comparing a Fischer-Tropsch Alternate Fuel to JP-8 and Their 50-50 Blend: Flow and Flame Visualization Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Yolanda R.; Tacina, M.

    2013-01-01

    Combustion performance of a Fischer-Tropsch (FT) jet fuel manufactured by Sasol was compared to JP-8 and a 50-50 blend of the two fuels, using the NASA/Woodward 9 point Lean Direct Injector (LDI) in its baseline configuration. The baseline LDI configuration uses 60deg axial air-swirlers, whose vanes generate clockwise swirl, in the streamwise sense. For all cases, the fuel-air equivalence ratio was 0.455, and the combustor inlet pressure and pressure drop were 10-bar and 4 percent. The three inlet temperatures used were 828, 728, and 617 K. The objectives of this experiment were to visually compare JP-8 flames with FT flames for gross features. Specifically, we sought to ascertain in a simple way visible luminosity, sooting, and primary flame length of the FT compared to a standard JP grade fuel. We used color video imaging and high-speed imaging to achieve these goals. The flame color provided a way to qualitatively compare soot formation. The length of the luminous signal measured using the high speed camera allowed an assessment of primary flame length. It was determined that the shortest flames resulted from the FT fuel.

  17. Experimental investigation and phenomenological model development of flame kernel growth rate in a gasoline fuelled spark ignition engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvi, B.L.; Subramanian, K.A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Experimental measurement of the flame kernel growth rate (FKGR) in SI engine. • FKGR is the highest at MBT timing as compared with retarded and advanced timings. • FKGR decreases with increase in engine speed. • FKGR is correlated with equivalence ratio, charge density, in-cylinder pressure and engine speed. - Abstract: As flame kernel growth plays a major role in combustion of premixed-charge in spark ignition engines for higher energy efficiency and less emission, the experimental study was carried out on a single cylinder spark ignition research engine for measurement of flame kernel growth rate (FKGR) using spark plug fibre optics probe (VisioFlame sensor). The FKGR was measured on the engine at different power output with varied spark ignition timings and different engine speeds. The experimental results indicate that the FKGR was the highest with the maximum brake torque (MBT) spark timing and it decreases with increase in the engine speed. The FKGR at engine speed of 1000 RPM was the highest of 1.81 m/s with MBT timing (20° bTDC) as compared to 1.6 m/s (15° bTDC), 1.67 m/s (25° bTDC), and 1.61 m/s (30° bTDC) with retarded and advanced timing. In addition to this, a phenomenological model was developed for calculation of FKGR. It was observed from the model that FKGR is function of equivalence ratio, engine speed, in-cylinder pressure and charge density. The experimental results and methodology emerged from this study would be useful for optimization of engine parameters using the FKGR and also further development of model for alternative fuels

  18. Sooting turbulent jet flame: characterization and quantitative soot measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, M.; Geigle, K. P.; Meier, W.; Crosland, B. M.; Thomson, K. A.; Smallwood, G. J.

    2011-08-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelers require high-quality experimental data sets for validation of their numerical tools. Preferred features for numerical simulations of a sooting, turbulent test case flame are simplicity (no pilot flame), well-defined boundary conditions, and sufficient soot production. This paper proposes a non-premixed C2H4/air turbulent jet flame to fill this role and presents an extensive database for soot model validation. The sooting turbulent jet flame has a total visible flame length of approximately 400 mm and a fuel-jet Reynolds number of 10,000. The flame has a measured lift-off height of 26 mm which acts as a sensitive marker for CFD model validation, while this novel compiled experimental database of soot properties, temperature and velocity maps are useful for the validation of kinetic soot models and numerical flame simulations. Due to the relatively simple burner design which produces a flame with sufficient soot concentration while meeting modelers' needs with respect to boundary conditions and flame specifications as well as the present lack of a sooting "standard flame", this flame is suggested as a new reference turbulent sooting flame. The flame characterization presented here involved a variety of optical diagnostics including quantitative 2D laser-induced incandescence (2D-LII), shifted-vibrational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (SV-CARS), and particle image velocimetry (PIV). Producing an accurate and comprehensive characterization of a transient sooting flame was challenging and required optimization of these diagnostics. In this respect, we present the first simultaneous, instantaneous PIV, and LII measurements in a heavily sooting flame environment. Simultaneous soot and flow field measurements can provide new insights into the interaction between a turbulent vortex and flame chemistry, especially since soot structures in turbulent flames are known to be small and often treated in a statistical manner.

  19. Control of confined nonpremixed flames using a microjet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, Ashok; Ganguly, Ranjan; Puri, Ishwar K.

    2005-01-01

    Industrial burners, such as those used in materials processing furnaces, require precise control over the flame length, width, overall shape and other physical flame attributes. The mechanism used to control the flame topology should be relatively simple, safe, and devoid of an emissions penalty. We have explored the feasibility of hydrodynamic control of confined nonpremixed flames by injecting air through a high-momentum microjet. An innovative strategy for the control of flame shape and luminosity is demonstrated based on a high-momentum coaxial microjet injected along the center of a confined nonpremixed flame burning in a coflowing oxidizer stream. The introduction of the microjet shortens a nonpremixed flame and reduces the amplitude of the buoyancy-induced flickering. For a microjet-assisted flame, the flame length is more sensitive to the fuel flowrate than for laminar or turbulent nonpremixed flames. This provides greater flexibility for the dynamic control of their flame lengths. Measurements of NO x and CO emissions show that the method is robust. Effective flame control without an emissions penalty is possible over a large range of microjet velocities that significantly alter the flame shape. Since the influence of the microjet is primarily of a hydrodynamic nature, inert microjet fluids like recirculated exhaust gas can also be used in practical devices

  20. Control of confined nonpremixed flames using a microjet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, A.; Puri, I.K. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Engineering Science and Mechanics; Ganguly, R. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Engineering Science and Mechanics; Jadavpur Univ., Calcutta (India). Dept. of Power Engineering

    2005-06-01

    Industrial burners, such as those used in materials processing furnaces, require precise control over the flame length, width, overall shape and other physical flame attributes. The mechanism used to control the flame topology should be relatively simple, safe, and devoid of an emissions penalty. We have explored the feasibility of hydrodynamic control of confined nonpremixed flames by injecting air through a high-momentum microjet. An innovative strategy for the control of flame shape and luminosity is demonstrated based on a high-momentum coaxial microjet injected along the center of a confined nonpremixed flame burning in a coflowing oxidizer stream. The introduction of the microjet shortens a nonpremixed flame and reduces the amplitude of the buoyancy-induced flickering. For a microjet-assisted flame, the flame length is more sensitive to the fuel flowrate than for laminar or turbulent nonpremixed flames. This provides greater flexibility for the dynamic control of their flame lengths. Measurements of NO{sub x} and CO emissions show that the method is robust. Effective flame control without an emissions penalty is possible over a large range of microjet velocities that significantly alter the flame shape. Since the influence of the microjet is primarily of a hydrodynamic nature, inert microjet fluids like recirculated exhaust gas can also be used in practical devices. (Author)

  1. Chaotic radiation/turbulence interactions in flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menguec, M.P.; McDonough, J.M.

    1998-11-01

    In this paper, the authors present a review of their recent efforts to model chaotic radiation-turbulence interactions in flames. The main focus is to characterize soot volume fraction fluctuations in turbulent diffusion flames, as they strongly contribute to these interaction. The approach is based on the hypothesis that the fluctuations of properties in turbulent flames are deterministic in nature, rather than random. The authors first discuss the theoretical details and then they briefly outline the experiments conducted to measure the scattered light signals from fluctuating soot particles along the axis of an ethylene-air diffusion flame. They compare the power spectra and time series obtained from experiments against the ad-hoc and rigorous models derived using a series of logistic maps. These logistic maps can be used in simulation of the fluctuations in these type of flames, without extensive computational effort or sacrifice of physical detail. Availability of accurate models of these kinds allows investigation of radiation-turbulence interactions at a more fundamental level than it was previously possible.

  2. Impact of fuel composition on the recirculation zone structure and its role in lean premixed flame anchoring

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Seunghyuck

    2015-01-01

    © 2014 The Combustion Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. We investigate the dependence of the recirculation zone (RZ) size and structure on the fuel composition using high-speed particle image velocimetry (PIV) and chemiluminescence measurements for C3H8/H2/air lean premixed flames stabilized in a backward-facing step combustor. Results show an intricate coupling between the flame anchoring and the RZ structure and length. For a fixed fuel composition, at relatively low equivalence ratios, the time-averaged RZ is comprised of two counter rotating eddies: a primary eddy (PE) between the shear layer and the bottom wall; and a secondary eddy (SE) between the vertical step wall and the PE. The flame stabilizes downstream of the saddle point of the dividing streamline between the two eddies. As equivalence ratio is raised, the flame moves upstream, pushing the saddle point with it and reducing the size of the SE. Higher temperature of the products reduces the velocity gradient in the shear layer and thus the reattachment length. As equivalence ratio approaches a critical value, the saddle point reaches the step and the SE collapses while the flame starts to exhibit periodic flapping motions, suggesting a correlation between the RZ structure and flame anchoring. The overall trend in the flow field is the same as we add hydrogen to the fuel at a fixed equivalence ratio, demonstrating the impact of fuel composition on the flow field. We show that the reattachment lengths (LR), which are shown to encapsulate the mean RZ structure, measured over a range of fuel composition and equivalence ratio collapse if plotted against the strained consumption speed (Sc). Results indicate that for the flame to remain anchored, the RZ structure should satisfy lR,isothermal/L R,reacting · S c/U ∞ ∼ 0.1. If this criterion cannot be met, the flame blows off, flashes back or becomes thermoacoustically unstable, suggesting a Damköhler-like criterion for

  3. Flame-vortex interaction and mixing behaviors of turbulent non-premixed jet flames under acoustic forcing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Munki; Choi, Youngil; Oh, Jeongseog; Yoon, Youngbin [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea)

    2009-12-15

    This study examines the effect of acoustic excitation using forced coaxial air on the flame characteristics of turbulent hydrogen non-premixed flames. A resonance frequency was selected to acoustically excite the coaxial air jet due to its ability to effectively amplify the acoustic amplitude and reduce flame length and NO{sub x} emissions. Acoustic excitation causes the flame length to decrease by 15% and consequently, a 25% reduction in EINO{sub x} is achieved, compared to coaxial air flames without acoustic excitation at the same coaxial air to fuel velocity ratio. Moreover, acoustic excitation induces periodical fluctuation of the coaxial air velocity, thus resulting in slight fluctuation of the fuel velocity. From phase-lock PIV and OH PLIF measurement, the local flow properties at the flame surface were investigated under acoustic forcing. During flame-vortex interaction in the near field region, the entrainment velocity and the flame surface area increased locally near the vortex. This increase in flame surface area and entrainment velocity is believed to be a crucial factor in reducing flame length and NO{sub x} emission in coaxial jet flames with acoustic excitation. Local flame extinction occurred frequently when subjected to an excessive strain rate, indicating that intense mass transfer of fuel and air occurs radially inward at the flame surface. (author)

  4. Early structure of LPG partially premixed conically stabilized flames

    KAUST Repository

    Elbaz, Ayman M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents experimental investigation of LPG partially premixed turbulent flames stabilized within a conical nozzle burner under constant degree of partial premixing. The stability limits and mean flame structure are presented based

  5. Effect of hydrogen addition on autoignited methane lifted flames

    KAUST Repository

    Choin, Byung Chul; Chung, Suk-Ho

    2012-01-01

    Autoignited lifted flames in laminar jets with hydrogen-enriched methane fuels have been investigated experimentally in heated coflow air. The results showed that the autoignited lifted flame of the methane/hydrogen mixture, which had an initial

  6. Ion measurements in premixed methane-oxygen flames

    KAUST Repository

    Alquaity, Awad; Hourani, Nadim; Chahine, May; Selim, Hatem; Sarathy, Mani; Farooq, Aamir

    2014-01-01

    Mass Spectrometer (MBMS) is utilized to measure ion concentration profiles in premixed methane-oxygen-argon burner-stabilized flames. Lean, stoichiometric and rich flames at atmospheric pressure are used to study the dependence of ion chemistry

  7. Beam steering effects in turbulent high pressure flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemmerling, B; Kaeppeli, B [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    The propagation of a laser beam through a flame is influenced by variations of the optical density. Especially in turbulent high pressure flames this may seriously limit the use of laser diagnostic methods. (author) 1 fig., 2 refs.

  8. Flame acceleration in the early stages of burning in tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bychkov, Vitaly; Fru, Gordon; Petchenko, Arkady [Institute of Physics, Umeaa University, S-901 87 Umeaa (Sweden); Akkerman, V' yacheslav [Institute of Physics, Umeaa University, S-901 87 Umeaa (Sweden); Nuclear Safety Institute (IBRAE) of Russian Academy of Sciences, B. Tulskaya 52, 115191 Moscow (Russian Federation); Eriksson, Lars-Erik [Department of Applied Mechanics, Chalmers University of Technology, 412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2007-09-15

    Acceleration of premixed laminar flames in the early stages of burning in long tubes is considered. The acceleration mechanism was suggested earlier by Clanet and Searby [Combust. Flame 105 (1996) 225]. Acceleration happens due to the initial ignition geometry at the tube axis when a flame develops to a finger-shaped front, with surface area growing exponentially in time. Flame surface area grows quite fast but only for a short time. The analytical theory of flame acceleration is developed, which determines the growth rate, the total acceleration time, and the maximal increase of the flame surface area. Direct numerical simulations of the process are performed for the complete set of combustion equations. The simulations results and the theory are in good agreement with the previous experiments. The numerical simulations also demonstrate flame deceleration, which follows acceleration, and the so-called ''tulip flames''. (author)

  9. Unsteady flamelet modelling of spray flames using deep artificial neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owoyele, Opeoluwa; Kundu, Prithwish; Ameen, Muhsin; Echekki, Tarek; Som, Sibendu

    2017-11-01

    We investigate the applicability of the tabulated, multidimensional unsteady flamelet model and artificial neural networks (TFM-ANN) to lifted diesel spray flame simulations. The tabulated flamelet model (TFM), based on the widely known flamelet assumption, eliminates the use of a progress variable and has been shown to successfully model global diesel spray flame characteristics in previous studies. While the TFM has shown speed-up compared to other models and predictive capabilities across a range of ambient conditions, it involves the storage of multidimensional tables, requiring large memory and multidimensional interpolation schemes. This work discusses the implementation of deep artificial neural networks (ANN) to replace the use of large tables and multidimensional interpolation. The proposed framework is validated by applying it to an n-dodecane spray flame (ECN Spray A) at different conditions using a 4 dimensional flamelet library. The validations are then extended for the simulations using a 5-dimensional flamelet table applied to the combustion of methyl decanoate in a compression ignition engine. Different ANN topologies, optimization algorithms and speed-up techniques are explored and details of computational resources required for TFM-ANN and the TFM are also presented. The overall tools and algorithms used in this study can be directly extended to other multidimensional tabulated models.

  10. Effects of porous insert on flame dynamics in a lean premixed swirl-stabilized combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Marcus; Agrawal, Ajay; Allen, James; Kornegay, John

    2016-11-01

    In this study, we investigated different methods of determining the effect a porous insert has on flame dynamics during lean premixed combustion. A metallic porous insert is used to mitigate instabilities in a swirl-stabilized combustor. Thermoacoustic instabilities are seen as negative consequences of lean premixed combustion and eliminating them is the motivation for our research. Three different diagnostics techniques with high-speed Photron SA5 cameras were used to monitor flame characteristics. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) was used to observe vortical structures and recirculation zones within the combustor. Using planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF), we were able to observe changes in the reaction zones during instabilities. Finally, utilizing a color high-speed camera, visual images depicting a flame's oscillations during the instability were captured. Using these monitoring techniques, we are able to support the claims made in previous studies stating that the porous insert in the combustor significantly reduces the thermoacoustic instability. Funding for this research was provided by the NSF REU site Grant EEC 1358991 and NASA Grant NNX13AN14A.

  11. Flame Driving of Longitudinal Instabilities in Liquid Fueled Dump Combustors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-01

    for the first * natural frequency of 80 Hz. As the flame length is much smaller than the acoustic wavelength at 80 Hz the pressure is constant over...release at different locations along the flame. The reason for this is that the flame length is equivalent to several vortical wavelengths as is evident...pressure minimum there was a large radla- flame length . In all cases, it was ?ound that the tion signal at the driving frequency. On the theory

  12. Acoustic Signature from Flames as a Combustion Diagnostic Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-11-01

    empirical visual flame length had to be input to the computer for the inversion method to give good results. That is, if the experiment cnd inversion...method were asked to yield the flame length , poor results were obtained. Since this wa3 part of the information sought for practical application of the...to small experimental uncertainty. The method gave reasonably good results for the open flame but substantial input (the flame length ) had to be

  13. Effects of wind velocity and slope on flame properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    David R. Weise; Gregory S. Biging

    1996-01-01

    Abstract: The combined effects of wind velocity and percent slope on flame length and angle were measured in an open-topped, tilting wind tunnel by burning fuel beds composed of vertical birch sticks and aspen excelsior. Mean flame length ranged from 0.08 to 1.69 m; 0.25 m was the maximum observed flame length for most backing fires. Flame angle ranged from -46o to 50o...

  14. Experimental Studies of Hydrocarbon Flame Phenomena: Enabling Combustion Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-30

    flames," Physics of Fluids , vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 1447-54, 1995. [8] K. Lyons, " Toward an understanding of the stabilization mechanisms of lifted...Experimental Studies of Hydrocarbon Flame Phenomena: Enabling Combustion Control This report summarizes the research accomplished in the project...34Experimental Studies of Hydrocarbon Flame Phenomena: Enabling Combustion Control". The main areas of activity are: a) electrostatic flame and flow

  15. Ion structure and sequence of ion formation in acetylene flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larionova, I.A.; Fialkov, B.S.; Kalinich, K.YA.; Fialkov, A.B.; Ospanov, B.S.

    1993-06-01

    Results of a study of the ion composition of acetylene-air flames burning at low pressures are reported. Data on ion formation are compared for flames of saturated hydrocarbons, oxygen-containing fuels, and acetylene. It is shown that the characteristics of ion formation in the flame front and directly ahead of it are similar to those observed in flames of other fuels. These characteristics, however, are different in the low-temperature region. 9 refs.

  16. Effectiveness of Flame Retardants in TufFoam.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abelow, Alexis Elizabeth [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Nissen, April [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Massey, Lee Taylor [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Whinnery, LeRoy L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-12-01

    An investigation of polyurethane foam filled with known flame retardant fillers including hydroxides, melamine, phosphate-containing compounds, and melamine phosphates was carried out to produce a low-cost material with high flame retardant efficiency. The impact of flame retardant fillers on the physical properties such a s composite foam density, glass transition temperature, storage modulus, and thermal expansion of composite foams was investigated with the goal of synthesizing a robust rigid foam with excellent flame retardant properties.

  17. White Flame Energy switches to backhoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiscor, S.

    2005-06-01

    The mountaintop coal operator, White Flame Energy has switched to different truck-shovel arrangement. Along with many surface mining operations throughout central Appalachia, the company is using hoe-configured hydraulic excavators as opposed to the traditional front-shovel arrangements. Located in Varney, WV, White Flame Energy uses two Terex O & K mining shovels, an RH170 and an RH 200, which have the capacity to move 2 million cu yards per month from five seams, primarily the Coalburg, Stockton, and No 5 Block and associated rider seams. The article records conversations on the operations with Mike Vines, the general manager, and Don Nicewonder, the owner of White Flame Energy. 2 photos.

  18. Aerothermodynamic properties of stretched flames in enclosures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotman, D. A.; Oppenheim, A. K.

    Flames are stretched by being pulled along their frontal surface by the flow field in which they reside. Their trajectories tend to approach particle paths, acquiring eventually the role of contact boundaries, -interfaces between the burnt and unburnt medium that may broaden solely as a consequence of diffusion. Fundamental properties of flow fields governing such flames are determined here on the basis of the zero Mach number model, providng a rational method of approach to the computational analysis of combustion fields in enclosures where, besides the aerodynamic properties flow, the thermodynamic process of compression must be taken into account. To illustrate its application, the method is used to reveal the mechanism of formation of a tulip-shape flame in a rectangular enclosure under nonturbulent flow conditions.

  19. Speeds in school zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    School speed zones are frequently requested traffic controls for school areas, based on the common belief : that if the transportation agency would only install a reduced speed limit, then drivers would no longer : speed through the area. This resear...

  20. An experimental study of the velocity-forced flame response of a lean-premixed multi-nozzle can combustor for gas turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szedlmayer, Michael Thomas

    are plotted versus Strouhal number, vortical structures are thought to have a strong influence on the response of this multi-nozzle configuration. The structure of heat release rate fluctuations throughout the flame is analyzed using CH* chemiluminescence acquired with a high speed camera. Flames with a similar level of flame transfer function gain are found to exhibit similarity in the spatial distribution of their heat release rate fluctuations, regardless of the operating condition. Flames with high gain are found to have high amplitude fluctuations near the downstream end of the flame, with weak fluctuations near the flame base. The phase of the downstream fluctuations changes minimally across the downstream region, indicating that they occur inphase. Flames with low gain exhibit stronger fluctuations near the flame base, but weak fluctuations in the downstream region. The phase of the fluctuations near the flame base changes continuously along the flame axis, indicating that parts of the flame will fluctuate out-of-phase. Accordingly, from a global perspective, destructive interference between heat release rate fluctuations in different parts of the flame can be expected. The behavior observed in the flame is ascribed to the interaction of acoustic velocity fluctuations, vortical disturbances and swirl fluctuations. The response of the multi-nozzle flame to high amplitude velocity fluctuations was tested for a single operating condition. Based on the global flame response, most frequencies responded linearly over the tested range of amplitudes. Nonlinear effects were found to occur at three frequencies. The behaviors observed at these frequencies matched those observed in the literature and included flame response saturation and mode triggering. For conditions which responded linearly at all amplitudes, the structure of heat release rate fluctuations was found to remain nearly constant. For conditions with nonlinear behavior, the structure of the fluctuations was

  1. Numerical modelling of ion transport in flames

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Jie

    2015-10-20

    This paper presents a modelling framework to compute the diffusivity and mobility of ions in flames. The (n, 6, 4) interaction potential is adopted to model collisions between neutral and charged species. All required parameters in the potential are related to the polarizability of the species pair via semi-empirical formulas, which are derived using the most recently published data or best estimates. The resulting framework permits computation of the transport coefficients of any ion found in a hydrocarbon flame. The accuracy of the proposed method is evaluated by comparing its predictions with experimental data on the mobility of selected ions in single-component neutral gases. Based on this analysis, the value of a model constant available in the literature is modified in order to improve the model\\'s predictions. The newly determined ion transport coefficients are used as part of a previously developed numerical approach to compute the distribution of charged species in a freely propagating premixed lean CH4/O2 flame. Since a significant scatter of polarizability data exists in the literature, the effects of changes in polarizability on ion transport properties and the spatial distribution of ions in flames are explored. Our analysis shows that changes in polarizability propagate with decreasing effect from binary transport coefficients to species number densities. We conclude that the chosen polarizability value has a limited effect on the ion distribution in freely propagating flames. We expect that the modelling framework proposed here will benefit future efforts in modelling the effect of external voltages on flames. Supplemental data for this article can be accessed at http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13647830.2015.1090018. © 2015 Taylor & Francis.

  2. Laminar flame properties and flame acceleration prediction of hydrogen-methane mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coudoro, K. [Inst. de Combustion, Aerothermique, Reactivite et Environnement CNRS Orleans (France); Inst. de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, DSR/SAGR, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Chaumeix, N. [Inst. de Combustion, Aerothermique, Reactivite et Environnement CNRS Orleans (France); Bentaib, A. [Inst. de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, DSR/SAGR, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Paillard, C-E. [Inst. de Combustion, Aerothermique, Reactivite et Environnement CNRS Orleans (France)

    2011-07-01

    The combustion of a binary mixture of methane and hydrogen has been studied using 2 different experimental setups: the spherical bomb to investigate the fundamental flame properties of this mixture with air, initially at 100 kPa, at different initial temperatures (300 - 363 K) and for a wide range of equivalence ratios (0.8 - 1.4); ENACCEF to investigate the flame acceleration phenomena in smooth tube for mixtures initially at ambient conditions and for equivalence ratios ranging between 0.57 and 0.84. A detailed kinetic mechanism has been used to derive the activation energies needed for the flame acceleration analysis. (author)

  3. Experimental Investigation of Turbulent Flames in Hypersonic Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    the flow direction and (b) typical flame length scales seen in the OH-PLIF image with Mach 4.5 freestream (high turbulence) at P0 = 0.65 bar, T0...flame structures (3 mm) are observed at the upstream location of area 1 where the combustion localization first appears. The typical flame length scale

  4. Brominated flame retardants: occurrence, dietary intake and risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winter-Sorkina R de; Bakker MI; Wolterink G; Zeijlmaker MJ; SIR

    2006-01-01

    Brominated flame retardants have entered the human food chain. For the time being the occurrence of these chemicals in Dutch food does not pose a human health risk. However, this might easily change at increasing contents of flame retardants in Dutch food. The monitoring of brominated flame

  5. 30 CFR 75.600-1 - Approved cables; flame resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approved cables; flame resistance. 75.600-1 Section 75.600-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE... cables; flame resistance. Cables shall be accepted or approved by MSHA as flame resistant. [57 FR 61223...

  6. Statistics of strain rates and surface density function in a flame-resolved high-fidelity simulation of a turbulent premixed bluff body burner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandeep, Anurag; Proch, Fabian; Kempf, Andreas M.; Chakraborty, Nilanjan

    2018-06-01

    The statistical behavior of the surface density function (SDF, the magnitude of the reaction progress variable gradient) and the strain rates, which govern the evolution of the SDF, have been analyzed using a three-dimensional flame-resolved simulation database of a turbulent lean premixed methane-air flame in a bluff-body configuration. It has been found that the turbulence intensity increases with the distance from the burner, changing the flame curvature distribution and increasing the probability of the negative curvature in the downstream direction. The curvature dependences of dilatation rate ∇ṡu → and displacement speed Sd give rise to variations of these quantities in the axial direction. These variations affect the nature of the alignment between the progress variable gradient and the local principal strain rates, which in turn affects the mean flame normal strain rate, which assumes positive values close to the burner but increasingly becomes negative as the effect of turbulence increases with the axial distance from the burner exit. The axial distance dependences of the curvature and displacement speed also induce a considerable variation in the mean value of the curvature stretch. The axial distance dependences of the dilatation rate and flame normal strain rate govern the behavior of the flame tangential strain rate, and its mean value increases in the downstream direction. The current analysis indicates that the statistical behaviors of different strain rates and displacement speed and their curvature dependences need to be included in the modeling of flame surface density and scalar dissipation rate in order to accurately capture their local behaviors.

  7. Premixed CH4-Air Flame Structure Characteristic and Flow Behavior Induced by Obstacle in an Open Duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DengKe Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the fuel gas combustion hazards, the methane/air flame structure and flow characteristic in an open duct influenced by a rectangular obstacle were explored by experiment and realizable k-∊ model (RKE. In the test, the high-speed schlieren photography technology and dynamic detection technology were applied to record the flame propagation behavior. Meanwhile, the interaction between flame front and flame flow field induced by the obstacle was disclosed. In addition, the laminar-turbulence transition was also taken into consideration. The RKE and eddy dissipation concept (EDC premixed combustion model were applied to obtain an insight into the phenomenon of flow change and wrinkle appearing, which potently explained the experimental observations. As a result, the obstacle blocked the laminar flame propagation velocity and increased pressure a little in an open duct. Some small-scale vortices began to appear near the obstacle, mainly due to Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (KHI, and gradually grew into large-scale vortices, which led to laminar-turbulent transition directly. The vortices thickened the reaction area and hastened the reaction rate; reversely, the higher reaction rate induced larger vortices. The RKE model result fitted the test data well and explained the wrinkle forming mechanism of two special vortices in the case.

  8. Flexible PVC flame retarded with expandable graphite

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Focke, WW

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available this outstanding fire resistance. Thus flame-retardant (FR) and smoke-suppressant (SS) additives must be incorporated in order to meet product test specifications such as oxygen index, heat release rate, smoke evolution, or the extent of burning [1]. Levchik... plot for the composites fabricated in this work. For a material to be effectively flame retarded both the fire load and the fire growth index should assume low values. Figure 11 shows a dramatic decrease for all the EG composites relative to the neat...

  9. Effect of Electric Field in the Stabilized Premixed Flame on Combustion Process Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Krickis

    2017-10-01

    The effect of the AC and DC electrical field on combustion processes has been investigated by various researchers. The results of these experiments do not always correlate, due to different experiment conditions and experiment equipment variations. The observed effects of the electrical field impact on the combustion process depends on the applied voltage polarity, flame speed and combustion physics. During the experiment was defined that starting from 1000 V the ionic wind takes the effect on emissions in flue gases, flame shape and combustion instabilities. Simulation combustion process in hermetically sealed chamber with excess oxygen amount 3 % in flue gases showed that the positive effect of electrical field on emissions lies in region from 30 to 400 V. In aforementioned voltage range carbon monoxide emissions were reduced by 6 % and at the same time the nitrogen oxide emissions were increased by 3.5 %.

  10. Study on nitrogen diluted propane-air premixed flames at elevated pressures and temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang Chenglong; Zheng Jianjun [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Huang Zuohua, E-mail: zhhuang@mail.xjtu.edu.c [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Wang Jinhua [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2010-02-15

    Using a high pressure constant volume combustion vessel, the propagation and morphology of spark-ignited outwardly expanding nitrogen diluted propane-air flames were imaged and recorded by schlieren photography and high-speed digital camera. The unstretched laminar burning velocities and Markstein lengths were subsequently determined over wide range of initial temperatures, initial pressures and nitrogen dilution ratios. Two recently developed mechanisms were used to predict the reference laminar burning velocity. The results show that the measured unstretched laminar burning velocities agree well with those in the literature and the computationally predicted results. The flame images show that the diffusional-thermal instability is promoted as the mixture becomes richer, and the hydrodynamic instability is increased with the increase of the initial pressure and it is decreased with the increase of dilution ratio. The normalized laminar burning velocities show a linear correlation with respect to the dilution ratio, indicating that the effect of nitrogen dilution is more obvious at higher pressures.

  11. LES of a laboratory-scale turbulent premixed bunsen flame using FSD, PCM-FPI and thickened flame models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez Perez, F.E.; Yuen, F.T.C.; Groth, C.P.T.; Gülder, O.L.

    2011-01-01

    Large-eddy simulations (LES) of a turbulent premixed Bunsen flame were carried out with three subfilter-scale (SFS) modelling approaches for turbulent premixed combustion. One approach is based on the artificially thickened flame and power-law flame wrinkling models, the second approach is based on

  12. Effect of Oxygen Enrichment in Propane Laminar Diffusion Flames under Microgravity and Earth Gravity Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Pramod; Singh, Ravinder

    2017-06-01

    Diffusion flames are the most common type of flame which we see in our daily life such as candle flame and match-stick flame. Also, they are the most used flames in practical combustion system such as industrial burner (coal fired, gas fired or oil fired), diesel engines, gas turbines, and solid fuel rockets. In the present study, steady-state global chemistry calculations for 24 different flames were performed using an axisymmetric computational fluid dynamics code (UNICORN). Computation involved simulations of inverse and normal diffusion flames of propane in earth and microgravity condition with varying oxidizer compositions (21, 30, 50, 100 % O2, by mole, in N2). 2 cases were compared with the experimental result for validating the computational model. These flames were stabilized on a 5.5 mm diameter burner with 10 mm of burner length. The effect of oxygen enrichment and variation in gravity (earth gravity and microgravity) on shape and size of diffusion flames, flame temperature, flame velocity have been studied from the computational result obtained. Oxygen enrichment resulted in significant increase in flame temperature for both types of diffusion flames. Also, oxygen enrichment and gravity variation have significant effect on the flame configuration of normal diffusion flames in comparison with inverse diffusion flames. Microgravity normal diffusion flames are spherical in shape and much wider in comparison to earth gravity normal diffusion flames. In inverse diffusion flames, microgravity flames were wider than earth gravity flames. However, microgravity inverse flames were not spherical in shape.

  13. Characteristics of transitional and turbulent jet diffusion flames in microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadori, Yousef M.; Small, James F., Jr.; Hegde, Uday G.; Zhou, Liming; Stocker, Dennis P.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the ground-based results obtained to date in preparation of a proposed space experiment to study the role of large-scale structures in microgravity transitional and turbulent gas-jet diffusion flames by investigating the dynamics of vortex/flame interactions and their influence on flame characteristics. The overall objective is to gain an understanding of the fundamental characteristics of transitional and turbulent gas-jet diffusion flames. Understanding of the role of large-scale structures on the characteristics of microgravity transitional and turbulent flames will ultimately lead to improved understanding of normal-gravity turbulent combustion.

  14. Brominated flame retardants and endocrine disruption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, J.G.; Becher, G.; Berg, van den M.; Boer, de J.; Leonards, P.E.G.

    2003-01-01

    From an environmental point of view, an increasing important group of organohalogen compounds are the brominated flame retardants (BFRs), which are widely used in polymers and textiles and applied in construction materials, furniture, and electronic equipment. BFRs with the highest production volume

  15. Brominated flame retardants and endocrine disruption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Joseph G.; Becher, Georg; Van Den Berg, Martin; Leonards, Pim E G

    2003-01-01

    From an environmental point of view, an increasing important group of organo-halogen compounds are the brominated flame retardants (BFRs), which are widely used in polymers and textiles and applied in construction materials, furniture, and electronic equipment. BFRs with the highest production

  16. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taylor, W.D.; Evans, C.J.; Henault-Brunet, V.; Bastian, N.; Beletsky, Y.; Bestenlehner, J.; Brott, I.; Cantiello, M.; Carraro, G.; Clark, J.S.; Crowther, P.A.; de Koter, A.; de Mink, S.E.; Doran, E.; Dufton, P.L.; Dunstall, P.; Gieles, M.; Grafener, G.; Herrero, A.; Howarth, I.D.; Langer, N.; Lennon, D.J.; Maiz-Apellaniz, J; Markova, N.; Najarro, P.; Puls, J.; Sana, H.A.A.; Simon-Diaz, S.; Smartt, S.J.; Stroud, V.E.; van Loon, J.T.; Vink, J.S.; Walborn, N.R.

    2011-01-01

    The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey is an ESO Large Programme that has provided multi-epoch spectroscopy of over 1000 stars in the 30 Doradus region in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Armed with this unique dataset the assembled consortium is now addressing a broad range of fundamental questions in both

  17. Experimental characterization of methane inverse diffusion flame

    KAUST Repository

    Elbaz, Ayman M.; Roberts, William L.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents 10-kHz images of OH-PLIF simultaneously with 2-D PIV measurements in an inverse methane diffusion flame. Under a constant fuel flow rate, the central air jet Re was varied, leading to air to fuel velocity ratio, Vr, to vary

  18. An automated wavelength selection for flame spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurteau, M.; Mislan, J.P.; Ashley, R.W.

    1976-01-01

    A simple electro-mechanical programming system is described for use with a flame spectrophotometer. Its application for automated sequential multi-element analysis is illustrated. Reproducibility of wavelength settings are within +-0.5 A. Precision and sensitivities are at least as good as those obtained for single element determinations. (author)

  19. Optimization of Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimization of Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry for Measurement of High Concentrations of Arsenic and Selenium. ... This procedure allowed a rapid determination of As from minimum 4.462 mg/L to higher concentrations without sample pretreatment. Besides As, this method successfully measured Se concentrations ...

  20. Flame assisted synthesis of catalytic ceramic membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Johnny; Mosleh, Majid; Johannessen, Tue

    2004-01-01

    technology it is possible to make supported catalysts, composite metal oxides, catalytically active surfaces, and porous ceramic membranes. Membrane layers can be formed by using a porous substrate tube (or surface) as a nano-particle filter. The aerosol gas from the flame is led through a porous substrate...

  1. Flame retardancy and thermal degradation of cotton textiles based on UV-curable flame retardant coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing, Weiyi [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Suzhou Institute for Advanced Study, University of Science and Technology of China, 166 Ren' ai Road, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); Jie, Ganxin [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Adaptability for Industrial Products, China National Electric Apparatus Research Institute, Guangzhou 510300 (China); Song, Lei; Hu, Shuang; Lv, Xiaoqi; Wang, Xin [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Hu, Yuan, E-mail: yuanhu@ustc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Suzhou Institute for Advanced Study, University of Science and Technology of China, 166 Ren' ai Road, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China)

    2011-01-20

    The flame retardant coatings were prepared through UV-curable technique using tri(acryloyloxyethyl) phosphate (TAEP) and triglycidyl isocyanurate acrylate (TGICA). Results from FTIR-ATR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that flame retardant coatings were successfully coated onto the surface of cotton fabrics. The flame retardancy of the treated fabrics was studied by Micro-scale Combustion Calorimeter (MCC) and limited oxygen index (LOI). The cottons coated flame retardant coatings had the lower peak heat release rate (PHRR), heat release capacity (HRC), total heat of combustion (THC) and higher LOI value compared with untreated cotton. The results from TGA test showed that the flame retardant coatings lowered the decomposition temperature of treated fabric. The thermal decomposition of cottons was monitored by real time FTIR analysis and thermogravimetric analysis/infrared spectrometry (TGA-IR). The enhanced flame retardant action might be caused by thermal decomposition of TAEP structure, producing acidic intermediates, which could react with fabrics to alter its thermal decomposition process.

  2. Analysis of Flame Extinguishment and Height in Low Frequency Acoustically Excited Methane Jet Diffusion Flame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Ruowen; Kang, Ruxue; Liu, Chen; Zhang, Zhiyang; Zhi, Youran

    2018-01-01

    The exploration of microgravity conditions in space is increasing and existing fire extinguishing technology is often inadequate for fire safety in this special environment. As a result, improving the efficiency of portable extinguishers is of growing importance. In this work, a visual study of the effects on methane jet diffusion flames by low frequency sound waves is conducted to assess the extinguishing ability of sound waves. With a small-scale sound wave extinguishing bench, the extinguishing ability of certain frequencies of sound waves are identified, and the response of the flame height is observed and analyzed. Results show that the flame structure changes with disturbance due to low frequency sound waves of 60-100 Hz, and quenches at effective frequencies in the range of 60-90 Hz. In this range, 60 Hz is considered to be the quick extinguishing frequency, while 70-90 Hz is the stable extinguishing frequency range. For a fixed frequency, the flame height decreases with sound pressure level (SPL). The flame height exhibits the greatest sensitivity to the 60 Hz acoustic waves, and the least to the 100 Hz acoustic waves. The flame height decreases almost identically with disturbance by 70-90 Hz acoustic waves.

  3. Measures for speed management.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    Measures for speed management are essential for limiting the negative effects of driving too fast and at inappropriate speeds. To begin with, safe and credible speed limits need to be determined. Dynamic and variable speed limits that take into account the current circumstances, such as weather

  4. High speed analysis of high pressure combustion in a constant volume cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frijters, P.J.M.; Klein-Douwel, R.J.H.; Manski, S.S.; Somers, L.M.T.; Baert, R.S.G.; Dias, V.

    2005-01-01

    A combustion process with N2, O2 and C2H4 as fuel used in an opticallyaccessible, high pressure, high temperature, constant volume cell forresearch on diesel fuel spray formation, is studied. The flame frontspeed Vf,HS is determined using high speed imaging. The pressure traceof the combustion

  5. Tomographic reconstruction of OH* chemiluminescence in two interacting turbulent flames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worth, Nicholas A; Dawson, James R

    2013-01-01

    The tomographic reconstruction of OH* chemiluminescence was performed on two interacting turbulent premixed bluff-body stabilized flames under steady flow conditions and acoustic excitation. These measurements elucidate the complex three-dimensional (3D) vortex–flame interactions which have previously not been accessible. The experiment was performed using a single camera and intensifier, with multiple views acquired by repositioning the camera, permitting calculation of the mean and phase-averaged volumetric OH* distributions. The reconstructed flame structure and phase-averaged dynamics are compared with OH planar laser-induced fluorescence and flame surface density measurements for the first time. The volumetric data revealed that the large-scale vortex–flame structures formed along the shear layers of each flame collide when the two flames meet, resulting in complex 3D flame structures in between the two flames. With a fairly simple experimental setup, it is shown that the tomographic reconstruction of OH* chemiluminescence in forced flames is a powerful tool that can yield important physical insights into large-scale 3D flame dynamics that are important in combustion instability. (paper)

  6. Stabilization and structure of N-heptane flame on CWJ-spray burner with kHZ SPIV and OH-PLIF

    KAUST Repository

    Mansour, Morkous S.; Al Khesho, Issam; Chung, Suk-Ho

    2015-01-01

    characteristics and structure of n-heptane/air turbulent flames were investigated with varying fuel and air flow rates and the position of pressure atomizer (L). High-speed planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of OH radicals delineated reaction zone contours

  7. Pt coating on flame-generated carbon particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, In Dae; Lee, Dong Geun

    2008-01-01

    Carbon black, activated carbon and carbon nanotube have been used as supporting materials for precious metal catalysts used in fuel cell electrodes. One-step flame synthesis method is used to coat 2-5nm Pt dots on flame-generated carbon particles. By adjusting flame temperature, gas flow rates and resident time of particles in flame, we can obtain Pt/C nano catalyst-support composite particles. Additional injection of hydrogen gas facilitates pyrolysis of Pt precursor in flame. The size of as-incepted Pt dots increases along the flame due to longer resident time and sintering in high temperature flame. Surface coverage and dispersion of the Pt dots is varied at different sampling heights and confirmed by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Energy Dispersive Spectra (EDS) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Crystallinity and surface bonding groups of carbon are investigated through X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscoy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy

  8. Leading-Edge Velocities and Lifted Methane Jet Flame Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Wang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Current interest exists in understanding reaction-zone dynamics and mechanisms with respect to how they counterpropagate against incoming reactants. Images of flame position and flow-field morphology are presented from flame chemiluminescence and particle image velocimetry (PIV measurements. In the present study, PIV experiments were carried out to measure the methane jet lifted-flame flow-field velocities in the vicinity of the flame leading edge. Specifically, velocity fields within the high-temperature zone were examined in detail, which complements previous studies, whose prime focus is the flow-field upstream of the high-temperature boundary. PIV data is used not only to determine the velocities, but, along with chemiluminescence images, to also indicate the approximate location of the reaction zone (further supported by/through the leading-edge flame velocity distributions. The velocity results indirectly support the concept that the flame is anchored primarily through the mechanism of partially premixed flame propagation.

  9. Acoustic radiation from weakly wrinkled premixed flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lieuwen, Tim; Mohan, Sripathi; Rajaram, Rajesh; Preetham, [School of Aerospace Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0150 (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a theoretical analysis of acoustic radiation from weakly wrinkled (i.e., u'/S{sub L}<1) premixed flames. Specifically, it determines the transfer function relating the spectrum of the acoustic pressure oscillations, P'({omega}), to that of the turbulent velocity fluctuations in the approach flow, U'({omega}). In the weakly wrinkled limit, this transfer function is local in frequency space; i.e., velocity fluctuations at a frequency {omega} distort the flame and generate sound at the same frequency. This transfer function primarily depends upon the flame Strouhal number St (based on mean flow velocity and flame length) and the correlation length, {lambda}, of the flow fluctuations. For cases where the ratio of the correlation length and duct radius {lambda}/a>>1, the acoustic pressure and turbulent velocity power spectra are related by P'({omega})-{omega}{sup 2}U'({omega}) and P'({omega})-U'({omega}) for St<<1 and St>>1, respectively. For cases where {lambda}/a<<1, the transfer functions take the form P'({omega})-{omega}{sup 2}({lambda}/a){sup 2}U'({omega}) and P'({omega})-{omega}{sup 2}({lambda}/a){sup 2}({psi}-{delta}ln({lambda}/a))U'({omega}) for St<<1 and St>>1, respectively, where (PS) and {delta} are constants. The latter result demonstrates that this transfer function does not exhibit a simple power law relationship in the high frequency region of the spectra. The simultaneous dependence of this pressure-velocity transfer function upon the Strouhal number and correlation length suggests a mechanism for the experimentally observed maximum in acoustic spectra and provides some insight into the controversy in the literature over how this peak should scale with the flame Strouhal number.

  10. Flame front. Evaluation of camera based flame front control in grate furnaces regarding operation and emissions; Flamfront. Utvaerdering av drift och miljoe med hjaelp av kamerabaserad flamfrontsstyrning i rosterpannor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bubholz, Monika; Myringer, Aase; Nordgren, Daniel

    2007-09-15

    This project aims at showing the usability of camera based flame front control in grate furnaces regarding increased possibilities to use fuels with fluctuating moisture/quality with stable/improved levels of emissions and ash quality. A furnace camera and the human eye make the detection of the flame front movements. Further, the flame front was fixed due to an increase/decrease of the speed of the fuel feeding system. The result is to be generalised for all grate furnaces with a movable grate. During the spring 2007 two weeks of tests were executed at E.ON Heat's plant Hammargaarden at Kungsbacka. Dry and wet fuel pulses of approximately 10 m3, with moisture content of approximately 40 and 60 weights percent, were induced to the grate. At the same time, tries to ward off the flame front movement were carried through. The most important result of the tests were the following: The results is based on a relatively small number of tests and it should be considered to be more of an indication of the usefulness of the control strategy that has been investigated rather than definitive results. The results indicate that the economical and environmental benefits from using a system involving only visual detecting followed by warding off a movement of the flame front mechanically are small, and most likely hard to pay off. It is important to start to ward off the flame front as soon as it seems to be moving. In this way the flame front can be kept stable and often improved emission levels follow. A slight tendency to lower CO-emissions was observed when dry fuel pulses were warded off. When no warding off of dry fuel pulses took place, the combustion took place close to the lower part of the fuel-feeding wall. This was prevented when the dry fuel pulses were warded off. The content of unburnt carbon in ash at wet fuel pulses was lower when warding off in comparison with cases where no warding off took place. An important element of future work is, apart from using a

  11. Autoignited lifted flames of dimethyl ether in heated coflow air

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Noman, Saeed M.

    2018-05-16

    Autoignited lifted flames of dimethyl ether (DME) in laminar nonpremixed jets with high-temperature coflow air have been studied experimentally. When the initial temperature was elevated to over 860 K, an autoignition occurred without requiring an external ignition source. A planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) technique for formaldehyde (CH2O) visualized qualitatively the zone of low temperature kinetics in a premixed flame. Two flame configurations were investigated; (1) autoignited lifted flames with tribrachial edge having three distinct branches of a lean and a rich premixed flame wings with a trailing diffusion flame and (2) autoignited lifted flames with mild combustion when the fuel was highly diluted. For the autoignited tribrachial edge flames at critical autoignition conditions, exhibiting repetitive extinction and re-ignition phenomena near a blowout condition, the characteristic flow time (liftoff height scaled with jet velocity) was correlated with the square of the ignition delay time of the stoichiometric mixture. The liftoff heights were also correlated as a function of jet velocity times the square of ignition delay time. Formaldehydes were observed between the fuel nozzle and the lifted flame edge, emphasizing a low-temperature kinetics for autoignited lifted flames, while for a non-autoignited lifted flame, formaldehydes were observed near a thin luminous flame zone.For the autoignited lifted flames with mild combustion, especially at a high temperature, a unique non-monotonic liftoff height behavior was observed; decreasing and then increasing liftoff height with jet velocity. This behavior was similar to the binary mixture fuels of CH4/H2 and CO/H2 observed previously. A transient homogeneous autoignition analysis suggested that such decreasing behavior with jet velocity can be attributed to partial oxidation characteristics of DME in producing appreciable amounts of CH4/CO/H2 ahead of the edge flame region.

  12. Autoignited lifted flames of dimethyl ether in heated coflow air

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Noman, Saeed M.; Choi, Byung Chul; Chung, Suk-Ho

    2018-01-01

    Autoignited lifted flames of dimethyl ether (DME) in laminar nonpremixed jets with high-temperature coflow air have been studied experimentally. When the initial temperature was elevated to over 860 K, an autoignition occurred without requiring an external ignition source. A planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) technique for formaldehyde (CH2O) visualized qualitatively the zone of low temperature kinetics in a premixed flame. Two flame configurations were investigated; (1) autoignited lifted flames with tribrachial edge having three distinct branches of a lean and a rich premixed flame wings with a trailing diffusion flame and (2) autoignited lifted flames with mild combustion when the fuel was highly diluted. For the autoignited tribrachial edge flames at critical autoignition conditions, exhibiting repetitive extinction and re-ignition phenomena near a blowout condition, the characteristic flow time (liftoff height scaled with jet velocity) was correlated with the square of the ignition delay time of the stoichiometric mixture. The liftoff heights were also correlated as a function of jet velocity times the square of ignition delay time. Formaldehydes were observed between the fuel nozzle and the lifted flame edge, emphasizing a low-temperature kinetics for autoignited lifted flames, while for a non-autoignited lifted flame, formaldehydes were observed near a thin luminous flame zone.For the autoignited lifted flames with mild combustion, especially at a high temperature, a unique non-monotonic liftoff height behavior was observed; decreasing and then increasing liftoff height with jet velocity. This behavior was similar to the binary mixture fuels of CH4/H2 and CO/H2 observed previously. A transient homogeneous autoignition analysis suggested that such decreasing behavior with jet velocity can be attributed to partial oxidation characteristics of DME in producing appreciable amounts of CH4/CO/H2 ahead of the edge flame region.

  13. An analytical model for the prediction of the dynamic response of premixed flames stabilized on a heat-conducting perforated plate

    KAUST Repository

    Kedia, Kushal S.

    2013-01-01

    The dynamic response of a premixed flame stabilized on a heat-conducting perforated plate depends critically on their coupled thermal interaction. The objective of this paper is to develop an analytical model to capture this coupling. The model predicts the mean flame base standoff distance; the flame base area, curvature and speed; and the burner plate temperature given the operating conditions; the mean velocity, temperature and equivalence ratio of the reactants; thermal conductivity and the perforation ratio of the burner. This coupled model is combined with our flame transfer function (FTF) model to predict the dynamic response of the flame to velocity perturbations. We show that modeling the thermal coupling between the flame and the burner, while accounting for the two-dimensionality of the former, is critical to predicting the dynamic response characteristics such as the overshoot in the gain curve (resonant condition) and the phase delay. Good agreement with the numerical and experimental results is demonstrated over a range of conditions. © 2012 The Combustion Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of Low Frequency Burner Vibrations on the Characteristics of Jet Diffusion Flames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Kanthasamy

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical vibrations introduced in diffusion flame burners significantly affect the flame characteristics. In this experimental study, the effects of axial vibrations on the characteristics of laminar diffusion flames are investigated systematically. The effect of the frequency and amplitude of the vibrations on the flame height oscillations and flame stability is brought out. The amplitude of flame height oscillations is found to increase with increase in both frequency and amplitude of burner vibrations. Vibrations are shown to enhance stability of diffusion flames. Although flame lifts-off sooner with vibrations, stability of the flame increases.

  15. Determination and Scaling of Thermo Acoustic Characteristics of Premixed Flames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. Alemela

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the determination and the scaling of thermo acoustical characteristics of lean premixed flames as used in gas turbine combustion systems. In the first part, alternative methods to characterize experimentally the flame dynamics are outlined and are compared on the example of a scaled model of an industrial gas turbine burner. Transfer matrix results from the most general direct method are contrasted with data obtained from the hybrid method, which is based on Rankine-Hugoniot relations and the experimental flame transfer function obtained from OH*-chemiluminescence measurements. Also the new network model based regression method is assessed, which is based on a n – τ – σ dynamic flame model. The results indicate very good consistency between the three techniques, providing a global check of the methods/tools used for analyzing the thermo acoustic mechanisms of flames. In the second part, scaling rules are developed that allow to calculate the dynamic flame characteristics at different operation points. Towards this a geometric flame length model is formulated. Together with the other operational data of the flame it provides the dynamic flame model parameters at these points. The comparison between the measured and modeled flame lengths as well as the n – τ – σ parameters shows an excellent agreement.

  16. Early structure of LPG partially premixed conically stabilized flames

    KAUST Repository

    Elbaz, Ayman M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents experimental investigation of LPG partially premixed turbulent flames stabilized within a conical nozzle burner under constant degree of partial premixing. The stability limits and mean flame structure are presented based on the mean gas temperature and the concentration of CO, O 2, NO, and HC at the flame early region of reaction. The investigation covered the influence of the nozzle cone angle, the jet exit velocity and the jet equivalence ratio. The stability results show that the flames with cone are more stable than those without cone. For conical stabilized flames, the stability results exhibit three different sensitivity regions between the jet velocity and equivalence ratio. The inflame measurements prove that the flame stability could be attributed to the triple flame structure at the flame leading edge. The data show that the triple flame structure is influenced by cone angle, the jet velocity and the equivalence ratio. The flame is believed to be controlled by the recirculation flow inside the cone. Increasing the cone angle induced higher air entrainment to the reaction zone as depicted by a higher O 2 concentration within the flame leading edge. Increasing the jet velocity to a certain limit enhances the intensity of combustion at the flame leading edge, while excessive increase in jet velocity reduces this intensity. At a fixed jet velocity the higher the equivalence ratio, the higher the amount of fuel diffused and engulfed to the reaction zone, the more delay of the combustion completion and the higher the emission concentrations of the flame. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

  17. Flame spread over inclined electrical wires with AC electric fields

    KAUST Repository

    Lim, Seung J.

    2017-07-21

    Flame spread over polyethylene-insulated electrical wires was studied experimentally with applied alternating current (AC) by varying the inclination angle (θ), applied voltage (VAC), and frequency (fAC). For the baseline case with no electric field applied, the flame spread rate and the flame width of downwardly spreading flames (DSFs) decreased from the horizontal case for −20° ≤ θ < 0° and maintained near constant values for −90° ≤ θ < −20°, while the flame spread rate increased appreciably as the inclination angle of upwardly spreading flames (USFs) increased. When an AC electric field was applied, the behavior of flame spread rate in DSFs (USFs) could be classified into two (three) sub-regimes characterized by various functional dependences on VAC, fAC, and θ. In nearly all cases of DSFs, a globular molten polyethylene formed ahead of the spreading flame edge, occasionally dripping onto the ground. In these cases, an effective flame spread rate was defined to represent the burning rate by measuring the mass loss due to dripping. This effective spread rate was independent of AC frequency, while it decreased linearly with voltage and was independent of the inclination angle. In DSFs, when excessively high voltage and frequency were applied, the dripping led to flame extinction during propagation and the extinction frequency correlated well with applied voltage. In USFs, when high voltage and frequency were applied, multiple globular molten PEs formed at several locations, leading to ejections of multiple small flame segments from the main flame, thereby reducing the flame spread rate, which could be attributed to the electrospray phenomenon.

  18. Direct numerical simulations of type Ia supernovae flames II: The Rayleigh-Taylor instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, J.B.; Day, M.S.; Rendleman, C.A.; Woosley, S.E.; Zingale, M.

    2004-01-01

    A Type Ia supernova explosion likely begins as a nuclear runaway near the center of a carbon-oxygen white dwarf. The outward propagating flame is unstable to the Landau-Darrieus, Rayleigh-Taylor, and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities, which serve to accelerate it to a large fraction of the speed of sound. We investigate the Rayleigh-Taylor unstable flame at the transition from the flamelet regime to the distributed-burning regime, around densities of 10e7 gm/cc, through detailed, fully resolved simulations. A low Mach number, adaptive mesh hydrodynamics code is used to achieve the necessary resolution and long time scales. As the density is varied, we see a fundamental change in the character of the burning--at the low end of the density range the Rayleigh-Taylor instability dominates the burning, whereas at the high end the burning suppresses the instability. In all cases, significant acceleration of the flame is observed, limited only by the size of the domain we are able to study. We discuss the implications of these results on the potential for a deflagration to detonation transition

  19. Experimental study and modeling of flame propagation in confined or semi confined areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coudoro, Kodjo

    2012-01-01

    The context of the current study is the assessment of the occurrence of flame acceleration in accidental situations. The methodology developed for the assessment of hydrogen hazard in the nuclear industry led to the definition of a criterion for the prediction of the acceleration potential of a hydrogen/air/diluent mixture based on its properties. This study aims to extend this methodology to gaseous mixtures that can be encountered in the classical industry. Therefore, three mixtures were chosen: the first two are representatives of a natural gas/air mixture: G27 (82%CH 4 /18%N 2 ) and G222 (77%CH 4 /23%H 2 ). The third one is a H 2 /CO (50%H 2 /50%CO) mixture and represents the Syngas. During this work, flammability limits were measured at 300 K and two initial pressures (1 and 2 bar) for each mixture. Fundamental flame speeds and Markstein lengths were also measured at three initial temperatures (300, 330, 360 K) and 2 initial pressures (1 and 2 bar) for each mixtures. A kinetic modeling was performed based on three detailed kinetic models and allowed the calculation of the global activation energy on the basis of the kinetic model which showed the best agreement with the experimental data. The acceleration potential for each mixture in presence of obstacles has then been investigated. It was found that different criteria were to be applied depending on whether the flame is stable or not. A predicting criterion was proposed in both case. (author) [fr

  20. Flame propagation and counterflow nonpremixed ignition of mixtures of methane and ethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, W.; Kelley, A.P.; Law, C.K. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    The ignition temperature of nitrogen-diluted mixtures of methane and ethylene counterflowing against heated air was measured up to five atmospheres. In addition, the stretch-corrected laminar flame speeds of mixtures of air, methane and ethylene were determined from outwardly-propagating spherical flames up to 10 atmospheres, for extensive range of the lean-to-rich equivalence ratio. These experimental data, relevant to low- to moderately-high-temperature ignition chemistry and high-temperature flame chemistry, respectively, were subsequently compared with calculations using two detailed kinetic mechanisms. A chemical explosive mode analysis (CEMA) was then conducted to identify the dominant ignition chemistry and the role of ethylene addition in facilitating nonpremixed ignition. Furthermore, the hierarchical structure of the associated oxidation kinetics was examined by comparing the sizes and constituents of the skeletal mechanisms of the pure fuels and their mixtures, derived using the method of directed relation graph (DRG). The skeletal mechanism was further reduced by time-scale analysis, leading to a 24-species reduced mechanism from the detailed mechanism of USC Mech II, validated within the parameter space of the conducted experiments. (author)

  1. Numerical study of laminar nonpremixed methane flames in coflow jets: Autoignited lifted flames with tribrachial edges and MILD combustion at elevated temperatures

    KAUST Repository

    M. Al-Noman, Saeed

    2016-07-07

    Autoignition characteristics of laminar nonpremixed methane jet flames in high-temperature coflow air are studied numerically. Several flame configurations are investigated by varying the initial temperature and fuel mole fraction. At a relatively low initial temperature, a non-autoignited nozzle-attached flame is simulated at relatively low jet velocity. When the initial temperature is higher than that required for autoignition, two regimes are investigated: an autoignited lifted flame with tribrachial edge structure and an autoignited lifted flame with Mild combustion. The autoignited lifted flame with tribrachial edge exhibited three branches: lean and rich premixed flame wings and a trailing diffusion flame. Characteristics of kinetic structure for autoignited lifted flames are discussed based on the kinetic structures of homogeneous autoignition and flame propagation of stoichiometric mixture. Results showed that a transition from autoignition to flame propagation modes occurs for reasonably stoichiometric mixtures. The autoignited lifted flame with Mild combustion occurs when methane fuel is highly diluted with nitrogen. The kinetic structure analysis shows that the characteristics of Mild combustion can be treated as an autoignited lean premixed lifted flame. Transition behavior from Mild combustion to nozzle-attached flame was investigated by increasing the fuel mole fraction. As the maximum flame temperature increases with decreasing liftoff height, the kinetic structure showed a transition behavior from autoignition to flame propagation of a lean premixed flame. © 2016 The Combustion Institute

  2. Flame Retardant Polyamide Fibres: The Challenge of Minimising Flame Retardant Additive Contents with Added Nanoclays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Horrocks

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This work shows that halogen-free, flame retarded polyamide 6 (PA6, fabrics may be produced in which component fibres still have acceptable tensile properties and low levels (preferably ≤10 wt % of additives by incorporating a nanoclay along with two types of flame retardant formulations. The latter include (i aluminium diethyl phosphinate (AlPi at 10 wt %, known to work principally in the vapour phase and (ii ammonium sulphamate (AS/dipentaerythritol (DP system present at 2.5 and 1 wt % respectively, believed to be condense phase active. The nanoclay chosen is an organically modified montmorillonite clay, Cloisite 25A. The effect of each additive system is analysed in terms of its ability to maximise both filament tensile properties relative to 100% PA6 and flame retardant behaviour of knitted fabrics in a vertical orientation. None of the AlPi-containing formulations achieved self-extinguishability, although the presence of nanoclay promoted lower burning and melt dripping rates. The AS/DP-containing formulations with total flame retardant levels of 5.5 wt % or less showed far superior properties and with nanoclay, showed fabric extinction times ≤ 39 s and reduced melt dripping. The tensile and flammability results, supported by thermogravimetric analysis, have been interpreted in terms of the mechanism of action of each flame retardant/nanoclay type.

  3. Influence of Pilot Flame Parameters on the Stability of Turbulent Jet Flames

    KAUST Repository

    Guiberti, Thibault F.

    2016-11-08

    This paper presents a comprehensive study of the effects of pilot parameters on flame stability in a turbulent jet flame. The Sydney inhomogeneous piloted burner is employed as the experimental platform with two main fuels, namely, compressed natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas. Various concentrations of five gases are used in the pilot stream, hydrogen, acetylene, oxygen, nitrogen, and argon, to enable a sufficient range in exploring the following parameters: pilot heat release, temperature, burnt gas velocity, equivalence ratio, and H/C ratio. The experimental results are mainly presented in the form of blow-off limits and supported by simple calculations, which simulate various conditions of the pilot–mixture interface. It is found that increasing the pilot adiabatic flame temperature benefits the flame stability and has an even greater influence than the heat release, which is also known to enhance the blow-off limits. Conversely, increasing the pilot burnt gas velocity reduces the blow-off velocity, except for the limiting case when the jet is fully non-premixed. The H/C ratio has negligible effects, while resorting to lean pilots significantly increases the stability of globally rich partially premixed and premixed jets. Such findings are consistent with trends obtained from laminar flame calculations for rich fuel/air mixtures issuing against hot combustion products to simulate the pilot stream.

  4. Analysis of Flame Characteristics in a Laboratory-Scale Turbulent Lifted Jet Flame via DNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiou Wang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A fully compressible 3D solver for reacting flows has been developed and applied to investigate a turbulent lifted jet flame in a vitiated coflow by means of direct numerical simulation (DNS to validate the solver and analyze the flame characteristics. An eighth-order central differencing scheme is used for spatial discretization and a fourth-order Runge-Kutta method is employed for time integration. The DNS results agree well with the experimental measurements for the conditional means of reactive scalars. However, the lift-off height is under predicted. The mean axial velocity develops into a self-similar profile after x/D = 6. The normalized flame index is employed to characterize the combustion regime. It is found that at the flame base the gradients of the reactants are opposed and diffusion combustion is dominant. Further downstream, the contribution of premixed combustion increases and peaks at x/D = 8. Finally, the stabilization process is examined. The turbulent lifted flame is proved to stabilize in the lean mixtures and low scalar dissipation rate regions.

  5. Electrical Aspects of Flames in Microgravity Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn-Rankin, D.; Strayer, B.; Weinberg, F.; Carleton, F.

    1999-01-01

    A principal characteristic of combustion in microgravity is the absence of buoyancy driven flows. In some cases, such as for spherically symmetrical droplet burning, the absence of buoyancy is desirable for matching analytical treatments with experiments. In other cases, however, it can be more valuable to arbitrarily control the flame's convective environment independent of the environmental gravitational condition. To accomplish this, we propose the use of ion generated winds driven by electric fields to control local convection of flames. Such control can produce reduced buoyancy (effectively zero buoyancy) conditions in the laboratory in 1-g facilitating a wide range of laser diagnostics that can probe the system without special packaging required for drop tower or flight tests. In addition, the electric field generated ionic winds allow varying gravitational convection equivalents even if the test occurs in reduced gravity environments.

  6. Flame-in-gas-shield and miniature diffusion flame hydride atomizers for atomic fluorescence spectrometry: optimization and comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marschner, Karel; Musil, Stanislav; Dědina, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    A detailed optimization of relevant experimental parameters of two hydride atomizers for atomic fluorescence spectrometry: flame-in-gas-shield atomizer with a two-channel shielding unit and a standard atomizer for atomic fluorescence spectrometry, miniature diffusion flame, was performed. Arsine, generated by the reaction with NaBH 4 in a flow injection arrangement, was chosen as the model hydride. Analytical characteristics of both the atomizers (sensitivity, noise, limits of detection) were compared. Under optimum conditions sensitivity obtained with flame-in-gas-shield atomizer was approximately twice higher than with miniature diffusion flame. The additional advantage of flame-in-gas-shield atomizer is significantly lower flame emission resulting in a better signal to noise ratio. The resulting arsenic limits of detection for miniature diffusion flame and flame-in-gas-shield atomizer were 3.8 ng l −1 and 1.0 ng l −1 , respectively. - Highlights: • We optimized and compared two hydride atomizers for atomic fluorescence spectrometry. • Miniature diffusion flame and flame-in-gas-shield atomizer were optimized. • The limit of detection for arsenic was 1.0 ng l −1

  7. Flame-in-gas-shield and miniature diffusion flame hydride atomizers for atomic fluorescence spectrometry: optimization and comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marschner, Karel, E-mail: karel.marschner@biomed.cas.cz [Institute of Analytical Chemistry of the ASCR, v. v. i., Veveří 97, 602 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Science, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Albertov 8, 128 43 Prague (Czech Republic); Musil, Stanislav; Dědina, Jiří [Institute of Analytical Chemistry of the ASCR, v. v. i., Veveří 97, 602 00 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2015-07-01

    A detailed optimization of relevant experimental parameters of two hydride atomizers for atomic fluorescence spectrometry: flame-in-gas-shield atomizer with a two-channel shielding unit and a standard atomizer for atomic fluorescence spectrometry, miniature diffusion flame, was performed. Arsine, generated by the reaction with NaBH{sub 4} in a flow injection arrangement, was chosen as the model hydride. Analytical characteristics of both the atomizers (sensitivity, noise, limits of detection) were compared. Under optimum conditions sensitivity obtained with flame-in-gas-shield atomizer was approximately twice higher than with miniature diffusion flame. The additional advantage of flame-in-gas-shield atomizer is significantly lower flame emission resulting in a better signal to noise ratio. The resulting arsenic limits of detection for miniature diffusion flame and flame-in-gas-shield atomizer were 3.8 ng l{sup −1} and 1.0 ng l{sup −1}, respectively. - Highlights: • We optimized and compared two hydride atomizers for atomic fluorescence spectrometry. • Miniature diffusion flame and flame-in-gas-shield atomizer were optimized. • The limit of detection for arsenic was 1.0 ng l{sup −1}.

  8. Speed management program plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Changing public attitudes regarding speeding and speed management will require a comprehensive and concerted effort, involving a wide variety of strategies. This plan identifies six primary focus areas: : A. Data and Data-Driven Approaches, : B. Rese...

  9. Small portable speed calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, J. L.; Billions, J. C.

    1973-01-01

    Calculator is adapted stopwatch calibrated for fast accurate measurement of speeds. Single assembled unit is rugged, self-contained, and relatively inexpensive to manufacture. Potential market includes automobile-speed enforcement, railroads, and field-test facilities.

  10. Electric vehicle speed control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueger, W.R.; Mc Auliffe, G.N.; Schlageter, G.A.

    1987-06-23

    This patent describes an electric vehicle driven by a DC motor. The vehicle has a field winding, an electric resistance element in circuit with the field winding, a switch in the circuit operative when closed to place. The element in parallel with the field winding weakens the field and increases potential motor speed. Also are relay means for operating the switch, means to determine motor speed, computer means for determining whether the motor speed is increasing or decreasing, and means for operating the relay means to close the switch at a first speed. If the motor speed is increased, it actuates the switch at a second speed lower than the first speed but only if switch has been closed previously and motor speed is decreasing.

  11. Flame-sintered ceramic exoelectron dosimeter samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petel, M.; Holzapfel, G.

    1979-01-01

    New techniques for the preparation of integrating solid state dosimeters, particularly exoelectron dosimeters, have been initiated. The procedure consists in melting the powdered dosimeter materials in a hot, fast gas stream and depositing the ceramic layer. The gas stream is generated either through a chemical flame or by an electrical arc plasma. Results will be reported on the system Al 2 O 3 /stainless steel as a first step to a usable exoelectron dosimeter

  12. Effects of non-thermal plasmas and electric field on hydrocarbon/air flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Biswa

    2009-10-01

    Need to improve fuel efficiency, and reduce emission from hydrocarbon combustor in automotive and gas turbine engines have reinvigorated interest in reducing combustion instability of a lean flame. The heat generation rate in a binary reaction is HQ =N^2 c1c2 Q exp(-E/RT), where N is the density, c1 and c2 are mol fractions of the reactants, Q is the reaction heat release, E is the activation energy, R is the gas constant and T is the average temperature. For hydrocarbon-air reactions, the typical value of E/R ˜20, so most heat release reactions are confined to a thin reaction sheet at T >=1400 K. The lean flame burning condition is susceptible to combustion instability due to a critical balance between heat generation and heat loss rates, especially at high gas flow rate. Radical injection can increase flame speed by reducing the hydrocarbon oxidation reaction activation barrier and it can improve flame stability. Advances in nonequilibrium plasma generation at high pressure have prompted its application for energy efficient radical production to enhance hydrocarbon-air combustion. Dielectric barrier discharges and short pulse excited corona discharges have been used to enhance combustion stability. Direct electron impact dissociation of hydrocarbon and O2 produces radicals with lower fuel oxidation reaction activation barriers, initiating heat release reaction CnHm+O CnHm-1+ OH (and other similar sets of reactions with partially dissociated fuel) below the typical cross-over temperature. Also, N2 (A) produced in air discharge at a moderate E/n can dissociate O2 leading to oxidation of fuel at lower gas temperature. Low activation energy reactions are also possible by dissociation of hydrocarbon CnHm+e -> CnHm-2+H2+e, where a chain propagation reaction H2+ O OH+H can be initiated at lower gas temperature than possible under thermal equilibrium kinetics. Most of heat release comes from the reaction CO+OH-> CO2 +H, nonthermal OH production seem to improve

  13. Flames in fractal grid generated turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goh, K H H; Hampp, F; Lindstedt, R P [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Geipel, P, E-mail: p.lindstedt@imperial.ac.uk [Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB, SE-612 83 Finspong (Sweden)

    2013-12-15

    Twin premixed turbulent opposed jet flames were stabilized for lean mixtures of air with methane and propane in fractal grid generated turbulence. A density segregation method was applied alongside particle image velocimetry to obtain velocity and scalar statistics. It is shown that the current fractal grids increase the turbulence levels by around a factor of 2. Proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) was applied to show that the fractal grids produce slightly larger turbulent structures that decay at a slower rate as compared to conventional perforated plates. Conditional POD (CPOD) was also implemented using the density segregation technique and the results show that CPOD is essential to segregate the relative structures and turbulent kinetic energy distributions in each stream. The Kolmogorov length scales were also estimated providing values {approx}0.1 and {approx}0.5 mm in the reactants and products, respectively. Resolved profiles of flame surface density indicate that a thin flame assumption leading to bimodal statistics is not perfectly valid under the current conditions and it is expected that the data obtained will be of significant value to the development of computational methods that can provide information on the conditional structure of turbulence. It is concluded that the increase in the turbulent Reynolds number is without any negative impact on other parameters and that fractal grids provide a route towards removing the classical problem of a relatively low ratio of turbulent to bulk strain associated with the opposed jet configuration. (paper)

  14. Dependence of flame length on cross sections of burners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackeschmidt, M.

    1983-06-01

    This article analyzes the relation between the shape of burner muzzle and the resulting flame jet in a combustion chamber. Geometrical shapes of burner muzzles, either square, circular or triangular are compared as well as proportions of flame dimensions. A formula for calculating flame lengths is derived, for which the mathematical value 'contact profile radius' for burner muzzle shape is introduced. The formula for calculating flame lengths allows a partial replacement of the empirical flame mixing factor according to N.Q. Toai, 1981. The geometrical analysis does not include thermodynamic and reaction kinetic studies, which may be necessary for evaluating heterogenous (coal dust) combustion flames with longer burning time. (12 refs.)

  15. Dynamics of premixed hydrogen/air flames in mesoscale channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizza, Gianmarco [Paul Scherrer Institute, Combustion Research, CH-5232, Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Aerothermochemistry and Combustion Systems Laboratory, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, CH-8092, Zurich (Switzerland); Frouzakis, Christos E.; Boulouchos, Konstantinos [Aerothermochemistry and Combustion Systems Laboratory, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, CH-8092, Zurich (Switzerland); Mantzaras, John [Paul Scherrer Institute, Combustion Research, CH-5232, Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Tomboulides, Ananias G. [Department of Engineering and Management of Energy Resources, University of Western Macedonia, 50100 Kozani (Greece)

    2008-10-15

    Direct numerical simulation with detailed chemistry and transport is used to study the stabilization and dynamics of lean ({phi}=0.5) premixed hydrogen/air atmospheric pressure flames in mesoscale planar channels. Channel heights of h=2, 4, and 7 mm, and inflow velocities in the range 0.3{<=}U{sub IN}{<=}1100cm/ s are investigated. Six different burning modes are identified: mild combustion, ignition/extinction, closed steady symmetric flames, open steady symmetric flames, oscillating and, finally, asymmetric flames. Chaotic behavior of cellular flame structures is observed for certain values of U{sub IN}. Stability maps delineating the regions of the different flame types are finally constructed. (author)

  16. Hydrodynamic model of hydrogen-flame propagation in reactor vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, M.R.; Ratzel, A.C.

    1982-01-01

    A hydrodynamic model for hydrogen flame propagation in reactor geometries is presented. This model is consistent with the theory of slow combustion in which the gasdynamic field equations are treated in the limit of small Mach numbers. To the lowest order, pressure is spatially uniform. The flame is treated as a density and entropy discontinuity which propagates at prescribed burning velocities, corresponding to laminar or turbulent flames. Radiation cooling of the burned combustion gases and possible preheating of the unburned gases during propagation of the flame is included using a molecular gas-band thermal radiation model. Application of this model has been developed for 1-D variable area flame propagation. Multidimensional effects induced by hydrodynamics and buoyancy are introduced as a correction to the burn velocity (which reflects a modification of planar flame surface to a distorted surface) using experimentally measured pressure-rise time data for hydrogen/air deflagrations in cylindrical vessels

  17. Large-eddy simulation of a turbulent piloted methane/air diffusion flame (Sandia flame D)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitsch, H.; Steiner, H.

    2000-01-01

    The Lagrangian Flamelet Model is formulated as a combustion model for large-eddy simulations of turbulent jet diffusion flames. The model is applied in a large-eddy simulation of a piloted partially premixed methane/air diffusion flame (Sandia flame D). The results of the simulation are compared to experimental data of the mean and RMS of the axial velocity and the mixture fraction and the unconditional and conditional averages of temperature and various species mass fractions, including CO and NO. All quantities are in good agreement with the experiments. The results indicate in accordance with experimental findings that regions of high strain appear in layer like structures, which are directed inwards and tend to align with the reaction zone, where the turbulence is fully developed. The analysis of the conditional temperature and mass fractions reveals a strong influence of the partial premixing of the fuel. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  18. A direct numerical simulation of cool-flame affected autoignition in diesel engine-relevant conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krisman, Alexander; Hawkes, Evatt Robert.; Talei, Mohsen; Bhagatwala, Ankit; Chen, Jacqueline H.

    2016-11-11

    In diesel engines, combustion is initiated by a two-staged autoignition that includes both low- and high-temperature chemistry. The location and timing of both stages of autoignition are important parameters that influence the development and stabilisation of the flame. In this study, a two-dimensional direct numerical simulation (DNS) is conducted to provide a fully resolved description of ignition at diesel engine-relevant conditions. The DNS is performed at a pressure of 40 atmospheres and at an ambient temperature of 900 K using dimethyl ether (DME) as the fuel, with a 30 species reduced chemical mechanism. At these conditions, similar to diesel fuel, DME exhibits two-stage ignition. The focus of this study is on the behaviour of the low-temperature chemistry (LTC) and the way in which it influences the high-temperature ignition. The results show that the LTC develops as a “spotty” first-stage autoignition in lean regions which transitions to a diffusively supported cool-flame and then propagates up the local mixture fraction gradient towards richer regions. The cool-flame speed is much faster than can be attributed to spatial gradients in first-stage ignition delay time in homogeneous reactors. The cool-flame causes a shortening of the second-stage ignition delay times compared to a homogeneous reactor and the shortening becomes more pronounced at richer mixtures. Multiple high-temperature ignition kernels are observed over a range of rich mixtures that are much richer than the homogeneous most reactive mixture and most kernels form much earlier than suggested by the homogeneous ignition delay time of the corresponding local mixture. Altogether, the results suggest that LTC can strongly influence both the timing and location in composition space of the high-temperature ignition.

  19. The Coherent Flame Model for Turbulent Chemical Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    numerical integration of the resulting differential equations. The model predicts the flame length and superficial comparison with experiments suggest a...value for the single universal constant. The theory correctly predicts the change of flame length with changes in stoich- iometric ratio for the...indicate the X will be some where between 0.1 and 0.5. Figure 13 is presented to show the effect of equivalence ratio, , on the flame length when the

  20. Isomer-specific combustion chemistry in allene and propyne flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Nils; Miller, James A. [Combustion Research Facility, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Westmoreland, Phillip R. [Department of Chem. Engineering, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Kasper, Tina [Combustion Research Facility, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Bielefeld University, D-33615 Bielefeld (Germany); Kohse-Hoeinghaus, Katharina [Department of Chemistry, Bielefeld University, D-33615 Bielefeld (Germany); Wang, Juan; Cool, Terrill A. [School of Applied and Engineering Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    A combined experimental and modeling study is performed to clarify the isomer-specific combustion chemistry in flames fueled by the C{sub 3}H{sub 4} isomers allene and propyne. To this end, mole fraction profiles of several flame species in stoichiometric allene (propyne)/O{sub 2}/Ar flames are analyzed by means of a chemical kinetic model. The premixed flames are stabilized on a flat-flame burner under a reduced pressure of 25 Torr (=33.3 mbar). Quantitative species profiles are determined by flame-sampling molecular-beam mass spectrometry, and the isomer-specific flame compositions are unraveled by employing photoionization with tunable vacuum-ultraviolet synchrotron radiation. The temperature profiles are measured by OH laser-induced fluorescence. Experimental and modeled mole fraction profiles of selected flame species are discussed with respect to the isomer-specific combustion chemistry in both flames. The emphasis is put on main reaction pathways of fuel consumption, of allene and propyne isomerization, and of isomer-specific formation of C{sub 6} aromatic species. The present model includes the latest theoretical rate coefficients for reactions on a C{sub 3}H{sub 5} potential [J.A. Miller, J.P. Senosiain, S.J. Klippenstein, Y. Georgievskii, J. Phys. Chem. A 112 (2008) 9429-9438] and for the propargyl recombination reactions [Y. Georgievskii, S.J. Klippenstein, J.A. Miller, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 9 (2007) 4259-4268]. Larger peak mole fractions of propargyl, allyl, and benzene are observed in the allene flame than in the propyne flame. In these flames virtually all of the benzene is formed by the propargyl recombination reaction. (author)

  1. Investigation of flame structure in plasma-assisted turbulent premixed methane-air flame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hualei, ZHANG; Liming, HE; Jinlu, YU; Wentao, QI; Gaocheng, CHEN

    2018-02-01

    The mechanism of plasma-assisted combustion at increasing discharge voltage is investigated in detail at two distinctive system schemes (pretreatment of reactants and direct in situ discharge). OH-planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) technique is used to diagnose the turbulent structure methane-air flame, and the experimental apparatus consists of dump burner, plasma-generating system, gas supply system and OH-PLIF system. Results have shown that the effect of pretreatment of reactants on flame can be categorized into three regimes: regime I for voltage lower than 6.6 kV; regime II for voltage between 6.6 and 11.1 kV; and regime III for voltage between 11.1 and 12.5 kV. In regime I, aerodynamic effect and slower oxidation of higher hydrocarbons generated around the inner electrode tip plays a dominate role, while in regime III, the temperature rising effect will probably superimpose on the chemical effect and amplify it. For wire-cylinder dielectric barrier discharge reactor with spatially uneven electric field, the amount of radicals and hydrocarbons are decreased monotonically in radial direction which affects the flame shape. With regard to in situ plasma discharge in flames, the discharge pattern changes from streamer type to glow type. Compared with the case of reactants pretreatment, the flame propagates further in the upstream direction. In the discharge region, the OH intensity is highest for in situ plasma assisted combustion, indicating that the plasma energy is coupled into flame reaction zone.

  2. FIELD TEST OF THE FLAME QUALITY INDICATOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudin, Andrew M; Butcher, Thomas; Troost, Henry

    2003-02-04

    The flame quality indicator concept was developed at BNL specifically to monitor the brightness of the flame in a small oil burner and to provide a ''call for service'' notification when the brightness has changed from its setpoint, either high or low. In prior development work BNL has explored the response of this system to operational upsets such as excess air changes, fouled atomizer nozzles, poor fuel quality, etc. Insight Technologies, Inc. and Honeywell, Inc. have licensed this technology from the U.S. Department of Energy and have been cooperating to develop product offerings which meet industry needs with an optimal combination of function and price. Honeywell has recently completed the development of the Flame Quality Monitor (FQM or Honeywell QS7100F). This is a small module which connects via a serial cable to the burners primary operating control. Primary advantages of this approach are simplicity, cost, and ease of installation. Call-for-service conditions are output in the form of front panel indicator lights and contact closure which can trigger a range of external communication options. Under this project a field test was conducted of the FQM in cooperation with service organizations in Virginia, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York, and Connecticut. At total of 83 field sites were included. At each site the FQM was installed in parallel with another embodiment of this concept--the Insight AFQI. The AFQI incorporates a modem and provides the ability to provide detailed information on the trends in the flame quality over the course of the two year test period. The test site population was comprised of 79.5% boilers, 13.7% warm air furnaces, and 6.8% water heaters. Nearly all were of residential size--with firing rates ranging from 0.6 gallons of oil per hour to 1.25. During the course of the test program the monitoring equipment successfully identified problems including: plugged fuel lines, fouled nozzles, collapsed combustion

  3. Flame dynamics in a micro-channeled combustor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, Taaha; Balachandran, Ramanarayanan; Markides, Christos N.

    2015-01-01

    The increasing use of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) has generated a significant interest in combustion-based power generation technologies, as a replacement of traditional electrochemical batteries which are plagued by low energy densities, short operational lives and low power-to-size and power-to-weight ratios. Moreover, the versatility of integrated combustion-based systems provides added scope for combined heat and power generation. This paper describes a study into the dynamics of premixed flames in a micro-channeled combustor. The details of the design and the geometry of the combustor are presented in the work by Kariuki and Balachandran [1]. This work showed that there were different modes of operation (periodic, a-periodic and stable), and that in the periodic mode the flame accelerated towards the injection manifold after entering the channels. The current study investigates these flames further. We will show that the flame enters the channel and propagates towards the injection manifold as a planar flame for a short distance, after which the flame shape and propagation is found to be chaotic in the middle section of the channel. Finally, the flame quenches when it reaches the injector slots. The glow plug position in the exhaust side ignites another flame, and the process repeats. It is found that an increase in air flow rate results in a considerable increase in the length (and associated time) over which the planar flame travels once it has entered a micro-channel, and a significant decrease in the time between its conversion into a chaotic flame and its extinction. It is well known from the literature that inside small channels the flame propagation is strongly influenced by the flow conditions and thermal management. An increase of the combustor block temperature at high flow rates has little effect on the flame lengths and times, whereas at low flow rates the time over which the planar flame front can be observed decreases and the time of

  4. The structure of horizontal hydrogen-steam diffusion flames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, C.K.; Guerrero, A.

    1997-01-01

    This paper summarizes a systematic study on the stability, peak temperature and flame length of various horizontal hydrogen-steam diffusion flames in air. Results from this study are discussed in terms of their impact on hydrogen management in a nuclear containment building after a nuclear reactor accident. They show that, for a certain range of emerging hydrogen-steam compositions, a stable diffusion flame can anchor itself at the break in the primary heat transport system. The length of this flame can be up to 100 times the break diameter. This implies that creation of a stable diffusion flame at the break is a possible outcome of the deliberate ignition mitigation scheme. The high temperature and heat flux from a diffusion flame can threaten nearby equipment. However, due to the presence of steam and turbulent mixing with surrounding air, the peak temperatures of these diffusion flames are much lower than the adiabatic constant pressure combustion temperature of a stoichiometric hydrogen-air mixture. These results suggest that the threat of a diffusion flame anchored at the break may be less severe than conservative analysis would indicate. Furthermore, such a flame can remove hydrogen at the source and minimize the possibility of a global gas explosion. (author)

  5. Structure of Partially Premixed Flames and Advanced Solid Propellants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Branch, Melvyn

    1998-01-01

    The combustion of solid rocket propellants of advanced energetic materials involves a complex process of decomposition and condensed phase reactions in the solid propellant, gaseous flame reactions...

  6. Flame dynamics in a micro-channeled combustor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, Taaha; Balachandran, Ramanarayanan, E-mail: r.balachandran@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University College London, London (United Kingdom); Markides, Christos N. [Clean Energy Processes Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-22

    The increasing use of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) has generated a significant interest in combustion-based power generation technologies, as a replacement of traditional electrochemical batteries which are plagued by low energy densities, short operational lives and low power-to-size and power-to-weight ratios. Moreover, the versatility of integrated combustion-based systems provides added scope for combined heat and power generation. This paper describes a study into the dynamics of premixed flames in a micro-channeled combustor. The details of the design and the geometry of the combustor are presented in the work by Kariuki and Balachandran [1]. This work showed that there were different modes of operation (periodic, a-periodic and stable), and that in the periodic mode the flame accelerated towards the injection manifold after entering the channels. The current study investigates these flames further. We will show that the flame enters the channel and propagates towards the injection manifold as a planar flame for a short distance, after which the flame shape and propagation is found to be chaotic in the middle section of the channel. Finally, the flame quenches when it reaches the injector slots. The glow plug position in the exhaust side ignites another flame, and the process repeats. It is found that an increase in air flow rate results in a considerable increase in the length (and associated time) over which the planar flame travels once it has entered a micro-channel, and a significant decrease in the time between its conversion into a chaotic flame and its extinction. It is well known from the literature that inside small channels the flame propagation is strongly influenced by the flow conditions and thermal management. An increase of the combustor block temperature at high flow rates has little effect on the flame lengths and times, whereas at low flow rates the time over which the planar flame front can be observed decreases and the time of

  7. Behaviors of tribrachial edge flames and their interactions in a triple-port burner

    KAUST Repository

    Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Isobe, Yusuke; Hayashi, Naoki; Yamashita, Hiroshi; Chung, Suk-Ho

    2015-01-01

    In a triple-port burner, various non-premixed flames have been observed previously. Especially for the case with two lifted flames, such configuration could be suitable in studying interaction between two tribrachial flames. In the present study

  8. Turbulent structure and dynamics of swirled, strongly pulsed jet diffusion flames

    KAUST Repository

    Liao, Ying-Hao; Hermanson, James C.

    2013-01-01

    The structure and dynamics of swirled, strongly pulsed, turbulent jet diffusion flames were examined experimentally in a co-flow swirl combustor. The dynamics of the large-scale flame structures, including variations in flame dimensions, the degree

  9. The blow-off mechanism of a bluff-body stabilized laminar premixed flame

    KAUST Repository

    Kedia, Kushal S.; Ghoniem, Ahmed F.

    2015-01-01

    the end of the recirculation zone. Blow-off started by flame pinching separating the flame into an upstream moving (carried within the recirculation zone) and a downstream convecting (detached from the recirculation zone) flame piece. Within the range

  10. Flame kernel generation and propagation in turbulent partially premixed hydrocarbon jet

    KAUST Repository

    Mansour, Mohy S.; Elbaz, Ayman M.; Zayed, M. F.

    2014-01-01

    Flame development, propagation, stability, combustion efficiency, pollution formation, and overall system efficiency are affected by the early stage of flame generation defined as flame kernel. Studying the effects of turbulence and chemistry

  11. POLYAMIDE 6 WITH A FLAME RETARDANT ENCAPSULATED BY POLYAMIDE 66: FLAME RETARDATION, THERMO-DECOMPOSITION AND THE POTENTIAL MECHANISM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-cheng Xiong; Li Chen; Bin Zhao; De-yi Wang; Yu-zhong Wang

    2012-01-01

    A novel encapsulated flame retardant containing phosphorus-nitrogen (MSMM-Al-P) was prepared by encapsulating with polyamide 66 (PA66-MSMM-Al-P) for the flame retardation of polyamide 6 (PA6).The structure and thermal properties of PA66-MSMM-Al-P were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy,X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis.The flammability of PA6 containing' flame retardants (MSMMAl-P and PA66-MSMM-Al-P) was investigated by the limiting oxygen index test,vertical burning test and cone calorimeter.The flame retardancy and cone calorimetric analyses suggested a synergistic effect between PA66 and MSMM-Al-P in the flame-retardant PA6.Thermal stability of the flame-retardant PA6 was also investigated.

  12. Flame Spread and Damaged Properties of RCD Cases by Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Chung-Seog; Kim, Hyang-Kon; Shong, Kil-Mok; Kim, Dong-Woo

    In this paper, the flame spread and damaged properties of residual current protective devices (RCDs) by tracking were analyzed. Pictures of tracking process were taken by High Speed Imaging System (HSIS), and fire progression was observed by timeframe. During the tracking process of RCD, it seemed to explode just once in appearance, but in the results of HSIS analysis, a small fire broke out and disappeared repeatedly 35 times and a flash of light repeated 15 times. Finally, an explosion with a flash of light occurred and lots of particles were scattered. Electric muffle furnace was used for heat treatment of RCD cases. The surface characteristics of specimens due to heat treatment and tracking deterioration were taken by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Chemical and thermal properties of these deteriorated specimens were analyzed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FT-IR) and Differential Thermal Analyzer (DTA). The carbonization characteristics showed different chemical properties due to energy sources, and the results could be applicable to judge the accident causes.

  13. Evaluation of Geopolymer Concrete for Rocket Test Facility Flame Deflectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allgood, Daniel C.; Montes, Carlos; Islam, Rashedul; Allouche, Erez

    2014-01-01

    The current paper presents results from a combined research effort by Louisiana Tech University (LTU) and NASA Stennis Space Center (SSC) to develop a new alumina-silicate based cementitious binder capable of acting as a high performance refractory material with low heat ablation rate and high early mechanical strength. Such a binder would represent a significant contribution to NASA's efforts to develop a new generation of refractory 'hot face' liners for liquid or solid rocket plume environments. This project was developed as a continuation of on-going collaborations between LTU and SSC, where test sections of a formulation of high temperature geopolymer binder were cast in the floor and walls of Test Stand E-1 Cell 3, an active rocket engine test stand flame trench. Additionally, geopolymer concrete panels were tested using the NASA-SSC Diagnostic Test Facility (DTF) thruster, where supersonic plume environments were generated on a 1ft wide x 2ft long x 6 inch deep refractory panel. The DTF operates on LOX/GH2 propellants producing a nominal thrust of 1,200 lbf and the combustion chamber conditions are Pc=625psig, O/F=6.0. Data collected included high speed video of plume/panel area and surface profiles (depth) of the test panels measured on a 1-inch by 1-inch giving localized erosion rates during the test. Louisiana Tech conducted a microstructure analysis of the geopolymer binder after the testing program to identify phase changes in the material.

  14. Speed in Acquisitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meglio, Olimpia; King, David R.; Risberg, Annette

    2017-01-01

    The advantage of speed is often invoked by academics and practitioners as an essential condition during post-acquisition integration, frequently without consideration of the impact earlier decisions have on acquisition speed. In this article, we examine the role speed plays in acquisitions across...... the acquisition process using research organized around characteristics that display complexity with respect to acquisition speed. We incorporate existing research with a process perspective of acquisitions in order to present trade-offs, and consider the influence of both stakeholders and the pre......-deal-completion context on acquisition speed, as well as the organization’s capabilities to facilitating that speed. Observed trade-offs suggest both that acquisition speed often requires longer planning time before an acquisition and that associated decisions require managerial judgement. A framework for improving...

  15. The influence of fuel-air swirl intensity on flame structures of syngas swirl-stabilized diffusion flame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Weiwei; Xiong, Yan; Mu, Kejin; Zhang, Zhedian; Wang, Yue; Xiao, Yunhan

    2010-06-01

    Flame structures of a syngas swirl-stabilized diffusion flame in a model combustor were measured using the OH-PLIF method under different fuel and air swirl intensity. The flame operated under atmospheric pressure with air and a typical low heating-value syngas with a composition of 28.5% CO, 22.5% H2 and 49% N2 at a thermal power of 34 kW. Results indicate that increasing the air swirl intensity with the same fuel, swirl intensity flame structures showed little difference except a small reduction of flame length; but also, with the same air swirl intensity, fuel swirl intensity showed great influence on flame shape, length and reaction zone distribution. Therefore, compared with air swirl intensity, fuel swirl intensity appeared a key effect on the flame structure for the model combustor. Instantaneous OH-PLIF images showed that three distinct typical structures with an obvious difference of reaction zone distribution were found at low swirl intensity, while a much compacter flame structure with a single, stable and uniform reaction zone distribution was found at large fuel-air swirl intensity. It means that larger swirl intensity leads to efficient, stable combustion of the syngas diffusion flame.

  16. Nonpremixed flame in a counterflow under electric fields

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Daegeun

    2016-05-08

    Electrically assisted combustion has been studied in order to control or improve flame characteristics, and emphasizing efficiency and emission regulation. Many phenomenological observations have been reported on the positive impact of electric fields on flame, however there is a lack of detailed physical mechanisms for interpreting these. To clarify the effects of electric fields on flame, I have investigated flame structure, soot formation, and flow field with ionic wind electrical current responses in nonpremixed counterflow flames. The effects of direct current (DC) electric field on flame movement and flow field was also demonstrated in premixed Bunsen flames. When a DC electric field was applied to a lower nozzle, the flames moved toward the cathode side due to Lorentz force action on the positive ions, soot particles simultaneously disappeared completely and laser diagnostics was used to identify the results from the soot particles. To understand the effects of an electric field on flames, flow visualization was performed by Mie scattering to check the ionic wind effect, which is considered to play an important role in electric field assisted combustion. Results showed a bidirectional ionic wind, with a double-stagnant flow configuration, which blew from the flame (ionic source) toward both the cathode and the anode. This implies that the electric field affects strain rate and the axial location of stoichiometry, important factors in maintaining nonpremixed counterflow flames; thus, soot formation of the counterflow flame can also be affected by the electric field. In a test of premixed Bunsen flames having parallel electrodes, flame movement toward the cathode and bidirectional ionic wind were observed. Using PIV measurement it was found that a created radial velocity caused by positive ions (i.e. toward a cathode), was much faster than the velocity toward the anode. Even in a study of alternating current (AC) electric fields, bidirectional ionic wind could

  17. Diffusion Flame Extinction in a Low Strain Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutula, Jason; Jones, Joshua; Torero, Jose L.; Borlik, Jeffrey; Ezekoye, Ofodike A.

    1997-01-01

    Diffusion flames are of great interest in fire safety and many industrial processes. Many parameters significantly affect the flame structure, shape and stability, of particular importance are the constraints imposed by geometrical boundaries. Physical boundaries determine the characteristics of the flow, affect heat, fuel, and oxidizer transport from and towards the flame and can act as heat sinks or heat sources. As a result, the existence of a flame, its shape and nature are intimately related to the geometrical characteristics of the environment that surrounds it. The counter-flow configuration provides a constant strain flow, therefore, is ideal to study the structure of diffusion flames. Most studies have concentrated on the high velocity, high strain limit, since buoyantly induced instabilities will disintegrate the planar flame as the velocity decreases. Only recently, experimental studies in micro-gravity conditions have begun to explore the low strain regimes. The main objective of these on-going studies is to determine the effect of radiative heat losses and variable strain on the structure and radiation-induced extinction of diffusion flames. For these programs, size, geometry, and experimental conditions have been chosen to keep the flame unaffected by the physical boundaries. Whether is the burning of condensed or gaseous fuels, for most real situations the boundaries impose a significant effect on the nature of the flame. There is, therefore, a need to better understand the effect that geometrical constraints (i.e. flow nonperpendicular to a fuel surface, heat losses to the boundaries, etc.) might have on the final characteristics of a diffusion flame. Preliminary experiments have shown that, in the absence of gravity, and depending on the distance from the flame to the boundary, three characteristically different regimes can be observed. Close to the boundary, the flame is parabolic, very thin and blue, almost soot-less. Diffusion is the main

  18. Speed and income

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens

    2005-01-01

    The relationship between speed and income is established in a microeconomic model focusing on the trade-off between travel time and the risk of receiving a penalty for exceeding the speed limit. This is used to determine when a rational driver will choose to exceed the speed limit. The relationship...... between speed and income is found again in the empirical analysis of a cross-sectional dataset comprising 60,000 observations of car trips. This is used to perform regressions of speed on income, distance travelled, and a number of controls. The results are clearly statistically significant and indicate...... an average income elasticity of speed of 0.02; it is smaller at short distances and about twice as large at the longest distance investigated of 200 km....

  19. High speed atom source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshino, Hitoshi.

    1990-01-01

    In a high speed atom source, since the speed is not identical between ions and electrons, no sufficient neutralizing effect for ionic rays due to the mixing of the ionic rays and the electron rays can be obtained failing to obtain high speed atomic rays at high density. In view of the above, a speed control means is disposed for equalizing the speed of ions forming ionic rays and the speed of electrons forming electron rays. Further, incident angle of the electron rays and/or ionic rays to a magnet or an electrode is made variable. As a result, the relative speed between the ions and the electrons to the processing direction is reduced to zero, in which the probability of association between the ions and the electrons due to the coulomb force is increased to improve the neutralizing efficiency to easily obtain fine and high density high speed electron rays. Further, by varying the incident angle, a track capable of obtaining an ideal mixing depending on the energy of the neutralized ionic rays is formed. Since the high speed electron rays has such high density, they can be irradiated easily to the minute region of the specimen. (N.H.)

  20. Computer ray tracing speeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, P; Pawlowski, B

    1990-05-01

    The results of measuring the ray trace speed and compilation speed of thirty-nine computers in fifty-seven configurations, ranging from personal computers to super computers, are described. A correlation of ray trace speed has been made with the LINPACK benchmark which allows the ray trace speed to be estimated using LINPACK performance data. The results indicate that the latest generation of workstations, using CPUs based on RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer) technology, are as fast or faster than mainframe computers in compute-bound situations.

  1. Systematic application of flame diagnostics techniques for performance and emissions development of modern combustion systems; Systematischer Einsatz der Flammendiagnostik fuer die Leistungs- und Emissionsentwicklung moderner Brennverfahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winklhofer, E.; Beidl, C.; Hirsch, A.; Piock, W. [AVL List GmbH, Graz (Austria)

    2004-07-01

    In engine engineering, the information and benefits gained from optical flame diagnostics, especially in the combination with thermodynamic and CFD analysis of airflow and combustion are well accepted. It is, however, a specific challenge to implement techniques which are well established in basic engine R and D into the processes of series development or engine calibration. Any technique taken over from successfull predevelopment applications, is expected to equally well support series development. But in order to do this, it must also be suited to easily blend into the procedures of standard multicylinder engine tests. Development speed and results quality improve consideraly, whenever engineers within their routine engine tests gain knowledge about and evaluation of flame properties which allow identification of possible improvements of combustion efficiency, power density and emissions in an early, upfront development phase. Diagnostic systems employed for such tasks make use of fiber optic sensors which in spark ignited engines may be implanted into the bodies of sensor spark plugs. Their mechanic, thermal and electric properties comply with those of the originals, thus enabling their continuous use on the test bed. The arrangement of standard fiber optic channels allows flame radiation monitoring either within the axial proximity of the sensor plug, or of the entire combustion chamber compression volume. Signal recording and signal analysis is accomplished with Visiolution system techniques. Test results are evaluated on the basis of Visiolution algorithms. Data reduction schemes provide numerical figures of merit, describing, e. g. direction, velocity and symmetry of a spark ignited flame kernel. When knock center distribution is analysed, actual distribution statistics are checked against best concept distributions, whenever diffusion flames are detected against expectations of ideal premixed flames, their position, timing and intensity is evaluated. Such

  2. Development of a Midscale Test for Flame Resistant Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Evaluation of Flame Resistant Clothing for Protection against Fire Simulations Using an Instrumented Manikin, which provides both radiant and convective heat...TEST METHODS FIRE RESISTANT MATERIALS TORCHES SIMULATION TEST EQUIPMENT FLAME RESISTANT CLOTHING PERFORMANCE(ENGINEERING... fabric during a fire , and even after the fire has been extinguished. The best known full scale transmitted heat flux test is the "ASTM F1930

  3. Comparative Analysis of Flame Characteristics of Castor Oil and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The flame characteristics of castor oil based foam and that of polyether foam impregnated with inorganic flame retardants (FR) were investigated. The polyether foams were impregnated with measured concentration of Antimony trioxide and Sodium bromide, Ammonium dihydrogen orthophosphate, Diammonium hydrogen ...

  4. Quantification of extinction mechanism in counterflow premixed flames

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Sangkyu; Cho, Eunseong; Chung, Suk-Ho

    2014-01-01

    The extinction mechanisms of stretched premixed flames have been investigated numerically for the fuels of CH4, C3H8, H2, CO and for the mixture fuels of CH4+H2 and CO+H2 by adopting symmetric double premixed flames in a counterflow configuration

  5. Soot emissions from turbulent diffusion flames burning simple alkane fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canteenwalla, P.M.; Johnson, M.R. [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering; Thomson, K.A.; Smallwood, G.J. [National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Inst. for Chemical Process and Environmental Technology

    2007-07-01

    A classic problem in combustion involves measurement and prediction of soot emissions from turbulent diffusion flames. Very high-sensitivity measurements of particulate matter (PM) from very low-sooting diffusion flames burning methane and other simple alkane fuels have been enabled from recent advances in laser-induced incandescence (LII). In order to quantify soot emissions from a lab-scale turbulent diffusion flame burner, this paper presented a study that used LII to develop a sampling protocol. The purpose of the study was to develop an experimentally based model to predict PM emissions from flares used in industry using soot emissions from lab-scale flares. Quantitative results of mass of soot emitted per mass of fuel burned were presented across a range of flow conditions and fuels. The experiment used digital imaging to measure flame lengths and estimate flame residence times. Comparisons were also made between current measurements and results of previous researchers for soot in the overfire region. The study also considered the validity applicability of buoyancy based models for predicting and scaling soot emissions. The paper described the experimental setup including sampling system and flame length imaging. Background information on soot yield and a comparison of flame residence time definitions were provided. The results and discussion of results were also presented. It was concluded that the results highlighted the subjective nature of flame length measurements. 10 refs., 4 figs.

  6. Flame oscillations in tubes with nonslip at the walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akkerman, V' yacheslav; Bychkov, Vitaly; Petchenko, Arkady [Institute of Physics, Umeaa University, SE-901 87 Umeaa (Sweden); Eriksson, Lars-Erik [Department of Applied Mechanics, Chalmers University of Technology, 412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2006-06-15

    A laminar premixed flame front propagating in a two-dimensional tube is considered with nonslip at the walls and with both ends open. The problem of flame propagation is solved using direct numerical simulations of the complete set of hydrodynamic equations including thermal conduction, diffusion, viscosity, and chemical kinetics. As a result, it is shown that flame interaction with the walls leads to the oscillating regime of burning. The oscillations involve variations of the curved flame shape and the velocity of flame propagation. The oscillation parameters depend on the characteristic tube width, which controls the Reynolds number of the flow. In narrow tubes the oscillations are rather weak, while in wider tubes they become stronger with well-pronounced nonlinear effects. The period of oscillations increases for wider tubes, while the average flame length scaled by the tube diameter decreases only slightly with increasing tube width. The average flame length calculated in the present work is in agreement with that obtained in the experiments. Numerical results reduce the gap between the theory of turbulent flames and the experiments on turbulent combustion in tubes. (author)

  7. Histopathology of the organs of Broiler Chickens exposed to flames ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Histopathology of the organs of broiler chickens exposed to the flame and fumes of refined petroleum product kerosene at varying distances over a period of 16hrs daily for 56 days in a poultry house were evaluated. Kerosene burning was simulated in a designed burner. Kerosene flame in a designed burner was placed 4, ...

  8. Flame retardants: Dust - and not food - might be the risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, J.; Ballesteros-Gomez, A.M.; Leslie, H.A.; Brandsma, S.H.; Leonards, P.E.G.

    2016-01-01

    Flame retardants (FRs) are used to delay ignition of materials such as furniture and electric and electronic instruments. Many FRs are persistent and end up in the environment. Environmental studies on flame retardants (FRs) took off in the late 1990s. Polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) appeared

  9. 30 CFR 75.600 - Trailing cables; flame resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trailing cables; flame resistance. 75.600 Section 75.600 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE... cables; flame resistance. [Statutory Provisions] Trailing cables used in coal mines shall meet the...

  10. Soot Formation in Freely-Propagating Laminar Premixed Flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, K.-C.; Hassan, M. I.; Faeth, G. M.

    1997-01-01

    Soot formation within hydrocarbon-fueled flames is an important unresolved problem of combustion science. Thus, the present study is considering soot formation in freely-propagating laminar premixed flames, exploiting the microgravity environment to simplify measurements at the high-pressure conditions of interest for many practical applications. The findings of the investigation are relevant to reducing emissions of soot and continuum radiation from combustion processes, to improving terrestrial and spacecraft fire safety, and to developing methods of computational combustion, among others. Laminar premixed flames are attractive for studying soot formation because they are simple one-dimensional flows that are computationally tractable for detailed numerical simulations. Nevertheless, studying soot-containing burner-stabilized laminar premixed flames is problematical: spatial resolution and residence times are limited at the pressures of interest for practical applications, flame structure is sensitive to minor burner construction details so that experimental reproducibility is not very good, consistent burner behavior over the lengthy test programs needed to measure soot formation properties is hard to achieve, and burners have poor durability. Fortunately, many of these problems are mitigated for soot-containing, freely-propagating laminar premixed flames. The present investigation seeks to extend work in this laboratory for various soot processes in flames by observing soot formation in freely-propagating laminar premixed flames. Measurements are being made at both Normal Gravity (NG) and MicroGravity (MG), using a short-drop free-fall facility to provide MG conditions.

  11. Reconstructing the Cryptanalytic Attack behind the Flame Malware

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Fillinger (Max)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractFlame was an advanced malware, used for espionage, which infected computers running a Microsoft Windows operating system. Once a computer in a local network was infected, Flame could spread to the other computers in the network via Windows Update, disguised as a security patch from

  12. Life cycle assessment of flame retardants in an electronics application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkers, Niels; Krop, Hildo; van Ewijk, Harry; Leonards, Pim E.G.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Flame retardants are added to plastics and textiles to save lives. However, certain brominated flame retardants (BFRs) form an environmental hazard and should be replaced by less harmful alternatives. In the recently completed European research project ENFIRO, we examined which alternatives

  13. Flame Dynamics and Chemistry in LRE Combustion Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-22

    negative temperature coefficient phenomenon and engine knock. In this work, the coupling of cool flame chemistry and convective– diffusive transport...note, practical engine conditions are highly turbulent, and the autoignition phenomenon depends on both chemistry and turbulent mixing. For example...negative temperature coefficient (NTC) phenomenon and engine knock. In this work, the coupling of cool flame chemistry and convective–diffusive

  14. Measurement and Modeling of Particle Radiation in Coal Flames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bäckström, Daniel; Johansson, Robert; Andersson, Klas Jerker

    2014-01-01

    This work aims at developing a methodology that can provide information of in-flame particle radiation in industrial-scale flames. The method is based on a combination of experimental and modeling work. The experiments have been performed in the high-temperature zone of a 77 kWth swirling lignite...

  15. Increasing the speed of computational fluid dynamics procedure for minimization the nitrogen oxide polution from the premixed atmospheric gas burner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotev Vasko G.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents innovative method for increasing the speed of procedure which includes complex computational fluid dynamic calculations for finding the distance between flame openings of atmospheric gas burner that lead to minimal NO pollution. The method is based on standard features included in commercial computational fluid dynamic software and shortens computer working time roughly seven times in this particular case.

  16. Trapping and aerogelation of nanoparticles in negative gravity hydrocarbon flames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakrabarty, Rajan K.; Novosselov, Igor V.; Beres, Nicholas D.; Moosmüller, Hans; Sorensen, Christopher M.; Stipe, Christopher B.

    2014-01-01

    We report the experimental realization of continuous carbon aerogel production using a flame aerosol reactor by operating it in negative gravity (−g; up-side-down configuration). Buoyancy opposes the fuel and air flow forces in −g, which eliminates convectional outflow of nanoparticles from the flame and traps them in a distinctive non-tipping, flicker-free, cylindrical flame body, where they grow to millimeter-size aerogel particles and gravitationally fall out. Computational fluid dynamics simulations show that a closed-loop recirculation zone is set up in −g flames, which reduces the time to gel for nanoparticles by ≈10 6  s, compared to positive gravity (upward rising) flames. Our results open up new possibilities of one-step gas-phase synthesis of a wide variety of aerogels on an industrial scale.

  17. Trapping and aerogelation of nanoparticles in negative gravity hydrocarbon flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakrabarty, Rajan K., E-mail: rajan.chakrabarty@gmail.com [Department of Energy, Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri 63130 (United States); Laboratory for Aerosol Science, Spectroscopy, and Optics, Desert Research Institute, Nevada System of Higher Education, Reno, Nevada 89512 (United States); Novosselov, Igor V. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Enertechnix Inc., Maple Valley, Washington 98068 (United States); Beres, Nicholas D.; Moosmüller, Hans [Laboratory for Aerosol Science, Spectroscopy, and Optics, Desert Research Institute, Nevada System of Higher Education, Reno, Nevada 89512 (United States); Sorensen, Christopher M. [Condensed Matter Laboratory, Department of Physics, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506 (United States); Stipe, Christopher B. [TSI Incorporated, 500 Cardigan Rd, Shoreview, Minnesota 55126 (United States)

    2014-06-16

    We report the experimental realization of continuous carbon aerogel production using a flame aerosol reactor by operating it in negative gravity (−g; up-side-down configuration). Buoyancy opposes the fuel and air flow forces in −g, which eliminates convectional outflow of nanoparticles from the flame and traps them in a distinctive non-tipping, flicker-free, cylindrical flame body, where they grow to millimeter-size aerogel particles and gravitationally fall out. Computational fluid dynamics simulations show that a closed-loop recirculation zone is set up in −g flames, which reduces the time to gel for nanoparticles by ≈10{sup 6} s, compared to positive gravity (upward rising) flames. Our results open up new possibilities of one-step gas-phase synthesis of a wide variety of aerogels on an industrial scale.

  18. Asymptotic analysis, direct numerical simulation and modeling of premixed turbulent flame-wall interaction; Etude asymptotique, simulation numerique directe et modelisation de l`interaction flamme turbulente premelangee-paroi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruneaux, G.

    1996-05-20

    Premixed turbulent flame-wall interaction is studied using theoretical and numerical analysis. Laminar interactions are first investigated through a literature review. This gives a characterization of the different configurations of interaction and justifies the use of simplified kinetic schemes to study the interaction. Calculations are then performed using Direct Numerical Simulation with a one-step chemistry model, and are compared with good agreements to asymptotic analysis. Flame-wall distances and wall heat fluxes obtained are compared successfully with those of the literature. Heat losses decrease the consumption rate, leading to extinction at the maximum of wall heat flux. It is followed by a flame retreat, when the fuel diffuses into the reaction zone, resulting in low unburnt hydrocarbon levels. Then, turbulent regime is investigated, using two types of Direct Numerical Simulations: 2D variable density and 3D constant density. Similar results are obtained: the local turbulent flame behavior is identical to a laminar interaction, and tongues of fresh gases are expelled from the wall region, near zones of quenching. In the 2D simulations, minimal flame-wall distances and maximum wall heat fluxes are similar to laminar values. However, the structure of the turbulence in the 3D calculations induces smaller flame-wall distances and higher wall heat fluxes. Finally, a flame-wall interaction model is built and validated. It uses the flamelet approach, where the flame is described in terms of consumption speed and flame surface density. This model is simplified to produce a law of the wall, which is then included in a averaged CFD code (Kiva2-MB). It is validated in an engine calculation. (author) 36 refs.

  19. On the improvement of two-dimensional curvature computation and its application to turbulent premixed flame correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrystie, R S M; Burns, I S; Hult, J; Kaminski, C F

    2008-01-01

    Measurement of curvature of the flamefront of premixed turbulent flames is important for the validation of numerical models for combustion. In this work, curvature is measured from contours that outline the flamefront, which are generated from laser-induced fluorescence images. The contours are inherently digitized, resulting in pixelation effects that lead to difficulties in computing curvature of the flamefront accurately. A common approach is to fit functions locally to short sections along the flame contour, and this approach is also followed in this work; the method helps smoothen the pixelation before curvature is measured. However, the length and degree of the polynomial, and hence the amount of smoothing, must be correctly set in order to maximize the precision and accuracy of the curvature measurements. Other researchers have applied polynomials of different orders and over different segment lengths to circles of known curvature as a test to determine the appropriate choice of polynomial; it is shown here that this method results in a sub-optimal choice of polynomial function. Here, we determine more suitable polynomial functions through use of a circle whose radius is sinusoidally modulated. We show that this leads to a more consistent and reliable choice for the local polynomial functions fitted to experimental data. A polynomial function thus determined is then applied to flame contour data to measure curvature of experimentally acquired flame contours. The results show that there is an enhancement in local flame speed at sections of the flamefront with a non-zero curvature, and this agrees with numerical models

  20. Characterization of high-pressure, underexpanded hydrogen-jet flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schefer, R.W.; Houf, W.G.; Williams, T.C. [Combustion Research Facility, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Bourne, B.; Colton, J. [SRI International, 333 Ravenwood Ave., Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)

    2007-08-15

    Measurements were performed to characterize the dimensional and radiative properties of large-scale, vertical hydrogen-jet flames. This data is relevant to the safety scenario of a sudden leak in a high-pressure hydrogen containment vessel and will provide a technological basis for determining hazardous length scales associated with unintended hydrogen releases at storage and distribution centers. Jet flames originating from high-pressure sources up to 413 bar (6000 psi) were studied to verify the application of correlations and scaling laws based on lower-pressure subsonic and choked-flow jet flames. These higher pressures are expected to be typical of the pressure ranges in future hydrogen storage vessels. At these pressures the flows exiting the jet nozzle are categorized as underexpanded jets in which the flow is choked at the jet exit. Additionally, the gas behavior departs from that of an ideal-gas and alternate formulations for non-ideal gas must be introduced. Visible flame emission was recorded on video to evaluate flame length and structure. Radiometer measurements allowed determination of the radiant heat flux characteristics. The flame length results show that lower-pressure engineering correlations, based on the Froude number and a non-dimensional flame length, also apply to releases up to 413 bar (6000 psi). Similarly, radiative heat flux characteristics of these high-pressure jet flames obey scaling laws developed for low-pressure, smaller-scale flames and a wide variety of fuels. The results verify that such correlations can be used to a priori predict dimensional characteristics and radiative heat flux from a wide variety of hydrogen-jet flames resulting from accidental releases. (author)

  1. The effect of initial temperature on flame acceleration and deflagration-to-detonation transition phenomenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciccarelli, G.; Boccio, J.L.; Ginsberg, T.; Finfrock, C.; Gerlach, L.; Tagawa, H.; Malliakos, A.

    1998-05-01

    temperature. Decreasing the hydrogen mole fraction or increasing the initial mixture temperature resulted in longer run-up distances. The density ratio across the flame and the speed of sound in the unburned mixture were found to be two parameters which influence the run-up distance

  2. Near-field local flame extinction of Oxy-Syngas non-premixed jet flames : a DNS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ranga Dinesh, K.K.J.; Oijen, van J.A.; Luo, Kai; Jiang, X.

    2014-01-01

    An investigation of the local flame extinction of H2/CO oxy-syngas and syngas-air nonpremixed jet flames was carried out using three-dimensional direct numerical simulations (DNS) with detailed chemistry by using flamelet generated manifold chemistry (FGM). The work has two main objectives: identify

  3. Acute and Developmental Behavioral Effects of Flame ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    As polybrominated diphenyl ethers are phased out, numerous compounds are emerging as potential replacement flame retardants for use in consumer and electronic products. Little is known, however, about the neurobehavioral toxicity of these replacements. This study evaluated the neurobehavioral effects of acute or developmental exposure to t-butylphenyl diphenyl phosphate (BPDP), 2-ethylhexyl diphenyl phosphate (EHDP), isodecyl diphenyl phosphate (IDDP), isopropylated phenyl phosphate (IPP), tricresyl phosphate (TMPP; also abbreviated TCP), triphenyl phosphate (TPHP; also abbreviated TPP), tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), tris (2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris (1,3-dichloroisopropyl) phosphate (TDCIPP; also abbreviated TDCPP), tri-o-cresyl phosphate (TOCP), and 2,2-,4,4’-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) in zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae. Larvae (n≈24 per dose per compound) were exposed to test compounds (0.4 - 120 µM) at sub-teratogenic concentrations either developmentally or acutely, and locomotor activity was assessed at 6 days post fertilization. When given developmentally, all chemicals except BPDP, IDDP and TBBPA produced behavioral effects. When given acutely, all chemicals produced behavioral effects, with TPHP, TBBPA, EHDP, IPP, and BPDP eliciting the most effects at the most concentrations. The results indicate that these replacement flame retardants may have developmental or pharmacological effects on the vertebrate nervous system. This study

  4. Endurance in speed skating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper, G.H.; Sterken, E.

    2002-01-01

    We analyse the development of world records speed skating from 1893 to 2000 for bothmen and women. The historical data show that it is likely that the relation betweenskating speed and distance of the various events is non-linear and converges to a limitvalue. We pay special attention to technical

  5. Endurance in speed skating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper, Gerard H.; Sterken, Elmer

    2001-01-01

    We analyse the development of world records speed skating from 1893 to 2000 for both men and women. The historical data show that it is likely that the relation between skating speed and distance of the various events is non-linear and converges to a limit value. We pay special attention to

  6. Computational Analysis of Spray Jet Flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Utsav

    There is a boost in the utilization of renewable sources of energy but because of high energy density applications, combustion will never be obsolete. Spray combustion is a type of multiphase combustion which has tremendous engineering applications in different fields, varying from energy conversion devices to rocket propulsion system. Developing accurate computational models for turbulent spray combustion is vital for improving the design of combustors and making them energy efficient. Flamelet models have been extensively used for gas phase combustion because of their relatively low computational cost to model the turbulence-chemistry interaction using a low dimensional manifold approach. This framework is designed for gas phase non-premixed combustion and its implementation is not very straight forward for multiphase and multi-regime combustion such as spray combustion. This is because of the use of a conserved scalar and various flamelet related assumptions. Mixture fraction has been popularly employed as a conserved scalar and hence used to parameterize the characteristics of gaseous flamelets. However, for spray combustion, the mixture fraction is not monotonic and does not give a unique mapping in order to parameterize the structure of spray flames. In order to develop a flamelet type model for spray flames, a new variable called the mixing variable is introduced which acts as an ideal conserved scalar and takes into account the convection and evaporation of fuel droplets. In addition to the conserved scalar, it has been observed that though gaseous flamelets can be characterized by the conserved scalar and its dissipation, this might not be true for spray flamelets. Droplet dynamics has a significant influence on the spray flamelet and because of effects such as flame penetration of droplets and oscillation of droplets across the stagnation plane, it becomes important to accommodate their influence in the flamelet formulation. In order to recognize the

  7. Effectiveness of Motorcycle speed controlled by speed hump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pornsiri Urapa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Speed humps are one of the traffic calming measures widely accepted to control vehicle speed in the local road. Humps standards from the western countries are designed mainly for the passenger car. This study, therefore, aims to reveal the effectiveness of speed hump to control the motorcycle speed. This study observes the free-flow speed of the riders at the total of 20 speed bumps and humps. They are 0.3-14.8 meter in width and 5-18 centimeter in height. The results reveal that the 85th percentile speeds reduce 15-65 percent when crossing the speed bumps and speed humps. Besides, this study develops the speed model to predict the motorcycle mean speed and 85th percentile speed. It is found that speed humps follow the ITE standard can control motorcycle crossing speeds to be 25-30 Kph which are suitable to travel on the local road.

  8. Local Limit Phenomena, Flow Compression, and Fuel Cracking Effects in High-Speed Turbulent Flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    e.g. local extinction and re- ignition , interactions between flow compression and fast-reaction induced dilatation (reaction compression ), and to...time as a function of initial temperature in constant-pressure auto - ignition , and (b) the S-curves of perfectly stirred reactors (PSRs), for n...mechanism. The reduction covered auto - ignition and perfectly stirred reactors for equivalence ratio range of 0.5~1.5, initial temperature higher than

  9. Experimental Characterization of Soot Formation in Diffusion Flames and Explosive Fireballs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    profiles for the opposed jet burner using Unicorn and Chemkin Pro, ethylene/air flame, Wang-Colket mechanism. .............................33 Figure...35 Figure 31. Flame simulations using UNICORN (Katta et al...two-dimensional (2-D) flame simulation computer code UNICORN (Katta et al., 2006) with those obtained using the one- dimensional (1-D) flame

  10. Formation and stabilization of multiple ball-like flames at Earth gravity

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Zhen; Shoshin, Yuriy; Hernandez Perez, Francisco; van Oijen, Jeroen A.; de Goey, Laurentius P.H.

    2018-01-01

    diagram is experimentally identified in terms of equivalence ratio and ratio of H to CH (variation of fuel Lewis number). Planar flames, cell-like flames, distorted cap-like flames, and arrays of ball-like flames are progressively observed

  11. Effect of Lewis number on ball-like lean limit flames

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Zhen; Shoshin, Yuriy; Hernandez Perez, Francisco; van Oijen, Jeroen A.; de Goey, Laurentius P.H.

    2017-01-01

    –air and H2–air flames, ball-like lean limit flames are observed. Flame temperature fields are measured using Rayleigh scattering. The experimentally observed lean limit flames are predicted qualitatively by numerical simulation with the mixture

  12. Method and apparatus for generating highly luminous flame

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gitman, G.M.

    1992-05-12

    A combustion process and apparatus are provided for generating a variable high temperature, highly luminous flame with low NOx emission by burning gaseous and liquid materials with oxygen and air. More particularly, the invention provides a process in which there is initial control of fuel, oxygen, and air flows and the delivery of the oxidizers to a burner as two oxidizing gases having different oxygen concentrations (for example, pure oxygen and air, or oxygen and oxygen-enriched air). A first oxidizing gas containing a high oxygen concentration is injected as a stream into the central zone of a combustion tunnel or chamber, and part of the fuel (preferably the major part) is injected into the central pyrolysis zone to mix with the first oxidizing gas to create a highly luminous high-temperature flame core containing microparticles of carbon of the proper size for maximum luminosity and high temperature, and a relatively small amount of hydrocarbon radicals. In addition, part of the fuel (preferably the minor part) is injected in a plurality of streams about the flame core to mix with a second oxidizing gas (containing a lower oxygen concentration than the first oxidizing gas) and injecting the second oxidizing mixture about the flame core and the minor fuel flow to mix with the minor fuel flow. This creates a plurality of fuel-lean (oxygen-rich) flames which are directed toward the luminous flame core to form a final flame pattern having high temperature, high luminosity, and low NOx content. 6 figs.

  13. PIV Measurements in Weakly Buoyant Gas Jet Flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunderland, Peter B.; Greenbberg, Paul S.; Urban, David L.; Wernet, Mark P.; Yanis, William

    2001-01-01

    Despite numerous experimental investigations, the characterization of microgravity laminar jet diffusion flames remains incomplete. Measurements to date have included shapes, temperatures, soot properties, radiative emissions and compositions, but full-field quantitative measurements of velocity are lacking. Since the differences between normal-gravity and microgravity diffusion flames are fundamentally influenced by changes in velocities, it is imperative that the associated velocity fields be measured in microgravity flames. Velocity measurements in nonbuoyant flames will be helpful both in validating numerical models and in interpreting past microgravity combustion experiments. Pointwise velocity techniques are inadequate for full-field velocity measurements in microgravity facilities. In contrast, Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) can capture the entire flow field in less than 1% of the time required with Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV). Although PIV is a mature diagnostic for normal-gravity flames , restrictions on size, power and data storage complicate these measurements in microgravity. Results from the application of PIV to gas jet flames in normal gravity are presented here. Ethane flames burning at 13, 25 and 50 kPa are considered. These results are presented in more detail in Wernet et al. (2000). The PIV system developed for these measurements recently has been adapted for on-rig use in the NASA Glenn 2.2-second drop tower.

  14. Streamline segment statistics of premixed flames with nonunity Lewis numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Nilanjan; Wang, Lipo; Klein, Markus

    2014-03-01

    The interaction of flame and surrounding fluid motion is of central importance in the fundamental understanding of turbulent combustion. It is demonstrated here that this interaction can be represented using streamline segment analysis, which was previously applied in nonreactive turbulence. The present work focuses on the effects of the global Lewis number (Le) on streamline segment statistics in premixed flames in the thin-reaction-zones regime. A direct numerical simulation database of freely propagating thin-reaction-zones regime flames with Le ranging from 0.34 to 1.2 is used to demonstrate that Le has significant influences on the characteristic features of the streamline segment, such as the curve length, the difference in the velocity magnitude at two extremal points, and their correlations with the local flame curvature. The strengthenings of the dilatation rate, flame normal acceleration, and flame-generated turbulence with decreasing Le are principally responsible for these observed effects. An expression for the probability density function (pdf) of the streamline segment length, originally developed for nonreacting turbulent flows, captures the qualitative behavior for turbulent premixed flames in the thin-reaction-zones regime for a wide range of Le values. The joint pdfs between the streamline length and the difference in the velocity magnitude at two extremal points for both unweighted and density-weighted velocity vectors are analyzed and compared. Detailed explanations are provided for the observed differences in the topological behaviors of the streamline segment in response to the global Le.

  15. Traffic speed management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subotić Jovana Lj.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Speed, and vehicles themselves, affect the level of service and road safety, quality of life, noise from traffic, the environment, health, air pollution, emission of carbon dioxide, global warming, the economy and consumption of non-renewable energy such as oil. Therefore, the speed management of the traffic of multiple significance and that should be primarily to provide effective and economical conditions of the modern and preventive protection of human life as the greatest treasure and then the material resources. The way to accomplish this is by using various (different measures such as: appropriate planning and projecting roads and streets, speed control, the legislation, enforcement, campaigns, education, advanced technologies (ITS.

  16. Experimental study of a premixed oscillating flame stabilized inside the tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, B.I.; Shin, H.D. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-04-01

    An experimental study of premixed oscillating flame stabilized inside the tube has been conducted in order to examine the kinematic behavior of premixed flame under the flow oscillation and flame/flow interaction. Flow oscillation is accomplished by an acoustic excitation. Oscillating nature of flow has been studied with and without the flame using velocity and pressure measurements by a LDV and microphone, respectively Kinematic behavior of the oscillating flame is examined using triggered ICCD camera system. Velocity oscillation and flame oscillation is the same frequency as that produced by the acoustic excitation and flame shape has a similarity at various phase of oscillation. Upstream velocity field near the flame zone is greatly influenced by the flame oscillation. This is the typical example of flame/flow interaction. (author). 9 refs., 7 figs.

  17. FLAMES IN TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA: DEFLAGRATION-DETONATION TRANSITION IN THE OXYGEN-BURNING FLAME

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woosley, S. E.; Kerstein, A. R.; Aspden, A. J.

    2011-01-01

    The flame in a Type Ia supernova is a conglomerate structure that, depending on density, may involve separate regions of carbon, oxygen, and silicon burning, all propagating in a self-similar, subsonic front. The separation between these three burning regions increases as the density declines until eventually, below about 2 x 10 7 g cm -3 , only carbon burning remains active, the other two burning phases having 'frozen out' on stellar scales. Between 2 and 3 x 10 7 g cm -3 , however, there remains an energetic oxygen-burning region that trails the carbon burning by an amount that is sensitive to the turbulence intensity. As the carbon flame makes a transition to the distributed regime (Karlovitz number ∼> 10), the characteristic separation between the carbon- and oxygen-burning regions increases dramatically, from a fraction of a meter to many kilometers. The oxygen-rich mixture between the two flames is created at a nearly constant temperature, and turbulence helps to maintain islands of well-mixed isothermal fuel as the temperature increases. The delayed burning of these regions can be supersonic and could initiate a detonation.

  18. Experimental studies of flame stability and emission characteristics of simple LPG jet diffusion flame

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.Y. Kiran; D.P. Mishra [Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur (India). Combustion Laboratory, Department of Aerospace Engineering

    2007-07-15

    In the present study, experiments were carried out to measure the lift-off height, H{sub L}; flame length, L{sub f} and blow-off velocity for a simple LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) jet diffusion flames. It is observed that lift-off height is proportional to the fuel exit velocity, U{sub f}. A semi-empirical correlation between lift-off height and global strain rate, U{sub f}/D{sub f} is proposed. Two regimes identified either as buoyancy or momentum dominated were characterized by Froude number, Fr. For momentum dominated jet diffusion flames, L{sub f}/D{sub f} remains almost constant and therefore is independent of the Froude number. The NOx emissions, expressed in terms of emission index, EINOx is found to decrease with U{sub f}. This decreasing trend is consistent with the concept that increasing jet velocity reduces the residence time as reported in the literature. The present data is also compared with the available data of propane gas and found to be in good agreement well particularly in trend wise. Besides these data, EINOx scaling law is also reported in the present study. 20 refs., 8 figs.

  19. A New Perspective on the Flame Describing Function of a Matrix Flame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Heckl

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers a fundamental thermoacoustic test rig developed by Noiray (“Linear and nonlinear analysis of combustion instabilities, application to multipoint injection systems and control strategies”, PhD thesis, École Centrale Paris, 2007 and models it with an entirely analytical approach. The test rig is treated as a system of two coupled elements: an acoustic resonator and a flame with oscillating rate of heat release. We describe the acoustics of the combustion rig in terms of modes, and derive a governing equation for one such mode. This turns out to be the equation for a damped harmonic oscillator, forced by the heat release rate from the flame. In order to model the heat release rate, and in particular its nonlinear aspects, we develop a generalised nτ-law with amplitude-dependent coefficients and multiple time-lag. The coefficients are determined from Noiray's measured flame describing function. Stability predictions are made by evaluating the sign of the damping coefficient in the governing equation. These predictions are in excellent qualitative agreement with the measured stability behaviour. Finally, the physical mechanisms of the amplitude-dependence are explored.

  20. Structural aspects of coaxial oxy-fuel flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditaranto, M.; Sautet, J. C.; Samaniego, J. M.

    Oxy-fuel combustion has been proven to increase thermal efficiency and to have a potential for NOx emission reduction. The study of 25-kW turbulent diffusion flames of natural gas with pure oxygen is undertaken on a coaxial burner with quarl. The structural properties are analysed by imaging the instantaneous reaction zone by OH* chemiluminescence and measuring scalar and velocity profiles. The interaction between the flame front and the shear layers present in the coaxial jets depends on the momentum ratio which dictates the turbulent structure development. Flame length and NOx emission sensitivity to air leaks in the combustion chamber are also investigated.

  1. Halogenated flame retardants in the Great Lakes environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venier, Marta; Salamova, Amina; Hites, Ronald A

    2015-07-21

    Flame retardants are widely used industrial chemicals that are added to polymers, such as polyurethane foam, to prevent them from rapidly burning if exposed to a small flame or a smoldering cigarette. Flame retardants, especially brominated flame retardants, are added to many polymeric products at percent levels and are present in most upholstered furniture and mattresses. Most of these chemicals are so-called "additive" flame retardants and are not chemically bound to the polymer; thus, they migrate from the polymeric materials into the environment and into people. As a result, some of these chemicals have become widespread pollutants, which is a concern given their possible adverse health effects. Perhaps because of their environmental ubiquity, the most heavily used group of brominated flame retardants, the polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), was withdrawn from production and use during the 2004-2013 period. This led to an increasing demand for other flame retardants, including other brominated aromatics and organophosphate esters. Although little is known about the use or production volumes of these newer flame retardants, it is evident that some of these chemicals are also becoming pervasive in the environment and in humans. In this Account, we describe our research on the occurrence of halogenated and organophosphate flame retardants in the environment, with a specific focus on the Great Lakes region. This Account starts with a short introduction to the first generation of brominated flame retardants, the polybrominated biphenyls, and then presents our measurements of their replacement, the PBDEs. We summarize our data on PBDE levels in babies, bald eagles, and in air. Once these compounds came off the market, we began to measure several of the newer flame retardants in air collected on the shores of the Great Lakes once every 12 days. These new measurements focus on a tetrabrominated benzoate, a tetrabrominated phthalate, a hexabrominated diphenoxyethane

  2. Simulation of flame-vortex interaction using detailed and reduced

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilka, M. [Gaz de France (GDF), 75 - Paris (France); Veynante, D. [Ecole Centrale de Paris, Laboratoire EM2C. CNRS, 92 - Chatenay-Malabry (France); Baum, M. [CERFACS (France); Poinsot, T.J. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 45 - Orleans-la-Source (France). Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse

    1996-12-31

    The interaction between a pair of counter-rotating vortices and a lean premixed CH{sub 4}/O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} flame ({Phi} = + 0.55) has been studied by direct numerical simulations using detailed and reduced chemical reaction schemes. Results from the complex chemistry simulation are discussed with respect to earlier experiments and differences in the simulations using detailed and reduces chemistry are investigated. Transient evolutions of the flame surface and the total heat release rate are compared and modifications in the evolution of the local flame structure are displayed. (authors) 22 refs.

  3. A nonlinear wave equation in nonadiabatic flame propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booty, M.R.; Matalon, M.; Matkowsky, B.J.

    1988-01-01

    The authors derive a nonlinear wave equation from the diffusional thermal model of gaseous combustion to describe the evolution of a flame front. The equation arises as a long wave theory, for values of the volumeric heat loss in a neighborhood of the extinction point (beyond which planar uniformly propagating flames cease to exist), and for Lewis numbers near the critical value beyond which uniformly propagating planar flames lose stability via a degenerate Hopf bifurcation. Analysis of the equation suggests the possibility of a singularity developing in finite time

  4. Chaos of radiative heat-loss-induced flame front instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinugawa, Hikaru; Ueda, Kazuhiro; Gotoda, Hiroshi

    2016-03-01

    We are intensively studying the chaos via the period-doubling bifurcation cascade in radiative heat-loss-induced flame front instability by analytical methods based on dynamical systems theory and complex networks. Significant changes in flame front dynamics in the chaotic region, which cannot be seen in the bifurcation diagrams, were successfully extracted from recurrence quantification analysis and nonlinear forecasting and from the network entropy. The temporal dynamics of the fuel concentration in the well-developed chaotic region is much more complicated than that of the flame front temperature. It exhibits self-affinity as a result of the scale-free structure in the constructed visibility graph.

  5. CFD simulations on marine burner flames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cafaggi, Giovanni; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Glarborg, Peter

    The marine industry is changing with new demands concerning high energy efficiency, fuel flexibility and lower emissions of NOX and SOX. A collaboration between the company Alfa Laval and Technical University of Denmark has been established to support the development of the next generation...... of marine burners. The resulting auxiliary boilers shall be compact and able to operate with different fuel types, while reducing NOX emissions. The specific boiler object of this study uses a swirl stabilized liquid fuel burner, with a pressure swirl spill-return atomizer (Fig.1). The combustion chamber...... is enclosed in a water jacket used for water heating and evaporation, and a convective heat exchanger at the furnace outlet super-heats the steam. The purpose of the present study is to gather detailed knowledge about the influence of fuel spray conditions on marine utility boiler flames. The main goal...

  6. Extinction of counterflow premixed laminar flames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smooke, M.D.; Giovangigli, V.

    1987-01-01

    Problems in combustion and heat and mass transfer often depend upon one or more physical/chemical parameters. In many cases the combustion scientist is interested in knowing how the solution will behave if one or more of these parameters is varied. For some parameter regimes the governing equations can produce multiple solutions and the branches of the solution curve are linked via singular points. It is at these singular points, however that the system exhibits special behavior. To be able to predict the solution structure in the neighborhood of these points, the authors employ a phase-space, pseudo arclength, continuation method that utilizes Newton-like iterations and adaptive gridding techniques. The authors apply the method in the solution of counterflow premixed laminar flames

  7. High-Speed Photography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paisley, D.L.; Schelev, M.Y.

    1998-01-01

    The applications of high-speed photography to a diverse set of subjects including inertial confinement fusion, laser surgical procedures, communications, automotive airbags, lightning etc. are briefly discussed. (AIP) copyright 1998 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers

  8. Wind_Speeds_Master

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set included wind speeds for each subregion in the study (Georges Bank, Gulf of Maine, Southern New England, Middle Atlantic Bight) . The data came from...

  9. High speed data acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, P.S.

    1997-07-01

    A general introduction to high speed data acquisition system techniques in modern particle physics experiments is given. Examples are drawn from the SELEX(E78 1) high statistics charmed baryon production and decay experiment now taking data at Fermilab

  10. Modelling of Turbulent Lifted Jet Flames using flamelets: a priori assessment and a posteriori validation

    OpenAIRE

    Ruan, S; Swaminathan, Nedunchezhian; Darbyshire, O

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on the modelling of turbulent lifted jet flames using flamelets and presumed PDF approach with interests on both flame lift-off height and flame brush structure. First, flamelet models used to capture contributions from premixed and non-premixed modes to the partially premixed combustion in the lifted jet flame are assessed using a Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) data for turbulent lifted hydrogen jet flame. The joint PDFs of mixture fraction, Z, and progress ...

  11. Synergistic Effect of Nanosilica Aerogel with Phosphorus Flame Retardants on Improving Flame Retardancy and Leaching Resistance of Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodan Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanosilica (Nano-SiO2 sol fabricated by a sol-gel process was introduced into wood modification with phosphorus flame retardants to improve the flame retardancy and leaching resistance of wood. The obtained materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, cone calorimetric (CONE, and infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR. The residual rate of flame retardants before and after leaching was determinated by a leaching resistance. The results showed that the phosphorus flame retardants and SiO2 sol could reside in the poplar wood and are widely distributed in the vessels, pits, wood timber, and the spaces between wood cells of poplar substrate. TGA and CONE results indicated that the introduction of nano-SiO2 aerogel with phosphorus flame retardants had a significantly synergistic effect on improving the flame retardancy and inhibiting the release of smoke and toxic gases. In addition, the leaching resistance test, combined with infrared analysis and EDS analysis, confirmed that the phosphorus flame retardants were able to be fixed by SiO2 aerogel in the wood.

  12. High speed heterostructure devices

    CERN Document Server

    Beer, Albert C; Willardson, R K; Kiehl, Richard A; Sollner, T C L Gerhard

    1994-01-01

    Volume 41 includes an in-depth review of the most important, high-speed switches made with heterojunction technology. This volume is aimed at the graduate student or working researcher who needs a broad overview andan introduction to current literature. Key Features * The first complete review of InP-based HFETs and complementary HFETs, which promise very low power and high speed * Offers a complete, three-chapter review of resonant tunneling * Provides an emphasis on circuits as well as devices.

  13. Stability enhancement of ozone-assisted laminar premixed Bunsen flames in nitrogen co-flow

    KAUST Repository

    Vu, Tran Manh

    2014-04-01

    Ozone (O3) is known as one of the strongest oxidizers and therefore is widely used in many applications. Typically in the combustion field, a combination of non-thermal plasma and combustion systems have been studied focusing on the effects of ozone on flame propagation speeds and ignition characteristics. Here, we experimentally investigated the effects of ozone on blowoff of premixed methane/air and propane/air flames over a full range of equivalence ratios at room temperature and atmospheric pressure by using a co-flow burner and a dielectric barrier discharge. The results with ozone showed that a nozzle exit jet velocity at the moment of flame blowoff (blowoff velocity) significantly increased, and flammability limits for both fuel-lean and rich mixtures were also extended. Ozone had stronger effects of percent enhancement in the blowoff velocity for off-stoichiometric mixtures, while minimum enhancements could be observed around stoichiometric conditions for both fuels showing linear positive dependence on a tested range of ozone concentration up to 3810ppm. Through chemical kinetic simulations, the experimentally observed trends of the enhancement in blowoff velocity were identified as a result of the modification of the laminar burning velocity. Two ozone decomposition pathways of O3+N2→O+O2+N2 and O3+H→O2+OH were identified as the most controlling steps. These reactions, coupled with fuel consumption characteristics of each fuel determined the degree of promotion in laminar burning velocities, supporting experimental observations on blowoff velocities with ozone addition. © 2013 The Combustion Institute.

  14. Evaluation of turbulent transport and flame surface dissipation using direct numerical simulation of turbulent combustion; Evaluation des termes de transport et de dissipation de surface de flamme par simulation numerique directe de la combustion turbulente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boughanem, H.

    1998-03-24

    The assumption of gradient transport for the mean reaction progress variable has a limited domain of validity in premixed turbulent combustion. The existence of two turbulent transport regimes, gradient and counter-gradient, is demonstrated in the present work using Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) of plane flame configurations. The DNS data base describes the influence of the heat release factor, of the turbulence-to-flame velocity ratio, and of an external pressure gradient. The simulations reveal a strong correlation between the regime of turbulent transport and the turbulent flame speed and turbulent flame thickness. These effects re not well described by current turbulent combustion models. A conditional approach `fresh gases / burnt gases` is proposed to overcome these difficulties. Furthermore, he development of flame instabilities in turbulent configurations is also observed in the simulations. A criterion is derived that determines the domain of occurrence of these instabilities (Darrieus- Landau instabilities, Rayleigh- Taylor instabilities, thermo-diffusive instabilities). This criterion suggests that the domain of occurrence of flame instabilities is not limited to small Reynolds numbers. (author) 98 refs.

  15. Properties of plasma flames sustained by microwaves and burning hydrocarbon fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Yong Cheol; Uhm, Han Sup

    2006-01-01

    Plasma flames made of atmospheric microwave plasma and a fuel-burning flame were presented and their properties were investigated experimentally. The plasma flame generator consists of a fuel injector and a plasma flame exit connected in series to a microwave plasma torch. The plasma flames are sustained by injecting hydrocarbon fuels into a microwave plasma torch in air discharge. The microwave plasma torch in the plasma flame system can burn a hydrocarbon fuel by high-temperature plasma and high atomic oxygen density, decomposing the hydrogen and carbon containing fuel. We present the visual observations of the sustained plasma flames and measure the gas temperature using a thermocouple device in terms of the gas-fuel mixture and flow rate. The plasma flame volume of the hydrocarbon fuel burners was more than approximately 30-50 times that of the torch plasma. While the temperature of the torch plasma flame was only 868 K at a measurement point, that of the diesel microwave plasma flame with the addition of 0.019 lpm diesel and 30 lpm oxygen increased drastically to about 2280 K. Preliminary experiments for methane plasma flame were also carried out, measuring the temperature profiles of flames along the radial and axial directions. Finally, we investigated the influence of the microwave plasma on combustion flame by observing and comparing OH molecular spectra for the methane plasma flame and methane flame only

  16. Experimental study of an oxygen-hydrogen diffusion flame laden with solid alumina particles; Etude experimentale d'une flamme de diffusion oxygene-hydrogene ensemencee en particules solides d'alumine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labor, S.

    2003-07-15

    Monocrystalline sapphire microspheres are generated through the melting of alumina (AL{sub 2}O{sub 3}) particles in a flame. The alumina particles are injected in a very peculiar O{sub 2}/H{sub 2} confined diffusion flame as it is a downwards vertical flame having fuel in periphery of a central powdered oxygen jet. Quantitative measurements were carried out (ADL, PIV) and supplemented by a numerical study (N3S-Natur). (1) The laminar behavior of the isothermal conditions is kept through reactive flow. Therefore, particles will mainly collide due to speed gradients. (2) It has been shown that an axial particle will have a transit time int the high temperature zone very different to that of an off-line one. (3) The PIV date proved that the particle density was not homogeneous. (4) The hydrogen jet hardly influences the flame aerodynamic structure. Conversely, the central oxygen jet is at premium due to its effect on both the flame speed and temperature distribution. (author)

  17. Numerical study of laminar nonpremixed methane flames in coflow jets: Autoignited lifted flames with tribrachial edges and MILD combustion at elevated temperatures

    KAUST Repository

    M. Al-Noman, Saeed; Choi, Sang Kyu; Chung, Suk-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Autoignition characteristics of laminar nonpremixed methane jet flames in high-temperature coflow air are studied numerically. Several flame configurations are investigated by varying the initial temperature and fuel mole fraction. At a relatively

  18. Persistence, bioaccumulation and toxicity of halogen-free flame retardants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waaijers, S.L.; Kong, D; Hendriks, H.S.; de Wit, C.A.; Cousins, I.T.; Westerink, R.H.S.; Leonards, P.E.G.; Kraak, M.H.S.; Admiraal, W.; de Voogt, P.; Parsons, J.R.

    2013-01-01

    Polymers are synthetic organic materials that have a high carbon and hydrogen content, which renders them readily combustible. When used in buildings, electrical appliances, furniture, textiles, transportation, mining, and in many other applications, polymers have to fulfill flame retardancy

  19. Organophosphorous flame retardants in biota from Svalbard, Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hallanger, I.G.; Sagerup, K.; Evenset, A.; Kovacs, K.M.; Leonards, P.E.G.; Fuglei, E.; Routti, H.; Aars, J.; Strom, H.; Lydersen, C.; Gabrielsen, G. W.

    2015-01-01

    Eight arctic species, including fish, birds and mammals, from diverse habitats (marine and terrestrial) within the Svalbard Archipelago, Norway, were screened for 14 organophosphorus flame retardant (PFR) compounds. Ten PFRs were detected: tris(2-chloroethyl)phosphate (TCEP),

  20. Comparative Analysis of Flame Characteristics of Castor Oil and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Flame Retardants Used in Polyurethane Foam Systems. Polycarp .O. Ikeh ... combustible-clothes; furniture, construction materials .... This offers a serious resistance to bond breaking ... dense smokes containing deadly poisonous toxic gases.

  1. Emission flame spectrophotometry of chromium, cobalt, nickel trace amounts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prudnikov, Y.D.; Shapkina, Y.S.

    1976-01-01

    Chromium, cobalt, and nickel were determined in a flame spectrophotometer with a dual diffraction monochromator, DFS-12, in a high-temperature nitrogen-acetylene flame. The effect of ionization and the elements in the oxidizing flame was small. The lower limit of detection for the three elements is 1x10 -2 to 1 x10 -3 μg/ml, and the high selectivity of the analysis permits determining down to 10 -4 % Cr and Ni and to 10 -3 % Co. These elements may be determined in rocks and minerals from solutions prepared for analysis for alkali and alkali-earth elements. The possibilities of emission flame spectrophotometry are as great as those of atomic-absorption analysis, and it may be used for determining Cr, Co, and Ni in rocks and minerals, especially pure substances, metals, and other materials

  2. 30 CFR 7.406 - Flame test apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... flame resistance of electric cables, signaling cables and splices shall include#: (a) Test chamber. A... test specimen and have an open circuit voltage not exceeding the voltage rating of the test specimen...

  3. 30 CFR 18.65 - Flame test of hose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... wire gauze. (2) A Pittsburgh-Universal Bunsen-type burner (inside diameter of burner tube 11 mm.), or...: Impressed letters, raised letters on depressed background, or printed letters with the words “Flame...

  4. Nonpremixed flame in a counterflow under electric fields

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Daegeun

    2016-01-01

    Electrically assisted combustion has been studied in order to control or improve flame characteristics, and emphasizing efficiency and emission regulation. Many phenomenological observations have been reported on the positive impact of electric

  5. Thermal Radiation Properties of Turbulent Lean Premixed Methane Air Flames

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ji, Jun; Sivathanu, Y. R; Gore, J. P

    2000-01-01

    ... of turbulent premixed flames. Reduced cooling airflows in lean premixed combustors, miniaturization of combustors, and the possible use of radiation sensors in combustion control schemes are some of the practical reasons...

  6. Augmenting the Structures in a Swirling Flame via Diffusive Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Lewis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Small scale experimentation using particle image velocimetry investigated the effect of the diffusive injection of methane, air, and carbon dioxide on the coherent structures in a swirling flame. The interaction between the high momentum flow region (HMFR and central recirculation zone (CRZ of the flame is a potential cause of combustion induced vortex breakdown (CIVB and occurs when the HMFR squeezes the CRZ, resulting in upstream propagation. The diffusive introduction of methane or carbon dioxide through a central injector increased the size and velocity of the CRZ relative to the HMFR whilst maintaining flame stability, reducing the likelihood of CIVB occurring. The diffusive injection of air had an opposing effect, reducing the size and velocity of the CRZ prior to eradicating it completely. This would also prevent combustion induced vortex breakdown CIVB occurring as a CRZ is fundamental to the process; however, without recirculation it would create an inherently unstable flame.

  7. Theoretical Adiabatic Temperature and Chemical Composition of Sodium Combustion Flame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okano, Yasushi; Yamaguchi, Akira

    2003-01-01

    Sodium fire safety analysis requires fundamental combustion properties, e.g., heat of combustion, flame temperature, and composition. We developed the GENESYS code for a theoretical investigation of sodium combustion flame.Our principle conclusions on sodium combustion under atmospheric air conditions are (a) the maximum theoretical flame temperature is 1950 K, and it is not affected by the presence of moisture; the uppermost limiting factor is the chemical instability of the condensed sodium-oxide products under high temperature; (b) the main combustion product is liquid Na 2 O in dry air condition and liquid Na 2 O with gaseous NaOH in moist air; and (c) the chemical equilibrium prediction of the residual gaseous reactants in the flame is indispensable for sodium combustion modeling

  8. Two- and Three-Dimensional Measurements in Flames

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Long, Marshall

    1998-01-01

    Three-scalar measurements were made in a turbulent nonpremixed flame (Re=15000) to increase confidence in the two-scalar technique based on simultaneous imaging of Rayleigh scattering and fuel Raman scattering...

  9. Effect of Stoichiometry and Strain Rate on Transient Flame Response

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Knio, Omar M; Najm, Habib N

    2000-01-01

    The interaction of a premixed methane/air flame with a counter-rotating vortex pair is analyzed using a parallel low-Mach-number computational model that is based on a detailed C1C2 chemical mechanism...

  10. Flame spread over inclined electrical wires with AC electric fields

    KAUST Repository

    Lim, Seung J.; Park, Sun H.; Park, Jeong; Fujita, Osamu; Keel, Sang I.; Chung, Suk-Ho

    2017-01-01

    Flame spread over polyethylene-insulated electrical wires was studied experimentally with applied alternating current (AC) by varying the inclination angle (θ), applied voltage (VAC), and frequency (fAC). For the baseline case with no electric field

  11. Aryl Polyphosphonates: Useful Halogen-Free Flame Retardants for Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Chen

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Aryl polyphosphonates (ArPPN have been demonstrated to function in wide applications as flame retardants for different polymer materials, including thermosets, polycarbonate, polyesters and polyamides, particularly due to their satisfactory thermal stability compared to aliphatic flame retardants, and to their desirable flow behavior observed during the processing of polymeric materials. This paper provides a brief overview of the main developments in ArPPN and their derivatives for flame-retarding polymeric materials, primarily based on the authors’ research work and the literature published over the last two decades. The synthetic chemistry of these compounds is discussed along with their thermal stabilities and flame-retardant properties. The possible mechanisms of ArPPN and their derivatives containing hetero elements, which exhibit a synergistic effect with phosphorus, are also discussed.

  12. Response to acoustic forcing of laminar coflow jet diffusion flames

    KAUST Repository

    Chrystie, Robin; Chung, Suk-Ho

    2014-01-01

    Toward the goal of understanding and controlling instability in combustion systems, we present a fundamental characterization of the interaction of the buoyancy-induced instability in flickering flames with forced excitation of fuel supply. Laminar

  13. Development and characterization of new phosphorus based flame ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tability for use in high performance applications. ... friendly flame retardants, providing low smoke and toxi- ... and solubility of the particles into the polymer matrices or they can ... and degradation temperatures, oxygen permeability, reduced.

  14. Everyone Deserves a Speeding Ticket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burris, Harold

    1993-01-01

    Presents a first day physics activity having students determine the fine for a speeding ticket if the speeds considered include the earth's rotation and revolution speed, and the movement through the galaxy. (MDH)

  15. Experimental investigation of combustion instabilities in lean swirl-stabilized partially-premixed flames in single- and multiple-burner setup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Kraus

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, combustion instabilities of a modular combustor are investigated. The combustor operates with partially premixed, swirl-stabilized flames and can be operated in single- and different multiple-burner setups. The design parameters of the combustor prevent large-scale flame–flame interactions in the multiple-burner arrangements. The objective is to investigate how the interaction of the swirl jets affects the thermoacoustic stability of the combustor. Results of measurements of pressure oscillations and high-speed OH*-chemiluminescence imaging for the single-burner setup and two multiple-burner setups are discussed. Additionally, results of investigations with different flame characteristics are presented. These are achieved by varying the ratio of the mass flow rates through the swirlers of the double-concentric swirl nozzle. Several unstable modes with high pressure amplitudes are observed in the single-burner setup as well as in the multiple-burner setups. Numerical studies of the acoustic behavior of the combustor setups were performed that indicate that the different geometries show similar acoustic behaviors. The results lead to the conclusion that the interaction of the swirl jets in the multiple-burner setups affects the thermoacoustic response spectrum of the flame even in the absence of large-scale flame–flame interactions. Based on the findings in earlier studies, it is concluded that the differences in the flame response characteristics are induced by the reduction of the swirl intensity in the multiple-burner arrangements, which is caused by the exchange of momentum between the adjacent swirl jets.

  16. Modelling of flame propagation in the gasoline fuelled Wankel rotary engine with hydrogen additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedyanov, E. A.; Zakharov, E. A.; Prikhodkov, K. V.; Levin, Y. V.

    2017-02-01

    Recently, hydrogen has been considered as an alternative fuel for a vehicles power unit. The Wankel engine is the most suitable to be adapted to hydrogen feeding. A hydrogen additive helps to decrease incompleteness of combustion in the volumes near the apex of the rotor. Results of theoretical researches of the hydrogen additives influence on the flame propagation in the combustion chamber of the Wankel rotary engine are presented. The theoretical research shows that the blend of 70% gasoline with 30% hydrogen could accomplish combustion near the T-apex in the stoichiometric mixture and in lean one. Maps of the flame front location versus the angle of rotor rotation and hydrogen fraction are obtained. Relations of a minimum required amount of hydrogen addition versus the engine speed are shown on the engine modes close to the average city driving cycle. The amount of hydrogen addition that could be injected by the nozzle with different flow sections is calculated in order to analyze the capacity of the feed system.

  17. Quantification of extinction mechanism in counterflow premixed flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Sang Kyu [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Eun Seong [Doosan Heavy Industries and Construction, Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Suk Ho [Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-09-15

    The extinction mechanisms of stretched premixed flames have been investigated numerically for the fuels of CH{sub 4}, C{sub 3}H{sub 8}, H{sub 2}, CO and for the mixture fuels of CH{sub 4}+H{sub 2} and CO+H{sub 2} by adopting symmetric double premixed flames in a counterflow configuration. The local equilibrium temperature concept was used as a measure of energy loss or gain in order to quantify the extinction mechanism by preferential diffusion and/or incomplete reaction. The energy loss ratio from preferential diffusion arising from non-unity Lewis number and the loss ratio from incomplete reaction were calculated at various equivalence ratios near flame extinction. The results showed that the extinction of lean H{sub 2} , CH{sub 4}, CH{sub 4}+H{sub 2}, CO+H{sub 2}, and rich C{sub 3}H{sub 8} premixed flames was caused by incomplete reaction due to insufficient reaction time, indicating that the effective Lewis number was smaller than unity, while the effect of preferential diffusion resulted in energy gain. However, the extinction of rich H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CH{sub 4}+H{sub 2}, CO+H{sub 2}, and lean C{sub 3}H{sub 8} premixed flames was affected by the combined effects of preferential diffusion and incomplete reaction indicating that the effective Lewis number was larger than unity. In CO premixed flames, incomplete reaction was dominant in both lean and rich cases due to the effective Lewis number close to unity. The effect of H{sub 2} mixing to CO is found to be quite significant as compared to CH{sub 4}+H{sub 2} cases, which can alter the flame behavior of CO flames to that of H{sub 2}.

  18. Shear layer flame stabilization sensitivities in a swirling flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Foley

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A variety of different flame configurations and heat release distributions exist in high swirl, annular flows, due to the existence of inner and outer shear layers as well a vortex breakdown bubble. Each of these different configurations, in turn, has different thermoacoustic sensitivities and influences on combustor emissions, nozzle durability, and liner heating. This paper presents findings on the sensitivities of the outer shear layer- stabilized flames to a range of parameters, including equivalence ratio, bulkhead temperature, flow velocity, and preheat temperature. There is significant hysteresis for flame attachment/detachment from the outer shear layer and this hysteresis is also described. Results are also correlated with extinction stretch rate calculations based on detailed kinetic simulations. In addition, we show that the bulkhead temperature near the flame attachment point has significant impact on outer shear layer detachment. This indicates that understanding the heat transfer between the edge flame stabilized in the shear layer and the nozzle hardware is needed in order to predict shear layer flame stabilization limits. Moreover, it shows that simulations cannot simply assume adiabatic boundary conditions if they are to capture these transitions. We also show that the reference temperature for correlating these transitions is quite different for attachment and local blow off. Finally, these results highlight the deficiencies in current understanding of the influence of fluid mechanic parameters (e.g. velocity, swirl number on shear layer flame attachment. For example, they show that the seemingly simple matter of scaling flame transition points with changes in flow velocities is not understood.

  19. Resistivity of flame plasma in an electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikuta, Kazunari.

    1989-01-01

    A generalized Ohm's law is obtained for a flame plasma in an electric field for the study of arc resistivity in an electromagnetic launcher (EML). The effective resistivity of flame plasma is reduced by the source, which suggests the injection of premixed combustible fuel into the arc plasma in EML in order to reduce the electron energy of the arc. The reduction of electron energy in the arc is desirable to minimize the damage of electrodes in EML. (author)

  20. Studies on flame retardancy of radiation crosslinked PE foam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Huili; Yao Zhanhai; Xu Jun

    1996-01-01

    CPE, DBDPO and Sb 2 O 3 were used as flame-retardant of PE foam. Effect of CPE on PE foam under radiation and it's flame-retardancy were studied. The result showed that CPE can enhance radiation cross-linking of PE, and trinary of addition being made of CPE, DBDPO and Sb 2 O 3 made oxygen index of PE foam achieve over 30, and self-extinguish, it did not influence manufacture and mechanical properties of PE foam

  1. The physics of flames in Type Ia supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zingale, M; Woosley, S E; Bell, J B; Day, M S; Rendleman, C A

    2005-01-01

    We extend a low Mach number hydrodynamics method developed for terrestrial combustion, to the study of thermonuclear flames in Type Ia supernovae. We discuss the differences between 2-D and 3-D Rayleigh-Taylor unstable flame simulations, and give detailed diagnostics on the turbulence, showing that the kinetic energy power spectrum obeys Bolgiano-Obukhov statistics in 2-D, but Kolmogorov statistics in 3-D. Preliminary results from 3-D reacting bubble calculations are shown, and their implications for ignition are discussed

  2. Flame image monitoring and analysis in combustion management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popovic, D [CEZ, a.s. Elektrarna Detmarovice, Detmarovice (Czech Republic); Huttunen, A J; Nihtinen, J J [Imatran Voima Oy, IVO Technology Centre, Vantaa (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    When NO{sub x} emissions are reduced with new low-NO{sub x} burners and infurnace modifications in old pulverised fuel boilers, many changes in the firing conditions may occur. Depending on coal quality and the original furnace design, low-NO{sub x} burners, overtire air, low-excess-air firing and other primary modifications in various combinations may cause flame instability, increased slagging, increased minimum load and other difficulties in controlling the burning process. To find and solve these problems quicker, a new type of burner management system for pulverised fuel and oil-fired boilers was developed by Imatran Voima Oy. The DIMAC combustion management system monitors and analyses individually each burner or burner level. There are special software for wall and corner fired boilers. The DIMAC system is comprised of two functional subsystems: flame monitoring and flame analysis. The DIMAC enables the power plant operators to minimise NO{sub x} emissions and optimise the burning efficiency with varying coal qualities and boiler loads at the same time so that slagging, unburnt carbon in fly ash and flame stability stay in acceptable limits. It also guarantees that burners operate in good safety conditions in each burner level. The DIMAC system monitors perpendicularly each individual burner and evaluates flame parameters. Real-time flame monitoring and analysis allows the operator to directly see the effect of changing fuel distribution on flame pattern and flame stability. Based on data from the DIMAC references the system can improve boiler efficiency by 0.2 - 0.5 per cent unit as a result of more efficient control of the burning process. At the same time, the NO{sub x} formation can be reduced by 10 - 20 % 2 refs.

  3. Flame image monitoring and analysis in combustion management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popovic, D. [CEZ, a.s. Elektrarna Detmarovice, Detmarovice (Czech Republic); Huttunen, A.J.; Nihtinen, J.J. [Imatran Voima Oy, IVO Technology Centre, Vantaa (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    When NO{sub x} emissions are reduced with new low-NO{sub x} burners and infurnace modifications in old pulverised fuel boilers, many changes in the firing conditions may occur. Depending on coal quality and the original furnace design, low-NO{sub x} burners, overtire air, low-excess-air firing and other primary modifications in various combinations may cause flame instability, increased slagging, increased minimum load and other difficulties in controlling the burning process. To find and solve these problems quicker, a new type of burner management system for pulverised fuel and oil-fired boilers was developed by Imatran Voima Oy. The DIMAC combustion management system monitors and analyses individually each burner or burner level. There are special software for wall and corner fired boilers. The DIMAC system is comprised of two functional subsystems: flame monitoring and flame analysis. The DIMAC enables the power plant operators to minimise NO{sub x} emissions and optimise the burning efficiency with varying coal qualities and boiler loads at the same time so that slagging, unburnt carbon in fly ash and flame stability stay in acceptable limits. It also guarantees that burners operate in good safety conditions in each burner level. The DIMAC system monitors perpendicularly each individual burner and evaluates flame parameters. Real-time flame monitoring and analysis allows the operator to directly see the effect of changing fuel distribution on flame pattern and flame stability. Based on data from the DIMAC references the system can improve boiler efficiency by 0.2 - 0.5 per cent unit as a result of more efficient control of the burning process. At the same time, the NO{sub x} formation can be reduced by 10 - 20 % 2 refs.

  4. Quantification of extinction mechanism in counterflow premixed flames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sang Kyu; Cho, Eun Seong; Chung, Suk Ho

    2014-01-01

    The extinction mechanisms of stretched premixed flames have been investigated numerically for the fuels of CH 4 , C 3 H 8 , H 2 , CO and for the mixture fuels of CH 4 +H 2 and CO+H 2 by adopting symmetric double premixed flames in a counterflow configuration. The local equilibrium temperature concept was used as a measure of energy loss or gain in order to quantify the extinction mechanism by preferential diffusion and/or incomplete reaction. The energy loss ratio from preferential diffusion arising from non-unity Lewis number and the loss ratio from incomplete reaction were calculated at various equivalence ratios near flame extinction. The results showed that the extinction of lean H 2 , CH 4 , CH 4 +H 2 , CO+H 2 , and rich C 3 H 8 premixed flames was caused by incomplete reaction due to insufficient reaction time, indicating that the effective Lewis number was smaller than unity, while the effect of preferential diffusion resulted in energy gain. However, the extinction of rich H 2 , CH 4 , CH 4 +H 2 , CO+H 2 , and lean C 3 H 8 premixed flames was affected by the combined effects of preferential diffusion and incomplete reaction indicating that the effective Lewis number was larger than unity. In CO premixed flames, incomplete reaction was dominant in both lean and rich cases due to the effective Lewis number close to unity. The effect of H 2 mixing to CO is found to be quite significant as compared to CH 4 +H 2 cases, which can alter the flame behavior of CO flames to that of H 2 .

  5. Quantification of extinction mechanism in counterflow premixed flames

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Sangkyu

    2014-09-01

    The extinction mechanisms of stretched premixed flames have been investigated numerically for the fuels of CH4, C3H8, H2, CO and for the mixture fuels of CH4+H2 and CO+H2 by adopting symmetric double premixed flames in a counterflow configuration. The local equilibrium temperature concept was used as a measure of energy loss or gain in order to quantify the extinction mechanism by preferential diffusion and/or incomplete reaction. The energy loss ratio from preferential diffusion arising from non-unity Lewis number and the loss ratio from incomplete reaction were calculated at various equivalence ratios near flame extinction. The results showed that the extinction of lean H2, CH4, CH4+H2, CO+H2, and rich C3H8 premixed flames was caused by incomplete reaction due to insufficient reaction time, indicating that the effective Lewis number was smaller than unity, while the effect of preferential diffusion resulted in energy gain. However, the extinction of rich H2, CH4, CH4+H2, CO+H2, and lean C3H8 premixed flames was affected by the combined effects of preferential diffusion and incomplete reaction indicating that the effective Lewis number was larger than unity. In CO premixed flames, incomplete reaction was dominant in both lean and rich cases due to the effective Lewis number close to unity. The effect of H2 mixing to CO is found to be quite significant as compared to CH4+H2 cases, which can alter the flame behavior of CO flames to that of H2.

  6. Transition of carbon nanostructures in heptane diffusion flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Wei-Chieh [National Cheng Kung University, Department of Mechanical Engineering (China); Hou, Shuhn-Shyurng [Kun Shan University, Department of Mechanical Engineering (China); Lin, Ta-Hui, E-mail: thlin@mail.ncku.edu.tw [National Cheng Kung University, Department of Mechanical Engineering (China)

    2017-02-15

    The flame synthesis has high potential in industrial production of carbon nanostructure (CNS). Unfortunately, the complexity of combustion chemistry leads to less controlling of synthesized products. In order to improve the understanding of the relation between flames and CNSs synthesized within, experiments were conducted through heptane flames in a stagnation-point liquid-pool system. The operating parameters for the synthesis include oxygen supply, sampling position, and sampling time. Two kinds of nanostructures were observed, carbon nanotube (CNT) and carbon nano-onion (CNO). CNTs were synthesized in a weaker flame near extinction. CNOs were synthesized in a more sooty flame. The average diameter of CNTs formed at oxygen concentration of 15% was in the range of 20–30 nm. For oxygen concentration of 17%, the average diameter of CNTs ranged from 24 to 27 nm, while that of CNOs was around 28 nm. For oxygen concentration of 19%, the average diameter of CNOs produced at the sampling position 0.5 mm below the flame front was about 57 nm, while the average diameters of CNOs formed at the sampling positions 1–2.5 mm below the flame front were in the range of 20–25 nm. A transition from CNT to CNO was observed by variation of sampling position in a flame. We found that the morphology of CNS is directly affected by the presence of soot layer due to the carbonaceous environment and the growth mechanisms of CNT and CNO. The sampling time can alter the yield of CNSs depending on the temperature of sampling position, but the morphology of products is not affected.

  7. A Study of Flame Physics and Solid Propellant Rocket Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-01

    and ellipsoids, and the packing of pellets relevant to igniter modeling. Other topics are the instabilities of smolder waves, premixed flame...instabilities in narrow tubes, and flames supported by a spinning porous plug burner . Much of this work has been reported in the high-quality archival...perchlorate in fuel binder, the combustion of model propellant packs of ellipses and ellipsoids, and the packing of pellets relevant to igniter modeling

  8. Transport of inertial particles in a turbulent premixed jet flame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battista, F; Picano, F; Casciola, C M; Troiani, G

    2011-01-01

    The heat release, occurring in reacting flows, induces a sudden fluid acceleration which particles follow with a certain lag, due to their finite inertia. Actually, the coupling between particle inertia and the flame front expansion strongly biases the spatial distribution of the particles, by inducing the formation of localized clouds with different dimensions downstream the thin flame front. A possible indicator of this preferential localization is the so-called Clustering Index, quantifying the departure of the actual particle distribution from the Poissonian, which would correspond to a purely random spatial arrangement. Most of the clustering is found in the flame brush region, which is spanned by the fluctuating instantaneous flame front. The effect is significant also for very light particles. In this case a simple model based on the Bray-Moss-Libby formalism is able to account for most of the deviation from the Poissonian. When the particle inertia increases, the effect is found to increases and persist well within the region of burned gases. The effect is maximum when the particle relaxation time is of the order of the flame front time scale. The evidence of this peculiar source of clustering is here provided by data from a direct numerical simulation of a turbulent premixed jet flame and confirmed by experimental data.

  9. Ion measurements in premixed methane-oxygen flames

    KAUST Repository

    Alquaity, Awad

    2014-07-25

    Ions are formed as a result of chemi-ionization processes in combustion systems. Recently, there has been an increasing interest in understanding flame ion chemistry due to the possible application of external electric fields to reduce emissions and improve combustion efficiency by active control of combustion process. In order to predict the effect of external electric fields on combustion plasma, it is critical to gain a good understanding of the flame ion chemistry. In this work, a Molecular Beam Mass Spectrometer (MBMS) is utilized to measure ion concentration profiles in premixed methane-oxygen-argon burner-stabilized flames. Lean, stoichiometric and rich flames at atmospheric pressure are used to study the dependence of ion chemistry on equivalence ratio of premixed flames. The relative ion concentration profiles are compared qualitatively with previous methane-oxygen studies and show good agreement. The relative ion concentration data obtained in the present study can be used to validate and improve ion chemistry models for methane-oxygen flames.

  10. Numerical study of flame structure in the mild combustion regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mardani Amir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, turbulent non-premixed CH4+H2 jet flame issuing into a hot and diluted co-flow air is studied numerically. This flame is under condition of the moderate or intense low-oxygen dilution (MILD combustion regime and related to published experimental data. The modelling is carried out using the EDC model to describe turbulence-chemistry interaction. The DRM-22 reduced mechanism and the GRI2.11 full mechanism are used to represent the chemical reactions of H2/methane jet flame. The flame structure for various O2 levels and jet Reynolds numbers are investigated. The results show that the flame entrainment increases by a decrease in O2 concentration at air side or jet Reynolds number. Local extinction is seen in the upstream and close to the fuel injection nozzle at the shear layer. It leads to the higher flame entertainment in MILD regime. The turbulence kinetic energy decay at centre line of jet decreases by an increase in O2 concentration at hot Co-flow. Also, increase in jet Reynolds or O2 level increases the mixing rate and rate of reactions.

  11. PERSONALITY AND SPEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard TAY

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available While there has been extensive research on the effect of sensation seeking on risky driving, relatively little research has been conducted on Type-A personality. The motivations for speeding are likely to be different for each group and these differences have important implications for the design, implementation and expected efficacy of road safety countermeasures. This paper examines the influence of sensation seeking and Type-A behavior pattern on speeding behaviour. A sample of 139 staff and students in an Australian university were surveyed in July 2001 to gather information on their gender, age, personality and self-reported speeding behaviour. The data were analysed using correlations and analysis of variance procedures. Finally, some implications for road safety are discussed.

  12. PREMIXED FLAME PROPAGATION AND MORPHOLOGY IN A CONSTANT VOLUME COMBUSTION CHAMBER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hariharan, A; Wichman, IS

    2014-06-04

    This work presents an experimental and numerical investigation of premixed flame propagation in a constant volume rectangular channel with an aspect ratio of six (6) that serves as a combustion chamber. Ignition is followed by an accelerating cusped finger-shaped flame-front. A deceleration of the flame is followed by the formation of a "tulip"-shaped flame-front. Eventually, the flame is extinguished when it collides with the cold wall on the opposite channel end. Numerical computations are performed to understand the influence of pressure waves, instabilities, and flow field effects causing changes to the flame structure and morphology. The transient 2D numerical simulation results are compared with transient 3D experimental results. Issues discussed are the appearance of oscillatory motions along the flame front and the influences of gravity on flame structure. An explanation is provided for the formation of the "tulip" shape of the premixed flame front.

  13. Screening the modern girl: intermediality in the adaptation of "Flaming Youth".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Sara

    2010-01-01

    In the early 1920s, the film industry seized on the furor over the modern girls' demands for sexual liberty and fulfillment inside and outside of marriage to introduce not only new subject matter, but new modes of addressing its diverse audience. Social upheaval in this period coincided with the media industries' movement toward unprecedented speed of adaptation and cooperation, making possible a powerful new intermediality. The film industry used this to generate layered meanings beyond the confines of the film text, encouraging bold viewers to see through the camouflage with which it sought to appease more traditionalist audience members. With Flaming Youth, through a smokescreen of melodramatic conventions and moral lessons, it delivered a strikingly modern conception of sexuality and marriage to the big screen.

  14. Speed-calming measures and their Effect on driving speed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, Niels; Knudsen, Daniel; Variyeswaran, Kajan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights •Speed humps and chicanes are widespread speed-calming measures. •Humps and chicanes have virtually the same reducing effect on mean speed. •Chicanes reduce speed variation less than humps and might therefore be a less safe measure....

  15. On the role of radiation and dimensionality in predicting flow opposed flame spread over thin fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Chenthil; Kumar, Amit

    2012-06-01

    In this work a flame-spread model is formulated in three dimensions to simulate opposed flow flame spread over thin solid fuels. The flame-spread model is coupled to a three-dimensional gas radiation model. The experiments [1] on downward spread and zero gravity quiescent spread over finite width thin fuel are simulated by flame-spread models in both two and three dimensions to assess the role of radiation and effect of dimensionality on the prediction of the flame-spread phenomena. It is observed that while radiation plays only a minor role in normal gravity downward spread, in zero gravity quiescent spread surface radiation loss holds the key to correct prediction of low oxygen flame spread rate and quenching limit. The present three-dimensional simulations show that even in zero gravity gas radiation affects flame spread rate only moderately (as much as 20% at 100% oxygen) as the heat feedback effect exceeds the radiation loss effect only moderately. However, the two-dimensional model with the gas radiation model badly over-predicts the zero gravity flame spread rate due to under estimation of gas radiation loss to the ambient surrounding. The two-dimensional model was also found to be inadequate for predicting the zero gravity flame attributes, like the flame length and the flame width, correctly. The need for a three-dimensional model was found to be indispensable for consistently describing the zero gravity flame-spread experiments [1] (including flame spread rate and flame size) especially at high oxygen levels (>30%). On the other hand it was observed that for the normal gravity downward flame spread for oxygen levels up to 60%, the two-dimensional model was sufficient to predict flame spread rate and flame size reasonably well. Gas radiation is seen to increase the three-dimensional effect especially at elevated oxygen levels (>30% for zero gravity and >60% for normal gravity flames).

  16. Formation and stabilization of multiple ball-like flames at Earth gravity

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Zhen

    2018-03-20

    Near-limit low-Lewis-number premixed flame behavior is studied experimentally and numerically for flames of H–CH–air mixtures that are located in a 55 mm diameter tube and below a perforated plate in a downward mixture flow. A combustion regime diagram is experimentally identified in terms of equivalence ratio and ratio of H to CH (variation of fuel Lewis number). Planar flames, cell-like flames, distorted cap-like flames, and arrays of ball-like flames are progressively observed in the experiments as the equivalence ratio is decreased. The experimentally observed ball-like lean limit flames experience chaotic motion, which is accompanied by sporadic events of flame splitting and extinction, while the total number of simultaneously burning flamelets remains approximately the same. In separate experiments, the multiple ball-like lean limit flames are stabilized by creating a slightly non-uniform mixture flow field. The CH* chemiluminescence distributions of the lean limit flames are recorded, showing that the ball-like lean limit flame front becomes more uniform in intensity and its shape approaches a spherical one with the increase of H content in the fuel. Numerical simulations are performed for single representative flames of the array of stabilized flamelets observed in the experiments. The simulated ball-like lean limit flame is further contrasted with the single ball-like flame that forms in a narrow tube (13.5 mm inner diameter) with an iso-thermal wall. The numerical results show that the ball-like lean limit flames present in the array of ball-like flames are more affected by the buoyancy-induced recirculation zone, compared with that in the narrow tube, revealing why the shape of the ball-like flame in the array deviates more from a spherical one. All in all, the wall confinement is not crucial for the formation of ball-like flames at terrestrial gravity.

  17. Methane Formation by Flame-Generated Hydrogen Atoms in the Flame Ionization Detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Torkil; Madsen, Jørgen Øgaard

    1996-01-01

    , and conceivably all hydrocarbons are quantitatively converted into methane at temperatures below 600 C, that is, before the proper combustion has started. The splitting of the C-C bonds is preceded by hydrogenation of double and triple bonds and aromatic rings. The reactions, no doubt, are caused by hydrogen...... atoms, which are formed in the burning hydrogen and which diffuse into the inner core of the flame. The quantitative formation of methane appears to explain the "equal per carbon" rule for the detector response of hydrocarbons, since all carbons are "exchanged" for methane molecules....

  18. Flame Front Detection Using Formaldehyde Laser Induced Fluorescence In Turbulent Lean Premixed Flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schenker, S.; Tylli, N.; Bombach, R.

    2005-03-01

    The present work aims at suggesting the excitation-detection scheme best suited for laser-induced fluorescence measurements of formaldehyde in turbulent lean premixed flames. In the literature, three different excitation schemes within the A{sup 1} X{sup 1} electronic transition have been suggested, with excitation into the 2{sup 1}{sub 0} 4{sup 1}{sub 0} , 4{sup 1}{sub 0} , and 4{sup 0}{sub 1} vibratoric bands, respectively. These excitation schemes were tested systematically and both advantages and disadvantages for each scheme are discussed. (author)

  19. In-Flame Characterization of a 30 MWth Bio-Dust Flame

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Joakim Myung; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Clausen, Sønnik

    concentric low-NOx configuration. The measurements focus on a single 30 MWth flame and include: Quantification of the gas temperature, the gas phase composition: O2, CO, CO2, H2O, and light hydrocarbons by intrusive probe measurements. It also includes both seeded and unseeded 2D laser doppler anemometry...... of a full-scale burner and provide a comprehensive data set that quantifies key parameters: Gas phase temperature, composition, and flow field required in order to evaluate the performance of CFD simulations of complex combustion systems...

  20. Flame propagation enhancement by plasma excitation of oxygen. Part II: Effects of O{sub 2}(a{sup 1}{delta}{sub g})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ombrello, Timothy; Won, Sang Hee; Ju, Yiguang [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Engineering Quadrangle, Olden Street, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Williams, Skip [Air Force Research Laboratory, Propulsion Directorate, 1950 Fifth Street, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH 45433 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    The isolated effect of O{sub 2}(a{sup 1}{delta}{sub g}) on the propagation of C{sub 2}H{sub 4} lifted flames was studied at reduced pressures (3.61 kPa and 6.73 kPa). The O{sub 2}(a{sup 1}{delta}{sub g}) was produced in a microwave discharge plasma and was isolated from O and O{sub 3} by NO addition to the plasma afterglow in a flow residence time on the order of 1 s. The concentrations of O{sub 2}(a{sup 1}{delta}{sub g}) and O{sub 3} were measured quantitatively through absorption by sensitive off-axis integrated-cavity-output spectroscopy and one-pass line-of-sight absorption, respectively. Under these conditions, it was found that O{sub 2}(a{sup 1}{delta}{sub g}) enhanced the propagation speed of C{sub 2}H{sub 4} lifted flames. Comparison with the results of enhancement by O{sub 3} found in part I of this investigation provided an estimation of 2-3% of flame speed enhancement for 5500 ppm of O{sub 2}(a{sup 1}{delta}{sub g}) addition from the plasma. Numerical simulation results using the current kinetic model of O{sub 2}(a{sup 1}{delta}{sub g}) over-predicts the flame propagation enhancement found in the experiments. However, the inclusion of collisional quenching rate estimations of O{sub 2}(a{sup 1}{delta}{sub g}) by C{sub 2}H{sub 4} mitigated the over-prediction. The present isolated experimental results of the enhancement of a hydrocarbon fueled flame by O{sub 2}(a{sup 1}{delta}{sub g}), along with kinetic modeling results suggest that further studies of C{sub n}H{sub m} + O{sub 2}(a{sup 1}{delta}{sub g}) collisional and reactive quenching are required in order to correctly predict combustion enhancement by O{sub 2}(a{sup 1}{delta}{sub g}). The present experimental results will have a direct impact on the development of elementary reaction rates with O{sub 2}(a{sup 1}{delta}{sub g}) at flame conditions to establish detailed plasma-flame kinetic mechanisms. (author)

  1. Intelligent Speed Assistance (ISA).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2015-01-01

    Intelligent Speed Assistance (ISA) has been a promising type of advanced driver support system for some decades. From a technical point of view, large scale ISA implementation is possible in the short term. The different types of ISA are expected to have different effects on behaviour and traffic

  2. Speed mathematics simplified

    CERN Document Server

    Stoddard, Edward

    1994-01-01

    Entertaining, easy-to-follow suggestions for developing greater speed and accuracy in doing mathematical calculations. Surefire methods for multiplying without carrying, dividing with half the pencil work of long division, plus advice on how to add and subtract rapidly, master fractions, work quickly with decimals, handle percentages, and much more.

  3. High speed metal removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, R. F.; Pohl, R. F.

    1982-10-01

    Four types of steel (AISI 1340, 4140, 4340, and HF-1) which are commonly used in large caliber projectile manufacture were machined at different hardness ranges representing the as-forged and the heat treated condition with various ceramic tools using ceramic coated tungsten carbide as a reference. Results show that machining speeds can be increased significantly using present available tooling.

  4. Variable speed generators

    CERN Document Server

    Boldea, Ion

    2005-01-01

    With the deregulation of electrical energy production and distribution, says Boldea (Polytechnical Institute, Timisoara, Romania) producers are looking for ways to tailor their electricity for different markets. Variable-speed electric generators are serving that purpose, up to the 400 megavolt ampere unit size, in Japan since 1996 and Germany sinc

  5. Diamond growth in oxygen-acetylene flame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haga, Mario S.; Nagai, Y. Ernesto; Suzuki, Carlos K.

    1995-01-01

    What was supposed to be a laboratory curiosity in the 80's, in recent years the low pressure process for the production of man-made diamond turned out to be a major target for research and development of many high-tech companies. The main reason for such an interest stems on the possibility of coating many materials with a diamond film possessing the same amazing properties of the bulk natural diamond. Polycrystalline diamond film has been deposited on Mo substrate by using oxygen-acetylene flame of a welding torch. The substrate temperature has been held constant about 700 d eg C by means of a water cooled mount designed properly. Precision flowmeters have been used to control the flow ratio oxygen/acetylene, a key parameter for the success in diamond growth. Diamond has been detected by X-ray diffraction, a fast foolproof technique for crystal identification. Another method of analysis often used in Raman spectroscopy, which is able to exhibit amorphous structure besides crystalline phase. (author)

  6. Aromatics Oxidation and Soot Formation in Flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, J. B.; Richter, H.

    2005-03-29

    This project is concerned with the kinetics and mechanisms of aromatics oxidation and the growth process to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) of increasing size, soot and fullerenes formation in flames. The overall objective of the experimental aromatics oxidation work is to extend the set of available data by measuring concentration profiles for decomposition intermediates such as phenyl, cyclopentadienyl, phenoxy or indenyl radicals which could not be measured with molecular-beam mass spectrometry to permit further refinement and testing of benzene oxidation mechanisms. The focus includes PAH radicals which are thought to play a major role in the soot formation process while their concentrations are in many cases too low to permit measurement with conventional mass spectrometry. The radical species measurements are used in critical testing and improvement of a kinetic model describing benzene oxidation and PAH growth. Thermodynamic property data of selected species are determined computationally, for instance using density functional theory (DFT). Potential energy surfaces are explored in order to identify additional reaction pathways. The ultimate goal is to understand the conversion of high molecular weight compounds to nascent soot particles, to assess the roles of planar and curved PAH and relationships between soot and fullerenes formation. The specific aims are to characterize both the high molecular weight compounds involved in the nucleation of soot particles and the structure of soot including internal nanoscale features indicative of contributions of planar and/or curved PAH to particle inception.

  7. Flame photometric determination of strontium in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skougstad, Marvin W.

    1957-01-01

    Preliminary search of reported methods of Sr analysis revealed several investigations which have been made for the determination of Sr with the flame photometer, both at relatively low concentrations (0 to 50 ppm Sr) and at higher concentrations. Generally the procedures described involved measurement of Sr emission at either 460.7 mu or at 681 mu. There is disagreement among those reporting methods for Sr as to the preference of the one wavelength over the other. The 681 line (or band) seems to be preferred because of its greater reproducibility and relative freedom from interference. The 460.7 mu line, however, lies in the region of greater sensitivity of the photomultiplier tube, and hence for this reason is preferred by some. This is an advantage, of course, when determining Sr at very low concentrations. This investigation is concerned with determining the optimum conditions for the determination of Sr at low concentration levels in water samples. Early experimental work indicated a greater sensitivity for the 460.7 mu (hereafter designated as 461 mu) Sr line. Therefore, most of the subsequent work was based on a study of the effects of various other materials and conditions on the emission of Sr at this wavelength.

  8. Numerical Modelling of Soot Formation in Laminar Axisymmetric Ethylene-Air Coflow Flames at Atmospheric and Elevated Pressures

    KAUST Repository

    Rakha, Ihsan Allah

    2015-01-01

    The steady coflow diffusion flame is a widely used configuration for studying combustion kinetics, flame dynamics, and pollutant formation. In the current work, a set of diluted ethylene-air coflow flames are simulated to study the formation, growth

  9. Experimental and numerical study of cap-like lean limit flames in H 2 -CH 4 -air mixtures

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Zhen; Shoshin, Yuriy; Hernandez Perez, Francisco; van Oijen, Jeroen A.; de Goey, Laurentius P.H.

    2017-01-01

    of the studied flames is recorded and the velocity field of the lean limit flames is measured using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The flame temperature field is measured utilizing the Rayleigh scattering method. Numerical prediction with a mixture

  10. Autoignited laminar lifted flames of methane, ethylene, ethane, and n-butane jets in coflow air with elevated temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Byungchul; Chung, Suk-Ho

    2010-01-01

    regimes depending on the initial temperature and fuel mole fraction: (1) non-autoignited lifted flame, (2) autoignited lifted flame with tribrachial (or triple) edge, and (3) autoignited lifted flame with mild combustion. For the non-autoignited lifted

  11. Limiting oxygen concentration for extinction of upward spreading flames over inclined thin polyethylene-insulated NiCr electrical wires with opposed-flow under normal- and micro-gravity

    KAUST Repository

    Hu, Longhua

    2016-10-02

    Materials, such as electrical wire, used in spacecraft must pass stringent fire safety standards. Tests for such standards are typically performed under normal gravity conditions and then extended to applications under microgravity conditions. The experiments reported here used polyethylene (PE)-insulated (thickness of 0.15 mm) Nichrome (NiCr)-core (diameter of 0.5 mm) electrical wires. Limiting oxygen concentrations (LOC) at extinction were measured for upward spreading flame at various forced opposed-flow (downward) speeds (0−25 cm/s) at several inclination angles (0−75°) under normal gravity conditions. The differences from those previously obtained under microgravity conditions were quantified and correlated to provide a reference for the development of fire safety test standards for electrical wires to be used in space exploration. It was found that as the opposed-flow speed increased for a specified inclination angle (except the horizontal case), LOC first increased, then decreased and finally increased again. The first local maximum of this LOC variation corresponded to a critical forced flow speed resulted from the change in flame spread pattern from concurrent to counter-current type. This critical forced flow speed correlated well with the buoyancy-induced flow speed component in the wire\\'s direction when the flame base width along the wire was used as a characteristic length scale. LOC was generally higher under the normal gravity than under the microgravity and the difference between the two decreased as the opposed-flow speed increases, following a reasonably linear trend at relatively higher flow speeds (over 10 cm/s). The decrease in the difference in LOC under normal- and microgravity conditions as the opposed-flow speed increases correlated well with the gravity acceleration component in the wire\\'s direction, providing a measure to extend LOC determined by the tests under normal gravity conditions (at various inclination angles and opposed

  12. The evolution of the flame surface in turbulent premixed jet flames at high Reynolds number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luca, Stefano; Attili, Antonio; Bisetti, Fabrizio

    2017-11-01

    A set of direct numerical simulations of turbulent premixed flames in a spatially developing turbulent slot burner at four Reynolds number is presented. This configuration is of interest since it displays turbulent production by mean shear as in real combustion devices. The gas phase hydrodynamics are modeled with the reactive, unsteady Navier-Stokes equations in the low Mach number limit, with finite-rate chemistry consisting of 16 species and 73 reactions. For the highest jet Reynolds number of 22 ×103, 22 Billion grid points are employed. The jet consists of a lean methane/air mixture at 4 atm and preheated to 800 K. The analysis of stretch statistics shows that the mean total stretch is close to zero. Mean stretch decreases moving downstream from positive to negative values, suggesting a formation of surface area in the near field and destruction at the tip of the flame; the mean contribution of the tangential strain term is positive, while the mean contribution of the propagative term is always negative. Positive values of stretch are due to the tangential strain rate term, while large negative values are associated with the propagative term. Increasing Reynolds number is found to decrease the correlation between stretch and the single contributions.

  13. Effect of von Karman Vortex Shedding on Regular and Open-slit V-gutter Stabilized Turbulent Premixed Flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Both flame lengths shrink and large scale disruptions occur downstream with vortex shedding carrying reaction zones. Flames in both flameholders...9) the flame structure changes dramatically for both regular and open-slit V-gutter. Both flame lengths shrink and large scale disruptions occur...reduces the flame length . However, qualitatively the open-slit V-gutter appears to be more sensitive than the regular V-gutter. Both flames remain

  14. Investigation of soot formation and temperature field in laminar diffusion flames of LPG-air mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahad, Haroun A.K.; Mohammed, Yassar K.A. [Babylon Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Babylon (Israel)

    2000-11-01

    Soot formation and burnout were studied at atmospheric pressure in co-flowing, axisymmetric buoyant laminar diffusion flames and double flames of liquefied petroleum gases (LPG)-air mixtures. In diffusion flames, two different fuel flow rates were examined. In double flames, three different primary air flow rates were examined. A soot sampling probe and a thermocouple were used to measure the local soot mass concentration and flame temperature, respectively. Flame residence time was predicted using a uniformly accelerated motion model as function of axial distance of the flame. The increase of primary air flow rate was found to suppress the energy transfer from the annular region, at which the soot is produced, to the flame axis. The time required to initiate soot formation at the flame axis becomes longer as the primary air is increased. The trend rate of soot formation was found to be similar along the flame axis in all tested diffusion flames. The increase of primary air by 10% of the stoichiometric air requirement of the fuel results in a 70% reduction in maximum soot concentration. The final exhaust of soot, which is determined by the net effect of soot formation and burnout, is much lower in double flames than that in diffusion flames. (Author)

  15. Combustion Characteristics for Turbulent Prevaporized Premixed Flame Using Commercial Light Diesel and Kerosene Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed S. Shehata

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental study has been carried out for investigating fuel type, fuel blends, equivalence ratio, Reynolds number, inlet mixture temperature, and holes diameter of perforated plate affecting combustion process for turbulent prevaporized premixed air flames for different operating conditions. CO2, CO, H2, N2, C3H8, C2H6, C2H4, flame temperature, and gas flow velocity are measured along flame axis for different operating conditions. Gas chromatographic (GC and CO/CO2 infrared gas analyzer are used for measuring different species. Temperature is measured using thermocouple technique. Gas flow velocity is measured using pitot tube technique. The effect of kerosene percentage on concentration, flame temperature, and gas flow velocity is not linearly dependent. Correlations for adiabatic flame temperature for diesel and kerosene-air flames are obtained as function of mixture strength, fuel type, and inlet mixture temperature. Effect of equivalence ratio on combustion process for light diesel-air flame is greater than for kerosene-air flame. Flame temperature increases with increased Reynolds number for different operating conditions. Effect of Reynolds number on combustion process for light diesel flame is greater than for kerosene flame and also for rich flame is greater than for lean flame. The present work contributes to design and development of lean prevaporized premixed (LPP gas turbine combustors.

  16. Measurements of a high-luminosity flame structure by a shuttered PIV system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yueh-Heng; Wu, Chih-Yung; Chen, Bi-Chian; Chao, Yei-Chin

    2008-01-01

    It is difficult to measure the velocity distribution inside a high-luminosity flame by using the particle image velocimetry (PIV) system with a double-shutter mode CCD camera. The second raw image of the PIV image pair is usually contaminated by flame emission. The main cause of the problem is an excess exposure time which lets the flame emission overlap the particle image in the second frame. If the flame-contamination problem is not significant, for example in faint flames, digital image processing can improve the image to an acceptable level. Nevertheless, when the PIV technique is applied to high-luminosity flames, the second raw particle image would be contaminated by flame emission. In this paper, incorporating a mechanical shutter in the PIV system with a double-shutter CCD camera is proposed to improve PIV measurements in high-luminosity flames. Measurements in faint, high-luminosity as well as very bright flames were tested. The results show that the present setup can accurately resolve the flow velocity field inside the flame cone, through the flame and in the post flame zone for all the flame conditions analyzed. The velocity distributions and streamline patterns measured by the present equipment are reasonable and meaningful

  17. Stabilization and structure of n-heptane tribrachial flames in axisymmetric laminar jets

    KAUST Repository

    Bisetti, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    A set of tribrachial flames of n-heptane/air is simulated with finite rate chemistry and detailed transport in a realistic laminar jet configuration for which experimental data are available. The flames differ by the temperature of the unburnt mixture and stabilization height, which controls the mixture fraction gradient ahead of the flame front. The simulations reproduce the lift-off heights in the experiments, showing that the flame stabilizes further downstream as the unburnt temperature decreases. For the lowest unburnt temperature, resulting in a weak mixture fraction gradient at the tribrachial point, positive stretch along the rich premixed wing leads to an increase in the rate of chemical reaction in the whole flame. The tribrachial flame burning velocity exceeds that in the unstretched, one-dimensional flame. For the highest temperature, the flame stabilizes closest to the nozzle. Large flame tilt, large mixture fraction gradient, and small radius of curvature lead to a reduction in the heat release rate and the flame propagates slower than its one-dimensional counterpart. The observed behavior is explained with a detailed analysis of the flame geometry, differential diffusion effects, flame stretch, and transport of heat and mass from the burnt gases to the flame front. © 2014 The Combustion Institute.

  18. Improving speed behaviour : the potential of in-car speed assistance and speed limit credibility.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nes, C.N. van Houtenbos, M. & Schagen, I.N.L.G. van

    2009-01-01

    Speeding is still a common practice on many roads and it contributes to a significant number of crashes. Two new approaches to solve speeding issues are focused on: intelligent speed assistance systems (ISA) and speed limit credibility. Research has indicated that ISA is promising with respect to

  19. Response mechanisms of attached premixed flames subjected to harmonic forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shreekrishna

    The persistent thrust for a cleaner, greener environment has prompted air pollution regulations to be enforced with increased stringency by environmental protection bodies all over the world. This has prompted gas turbine manufacturers to move from nonpremixed combustion to lean, premixed combustion. These lean premixed combustors operate quite fuel-lean compared to the stochiometric, in order to minimize CO and NOx productions, and are very susceptible to oscillations in any of the upstream flow variables. These oscillations cause the heat release rate of the flame to oscillate, which can engage one or more acoustic modes of the combustor or gas turbine components, and under certain conditions, lead to limit cycle oscillations. This phenomenon, called thermoacoustic instabilities, is characterized by very high pressure oscillations and increased heat fluxes at system walls, and can cause significant problems in the routine operability of these combustors, not to mention the occasional hardware damages that could occur, all of which cumulatively cost several millions of dollars. In a bid towards understanding this flow-flame interaction, this research works studies the heat release response of premixed flames to oscillations in reactant equivalence ratio, reactant velocity and pressure, under conditions where the flame preheat zone is convectively compact to these disturbances, using the G-equation. The heat release response is quantified by means of the flame transfer function and together with combustor acoustics, forms a critical component of the analytical models that can predict combustor dynamics. To this end, low excitation amplitude (linear) and high excitation amplitude (nonlinear) responses of the flame are studied in this work. The linear heat release response of lean, premixed flames are seen to be dominated by responses to velocity and equivalence ratio fluctuations at low frequencies, and to pressure fluctuations at high frequencies which are in the

  20. FLAME MONITORING IN POWER STATION BOILERS USING IMAGE PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sujatha

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Combustion quality in power station boilers plays an important role in minimizing the flue gas emissions. In the present work various intelligent schemes to infer the flue gas emissions by monitoring the flame colour at the furnace of the boiler are proposed here. Flame image monitoring involves capturing the flame video over a period of time with the measurement of various parameters like Carbon dioxide (CO2, excess oxygen (O2, Nitrogen dioxide (NOx, Sulphur dioxide (SOx and Carbon monoxide (CO emissions plus the flame temperature at the core of the fire ball, air/fuel ratio and the combustion quality. Higher the quality of combustion less will be the flue gases at the exhaust. The flame video was captured using an infrared camera. The flame video is then split up into the frames for further analysis. The video splitter is used for progressive extraction of the flame images from the video. The images of the flame are then pre-processed to reduce noise. The conventional classification and clustering techniques include the Euclidean distance classifier (L2 norm classifier. The intelligent classifier includes the Radial Basis Function Network (RBF, Back Propagation Algorithm (BPA and parallel architecture with RBF and BPA (PRBFBPA. The results of the validation are supported with the above mentioned performance measures whose values are in the optimal range. The values of the temperatures, combustion quality, SOx, NOx, CO, CO2 concentrations, air and fuel supplied corresponding to the images were obtained thereby indicating the necessary control action taken to increase or decrease the air supply so as to ensure complete combustion. In this work, by continuously monitoring the flame images, combustion quality was inferred (complete/partial/incomplete combustion and the air/fuel ratio can be automatically varied. Moreover in the existing set-up, measurements like NOx, CO and CO2 are inferred from the samples that are collected periodically or by