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Sample records for stretch regimen consisting

  1. Efficacy of a combined contraceptive regimen consisting of condoms and emergency contraception pills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Rui; Wu, Jun-Qing; Li, Yu-Yan; Zhou, Ying; Ji, Hong-Lei; Li, Yi-Ran

    2014-04-14

    To evaluate and compare the effectiveness of the combined regimen (consisting of condoms and emergency contraception pills (ECP)) and using condoms only for the purpose of preventing pregnancy. One-thousand-five-hundred-and-sixty-two (1,562) couples as volunteers enrolled at nine centers in Shanghai. Eight-hundred-and-twelve (812) were randomized to use male condoms and ECP (i.e., Levonorgestrel) as a back-up to condoms (the intervention group) and 750 to use male condoms only(the control group), according to their working unit. Participants were visited at admission and at the end of 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. The cumulative life table rates were calculated for pregnancy and other reasons for discontinuation. The gross cumulative life table rates showed that the cumulative discontinuation rates for all reasons during the year of follow-up in the condoms plus emergency contraception group and the condoms only group were 7.76 ± 0.94 and 6.61 ± 0.91, respectively, per 100 women (χ2 = 0.41, p = 0.5227). The cumulative gross pregnancy rate of the condoms plus emergency contraception group and the condoms only group were 2.17 ± 0.52 and 1.25 ± 0.41, respectively, per 100 women (χ2 = 1.93, p = 0.1645). The Pearl Index in the condoms plus emergency contraception group and the condoms only group were 2.21% and 1.26%, respectively. Male condoms remain a highly effective contraceptive method for a period of one year while consistently and correctly used. In addition, the lowest pregnancy rate followed from perfect use condom.

  2. Reliability and consistency of plantarflexor stretch-shortening cycle function using an adapted force sledge apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furlong, Laura-Anne M; Harrison, Andrew J

    2013-01-01

    There are various limitations to existing methods of studying plantarflexor stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) function and muscle-tendon unit (MTU) mechanics, predominantly related to measurement validity and reliability. This study utilizes an innovative adaptation to a force sledge which isolates the plantarflexors and ankle for analysis. The aim of this study was to determine the sledge loading protocol to be used, most appropriate method of data analysis and measurement reliability in a group of healthy, non-injured subjects. Twenty subjects (11 males, 9 females; age: 23.5 ±2.3 years; height: 1.73 ±0.08 m; mass: 74.2 ±11.3 kg) completed 11 impacts at five different loadings rated on a scale of perceived exertion from 1 to 5, where 5 is a loading that the subject could only complete the 11 impacts using the adapted sledge. Analysis of impacts 4–8 or 5–7 using loading 2 provided consistent results that were highly reliable (single intra-class correlation, ICC > 0.85, average ICC > 0.95) and replicated kinematics found in hopping and running. Results support use of an adapted force sledge apparatus as an ecologically valid, reliable method of investigating plantarflexor SSC function and MTU mechanics in a dynamic controlled environment. (paper)

  3. Stretched-exponential decay functions from a self-consistent model of dielectric relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milovanov, A.V.; Rasmussen, J.J.; Rypdal, K.

    2008-01-01

    There are many materials whose dielectric properties are described by a stretched exponential, the so-called Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts (KWW) relaxation function. Its physical origin and statistical-mechanical foundation have been a matter of debate in the literature. In this Letter we suggest a model of dielectric relaxation, which naturally leads to a stretched exponential decay function. Some essential characteristics of the underlying charge conduction mechanisms are considered. A kinetic description of the relaxation and charge transport processes is proposed in terms of equations with time-fractional derivatives

  4. Vonoprazan improves the efficacy of Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy with a regimen consisting of clarithromycin and metronidazole in patients allergic to penicillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Shoko; Kato, Mototsugu; Nakagawa, Soichi; Mabe, Katsuhiro; Sakamoto, Naoya

    2017-06-01

    Although all Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-positive patients should receive eradication therapy, the therapy is a challenge for patients allergic to penicillin. There have been a few reports on the efficacy of eradication therapy for such patients. To analyze the efficacy of vonoprazan or proton pump inhibitor (PPI)-based 7-day triple therapy in patients allergic to penicillin. A total of 88 consecutive patients allergic to penicillin who received H. pylori eradication therapy were retrospectively analyzed. Thirty-one patients had a history of failed eradication therapy. Four 7-day regimens were prescribed during the study period: clarithromycin-metronidazole-PPI (13 patients), clarithromycin-metronidazole-vonoprazan (14 patients), metronidazole-sitafloxacin-PPI (44 patients) and metronidazole-sitafloxacin-vonoprazan (17 patients). A 13 C-urea breath test was used for confirmation of eradication, and efficacy of eradication was evaluated by "intention-to-treat" analysis and "per-protocol" analysis. Intention-to-treat and per-protocol eradication rates were 46.2%/54.6% for patients who received clarithromycin-metronidazole-PPI, 92.9/92.9% for patients who received clarithromycin-metronidazole-vonoprazan, 100/100% for patients who received metronidazole-sitafloxacin-PPI and 88.2/93.8% for patients who received metronidazole-sitafloxacin-vonoprazan. For first eradication, vonoprazan significantly raised the intention-to-treat efficacy of the triple therapy including clarithromycin-metronidazole (vonoprazan: 92.9%, PPI: 46.2%, P=.0128). A 7-day regimen consisting of metronidazole and sitafloxacin was effective for patients allergic to penicillin with or without past failure of eradication. For first eradication in patients allergic to penicillin, a 7-day triple therapy consisting of clarithromycin, metronidazole and vonoprazan could be a candidate eradication regimen. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Classifying insulin regimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neu, A; Lange, K; Barrett, T

    2015-01-01

    Modern insulin regimens for the treatment of type 1 diabetes are highly individualized. The concept of an individually tailored medicine accounts for a broad variety of different insulin regimens applied. Despite clear recommendations for insulin management in children and adolescents with type 1...... diabetes there is little distinctiveness about concepts and the nomenclature is confusing. Even among experts similar terms are used for different strategies. The aim of our review--based on the experiences of the Hvidoere Study Group (HSG)--is to propose comprehensive definitions for current insulin...... variety of insulin regimens applied in each center, respectively. Furthermore, the understanding of insulin regimens has been persistently different between the centers since more than 20 yr. Not even the terms 'conventional' and 'intensified therapy' were used consistently among all members. Besides...

  6. Developing a Stretching Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, J E

    1981-11-01

    In brief: Although stretching exercises can prevent muscle injuries and enhance athletic performance, they can also cause injury. The author explains the four most common types of stretching exercises and explains why he considers static stretching the safest. He also sets up a stretching routine for runners. In setting up a safe stretching program, one should (1) precede stretching exercises with a mild warm-up; (2) use static stretching; (3) stretch before and after a workout; (4) begin with mild and proceed to moderate exercises; (5) alternate exercises for muscle groups; (6) stretch gently and slowly until tightness, not pain, is felt; and (7) hold the position for 30 to 60 seconds.

  7. Stretch Sensor Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The invention relates to a method for determining stretch values and movement of body parts, e.g. a foot, by analysing stretch data from a stretch sensor. By analysing data from the stretch sensor it is possible to determine stretch samples which are associated with particular motion phases...

  8. Low body weight and type of protease inhibitor predict discontinuation and treatment-limiting adverse drug reactions among HIV-infected patients starting a protease inhibitor regimen: consistent results from a randomized trial and an observational cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirk, O; Gerstoft, J; Pedersen, C

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess predictors for discontinuation and treatment-limiting adverse drug reactions (TLADR) among patients starting their first protease inhibitor (PI). METHODS: Data on patients starting a PI regimen (indinavir, ritonavir, ritonavir/saquinavir and saquinavir hard gel...... therapy within less than 2 years. In both populations TLADR were the most common reason for discontinuation. The incidence of TLADR in RAS was: 8.5 (indinavir), 66.0 (ritonavir), 15.6 (saquinavir hard gel) per 100 person-years of follow-up (P ... was associated with a three- to sixfold higher risk of TLADR relative to other PI regimens. Very similar results were documented in RAS [RH for body weight was 1.18 (1.07-1.29)]. CONCLUSIONS: Nearly half of the patients stopped treatment with the initial PI, most commonly as a result of adverse drug reactions...

  9. Low body weight and type of protease inhibitor predict discontinuation and treatment-limiting adverse drug reactions among HIV-infected patients starting a protease inhibitor regimen: consistent results from a randomized trial and an observational cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirk, O; Gerstoft, J; Pedersen, C

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess predictors for discontinuation and treatment-limiting adverse drug reactions (TLADR) among patients starting their first protease inhibitor (PI). METHODS: Data on patients starting a PI regimen (indinavir, ritonavir, ritonavir/saquinavir and saquinavir hard gel...... was associated with a three- to sixfold higher risk of TLADR relative to other PI regimens. Very similar results were documented in RAS [RH for body weight was 1.18 (1.07-1.29)]. CONCLUSIONS: Nearly half of the patients stopped treatment with the initial PI, most commonly as a result of adverse drug reactions......) in a randomized trial (RAS, n = 318) and an observational cohort (OBC, n = 505) were used to document reasons for discontinuation and TLADR. Risk factors for discontinuation of the initial PI/developing TLADR were assessed in Cox models. RESULTS: A total of 43 (RAS) and 48% (OBC) discontinued the initial PI...

  10. PROPRIOCEPTIVE NEUROMUSCULAR FACILITATION STRETCHING VERSUS STATIC STRETCHING ON SPRINTING PERFORMANCE AMONG COLLEGIATE SPRINTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayaram Maharjan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: A warm-up is important part of preparation for sprinting. There is popularity of doing stretching as part of warm up before athletic activity. The static stretching and PNF stretching is performed by athletes but their effectiveness on sprinting performance is in state of debate. The objective is to determine the effect of static stretching and PNF stretching on sprinting performance in college sprinters and to compare the effects of PNF stretching over static stretching on sprinting performance in college sprinters. Method: A total of 100 subjects were taken for the study that fulfill the inclusion criteria and all were divided into group- A (static stretching and group- B (PNF stretching by simple random sampling method. Both the groups received 5 minutes of warm-up exercises. Pre-Post design was used, which consisted of running a 40-yard sprint immediately following 2 stretching conditions aimed at the lower limb muscles Results: In static stretching group sprint time changed from 6.55 with standard deviation of 0.93 to 6.12 with standard deviation of 1.02 (P.605. Conclusion: Hence both static stretching and PNF stretching can be performed before sprinting activity to improve the sprinting performance.

  11. Stretching Safely and Effectively

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of stretching before or after hitting the trail, ballet floor or soccer field. Before you plunge into ... ballistic stretching on strength and muscular fatigue of ballet dancers and resistance-trained women. Journal of Strength ...

  12. Stretched Wire Mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowden, Gordon; /SLAC

    2005-09-06

    Stretched wires are beginning to play an important role in the alignment of accelerators and synchrotron light sources. Stretched wires are proposed for the alignment of the 130 meter long LCLS undulator. Wire position technology has reached sub-micron resolution yet analyses of perturbations to wire straightness are hard to find. This paper considers possible deviations of stretched wire from the simple 2-dimensional catenary form.

  13. Stretching: Does It Help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardiman, Phillip; Carrand, David; Gallagher, Philip M.

    2010-01-01

    Stretching prior to activity is universally accepted as an important way to improve performance and help prevent injury. Likewise, limited flexibility has been shown to decrease functional ability and predispose a person to injuries. Although this is commonly accepted, appropriate stretching for children and adolescents involved with sports and…

  14. Dynamic stretching is effective as static stretching at increasing flexibility

    OpenAIRE

    Coons, John M.; Gould, Colleen E.; Kim, Jwa K.; Farley, Richard S.; Caputo, Jennifer L.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effect of dynamic and static (standard) stretching on hamstring flexibility. Twenty-five female volleyball players were randomly assigned to dynamic (n = 12) and standard (n = 13) stretching groups. The experimental group trained with repetitive dynamic stretching exercises, while the standard modality group trained with static stretching exercises. The stretching interventions were equivalent in the time at stretch and were performed three days a week for four weeks. ...

  15. Effects of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching and static stretching on maximal voluntary contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyahara, Yutetsu; Naito, Hisashi; Ogura, Yuji; Katamoto, Shizuo; Aoki, Junichiro

    2013-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate and compare the effects of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching and static stretching on maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). Thirteen male university students (age, 20 ± 1 years; height, 172.2 ± 4.6 cm; weight, 68.4 ± 6.7 kg; mean ± SD) completed 3 different conditions on 3 nonconsecutive days in randomized order: static stretching (SS), PNF stretching (PNF), and no stretching (control, CON). Each condition consisted of a 5-minute rest accompanied by one of the following activities: (a) control, (b) SS, or (c) PNF stretching. The hip flexion range of motion (ROM) was evaluated immediately before and after the activity. The MVC of knee flexion was then measured. Surface electromyography was recorded from the biceps femoris and vastus lateralis muscles during MVC tests and stretching. Although increases in ROM were significantly greater after PNF than after SS (p < 0.01), the decreases in MVC were similar between the 2 treatments. These results suggest that, although PNF stretching increases ROM more than SS, PNF stretching and SS is detrimental to isometric maximal strength.

  16. Biocatalysis: Unmasked by stretching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharlampieva, Eugenia; Tsukruk, Vladimir V.

    2009-09-01

    The biocatalytic activity of enzyme-loaded responsive layer-by-layer films can be switched on and off by simple mechanical stretching. Soft materials could thus be used to trigger biochemical reactions under mechanical action, with potential therapeutic applications.

  17. Static stretching does not alter pre and post-landing muscle activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moss Wesley R

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Static stretching may result in various strength and power deficiencies. Prior research has not determined, however, if static stretching causes a change in muscle activation during a functional task requiring dynamic stability. The purpose of this study was to determine if static stretching has an effect on mean pre and postlanding muscle (vastus medialis VM, vastus lateralis VL, medial hamstring MH, and biceps femoris BF activity. Methods 26 healthy, physically active subjects were recruited, from which 13 completed a 14-day static stretching regimen for the quadriceps and hamstrings. Using the data from the force plate and EMG readings, a mean of EMG amplitude was calculated for 150 msec before and after landing. Each trial was normalized to an isometric reference position. Means were calculated for the VM, VL, MH, and BF from 5 trials in each session. Measures were collected pre, immediately following the 1st stretching session, and following 2 weeks of stretching. Results A 14-day static stretching regimen resulted in no significant differences in pre or postlanding mean EMG amplitude during a drop landing either acutely or over a 14-day period. Conclusions Static stretching, done acutely or over a 14-day period does not result in measurable differences of mean EMG amplitude during a drop landing. Static stretching may not impede dynamic stability of joints about which stretched muscles cross.

  18. Stretching & Flexibility: An Interactive Encyclopedia of Stretching. [CD-ROM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002

    This CD-ROM offers 140 different stretches in full-motion video sequences. It focuses on the proper techniques for overall physical fitness, injury prevention and rehabilitation, and 23 different sports (e.g., golf, running, soccer, skiing, climbing, football, and baseball). Topics include stretching for sports; stretching awareness and education…

  19. Stretched exponential relaxation and ac universality in disordered dielectrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milovanov, Alexander V.; Rypdal, Kristoffer; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    2007-01-01

    are stretched exponential character of dielectric relaxation, power-law power spectral density, and anomalous dependence of ac conduction coefficient on frequency. We propose a self-consistent model of dielectric relaxation in which the relaxations are described by a stretched exponential decay function...

  20. Stretching the Border

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horstmann, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I hope to add a complementary perspective to James Scott’s recent work on avoidance strategies of subaltern mountain people by focusing on what I call the refugee public. The educated Karen elite uses the space of exile in the Thai borderland to reconstitute resources and to re-ent......-based organizations succeed to stretch the border by establishing a firm presence that is supported by the international humanitarian economy in the refugee camps in Northwestern Thailand....

  1. Mechanical stretching for tissue engineering: two-dimensional and three-dimensional constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehl, Brandon D; Park, Jae-Hong; Kwon, Il Keun; Lim, Jung Yul

    2012-08-01

    Mechanical cell stretching may be an attractive strategy for the tissue engineering of mechanically functional tissues. It has been demonstrated that cell growth and differentiation can be guided by cell stretch with minimal help from soluble factors and engineered tissues that are mechanically stretched in bioreactors may have superior organization, functionality, and strength compared with unstretched counterparts. This review explores recent studies on cell stretching in both two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) setups focusing on the applications of stretch stimulation as a tool for controlling cell orientation, growth, gene expression, lineage commitment, and differentiation and for achieving successful tissue engineering of mechanically functional tissues, including cardiac, muscle, vasculature, ligament, tendon, bone, and so on. Custom stretching devices and lab-specific mechanical bioreactors are described with a discussion on capabilities and limitations. While stretch mechanotransduction pathways have been examined using 2D stretch, studying such pathways in physiologically relevant 3D environments may be required to understand how cells direct tissue development under stretch. Cell stretch study using 3D milieus may also help to develop tissue-specific stretch regimens optimized with biochemical feedback, which once developed will provide optimal tissue engineering protocols.

  2. Comparing the effects of 3 weeks of upper-body vibration training, vibration and stretching, and stretching alone on shoulder flexibility in college-aged men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Steven L; Kim, Eonho; Seo, Dong-Il; Bemben, Michael G

    2013-12-01

    This study compared the effects of 3 weeks of upper-body vibration training, vibration and stretching, and stretching alone on shoulder flexibility in college-aged men. Twenty-one men were randomly assigned to vibration-stretching (VS; n = 8), vibration only (VO; n = 6), or stretching only (SO; n = 7) groups that trained 3 times per week for 3 weeks. All 3 groups performed 9 total sets of 30-second stretches. The VS group performed four 30-second upper-body vibration exercises and five 30-second upper-body stretching exercises. The VO group performed nine 30-second upper-body vibration exercises. The SO group performed nine 30-second upper-body stretching exercises. Shoulder flexion (SF), shoulder extension (SE), and shoulder transverse extension (STE) were assessed by a Leighton Flexometer and back scratch tests bilaterally (BSR, BSL) were measured via tape measure. A 1-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) evaluated groups at baseline and a 2-way repeated-measures ANOVA evaluated the interventions over time. At baseline, there were no group differences in age, height, or weight. There was a significant (p alone or combined with stretching, is a viable alternative to a standard stretching routine when attempting to increase shoulder flexibility. Adding vibration training to a flexibility regimen may improve the likelihood of regularly performing flexibility sessions because of increased variety.

  3. The effect of warm-ups with stretching on the isokinetic moments of collegiate men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyoung-Kil; Jung, Min-Kyung; Park, Eunkyung; Lee, Chang-Young; Jee, Yong-Seok; Eun, Denny; Cha, Jun-Youl; Yoo, Jaehyun

    2018-02-01

    Performing warm-ups increases muscle temperature and blood flow, which contributes to improved exercise performance and reduced risk of injuries to muscles and tendons. Stretching increases the range of motion of the joints and is effective for the maintenance and enhancement of exercise performance and flexibility, as well as for injury prevention. However, stretching as a warm-up activity may temporarily decrease muscle strength, muscle power, and exercise performance. This study aimed to clarify the effect of stretching during warm-ups on muscle strength, muscle power, and muscle endurance in a nonathletic population. The subjects of this study consisted of 13 physically active male collegiate students with no medical conditions. A self-assessment questionnaire regarding how well the subjects felt about their physical abilities was administered to measure psychological readiness before and after the warm-up. Subjects performed a non-warm-up, warm-up, or warm-up regimen with stretching prior to the assessment of the isokinetic moments of knee joints. After the measurements, the respective variables were analyzed using nonparametric tests. First, no statistically significant intergroup differences were found in the flexor and extensor peak torques of the knee joints at 60°/sec, which were assessed to measure muscle strength. Second, no statistically significant intergroup differences were found in the flexor and extensor peak torques of the knee joints at 180°/sec, which were assessed to measure muscle power. Third, the total work of the knee joints at 240°/sec, intended to measure muscle endurance, was highest in the aerobic-stretch-warm-ups (ASW) group, but no statistically significant differences were found among the groups. Finally, the psychological readiness for physical activity according to the type of warm-up was significantly higher in ASW. Simple stretching during warm-ups appears to have no effect on variables of exercise physiology in nonathletes

  4. Kontrola kvalitete stretch folije

    OpenAIRE

    Gržanić, Nino

    2016-01-01

    U završnom radu opisan je postupak ekstrudiranja i kontrole kvalitete stretch folije koji se koristi u firmi Bomark-Pak radi osiguravanja najbolje kvalitete. Kontrola kreče kod uvoza repromaterijala, nastavlja se kod izrade folije na stroju, te se glavni dio odvija nakon izrade gotovg proizvoda. U radu ćemo detaljno objasniti svaki pojedini korak, zašto se on vrši, te uz pomoć kojih mjernih instrumenata se izvršava.

  5. Immediate Effects of Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Stretching Programs Compared With Passive Stretching Programs for Hamstring Flexibility: A Critically Appraised Topic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Kristian J; Robinson, Kendall P; Cuchna, Jennifer W; Hoch, Matthew C

    2017-11-01

    Clinical Scenario: Increasing hamstring flexibility through clinical stretching interventions may be an effective means to prevent hamstring injuries. However the most effective method to increase hamstring flexibility has yet to be determined. For a healthy individual, are proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching programs more effective in immediately improving hamstring flexibility when compared with static stretching programs? Summary of Key Findings: A thorough literature search returned 195 possible studies; 5 studies met the inclusion criteria and were included. Current evidence supports the use of PNF stretching or static stretching programs for increasing hamstring flexibility. However, neither program demonstrated superior effectiveness when examining immediate increases in hamstring flexibility. Clinical Bottom Line: There were consistent findings from multiple low-quality studies that indicate there is no difference in the immediate improvements in hamstring flexibility when comparing PNF stretching programs to static stretching programs in physically active adults. Strength of Recommendation: Grade B evidence exists that PNF and static stretching programs equally increase hamstring flexibility immediately following the stretching program.

  6. Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Orthosis Augmented by Either Stretching or Stretching and Strengthening for Stage II Tibialis Posterior Tendon Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houck, Jeff; Neville, Christopher; Tome, Josh; Flemister, Adolph

    2015-09-01

    The value of strengthening and stretching exercises combined with orthosis treatment in a home-based program has not been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of augmenting orthosis treatment with either stretching or a combination of stretching and strengthening in participants with stage II tibialis posterior tendon dysfunction (TPTD). Participants included 39 patients with stage II TPTD who were recruited from a medical center and then randomly assigned to a strengthening or stretching treatment group. Excluding 3 dropouts, there were 19 participants in the strengthening group and 17 in the stretching group. The stretching treatment consisted of a prefabricated orthosis used in conjunction with stretching exercises. The strengthening treatment consisted of a prefabricated orthosis used in conjunction with the stretching and strengthening exercises. The main outcome measures were self-report (ie, Foot Function Index and Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment) and isometric deep posterior compartment strength. Two-way analysis of variance was used to test for differences between groups at 6 and 12 weeks after starting the exercise programs. Both groups significantly improved in pain and function over the 12-week trial period. The self-report measures showed minimal differences between the treatment groups. There were no differences in isometric deep posterior compartment strength. A moderate-intensity, home-based exercise program was minimally effective in augmenting orthosis wear alone in participants with stage II TPTD. Level I, prospective randomized study. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Interface Consistency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staunstrup, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    This paper proposes that Interface Consistency is an important issue for the development of modular designs. Byproviding a precise specification of component interfaces it becomes possible to check that separately developedcomponents use a common interface in a coherent matter thus avoiding a very...... significant source of design errors. Awide range of interface specifications are possible, the simplest form is a syntactical check of parameter types.However, today it is possible to do more sophisticated forms involving semantic checks....

  8. Pre-exercise stretching does not impact upon running economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Philip R; Walker, Adrian

    2007-11-01

    Pre-exercise stretching has been widely reported to reduce performance in tasks requiring maximal or near-maximal force or torque. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of 3 different pre-exercise stretching routines on running economy. Seven competitive male middle and long-distance runners (mean +/- SD) age: 32.5 +/- 7.7 years; height: 175.0 +/- 8.8 cm; mass: 67.8 +/- 8.6 kg; V(.-)O2max: 66.8 +/- 7.0 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) volunteered to participate in this study. Each participant completed 4 different pre-exercise conditions: (a) a control condition, (b) static stretching, (c) progressive static stretching, and (d) dynamic stretching. Each stretching routine consisted of 2 x 30-second stretches for each of 5 exercises. Dependent variables measured were sit and reach test before and after each pre-exercise routine, running economy (ml x kg(-1) x km(-1)), and steady-state oxygen uptake (ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)), which were measured during the final 3 minutes of a 10-minute run below lactate threshold. All 3 stretching routines resulted in an increase in the range of movement (p = 0.008). There was no change in either running economy (p = 0.915) or steady-state V(.-)O2 (p = 0.943). The lack of change in running economy was most likely because it was assessed after a period of submaximal running, which may have masked any effects from the stretching protocols. Previously reported reductions in performance have been attributed to reduced motor unit activation, presumably IIX. In this study, these motor units were likely not to have been recruited; this may explain the unimpaired performance. This study suggests that pre-exercise stretching has no impact upon running economy or submaximal exercise oxygen cost.

  9. Acute effect of different stretching methods on Illinois agility test in soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri-Khorasani, Mohammadtaghi; Sahebozamani, Mansour; Tabrizi, Kourosh G; Yusof, Ashril B

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of static, dynamic, and the combination of static and dynamic stretching within a pre-exercise warm-up on the Illinois agility test (IAT) in soccer players. Nineteen professional soccer players (age = 22.5 ± 2.5 years, height = 1.79 ± 0.003 m, body mass = 74.8 ± 10.9 kg) were tested for agility performance using the IAT after different warm-up protocols consisting of static, dynamic, combined stretching, and no stretching. The players were subgrouped into less and more experienced players (5.12 ± 0.83 and 8.18 ± 1.16 years, respectively). There were significant decreases in agility time after no stretching, among no stretching vs. static stretching; after dynamic stretching, among static vs. dynamic stretching; and after dynamic stretching, among dynamic vs. combined stretching during warm-ups for the agility: mean ± SD data were 14.18 ± 0.66 seconds (no stretch), 14.90 ± 0.38 seconds (static), 13.95 ± 0.32 seconds (dynamic), and 14.50 ± 0.35 seconds (combined). There was significant difference between less and more experienced players after no stretching and dynamic stretching. There was significant decrease in agility time following dynamic stretching vs. static stretching in both less and more experienced players. Static stretching does not appear to be detrimental to agility performance when combined with dynamic warm-up for professional soccer players. However, dynamic stretching during the warm-up was most effective as preparation for agility performance. The data from this study suggest that more experienced players demonstrate better agility skills due to years of training and playing soccer.

  10. Stretch-minimising stream surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Barton, Michael

    2015-05-01

    We study the problem of finding stretch-minimising stream surfaces in a divergence-free vector field. These surfaces are generated by motions of seed curves that propagate through the field in a stretch minimising manner, i.e., they move without stretching or shrinking, preserving the length of their arbitrary arc. In general fields, such curves may not exist. How-ever, the divergence-free constraint gives rise to these \\'stretch-free\\' curves that are locally arc-length preserving when infinitesimally propagated. Several families of stretch-free curves are identified and used as initial guesses for stream surface generation. These surfaces are subsequently globally optimised to obtain the best stretch-minimising stream surfaces in a given divergence-free vector field. Our algorithm was tested on benchmark datasets, proving its applicability to incompressible fluid flow simulations, where our stretch-minimising stream surfaces realistically reflect the flow of a flexible univariate object. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Acute Muscle Stretching and Shoulder Position Sense

    OpenAIRE

    Björklund, Martin; Djupsjöbacka, Mats; Crenshaw, Albert G

    2006-01-01

    Context: Stretching is common among athletes as a potential method for injury prevention. Stretching-induced changes in the muscle spindle properties are a suggested mechanism, which may imply reduced proprioception after stretching; however, little is known of this association.

  12. Stretched cell cycle model for proliferating lymphocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Mark R.; Kan, Andrey; Heinzel, Susanne; Zhou, Jie H. S.; Marchingo, Julia M.; Wellard, Cameron J.; Markham, John F.; Hodgkin, Philip D.

    2014-01-01

    Stochastic variation in cell cycle time is a consistent feature of otherwise similar cells within a growing population. Classic studies concluded that the bulk of the variation occurs in the G1 phase, and many mathematical models assume a constant time for traversing the S/G2/M phases. By direct observation of transgenic fluorescent fusion proteins that report the onset of S phase, we establish that dividing B and T lymphocytes spend a near-fixed proportion of total division time in S/G2/M phases, and this proportion is correlated between sibling cells. This result is inconsistent with models that assume independent times for consecutive phases. Instead, we propose a stretching model for dividing lymphocytes where all parts of the cell cycle are proportional to total division time. Data fitting based on a stretched cell cycle model can significantly improve estimates of cell cycle parameters drawn from DNA labeling data used to monitor immune cell dynamics. PMID:24733943

  13. Hydraulic fracture during epithelial stretching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casares, Laura; Vincent, Romaric; Zalvidea, Dobryna; Campillo, Noelia; Navajas, Daniel; Arroyo, Marino; Trepat, Xavier

    2015-03-01

    The origin of fracture in epithelial cell sheets subject to stretch is commonly attributed to excess tension in the cells' cytoskeleton, in the plasma membrane, or in cell-cell contacts. Here, we demonstrate that for a variety of synthetic and physiological hydrogel substrates the formation of epithelial cracks is caused by tissue stretching independently of epithelial tension. We show that the origin of the cracks is hydraulic; they result from a transient pressure build-up in the substrate during stretch and compression manoeuvres. After pressure equilibration, cracks heal readily through actomyosin-dependent mechanisms. The observed phenomenology is captured by the theory of poroelasticity, which predicts the size and healing dynamics of epithelial cracks as a function of the stiffness, geometry and composition of the hydrogel substrate. Our findings demonstrate that epithelial integrity is determined in a tension-independent manner by the coupling between tissue stretching and matrix hydraulics.

  14. Soleus stretch reflex during cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grey, Michael James; Pierce, C. W.; Milner, T. E.

    2001-01-01

    the crank cycle, producing ankle dorsiflexion perturbations of similar trajectory. The stretch reflex was greatest during the power phase of the crank cycle and was decreased to the level of background EMG during recovery. Matched perturbations were induced under static conditions at the same crank angle...... active cycling as has been shown with the H-reflex. This lack of depression may reflect a decreased susceptibility of the stretch reflex to inhibition, possibly originating from presynaptic mechanisms....

  15. Metronomic chemotherapy regimens in oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yu. Fedyanin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Metronomic chemotherapy implies the regular use of cytotoxic agents in doses much smaller than the maximum tolerable doses for a long time. Preclinical experiments show that this treatment option has a many-sided (antiangiogenic, immunostimulating, and direct cytotoxic effect on tumor. Moreover, this approach has gained the widest acceptance in treating patients with metastatic breast cancer in clinical practice. By taking into account the high activity of angiogenesis in colon cancer progression, it is interesting to study the impact of metronomic chemotherapy regimens for this nosological entity as well. This literature review considers not only the history of metronomic chemotherapy, the mechanisms of action, and a range of drugs having an antitumor effect in the metronomic regimens, but also analyzes clinical trials of metronomic chemotherapy regimens in patients with metastatic colon cancer.

  16. Time course of the effects of static stretching on cycling economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Alyson E; Brown, Lee E; Coburn, Jared W; Kersey, Robert D; Bottaro, Martim

    2011-11-01

    Stretching has been implemented as part of the warm-up before physical events and widely thought to promote increased sport performance and decreased injury risk. However, recent research has concluded that static stretching before many exercises inhibits acute power, strength, and sprinting performance. There is little research examining the time course of these effects on moderate intensity cycling. The purpose of this study was to examine the time course of static stretching on cycling economy. The subjects consisted of 5 men and 5 women highly trained endurance cyclists. The first of 3 visits was baseline testing of their cycling VO2max. The second and third visits were either stretching or no stretching before a 30-minute stationary ride at 65% of their VO2max. The stretching condition consisted of four 30-second repetitions of 5 stretches with an average total stretching time of 16 minutes. VO2 demonstrated a significant condition by time interaction with the 5-minute time point being significantly less in the nonstretching condition (32.66 ± 5.35 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) than stretching (34.39 ± 5.39 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)). No other time points were different. Our results demonstrate that static stretching yielded an acute increase in submaximal VO2; therefore, coaches and highly trained endurance cyclists should exclude static stretching immediately before moderate intensity cycling because it reduces acute cycling economy.

  17. Dynamics and structure of stretched flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, C.K. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This program aims to gain fundamental understanding on the structure, geometry, and dynamics of laminar premixed flames, and relate these understanding to the practical issues of flame extinction and stabilization. The underlying fundamental interest here is the recent recognition that the response of premixed flames can be profoundly affected by flame stretch, as manifested by flow nonuniformity, flame curvature, and flame/flow unsteadiness. As such, many of the existing understanding on the behavior of premixed flames need to be qualitatively revised. The research program consists of three major thrusts: (1) detailed experimental and computational mapping of the structure of aerodynamically-strained planar flames, with emphasis on the effects of heat loss, nonequidiffusion, and finite residence time on the flame thickness, extent of incomplete reaction, and the state of extinction. (2) Analytical study of the geometry and dynamics of stretch-affected wrinkled flame sheets in simple configurations, as exemplified by the Bunsen flame and the spatially-periodic flame, with emphasis on the effects of nonlinear stretch, the phenomena of flame cusping, smoothing, and tip opening, and their implications on the structure and burning rate of turbulent flames. (3) Stabilization and blowoff of two-dimensional inverted premixed and stabilization and determining the criteria governing flame blowoff. The research is synergistically conducted through the use of laser-based diagnostics, computational simulation of the flame structure with detailed chemistry and transport, and mathematical analysis of the flame dynamics.

  18. Relationship Between Stretch Duration And Shoulder Musculature ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To date, studies focussing on the effect of stretching on flexibility have focused almost solely on the effect of chronic stretching rather than the effects of acute stretching performed immediately prior to physical activity. The effects of different static stretches were assessed on passive shoulder range of motion (ROM).

  19. Effects of Warm-Up Stretching Exercises on Sprint Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makaruk, Hubert; Makaruk, Beata; Kedra, Stanislaw

    2008-01-01

    Study aim: To assess direct effects of warm-up consisting of static and dynamic stretching exercises on sprint results attained by students differing in sprint performance. Material and methods: A group of 24 male and 19 female physical education students, including 12 and 9 sprinters, respectively. They performed warm-ups consisting of dynamic…

  20. Atomic Stretch: Optimally bounded real-time stretching and beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Ramsbøl; Nielsen, Jannik Boll

    2016-01-01

    Atomic Stretch is a plugin for your preferred Adobe video editing tool, allowing real-time smooth and optimally bounded retarget-ting from and to any aspect ratio. The plugin allows preserving of high interest pixels through a protected region, attention redirection through color-modification, co......Atomic Stretch is a plugin for your preferred Adobe video editing tool, allowing real-time smooth and optimally bounded retarget-ting from and to any aspect ratio. The plugin allows preserving of high interest pixels through a protected region, attention redirection through color...

  1. Acute effects of 15min static or contract-relax stretching modalities on plantar flexors neuromuscular properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babault, Nicolas; Kouassi, Blah Y L; Desbrosses, Kevin

    2010-03-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the immediate effects of 15 min static or sub-maximal contract-relax stretching modalities on the neuromuscular properties of plantar flexor muscles. Ten male volunteers were tested before and immediately after 15 min static or contract-relax stretching programs of plantar flexor muscles (20 stretches). Static stretching consisted in 30s stretches to the point of discomfort. For the contract-relax stretching modality, subjects performed 6s sub-maximal isometric plantar flexion before 24s static stretches. Measurements included maximal voluntary isometric torque (MVT) and the corresponding electromyographic activity of soleus (SOL) and medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscles (RMS values), as well as maximal peak torque (Pt) elicited at rest by single supramaximal electrical stimulation of the tibial nerve. After 15 min stretching, significant MVT and SOL RMS decreases were obtained (-6.9+/-11.6% and -6.5+/-15.4%, respectively). No difference was obtained between stretching modalities. Pt remained unchanged after stretching. MG RMS changes were significantly different between stretching modalities (-9.4+/-18.3% and +3.5+/-11.6% after static and contract-relax stretching modalities, respectively). These findings indicated that performing 15 min static or contract-relax stretching had detrimental effects on the torque production capacity of plantar flexor muscles and should be precluded before competition. Mechanisms explaining this alteration seemed to be stretch modality dependent. Copyright 2009 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. EFFECT OF STATIC STRETCHING ON STRENGTH OF HAMSTRING MUSCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta P Pachpute

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Flexibility is an indisputable component of fitness defined as the ability to move a single joint or series of joints through an unrestricted pain free range of motion. Static stretching consists of stretching a muscle or group of muscle to its farthest point and then maintaining or holding that position. The literature supports that muscles are capable of exerting their greatest strength when they are fully lengthen. Hence this study was conducted to find the effect of static stretching on hamstring muscle. Methods: The study was experimental study design. 40 samples were selected by purposive sampling method. Flexibility of the hamstring muscle unilaterally right side (arbitrarily chosen was measured by active knee extension test of all the subjects who met the inclusion criteria of the study. After measuring the flexibility of hamstring muscle, strength was measured by 1RM for the same side (right hamstring muscle. Static Stretching Protocol was given for 5 days per week for 6 weeks to all the participants. After the 6 weeks of training, knee extension deficiency and 1RM was documented. Result: Statistical analysis using Paired t-test was done. The t-test showed that there was significant effect of static stretching on 1RM of hamstring muscle (p<0.05 & active knee extension test (p=0.000. Conclusion: Static stretching showed significant change in pre and post 1RM of hamstring muscle and active knee extension test. There was significant improvement of hamstring muscles flexibility and strength after giving static stretching in female population. So it is possible that females who are unable to participate in traditional strength training activities may be able to experience gains through static stretching.

  3. Acute effects of unilateral static stretching on handgrip strength of the stretched and non-stretched limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelmini, Jacob D; Cornwell, Andrew; Khodiguian, Nazareth; Thayer, Jennifer; Araujo, And John

    2018-02-16

    To determine the effects of an acute bout of unilateral static stretching on handgrip strength of both the stretched and non-stretched limb. It was reasoned that if the non-stretched limb experienced a decrease in force output, further evidence for a neural mechanism to explain a post-stretch force reduction would be obtained as no mechanical adaptation would have occurred. Thirty participants performed maximum voluntary unilateral handgrip contractions of both limbs before and after stretching the finger flexors of the strength-dominant side only. Each trial was assessed for peak force, muscle activity (iEMG), and rate of force generation. Following the stretching bout, peak force and iEMG decreased by 4.4% (p = 0.001) and 6.4% (p = 0.000) respectively in the stretched limb only. However, rate of force generation was significantly impaired in both the stretched (- 17.3%; p = 0.000) and non-stretched limbs (- 10.8%; p = 0.003) 1 min post-stretch, and remained similarly depressed for both limbs 15 min later. Acute stretching negatively impacts rate of force generation more than peak force. Moreover, a reduced rate of force generation from the non-stretched limb indicates the presence of a cross-over inhibitory effect through the nervous system, which provides additional evidence for a neural mechanism.

  4. Soleus stretch reflex during cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grey, Michael James; Pierce, C. W.; Milner, T. E.

    2001-01-01

    The modulation and strength of the human soleus short latency stretch reflex was investigated by mechanically perturbing the ankle during an unconstrained pedaling task. Eight subjects pedaled at 60 rpm against a preload of 10 Nm. A torque pulse was applied to the crank at various positions durin...

  5. On the generalised stretch function

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kharlamov, Alexander A.; Filip, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 4 (2012), s. 272-278 ISSN 1022-1344 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA103/09/2066 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : molecular length * recurrence equations * rubber * strain * stretch functions Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.606, year: 2012

  6. Optical tweezers stretching of chromatin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pope, L.H.; Bennink, Martin L.; Greve, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Recently significant success has emerged from exciting research involving chromatin stretching using optical tweezers. These experiments, in which a single chromatin fibre is attached by one end to a micron-sized bead held in an optical trap and to a solid surface or second bead via the other end,

  7. Transient filament stretching rheometer II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolte, Mette Irene; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Hassager, Ole

    1997-01-01

    The Lagrangian sspecification is used to simulate the transient stretching filament rheometer. Simulations are performed for dilute PIB-solutions modeled as a four mode Oldroyd-B fluid and a semidilute PIB-solution modeled as a non-linear single integral equation. The simulations are compared...

  8. Biaxial stretching of polyethylene, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakami, Hiroshi; Iida, Shozo

    1976-01-01

    The mechanism of oriented crystallization in mutually perpendicular direction to each other was investigated on the crosslinked linear polyethylene stretched successively and biaxially above melting point of raw material. To investigate the mechanism, the shrinkage stress, the degree of polarization and DSC of the film at the fixed length were measured on the crystallization process. The behavior observed on crystallization could be divided into that in the first period and that in the second period. The first period showed the domain of highly oriented crystallization of the crosslinked molecular chain, and in the second period the fold type crystals grew with highly oriented crystals in the first period as nuclear. Therefore, the formation of bi-component crystal structure is supposed for the crystallization. The biaxially oriented crystallization proceeded as follows: the uniaxial orientation to MD was observed in the first stretching in the initial stage, and then the further processing by the second stretching at a right angle caused the fold type crystallization of molecular chain oriented to TD. The film stretched fully and biaxially could be considered to have the oriented crystalline structure in which highly oriented fibril crystals and fold type crystals distribute at random. (auth.)

  9. Resistance training vs. static stretching: effects on flexibility and strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Sam K; Whitehead, James R; Brinkert, Ronald H; Caine, Dennis J

    2011-12-01

    Morton, SK, Whitehead, JR, Brinkert, RH, and Caine, DJ. Resistance training vs. static stretching: Effects on flexibility and strength. J Strength Cond Res 25(12): 3391-3398, 2011-The purpose of this study was to determine how full-range resistance training (RT) affected flexibility and strength compared to static stretching (SS) of the same muscle-joint complexes in untrained adults. Volunteers (n = 25) were randomized to an RT or SS training group. A group of inactive volunteers (n = 12) served as a convenience control group (CON). After pretesting hamstring extension, hip flexion and extension, shoulder extension flexibility, and peak torque of quadriceps and hamstring muscles, subjects completed 5-week SS or RT treatments in which the aim was to stretch or to strength train the same muscle-joint complexes over similar movements and ranges. Posttests of flexibility and strength were then conducted. There was no difference in hamstring flexibility, hip flexion, and hip extension improvement between RT and SS, but both were superior to CON values. There were no differences between groups on shoulder extension flexibility. The RT group was superior to the CON in knee extension peak torque, but there were no differences between groups on knee flexion peak torque. The results of this preliminary study suggest that carefully constructed full-range RT regimens can improve flexibility as well as the typical SS regimens employed in conditioning programs. Because of the potential practical significance of these results to strength and conditioning programs, further studies using true experimental designs, larger sample sizes, and longer training durations should be conducted with the aim of confirming or disproving these results.

  10. Intravenous and intramuscular magnesium sulphate regimens in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1993-09-03

    Sep 3, 1993 ... parenterally, usually according to one of two popular regimens: the intramuscular (IM) regimen introduced by. Pritchard' and a continuous intravenous (IV) infusion described by Zuspan! Sibai et a/.3 have reported that lower serum magnesium values are achieved with Zuspan's regimen (maintenance dose ...

  11. The effect of static, ballistic, and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching on vertical jump performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Paul S; Olsen, Peter D; Portas, Matthew D

    2007-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the acute effects of different modes of stretching on vertical jump performance. Eighteen male university students (age, 24.3 +/- 3.2 years; height, 181.5 +/- 11.4 cm; body mass, 78.1 +/- 6.4 kg; mean +/- SD) completed 4 different conditions in a randomized order, on different days, interspersed by a minimum of 72 hours of rest. Each session consisted of a standard 5-minute cycle warm-up, accompanied by one of the subsequent conditions: (a) control, (b) 10-minute static stretching, (c) 10-minute ballistic stretching, or (d) 10-minute proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching. The subjects performed 3 trials of static and countermovement jumps prior to stretching and poststretching at 5, 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes. Vertical jump height decreased after static and PNF stretching (4.0% and 5.1%, p 0.05). However, jumping performance had fully recovered 15 minutes after all stretching conditions. In conclusion, vertical jump performance is diminished for 15 minutes if performed after static or PNF stretching, whereas ballistic stretching has little effect on jumping performance. Consequently, PNF or static stretching should not be performed immediately prior to an explosive athletic movement.

  12. Time stretch and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahjoubfar, Ata; Churkin, Dmitry V.; Barland, Stéphane; Broderick, Neil; Turitsyn, Sergei K.; Jalali, Bahram

    2017-06-01

    Observing non-repetitive and statistically rare signals that occur on short timescales requires fast real-time measurements that exceed the speed, precision and record length of conventional digitizers. Photonic time stretch is a data acquisition method that overcomes the speed limitations of electronic digitizers and enables continuous ultrafast single-shot spectroscopy, imaging, reflectometry, terahertz and other measurements at refresh rates reaching billions of frames per second with non-stop recording spanning trillions of consecutive frames. The technology has opened a new frontier in measurement science unveiling transient phenomena in nonlinear dynamics such as optical rogue waves and soliton molecules, and in relativistic electron bunching. It has also created a new class of instruments that have been integrated with artificial intelligence for sensing and biomedical diagnostics. We review the fundamental principles and applications of this emerging field for continuous phase and amplitude characterization at extremely high repetition rates via time-stretch spectral interferometry.

  13. Stretching, twisting and supercoiling in short, single DNA molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Pui-Man; Zhen, Yi

    2018-02-01

    We had combined the Neukirch-Marko model that describes the extension, torque and supercoiling in single, stretched and twisted DNA of infinite contour length, with a form of the free energy suggested by Sinha and Samuels to describe short DNA, with contour length only a few times the persistence length. We find that the free energy of the stretched but untwisted DNA, is significantly modified from its infinitely length value and this in turn modifies significantly the torque and supercoiling. We show that this is consistent with short DNA being more flexible than infinitely long DNA. We hope our results will stimulate experimental investigation of torque and supercoiling in short DNA.

  14. BSDB: the Biomolecule Stretching Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieplak, Marek; Sikora, Mateusz; Sulkowska, Joanna I.; Witkowski, Bartlomiej

    2011-03-01

    Despite more than a decade of experiments on single biomolecule manipulation, mechanical properties of only several scores of proteins have been measured. A characteristic scale of the force of resistance to stretching, Fmax , has been found to range between ~ 10 and 480 pN. The Biomolecule Stretching Data Base (BSDB) described here provides information about expected values of Fmax for, currently, 17 134 proteins. The values and other characteristics of the unfolding proces, including the nature of identified mechanical clamps, are available at www://info.ifpan.edu.pl/BSDB/. They have been obtained through simulations within a structure-based model which correlates satisfactorily with the available experimental data on stretching. BSDB also lists experimental data and results of the existing all-atom simulations. The database offers a Protein-Data-Bank-wide guide to mechano-stability of proteins. Its description is provided by a forthcoming Nucleic Acids Research paper. Supported by EC FUNMOL project FP7-NMP-2007-SMALL-1, and European Regional Development Fund: Innovative Economy (POIG.01.01.02-00-008/08).

  15. Training specific adaptations of H- and stretch reflexes in human soleus muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Gruber, Markus; Taube, Wolfgang; Gollhofer, Albert; Beck, Sandra; Amtage, Florian; Schubert, Martin

    2007-01-01

    The authors investigated the effect of physical exercise on reflex excitability in a controlled intervention study. Healthy participants (N = 21) performed 4 weeks of either power training (ballistic strength training) or balance training (sensorimotor training [SMT]). Both training regimens enhanced balance control and rate of force development, whereas reductions in peak-to-peak amplitudes of stretch reflexes and in the ratio of the maximum Hoffman reflex to the maximum efferent motor respo...

  16. Stretching

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this topic for: Teens Dehydration Safety Tips: Running Knee Injuries Repetitive Stress Injuries Sports and Exercise Safety Dealing With Sports Injuries Sports Center Strains and Sprains View more Partner Message About Us Contact Us ...

  17. Extracting local stretching from left ventricle angiography data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sanjoy K.; Goldgof, Dmitry B.

    1991-07-01

    This paper presents a new method for extracting local surface stretching from the left ventricle (LV) cineangiography data. The algorithm is based on Gaussian curvature for surface stretching recovery under more realistic conformal motion assumption. During conformal motion surface stretching can vary over the surface patch. In particular, surface stretching can be approximated using linear or quadratic (or higher order) functions. Then, coefficients of the approximating function can be calculated and surface stretching computed from changes in surface curvature at corresponding points. For example, linear approximation requires three point correspondences (between consecutive time frames) within small surface patch. The authors demonstrate the higher precision of the new approach (as compared to homothetic assumption in the authors' earlier work) on simulated and real data of the left ventricle of the human heart. The data set was provided by Dr. Alistair Young of the University of Auckland, New Zealand, and consists of the tracked locations of eleven bifurcation points of the left coronary artery and the tracked locations of 292 vessel points for one cardiac cycle (60 frames/cycle).

  18. International Organization of Standardization (ISO) and Cambridge Filter Test (CFT) Smoking Regimen Data Comparisons in Tobacco Product Marketing Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Changyu; Walters, Matthew J; Holman, Matthew R

    2017-07-01

    We investigated the differences in TNCO (tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide) smoke yields generated under the International Organization of Standardization (ISO) and Federal Trade Commission (FTC) Cambridge Filter Test (CFT) smoking regimens. Twenty-nine commercial cigarette products from the US marketplace were acquired in 2015 and tested by measuring the TNCO smoke yields generated under these 2 nonintense smoking regimens. Data obtained demonstrated a linear relationship between the TNCO yields produced under the 2 smoking regimens (R 2 > 0.99). TNCO yields produced by each product were higher under the CFT smoking regimen than the ISO smoking regimen. We found that tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide yields were consistently 10% to 13% higher under the CFT smoking regimen than under the ISO smoking regimen. This strong correlation indicates that the 2 smoking regimens can be used to apply a correlation correction to CFT TNCO data and allow its comparison to ISO TNCO data in tobacco product marketing applications.

  19. Patients' Willingness to Take Multiple-Tablet Antiretroviral Therapy Regimens for Treatment of HIV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelhard, Esther A N; Smit, Colette; Vervoort, Sigrid C J M; Smit, Peter J; Nieuwkerk, Pythia T.; Kroon, Frank P; Reiss, Peter; Brinkman, Kees; Geerlings, Suzanne E.

    BACKGROUND: The costs of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) for HIV, consisting of separate, particularly generic, components (multiple-tablet regimens, MTR) are generally much lower than those of single-tablet regimens (STR) comprising the same active ingredients. OBJECTIVES: To assess

  20. Patients' Willingness to Take Multiple-Tablet Antiretroviral Therapy Regimens for Treatment of HIV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelhard, Esther A. N.; Smit, Colette; Vervoort, Sigrid C. J. M.; Smit, Peter J.; Nieuwkerk, Pythia T.; Kroon, Frank P.; Reiss, Peter; Brinkman, Kees; Geerlings, Suzanne E.

    2016-01-01

    The costs of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) for HIV, consisting of separate, particularly generic, components (multiple-tablet regimens, MTR) are generally much lower than those of single-tablet regimens (STR) comprising the same active ingredients. To assess whether patients would be

  1. Flexibility and passive resistance of the hamstrings of young adults using two different static stretching protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, S P; Hong, Y; Robinson, P D

    2001-04-01

    This investigation determined the effects of a static stretching program with different stretching protocols on the flexibility and passive resistance of the hamstrings of young adults. Forty healthy subjects (24 males and 16 females) aged 18 to 30 years were randomly assigned to one of four groups. The two training groups underwent static stretch training of the hamstrings either with a four-week protocol or with an eight-week protocol. The other two groups acted as control groups. A significant increase in flexibility of hamstrings was found in both of the two training groups (Pflexibility of hamstrings. However, if injury is reduced when there is relatively lower passive resistance at the end-of-range, then the eight-week training regimen would be recommended.

  2. Effect of stretching techniques on hamstring flexibility in female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Flexibility can be achieved by a variety of stretching techniques and the benefits of stretching are known. However, controversy remains about the best type of stretching for achieving a particular goal or outcome. The four most basic stretches are static stretching, dynamic stretching, PNF hold-relax and PNF contract-relax ...

  3. Duration Dependent Effect of Static Stretching on Quadriceps and Hamstring Muscle Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyla Alizadeh Ebadi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the acute effect of static stretching on hamstring and quadriceps muscles’ isokinetic strength when applied for various durations to elite athletes, to investigate the effect of different static stretching durations on isokinetic strength, and finally to determine the optimal stretching duration. Fifteen elite male athletes from two different sport branches (10 football and five basketball participated in this study. Experimental protocol was designed as 17 repetitive static stretching exercises for hamstring and quadriceps muscle groups according to the indicated experimental protocols; ((A 5 min jogging; (B 5 min jogging followed by 15 s static stretching; (C 5 min jogging followed by 30 s static stretching; (D 5 min jogging, followed by static stretching for 45 s. Immediately after each protocol, an isokinetic strength test consisting of five repetitions at 60°/s speed and 20 repetitions at 180°/s speed was recorded for the right leg by the Isomed 2000 device. Friedman variance analysis test was employed for data analysis. According to the analyzes, it was observed that 5 min jogging and 15 s stretching exercises increased the isokinetic strength, whereas 30 and 45 s stretching exercises caused a decrease.

  4. ACUTE EFFECTS OF THREE DIFFERENT STRETCHING PROTOCOLS ON THE WINGATE TEST PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno L. Franco

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of different stretching exercises on the performance of the traditional Wingate test (WT. Fifteen male participants performed five WT; one for familiarization (FT, and the remaining four after no stretching (NS, static stretching (SS, dynamic stretching (DS, and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF. Stretches were targeted for the hamstrings, quadriceps, and calf muscles. Peak power (PP, mean power (MP, and the time to reach PP (TP were calculated. The MP was significantly lower when comparing the DS (7.7 ± 0.9 W/kg to the PNF (7.3 ± 0.9 W/kg condition (p < 0.05. For PP, significant differences were observed between more comparisons, with PNF stretching providing the lowest result. A consistent increase of TP was observed after all stretching exercises when compared to NS. The results suggest the type of stretching, or no stretching, should be considered by those who seek higher performance and practice sports that use maximal anaerobic power.

  5. STATIC VERSUS PNF STRETCHING IN HAMSTRING FLEXIBILITY-A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkata Naga Prahalada Karnati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stretching used as a technique for injury prevention in the clinical settings, the study aimed to determine the early findings of hamstring tightness with both groups in the population, now a days the sedentary activities like prolonged sitting might cause hamstring tightness and change in path kinematics of gait intern lead to postural defects and back pain, understanding of the stretching helps clinician to make decisions for rehabilitation. Methods: Across-sectional study, counterbalanced with repeated-measures , one group with static stretch – (double hamstring stretch and hurdlers stretch for 3 times,30seconds subsequently in another group PNF contract relax(agonist contraction technique for 10 seconds position and 10 seconds stretch repeated for 3 times. Results: The results from data and statistical analysis by using t-test, SPSS obtained by using goniometer are tabulated in terms of mean, standard deviation and p-value in both groups. In experimental group flexion with PNF showed improvement 9.27±1.91(right side, 9.53±2.42(left side and static stretching showed 7.8±2.91(right side, 7.47±1.96(left side this proves that PNF has consistent improvement than static stretching. Conclusions: Static and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching both have produced greater improvement but compared with PNF contract relax(agonist stretching showed significant change in hamstring flexibility compared with control group . The effect sizes, however corresponding to these stretching-induced changes were small, which suggests the need for practitioners to consider a risk-to-benefit ratio when incorporating static or proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching.

  6. Bending and stretching of plates

    CERN Document Server

    Mansfield, E H; Hemp, W S

    1964-01-01

    The Bending and Stretching of Plates deals with elastic plate theory, particularly on small- and large-deflexion theory. Small-deflexion theory concerns derivation of basic equations, rectangular plates, plates of various shapes, plates whose boundaries are amenable to conformal transformation, plates with variable rigidity, and approximate methods. Large-deflexion theory includes general equations and some exact solutions, approximate methods in large-deflexion theory, asymptotic large-deflexion theories for very thin plates. Asymptotic theories covers membrane theory, tension field theory, a

  7. Stretching of macromolecules and proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strick, T R; Dessinges, M-N; Charvin, G; Dekker, N H; Allemand, J-F; Bensimon, D; Croquette, V

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we review the biophysics revealed by stretching single biopolymers. During the last decade various techniques have emerged allowing micromanipulation of single molecules and simultaneous measurements of their elasticity. Using such techniques, it has been possible to investigate some of the interactions playing a role in biology. We shall first review the simplest case of a non-interacting polymer and then present the structural transitions in DNA, RNA and proteins that have been studied by single-molecule techniques. We shall explain how these techniques permit a new approach to the protein folding/unfolding transition

  8. Effect of acute stretch injury on action potential and network activity of rat neocortical neurons in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magou, George C; Pfister, Bryan J; Berlin, Joshua R

    2015-10-22

    The basis for acute seizures following traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains unclear. Animal models of TBI have revealed acute hyperexcitablility in cortical neurons that could underlie seizure activity, but studying initiating events causing hyperexcitability is difficult in these models. In vitro models of stretch injury with cultured cortical neurons, a surrogate for TBI, allow facile investigation of cellular changes after injury but they have only demonstrated post-injury hypoexcitability. The goal of this study was to determine if neuronal hyperexcitability could be triggered by in vitro stretch injury. Controlled uniaxial stretch injury was delivered to a spatially delimited region of a spontaneously active network of cultured rat cortical neurons, yielding a region of stretch-injured neurons and adjacent regions of non-stretched neurons that did not directly experience stretch injury. Spontaneous electrical activity was measured in non-stretched and stretch-injured neurons, and in control neuronal networks not subjected to stretch injury. Non-stretched neurons in stretch-injured cultures displayed a three-fold increase in action potential firing rate and bursting activity 30-60 min post-injury. Stretch-injured neurons, however, displayed dramatically lower rates of action potential firing and bursting. These results demonstrate that acute hyperexcitability can be observed in non-stretched neurons located in regions adjacent to the site of stretch injury, consistent with reports that seizure activity can arise from regions surrounding the site of localized brain injury. Thus, this in vitro procedure for localized neuronal stretch injury may provide a model to study the earliest cellular changes in neuronal function associated with acute post-traumatic seizures. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Efficacy of moist heat pack application over static stretching on hamstring flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, D; Swank, A M; Adams, K J; Treolo, D

    2001-02-01

    Inadequate flexibility is a contributing factor to muscle injury, especially with respect to the hamstring muscle group. Simple therapeutic regimens capable of increasing hamstring flexibility may reduce the injury potential of athletes with below-average hamstring flexibility or history of injury. This study compared 30 seconds of static stretching with 20 minutes of heat application on hamstring flexibility. A secondary purpose was to determine the relationship between the subjects attitude toward each treatment and the efficacy of treatment. Thirty undergraduate student athletes who were current members of a Midwestern collegiate football team participated in a 2 (treatment: heat vs. stretching) by 2 (coun-terbalanced order: heat first vs. stretching first) repeated-measures design. Results indicated that significant benefits to increase hamstring flexibility could be gained by using moist heat packs in comparison with static stretching despite a perceived attitudinal bias in favor of stretching. These findings may have implications for orthopedic fitness as well as injury prevention for an athlete with prior hamstring injury or inadequate flexibility.

  10. DIOS - database of formalized chemotherapeutic regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimes, Daniel; Smid, Roman; Kubasek, Miroslav; Vyzula, Rostislav; Dušek, Ladislav

    2013-01-01

    Chemotherapeutic regimens (CHR) and their administration are routine practice in contemporary oncology. The development of a structured, electronic database of standard CHR can help the faster propagation of information about new CHR and at the same time enable assessment of their adherence in clinical practice. The goal was to develop a standardized way to describe a regimen using XML, fill the database with currently available regimens and develop tools to assess the adherence of the treatment to chosen regimen, compare the dose-intensity and recognize the regimen from existing data on drug administration. The data are being inserted in cooperation with expert oncologists and the database currently contains about 260 CHRs. Such system can be used to enhance decision support systems and interoperability of HIS. The database and tools are available online on the internet.

  11. Contact angles on stretched solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensink, Liz; Snoeijer, Jacco

    2017-11-01

    The surface energy of solid interfaces plays a central role in wetting, as they dictate the liquid contact angle. Yet, it has been challenging to measure the solid surface energies independently, without making use of Young's law. Here we present Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations by which we measure the surface properties for all interfaces, including the solids. We observe change in contact angles upon stretching the solid substrates, showing that the surface energy is actually strain dependent. This is clear evidence of the so-called Shuttleworth effect, making it necessary to distinguish surface energy from surface tension. We discuss how this effect gives rise to a new class of elasto-capillary phenomena. ERC Consolidator Grant No. 616918.

  12. A COMPARISION BETWEEN CROSSBODY STRETCH VERSUS SLEEPER STRETCH IN PERIARTHRITIS OF SHOULDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaik Raheem Saheb

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recently Cross body stretch and Sleeper stretch are used to improve internal rotation Range of motion in Shoulder Pathologies. It was proposed to study the effect of cross body stretch and sleeper stretch in subjects with periarthritis of shoulder. Methods: 60 subjects with a mean age of 53 years having clinical diagnosis of Periarthritis of shoulder and full filled the inclusive criteria are taken. After the initial measurements, the subjects are randomly assigned into 2 stretching groups. Group-A performed the Sleeper stretch. Group-B performed a Cross body stretch. Both Groups performed the Stretch in Duration of 6weeks – once daily for 5 repetitions holding each stretch for 30 seconds for 5 days a week. Along with this technique conventional physiotherapy like IFT, overhead pulleys, Pendula exercises, Wall climbing exercises, mariners wheel exercises are performed. After the treatment, subjects were evaluated for their pain profile using visual analogue scale, Goniometer for measuring Range of motion. Results: For within group comparison we used Paired t-test analysis, For Between group comparison we used Independent t-test for statistical analysis. At the end of 6 weeks It was found that subjects treated with cross-body stretch showed significant improvement in terms of VAS scores and Range of motion scores (P=0.000 and patients treated with Sleeper stretch showed significant improvement in terms of VAS scores and Range of motion scores (P=0.000. When compared between Groups the VAS and Range of motion scores showed a significant improvement in Cross body stretch Group than the Sleeper stretch Group (P=0.000. Conclusion: It was concluded that both stretching techniques were found improvement in Range of motion and VAS and Cross-body Stretch showed more Significant improvement than the sleeper Stretch after 6 weeks treatment.

  13. Comparison of caloric intake and weight outcomes of an ad lib feeding regimen for preterm infants in two nurseries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pridham, K F; Kosorok, M R; Greer, F; Kayata, S; Bhattacharya, A; Grunwald, P

    2001-09-01

    Effects on caloric intake and weight gain of an ad libitum (ad lib) feeding regimen for preterm infants may be specific to a special care nursery. To explore across two nurseries the similarity of effect on caloric intake and weight gain of an ad lib feeding regimen compared with a prescribed regimen and the similarity of effect of caloric intake on weight gain. All infants participating in the multi-site randomized clinical trial (RCT) of the ad lib feeding regimen were lib. After accounting for caloric intake, the ad lib regimen did not affect weight gain. The time-by-regimen interaction effect on caloric intake was significant in both nurseries. Caloric intake for infants fed ad lib increased significantly over 5 days. Despite differences between nurseries in infant characteristics and in protocol implementation, the feeding regimen effect was consistent for caloric intake and weight gain. Further support was found for the development of infant self-regulatory capacity.

  14. Cooperativity among short amyloid stretches in long amyloidogenic sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lele Hu

    Full Text Available Amyloid fibrillar aggregates of polypeptides are associated with many neurodegenerative diseases. Short peptide segments in protein sequences may trigger aggregation. Identifying these stretches and examining their behavior in longer protein segments is critical for understanding these diseases and obtaining potential therapies. In this study, we combined machine learning and structure-based energy evaluation to examine and predict amyloidogenic segments. Our feature selection method discovered that windows consisting of long amino acid segments of ~30 residues, instead of the commonly used short hexapeptides, provided the highest accuracy. Weighted contributions of an amino acid at each position in a 27 residue window revealed three cooperative regions of short stretch, resemble the β-strand-turn-β-strand motif in A-βpeptide amyloid and β-solenoid structure of HET-s(218-289 prion (C. Using an in-house energy evaluation algorithm, the interaction energy between two short stretches in long segment is computed and incorporated as an additional feature. The algorithm successfully predicted and classified amyloid segments with an overall accuracy of 75%. Our study revealed that genome-wide amyloid segments are not only dependent on short high propensity stretches, but also on nearby residues.

  15. The Effect of Lithotomy Position on Nerve Stretch: A Cadaveric Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deveneau, Nicolette E; Forbis, Courtney; Lipetskaia, Lioudmilla; Kinman, Casey L; Agrawal, Anubhav; Herring, Nicole R; Francis, Sean L

    The objective of our study was to design a method to measure nerve stretch in cadaveric subjects and then use the method to assess femoral nerve stretch in the lithotomy position with varying degrees of flexion and extension. A university-based, cadaveric observational study of femoral nerve stretch was conducted. In 6 cadaveric subjects, femoral nerve near the inguinal ligament was dissected in each cadaveric subject. The nerve was marked, and digital images of the nerve were obtained in the supine position and lithotomy position in both flexion and extension. Distances were calculated using the ratio of pixels to millimeter specific for each image. The average distance for each set of images was then used to calculate the percent change from supine for each position. We were able to assess nerve stretch using photo-editing software. For extended position, all nerves showed some degree of stretch with the mean percent change in nerve length being 10.35%. For all other positions, most showed a decrease of nerve length. There was not a significant relation between degree of extension and stretch (Pearson r, P < 0.05). Hip extension between 10 and 20 degrees consistently stretches the femoral nerve greater than 5%. The potential for femoral nerve stretch and avoiding hip extension should be considered when positioning a patient in lithotomy for surgical procedures.

  16. Device for stretching tapes or cables intended for manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudoin, J.-C.; Oger, Robert.

    1975-01-01

    The invention relates to a device for stretching tapes (or cables) intended for remote handling devices. Said equipment consists of a spring system continuously applying a constant tensile stress to said tapes (or cables) in view of taking up the slack in the latter. Said spring system is fastened to a supporting bar able to be rigidly connected to a member of the remote handling device [fr

  17. Anharmonic Bend-Stretch Coupling in Water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindner, Jörg; Vöhringer, Peter; Pshenichnikov, Maxim S.; Cringus, Dan; Wiersma, Douwe A.; Corkum, Paul; Jonas, David M.; Miller, R.J. Dwayne.; Weiner, Andrew M.

    2006-01-01

    Following excitation of the H-O-H bending mode of water molecules in solution the stretching mode region is monitored over its entire width. The anharmonic coupling between the two modes results in a substantial change of the transient stretch absorption that decays with the bend depopulation time.

  18. Stretching to prevent or reduce muscle soreness after exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Robert D; de Noronha, Marcos; Kamper, Steven J

    2011-07-06

    Many people stretch before or after engaging in athletic activity. Usually the purpose is to reduce risk of injury, reduce soreness after exercise, or enhance athletic performance. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2007. The aim of this review was to determine effects of stretching before or after exercise on the development of delayed-onset muscle soreness. We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialised Register (to 10 August 2009), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (2010, Issue 1), MEDLINE (1966 to 8th February 2010), EMBASE (1988 to 8th February 2010), CINAHL (1982 to 23rd February 2010), SPORTDiscus (1949 to 8th February 2010), PEDro (to 15th February 2010) and reference lists of articles. Eligible studies were randomised or quasi-randomised studies of any pre-exercise or post-exercise stretching technique designed to prevent or treat delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS). For the studies to be included, the stretching had to be conducted soon before or soon after exercise and muscle soreness had to be assessed. Risk of bias was assessed using The Cochrane Collaboration's 'Risk of bias' tool and quality of evidence was assessed using GRADE. Estimates of effects of stretching were converted to a common 100-point scale. Outcomes were pooled in fixed-effect meta-analyses. Twelve studies were included in the review. This update incorporated two new studies. One of the new trials was a large field-based trial that included 2377 participants, 1220 of whom were allocated stretching. All other 11 studies were small, with between 10 and 30 participants receiving the stretch condition. Ten studies were laboratory-based and other two were field-based. All studies were exposed to either a moderate or high risk of bias. The quality of evidence was low to moderate.There was a high degree of consistency of results across studies. The pooled estimate showed that pre-exercise stretching reduced soreness at one

  19. Anisotropic instability of a stretching film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bingrui; Li, Minhao; Deng, Daosheng

    2017-11-01

    Instability of a thin liquid film, such as dewetting arising from Van der Waals force, has been well studied, and is typically characterized by formation of many droplets. Interestingly, a thin liquid film subjected to an applied stretching during a process of thermal drawing is evolved into an array of filaments, i.e., continuity is preserved along the direction of stretching while breakup occurs exclusively in the plane of cross section. Here, to understand this anisotropic instability, we build a physical model by considering both Van der Waals force and the effect of stretching. By using the linear instability analysis method and then performing a numerical calculation, we find that the growth rate of perturbations at the cross section is larger than that along the direction of stretching, resulting in the anisotropic instability of the stretching film. These results may provide theoretical guidance to achieve more diverse structures for nanotechnology.

  20. Strategy as stretch and leverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, G; Prahalad, C K

    1993-01-01

    Global competition is not just product versus product or company versus company. It is mind-set versus mind-set. Driven to understand the dynamics of competition, we have learned a lot about what makes one company more successful than another. But to find the root of competitiveness--to understand why some companies create new forms of competitive advantage while others watch and follow--we must look at strategic mind-sets. For many managers, "being strategic" means pursuing opportunities that fit the company's resources. This approach is not wrong, Gary Hamel and C.K. Prahalad contend, but it obscures an approach in which "stretch" supplements fit and being strategic means creating a chasm between ambition and resources. Toyota, CNN, British Airways, Sony, and others all displaced competitors with stronger reputations and deeper pockets. Their secret? In each case, the winner had greater ambition than its well-endowed rivals. Winners also find less resource-intensive ways of achieving their ambitious goals. This is where leverage complements the strategic allocation of resources. Managers at competitive companies can get a bigger bang for their buck in five basic ways: by concentrating resources around strategic goals; by accumulating resources more efficiently; by complementing one kind of resource with another; by conserving resources whenever they can; and by recovering resources from the market-place as quickly as possible. As recent competitive battles have demonstrated, abundant resources can't guarantee continued industry leadership.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Gonzalez Regimen (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Expert-reviewed information summary about the Gonzalez regimen as a treatment for people with cancer. Note: The information in this summary is no longer being updated and is provided for reference purposes only.

  2. Predictive tools for designing new insulins and treatment regimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klim, Søren

    The thesis deals with the development of "Predictive tools for designing new insulins and treatments regimens" and consists of two parts: A model based approach for bridging properties of new insulin analogues from glucose clamp experiments to meal tolerance tests (MTT) and a second part that des......The thesis deals with the development of "Predictive tools for designing new insulins and treatments regimens" and consists of two parts: A model based approach for bridging properties of new insulin analogues from glucose clamp experiments to meal tolerance tests (MTT) and a second part...... glucose profiles from a MTT with treatments based on the new insulin analogue that previously only has been tested in clamps. The bridge between insulin analogue properties determined in clamp experiments to meal tolerance test outcomes in Phase II trials is not simple and is complicated by shifts...... in experimental setup, time horizon and treatment regimen. A bridging strategy was introduced where an integrated model simulating MTTs was extended with models developed on clamp data that described PK and PD for the new insulin analogue. The bridging strategy was tested by building an integrated model based...

  3. Stretch due to Penile Prosthesis Reservoir Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Baten

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A 43-year old patient presented to the emergency department with stretch, due to impossible deflation of the penile prosthesis, 4 years after successful implant. A CT-scan showed migration of the reservoir to the left rectus abdominis muscle. Refilling of the reservoir was inhibited by muscular compression, causing stretch. Removal and replacement of the reservoir was performed, after which the prosthesis was well-functioning again. Migration of the penile prosthesis reservoir is extremely rare but can cause several complications, such as stretch.

  4. Upper Limb Static-Stretching Protocol Decreases Maximal Concentric Jump Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo H. Marchetti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the acute effects of an upper limb static-stretching (SS protocol on the maximal concentric jump performance. We recruited 25 young healthy, male, resistance trained individuals (stretched group, n = 15 and control group, n = 10 in this study. The randomized between group experimental protocol consisted of a three trials of maximal concentric jump task, before and after a SS of the upper limb. Vertical ground reaction forces (vGRF and surface electromyography (sEMG of both gastrocnemius lateralis (GL and vastus lateralis (VL were acquired. An extensive SS was employed consisting of ten stretches of 30 seconds, with 15 seconds of rest, and 70-90% of the point of discomfort (POD. ANOVA (2x2 (group x condition was used for shoulder joint range of motion (ROM, vGRF and sEMG. A significant interaction for passive ROM of the shoulder joint revealed significant increases between pre- and post-SS protocol (p < 0.001. A significant interaction demonstrated decreased peak force and an increased peak propulsion duration between pre- and post-stretching only for stretch group (p = 0.021, and p = 0.024, respectively. There was a significant main effect between groups (stretch and control for peak force for control group (p = 0.045. Regarding sEMG variables, there were no significant differences between groups (control versus stretched or condition (pre-stretching versus post-stretching for the peak amplitude of RMS and IEMG for both muscles (VL and GL. In conclusion, an acute extensive SS can increase the shoulder ROM, and negatively affect both the propulsion duration and peak force of the maximal concentric jump, without providing significant changes in muscle activation.

  5. The Effects of Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Stretching on Post-Exercise Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGRATH, Ryan P; Whitehead, James R; Caine, Dennis J

    Until recently, the scientific community believed that post-exercise stretching could reduce delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), but recent reviews of studies on the topic have concluded that pre- or post-exercise static stretching has no effect on mitigating DOMS. However, the effect of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) post-exercise stretching on preventing DOMS has not been adequately studied. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of post-exercise PNF stretching on DOMS. Young adult participants (N=57) were randomly assigned to a PNF stretching group (n=19), a static stretching group (n=20), and to a no-stretching control group (n=18). All participants completed exercise designed to induce DOMS prior to post-exercise experimental stretching protocols. Participants rated their soreness level on a pain scale 24 and 48 hours post-exercise. A 3 × 2 mixed ANOVA showed there was an effect for time ( p <.01). Post hoc testing revealed that DOMS pain significantly decreased ( p <.05) from 24 to 48 hours post-exercise for the PNF and control groups, but not for the static stretching group. Other analyses revealed a significant correlation ( r =.61, p <.01) between the pre- and post-exercise stretch scores and the 48 hour post-exercise pain score for the PNF group. Consistent with the results of previous research on post-exercise static stretching, these results indicate that post-exercise PNF stretching also does not prevent DOMS. However, the correlation analysis suggests it is possible the pre-stretch muscle contractions of the post-exercise PNF protocol may have placed a load on an already damaged muscle causing more DOMS for some participants.

  6. The Effects of Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Stretching on Post-Exercise Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness in Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGRATH, RYAN P.; WHITEHEAD, JAMES R.; CAINE, DENNIS J.

    2014-01-01

    Until recently, the scientific community believed that post-exercise stretching could reduce delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), but recent reviews of studies on the topic have concluded that pre- or post-exercise static stretching has no effect on mitigating DOMS. However, the effect of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) post-exercise stretching on preventing DOMS has not been adequately studied. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of post-exercise PNF stretching on DOMS. Young adult participants (N=57) were randomly assigned to a PNF stretching group (n=19), a static stretching group (n=20), and to a no-stretching control group (n=18). All participants completed exercise designed to induce DOMS prior to post-exercise experimental stretching protocols. Participants rated their soreness level on a pain scale 24 and 48 hours post-exercise. A 3 × 2 mixed ANOVA showed there was an effect for time (p<.01). Post hoc testing revealed that DOMS pain significantly decreased (p<.05) from 24 to 48 hours post-exercise for the PNF and control groups, but not for the static stretching group. Other analyses revealed a significant correlation (r=.61, p<.01) between the pre- and post-exercise stretch scores and the 48 hour post-exercise pain score for the PNF group. Consistent with the results of previous research on post-exercise static stretching, these results indicate that post-exercise PNF stretching also does not prevent DOMS. However, the correlation analysis suggests it is possible the pre-stretch muscle contractions of the post-exercise PNF protocol may have placed a load on an already damaged muscle causing more DOMS for some participants. PMID:27182398

  7. Effect of modified hold-relax stretching and static stretching on hamstring muscle flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Hashim; Iqbal, Amir; Anwer, Shahnawaz; Alghadir, Ahmad

    2015-02-01

    [Purpose] The aim of present study was to compare the effectiveness of modified hold-relax stretching and static stretching in improving the hamstring muscle flexibility. [Subjects and Methods] Forty-five male subjects with hamstring tightness were included in this study. The subjects were randomly placed into three groups: the modified hold-relax stretching, static stretching and control groups. The modified hold-relax stretching group performed 7 seconds of isometric contraction and then relaxed for 5 seconds, and this was repeated five times daily for five consecutive days. The static stretching group received 10 minutes of static stretching with the help of a pulley and weight system for five consecutive days. The control group received only moist heat for 20 minutes for five consecutive days. A baseline reading of passive knee extension (PKE) was taken prior to the intervention; rest measurements were taken immediate post intervention on day 1, day 3, day 5, and after a 1 week follow-up, i.e., at the 12th day. [Results] On comparing the baseline readings of passive knee extension (PKE), there was no difference noted between the three groups. On comparing the posttest readings on day 5 between the 3 groups, a significant difference was noted. However, post hoc analysis revealed an insignificant difference between the modified hold-relax stretching and static stretching groups. There was a significant difference between the static stretching and control groups and between the modified hold-relax stretching and control groups. [Conclusion] The results of this study indicate that both the modified hold-relax stretching technique and static stretching are equally effective, as there was no significant difference in improving the hamstring muscle flexibility between the two groups.

  8. Investing in a Large Stretch Press

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choate, M.; Nealson, W.; Jay, G.; Buss, W.

    1986-01-01

    Press for forming large aluminum parts from plates provides substantial economies. Study assessed advantages and disadvantages of investing in large stretch-forming press, and also developed procurement specification for press.

  9. Excluded Volume Effects in Gene Stretching

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, Pui-Man

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the effects excluded volume on the stretching of a single DNA in solution. We find that for small force F, the extension h is not linear in F but proportion to F^{\\chi}, with \\chi=(1-\

  10. Effects of cryotherapy and thermotherapy associated with static stretching on the flexibility of hamstring muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to analyze the effect of cryotherapy and muscular warming on the flexibility of the hamstring muscles associated with three minutes of static stretching. Forty young male and female volunteers were randomly included in one of four groups: Group 1 – Control group, Group 2 – Three minutes of static stretching, Group 3 – Stretching preceded by warming using shortwave diathermy (20 minutes, and Group 4 – Stretching preceded by applying cryotherapy (20 minutes to the posterior thigh region. The program consisted of three series of stretching during five consecutive days and flexibility was assessed by goniometric evaluations of the extensor angle of the knee at the beginning of the protocol, at the end of the day and at the end of the protocol. The intergroup comparison was made through ANOVA post-hoc Tukey and the intragroup by paired t test, all with 5% level of significance. The three experimental groups significantly increased their range of motion in relation to the control group. However, differences were not observed among groups submitted to the different stretching programs. In conclusion, increases in flexibility were due to stretching and did not depend on previous application of hyperthermia and/or hypothermia.

  11. DNA stretching on functionalized gold surfaces.

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmermann, R M; Cox, E C

    1994-01-01

    We describe a method for anchoring bacteriophage lambda DNA by one end to gold by Au-biotin-streptavidin-biotin-DNA bonds. DNA anchored to a microfabricated Au line could be aligned and stretched in flow and electric fields. The anchor was shown to resist a force of at least 11 pN, a linkage strong enough to allow DNA molecules of chromosome size to be stretched and aligned.

  12. Comparison of two stretching methods and optimization of stretching protocol for the piriformis muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulledge, Brett M; Marcellin-Little, Denis J; Levine, David; Tillman, Larry; Harrysson, Ola L A; Osborne, Jason A; Baxter, Blaise

    2014-02-01

    Piriformis syndrome is an uncommon diagnosis for a non-discogenic form of sciatica whose treatment has traditionally focused on stretching the piriformis muscle (PiM). Conventional stretches include hip flexion, adduction, and external rotation. Using three-dimensional modeling, we quantified the amount of (PiM) elongation resulting from two conventional stretches and we investigated by use of a computational model alternate stretching protocols that would optimize PiM stretching. Seven subjects underwent three CT scans: one supine, one with hip flexion, adduction, then external rotation (ADD stretch), and one with hip flexion, external rotation, then adduction (ExR stretch). Three-dimensional bone models were constructed from the CT scans. PiM elongation during these stretches, femoral neck inclination, femoral head anteversion, and trochanteric anteversion were measured. A computer program was developed to map PiM length over a range of hip joint positions and was validated against the measured scans. ExR and ADD stretches elongated the PiM similarly by approximately 12%. Femoral head and greater trochanter anteversion influenced PiM elongation. Placing the hip joints in 115° of hip flexion, 40° of external rotation and 25° of adduction or 120° of hip flexion, 50° of external rotation and 30° of adduction increased PiM elongation by 30-40% compared to conventional stretches (15.1 and 15.3% increases in PiM muscle length, respectively). ExR and ADD stretches elongate the PiM similarly and therefore may have similar clinical effectiveness. The optimized stretches led to larger increases in PiM length and may be more easily performed by some patients due to increased hip flexion. Copyright © 2013 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Optimal HIV Postexposure Prophylaxis Regimen Completion With Single Tablet Daily Elvitegravir/Cobicistat/Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate/Emtricitabine Compared With More Frequent Dosing Regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Kenneth H; Jones, Daniel; Oldenburg, Catherine; Jain, Sachin; Gelman, Marcy; Zaslow, Shayne; Grasso, Chris; Mimiaga, Matthew J

    2017-08-15

    The study evaluated elvitegravir/cobicistat/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)/emtricitabine (FTC) ("Quad pill") for postexposure prophylaxis (PEP). HIV-exposed individuals may benefit from PEP, but completion rates have been suboptimal because of regimen complexity and side effects. Newer antiretroviral combinations coformulated as single daily pills may optimize PEP adherence. One hundred HIV-uninfected individuals who presented to a Boston community health center after an acute HIV sexual exposure were enrolled and initiated PEP with the daily, single-pill combination Quad pill for a 28-day course. Side effects and medication completion rates from study participants were compared with historical controls who had used PEP regimens consisting of TDF/FTC daily and raltegravir twice daily, or earlier regimens of twice daily zidovudine (AZT)/lamivudine (3TC) and a protease inhibitor, using χ tests for independence. Of the 100 participants who initiated the Quad pill for PEP after a high-risk sexual exposure, 71% completed the 28-day Quad pill regimen, which was significantly greater than historical controls who used TDF/FTC and raltegravir (57%, P pill users were as follows: abdominal discomfort or pain, gas or bloating (42%), diarrhea (38%), fatigue (28%), nausea or vomiting (28%), headache (14%), or dizziness or lightheadedness (6%). Most symptoms were mild, limited, and did not result in medication discontinuation. No participants became HIV infected. Fixed-dose combination of elvitegravir/cobicistat/TDF/FTC was safe and well tolerated for PEP, with higher regimen completion rates than more frequently dosed PEP regimens.

  14. Pilot study of a pediatric metronomic 4-drug regimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Nicolas; Abed, Sylvie; Orbach, Daniel; Alla, Corinne Armari; Padovani, Laetitia; Pasquier, Eddy; Gentet, Jean Claude; Verschuur, Arnauld

    2011-12-01

    Metronomic chemotherapy (MC) is defined as the frequent administration of chemotherapy at doses below the maximal tolerated dose and with no prolonged drug-free break. MC is gaining interest as an alternative strategy to fight resistant cancer. to assess the safety of 4 drug MC regimen in paediatric patients with refractory or relapsing various tumour types. From November 2008 to December 2010, in three academic paediatric oncology centers, 16 children (median age 12 years old; range 5.5-20) were included in this pilot study. This treatment was proposed to children with refractory disease for whom no further effective treatments were available. Most frequent diagnosis were medulloblastoma/cerebral PNET (5) osteosarcoma (5), and one case each of nephroblastoma, high grade glioma, Hodgkin lymphoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, neuroblastoma and kidney rhabdoid tumour. The MC regimen consisted in cycles of 56 days (8 weeks) with weekly vinblastine 3 mg/m2 (week 1-7), daily cyclophosphamide 30 mg/m2 (days 1-21), and twice weekly methotrexate 10 mg/m² (days 21-42), and daily celecoxib 100 mg to 400 mg twice daily (days 1-56) followed by a 2-weeks chemotherapy break. Adverse events were determined through laboratory analysis and investigator observations. One objective response was observed in a patient with Hodgkin lymphoma, and 4 patients experienced disease stabilization and continued their treatment for 3 cycles (24 weeks) or more. At last follow-up, 7 patients (43%) are alive including 1 still undergoing treatment. During the overall 36 cycles of treatments received by patients, 4 grade IV toxicities and 24 grade III toxicities were observed in 11 cycles in only 10 different patients. The metronomic regimen we report here was well tolerated and associated with disease stabilization. This regimen is currently being evaluated in a national multicenter phase II study.

  15. Acute Effect of Different Combined Stretching Methods on Acceleration and Speed in Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amiri-Khorasani Mohammadtaghi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effect of different stretching methods, during a warm-up, on the acceleration and speed of soccer players. The acceleration performance of 20 collegiate soccer players (body height: 177.25 ± 5.31 cm; body mass: 65.10 ± 5.62 kg; age: 16.85 ± 0.87 years; BMI: 20.70 ± 5.54; experience: 8.46 ± 1.49 years was evaluated after different warm-up procedures, using 10 and 20 m tests. Subjects performed five types of a warm-up: static, dynamic, combined static + dynamic, combined dynamic + static, and no-stretching. Subjects were divided into five groups. Each group performed five different warm-up protocols in five non-consecutive days. The warm-up protocol used for each group was randomly assigned. The protocols consisted of 4 min jogging, a 1 min stretching program (except for the no-stretching protocol, and 2 min rest periods, followed by the 10 and 20 m sprint test, on the same day. The current findings showed significant differences in the 10 and 20 m tests after dynamic stretching compared with static, combined, and no-stretching protocols. There were also significant differences between the combined stretching compared with static and no-stretching protocols. We concluded that soccer players performed better with respect to acceleration and speed, after dynamic and combined stretching, as they were able to produce more force for a faster execution.

  16. Effects of static stretching on the hamstrings-to-quadriceps ratio and electromyographic amplitude in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, P B; Ryan, E D; Herda, T J; Defreitas, J M; Beck, T W; Cramer, J T

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of posterior thigh and leg stretching on leg flexion peak torque (PT), leg extension PT, the hamstrings-to-quadriceps (H:Q) ratio, and electromyographic (EMG) amplitude of the hamstrings and quadriceps in recreationally-active men. Fifteen men (mean age + or - SD = 22.0 + or - 4.4 years; body mass = 82.7 + or - 16.1 kg; height = 173.1 + or - 6.8 cm) performed three maximal voluntary concentric isokinetic leg extension and flexion muscle actions at three randomly ordered angular velocities (60, 180, and 300 degrees x s(-1)) before and after hamstring and calf static stretching. The stretching protocol consisted of 1 unassisted and 3 assisted static stretching exercises designed to stretch the posterior muscles of the thigh and leg. Four repetitions of each stretch were held for 30 s with 20-s rest between repetitions. These findings indicated no significant (P>0.05) stretching-induced changes in leg flexion PT, leg extension PT, or EMG amplitude at 60, 180, or 300 degrees .s-1. However, the non-significant (P>0.05) 2-4% increases in leg extension PT combined with the non-significant (P>0.05) 1-2% decreases in leg flexion PT resulted in the significant (P ratio from pre- to post-stretching for all three velocities. These findings suggested that static stretching of the hamstrings and calf muscles may decrease the H:Q ratio. These results may be useful for athletic trainers, physical therapists, and other allied health professionals who may use the H:Q ratio as a clinical assessment.

  17. Mechanical stretch endows mesenchymal stem cells stronger angiogenic and anti-apoptotic capacities via NFκB activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Zhuoli; Gan, Xueqi; Fan, Hongyi; Yu, Haiyang

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been broadly used for tissue regeneration and repair due to their broad differentiation potential and potent paracrine properties such as angiogenic capacity. Strategies to increase their survival rate after transplantation and the angiogenic ability are of priority for the utility of MSCs. In this study, we found that mechanical stretch (10% extension, 30 cycles/min cyclic stretch) preconditioning increase the angiogenic capacity via VEGFA induction. In addition, mechanical stretch also increases the survival rate of mesenchymal stem cells under nutrients deprivation. Consistent with the increase VEGFA expression and resistance to apoptosis, nuclear localization of NFκB activity p65 increased upon mechanical stretch. Inhibition of NFκB activity by BAY 11-708 blocks the pro-angiogenesis and anti-apoptosis function of mechanical stretch. Taken together, our findings here raise the possibility that mechanical stretch preconditioning might enhance the therapeutic efficacy of mesenchymal stem cells. - Highlights: • Mechanical stretch increases the angiogenic capacity via VEGFA induction in MSCs. • Mechanical stretch increases the survival rate of MSCs under nutrients deprivation. • Mechanical stretch manipulates MSCs via the activation of NFκB.

  18. Mechanical stretch endows mesenchymal stem cells stronger angiogenic and anti-apoptotic capacities via NFκB activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Zhuoli; Gan, Xueqi [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Fan, Hongyi [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Department of Applied Mechanics, College of Architecture and Environment, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Yu, Haiyang, E-mail: yhyang6812@foxmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China)

    2015-12-25

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been broadly used for tissue regeneration and repair due to their broad differentiation potential and potent paracrine properties such as angiogenic capacity. Strategies to increase their survival rate after transplantation and the angiogenic ability are of priority for the utility of MSCs. In this study, we found that mechanical stretch (10% extension, 30 cycles/min cyclic stretch) preconditioning increase the angiogenic capacity via VEGFA induction. In addition, mechanical stretch also increases the survival rate of mesenchymal stem cells under nutrients deprivation. Consistent with the increase VEGFA expression and resistance to apoptosis, nuclear localization of NFκB activity p65 increased upon mechanical stretch. Inhibition of NFκB activity by BAY 11-708 blocks the pro-angiogenesis and anti-apoptosis function of mechanical stretch. Taken together, our findings here raise the possibility that mechanical stretch preconditioning might enhance the therapeutic efficacy of mesenchymal stem cells. - Highlights: • Mechanical stretch increases the angiogenic capacity via VEGFA induction in MSCs. • Mechanical stretch increases the survival rate of MSCs under nutrients deprivation. • Mechanical stretch manipulates MSCs via the activation of NFκB.

  19. Influence of acute static stretching on the behavior of maximum muscle strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Lúcia Borges Bastos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the influence of acute static stretching on maximal muscle strength (1RM. The non-probabilistic sample consisted of 30 subjects split into two groups: static stretching (SS= 15 and without stretching group (WS= 15. Muscle strength evaluation (1RM was conducted with a Dynamometer model 32527pp400 Pound push / pull devices coupled in knee extension (KE and bench press (BP. The Wilcoxon test for intragroup comparisons and the Kruskal-Wallis test for comparisons between groups (p< 0.05 were selected. There were no significant differences (p> 0.05 between the SS and WS in exercise KE and BP. Therefore, it can be concluded that there was no reduction in the performance of 1RM performing the exercises KE and BP when preceded by static stretching.

  20. Comparison of active stretching technique and static stretching technique on hamstring flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meroni, Roberto; Cerri, Cesare Giuseppe; Lanzarini, Carlo; Barindelli, Guido; Morte, Giancesare Della; Gessaga, Viviana; Cesana, Gian Carlo; De Vito, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    To compare a passive and an active stretching technique to determine which one would produce and maintain the greatest gain in hamstring flexibility. To determine whether a passive or an active stretching technique results in a greater increase in hamstring flexibility and to compare whether the gains are maintained. Randomized controlled trial. Institutional. Sixty-five volunteer healthy subjects completed the enrollment questionnaire, 33 completed the required 75% of the treatment after 6 weeks, and 22 were assessed 4 weeks after the training interruption. A 6-week stretching program with subjects divided into 2 groups with group 1 performing active stretching exercises and group 2 performing passive stretching exercises. Range of motion (ROM) was measured after 3 and 6 weeks of training and again 4 weeks after the cessation of training and compared with the initial measurement. After 3 weeks of training, the mean gain in group 1 (active stretching) on performing the active knee extension range of motion (AKER) test was 5.7 degrees, whereas the mean gain in group 2 (passive stretching) was 3 degrees (P = .015). After 6 weeks of training, the mean gain in group 1 was 8.7 degrees , whereas the mean gain in group 2 was 5.3 degrees (P = .006). Twenty-two subjects were reassessed 4 weeks after the cessation of the training with the maintained gain of ROM in group 1 being 6.3 degrees , whereas the maintained gain in group 2 was 0.1 degrees (P = .003). Active stretching produced the greater gain in the AKER test, and the gain was almost completely maintained 4 weeks after the end of the training, which was not seen with the passive stretching group. Active stretching was more time efficient compared with the static stretching and needed a lower compliance to produce effects on flexibility.

  1. How to determine local stretching and tension in a flow-stretched DNA molecule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jonas Nyvold; Marie, Rodolphe; Kristensen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    We determine the nonuniform stretching of and tension in amega base pairs-long fragment of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) that is flow stretched in a nanofluidic chip. We use no markers, do not know the contour length of the DNA, and do not have the full DNA molecule inside our field of view. Instead...

  2. CURRENT CONCEPTS IN MUSCLE STRETCHING FOR EXERCISE AND REHABILITATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Stretching is a common activity used by athletes, older adults, rehabilitation patients, and anyone participating in a fitness program. While the benefits of stretching are known, controversy remains about the best type of stretching for a particular goal or outcome. The purpose of this clinical commentary is to discuss the current concepts of muscle stretching interventions and summarize the evidence related to stretching as used in both exercise and rehabilitation. PMID:22319684

  3. CURRENT CONCEPTS IN MUSCLE STRETCHING FOR EXERCISE AND REHABILITATION

    OpenAIRE

    Page, Phil

    2012-01-01

    Stretching is a common activity used by athletes, older adults, rehabilitation patients, and anyone participating in a fitness program. While the benefits of stretching are known, controversy remains about the best type of stretching for a particular goal or outcome. The purpose of this clinical commentary is to discuss the current concepts of muscle stretching interventions and summarize the evidence related to stretching as used in both exercise and rehabilitation.

  4. Design considerations and challenges for mechanical stretch bioreactors in tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Ying; Ferdous, Zannatul

    2016-05-01

    With the increase in average life expectancy and growing aging population, lack of functional grafts for replacement surgeries has become a severe problem. Engineered tissues are a promising alternative to this problem because they can mimic the physiological function of the native tissues and be cultured on demand. Cyclic stretch is important for developing many engineered tissues such as hearts, heart valves, muscles, and bones. Thus a variety of stretch bioreactors and corresponding scaffolds have been designed and tested to study the underlying mechanism of tissue formation and to optimize the mechanical conditions applied to the engineered tissues. In this review, we look at various designs of stretch bioreactors and common scaffolds and offer insights for future improvements in tissue engineering applications. First, we summarize the requirements and common configuration of stretch bioreactors. Next, we present the features of different actuating and motion transforming systems and their applications. Since most bioreactors must measure detailed distributions of loads and deformations on engineered tissues, techniques with high accuracy, precision, and frequency have been developed. We also cover the key points in designing culture chambers, nutrition exchanging systems, and regimens used for specific tissues. Since scaffolds are essential for providing biophysical microenvironments for residing cells, we discuss materials and technologies used in fabricating scaffolds to mimic anisotropic native tissues, including decellularized tissues, hydrogels, biocompatible polymers, electrospinning, and 3D bioprinting techniques. Finally, we present the potential future directions for improving stretch bioreactors and scaffolds. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:543-553, 2016. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  5. Summary of the stretching tectonics research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Dagan

    1994-01-01

    The rise of stretching tectonics is established on the basis of recent structural geology theory, the establishment of metamorphic nucleus complex structural model on one hand plays an important promoting art to the development of stretching structure, on the other hand, it needs constant supplement and perfection in practice. Metamorphic nucleus complex is the carrier of comparatively deep geological information in vertical section of the crust and has wide distribution in the era of south China. Evidently, it can be taken as the 'key' to understanding the deep and studying the basement, Strengthening the study will play the important promoting role to the deep prospecting. The study of stretching tectonics is not only limited within the range of structure and metamorphism, but combine with the studies of sedimentation, magmatism, metamorphism and mineralization, thus form a new field of tectonic geology of self-developing system

  6. Optofluidic time-stretch microscopy: recent advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Cheng; Nitta, Nao; Ozeki, Yasuyuki; Goda, Keisuke

    2018-04-01

    Flow cytometry is an indispensable method for valuable applications in numerous fields such as immunology, pathology, pharmacology, molecular biology, and marine biology. Optofluidic time-stretch microscopy is superior to conventional flow cytometry methods for its capability to acquire high-quality images of single cells at a high-throughput exceeding 10,000 cells per second. This makes it possible to extract copious information from cellular images for accurate cell detection and analysis with the assistance of machine learning. Optofluidic time-stretch microscopy has proven its effectivity in various applications, including microalga-based biofuel production, evaluation of thrombotic disorders, as well as drug screening and discovery. In this review, we discuss the principles and recent advances of optofluidic time-stretch microscopy.

  7. Optofluidic time-stretch quantitative phase microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Baoshan; Lei, Cheng; Wu, Yi; Kobayashi, Hirofumi; Ito, Takuro; Yalikun, Yaxiaer; Lee, Sangwook; Isozaki, Akihiro; Li, Ming; Jiang, Yiyue; Yasumoto, Atsushi; Di Carlo, Dino; Tanaka, Yo; Yatomi, Yutaka; Ozeki, Yasuyuki; Goda, Keisuke

    2018-03-01

    Innovations in optical microscopy have opened new windows onto scientific research, industrial quality control, and medical practice over the last few decades. One of such innovations is optofluidic time-stretch quantitative phase microscopy - an emerging method for high-throughput quantitative phase imaging that builds on the interference between temporally stretched signal and reference pulses by using dispersive properties of light in both spatial and temporal domains in an interferometric configuration on a microfluidic platform. It achieves the continuous acquisition of both intensity and phase images with a high throughput of more than 10,000 particles or cells per second by overcoming speed limitations that exist in conventional quantitative phase imaging methods. Applications enabled by such capabilities are versatile and include characterization of cancer cells and microalgal cultures. In this paper, we review the principles and applications of optofluidic time-stretch quantitative phase microscopy and discuss its future perspective. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Bias of purine stretches in sequenced chromosomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ussery, David; Soumpasis, Dikeos Mario; Brunak, Søren

    2002-01-01

    We examined more than 700 DNA sequences (full length chromosomes and plasmids) for stretches of purines (R) or pyrimidines (Y) and alternating YR stretches; such regions will likely adopt structures which are different from the canonical B-form. Since one turn of the DNA helix is roughly 10 bp, we...... measured the fraction of each genome which contains purine (or pyrimidine) tracts of lengths of 10 by or longer (hereafter referred to as 'purine tracts'), as well as stretches of alternating pyrimidines/purine ('pyr/pur tracts') of the same length. Using this criteria, a random sequence would be expected...... to contain 1.0% of purine tracts and also 1.0% of the alternating pyr/pur tracts. In the vast majority of cases, there are more purine tracts than would be expected from a random sequence, with an average of 3.5%, significantly larger than the expectation value. The fraction of the chromosomes containing pyr...

  9. Bias of purine stretches in sequenced chromosomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ussery, David; Soumpasis, Dikeos Mario; Brunak, Søren

    2002-01-01

    We examined more than 700 DNA sequences (full length chromosomes and plasmids) for stretches of purines (R) or pyrimidines (Y) and alternating YR stretches; such regions will likely adopt structures which are different from the canonical B-form. Since one turn of the DNA helix is roughly 10 bp, we...... to contain 1.0% of purine tracts and also 1.0% of the alternating pyr/pur tracts. In the vast majority of cases, there are more purine tracts than would be expected from a random sequence, with an average of 3.5%, significantly larger than the expectation value. The fraction of the chromosomes containing pyr......, in eukaryotes there is an abundance of long stretches of purines or alternating purine/pyrimidine tracts, which cannot be explained in this way; these sequences are likely to play an important role in eukaryotic chromosome organisation....

  10. Anisotropic dewetting on stretched elastomeric substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, L; He, L H

    2008-08-01

    We study the instability of a very thin liquid film resting on a uniformly stretched soft elastomeric substrate driven by van der Waals forces. A linear stability analysis shows that the critical fluctuation wavelength in the tensile direction is larger than those in the other directions. The magnitudes of the critical wavelengths are adjustable in the sense that they depend on the principal stretch of the substrate. For example, when the principal stretch of the substrate varies from 1.0 (unstretched) to 3.0, the range of the critical wavelength in the tensile direction increases by 7.0% while that normal to the tensile direction decreases by 8.7%. Therefore, the phenomenon may find potential applications in creating tunable topographically patterned surfaces with nano- to microscale features.

  11. Weekly taxane-anthracycline combination regimen versus tri-weekly anthracycline-based regimen for the treatment of locally advanced breast cancer: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Qiu-Wen; Luo, Ting; Zheng, Hong; Tian, Ting-Lun; He, Ping; Chen, Jie; Zeng, He-Lin; Lv, Qing

    2017-03-07

    Extensive studies have confirmed the efficacy of taxanes in combination with anthracycline-based chemotherapy on breast cancer. However, few studies have assessed the efficacy of weekly taxane-anthracycline regimens on locally advanced breast cancer. This study was to compare the efficacy and safety of a weekly taxane-anthracycline regimen with those of tri-weekly anthracycline-based regimen in patients with locally advanced breast cancer. Patients with locally advanced breast cancer were randomized to receive 4-6 cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy with tri-weekly 5-fluorouracil-epirubicin-cyclophosphamide (FEC) regimen or weekly paclitaxel-epirubicin (PE) regimen. The primary endpoint was the pathologic complete response (pCR) rate. Other endpoints included the clinical tumor response, breast-conserving surgery rate, and adverse events. Between March 2010 and September 2013, 293 patients were randomized to the FEC (n = 151) and PE (n = 142) arms. The overall clinical response rate was significantly higher in the PE arm than in the FEC arm (76.06% vs. 59.95%, P = 0.001). Consistently, the post-chemotherapy pathologic T and N stages were significantly lower in the PE arm than in the FEC arm (P breast-conserving surgery. Most adverse events were comparable in both arms, with more severe neutropenia in the PE arm than in the FEC arm (11.97% vs. 5.96%, P = 0.031). In patients with locally advanced breast cancer, weekly PE was not superior to FEC in terms of pCR. However, weekly PE has a higher response rate and superior down-staging effects. On this account, the PE regimen may be considered an alternative option for locally advanced breast cancer. Long-term follow-up data are needed to confirm the efficacy of this regimen on locally advanced breast cancer. Trial registration Chinese clinical trial registry, ChiCTR-TRC-10001043, September 21, 2014.

  12. Flow of nanofluid by nonlinear stretching velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, Tasawar; Rashid, Madiha; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Ahmad, Bashir

    2018-03-01

    Main objective in this article is to model and analyze the nanofluid flow induced by curved surface with nonlinear stretching velocity. Nanofluid comprises water and silver. Governing problem is solved by using homotopy analysis method (HAM). Induced magnetic field for low magnetic Reynolds number is not entertained. Development of convergent series solutions for velocity and skin friction coefficient is successfully made. Pressure in the boundary layer flow by curved stretching surface cannot be ignored. It is found that magnitude of power-law index parameter increases for pressure distibutions. Magnitude of radius of curvature reduces for pressure field while opposite trend can be observed for velocity.

  13. Lattice stretching bistability and dynamic heterogeneity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peter Leth; Savin, A. V.; Zolotaryuk, A. V.

    2012-01-01

    A simple one-dimensional lattice model is suggested to describe the experimentally observed plateau in force-stretching diagrams for some macromolecules. This chain model involves the nearest-neighbor interaction of a Morse-like potential (required to have a saturation branch) and a harmonic second......-neighbor coupling. Under an external stretching applied to the chain ends, the intersite Morse-like potential results in the appearance of a double-well potential within each chain monomer, whereas the interaction between the second neighbors provides a homogeneous bistable (degenerate) ground state, at least...

  14. Stretching and folding mechanism in foams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tufaile, Alberto [Escola de Artes, Ciencias e Humanidades, Soft Matter Laboratory, Universidade de Sao Paulo, 03828-000 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: tufaile@usp.br; Pedrosa Biscaia Tufaile, Adriana [Escola de Artes, Ciencias e Humanidades, Soft Matter Laboratory, Universidade de Sao Paulo, 03828-000 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-10-13

    We have described the stretching and folding of foams in a vertical Hele-Shaw cell containing air and a surfactant solution, from a sequence of upside-down flips. Besides the fractal dimension of the foam, we have observed the logistic growth for the soap film length. The stretching and folding mechanism is present during the foam formation, and this mechanism is observed even after the foam has reached its respective maximum fractal dimension. Observing the motion of bubbles inside the foam, large bubbles present power spectrum associated with random walk motion in both directions, while the small bubbles are scattered like balls in a Galton board.

  15. Micropatterning stretched and aligned DNA for sequence-specific nanolithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Cecilia Anna Paulette

    Techniques for fabricating nanostructured materials can be categorized as either "top-down" or "bottom-up". Top-down techniques use lithography and contact printing to create patterned surfaces and microfluidic channels that can corral and organize nanoscale structures, such as molecules and nanorods in contrast; bottom-up techniques use self-assembly or molecular recognition to direct the organization of materials. A central goal in nanotechnology is the integration of bottom-up and top-down assembly strategies for materials development, device design; and process integration. With this goal in mind, we have developed strategies that will allow this integration by using DNA as a template for nanofabrication; two top-down approaches allow the placement of these templates, while the bottom-up technique uses the specific sequence of bases to pattern materials along each strand of DNA. Our first top-down approach, termed combing of molecules in microchannels (COMMIC), produces microscopic patterns of stretched and aligned molecules of DNA on surfaces. This process consists of passing an air-water interface over end adsorbed molecules inside microfabricated channels. The geometry of the microchannel directs the placement of the DNA molecules, while the geometry of the airwater interface directs the local orientation and curvature of the molecules. We developed another top-down strategy for creating micropatterns of stretched and aligned DNA using surface chemistry. Because DNA stretching occurs on hydrophobic surfaces, this technique uses photolithography to pattern vinyl-terminated silanes on glass When these surface-, are immersed in DNA solution, molecules adhere preferentially to the silanized areas. This approach has also proven useful in patterning protein for cell adhesion studies. Finally, we describe the use of these stretched and aligned molecules of DNA as templates for the subsequent bottom-up construction of hetero-structures through hybridization

  16. Prenatal stretching exercise and autonomic responses: preliminary data and a model for reducing preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, SeonAe

    2010-06-01

    Preeclampsia is a leading cause of perinatal mortality and morbidity, and it increases maternal risk for future cardiovascular disease. The purpose of the study was to explore the relationships among stretching exercise, autonomic cardiac response, and the development of preeclampsia. Secondary data analysis. Heart rate and pulse pressure were longitudinally examined in this secondary data analysis among women who engaged in stretching exercise daily from 18 weeks of gestation to the end of pregnancy compared with women who did walking exercise daily during the same time period. A total of 124 women were randomized to either stretching (n=60) or walking (n=64) in the parent study. Heart rates in the stretching group were consistently lower than those in the walking group. Based on the results of this secondary data analyses, a physiologic framework for possible beneficial effects of stretching exercise by enhancing autonomic responses on reducing risks for preeclampsia is proposed and discussed. If the protective effect is established, stretching exercise can be translated into nursing intervention for prenatal care.

  17. Acute effect of different time periods of passive static stretching on the hamstring flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cini, Anelize; de Vasconcelos, Gabriela Souza; Lima, Claudia Silveira

    2017-01-01

    Several factors are associated with the presence of chronic low back pain; one of them is the flexibility of the hamstring muscles that influences the posture of the pelvic spine. Investigate the influence of two different time periods of passive static stretching on the flexibility of the hamstring. Forty-six physiotherapy students were divided into two groups performing stretching exercises: 30 s and 60 s duration. The collections consisted of: (1) pre-test: evaluation of the flexibility of the hip and knee, using a manual goniometer by means of the following tests: Straight Leg Raise Test (SLR), Passive Hip Flexion Test (PHFT) and Modified Knee Extension Test (MKET), (2) intervention: stretching with different runtimes, (3) post-test: reappraisal of flexibility, conducted immediately after the intervention. Significant difference was observed intra groups, group that did stretching exercises lasting 30 seconds (G30) (SLR p = 0.000. PHFT p = 0.003 and MKET p = 0.000) and group that did stretching exercises lasting 60 seconds (G60) (SLR p = 0.000. PHFT p = 0.001 and MKET p = 0.002). Comparing the groups, no significant difference was found (SLR p = 0.307; PHFT p = 0.904; MKET p = 0.132). Thus it can be inferred that 30 seconds are sufficient for increased flexibility of young women. Therefore the time-treatment sessions can be optimized. Only the acute effect of stretching was observed; further investigation of the long-term effect is required.

  18. Dynamic Stretching does not Change the Stiffness of the Muscle-Tendon Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, T; Umemura, Y

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify changes in ankle range of motion and passive mechanical properties of the muscle-tendon unit after dynamic stretching. 12 healthy subjects participated in this study. Displacement of the muscle-tendon junction was measured using ultrasonography while the ankle was passively dorsiflexed at 1°/sec to its maximal dorsiflexion angle. Passive torque was also measured using an isokinetic dynamometer. Measurements were conducted pre-intervention, immediately after the intervention and 5, 10, 15 and 30 min post-intervention. The dynamic stretching consisted of four 30-s periods of ankle dorsiflexion and plantarflexion. Ankle range of motion was significantly increased immediately (from 18.3±1.8° to 21.4±1.7°) and 10 min (20.9±1.9°) after dynamic stretching, but this change disappeared within 15 min. However, stiffness of the muscle-tendon unit and displacement of the muscle-tendon junction at the submaximal dorsiflexion angle did not differ between the experimental conditions. These results demonstrate that dynamic stretching by contracting an antagonist muscle group increases ankle range of motion temporarily without changing the passive mechanical properties of the muscle-tendon unit. The increased range of motion of the ankle after dynamic stretching might be caused by enhanced stretch tolerance. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Structural adaptations of rat lateral gastrocnemius muscle-tendon complex to a chronic stretching program and their quantification based on ultrasound biomicroscopy and optical microscopic images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixinho, Carolina Carneiro; Martins, Natália Santos Fonseca; de Oliveira, Liliam Fernandes; Machado, João Carlos

    2014-01-01

    A chronic regimen of flexibility training can increase range of motion, with the increase mechanisms believed to be a change in the muscle material properties or in the neural components associated with this type of training. This study followed chronic structural adaptations of lateral gastrocnemius muscle of rats submitted to stretching training (3 times a week during 8weeks), based on muscle architecture measurements including pennation angle, muscle thickness and tendon length obtained from ultrasound biomicroscopic images, in vivo. Fiber length and sarcomere number per 100μm were determined in 3 fibers of each muscle (ex vivo and in vitro, respectively), using conventional optical microscopy. Stretching training resulted in a significant pennation angle reduction of the stretched leg after 12 sessions (25%, P=0.002 to 0.024). Muscle thickness and tendon length presented no significant changes. Fiber length presented a significant increase for the stretched leg (8.5%, P=0.00006), with the simultaneous increase in sarcomere length (5%, P=0.041) since the stretched muscles presented less sarcomeres per 100μm. A stretching protocol with characteristics similar to those applied in humans was sufficient to modify muscle architecture of rats with absence of a sarcomerogenesis process. The results indicate that structural adaptations take place in skeletal muscle tissue submitted to moderate-intensity stretching training. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of quadriceps and hamstrings proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching on knee movement sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streepey, Jefferson W; Mock, Marla J; Riskowski, Jody L; Vanwye, William R; Vitvitskiy, Boris M; Mikesky, Alan E

    2010-04-01

    Stretching before competition has traditionally been thought to benefit performance; however, recent evidence demonstrating reduced muscle force and power immediately after stretching suggests otherwise. We hypothesized that knee joint position sense would be diminished immediately after proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching to the hamstrings and quadriceps. Eighteen subjects (aged 18-30 years) were seated with their dominant foot attached to a motorized arm with the knee flexed at 135 degrees . To block external cues, the subjects wore a blindfold, earplugs, and headphones providing white noise. The knee was displaced in either the flexion or the extension direction at a velocity of 0.4 degrees .s, and subjects pressed a button when they sensed motion. The knee was returned to 135 degrees , and the test was repeated for a total of 10 trials. The PNF group received PNF stretching to the hamstrings and quadriceps of the dominant leg. The SHAM group had the dominant leg passively moved within each subject's functional range of motion. The ability to detect knee movement was retested in the PNF and SHAM groups. Pre- and posttest latencies between movement onset and subject response were analyzed. Results indicated that the PNF group had significantly increased latencies after stretching (from 2.56 +/- 0.83 to 3.46 +/- 1.90 seconds) compared with the SHAM group (3.93 +/- 2.40 to 3.72 +/- 2.15 seconds). It is concluded that PNF stretching of the hamstrings and quadriceps may acutely diminish sensitivity to knee movement. For coaches and trainers, these findings are consistent with previous reports of loss in muscle force and power immediately after stretching, suggesting that stretching just before competition may diminish performance.

  1. Immediate effects of quantified hamstring stretching: hold-relax proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation versus static stretching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puentedura, Emilio J; Huijbregts, Peter A; Celeste, Shelley; Edwards, Dale; In, Alastair; Landers, Merrill R; Fernandez-de-Las-Penas, Cesar

    2011-08-01

    To compare the immediate effects of a hold-relax proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching (HR-PNF) versus static stretch (SS) on hamstring flexibility in healthy, asymptomatic subjects. Thirty subjects (13 female; mean age 25.7 ± 3.0, range 22-37) without excessive hamstring muscle flexibility were randomly assigned to one of two stretch groups: HR-PNF or SS. The left leg was treated as a control and did not receive any intervention. The right leg was measured for ROM pre- and post-stretch interventions, with subjects receiving randomly assigned interventions one week apart. Data were analyzed with a 3 (intervention: HR-PNF, SS, control) × 2 (time: pre and post) factorial ANOVA with repeated measures and appropriate post-hoc analyses. A significant interaction was observed between intervention and time for hamstring extensibility, F(2,58) = 25.229, p < .0005. Main effect of intervention for the tested leg was not significant, p = .782 indicating that there was no difference between the two stretch conditions. However, main effect for time was significant (p < .0005), suggesting that hamstring extensibility (for both stretching conditions) after intervention was greater than before. No significant differences were found when comparing the effectiveness of HR-PNF and SS techniques. Both stretching methods resulted in significant immediate increases in hamstring length. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Consistent model driven architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niepostyn, Stanisław J.

    2015-09-01

    The goal of the MDA is to produce software systems from abstract models in a way where human interaction is restricted to a minimum. These abstract models are based on the UML language. However, the semantics of UML models is defined in a natural language. Subsequently the verification of consistency of these diagrams is needed in order to identify errors in requirements at the early stage of the development process. The verification of consistency is difficult due to a semi-formal nature of UML diagrams. We propose automatic verification of consistency of the series of UML diagrams originating from abstract models implemented with our consistency rules. This Consistent Model Driven Architecture approach enables us to generate automatically complete workflow applications from consistent and complete models developed from abstract models (e.g. Business Context Diagram). Therefore, our method can be used to check practicability (feasibility) of software architecture models.

  3. Realistic searches on stretched exponential networks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vol. 71, No. 2. — journal of. August 2008 physics pp. 313–317. Realistic searches on stretched exponential networks. PARONGAMA SEN. Department of Physics, University of Calcutta, 92 Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road,. Kolkata 700 009, India .... [4] S Milgram, Psychology Today 1, 60 (1967). J Travers and S Milgram, ...

  4. Filament stretching rheometry of polymer melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassager, Ole; Nielsen, Jens Kromann; Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz

    2005-01-01

    The Filament Stretching Rheometry (FSR) method developed by Sridhar, McKinley and coworkers for polymer solutions has been extended to be used also for polymer melts. The design of a melt-FSR will be described and differences to conventional melt elongational rheometers will be pointed out. Results...

  5. Cloud Network Helps Stretch IT Dollars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Hilton

    2012-01-01

    No matter how many car washes or bake sales schools host to raise money, adding funds to their coffers is a recurring problem. This perpetual financial difficulty makes expansive technology purchases or changes seem like a pipe dream for school CIOs and has education technologists searching for ways to stretch money. In 2005, state K-12 school…

  6. The stretch zone of automotive steel sheets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    on steel grade, on the rolling direction as well as on the loading rate. Stretch zones ... This interaction is demonstrated at a fracture surface as a bounded transition between initiatory crack (e.g., fatigue) and either ... The materials examined in this study are three grades of thin automotive steel sheets: XSG,. HR 45 and DP.

  7. Fractional behaviour at cyclic stretch-bending

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmens, W.C.; van den Boogaard, Antonius H.; Kazantzis, A.V.; de Hosson, J.Th.M.; Kolleck, R

    2010-01-01

    The fractional behaviour at cyclic stretch-bending has been studied by performing tensile tests at long specimens that are cyclically bent at the same time, on mild steel, dual-phase steel, stainless steel, aluminium and brass. Several types of fracture are observed, these are discussed, as are the

  8. [ADOC regimen for unresectable advanced thymic cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, T; Takabayashi, Y; Yamagishi, S; Tsushima, K; Takamizawa, A; Takashi, S; Tsukadaira, A; Masubuchi, T; Yamamoto, H; Kaneki, T; Yamaguchi, S; Hachiya, T; Hayasaka, M; Fujimoto, K; Kubo, K

    1999-12-01

    Between 1996 and 1998, we treated 6 patients with unresectable and advanced thymic cancer (stages IVa and IVb). All received 50 mg/m2 of cisplatin and 40 mg/m2 of doxorubicin intravenously (i.v.) on day 1,0.6 mg/m2 of vincristine i.v. on day 3, and 700 mg/m2 of cyclophosphamide i.v. on day 4; ADOC regimen, respectively at 3-4 week intervals. Four patients obtained a partial response (PR) after ADOC chemotherapy and the overall clinical response rate was 67%. No life-threatening side effects were noted. In 2 patients, cisplatin plus VP-16 chemotherapy failed to demonstrate any benefits prior to the ADOC regimen. Radiotherapy was initiated after the achievement of PR in the other 2 patients. ADOC chemotherapy appears to be an effective treatment for thymic cancer.

  9. Cyclic stretch induces cell reorientation on substrates by destabilizing catch bonds in focal adhesions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Chen

    Full Text Available A minimal model of cellular mechanosensing system that consists of a single stress fiber adhering on a substrate via two focal adhesions made of catch bonds is adopted to investigate the phenomena of cell reorientation on substrates induced by an applied uniaxial cyclic stretch. The model indicates that the catch bonds in the focal adhesions experience a periodically oscillating internal force with amplitude and frequency controlled by two intrinsic clocks of the stress fiber, one associated with localized activation and the other with homogeneous activation of sarcomere units along the stress fiber. It is shown that this oscillating force due to cyclic stretch tends to destabilize focal adhesions by reducing the lifetime of catch bonds. The resulting slide or relocation of focal adhesions then causes the associated stress fiber to shorten and rotate to configurations nearly perpendicular to the stretching direction. These predicted behaviors from our model are consistent with a wide range of experimental observations.

  10. New Treatment Regimen for Latent Tuberculosis Infection

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-03-15

    In this podcast, Dr. Kenneth Castro, Director of the Division of Tuberculosis Elimination, discusses the December 9, 2011 CDC guidelines for the use of a new regimen for the treatment of persons with latent tuberculosis infection.  Created: 3/15/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 3/15/2012.

  11. [Sciatica. From stretch rack to microdiscectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, P; Böni, T

    2015-12-01

    In ancient times as well as in the Middle Ages treatment options for discogenic nerve compression syndrome were limited and usually not very specific because of low anatomical and pathophysiological knowledge. The stretch rack (scamnum Hippocratis) was particularly prominent but was widely used as a therapeutic device for very different spinal disorders. Since the beginning of the nineteenth century anatomical knowledge increased and the advances in the fields of asepsis, anesthesia and surgery resulted in an increase in surgical interventions on the spine. In 1908 the first successful lumbar discectomy was initiated and performed by the German neurologist Heinrich O. Oppenheim (1858-1919) and the surgeon Fedor Krause (1857-1937); however, neither recognized the true pathological condition of discogenic nerve compression syndrome. With the landmark report in the New England Journal of Medicine in 1934, the two American surgeons William Jason Mixter (1880-1958) and Joseph Seaton Barr (1901-1963) finally clarified the pathomechanism of lumbar disc herniation and furthermore, propagated discectomy as the standard therapy. Since then interventions on intervertebral discs rapidly increased and the treatment options for lumbar disc surgery quickly evolved. The surgical procedures changed over time and were continuously being refined. In the late 1960s the surgical microscope was introduced for spinal surgery by the work of the famous neurosurgeon Mahmut Gazi Yasargil and his colleague Wolfhard Caspar and so-called microdiscectomy was introduced. Besides open discectomy other interventional techniques were developed to overcome the side effects of surgical procedures. In 1964 the American orthopedic surgeon Lyman Smith (1912-1991) introduced chemonucleolysis, a minimally invasive technique consisting only of a cannula and the proteolytic enzyme chymopapain, which is injected into the disc compartment to dissolve the displaced disc material. In 1975 the Japanese orthopedic

  12. EFFECTIVENESS OF PNF STRETCHING AND CYCLIC STRETCHING OF CALF TIGHTNESS ON COLLEGE GOING GIRLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashlesha Sirari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Flexibility helps with injury prevention, the reduction of soreness following a workout, and a general sense of well-being. There are different stretching techniques and protocols for improvements in calf extensibility and flexibility. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of two techniques i.e. CYCLIC and PNF stretching which improves calf flexibility. This study was done to find the effectiveness of calf Cyclic and PNF stretching technique to improve calf flexibility. Methods: 30 subjects with age group 21-22 years were randomly allocated to 2 groups equally. Group 1(n=15 were given CYCLIC and group 2(n=15 were given PNF stretching technique. Plantar flexion was used to measure the calf tightness which was done before and after the treatment. Treatment was given for 7 days and on the 7th day the calf tightness was again measured. Results: The mean difference of the CYCLIC is 4.6 and mean difference of PNF is 4.7 which indicate that CYCLIC and PNF both are effective to improve calf flexibility but PNF is more effective than CYCLIC to improve calf flexibility. Conclusion: The neurophysiological basis of PNF, stating that the excitatory efficient of the neuromuscular spindle or the inhibitory afferent of the Golgi tendon organ (GTO or both are responsible for the effects. During PNF stretch and isometric contraction of stretched agonists for extended period may cause activation of its neuromuscular spindle. The increase in tension created during the isometric contraction of the pre – lengthened agonist contracts concentrically. Both the fascia & the spindle of the agonist adjust to the nearly lengthened position. These impulses travel via causing post synaptic inhibition of the motor neuron to agonist increasing the tension from the GTO. These impulses can override the impulses coming from the neuromuscular spindles arousing the muscle to reflexly resist to the change in length, thus helping in lengthening

  13. Passive Stretch Versus Active Stretch on Intervertebral Movement in Non - Specific Neck Pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El - Aziz, A.H.; Amin, D.I.; Moustafa, I.

    2016-01-01

    Neck pain is one of the most common and painful musculoskeletal conditions. Point prevalence ranges from 6% to 22% and up to 38% of the elderly population, while lifetime prevalence ranges from 14,2% to 71%. Up till now no randomized study showed the effect between controversy of active and passive stretch on intervertebral movement. The purpose: the current study was to investigate the effect of the passive and active stretch on intervertebral movement in non - specific neck pain. Material and methods: Forty five subjects from both sexes with age range between 18 and 30 years and assigned in three groups, group I (15) received active stretch, ultrasound and TENS. Group II (15) received passive stretch, ultrasound and TENS. Group III (15) received ultrasound and TENS. The radiological assessment was used to measure rotational and translational movement of intervertebral movement before and after treatment. Results: MANOVA test was used for radiological assessment before and after treatment there was significant increase in intervertebral movement in group I as p value =0.0001. Conclusion: active stretch had a effect in increasing the intervertebral movement compared to the passive stretch

  14. How to Stretch Your Ankle After a Sprain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ankle After A Sprain How to Stretch Your Ankle After A Sprain Page Content You should perform the following stretches ... Consider these home exercises when recuperating from an ankle sprain. Perform them twice per day. While seated, bring ...

  15. Transparent conducting film: Effect of mechanical stretching to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    posite was fixed to a tabletop clamp and unidirectionally stretched after cutting the paper support at two opposite sides. To hold the film under the stretched condition, both edges of stretched CNT-mat/transparent-film composite was then adhered to a PMMA substrate by epoxy glue and both the sheet resistance and the ...

  16. Effects of dynamic stretches on Isokinetic hamstring and Quadriceps ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In conclusion, dynamic stretches have positive effects on muscle strength, H/Q ratios and ROM. Therefore, dynamic stretches may increase performance and reduce the risk of injury to athletes. Keywords: Quadriceps; Hamstrings; Muscles Isokinetic; Dynamic stretches. South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical ...

  17. The effect of heat applied with stretch to increase range of motion: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Jiro; Yamabayashi, Cristiane; Scott, Alex; Reid, W Darlene

    2012-08-01

    Application of heat to muscle is commonly advocated to enhance the efficacy of stretching. However, the effect of this combined therapy using different methods of heating, applied to different muscles, and after one or multiple treatments, is not known. To perform a systematic review to address the question: Does stretching augmented by heat application result in greater gains in range of motion (ROM) compared to stretch alone? The following databases were searched for original articles that evaluated our question: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, SPORTDiscus and PEDro databases. After title and abstract screening followed by full-text screening, the quality of included articles was assessed and their data was abstracted. Screening, data abstraction and quality assessment was performed and consensus was achieved by two reviewers. Range of motion (ROM) data were synthesized by meta-analyses for overall effect and subgroup analysis according to muscle group, method of heat application, single or multiple treatments, and reported tightness of muscle. Twelve studies were included and reported the effects of stretch with or without heat on ROM of 352 participants. Heat applications included ultrasound, shortwave diathermy and hot packs. Meta-analyses and subgroup analyses demonstrated greater increases in ROM after heat and stretch (H + S) than heat alone. Subgroup analysis of muscle groups and the method of heat application showed some trends, but no significant differences. Multiple treatments (more so than single treatments) showed consistent treatment effects of H + S versus stretch alone amongst subgroups. Muscles described as tight did not show a greater treatment effect in response to H + S compared to muscles not reported as tight. Heating provides an added benefit on stretch related gains of ROM in healthy people. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Acute effects of stretching exercise on the soleus muscle of female aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zotz, Talita Gnoato; Capriglione, Luiz Guilherme A; Zotz, Rafael; Noronha, Lucia; Viola De Azevedo, Marina Louise; Fiuza Martins, Hilana Rickli; Silveira Gomes, Anna Raquel

    2016-01-01

    It has been shown that stretching exercises can improve the flexibility and independence of the elderly. However, although these exercises commonly constitute training programs, the morphological adaptations induced by stretching exercises in aged skeletal muscle are still unclear. To assess the acute effects of passive mechanical static stretching on the morphology, sarcomerogenesis and modulation of important components of the extracellular matrix of the soleus muscle of aged female rats. Fifteen old female rats with 26 months were divided into two groups: stretching (n=8, SG) and control (n=7, CG): The stretching protocol consisted of 4 repetitions each of 1 min with 30s interval between sets. Stretching was performed on the left soleus muscle, 3 times a week for 1 week. After three sessions, the rats were anesthetized to remove the left soleus muscle, and then euthanized. The following analyses were carried out: muscle fiber cross-sectional area and serial sarcomere number; immunohistochemistry for the quantification of collagen I, III and TGFβ-1. a decrease in muscle fiber cross-sectional area of the SG was observed when compared to the CG (p=0.0001, Kruskal-Wallis); the percentage of type I collagen was significantly lower in the SG when compared to the CG (p=0.01, Kruskal-Wallis), as well as the percentage of TGFβ-1 (p=0.04, Kruskal-Wallis); collagen III was significantly higher in the SG than in the CG (7.06±6.88% vs 4.92±5.30%, p=0.01, Kruskal-Wallis). Although the acute stretching induced muscle hypotrophy, an antifibrotic action was detected. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. COMPARISON OF EFFECTIVENESS OF ISOMETRIC EXERCISES WITH AND WITHOUT STRETCHING EXERCISES IN NON SPECIFIC CERVICAL PAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warda Hassan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical pain is a common condition and almost two thirds of population suffers with this condition. Cervical region is the commonest region for non-traumatic neck pain. Neck pain generates many muscular disturbances in the neck region and may result in tightness of muscles of cervical region. Stretching is considered as an effective mean of treating cervical pain. Isometric exercise is used to enhance the performance of muscles because it provides strength required to perform dynamic exercise. Both of the regimens either separately or combined are used in clinical settings to treat nonspecific cervical pain. This study aims to compare the results of cervical isometrics with and without stretching exercises in reducing non-specific cervical pain Methods: A randomized controlled trial research was performed at physiotherapy department of Mayo Hospital Lahore, Pakistan. A convenience sample of 40 participants was divided into two groups. The cervical isometric exercise was applied to group A and stretching plus isometric exercise to group B for 3 weeks. Nonspecific neck pain was analyzed by using visual analogue scale and goniometry for pre and post treatment assessment. Results: Isometric exercises play an effective role in relieving pain (p value is 0.03 and minimizing inability of the body to perform functional activities (p value is 0.004 in contrast to the patients of group A. Isometric exercises were applied to the patients of group A (Level of pain: pain value is 0.172 and (physical inability to perform functional activities has P value 0.201. Conclusion: The result showed that the patients with the complain of non-specific neck discomfort who were treated by cervical isometric alone, showed less improvement in pain relief in contrast to the patients who were treated by the cervical isometric long with stretching.

  20. String Stretching, Frequency Modulation, and Banjo Clang

    OpenAIRE

    Politzer, David

    2014-01-01

    The banjo’s floating bridge, string break angle, and flexible drumhead all contribute to substantial audio range frequency modulation. From the world of electronic music synthesis, it is known that modulating higher frequency sounds with lower acoustic frequencies leads to metallic and bell-like tone. The mechanics of the banjo does just that quite naturally, modulating fundamentals and harmonics with the motion of the bridge. In technical terms, with a floating bridge, string stretching is f...

  1. The stretch zone of automotive steel sheets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The stretch zone of automotive steel sheets. L' AMBRIŠKO1,∗ and L PEŠEK2. 1Institute of Structural Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering,. Technical University of Košice, Vysokoškolská 4, 042 00 Košice, Slovak Republic. 2Department of Materials Science, Faculty of Metallurgy,. Technical University of Košice, Letná 9, ...

  2. Effects of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching and deep-breathing exercises on upper extremity lymphedema in stroke patients

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Woon Taek; Jeong, Yeon-Jae; Kim, Seong-Yeol; Jeong, Yeon-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of deep-breathing and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching exercises on upper limb lymphedema in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] The study consisted of 10 patients with lymphedema that had occurred after stroke. Neurodevelopmental treatment was applied in the same manner as that used for the existing treatment. The subjects performed deep-breathing and stretching exercises three times per week for 4 weeks...

  3. Spontaneous bending of pre-stretched bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSimone, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    We discuss spontaneously bent configurations of pre-stretched bilayer sheets that can be obtained by tuning the pre-stretches in the two layers. The two-dimensional nonlinear plate model we use for this purpose is an adaptation of the one recently obtained for thin sheets of nematic elastomers, by means of a rigorous dimensional reduction argument based on the theory of Gamma-convergence (Agostiniani and DeSimone in Meccanica. doi:10.1007/s11012-017-0630-4, 2017, Math Mech Solids. doi:10.1177/1081286517699991, arXiv:1509.07003, 2017). We argue that pre-stretched bilayer sheets provide us with an interesting model system to study shape programming and morphing of surfaces in other, more complex systems, where spontaneous deformations are induced by swelling due to the absorption of a liquid, phase transformations, thermal or electro-magnetic stimuli. These include bio-mimetic structures inspired by biological systems from both the plant and the animal kingdoms.

  4. Stretch Moduli of Ribonucleotide Embedded Short DNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Hsiang-Chih; Koh, Kyung Duk; Riedo, Elisa; Storici, Francesca

    2013-03-01

    Understanding the mechanical properties of DNA is essential to comprehending the dynamics of many cellular functions. DNA deformations are involved in many mechanisms when genetic information needs to be stored and used. In addition, recent studies have found that Ribonucleotides (rNMPs) are among the most common non-standard nucleotides present in DNA. The presences of rNMPs in DNA might cause mutation, fragility or genotoxicity of chromosome but how they influence the structure and mechanical properties of DNA remains unclear. By means of Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) based single molecule spectroscopy, we measure the stretch moduli of double stranded DNAs (dsDNA) with 30 base pairs and 5 equally embedded rNMPs. The dsDNAs are anchored on gold substrate via thiol chemistry, while the AFM tip is used to pick up and stretch the dsDNA from its free end through biotin-streptavidin bonding. Our preliminary results indicate that the inclusion of rNMPs in dsDNA might significantly change its stretch modulus, which might be important in some biological processes.

  5. Short Durations of Static Stretching when Combined with Dynamic Stretching do not Impair Repeated Sprints and Agility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Del P.; Chaouachi, Anis; Lau, Patrick W.C.; Behm, David G.

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the effect of different static stretching durations followed by dynamic stretching on repeated sprint ability (RSA) and change of direction (COD). Twenty-five participants performed the RSA and COD tests in a randomized order. After a 5 min aerobic warm up, participants performed one of the three static stretching protocols of 30 s, 60 s or 90 s total duration (3 stretches x 10 s, 20 s or 30 s). Three dynamic stretching exercises of 30 s duration were then performed (90 s total). Sit-and-reach flexibility tests were conducted before the aerobic warm up, after the combined static and dynamic stretching, and post- RSA/COD test. The duration of static stretching had a positive effect on flexibility with 36.3% and 85.6% greater sit-and-reach scores with the 60 s and 90 s static stretching conditions respectively than with the 30 s condition (p ≤ 0.001). However there were no significant differences in RSA and COD performance between the 3 stretching conditions. The lack of change in RSA and COD might be attributed to a counterbalancing of static and dynamic stretching effects. Furthermore, the short duration (≤ 90 s) static stretching may not have provided sufficient stimulus to elicit performance impairments. Key points The duration of combined static and dynamic stretching had a positive effect on flexibility with 36.3% and 85.6% greater sit and reach scores with the 60 s and 90 s static stretching conditions respectively than with the 30 s condition (p ≤ 0.001). No significant differences in RSA and COD between the 3 stretching conditions. The lack of change in RSA and COD might be attributed to a counterbalancing of static and dynamic stretching effects. The short duration (≤ 90 s) static stretching may not have provided sufficient stimulus to elicit performance impairments. PMID:24149890

  6. Safe induction of labour with low-dose misoprostol, but less effective than the conventional dinoprostone regimen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jesper Friis; Bergholt, Thomas; Løkkegaard, Ellen Christine L

    2013-01-01

    Off-label use of the prostaglandin-E1 analogue misoprostol has become standard practice when inducing labour. In Denmark, a low-dosage misoprostol regimen is common. The regimen consists of one 25 µg application on the first day of induction. The registered prostaglandin-E2 analogue dinoprostone...... is used in 3 and 6 mg doses. This study compared induction procedures with dinoprostone and misoprostol in terms of induction time, foetal outcome and maternal outcome....

  7. safe induction of labour with low-dose misoprostol, but less effective than the conventional dinoprostone regimen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jesper Friis; Bergholt, Thomas; Løkkegaard, Ellen Christine L

    2013-01-01

    Off-label use of the prostaglandin-E1 analogue misoprostol has become standard practice when inducing labour. In Denmark, a low-dosage misoprostol regimen is common. The regimen consists of one 25 µg application on the first day of induction. The registered prostaglandin-E2 analogue dinoprostone...... is used in 3 and 6 mg doses. This study compared induction procedures with dinoprostone and misoprostol in terms of induction time, foetal outcome and maternal outcome....

  8. Geometrically Consistent Mesh Modification

    KAUST Repository

    Bonito, A.

    2010-01-01

    A new paradigm of adaptivity is to execute refinement, coarsening, and smoothing of meshes on manifolds with incomplete information about their geometry and yet preserve position and curvature accuracy. We refer to this collectively as geometrically consistent (GC) mesh modification. We discuss the concept of discrete GC, show the failure of naive approaches, and propose and analyze a simple algorithm that is GC and accuracy preserving. © 2010 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  9. The Relevance of Stretch Intensity and Position: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikos eApostolopoulos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Stretching exercises to increase the range of motion (ROM of joints have been used by sports coaches and medical professionals for improving performance and rehabilitation. The ability of connective and muscular tissues to change their architecture in response to stretching is important for their proper function, repair and performance. Given the dearth of relevant data in the literature, this review examined two key elements of stretching: stretch intensity and stretch position; and their significance to ROM, delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS, and inflammation in different populations. A search of three databases, Pub-Med, Google Scholar, and Cochrane Reviews, identified 152 articles, which were subsequently categorized into four groups; athletes (n = 24, clinical (n = 29, elderly (n = 12, and general population (n = 87. The use of different populations facilitated a wider examination of the stretching components and their effects. All 152 articles incorporated information regarding duration, frequency and stretch position, whereas only 79 referred to the intensity of stretching and 22 of these 79 studies were deemed high quality. It appears that the intensity of stretching is relatively under-researched, and the importance of body position and its influence on stretch intensity, is largely unknown. In conclusion, this review has highlighted areas for future research, including stretch intensity and position and their effect on musculo-tendinous tissue, in relation to the sensation of pain, delayed onset muscle soreness, inflammation, as well as muscle health and performance

  10. Hamstring Stiffness Returns More Rapidly After Static Stretching Than Range of Motion, Stretch Tolerance, and Isometric Peak Torque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatano, Genki; Suzuki, Shigeyuki; Matsuo, Shingo; Kataura, Satoshi; Yokoi, Kazuaki; Fukaya, Taizan; Fujiwara, Mitsuhiro; Asai, Yuji; Iwata, Masahiro

    2017-12-18

    Hamstring injuries are common, and lack of hamstring flexibility may predispose to injury. Static stretching increases range of motion (ROM) but also results in reduced muscle strength after stretching. The effects of stretching on the hamstring muscles and the duration of these effects remain unclear. To determine the effects of static stretching on the hamstrings and the duration of these effects. Randomized crossover study. University laboratory. Twenty-four healthy volunteers. We measured the torque-angle relationship (ROM, passive torque (PT) at the onset of pain, and passive stiffness) and isometric muscle force using an isokinetic dynamometer. After a 60-minute rest, the ROM of the dynamometer was set at maximum tolerable intensity; this position was maintained for 300 seconds while static passive torque (SPT) was measured continuously. We remeasured the torque-angle relationship and isometric muscle force after rest periods of 10, 20, and 30 minutes. Change in SPT during stretching; changes in ROM, PT at the onset of pain, passive stiffness, and isometric muscle force before stretching compared with 10, 20, and 30 minutes after stretching. SPT decreased significantly during stretching. Passive stiffness decreased significantly 10 and 20 minutes after stretching, but there was no significant pre- vs. post-stretching difference after 30 minutes. PT at the onset of pain and ROM increased significantly after stretching at all rest intervals, while isometric muscle force decreased significantly after all rest intervals. The effect of static stretching on passive stiffness of the hamstrings was not maintained as long as the changes in ROM, stretch tolerance, and isometric muscle force. Therefore, frequent stretching is necessary to improve the viscoelasticity of the muscle-tendon unit. Muscle force was decreased for 30 minutes after stretching; this should be considered prior to activities requiring maximal muscle strength.

  11. SHORT DURATIONS OF STATIC STRETCHING WHEN COMBINED WITH DYNAMIC STRETCHING DO NOT IMPAIR REPEATED SPRINTS AND AGILITY

    OpenAIRE

    Del P. Wong; Anis Chaouachi; Patrick W.C. Lau; David G. Behm

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the effect of different static stretching durations followed by dynamic stretching on repeated sprint ability (RSA) and change of direction (COD). Twenty-five participants performed the RSA and COD tests in a randomized order. After a 5 min aerobic warm up, participants performed one of the three static stretching protocols of 30 s, 60 s or 90 s total duration (3 stretches x 10 s, 20 s or 30 s). Three dynamic stretching exercises of 30 s duration were then performe...

  12. The Rucio Consistency Service

    CERN Document Server

    Serfon, Cedric; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    One of the biggest challenge with Large scale data management system is to ensure the consistency between the global file catalog and what is physically on all storage elements. To tackle this issue, the Rucio software which is used by the ATLAS Distributed Data Management system has been extended to automatically handle lost or unregistered files (aka Dark Data). This system automatically detects these inconsistencies and take actions like recovery or deletion of unneeded files in a central manner. In this talk, we will present this system, explain the internals and give some results.

  13. Reporting consistently on CSR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Christa; Nielsen, Anne Ellerup

    2006-01-01

    This chapter first outlines theory and literature on CSR and Stakeholder Relations focusing on the different perspectives and the contextual and dynamic character of the CSR concept. CSR reporting challenges are discussed and a model of analysis is proposed. Next, our paper presents the results...... in the reporting material. By implementing consistent discourse strategies that interact according to a well-defined pattern or order, it is possible to communicate a strong social commitment on the one hand, and to take into consideration the expectations of the shareholders and the other stakeholders...

  14. Machine-Stitched E-textile Stretch Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Gioberto

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Truly wearable sensing poses challenges in many areas. To be successful, wearable sensors must preserve wearer comfort while providing accurate sensor data. Further, for widespread commercial production they must also be compatible with soft goods manufacturing. Here, we present a method of fabricating stretch sensors using common apparel sewing machinery. The response of sensors made using industrial coverstitch (two varieties and overlock machines are compared, and the sensor response of a bottom-thread coverstitch is characterized in depth. Three conductive thread structures are compared in the bottom-thread coverstitch sensor. Results show a consistent and repeatable response for 4- and 5-ply threads, while 2-ply thread displayed more noise and less repeatability. Finally, this sensor is applied in a spinal goniometry application in three garment structures, and sensor performance is compared to motion capture data. The fabrication approach is promising for wearable sensing applications due to its manufacturability and comfort.

  15. Efficacy of static stretching and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretch on hamstrings length after a single session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hora, John; Cartwright, Abigail; Wade, Clive D; Hough, Alan D; Shum, Gary L K

    2011-06-01

    A number of studies have investigated the efficacy of several repetitions of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching (PNF) and static stretching (SS). However, there is limited research comparing the effects of a single bout of these stretching maneuvers. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of a single bout of a therapist-applied 30-second SS vs. a single bout of therapist-applied 6-second hamstring (agonist) contract PNF. Forty-five healthy subjects between the ages of 21 and 35 were randomly allocated to 1 of the 2 stretching groups or a control group, in which no stretching was received. The flexibility of the hamstring was determined by a range of passive knee extension, measured using a universal goniometer, with the subject in the supine position and the hip at 90° flexion, before and after intervention. A significant increase in knee extension was found for both intervention groups after a single stretch (SS group = 7.53°, p < 0.01 and PNF group = 11.80°, p < 0.01). Both interventions resulted in a significantly greater increase in knee extension when compared to the control group (p < 0.01). The PNF group demonstrated significantly greater gains in knee extension compared to the SS group (mean difference 4.27°, p < 0.01). It can be concluded that a therapist applied SS or PNF results in a significant increase in hamstring flexibility. A hamstring (agonist) contract PNF is more effective than an SS in a single stretching session. These findings are important to physiotherapists or trainers working in clinical and sporting environments. Where in the past therapists may have spent time conducting multiple repetitions of a PNF and an SS, a single bout of either technique may be considered just as effective. A key component of the study methodology was the exclusion of a warm-up period before stretching. Therefore, the findings of efficacy of a single PNF are of particular relevance in sporting environments and busy clinical

  16. SHORT DURATIONS OF STATIC STRETCHING WHEN COMBINED WITH DYNAMIC STRETCHING DO NOT IMPAIR REPEATED SPRINTS AND AGILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Del P. Wong

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare the effect of different static stretching durations followed by dynamic stretching on repeated sprint ability (RSA and change of direction (COD. Twenty-five participants performed the RSA and COD tests in a randomized order. After a 5 min aerobic warm up, participants performed one of the three static stretching protocols of 30 s, 60 s or 90 s total duration (3 stretches x 10 s, 20 s or 30 s. Three dynamic stretching exercises of 30 s duration were then performed (90 s total. Sit-and-reach flexibility tests were conducted before the aerobic warm up, after the combined static and dynamic stretching, and post- RSA/COD test. The duration of static stretching had a positive effect on flexibility with 36.3% and 85.6% greater sit-and-reach scores with the 60 s and 90 s static stretching conditions respectively than with the 30 s condition (p < 0.001. However there were no significant differences in RSA and COD performance between the 3 stretching conditions. The lack of change in RSA and COD might be attributed to a counterbalancing of static and dynamic stretching effects. Furthermore, the short duration (< 90 s static stretching may not have provided sufficient stimulus to elicit performance impairments

  17. Effects of a short proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching bout on quadriceps neuromuscular function, flexibility, and vertical jump performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Place, Nicolas; Blum, Yannick; Armand, Stéphane; Maffiuletti, Nicola A; Behm, David G

    2013-02-01

    The inclusion of relatively long bouts of stretching (repeated static stretches of ∼30 seconds) in the warm-up is usually associated with a drop in muscle performance. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of a novel self-administered proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) paradigm with short periods of stretching and contraction on quadriceps neuromuscular function, vertical jump performance, and articular range of motion (ROM). Twelve healthy men (age: 27.7 ± 7.3 years, height: 178.4 ± 10.4 cm, weight: 73.8 ± 16.9 kg) volunteered to participate in a PNF session and a control session separated by 2-7 days. The PNF stretching lasted 2 minutes and consisted of 4 sets of 5-second isometric hamstring contraction immediately followed by 5 seconds of passive static stretch of the quadriceps immediately followed by 5 seconds isometric quadriceps contraction for each leg. For the control session, the participants were asked to walk at a comfortable speed for 2 minutes. Active ROM of knee flexion, vertical jump performance, and quadriceps neuromuscular function were tested before, immediately after, and 15 minutes after the intervention. The PNF stretching procedure did not affect ROM, squat jump, and countermovement jump performances. Accordingly, we did not observe any change in maximal voluntary contraction force, voluntary activation level, M-wave and twitch contractile properties that could be attributed to PNF stretching. The present self-administered PNF stretching of the quadriceps with short (5-second) stretches is not recommended before sports where flexibility is mandatory for performance.

  18. When is holography consistent?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett McInnes

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Holographic duality relates two radically different kinds of theory: one with gravity, one without. The very existence of such an equivalence imposes strong consistency conditions which are, in the nature of the case, hard to satisfy. Recently a particularly deep condition of this kind, relating the minimum of a probe brane action to a gravitational bulk action (in a Euclidean formulation, has been recognized; and the question arises as to the circumstances under which it, and its Lorentzian counterpart, is satisfied. We discuss the fact that there are physically interesting situations in which one or both versions might, in principle, not be satisfied. These arise in two distinct circumstances: first, when the bulk is not an Einstein manifold and, second, in the presence of angular momentum. Focusing on the application of holography to the quark–gluon plasma (of the various forms arising in the early Universe and in heavy-ion collisions, we find that these potential violations never actually occur. This suggests that the consistency condition is a “law of physics” expressing a particular aspect of holography.

  19. Profile consistency on TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fredrickson, E.D.; McGuire, K.M.; Goldston, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    Electron heat transport on TFTR and other tokamaks is several orders of magnitude larger than neoclassical calculations predict. Despite considerable effort, there is still no clear theoretical understanding of this anomalous transport. The electron temperature profile, T e (r), has shown a marked consistency on many machines for a wide range of plasma parameters and heating profiles. This could be an important clue as to the process responsible for this enhanced thermal transport. In the first section of the paper the result is presented that TFTR electron temperature profile shapes are even more constrained than previous models of profile consistency suggested. The profile shapes, T e (r)/T e (a/2), are found to be invariant (for r>0.4 a) for a wide range of parameters, including q(a). In the second section, an experiment is discussed which uses a fast current ramp to transiently decouple the current density profile, J(r), and the T e (r) profiles. From this experiment, it has been determined that the J(r) profile can be strongly modified with no measureable effect on the electron temperature profile shape. Thus, while the electron temperature profile is apparently constrained, the current profile is not. (author). Letter-to-the-editor. 25 refs, 9 figs

  20. Gemcitabine and Vinorelbine (GemVin) Regimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Elizabeth Y; Solimando, Dominic A; Waddell, J Aubrey

    2014-06-01

    The complexity of cancer chemotherapy requires pharmacists be familiar with the complicated regimens and highly toxic agents used. This column reviews various issues related to preparation, dispensing, and administration of antineoplastic therapy, and the agents, both commercially available and investigational, used to treat malignant diseases. Questions or suggestions for topics should be addressed to Dominic A. Solimando, Jr, President, Oncology Pharmacy Services, Inc., 4201 Wilson Blvd #110-545, Arlington, VA 22203, e-mail: OncRxSvc@comcast.net; or J. Aubrey Waddell, Professor, University of Tennessee College of Pharmacy; Oncology Pharmacist, Pharmacy Department, Blount Memorial Hospital, 907 E. Lamar Alexander Parkway, Maryville, TN 37804, e-mail: waddfour@charter.net.

  1. Prophylactic antibiotic regimens in tumour surgery (PARITY)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Michael Mørk; Hettwer, Werner H; Grum-Schwensen, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    (44 men and 16 women) across 21 sites from four countries over 24 months (mean 2.13 participants per site per year, standard deviation 2.14). One participant was lost to follow-up and one withdrew consent. Complete data were obtained for 98% of eligible patients at two weeks, 83% at six months, and 73......OBJECTIVE: Clinical studies of patients with bone sarcomas have been challenged by insufficient numbers at individual centres to draw valid conclusions. Our objective was to assess the feasibility of conducting a definitive multi-centre randomised controlled trial (RCT) to determine whether a five...... to conceal treatment allocation and sham antibiotics to blind participants, surgeons, and data collectors. We determined feasibility by measuring patient enrolment, completeness of follow-up, and protocol deviations for the antibiotic regimens. RESULTS: We screened 96 patients and enrolled 60 participants...

  2. Variability in Antibiotic Regimens for Surgical Necrotizing Enterocolitis Highlights the Need for New Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwood, Brian P; Hunter, Catherine J; Grabowski, Julia

    Necrotizing enterocolitis or NEC is the most common gastrointestinal emergency in the newborn. The etiology of NEC remains unknown, and treatment consists of antibiotic therapy and supportive care with the addition of surgical intervention as necessary. Unlike most surgical diseases, clear guidelines for the type and duration of peri-operative antibiotic therapy have not been established. Our aim was to review the antibiotic regimen(s) applied to surgical patients with NEC within a single neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and to evaluate outcomes and help develop guidelines for antibiotic administration in this patient population. A single-center retrospective review was performed of all patients who underwent surgical intervention for NEC from August 1, 2005 through August 1, 2015. Relevant data were extracted including gestational age, age at diagnosis, gender, pre-operative antibiotic treatment, post-operative antibiotic treatment, development of stricture, and mortality. Patients were excluded if there was incomplete data documentation. A total of 90 patients were identified who met inclusion criteria. There were 56 male patients and 34 female patients. The average gestational age was 30 5/7 wks and average age of diagnosis 16.7 d. A total of 22 different pre-operative antibiotic regimens were identified with an average duration of 10.6 d. The most common pre-operative regimen was ampicillin, gentamicin, and metronidazole for 14 d. A total of 15 different post-operative antibiotic regimens were identified with an average duration of 6.6 d. The most common post-operative regimen was ampicillin, gentamicin, and metronidazole for two days. There were 26 strictures and 15 deaths. No regimen or duration proved superior. We found that there is a high degree of variability in the antibiotic regimen for the treatment of NEC, even within a single NICU, with no regimen appearing superior over another. As data emerge that demonstrate the adverse effects of

  3. To Stretch and Search for Better Ways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John W.

    2000-06-01

    There's a lot to do to get each issue of this Journal ready for publication, and there's a lot that can go awry during that process. We the editorial staff do our utmost to make certain that each issue is the best it can possibly be, but, of necessity, a lot of our effort is focused on solving problems, correcting errors, and avoiding pitfalls. It is not surprising that we sometimes lose sight of the bigger picture--all of the things that came out as well as or better than we hoped they would. Therefore it gives us great pleasure when a reader applauds (and thereby rewards) our efforts. One such communication inspired this editorial. I have appreciated the extra effort put forward by the staff to make the Journal really come alive. The high quality of the Journal serves as an incentive to chemical educators to stretch and search for better ways to inspire our students. I fervently hope that we do encourage you "to stretch and search for better ways", not only to inspire students but in everything you do. Stretching and searching for better ways is what life, science, chemistry, and teaching are all about, and it is a wonderfully stimulating and exciting way to approach anything and everything. Sometimes, though, one's ability to stretch is akin to that of a rubber band exposed too long to sunlight. Change becomes a threat or a burden instead of an opportunity. This often happens in one area but not others, as in the case of someone doing original research but whose lecture notes are yellow with age, or someone who experiments with new teaching approaches but neglects the latest chemical discoveries. Whatever its manifestation, failure to stretch and search for better ways is a great loss, both for the individual directly involved and for others. Fortunately there are many who continually stretch and search, often in conjunction with JCE. For example, some time ago the Chair of the Board of Publication, Jerry Bell, challenged Journal readers to become Journal

  4. Optical stretching on chip with acoustophoretic prefocusing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoury Arvelo, Maria; Laub Busk, L.; Bruus, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    prefocusing. This focusing mechanism aims for target particles to always ow in the correct height relative to the optical stretcher, and is induced by a piezo-electric ultrasound transducer attached underneath the chip and driven at a frequency leading to a vertical standing ultrasound wave...... in the microchannel. Trapping and manipulation is demonstrated for dielectric beads. In addition, we show trapping, manipulation and stretching of red blood cells and vesicles, whereby we extract the elastic properties of these objects. Our design points towards the construction of a low-cost, high-throughput lab-on-a-chip...

  5. Viscous flows stretching and shrinking of surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Mehmood, Ahmer

    2017-01-01

    This authored monograph provides a detailed discussion of the boundary layer flow due to a moving plate. The topical focus lies on the 2- and 3-dimensional case, considering axially symmetric and unsteady flows. The author derives a criterion for the self-similar and non-similar flow, and the turbulent flow due to a stretching or shrinking sheet is also discussed. The target audience primarily comprises research experts in the field of boundary layer flow, but the book will also be beneficial for graduate students.

  6. The effect of a four-week proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching program on isokinetic torque production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgs, Fiona; Winter, Samantha L

    2009-08-01

    Flexibility is widely accepted as an important component of fitness, yet flexibility training can be detrimental to muscle performance particularly where a high number of stretch cycles are performed. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether chronic proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretch training could successfully improve the knee flexion range of motion without having a detrimental effect on the peak isokinetic torque of the quadriceps. The minimum knee angle in flexion and the peak isokinetic quadriceps torque were measured at 120 and 270 degrees xs. Subjects then participated in a 4-week quadriceps flexibility training program consisting of 3 cycles of PNF stretching performed 3 times a week. The range of motion was recorded before and after the first stretching session of each week. At the end of the 4-week period, the peak isokinetic quadriceps torque and flexibility were again measured. The mean (SE) improvement in the knee flexion range of motion over the whole program was 9.2 degrees (1.45 degrees ), and typical gains after a single stretching session were around 3 degrees . Post hoc analysis showed that the pretraining session range of motion was significantly improved in week 4 compared with the pretraining session range of motion in weeks 1 and 2 (p < 0.05). There was no change (p = 0.9635) in the peak isokinetic torque produced at 120 degrees xs (week 1: 121.9 (4.6) N x m; week 2: 121.9 (5.2) N x m) or at 270 degrees xs (week 1: 88.1 (3.4) N x m; week 2: 88.6 (4.9) N x m). These findings suggest that it is possible to improve flexibility using 3 PNF stretch cycles performed 3 times a week without altering muscle isokinetic strength characteristics.

  7. Stretching of Active Muscle Elicits Chronic Changes in Multiple Strain Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Anthony David; Richmond, Dominic; Talbot, Chris; Mina, Minas; Baross, Anthony William; Blazevich, Anthony John

    2016-07-01

    The muscle stretch intensity imposed during "flexibility" training influences the magnitude of joint range of motion (ROM) adaptation. Thus, stretching while the muscle is voluntarily activated was hypothesized to provide a greater stimulus than passive stretching. The effect of a 6-wk program of stretch imposed on an isometrically contracting muscle (i.e., qualitatively similar to isokinetic eccentric training) on muscle-tendon mechanics was therefore studied in 13 healthy human volunteers. Before and after the training program, dorsiflexion ROM, passive joint moment, and maximal isometric plantarflexor moment were recorded on an isokinetic dynamometer. Simultaneous real-time motion analysis and ultrasound imaging recorded gastrocnemius medialis muscle and Achilles tendon elongation. Training was performed twice weekly and consisted of five sets of 12 maximal isokinetic eccentric contractions at 10°·s. Significant increases (P stretch tolerance; 136.2%), area under the passive moment curve (i.e., energy storage; 302.6%), and maximal isometric plantarflexor moment (51.3%) were observed after training. Although no change in the slope of the passive moment curve (muscle-tendon stiffness) was detected (-1.5%, P > 0.05), a significant increase in tendon stiffness (31.2%, P muscle stiffness (-14.6%, P muscle strain injury, including strength, ROM, muscle stiffness, and maximal energy storage, indicate that the stretching of active muscle might influence injury risk in addition to muscle function. The lack of change in muscle-tendon stiffness simultaneous with significant increases in tendon stiffness and decreases in passive muscle stiffness indicates that tissue-specific effects were elicited.

  8. Twist-stretch profiles of DNA chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoli, Marco

    2017-06-01

    Helical molecules change their twist number under the effect of a mechanical load. We study the twist-stretch relation for a set of short DNA molecules modeled by a mesoscopic Hamiltonian. Finite temperature path integral techniques are applied to generate a large ensemble of possible configurations for the base pairs of the sequence. The model also accounts for the bending and twisting fluctuations between adjacent base pairs along the molecules stack. Simulating a broad range of twisting conformation, we compute the helix structural parameters by averaging over the ensemble of base pairs configurations. The method selects, for any applied force, the average twist angle which minimizes the molecule’s free energy. It is found that the chains generally over-twist under an applied stretching and the over-twisting is physically associated to the contraction of the average helix diameter, i.e. to the damping of the base pair fluctuations. Instead, assuming that the maximum amplitude of the bending fluctuations may decrease against the external load, the DNA molecule first over-twists for weak applied forces and then untwists above a characteristic force value. Our results are discussed in relation to available experimental information albeit for kilo-base long molecules.

  9. Effects of stretching the scalene muscles on slow vital capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Juncheol; Hwang, Sehee; Han, Seungim; Han, Dongwook

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine whether stretching of the scalene muscles would improve slow vital capacity (SVC). [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were 20 healthy female students to whom the study's methods and purpose were explained and their agreement for participation was obtained. The SVC was measured using spirometry (Pony FX, COSMED Inc., Italy). The intervention used was stretching of the scalene muscles. Stretching was carried out for 15 min, 10 times at per each portion of scalene muscles: the anterior, middle, and posterior parts. [Results] Expiratory vital capacity (EVC) and tidal volume (Vt) noticeably increased after stretching. However, there were no changes in any of the SVC items in the control group. [Conclusion] This study demonstrated that stretching of the scalene muscles can effectively improve SVC. In particular, we confirmed that stretching of the scalene muscles was effective in increasing EVC and Vt, which are items of SVC.

  10. Mechanical stretch influence on lifetime of dielectric elastomer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannarelli, A.; Niasar, M. Ghaffarian

    2017-04-01

    Film pre-stretching is a widely adopted solution to improve dielectric strength of the DEA systems. However, to date, long term reliability of this solution has not been investigated. In this work it is explored how the dielectric elastomer lifetime is affected by film pre-stretching. The dielectric loss of soft polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) films is studied for different stretch ratios by measuring tanδ. Additionally, time-to-breakdown was measured at DC electric stress for different stretch ratios. For this purpose, accelerated life test (ALT) were performed. The results obtained are compared with non-pre-stretched samples. This study suggests that no additional dielectric losses are caused by film stretching up to 80% of original dimensions.

  11. Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching : mechanisms and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharman, Melanie J; Cresswell, Andrew G; Riek, Stephan

    2006-01-01

    Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching techniques are commonly used in the athletic and clinical environments to enhance both active and passive range of motion (ROM) with a view to optimising motor performance and rehabilitation. PNF stretching is positioned in the literature as the most effective stretching technique when the aim is to increase ROM, particularly in respect to short-term changes in ROM. With due consideration of the heterogeneity across the applied PNF stretching research, a summary of the findings suggests that an 'active' PNF stretching technique achieves the greatest gains in ROM, e.g. utilising a shortening contraction of the opposing muscle to place the target muscle on stretch, followed by a static contraction of the target muscle. The inclusion of a shortening contraction of the opposing muscle appears to have the greatest impact on enhancing ROM. When including a static contraction of the target muscle, this needs to be held for approximately 3 seconds at no more than 20% of a maximum voluntary contraction. The greatest changes in ROM generally occur after the first repetition and in order to achieve more lasting changes in ROM, PNF stretching needs to be performed once or twice per week. The superior changes in ROM that PNF stretching often produces compared with other stretching techniques has traditionally been attributed to autogenic and/or reciprocal inhibition, although the literature does not support this hypothesis. Instead, and in the absence of a biomechanical explanation, the contemporary view proposes that PNF stretching influences the point at which stretch is perceived or tolerated. The mechanism(s) underpinning the change in stretch perception or tolerance are not known, although pain modulation has been suggested.

  12. Correlation between structure and conductivity in stretched Nafion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allahyarov, Elshad; Taylor, Philip

    2008-03-01

    We have used coarse-grained simulation methods to investigate the effect of stretching-induced structure orientation on the proton conductivity of Nafion-like polyelectrolyte membranes. Recent experimental data on the morphology of ionomers describe Nafion as an aggregation of polymeric backbone chains forming elongated objects embedded in a continuous ionic medium. Uniaxial stretching of a recast Nafion film causes a preferential orientation of these objects in the direction of stretching. Our simulations of humid Nafion show that this has a strong effect on the proton conductivity, which is enhanced along the stretching direction, while the conductivity perpendicular to the stretched polymer backbone is strongly reduced. Stretching also causes the perfluorinated side chains to orient perpendicular to the stretching axis. The sulphonate multiplets shrink in diameter as the stretching is increased and show a spatially periodic ordering in their distribution. This in turn affects the distribution of contained water at low water contents. The water forms a continuous network with narrow bridges between small water clusters absorbed in head-group multiplets. We find the morphological changes in the stretched Nafion to be retained upon removal of the uniaxial stress.

  13. Multitier self-consistent G W +EDMFT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, F.; Boehnke, L.; Werner, P.; Aryasetiawan, F.

    2017-09-01

    We discuss a parameter-free and computationally efficient ab initio simulation approach for moderately and strongly correlated materials, the multitier self-consistent G W +EDMFT method. This scheme treats different degrees of freedom, such as high-energy and low-energy bands, or local and nonlocal interactions, within appropriate levels of approximation, and provides a fully self-consistent description of correlation and screening effects in the solid. The ab initio input is provided by a one-shot G0W0 calculation, while the strong-correlation effects originating from narrow bands near the Fermi level are captured by a combined G W plus extended dynamical mean-field (EDMFT) treatment. We present the formalism and technical details of our implementation and discuss some general properties of the effective EDMFT impurity action. In particular, we show that the retarded impurity interactions can have noncausal features, while the physical observables, such as the screened interactions of the lattice system, remain causal. As a first application, we present ab initio simulation results for SrMoO3, which demonstrate the existence of prominent plasmon satellites in the spectral function not obtainable within LDA+DMFT, and provide further support for our recent reinterpretation of the satellite features in the related cubic perovskite SrVO3. We then turn to stretched sodium as a model system to explore the performance of the multitier self-consistent G W +EDMFT method in situations with different degrees of correlation. While the results for the physical lattice spacing a0 show that the scheme is not very accurate for electron-gas-like systems, because nonlocal corrections beyond G W are important, it does provide physically correct results in the intermediate correlation regime, and a Mott transition around a lattice spacing of 1.5 a0 . Remarkably, even though the Wannier functions in the stretched compound are less localized, and hence the bare interaction parameters

  14. Pion scattering to 8- stretched states in 60Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clausen, B.L.

    1988-03-01

    Using the Energetic Pion Channel and Spectrometer at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility, differential cross sections for pion scattering were measured for ten previously known J/sup π/ = 8/sup /minus// stretched states in 60 Ni. A possible new pure isoscalar stretched state was also found. The data were taken near the /DELTA//sub 3,3/-resonance using 162 MeV incident pions and scattering angles of 65/degree/, 80/degree/, and 90/degree/ for π + and 65/degree/ and 80/degree/ for π/sup /minus//. The analysis of the 60 Ni data found that the use of Woods-Saxon wave functions in the theoretical calculations gave much better agreement with data than the use of the usual harmonic oscillator wave functions. The WS theory gave better predictions of: the angle at which the π/sup /minus// and π + angular distributions are maximum, the ratios of π/sup /minus// to π + cross sections for pure isovector states (which were much larger than unity), and the absolute size of the cross sections for all states (so that the normalization factor necessary to arrive at agreement of theory with data was closer to unity). The theoretical calculations used the distorted wave impulse approximation, including new methods for unbound states. The sensitivities of the calculations to input parameters were investigated. This analysis using WS wave functions was extended to five other nuclei ( 12 C, 14 C, 16 O, 28 Si, and 54 Fe) on which both pion scattering and electron scattering have been done. A significant improvement in arriving at a normalization factor close to unity was found when WS wave functions were consistently used for analyzing both pion and electron inelastic scattering data. 101 refs., 26 figs., 13 tabs

  15. Length heteroplasmy of the polyC-polyT-polyC stretch in the dog mtDNA control region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verscheure, Sophie; Backeljau, Thierry; Desmyter, Stijn

    2015-09-01

    Previously, the mitochondrial control region of 214 Belgian dogs was sequenced. Analysis of this data indicated length heteroplasmy of the polyT stretch in the polyC-polyT-polyC stretch from positions 16661 to 16674. Nine polyC-polyT-polyC haplotype combinations were observed, consisting of seven major haplotypes (highest signal intensity) combined with minor haplotypes (lower signal intensity) one T shorter than the major haplotype in all but three dogs. The longer the polyT stretch, the smaller was the difference in signal intensity between the major and minor haplotype peaks. Additional sequencing, cloning, and PCR trap experiments were performed to further study the intra-individual variation of this mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) region. Cloning experiments demonstrated that the proportion of clones displaying the minor haplotypes also increased with the length of the polyT stretch. Clone amplification showed that in vitro polymerase errors might contribute to the length heteroplasmy of polyT stretches with at least 10 Ts. Although major and minor polyC-polyT-polyC haplotypes did not differ intra-individually within and between tissues in this study, interpretation of polyT stretch variation should be handled with care in forensic casework.

  16. Acute Effects of Different Methods of Stretching and Specific Warm-ups on Muscle Architecture and Strength Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá, Marcos A; Matta, Thiago T; Carneiro, Simone P; Araujo, Carolina O; Novaes, Jefferson S; Oliveira, Liliam F

    2016-08-01

    Sá, MA, Matta, TT, Carneiro, SP, Araujo, CO, Novaes, JS, and Oliveira, LF. Acute effects of different methods of stretching and specific warm-ups on muscle architecture and strength performance. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2324-2329, 2016-The purpose of the study was to investigate the acute effects of 2 stretching interventions, proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) and passive static stretching (PSS), and a specific warm-up (SW) on the strength and architecture of the vastus laterallis and biceps femoris muscles in a subsequent performance on a strength training session (STS). Musculoskeletal ultrasound images were acquired from 9 men before and immediately after stretchings or a SW, and 10 minutes after a STS. The STS consisted of the following exercises: leg extension, leg curl, leg press, and hack machine squat. The PNF resulted in lower performance for all situations. The PSS and SW improved performance for the leg press compared with the PNF and controls (CSs). For the hack machine squat, SWs resulted in higher performance than stretching conditions. The vastus lateralis muscle fascicle length (FL) increases after a STS for PNF. The biceps femoris muscle showed a higher pennation angle 10 minutes after the STS for PSS; the FL increases immediately after PSS and then decreases 10 minutes after the STS for PSS. As per our results, the SWs should be performed before STSs, whereas PNF stretching should not be prescribed because this condition impairs subsequent performance. These results may assist health professionals in prescribing resistance training.

  17. The Acute Effects of Static and Cyclic Stretching on Muscle Stiffness and Hardness of Medial Gastrocnemius Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Noriaki; Urabe, Yukio; Tsutsumi, Shogo; Sakai, Shogo; Fujishita, Hironori; Kobayashi, Toshiki; Asaeda, Makoto; Hirata, Kazuhiko; Mikami, Yukio; Kimura, Hiroaki

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to clarify the acute effects of static stretching (SS) and cyclic stretching (CS) on muscle stiffness and hardness of the medial gastrocnemius muscle (MG) by using ultrasonography, range of motion (ROM) of the ankle joint and ankle plantar flexor. Twenty healthy men participated in this study. Participants were randomly assigned to SS, CS and control conditions. Each session consisted of a standard 5-minute cycle warm-up, accompanied by one of the subsequent conditions in another day: (a) 2 minutes static stretching, (b) 2 minutes cyclic stretching, (c) control. Maximum ankle dorsiflexion range of motion (ROM max) and normalized peak torque (NPT) of ankle plantar flexor were measured in the pre- and post-stretching. To assess muscle stiffness, muscle-tendon junction (MTJ) displacement (the length changes in tendon and muscle) and MTJ angle (the angle made by the tendon of insertion and muscle fascicle) of MG were measured using ultrasonography at an ankle dorsiflexion angle of -10°, 0°, 10° and 20° before and after SS and CS for 2 minutes in the pre- and post-stretching. MG hardness was measured using ultrasound real-time tissue elastography (RTE). The results of this study indicate a significant effect of SS for ROM maximum, MTJ angle (0°, 10°, 20°) and RTE (10°, 20°) compared with CS (p muscle stiffness and hardness compared with CS. In addition, CS may contribute to the elongation of muscle tissue and increased muscle strength.

  18. Effects of contract-relax vs static stretching on stretch-induced strength loss and length-tension relationship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balle, S S; Magnusson, S P; McHugh, M P

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the acute effects of contract-relax stretching (CRS) vs static stretching (SS) on strength loss and the length-tension relationship. We hypothesized that there would be a greater muscle length-specific effect of CRS vs SS. Isometric hamstring strength...... loss compared with SS. These results support the use of SS for stretching the hamstrings....

  19. EFFECTIVENESS OF PNF STRETCHING VERSUS STATIC STRETCHING ON PAIN AND HAMSTRING FLEXIBILITY FOLLOWING MOIST HEAT IN INDIVIDUALS WITH KNEE OSTEOARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena .V

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Osteoarthritis (OA is a degenerative joint disease and one of the major public health problem that causesfunctional impairment and reduced quality of life. To compare the effectiveness of PNF Hold relax stretching versus Static stretching on pain and flexibility of hamstring following moist heat in individuals with knee osteoarthritis. Hamstring tightness is the major problem in knee osteoarthritis individuals. Therefore the need of study is comparing the effectiveness of PNF Hold relax stretching versus static stretching on pain and flexibility of hamstrings following moist heat in knee osteoarthritis participants. Determining the effects of PNF Hold relax stretching versus Static stretching along with moist heat on pain and hamstring flexibility by VAS and Active knee extension range of motion in knee osteoarthritis individuals. Methods: 30 subjects with symptoms of knee osteoarthritis were randomly distributed into 2 groups 15 in each group. PNF Hold relax stretching along with moist heat is compared to Static stretching along with moist heat. Pain was measured by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS and hamstring flexibility by Active knee Extension Range of Motion (AKEROM by universal goniometer. Measurements are taken pre and post intervention. Results: The results indicated PNF Hold relax stretching along with moist heat showed a statistically significant improvement in pain (p<0.05 and improvement in hamstring flexibility (p<0.05 when compared to Static stretching along with moist heat. Conclusion: Subjects with PNF Hold relax stretching along with moist heat showed significant improvement in pain reduction and improving hamstring flexibility than Static stretching along with moist heat.

  20. The effect of warm-up, static stretching and dynamic stretching on hamstring flexibility in previously injured subjects

    OpenAIRE

    O'Sullivan, Kieran; Murray, Elaine; Sainsbury, David

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Warm-up and stretching are suggested to increase hamstring flexibility and reduce the risk of injury. This study examined the short-term effects of warm-up, static stretching and dynamic stretching on hamstring flexibility in individuals with previous hamstring injury and uninjured controls. Methods A randomised crossover study design, over 2 separate days. Hamstring flexibility was assessed using passive knee extension range of motion (PKE ROM). 18 previously injured indi...

  1. LABOR GYMNASTICS: STRETCHING EXERCISE X FLEXIONAMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Amorin Anchieta Borges da Silva, Isabel Cristina Taranto e Fernanda Piasecki

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, there are many opportunities for the society to live a healthful and long life. At the same time, never people was so sedentary and without harmony. Without a healthy body and with “an occupied mind” the human loses exactly what more it needs: the disposal to produce, to coexist and to live a good life. In this context, the present research aimed to revise some terms related to labor gymnastics, which is focused in the prevention of risks related to hours of working and in the reduction of muscular tension levels that may be originated during a day of work. Thus, the present study will make a differentiation between the use of stretching and flexionament during labor gymnastic sessions.

  2. Stretched Lens Array Photovoltaic Concentrator Technology Developed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piszczor, Michael F., Jr.; O'Neill, Mark J.

    2004-01-01

    Solar arrays have been and continue to be the mainstay in providing power to nearly all commercial and government spacecraft. Light from the Sun is directly converted into electrical energy using solar cells. One way to reduce the cost of future space power systems is by minimizing the size and number of expensive solar cells by focusing the sunlight onto smaller cells using concentrator optics. The stretched lens array (SLA) is a unique concept that uses arched Fresnel lens concentrators to focus sunlight onto a line of high-efficiency solar cells located directly beneath. The SLA concept is based on the Solar Concentrator Array with Refractive Linear Element Technology (SCARLET) design that was used on NASA's New Millennium Deep Space 1 mission. The highly successful asteroid/comet rendezvous mission (1998 to 2001) demonstrated the performance and long-term durability of the SCARLET/SLA solar array design and set the foundation for further improvements to optimize its performance.

  3. Aerothermodynamic properties of stretched flames in enclosures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotman, D. A.; Oppenheim, A. K.

    Flames are stretched by being pulled along their frontal surface by the flow field in which they reside. Their trajectories tend to approach particle paths, acquiring eventually the role of contact boundaries, -interfaces between the burnt and unburnt medium that may broaden solely as a consequence of diffusion. Fundamental properties of flow fields governing such flames are determined here on the basis of the zero Mach number model, providng a rational method of approach to the computational analysis of combustion fields in enclosures where, besides the aerodynamic properties flow, the thermodynamic process of compression must be taken into account. To illustrate its application, the method is used to reveal the mechanism of formation of a tulip-shape flame in a rectangular enclosure under nonturbulent flow conditions.

  4. Inappropriate Tuberculosis Treatment Regimens in Chinese Tuberculosis Hospitals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xue He, Guang; van den Hof, Susan; van der Werf, Marieke J.; Guo, Hui; Hu, Yuan Lian; Fan, Ji Huan; Zhang, Wei Min; Tostado, Christopher P.; Borgdorff, Martien W.

    2011-01-01

    This investigation of tuberculosis (TB) treatment regimens in 6 TB hospitals in China showed that only 18% of patients with new cases and 9% of patients with retreatment cases were prescribed standard TB treatment regimens. Adherence to treatment guidelines needs to be improved in TB hospitals to

  5. The Sex Res Non Naturales and the Regimen of Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, Frank Juul

    The paper discusses the ethical and social soundness of the classical idea of diaita/regimen vis-à-vis the contemporary focus on healthy lifestyle......The paper discusses the ethical and social soundness of the classical idea of diaita/regimen vis-à-vis the contemporary focus on healthy lifestyle...

  6. [Choice of initial regimen for antiretroviral-naïve HIV patients: Analysis of motivation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouveix, E; Mortier, E; Beauchet, A; Dupont, C; Gerbe, J; Daneluzzi, V; Brazille, P; Berthe, H; Zucman, D; Genet, P; Simonpoli, A-M; de Truchis, P

    2016-12-01

    Several therapeutic combination antiretroviral therapy regimen are available for initial treatment in naïve HIV infected patients. The choice of a particular regimen remains often subjective. The aim of this study was to determine factors associated with the choice of molecules in initial ARV prescriptions. From 01/01 to 30/10/2014, every initial cART prescription was analyzed regarding patients and physicians characteristics. Then, prescriptions were evaluated by an independent committee of ART prescribers. One hundred and thirty two consecutive initial prescriptions by 34 physicians of 11 medical centers were included: 71 M, migrants: 57 %, MSM: 21 %, CD4100 000 cp/mL (33 %). cART regimen were: NRTI/PI (43 %), NRTI/NNRTI (29.5 %), NRTI/integrase inhibitor (23 %). 75 % of initial cART regimen were consistent with expert guidelines recommendations. The choice of initial cART was not influenced by the type of HIV contamination risk group, patient's geographic origin, CD4 levels. In contrast, working or not (P=0.007), pregnancy wish (P=0.07), pregnancy (P=0.001), HIV RNA levels (P=0.02) and HIV primary infection (P=0.049) influenced the initial choice. Neither physician's age, nor physician's experience influenced this choice. The prescription's non accordance to 2013 French guidelines was mainly related to integrase inhibitor utilisation (P= 0.0001). Overall, cART initial choice is mostly consistent with guidelines. Primary HIV infection, procreation features and high viral load are the main factors influencing this choice. New regimen with better tolerability is prescribed even if it is not yet included in the guidelines. Copyright © 2016 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Stretch-dependent changes in surface profiles of the human crystalline lens during accommodation: a finite element study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pour, Hooman Mohammad; Kanapathipillai, Sangarapillai; Zarrabi, Khosrow; Manns, Fabrice; Ho, Arthur

    2015-03-01

    A non-linear isotropic finite element (FE) model of a 29-year-old human crystalline lens was constructed to study the effects of various geometrical parameters on lens accommodation. The model simulates dis-accommodation by stretching of the lens and predicts the change in surface profiles of the lens capsule, cortex and nucleus at select states of stretching/accommodation. Multiple regression analysis (MRA) is used to develop a stretch-dependent mathematical model relating the lens sagittal height to the radial position of the lens surface as a function of dis-accommodative stretch. A load analysis is performed to compare the finite element results to empirical results from lens stretcher studies. Using the predicted geometrical changes, the optical response of the whole eye during accommodation was analysed by ray-tracing. Aspects of lens shape change relative to stretch were evaluated, including change in diameter, central thickness and accommodation. Maximum accommodation achieved was 10.29 D. From the multiple regression analysis, the stretch-dependent mathematical model of the lens shape related lens curvatures as a function of lens ciliary stretch well (maximum mean-square residual error 2.5 × 10(-3 ) μm, p < 0.001). The results are compared with those from in vitro studies. The finite element and ray-tracing predictions are consistent with Ex Vivo Accommodation Simulator (EVAS) studies in terms of load and power change versus change in thickness. The mathematical stretch-dependent model of accommodation presented may have utility in investigating lens behaviour at states other than the relaxed or fully accommodated states. © 2015 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2015 Optometry Australia.

  8. COMPARISON OF EFFECTS OF ABDOMINAL STRETCHING EXERCISE AND COLD COMPRESS THERAPY ON MENSTRUAL PAIN INTENSITY IN TEENAGE GIRLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desta Ayu Cahya Rosyida

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pain during menstruation is not uncommon, especially in young women, which has an impact on their life activities. Objective: To examine the effect of abdominal stretching exercise and cold compress therapy on decreasing intensity of menstrual pain in teenage girls at SMK Bakti Indonesia Medika. Design: A Quasy Experimental Study with two group comparison pretest-postest design. There were 46 respondents selected in this study by consecutive sampling that consisted of 23 samples in the abdominal stretching exercise group and 23 samples in the cold compress group. The menstrual pain was measured using VAS (visual analog scale. Data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney, Chi-Square, and Wilcoxon test. Results: Findings showed that the mean of menstrual pain before intervention in the abdominal stretching exercise was 7.04 and in the cold compress therapy was 6.74 with p-value 0.211 (<0.05, which indicated that there was no mean difference of pain between both groups. However, after intervention, the menstrual pain was reduced from 7.04 to 1.91 (5.09 difference in the abdominal stretching exercise group; and from 6.74 to 5.52 (1.22 difference in the cold compress group with p-value 0.000 (<0.05, which indicated that there was statistically significant difference of menstrual pain before and after intervention, both abdominal stretching exercise and cold compress therapy. Conclusion: There were statistically significant effects of abdominal stretching exercise and cold compress therapy on menstrual pain in teenage girls. The abdominal stretching exercise is more effective than cold compress therapy in reducing menstrual pain intensity. Thus, it is suggested that abdominal stretching exercise can be an alternative choice of management of dysmenorrhea in teenage girls, and can be a part of subject in the education as non-pharmacological medicine.

  9. Electroforesis of Whey and Stretching Water Protein of Mozzarella Cheese Production from Factorial Experimental of Coagulation and Stretching Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purwadi Purwadi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of lime juice as acidifier in the making of Mozzarella cheese was aimed to learn the protein profile of whey and stretching water produced with treatment of coagulation and stretching temperature. The treatment of coagulation temperature was G1 = 30oC, G2 = 35oC, G3 = 40oC, and G4 = 45oC, and the treatment of stretching temperature was M1 = 70oC, M2 = 75oC, M3 = 80oC, and M4 = 85oC. The research result showed that coagulation temperature of 30 and 35 oC gave the same protein profile of whey as well as coagulation temperature of 40 and 45oC, while coagulation temperature of 30 and 35oC with coagulation temperatur of 40 and 45oC gave different protein profile of whey. Different coagulation temperature gave different protein profile of whey and stretching water, while different stretching temperature gave the same protein profile of stretching water. Coagulation temperature of 30 and 35oC gave the same protein profile of stretching water as well as coagulation temperature of 40 and 45oC, while coagulation temperature of 30 and 35oC with temperature of 40 and 45oC gave different protein profile of stretching water. Keywords: protein profile, Mozzarella cheese, coagulation temperature, stretching temperature

  10. EFFICACY OF MODIFIED PROPRIOCEPTIVE NEUROMUSCULAR FACILITATION STRETCHING WITH CRYOTHERAPY OVER MANUAL PASSIVE STRETCHING WITH CRYOTHERAPY ON HAMSTRING FLEXIBILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamik Bhattacharjee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Healthy individuals, to ease and accomplish their activities of daily living they need flexible body without any tightness in the muscles, particularly those used for a definite function. Cooling soft tissues in a lengthened position after stretching has been shown to promote more lasting increases in soft tissue length and minimize post stretch muscle soreness. There are less documented studies which compared modified proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF stretch over passive manual stretch with cold application commonly after the interventions. Methods: Thirty high school going healthy students were divided into two groups- Group I received Passive Manual stretching (n=15 and Group II received modified PNF stretching (n=15 and both groups received cold application after the interventions for 10 minutes commonly for 5 days. ROM was taken on day 1, day 5 and day 7. Results: After day 7, Group II with Modified PNF stretching along with cold application showed a significant increase in range of motion tested with active knee extension test (AKET. Conclusion: Modified PNF stretching is considered to be the effective intervention in increasing and maintaining ROM in AKET over passive manual stretching with cold applications commonly after the interventions.

  11. The effect of stretch-and-flow voice therapy on measures of vocal function and handicap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Christopher R; Diviney, Shelby S; Hamilton, Amy; Toles, Laura; Childs, Lesley; Mau, Ted

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the efficacy of stretch-and-flow voice therapy as a primary physiological treatment for patients with hyperfunctional voice disorders. Prospective case series. Participants with a diagnosis of primary muscle tension dysphonia or phonotraumatic lesions due to hyperfunctional vocal behaviors were included. Participants received stretch-and-flow voice therapy structured once weekly for 6 weeks. Outcome variables consisted of two physiologic measures (s/z ratio and maximum phonation time), an acoustic measure (cepstral peak prominence [CPP]), and a measure of vocal handicap (voice handicap index [VHI]). All measures were obtained at baseline before treatment and within 2 weeks posttreatment. The s/z ratio, maximum phonation time, sentence CPP, and VHI showed statistically significant (P < 0.05) improvement through therapy. Effect sizes reflecting the magnitude of change were large for s/z ratio and VHI (d = 1.25 and 1.96 respectively), and moderate for maximum phonation time and sentence CPP (d = 0.79 and 0.74, respectively). This study provides supporting evidence for preliminary efficacy of stretch-and-flow voice therapy in a small sample of patients. The treatment effect was large or moderate for multiple outcome measures. The data provide justification for larger, controlled clinical trials on the application of stretch-and-flow voice therapy in the treatment of hyperfunctional voice disorders. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Kink and kink-like waves in pre-stretched Mooney-Rivlin viscoelastic rods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Z. Wang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present paper theoretically investigates kink and kink-like waves propagating in pre-stretched Mooney-Rivlin viscoelastic rods. In the constitutive modeling, the Cauchy stress tensor is assumed to consist of an elastic part and a dissipative part. The asymptotic method is adopted to simplify the nonlinear dynamic equations in the limit of finite-small amplitude and long wavelength. Using the reductive perturbation method, we further derive the well-known far-field equation (i.e. the KdV-Burgers equation, to which two kinds of explicit traveling wave solutions are presented. Examples are given to show the influences of pre-stretch and viscosity on the wave shape and wave velocity. It is shown that pre-stretch could be an effective method for modulating the two types of waves. In addition, such waves may be utilized to measure the viscosity coefficient of the material. The competition between the effects of pre-stretch and viscosity on the kink and kink-like waves is also revealed.

  13. The effects of static stretching on speed and agility: One or multiple repetition protocols?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avloniti, Alexandra; Chatzinikolaou, Athanasios; Fatouros, Ioannis G; Protopapa, Maria; Athanailidis, Ioannis; Avloniti, Christina; Leontsini, Diamanda; Mavropalias, George; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z

    2016-01-01

    Although static stretching (SS) is utilized during warm-up before training and competition, the results about its effects on performance remain controversial. We examined whether performing a stretch of short-to-moderate duration (agility performance from the effect which is produced while performing the same stretch in multiple repetitions of the same total duration. According to a repeated measurement design, 40 trained males were randomly assigned to either (1) a single repetition group or (2) a multiple repetition group. The participants in each group performed five trials: a control trial (no stretches were performed) and four experimental trials of SS protocols consisting of five exercises performed at either 20 sec (2 × 10 in the second group), 30 sec (3 × 10 in the second group), 40 sec (4 × 10 in the second group) or 60 sec (6 × 10 in the second group) of total duration. A two-way repeated measures analysis of variance showed that the participants in both group improved their speed performance in response to the 20-sec trial, whereas agility remained unaffected. Data analysis also revealed that the repetition number did not affect speed and agility performance. These data suggest that SS of short duration (agility performance. Moreover, the effects of SS protocols are related to the total duration of each exercise and not to the number of repetitions in which each exercise is performed.

  14. A Novel Chip for Cyclic Stretch and Intermittent Hypoxia Cell Exposures Mimicking Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Campillo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent hypoxia (IH, a hallmark of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA, plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of OSA-associated morbidities, especially in the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. Oxidative stress and inflammation induced by IH are suggested as main contributors of end-organ dysfunction in OSA patients and animal models. Since the molecular mechanisms underlying these in vivo pathological responses remain poorly understood, implementation of experimental in vitro cell-based systems capable of inducing high-frequency IH would be highly desirable. Here, we describe the design, fabrication and validation of a versatile chip for subjecting cultured cells to fast changes in gas partial pressure and to cyclic stretch. The chip is fabricated with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS and consists of a cylindrical well covered by a thin membrane. Cells cultured on top of the membrane can be subjected to fast changes in oxygen concentration (equilibrium time 6 s. Moreover, cells can be subjected to cyclic stretch at cardiac or respiratory frequencies independently or simultaneously. Rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs exposed to IH mimicking OSA and cyclic stretch at cardiac frequencies revealed that hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α expression was increased in response to both stimuli. Thus, the chip provides a versatile tool for the study of cellular responses to cyclical hypoxia and stretch.

  15. A Novel Chip for Cyclic Stretch and Intermittent Hypoxia Cell Exposures Mimicking Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campillo, Noelia; Jorba, Ignasi; Schaedel, Laura; Casals, Blai; Gozal, David; Farré, Ramon; Almendros, Isaac; Navajas, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Intermittent hypoxia (IH), a hallmark of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of OSA-associated morbidities, especially in the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. Oxidative stress and inflammation induced by IH are suggested as main contributors of end-organ dysfunction in OSA patients and animal models. Since the molecular mechanisms underlying these in vivo pathological responses remain poorly understood, implementation of experimental in vitro cell-based systems capable of inducing high-frequency IH would be highly desirable. Here, we describe the design, fabrication, and validation of a versatile chip for subjecting cultured cells to fast changes in gas partial pressure and to cyclic stretch. The chip is fabricated with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and consists of a cylindrical well-covered by a thin membrane. Cells cultured on top of the membrane can be subjected to fast changes in oxygen concentration (equilibrium time ~6 s). Moreover, cells can be subjected to cyclic stretch at cardiac or respiratory frequencies independently or simultaneously. Rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) exposed to IH mimicking OSA and cyclic stretch at cardiac frequencies revealed that hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) expression was increased in response to both stimuli. Thus, the chip provides a versatile tool for the study of cellular responses to cyclical hypoxia and stretch.

  16. Tip opening of premixed bunsen flames: Extinction with negative stretch and local Karlovitz number

    KAUST Repository

    Vu, Tranmanh

    2015-04-01

    The characteristics of tip openings in premixed bunsen flames have been studied experimentally by measuring OH radicals from laser-induced fluorescence and tip curvatures from chemiluminescent images. Results showed that the tip opening occurred at a constant equivalence ratio and was independent of the jet velocity in propane/air mixtures. The observation of a local extinction phenomenon of the negatively stretched flame due to the flame curvature could not be consistently explained based on flame stretch or the Karlovitz number, since they varied appreciably with the jet velocity. The concept of the local Karlovitz number (KaL) was introduced, which is defined as the ratio of the characteristic reaction time in the normal direction for a stretched flame to the characteristic flow time in the tangential direction for the stretched flame. The local Karlovitz number maintained a constant value under tip opening conditions, irrespective of the jet velocity. Tip opening occurred at a reasonably constant local Karlovitz number of about ~1.72 when the nitrogen dilution level in propane and n-butane fuels was varied.

  17. The effect of the stretching of PLA extruded films on their crystallinity and gas barrier properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinault, A.; Menary, G. H.; Courgneau, C.; Griffith, D.; Ducruet, V.; Miri, V.; Sollogoub, C.

    2011-05-01

    Driven by environmental concerns, new polymers based on renewable resources are arriving on the market to replace conventional polymers, obtained from petroleum, for different applications like food packaging. One of the most prominent polymers among these materials is poly(lactic acid) (PLA), a biodegradable, thermoplastic, aliphatic polyester derived from renewable resources, such as corn starch (in the USA) or sugarcanes (in the rest of the world). However this polymer presents different disadvantages and especially low gas barrier properties [1]. Thermal crystallization can be used to increase its gas barrier properties but long times are necessary [2] and are not compatible with an industrial process. Another way to increase the gas barrier properties consists in stretching the film in order to increase its crystallinity and so its diffusion coefficient. We have prepared stretched PLA films with different stretch ratio and we have studied the effect of the stretching parameters on the gas barrier properties of PLA films. Finally we compared this process with the isothermal crystallization process by taking into account the crystallinity degree and the crystalline morphology.

  18. An automated multidimensional thin film stretching device for the generation of anisotropic polymeric micro- and nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Randall A; Meyer, Randall S; Green, Jordan J

    2015-08-01

    Anisotropic polymeric particles are of growing interest for biomaterials applications due to their unique properties. These include the ability for these particles to evade nonspecific cellular uptake and to have enhanced targeted cellular uptake and interaction. One of the most widely used methods for generating anisotropic polymeric particles is the thin film stretching procedure. Despite its theoretical simplicity, this procedure, as it has been implemented to date, can be difficult due to the inconsistent nature of the manual operation of machinery used to stretch the film. We have constructed an automated thin film stretcher for control over biomaterials via thin film stretching in 1D and 2D and as a result, have enabled precise generation of anisotropic polymeric particles. We demonstrate that this device can be utilized to produce anisotropic biodegradable particles of different size, shape, and material consistency. Furthermore, we show that this machine has enabled the scaled up and rapid production of anisotropic polymeric particles, including polymeric microparticles that mimic the shape of red blood cells. Further application of this automated thin film stretching device could allow for significant impact to diverse biomaterial and biomedical applications such as biomimetic particles for immunoengineering and long-circulating particles for controlled release of drugs. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Effect of Global Posture Reeducation and of Static Stretching on Pain, Range of Motion, and Quality of Life in Women with Chronic Neck Pain: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Ana Cláudia Violino; Burke, Thomaz Nogueira; França, Fábio Jorge Renovato; Marques, Amélia Pasqual

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE Compare the effect of conventional static stretching and muscle chain stretching, as proposed by the global posture reeducation method, in the manual therapy of patients with chronic neck pain. METHODS Thirty-three female patients aged 35 to 60 years old, 31 of whom completed the program, were randomly divided into two groups: The global posture reeducation group (n=15) performed muscle chain stretching, while the conventional stretching group (n=16) performed conventional static muscle stretching. Both groups also underwent manual therapy. Patients were evaluated before and after treatment and at a six-week follow-up appointment and tested for pain intensity (by means of visual analog scale), range of motion (by goniometry), and health-related quality of life (by the SF-36 questionnaire). The treatment program consisted of two 1-hour individual sessions per week for six weeks. Data were statistically analyzed at a significance level of pglobal posture reeducation group in one domain; at follow-up, there was improvement in all domains, except that both groups reported increased pain. There were no significant differences between groups CONCLUSION Conventional stretching and muscle chain stretching in association with manual therapy were equally effective in reducing pain and improving the range of motion and quality of life of female patients with chronic neck pain, both immediately after treatment and at a six-week follow-up, suggesting that stretching exercises should be prescribed to chronic neck pain patients. PMID:19060998

  20. Different oral corticosteroid regimens for acute asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normansell, Rebecca; Kew, Kayleigh M; Mansour, George

    2016-05-13

    between a higher dose or longer course and a lower dose or shorter course of prednisolone or dexamethasone, or between prednisolone and dexamethasone.Included studies were generally of reasonable methodological quality. Review authors assessed most outcomes in the review as having low or very low quality, meaning we are not confident in the effect estimates. The predominant reason for downgrading was imprecision, but indirectness and risk of bias also reduced our confidence in some estimates. Evidence is not strong enough to reveal whether shorter or lower-dose regimens are generally less effective than longer or higher-dose regimens, or indeed that the latter are associated with more adverse events. Any changes recommended for current practice should be supported by data from larger, well-designed trials. Varied study design and outcome measures limited the number of meta-analyses that we could perform. Greater emphasis on palatability and on whether some regimens might be easier to adhere to than others could better inform clinical decisions for individual patients.

  1. Spectrum of OH-stretching vibrations of water in a "floating" water bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshurko, V. B.; Ropyanoi, A. A.; Fedorov, A. N.; Fedosov, M. V.; Shelaeva, N. A.

    2012-11-01

    The axial distribution (over the cross section) of the spectra of the OH-stretching band of water in a water bridge is investigated using the Raman scattering method. It is found that the axial structure of the bridge is inhomogeneous: the core at the center of the bridge contains a larger amount of water with an "icelike" structure and a presumably larger number of H+ ions, while the outer layer probably consists of water with a larger number of OH- ions.

  2. Effects of acute stretching on the maximal expression of strength ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study compared the effects of four treatments (n = 12 each) [10 minutes of quiet sitting, without stretching (NS); two minutes warm up on an arm ergometer at 25 watts resistance (WU); 10 second-hold static stretching (each) of the shoulder, chest and arm muscle groups (ST10); and two sets of 20 second-hold static ...

  3. The stretch reflex and the contributions of C David Marsden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Kalyan B

    2017-01-01

    The stretch reflex or myotatic reflex refers to the contraction of a muscle in response to its passive stretching by increasing its contractility as long as the stretch is within physiological limits. For ages, it was thought that the stretch reflex was of short latency and it was synonymous with the tendon reflex, subserving the same spinal reflex arc. However, disparities in the status of the two reflexes in certain clinical situations led Marsden and his collaborators to carry out a series of experiments that helped to establish that the two reflexes had different pathways. That the two reflexes are dissociated has been proved by the fact that the stretch reflex and the tendon reflex, elicited by stimulation of the same muscle, have different latencies, that of the stretch reflex being considerably longer. They hypothesized that the stretch reflex had a transcortical course before it reached the spinal motor neurons for final firing. Additionally, the phenomenon of stimulus-sensitive cortical myoclonus lent further evidence to the presence of the transcortical loop where the EEG correlate preceded the EMG discharge. This concept has been worked out by later neurologists in great detail, and the general consensus is that indeed, the stretch reflex is endowed with a conspicuous transcortical component.

  4. Chaperones in Polyglutamine Aggregation : Beyond the Q-Stretch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, E. F. E.; de Mattos, Eduardo P.; Jardim, Laura B.; Kampinga, Harm H.; Bergink, Steven

    2017-01-01

    Expanded polyglutamine (polyQ) stretches in at least nine unrelated proteins lead to inherited neuronal dysfunction and degeneration. The expansion size in all diseases correlates with age at onset (AO) of disease and with polyQ protein aggregation, indicating that the expanded polyQ stretch is the

  5. Time and direction preparation of the long latency stretch reflex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikaido, Yasutaka; Hatanaka, Ryota; Jono, Yasutomo; Nomura, Yoshifumi; Tani, Keisuke; Chujo, Yuta; Hiraoka, Koichi

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated time and direction preparation of motor response to force load while intending to maintain the finger at the initial neutral position. Force load extending or flexing the index finger was given while healthy humans intended to maintain the index finger at the initial neutral position. Electromyographic activity was recorded from the first dorsal interosseous muscle. A precue with or without advanced information regarding the direction of the forthcoming force load was given 1000ms before force load. Trials without the precue were inserted between the precued trials. A long latency stretch reflex was elicited by force load regardless of its direction, indicating that the long latency stretch reflex is elicited not only by muscle stretch afferents, but also by direction-insensitive sensations. Time preparation of motor response to either direction of force load enhanced the long latency stretch reflex, indicating that time preparation is not mediated by afferent discharge of muscle stretch. Direction preparation enhanced the long latency stretch reflex and increased corticospinal excitability 0-20ms after force load when force load was given in the direction stretching the muscle. These enhancements must be induced by preset of the afferent pathway mediating segmental stretch reflex. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The stretch reflex and the contributions of C David Marsden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyan B Bhattacharyya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The stretch reflex or myotatic reflex refers to the contraction of a muscle in response to its passive stretching by increasing its contractility as long as the stretch is within physiological limits. For ages, it was thought that the stretch reflex was of short latency and it was synonymous with the tendon reflex, subserving the same spinal reflex arc. However, disparities in the status of the two reflexes in certain clinical situations led Marsden and his collaborators to carry out a series of experiments that helped to establish that the two reflexes had different pathways. That the two reflexes are dissociated has been proved by the fact that the stretch reflex and the tendon reflex, elicited by stimulation of the same muscle, have different latencies, that of the stretch reflex being considerably longer. They hypothesized that the stretch reflex had a transcortical course before it reached the spinal motor neurons for final firing. Additionally, the phenomenon of stimulus-sensitive cortical myoclonus lent further evidence to the presence of the transcortical loop where the EEG correlate preceded the EMG discharge. This concept has been worked out by later neurologists in great detail , and the general consensus is that indeed, the stretch reflex is endowed with a conspicuous transcortical component.

  7. Transparent conducting film: Effect of mechanical stretching to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We describe in this paper a transparent conducting film (TCF). It is a fibrous layer of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), labeled a dilute CNT mat, that was prepared and unidirectionally stretched to improve both the optical and electrical properties. After stretching by 80% strain, transmittance at 550 nm wavelength ...

  8. The effects of acute self myofascial release (MFR) and stretching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Baseline measurements were taken initially and then participants were randomly divided into four groups (control [n=10, static stretching [n=10], dynamic stretching [n=10] and self MFR [n=10]). Each group performed a 60-minute intervention. During the intervention programme the various groups took part in prescribed ...

  9. Transparent conducting film: Effect of mechanical stretching to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    The number of pixels inside a rectangle counted on the Adobe Photoshop. Figure 6. Sheet resistance and transmittance at 550 nm wave- length of a dilute CNT mat before and after stretch. Five sam- ples were stretched by 40 and 110% strain respectively and average data is shown in each case. A polyurethane elastomer.

  10. Does Postexercise Static Stretching Alleviate Delayed Muscle Soreness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buroker, Katherine C.; Schwane, James A.

    1989-01-01

    Because many experts recommend stretching after exercise to relieve muscle soreness, 23 subjects performed a 30-minute step test to induce delayed muscle soreness. There was neither temporary relief of pain immediately after stretching nor a reduction in pain during the 3-day postexercise period. (Author/SM)

  11. Mechanical stretch influence on lifetime of dielectric elastomer films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iannarelli, A.; Ghaffarian Niasar, M.; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2017-01-01

    Film pre-stretching is a widely adopted solution to improve dielectric strength of the DEA systems. However, to date, long term reliability of this solution has not been investigated. In this work it is explored how the dielectric elastomer lifetime is affected by film pre-stretching. The dielectric

  12. The effect of calf stretching box on stretching calf muscle compliance: a prospective, randomized single-blinded controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadchavalpanichaya, Navaporn; Srisawasdi, Gulapar; Suwannakin, Atchara

    2010-12-01

    To study the effect of calf stretching box usage in increasing the compliance of performing calf stretching exercise as compared to the conventional exercise method. To study the effect of calf stretching box usage in decreasing the calf muscle tightness and complications as compared to the conventional exercise method. Eighty patients older than 45 years old with calf muscles tightness were enrolled in a prospective, randomized single-blinded controlled trial at the out-patient Rehabilitation medicine clinic, Siriraj Hospital, Bangkok Thailand between April and August 2009. Patients were randomized into two groups, the study group (stretching by using calf stretching box) and the control group (stretching by the conventional exercise method). Patients in both groups were asked to hold the stretch for at least 1 minute and to perform the stretching program at least two times per day, every day for two weeks. Furthermore, they were asked to record the real frequency and duration of their exercise and complications in a logbook every day. Thirty-eight patients in each group completed the study. The baseline characteristics of the patients in both groups were similar. The study group had higher frequency and longer duration of performing calf stretching exercise than the control group. They also reported more decrease of calf muscle tightness with less pain complication (shoulder pain, knee pain, low back pain, and calf muscle pain) than the control group (p calf muscle and degree of ankle range of motion between the two groups. Stretching calf muscle with calf stretching box can increase compliance, decrease calf muscle tightness and decrease complications when compared with the conventional exercise method.

  13. The effect of warm-up, static stretching and dynamic stretching on hamstring flexibility in previously injured subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Kieran; Murray, Elaine; Sainsbury, David

    2009-04-16

    Warm-up and stretching are suggested to increase hamstring flexibility and reduce the risk of injury. This study examined the short-term effects of warm-up, static stretching and dynamic stretching on hamstring flexibility in individuals with previous hamstring injury and uninjured controls. A randomised crossover study design, over 2 separate days. Hamstring flexibility was assessed using passive knee extension range of motion (PKE ROM). 18 previously injured individuals and 18 uninjured controls participated. On both days, four measurements of PKE ROM were recorded: (1) at baseline; (2) after warm-up; (3) after stretch (static or dynamic) and (4) after a 15-minute rest. Participants carried out both static and dynamic stretches, but on different days. Data were analysed using Anova. Across both groups, there was a significant main effect for time (p static stretching (p = 0.04) but significantly decreased after dynamic stretching (p = 0.013). The increased flexibility after warm-up and static stretching reduced significantly (p 0.05). Using ANCOVA to adjust for the non-significant (p = 0.141) baseline difference between groups, the previously injured group demonstrated a greater response to warm-up and static stretching, however this was not statistically significant (p = 0.05). Warm-up significantly increased hamstring flexibility. Static stretching also increased hamstring flexibility, whereas dynamic did not, in agreement with previous findings on uninjured controls. The effect of warm-up and static stretching on flexibility was greater in those with reduced flexibility post-injury, but this did not reach statistical significance. Further prospective research is required to validate the hypothesis that increased flexibility improves outcomes. ACTRN12608000638336.

  14. Stretch reflex regulation in healthy subjects and patients with spasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Bo; Petersen, Nicolas; Crone, Clarissa

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, part of the muscle resistance in spastic patients has been explained by changes in the elastic properties of muscles. However, the adaptive spinal mechanisms responsible for the exaggeration of stretch reflex activity also contribute to muscle stiffness. The available data suggest...... of the spastic symptoms. A recent finding also shows no sign of exaggerated stretch reflexes in muscles voluntarily activated by the spastic patient in general. This is easily explained by the control of stretch reflex activity in healthy subjects. In healthy subjects, the stretch reflex activity is increased...... movements, antagonist muscles should remain silent and maximally relaxed. This is ensured by increasing transmission in several spinal inhibitory pathways. In spastic patients, this control is inadequate, and therefore stretch reflexes in antagonist muscles are easily evoked at the beginning of voluntary...

  15. Bruxism: Is There an Indication for Muscle-Stretching Exercises?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouw, Simone; de Wijer, Anton; Creugers, Nico Hj; Kalaykova, Stanimira I

    Bruxism is a common phenomenon involving repetitive activation of the masticatory muscles. Muscle-stretching exercises are a recommended part of several international guidelines for musculoskeletal disorders and may be effective in management of the jaw muscle activity that gives rise to bruxism. However, most studies of muscle-stretching exercises have mainly focused on their influence on performance (eg, range of motion, coordination, and muscle strength) of the limb or trunk muscles of healthy individuals or individuals with sports-related injuries. Very few have investigated stretching of the human masticatory muscles and none muscle-stretching exercises in the management of (sleep) bruxism. This article reviews the literature on muscle-stretching exercises and their potential role in the management of sleep bruxism or its consequences in the musculoskeletal system.

  16. Acute effect of different stretching methods on isometric muscle strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Vasconcellos de Lima Costa e Silva

    2014-03-01

    This study investigated the acute effect of static stretching methods (SS and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF on the static muscle strength (SMS. Eleven young male subjects with strength training experience, performed 3 tests with a 48h interval between them, randomly selected, where each one subject carried out all procedures: a hand grip without stretching; b hand grip preceded by static stretching of wrist flexors muscles; c hand grip preceded by PNF stretching of wrist flexors muscles. The Shapiro-Wilk test verified the normality of data, and a one-way ANOVA with repeated measures, followed by Tukey’s post hoc test, evaluated the differences between the groups. The significance was set at p 0.05. In conclusion, both stretching methods had caused negative effects on isometric strength, reducing its levels.

  17. Linear and nonlinear buckling analysis of a locally stretched plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilardj, Madina; Ikhenzzen, Ghania [University of Sciences and Technology Houari Boumediene (U.S.T.H.B), Bab Ezzouar, Algiers (Algeria); Merssager, Tanguy; Kanit, Toufik [Laboratoire de Mecanique de Lille Universite Lille 1, Cite ScientifiqueVilleneuve d' Ascq cedex (France)

    2016-08-15

    Uniformly stretched thin plates do not buckle unless they are in special boundary conditions. However, buckling commonly occurs around discontinuities, such as cracks, cuts, narrow slits, holes, and different openings, of such plates. This study aims to show that buckling can also occur in thin plates that contain no defect or singularity when the stretching is local. This specific stability problem is analyzed with the finite element method. A brief literature review on stretched plates is presented. Linear and nonlinear buckling stress analyses are conducted for a partially stretched rectangular plate, and various load cases are considered to investigate the influence of the partial loading expanse on the critical tensile buckling load. Results are summarized in iso-stress areas, tables and graphs. Local stretching on one end of the plate induces buckling in the thin plate even without geometrical imperfection.

  18. Acute effects of different stretching durations on passive torque, mobility, and isometric muscle force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Shingo; Suzuki, Shigeyuki; Iwata, Masahiro; Banno, Yasuhiro; Asai, Yuji; Tsuchida, Wakako; Inoue, Takayuki

    2013-12-01

    Static stretching is widely applied in various disciplines. However, the acute effects of different durations of stretching are unclear. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the acute effects of different stretching durations on muscle function and flexibility, and provide an insight into the optimal duration of static stretching. This randomized crossover trial included 24 healthy students (17 men and 7 women) who stretched their right hamstrings for durations of 20, 60, 180, and 300 seconds in a random order. The following outcomes were assessed using an isokinetic dynamometer as markers of lower-limb function and flexibility: static passive torque (SPT), dynamic passive torque (DPT), stiffness, straight leg raise (SLR), and isometric muscle force. Static passive torque was significantly decreased after all stretching durations (p stretching compared with that after 20-second stretching, and stiffness decreased significantly after 180- and 300-second stretching (p stretching (p stretching durations (p stretching than after 20-second stretching and higher after 300-second stretching than after 60-second stretching (p muscle force significantly decreased after all stretching durations (p stretching is associated with a decrease in SPT but an increase in SLR. Over 180 seconds of stretching was required to decrease DPT and stiffness, but isometric muscle force decreased regardless of the stretching duration. In conclusion, these results indicate that longer durations of stretching are needed to provide better flexibility.

  19. Genomic Mapping of Human DNA provides Evidence of Difference in Stretch between AT and GC rich regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reifenberger, Jeffrey; Dorfman, Kevin; Cao, Han

    Human DNA is a not a polymer consisting of a uniform distribution of all 4 nucleic acids, but rather contains regions of high AT and high GC content. When confined, these regions could have different stretch due to the extra hydrogen bond present in the GC basepair. To measure this potential difference, human genomic DNA was nicked with NtBspQI, labeled with a cy3 like fluorophore at the nick site, stained with YOYO, loaded into a device containing an array of nanochannels, and imaged. Over 473,000 individual molecules of DNA, corresponding to roughly 30x coverage of a human genome, were collected and aligned to the human reference. Based on the known AT/GC content between aligned pairs of labels, the stretch was measured for regions of similar size but different AT/GC content. We found that regions of high GC content were consistently more stretched than regions of high AT content between pairs of labels varying in size between 2.5 kbp and 500 kbp. We measured that for every 1% increase in GC content there was roughly a 0.06% increase in stretch. While this effect is small, it is important to take into account differences in stretch between AT and GC rich regions to improve the sensitivity of detection of structural variations from genomic variations. NIH Grant: R01-HG006851.

  20. Effectiveness of current and future regimens for treating genotype 3 hepatitis C virus infection: a large-scale systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosnieh Fathi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Six distinct genetic variants (genotypes 1 − 6 of hepatitis C virus (HCV exist globally. Certain genotypes are more prevalent in particular countries or regions than in others but, globally, genotype 3 (GT3 is the second most common. Patients infected with HCV GT1, 2, 4, 5 or 6 recover to a greater extent, as measured by sustained virological response (SVR, following treatment with regimens based on direct-acting antivirals (DAAs than after treatment with older regimens based on pegylated interferon (Peg-IFN. GT3, however, is regarded as being more difficult to treat as it is a relatively aggressive genotype, associated with greater liver damage and cancer risk; some subgroups of patients with GT3 infection are less responsive to current licensed DAA treatments. Newer DAAs have become available or are in development. Methods According to PRISMA guidance, we conducted a systematic review (and descriptive statistical analysis of data in the public domain from relevant clinical trial or observational (real-world study publications within a 5-year period (February 2011 to May 2016 identified by PubMed, Medline In-Process, and Embase searches. This was supplemented with a search of five non-indexed literature sources, comprising annual conferences of the AASLD, APASL, CROI, EASL, and WHO, restricted to a 1-year period (April 2015 to May 2016. Results Of the all-oral regimens, the efficacy (SVR12 ≥ 90% of sofosbuvir plus daclatasvir- and velpatasvir-based regimens in clinical trials supports and reinforces their recommendation by guidelines. Other promising regimens comprise grazoprevir + elbasvir + sofosbuvir, and ombitasvir + paritaprevir/ribavirin + sofosbuvir. Newer regimens incorporating pibrentasvir + glecaprevir or grazoprevir + ruzasvir + MK-3682 (uprifosbuvir, offer all-oral, ribavirin-free SVR12 rates consistently greater than 95%. Observational studies report slightly lower overall SVR rates but reflect

  1. Polypathology, polypharmacy, medication regimen complexity and drug therapy appropriateness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Aguirre, N; Caudevilla Martínez, A; Bellostas Muñoz, L; Crespo Avellana, M; Velilla Marco, J; Díez-Manglano, J

    Polypathological patients are usually elderly and take numerous drugs. Polypharmacy affects 85% of these individuals and is not associated with greater survival. On the contrary, polypharmacy exposes these individuals to more adverse effects, such as weight loss, falls, functional and cognitive impairment and hospitalisations. The complexity of a drug regimen covers more aspects than the simple number of drugs consumed. The galenic form, the dosage and the method for preparing the drug can impede the understanding of and compliance with prescriptions. Both polypharmacy and therapeutic complexity are associated with poorer adherence by patients. To prevent polypharmacy, reduce complexity and improve adherence, the appropriate use of drugs is needed. Proper prescribing consists of selecting drugs that have clear evidence for their use in the indication, which are appropriate for the patient's circumstances, are well tolerated and cost-effective and whose benefits outweigh the risks. To improve the drug prescription, periodic reviews of the drugs need to be conducted, especially when the patient changes doctor and during healthcare transitions. The Beers and STOPP/START (Screening Tool of Older Person's potentially inappropriate Prescriptions/Screening Tool to Alert doctors to the Right Treatment) criteria are effective tools for this improvement. Deprescription for polymedicated polypathological patients that considers their clinical circumstances, prognosis and preferences can contribute to a more appropriate use of drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  2. Simulation of Anomalous Regional Climate Events with a Variable Resolution Stretched Grid GCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox-Rabinovitz, Michael S.

    1999-01-01

    The stretched-grid approach provides an efficient down-scaling and consistent interactions between global and regional scales due to using one variable-resolution model for integrations. It is a workable alternative to the widely used nested-grid approach introduced over a decade ago as a pioneering step in regional climate modeling. A variable-resolution General Circulation Model (GCM) employing a stretched grid, with enhanced resolution over the US as the area of interest, is used for simulating two anomalous regional climate events, the US summer drought of 1988 and flood of 1993. The special mode of integration using a stretched-grid GCM and data assimilation system is developed that allows for imitating the nested-grid framework. The mode is useful for inter-comparison purposes and for underlining the differences between these two approaches. The 1988 and 1993 integrations are performed for the two month period starting from mid May. Regional resolutions used in most of the experiments is 60 km. The major goal and the result of the study is obtaining the efficient down-scaling over the area of interest. The monthly mean prognostic regional fields for the stretched-grid integrations are remarkably close to those of the verifying analyses. Simulated precipitation patterns are successfully verified against gauge precipitation observations. The impact of finer 40 km regional resolution is investigated for the 1993 integration and an example of recovering subregional precipitation is presented. The obtained results show that the global variable-resolution stretched-grid approach is a viable candidate for regional and subregional climate studies and applications.

  3. [Stretching the triceps surae muscle after 40 degrees C warming in patients with cerebral palsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lespargot, A; Robert, M; Khouri, N

    2000-11-01

    Equinus in patients with cerebral palsy results from at least two factors: excessive contracture of the triceps surae and muscle retraction. Tendon surgery and progressive lengthening techniques using plaster walking boots can provide variable improvement in retraction. We compared the effect of this technique when applied with or without prior 40 degrees C warming in the same patients. We also assessed the efficacy of this treatment method in terms or degree of retraction, patient age, puberty maturity, and sex. This series included 70 muscles in 52 patients with cerebral palsy aged 2 years 11 months to 21 years (mean 8 years 3 months). Common features in these patients were: - equinus mainly explained by triceps retraction, - no history of prior surgery on the triceps tendon, - knee flexion less than 15 degrees in the upright position, - easily reduced lateral deformation of the foot, - absence of mediotarsal dislocation, - triceps stretching could be achieved without triggering unacceptably intense contracture. The retraction of the triceps surae was measured from the maximal passive dorsal flexion angle of the foot, before and after applying each stretching boot. The difference between these measurements gave the gain obtained with the plaster boot. Protocol R- (stretching with plaster boot) consisted in a series of slow stretchings for 10 minutes before making the boot which was worn 7 days. Recurrent retraction in these same patients warranted another treatment within a delay of 3 to 17 months (mean delay 8.7 months). The same treatment then followed protocol R+ where the stretching was preceded by immersion of the segment in a 40 degrees C water bath for 10 minutes. Mean gain obtained with protocol R+ (warming) was 6.8 degrees knee extended and 7.1 degrees knee flexed. These differences were highly significant in both cases (p knee extended and for 32 muscles, knee flexed. The gain was not related to age, sex or puberty maturity. It was not related to the

  4. Reflectors Made from Membranes Stretched Between Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, Jennifer; Dragovan, Mark; Tolomeo, Jason

    2009-01-01

    Lightweight cylindrical reflectors of a proposed type would be made from reflective membranes stretched between pairs of identically curved and identically oriented end rails. In each such reflector, the curvature of the two beams would define the reflector shape required for the intended application. For example, the beams could be curved to define a reflector of parabolic cross section, so that light incident along the axis of symmetry perpendicular to the cylindrical axis would be focused to a line. In addition, by applying suitable forces to the ends of the beams, one could bend the beams to adjust the reflector surface figure to within a precision of the order of the wavelength of the radiation to be reflected. The figure depicts an example of beams shaped so that in the absence of applied forces, each would be flat on one side and would have a radius of curvature R on the opposite side. Alternatively, the curvature of the reflector-membrane side could be other than circular. In general, the initial curvature would be chosen to optimize the final reflector shape. Then by applying forces F between the beam ends in the positions and orientations shown in the figure, one could bend beams to adjust their shape to a closer approximation of the desired precise circular or noncircular curvature.

  5. Linear viscoelastic characterization from filament stretching rheometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wingstrand, Sara Lindeblad; Alvarez, Nicolas J.; Hassager, Ole

    Traditionally, linear viscoelasticity is measured using small amplitude oscillatory shear flow. Due to experimental difficulties, shear flows are predominately confined to the linear and mildly nonlinear regime. On the other hand, extensional flows have proven more practical in measuring viscoela......Traditionally, linear viscoelasticity is measured using small amplitude oscillatory shear flow. Due to experimental difficulties, shear flows are predominately confined to the linear and mildly nonlinear regime. On the other hand, extensional flows have proven more practical in measuring...... viscoelasticity well into the nonlinear regime. Therefore at present, complete rheological characterization of a material requires two apparatuses: a shear and an extensional rheometer. This work is focused on developing a linear viscoelastic protocol for the filament stretching rheometer (FSR) in order...... to measure both linear and nonlinear dynamics on a single apparatus. With a software modification to the FSR motor control, we show that linear viscoelasticity can be measured via small amplitude squeeze flow (SASF). Squeeze flow is a combination of both shear and extensional flow applied by axially...

  6. STRETCH FABRICS IN LEATHER MANUFACTURING: PERFORMANCE PROPERTIES OF STRECH LEATHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ORK Nilay

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Product variability of manufactured leather goods such as garment leathers could be closely related to the wear comfort because each material forming the garments are affected the comfort properties of the products. Considering the significant demand to elastic woven stretch fabrics and the advantages provided to leather goods like allowing easy body movements, well-fitting and keeping the shape make the use of stretch fabrics focus in interest. In this study, the performance properties of stretch leathers, leathers and spandex fabrics were presented and the differences between the characteristic properties of the leathers were described. For this purpose, physical characteristics of leathers were investigated in terms of thickness, weight, drape ability, stiffness, bending stiffness, air and water vapor permeability. The drape ability, stiffness and bending stiffness properties were significantly affected by the stretch fabrics laminated on the suede side of the leathers. The drape ability, stiffness and bending values were increased due to the implementation of stretch fabrics. There was no significant difference between the air permeability values of the leathers prior and after the implementation of stretch fabrics in contrast to water vapor permeability. The results of this study showed that the aesthetic behavior of clothing materials such as drape and stiffness properties as well as water vapor permeability was mainly affected from the implementation of the stretch fabrics.

  7. Magnitude and duration of stretch modulate fibroblast remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestrini, Jenna L; Billiar, Kristen L

    2009-05-01

    Mechanical cues modulate fibroblast tractional forces and remodeling of extracellular matrix in healthy tissue, healing wounds, and engineered matrices. The goal of the present study is to establish dose-response relationships between stretch parameters (magnitude and duration per day) and matrix remodeling metrics (compaction, strength, extensibility, collagen content, contraction, and cellularity). Cyclic equibiaxial stretch of 2-16% was applied to fibroblast-populated fibrin gels for either 6 h or 24 h/day for 8 days. Trends in matrix remodeling metrics as a function of stretch magnitude and duration were analyzed using regression analysis. The compaction and ultimate tensile strength of the tissues increased in a dose-dependent manner with increasing stretch magnitude, yet remained unaffected by the duration in which they were cycled (6 h/day versus 24 h/day). Collagen density increased exponentially as a function of both the magnitude and duration of stretch, with samples stretched for the reduced duration per day having the highest levels of collagen accumulation. Cell number and failure tension were also dependent on both the magnitude and duration of stretch, although stretch-induced increases in these metrics were only present in the samples loaded for 6 h/day. Our results indicate that both the magnitude and the duration per day of stretch are critical parameters in modulating fibroblast remodeling of the extracellular matrix, and that these two factors regulate different aspects of this remodeling. These findings move us one step closer to fully characterizing culture conditions for tissue equivalents, developing improved wound healing treatments and understanding tissue responses to changes in mechanical environments during growth, repair, and disease states.

  8. Hybrid Therapy Regimen for Helicobacter Pylori Eradication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Qiang Song

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Hybrid therapy showed wide differences in the efficacy but consistently good compliance and safety across different regions. Dual clarithromycin and metronidazole resistance were the key factor to efficacy. Hybrid therapy was similar to sequential or concomitant therapy in the efficacy, safety, and compliance.

  9. Acute Effects of Different Stretching Techniques on the Number of Repetitions in A Single Lower Body Resistance Training Session

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sá Marcos A.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the acute effects of passive static and ballistic stretching on maximal repetition performance during a resistance training session (RTS. Nine male subjects underwent three experimental conditions: ballistic stretching (BS; passive static stretching (PSS; and a specific warm-up (SW. The RTS was composed of three sets of 12RM for the following exercises: leg press 45 (LP, leg extension (LE, leg curl (LC, and plantar flexors (PF. Performance of six sessions was assessed 48 hours apart. The first visit consisted of a familiarization session including stretching methods and exercises used in the RTS. On the second and third visit, a strength test and retest were performed. During the fourth to the sixth visit, the volunteers randomly performed the following protocols: BS+RTS; PSS+RTS; or SW+RTS. For the sum of the RM number of each three-set exercise, significant differences were found between PSS vs. SW for the LP (p = 0.001; LE (p = 0.005; MF (p = 0.001; and PF (p = 0.038. For the comparison between the methods of stretching PSS vs. BS, significant differences were found only for the FP (p = 0.019. When analyzing the method of stretching BS vs. SW, significant differences were found for the LP (p = 0.014 and MF (p = 0.002. For the total sum of the RM number of three sets of the four exercises that composed the RTS, significant differences were observed (p < 0.05 in the following comparisons: PPS vs. SW (p = 0.001, PPS vs. BS (p = 0.008, and BS vs. SW (p = 0.002. Accordingly, the methods of passive static and ballistic stretching should not be recommended before a RTS.

  10. Cyclic stretch induces upregulation of endothelin-1 with keratinocytes in vitro: Possible role in mechanical stress-induced hyperpigmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurita, Masakazu, E-mail: masakazukurita@gmail.com [Department of Plastic Surgery, Kyorin University School of Medicine, 6-20-2 Shinkawa, Mitaka-shi, Tokyo 181-8611 (Japan); Okazaki, Mutsumi [Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8510 (Japan); Fujino, Takashi [Department of Pathology, Kyorin University School of Medicine, 6-20-2 Shinkawa, Mitaka-shi, Tokyo 181-8611 (Japan); Takushima, Akihiko; Harii, Kiyonori [Department of Plastic Surgery, Kyorin University School of Medicine, 6-20-2 Shinkawa, Mitaka-shi, Tokyo 181-8611 (Japan)

    2011-05-27

    Highlights: {yields} Influence of cyclic stretch on melanogenetic paracrine cytokines was investigated. {yields} Keratinocyte-derived endothelin-1 was upregulated with cyclic stretch. {yields} Degree of upregulation increases dose-dependently. {yields} This upregulation possibly plays a role in the pathogenesis of pigmented disorders. -- Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the possible pathological relation between mechanical stress and hyperpigmentation. We did this by investigating the influence of cyclic stretch on the expression of keratinocyte- and fibroblast-derived melanogenetic paracrine cytokines in vitro. Using primary human keratinocytes and fibroblasts, alterations of mRNA expression of melanogenetic paracrine cytokines due to cyclic stretch were investigated using a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The cytokines included basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), stem cell factor (SCF), granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor, interleukin-1{alpha}, and endothelin-1 (ET-1) for keratinocytes and bFGF, SCF, and hepatocyte growth factor for fibroblasts. The dose dependence of keratinocyte-derived ET-1 upregulation was further investigated using real-time PCR and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We also investigated the effects of cyclic stretch on the proliferation and differentiation of keratinocytes. Among the melanogenetic paracrine cytokines investigated, keratinocyte-derived ET-1 was consistently upregulated in all four cell lines. The degree of upregulation increased with the degree of the length and frequency of the stretch; in contrast, cell number and differentiation markers showed no obvious alterations with cyclic stretch. Keratinocyte-derived ET-1 upregulation possibly plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of pigmented disorders, such as friction melanosis, caused by mechanical stress.

  11. Genital lesions: An indication for changing ART regimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S Arun; Kumar, N; Kumarasamy, N

    2011-01-01

    Genital lesions are common in HIV positive patients and aetiology for these are mainly due to HSV, HPV or bacterial. They usually respond to HAART, antiviral or antimicrobials. We are presenting a young patient on HAART with non-healing genital ulcer lesions for sixteen months. He responded well to a change in ART regimen within a period of 15 days. This happened after a change to a more potent ART regimen.

  12. Plantar flexor stretch reflex responses to whole body loading/unloading during human walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grey, Michael James; van Doornik, Johannes; Sinkjær, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    perturbation during human walking. Three body load conditions were investigated: normal body load, a 30% increase in body load, and a 30% decrease in body load. Healthy subjects walked on a treadmill at approximately 3.6 km/h with the left ankle attached to a portable stretching device. Dorsiflexion......Numerous animal and human studies have shown that afferent information from the periphery contributes to the control of walking. In particular, recent studies have consistently shown that load receptor input is an important element of the locomotion control mechanism. The objective of this study...... electrodes. Stretch reflex responses were observed in the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles for all of the body load conditions; however, increasing or decreasing the body load did not affect the timing and magnitude of the responses. This study provides evidence that load receptor input does not contribute...

  13. AI-augmented time stretch microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahjoubfar, Ata; Chen, Claire L.; Lin, Jiahao; Jalali, Bahram

    2017-02-01

    Cell reagents used in biomedical analysis often change behavior of the cells that they are attached to, inhibiting their native signaling. On the other hand, label-free cell analysis techniques have long been viewed as challenging either due to insufficient accuracy by limited features, or because of low throughput as a sacrifice of improved precision. We present a recently developed artificial-intelligence augmented microscope, which builds upon high-throughput time stretch quantitative phase imaging (TS-QPI) and deep learning to perform label-free cell classification with record high-accuracy. Our system captures quantitative optical phase and intensity images simultaneously by frequency multiplexing, extracts multiple biophysical features of the individual cells from these images fused, and feeds these features into a supervised machine learning model for classification. The enhanced performance of our system compared to other label-free assays is demonstrated by classification of white blood T-cells versus colon cancer cells and lipid accumulating algal strains for biofuel production, which is as much as five-fold reduction in inaccuracy. This system obtains the accuracy required in practical applications such as personalized drug development, while the cells remain intact and the throughput is not sacrificed. Here, we introduce a data acquisition scheme based on quadrature phase demodulation that enables interruptionless storage of TS-QPI cell images. Our proof of principle demonstration is capable of saving 40 TB of cell images in about four hours, i.e. pictures of every single cell in 10 mL of a sample.

  14. Acute effect of constant torque and angle stretching on range of motion, muscle passive properties, and stretch discomfort perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabido, Christian E T; Bergamini, Juliana C; Andrade, André G P; Lima, Fernando V; Menzel, Hans J; Chagas, Mauro H

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the acute effects of constant torque (CT) and constant angle (CA) stretching exercises on the maximum range of motion (ROMmax), passive stiffness (PS), and ROM corresponding to the first sensation of tightness in the posterior thigh (FSTROM). Twenty-three sedentary men (age, 19-33 years) went through 1 familiarization session and afterward proceeded randomly to both CA and CT treatment stretching conditions, on separate days. An isokinetic dynamometer was used to analyze hamstring muscles during passive knee extension. The subjects performed 4 stretches of 30 seconds each with a 15-second interval between them. In the CA stretching, the subject reached a certain ROM (95% of ROMmax), and the angle was kept constant. However, in the CT stretching exercise, the volunteer reached a certain resistance torque (corresponding to 95% of ROMmax) and it was kept constant. The results showed an increase in ROMmax for both CA and CT (p stretch may be explained by greater changes in the biomechanical properties of the muscle-tendon unit and stretch tolerance, as indicated by the results of PS and FSTROM.

  15. High-dose chemotherapy in high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome: covariate-adjusted comparison of five regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, M; Shen, Y; Kantarjian, H; O'Brien, S; Koller, C A; Giles, F J; Cortes, J; Thomas, D A; Faderl, S; Despa, S; Estey, E H

    2001-10-15

    Antileukemic chemotherapy has been used for two decades to treat high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (refractory anemia with excess of blasts [RAEB] and RAEB in transformation into acute leukemia [RAEB-t]) patients. Because the results of standard regimens have been disappointing, high-dose chemotherapeutic regimens were investigated recently. In the absence of randomized trials, the relative merits of various treatment regimens are unknown. The authors analyzed the outcome for 394 newly diagnosed patients treated between 1991 and 1999 with five regimens consisting of intermediate- or high-dose cytosine arabinoside (A) in combination with idarubicin (I), and introduced cyclophosphamide (C) and the new agents fludarabine (F) and topotecan (T) into new combinations with A. In addition to defining the role of high-intensity chemotherapy in the overall outcome for patients with RAEB-t and RAEB, the authors determined the relative merits of the five regimens (IA, FA, FAI, TA, and CAT), accounting for the nonrandom distribution of the prognostic covariates. The overall complete response (CR) rate of 58% was significantly associated with karyotype, performance status (PS), treatment in the laminar air flow room, duration of antecedent hematologic disorder and age, but not French-American-British or International Prognostic Scoring System risk categories. Multivariate analysis did not identify statistically significant differences in CR rates obtained with each regimen. Induction death rates increased with age with all but the TA regimen; they were lowest with TA (5.4%) and highest with FAI (20.7%), and these differences were significant in patients older than 65 years. The trend for time to death was the same as for time to recurrence in all groups. Multivariate analysis of time to death identified treatment regimen (FA, FAI, and CAT), cytogenetic status (-5/-7), increasing age, and PS greater than 2 as significant independent unfavorable prognostic factors. After

  16. Unsteady boundary layer flow of a nanofluid over a stretching/shrinking sheet with a convective boundary condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syahira Mansur

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The unsteady boundary layer flow of a nanofluid past a stretching/shrinking sheet with a convective surface boundary condition is studied. The effects of the unsteadiness parameter, stretching/shrinking parameter, convective parameter, Brownian motion parameter and thermophoresis parameter on the local Nusselt number are investigated. Numerical solutions to the governing equations are obtained using a shooting method. The results for the local Nusselt number are presented for different values of the governing parameters. The local Nusselt number decreases as the stretching/shrinking parameter increases. The local Nusselt number is consistently higher for higher values of the convective parameter but lower for higher values of the unsteadiness parameter, Brownian motion parameter and thermophoresis parameter.

  17. Changes in Bone Turnover Markers and Bone Mass with Reducing Levels of Jumping Exercise Regimens in Female Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ooi, Foong Kiew; Singh, Rabindarjeet; Singh, Harbindar Jeet

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To date, little is known about the effects of a reduced level of jumping exercise regimens on bone turnover markers and mass. This study investigates the effects of different jumping exercise regimens with varying exercise loads on serum bone turnover markers and bone mass in female rats. Methods A total of 144 female rats aged 12 weeks, were divided into 12 groups as follows: no exercise for 8 (8S) or 32 weeks (32S), or 8 weeks of standard training program (8STP) consisting of 200 ju...

  18. Effects of Static Stretching and Playing Soccer on Knee Laxity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baumgart, Christian; Gokeler, Alli; Donath, Lars; Hoppe, Matthias W.; Freiwald, Juergen

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated exercise-induced effects of static stretching and playing soccer on anterior tibial translation (ATT) of the knee joint. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Setting: University biomechanics laboratory. Participants: Thirty-one athletes were randomly assigned into

  19. A Variable-Resolution Stretched-Grid General Circulation Model and Data Assimilation System with Multiple Areas of Interest: Studying the Anomalous Regional Climate Events of 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox-Rabinovitz, Michael S.; Takacs, Lawrence; Govindaraju, Ravi C.; Atlas, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The new stretched-grid design with multiple (four) areas of interest, one at each global quadrant, is implemented into both a stretched-grid GCM (general circulation model) and a stretched-grid data assimilation system (DAS). The four areas of interest include: the U.S./Northern Mexico, the El Nino area/Central South America, India/China, and the Eastern Indian Ocean/Australia. Both the stretched-grid GCM and DAS annual (November 1997 through December 1998) integrations are performed with 50 km regional resolution. The efficient regional down-scaling to mesoscales is obtained for each of the four areas of interest while the consistent interactions between regional and global scales and the high quality of global circulation, are preserved. This is the advantage of the stretched-grid approach. The global variable resolution DAS incorporating the stretched-grid GCM has been developed and tested as an efficient tool for producing regional analyses and diagnostics with enhanced mesoscale resolution. The anomalous regional climate events of 1998 that occurred over the U.S., Mexico, South America, China, India, African Sahel, and Australia are investigated in both simulation and data assimilation modes. Tree assimilated products are also used, along with gauge precipitation data, for validating the simulation results. The obtained results show that the stretched-grid GCM and DAS are capable of producing realistic high quality simulated and assimilated products at mesoscale resolution for regional climate studies and applications.

  20. Acute effects of static and dynamic stretching on jump performance after 15 min of reconditioning shooting phase in basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annino, Giuseppe; Ruscello, Bruno; Lebone, Pietro; Palazzo, Francesco; Lombardo, Mauro; Padua, Elvira; Verdecchia, Luca; Tancredi, Virginia; Iellamo, Ferdinando

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of static (SS) and dynamic stretching (DS) on vertical jump performance executed before, immediately after and at the end of the shooting phase (i.e., 15 min later), as to simulate the actual conditions preceding a match, in professional basketball players. Ten elite basketball players (age: 29±6.73 years, height: 194.67±7.75 cm, weight: 91±8.17 kg and BMI 23.8±7.91 kg.m-2) participated to the study. SS and DS protocols were administered during the first training session of the week, 48 hours after the championship match. Stretching protocols consisted in ~7 minutes of general warm-up phase followed by ~8 minutes of SS and DS, performed with a cross-over design., and ~15 minutes of a specific warm-up shooting phase (SP). Vertical jump tests consisted in counter movement jump (CMJ) and CMJ with arm swings (CMJas) and were performed immediately after the end of each stretching phase (preS, postS, postSP). A significant decrease (P=0.05; η2partial=0.29) in jumping tests height occurred in CMJas, when performed after the SS (i.e., PostS). However, no significant differences in jumping performances, occurred after the general warm phase and the specific warm-up shooting phase, between the two stretching protocols. These results would indicate that, overall, stretching routines either dynamic or static, performed before a basketball match are transient and affect only marginally leg muscles performance. Stretching routines, particularly the dynamic ones, may be useful to maintain muscle performance before a competition, provided that this latter begins shortly after.

  1. Effects of right atrial stretch on plasma renin activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annat, G; Grandjean, B; Vincent, M; Jarsaillon, E; Sassard, J

    1976-04-01

    In anaesthetized dog, right atrial stretch leads in the first five minutes to a decrease in plasma renin activity, when measured in inferior vena cava just above the renal veins. Bilateral cervical vagotomy increases plasma renin activity. After vagotomy, atrial stretch no longer has any effect on plasma renin activity. The results support the hypothesis of a control of renin secretion originating from atrial volume receptors.

  2. Hypofractionation Regimens for Stereotactic Radiotherapy for Large Brain Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Jiankui; Wang, Jian Z.; Lo, Simon; Grecula, John C.; Ammirati, Mario; Montebello, Joseph F.; Zhang Hualin; Gupta, Nilendu; Yuh, William T.C.; Mayr, Nina A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate equivalent regimens for hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (HSRT) for brain tumor treatment and to provide dose-escalation guidance to maximize the tumor control within the normal brain tolerance. Methods and Materials: The linear-quadratic model, including the effect of nonuniform dose distributions, was used to evaluate the HSRT regimens. The α/β ratio was estimated using the Gammaknife stereotactic radiosurgery (GKSRS) and whole-brain radiotherapy experience for large brain tumors. The HSRT regimens were derived using two methods: (1) an equivalent tumor control approach, which matches the whole-brain radiotherapy experience for many fractions and merges it with the GKSRS data for few fractions; and (2) a normal-tissue tolerance approach, which takes advantages of the dose conformity and fractionation of HSRT to approach the maximal dose tolerance of the normal brain. Results: A plausible α/β ratio of 12 Gy for brain tumor and a volume parameter n of 0.23 for normal brain were derived from the GKSRS and whole-brain radiotherapy data. The HSRT prescription regimens for the isoeffect of tumor irradiation were calculated. The normal-brain equivalent uniform dose decreased as the number of fractions increased, because of the advantage of fractionation. The regimens for potential dose escalation of HSRT within the limits of normal-brain tolerance were derived. Conclusions: The designed hypofractionated regimens could be used as a preliminary guide for HSRT dose prescription for large brain tumors to mimic the GKSRS experience and for dose escalation trials. Clinical studies are necessary to further tune the model parameters and validate these regimens

  3. Efficacy of hamstring stretching programs in schoolchildren. A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos-Alberto BECERRA FERNANDEZ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the present review was to examine the scientific literature on the effects of physical education-based stretching programs on hamstring extensibility in schoolchildren aged 6-11 years. For this purpose relevant studies were searched from ten electronic databases dated up through May 2015. Of the 25 potentially relevant articles identified and retrieved for more detailed evaluation, only eight studies were included in the present review because they met the inclusion criteria. The overall results showed that incorporating hamstring stretching as a part of physical education classes produces a significant improvement in the scores of the tests: straight leg raise and classic sit-and-reach, for the experimental groups, but not for control groups. Stretching programs can be included in Physical Education classes, specifically during the warm-up and the cool down periods in order to improve hamstring extensibility. Although it seems that the stretching exercises in the warm-up period could be less effective in gaining flexibility in school children. Studies that use a stretching volume between 4 and 7 minutes per session and 2-4 training classes per week, obtain statistically significant improvements on the levels of hamstring flexibility in the experimental groups. However, after a five-week detraining period, children revert back to their initial flexibility levels. Therefore, it seems appropriate that physical education teachers should implement stretching programs to improve the students´ flexibility during the Physical Education classes.

  4. Equibiaxial cyclic stretch stimulates fibroblasts to rapidly remodel fibrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestrini, Jenna Leigh; Billiar, Kristen Lawrence

    2006-01-01

    Understanding the effects of the mechanical environment on wound healing is critical for developing more effective treatments to reduce scar formation and contracture. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dynamic mechanical stretch on cell-mediated early wound remodeling independent of matrix alignment which obscures more subtle remodeling mechanisms. Cyclic equibiaxial stretch (16% stretch at 0.2 Hz) was applied to fibroblast-populated fibrin gel in vitro wound models for eight days. Compaction, density, tensile strength, and collagen content were quantified as functional measures of remodeling. Stretched samples were approximately ten times stronger, eight-fold more dense, and eight times thinner than statically cultured samples. These changes were accompanied by a 15% increase in net collagen but no significant differences in cell number or viability. When collagen crosslinking was inhibited in stretched samples, the extensibility increased and the strength decreased. The apparent weakening was due to a reduction in compaction rather than a decrease in ability of the tissue to withstand tensile forces. Interestingly, inhibiting collagen crosslinking had no measurable effects on the statically cultured samples. These results indicate that amplified cell-mediated compaction and even a slight addition in collagen content play substantial roles in mechanically induced wound strengthening. These findings increase our understanding of how mechanical forces guide the healing response in skin, and the methods employed in this study may also prove valuable tools for investigating stretch-induced remodeling of other planar connective tissues and for creating mechanically robust engineered tissues.

  5. Effects of Stretching Exercise on Heart Rate Variability During Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Jeongok G; Yeo, SeonAe

    Little evidence exists for effects of low-intensity exercises such as stretching on cardiovascular health in pregnant women. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of a 20-minute stretching exercise on heart rate variability (HRV), blood pressure (BP), and heart rate (HR) in healthy pregnant women. In 15 pregnant women with a mean (SD) age of 29.47 (4.07) years and mean (SD) gestational weeks of 26.53 (8.35), HRV, and BP were measured before and after the 20-minute stretching exercise. Compared with before the stretching exercise, standard deviation of the normal-to-normal intervals, total variability of heart rate, increased by 7.40 milliseconds (t = -2.31, P = .04) and root mean square of successive differences, a surrogate measure of parasympathetic outflow, also increased by 11.68 milliseconds (Z = -2.04, P = .04) after the stretching exercise. Diastolic BP and HR decreased by 2.13 mm Hg (t = 1.93, P = .07) and 3.31 bpm (t = 2.17, P = .05), respectively, but they did not reach statistical significance. These preliminary data suggest that 20 minutes of stretching exercise may promote cardiovascular health by attenuating the loss of parasympathetic tone associated with pregnancy.

  6. The effect of warm-up, static stretching and dynamic stretching on hamstring flexibility in previously injured subjects.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Sullivan, Kieran

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Warm-up and stretching are suggested to increase hamstring flexibility and reduce the risk of injury. This study examined the short-term effects of warm-up, static stretching and dynamic stretching on hamstring flexibility in individuals with previous hamstring injury and uninjured controls. METHODS: A randomised crossover study design, over 2 separate days. Hamstring flexibility was assessed using passive knee extension range of motion (PKE ROM). 18 previously injured individuals and 18 uninjured controls participated. On both days, four measurements of PKE ROM were recorded: (1) at baseline; (2) after warm-up; (3) after stretch (static or dynamic) and (4) after a 15-minute rest. Participants carried out both static and dynamic stretches, but on different days. Data were analysed using Anova. RESULTS: Across both groups, there was a significant main effect for time (p < 0.001). PKE ROM significantly increased with warm-up (p < 0.001). From warm-up, PKE ROM further increased with static stretching (p = 0.04) but significantly decreased after dynamic stretching (p = 0.013). The increased flexibility after warm-up and static stretching reduced significantly (p < 0.001) after 15 minutes of rest, but remained significantly greater than at baseline (p < 0.001). Between groups, there was no main effect for group (p = 0.462), with no difference in mean PKE ROM values at any individual stage of the protocol (p > 0.05). Using ANCOVA to adjust for the non-significant (p = 0.141) baseline difference between groups, the previously injured group demonstrated a greater response to warm-up and static stretching, however this was not statistically significant (p = 0.05). CONCLUSION: Warm-up significantly increased hamstring flexibility. Static stretching also increased hamstring flexibility, whereas dynamic did not, in agreement with previous findings on uninjured controls. The effect of warm-up and static stretching on flexibility was greater in those with reduced

  7. EFFECTIVENESS OF PNF STRETCHING VERSUS STATIC STRETCHING ON PAIN AND HAMSTRING FLEXIBILITY FOLLOWING MOIST HEAT IN INDIVIDUALS WITH KNEE OSTEOARTHRITIS

    OpenAIRE

    Meena .V; Shanthi .C; Madhavi .K

    2016-01-01

    Background: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease and one of the major public health problem that causesfunctional impairment and reduced quality of life. To compare the effectiveness of PNF Hold relax stretching versus Static stretching on pain and flexibility of hamstring following moist heat in individuals with knee osteoarthritis. Hamstring tightness is the major problem in knee osteoarthritis individuals. Therefore the need of study is comparing the effectiveness of PNF Hol...

  8. The effect of warm-up, static stretching and dynamic stretching on hamstring flexibility in previously injured subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murray Elaine

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Warm-up and stretching are suggested to increase hamstring flexibility and reduce the risk of injury. This study examined the short-term effects of warm-up, static stretching and dynamic stretching on hamstring flexibility in individuals with previous hamstring injury and uninjured controls. Methods A randomised crossover study design, over 2 separate days. Hamstring flexibility was assessed using passive knee extension range of motion (PKE ROM. 18 previously injured individuals and 18 uninjured controls participated. On both days, four measurements of PKE ROM were recorded: (1 at baseline; (2 after warm-up; (3 after stretch (static or dynamic and (4 after a 15-minute rest. Participants carried out both static and dynamic stretches, but on different days. Data were analysed using Anova. Results Across both groups, there was a significant main effect for time (p 0.05. Using ANCOVA to adjust for the non-significant (p = 0.141 baseline difference between groups, the previously injured group demonstrated a greater response to warm-up and static stretching, however this was not statistically significant (p = 0.05. Conclusion Warm-up significantly increased hamstring flexibility. Static stretching also increased hamstring flexibility, whereas dynamic did not, in agreement with previous findings on uninjured controls. The effect of warm-up and static stretching on flexibility was greater in those with reduced flexibility post-injury, but this did not reach statistical significance. Further prospective research is required to validate the hypothesis that increased flexibility improves outcomes. Trial Registration ACTRN12608000638336

  9. Cardiovascular Responses to Skeletal Muscle Stretching: "Stretching" the Truth or a New Exercise Paradigm for Cardiovascular Medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Nicholas T; Scheuermann, Barry W

    2017-12-01

    Stretching is commonly prescribed with the intended purpose of increasing range of motion, enhancing muscular coordination, and preventing prolonged immobilization induced by aging or a sedentary lifestyle. Emerging evidence suggests that acute or long-term stretching exercise may modulate a variety of cardiovascular responses. Specifically, at the onset of stretch, the mechanical deformation of the vascular bed coupled with stimulation of group III muscle afferent fibers initiates a cascade of events resulting in both peripheral vasodilation and a heart rate-driven increase in cardiac output, blood pressure, and muscle blood flow. This potential to increase shear stress and blood flow without the use of excessive muscle energy expenditure may hold important implications for future therapeutic vascular medicine and cardiac health. However, the idea that a cardiovascular component may be involved in human skeletal muscle stretching is relatively new. Therefore, the primary intent of this review is to highlight topics related to skeletal muscle stretching and cardiovascular regulation and function. The current evidence suggests that acute stretching causes a significant macro- and microcirculatory event that alters blood flow and the relationship between oxygen availability and oxygen utilization. These acute vascular changes if performed chronically may result in improved endothelial function, improved arterial blood vessel stiffness, and/or reduced blood pressure. Although several mechanisms have been postulated, an increased nitric oxide bioavailability has been highlighted as one promising candidate for the improvement in vessel function with stretching. Collectively, the evidence provided in this review suggests that stretching acutely or long term may serve as a novel and alternative low intensity therapeutic intervention capable of improving several parameters of vascular function.

  10. Effects of Static Stretching and Playing Soccer on Knee Laxity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgart, Christian; Gokeler, Alli; Donath, Lars; Hoppe, Matthias W; Freiwald, Jürgen

    2015-11-01

    This study investigated exercise-induced effects of static stretching and playing soccer on anterior tibial translation (ATT) of the knee joint. Randomized controlled trial. University biomechanics laboratory. Thirty-one athletes were randomly assigned into a stretching (26.9 ± 6.2 years, 1.77 ± 0.09 m, 67.9 ± 10.7 kg) and a control group (27.9 ± 7.4 years, 1.75 ± 0.08 m, 72.0 ± 14.9 kg). Thirty-one amateur soccer players in an additional soccer group (25.1 ± 5.6 years, 1.74 ± 0.10 m, 71.8 ± 14.8 kg). All participants had no history of knee injury requiring surgery and any previous knee ligament or cartilage injury. The stretching group performed 4 different static stretching exercises with a duration of 2 × 20 seconds interspersed with breaks of 10 seconds. The soccer group completed a 90-minute soccer-specific training program. The control group did not perform any physical activity for approximately 30 minutes. Anterior tibial translation was measured with the KT-1000 knee arthrometer at forces of 67 N, 89 N, and maximal manual force (Max) before and after the intervention. There was a significant increase in ATT after static stretching and playing soccer at all applied forces. Maximal manual testing revealed a mean increase of ATT after static stretching of 2.1 ± 1.6 mm (P static stretching at 67 and 89 N is significantly higher than in controls. At maximum manual testing, significant differences were evident between all groups. Static stretching and playing soccer increase ATT and may consequently influence mechanical factors of the anterior cruciate ligament. The ATT increase after static stretching was greater than after playing soccer. The observed increase in ATT after static stretching and playing soccer may be associated with changes in kinesthetic perception and sensorimotor control, activation of muscles, joint stability, overall performance, and higher injury risk.

  11. The Effect of Static Stretching in Agility and Isokinetic Force at Football Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Sermaxhaj

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Cool Down is very important for the recuperation of a football player. The objective of this research is to prove the effect of recuperation with static stretching in agility and isokinetic force at the young football players. This research has taken place between August and November 2015 with a sample of 24 football players of age 15.6±0.4 years, divided in the control group and the experimental group. At first measurements have been initialed body weight 61.1±0.4 kg and body height 175.7±6.4 cm, and agility (20 m zig-zag with and without ball and isokinetic force (peak torque flexion and extension. Both groups of the football players have completed the regular training program. The experimental group (despite the control group during the stage of recuperation (cool down, except the running with slow pace did also carry out the experimental program which did take place through static stretching. Experimental program consisted of 17 exercises bodily static stretching which are applied in the final training session (cool-down. After the experimental phase is finished the participants did undergo the final measures. The conducted results with univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA in two tests (initial and final have shown unimportant statistical values between the control group and the experimental one in the isokinetic force and agility. From the collected results we can conclude the recuperation with static stretching during the cool down has an unimportant statistical impact in the agility and isokinetic force of the young football players.

  12. Stretched-State Excitations with the

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Luis Alberto Casimiro

    Neutron time-of-fight spectra were obtained for the ^{14}C(p,n) ^{14}N, ^{18 }O(p,n)^{18}F, and ^{30}Si(p,n) ^{30}P reactions at 135 MeV with the beam-swinger system at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility. Excitation-energy spectra and the differential cross sections for the observed excitations in these reactions were extracted over the momentum transfer range from 0 to 2.7 fm^{-1}. The primary goal of this work was to obtain the strengths and distributions for the "stretched" states. The identification of these states was based on comparisons of the theoretical differential cross sections, performed in a DWIA formalism, with the experimental cross sections. Isospin assignments were based primarily on comparisons of the measured (p,n) and (e,e^') spectroscopic strengths. Candidate (pid_ {5/2},nu{rm p}_sp {3/2}{-1}), J^ pi = 4 ^- T = 0, 1 and 2, 1 hbaromega states, were identified at E_{x} = 8.5, 13.8, 19.5, and 26.7 MeV in the ^{14}C(p,n) ^{14}N reaction, and the corresponding isovector strengths were extracted. The observed 4^--state excitation energies and the strengths are in good agreement with the analog T = 1 and 2, 4^--states observed in the (e,e^') reaction. Large -basis shell-model calculations were found to predict reasonably well the excitation energies; however, these calculations overpredict the strength by a factor of 2, for the T = 1 and 2 components. In the ^{18}O(p,n) ^{18}F reaction at 135 MeV, (pi d_{5/2},nu {rm d}_sp{5/2}{-1 }) 5^+ T = 0 0hbaromega strength was observed, concentrated in a single state, at E_{x} = 1.1 MeV, with 75% of the extreme-single-particle-model (ESPM) strength, in good agreement with a shell-model calculation. No 6^- 1hbaromega strength was observed in this reaction. Candidate (pi {rm d}_{5/2},nu p _sp{3/2}{-1}) J ^pi = 4^- T = 0, 1 and 2, 1hbaromega states, were identified at E_{x} = 3.9, 9.4, 10.2, 11.4, 12.0, 14.4, 15.3, 17.3, 18.0, 19.7, 21.4, and 23.4 MeV. The observed 4^- T = 2 state excitation energies and

  13. Abstractive Summarization of Drug Dosage Regimens for Supporting Drug Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugon, Adrien; Berthelot, Hélène; Venot, Alain; Favre, Madeleine; Duclos, Catherine; Lamy, Jean-Baptiste

    2015-01-01

    Complicated dosage regimens often reduce adherence to drug treatments. The ease-of-administration must thus be taken into account when prescribing. Given one drug, there exists often several dosage regimens. Hence, comparison to similar drugs is difficult. Simplifying and summarizing them appears to be a required task for supporting General Practitioners to find the drug with the simplest regimen for the patient. We propose a summarization in two steps: first prunes out all low-importance information, and second proceed to fusion of remaining information. Rules for pruning and fusion strategies were designed by an expert in drug models. Evaluation was conducted on a dataset of 169 drugs. The agreement rate was 27.2%. We demonstrate that applying rules leads to a result that is correct by a computational point of view, but the result is often meaningless for the GP. We conclude with recommendations for further work.

  14. Neural effects of muscle stretching on the spinal reflexes in multiple lower-limb muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masugi, Yohei; Obata, Hiroki; Inoue, Daisuke; Kawashima, Noritaka; Nakazawa, Kimitaka

    2017-01-01

    While previous studies have shown that muscle stretching suppresses monosynaptic spinal reflex excitability in stretched muscles, its effects on non-stretched muscles is still largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of muscle stretching on monosynaptic spinal reflex in non-stretched muscles. Ten healthy male subjects participated in this study. Muscle stretching of the right triceps surae muscle was performed using a motor torque device for 1 minute. Three different dorsiflexion torques (at approximately 5, 10, and 15 Nm) were applied during muscle stretching. Spinal reflexes evoked by transcutaneous spinal cord stimulation were recorded in both the lower-limb muscles before, during, and at 0 and 5 min following muscle stretching. The amplitudes of the spinal reflexes in both the stretched and non-stretched muscles in the right (ipsilateral) leg were smaller during stretching compared to before, and at 0 and 5 min after stretching. Furthermore, the degree of reduction in the amplitude of the spinal reflexes in the right (ipsilateral) leg muscles increased significantly as the dorsiflexion torque (i.e., stretching of the right triceps surae muscles) increased. In contrast, reduction in the amplitude of the spinal reflexes with increasing dorsiflexion torque was not seen in the left (contralateral) leg muscles. Our results clearly indicate that muscle stretching has inhibitory effects on monosynaptic spinal reflexes, not only in stretched muscles, but also in non-stretched muscles of the ipsilateral leg.

  15. Utilization and evaluation of noncore chemotherapy regimens within an academic medical center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jared, Jason R; Mably, Mary S; Makielski, Rory; Reed, Michael P; Fallon, Michael J; Liu, Glenn; Mulkerin, Daniel; Callander, Natalie S

    2017-10-01

    Uniformity of evidence-based chemotherapy prescribing using approved, standard, or "core" regimens provides systems-based safety. Noncore chemotherapy regimens are non-standard-of-care regimens requested by physicians on a patient-by-patient basis. Chemotherapy Council, a Pharmacy & Therapeutics subcommittee, assesses all requests and determines approval status based upon submitted evidence and patient-specific factors. This study's purpose is to describe noncore chemotherapy regimens utilization, efficacy, and clinical outcomes in patients receiving noncore chemotherapy regimens. This retrospective chart review includes a two-stage utilization and outcomes evaluation of patients receiving noncore chemotherapy regimens. Stage I, a demographics and utilization assessment of patients receiving noncore chemotherapy regimens, has data collection including patient age, sex, performance score, malignancy, and noncore chemotherapy regimen use justification. Stage II assesses noncore chemotherapy regimen-related, patient-specific outcomes of breast cancer noncore chemotherapy regimen patients. Breast cancer patients were evaluated on regimen and clinical outcomes including disease stage, regimen duration, discontinuation reason, subsequent chemotherapy, survival, and time from noncore chemotherapy regimen until death. Within stage I, 307 patient-specific noncore chemotherapy regimen requests were submitted. The most commonly submitted rationale was modification of a core regimen (33%), followed by patient-specific factors (29%) and salvage therapy (22%). For stage II, 29 breast cancer patients received a noncore chemotherapy regimen and most (54%) received a modified core regimen. The vast majority of noncore chemotherapy regimen discontinuation was due to either regimen completion (42%) or disease progression (42%). Nonelective hospitalizations (35%) and mortality (30%) were found during the median 13.3 months of follow up. Noncore chemotherapy regimen use provides

  16. Applying optimization algorithms to tuberculosis antibiotic treatment regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicchese, Joseph M; Pienaar, Elsje; Kirschner, Denise E; Linderman, Jennifer J

    2017-12-01

    Tuberculosis (TB), one of the most common infectious diseases, requires treatment with multiple antibiotics taken over at least 6 months. This long treatment often results in poor patient-adherence, which can lead to the emergence of multi-drug resistant TB. New antibiotic treatment strategies are sorely needed. New antibiotics are being developed or repurposed to treat TB, but as there are numerous potential antibiotics, dosing sizes and potential schedules, the regimen design space for new treatments is too large to search exhaustively. Here we propose a method that combines an agent-based multi-scale model capturing TB granuloma formation with algorithms for mathematical optimization to identify optimal TB treatment regimens. We define two different single-antibiotic treatments to compare the efficiency and accuracy in predicting optimal treatment regimens of two optimization algorithms: genetic algorithms (GA) and surrogate-assisted optimization through radial basis function (RBF) networks. We also illustrate the use of RBF networks to optimize double-antibiotic treatments. We found that while GAs can locate optimal treatment regimens more accurately, RBF networks provide a more practical strategy to TB treatment optimization with fewer simulations, and successfully estimated optimal double-antibiotic treatment regimens. Our results indicate surrogate-assisted optimization can locate optimal TB treatment regimens from a larger set of antibiotics, doses and schedules, and could be applied to solve optimization problems in other areas of research using systems biology approaches. Our findings have important implications for the treatment of diseases like TB that have lengthy protocols or for any disease that requires multiple drugs.

  17. Characteristics of HIV antiretroviral regimen and treatment adherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lúcia da Silveira

    Full Text Available The relationship between characteristics of HIV antiretroviral regimens and treatment adherence was studied in adolescent and adult patients who underwent antiretroviral therapy from January 1998 to September 2000, at the Service for Specialized Assistance in Pelotas. The patients were interviewed on two occasions, and the use of antiretrovirals during the previous 48 hours was investigated by a self-report. Adherence was defined as use of 95% or more of the prescribed medication. Social-demographic variables were collected through direct questionnaires. The antiretroviral regimen and clinical data were copied from the patients' records. Associations between the independent variables and adherence were analyzed by means of logistic regression. The multivariate analysis included characteristics of the antiretroviral regimens, social-demographic variables, as well as perception of negative effects, negative physiological states, and adverse effects of the treatment. Among the 224 selected patients, 194 participated in our study. Their ages varied from 17 to 67 years; most patients were men, with few years of schooling and a low family income. Only 49% adhered to the treatment. Adherence to treatment regimens was reduced when more daily doses were indicated: three to four doses (odds ratio of adherence to treatment (OR=0.47, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.22-1.01 and five to six (OR=0.24, 95% CI 0.09-0.62; two or more doses taken in a fasting state (OR=0.59, 95% CI 0.11-0.68, and for patients who reported adverse effects to the treatment (OR=0.39, 95% CI 0.19-0.77. Most of the regimens with more than two daily doses of medication included at least one dose apart from mealtimes. The results suggest that, if possible, regimens with a reduced number of doses should be chosen, with no compulsory fasting, and with few adverse effects. Strategies to minimize these effects should be discussed with the patients.

  18. Cyclic Stretch Alters Vascular Reactivity of Mouse Aortic Segments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Leloup

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Large, elastic arteries buffer the pressure wave originating in the left ventricle and are constantly exposed to higher amplitudes of cyclic stretch (10% than muscular arteries (2%. As a crucial factor for endothelial and smooth muscle cell function, cyclic stretch has, however, never been studied in ex vivo aortic segments of mice. To investigate the effects of cyclic stretch on vaso-reactivity of mouse aortic segments, we used the Rodent Oscillatory Tension Set-up to study Arterial Compliance (ROTSAC. The aortic segments were clamped at frequencies of 6–600 bpm between two variable preloads, thereby mimicking dilation as upon left ventricular systole and recoiling as during diastole. The preloads corresponding to different transmural pressures were chosen to correspond to a low, normal or high amplitude of cyclic stretch. At different time intervals, cyclic stretch was interrupted, the segments were afterloaded and isometric contractions by α1-adrenergic stimulation with 2 μM phenylephrine in the absence and presence of 300 μM L-NAME (eNOS inhibitor and/or 35 μM diltiazem (blocker of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels were measured. As compared with static or cyclic stretch at low amplitude (<10 mN or low frequency (0.1 Hz, cyclic stretch at physiological amplitude (>10 mN and frequency (1–10 Hz caused better ex vivo conservation of basal NO release with time after mounting. The relaxation of PE-precontracted segments by addition of ACh to stimulate NO release was unaffected by cyclic stretch. In the absence of basal NO release (hence, presence of L-NAME, physiological in comparison with aberrant cyclic stretch decreased the baseline tension, attenuated the phasic contraction by phenylephrine in the absence of extracellular Ca2+ and shifted the smaller tonic contraction more from a voltage-gated Ca2+ channel-mediated to a non-selective cation channel-mediated. Data highlight the need of sufficient mechanical activation of endothelial and

  19. Measurement of skin stretch using digital image speckle correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staloff, Isabelle Afriat; Rafailovitch, Miriam

    2008-08-01

    The surface of the skin is covered by intersecting grooves and ridges which produce characteristic skin surface patterns. It has been suggested that these folds provide a reserve of tissue, allowing the skin to stretch during normal muscle movements. More so, skin is anisotropic and under constant tension. Therefore, to characterize skin displacement following stretch, a discrete, description of the in-plane skin displacement during stretch is of interest. We introduce the use of digital image speckle correlation (DISC), a non-contact technique, to map, in two dimensions, the surface deformation patterns resulting from skin stretching. We analyze skin stretch under the mechanical action of a film former applied on a defined square surface on the back of the hand. This is achieved by taking a series of images, during the drying process of the film former. The images are then analyzed with DISC to create vector diagram and projection maps, from which we can obtain spatially resolved information regarding the skin displacement. We first show that DISC can provide spatially resolved information at any time point during the drying process: areas of de-wetting, wetting were identified using projection maps; we then extracted the value of the drying time. Finally using a vector map, we show the orientation of the skin displacement during stretching and calculated the magnitude of the total stretch. We have shown previously that DISC can be used to determine skin mechanical properties and muscular activity. We show here that DISC, as a non-contact technique, can map, in two dimensions, the surface deformation patterns of a polymer solution on a substrate at any time point during the drying process. DISC analysis generates for each speckle of the sample analyzed, the orientation and magnitude of displacement of the polymer solution. DISC can map in two dimensions the deformation undergone by the substrate and skin stretch is measured in this particular case. We therefore

  20. Controlled cyclic stretch bioreactor for tissue-engineered heart valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syedain, Zeeshan H; Tranquillo, Robert T

    2009-09-01

    A tissue-engineered heart valve (TEHV) represents the ultimate valve replacement, especially for juvenile patients given its growth potential. To date, most TEHV bioreactors have been developed based on pulsed flow of culture medium through the valve lumen to induce strain in the leaflets. Using a strategy for controlled cyclic stretching of tubular constructs reported previously, we developed a controlled cyclic stretch bioreactor for TEHVs that leads to improved tensile and compositional properties. The TEHV is mounted inside a latex tube, which is then cyclically pressurized with culture medium. The root and leaflets stretch commensurately with the latex, the stretching being dictated by the stiffer latex and thus controllable. Medium is also perfused through the lumen at a slow rate in a flow loop to provide nutrient delivery. Fibrin-based TEHVs prepared with human dermal fibroblasts were subjected to three weeks of cyclic stretching with incrementally increasing strain amplitude. The TEHV possessed the tensile stiffness and stiffness anisotropy of leaflets from sheep pulmonary valves and could withstand cyclic pulmonary pressures with similar distension as for a sheep pulmonary artery.

  1. Influence of chronic stretching on muscle performance: Systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, D M; Lima, C S

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the influence of chronic stretching on muscle performance (MP) by a systematic review. The search strategy included MEDLINE, PEDro, Cochrane CENTRAL, LILACS, and manual search from inception to June 2016. Randomized and controlled clinical trials, non-randomized, and single group studies that have analyzed the influence of flexibility training (FT) (using any stretching technique) on MP were included. Differently, studies with special populations (children, elderly, and people with any dysfunction/disease), and articles that have used FT protocols shorter than three weeks or 12 sessions were excluded. The MP assessment could have been performed by functional tests (e.g. jump, sprint, stretch-shortening cycle tasks), isometric contractions, and/or isotonic contractions. Twenty-eight studies were included out of 513. Seven studies evaluated MP by stretch-shortening cycle tasks, Ten studies evaluated MP by isometric contractions, and 13 studies assessed MP by isotonic contractions. We were unable to perform a meta-analysis due to the high heterogeneity among the included studies. In an individual study level analysis, we identified that 14 studies found positive effects of chronic stretching on MP. The improvements were observed only in functional tests and isotonic contractions, isometric contractions were not affected by FT. Therefore, FT might have an influence on dynamic MP. However, more studies are necessary to confirm whether FT can positively affect MP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Investigating the role of musical genre in human perception of music stretching resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jun; Wang, Chaokun

    2017-01-01

    To stretch a music piece to a given length is a common demand in people's daily lives, e.g., in audio-video synchronization and animation production. However, it is not always guaranteed that the stretched music piece is acceptable for general audience since music stretching suffers from people's perceptual artefacts. Over-stretching a music piece will make it uncomfortable for human psychoacoustic hearing. The research on music stretching resistance attempts to estimate the maximum stretchab...

  3. Once-daily dose regimen of ribavirin is interchangeable with a twice-daily dose regimen: randomized open clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balk JM

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Jiska M Balk,1 Guido RMM Haenen,1 Özgür M Koc,2 Ron Peters,3 Aalt Bast,1 Wim JF van der Vijgh,1 Ger H Koek,4 1Department of Toxicology, NUTRIM School for Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre, 2Faculty of Health, Medicine and Life Sciences, Maastricht University, Maastricht, 3DSM Resolve, Geleen, 4Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht, the Netherlands Background: The combination of ribavirin (RBV and pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN is effective in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C infection. Reducing the frequency of RBV intake from twice to once a day will improve compliance and opens up the opportunity to combine RBV with new and more specific direct-acting agents in one pill. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic profile of RBV in a once-daily to twice-daily regimen. The secondary aim was to determine tolerability as well as the severity and differences in side effects of both treatment regimens. Methods: In this randomized open-label crossover study, twelve patients with chronic type 1 hepatitis C infection and weighing more than 75 kg were treated with 180 µg of PEG-IFN weekly and 1,200 mg RBV daily for 24 weeks. The patients received RBV dosed as 1,200 mg once-daily for 12 weeks followed by RBV dosed as 600 mg twice-daily for 12 weeks, or vice versa. In addition to the pharmacokinetic profile, the hematological profile and side effects were recorded. The RBV concentrations in plasma were determined using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Results: Eight of twelve patients completed the study. Neither the time taken for RBV to reach peak plasma concentration nor the AUC0-last (adjusted for difference in dose was significantly different between the two groups (P>0.05. Furthermore, the once-daily regimen did not give more side effects than the twice-daily regimen (P>0

  4. Dynamic Contractility and Efficiency Impairments in Stretch-Shortening Cycle Are Stretch-Load-Dependent After Training-Induced Muscle Damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaczi, Mark; Racz, Levente; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Tihanyi, Jozsef

    Vaczi, M, Racz, L, Hortobagyi, T, and Tihanyi, J. Dynamic contractility and efficiency impairments in stretch-shortening cycle are stretch-load-dependent after training-induced muscle damage. J Strength Cond Res 27(8): 2171-2179, 2013To determine the acute task and stretch-load dependency of

  5. Consistency argued students of fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viyanti; Cari; Suparmi; Winarti; Slamet Budiarti, Indah; Handika, Jeffry; Widyastuti, Fatma

    2017-01-01

    Problem solving for physics concepts through consistency arguments can improve thinking skills of students and it is an important thing in science. The study aims to assess the consistency of the material Fluid student argmentation. The population of this study are College students PGRI Madiun, UIN Sunan Kalijaga Yogyakarta and Lampung University. Samples using cluster random sampling, 145 samples obtained by the number of students. The study used a descriptive survey method. Data obtained through multiple-choice test and interview reasoned. Problem fluid modified from [9] and [1]. The results of the study gained an average consistency argmentation for the right consistency, consistency is wrong, and inconsistent respectively 4.85%; 29.93%; and 65.23%. Data from the study have an impact on the lack of understanding of the fluid material which is ideally in full consistency argued affect the expansion of understanding of the concept. The results of the study as a reference in making improvements in future studies is to obtain a positive change in the consistency of argumentations.

  6. Tail modeling in a stretched magnetosphere. I - Methods and transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, David P.

    1987-01-01

    A new method is developed for representing the magnetospheric field B as a distorted dipole field. Because Delta-B = 0 must be maintained, such a distortion may be viewed as a transformation of the vector potential A. The simplest form is a one-dimensional 'stretch transformation' along the x axis, concisely represented by the 'stretch function' f(x), which is also a convenient tool for representing features of the substorm cycle. One-dimensional stretch transformations are extended to spherical, cylindrical, and parabolic coordinates and then to arbitrary coordinates. It is shown that distortion transformations can be viewed as mappings of field lines from one pattern to another; the final result only requires knowledge of the field and not of the potentials. General transformations in Cartesian and arbitrary coordinates are derived, and applications to field modeling, field line motion, MHD modeling, and incompressible fluid dynamics are considered.

  7. Alignment of Disks with Lagrangian Stretching in Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Conor; Tierney, Lydia; Kramel, Stefan; Voth, Greg

    2015-11-01

    We study Lagrangian stretching in isotropic turbulence in order to understand both the rotations of disks and the preferential alignment of vorticity with the intermediate strain rate eigenvector. Using velocity gradient tensors from a numerical simulation of homogeneous isotropic turbulence at Rλ = 180, we calculate the Cauchy-Green strain tensors whose eigenvectors provide a natural basis for studying stretching phenomenon. Previous work has shown that rods preferentially align with the vorticity as a result of both quantities independently aligning with the extensional Cauchy-Green eigenvector. In contrast, disks orient with their symmetry axis perpendicular to vorticity and preferentially align with the compressional Cauchy-Green eigenvector. We also find that the intermediate strain rate eigenvector is aligned with the extensional Cauchy-Green eigenvector. A natural consequence is that the intermediate strain rate eigenvector is aligned with the vorticity vector since conservation of angular momentum aligns vorticity with the direction it has been stretched.

  8. Stretching of red blood cells at high strain rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, J. E.; Ristenpart, W. D.

    2017-10-01

    Most work on the mechanical behavior of red blood cells (RBCs) in flow has focused on simple shear flows. Relatively little work has examined RBC deformations in the physiologically important extensional flow that occurs at the entrance to a constriction. In particular, previous work suggests that RBCs rapidly stretch out and then retract upon entering the constriction, but to date no model predicts this behavior for the extremely high strain rates typically experienced there. In this Rapid Communication, we use high speed video to perform systematic measurements of the dynamic stretching behavior of RBCs as they enter a microfluidic constriction. We demonstrate that both the Kelvin-Voigt and Skalak viscoelastic models capture the observed stretching dynamics, up to strain rates as high as 2000 s-1. The results indicate that the effective elastic modulus of the RBC membrane at these strain rates is an order of magnitude larger than moduli measured by micropipette aspiration or other low strain rate techniques.

  9. Effects of static stretching on 1-mile uphill run performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, Ryan P; Joy, Jordan M; Brown, Lee E; Oliveira de Souza, Eduardo; Wistocki, David R; Davis, Gregory S; Naimo, Marshall A; Zito, Gina A; Wilson, Jacob M

    2014-01-01

    It is previously demonstrated that static stretching was associated with a decrease in running economy and distance run during a 30-minute time trial in trained runners. Recently, the detrimental effects of static stretching on economy were found to be limited to the first few minutes of an endurance bout. However, economy remains to be studied for its direct effects on performance during shorter endurance events. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of static stretching on 1-mile uphill run performance, electromyography (EMG), ground contact time (GCT), and flexibility. Ten trained male distance runners aged 24 ± 5 years with an average VO2max of 64.9 ± 6.5 mL·kg-1·min-1 were recruited. Subjects reported to the laboratory on 3 separate days interspersed by 72 hours. On day 1, anthropometrics and V[Combining Dot Above]O2max were determined on a motor-driven treadmill. On days 2 and 3, subjects performed a 5-minute treadmill warm-up and either performed a series of 6 lower-body stretches for three 30-second repetitions or sat still for 10 minutes. Time to complete a 1-mile run under stretching and nonstretching conditions took place in randomized order. For the performance run, subjects were instructed to run as fast as possible at a set incline of 5% until a distance of 1 mile was completed. Flexibility from the sit and reach test, EMG, GCT, and performance, determined by time to complete the 1-mile run, were recorded after each condition. Time to complete the run was significantly less (6:51 ± 0:28 minutes) in the nonstretching condition as compared with the stretching condition (7:04 ± 0:32 minutes). A significant condition-by-time interaction for muscle activation existed, with no change in the nonstretching condition (pre 91.3 ± 11.6 mV to post 92.2 ± 12.9 mV) but increased in the stretching condition (pre 91.0 ± 11.6 mV to post 105.3 ± 12.9 mV). A significant condition-by-time interaction for GCT was also present, with no changes in

  10. Directional Cell Migration in Response to Repeated Substratum Stretching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okimura, Chika; Iwadate, Yoshiaki

    2017-10-01

    Crawling migration plays an essential role in a variety of biological phenomena, including development, wound healing, and immune system function. Migration properties such as anterior-posterior polarity, directionality, and velocity are regulated not only by the reception of a chemoattractant but also by sensing mechanical inputs from the external environment. In this review, we describe the mechanical response of migrating cells, particularly under repeated stretching of the elastic substratum, highlighting the fact that there appear to be two independent mechanosensing systems that generate the polarity needed for migration. Cells that have no stress fibers, such as Dictyostelium cells and neutrophil-like differentiated HL-60 cells, migrate perpendicular to the stretching direction via myosin II localization. Cells that do possess stress fibers, however, such as fish keratocytes, migrate parallel to the stretching via a stress-fiber-dependent process.

  11. Coordinating user interfaces for consistency

    CERN Document Server

    Nielsen, Jakob

    2001-01-01

    In the years since Jakob Nielsen's classic collection on interface consistency first appeared, much has changed, and much has stayed the same. On the one hand, there's been exponential growth in the opportunities for following or disregarding the principles of interface consistency-more computers, more applications, more users, and of course the vast expanse of the Web. On the other, there are the principles themselves, as persistent and as valuable as ever. In these contributed chapters, you'll find details on many methods for seeking and enforcing consistency, along with bottom-line analys

  12. What to Start: Selecting a First HIV Regimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CCR5 antagonists Integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) Post-attachment inhibitors In general, a person's first HIV regimen includes two NRTIs plus an INSTI, an NNRTI, or a PI boosted with cobicistat (brand name: Tybost) or ritonavir (brand name: Norvir). Cobicistat ...

  13. Assessment of non-standard HIV antiretroviral therapy regimens at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-03-06

    Mar 6, 2016 ... Aim. Lighthouse Trust in Lilongwe, Malawi serves approximately 25,000 patients with HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens standardized according to national treatment guidelines. However, as a referral centre for complex cases, Lighthouse Trust occasionally treats patients with non-standard ART.

  14. Effects of different penning conditions, feeding regimens and season ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pigs were randomly allocated to three feeding regimens, a controlled single feeding, ad libitum single feeding and ad libitum group feeding, with six animals per ad libitum group. This resulted in 96 pigs in six treatments with six replicates. The diets were high (HF) and low (LF) nutrient dense feeds, where the LF was ...

  15. Comparison of different insulin regimens in elderly patients with NIDDM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolffenbuttel, B H; Sels, J P; Rondas-Colbers, G J; Menheere, P P; Nieuwenhuijzen Kruseman, A C

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the metabolic effects of three different frequently used regimens of insulin administration on blood glucose control and serum lipids, and the costs associated with this treatment, in subjects with NIDDM, who were poorly controlled with oral antihyperglycemic agents. RESEARCH

  16. Randomization of two dosing regimens of vaginal misoprostol for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To compare the effectiveness of two dosing regimens of vaginal misoprostol for cervical ripening and induction of labour. Materials and Methods: Pregnant women with singleton low risk pregnancy at term scheduled for elective induction of labour were randomized to receive either 25 µg or 50 µg of vaginal ...

  17. Efficacy of Some Combination Regimens of Oral Hypoglycaemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To examine the efficacy of selected oral hypoglycaemic agent (OHA) regimens in a small group of patients receiving such treatment. Methods: This was a retrospective, observational study that involved patients who had been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus and undergoing routine follow-up at a teaching ...

  18. The liberal peace security regimen: a gramscian critique of its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Current security regimens are grounded in the advancement of liberal peace. All inter-governmental organizations, most states and most donor agencies more or less accept as common sense the self-evident virtuosity and truth of the liberal peace project. However, there is a profound contradiction within this project in ...

  19. mtct regimen choice, drug resistance and the treatment of hiv

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drug-resistant variants may become selected as long as the drug is administered. There has been some concern that the use of ARV monotherapy for the prevention of MTCT, including ... potential implications for perinatal transmission, the choice of ... transmission rate using this regimen, short-term treatment with dual ...

  20. Assessment of non-standard HIV antiretroviral therapy regimens at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-03-06

    Mar 6, 2016 ... guidelines for children and not adults. Discussion. Less than 1% of the 17,000 patients receiving ART for treatment of HIV at Lighthouse Trust in 2012 were being treated with NS-ART, signifying a strong adherence to standardized regimens by clinicians. Assessing the reasons for use of NS-ART is essential ...

  1. outcome and haemato-toxicity of two chemotherapy regimens for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-12-02

    Dec 2, 2009 ... enhancement of bone marrow toxicity and inability to provide necessary .... Consolidation (2 courses 7-10 days apart). - adriamycin ... study cases. Follow up period ranged between one and 18 months with a median of seven months from time of diagnosis. In the short course regimen, 58.3% presented with ...

  2. mtct regimen choice, drug resistance and the treatment of hiv

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perinauzl HW Unit, University ofcJu WilWalmTand. MTCT REGIMEN CHOICE, DRUG. RESISTANCE AND THE TREATMENT OF. HIV-I-INFECTED CHILDREN assessing ARV drug resistance. Genotypic assays detect specific point mutations in the HIV genome that are associated with phenotypic resistance. These are most.

  3. Gonzalez Regimen (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Gonzalez regimen is a specialized diet that uses enzymes, supplements, and other factors in cancer management. It is based on a theory that involves the use of pancreatic enzymes to help the body get rid of toxins that lead to cancer. Read about existing clinical data in this expert-reviewed summary.

  4. Short Term Effects of Neurodynamic Stretching and Static Stretching Techniques on Hamstring Muscle Flexibility in Healthy Male Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Rashad Ahmed

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Flexibility is a key component of rehabilitation and inadequate muscle extensibility remains a commonly accepted factor for musculoskeletal disorders. Studies on the most optimal technique for improving muscle flexibility are a widely debated. The aim of the study was to compare the effectiveness of neurodynamic and static stretching techniques on hamstring flexibility in healthy male subjects. This study was a randomized experimental trial; forty healthy male subjects with hamstring tightness were randomly divided into two equal groups: The neurodynamic group and the static stretching group. Treatment was given for 5 consecutive days and the outcomes were measured using Active knee Extension Test and Straight Leg Raising. There was a significant improvement in hamstring flexibility following application of both neurodynamic and static stretching but the improvement in the neurodynamic group (p<0.001 was better than that of the static group (p<0.02. Results suggest that a neurodynamic stretching could increase hamstring flexibility to a greater extent than static stretching in healthy male subjects with a tight hamstring.

  5. Can Treadmill Perturbations Evoke Stretch Reflexes in the Calf Muscles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloot, Lizeth H; van den Noort, Josien C; van der Krogt, Marjolein M; Bruijn, Sjoerd M; Harlaar, Jaap

    2015-01-01

    Disinhibition of reflexes is a problem amongst spastic patients, for it limits a smooth and efficient execution of motor functions during gait. Treadmill belt accelerations may potentially be used to measure reflexes during walking, i.e. by dorsal flexing the ankle and stretching the calf muscles, while decelerations show the modulation of reflexes during a reduction of sensory feedback. The aim of the current study was to examine if belt accelerations and decelerations of different intensities applied during the stance phase of treadmill walking can evoke reflexes in the gastrocnemius, soleus and tibialis anterior in healthy subjects. Muscle electromyography and joint kinematics were measured in 10 subjects. To determine whether stretch reflexes occurred, we assessed modelled musculo-tendon length and stretch velocity, the amount of muscle activity, as well as the incidence of bursts or depressions in muscle activity with their time delays, and co-contraction between agonist and antagonist muscle. Although the effect on the ankle angle was small with 2.8±1.0°, the perturbations caused clear changes in muscle length and stretch velocity relative to unperturbed walking. Stretched muscles showed an increasing incidence of bursts in muscle activity, which occurred after a reasonable electrophysiological time delay (163-191 ms). Their amplitude was related to the muscle stretch velocity and not related to co-contraction of the antagonist muscle. These effects increased with perturbation intensity. Shortened muscles showed opposite effects, with a depression in muscle activity of the calf muscles. The perturbations only slightly affected the spatio-temporal parameters, indicating that normal walking was retained. Thus, our findings showed that treadmill perturbations can evoke reflexes in the calf muscles and tibialis anterior. This comprehensive study could form the basis for clinical implementation of treadmill perturbations to functionally measure reflexes during

  6. Can Treadmill Perturbations Evoke Stretch Reflexes in the Calf Muscles?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizeth H Sloot

    Full Text Available Disinhibition of reflexes is a problem amongst spastic patients, for it limits a smooth and efficient execution of motor functions during gait. Treadmill belt accelerations may potentially be used to measure reflexes during walking, i.e. by dorsal flexing the ankle and stretching the calf muscles, while decelerations show the modulation of reflexes during a reduction of sensory feedback. The aim of the current study was to examine if belt accelerations and decelerations of different intensities applied during the stance phase of treadmill walking can evoke reflexes in the gastrocnemius, soleus and tibialis anterior in healthy subjects. Muscle electromyography and joint kinematics were measured in 10 subjects. To determine whether stretch reflexes occurred, we assessed modelled musculo-tendon length and stretch velocity, the amount of muscle activity, as well as the incidence of bursts or depressions in muscle activity with their time delays, and co-contraction between agonist and antagonist muscle. Although the effect on the ankle angle was small with 2.8±1.0°, the perturbations caused clear changes in muscle length and stretch velocity relative to unperturbed walking. Stretched muscles showed an increasing incidence of bursts in muscle activity, which occurred after a reasonable electrophysiological time delay (163-191 ms. Their amplitude was related to the muscle stretch velocity and not related to co-contraction of the antagonist muscle. These effects increased with perturbation intensity. Shortened muscles showed opposite effects, with a depression in muscle activity of the calf muscles. The perturbations only slightly affected the spatio-temporal parameters, indicating that normal walking was retained. Thus, our findings showed that treadmill perturbations can evoke reflexes in the calf muscles and tibialis anterior. This comprehensive study could form the basis for clinical implementation of treadmill perturbations to functionally

  7. Consistent Regulatory Policy under Uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Michael J. Brennan; Eduardo S. Schwartz

    1982-01-01

    This article is concerned with the effects of regulation on the risk and value of the regulated firm in a dynamic context. Current regulatory practice is shown to be logically deficient, since it ignores the effect of regulatory policy on the cost of capital and therefore on the appropriate allowed rate of return. A notion of consistency in regulatory policy is developed, and it is shown how consistent regulatory policies may be implemented once the valuation problem is solved.

  8. Self-consistent quark bags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafelski, J.

    1979-01-01

    After an introductory overview of the bag model the author uses the self-consistent solution of the coupled Dirac-meson fields to represent a bound state of strongly ineteracting fermions. In this framework he discusses the vivial approach to classical field equations. After a short description of the used numerical methods the properties of bound states of scalar self-consistent Fields and the solutions of a self-coupled Dirac field are considered. (HSI) [de

  9. Cell volume and membrane stretch independently control K+ channel activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bomholtz, Sofia Hammami; Willumsen, Niels J; Olsen, Hervør L

    2009-01-01

    A number of potassium channels including members of the KCNQ family and the Ca(2+) activated IK and SK, but not BK, are strongly and reversibly regulated by small changes in cell volume. It has been argued that this general regulation is mediated through sensitivity to changes in membrane stretch....... To test this hypothesis we have studied the regulation of KCNQ1 and BK channels after expression in Xenopus oocytes. Results from cell-attached patch clamp studies (approximately 50 microm(2) macropatches) in oocytes expressing BK channels demonstrate that the macroscopic volume-insensitive BK current...... that stretch and volume sensitivity can be considered two independent regulatory mechanisms....

  10. Management of stretch marks (with a focus on striae rubrae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Wollina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Stretch marks are one of the most common benign cutaneous lesions and encountered esthetic problems. Striae rubrae and striae albae can be differentiated on the basis of clinical appearance. Histologically, disturbances of the dermal fiber network and local expression of receptors for sexual steroids have been detected. The epidermal changes are secondary. Prevention of stretch marks using topical ointments and oils is debatable. Treatment of striae rubrae by lasers and light devices improves appearance. Microneedling and non-ablative and fractionated lasers have been used. This review provides an overview on current treatment options with a special focus on laser treatments.

  11. Effects of seven weeks of static hamstring stretching on flexibility and sprint performance in young soccer players according to their playing position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Fernandez, Alejandro; Sanchez, Javier; Rodriguez Marroyo, José A; Villa, José G

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 7 weeks of static hamstring stretching on flexibility and sprint performance in young soccer players. One hundred and three healthy soccer players voluntarily participated in this study. Subjects were assigned to a control group (N.=22, 16.5±0.7 years, 174.0±5.4 cm and 68.0±6.8 kg) and an experimental group (N.=81, 18.9±1.8 years, 176.0±5.8 cm and 68.2±8.4 kg). All subjects performed a sit-and-reach and a 30-m Sprint Test to assess their flexibility performance and sprinting ability, respectively, before and after 7 weeks of static hamstring stretching program. The static stretching program consisted of 4 stretching exercises performed at the end of the training session during 6 days per week. Each stretch was held for 30-s and performed twice with a 15-s rest between. Flexibility was significantly (Pstatic stretching at the end of the training sessions prevents the negative effect of the load on hamstring flexibility and it can influence improvement in flexibility.

  12. Time-consistent and market-consistent evaluations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelsser, A.; Stadje, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    We consider evaluation methods for payoffs with an inherent financial risk as encountered for instance for portfolios held by pension funds and insurance companies. Pricing such payoffs in a way consistent to market prices typically involves combining actuarial techniques with methods from

  13. Effect of global posture reeducation and of static stretching on pain, range of motion, and quality of life in women with chronic neck pain: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Ana Cláudia Violino; Burke, Thomaz Nogueira; França, Fábio Jorge Renovato; Marques, Amélia Pasqual

    2008-12-01

    Compare the effect of conventional static stretching and muscle chain stretching, as proposed by the global posture reeducation method, in the manual therapy of patients with chronic neck pain. Thirty-three female patients aged 35 to 60 years old, 31 of whom completed the program, were randomly divided into two groups: The global posture reeducation group (n=15) performed muscle chain stretching, while the conventional stretching group (n=16) performed conventional static muscle stretching. Both groups also underwent manual therapy. Patients were evaluated before and after treatment and at a six-week follow-up appointment and tested for pain intensity (by means of visual analog scale), range of motion (by goniometry), and health-related quality of life (by the SF-36 questionnaire). The treatment program consisted of two 1-hour individual sessions per week for six weeks. Data were statistically analyzed at a significance level of ppain relief and range of motion improvement were observed after treatment in both groups, with a slight reduction at follow-up time. Quality of life also improved after treatment, except for the global posture reeducation group in one domain; at follow-up, there was improvement in all domains, except that both groups reported increased pain. There were no significant differences between groups Conventional stretching and muscle chain stretching in association with manual therapy were equally effective in reducing pain and improving the range of motion and quality of life of female patients with chronic neck pain, both immediately after treatment and at a six-week follow-up, suggesting that stretching exercises should be prescribed to chronic neck pain patients.

  14. Effect of global posture reeducation and of static stretching on pain, range of motion, and quality of life in women with chronic neck pain: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cláudia Violino Cunha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Compare the effect of conventional static stretching and muscle chain stretching, as proposed by the global posture reeducation method, in the manual therapy of patients with chronic neck pain. METHODS: Thirty-three female patients aged 35 to 60 years old, 31 of whom completed the program, were randomly divided into two groups: The global posture reeducation group (n=15 performed muscle chain stretching, while the conventional stretching group (n=16 performed conventional static muscle stretching. Both groups also underwent manual therapy. Patients were evaluated before and after treatment and at a six-week follow-up appointment and tested for pain intensity (by means of visual analog scale, range of motion (by goniometry, and health-related quality of life (by the SF-36 questionnaire. The treatment program consisted of two 1-hour individual sessions per week for six weeks. Data were statistically analyzed at a significance level of p<0.05. RESULTS: Significant pain relief and range of motion improvement were observed after treatment in both groups, with a slight reduction at follow-up time. Quality of life also improved after treatment, except for the global posture reeducation group in one domain; at follow-up, there was improvement in all domains, except that both groups reported increased pain. There were no significant differences between groups CONCLUSION: Conventional stretching and muscle chain stretching in association with manual therapy were equally effective in reducing pain and improving the range of motion and quality of life of female patients with chronic neck pain, both immediately after treatment and at a six-week follow-up, suggesting that stretching exercises should be prescribed to chronic neck pain patients.

  15. Effects on hamstring muscle extensibility, muscle activity, and balance of different stretching techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kyoung-Il; Nam, Hyung-Chun; Jung, Kyoung-Sim

    2014-02-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of two different stretching techniques on range of motion (ROM), muscle activation, and balance. [Subjects] For the present study, 48 adults with hamstring muscle tightness were recruited and randomly divided into three groups: a static stretching group (n=16), a PNF stretching group (n=16), a control group (n=16). [Methods] Both of the stretching techniques were applied to the hamstring once. Active knee extension angle, muscle activation during maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVC), and static balance were measured before and after the application of each stretching technique. [Results] Both the static stretching and the PNF stretching groups showed significant increases in knee extension angle compared to the control group. However, there were no significant differences in muscle activation or balance between the groups. [Conclusion] Static stretching and PNF stretching techniques improved ROM without decrease in muscle activation, but neither of them exerted statistically significant effects on balance.

  16. [Efficacy of NO regimen and NP regimen on advanced non-small cell lung cancer: a prospective randomized trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jian-Fei; Zhang, Xin-Hua; Wang, Jun; Rao, Zhi-Guo; Zhu, Yu-Ze; Ou, Wu-Ling; Zhang, Bi-Cheng; Du, Guang-Zu

    2005-08-01

    Oxaliplatin (LOHP) is an effective drug in treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with mild toxicities to gastrointestinal tract, kidney, and bone marrow. Cisplatin (DDP) plus vinorelbine (NVB) constitute the first-line regimen (NP regimen) for NSCLC. This study was to compare the short-term response, long-term outcome, and adverse events between advanced NSCLC patients received NO regimen (LOHP plus NVB) and NP regimen. A total of 90 patients with advanced NSCLC were randomized into NO group (58 patients, 25 mg/m(2) of NVB, day 1 and day 8; 130 mg/m(2) of LOHP, day 1) and NP group (32 patients, 25 mg/m(2) of NVB, day 1 and day 8; 50 mg/m(2) of DDP, day 2 and day 3). The short-term response, long-term outcome, adverse events, and survival status of the 2 groups were observed. The response rates were 33.33% in NO group, and 35.48% in NP group, but no significant difference was detected between the 2 groups (P > 0.05). The clinical benefit response rate was significantly higher in NO group than in NP group (80.70% vs. 64.52%, P NP group; the median time of remission was 21 weeks in NO group, and 19 weeks in NP group; the median survival time was 39 weeks in NO group, and 37 weeks in NP group; the 1-year survival rate was 37.93% in NO group, and 31.25% in NP group. No significant differences were detected between the 2 groups. The incidence rates of phlebitis and grade I-II peripheral neuritis were significantly higher in NO group than in NP group (77.59% vs. 50.00%, Pvs. 15.63%, PNP group than in NO group (31.25% vs. 3.45%, PNP regimen, but the clinical benefit response rate is higher in NO group than in NP group. In short, NO regimen may be recommended as the first-line chemotherapy regimen for advanced NSCLC.

  17. Effects of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching and deep-breathing exercises on upper extremity lymphedema in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Woon Taek; Jeong, Yeon-Jae; Kim, Seong-Yeol; Jeong, Yeon-Gyu

    2016-12-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of deep-breathing and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching exercises on upper limb lymphedema in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] The study consisted of 10 patients with lymphedema that had occurred after stroke. Neurodevelopmental treatment was applied in the same manner as that used for the existing treatment. The subjects performed deep-breathing and stretching exercises three times per week for 4 weeks (12 sessions total). Body water volume in the upper limbs was measured before and after exercise by using an InBody S10 analyzer. [Results] Performance of deep-breathing and stretching exercises significantly reduced body water volume in both the affected and unaffected arms. The extracellular-to-total cellular fluid volume ratio in the affected arm improved to 0.379 after exercise, although this change was not significant. [Conclusion] The results of the present study show that deep-breathing and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching exercises reduce upper extremity lymphedema in stroke patients.

  18. Market-consistent actuarial valuation

    CERN Document Server

    Wüthrich, Mario V

    2016-01-01

    This is the third edition of this well-received textbook, presenting powerful methods for measuring insurance liabilities and assets in a consistent way, with detailed mathematical frameworks that lead to market-consistent values for liabilities. Topics covered are stochastic discounting with deflators, valuation portfolio in life and non-life insurance, probability distortions, asset and liability management, financial risks, insurance technical risks, and solvency. Including updates on recent developments and regulatory changes under Solvency II, this new edition of Market-Consistent Actuarial Valuation also elaborates on different risk measures, providing a revised definition of solvency based on industry practice, and presents an adapted valuation framework which takes a dynamic view of non-life insurance reserving risk.

  19. Immediate effects of different types of stretching exercises on badminton jump smash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hwi S; Kim, Daeho; Park, Jihong

    2017-04-13

    Since different types of stretching exercises may alter athletic performance, we compared the effects of three types of stretching exercises on badminton jump smash. Sixteen male collegiate badminton players performed one of three different stretching exercises in a counterbalanced order on different days. Static stretching had seven typical stretches, while dynamic stretching involved nine dynamic movements, and resistance dynamic stretching was performed with weighted vests and dumbbells. Before and after each stretching exercise, subjects performed 20 trials of jump smashes. Dependent measurements were the jump heights during jump smashes, velocities of jump-smashed shuttlecocks, and drop points of jump-smashed shuttlecocks. To test the effects of each stretching exercise, we performed mixed model ANOVAs and calculated between-time effect sizes (ES). Each stretching exercise improved the jump heights during jump smashes (type main effect: F2,75= 1.19, p=0.31; static stretching: 22.1%, pstretching: 30.1%, pstretching: 17.7%, p=0.03, ES: 0.98) and velocities of jump-smashed shuttlecocks (type main effect: F2,75= 2.18, p=0.12; static stretching: 5.7%, p=0.61, ES: 0.39; dynamic stretching: 3.4%, p=0.94, ES: 0.28; resistance dynamic stretching: 6%, p=0.50, ES: 0.66). However, there were no differences among the stretching exercises for any measurement. The drop point of jump-smashed shuttlecocks did not change (interaction: F2,75= 0.88, p=0.42). All stretching exercises improved badminton jump smash performance, but we could not determine the best protocol. Since badminton requires high-speed movement and explosive force, we suggest performing dynamic stretching or resistance dynamic stretching.

  20. Consistent force fields for saccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kjeld

    1999-01-01

    Consistent force fields for carbohydrates were hitherto developed by extensive optimization ofpotential energy function parameters on experimental data and on ab initio results. A wide range of experimental data is used: internal structures obtained from gas phase electron diffraction and from x......-anomeric effects are accounted for without addition of specific terms. The work is done in the framework of the Consistent Force Field which originatedin Israel and was further developed in Denmark. The actual methods and strategies employed havebeen described previously. Extensive testing of the force field...

  1. Stretching Local Dollars: A Small Town Guide to Matching Funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Hamilton

    The purpose of this guidebook is to help elected leaders of small towns and communities stretch their investments when matching funds are required to compete for a grant or to pay for development costs above the grant award itself. The federal "small cities" Community Development Block Grant (CDBG) is used as an example throughout the…

  2. Measurement of Reversed Extension Flow using the Filament Stretch Rheometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Skov, Anne Ladegaard; Nielsen, Jens Kromann

    2008-01-01

    ). The latter is applicable on highly extensible elastomers, whereas in LAOE measurements on liquids (including polymer melts) the LAOE flow needs to be imposed upon a constant strain rate uniaxial elongation. The used Filament Stretching Rheometer allows measurements on polymeric fluids (including polymeric...... melts) from room temperature until 200 degrees C....

  3. On zero variance Monte Carlo path-stretching schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lux, I.

    1983-01-01

    A zero variance path-stretching biasing scheme proposed for a special case by Dwivedi is derived in full generality. The procedure turns out to be the generalization of the exponential transform. It is shown that the biased game can be interpreted as an analog simulation procedure, thus saving some computational effort in comparison with the corresponding nonanalog game

  4. Mediators of Yoga and Stretching for Chronic Low Back Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen J. Sherman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although yoga is an effective treatment for chronic low back pain, little is known about the mechanisms responsible for its benefits. In a trial comparing yoga to intensive stretching and self-care, we explored whether physical (hours of back exercise/week, cognitive (fear avoidance, body awareness, and self-efficacy, affective (psychological distress, perceived stress, positive states of mind, and sleep, and physiological factors (cortisol, DHEA mediated the effects of yoga or stretching on back-related dysfunction (Roland-Morris Disability Scale (RDQ. For yoga, 36% of the effect on 12-week RDQ was mediated by increased self-efficacy, 18% by sleep disturbance, 9% by hours of back exercise, and 61% by the best combination of all possible mediators (6 mediators. For stretching, 23% of the effect was mediated by increased self-efficacy, 14% by days of back exercise, and 50% by the best combination of all possible mediators (7 mediators. In open-ended questions, ≥20% of participants noted the following treatment benefits: learning new exercises (both groups, relaxation, increased awareness, and the benefits of breathing (yoga, benefits of regular practice (stretching. Although both self-efficacy and hours of back exercise were the strongest mediators for each intervention, compared to self-care, qualitative data suggest that they may exert their benefits through partially distinct mechanisms.

  5. Entropy generation in MHD flow of a uniformly stretched vertical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports the analytical calculation of the entropy generation due to heat and mass transfer and fluid friction in steady state of a uniformly stretched vertical permeable surface with heat and mass diffusive walls, by solving analytically the mass, momentum, species concentration and energy balance equation, using ...

  6. Anharmonic bend-stretch coupling in neat liquid water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindner, Joerg; Cringus, Dan; Pshenichnikov, Maxim S.; Voehringer, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Femtosecond mid-IR spectroscopy is used to study the vibrational relaxation dynamics in neat liquid water. By exciting the bending vibration and probing the stretching mode, it is possible to reliably determine the bending and librational lifetimes of water. The anharmonic coupling between the

  7. Effect of Mechanical Stretching of the Skin on Collagen Fibril ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stabilization of collagen fibres during development and through growth to maturation has now become fairly documented. In vitro effect of mechanical stretching of ratsf skin on oxidative deamination of ε-NH2-groups of lysine and hydroxylysine, and functional properties of its type . collagen were studied. Experiments were ...

  8. A Japanese Stretching Intervention Can Modify Lumbar Lordosis Curvature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kadono, Norio; Tsuchiya, Kazushi; Uematsu, Azusa; Kamoshita, Hiroshi; Kiryu, Kazunori; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Suzuki, Shuji

    Study Design: Eighteen healthy male adults were assigned to either an intervention or control group. Objectives: Isogai dynamic therapy (IDT) is one of Japanese stretching interventions and has been practiced for over 70 years. However, its scientific quantitative evidence remains unestablished. The

  9. Flow of viscous fluid along an exponentially stretching curved surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.F. Okechi

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the boundary layer analysis of flow induced by rapidly stretching curved surface with exponential velocity. The governing boundary value problem is reduced into self-similar form using a new similarity transformation. The resulting equations are solved numerically using shooting and Runge-Kutta methods. The numerical results depicts that the fluid velocity as well as the skin friction coefficient increases with the surface curvature, similar trend is also observed for the pressure. The dimensionless wall shear stress defined for this problem is greater than that of a linearly stretching curved surface, but becomes comparably less for a surface stretching with a power-law velocity. In addition, the result for the plane surface is a special case of this study when the radius of curvature of the surface is sufficiently large. The numerical investigations presented in terms of the graphs are interpreted with the help of underlying physics of the fluid flow and the consequences arising from the curved geometry. Keywords: Boundary layer flow, Curved surface, Exponential stretching, Curvature

  10. Vibrations of stretched damped beams under non-ideal boundary ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Stretched beam vibrations; non-ideal boundary conditions; method of multiple time scales. 1. Introduction. Beams are frequently used as design models for vibration analysis. In such analysis, types of support conditions are important and have direct effect on the solutions and natural fre- quencies. Different types of supports ...

  11. Stretch Intensity vs. Inflammation: A Dose-dependent Association?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikos Apostolopoulos BPHE

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The intensity of stretching is rarely reported in scientific literature. In this study, we examined the effects of stretching intensities at 30%, 60%, and 90% of maximum range of movement (mROM on the inflammatory response of the right hamstring muscle. Methods: A randomised within-subject trial was conducted with 11 healthy recreationally active males over a three week period. Participants were strapped into an isokinetic dynamometer in the supine position, with the right knee fastened in a knee immobilizer. After randomising the ROM percentages, the hamstring muscle was moved to one of the three chosen ROM percentages for that week and held there for 5 x 60 seconds followed by a 10 second rest between repetitions. A 5ml blood sample was collected pre-, immediately post, and at 24 hours post intervention for high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP assessments. Results: Significant increases in hsCRP levels were observed between 30% mROM and 90% mROM (p=0.004 and 60% mROM and 90% mROM (p=0.034, but not between 30% and 60% (p>0.05. Conclusions: Muscle stretching at submaximal levels does not elicit a significant systemic inflammatory responses. Keywords: Stretch intensity, inflammation, hsCRP

  12. MHD flow of a uniformly stretched vertical permeable membrane in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of the Nigerian Association of Mathematical Physics ... Abstract. We present a magneto - hydrodynamic flow of a uniformly stretched vertical permeable surface undergoing Arrhenius heat reaction. ... It is also established that maximum velocity occurs in the body of the fluid close to the surface and not the surface.

  13. Contact of a spherical probe with a stretched rubber substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frétigny, Christian; Chateauminois, Antoine

    2017-07-01

    We report on a theoretical and experimental investigation of the normal contact of stretched neo-Hookean substrates with rigid spherical probes. Starting from a published formulation of surface Green's function for incremental displacements on a prestretched, neo-Hookean, substrate [J. Mech. Phys. Solids 56, 2957 (2008), 10.1016/j.jmps.2008.07.002], a model is derived for both adhesive and nonadhesive contacts. The shape of the elliptical contact area together with the contact load and the contact stiffness are predicted as a function of the in-plane stretch ratios λx and λy of the substrate. The validity of this model is assessed by contact experiments carried out using an uniaxally stretched silicone rubber. For stretch ratio below about 1.25, a good agreement is observed between theory and experiments. Above this threshold, some deviations from the theoretical predictions are induced as a result of the departure of the mechanical response of the silicone rubber from the neo-Hokeean description embedded in the model.

  14. Effect of Mechanical Stretching of the Skin on Collagen Fibril ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dell

    It was recently established that, deformation of connective tissue cells under the influence of mechanical stretching intensifies the synthesis of structural biopolymers, particularly those of the collagen molecules, which are capable of associating into fibrils by self assembly (Buschmann et al., 1995,. Garbuzenko et al., 1997; ...

  15. Bruxism: Is There an Indication for Muscle-Stretching Exercises?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouw, S.; Wijer, A. de; Creugers, N.H.J.; Kalaykova, S.I.

    2017-01-01

    Bruxism is a common phenomenon involving repetitive activation of the masticatory muscles. Muscle-stretching exercises are a recommended part of several international guidelines for musculoskeletal disorders and may be effective in management of the jaw muscle activity that gives rise to bruxism.

  16. Sport stretching : Effect on passive muscle stiffness of short hamstrings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halbertsma, JPK; vanBolhuis, AI; Goeken, LNH

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of one 10-minute stretch on muscle stiffness in subjects with short hamstrings. Design: Randomized control trial. Setting: Laboratory for human movement sciences in the department of rehabilitation of a university hospital. Subjects: Sixteen students from the

  17. The health of benthic diatom assemblages in lower stretch

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This study examines the ecological state of epilithic diatom assemblages along the lower stretch of Mandakini, a glacier-fed Himalayan river. The diatoms were sampled at four stations during winter and summer, only once in each season. Valve counts were obtained from Naphrax mounts prepared from each sample.

  18. A single molecule DNA flow stretching microscope for undergraduates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, Kelly; Grafe, Brendan; Burke, Kathryn M.; Tanner, Nathan; van Oijen, Antoine M.; Loparo, Joseph; Price, Allen C.

    2011-01-01

    The design of a simple, safe, and inexpensive single molecule flow stretching instrument is presented. The instrument uses a low cost upright microscope coupled to a webcam for imaging single DNA molecules that are tethered in an easy to construct microfluidic flow cell. The system requires no

  19. Acute effects of active isolated stretching on vertical jump ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the study was to determine the acute effects of active isolated stretching on muscular peak power production. Sixty healthy, physically active volunteers (aged 18-28) participated as subjects in this study. Subjects were randomly assigned to two groups; the control group and the experimental group. Subjects ...

  20. Stochastic Simulation of a Full-Chain Reptation Model with Constraint Release, Chain-Length Fluctuations and Chain Stretching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Jesper; Schieber, Jay D.

    1999-01-01

    A self-consistent reptation model that includes chain stretching, chain-length fluctuations, segment connectivity and constraint release is used to predict transient and steady flows. Quantitative comparisons are made with entangledsolution data. The model is able to capture quantitatively all...... for differentmolecular weight, the transient and steady-state behavior of the extinction angle, and the stress relaxation in cessation of steady shear flow....

  1. Force encoding in muscle spindles during stretch of passive muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Kyle P; Lamotte D'Incamps, Boris; Zytnicki, Daniel; Ting, Lena H

    2017-09-01

    Muscle spindle proprioceptive receptors play a primary role in encoding the effects of external mechanical perturbations to the body. During externally-imposed stretches of passive, i.e. electrically-quiescent, muscles, the instantaneous firing rates (IFRs) of muscle spindles are associated with characteristics of stretch such as length and velocity. However, even in passive muscle, there are history-dependent transients of muscle spindle firing that are not uniquely related to muscle length and velocity, nor reproduced by current muscle spindle models. These include acceleration-dependent initial bursts, increased dynamic response to stretch velocity if a muscle has been isometric, and rate relaxation, i.e., a decrease in tonic IFR when a muscle is held at a constant length after being stretched. We collected muscle spindle spike trains across a variety of muscle stretch kinematic conditions, including systematic changes in peak length, velocity, and acceleration. We demonstrate that muscle spindle primary afferents in passive muscle fire in direct relationship to muscle force-related variables, rather than length-related variables. Linear combinations of whole muscle-tendon force and the first time derivative of force (dF/dt) predict the entire time course of transient IFRs in muscle spindle Ia afferents during stretch (i.e., lengthening) of passive muscle, including the initial burst, the dynamic response to lengthening, and rate relaxation following lengthening. Similar to acceleration scaling found previously in postural responses to perturbations, initial burst amplitude scaled equally well to initial stretch acceleration or dF/dt, though later transients were only described by dF/dt. The transient increase in dF/dt at the onset of lengthening reflects muscle short-range stiffness due to cross-bridge dynamics. Our work demonstrates a critical role of muscle cross-bridge dynamics in history-dependent muscle spindle IFRs in passive muscle lengthening conditions

  2. Force encoding in muscle spindles during stretch of passive muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle P Blum

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Muscle spindle proprioceptive receptors play a primary role in encoding the effects of external mechanical perturbations to the body. During externally-imposed stretches of passive, i.e. electrically-quiescent, muscles, the instantaneous firing rates (IFRs of muscle spindles are associated with characteristics of stretch such as length and velocity. However, even in passive muscle, there are history-dependent transients of muscle spindle firing that are not uniquely related to muscle length and velocity, nor reproduced by current muscle spindle models. These include acceleration-dependent initial bursts, increased dynamic response to stretch velocity if a muscle has been isometric, and rate relaxation, i.e., a decrease in tonic IFR when a muscle is held at a constant length after being stretched. We collected muscle spindle spike trains across a variety of muscle stretch kinematic conditions, including systematic changes in peak length, velocity, and acceleration. We demonstrate that muscle spindle primary afferents in passive muscle fire in direct relationship to muscle force-related variables, rather than length-related variables. Linear combinations of whole muscle-tendon force and the first time derivative of force (dF/dt predict the entire time course of transient IFRs in muscle spindle Ia afferents during stretch (i.e., lengthening of passive muscle, including the initial burst, the dynamic response to lengthening, and rate relaxation following lengthening. Similar to acceleration scaling found previously in postural responses to perturbations, initial burst amplitude scaled equally well to initial stretch acceleration or dF/dt, though later transients were only described by dF/dt. The transient increase in dF/dt at the onset of lengthening reflects muscle short-range stiffness due to cross-bridge dynamics. Our work demonstrates a critical role of muscle cross-bridge dynamics in history-dependent muscle spindle IFRs in passive muscle

  3. Stretching skeletal muscle: chronic muscle lengthening through sarcomerogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander M Zöllner

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle responds to passive overstretch through sarcomerogenesis, the creation and serial deposition of new sarcomere units. Sarcomerogenesis is critical to muscle function: It gradually re-positions the muscle back into its optimal operating regime. Animal models of immobilization, limb lengthening, and tendon transfer have provided significant insight into muscle adaptation in vivo. Yet, to date, there is no mathematical model that allows us to predict how skeletal muscle adapts to mechanical stretch in silico. Here we propose a novel mechanistic model for chronic longitudinal muscle growth in response to passive mechanical stretch. We characterize growth through a single scalar-valued internal variable, the serial sarcomere number. Sarcomerogenesis, the evolution of this variable, is driven by the elastic mechanical stretch. To analyze realistic three-dimensional muscle geometries, we embed our model into a nonlinear finite element framework. In a chronic limb lengthening study with a muscle stretch of 1.14, the model predicts an acute sarcomere lengthening from 3.09[Formula: see text]m to 3.51[Formula: see text]m, and a chronic gradual return to the initial sarcomere length within two weeks. Compared to the experiment, the acute model error was 0.00% by design of the model; the chronic model error was 2.13%, which lies within the rage of the experimental standard deviation. Our model explains, from a mechanistic point of view, why gradual multi-step muscle lengthening is less invasive than single-step lengthening. It also explains regional variations in sarcomere length, shorter close to and longer away from the muscle-tendon interface. Once calibrated with a richer data set, our model may help surgeons to prevent muscle overstretch and make informed decisions about optimal stretch increments, stretch timing, and stretch amplitudes. We anticipate our study to open new avenues in orthopedic and reconstructive surgery and enhance

  4. Teaching Consistency of UML Specifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sikkel, Nicolaas; Daneva, Maia

    2010-01-01

    Consider the situation that you have a data model, a functional model and a process model of a system, perhaps made by different analysts at different times. Are these models consistent with each other? A relevant question in practice – and therefore we think it should also be addressed in our

  5. Dynamically consistent oil import tariffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karp, L.; Newbery, D.M.

    1992-01-01

    The standard theory of optimal tariffs considers tariffs on perishable goods produced abroad under static conditions, in which tariffs affect prices only in that period. Oil and other exhaustable resources do not fit this model, for current tariffs affect the amount of oil imported, which will affect the remaining stock and hence its future price. The problem of choosing a dynamically consistent oil import tariff when suppliers are competitive but importers have market power is considered. The open-loop Nash tariff is solved for the standard competitive case in which the oil price is arbitraged, and it was found that the resulting tariff rises at the rate of interest. This tariff was found to have an equilibrium that in general is dynamically inconsistent. Nevertheless, it is shown that necessary and sufficient conditions exist under which the tariff satisfies the weaker condition of time consistency. A dynamically consistent tariff is obtained by assuming that all agents condition their current decisions on the remaining stock of the resource, in contrast to open-loop strategies. For the natural case in which all agents choose their actions simultaneously in each period, the dynamically consistent tariff was characterized, and found to differ markedly from the time-inconsistent open-loop tariff. It was shown that if importers do not have overwhelming market power, then the time path of the world price is insensitive to the ability to commit, as is the level of wealth achieved by the importer. 26 refs., 4 figs

  6. Time-consistent actuarial valuations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelsser, A.A.J.; Salahnejhad Ghalehjooghi, A.

    2016-01-01

    Time-consistent valuations (i.e. pricing operators) can be created by backward iteration of one-period valuations. In this paper we investigate the continuous-time limits of well-known actuarial premium principles when such backward iteration procedures are applied. This method is applied to an

  7. Stretched versus compressed exponential kinetics in α-helix folding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamm, Peter; Helbing, Jan; Bredenbeck, Jens

    2006-01-01

    In a recent paper (J. Bredenbeck, J. Helbing, J.R. Kumita, G.A. Woolley, P. Hamm, α-helix formation in a photoswitchable peptide tracked from picoseconds to microseconds by time resolved IR spectroscopy, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci USA 102 (2005) 2379), we have investigated the folding of a photo-switchable α-helix with a kinetics that could be fit by a stretched exponential function exp(-(t/τ) β ). The stretching factor β became smaller as the temperature was lowered, a result which has been interpreted in terms of activated diffusion on a rugged energy surface. In the present paper, we discuss under which conditions diffusion problems occur with stretched exponential kinetics (β 1). We show that diffusion problems do have a strong tendency to yield stretched exponential kinetics, yet, that there are conditions (strong perturbation from equilibrium, performing the experiment in the folding direction) under which compressed exponential kinetics would be expected instead. We discuss the kinetics on free energy surfaces predicted by simple initiation-propagation models (zipper models) of α-helix folding, as well as by folding funnel models. We show that our recent experiment has been performed under condition for which models with strong downhill driving force, such as the zipper model, would predict compressed, rather than stretched exponential kinetics, in disagreement with the experimental observation. We therefore propose that the free energy surface along a reaction coordinate that governs the folding kinetics must be relatively flat and has a shape similar to a 1D golf course. We discuss how this conclusion can be unified with the thermodynamically well established zipper model by introducing an additional kinetic reaction coordinate

  8. Wrinkling instability of an inhomogeneously stretched viscous sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Siddarth; Wei, Zhiyan; Mahadevan, L.

    2017-07-01

    Motivated by the redrawing of hot glass into thin sheets, we investigate the shape and stability of a thin viscous sheet that is inhomogeneously stretched in an imposed nonuniform temperature field. We first determine the associated base flow by solving the long-time-scale stretching flow of a flat sheet as a function of two dimensionless parameters: the normalized stretching velocity α and a dimensionless width of the heating zone β . This allows us to determine the conditions for the onset of an out-of-plane wrinkling instability stated in terms of an eigenvalue problem for a linear partial differential equation governing the displacement of the midsurface of the sheet. We show that the sheet can become unstable in two regions that are upstream and downstream of the heating zone where the minimum in-plane stress is negative. This yields the shape and growth rates of the most unstable buckling mode in both regions for various values of the stretching velocity and heating zone width. A transition from stationary to oscillatory unstable modes is found in the upstream region with increasing β , while the downstream region is always stationary. We show that the wrinkling instability can be entirely suppressed when the surface tension is large enough relative to the magnitude of the in-plane stress. Finally, we present an operating diagram that indicates regions of the parameter space that result in a required outlet sheet thickness upon stretching while simultaneously minimizing or suppressing the out-of-plane buckling, a result that is relevant for the glass redraw method used to create ultrathin glass sheets.

  9. The effects of isometric exercises and stretching on postural stability in Non–Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus patients with diffuse symmetrical sensory motor neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nenkova

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of isometric exercises and stretching on postural stability in Non – Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM patients with diffuse symmetrical sensory motor neuropathy. Patients were assigned to an experimental group and amatched control group. The experimental group received isometric exer-cises and stretching three times weekly for 12 weeks in addition to routine medication and dietary advice. A t the end of this period, this group wascompared with the control group, which received routine medication anddietary advice only. Measurements of muscle strength of quadriceps, ham-strings, ankle plantar and dorsiflexors, and Romberg’s test for postural sta-bility were carried out before and after the 12 weeks intervention. The study showed that isometric exercises and stretching for the lower extremities improved postural stability (p = 0.00and strength of the quadriceps (p = 0.001 hamstrings (p = 0.001 dorsiflexors (p = 0.001 plantarflexors (p = 0.001in NIDDM patients with diffuse symmetrical sensory motor neuropathy. This exercise regimen also had a loweringeffect on blood glucose level (p = 0.00.  In conclusion it seems that the simple exercise intervention described in thisstudy may be of benefit to these patients if incorporated into their management programmes.

  10. Noncompliance with Medical Regimen in Haemodialysis Treatment: A Case Study

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    Paraskevi Theofilou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients undergoing haemodialysis treatment have a high burden of disease (particularly cardiovascular comorbidities affecting their quality of life and dramatically shortening life expectancy. Effective chronic kidney disease (CKD control requires regular preventive medication and a response to that medication. Poor receptiveness to CKD medication can be related to individual variability in the dose needed to achieve a response, as well as to low-adherent behaviour in relation to the CKD medication regimen. Some patients, though not many, according to studies' findings, abuse the medical regimen as a result of suicidal tendencies. The present case gave us the opportunity to consider the causes and clinical findings and review the specific psychological interventions for patients with CKD.

  11. Regional Climate Simulation with a Variable Resolution Stretched Grid GCM: The Regional Down-Scaling Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox-Rabinovitz, Michael S.; Takacs, Lawrence L.; Suarez, Max; Sawyer, William; Govindaraju, Ravi C.

    1999-01-01

    The results obtained with the variable resolution stretched grid (SG) GEOS GCM (Goddard Earth Observing System General Circulation Models) are discussed, with the emphasis on the regional down-scaling effects and their dependence on the stretched grid design and parameters. A variable resolution SG-GCM and SG-DAS using a global stretched grid with fine resolution over an area of interest, is a viable new approach to REGIONAL and subregional CLIMATE studies and applications. The stretched grid approach is an ideal tool for representing regional to global scale interactions. It is an alternative to the widely used nested grid approach introduced a decade ago as a pioneering step in regional climate modeling. The GEOS SG-GCM is used for simulations of the anomalous U.S. climate events of 1988 drought and 1993 flood, with enhanced regional resolution. The height low level jet, precipitation and other diagnostic patterns are successfully simulated and show the efficient down-scaling over the area of interest the U.S. An imitation of the nested grid approach is performed using the developed SG-DAS (Data Assimilation System) that incorporates the SG-GCM. The SG-DAS is run with withholding data over the area of interest. The design immitates the nested grid framework with boundary conditions provided from analyses. No boundary condition buffer is needed for the case due to the global domain of integration used for the SG-GCM and SG-DAS. The experiments based on the newly developed versions of the GEOS SG-GCM and SG-DAS, with finer 0.5 degree (and higher) regional resolution, are briefly discussed. The major aspects of parallelization of the SG-GCM code are outlined. The KEY OBJECTIVES of the study are: 1) obtaining an efficient DOWN-SCALING over the area of interest with fine and very fine resolution; 2) providing CONSISTENT interactions between regional and global scales including the consistent representation of regional ENERGY and WATER BALANCES; 3) providing a high

  12. A comparative study of various therapeutic regimens in urticaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhopadhyay Amiyakumar

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available 127 patients of urticaria were treated with chlorpheniramine maleate alone and in combination with cyproheptadine hydrochloride, ranitidine and doxepin and levamisole. Chlorpheniramine and doxepin combination showed a satisfactory result in 88.46% of patients. Overall study showed that a combination regimen is better than the antihistaminics alone. Drowsiness was the commonest side effect. Levamisole and chlorpheniramine maleate combination was found to be more effective than the antihimstamine alone.

  13. The effectiveness of manual stretching in the treatment of plantar heel pain: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parish Ben

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plantar heel pain is a commonly occurring foot complaint. Stretching is frequently utilised as a treatment, yet a systematic review focusing only on its effectiveness has not been published. This review aimed to assess the effectiveness of stretching on pain and function in people with plantar heel pain. Methods Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED, and The Cochrane Library were searched from inception to July 2010. Studies fulfilling the inclusion criteria were independently assessed, and their quality evaluated using the modified PEDro scale. Results Six studies including 365 symptomatic participants were included. Two compared stretching with a control, one study compared stretching to an alternative intervention, one study compared stretching to both alternative and control interventions, and two compared different stretching techniques and durations. Quality rating on the modified Pedro scale varied from two to eight out of a maximum of ten points. The methodologies and interventions varied significantly between studies, making meta-analysis inappropriate. Most participants improved over the course of the studies, but when stretching was compared to alternative or control interventions, the changes only reached statistical significance in one study that used a combination of calf muscle stretches and plantar fascia stretches in their stretching programme. Another study comparing different stretching techniques, showed a statistically significant reduction in some aspects of pain in favour of plantar fascia stretching over calf stretches in the short term. Conclusions There were too few studies to assess whether stretching is effective compared to control or other interventions, for either pain or function. However, there is some evidence that plantar fascia stretching may be more effective than Achilles tendon stretching alone in the short-term. Appropriately powered randomised controlled trials, utilizing validated outcome

  14. Acute effects of constant torque and constant angle stretching on the muscle and tendon tissue properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, Andreas; Budini, Francesco; Tilp, Markus

    2017-08-01

    Static stretching induces acute structural changes of the muscle-tendon unit (MTU) that are related to the intensity or duration of stretching. It has been reported that stretching with a constant torque (CT) leads to greater joint range of motion changes than stretching with a constant angle (CA). Whether or not this difference is due to different structural changes of the MTUs of the lower leg and ankle plantar flexors is not known. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the acute effects of single CA and CT stretching on various muscle and tendon mechanical properties. Seventeen young, healthy volunteers were tested on two separate days using either CT or CA stretching (4 × 30 s each). Before and after stretching, dorsiflexion range of motion (RoM), passive resistive torque (PRT), and maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) were measured with a dynamometer. Ultrasonography of the medial gastrocnemius (GM) muscle-tendon junction (MTJ) displacement allowed us to determine the length changes in the tendon and muscle, respectively, and hence to calculate their stiffness. Maximum dorsiflexion increased while PRT, muscle-tendon stiffness, and muscle stiffness decreased following both CA and CT stretching. There was a greater increase in RoM following CT stretching compared to CA stretching. Moreover, the decline in PRT was greater during CT stretching compared to CA stretching. As expected, several functional adaptations (RoM, PRT) were different between CT and CA stretching due to the higher intensity of CT stretching. However, no structural differences in the adaptations to the stretching modalities could be detected. We suggest that the different functional adaptations between CA and CT stretching are the consequence of different adaptations in the perception of stretch and pain.

  15. Stretch induced endothelin-1 secretion by adult rat astrocytes involves calcium influx via stretch-activated ion channels (SACs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostrow, Lyle W.; Suchyna, Thomas M.; Sachs, Frederick

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Endothelin-1 expression by adult rat astrocytes correlates with cell proliferation. → Stretch-induced ET-1 is inhibited by GsMtx-4, a specific inhibitor of Ca 2+ permeant SACs. → The less specific SAC inhibitor streptomycin also inhibits ET-1 secretion. → Stretch-induced ET-1 production depends on a calcium influx. → SAC pharmacology may provide a new class of therapeutic agents for CNS pathology. -- Abstract: The expression of endothelins (ETs) and ET-receptors is often upregulated in brain pathology. ET-1, a potent vasoconstrictor, also inhibits the expression of astrocyte glutamate transporters and is mitogenic for astrocytes, glioma cells, neurons, and brain capillary endothelia. We have previously shown that mechanical stress stimulates ET-1 production by adult rat astrocytes. We now show in adult astrocytes that ET-1 production is driven by calcium influx through stretch-activated ion channels (SACs) and the ET-1 production correlates with cell proliferation. Mechanical stimulation using biaxial stretch ( 2+ threshold. This coupling of mechanical stress to the astrocyte endothelin system through SACs has treatment implications, since all pathology deforms the surrounding parenchyma.

  16. Self-consistent radial sheath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazeltine, R.D.

    1988-12-01

    The boundary layer arising in the radial vicinity of a tokamak limiter is examined, with special reference to the TEXT tokamak. It is shown that sheath structure depends upon the self-consistent effects of ion guiding-center orbit modification, as well as the radial variation of E /times/ B-induced toroidal rotation. Reasonable agreement with experiment is obtained from an idealized model which, however simplified, preserves such self-consistent effects. It is argued that the radial sheath, which occurs whenever confining magnetic field-lines lie in the plasma boundary surface, is an object of some intrinsic interest. It differs from the more familiar axial sheath because magnetized charges respond very differently to parallel and perpendicular electric fields. 11 refs., 1 fig

  17. Deep Feature Consistent Variational Autoencoder

    OpenAIRE

    Hou, Xianxu; Shen, Linlin; Sun, Ke; Qiu, Guoping

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel method for constructing Variational Autoencoder (VAE). Instead of using pixel-by-pixel loss, we enforce deep feature consistency between the input and the output of a VAE, which ensures the VAE's output to preserve the spatial correlation characteristics of the input, thus leading the output to have a more natural visual appearance and better perceptual quality. Based on recent deep learning works such as style transfer, we employ a pre-trained deep convolutional neural net...

  18. The Hemotoxicity of Chemotherapeutic Regimens in Sudanese Children with Retinoblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathelrahman Mahdi Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There has been a rapid increase in cancer among Sudanese citizens from 1999 until this year. At least 80% of all patients who undergo chemotherapy will develop anemia as a complication. This inpatient analytical comparative study aims to examine the possible association between hemotoxicity and various chemotherapy regimens in Sudanese children diagnosed with retinoblastoma.Methods: This study enrolled 30 patients diagnosed with childhood retinoblastoma who were admitted from June 2006 to September 2008 to the Radiation and Isotope Center Khartoum. We collected 90 blood samples to examine for a possible association between anemia and the chemotherapeutic regimen. All patients (n=30 were included in each arm of the chemotherapy regimen.Results: Prior to the onset of chemotherapy, 50% of patients had normal hemoglobin levels, 43.3% had mild anemia, and 6.7% had moderate anemia. Post-cycle I treatment, there were only 6.7% who had normal hemoglobin levels. Mild anemia was observed in 60%, followed by 30% for moderate anemia and 3.3% of patients had severe anemia. Post-cycle II there were no patients with normal hemoglobin levels, however 26.7% had mild anemia and the majority of patients (approximately 73.3% had moderate anemia.Conclusion: A correlation existed between hemoglobin values after completion of therapy to the overall treatment. We observed a decline of 1 to 2 g/dl in hemoglobin levels.

  19. Consistent interpretations of quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omnes, R.

    1992-01-01

    Within the last decade, significant progress has been made towards a consistent and complete reformulation of the Copenhagen interpretation (an interpretation consisting in a formulation of the experimental aspects of physics in terms of the basic formalism; it is consistent if free from internal contradiction and complete if it provides precise predictions for all experiments). The main steps involved decoherence (the transition from linear superpositions of macroscopic states to a mixing), Griffiths histories describing the evolution of quantum properties, a convenient logical structure for dealing with histories, and also some progress in semiclassical physics, which was made possible by new methods. The main outcome is a theory of phenomena, viz., the classically meaningful properties of a macroscopic system. It shows in particular how and when determinism is valid. This theory can be used to give a deductive form to measurement theory, which now covers some cases that were initially devised as counterexamples against the Copenhagen interpretation. These theories are described, together with their applications to some key experiments and some of their consequences concerning epistemology

  20. A low-dose regimen of cisplatin before high-dose cisplatin potentiates ototoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Ryan T; DeBacker, J Riley; Bielefeld, Eric C

    2015-02-01

    Cochlear preconditioning with low doses of kanamycin or noise can reduce susceptibility to noise- and ototoxic drug-induced hearing loss. The current study was undertaken to investigate whether a preconditioning regimen of low-dose cisplatin would alter susceptibility to ototoxicity induced by a single large dose of cisplatin. In vivo study using an animal model. Twenty-six Fischer 344/NHsd rats were used in the study. The low-dose regimen consisted of cisplatin (2 or 3 mg/kg) given every 2 weeks by intraperitoneal injection. Control animals received injections of saline on the same schedule as the cisplatin injections. Four injections were done in total. Following the preconditioning interval, seven of the animals were sacrificed for hair cell analyses. The remaining 19 animals were exposed to 12 mg/kg cisplatin by intraperitoneal infusion to induce cochlear injury. Auditory brainstem response (ABR) thresholds were measured 3 days after cisplatin, and the cochleae from the 19 animals were harvested and analyzed. Statistical analyses revealed no threshold shifts, but mild outer hair cell losses, after the low-dose regimen. ABR threshold shifts in the rats exposed to the 12 mg/kg cisplatin dose were significantly higher at day 3 in the animals that underwent preconditioning with low-dose cisplatin. Outer hair cell losses were also greater in the preconditioned animals. Preconditioning with low-dose cisplatin, using the protocol applied in the current experiment, created potentiation of cisplatin ototoxicity, rather than protection from it. There are numerous possible explanations for this effect that should be considered. NA. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  1. A novel approach to pharmacodynamic assessment of antimicrobial agents: new insights to dosing regimen design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent H Tam

    Full Text Available Pharmacodynamic modeling has been increasingly used as a decision support tool to guide dosing regimen selection, both in the drug development and clinical settings. Killing by antimicrobial agents has been traditionally classified categorically as concentration-dependent (which would favor less fractionating regimens or time-dependent (for which more frequent dosing is preferred. While intuitive and useful to explain empiric data, a more informative approach is necessary to provide a robust assessment of pharmacodynamic profiles in situations other than the extremes of the spectrum (e.g., agents which exhibit partial concentration-dependent killing. A quantitative approach to describe the interaction of an antimicrobial agent and a pathogen is proposed to fill this unmet need. A hypothetic antimicrobial agent with linear pharmacokinetics is used for illustrative purposes. A non-linear functional form (sigmoid Emax of killing consisted of 3 parameters is used. Using different parameter values in conjunction with the relative growth rate of the pathogen and antimicrobial agent concentration ranges, various conventional pharmacodynamic surrogate indices (e.g., AUC/MIC, Cmax/MIC, %T>MIC could be satisfactorily linked to outcomes. In addition, the dosing intensity represented by the average kill rate of a dosing regimen can be derived, which could be used for quantitative comparison. The relevance of our approach is further supported by experimental data from our previous investigations using a variety of gram-negative bacteria and antimicrobial agents (moxifloxacin, levofloxacin, gentamicin, amikacin and meropenem. The pharmacodynamic profiles of a wide range of antimicrobial agents can be assessed by a more flexible computational tool to support dosing selection.

  2. The effects of isometric resistance training on stretch reflex induced tremor in the knee extensor muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durbaba, Rade; Cassidy, Angela; Budini, Francesco; Macaluso, Andrea

    2013-06-15

    This study examines the effect of 4 wk of high-intensity isometric resistance training on induced tremor in knee extensor muscles. Fourteen healthy volunteers were assigned to either the training group (n = 7) or the nontraining control group (n = 7). Induced tremor was assessed by measuring force fluctuations during anisometric contractions against spring loading, whose compliance was varied to allow for preferential activation of the short or long latency stretch reflex components. Effects of high-intensity isometric resistance training on induced tremor was assessed under two contraction conditions: relative force matching, where the relative level of activity was equal for both pre- and post-training sessions, set at 30% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), and absolute force matching, where the level of activity was set to 30% pretrained MVC. The training group experienced a 26.5% increase in MVC in contrast to the 0.8% for the control group. For relative force-matching contractions, induced tremor amplitude and frequency did not change in either the training or control group. During absolute force-matching contractions, induced tremor amplitude was decreased by 37.5% and 31.6% for the short and long components, respectively, with no accompanying change in frequency, for the training group. No change in either measure was observed in the control group for absolute force-matching contractions. The results are consistent with high-intensity isometric resistance training induced neural changes leading to increased strength, coupled with realignment of stretch reflex automatic gain compensation to the new maximal force output. Also, previous reported reductions in anisometric tremor following strength training may partly be due to changed stretch reflex behavior.

  3. A randomized controlled trial of stretch-and-flow voice therapy for muscle tension dysphonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Christopher R; Hamilton, Amy; Toles, Laura; Childs, Lesley; Mau, Ted

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the effect of stretch-and-flow voice therapy on vocal function and handicap. Randomized controlled trial. Participants with primary muscle tension dysphonia were randomly assigned to experimental or control groups. Experimental participants received vocal hygiene education followed by 6 weeks of stretch-and-flow voice therapy. Control participants received vocal hygiene education only. Outcome variables consisted of a measure of vocal handicap (Voice Handicap Index [VHI]), maximum phonation time, s/z ratio, and acoustic measures. All measures were obtained at baseline prior to treatment and within 2 weeks posttreatment or at the end of the control period. The pre- to posttreatment measurement change (delta Δ) was applied to statistical analyses. A multivariate analysis of variance revealed significant group differences in pre-to-post changes on measures of VHI, maximum phonation time, and cepstral peak prominence (CPP) in connected speech and vowels (P = 0.003, 0.013, 0.025, and 0.017 respectively), with a significant reduction of VHI (Cohen's d = 1.6), increase in maximum phonation time (Cohen's d = 1.2), increase of CPP in connected speech (Cohen's d = 1.2), and increase of CPP in vowels (Cohen's d = 1.1) in the experimental group compared to the control group. This preliminary small sample randomized controlled trial found significantly greater improvement in vocal handicap, maximum phonation time, and acoustic measures of vocal function after participants received stretch-and-flow voice therapy compared to participants receiving vocal hygiene education alone. Additional research incorporating larger samples will be needed to confirm and further investigate these findings. 1b. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  4. The effects of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching on shoulder range of motion in overhand athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decicco, P V; Fisher, M M

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of the contract-relax-contract (CRC) and hold-relax-contract (HRC) proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching programs against a control, on external range of motion (ROM) of the shoulder in apparently healthy athletes. The subjects were male and female adults between the ages of 25 to 50 years old. Subjects also had been involved in at least one overhand throwing sport (tennis, baseball, quarterback in football, etc.) in the past year. There were 30 participants whom were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups (CRC PNF, HRC PNF, control) with 10 subjects per group. Measurement of ROM for external rotation of the shoulder was performed prior to and after 6 weeks of training using a goniometer. The CRC and HRC PNF stretches were performed on subjects twice a week for 6 weeks. The statistical analysis conducted involved a 3x2 analysis of variance with the criteria for statistical significance set at p<0.05. Post hoc testing included paired t-tests and Tukey tests to pinpoint significant differences relative to the interaction between group and time. There was an increase in ROM from pretest to post-test for the HRC group (+13.50 degrees) and CRC group (+14.60 degrees), but not in the control group (+0.30 degrees). The improvement in ROM however, was similar between the HRC and CRC groups. The CRC and HRC PNF stretching techniques are effective at increasing external shoulder ROM when consistently performed 2 times a week for 6 weeks.

  5. Biaxial Stretch Improves Elastic Fiber Maturation, Collagen Arrangement, and Mechanical Properties in Engineered Arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Angela H; Balestrini, Jenna L; Udelsman, Brooks V; Zhou, Kevin C; Zhao, Liping; Ferruzzi, Jacopo; Starcher, Barry C; Levene, Michael J; Humphrey, Jay D; Niklason, Laura E

    2016-06-01

    Tissue-engineered blood vessels (TEVs) are typically produced using the pulsatile, uniaxial circumferential stretch to mechanically condition and strengthen the arterial grafts. Despite improvements in the mechanical integrity of TEVs after uniaxial conditioning, these tissues fail to achieve critical properties of native arteries such as matrix content, collagen fiber orientation, and mechanical strength. As a result, uniaxially loaded TEVs can result in mechanical failure, thrombus, or stenosis on implantation. In planar tissue equivalents such as artificial skin, biaxial loading has been shown to improve matrix production and mechanical properties. To date however, multiaxial loading has not been examined as a means to improve mechanical and biochemical properties of TEVs during culture. Therefore, we developed a novel bioreactor that utilizes both circumferential and axial stretch that more closely simulates loading conditions in native arteries, and we examined the suture strength, matrix production, fiber orientation, and cell proliferation. After 3 months of biaxial loading, TEVs developed a formation of mature elastic fibers that consisted of elastin cores and microfibril sheaths. Furthermore, the distinctive features of collagen undulation and crimp in the biaxial TEVs were absent in both uniaxial and static TEVs. Relative to the uniaxially loaded TEVs, tissues that underwent biaxial loading remodeled and realigned collagen fibers toward a more physiologic, native-like organization. The biaxial TEVs also showed increased mechanical strength (suture retention load of 303 ± 14.53 g, with a wall thickness of 0.76 ± 0.028 mm) and increased compliance. The increase in compliance was due to combinatorial effects of mature elastic fibers, undulated collagen fibers, and collagen matrix orientation. In conclusion, biaxial stretching is a potential means to regenerate TEVs with improved matrix production, collagen organization, and mechanical

  6. Effect of different stretching volumes on functional capacity in elderly women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Herminia Gallo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2013v15n1p103 The study aimed to analyze the effect of two different durations of stretching exercises, 90 or 180 seconds, on the functional capacity (FC of elderly women. Forty-three older women were assigned into three groups: inactive Control Group (CG, n. = 14, Training Group with three sets of 30 seconds (TG90, n. = 15 and Training Group with three sets of 60 seconds (TG180, n = 14. The TG90 and TG180 groups attended the university for 16 weeks, three times a week. The training protocol consisted of seven different static stretching exercises, performed in an active way. The CG attended the university only in periods of evaluations. Evaluations of the FC components and the Global Functional Fitness Index (GFFI, from the three groups, were both conducted before, and after 8 and 16 weeks of experiment, using a motor tests battery. The two-way ANOVA showed significant group x time interaction for the components flexibility, muscle strength and aerobic endurance, and for the GFFI values (p <0.05. The Scheffé post hoc test pointed difference between the two training groups and the CG, with no difference between TF90 and TG180. There was also improvement in the general classification of GFFI for the TG90 and TG180, which went from “fair” to “good”, while CG remained classified as “fair.” It was concluded that the two durations of stretching exercises were equally effective in improving flexibility, muscle strength, aerobic endurance and levels of FC in elderly women.

  7. Impact of Anesthetic Regimen on Remote Ischemic Preconditioning in the Rat Heart In Vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Behmenburg, Friederike; van Caster, Patrick; Bunte, Sebastian; Brandenburger, Timo; Heinen, André; Hollmann, Markus W.; Huhn, Ragnar

    2017-01-01

    Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) seems to be a promising cardioprotective strategy with contradictive clinical data suggesting the anesthetic regimen influencing the favorable impact of RIPC. This study aimed to investigate whether cardio protection by RIPC is abolished by anesthetic regimens.

  8. Chemotherapy for pulmonary large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas : Does the regimen matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derks, Jules L.; van Suylen, Robert Jan; Thunnissen, Erik; den Bakker, Michael A.; Groen, Harry J.; Smit, Egbert F.; Damhuis, Ronald A.; van den Broek, Esther C.; Speel, Ernst-Jan M.; Dingemans, Anne-Marie C.

    Pulmonary large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) is rare. Chemotherapy for metastatic LCNEC ranges from small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) regimens to nonsmall cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) chemotherapy regimens. We analysed outcomes of chemotherapy treatments for LCNEC. The Netherlands Cancer

  9. Acute Effect of Static Stretching Exercise on Arterial Stiffness in Healthy Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamato, Yosuke; Hasegawa, Natsuki; Sato, Koji; Hamaoka, Takafumi; Ogoh, Shigehiko; Iemitsu, Motoyuki

    2016-10-01

    Habitual stretching exercise increases carotid arterial compliance, and acute stretching exercise increases arterial compliance in patients with myocardial infarction. However, it is not known whether this arterial adaptation is sustained after exercise. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of a single bout of stretching exercise on the time course of systemic, central, and peripheral arterial stiffness in healthy young subjects. Twenty-six healthy young men performed static stretching exercise involving the entire body (trunk, upper limb, and lower limb) for 40 mins. Pulse-wave velocity (PWV; an index of arterial stiffness), blood pressure, and heart rate were measured before and 0, 15, 30, and 60 mins after stretching exercise. Femoral-ankle PWV and brachial-ankle PWV were reduced relative to baseline 15 and 30 mins after acute stretching (P stretch stimulation may result in chronic high arterial compliance, although a single bout of stretch exercise acutely affects arterial compliance.

  10. Number of repetition after different rest intervals between static stretching and resistance training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Dias

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions: Therefore, 30-minute interval between static stretching and resistance exercises was needed to achieve greater repetition performance. Thus, static stretching for lower limbs may be avoided before a resistance training session.

  11. Virological patterns of HCV patients with failure to interferon-free regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starace, Mario; Minichini, Carmine; De Pascalis, Stefania; Macera, Margherita; Occhiello, Laura; Messina, Vincenzo; Sangiovanni, Vincenzo; Adinolfi, Luigi E; Claar, Ernesto; Precone, Davide; Stornaiuolo, Gianfranca; Stanzione, Maria; Ascione, Tiziana; Caroprese, Mara; Zampino, Rosa; Parrilli, Gianpaolo; Gentile, Ivan; Brancaccio, Giuseppina; Iovinella, Vincenzo; Martini, Salvatore; Masarone, Mario; Fontanella, Luca; Masiello, Addolorata; Sagnelli, Evangelista; Punzi, Rodolfo; Salomone Megna, Angelo; Santoro, Renato; Gaeta, Giovanni B; Coppola, Nicola

    2018-05-01

    The study characterized the virological patterns and the resistance-associated substitutions (RASs) in patients with failure to IFN-free regimens enrolled in the real-life setting. All 87 consecutive HCV patients with failed IFN-free regimens, observed at the laboratory of the University of Campania, were enrolled. All patients had been treated with DAA regimens according to the HCV genotype, international guidelines, and local availability. Sanger sequencing of NS3, NS5A, and NS5B regions was performed at failure by home-made protocols. Of the 87 patients enrolled, 13 (14.9%) showed a misclassified HCV genotype, probably causing DAA failure, 16 had been treated with a sub-optimal DAA regimen, 19 with a simeprevir-based regimen and 39 with an optimal DAA regimen. A major RAS was identified more frequently in the simeprevir regimen group (68.4%) and in the optimal regimen group (74.4%) than in the sub-optimal regimen group (56.3%). The prevalence of RASs in NS3 was similar in the three groups (30.8-57.9%), that in NS5A higher in the optimal regimen group (71.8%) than in the sub-optimal regimen group (12.5%, P < 0.0001) and in the simeprevir regimen group (31.6%, P < 0.0005), and that in NS5B low in all groups (0-25%). RASs in two or more HCV regions were more frequently identified in the optimal regimen group (46.6%) than in the simeprevir-based regimen group (31.6%) and sub-optimal regimen group (18.7%). In our real-life population the prevalence of RASs was high, especially in NS3 and NS5A and in those treated with suitable DAA regimens. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Acute Effects of Dynamic Stretching on Muscle Flexibility and Performance: An Analysis of the Current Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opplert, Jules; Babault, Nicolas

    2018-02-01

    Stretching has long been used in many physical activities to increase range of motion (ROM) around a joint. Stretching also has other acute effects on the neuromuscular system. For instance, significant reductions in maximal voluntary strength, muscle power or evoked contractile properties have been recorded immediately after a single bout of static stretching, raising interest in other stretching modalities. Thus, the effects of dynamic stretching on subsequent muscular performance have been questioned. This review aimed to investigate performance and physiological alterations following dynamic stretching. There is a substantial amount of evidence pointing out the positive effects on ROM and subsequent performance (force, power, sprint and jump). The larger ROM would be mainly attributable to reduced stiffness of the muscle-tendon unit, while the improved muscular performance to temperature and potentiation-related mechanisms caused by the voluntary contraction associated with dynamic stretching. Therefore, if the goal of a warm-up is to increase joint ROM and to enhance muscle force and/or power, dynamic stretching seems to be a suitable alternative to static stretching. Nevertheless, numerous studies reporting no alteration or even performance impairment have highlighted possible mitigating factors (such as stretch duration, amplitude or velocity). Accordingly, ballistic stretching, a form of dynamic stretching with greater velocities, would be less beneficial than controlled dynamic stretching. Notwithstanding, the literature shows that inconsistent description of stretch procedures has been an important deterrent to reaching a clear consensus. In this review, we highlight the need for future studies reporting homogeneous, clearly described stretching protocols, and propose a clarified stretching terminology and methodology.

  13. A comparison of patient pain responses and medication regimens after hip/knee replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Miller, Cheryl A; Harlos, Linda; Roszell, Sheila Serr; Bechtel, Gregory A

    2009-01-01

    Increased emphasis on adequate pain control as a patient expectation and a change in professional practice standards has prompted research on new mechanisms of pain medication delivery in an effort to improve outcomes and efficacy. The purpose of this study was to compare pain scores of patients receiving extended release epidural morphine (EREM) with those receiving traditional pain control regimens. Retrospective chart reviews were performed on all patients who had had first-time, elective, nontraumatic, unilateral hip or knee replacement from January to June 2006. All patients received either intraoperative EREM or a traditional pain control regimen. Medication regimens were coded and noted at patients' arrival on the unit (baseline), at 16 hr, and at 48 hr postoperatively. The sample consisted of surgical patients (N = 65) having first-time, nontraumatic hip/knee surgery. Of the sample, 39% (n = 25) were men and 61% (n = 40) were women, with a mean age of 65.25 years (SD = 15.28). Knee replacement surgery was the most frequent surgery at 57% (n = 36), with women representing 75% (n = 28) of the total knee surgical procedures. Hip surgical procedures were equally divided between men (n =11) and women (n = 11). Postoperative pain was assessed within 1 hr of admission to the unit for 98.5% (n = 64) of patients and reassessed at 15-17 hr for 90.8% (n = 59) of the sample, suggesting that the assessment and documentation of patient pain level were a high priority for the nurses. Pain scores were not correlated with age during the 3 time points in the study. Women reported a significantly higher level of pain upon admission to the unit than men, t(62) = 2.697, p Pain scores for both groups were relatively low with an average score of 3.1 at the time of postoperative admission decreasing to an average of 2.7 at 16 and 24 hours. There were no significant differences in patients reported pain levels between the EREM and traditional control regimens.

  14. Comparison of efficacy and pharmacoeconomics of two helicobacter pylori eradication regimens in peptic ulcer disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syeda Zaineb Kubra Hussaini

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: Our study showed that Regimen II (RAM was more cost-effective than Regimen I (PAC, but PAC achieved faster H. pylori eradication than RAM. We assume that this study provides local clinical data as to which regimen may be useful in a particular patient. National Level Clinical Trials are required to further ascertain this conclusion.

  15. Impairments in timing, temporal memory, and reversal learning linked to neurotoxic regimens of methamphetamine intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ruey-Kuang; Etchegaray, Mikel; Meck, Warren H

    2007-12-01

    Methamphetamine intoxication has long-term consequences on dopaminergic function and corticostriatal-mediated behaviors in humans and other animals. In order to determine the potential impact on timing and temporal memory, we examined methamphetamine dose regimens that have been linked to neurotoxicity in adult (8 months) male rats. Rats that were given repetitive, high-dose methamphetamine (3.0 mg/kg ip x 4 injections/2 h) or saline injections were trained on a 2-s vs 8-s bisection procedure using auditory and visual signal durations. Following the high-dose regimen, baseline timing performance was reestablished prior to the rats' receiving reversal training in which the spatial/temporal mapping of the anchor durations (2 s and 8 s) to response options (left or right lever) was reversed. Low-dose methamphetamine (0.5 mg/kg ip) or saline injections were subsequently used to evaluate the effectiveness of the neurotoxic doses in terms of modifying the horizontal leftward shifts associated with increases in clock speed. Overall, the results indicate that MAP intoxication leads to reduced auditory/visual differences in clock speed, deficits in reversal learning, distortions in temporal memory, and lowered dopaminergic regulation of clock speed consistent with damage to prefrontal cortex and corticostriatal circuitry.

  16. Directing Spinal Cord Plasticity: The Impact of Stretch Therapy on Functional Recovery after Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    weight. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Spinal cord injury, stretching, physical therapy , rehabilitation, locomotor recovery 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF...David S. K. Magnuson, PhD. University of Louisville. Introduction: This research focuses on the impact of stretching ( physical therapy maneuvers...lesions. Physical therapists use stretching maneuvers to maintain extensibility of soft tissues and to manage spasticity . Previous studies in our lab

  17. Can Stretching Prior to Exercise and Sports Improve Performance and Prevent Injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracko, Michael R.

    2002-01-01

    Examines data from research on stretching as it relates to enhanced performance and injury prevention so that fitness, exercise, and sports performance professionals can make informed decisions about stretching programs for clients. The paper notes that stretching is a misunderstood component of fitness and sports training. Few studies show…

  18. The effects of different volumes of dynamic stretching on 20-M ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... each sprint) following different volumes of dynamic stretching (DSS1, DSS2 and DSS3). The results showed no significant difference for all parameters between all the all dynamic stretching volumes. Results show that any of the dynamic stretching volumes may be used as a warm up prior to the repeated sprints session.

  19. DNA analysis by single molecule stretching in nanofluidic biochips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abad, E.; Juarros, A.; Retolaza, A.

    2011-01-01

    Stretching single DNA molecules by confinement in nanofluidic channels has attracted a great interest during the last few years as a DNA analysis tool. We have designed and fabricated a sealed micro/nanofluidic device for DNA stretching applications, based on the use of the high throughput Nano......Imprint Lithography (NIL) technology combined with a conventional anodic bonding of the silicon base and Pyrex cover. Using this chip, we have performed single molecule imaging on a bench-top fluorescent microscope system. Lambda phage DNA was used as a model sample to characterize the chip. Single molecules of λ...... a method to determining DNA size. The results of this work prove that the developed fabrication process is a good alternative for the fabrication of single molecule DNA biochips and it allows developing a variety of innovative bio/chemical sensors based on single-molecule DNA sequencing devices....

  20. Unexpected decoupling of stretching and bending modes in protein gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibaud, Thomas; Zaccone, Alessio; Del Gado, Emanuela; Trappe, Véronique; Schurtenberger, Peter

    2013-02-01

    We show that gels formed by arrested spinodal decomposition of protein solutions exhibit elastic properties in two distinct frequency domains, both elastic moduli exhibiting a remarkably strong dependence on volume fraction. Considering the large difference between the protein size and the characteristic length of the network we model the gels as porous media and show that the high and low frequency elastic moduli can be respectively attributed to stretching and bending modes. The unexpected decoupling of the two modes in the frequency domain is attributed to the length scale involved: while stretching mainly relates to the relative displacement of two particles, bending involves the deformation of a strand with a thickness of the order of a thousand particle diameters.

  1. Progressive muscle relaxation, yoga stretching, and ABC relaxation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoncheh, Shahyad; Smith, Jonathan C

    2004-01-01

    This study compared the psychological effects of progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) and yoga stretching (hatha) exercises. Forty participants were randomly divided into two groups and taught PMR or yoga stretching exercises. Both groups practiced once a week for five weeks and were given the Smith Relaxation States Inventory before and after each session. As hypothesized, practitioners of PMR displayed higher levels of relaxation states (R-States) Physical Relaxation and Disengagement at Week 4 and higher levels of Mental Quiet and Joy as a posttraining aftereffect at Week 5. Contrary to what was hypothesized, groups did not display different levels of R-States Energized or Aware. Results suggest the value of supplementing traditional somatic conceptualizations of relaxation with the psychological approach embodied in ABC relaxation theory. Clinical and research implications are discussed. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Psychol.

  2. FUZZY BASED CONTRAST STRETCHING FOR MEDICAL IMAGE ENHANCEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.C. Raja Kumar

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Contrast Stretching is an important part in medical image processing applications. Contrast is the difference between two adjacent pixels. Fuzzy statistical values are analyzed and better results are produced in the spatial domain of the input image. The histogram mapping produces the resultant image with less impulsive noise and smooth nature. The probabilities of gray values are generated and the fuzzy set is determined from the position of the input image pixel. The result indicates the good performance of the proposed fuzzy based stretching. The inverse transform of the real values are mapped with the input image to generate the fuzzy statistics. This approach gives a flexible image enhancement for medical images in the presence of noises.

  3. Convective Flow of Sisko Fluid over a Bidirectional Stretching Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, Asif; Shahzad, Azeem; Khan, Masood

    2015-01-01

    The present investigation focuses the flow and heat transfer characteristics of the steady three-dimensional Sisko fluid driven by a bidirectional stretching sheet. The modeled partial differential equations are reduced to coupled ordinary differential equations by a suitable transformation. The resulting equations are solved numerically by the shooting method using adaptive Runge Kutta algorithm in combination with Newton's method in the domain [0,∞). The numerical results for the velocity and temperature fields are graphically presented and effects of the relevant parameters are discussed in detail. Moreover, the skin-friction coefficient and local Nusselt number for different values of the power-law index and stretching ratio parameter are presented through tabulated data. The numerical results are also verified with the results obtained analytically by the homotopy analysis method (HAM). Additionally, the results are validated with previously published pertinent literature as a limiting case of the problem.

  4. Mechanical stretch modulates cell migration in the lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Martínez, Cecilia; Huidobro, Covadonga; Albaiceta, Guillermo M; López-Alonso, Inés

    2018-01-01

    Cell migration is a core process to preserve homeostasis. Release of chemotactic signals induces changes in cell cytoskeleton to facilitate migration. This includes the rearrangement of cytoskeleton, genomic reprogramming and the modification of the surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM) to allow the motion of cells through. In the special case of repair after acute lung injury, cells must migrate while exposed to an increased mechanical stretch caused either by an increased work of breathing or positive-pressure ventilation. Interestingly, the cell response to this increased mechanical load can modify virtually all the mechanisms involved in cell migration. In this review we explore the interplay between stretch and the machinery responsible for cell migration. A translational approach to find new therapies in acute lung injury must take into account these interactions in order to develop effective treatments that promote lung repair.

  5. Maintaining consistency in distributed systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birman, Kenneth P.

    1991-01-01

    In systems designed as assemblies of independently developed components, concurrent access to data or data structures normally arises within individual programs, and is controlled using mutual exclusion constructs, such as semaphores and monitors. Where data is persistent and/or sets of operation are related to one another, transactions or linearizability may be more appropriate. Systems that incorporate cooperative styles of distributed execution often replicate or distribute data within groups of components. In these cases, group oriented consistency properties must be maintained, and tools based on the virtual synchrony execution model greatly simplify the task confronting an application developer. All three styles of distributed computing are likely to be seen in future systems - often, within the same application. This leads us to propose an integrated approach that permits applications that use virtual synchrony with concurrent objects that respect a linearizability constraint, and vice versa. Transactional subsystems are treated as a special case of linearizability.

  6. Anomalies in the coil-stretch transition of flexible polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosal, Aishani; Cherayil, Binny J.

    2018-03-01

    The flow-induced coil-stretch transition of high molecular weight polymers has generally been held to be of first order. But evidence of significant slowing down in the rate at which the polymers relax to equilibrium in the vicinity of the transition suggests that the thermodynamic character of the transition may be less clear-cut. The above slowing down effect is actually characteristic of a second-order transition, and it points to the existence of a broad spectrum of conformational states in the transition region, analogous to the existence of fluctuations of all length scales at a critical point. In this paper, using a path integral approach based on a free-draining finitely extensible chain model, we calculate various polymer properties as a function of elongational flow as a way of exploring different statistical mechanical details of the coil-stretch transition. These properties include the molecular weight dependence of the flow-extension curve of the polymer, the distribution of its steady-state end-to-end distances, and the characteristic relaxation time τR of these distances. Among other findings, our calculations indicate that the coil-stretch transition is discontinuous in the N → ∞ limit, that the effective free energy of the chain is unimodal at all values of the flow, becoming broad and flat in the immediate vicinity of the transition, and that the ratio of τR to the Rouse relaxation time increases abruptly at the transition before eventually reaching a plateau value at large flow strengths. These aspects of the coil-stretch transition place it among a larger class of unconventional nominally first-order single chain transitions that include the adsorption transition of surface-tethered polymers and the escape transition of compressed polymers.

  7. Effect of hexane treatment and uniaxial stretching on bending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... β31, defined as the bending piezoelectric stress constant, was calculated. After hexane treatment and uniaxial stretching of the PVDF film, the value of β31 was 5.75 mV/m and 8.00 mV/m for draw ratio of 1.5 and 2.5 was recorded. Fourier transform Infra-red (FTIR) spectrophotometry was used for structural investigations.

  8. Growth on demand: reviewing the mechanobiology of stretched skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zöllner, Alexander M; Holland, Maria A; Honda, Kord S; Gosain, Arun K; Kuhl, Ellen

    2013-12-01

    Skin is a highly dynamic, autoregulated, living system that responds to mechanical stretch through a net gain in skin surface area. Tissue expansion uses the concept of controlled overstretch to grow extra skin for defect repair in situ. While the short-term mechanics of stretched skin have been studied intensely by testing explanted tissue samples ex vivo, we know very little about the long-term biomechanics and mechanobiology of living skin in vivo. Here we explore the long-term effects of mechanical stretch on the characteristics of living skin using a mathematical model for skin growth. We review the molecular mechanisms by which skin responds to mechanical loading and model their effects collectively in a single scalar-valued internal variable, the surface area growth. This allows us to adopt a continuum model for growing skin based on the multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient into a reversible elastic and an irreversible growth part. To demonstrate the inherent modularity of this approach, we implement growth as a user-defined constitutive subroutine into the general purpose implicit finite element program Abaqus/Standard. To illustrate the features of the model, we simulate the controlled area growth of skin in response to tissue expansion with multiple filling points in time. Our results demonstrate that the field theories of continuum mechanics can reliably predict the manipulation of thin biological membranes through mechanical overstretch. Our model could serve as a valuable tool to rationalize clinical process parameters such as expander geometry, expander size, filling volume, filling pressure, and inflation timing to minimize tissue necrosis and maximize patient comfort in plastic and reconstructive surgery. While initially developed for growing skin, our model can easily be generalized to arbitrary biological structures to explore the physiology and pathology of stretch-induced growth of other living systems such as hearts

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF DEFORMATION STRIPS WHILE STRETCHING OF CYLINDRICAL SAMPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. V. Vasilevich

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Deformation strips have been experimentally revealed and described while stretching of cylindrical samples by means of computer thermography. It has been established that temperature of shift strip surface grows smoothly up to the stage of crack origin in material defect. Sharp growth of surface temperature occurs when tensile stresses reach tensile strength. Change in surface temperature occurs wavy after destruction (while cooling the sample. Processes of material destruction origin and development  characterize temperature changes in deformation strips.

  10. Genetic stretching factors in masseter muscle after orthognathic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuel, Wiebke; Krause, Micaela; Schneider, Matthias; Harzer, Winfried

    2013-09-01

    Up to 30% of patients relapse after orthognathic operations, and one reason might be incomplete neuromuscular adaptation of the masticatory muscles. Displacement of the mandible in sagittal or vertical directions, or both, leads to stretching or compression of these muscles. The aim of this study was to analyse stretching factors in 35 patients with retrognathism or prognathism of the mandible (Classes II and III). Tissue samples were taken from both sides of the masseter muscle (anterior and posterior) both before and 6 months after operation. Developmental myosin heavy chains MYH3 and MYH8, the fast and slow MYH 1, 2, and 7, and cyclo-oxygenase (COX) 2, forkhead transcription factor (FOX)O3a, calcineurin, and nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT)1c (stretching and regeneration-specific), were analysed by real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Correlations of Class II and III with sagittal and vertical cephalometric measurements ANB and ML-NL-angle were examined, and the results showed significant differences in amounts of MYH8 (pstretching indicators FOXO3a, calcineurin, and NFAT1c only in Class II patients. This means that stretching of the masseter muscle caused by lengthening of the mandible and raising of the bite in Class II patients was more likely to lead to relapse (similar to that in patients with open bite) than in Class III patients. In conclusion, deep bite should be reduced more by incisor intrusion than by skeletal opening. The focus in these patients should be directed towards physiotherapeutic strengthening of the muscles of mastication, and more consideration should be given to change in the vertical dimension. Copyright © 2012 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Statistical analysis of stretch film production process capabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Kovačić, Goran; Kondić, Živko

    2012-01-01

    The basic concept of statistical process control is based on the comparison of data collected from the process with calculated control limits and conclusions about the process based on the above. This process is recognized as a modern method for the analysis of process capabilities over different capability indexes. This paper describes the application of this method in monitoring and analysis of stretch film production process capabilities.

  12. Gene expression of stretch-activated channels and mechanoelectric feedback in the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, D; Mackenzie, L; Hunter, P; Smaill, B; Saint, D A

    2006-07-01

    1. Mechanoelectric feedback (MEF) in the heart is the process by which mechanical forces on the myocardium can change its electrical properties. Mechanoelectric feedback has been demonstrated in many animal models, ranging from isolated cells, through isolated hearts to whole animals. In humans, MEF has been demonstrated directly in both the atria and the ventricles. It seems likely that MEF provides either the trigger or the substrate for some types of clinically important arrhythmias. 2. Mechanoelectric feedback may arise because of the presence of stretch-sensitive (or mechano-sensitive) ion channels in the cell membrane of the cardiac myocytes. Two types have been demonstrated: (i) a non-specific cation channel (stretch-activated channel (SAC); conductance of approximately 25 pS); and (ii) a potassium channel with a conductance of approximately 100 pS. The gene coding for the SAC has not yet been identified. The gene for the potassium channel is likely to be TREK, a member of the tandem pore potassium channel gene family. We have recorded stretch-sensitive potassium channels in rat isolated myocytes that have the properties of TREK channels expressed in heterologous systems. 3. It has been shown that TREK mRNA is expressed heterogeneously in the rat ventricular wall, with 17-fold more expression in endocardial compared with epicardial cells. This difference is reflected in the TREK currents recorded from endocardial and epicardial cells using whole-cell patch-clamp techniques, although the difference in current density was less pronounced (approximately threefold). Consistent with this, we show here that when the ventricle is stretched by inflation of an intraventricular balloon in a Langendorff perfused rat isolated heart, action potential shortening was more pronounced in the endocardium (30% shortening at 40 mmHg) compared with that in the epicardium (10% shortening at the same pressure). 4. Computer models of the mechanics of the (pig) heart show pronounced

  13. A discrete electromechanical model for human cardiac tissue: effects of stretch-activated currents and stretch conditions on restitution properties and spiral wave dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis D Weise

    Full Text Available We introduce an electromechanical model for human cardiac tissue which couples a biophysical model of cardiac excitation (Tusscher, Noble, Noble, Panfilov, 2006 and tension development (adjusted Niederer, Hunter, Smith, 2006 model with a discrete elastic mass-lattice model. The equations for the excitation processes are solved with a finite difference approach, and the equations of the mass-lattice model are solved using Verlet integration. This allows the coupled problem to be solved with high numerical resolution. Passive mechanical properties of the mass-lattice model are described by a generalized Hooke's law for finite deformations (Seth material. Active mechanical contraction is initiated by changes of the intracellular calcium concentration, which is a variable of the electrical model. Mechanical deformation feeds back on the electrophysiology via stretch-activated ion channels whose conductivity is controlled by the local stretch of the medium. We apply the model to study how stretch-activated currents affect the action potential shape, restitution properties, and dynamics of spiral waves, under constant stretch, and dynamic stretch caused by active mechanical contraction. We find that stretch conditions substantially affect these properties via stretch-activated currents. In constantly stretched medium, we observe a substantial decrease in conduction velocity, and an increase of action potential duration; whereas, with dynamic stretch, action potential duration is increased only slightly, and the conduction velocity restitution curve becomes biphasic. Moreover, in constantly stretched medium, we find an increase of the core size and period of a spiral wave, but no change in rotation dynamics; in contrast, in the dynamically stretching medium, we observe spiral drift. Our results may be important to understand how altered stretch conditions affect the heart's functioning.

  14. Longitudinal Stretching for Maturation of Vascular Tissues Using Magnetic Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy R. Olsen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Cellular spheroids were studied to determine their use as “bioinks” in the biofabrication of tissue engineered constructs. Specifically, magnetic forces were used to mediate the cyclic longitudinal stretching of tissues composed of Janus magnetic cellular spheroids (JMCSs, as part of a post-processing method for enhancing the deposition and mechanical properties of an extracellular matrix (ECM. The purpose was to accelerate the conventional tissue maturation process via novel post-processing techniques that accelerate the functional, structural, and mechanical mimicking of native tissues. The results of a forty-day study of JMCSs indicated an expression of collagen I, collagen IV, elastin, and fibronectin, which are important vascular ECM proteins. Most notably, the subsequent exposure of fused tissue sheets composed of JMCSs to magnetic forces did not hinder the production of these key proteins. Quantitative results demonstrate that cyclic longitudinal stretching of the tissue sheets mediated by these magnetic forces increased the Young’s modulus and induced collagen fiber alignment over a seven day period, when compared to statically conditioned controls. Specifically, the elastin and collagen content of these dynamically-conditioned sheets were 35- and three-fold greater, respectively, at seven days compared to the statically-conditioned controls at three days. These findings indicate the potential of using magnetic forces in tissue maturation, specifically through the cyclic longitudinal stretching of tissues.

  15. Anomalous thermal response of silicene to uniaxial stretching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ming; Zhang, Xiaoliang; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2013-05-01

    Silicene—the silicon counterpart of graphene—has a two-dimensional structure that leads to a host of interesting physical and chemical properties of significant utility. We report here an investigation with nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of thermal transport in a single-layer silicene sheet under uniaxial stretching. We discovered that, contrary to its counterpart of graphene and despite the similarity of their honeycomb lattice structure, silicene exhibits an anomalous thermal response to tensile strain: The thermal conductivity of silicene and silicene nanoribbons first increases significantly with applied tensile strain rather than decreasing and then fluctuates at an elevated plateau. By quantifying the relative contribution from different phonon polarizations, we show first that the phonon transport in silicene is dominated by the out-of-plane flexural modes, similar to graphene. We attribute subsequently the unexpected and markedly different behavior of silicene to the interplay between two competing mechanisms governing heat conduction in a stretched silicene sheet, namely, (1) uniaxial stretching modulation in the longitudinal direction significantly depressing the phonon group velocities of longitudinal and transverse modes (phonon softening) and hindering heat conduction, and (2) phonon stiffening in the flexural modes counteracting the phonon softening effect and facilitating thermal transport. The abnormal behavior of the silicene sheet is further correlated to the unique deformation characteristics of its hexagonal lattice. Our study offers perspectives of modulating the thermal properties of low-dimensional structures for applications such as thermoelectric, photovoltaic, and optoelectronic devices.

  16. A Novel Stretch Sensor to Measure Venous Hemodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syrpailyne Wankhar

    2018-07-01

    Full Text Available Chronic venous insufficiency is a debilitating condition causing varicose veins and venous ulcers. The pathophysiology includes reflux and venous obstruction. The diagnosis is often made by clinical examination and confirmed by Venous Doppler studies. Plethysmography helps to quantitatively examine the reflux and diagnose the burden of deep venous pathology to better understand venous hemodynamics, which is not elicited by venous duplex examination alone. However, most of these tests are qualitative, expensive, and not easily available. In this paper, we demonstrate the potential use of a novel stretch sensor in the assessment of venous hemodynamics during different maneuvers by measuring the change in calf circumference. We designed the stretch sensor by using semiconductor strain gauges pasted onto a small metal bar to form a load cell. The elastic and Velcro material attached to the load cell form a belt. It converts the change in limb circumference to a proportional tension (force of distension when placed around the calf muscle. We recorded the change in limb circumference from arrays of stretch sensors by using an in-house data acquisition system. We calculated the venous volume (VV, venous filling index (VFI, ejection fraction (EF and residual venous volume (RVV on two normal subjects and on two patients to assess venous hemodynamics. The values (VV > 60 ml, VFI 60%, RVV 2ml/s, EF 35% in patients were comparable to those reported in the literature.

  17. Numerical study of MHD nanofluid flow and heat transfer past a bidirectional exponentially stretching sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Rida [School of Natural Sciences (SNS), National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Mustafa, M., E-mail: meraj_mm@hotmail.com [School of Natural Sciences (SNS), National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Hayat, T. [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-I-Azam University 45320, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80257, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Alsaedi, A. [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80257, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-06-01

    Recent advancements in nanotechnology have led to the discovery of new generation coolants known as nanofluids. Nanofluids possess novel and unique characteristics which are fruitful in numerous cooling applications. Current work is undertaken to address the heat transfer in MHD three-dimensional flow of magnetic nanofluid (ferrofluid) over a bidirectional exponentially stretching sheet. The base fluid is considered as water which consists of magnetite–Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles. Exponentially varying surface temperature distribution is accounted. Problem formulation is presented through the Maxwell models for effective electrical conductivity and effective thermal conductivity of nanofluid. Similarity transformations give rise to a coupled non-linear differential system which is solved numerically. Appreciable growth in the convective heat transfer coefficient is observed when nanoparticle volume fraction is augmented. Temperature exponent parameter serves to enhance the heat transfer from the surface. Moreover the skin friction coefficient is directly proportional to both magnetic field strength and nanoparticle volume fraction. - Highlights: • Nanofluid flow due to exponentially stretching sheet. • Exponentially varying surface temperature distribution is accounted. • Sparrow–Gregg type Hills (SGH) for temperature distribution exist. • Numerical values of local Nusselt number are presented. • Cooling performance of ferrofluid is superior to pure water.

  18. Numerical study of MHD nanofluid flow and heat transfer past a bidirectional exponentially stretching sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Rida; Mustafa, M.; Hayat, T.; Alsaedi, A.

    2016-01-01

    Recent advancements in nanotechnology have led to the discovery of new generation coolants known as nanofluids. Nanofluids possess novel and unique characteristics which are fruitful in numerous cooling applications. Current work is undertaken to address the heat transfer in MHD three-dimensional flow of magnetic nanofluid (ferrofluid) over a bidirectional exponentially stretching sheet. The base fluid is considered as water which consists of magnetite–Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles. Exponentially varying surface temperature distribution is accounted. Problem formulation is presented through the Maxwell models for effective electrical conductivity and effective thermal conductivity of nanofluid. Similarity transformations give rise to a coupled non-linear differential system which is solved numerically. Appreciable growth in the convective heat transfer coefficient is observed when nanoparticle volume fraction is augmented. Temperature exponent parameter serves to enhance the heat transfer from the surface. Moreover the skin friction coefficient is directly proportional to both magnetic field strength and nanoparticle volume fraction. - Highlights: • Nanofluid flow due to exponentially stretching sheet. • Exponentially varying surface temperature distribution is accounted. • Sparrow–Gregg type Hills (SGH) for temperature distribution exist. • Numerical values of local Nusselt number are presented. • Cooling performance of ferrofluid is superior to pure water.

  19. Stretched proton-neutron configurations in fp-shell nuclei. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fister, U.; Jahn, R.; Neumann-Cosel, P. von; Schenk, P.; Trelle, T.K.; Wenzel, D.; Wienands, U.

    1994-01-01

    The (α, d) reaction has been investigated at bombarding energies around 55 MeV on 40,42,44,48 Ca, 50,52,54 Cr, 54,56,58 Fe, 58,60,62,64 Ni, 64,66 Zn and 70,72 Ge targets. The angular distributions of prominent transitions were analyzed with the distorted-wave Born approximation and shown to correspond to unnatural-parity stretched proton-neutron configurations. Strong transitions of (g 9/2 ) 2 9 + and (p 3/2 , g 9/2 ) 6 - character were identified in most final nuclei. Additionally, dominant transitions with (f 7/2 , g 9/2 ) 8 - structure were observed for target nuclei with an open proton f 7/2 shell. These stretched high-spin states could be consistently described by an average normalization constant N = 225 ± 85 indicating their relatively pure two-nucleon structure. In the lower-mass Sc and Mn isotopes, configurations built on g 9/2 states are increasingly damped because of the strong fragmentation of the underlying single-particle strength. (orig.)

  20. On magnetohydrodynamic flow of second grade nanofluid over a nonlinear stretching sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayat, Tasawar [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-I-Azam University, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Nonlinear Analysis and Applied Mathematics (NAAM) Research Group, Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P. O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Aziz, Arsalan [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-I-Azam University, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Muhammad, Taseer, E-mail: taseer_qau@yahoo.com [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-I-Azam University, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Ahmad, Bashir [Nonlinear Analysis and Applied Mathematics (NAAM) Research Group, Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P. O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-06-15

    This research article addresses the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow of second grade nanofluid over a nonlinear stretching sheet. Heat and mass transfer aspects are investigated through the thermophoresis and Brownian motion effects. Second grade fluid is assumed electrically conducting through a non-uniform applied magnetic field. Mathematical formulation is developed subject to small magnetic Reynolds number and boundary layer assumptions. Newly constructed condition having zero mass flux of nanoparticles at the boundary is incorporated. Transformations have been invoked for the reduction of partial differential systems into the set of nonlinear ordinary differential systems. The governing nonlinear systems have been solved for local behavior. Graphical results of different influential parameters are studied and discussed in detail. Computations for skin friction coefficient and local Nusselt number have been carried out. It is observed that the effects of thermophoresis parameter on the temperature and nanoparticles concentration distributions are qualitatively similar. The temperature and nanoparticles concentration distributions are enhanced for the larger magnetic parameter. - Highlights: • Constitutive relation for second grade fluid is employed. • Flow is caused by a nonlinear stretching surface. • Magnetic field applied is in transverse direction. • Nanofluid model consists of Brownian motion and thermophoresis. • Magnetic Reynolds number is assumed small.

  1. The effect of a tooth/tongue gel and mouthwash regimen on morning oral malodour : A 3-week single-blind randomized clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluijs, E.; Van der Weijden, G.A.; Hennequin-Hoenderdos, N.L.; Slot, D.E.

    2018-01-01

    Aim: To compare the effects of a regimen consisting of a tooth/tongue gel, tongue cleaner and mouthwash with the effects of using standard fluoride dentifrice on the organoleptic oral malodour score (ORG) and volatile sulphur compounds (VSCs). Materials and methods: A total, 66 non-dental students

  2. Contraction-specific differences in maximal muscle power during stretch-shortening cycle movements in elderly males and females

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caserotti, Paolo; Aagaard, Per; Simonsen, Erik Bruun

    2001-01-01

    Aging, muscle power, stretch-shortening cycle, eccentric muscle actions, concentric contractions......Aging, muscle power, stretch-shortening cycle, eccentric muscle actions, concentric contractions...

  3. Ca{sup 2+} influx and ATP release mediated by mechanical stretch in human lung fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murata, Naohiko [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Ito, Satoru, E-mail: itori@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Furuya, Kishio [Mechanobiology Laboratory, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Takahara, Norihiro [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Naruse, Keiji [Department of Cardiovascular Physiology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan); Aso, Hiromichi; Kondo, Masashi [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Sokabe, Masahiro [Mechanobiology Laboratory, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Hasegawa, Yoshinori [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan)

    2014-10-10

    Highlights: • Uniaxial stretching activates Ca{sup 2+} signaling in human lung fibroblasts. • Stretch-induced intracellular Ca{sup 2+} elevation is mainly via Ca{sup 2+} influx. • Mechanical strain enhances ATP release from fibroblasts. • Stretch-induced Ca{sup 2+} influx is not mediated by released ATP or actin cytoskeleton. - Abstract: One cause of progressive pulmonary fibrosis is dysregulated wound healing after lung inflammation or damage in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. The mechanical forces are considered to regulate pulmonary fibrosis via activation of lung fibroblasts. In this study, the effects of mechanical stretch on the intracellular Ca{sup 2+} concentration ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}) and ATP release were investigated in primary human lung fibroblasts. Uniaxial stretch (10–30% in strain) was applied to fibroblasts cultured in a silicone chamber coated with type I collagen using a stretching apparatus. Following stretching and subsequent unloading, [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} transiently increased in a strain-dependent manner. Hypotonic stress, which causes plasma membrane stretching, also transiently increased the [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}. The stretch-induced [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} elevation was attenuated in Ca{sup 2+}-free solution. In contrast, the increase of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} by a 20% stretch was not inhibited by the inhibitor of stretch-activated channels GsMTx-4, Gd{sup 3+}, ruthenium red, or cytochalasin D. Cyclic stretching induced significant ATP releases from fibroblasts. However, the stretch-induced [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} elevation was not inhibited by ATP diphosphohydrolase apyrase or a purinergic receptor antagonist suramin. Taken together, mechanical stretch induces Ca{sup 2+} influx independently of conventional stretch-sensitive ion channels, the actin cytoskeleton, and released ATP.

  4. A comparison of assisted and unassisted proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation techniques and static stretching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddigan, Meaghan E; Peach, Ashley A; Behm, David G

    2012-05-01

    A comparison of assisted and unassisted proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation techniques and static stretching. J Strength Cond Res 26(5): 1238-1244, 2012-Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching often requires a partner. Straps are available allowing an individual to perform PNF stretching alone. It is not known if a strap provides similar improvements in the range of motion (ROM) as partner-assisted PNF or static stretching. The purpose of this study was to compare assisted and unassisted (with a strap) PNF stretching and static stretching. Hip joint ROM, reaction time (RT), and movement time (MT) were measured prestretching and poststretching. Thirteen recreationally active adults participated in this study. The participants were subjected to 5 different stretch interventions in a random order on separate days. Stretch conditions included unassisted PNF stretching using (a) isometric, (b) concentric, and (c) eccentric contractions with a stretch strap, (d) partner-assisted isometric PNF, and (e) static stretching. The RT, MT, dynamic, active, passive hip flexion angle, and angular velocity with dynamic hip flexion were measured before and after the intervention. The ROM improved (p < 0.05) 2.6, 2.7, and 5.4%, respectively, with dynamic, active static, and passive static ROM, but there was no significant difference between the stretching protocols. There was a main effect for time (p < 0.05) with all stretching conditions negatively impacting dynamic angular velocity (9.2%). Although there was no significant effect on RT, MT showed a negative main effect for time (p < 0.05) slowing 3.4%. In conclusion, it was found that all 3 forms of active stretching provided similar improvements in the ROM and poststretching performance decrements in MT and angular velocity. Thus, individuals can implement PNF stretching techniques with a partner or alone with a strap to improve ROM, but athletes should not use these techniques before important

  5. Muscle and joint responses during and after static stretching performed at different intensities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Sandro R; Andrade, Ricardo J; Larcoupaille, Lilian; Mil-homens, Pedro; Nordez, Antoine

    2015-06-01

    We investigated the effects of plantarflexor static stretching of different intensities on the medial gastrocnemius (GAS) shear elastic modulus, GAS fascicle length and ankle passive torque-angle responses during and after stretching. Participants performed three stretching sessions of different intensities: 40 % (R40) of maximal dorsiflexion range of motion (ROM), 60 % (R60) of ROM, and 80 % (R80) of ROM. Each stretching lasted 10 min. The GAS architecture, GAS shear elastic modulus, ankle passive torque-angle, and muscle activity were assessed before, during, and after the stretching. The absolute and relative (i.e., normalized to the static stretching start value) GAS shear elastic modulus relaxation varied across stretching intensities. The absolute passive torque relaxation varied across intensities (p stretching start value. No significant changes were observed in GAS fascicle length during the stretching (p = 0.93). After stretching, passive torque at a given angle was significantly decreased for R60 [-0.99 ± 0.59 Nm (-6.5 ± 3.8 %), p stretching and post-stretching effect in the GAS shear elastic modulus or ankle passive torque variables. No significant relation was found between the shear elastic modulus and the ankle passive torque responses during and after stretching. The effects of stretching on joint passive torque do not reflect changes in the medial gastrocnemius shear elastic modulus, and these responses to stretching depend on its intensity.

  6. Medical Management of Ectopic Pregnancy: A Comparison of Regimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, Emelia Argyropoulos; Barnhart, Kurt

    2012-01-01

    Medical management has become increasingly popular in the treatment of ectopic pregnancy. Given its convenience, for many it is used as a first line treatment, but this is not always the optimal choice for the patient. It is important to understand the options for medical treatment and when it is appropriate to treat a particular patient with medical management, or when one should opt for surgical management. This review outlines the different regimens for methotrexate administration and the associated risks and benefits to medical management. PMID:22510626

  7. Galeazzi fractures: our modified classification and treatment regimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayaz, H C; Jupiter, J B

    2014-02-01

    While diaphyseal fractures of the forearm are a common orthopedic injury, Galeazzi fractures are difficult to treat. The current knowledge on pathobiomechanics and modified therapeutic decisions implicate the need to devise an updated classification and treatment regimen of Galeazzi fractures. We challenge the concept that isolated fractures of the radius should be considered as a Galeazzi fractures as long as stability of the distal radioulnar joint is not proven. Contrary to others we demonstrate that the fracture location alone is not sufficient to determine the stability of the distal radioulnar joint. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Decentralized Consistent Updates in SDN

    KAUST Repository

    Nguyen, Thanh Dang

    2017-04-10

    We present ez-Segway, a decentralized mechanism to consistently and quickly update the network state while preventing forwarding anomalies (loops and blackholes) and avoiding link congestion. In our design, the centralized SDN controller only pre-computes information needed by the switches during the update execution. This information is distributed to the switches, which use partial knowledge and direct message passing to efficiently realize the update. This separation of concerns has the key benefit of improving update performance as the communication and computation bottlenecks at the controller are removed. Our evaluations via network emulations and large-scale simulations demonstrate the efficiency of ez-Segway, which compared to a centralized approach, improves network update times by up to 45% and 57% at the median and the 99th percentile, respectively. A deployment of a system prototype in a real OpenFlow switch and an implementation in P4 demonstrate the feasibility and low overhead of implementing simple network update functionality within switches.

  9. A multireference perturbation study of the NN stretching frequency of trans-azobenzene in nπ* excitation and an implication for the photoisomerization mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harabuchi, Yu; Ishii, Moe; Nakayama, Akira; Noro, Takeshi; Taketsugu, Tetsuya

    2013-02-14

    A multireference second-order perturbation theory is applied to calculate equilibrium structures and vibrational frequencies of trans-azobenzene in the ground and nπ* excited states, as well as the reaction pathways for rotation and inversion mechanism in the nπ* excited state. It is found that the NN stretching frequency exhibits a slight increase at the minimum energy structure in the nπ* state, which is explained by the mixing of the NN stretching mode with the CN symmetric stretching mode. We also calculate the NN stretching frequency at several selected structures along the rotation and inversion pathways in the nπ* state, and show that the frequency decreases gradually along the rotation pathway while it increases by ca. 300 cm(-1) along the inversion pathway. The frequencies and energy variations along the respective pathways indicate that the rotation pathway is more consistent with the experimental observation of the NN stretching frequency in nπ* excitation.

  10. Role of Heat Shock Protein 70 in Induction of Stress Fiber Formation in Rat Arterial Endothelial Cells in Response to Stretch Stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Shan-Shun; Sugimoto, Keiji; Fujii, Sachiko; Takemasa, Tohru; Fu, Song-Bin; Yamashita, Kazuo

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the mechanism by which endothelial cells (ECs) resist various forms of physical stress using an experimental system consisting of rat arterial EC sheets. Formation of actin stress fibers (SFs) and expression of endothelial heat-shock stress proteins (HSPs) in response to mechanical stretch stress were assessed by immunofluorescence microscopy. Stretch stimulation increased expression of HSPs 25 and 70, but not that of HSP 90. Treatment with SB203580, a p38 MAP kinase inhibitor that acts upstream of the HSP 25 activation cascade, or with geldanamycin, an inhibitor of HSP 90, had no effect on the SF formation response to mechanical stretch stress. In contrast, treatment with quercetin, an HSP 70 inhibitor, inhibited both upregulation of endothelial HSP 70 and formation of SFs in response to tensile stress. In addition, treatment of stretched ECs with cytochalasin D, which disrupts SF formation, did not adversely affect stretch-induced upregulation of endothelial HSP 70. Our data suggest that endothelial HSP 70 plays an important role in inducing SF formation in response to tensile stress

  11. Short Term Effects of Neurodynamic Stretching and Static Stretching Techniques on Hamstring Muscle Flexibility in Healthy Male Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Adel Rashad Ahmed; Ahmed Fathy Samhan

    2016-01-01

    Flexibility is a key component of rehabilitation and inadequate muscle extensibility remains a commonly accepted factor for musculoskeletal disorders. Studies on the most optimal technique for improving muscle flexibility are a widely debated. The aim of the study was to compare the effectiveness of neurodynamic and static stretching techniques on hamstring flexibility in healthy male subjects. This study was a randomized experimental trial; forty healthy male subjects with hamstr...

  12. Effects of Dynamic and Static Stretching Within General and Activity Specific Warm-Up Protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Samson, Michael; Button, Duane C.; Chaouachi, Anis; Behm, David G.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of static and dynamic stretching protocols within general and activity specific warm-ups. Nine male and ten female subjects were tested under four warm-up conditions including a 1) general aerobic warm-up with static stretching, 2) general aerobic warm-up with dynamic stretching, 3) general and specific warm-up with static stretching and 4) general and specific warm-up with dynamic stretching. Following all conditions, subjects were tested...

  13. A simple constrained uniaxial tensile apparatus for in situ investigation of film stretching processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Lingpu; Li, Jing; Cui, Kunpeng; Chen, Xiaowei; Lin, Yuanfei; Xu, Jiali; Li, Liangbin

    2013-11-01

    A simple constrained uniaxial tensile apparatus was designed and constructed to obtain stress-strain curve during stretching and subsequent structural evolution of polymeric films. Stretch is carried out through two motor driven clamps in the machine direction and scissor-like clamps in the transverse direction keeping the sample width constant. The force information during film stretching process is recorded by a tension sensor and structural evolution can be obtained by in situ X-ray scattering technique. All parameters related to film stretching manufacturing, such as temperature, draw ratio, and stretching speed can be set independently, making the apparatus an effective method to explore the relationship between processing parameters and structure.

  14. Magnitude-dependent proliferation and contractility modulation of human bladder smooth muscle cells under physiological stretch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, De-Yi; Wazir, Romel; Du, Caigan; Tian, Ye; Yue, Xuan; Wei, Tang-Qiang; Wang, Kun-Jie

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe and test a kind of stretch pattern which is based on modified BOSE BioDynamic system to produce optimum physiological stretch during bladder cycle. Moreover, we aimed to emphasize the effects of physiological stretch's amplitude upon proliferation and contractility of human bladder smooth muscle cells (HBSMCs). HBSMCs were seeded onto silicone membrane and subjected to stretch simulating bladder cycle at the range of stretches and time according to customized software on modified BOSE BioDynamic bioreactor. Morphological changes were assessed using immunofluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscope. Cell proliferation and cell viability were determined by BrdU incorporation assay and Cell Counting Kit-8, respectively. Contractility of the cells was determined using collagen gel contraction assay. RT-PCR was used to assess phenotypic and contractility markers. HBSMCs were found to show morphologically spindle-shaped and orientation at various elongations in the modified bioreactor. Stretch-induced proliferation and viability depended on the magnitude of stretch, and stretches also regulate contractility and contraction markers in a magnitude-dependent manner. We described and tested a kind of stretch pattern which delivers physiological stretch implemented during bladder cycle. The findings also showed that mechanical stretch can promote magnitude-dependent morphological, proliferative and contractile modulation of HBSMCs in vitro.

  15. Successful hematopoietic stem cell transplantation following a cyclophosphamide-containing preparative regimen with concomitant phenobarbital administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Catherine; Kasberg, Heather; Copelan, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Cyclophosphamide is an immunosuppressive agent and an anticancer prodrug which requires bioactivation catalyzed primarily by cytochrome P450 enzymes in order to be transformed into its active alkylating compounds. Concomitant administration of drugs known to inhibit or induce this enzyme system is a clinical concern. Herein, we present the case of a chronically ill 21-year-old patient who received high-dose cyclophosphamide, equine antithymocyte globulin (eATG), and total body irradiation (TBI) followed by an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) for severe aplastic anemia. Throughout her hospitalization, she continued to receive quadruple anticonvulsant therapy including phenobarbital for her long-standing seizure history. The preparative regimen was tolerated well aside from a hypersensitivity reaction to eATG, and minimal cyclophosphamide-related toxicities. Safe and effective administration of high-dose cyclophosphamide was possible with multidisciplinary care consisting of physician, nursing, pharmacy, neurology consultation, as well as social work and case management.

  16. Successful Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Following a Cyclophosphamide-Containing Preparative Regimen with Concomitant Phenobarbital Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Weber

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclophosphamide is an immunosuppressive agent and an anticancer prodrug which requires bioactivation catalyzed primarily by cytochrome P450 enzymes in order to be transformed into its active alkylating compounds. Concomitant administration of drugs known to inhibit or induce this enzyme system is a clinical concern. Herein, we present the case of a chronically ill 21-year-old patient who received high-dose cyclophosphamide, equine antithymocyte globulin (eATG, and total body irradiation (TBI followed by an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT for severe aplastic anemia. Throughout her hospitalization, she continued to receive quadruple anticonvulsant therapy including phenobarbital for her long-standing seizure history. The preparative regimen was tolerated well aside from a hypersensitivity reaction to eATG, and minimal cyclophosphamide-related toxicities. Safe and effective administration of high-dose cyclophosphamide was possible with multidisciplinary care consisting of physician, nursing, pharmacy, neurology consultation, as well as social work and case management.

  17. Possible Cause of Nonlinear Tension Rise in Activated Muscle Fiber during Stretching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochubei, P V; Bershitsky, S Yu

    2016-11-01

    Tension in contracting muscle fiber under conditions of ramp stretching rapidly increases, but after reaching a critical stretch P c sharply decreases. To find out the cause of these changes in muscle fiber tension, we stopped stretching before and after reaching P c and left the fiber stretched for 50 msec. After rapid tension drop, the transient tension rise not accompanied by fiber stiffness increase was observed only in fibers heated to 25°C and stretched to P c . Under other experimental conditions, this growth was absent. We suppose that stretch of the fiber to P c induces transition of stereo-specifically attached myosin heads to pre-power stroke state and when the stretching is stopped, they make their step on actin and generate force. When the tension reaches P c , all stereospecifically attached myosin heads turn out to be non-stereospecifically, or weakly attached to actin, and are unable to make the force-generating step.

  18. Atypical Amniotic Fluid Embolism Managed with a Novel Therapeutic Regimen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadi Rezai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE is the second leading cause of maternal mortality in the USA with an incidence of 1 : 15,200 births. The case fatality rate and perinatal mortality associated with AFE are 13–30% and 9–44%, respectively. This rare but devastating complication can be difficult to diagnose as many of the early signs and symptoms are nonspecific. Compounding this diagnostic challenge is a lack of effective treatment regimens which to date are mostly supportive. We present the case of a 26-year-old woman who suffered from suspected AFE and was successfully treated with the novel regimen of Atropine, Ondansetron, and Ketorolac (A-OK. The authors acknowledge that this case does not meet the new criteria proposed, by Clark in 2016, but feel that it is important to share this case report, due to dramatic patient response to the provided supportive therapy presented in this case report. We hope this case report will prompt further research into this novel approach to treating AFE with Atropine, Ondansetron, and Ketorolac.

  19. Late effects of various dose-fractionation regimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turesson, I.; Notter, G.

    1983-01-01

    These clinical investigations of various dose-fractionation regimens on human skin show that: The late reactions cannot be predicted from the early reactions; The dose-response curves for late reactions are much steeper than for early reactions; Equivalent doses for various fractionation schedules concerning late effects can be calculated by means of a corrected CRE (NSD) formula; the correction must be considered preliminary because further follow-up is needed. A clinical fractionation study of this type requires: Extremely careful dosimetry; Study of the same anatomical region; Very long follow-up; Studies at different effect levels; Skin reaction is the only end point we have studied systematically for different fractionation regimens. Experience with the CRE formula as a model for calculating isoeffect doses for different fractionation schedules in routine clinical use can be summarized as follows: The CRE formula has been used prospectively since 1972 in all patients; CRE-equivalent weekly doses to 5 x 2.0 Gy per week has been used. (Although the fractionation schedule is changed, the overall treatment time is still the same); The CRE range was 18 to 21 for curative radiotherapy on carcinomas; No irradiation was applied during pronounced acute reactions. No unexpected complications have been observed under these conditions

  20. Accelerated split course regimen in the treatment of brain metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franchin, G.; Minatel, E.; Roncadin, M.; Trovo, M.G.; De Paoli, A.; Bortolus, R.; Arcicasa, M.; Boz, G.; Gobitti, C.; Grigoletto, E.; Bassignano, G.

    1988-01-01

    63 patients, with brain metastases were treated with an accelerated split course regimen; irradiation was given to the whole brain in 3 daily fractions of 160 cGy each for 5 days a week. The cycle was repeated after 2 weeks to a total dose of 4800 cGy. Male-female ratio was 3:1. Median age was 58 years. The most frequent site of primary tumor was lung (41 patients), breast in 6 patients, melanoma in 3 patients, other sites in 8 patients and unknown cancer in 5 patients. Thirty-five patients had multiple brain metastases localizations. Two patients failed to complete the scheduled treatment: one because of early death and the other by refusal of therapy during treatment. Complete remission was obtained in 4 patients and partial remission in 24 patients. The median survival time was 21 weeks. The overall response rate was 42.5%. Toxicity was not considerable. The treatment results were not influenced by the site of primary tumor or by disease spreading; only the neurologic status before radiotherapy and the response to treatment influenced survival. The results obtained are similar to those reported by others; however, with the accelerated split course regimen the treatment time was reduced and a shorter period of hospitalization was required. 36 refs.; 2 figs.; 3 tabs

  1. Repeated Courses of Rituximab in Chronic ITP: Three Different Regimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Aisha; Michel, Marc; Patel, Vivek; Stasi, Roberto; Cunningham-Rundles, Susanna; Leonard, John; Bussel, James

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated responses to re-treatment with rituximab in chronic ITP patients. Treatment with rituximab in chronic ITP patients induces long-lasting responses in approximately 30% of patients but even these patients may relapse. Twenty patients who had achieved a response to rituximab and relapsed were re-treated with rituximab (375 mg/m2 × 4); this data was analyzed retrospectively. Subsequently, 16 patients were prospectively randomized to receive rituximab with CVP (R-CVP) or double dose rituximab (DDR). Re- treatment with standard dose rituximab demonstrated responses similar to initial rituximab treatment in 15 of 20 patients. Neither of the 2 more intensive regimens (R-CVP, DDR) induced responses in any patient who had previously failed to respond to rituximab nor induced substantially longer-lasting responses among previous responders. No additional toxicity was noted with the DDR regimen, whereas R-CVP was not well tolerated. These results suggest that re-treatment with standard dose rituximab induces similar responses in 75% of previously responding patients and is well tolerated. Neither combining rituximab with CVP nor doubling the dose of rituximab increased the response rate. PMID:19731307

  2. Postcesarean Thromboprophylaxis with Two Different Regimens of Bemiparin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milagros Cruz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To compare the effectiveness of postcesarean thromboprophylaxis with two different regimens of bemiparin. Material and Methods. The study included 646 women with cesarean delivery in our hospital within a 1-year period, randomly assigned to one of two groups for prophylaxis with 3500 IU bemiparin once daily for 5 days or 3500 IU bemiparin once daily for 10 days. Results. There was one case of pulmonary embolism (first day following cesarean. An additional risk factor was present in 98.52% of the women, most frequently emergency cesarean, anemia, or obesity. The only risk factors for thromboembolic disease significantly related to pulmonary thromboembolism were placental abruption and prematurity. There were no differences in thromboembolic events among the two thromboprophylaxis regimens. Conclusions. Cesarean-related thromboembolic events were reduced in our study population due to the thromboprophylactic measures taken. Thromboprophylaxis with 3500 IU bemiparin once daily for 5 days following cesarean was sufficient to avoid thromboembolic events.

  3. A Systematic Review of Recall Regimen and Maintenance Regimen of Patients with Dental Restorations. Part 2: Implant-Borne Restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidra, Avinash S; Daubert, Diane M; Garcia, Lily T; Gauthier, Marissa F; Kosinski, Timothy F; Nenn, Conrad A; Olsen, John A; Platt, Jeffrey A; Wingrove, Susan S; Chandler, Nancy Deal; Curtis, Donald A

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the current scientific evidence on patient recall and maintenance of implant-supported restorations, to standardize patient care regimens and improve maintenance of oral health. An additional purpose was to examine areas of deficiency in the current scientific literature and provide recommendations for future studies. An electronic search for articles in the English language literature from the past 10 years was performed independently by multiple investigators using a systematic search process. After application of predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria, the final list of articles was reviewed to meet the objectives of this review. The initial electronic search resulted in 2816 titles. The systematic application of inclusion and exclusion criteria resulted in 14 articles that satisfied the study objectives. An additional 6 articles were added through a supplemental search process for a total of 20 studies. Of these, 11 were randomized controlled clinical trials, and 9 were observational studies. The majority of the studies (15 out of 20) were conducted in the past 5 years and most studies were conducted in Europe (15), followed by Asia (2), South America (1), the United States (1), and the Middle East (1). Results from the qualitative data on a combined 1088 patients indicated that outcome improvements in recall and maintenance regimen were related to (1) patient/treatment characteristic (type of prosthesis, type of prosthetic components, and type of restorative materials); (2) specific oral topical agents or oral hygiene aids (electric toothbrush, interdental brush, chlorhexidine, triclosan, water flossers) and (3) professional intervention (oral hygiene maintenance, and maintenance of the prosthesis). There is minimal evidence related to recall regimens in patients with implant-borne removable and fixed restorations; however, a considerable body of evidence indicates that patients with implant-borne removable and fixed restorations require

  4. Bendamustine mitoxantrone and rituximab (BMR): a new effective regimen for refractory or relapsed indolent lymphomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weide, Rudolf; Heymanns, Jochen; Gores, Annette; Köppler, Hubert

    2002-02-01

    Bendamustine (B) and mitoxantrone (M) have been shown to be potent cytotoxic drugs for the treatment of relapsed or refractory indolent lymphomas. The anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab (R) has produced an overall response rate (ORR) of 50% as a single agent in relapsed or refractory indolent lymphomas. We posed the question whether a combination of the above agents (BMR) could improve these results. This study was an open label, single center pilot study for patients with relapsed or refractory, CD20-positive (indolent) lymphoma or chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. The therapy consisted of bendamustine (80 mg/m2, day 1-3), mitoxantrone (10 mg/m2, day 1), rituximab (375 mg/m2, week 2-5). BM was repeated on day 36 or when the haematological parameters had recovered. The maximum therapy consisted of one BMR-cycle, followed by five BM courses. Treatment was stopped when the disease responded with PR/CR. During March 1999 and December 2000, 20 patients received the BMR-regimen (four secondary high grade lymphoma, 12 indolent lymphoma, four B-CLL). The median age of the patients was 67 years (range 36-82) and their performance status ranged from 0 to 3. Median number of previous treatment regimens was two (1-6). Of the lymphoma patients, 14 had stage IV disease, 1 stage III and 1 stage II. B-CLL patients were all Rai stage IV (Binet C). Overall response rate was 95% (19/20) with seven patients achieving a CR (35%) and 12 patients achieving a PR (60%). Median time to progression is 7 months (1-21) with a median observation time of 7 months (1-21). Response is still durable in 15/20 patients (75%) (1+ to 21+ months after therapy). Symptomatic, reversible grade three or four haematotoxicity occurred in 4/20 patients (20%). Non-symptomatic grade three or four haematotoxicity was seen in 9/20 patients (45%). No major non-haematological toxicity was observed. In conclusion, BMR is a well tolerated, very effective outpatient regimen of treatment for relapsed and refractory

  5. Lamellar thickness and stretching temperature dependency of cavitation in semicrystalline polymers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaotao Wang

    Full Text Available Polybutene-1 (PB-1, a typical semicrystalline polymer, in its stable form I shows a peculiar temperature dependent strain-whitening behavior when being stretched at temperatures in between room temperature and melting temperature of the crystallites where the extent of strain-whitening weakens with the increasing of stretching temperature reaching a minima value followed by an increase at higher stretching temperatures. Correspondingly, a stronger strain-hardening phenomenon was observed at higher temperatures. The strain-whitening phenomenon in semicrystalline polymers has its origin of cavitation process during stretching. In this work, the effect of crystalline lamellar thickness and stretching temperature on the cavitation process in PB-1 has been investigated by means of combined synchrotron ultrasmall-angle and wide-angle X-ray scattering techniques. Three modes of cavitation during the stretching process can be identified, namely "no cavitation" for the quenched sample with the thinnest lamellae where only shear yielding occurred, "cavitation with reorientation" for the samples stretched at lower temperatures and samples with thicker lamellae, and "cavitation without reorientation" for samples with thinner lamellae stretched at higher temperatures. The mode "cavitation with reorientation" occurs before yield point where the plate-like cavities start to be generated within the lamellar stacks with normal perpendicular to the stretching direction due to the blocky substructure of the crystalline lamellae and reorient gradually to the stretching direction after strain-hardening. The mode of "cavitation without reorientation" appears after yield point where ellipsoidal shaped cavities are generated in those lamellae stacks with normal parallel to the stretching direction followed by an improvement of their orientation at larger strains. X-ray diffraction results reveal a much improved crystalline orientation for samples with thinner lamellae

  6. Lamellar thickness and stretching temperature dependency of cavitation in semicrystalline polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaotao; Jiang, Zhiyong; Fu, Lianlian; Lu, Ying; Men, Yongfeng

    2014-01-01

    Polybutene-1 (PB-1), a typical semicrystalline polymer, in its stable form I shows a peculiar temperature dependent strain-whitening behavior when being stretched at temperatures in between room temperature and melting temperature of the crystallites where the extent of strain-whitening weakens with the increasing of stretching temperature reaching a minima value followed by an increase at higher stretching temperatures. Correspondingly, a stronger strain-hardening phenomenon was observed at higher temperatures. The strain-whitening phenomenon in semicrystalline polymers has its origin of cavitation process during stretching. In this work, the effect of crystalline lamellar thickness and stretching temperature on the cavitation process in PB-1 has been investigated by means of combined synchrotron ultrasmall-angle and wide-angle X-ray scattering techniques. Three modes of cavitation during the stretching process can be identified, namely "no cavitation" for the quenched sample with the thinnest lamellae where only shear yielding occurred, "cavitation with reorientation" for the samples stretched at lower temperatures and samples with thicker lamellae, and "cavitation without reorientation" for samples with thinner lamellae stretched at higher temperatures. The mode "cavitation with reorientation" occurs before yield point where the plate-like cavities start to be generated within the lamellar stacks with normal perpendicular to the stretching direction due to the blocky substructure of the crystalline lamellae and reorient gradually to the stretching direction after strain-hardening. The mode of "cavitation without reorientation" appears after yield point where ellipsoidal shaped cavities are generated in those lamellae stacks with normal parallel to the stretching direction followed by an improvement of their orientation at larger strains. X-ray diffraction results reveal a much improved crystalline orientation for samples with thinner lamellae stretched at higher

  7. Cyclic stretch-induced stress fiber dynamics - Dependence on strain rate, Rho-kinase and MLCK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chin-Fu; Haase, Candice; Deguchi, Shinji; Kaunas, Roland

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Cyclic stretch induces stress fiber disassembly, reassembly and fusion perpendicular to the direction of stretch. → Stress fiber disassembly and reorientation were not induced at low stretch frequency. → Stretch caused actin fiber formation parallel to stretch in distinct locations in cells treated with Rho-kinase and MLCK inhibitors. -- Abstract: Stress fiber realignment is an important adaptive response to cyclic stretch for nonmuscle cells, but the mechanism by which such reorganization occurs is not known. By analyzing stress fiber dynamics using live cell microscopy, we revealed that stress fiber reorientation perpendicular to the direction of cyclic uniaxial stretching at 1 Hz did not involve disassembly of the stress fiber distal ends located at focal adhesion sites. Instead, these distal ends were often used to assemble new stress fibers oriented progressively further away from the direction of stretch. Stress fiber disassembly and reorientation were not induced when the frequency of stretch was decreased to 0.01 Hz, however. Treatment with the Rho-kinase inhibitor (Y27632) reduced stress fibers to thin fibers located in the cell periphery which bundled together to form thick fibers oriented parallel to the direction of stretching at 1 Hz. In contrast, these thin fibers remained diffuse in cells subjected to stretch at 0.01 Hz. Cyclic stretch at 1 Hz also induced actin fiber formation parallel to the direction of stretch in cells treated with the myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) inhibitor ML-7, but these fibers were located centrally rather than peripherally. These results shed new light on the mechanism by which stress fibers reorient in response to cyclic stretch in different regions of the actin cytoskeleton.

  8. Intermittent But Not Continuous Static Stretching Improves Subsequent Vertical Jump Performance In Flexibility-Trained Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanis, Gregory C; Donti, Olyvia; Tsolakis, Charilaos; Smilios, Ilias; Bishop, David J

    2017-02-23

    This study examined changes in countermovement jump (CMJ) height after an intermittent or a continuous static stretching protocol of equal total duration. Sixteen male, elite-level gymnasts performed 90 s of intermittent (3 x 30 s with 30 s rest) or continuous stretching (90 s) of the quadriceps muscle. A single-leg stretching and jumping design was used, with the contra-lateral limb serving as a control. The same individuals performed both conditions with alternate legs in a randomized, counterbalanced order. One leg CMJ height was measured for the stretched and the control leg after warm-up, immediately after stretching, and at regular intervals for 10 min after stretching. Range of motion (ROM) of the hip and knee joints was measured before, after, and 10 min post-stretching. Compared to the control leg, intermittent stretching increased CMJ height by 8.1±2.0%, 4 min into recovery (+2.2±2.0 cm, 95%CI: 1.0-3.4 cm, p=0.001), while continuous stretching decreased CMJ height by 17.5±3.3% immediately after (-2.9±1.7 cm, 95%CI: -2.0 to -3.7 cm, p=0.001) and by 12.0±2.7% one min after stretching (-2.2±2.1 cm, 95%CI: -1.2 to -3.2 cm, p=0.001). The increases in hip (2.9 and 3.6, p=0.001. d=2.4) and knee joint ROM (5.1 and 6.1, p=0.001. d=0.85) after the intermittent and continuous stretching protocols were not different. The opposite effects of intermittent vs. continuous stretching on subsequent CMJ performance suggests that stretching mode is an important variable when examining the acute effects of static stretching on performance in flexibility-trained athletes.

  9. [Successful treatment with high-dose methotrexate/cytarabine regimen in a patient in SMILE regimen-resistant extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saburi, Masuho; Itani, Kazuhito; Nagamatsu, Kentarou; Miyazaki, Yasuhiko; Otsuka, Eiichi; Urabe, Shogo; Saburi, Yoshio

    2014-01-01

    A 28-year-old man complained of pain in the oral mucosa and pharynx in March 2011, and then developed fever and generalized swelling of the cheek. In March 2012, a gum biopsy led to a diagnosis of extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (ENKL). (18)F-FDG-PET revealed significant uptake in the mouth, tonsils, jawbone, shoulder blade, humerus, ilium, femur, and spleen. After two courses of the SMILE (dexamethasone, methotrexate (MTX), ifosfamide, L-asparaginase, etoposide) regimen, the response was stable disease. However, a high-dose MTX/cytarabine (MA) regimen was effective. After three courses of the MA regimen, a partial response was achieved. Then, allogeneic bone marrow transplantation from an unrelated donor was performed. At 10 months after transplantation, there was no sign of recurrence. Although the optimal treatment for ENKL refractory to the SMILE regimen has yet to be established, our case suggests the MA regimen to be a potentially effective treatment option.

  10. The influence of self-stretching based on postisometrical relaxation, static stretching combined with stabilizing exercises, and stabilizing exercises only on the flexibility of one-joint and two-joint hip flexors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaprowski, Dariusz; Leszczewska, Justyna; Kolwicz, Aleksandra; Pawłowska, Paulina; Kędra, Agnieszka; Kriščiūnas, Aleksandras; Raistenskis, Juozas; Kowalski, Ireneusz M

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE. The limitations of muscle flexibility are a common dysfunction of the musculoskeletal system. Therefore, various therapeutic techniques are used in rehabilitation programs to increase their flexibility. The aim of this prospective, randomized, single-blind study was to evaluate the changes in the flexibility of hip flexors in children who participated in a 6-week therapeutic program consisting of one physiotherapy session per week with a physiotherapist and daily home exercises. MATERIAL AND METHODS. A total of 94 children aged 10-13 years were randomly assigned to 3 experimental groups: postisometrical relaxation group (PIR group), static stretching combined with stabilizing exercise group (SE/SS group), and stabilizing exercise group (SS group). To assess the flexibility of one- and two-joint hip flexors, the modified Thomas test was used. The examination was conducted by blinded observers. RESULTS. A significant improvement in the flexibility of one-joint hip flexors was documented in all 3 groups (Pflexibility of two-joint hip flexors increased significantly only in the SS/SE group (P0.05). CONCLUSIONS. The 6-week therapeutic program regardless of the technique applied (postisometrical muscle relaxation, static stretching with stabilizing exercises, and stabilizing exercises only) resulted in the increased flexibility of one-joint hip flexors. Only static stretching combined with stabilizing exercises led to a significant increase in the flexibility of two-joint hip flexors.

  11. Stretch-Triggered Drug Delivery from Wearable Elastomer Films Containing Therapeutic Depots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Jin; Yao, Shanshan; Ye, Yanqi; Cui, Zheng; Yu, Jicheng; Ghosh, Tushar K; Zhu, Yong; Gu, Zhen

    2015-09-22

    Mechanical force-based stimulus provides a simple and easily accessible manner for spatiotemporally controlled drug delivery. Here we describe a wearable, tensile strain-triggered drug delivery device consisting of a stretchable elastomer and microgel depots containing drug loaded nanoparticles. By applying a tensile strain to the elastomer film, the release of drug from the microdepot is promoted due to the enlarged surface area for diffusion and Poisson's ratio-induced compression on the microdepot. Correspondingly, both sustained drug release by daily body motions and pulsatile release by intentional administration can be conveniently achieved. Our work demonstrated that the tensile strain, applied to the stretchable device, facilitated release of therapeutics from microdepots for anticancer and antibacterial treatments. Moreover, polymeric microneedles were further integrated with the stretch-responsive device for transcutaneous delivery of insulin and regulation of blood glucose levels of chemically induced type 1 diabetic mice.

  12. Sympathetic modulation of muscle spindle afferent sensitivity to stretch in rabbit jaw closing muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roatta, S; Windhorst, U; Ljubisavljevic, M; Johansson, H; Passatore, M

    2002-04-01

    Previous reports showed that sympathetic stimulation affects the activity of muscle spindle afferents (MSAs). The aim of the present work is to study the characteristics of sympathetic modulation of MSA response to stretch: (i) on the dynamic and static components of the stretch response, and (ii) on group Ia and II MSAs to evaluate potentially different effects. In anaesthetised rabbits, the peripheral stump of the cervical sympathetic nerve (CSN) was stimulated at 10 impulses s(-1) for 45-90 s. The responses of single MSAs to trapezoidal displacement of the mandible were recorded from the mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus. The following characteristic parameters were determined from averaged trapezoidal responses: initial frequency (IF), peak frequency at the end of the ramp (PF), and static index (SI). From these, other parameters were derived: dynamic index (DI = PF - SI), dynamic difference (DD = PF - IF) and static difference (SD = SI - IF). The effects of CSN stimulation were also evaluated during changes in the state of intrafusal muscle fibre contraction induced by succinylcholine and curare. In a population of 124 MSAs, 106 units (85.4 %) were affected by sympathetic stimulation. In general, while changes in resting discharge varied among different units (Ia vs. II) and experimental conditions (curarised vs. non-curarised), ranging from enhancement to strong depression of firing, the amplitude of the response to muscle stretches consistently decreased. This was confirmed and detailed in a quantitative analysis performed on 49 muscle spindle afferents. In both the non-curarised (23 units) and curarised (26 units) condition, stimulation of the CSN reduced the response amplitude in terms of DD and SD, but hardly affected DI. The effects were equally present in both Ia and II units; they were shown to be independent from gamma drive and intrafusal muscle tone and not secondary to muscle hypoxia. Sympathetic action on the resting discharge (IF) was less

  13. Current regimen of pulse therapy for pemphigus: Minor modifications, improved results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasricha J

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: If administered properly, dexamethasone cyclophosphamide pulse (DCP therapy has the potential to effect lifelong recovery from pemphigus. Aims: The objective of this paper is to highlight various parameters of DCP therapy and also, to report the effects of a few modifications in the regimen. Methods: An analysis of 123 patients treated with the DCP/DP regimen over a period of five years (1998 to 2002 is presented here. Seventeen patients who did not start/continue the treatment and three patients who died during the treatment have been excluded from the analysis. Twenty patients who had not yet started families were given only dexamethasone pulses (DPs while 103 patients received DCPs. Low dose (50 mg/day cyclophosphamide was used as in the standard regimen. The three modifications introduced into the regimen were: (1 an additional daily dose of oral betamethasone sufficient to control the disease activity during phase I, which was progressively tapered off completely as the patient recovered, (2 use of systemic antibiotics if the patient had skin lesions, and oral anti-candida drugs if the patient had oral ulcers until complete healing, and (3 insistence on thorough cleaning of the skin and scalp with a normal soap and shampoo, and proper maintenance of oral hygiene in spite of skin/mucosal lesions. The regimen consisted of DCP/DP repeated in exactly 28-day cycles, along with 50 mg cyclophosphamide per day, insistence on completing the treatment and avoiding irregular pulses in all patients. The number of DCPs/DPs during phase I varied in different patients depending upon the dose of betamethasone used and the rate of recovery, but phase II (nine DCPs/DPs in exactly 28-day cycles along with 50 mg cyclophosphamide per day and phase III (only 50 mg cyclophosphamide per day was fixed at nine months each. This was followed by posttreatment follow-up (phase IV. Results: At present, all the patients are in complete remission. The

  14. Economic Outcomes of First-Line Regimen Switching Among Stable Patients with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, Lisa; Buikema, Ami R; Seare, Jerry; Bengtson, Lindsay G S; Johnson, Jonathan; Cao, Feng; Villasis-Keever, Angelina

    2017-07-01

    Although switching of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is a valid approach for addressing treatment failure in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), ART changes among those who are well maintained on their current regimens may lead to the development of new side effects or resistance. To examine the effect of first-line regimen switching on subsequent health care utilization and cost among stable HIV patients. This was a retrospective claims data study of adult patients with HIV who initiated ART between 2007 and 2013 and had been treated with their initial regimens for at least 6 continuous months. Those with evidence of pregnancy or HIV-2 were excluded. Patients who underwent an ART change were assigned to a switcher cohort; a nonswitcher cohort was then generated by matching up to 20 nonswitchers for each switcher, with replacement. The index date was the date of the first ART change for switchers and was the claim date closest to the corresponding switcher's switch date for nonswitchers. Patient characteristics at baseline and post-index annualized health care utilization and costs were analyzed descriptively and with multivariable models. Analyses were performed in the full population and among patients designated as virologically stable (had undetectable viral ribonucleic acid [RNA] for 90 days pre-index) and virologically and clinically stable (had undetectable viral RNA and no apparent clinical reason for switching ART). The study population consisted of 6,983 individuals, which included 927 switchers (168 virologically stable; 55 virologically+clinically stable), who were matched with replacement with 18,511 nonswitcher comparators. The switcher cohort was 88.8% male (mean age 43.8 years). Mean preindex and follow-up treatment durations for switchers and nonswitchers were 1.8 years and 1.5 years, respectively; demographic characteristics, pre-index treatment duration, and follow-up duration were similar between cohorts. Significantly more

  15. Potential axillary nerve stretching during RSA implantation: an anatomical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, Blandine; Leclère, Franck Marie; Casoli, Vincent; Paganini, Federico; Unglaub, Frank; Spies, Christian; Valenti, Philippe

    2014-09-01

    Clinical and subclinical neurological injury after reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) may jeopardize functional outcomes due to the risk of irreversible damage to the axillary nerve. We proposed a simple anatomical study in order to assess the macroscopic effects on the axillary nerve when lowering the humerus as performed during RSA implantation. We also measured the effect on the axillary nerve of a lateralization of the humerus. Between 2011 and 2012, cadaveric dissections of 16 shoulder specimens from nine fresh human cadavers were performed in order to assess the effects on the axillary nerve after the lowering and lateralization of the humerus. We assessed the extent of stretching of the axillary nerve in four positions in the sagittal plane [lowering of the humerus: great tuberosity in contact with the acromion (position 1), in contact with the upper (position 2), middle (position 3) and lower rim of the glenoid (position 4)] and three positions in the frontal plane [lateralization of the humerus: humerus in contact with the glenoid (position 1), humerus lateralized 1 cm (position 2) and 2 cm (position 3)]. When the humerus was lowered, clear macroscopical changes appeared below the middle of the glenoid (the highest level of tension). As regards the lateralization of the humerus, macroscopic study and measurements confirm the absence of stretching of the nerve in those positions. Lowering of the humerus below the equator of the glenoid changes the course and tension of the axillary nerve and may lead to stretching and irreversible damage, compromising the function of the deltoid. Improvements in the design of the implants and modification of the positioning of the glenosphere to avoid notching and to increase mobility must take into account the anatomical changes induced by the prosthesis and its impact on the brachial plexus. Level of Evidence and study type Level IV.

  16. Elastography Study of Hamstring Behaviors during Passive Stretching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Sant, Guillaume; Ates, Filiz; Brasseur, Jean-Louis; Nordez, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The mechanical properties of hamstring muscles are usually inferred from global passive torque/angle relationships, in combination with adjoining tissues crossing the joint investigated. Shear modulus measurement provides an estimate of changes in muscle-tendon stiffness and passive tension. This study aimed to assess the passive individual behavior of each hamstring muscle in different stretching positions using shear wave elastography. Methods/Results The muscle shear modulus of each hamstring muscle was measured during a standardized slow passive knee extension (PKE, 80% of maximal range of motion) on eighteen healthy male volunteers. Firstly, we assessed the reliability of the measurements. Results were good for semitendinosus (ST, CV: 8.9%-13.4%), semimembranosus (SM, CV: 10.3%-11.2%) and biceps femoris long-head (BF-lh, CV: 8.6%-13.3%), but not for biceps femoris short-head (BF-sh, CV: 20.3%-44.9%). Secondly, we investigated each reliable muscle in three stretch positions: 70°, 90° and 110° of hip flexion. The results showed different values of shear modulus for the same amount of perceived stretch, with the highest measurements in the high-flexed hip situation. Moreover, individual muscles displayed different values, with values increasing or BF-lh, SM and ST, respectively. The inter-subject variability was 35.3% for ST, 27.4% for SM and 30.2% for BF-lh. Conclusion This study showed that the hip needs to be high-flexed to efficiently tension the hamstrings, and reports a higher muscle-tendon stress tolerance at 110° of hip angle. In addition muscles have different passive behaviors, and future works will clarify if it can be linked with rate of injury. PMID:26418862

  17. Elastography Study of Hamstring Behaviors during Passive Stretching.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Le Sant

    Full Text Available The mechanical properties of hamstring muscles are usually inferred from global passive torque/angle relationships, in combination with adjoining tissues crossing the joint investigated. Shear modulus measurement provides an estimate of changes in muscle-tendon stiffness and passive tension. This study aimed to assess the passive individual behavior of each hamstring muscle in different stretching positions using shear wave elastography.The muscle shear modulus of each hamstring muscle was measured during a standardized slow passive knee extension (PKE, 80% of maximal range of motion on eighteen healthy male volunteers. Firstly, we assessed the reliability of the measurements. Results were good for semitendinosus (ST, CV: 8.9%-13.4%, semimembranosus (SM, CV: 10.3%-11.2% and biceps femoris long-head (BF-lh, CV: 8.6%-13.3%, but not for biceps femoris short-head (BF-sh, CV: 20.3%-44.9%. Secondly, we investigated each reliable muscle in three stretch positions: 70°, 90° and 110° of hip flexion. The results showed different values of shear modulus for the same amount of perceived stretch, with the highest measurements in the high-flexed hip situation. Moreover, individual muscles displayed different values, with values increasing or BF-lh, SM and ST, respectively. The inter-subject variability was 35.3% for ST, 27.4% for SM and 30.2% for BF-lh.This study showed that the hip needs to be high-flexed to efficiently tension the hamstrings, and reports a higher muscle-tendon stress tolerance at 110° of hip angle. In addition muscles have different passive behaviors, and future works will clarify if it can be linked with rate of injury.

  18. Ultrafast quantitative time-stretch imaging flow cytometry of phytoplankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Queenie T. K.; Lau, Andy K. S.; Tang, Anson H. L.; Wong, Kenneth K. Y.; Tsia, Kevin K.

    2016-03-01

    Comprehensive quantification of phytoplankton abundance, sizes and other parameters, e.g. biomasses, has been an important, yet daunting task in aquatic sciences and biofuel research. It is primarily because of the lack of effective tool to image and thus accurately profile individual microalgae in a large population. The phytoplankton species are highly diversified and heterogeneous in terms of their sizes and the richness in morphological complexity. This fact makes time-stretch imaging, a new ultrafast real-time optical imaging technology, particularly suitable for ultralarge-scale taxonomic classification of phytoplankton together with quantitative image recognition and analysis. We here demonstrate quantitative imaging flow cytometry of single phytoplankton based on quantitative asymmetric-detection time-stretch optical microscopy (Q-ATOM) - a new time-stretch imaging modality for label-free quantitative phase imaging without interferometric implementations. Sharing the similar concept of Schlieren imaging, Q-ATOM accesses multiple phase-gradient contrasts of each single phytoplankton, from which the quantitative phase profile is computed. We employ such system to capture, at an imaging line-scan rate of 11.6 MHz, high-resolution images of two phytoplankton populations (scenedesmus and chlamydomonas) in ultrafast microfluidic flow (3 m/s). We further perform quantitative taxonomic screening analysis enabled by this technique. More importantly, the system can also generate quantitative phase images of single phytoplankton. This is especially useful for label-free quantification of biomasses (e.g. lipid droplets) of the particular species of interest - an important task adopted in biofuel applications. Combining machine learning for automated classification, Q-ATOM could be an attractive platform for continuous and real-time ultralarge-scale single-phytoplankton analysis.

  19. Computation of nuclear reactor parameters using a stretch Kalman filtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwingelstein, G.; Poujol, A.

    1976-01-01

    A method of nonlinear stochastic filtering, the stretched Karman filter, is used for the estimation of two basic parameters involved in the control of nuclear reactor start-up. The corresponding algorithm is stored in a small Multi-8 computer and tested with data recorded for the Ulysse reactor (I.N.S.T.N.). The various practical problems involved in using the algorithm are examined: filtering initialization, influence of the model... The quality and time saving obtained in the computation make it possible for a real time operation, the computer being connected with the reactor [fr

  20. Boundary layer flow of nanofluid over an exponentially stretching surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Sohail; Lee, Changhoon

    2012-01-01

    The steady boundary layer flow of nanofluid over an exponential stretching surface is investigated analytically. The transport equations include the effects of Brownian motion parameter and thermophoresis parameter. The highly nonlinear coupled partial differential equations are simplified with the help of suitable similarity transformations. The reduced equations are then solved analytically with the help of homotopy analysis method (HAM). The convergence of HAM solutions are obtained by plotting h-curve. The expressions for velocity, temperature and nanoparticle volume fraction are computed for some values of the parameters namely, suction injection parameter α, Lewis number Le, the Brownian motion parameter Nb and thermophoresis parameter Nt.

  1. Boundary layer flow of nanofluid over an exponentially stretching surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Sohail; Lee, Changhoon

    2012-01-30

    The steady boundary layer flow of nanofluid over an exponential stretching surface is investigated analytically. The transport equations include the effects of Brownian motion parameter and thermophoresis parameter. The highly nonlinear coupled partial differential equations are simplified with the help of suitable similarity transformations. The reduced equations are then solved analytically with the help of homotopy analysis method (HAM). The convergence of HAM solutions are obtained by plotting h-curve. The expressions for velocity, temperature and nanoparticle volume fraction are computed for some values of the parameters namely, suction injection parameter α, Lewis number Le, the Brownian motion parameter Nb and thermophoresis parameter Nt.

  2. An energetic model for macromolecules unfolding in stretching experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Tommasi, D.; Millardi, N.; Puglisi, G.; Saccomandi, G.

    2013-01-01

    We propose a simple approach, based on the minimization of the total (entropic plus unfolding) energy of a two-state system, to describe the unfolding of multi-domain macromolecules (proteins, silks, polysaccharides, nanopolymers). The model is fully analytical and enlightens the role of the different energetic components regulating the unfolding evolution. As an explicit example, we compare the analytical results with a titin atomic force microscopy stretch-induced unfolding experiment showing the ability of the model to quantitatively reproduce the experimental behaviour. In the thermodynamic limit, the sawtooth force–elongation unfolding curve degenerates to a constant force unfolding plateau. PMID:24047874

  3. High-Throughput Accurate Single-Cell Screening of Euglena gracilis with Fluorescence-Assisted Optofluidic Time-Stretch Microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoshan Guo

    Full Text Available The development of reliable, sustainable, and economical sources of alternative fuels is an important, but challenging goal for the world. As an alternative to liquid fossil fuels, algal biofuel is expected to play a key role in alleviating global warming since algae absorb atmospheric CO2 via photosynthesis. Among various algae for fuel production, Euglena gracilis is an attractive microalgal species as it is known to produce wax ester (good for biodiesel and aviation fuel within lipid droplets. To date, while there exist many techniques for inducing microalgal cells to produce and accumulate lipid with high efficiency, few analytical methods are available for characterizing a population of such lipid-accumulated microalgae including E. gracilis with high throughout, high accuracy, and single-cell resolution simultaneously. Here we demonstrate high-throughput, high-accuracy, single-cell screening of E. gracilis with fluorescence-assisted optofluidic time-stretch microscopy-a method that combines the strengths of microfluidic cell focusing, optical time-stretch microscopy, and fluorescence detection used in conventional flow cytometry. Specifically, our fluorescence-assisted optofluidic time-stretch microscope consists of an optical time-stretch microscope and a fluorescence analyzer on top of a hydrodynamically focusing microfluidic device and can detect fluorescence from every E. gracilis cell in a population and simultaneously obtain its image with a high throughput of 10,000 cells/s. With the multi-dimensional information acquired by the system, we classify nitrogen-sufficient (ordinary and nitrogen-deficient (lipid-accumulated E. gracilis cells with a low false positive rate of 1.0%. This method holds promise for evaluating cultivation techniques and selective breeding for microalgae-based biofuel production.

  4. High-Throughput Accurate Single-Cell Screening of Euglena gracilis with Fluorescence-Assisted Optofluidic Time-Stretch Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Baoshan; Lei, Cheng; Ito, Takuro; Jiang, Yiyue; Ozeki, Yasuyuki; Goda, Keisuke

    2016-01-01

    The development of reliable, sustainable, and economical sources of alternative fuels is an important, but challenging goal for the world. As an alternative to liquid fossil fuels, algal biofuel is expected to play a key role in alleviating global warming since algae absorb atmospheric CO2 via photosynthesis. Among various algae for fuel production, Euglena gracilis is an attractive microalgal species as it is known to produce wax ester (good for biodiesel and aviation fuel) within lipid droplets. To date, while there exist many techniques for inducing microalgal cells to produce and accumulate lipid with high efficiency, few analytical methods are available for characterizing a population of such lipid-accumulated microalgae including E. gracilis with high throughout, high accuracy, and single-cell resolution simultaneously. Here we demonstrate high-throughput, high-accuracy, single-cell screening of E. gracilis with fluorescence-assisted optofluidic time-stretch microscopy-a method that combines the strengths of microfluidic cell focusing, optical time-stretch microscopy, and fluorescence detection used in conventional flow cytometry. Specifically, our fluorescence-assisted optofluidic time-stretch microscope consists of an optical time-stretch microscope and a fluorescence analyzer on top of a hydrodynamically focusing microfluidic device and can detect fluorescence from every E. gracilis cell in a population and simultaneously obtain its image with a high throughput of 10,000 cells/s. With the multi-dimensional information acquired by the system, we classify nitrogen-sufficient (ordinary) and nitrogen-deficient (lipid-accumulated) E. gracilis cells with a low false positive rate of 1.0%. This method holds promise for evaluating cultivation techniques and selective breeding for microalgae-based biofuel production.

  5. Label-free image-based detection of drug resistance with optofluidic time-stretch microscopy (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Hirofumi; Lei, Cheng; Mao, Ailin; Jiang, Yiyue; Guo, Baoshan; Ozeki, Yasuyuki; Goda, Keisuke

    2017-02-01

    Acquired drug resistance is a fundamental predicament in cancer therapy. Early detection of drug-resistant cancer cells during or after treatment is expected to benefit patients from unnecessary drug administration and thus play a significant role in the development of a therapeutic strategy. However, the development of an effective method of detecting drug-resistant cancer cells is still in its infancy due to their complex mechanism in drug resistance. To address this problem, we propose and experimentally demonstrate label-free image-based drug resistance detection with optofluidic time-stretch microscopy using leukemia cells (K562 and K562/ADM). By adding adriamycin (ADM) to both K562 and K562/ADM (ADM-resistant K562 cells) cells, both types of cells express unique morphological changes, which are subsequently captured by an optofluidic time-stretch microscope. These unique morphological changes are extracted as image features and are subjected to supervised machine learning for cell classification. We hereby have successfully differentiated K562 and K562/ADM solely with label-free images, which suggests that our technique is capable of detecting drug-resistant cancer cells. Our optofluidic time-stretch microscope consists of a time-stretch microscope with a high spatial resolution of 780 nm at a 1D frame rate of 75 MHz and a microfluidic device that focuses and orders cells. We compare various machine learning algorithms as well as various concentrations of ADM for cell classification. Owing to its unprecedented versatility of using label-free image and its independency from specific molecules, our technique holds great promise for detecting drug resistance of cancer cells for which its underlying mechanism is still unknown or chemical probes are still unavailable.

  6. Duration of static stretching influences muscle force production in hamstring muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, Yuji; Miyahara, Yutetsu; Naito, Hisashi; Katamoto, Shizuo; Aoki, Junichiro

    2007-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether duration of static stretching could affect the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). Volunteer male subjects (n = 10) underwent 2 different durations of static stretching of their hamstring muscles in the dominant leg: 30 and 60 seconds. No static stretching condition was used as a control condition. Before and after each stretching trial, hamstring flexibility was measured by a sit and reach test. MVC was then measured using the maximal effort of knee flexion. The hamstring flexibility was significantly increased by 30 and 60 seconds of static stretching (control: 0.5 +/- 1.1 cm; 30 seconds: 2.1 +/- 1.8 cm; 60 seconds: 3.0 +/- 1.6 cm); however, there was no significant difference between 30 and 60 seconds of static stretching conditions. The MVC was significantly lowered with 60 seconds of static stretching compared to the control and 30 seconds of the stretching conditions (control: 287.6 +/- 24.0 N; 30 seconds: 281.8 +/- 24.2 N; 60 seconds: 262.4 +/- 36.2 N). However, there was no significant difference between control and 30 seconds of static stretching conditions. Therefore, it was concluded that the short duration (30 seconds) of static stretching did not have a negative effect on the muscle force production.

  7. Acute effects of static, dynamic, and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching on muscle power in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoel, Mateus E; Harris-Love, Michael O; Danoff, Jerome V; Miller, Todd A

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effects of 3 types of stretching-static, dynamic, and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF)-on peak muscle power output in women. Concentric knee extension power was measured isokinetically at 60 degrees x s(-1) and 180 degrees x s(-1) in 12 healthy and recreationally active women (mean age +/- SD, 24 +/- 3.3 years). Testing occurred before and after each of 3 different stretching protocols and a control condition in which no stretching was performed. During 4 separate laboratory visits, each subject performed 5 minutes of stationary cycling at 50 W before performing the control condition, static stretching protocol, dynamic stretching protocol, or PNF protocol. Three submaximal warm-up trials preceded 3 maximal knee extensions at each testing velocity. A 2-minute rest was allowed between testing at each velocity. The results of the statistical analysis indicated that none of the stretching protocols caused a decrease in knee extension power. Dynamic stretching produced percentage increases (8.9% at 60 degrees x s(-1) and 6.3% at 180 degrees x s(-1)) in peak knee extension power at both testing velocities that were greater than changes in power after static and PNF stretching. The findings suggest that dynamic stretching may increase acute muscular power to a greater degree than static and PNF stretching. These findings may have important implications for athletes who participate in events that rely on a high level of muscular power.

  8. Acute effect of a ballistic and a static stretching exercise bout on flexibility and maximal strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacurau, Reury Frank Pereira; Monteiro, Gizele Assis; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos; Tricoli, Valmor; Cabral, Leonardo Ferreira; Aoki, Marcelo Saldanha

    2009-01-01

    Different stretching techniques have been used during warm-up routines. However, these routines may decrease force production. The purpose of this study was to compare the acute effect of a ballistic and a static stretching protocol on lower-limb maximal strength. Fourteen physically active women (169.3 +/- 8.2 cm; 64.9 +/- 5.9 kg; 23.1 +/- 3.6 years) performed three experimental sessions: a control session (estimation of 45 degrees leg press one-repetition maximum [1RM]), a ballistic session (20 minutes of ballistic stretch and 45 degrees leg press 1RM), and a static session (20 minutes of static stretch and 45 degrees leg press 1RM). Maximal strength decreased after static stretching (213.2 +/- 36.1 to 184.6 +/- 28.9 kg), but it was unaffected by ballistic stretching (208.4 +/- 34.8 kg). In addition, static stretching exercises produce a greater acute improvement in flexibility compared with ballistic stretching exercises. Consequently, static stretching may not be recommended before athletic events or physical activities that require high levels of force. On the other hand, ballistic stretching could be more appropriate because it seems less likely to decrease maximal strength.

  9. Sequential regimen of clofarabine, cytosine arabinoside and reduced-intensity conditioned transplantation for primary refractory acute myeloid leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohty, Mohamad; Malard, Florent; Blaise, Didier; Milpied, Noel; Socié, Gérard; Huynh, Anne; Reman, Oumédaly; Yakoub-Agha, Ibrahim; Furst, Sabine; Guillaume, Thierry; Tabrizi, Resa; Vigouroux, Stéphane; Peterlin, Pierre; El-Cheikh, Jean; Moreau, Philippe; Labopin, Myriam; Chevallier, Patrice

    2017-01-01

    The prognosis of patients with acute myeloid leukemia in whom primary treatment fails remains very poor. In order to improve such patients’ outcome, we conducted a phase 2, prospective, multicenter trial to test the feasibility of a new sequential regimen, combining a short course of intensive chemotherapy and a reduced intensity-conditioning regimen, before allogeneic stem-cell transplantation. Twenty-four patients (median age, 47 years) with acute myeloid leukemia in primary treatment failure were included. Cytogenetic risk was poor in 15 patients (62%) and intermediate in nine (38%). The sequential regimen consisted of clofarabine (30 mg/m2/day) and cytosine arabinoside (1 g/m2/day) for 5 days, followed, after a 3-day rest, by reduced-intensity conditioning and allogeneic stem-cell transplantation combining cyclophosphamide (60 mg/kg), intravenous busulfan (3.2 mg/kg/day) for 2 days and anti-thymocyte globulin (2.5 mg/kg/day) for 2 days. Patients in complete remission at day +120 received prophylactic donor lymphocyte infusion. Eighteen patients (75%) achieved complete remission. With a median follow-up of 24.6 months, the Kaplan-Meier estimate of overall survival was 54% (95% CI: 33–71) at 1 year and 38% (95% CI: 18–46) at 2 years. The Kaplan-Meier estimate of leukemia-free survival was 46% (95% CI: 26–64) at 1 year and 29% (95% CI: 13–48) at 2 years. The cumulative incidence of non-relapse mortality was 8% (95% CI: 1–24) at 1 year and 12% (95% CI: 3–19) at 2 years. Results from this phase 2 prospective multicenter trial endorsed the safety and efficacy of a clofarabine-based sequential reduced-toxicity conditioning regimen, which warrants further investigation. This study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov, identifier number: NCT01188174. PMID:27561720

  10. Paclitaxel and Carboplatin (TC) Regimen for Ovarian Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, Julie M; Waddell, J Aubrey; Solimando, Dominic A

    2014-05-01

    The complexity of cancer chemotherapy requires pharmacists be familiar with the complicated regimens and highly toxic agents used. This column reviews various issues related to preparation, dispensing, and administration of antineoplastic therapy, and the agents, both commercially available and investigational, used to treat malignant diseases. Questions or suggestions for topics should be addressed to Dominic A. Solimando, Jr, President, Oncology Pharmacy Services, Inc., 4201 Wilson Blvd #110-545, Arlington, VA 22203, e-mail: OncRxSvc@comcast.net; or J. Aubrey Waddell, Professor, University of Tennessee College of Pharmacy; Oncology Pharmacist, Pharmacy Department, Blount Memorial Hospital, 907 E. Lamar Alexander Parkway, Maryville, TN 37804, e-mail: waddfour@charter.net.

  11. nab-Paclitaxel Plus Gemcitabine Regimen for Pancreatic Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Courtney E; Waddell, J Aubrey; Solimando, Dominic A

    2014-01-01

    The complexity of cancer chemotherapy requires pharmacists be familiar with the complicated regimens and highly toxic agents used. This column reviews various issues related to preparation, dispensing, and administration of antineoplastic therapy, and the agents, both commercially available and investigational, used to treat malignant diseases. Questions or suggestions for topics should be addressed to Dominic A. Solimando, Jr, President, Oncology Pharmacy Services, Inc, 4201 Wilson Blvd #110-545, Arlington, VA 22203, e-mail: OncRxSvc@comcast.net; or J. Aubrey Waddell, Professor, University of Tennessee College of Pharmacy; Oncology Pharmacist, Pharmacy Department, Blount Memorial Hospital, 907 E. Lamar Alexander Parkway, Maryville, TN 37804, e-mail: waddfour@charter.net.

  12. Antirelapse Efficacy of Various Primaquine Regimens for Plasmodium vivax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. D. Rajgor

    2014-01-01

    respectively P=0.004. The relapse rate was 6.89%, 1.55%, 4%, and 3.85% as per the month of recurrence; 8.2%, 2%, 4.58%, and 3.68% P=0.007 as per PCR-RFLP; and 2.73%, 1.47%, 1.55%, and 1.53% as per PCR sequencing for groups A, B, C, and D, respectively. The concordance between methods was low, 45%. Conclusion. The higher recurrence rate in no PQ as compared to PQ groups documents PQ antirelapse activity. Regimens tested were safe. However, probable resistance to PQ warrants continuous monitoring and low concordance and limitations in the methods warrant caution in interpreting.

  13. Comparison of antiplatelet regimens in secondary stroke prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Christine Benn; Pallisgaard, Jannik; Gerds, Thomas Alexander

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In patients with ischemic stroke of non-cardioembolic origin, acetylsalicylic acid, clopidogrel, or a combination of acetylsalicylic acid and dipyridamole are recommended for the prevention of a recurrent stroke. The purpose of this study was to examine the risk of bleeding or recurrent...... were calculated for each antiplatelet regimen. RESULTS: Among patients discharged after first-time ischemic stroke, 3043 patients were treated with acetylsalicylic acid, 12,295 with a combination of acetylsalicylic acid and dipyridamole, and 3885 with clopidogrel. Adjusted HRs for clopidogrel versus...... the combination of acetylsalicylic acid and dipyridamole were 1.02 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.89-1.17) for ischemic stroke and 1.06 (95% CI: 0.83-1.35) for bleeding. Adjusted HRs for acetylsalicylic acid versus the combination of acetylsalicylic acid and dipyridamole were 1.48 (95% CI: 1.31-1.67) for stroke...

  14. Medication regimen complexity in ambulatory older adults with heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cobretti MR

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Michael R Cobretti,1 Robert L Page II,2 Sunny A Linnebur,2 Kimberly M Deininger,1 Amrut V Ambardekar,3 JoAnn Lindenfeld,4 Christina L Aquilante1 1Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado, Aurora, CO, 3Division of Cardiology, School of Medicine, University of Colorado, Aurora, CO, 4Advanced Heart Failure and Cardiac Transplant Program, Vanderbilt Heart and Vascular Institute, Nashville, TN, USA Purpose: Heart failure prevalence is increasing in older adults, and polypharmacy is a major problem in this population. We compared medication regimen complexity using the validated patient-level Medication Regimen Complexity Index (pMRCI tool in “young-old” (60–74 years versus “old-old” (75–89 years patients with heart failure. We also compared pMRCI between patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy (ISCM versus nonischemic cardiomyopathy (NISCM.Patients and methods: Medication lists were retrospectively abstracted from the electronic medical records of ambulatory patients aged 60–89 years with heart failure. Medications were categorized into three types – heart failure prescription medications, other prescription medications, and over-the-counter (OTC medications – and scored using the pMRCI tool.Results: The study evaluated 145 patients (n=80 young-old, n=65 old-old, n=85 ISCM, n=60 NISCM, mean age 73±7 years, 64% men, 81% Caucasian. Mean total pMRCI scores (32.1±14.4, range 3–84 and total medication counts (13.3±4.8, range 2–30 were high for the entire cohort, of which 72% of patients were taking eleven or more total medications. Total and subtype pMRCI scores and medication counts did not differ significantly between the young-old and old-old groups, with the exception of OTC medication pMRCI score (6.2±4 young-old versus 7.8±5.8 old-old, P=0.04. With regard to heart failure etiology, total pMRCI scores and medication

  15. Effectiveness of a sanguinarine regimen after scaling and root planing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenbaum, H; Dahan, M; Soell, M

    1999-03-01

    A variety of chemical agents have been evaluated relative to their abilities to inhibit dental plaque and to improve gingival health. Chlorhexidine gluconate is the best known and most widely used member of these agents, but its long-term use is compromised by different side effects, especially extrinsic tooth and tongue staining. Another agent, sanguinarine, which is currently used in both a mouthrinse and toothpaste, leads in some cases only to a transient burning sensation and could be used on a long-term basis. The purpose of this 14-week controlled clinical trial was to assess the effectiveness of a toothpaste and oral rinse containing sanguinaria extract after scaling, root planing and a chlorhexidine regimen. Sixty patients diagnosed as having adult periodontitis received initial periodontal therapy including scaling and root planing, followed by a 2-week oral care regimen which included rinsing with 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate oral rinse. Upon completion of this 2-week initial therapy phase, patients were randomly assigned to either sanguinarine toothpaste and oral rinse or to control toothpaste and oral rinse without sanguinarine. Plaque (modified Quigley-Hein index) and gingivitis (gingival index) were measured prior to periodontal therapy, at the end of the chlorhexidine phase (2 weeks), and after 8 and 14 weeks. Sanguinarine-containing toothpaste and oral rinse significantly inhibited the redevelopment of gingivitis through the 12 weeks following the chlorhexidine phase compared to the control toothpaste and rinse. Patients in the test group had 26% fewer bleeding sites at 8 weeks, and 32% fewer at 14 weeks, than the control group. Our results support the combined use of chlorhexidine mouthrinse for a short term (2 weeks) followed by sanguinaria mouthrinse and toothpaste up to 3 months in order to optimize the effectiveness of chlorhexidine without side effects. Further studies on the long-term effect of this combination should be established.

  16. Switching Process Consisting of Three Isomeric States of an Azobenzene Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Abdulselam; Haberhauer, Gebhard

    2017-07-19

    Azobenzene and its derivatives are among the most commonly used switching units in organic chemistry. The switching process consists of two states, in which the trans isomer has a stretched and the cis isomer a compact form. Here, we have designed a system in which all isomeric states of an azobenzene moiety (trans → cis-(M) → cis-(P)) are passed step by step. The first step involves a change in the distance between the benzene units, which is common for azobenzene derivatives. In the second step an inversion of the helicity (M→P) of the cis azobenzene unit takes place. The third step leads back to the stretched trans isomer. This switching cycle is achieved by coupling the azobenzene unit with two chiral clamps and with a further azobenzene switching unit.

  17. Chiropractic manipulative therapy of the thoracic spine in combination with stretch and strengthening exercises, in improving postural kyphosis in woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim C. Branco

    2016-10-01

    Method: A randomised study design with thirty female participants between the ages of twenty and  thirty nine was selected. Group 1 (n = 10 received chiropractic spinal manipulative therapy to the thoracic spine. Group 2 (n = 10 received chiropractic spinal manipulative therapy to the thoracic spine as well as stretch and strengthening exercises i.e. stretching the pectoralis major muscles and strengthening the rhomboid, middle and inferior trapezius muscles. Group 3 (n = 10 received stretch and strengthening exercises. The stretch and strengthening exercises were performed in the consultation rooms to ensure that the participants were complying with the treatment and doing the exercises properly. The study consisted of seven consultations for Group 1 (they received treatment once a week for six weeks and for Groups 2 and 3 there were nineteen consultations (they received three treatments a week for six weeks. Objective data was recorded at the beginning of the first, fourth and seventh consultations for Group 1, and the first, tenth and nineteenth consultations for Groups 2 and 3. On the seventh consultation (for Group 1 and nineteenth consultation for Groups 2 and 3, only data collection was done. Objective data were obtained by using the Flexicurve® Ruler measurements for the angle of kyphosis. Visual analysis was done by taking lateral (sagittal view photographs at the beginning of the initial and final consultations. Results: Statistical analysis revealed significant statistical changes for the intragroup results for all three groups. No significant statistical difference was found between the groups for the inter-group analysis. Conclusion: The study showed that all three treatment protocols for Groups 1, 2, and 3 were effective. However, Group 1 had not shown a great improvement in their postural kyphosis, Group 3 had shown a relatively good improvement in their posture, while Group 2 had shown the best results with regards to improvement of the

  18. Immunogenicity, safety and antibody persistence of a purified vero cell cultured rabies vaccine (Speeda) administered by the Zagreb regimen or Essen regimen in post-exposure subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Nianmin; Zhang, Yibin; Zheng, Huizhen; Zhu, Zhenggang; Wang, Dingming; Li, Sihai; Li, Yuhua; Yang, Liqing; Zhang, Junnan; Bai, Yunhua; Lu, Qiang; Zhang, Zheng; Luo, Fengji; Yu, Chun; Li, Li

    2017-06-03

    To compare the safety, immunogenicity and long-term effect of a purified vero cell cultured rabies vaccine in post-exposure subjects following 2 intramuscular regimens, Zagreb or Essen regimen. Serum samples were collected before vaccination and on days 7, 14, 42, 180 and 365 post vaccination. Solicited adverse events were recorded for 7 d following each vaccine dose, and unsolicited adverse events throughout the entire study period. This study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01821911 and NCT01827917). No serious adverse events were reported. Although Zagreb regimen had a higher incidence of adverse reactions than Essen regimen at the first and second injection, the incidence was similar at the third and fourth injection between these 2 groups as well. At day 42, 100% subjects developed adequate rabies virus neutralizing antibody concentrations (≥ 0.5IU/ml) for both regimens. At days 180 and 365, the antibody level decreased dramatically, however, the percentage of subjects with adequate antibody concentrations still remained high (above 75% and 50% respectively). None of confirmed rabies virus exposured subjects had rabies one year later, and percentage of subjects with adequate antibody concentrations reached 100% at days 14 and 42. Rabies post-exposure prophylaxis vaccination with PVRV following a Zagreb regimen had a similar safety, immunogenicity and long-term effect to the Essen regimen in China.

  19. Stretched exponential relaxation processes in hydrogenated amorphous and polymorphous silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morigaki, Kazuo [Department of Electrical and Digital-System Engineering, Hiroshima Institute of Technology, Miyake, Saeki-ku, Hiroshima 731-5193 (Japan); Hikita, Harumi [Physics Laboratory, Meikai University, Urayasu, Chiba 279-8550 (Japan)

    2011-09-15

    Stretched exponential relaxation has been observed in various phenomena of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) and hydrogenated polymorphous silicon (pm-Si:H). As an example, we take light-induced defect creation in a-Si:H and pm-Si:H, in which defect-creation process and defect-annihilation process via hydrogen movement play important roles. We have performed the Monte Carlo simulation for hydrogen movement. Hydrogen movement exhibits anomalous diffusion. In our model of light-induced defect creation in a-Si:H, a pair of two types of dangling bonds, i.e., a normal dangling bond and a hydrogen-related dangling bond, that is a dangling bond having hydrogen in the nearby site, are created under illumination, and hydrogen dissociated from the hydrogen-related dangling bond terminates a normal dangling bond via hydrogen movement. The amorphous network reflects on the dispersive parameter of the stretched exponential function in the light-induced defect creation. We discuss this issue, taking into account the difference in the amorphous network between a-Si:H and pm-Si:H (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  20. MHD biconvective flow of Powell Eyring nanofluid over stretched surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseem, Faiza; Shafiq, Anum; Zhao, Lifeng; Naseem, Anum

    2017-06-01

    The present work is focused on behavioral characteristics of gyrotactic microorganisms to describe their role in heat and mass transfer in the presence of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) forces in Powell-Eyring nanofluids. Implications concerning stretching sheet with respect to velocity, temperature, nanoparticle concentration and motile microorganism density were explored to highlight influential parameters. Aim of utilizing microorganisms was primarily to stabilize the nanoparticle suspension due to bioconvection generated by the combined effects of buoyancy forces and magnetic field. Influence of Newtonian heating was also analyzed by taking into account thermophoretic mechanism and Brownian motion effects to insinuate series solutions mediated by homotopy analysis method (HAM). Mathematical model captured the boundary layer regime that explicitly involved contemporary non linear partial differential equations converted into the ordinary differential equations. To depict nanofluid flow characteristics, pertinent parameters namely bioconvection Lewis number Lb, traditional Lewis number Le, bioconvection Péclet number Pe, buoyancy ratio parameter Nr, bioconvection Rayleigh number Rb, thermophoresis parameter Nt, Hartmann number M, Grashof number Gr, and Eckert number Ec were computed and analyzed. Results revealed evidence of hydromagnetic bioconvection for microorganism which was represented by graphs and tables. Our findings further show a significant effect of Newtonian heating over a stretching plate by examining the coefficient values of skin friction, local Nusselt number and the local density number. Comparison was made between Newtonian fluid and Powell-Eyring fluid on velocity field and temperature field. Results are compared of with contemporary studies and our findings are found in excellent agreement with these studies.

  1. Extension by faulting, stretching and magma intrusion in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastow, I. D.; Keir, D.

    2012-12-01

    The 2001-2004 Ethiopia Afar Geoscientific Lithospheric Experiment showed that high seismic wavespeed, dense, mafic crustal intrusions exist beneath many zones of Quaternary magmatism in the Main Ethiopian rift, and that crustal thinning is minimal. From these observations, a consensus quickly emerged that extension presently occurs not by ductile stretching and brittle faulting but by magma intrusion. Striking InSAR images and accompanying seismic data from the 2005 Afar diking episode provided further compelling evidence in support of the magma assisted rifting hypothesis. Patterns of mantle seismic anisotropy, constrained by a combination of body and surface-wave analysis showed that melt intrusion likely also plays an important role in accommodating extension at greater depths in the extending plate. Evidence from further north in Afar, however, where crustal thickness decreases abruptly into the Danakil Depression, is not so easily explained by the magma assisted rifting hypothesis. Subsidence of the newly forming margin towards and below sea level, and eruption of voluminous basalt flows, is likely the result of late-stage thinning of the heavily intruded, weakened plate just before the onset of seafloor spreading. Faulting, stretching and magma intrusion are thus each important, but at different times during breakup. Combining, not isolating, these mechanisms of strain in new rifting models and appreciating how plate strength varies during rifting is essential in developing a clearer understanding of the incomplete geological record that documents continental breakup over time.

  2. Tangential stretching rate (TSR) analysis of non premixed reactive flows

    KAUST Repository

    Valorani, Mauro

    2016-10-16

    We discuss how the Tangential stretching rate (TSR) analysis, originally developed and tested for spatially homogeneous systems (batch reactors), is extended to spatially non homogeneous systems. To illustrate the effectiveness of the TSR diagnostics, we study the ignition transient in a non premixed, reaction–diffusion model in the mixture fraction space, whose dependent variables are temperature and mixture composition. The reactive mixture considered is syngas/air. A detailed H2/CO mechanism with 12 species and 33 chemical reactions is employed. We will discuss two cases, one involving only kinetics as a model of front propagation purely driven by spontaneous ignition, the other as a model of deflagration wave involving kinetics/diffusion coupling. We explore different aspects of the system dynamics such as the relative role of diffusion and kinetics, the evolution of kinetic eigenvalues, and of the tangential stretching rates computed by accounting for the combined action of diffusion and kinetics as well for kinetics only. We propose criteria based on the TSR concept which allow to identify the most ignitable conditions and to discriminate between spontaneous ignition and deflagration front.

  3. Analysis of a Stretched Derivative Aircraft with Open Rotor Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berton, Jeffrey J.; Hendricks, Eric S.; Haller, William J.; Guynn, Mark D.

    2015-01-01

    Research into advanced, high-speed civil turboprops received significant attention during the 1970s and 1980s when fuel efficiency was the driving focus of U.S. aeronautical research. But when fuel prices declined sharply there was no longer sufficient motivation to continue maturing the technology. Recent volatility in fuel prices and increasing concern for aviation's environmental impact, however, have renewed interest in unducted, open rotor propulsion and revived research by NASA and a number of engine manufacturers. Recently, NASA and General Electric have teamed to conduct several investigations into the performance and noise of an advanced, single-aisle transport with open rotor propulsion. The results of these initial studies indicate open rotor engines have the potential to provide significant reduction in fuel consumption compared to aircraft using turbofan engines with equivalent core technology. In addition, noise analysis of the concept indicates that an open rotor aircraft in the single-aisle transport class would be able to meet current noise regulations with margin. The behavior of derivative open rotor transports is of interest. Heavier, "stretched" derivative aircraft tend to be noisier than their lighter relatives. Of particular importance to the business case for the concept is how the noise margin changes relative to regulatory limits within a family of similar open rotor aircraft. The subject of this report is a performance and noise assessment of a notional, heavier, stretched derivative airplane equipped with throttle-push variants of NASA's initial open rotor engine design.

  4. Harmonics analysis of the photonic time stretch system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Yuan; Xu, Boyu; Chi, Hao; Jin, Tao; Zheng, Shilie; Jin, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Xianmin

    2016-09-10

    Photonic time stretch (PTS) has been intensively investigated in recent decades due to its potential application to ultra-wideband analog-to-digital conversion. A high-speed analog signal can be captured by an electronic analog-to-digital converter (ADC) with the help of the PTS technique, which slows down the speed of signal in the photonic domain. Unfortunately, the process of the time stretch is not linear due to the nonlinear modulation of the electro-optic intensity modulator in the PTS system, which means the undesired harmonics distortion. In this paper, we present an exact analytical model to fully characterize the harmonics generation in the PTS systems for the first time, to the best of our knowledge. We obtain concise and closed-form expressions for all harmonics of the PTS system with either a single-arm Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) or a push-pull MZM. The presented model can largely simplify the PTS system design and the system parameters estimation, such as system bandwidth, harmonics power, time-bandwidth product, and dynamic range. The correctness of the mathematic model is verified by the numerical and experimental results.

  5. Intermittent stretching induces fibrosis in denervated rat muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faturi, Fernanda M; Franco, Rúbia C; Gigo-Benato, Davilene; Turi, Andriette C; Silva-Couto, Marcela A; Messa, Sabrina P; Russo, Thiago L

    2016-01-01

    Stretching (St) has been used for treating denervated muscles. However, its effectiveness and safety claims require further study. Rats were divided into: (1) those with denervated (D) muscles, evaluated 7 or 15 days after sciatic nerve crush injury; (2) those with D muscles submitted to St during 7 or 15 days; and (3) those with normal muscles. Muscle fiber cross-sectional area, serial sarcomere number, sarcomere length, and connective tissue density were measured. MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1, TGF-β1, and myostatin mRNAs were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction. MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity was evaluated by zymography. Collagen I was localized using immunofluorescence. St did not prevent muscle atrophy due to denervation, but it increased fibrosis and collagen I deposition at day 15. St also upregulated MMP-9 and TGF-β1 gene expressions at day 7, and myostatin at day 15. Stretching denervated muscle does not prevent atrophy, but it increases fibrosis via temporal modulation of TGF-β1/myostatin and MMP-9 cascades. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Patients' Willingness to Take Multiple-Tablet Antiretroviral Therapy Regimens for Treatment of HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhard, Esther A N; Smit, Colette; Vervoort, Sigrid C J M; Smit, Peter J; Nieuwkerk, Pythia T; Kroon, Frank P; Reiss, Peter; Brinkman, Kees; Geerlings, Suzanne E

    2016-06-01

    The costs of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) for HIV, consisting of separate, particularly generic, components (multiple-tablet regimens, MTR) are generally much lower than those of single-tablet regimens (STR) comprising the same active ingredients. To assess whether patients would be willing to take MTR, once-daily, instead of STR, with the goal of reducing general healthcare costs. In addition, we aimed to examine whether willingness was associated with particular patient characteristics. Data from the ATHENA cohort database in The Netherlands of adult HIV-1-infected patients in care and taking cART ≥6 months were used to select 1000 potential participants for an online patient survey on patient preferences and satisfaction. Participants were asked whether they would be willing to take three pills with the equivalent active ingredients simultaneously instead of STR to reduce costs. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine associations between patient characteristics and willingness to take MTR instead of STR. Forty-seven percent ( n  = 152) of the 322 respondents answered 'yes' and 26 % ( n  = 83) answered 'maybe' when asked whether they would be willing to take three pills with the equivalent active ingredients simultaneously to reduce costs. Non-Dutch patients were significantly more likely to answer 'no' (OR: 2.49; 95 % CI: 1.17-5.30) or 'maybe' (OR: 2.63; 95 % CI: 1.24-5.60). Answering 'no' was less common among patients who had been taking cART ≥15 years (OR: 0.23; 95 % CI: 0.09-0.58). Commonly reported concerns included the dosing frequency, efficacy and tolerability of MTR. HIV-infected patients do not necessarily oppose the decision to prescribe MTR instead of STR to reduce healthcare costs. However, the potential trade-off in terms of convenience should be carefully weighed against the projected savings.

  7. Efficacy assessment of two antibiotic prophylaxis regimens in oral and maxillofacial trauma surgery: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Giordano BP; Lucena, Eudes ES; da Silva, José Sandro P; Gomes, Petrus P; Germano, Adriano R

    2015-01-01

    The study set out to evaluate the efficacy of two antibiotic prophylaxis regimens in patients with facial fractures admitted to the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery and Traumatology services of the Onofre Lopes University Hospital attached to the Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte in the period from December 2011 to December 2012. The sample consisted of 74 patients divided into two groups, GI with forty-three patients and GII with 32. Both groups received 2 g of cefazolin, 20 minutes before surgery. The postoperative protocol for each group was randomly determined; group I (single dose) received no antibiotics after surgery but group II (24 h dosage) received 1 g of cefazolin every 6 hours for 24 hours. Postoperative infection incidence was 9.3% (seven patients), six patients in Group I and one in Group II. 85% of the infections were in mandibular fractures. Results were presented qualitatively and quantitatively and the Chi square test (taking the value for p to be < 0.05) showed no statistically significant differences in the efficacies of the two regimens in the comparisons made between the cases of fractures in the upper and middle thirds of the face with those in the lower third (mandibular fractures). Considering mandibular fractures alone, Group II proved to be more efficacious with a p value of 0.02. However, to confirm the tendency shown in the mandibular fracture treatments whereby prolonging antibiotic administration for 24 hours appeared to be beneficial, research needs to be done with much larger sample groups. PMID:25932244

  8. Mesoscopic models for DNA stretching under force: New results and comparison with experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manghi, Manoel; Destainville, Nicolas; Palmeri, John

    2012-10-01

    Single-molecule experiments on double-stranded B-DNA stretching have revealed one or two structural transitions, when increasing the external force. They are characterized by a sudden increase of DNA contour length and a decrease of the bending rigidity. The nature and the critical forces of these transitions depend on DNA base sequence, loading rate, salt conditions and temperature. It has been proposed that the first transition, at forces of 60-80 pN, is a transition from B to S-DNA, viewed as a stretched duplex DNA, while the second one, at stronger forces, is a strand peeling resulting in single-stranded DNAs (ssDNA), similar to thermal denaturation. But due to experimental conditions these two transitions can overlap, for instance for poly(dA-dT). In an attempt to propose a coherent picture compatible with this variety of experimental observations, we derive an analytical formula using a coupled discrete worm-like chain-Ising model. Our model takes into account bending rigidity, discreteness of the chain, linear and non-linear (for ssDNA) bond stretching. In the limit of zero force, this model simplifies into a coupled model already developed by us for studying thermal DNA melting, establishing a connection with previous fitting parameter values for denaturation profiles. Our results are summarized as follows: i) ssDNA is fitted, using an analytical formula, over a nano-Newton range with only three free parameters, the contour length, the bending modulus and the monomer size; ii) a surprisingly good fit on this force range is possible only by choosing a monomer size of 0.2 nm, almost 4 times smaller than the ssDNA nucleobase length; iii) mesoscopic models are not able to fit B to ssDNA (or S to ss) transitions; iv) an analytical formula for fitting B to S transitions is derived in the strong force approximation and for long DNAs, which is in excellent agreement with exact transfer matrix calculations; v) this formula fits perfectly well poly(dG-dC) and

  9. Chiropractic manipulative therapy of the thoracic spine in combination with stretch and strengthening exercises, in improving postural kyphosis in woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Castello Branco

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: The study showed that all three treatment protocols for Groups 1, 2, and 3 were effective. However, Group 1 had not shown a great improvement in their postural kyphosis, Group 3 had shown a relatively good improvement in their posture, while Group 2 had shown the best results with regards to improvement of the participants' posture. Therefore, in conclusion, Groups 2 and 3 treatment protocols can be used effectively to treat postural kyphosis but Group 2's treatment protocol, consisting of chiropractic spinal manipulative therapy to the thoracic spine in combination with stretch and strengthening exercises, will yield the best results.

  10. Acute Effects of the Different Intensity of Static Stretching on Flexibility and Isometric Muscle Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataura, Satoshi; Suzuki, Shigeyuki; Matsuo, Shingo; Hatano, Genki; Iwata, Masahiro; Yokoi, Kazuaki; Tsuchida, Wakako; Banno, Yasuhiro; Asai, Yuji

    2017-12-01

    Kataura, S, Suzuki, S, Matsuo, S, Hatano, G, Iwata, M, Yokoi, K, Tsuchida, W, Banno, Y, and Asai, Y. Acute effects of the different intensity of static stretching on flexibility and isometric muscle force. J Strength Cond Res 31(12): 3403-3410, 2017-In various fields, static stretching is commonly performed to improve flexibility, whereas the acute effects of different stretch intensities are unclear. Therefore, we investigated the acute effects of different stretch intensities on flexibility and muscle force. Eighteen healthy participants (9 men and 9 women) performed 180-second static stretches of the right hamstrings at 80, 100, and 120% of maximum tolerable intensity without stretching pain, in random order. The following outcomes were assessed as markers of lower limb function and flexibility: static passive torque (SPT), range of motion (ROM), passive joint (muscle-tendon) stiffness, passive torque (PT) at onset of pain, and isometric muscle force. Static passive torque was significantly decreased after all stretching intensities (p ≤ 0.05). Compared with before stretching at 100 and 120% intensities, ROM and PT were significantly increased after stretching (p ≤ 0.05), and passive stiffness (p = 0.05) and isometric muscle force (p ≤ 0.05) were significantly decreased. In addition, ROM was significantly greater after stretching at 100 and 120% than at 80%, and passive stiffness was significantly lower after 120% than after 80% (p ≤ 0.05). However, all measurements except SPT were unchanged after 80% intensity. There was a weak positive correlation between the intensities of stretching and the relative change for SPT (p ≤ 0.05), a moderate positive correlation with ROM (p ≤ 0.05), and a moderate positive correlation with passive stiffness (p ≤ 0.05). These results indicate that static stretching at greater intensity is more effective for increasing ROM and decreasing passive muscle-tendon stiffness.

  11. Stretch-induced intussuceptive and sprouting angiogenesis in the chick chorioallantoic membrane

    OpenAIRE

    Belle, Janeil; Ysasi, Alexandra; Bennett, Robert D.; Filipovic, Nenad; Imani Nejad, Mohammad; Trumper, David L.; Ackermann, Maximilian; Wagner, Willi; Tsuda, Akira; Konerding, Moritz A.; Mentzer, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Vascular systems grow and remodel in response to not only metabolic needs, but also mechanical influences as well. Here, we investigated the influence of tissue-level mechanical forces on the patterning and structure of the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) microcirculation. A dipole stretch field was applied to the CAM using custom computer-controlled servomotors. The topography of the stretch field was mapped using finite element models. After 3 days of stretch, Sholl analysis of the CAM...

  12. Does acute passive stretching increase muscle length in children with cerebral palsy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theis, Nicola; Korff, Thomas; Kairon, Harvey; Mohagheghi, Amir A

    2013-01-01

    Children with spastic cerebral palsy experience increased muscle stiffness and reduced muscle length, which may prevent elongation of the muscle during stretch. Stretching performed either by the clinician, or children themselves is used as a treatment modality to increase/maintain joint range of motion. It is not clear whether the associated increases in muscle-tendon unit length are due to increases in muscle or tendon length. The purpose was to determine whether alterations in ankle range of motion in response to acute stretching were accompanied by increases in muscle length, and whether any effects would be dependent upon stretch technique. Eight children (6-14 y) with cerebral palsy received a passive dorsiflexion stretch for 5 × 20 s to each leg, which was applied by a physiotherapist or the children themselves. Maximum dorsiflexion angle, medial gastrocnemius muscle and fascicle lengths, and Achilles tendon length were calculated at a reference angle of 10 ° plantarflexion, and at maximum dorsiflexion in the pre- and post-stretch trials. All variables were significantly greater during pre- and post-stretch trials compared to the resting angle, and were independent of stretch technique. There was an approximate 10 ° increase in maximum dorsiflexion post-stretch, and this was accounted for by elongation of both muscle (0.8 cm) and tendon (1.0 cm). Muscle fascicle length increased significantly (0.6 cm) from pre- to post-stretch. The results provide evidence that commonly used stretching techniques can increase overall muscle, and fascicle lengths immediately post-stretch in children with cerebral palsy. © 2013.

  13. Solving Cracking Phenomenon in Premium Transparent Toilet Soap Production Using Stretched LLDPE Film Wrap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat Sharif, Zainon Binti; Taib, Norhasnina Binti Mohd; Yusof, Mohd Sallehuddin Bin; Rahim, Mohammad Zulafif Bin; Tobi, Abdul Latif Bin Mohd; Othman, Mohd Syafiq Bin

    2017-05-01

    Cracking phenomenon in soap production is an imminent problem. It renders the soap aesthetically unpleasing. This study attempts to find best solution to solve cracking phenomenon in premium soap production. The adopted approach is a stamping method with stretched LLDPE wrap film. The result shows that stretched LLDPE wrap film able to solve the cracking problem. The appearance of the premium transparent was improved. This paper presents the results and the SOP for stretched LLDPE film wrap for soap making industries to adopt.

  14. Knee Stretch Walking Method for Biped Robot: Using Toe and Heel Joints to Increase Walking Strides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Takahiko; Shimmyo, Shuhei; Nakazato, Miki; Mikami, Kei; Sato, Tomoya; Sakaino, Sho; Ohnishi, Kouhei

    This paper proposes a knee stretch walking method for biped robots; the method involves the use of the toes and heel joints to increase walking strides. A knee can be stretched by switching control variables. By a knee stretch walking with heel contacts to the ground and toe takeoffs from the ground, biped robots can increase their walking stride and speed. The validity of the proposed method is confirmed by simulation and experimental results.

  15. High Throughput Web Inspection System using Time-stretch Real-time Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Chanju

    2013-01-01

    Photonic time-stretch is a novel technology that enables capturing of fast, rare and non-repetitive events. Therefore, it operates in real-time with ability to record over long period of time while having fine temporal resolution. The powerful property of photonic time-stretch has already been employed in various fields of application such as analog-to-digital conversion, spectroscopy, laser scanner and microscopy. Further expanding the scope, we fully exploit the time-stretch technology to d...

  16. Correlation of the Elastic Properties of Stretch Film on Unit Load Containment

    OpenAIRE

    Bisha, James Victor

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to correlate the applied material properties of stretch film with its elastic properties measured in a laboratory setting. There are currently no tools available for a packaging engineer to make a scientific decision on how one stretch film performs against another without applying the film. The system for stretch wrap comparison is mostly based on trial and error which can lead to a significant loss of product when testing a new film or shipping a new product...

  17. Impact of amoxicillin resistance on the efficacy of amoxicillin-containing regimens for Helicobacter pylori eradication: analysis of five randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei-Jyh; Wu, Ming-Shiang; Chen, Chien-Chuan; Chen, Chieh-Chang; Fang, Yu-Jen; Bair, Ming-Jong; Chang, Chi-Yang; Lee, Ji-Yuh; Hsu, Wen-Feng; Luo, Jiing-Chyuan; Lin, Jaw-Town; Liou, Jyh-Ming

    2017-12-01

    The impact of amoxicillin resistance on the efficacy of regimens containing amoxicillin for Helicobacter pylori eradication remains unknown. To investigate whether the efficacy of an amoxicillin-containing regimen is affected by amoxicillin resistance and to identify the optimal breakpoint for amoxicillin resistance. This was a pooled analysis of five randomized trials conducted in Taiwan from 2007 to 2016. Patients who received amoxicillin-containing regimens were recruited. MICs were determined by agar dilution testing. Meta-analysis was performed to assess the risk ratio of eradication failure in amoxicillin-resistant strains compared with susceptible strains of seven different regimens. We performed further the pooled analysis and logistic regression in patients treated with clarithromycin triple therapy to identify the optimal breakpoint for amoxicillin resistance. A total of 2339 patients with available amoxicillin MICs were enrolled. Meta-analysis showed that the presence of amoxicillin resistance was consistently associated with increased risk of treatment failure of amoxicillin-containing regimens at different breakpoints (risk ratio: 1.41, 95% CI 1.12-1.78, P = 0.004 when the cut-off was 0.5 mg/L). The heterogeneity was low (I2 = 0%, P = 0.615). Pooled analysis also showed that amoxicillin resistance was an independent risk factor for treatment failure of clarithromycin triple therapy at different breakpoints. The best correlation was observed when the breakpoint of amoxicillin resistance was ≥0.125 mg/L (kappa coefficient 0.298), at which the resistance rate was 11.1% (110 of 990). The efficacies of amoxicillin-containing regimens are affected by amoxicillin resistance and the optimal breakpoint MIC is ≥ 0.125 mg/L. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Immediate effect of passive static stretching versus resistance exercises on postprandial blood sugar levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurudut, Peeyoosha; Rajan, Abey P

    2017-10-01

    The prevalence of diabetes is rapidly rising all over the globe at an alarming rate. In India, more than 61.3 million people have been presently diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus. It is possible to control the circulating blood glucose levels by reducing life style risk factors through physical activities comprising of muscle stretches, aerobic training, resistance exercises (REs), yoga, etc. The aim of this study is to identify and compare the immediate effect of passive static stretching (PSS) versus RE on blood glucose level in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The present study included 51 participants between the age of 40-65 years with type 2 diabetes mellitus, to study the immediate effect of 60-min PSS (n=25) and 60-min RE (n=26). The outcome measure was blood glucose level which was checked by glucometer (free-style neo). Blood sugar was assessed at 3 points of time that included fasting blood sugar level, 2 hr after the meal and immediately after the exercise regimen. Results of this study showed significant reduction in blood glucose level in subjects according to glucometer with PSS ( P =0.000) and RE ( P =0.00). However, both groups demonstrated equal effect in terms of lowering blood sugar level immediately after the exercise. The conclusion is both PSS and RE are effective in reducing postprandial blood glucose level in type 2 diabetes mellitus and must be prescribed for the patients who demonstrate difficulty in controlling post prandial spike.

  19. EFFECTS OF DYNAMIC AND STATIC STRETCHING WITHIN GENERAL AND ACTIVITY SPECIFIC WARM-UP PROTOCOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Samson

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of static and dynamic stretching protocols within general and activity specific warm-ups. Nine male and ten female subjects were tested under four warm-up conditions including a 1 general aerobic warm-up with static stretching, 2 general aerobic warm-up with dynamic stretching, 3 general and specific warm-up with static stretching and 4 general and specific warm-up with dynamic stretching. Following all conditions, subjects were tested for movement time (kicking movement of leg over 0.5 m distance, countermovement jump height, sit and reach flexibility and 6 repetitions of 20 metre sprints. Results indicated that when a sport specific warm-up was included, there was an 0.94% improvement (p = 0.0013 in 20 meter sprint time with both the dynamic and static stretch groups. No such difference in sprint performance between dynamic and static stretch groups existed in the absence of the sport specific warm-up. The static stretch condition increased sit and reach range of motion (ROM by 2.8% more (p = 0.0083 than the dynamic condition. These results would support the use of static stretching within an activity specific warm-up to ensure maximal ROM along with an enhancement in sprint performance

  20. 600 Volt Stretched Lens Array for Solar Electric Propulsion, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ENTECH, Auburn, NASA, and others have recently developed a new space photovoltaic array called the Stretched Lens Array (SLA), offering unprecedented performance...

  1. Effects of hamstring stretching on passive muscle stiffness vary between hip flexion and knee extension maneuvers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, N; Hirata, K; Kanehisa, H

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether the effects of hamstring stretching on the passive stiffness of each of the long head of the biceps femoris (BFl), semitendinosus (ST), and semimembranosus (SM) vary between passive knee extension and hip flexion stretching maneuvers. In 12 male subjects, before and after five sets of 90 s static stretching, passive lengthening measurements where knee or hip joint was passively rotated to the maximal range of motion (ROM) were performed. During the passive lengthening, shear modulus of each muscle was measured by ultrasound shear wave elastography. Both stretching maneuvers significantly increased maximal ROM and decreased passive torque at a given joint angle. Passive knee extension stretching maneuver significantly reduced shear modulus at a given knee joint angle in all of BFl, ST, and SM. In contrast, the stretching effect by passive hip flexion maneuver was significant only in ST and SM. The present findings indicate that the effects of hamstring stretching on individual passive muscles' stiffness vary between passive knee extension and hip flexion stretching maneuvers. In terms of reducing the muscle stiffness of BFl, stretching of the hamstring should be performed by passive knee extension rather than hip flexion. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Implementation of a controller for linear positioners applicable in optical fiber stretching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castrillo Piedra, Andres Rodolfo

    2014-01-01

    A low cost controller is implemented for linear positioners applicable in optic fiber stretching. The possibility of using a donated equipment is evaluated by the Escuela de Ingenieria Mecanica. The equipment is required by the non-linear photonic research laboratory (NLPR-LAB) for stretching of micro structured fiber. The process has required a slow and precise stretching, so the controllers must be precisely programmed to rotate the motors at different speeds. Donated equipment is evaluated to see if it is possible to use for fiber stretching [es

  3. Effect of Ankle Positioning During Hamstring Stretches for Improving Straight Leg Hip Flexion Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudner, Kevin G; Benjamin, Peter J; Selkow, Noelle M

    2016-03-01

    To compare the effects of stretching the hamstrings with the ankle in either a plantar-flexed (PF) or dorsiflexed (DF) position for improving straight leg hip flexion range of motion (ROM) over a 4-week period. Randomized, single-blinded, pretest, posttest design. Athletic training facility. Each limb of 34 asymptomatic individuals (15 males, 19 females) was randomly assigned to one of the 3 groups. Twenty-four limbs received hamstring stretches with the ankle in DF, 24 limbs received hamstring stretches with the ankle in PF, and 20 limbs received no stretch (control). Ankle position (PF, DF) during hamstring stretching. We measured pretest and posttest passive straight leg hip flexion ROM with the test ankle in a neutral position. For the intervention groups, the test limb was passively stretched with the ankle held in end range DF or PF for their respective group. Each stretch was held for 30 seconds for a total of 3 applications. Two treatment sessions were completed per week for a total of 4 weeks. The control limbs received no stretching during the 4-week period. We conducted 1-way analyses of covariance to determine significant changes in ROM between groups (P hamstrings in either PF or DF improve straight leg hip ROM compared with a control group. The results of this study should be considered by clinicians when determining the optimal stretching techniques aimed at increasing hamstring length.

  4. The acute effects of stretching with vibration on dynamic flexibility in young female gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Aaron W; Warcup, Caisa N; Seeley, Matthew K; Eggett, Dennis; Feland, Jeffery B

    2018-01-10

    While stretching with vibration has been shown to improve static flexibility; the effect of stretching with vibration on dynamic flexibility is not well known. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of stretching with vibration on acute dynamic flexibility and jump height in novice and advanced competitive female gymnasts during a split jump. Female gymnast (n=27, age: 11.5 ± 1.7 years, Junior Olympic levels 5-10) participated in this cross-over study. Dynamic flexibility during gymnastic split jumps were video recorded and analyzed with Dartfish software. All participants completed both randomized stretching protocols with either the vibration platform turned on (VIB) (frequency of 30 Hz and 2 mm amplitude) or off (NoVIB) separated by 48 h. Participants performed 4 sets of three stretches on the vibration platform. Each stretch was held for 30 s with 5 s rest for a total of 7 min of stretch. Split jump flexibility decreased significantly from pre to post measurement in both VIB (-5.8°±5.9°) (pstatic stretching with or without vibration immediately before performance does not alter jump height. Stretching with vibration immediately prior to gymnastics competition decreases split jump flexibility in lower level gymnasts more than upper level gymnasts.

  5. Acute decrease in the stiffness of resting muscle belly due to static stretching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, K; Shinohara, M; Nozaki, S; Katayose, M

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the acute effect of static stretching exercise on the resting stiffness of gastrocnemius muscle belly. Ten healthy young adults performed standing wall stretching in dorsiflexion for 1 min at a time and repeated five times. Before and after stretching, the shear modulus was measured in medial and lateral heads of the resting gastrocnemius muscle with ultrasound shear-wave elastography. After the stretching, dorsiflexion range of motion (ROM) of the ankle joint increased (P stretching, shear modulus decreased (P stretching across muscle heads. The decrease in shear modulus returned in 20 min after stretching. In the comparison group of 10 additional subjects, the standing intervention without stretching had no influence on these measures. There was a negative correlation between dorsiflexion ROM and shear modulus in either head before and after stretching. The results demonstrate the transient decreases in the stiffness of the resting gastrocnemius muscle belly and indicate that joint flexibility is greater in individuals with lower resting stiffness of the muscle belly. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Acute effects of passive stretching of the plantarflexor muscles on neuromuscular function: the influence of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Eric D; Herda, Trent J; Costa, Pablo B; Herda, Ashley A; Cramer, Joel T

    2014-01-01

    The acute effects of stretching on peak force (Fpeak), percent voluntary activation (%VA), electromyographic (EMG) amplitude, maximum range of motion (MROM), peak passive torque, the passive resistance to stretch, and the percentage of ROM at EMG onset (%EMGonset) were examined in 18 young and 19 old men. Participants performed a MROM assessment and a maximal voluntary contraction of the plantarflexors before and immediately after 20 min of passive stretching. Fpeak (-11 %), %VA (-6 %), and MG EMG amplitude (-9 %) decreased after stretching in the young, but not the old (P > 0.05). Changes in Fpeak were related to reductions in all muscle activation variables (r = 0.56-0.75), but unrelated to changes in the passive resistance to stretch (P ≥ 0.24). Both groups experienced increases in MROM and peak passive torque and decreases in the passive resistance to stretch. However, the old men experienced greater changes in MROM (P stretching for both groups (P = 0.213), but occurred earlier in the old (P = 0.06). The stretching-induced impairments in strength and activation in the young but not the old men may suggest that the neural impairments following stretching are gamma-loop-mediated. In addition, the augmented changes in MROM and passive torque and the lack of change in %EMGonset for the old men may be a result of age-related changes in muscle-tendon behavior.

  7. Rat cutaneous RA afferents activated by two-dimensional skin stretch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigg, Peter; Robichaud, Daniel R

    2004-07-01

    Skin develops biaxial stresses and strains when stretched. Rapidly adapting cutaneous mechanoreceptor neurons are known to be stretch sensitive, yet in the past, they have been studied using stretch stimuli applied along only a single direction. In this study, cutaneous rapidly adapting mechanoreceptors were studied in preparations of isolated skin in which the skin was stretched dynamically using biaxial stretch stimuli and in which loads and displacements were measured along two directions. Stretch stimuli followed a pseudo-Gaussian waveform and were applied along either one or two directions simultaneously. Associations between spikes and mechanical variables were determined using multiple logistic regression. When the skin was actuated along a single direction, holding the orthogonal axis fixed, spike responses were strongly associated with mechanical variables along the actuated direction. The variables were stress and its rate of change, the rate of change of strain, and the product of stress and its rate of change, which is proportional to strain energy density. When the skin was stretched along a single direction, spikes were very poorly associated with stress variables measured along the direction orthogonal to the stretch. Afferents showed weak directional selectivity: they were slightly more responsive to the variable stress along the circumferential direction of the hindlimb. When the skin was stretched biaxially (i.e., along both directions simultaneously) with identical pseudo-Gaussian noise stimuli, neuronal responses were associated with the same variables as above, but the associations were weaker.

  8. Pion scattering to 8/sup -/ stretched states in /sup 60/Ni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clausen, B.L.

    1988-03-01

    Using the Energetic Pion Channel and Spectrometer at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility, differential cross sections for pion scattering were measured for ten previously known J/sup ..pi../ = 8/sup /minus// stretched states in /sup 60/Ni. A possible new pure isoscalar stretched state was also found. The data were taken near the /DELTA//sub 3,3/-resonance using 162 MeV incident pions and scattering angles of 65/degree/, 80/degree/, and 90/degree/ for ..pi../sup +/ and 65/degree/ and 80/degree/ for ..pi../sup /minus//. The analysis of the /sup 60/Ni data found that the use of Woods-Saxon wave functions in the theoretical calculations gave much better agreement with data than the use of the usual harmonic oscillator wave functions. The WS theory gave better predictions of: the angle at which the ..pi../sup /minus// and ..pi../sup +/ angular distributions are maximum, the ratios of ..pi../sup /minus// to ..pi../sup +/ cross sections for pure isovector states (which were much larger than unity), and the absolute size of the cross sections for all states (so that the normalization factor necessary to arrive at agreement of theory with data was closer to unity). The theoretical calculations used the distorted wave impulse approximation, including new methods for unbound states. The sensitivities of the calculations to input parameters were investigated. This analysis using WS wave functions was extended to five other nuclei (/sup 12/C, /sup 14/C, /sup 16/O, /sup 28/Si, and /sup 54/Fe) on which both pion scattering and electron scattering have been done. A significant improvement in arriving at a normalization factor close to unity was found when WS wave functions were consistently used for analyzing both pion and electron inelastic scattering data. 101 refs., 26 figs., 13 tabs.

  9. Aggressive regimens for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis decrease all-cause mortality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carole D Mitnick

    Full Text Available A better understanding of the composition of optimal treatment regimens for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB is essential for expanding universal access to effective treatment and for developing new therapies for MDR-TB. Analysis of observational data may inform the definition of an optimized regimen.This study assessed the impact of an aggressive regimen-one containing at least five likely effective drugs, including a fluoroquinolone and injectable-on treatment outcomes in a large MDR-TB patient cohort.This was a retrospective cohort study of patients treated in a national outpatient program in Peru between 1999 and 2002. We examined the association between receiving an aggressive regimen and the rate of death.In total, 669 patients were treated with individualized regimens for laboratory-confirmed MDR-TB. Isolates were resistant to a mean of 5.4 (SD 1.7 drugs. Cure or completion was achieved in 66.1% (442 of patients; death occurred in 20.8% (139. Patients who received an aggressive regimen were less likely to die (crude hazard ratio [HR]: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.44,0.89, compared to those who did not receive such a regimen. This association held in analyses adjusted for comorbidities and indicators of severity (adjusted HR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.43,0.93.The aggressive regimen is a robust predictor of MDR-TB treatment outcome. TB policy makers and program directors should consider this standard as they design and implement regimens for patients with drug-resistant disease. Furthermore, the aggressive regimen should be considered the standard background regimen when designing randomized trials of treatment for drug-resistant TB.

  10. Automation of a single-DNA molecule stretching device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kristian Tølbøl; Lopacinska, Joanna M.; Tommerup, Niels

    2015-01-01

    We automate the manipulation of genomic-length DNA in a nanofluidic device based on real-time analysis of fluorescence images. In our protocol, individual molecules are picked from a microchannel and stretched with pN forces using pressure driven flows. The millimeter-long DNA fragments free...... flowing in micro- and nanofluidics emit low fluorescence and change shape, thus challenging the image analysis for machine vision. We demonstrate a set of image processing steps that increase the intrinsically low signal-to-noise ratio associated with single-molecule fluorescence microscopy. Furthermore......, we demonstrate how to estimate the length of molecules by continuous real-time image stitching and how to increase the effective resolution of a pressure controller by pulse width modulation. The sequence of image-processing steps addresses the challenges of genomic-length DNA visualization; however...

  11. Mechanical response of human female breast skin under uniaxial stretching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaraswamy, N; Khatam, Hamed; Reece, Gregory P; Fingeret, Michelle C; Markey, Mia K; Ravi-Chandar, Krishnaswamy

    2017-10-01

    Skin is a complex material covering the entire surface of the human body. Studying the mechanical properties of skin to calibrate a constitutive model is of great importance to many applications such as plastic or cosmetic surgery and treatment of skin-based diseases like decubitus ulcers. The main objective of the present study was to identify and calibrate an appropriate material constitutive model for skin and establish certain universal properties that are independent of patient-specific variability. We performed uniaxial tests performed on breast skin specimens freshly harvested during mastectomy. Two different constitutive models - one phenomenological and another microstructurally inspired - were used to interpret the mechanical responses observed in the experiments. Remarkably, we found that the model parameters that characterize dependence on previous maximum stretch (or preconditioning) exhibited specimen-independent universal behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Stretching a semiflexible polymer with orientation-dependent interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhen Yi; Vilgis, Thomas A

    2009-01-01

    The mean field variational approach is employed to study the effect of a nematic field and an external constant force field on the elasticity of a semiflexible polymer. In the stationary phase, we obtain the force–extension relationship and calculate the hairpin density of a stretched semiflexible polymer in nematic solvents. The force–extension behavior is found to be controlled by the parameters gl p and gf where g is the strength of the nematic field, l p is the bare persistence length and f is the external force. Several distinct regimes for the elastic response and the hairpin density emerge depending on the value of gl p and gf. Qualitative comparisons between our computation and other theories are presented

  13. Comparative cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients taking different insulin regimens for type 2 diabetes: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Hilary I; Agnew, Meghan D; Gamble, John-Michael

    2015-03-11

    To summarise the literature evaluating the association between different insulin regimens and the incidence of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in adults with type 2 diabetes. Systematic review. Multiple biomedical databases (The Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts) were searched from their inception to February 2014. References of included studies were hand searched. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), cohort studies or case-control studies examining adults (≥18 years) with type 2 diabetes taking any type, dose and/or regimen of insulin were eligible for inclusion in this review. Primary outcomes were cardiovascular morbidity and mortality including fatal and/or non-fatal myocardial infarction, fatal and/or non-fatal stroke, major adverse cardiac events and cardiovascular death. All-cause mortality was assessed as a secondary outcome. Of the 3122 studies identified, 2 RCTs and 6 cohort studies were selected. No case-control studies met the inclusion criteria. The studies examined a total of 109,910 patients. Quantitative synthesis of the results from included studies was not possible due to a large amount of clinical heterogeneity. Each study evaluated cardiovascular outcomes across different insulin-exposure contrasts. RCTs did not identify any difference in cardiovascular risks among a fixed versus variable insulin regimen, or a prandial versus basal regimen, albeit clinically important risks and benefits cannot be ruled out due to wide CIs. Findings from cohort studies were variable with an increased and decreased risk of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality being reported. This systematic review of randomised and non-randomised studies identifies a substantive gap in the literature surrounding the cardiovascular morbidity and mortality of patients using different regimens of insulin. There is a need for more consistent high-quality evidence investigating the impact of insulin use on cardiovascular

  14. Early Adaptations to Six Weeks of Non-Periodized and Periodized Strength Training Regimens in Recreational Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Eduardo O.; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos; Tricoli, Valmor; Roschel, Hamilton; Lowery, Ryan P.; Aihara, André Y.; Leão, Alberto R.S.; Wilson, Jacob M.

    2014-01-01

    This study compared quadriceps muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) and maximum strength (1RM) after three different short-term strength training (ST) regimens (i.e. non-periodized [NP], traditional-periodization [TP], and undulating-periodization [UP]) matched for volume load in previously untrained individuals. Thirty-one recreationally active males were randomly divided into four groups: NP: n = 9; TP: n = 9; UP: n = 8 and control group (C): n = 5. Experimental groups underwent a 6-week program consisting of two training sessions per week. Muscle strength was assessed at baseline and after the training period. Dominant leg quadriceps CSA was obtained through magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at baseline and 48h after the last training session. Results The 1RM increased from pre to post only in the NP and UP groups (NP = 17.0 %, p = 0.002; UP = 12.9 %, p = 0.03), respectively. There were no significant differences in 1RM for LP and C groups after 6 weeks (TP = 7.7 %, p = 0.58, C = 1.2 %, p = 1.00). The CSA increased from pre to post in all of the experimental groups (NP = 5.1 %, p = 0.0001; TP = 4.6 %, p = 0.001; UP = 5.2 %, p = 0.0001), with no changes observed in the C group (p = 0.93). Conclusion Our results suggest that different ST periodization regimens over a short-term (i.e. 6 weeks), volume load equated conditions seem to induce similar hypertrophic responses regardless of the loading scheme employed. In addition, for those recreational males who need to develop muscle strength in the short-term, the training regimen should be designed properly. Key points Muscle hypertrophy occurs within six weeks in recreationally active men regardless the ST training regimen employed. When the total volume is similar, training at greater intensities will demonstrate superior gains in the 1RM performance. Some caution should be exercised when interpreting our findings since long-term periodized regimens could produce different training-induced responses. PMID:25177188

  15. Cyclic mechanical stretch reduces myofibroblast differentiation of primary lung fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaauboer, Marjolein E; Smit, Theo H; Hanemaaijer, Roeland; Stoop, Reinout; Everts, Vincent

    2011-01-07

    In lung fibrosis tissue architecture and function is severely hampered by myofibroblasts due to excessive deposition of extracellular matrix and tissue contraction. Myofibroblasts differentiate from fibroblasts under the influence of transforming growth factor (TGF) β(1) but this process is also controlled mechanically by cytoskeletal tension. In healthy lungs, the cytoskeleton of fibroblasts is mechanically strained during breathing. In stiffer fibrotic lung tissue, this mechanical stimulus is reduced, which may influence fibroblast-to-myofibroblast differentiation. Therefore, we investigated the effect of cyclic mechanical stretch on fibroblast-to-myofibroblast differentiation. Primary normal human lung fibroblasts were grown on BioFlex culture plates and stimulated to undergo myofibroblast differentiation by 10 ng/ml TGFβ(1). Cells were either or not subjected to cyclic mechanical stretch (sinusoidal pattern, maximum elongation 10%, 0.2 Hz) for a period of 48 h on a Flexercell apparatus. mRNA expression was analyzed by real-time PCR. Cyclic mechanical loading reduced the mRNA expression of the myofibroblast marker α-smooth muscle actin and the extracellular matrix proteins type-I, type-III, and type-V collagen, and tenascin C. These outcomes indicate that fibroblast-to-myofibroblast differentiation is reduced. Cyclic mechanical loading did not change the expression of the fibronectin ED-A splice variant, but did decrease the paracrine expression of TGFβ(1), thereby suggesting a possible regulation mechanism for the observed effects. The data suggest that cyclic loading experienced by healthy lung cells during breathing may prevent fibroblasts from differentiating towards myofibroblasts. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Comparison between aquatic-biodanza and stretching for improving quality of life and pain in patients with fibromyalgia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Rodríguez, María del Mar; Castro-Sánchez, Adelaida María; Fernández-Martínez, Manuel; Matarán-Peñarrocha, Guillermo A; Rodríguez-Ferrer, María Encarnación

    2012-11-01

    To determine the level of improvement, as regards pain, impact on fibromyalgia and depression, achieved by patients with fibromyalgia by comparing aquatic biodanza and stretching exercises. Randomised controlled trial with two intervention groups. Five health centres (Almeria). A total of 82 fibromyalgia patients between 18 and 65 years old, diagnosed by American College of Rheumatology criteria, were included, with 12 patients declining to take part in the study. The 70 remaining patients were randomly assigned to two groups of 35 patients each: aquatic biodanza and stretching exercises. Those who did not attend in at least 14 sessions or changed their treatment during the studio were excluded. The final sample consisted of 19 patients in aquatic biodanza group and 20 in stretching group. The limitations of the study included, the open evaluation design and a sample size reduced by defaults. The outcome measures were sociodemographic data, quality of life (Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire), pain (McGill-Melzack questionnaire; and Visual Analogue Scale), pressure algometry (Wagner FPI10 algometer) and depression (Beck Inventory). These were carried out before and after a 12-week therapy. The mean age of the sample was 55.41 years. The mean period from diagnosis was 13.44 years. The sample consisted mainly of housewives. There were significant differences (P<.05) between groups, in pain (P<.01), fibromyalgia impact (P<.01), and depression (P<.04) after the treatment. The biodanza aquatic exercises improve pain and quality of life in fibromyalgia patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  17. [Influence of dose regimen on gentamycin nephrotoxicity in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, V C; Tejos, C R; Hosaka, E M; Andrade, S C; Araújo, M; Vattimo, M F

    2001-06-01

    The acute renal failure (ARF), that still presents a right mortality rate (50%) can be defined as an abrupt decline of the glomerular filtration, resultant of ischemic or toxicity event. The drugs nephrotoxicity is one of the most frequent cause (27%) of ARF and it is suggested that the interval of administration of the drug can interfere in this side effect, however the best administration regimen is not very well established. This study evaluated the renal function of rats that received gentamicin (100 mg/kg) in one dose or in two doses (2 x 50 mg/kg), by intraperitoneal infusion. The results obtained in this research, indicated that the single infusion of gentamicin determined smaller nephrotoxicity by the reduction of serum concentration of this drug in 24 hours, decreasing the intracellular accumulation of this gentamicin, which is one of the main cellular mechanisms of this renal injury. The single dose treatment regime, otherwise, shows advantages not only related to the nephrotoxicity effect, but also it is relevant to the cost and safety, which can be rationable factors in the administration of this drug.

  18. Polypharmacy: correlations with sex, age and drug regimen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, L; Søgaard, J; Hallas, J

    1998-01-01

    day, 8.3% of the population were exposed to minor PP and 1.2% to major PP. The prevalence of PP increased with age, and from the age of 70 years, two thirds of all drug users were PP users. Drug use was 50% more prevalent among women than men, but over the age of 70, the sexes did not differ...... therapeutic class (second level of the ATC code) was used as an indicator for the type of health problem. A stepwise backwards logistic regression was used to identify predictors of major PP. Odds ratios were calculated for different drug classes, and the age and sex of all drug users. RESULTS: On a random...... in the prevalence of major PP. Many different drug combinations were found, and among major PP users (n = 5443), two thirds had their own unique drug regimen, different from all other drug users. Cardiovascular drugs and analgesics were often involved in PP among the elderly, while asthma drugs, psychotropic drugs...

  19. High-intensity stretch treatment for severe postoperative adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolin, Preston M; Ingraffia-Welp, Amy; Moreyra, Carlos E; Hutton, William C

    2016-09-01

    Some patients with postoperative adhesive capsulitis reach a plateau in their recovery with a standard protocol of physical therapy (PT), which puts them at risk for further surgical intervention. We aimed to evaluate therapy for postoperative adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder in 2 groups of patients: (1) those who used a high-intensity stretch (HIS) device after reaching a plateau in their recovery with a standard protocol of traditional PT (PT+HIS) and (2) those who showed no plateau in their recovery with a standard protocol of traditional PT alone (PT only). We retrospectively reviewed the records for 60 patients (51 males; mean age 46.7±12.6years) with postoperative adhesive capsulitis who received treatment between March 2007 and May 2010. Forward elevation and combined internal/external rotation at the initial postoperative visit and final visit were measured. The measurements from group 2 patients were used as an observational benchmark. The PT+HIS (n=42) and PT-only (n=18) patients did not differ in total follow-up time. Initial elevation was worse for PT+HIS than PT-only patients (22.1° lower, P=0.02), but the final elevation was equivalent. Initial rotation was worse for PT+HIS than PT-only patients (16.6° lower, P=0.04), but the final rotation was higher for PT+HIS patients (10.6° higher, P=0.04). Gains in elevation and rotation were greater for the PT+HIS than PT-only patients (P=0.04 and P=0.01). Patients with postoperative adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder who are unable to reach their PT treatment goals with a standard protocol of PT may benefit from the addition of HIS to their treatment regimen. HIS could be a valuable adjunct to PT for treating postoperative adhesive capsulitis in appropriate patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. A Novel Non-Planar Transverse Stretching Process for Micro-Porous PTFE Membranes and Resulting Characteristics

    KAUST Repository

    Chang, Y.-H.

    2018-02-26

    Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) micro-porous membranes were prepared from PTFE fine powder through extruding, rolling, and uniaxial longitudinally stretching. In contrast to conventional planar transverse stretching, a novel 3D mold design of non-planar transverse stretching process was employed in this study to produce micro-porous structure. The morphology, membrane thickness, mean pore size, and porosity of the PTFE membrane were investigated. The results show that the non-planar transverse stretched membranes exhibit more uniform average pore diameter with thinner membrane thickness. Morphological changes induced by planar and non-planar transverse stretching for pore characteristics were investigated. The stretching conditions, stretching temperature and rate, affect the stretched membrane. Increasing temperature facilitated the uniformity of pore size and uniformity of membrane thickness. Moreover, increase in stretching rate resulted in finer pore size and thinner membrane.

  1. Effects of dynamic and static stretching within general and activity specific warm-up protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Michael; Button, Duane C; Chaouachi, Anis; Behm, David G

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of static and dynamic stretching protocols within general and activity specific warm-ups. Nine male and ten female subjects were tested under four warm-up conditions including a 1) general aerobic warm-up with static stretching, 2) general aerobic warm-up with dynamic stretching, 3) general and specific warm-up with static stretching and 4) general and specific warm-up with dynamic stretching. Following all conditions, subjects were tested for movement time (kicking movement of leg over 0.5 m distance), countermovement jump height, sit and reach flexibility and 6 repetitions of 20 metre sprints. Results indicated that when a sport specific warm-up was included, there was an 0.94% improvement (p = 0.0013) in 20 meter sprint time with both the dynamic and static stretch groups. No such difference in sprint performance between dynamic and static stretch groups existed in the absence of the sport specific warm-up. The static stretch condition increased sit and reach range of motion (ROM) by 2.8% more (p = 0.0083) than the dynamic condition. These results would support the use of static stretching within an activity specific warm-up to ensure maximal ROM along with an enhancement in sprint performance. Key pointsActivity specific warm-up may improve sprint performance.Static stretching was more effective than dynamic stretching for increasing static range of motion.There was no effect of the warm-up protocols on countermovement jump height or movement time.

  2. Crustal Stretching Style and Lower Crust Flow of the South China Sea Northern Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Y.; Dong, D.; Runlin, D.

    2017-12-01

    There is a controversy about crustal stretching style of the South China Sea (SCS) northern margin mainly due to considerable uncertainty of stretching factor estimation, for example, as much as 40% of upper crust extension (Walsh et al., 1991) would be lost by seismic profiles due to poor resolution. To discover and understand crustal stretching style and lower crustal flow on the whole, we map the Moho and Conrad geometries based on gravity inversion constrained by deep seismic profiles, then according to the assumption of upper and lower crust initial thickness, upper and lower crust stretching factors are estimated. According to the comparison between upper and lower crust stretching factors, the SCS northern margin could be segmented into three parts, (1) sediment basins where upper crust is stretched more than lower crust, (2) COT regions where lower crust is stretched more than upper crust, (3) other regions where the two layers have similar stretching factors. Stretching factor map shows that lower crust flow happened in both of COT and sediment basin regions where upper crust decouples with lower crust due to high temperature. Pressure contrast by sediment loading in basins and erosion in sediment-source regions will lead to lower crust flow away from sediment sink to source. Decoupled and fractured upper crust is stretched further by sediment loading and the following compensation would result in relatively thick lower crust than upper crust. In COT regions with thin sediment coverage, low-viscosity lower crust is easier to thin in extensional environment, also the lower crust tends to flow away induced by magma upwelling. Therefore, continental crust on the margin is not stretching in a constant way but varies with the tectonic setting changes. This work is supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 41506055, 41476042) and Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities China (No.17CX02003A).

  3. Population-based evaluation of the effectiveness of two regimens for emergency contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Vivian W Y; Soon, Judith A; Lynd, Larry D; Marra, Carlo A; Levine, Marc

    2016-06-01

    To estimate and compare the effectiveness of the levonorgestrel and Yuzpe regimens for hormonal emergency contraception in routine clinical practice. A retrospective population-based study included women who accessed emergency contraceptives for immediate use prescribed by community pharmacists in British Columbia, Canada, between December 2000 and December 2002. Linked administrative healthcare data were used to discern the timings of menses, unprotected intercourse, and any pregnancy-related health services. A panel of experts evaluated the compatibility of observed pregnancies with the timing of events. The two regimens were compared with statistical adjustments for potential confounding. Among 7493 women in the cohort, 4470 (59.7%) received levonorgestrel and 3023 (40.3%) the Yuzpe regimen. There were 99 (2.2%) compatible pregnancies in the levonorgestrel group and 94 (3.1%) in the Yuzpe group (P=0.017). The estimated odds ratio for levonorgestrel compared with the Yuzpe regimen after adjusting for potential confounders was 0.64 (95% confidence interval 0.47-0.87). Against an expected pregnancy rate of approximately 5%, the relative and absolute risk reductions were 56.0% and 2.8%, respectively, for levonorgestrel and 36.7% and 1.8% for the Yuzpe regimen. The levonorgestrel regimen is more effective than the Yuzpe regimen in routine use. The data suggest that both regimens are less effective than has been observed in randomized trials. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Genetic evolution of HIV in patients remaining on a stable HAART regimen despite insufficient viral suppression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Thomas B; Pedersen, Anders; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper

    2005-01-01

    Our objective was to investigate whether steadily increasing resistance levels are inevitable in the course of a failing but unchanged Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) regimen. Patients having an unchanged HAART regimen and a good CD4 response (100 cells/microl above nadir) despite co...

  5. Effects of Static and Dynamic Stretching on the Isokinetic Peak Torques and Electromyographic Activities of the Antagonist Muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Serefoglu, Ufuk Sekir, Hakan Gür, Bedrettin Akova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate if static and dynamic stretching exercises of the knee muscles (quadriceps and hamstring muscles have any effects on concentric and eccentric isokinetic peak torques and electromyographic amplitudes (EMG of the antagonist muscles. Twenty healthy male athletes (age between 18-30 years voluntarily participated in this study. All of the subjects visited the laboratory to complete the following intervention in a randomized order on 5 separate days; (a non-stretching (control, (b static stretching of the quadriceps muscles, (c static stretching of the hamstring muscles, (d dynamic stretching of the quadriceps muscles, and (e dynamic stretching of the hamstring muscles. Static stretching exercises either for the quadriceps or the hamstring muscles were carried out at the standing and sitting positions. Subjects performed four successive repetitions of each stretching exercises for 30 seconds in both stretching positions. Similar to static stretching exercises two different stretching modes were designed for dynamic stretching exercises. Concentric and eccentric isokinetic peak torque for the non-stretched antagonist quadriceps or hamstring muscles at angular velocities of 60°/sec and 240°/sec and their concurrent electromyographic (EMG activities were measured before and immediately after the intervention. Isokinetic peak torques of the non-stretched agonist hamstring and quadriceps muscles did not represent any significant (p > 0.05 differences following static and dynamic stretching of the antagonist quadriceps and hamstring muscles, respectively. Similarly, the EMG activities of the agonist muscles exhibited no significant alterations (p > 0.05 following both stretching exercises of the antagonist muscles. According to the results of the present study it is possible to state that antagonist stretching exercises either in the static or dynamic modes do not affect the isokinetic peak torques and the EMG

  6. Effects of Static and Dynamic Stretching on the Isokinetic Peak Torques and Electromyographic Activities of the Antagonist Muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serefoglu, Abdullah; Sekir, Ufuk; Gür, Hakan; Akova, Bedrettin

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if static and dynamic stretching exercises of the knee muscles (quadriceps and hamstring muscles) have any effects on concentric and eccentric isokinetic peak torques and electromyographic amplitudes (EMG) of the antagonist muscles. Twenty healthy male athletes (age between 18-30 years) voluntarily participated in this study. All of the subjects visited the laboratory to complete the following intervention in a randomized order on 5 separate days; (a) non-stretching (control), (b) static stretching of the quadriceps muscles, (c) static stretching of the hamstring muscles, (d) dynamic stretching of the quadriceps muscles, and (e) dynamic stretching of the hamstring muscles. Static stretching exercises either for the quadriceps or the hamstring muscles were carried out at the standing and sitting positions. Subjects performed four successive repetitions of each stretching exercises for 30 seconds in both stretching positions. Similar to static stretching exercises two different stretching modes were designed for dynamic stretching exercises. Concentric and eccentric isokinetic peak torque for the non-stretched antagonist quadriceps or hamstring muscles at angular velocities of 60°/sec and 240°/sec and their concurrent electromyographic (EMG) activities were measured before and immediately after the intervention. Isokinetic peak torques of the non-stretched agonist hamstring and quadriceps muscles did not represent any significant (p > 0.05) differences following static and dynamic stretching of the antagonist quadriceps and hamstring muscles, respectively. Similarly, the EMG activities of the agonist muscles exhibited no significant alterations (p > 0.05) following both stretching exercises of the antagonist muscles. According to the results of the present study it is possible to state that antagonist stretching exercises either in the static or dynamic modes do not affect the isokinetic peak torques and the EMG activities

  7. The Adverse Effect of the 2-1-1 Regimen for Rabies PEP in Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shu Qing; Tao, Xiao Yan; Yu, Peng Cheng; Jin, Chun Qiu; Yu, Hong Jie; Chen, Mei Shun; Zhu, Wu Yang

    2017-05-01

    Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) has proved to be the most important measure for rabies prevention and control. There is little information regarding adverse reactions to the Essen and 2-1-1 regimens in preschool children (aged 0-6). We reexamined the outcomes of 1,109 preschool children who were vaccinated using SPEEDA under the Essen regimen between January 2011 and December 2012 and 1,267 preschool children under the 2-1-1 regimen between January 2013 and December 2014. We find that, in preschool children, the febrile reaction after the first 2-dose injection in the 2-1-1 regimen was significantly higher than that induced by the first 1-dose in the Essen procedure. Thus, we recommend that the Essen regimen should still be used for rabies PEP in preschool children. Copyright © 2017 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  8. Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors as flatness and mechanical stretching sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Benussi, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors have been so far mainly used in high energy physics as high precision positioning and re-positioning sensor and as low cost, easy to mount and low space consuming temperature sensors. FBGs are also commonly used for very precise strain measurements. In this work we present a novel use of FBGs as flatness and mechanical tensioning sensors applied to the wide GEM foils of the GE1/1 chambers of the CMS experiment at LHC. The GE1/1 CMS upgrade consists of 144 GEM chambers of about 0.5 $m^{2}$ active area each and based on the triple GEMs technology, to be installed in the very forward region of the CMS endcap. The large active are of each GE1/1 chamber consists of a single GEM foil (the GE1/1 chambers represent the largest GEM foils assembled and operated so far) to be mechanically stretched in order to secure its flatness and the consequent uniform performance of the GE1/1 chamber across its whole active surface. A network of FBG sensors have been used to determine the optimal m...

  9. The effects of static stretch duration on the flexibility of hamstring ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of static stretch duration on the flexibility of hamstring muscles. NA Odunaiya, TK Hamzat, OF Ajayi. Abstract. The effects of duration of a static stretching protocol (Intervention) on hamstrings tightness were evaluated. Sixty purposively sampled subjects with unilateral hamstring tightness that had no history of low ...

  10. From Static Stretching to Dynamic Exercises: Changing the Warm-Up Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Shawna

    2010-01-01

    In the United States, pre-exercise static stretching seems to have become common practice and routine. However, research suggests that it is time for a paradigm shift--that pre-exercise static stretching be replaced with dynamic warm-up exercises. Research indicates that a dynamic warm-up elevates body temperature, decreases muscle and joint…

  11. Dual solutions of Casson fluid flow over a stretching or shrinking sheet

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ing parameter is negative. The effect of the Casson parameter on the skin friction, heat transfer and mass transfer rates is discussed. Keywords. Casson fluid; stretching/shrinking sheet; Soret effect; Dufour effect. 1. Introduction. Boundary layer flow and heat transfer over a stretching sheet is significant due to its many appli-.

  12. A Critical View of Static Stretching and Its Relevance in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, James Allen; Zhu, Xihe

    2013-01-01

    Stretching before activity has been a customary part of most physical education classes (PE), with static stretching typically the preferred method due to its ease of implementation. Historical and implicit support for its continued use is due in part to the sit-and-reach test and flexibility as one of the components of health-related fitness.…

  13. Effect of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching on the plantar flexor muscle-tendon tissue properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahieu, N N; Cools, A; De Wilde, B; Boon, M; Witvrouw, E

    2009-08-01

    Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching programs have been shown to be the most effective stretching technique to increase the range of motion (ROM). The objective of this study was to examine the mechanism of effect of PNF stretching on changes in the ROM. Sixty-two healthy subjects were randomized into two groups: a PNF stretching group and a control group. The PNF group performed a 6-week stretching program for the calf muscles. Before and after this period, all subjects were evaluated for dorsiflexion ROM, passive resistive torque (PRT) of the plantar flexors and stiffness of the Achilles tendon. The results of the study revealed that the dorsiflexion ROM was significantly increased in the PNF group (DeltaROMext: 5.97+/-0.671 degrees ; DeltaROMflex: 5.697+/-0.788 degrees ). The PRT of the plantar flexors and the stiffness of the Achilles tendon did not change significantly after 6 weeks of PNF stretching. These findings provide evidence that PNF stretching results in an increased ankle dorsiflexion. However, this increase in ROM could not be explained by a decrease of the PRT or by a change in stiffness of the Achilles tendon, and therefore can be explained by an increase in stretch tolerance.

  14. The Acute Effects of Upper Extremity Stretching on Throwing Velocity in Baseball Throwers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Williams

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To examine the effects of static and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF stretching of the shoulder internal rotators on throwing velocity. Subjects. 27 male throwers (mean age = 25.1 years old, SD = 2.4 with adequate knowledge of demonstrable throwing mechanics. Study Design. Randomized crossover trial with repeated measures. Methods. Subjects warmed up, threw 10 pitches at their maximum velocity, were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 stretching protocols (static, PNF, or no stretch, and then repeated their 10 pitches. Velocities were recorded after each pitch and average and peak velocities were recorded after each session. Results. Data were analyzed using a repeated measures ANOVA. No significant interaction between stretching and throwing velocity was observed. Main effects for time were not statistically significant. Main effects for the stretching groups were statistically significant. Discussion. Results suggest that stretching of the shoulder internal rotators did not significantly affect throwing velocity immediately after stretching. This may be due to the complexity of the throwing task. Conclusions. Stretching may be included in a thrower's warm-up without any effects on throwing velocity. Further research should be performed using a population with more throwing experience and skill.

  15. 49 CFR 180.413 - Repair, modification, stretching, rebarrelling, or mounting of specification cargo tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Repair, modification, stretching, rebarrelling, or... Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS... of Cargo Tanks § 180.413 Repair, modification, stretching, rebarrelling, or mounting of specification...

  16. STRETCHING EXERCISES - EFFECT ON PASSIVE EXTENSIBILITY AND STIFFNESS IN SHORT HAMSTRINGS OF HEALTHY-SUBJECTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HALBERTSMA, JPK; GOEKEN, LNH

    Passive muscle stretch tests are common practice in physical therapy and rehabilitation medicine. However, the effects of stretching exercises are not well known. With an instrumental straight-leg-raising set-up the extensibility, stiffness, and electromyographic activity of the hamstring muscles

  17. Acute effect of different stretching methods on flexibility and jumping performance in competitive artistic gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallas, G; Smirniotou, A; Tsiganos, G; Tsopani, D; Di Cagno, A; Tsolakis, Ch

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effects of 3 different warm up methods of stretching (static, proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation, and stretching exercises on a Vibration platform) on flexibility and legs power-jumping performance in competitive artistic gymnasts. Eighteen competitive artistic gymnasts were recruited to participate in this study. Subjects were exposed to each of 3 experimental stretching conditions: static stretching (SS), proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching (PNF), and stretching exercises on a Vibration platform (S+V). Flexibility assessed with sit and reach test (S & R) and jumping performance with squat jump (SJ) and counter movement jump (CMJ) and were measured before, immediately after and 15 min after the interventions. Significant differences were observed for flexibility after all stretching conditions for S+V (+1.1%), SS (+5.7%) and PNF (+6.8%) (P=0.000), which remained higher 15 min after interventions (S+V (1.1%), SS (5.3%) and PNF (5.5%), respectively (P=0.000). PNF stretching increased flexibility in competitive gymnasts, while S+V maintained jumping performance when both methods were used as part of a warm-up procedure.

  18. Improving multigrid for 3-D electro-magnetic diffusion on stretched grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jönsthövel, T.B.; Oosterlee, C.W.; Mulder, W.A.

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated multigrid techniques for 3D diffusive electromagnetism. The Maxwell equations and Ohm's law were discretised on stretched grids, with stretching in all coordinate directions. We compared standard multigrid to alternative multigrid approaches with linewise smoothing and semi-coarsening,

  19. Comparison of 2 Dosages of Stretching Treatment in Infants with Congenital Muscular Torticollis: A Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lu; Yan, Xiaohua; Li, Jinling; Guan, Buyun; Ma, Liying; Chen, Ying; Mai, Jianning; Xu, Kaishou

    2017-05-01

    To compare the short-term efficacy of 2 dosages of stretching treatment on the clinical outcomes in infants with congenital muscular torticollis. This was a prospective randomized controlled study. Fifty infants with congenital muscular torticollis who were randomly assigned to 100-times stretching group and 50-times stretching group received stretching treatment for the affected sternocleidomastoid muscle. The outcomes including the head tilt, the cervical passive range of motion, and the muscle function of cervical lateral flexors determined by the muscle function scale were assessed at baseline and at 4 and 8 weeks after treatment. The sternocleidomastoid muscle growth analyzed by the thickness ratio of sternocleidomastoid muscles was measured using ultrasonography at baseline and 8 weeks after treatment. Except the ratio of muscle function scale scores, the postintervention outcomes were all significantly improved in both groups compared with baseline (P stretching group showed greater improvement compared with 50-times stretching group in head tilt and cervical passive range of motion at 4 and 8 weeks after treatment (P Stretching treatment of 2 dosages may effectively improve head tilt, cervical passive range of motion, and sternocleidomastoid muscle growth in infants with congenital muscular torticollis. The stretching treatment of 100 times per day is likely to associate with greater improvement in head tilt and cervical passive range of motion.

  20. On prediction of OH stretching frequencies in intramolecularly hydrogen bonded systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Poul Erik; Spanget-Larsen, Jens

    2012-01-01

    OH stretching frequencies are investigated for a series of non-tautomerizing systems with intramolecular hydrogen bonds. Effective OH stretching wavenumbers are predicted by the application of empirical correlation procedures based on the results of B3LYP/6-31G(d) theoretical calculations in the ...